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Sample records for fatty acid contents

  1. Fatty acid content of selected seed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Ilkay; Sener, Bilge

    2002-01-01

    Fatty acid content of selected seed oils from world-wide edible fruits, Ceratonia ciliqua (carob) from Caesalpiniaceae family, Diospyros kaki (persimmon) from Ebenaceae family, Zizyphus jujuba (jujube) from Rhamnaceae family, and Persea gratissima (avocado pear) from Lauraceae family, were determined by capillary gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to find new natural sources for essential fatty acids. Among the seed oils analyzed, Ceratonia ciliqua has been found to have the highest essential fatty acid content.

  2. Fatty Acid Content of Indonesian Aquatic Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRI PRARTONO

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available High utilization of fossil fuel increases the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and results in global warming phenomenon. These things establish the world’s thought to look for the other alternative energy that can reduce the use of fossil fuel even to be replaced by the substitute. Recently, Indonesia has been doing the research of microalgae as a feedstock of an alternative biofuel. Fatty acid content that microalgae have is also high to produce biofuel. The steps used in this research is a 7 days cultivation, harvesting, extraction using hexane, and fatty acid identification using Gas Chromatography of microalgae species. Fatty acid component in some species such as Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus sp., Nannochloropsis sp., and Isochrysis sp. is between 0.21-29.5%; 0.11-25.16%; 0.30-42.32%; 2.06-37.63%, respectively, based on dry weight calculation. The high content of fatty acid in some species of microalgae showed the potential to be the feedstock of producing biofuel in overcoming the limited utilization from petroleum (fossil fuel presently.

  3. Analysis of Fatty Acid Content and Composition in Microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breuer, G.; Evers, W.A.C.; Vree, de J.H.; Kleinegris, D.M.M.; Martens, D.E.; Wijffels, R.H.; Lamers, P.P.

    2013-01-01

    A method to determine the content and composition of total fatty acids present in microalgae is described. Fatty acids are a major constituent of microalgal biomass. These fatty acids can be present in different acyl-lipid classes. Especially the fatty acids present in triacylglycerol (TAG) are of c

  4. Chemical composition and fatty acid contents in farmed freshwater prawns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina de Gasperi Portella

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the chemical composition and fatty acid contents of Amazonian and giant river prawns. After four-month farming, with the same diet for both species, palmitic and stearic acids were the main saturated fatty acids. Oleic acid was the main monounsatured fatty acid, and the eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids were the most abundant polyunsaturated acids. Amazonian prawn has higher levels of protein and polyunsaturated fatty acids than those of the giant river prawn, which shows its potential for aquaculture.

  5. Analysis of fatty acid content and composition in microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, Guido; Evers, Wendy A C; de Vree, Jeroen H; Kleinegris, Dorinde M M; Martens, Dirk E; Wijffels, René H; Lamers, Packo P

    2013-10-01

    A method to determine the content and composition of total fatty acids present in microalgae is described. Fatty acids are a major constituent of microalgal biomass. These fatty acids can be present in different acyl-lipid classes. Especially the fatty acids present in triacylglycerol (TAG) are of commercial interest, because they can be used for production of transportation fuels, bulk chemicals, nutraceuticals (ω-3 fatty acids), and food commodities. To develop commercial applications, reliable analytical methods for quantification of fatty acid content and composition are needed. Microalgae are single cells surrounded by a rigid cell wall. A fatty acid analysis method should provide sufficient cell disruption to liberate all acyl lipids and the extraction procedure used should be able to extract all acyl lipid classes. With the method presented here all fatty acids present in microalgae can be accurately and reproducibly identified and quantified using small amounts of sample (5 mg) independent of their chain length, degree of unsaturation, or the lipid class they are part of. This method does not provide information about the relative abundance of different lipid classes, but can be extended to separate lipid classes from each other. The method is based on a sequence of mechanical cell disruption, solvent based lipid extraction, transesterification of fatty acids to fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), and quantification and identification of FAMEs using gas chromatography (GC-FID). A TAG internal standard (tripentadecanoin) is added prior to the analytical procedure to correct for losses during extraction and incomplete transesterification.

  6. [Fatty acid content of sausages manufactured in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo de Vizcarrondo, C; Martín, E

    1997-06-01

    The moisture and lipid content as well as the fatty acid composition of sausages were determined. Lipids were extracted and purified with a mixture of cloroform/methanol 2:1. Fatty acids in the lipid extract were methylated with 4% sulfuric acid/methanol solution and later were separated as methyl esters by gas liquid cromatography (GLC). Sausages presented a lipid content between 7.10% for canned sausages and 35.23% for the cocktail type. Most of the fatty acids were monounsatured with oleic acid as the major component with values between 42.54% for ham sausage and 48.83% for francfort type. Satured fatty acids followed, with palmitic acid as the major component in a range between 21.46% and 26.59% for bologna and Polaca sausage respectively. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were present in less quantities with concentration of linoleic acid between 8.5% (cotto salami type) and 12.60% (cocktail type). Turkey and poultry sausages presented a higher content of polyunsaturated and less saturated fatty acids than the other types of sausages studied.

  7. ANALYSIS OF FATTY ACID CONTENT OF RAW MIANALYSIS OF FATTY ACID CONTENT OF RAW MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Čuboň

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work was analysedquality of raw cow’s milkof dairy cows which was fed with winter food ration of feed. Milk was observed in terms of the composition of milk fat and fatty acids during the months of August, October, December and February. The proportion of saturated fatty acids in milk fat was 63.22 % and it was found the highest proportion of palmitic acid 34.85%myristic acid accounted for 11.44 % and 10.86 % stearic acid. Linoleic acid, which is given special attention in view of the favourable effect on cholesterol, consisted of 3.48 % milk fat. The average proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in milk fat was 36.76 % of which 32.77 % were monounsaturated and polyunsaturated 4.0 %. A high proportion of milk fat formed monounsaturated oleic acid 30.92 %. The proportion of linoleic acid in milk fat was 3.48 % and 0.31 % linoleic acid.

  8. The trans fatty acids content of selected foods in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akmar, Z D; Norhaizan, M E; Azimah, R; Azrina, A; Chan, Y M

    2013-04-01

    There is a lack of information on the trans fatty acid (TFA) content in Malaysian foods. The objective of this study is to determine the TFA content of bakery products, snacks, dairy products, fast foods, cooking oils and semisolid fats, and breakfast cereals and Malaysian fast foods. This study also estimated the quantity of each isomer in the foods assayed. The trans fatty acid content of each food sample was assessed in duplicate by separating the fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) in a gas chromatography system equipped with HP-88 column (USA: split ratio 10: 1) for cis/trans separation. Five major TFA isomers, palmitoelaidic acid (16: 1t9), petroselaidic acid (18:1t6), elaidic acid (18:1t9), vaccenic acid (18: 1t11) and linoelaidic acid (18:2t9, 12), were measured using gas chromatography (GC) and the data were expressed in unit values of g/100 g lipid or g/100 g food. The total TFA contents in the studied foods were foods. This value falls within the standard and international recommendation level for TFA. The measured range of specific TFA isomers were as follows: palmitoelaidic acid (foods have low TFA contents (< 1 g/100 g lipid).

  9. 9 CFR 381.462 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty... Nutrition Labeling § 381.462 Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content. (a... general requirements for nutrient content claims in § 381.413; and (3) The product for which the claim is...

  10. 9 CFR 317.362 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty... Nutrition Labeling § 317.362 Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content. (a... general requirements for nutrient content claims in § 317.313; and (3) The product for which the claim is...

  11. Thiamine and fatty acid content of Lake Michigan Chinook salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Peters, A.K.; Jones, M.L.

    2008-01-01

    Nutritional status of Lake Michigan Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) is inadequately documented. An investigation was conducted to determine muscle and liver thiamine content and whole body fatty acid composition in small, medium and large Chinook salmon. Muscle and liver thiamine concentrations were highest in small salmon, and tended to decrease with increasing fish size. Muscle thiamine was higher in fall than spring in large salmon. The high percentage of Chinook salmon (24-32% in fall and 58-71% in spring) with muscle thiamine concentration below 500 pmol/g, which has been associated with loss of equilibrium and death in other Great Lake salmonines, suggest that Chinook appear to rely less on thiamine than other Great Lakes species for which such low concentrations would be associated with thiamine deficiency (Brown et al. 2005b). A positive correlation was observed between liver total thiamine and percent liver lipids (r = 0.53, P salmon, liver lipids were observed to be low in fish with less than 4,000 pmol/g liver total thiamine. In individuals with greater than 4,000 pmol/g liver thiamine, liver lipid increased with thiamine concentration. Individual fatty acids declined between fall and spring. Essential omega-3 fatty acids appear to be conserved as lipid content declined. Arachidonic acid (C20:4n6), an essential omega-6 fatty acid was not different between fall and spring, although the sum of omega-6 (Sw6) fatty acids declined over winter. Elevated concentrations of saturated fatty acids (sum) were observed in whole body tissue lipid. In summary, thiamine, a dietary essential vitamin, and individual fatty acids were found to vary in Lake Michigan Chinook salmon by fish size and season of the year.

  12. FATTY ACID COMPOSITION AND TOCOPHEROL CONTENT OF PUMPKIN SEED OIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumpkin seed oil (PSO) has high tocopherol content (TC) and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) making it well-suited for improving human nutrition. PSO has been implicated in preventing prostate growth, retarding hypertension, mitigating hypercholesterolemia and arthritis, improved bladder compliance, a...

  13. Concordance analysis between estimation methods of milk fatty acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Mary Ana Petersen; Petrini, Juliana; Ferreira, Evandro Maia; Mourão, Luciana Regina Mangeti Barreto; Salvian, Mayara; Cassoli, Laerte Dagher; Pires, Alexandre Vaz; Machado, Paulo Fernando; Mourão, Gerson Barreto

    2014-08-01

    Considering the milk fatty acid influence on human health, the aim of this study was to compare gas chromatography (GC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for the determination of these compounds. Fatty acid content (g/100g of fat) were obtained by both methods and compared through Pearson's correlation, linear Bayesian regression, and the Bland-Altman method. Despite the high correlations between the measurements (r=0.60-0.92), the regression coefficient values indicated higher measures for palmitic acid, oleic acid, unsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids and lower values for stearic acid, saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids estimated by GC in comparison to FTIR results. This inequality was confirmed in the Bland-Altman test, with an average bias varying from -8.65 to 6.91g/100g of fat. However, the inclusion of 94% of the samples into the concordance limits suggested that the variability of the differences between the methods was constant throughout the range of measurement. Therefore, despite the inequality between the estimates, the methods displayed the same pattern of milk fat composition, allowing similar conclusions about the milk samples under evaluation.

  14. Short communication Fatty acid and cholesterol content, chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    This study aimed to determine the fatty acid and chemical composition and ... ground in a knife mill, homogenized and frozen at -18 ºC pending analysis in triplicate. .... 2008), the qualitative and quantitative fatty acid composition were different,.

  15. 21 CFR 101.62 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acid, and cholesterol content of foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acid, and... Nutrient Content Claims § 101.62 Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acid, and cholesterol content of... accordance with the general requirements for nutrient content claims in § 101.13; (3) The food for which the...

  16. Chemical characteristics, fatty acid composition and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of traditional Greek yogurts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafeimidou, Amalia; Zlatanos, Spiros; Laskaridis, Kostas; Sagredos, Angelos

    2012-10-15

    Many studies with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) indicate that it has a protective effect against mammary cancer. Because dairy products are the most important dietary sources of CLA, we have investigated the CLA concentrations and additionally the fatty acid profiles and chemical composition of several commercial, traditional, Greek yogurts from different geographical origin. The fat content of yogurts was in the order of goatCLA/100 g fat. Low-fat milk yogurts showed lower values of c-9, t-11 CLA content on lipid basis compared to full-fat yogurts. Samples from mountain areas showed average c-9, t-11 CLA content higher than those from prairie districts. The highest amounts of saturated fatty acids (SFA) were found in low-fat yogurts, of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in sheep milk yogurts and of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in low-fat cow milk yogurts.

  17. Amino acid, fatty acid, and carbohydrate content of Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, K D; Williams, O J

    2001-06-01

    A study is conducted to determine the amino acid, fatty acid, and carbohydrate content of breadfruit using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC). An HPLC method is used for the determination of amino acids and fatty acids in breadfruit. Representative amino acid samples are derivatized with phenylisothiocianate and the resulting phenylthiocarbamyl derivatives are separated on a reversed-phase column by gradient elution with a 0.05M ammonium acetate buffer and 0.01M ammonium acetate in acetonitrile-methanol-water (44:10:46, v/v). Representative fatty acid samples are derivatized with phenacyl bromide and the resulting fatty acid phenacyl esters are separated on a reversed-phase column by gradient elution with acetonitrile and water. Amino acid and fatty acid derivatives are detected by ultraviolet detection at 254 nm. The analysis of the carbohydrates in breadfruit employs a GC method. Carbohydrates are derivatized using trimethylchlorosilane and hexamethyldisilazane to form trimethylsilyl ethers. Compounds in the samples are separated by the temperature programming of a GC using nitrogen as the carrier gas. Percent recoveries of amino acids, fatty acids, and carbohydrates are 72.5%, 68.2%, and 81.4%, respectively. The starch content of the breadfruit is 15.52 g/100 g fresh weight.

  18. Fatty Acid and Phytosterol Content of Commercial Saw Palmetto Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian L. Lindshield

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p < 0.05 concentrations of total fatty acids (908.5 mg/g, individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g, and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p < 0.05 concentrations of total fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g. Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols.

  19. Fatty acid and phytosterol content of commercial saw palmetto supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penugonda, Kavitha; Lindshield, Brian L

    2013-09-13

    Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate) and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol) in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p fatty acids (908.5 mg/g), individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g), and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g) and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g). Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols.

  20. Dietary Fat Content Effects on Concentrations of Liver and Intestinal Fatty Acid Binding Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Murakami, Hiroshi; Sakai, Yasuo; Ohta, Kazutoshi; Hatakeyama, Katsuyoshi

    1998-01-01

    Two fatty acid binding proteins, liver and intestinal, have been identified in the rat intestine. Both are thought to be closely related to the absorption and metabolism of fatty acids in the intestinal epithelium. However, the underlying mechanism is not clearly understood. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate the roles of these two fatty acid binding proteins in the intestinal absorption of fatty acids. Rats were fed diets varying in fat content for two or four weeks. Live...

  1. Fatty acid content and lipid fractions in herbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Majbritt Bonefeld; Søegaard, Karen; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2012-01-01

    Experiments have shown a higher transfer efficiency of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids (FA) to milk when feeding herbs compared to feeding grass-clover. With the aim to gain more knowledge for this, the FA profile of ten single plant species and the incorporation of FA in lipid fractions were analysed...... (Trifolium repens) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). FA content in single species deviated considerably, although the main FA were C18:3n-3 and C18:2n-6, with chervil being the exception with C18:1n-9 as main FA. The majority of FA were found in the phospholipid and sterol fraction, with C18:3n-3...

  2. Polyunsaturated fatty acid content of mother's milk is associated with childhood body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise; Lauritzen, Lotte; Brasholt, Martin;

    2012-01-01

    The consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids has changed, and the prevalence of adiposity has increased over the past 30 y. A decrease of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content in breast milk has been suggested to be a contributing factor. The objective of this study was to investigate...... the relationship between docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content and n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio in breast milk, body composition, and timing of adiposity rebound in children....

  3. Fatty Acid Composition and Amino Acid Content in Beef of Dehong Buffalo and Its Cross Combinations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin; Hong; Wang; Guiying; Yang; Yue; Liao; Guozhou; Cheng; Zhibin; Gu; Dahai; Xu; Zhiqiang; Ge; Changrong; Jia; Junjing

    2014-01-01

    The Dehong buffalo( D),F1 hybrids of Dehong buffalo × Murrah buffalo( MD) and F1 hybrids of Dehong × Nili buffalo( ND) as the experimental animals to investigate their fatty acid composition and amino acid content. Five of each buffalos were bred by freely grazing and slaughtered at 35. 8-month old age to investigate the fatty acid composition and amino acid content in beef of Dehong buffalo,MD buffalo and ND buffalo. The results showed that,saturated fatty acid content of Dehong buffalo( 44. 33%) was significantly higher than that of ND buffalo( 41. 39%) and MD buffalo( 41. 48%)( P < 0. 05),and the latter two were not significantly different( P > 0. 05). The content of PUFA in Dehong buffalo( 53. 90%) was significantly lower than ND( 56. 83%) and MD( 56. 83%)( P <0. 05),however,the n- 6∶ n- 3( 4. 25) of Dehong buffalo was significantly higher than ND( 3. 14) and MD( 3. 52)( P < 0. 05). The content of amino acids in muscle was not significantly different between Dehong buffalo,MD buffalo and ND buffalo( P > 0. 05),while the acidic amino acid content of Dehong buffalo was higher than that of MD buffalo and ND buffalo.

  4. Oxalic acid alleviates chilling injury in peach fruit by regulating energy metabolism and fatty acid contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Peng; Zhu, Hong; Wang, Lei; Shan, Timin; Zheng, Yonghua

    2014-10-15

    The effects of postharvest oxalic acid (OA) treatment on chilling injury, energy metabolism and membrane fatty acid content in 'Baifeng' peach fruit stored at 0°C were investigated. Internal browning was significantly reduced by OA treatment in peaches. OA treatment markedly inhibited the increase of ion leakage and the accumulation of malondialdehyde. Meanwhile, OA significantly increased the contents of adenosine triphosphate and energy charge in peach fruit. Enzyme activities of energy metabolism including H(+)-adenosine triphosphatase, Ca(2+)-adenosine triphosphatase, succinic dehydrogenase and cytochrome C oxidase were markedly enhanced by OA treatment. The ratio of unsaturated/saturated fatty acid in OA-treated fruit was significantly higher than that in control fruit. These results suggest that the alleviation in chilling injury by OA may be due to enhanced enzyme activities related to energy metabolism and higher levels of energy status and unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of light quality on biomass production and fatty acid content in the microalga Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultberg, Malin; Jönsson, Helene Larsson; Bergstrand, Karl-Johan; Carlsson, Anders S

    2014-05-01

    In this study, the green microalga Chlorella vulgaris was exposed to monochromatic light at six different wavelengths in order to study the effect on biomass productivity and fatty acid content. A significantly higher amount of biomass by produced in the treatments with yellow, red and white light compared with blue, green and purple light. There were also significant differences in total lipid content and fatty acid profile between the treatments. The green light regime gave the lowest concentration of lipids, but increased the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Thus it can be concluded that light quality significantly affects biomass productivity, total lipid concentration and fatty acid profile in the microalga C. vulgaris.

  6. Fatty acid content and lipid fractions in herbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Majbritt Bonefeld; Søegaard, Karen; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2012-01-01

    Experiments have shown a higher transfer efficiency of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids (FA) to milk when feeding herbs compared to feeding grass-clover. With the aim to gain more knowledge for this, the FA profile of ten single plant species and the incorporation of FA in lipid fractions were analysed...

  7. Influence of goats feeding on the fatty acids content in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željka Klir

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have demonstrated the possibility of modeling the content of fatty acids of milk fat, in order to increase the contents of desirable n-3 unsaturated fatty acids and decrease saturated fatty acid with adequate nutrition of goats. Previous studies showed that the milk of goats on pasture increased content of caproic (C6:0, caprylic (C8:0, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, rumenic acid, cis-9, trans-11 C18:2, linolenic (C18:3, eicosapentaenoic (C20:5 and docosahexaenoic (C22:6 and total content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. In the same group of goats lower content of palmitoleic (C16:1, linoleic (C18:2 and total n-6 unsaturated fatty acids was found, as well as lower n-6/n-3 ratio compared with group of goats kept indoors and fed with alfalfa hay. In milk of goats fed with diets supplemented with safflower oil, content of CLA significantly increased, while goats fed with diets supplement with linseed oil had significantly higher content of C18:3 in milk, compared with group of goats fed without addition of these oils. Goats fed with addition of protected fish oil had significant transfer of eicosapentaenoic-EPA and docosahexaenoic-DHA fatty acids in milk. Protected fish oil reduced the negative impact of long chain fatty acids on the activity of ruminal microorganisms, consumption and digestibility of fiber, as well as inhibition of synthesis of fatty acids in milk gland. When adding unprotected fish oil, increase of stearic (C18:0 and oleic (C18:1 fatty acids occurred, because of the biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in rumen.

  8. Influence of Meteorological Factors on Oil Content and Major Fatty Acids of Rapeseeds (Brassica napus L. )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Weijun; Zhao Desheng; Shen Huicong

    1998-01-01

    A study on the influence of meteorological factors on oil content and major fatty acids of rapeseeds was conducted based on latitudinal location experiments and years of varietal investigations. Negative correlation was found between the latitudes and erucic acid content, and positive correlations were found between the latitudes and oil content, oleic acid and linoleic acid contents of rapeseeds. No significant correlation was observed between the latitudes and lionlenic acid content of rapeseeds. The oil content of rapeseeds varied from 34.00 % to 44.90 % and was concentrated within 39.00 %~40.90% in the Yangtze River lower basin. The difference of oil content between years was observed to be 3. 00% ~5.00%. The regional variation of the same varieties had ravealed a 0. 4432 % increase of oil content per 1 increase of the latitudes.The seed formation was the key growth stage in which the oil content and stagemajor fatty acid contents of rapeseeds were influenced by the meteorological factors. The following correlations were observed:( 1 )positive correlation between oil content and the daylength; (2) negative correlations between erucic acid content and daily mean temperature, ≥3℃ effective accumulated temperature, and the daylength; (3)positive correlation between oleic acid content and the daylength; (4) negative correlation between linoleic acid content and daily mean temperature, and positive one between linoleic acid content and ≥3℃ effective accumulated temperature;(5) no significant correlation between linolenic acid content and these meteorological factors. The experiments also estimated the key meteorological factors which affected oil content and major fatty acid contents of rapeseeds, and established the stepwise regression equations between the key meteorological factors and oil content, and major fatty acid contents of rapeseeds. The experimental results formed important bases for the selection of low erucic acid rape breeding area and for

  9. Determination of the Fatty Acid content of pumpkin seed, pygeum, and saw palmetto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzera, M; Croom, E M; Khan, I A

    1999-01-01

    Fatty acids are major components of many plants, foods and medicines, including pumpkin seeds (Cucubita pepo), pygeum bark (Prunus africana) and saw palmetto (Serenoa repens). With the gas chromatography methods reported here, free fatty acids of these species can be quantified as their trimethylsilyl derivatives. Because of their different fatty acid contents and composition, the gas chromatography method can distinguish which of three plant species was extracted, and, in the case of S. repens, the method of extraction. Although phytosterols can be separated by this method, their content is too low to be assigned directly. The total fatty acid content can be determined through formation of the methyl esters. This is helpful for estimation of the kind and percentage of fatty acids that are present as triglyceride esters in the plant material and for standardization of the products.

  10. [Effect of cultivation conditions on fatty acid content of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis lipids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, S M; Hvozdiak, R I; Chernenko, Ie P; Ostapchuk, A M

    2010-01-01

    The fatty acid content of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis cellular lipids in different culture conditions was investigated. It was established, that it lies in a narrow range C14-C18 and belongs to isoanteiso type. The species character is constant, independent of temperature, duration of cultivation and medium content dominance of saturated branched-chain fatty acids, among which the anteiso-acids dominate, generally a-C15. A response to the temperature modification of bacteria cultivation, medium and age of culture is expressed by relations between separate fatty acids. Thus the modifications of fatty acid content, connected with age of culture and temperature of cultivation, depend on a strain. The cultivation of bacteria on a rich medium in comparison with poor one enlarges the content of nonbranched-chain and anteiso-acids in lipids.

  11. Total Oil Content and Fatty Acid Profile of some Almond (Amygdalus Communis L. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yildirim Adnan Nurhan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the total oil contents and fatty acid compositions of some commercial almond cultivars. The total oil contents changed significantly (p<0.05 by year in all cultivars with the exception of cultivar Ferrastar. Total oil contents were changed from 50.90% (Picantili to 62.01% (Supernova in 2008 and from 52.44% (Lauranne to 63.18% (Cristomorto in 2009. While predominant unsaturated fatty acids were oleic and linoleic acids, predominant saturated fatty acid was palmitic acid. The highest amount of oleic acid was obtained in Glorieta in both 2008 (83.35% and 2009 (72.74%. Linoleic acid content varied by year and the highest content was recorded in Picantili (26.08% in 2008 and Yaltinski (30.01% in 2009. The highest amount of palmitic acid was detected in cultivar Sonora in both years, i.e. as 7.76% in 2008 and 10.11% in 2009. The mean UFA:SFA ratio was 11.73 in 2008 but 7.59 in 2009. Principal component (PC analysis indicated that palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, arachidic acid, unsaturated fatty acid (UFA, saturated fatty acid (SFA and UFA:SFA ratio were primarily responsible for the separation on PC1

  12. Effect of Fat-Mineral Preparation From Fish Oil on Fatty Acid Content on Cow Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Janeczek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available 8-week-lasting investigation aimed at the assessment of the effect of fish oil application in the form of fat-mineral preparation (F-M on fatty acid content in milk fat. The subject of this investigation were highly efficient dairy cows (primiparous and multiparous. The cows were administered F-M containing fish oil (1% in dry mass of ration which resulted in decreased level of shortchain fatty acids in milk fat and increased level of longchain fatty acids. There was recorded significant increase in isomer cis-9,trans-11 CLA content, as well as the one of polyunsaturated fatty acids of n-3 - EPA and DHA group. The number of n-3 group acid did considerably increase. The fatty acids n-6/n-3 ratio showed significant decrease in both experimental groups.

  13. Oil content and fatty acid composition of eggs cooked in drying oven, microwave and pan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhaimi, Fahad Al; Uslu, Nurhan; Özcan, Mehmet Musa

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the effect of heating on the oil yield and fatty acid composition of eggs cooked in drying oven, microwave oven, pan and boiled were determined, and compared. The highest oil content (15.22%) was observed for egg cooked in drying oven, while the lowest oil (5.195%) in egg cooked in pan. The cooking in microwave oven caused a decrease in oleic acid content (46.201%) and an increase in the amount of palmitic acid content (26.862%). In addition, the maximum oleic acid (65.837%) and minimum palmitic acid (14.015%) contents were observed in egg oil cooked in pan. Results showed that fatty acids were significantly affected by cooking method. This study confirms that the cooking processing influences the fatty acid composition of egg oils.

  14. Genetic diversity of seed lipid content and fatty acid composition in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-01-08

    Jan 8, 2007 ... Genetic diversity of seed lipid content and fatty acid composition in some .... Seed oil was estimated by conventional Soxhlet method using petroleum ether as .... Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC Association of Official ...

  15. Alteration of fatty acids content during cow's and goat's milk fermentation with ABT-2 culture

    OpenAIRE

    Vedran Slačanac; Jovica Hardi; Hrvoje Pavlović; Mato Vlainić; Mirela Lučan

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, changes in composition and contents of each fatty acid during fermentation with ABT-2 culture were examined. The objective of this study was to determinate the increase of short (SCFA) and medium (MCFA) chain fatty acids in goat's and cow's milk during fermentation with ABT-2 culture. The hypothesis of this study was that higher contents of SCFA and MCFA are produced in goat's milk in comparison with cow's milk, during fermentation with ABT-2 culture. Obtained results have show...

  16. FATTY ACIDS, AMINO ACIDS, MINERAL CONTENTS, AND PROXIMATE COMPOSITION OF SOME BROWN SEAWEEDS(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabarsa, Mehdi; Rezaei, Masoud; Ramezanpour, Zohreh; Robert Waaland, J; Rabiei, Reza

    2012-04-01

    This study was conducted to create a nutritional database on brown seaweeds and to popularize their consumption and utilization in Iran. The fatty acid contents, amino acids profiles, and certain mineral elements composition of some brown seaweeds, Padina pavonica (L.) Thivy, Dictyota dichotoma (Huds.) J. V. Lamour., and Colpomenia sinuosa (Mert. ex Roth) Derbés et Solier were determined. Total lipid content ranged from 1.46 ± 0.38 to 2.94 ± 0.94 g · 100 g(-1) dry weight (dwt), and the most abundant fatty acids were C16:0, C18:1, C20:4 ω6, and C20:5 ω3. The unsaturated fatty acids predominated in all species and had balanced sources of ω3 and ω6 acids. Highest total polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels occurred in C. sinuosa. The protein content of D. dichotoma was 17.73 ± 0.29 g · 100 g(-1) dwt, significantly higher than the other seaweeds examined. Among amino acids essential to human nutrition, methionine (Met; in D. dichotoma and P. pavonica) and lysine (Lys; in C. sinuosa) were present in high concentrations. The crude fiber content varied by 9.5 ± 11.6 g · 100 g(-1) dwt in all species. Chemical analysis indicated that ash content was between 27.02 ± 0.6 and 39.28 ± 0.7 g · 100 g(-1) dwt, and that these seaweeds contained higher amounts of both macrominerals (7,308-9,160 mg · 100 g(-1) dwt; Na, K, Ca) and trace elements (263-1,594 mg · 100 g(-1) dwt; Fe, Ni, Mn, Cu, Co) than have been reported for edible land plants. C. sinuosa had the highest amount of Ca, Fe, and a considerable content of Na was measured in P. pavonica.

  17. Fatty acids - trans fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The data supporting a negative effect of dietary trans fatty acids on cardiovascular disease risk is consistent. The primary dietary sources of trans fatty acids include partially hydrogenated fat and rudiment fat. The adverse effect of trans fatty acids on plasma lipoprotein profiles is consisten...

  18. Comparison of Fatty Acid and Cholesterol Content of Pakistani Water Buffalo Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Bhanger

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Present study evaluates the milk fatty acid (FA composition and cholesterol content of two main Pakistani dairy breeds water buffaloes, i.e. Kundi and Nili-Ravi (n = 25 for each breed. The buffaloes were housed together and received the same diet. The results show a significant variation (P < 0.05 in the FA content of the two breeds. The milk fat of Kundi buffalo was found to contain significantly lower (P < 0.05 amount of saturated fatty acid content than Nili-Ravi buffaloes (66.96 and 69.09 g/100 g. Determined mean monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA contents (27.62 vs. 25.20 g/100g and total trans fatty acids (3.48 vs. 2.48 were significantly elevated (P < 0.05 in the milk fat of Kundi buffaloes. Amount of fat and conjugated linoleic acid content was higher (P = 0.04 in Kundi buffalo as compared to Nili-Ravi buffaloes (7.00 vs. 7.78 g /100g and 0.80 vs. 0.71g / 100g, while cholesterol content was not different among both breeds ranging from 8.89 – 10.24 mg /dl. Present studies show that in future genetic selection programs along with altered buffalo nutrition may be able to result in optimum levels of various fatty acids in milk.

  19. Fatty Acid Content of Bovine Milkfat From Raw Milk to Yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Santos Junior

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The present study aimed to study the evolution of fatty acid content, focusing on rumenic acid content, from raw milk to yoghurt processed from this milk. Approach: Milk samples were collected in a dairy plant in the northwest of Parana State weekly in January 2011 (Brazilian summer. It processed one truck load of 26,000 L of refrigerated type-C (whole standardized milk with a minimum of 3% fat milk per day, mostly from the city of Lobato, Parana, produced mainly by Gir (Bos indicus cattle raised on stargrass (Cynodon nlenfuensis var. nlenfuensis pasture. Results: Saturated Fatty Acid (SFA were the most abundant, particularly palmitic (16:0, stearic (18:0 and myristic (14:0. Among the Monounsaturated Fatty Acid (MUFA, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA and trans fatty acid, oleic acid (18:1n-9, linoleic acid (18:2n-6, elaidic acid (t9-18:1 and c9, t11-18:2 (rumenic acid predominated. It was detected significant differences (p-1 of lipids, decreasing to 6.22±0.20 after pasteurization and to 5.41±0.18 mg g-1 in yoghurt. Conclusion/Recommendations: It is demonstrated that pasteurization and yoghurt making affect the CLA contents.

  20. Evaluation of fatty acid profiles and mineral content of grape seed oil of some grape genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangolar, Serpil Gök; Ozoğul, Yeşim; Tangolar, Semih; Torun, Ayfer

    2009-01-01

    The grape seeds of seven grape cultivars (Alphonse Lavallée, Muscat of Hamburg, Alicante Bouschet, Razaki, Narince, Oküzgözü and Horoz karasi) and two rootstocks (Salt creek and Cosmo 2) were evaluated in terms of quality properties including protein, oil, moisture, ash, fatty acid composition and mineral contents. The oil contents were found to be different for each cultivar, which ranged from 10.45% (Razaki) to 16.73% (Salt creek). Saturated fatty acid values were less than the values of monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids in all genotypes. Among the identified fatty acids, linoleic acid (C18:2) was the predominant fatty acid and followed by oleic acid (C18:1) and palmitic acid (C16:0) in all varieties. The results of mineral analysis showed that all varieties contained considerable amount of macro and micro elements. These grape seeds could be used as a food supplement to improve the nutritive value of the human diet.

  1. Immunoglobulin and fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising 0.1-10 w/w % immunoglobulin (Ig), 4-14 w/w % saturated fatty acids, 4-14 w/w % mono-unsaturated fatty acids and 0-5 w/w % poly-unsaturated fatty acids, wherein the weight percentages are based on the content of dry matter in the composition...

  2. Trans Fatty Acid content in Danish margarines and shortenings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Torben; Bysted, Anette; Hansen, Kirsten

    2003-01-01

    in shortenings, averaging about 6-7%. Long-chain TFA from hydrogenated,fish oil, although present in 13 brands in 1995, were not found at all in the 1999 samples. Trans-linoleic acids or CLA were not found. The reduction in TFA content in margarines has not resulted in a systematic change over the years......Margarines and shortenings have been major contributors to the intake by humans of the probably atherogenic trans FA (TFA). In 1999, all 73 brands of margarines and shortenings on the Danish market were analyzed by GLC on a 50-m highly polar capillary column, and the results were compared...... in the content of saturated FA, monounsaturated FA, or PUFA. Calculated from sales figures, the intake of TFA decreased from 2.2 g per capita per year in 1992, to 1.5 g in 1995, and to 0.4 g in, 1999....

  3. Omega-3 enriched egg production: the effect of α -linolenic ω -3 fatty acid sources on laying hen performance and yolk lipid content and fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antruejo, A; Azcona, J O; Garcia, P T; Gallinger, C; Rosmini, M; Ayerza, R; Coates, W; Perez, C D

    2011-12-01

    1. Diets high in total lipids, saturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and having high ω-6:ω-3 fatty acid ratios, have been shown to be related to increased instances of coronary heart disease, while diets high in ω-3 fatty acids have been shown to decrease the risk. 2. Feeding ω-3 fatty acid diets to laying hens has been shown to improve the quality of eggs produced in terms of saturation and ω-3 content. 3. A study was undertaken to determine if the ω-3 fatty acid source, when fed to hens, influences the amount transferred to eggs. 4. Flaxseed and flaxseed oil, along with chia seed and chia seed oil, were the two main sources of ω-3 fatty acid examined during the 84 d trial. 5. All α-linolenic enriched treatments yielded significantly higher ω-3 fatty acid contents per g of yolk and per yolk, than the non-α-linolenic enriched diets. Chia oil and chia seed yielded 54·5 and 63·5% more mg of ω-3 fatty acid per g of yolk for the 56 d test period, and 13·4 and 66·2% more for the 84 d test period, than flaxseed oil and flaxseed, respectively. 6. The differences in omega-3 content were significant, except for the chia oil compared with the flax oil, at the end of the trial. 7. This trial has shown that differences in conversion exist among ω-3 fatty acid sources, at least when fed to hens, and indicates that chia may hold a significant potential as a source of ω-3 fatty acid for enriching foods, thereby making these foods a healthier choice for consumers.

  4. Phytosterol content and fatty acid pattern of ten different nut types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornsteiner-Krenn, Margit; Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Elmadfa, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Ten different nut kinds (almonds, Brazil nuts, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamias, peanuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios, and walnuts) were evaluated for their total oil and phytosterol content as well as their fatty acid composition. The total oil content was the predominant component; mean values oscillated between 45.2 % (cashews) and 74.7 % (macadamias). Mean total phytosterol content ranged from 71.7 mg (Brazil nuts) to 271.9 mg (pistachios) per 100 g oil. ß-sitosterol was the major sterol (mean >71.7 mg/100 g oil) followed by minor contents of campesterol, ergosterol, and stigmasterol. Almonds, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamias, and pistachios were high in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA; > 55 %). MUFA- and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich nuts were peanuts and pecans, whereas Brazil nuts, pine nuts, and walnuts had the highest PUFA content (> 50 %); the high unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio ranged from 4.5 to 11.8. However, the fatty acid pattern of every nut is unique.

  5. Changes in fatty acid content and composition in silage maize during grain filling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, N.A.; Cone, J.W.; Pellikaan, W.F.; Khan, M.A.; Struik, P.C.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The stage of maturity at harvest has a major effect on the fatty acid (FA) content and composition of forage plants consumed by dairy cows. The present study investigated the dynamics of FA content and composition in stover (leaves and stem) and ears (cob, shank and husks) of two maize g

  6. Content of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids in three canned fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladyshev, Michail I; Sushchik, Nadezhda N; Makhutova, Olesia N; Kalachova, Galina S

    2009-05-01

    Three canned fish species--Pacific saury (Cololabis saira), Pacific herring (Clupea harengus) and Baltic sprat (Sprattus sprattus)--most common and popular in Russia, were analyzed for fatty acids. Special attention was paid to long-chain essential polyunsaturated fatty acids: eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5omega3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6omega3). Sums of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in saury, herring and sprat were, on average, 2.42, 1.80 and 1.43 g/100 g product, respectively. Contents of these essential acids in all the canned fish species were found to be very high compared with many other fish reported in the available literature. All the canned fish appeared to be highly valuable products for human nutrition concerning the content of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids.

  7. Quantitative analysis of cyclic dimer fatty acid content in the dimerization product by proton NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyun Joo; Kim, Minyoung; Seok, Seunghwan; Kim, Young-Wun; Kim, Do Hyun

    2015-01-01

    In this work, (1)H NMR is utilized for the quantitative analysis of a specific cyclic dimer fatty acid in a dimer acid mixture using the pseudo-standard material of mesitylene on the basis of its structural similarity. Mesitylene and cyclic dimer acid levels were determined using the signal of the proton on the cyclic ring (δ=6.8) referenced to the signal of maleic acid (δ=6.2). The content of the cyclic dimer fatty acid was successfully determined through the standard curve of mesitylene and the reported equation. Using the linearity of the mesitylene curve, the cyclic dimer fatty acid in the oil mixture was quantified. The results suggest that the proposed method can be used to quantify cyclic compounds in mixtures to optimize the dimerization process.

  8. FATTY ACID COMPOSITION AND PROSTAGLANDIN CONTENT OF THE RED SEAWEED Gracilaria sp. FROM INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ikbal Illijas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available High content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs such as arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids are typical for the red alga. Analysis of fatty acid composition and prostaglandin content was conducted in the red alga Gracilaria sp. from Indonesia. Total lipid of the alga was extracted with CHCl3-MeOH (2:1, v/v. Analysis of the fatty acids composition was performed on gas chromatography (GC equipped with omega wax column (30 m x 0,32 mm i.d., Supelco, PA, USA and analysis of prostaglandins were carried out by HPLC on ODS column (Mightysil RP-18 GP, 250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 μm. The content of fatty acids high for were palmitic acid (50% and arachidonic acid (26.9%, whereas prostaglandin E2 was identified and found lower concentration (44.2 μg/gram total lipid.

  9. Combined Effects of Ocean Warming and Acidification on Copepod Abundance, Body Size and Fatty Acid Content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Garzke

    Full Text Available Concerns about increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and global warming have initiated studies on the consequences of multiple-stressor interactions on marine organisms and ecosystems. We present a fully-crossed factorial mesocosm study and assess how warming and acidification affect the abundance, body size, and fatty acid composition of copepods as a measure of nutritional quality. The experimental set-up allowed us to determine whether the effects of warming and acidification act additively, synergistically, or antagonistically on the abundance, body size, and fatty acid content of copepods, a major group of lower level consumers in marine food webs. Copepodite (developmental stages 1-5 and nauplii abundance were antagonistically affected by warming and acidification. Higher temperature decreased copepodite and nauplii abundance, while acidification partially compensated for the temperature effect. The abundance of adult copepods was negatively affected by warming. The prosome length of copepods was significantly reduced by warming, and the interaction of warming and CO2 antagonistically affected prosome length. Fatty acid composition was also significantly affected by warming. The content of saturated fatty acids increased, and the ratios of the polyunsaturated essential fatty acids docosahexaenoic- (DHA and arachidonic acid (ARA to total fatty acid content increased with higher temperatures. Additionally, here was a significant additive interaction effect of both parameters on arachidonic acid. Our results indicate that in a future ocean scenario, acidification might partially counteract some observed effects of increased temperature on zooplankton, while adding to others. These may be results of a fertilizing effect on phytoplankton as a copepod food source. In summary, copepod populations will be more strongly affected by warming rather than by acidifying oceans, but ocean acidification effects can modify some temperature impacts.

  10. Combined Effects of Ocean Warming and Acidification on Copepod Abundance, Body Size and Fatty Acid Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Thomas; Ismar, Stefanie M. H.; Sommer, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and global warming have initiated studies on the consequences of multiple-stressor interactions on marine organisms and ecosystems. We present a fully-crossed factorial mesocosm study and assess how warming and acidification affect the abundance, body size, and fatty acid composition of copepods as a measure of nutritional quality. The experimental set-up allowed us to determine whether the effects of warming and acidification act additively, synergistically, or antagonistically on the abundance, body size, and fatty acid content of copepods, a major group of lower level consumers in marine food webs. Copepodite (developmental stages 1–5) and nauplii abundance were antagonistically affected by warming and acidification. Higher temperature decreased copepodite and nauplii abundance, while acidification partially compensated for the temperature effect. The abundance of adult copepods was negatively affected by warming. The prosome length of copepods was significantly reduced by warming, and the interaction of warming and CO2 antagonistically affected prosome length. Fatty acid composition was also significantly affected by warming. The content of saturated fatty acids increased, and the ratios of the polyunsaturated essential fatty acids docosahexaenoic- (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) to total fatty acid content increased with higher temperatures. Additionally, here was a significant additive interaction effect of both parameters on arachidonic acid. Our results indicate that in a future ocean scenario, acidification might partially counteract some observed effects of increased temperature on zooplankton, while adding to others. These may be results of a fertilizing effect on phytoplankton as a copepod food source. In summary, copepod populations will be more strongly affected by warming rather than by acidifying oceans, but ocean acidification effects can modify some temperature impacts. PMID:27224476

  11. [Phospholipid and fatty acid content of the blood of sheep infected with the nematode Dictyocaulus filaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchbaev, A E; Bastarbekova, G M

    2001-01-01

    The results of analysis of phospholipids (PL) and fatty acid content in the blood of sheep infected with the nematodes Dictyocaulus filaria are displayed. A significant increase of lysophosphatidylcholine and arachidonic acid as well as a decrease of docozagexaenic acid in PL of infected sheep have been recorded. That points out to structural and functional disorders of cellular membranes during the infection. These disorder could be used as a metabolic criterion to estimate the relationships within the host-parasite system examined.

  12. FUNGAL POPULATION, AFLATOXIN AND FREE FATTY ACID CONTENTS OF PEANUTS PACKED IN DIFFERENT BAG TYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SONIA S.P. BULAONG

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Shelled peanuts of Gajah var. with initial moisture content of 7% were stored at 11 kg/bag in four bag types namely: jute bag, polypropylene bag, jute bag doubled with thin polyethylene (PE, and jute bag doubled with thick PE. Storage was done for six months under warehouse conditions with monitoring of relative humidity and temperature. Samples taken at the be ginning of storage and every month thereafter were analyzed for moisture content, fungal population, aflatoxin and free fatty acid contents. Statistical analyses showed that moisture content, fungal population, and free fatty acid contents were signifi cantly higher in jute and polypropylene bags than in PE-dou,bled jute bags. No significant differences were obtained in aflatoxin contents among bag types but at the end of six months storage, toxin level in jute bag exceeded the 30 ppb limit. Polypropylene had second highest toxin level at 23 ppb. The PE-doubled bags ha d 17 and 19 ppb total aflatoxins for thin and thick films, respectively. The results indicated that the immediate packag ing of dried shelled peanuts at safe moisture level in plastic films with water vapor transmission rated of 1 g/m2/24 hr or lower is recommended. This p ackaging will delay critical increases in moisture content, fungal population, aflatoxin and free fatty acid contents of peanut kernels at ambient storage conditions.

  13. Causes of variation in fatty acid content and composition in grass and maize silages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, N.A.; Cone, J.W.; Fievez, V.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the variation in fatty acid (FA) content and composition in grass and maize silages and to identify key management factors during plant growth and the ensiling process that cause this variation. Samples of grass (n = 101) and maize (n = 96) silages were randomly

  14. Causes of variation in fatty acid content and composition in grass and maize silages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, N.A.; Cone, J.W.; Fievez, V.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the variation in fatty acid (FA) content and composition in grass and maize silages and to identify key management factors during plant growth and the ensiling process that cause this variation. Samples of grass (n = 101) and maize (n = 96) silages were randomly

  15. Oil and Fatty Acid Content Among Diverse Sesame Genetic Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesame, Sesamum indicum contains oil used for salads, cooking while the seeds are used on hamburger buns, candies, and are used to make tahini. Sesame oil is known to reduce cholesterol due to the high polyunsaturated fat content in the oil. Oil content ranges from about 40 to 63% among sesame acces...

  16. Metabolically Engineered Fungal Cells With Increased Content Of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    This invention relates to the production of fatty acids and particularly to the production of the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) arachidonic acid (ARA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in genetically engineered fungal cells, in particular, to metabolically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae...

  17. Fatty acid content and antioxidant activity of Thai bananas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirawan Banditpuritat and Rungthip Kawaree

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aril extracts of three Thai banana varieties, namely “Kluai Khai”(KK, “Kluai Namwa”(KN and “Kluai Hom”(KH were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS. GC-MS data were used to identify 5 methyl esters of each banana extract after transesterification. The most prominent components found in KK, KN and KH were hexadecanoic acid methyl ester (43.17, 29.18, 30.57 % respectively, 9, 12, 15-octadecatrienoic acid methyl ester (35.93, 30.46, 39.68 % respectively, 9, 12-octadecadienoic acid methyl ester (14.35, 36.10, 21.82 % respectively, 9-hexadecanoic acid methyl ester (3.76, 3.34, 3.32 % respectively and octadecanoic acid methyl ester (2.79, 0.92, 4.60 % respectively. The antioxidant activity of the crude oils was evaluated using DPPH method.

  18. The trans fatty acids content of selected foods in Malaysia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Akmar, Z D; Norhaizan, M E; Azimah, R; Azrina, A; Chan, Y M

    2013-01-01

    .... The objective of this study is to determine the TFA content of bakery products, snacks, dairy products, fast foods, cooking oils and semisolid fats, and breakfast cereals and Malaysian fast foods...

  19. Effect of age, season and housing system on cholesterol and fatty acids contents of table eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Hussein

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey was carried out in Khartoum State to examine the effects of hens' age (66, 42 and 20 weeks, season of production (winter and summer and housing system (open sided and closed on table egg contents of cholesterol and fatty acids. Eggs were collected and analyzed for cholesterol and fatty acids content using gas chromatography mass spectrometer. Eggs of 66 weeks old hens had a significantly (P<0.05 higher amount of cholesterol than eggs of 20 weeks and 42 weeks old ones. Eggs collected in winter season contained significantly (P<0.05 higher percentages of C16:19e fatty acid and vaccenic acid. Arachidonic acid was significantly (P<0.05 less in egg yolk of 66 weeks old hens. There were some variations in fatty acids level among all studied factors but the differences were not statistically significant. It could be concluded that eggs produced from younger hens contain less cholesterol than that of the older hens.

  20. Fatty acid profile, tocopherol, squalene and phytosterol content of brazil, pecan, pine, pistachio and cashew nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, E; Galvin, K; O'Connor, T P; Maguire, A R; O'Brien, N M

    2006-01-01

    Nuts contain bioactive constituents that elicit cardio-protective effects including phytosterols, tocopherols and squalene. The objective of the present study was to determine the total oil content, peroxide value, fatty acid composition and levels of tocopherols, squalene and phytosterols in oil extracted from freshly ground brazil, pecan, pine, pistachio and cashew nuts. The total oil content of the nuts ranged from 40.4 to 60.8% (w/w) while the peroxide values ranged from 0.14 to 0.22 mEq O2/kg oil. The most abundant monounsaturated fatty acid was oleic acid (C18:1), while linoleic acid (C18:2) was the most prevalent polyunsaturated fatty acid. The levels of total tocopherols ranged from 60.8 to 291.0 mg/g. Squalene ranged from 39.5 mg/g oil in the pine nut to 1377.8 mg/g oil in the brazil nut. beta-Sitosterol was the most prevalent phytosterol, ranging in concentration from 1325.4 to 4685.9 mg/g oil. In conclusion, the present data indicate that nuts are a good dietary source of unsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols, squalene and phytosterols.

  1. Variability in seed oil content and fatty acid composition, phenotypic traits and self-incompatibility among selected niger germplasm accessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niger (Guizotia abyssinica, L.) is a desirable oilseed crop for birdseed, especially for finches (Spinus spp.) because of its high ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids and relatively high oil content. In 2012, phenotypic traits, seed oil and fatty acid content measurements were made on 14 p...

  2. Decreased Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Content Contributes to Increased Survival in Human Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Oraldi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Among diet components, some fatty acids are known to affect several stages of colon carcinogenesis, whereas others are probably helpful in preventing tumors. In light of this, our aim was to determine the composition of fatty acids and the possible correlation with apoptosis in human colon carcinoma specimens at different Duke's stages and to evaluate the effect of enriching human colon cancer cell line with the possible reduced fatty acid(s. Specimens of carcinoma were compared with the corresponding non-neoplastic mucosa: a significant decrease of arachidonic acid, PPARα, Bad, and Bax and a significant increase of COX-2, Bcl-2, and pBad were found. The importance of arachidonic acid in apoptosis was demonstrated by enriching a Caco-2 cell line with this fatty acid. It induced apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner via induction of PPARα that, in turn, decreased COX-2. In conclusion, the reduced content of arachidonic acid is likely related to carcinogenic process decreasing the susceptibility of cancer cells to apoptosis.

  3. Fatty acid and sterol contents during tulip leaf senescence induced by methyl jasmonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Saniewski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown previously that methyl jasmonate (JA-Me applied in lanolin paste on the bottom surface of intact tulip leaves causes a rapid and intense its senescence. The aim of this work was to study the effect of JA-Me on free and bound fatty acid and sterol contents during tulip leaf senescence. The main free and bound fatty acids of tulip leaf, in decreasing order of their abundance, were linolenic, linoleic, palmitic, oleic, stearic and myristic acids. Only the content of free linolenic acid decreased after treatment with JA-Me during visible stage of senescence. ß-Sitosterol (highest concentration, campesterol, stigmasterol and cholesterol were identified in tulip leaf. Methyl jasmonate evidently increased the level of ß-sitosterol, campesterol and stigmasterol during induced senescence. It is suggested that the increase in sterol concentrations under the influence of methyl jasmonate induced changes in membrane fluidity and permeability, which may be responsible for senescence.

  4. Retinol, alpha-tocopherol and fatty acid content in Bulgarian black Sea fish species

    OpenAIRE

    Stancheva, M; Galunska, B.; Dobreva, A. D.; Merdzhanova, A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to measure and evaluate the total lipids, fatty acid profile, retinol content and alpha-tocopherol content in the edible tissue of four commercially important fish species from the Bulgarian Black sea: Sprat (Sprattus sprattus), Round Goby (Neogobius rattan), Black Sea Horse Mackerel (Trahurus medditeraneus ponticus) and Shad (Alosa pontica). Fat soluble vitamins were analyzed simultaneously usi...

  5. [Fatty acid composition and cholesterol content in naturally canned jurel, sardine, salmon, and tuna].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, N; Robert, P; Masson, L; Luck, C; Buschmann, L

    1996-03-01

    To obtain more information about fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of fat extracted from canned fish in brine habitually consumed in Chile, four different species Jurel (Trachurus murphyi), Sardine (Sardinops sagax), Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and Tuna (Thunnus alalunga) were analyzed. The GLC of fatty acid methyl esters showed that the main group of fatty acids belongs to polyunsaturated, being omega-3 family the more important. The principal representants were eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA), with percentages between 5%-11% and 12%-22% respectively. Omega-6 family was represented mainly by arachidonic acid (AA) with percentages between 2%-4%. Cholesterol content was similar to the values found in other animal origen meats. The figures were between 41-86 mg of cholesterol per 100 g of edible product, Tuna in brine, was the product with the lowest content of cholesterol. The calculated amount of EPA, DHA and total omega-3 fatty acids indicated values between 95-604, 390-1163 and 609-2775 mg respectively per 100 g of edible product. Due these results is important to emphasize the consumption of this type of canned fish in brine, that they really represent a good dietary source of mainly polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids. The international recommendations indicate to increase the consumption of fish, due the beneficial effects described in relation with cardiovascular disease, which is the mean cause of death in Chile, country with a wide variety of marine origen foods, but with a contradictory answer about its consumption which is not incorporated in the current diet.

  6. Characterisation of Fecal Soap Fatty Acids, Calcium Contents, Bacterial Community and Short-Chain Fatty Acids in Sprague Dawley Rats Fed with Different sn-2 Palmitic Triacylglycerols Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jianchun; Hu, Songyou; Ni, Kefeng; Chang, Guifang; Sun, Xiangjun; Yu, Liangli

    2016-01-01

    The structure of dietary triacylglycerols is thought to influence fatty acid and calcium absorption, as well as intestinal microbiota population of the host. In the present study, we investigated the impact of palmitic acid (PA) esterified at the sn-2 position on absorption of fatty acid and calcium and composition of intestinal microorganisms in rats fed high-fat diets containing either low sn-2 PA (12.1%), medium sn-2 PA (40.4%) or high sn-2 PA (56.3%), respectively. Fecal fatty acid profiles in the soaps were measured by gas chromatography (GC), while fecal calcium concentration was detected by ICP-MS. The fecal microbial composition was assessed using a 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing technology and fecal short-chain fatty acids were detected by ion chromatograph. Dietary supplementation with a high sn-2 PA fat significantly reduced total fecal contents of fatty acids soap and calcium compared with the medium or low sn-2 PA fat groups. Diet supplementation with sn-2 PA fat did not change the entire profile of the gut microbiota community at phylum level and the difference at genera level also were minimal in the three treatment groups. However, high sn-2 PA fat diet could potentially improve total short-chain fatty acids content in the feces, suggesting that high dietary sn-2 PA fat might have a beneficial effect on host intestinal health. PMID:27783700

  7. Characterisation of Fecal Soap Fatty Acids, Calcium Contents, Bacterial Community and Short-Chain Fatty Acids in Sprague Dawley Rats Fed with Different sn-2 Palmitic Triacylglycerols Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jianchun; Hu, Songyou; Ni, Kefeng; Chang, Guifang; Sun, Xiangjun; Yu, Liangli

    2016-01-01

    The structure of dietary triacylglycerols is thought to influence fatty acid and calcium absorption, as well as intestinal microbiota population of the host. In the present study, we investigated the impact of palmitic acid (PA) esterified at the sn-2 position on absorption of fatty acid and calcium and composition of intestinal microorganisms in rats fed high-fat diets containing either low sn-2 PA (12.1%), medium sn-2 PA (40.4%) or high sn-2 PA (56.3%), respectively. Fecal fatty acid profiles in the soaps were measured by gas chromatography (GC), while fecal calcium concentration was detected by ICP-MS. The fecal microbial composition was assessed using a 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing technology and fecal short-chain fatty acids were detected by ion chromatograph. Dietary supplementation with a high sn-2 PA fat significantly reduced total fecal contents of fatty acids soap and calcium compared with the medium or low sn-2 PA fat groups. Diet supplementation with sn-2 PA fat did not change the entire profile of the gut microbiota community at phylum level and the difference at genera level also were minimal in the three treatment groups. However, high sn-2 PA fat diet could potentially improve total short-chain fatty acids content in the feces, suggesting that high dietary sn-2 PA fat might have a beneficial effect on host intestinal health.

  8. Effect of vegetable oils on fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of chicken frankfurters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belichovska, D.; Pejkovski, Z.; Belichovska, K.; Uzunoska, Z.; Silovska-Nikolova, A.

    2017-09-01

    To study the effect of pork adipose tissue substitution with vegetable oils in chicken frankfurters, six frankfurter formulations were produced: control; with pork backfat; with olive oil; with rapeseed oil; with sunflower oil; with palm oil, and; with a mixture of 12% rapeseed oil and 8% palm oil. Fatty acid composition and cholesterol content and some oxides thereof were determined in the final products. The use of vegetable oils resulted in improvement of the fatty acid composition and nutritional of frankfurters. Frankfurters with vegetable oils contained significantly less cholesterol and some of its oxides, compared to the frankfurters with pork fat. The formulation with palm oil had the least favourable fatty acid composition. The use of 12% rapeseed oil improved the ratio of fatty acids in frankfurters with a mixture of rapeseed and palm oils. Complete pork fat replacement with vegetable oils in chicken frankfurter production is technologically possible. The mixture of 12% rapeseed oil and 8% palm oil is a good alternative to pork fat from health aspects. Further research is needed to find the most appropriate mixture of vegetable oils, which will produce frankfurters with good sensory characteristics, a more desirable fatty acid ratio and high nutritional value.

  9. Intake of trans fatty acids causes nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and reduces adipose tissue fat content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Roberta M; Stefano, José T; Oliveira, Claudia P M S; Mello, Evandro S; Ferreira, Fabiana D; Nunes, Valeria S; de Lima, Vicência M R; Quintão, Eder C R; Catanozi, Sergio; Nakandakare, Edna R; Lottenberg, Ana Maria P

    2010-06-01

    We investigated the effects of dietary trans fatty acids, PUFA, and SFA on body and liver fat content, liver histology, and mRNA of enzymes involved in fatty acid metabolism. LDL receptor knockout weaning male mice were fed for 16 wk with diets containing 40% energy as either trans fatty acids (TRANS), PUFA, or SFA. Afterwards, subcutaneous and epididymal fat were weighed and histological markers of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were assessed according to the Histological Scoring System for NAFLD. PPARalpha, PPARgamma, microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP), carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT-1), and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) mRNA were measured by quantitative RT-PCR. Food intake was similar in the 3 groups, although mice fed the TRANS diet gained less weight than those receiving the PUFA diet. Compared with the PUFA- and SFA-fed mice, TRANS-fed mice had greater plasma total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) concentrations, less epididymal and subcutaneous fat, larger livers with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)-like lesions, and greater liver TC and TG concentrations. Macrosteatosis in TRANS-fed mice was associated with a higher homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA(IR)) index and upregulated mRNA related to hepatic fatty acid synthesis (SREBP-1c and PPARgamma) and to downregulated MTP mRNA. Diet consumption did not alter hepatic mRNA related to fatty acid oxidation (PPARalpha and CPT-1). In conclusion, compared with PUFA- and SFA-fed mice, TRANS-fed mice had less adiposity, impaired glucose tolerance characterized by greater HOMA(IR) index, and NASH-like lesions due to greater hepatic lipogenesis. These results demonstrate the role of trans fatty acid intake on the development of key features of metabolic syndrome.

  10. Comparative study on fatty acid composition of olive (Olea europaea L.), with emphasis on phytosterol contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Ali; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y; Kulak, Muhittin; Bindak, Recep

    2017-08-01

    The present study was designed to determine the fatty acid composition and phytosterol contents of Turkish native olive cultivars, namely Kilis Yağlık and Nizip Yağlık cv. In this context, olive fruits from 34 locations were sampled and then screened for their components in comparison. Fifteen different fatty acids were found in both olive oils. In the order of abundance, the most important ones were oleic acid (18:1) > palmitic acid (16:0) > linoleic acid (18:2) > stearic acid (18:0). Significant differences were observed in the contents of oleic acid (18:1), palmitic acid (16:0), linoleic acid (18:2) but not for stearic acid content in comparison both oils (p oil sources. The predominant sterols were β-sitosterol, Δ5-avenasterol and campesterol in the samples analysed. However, no significant differences were found in the levels of the phytosterols between the two olive cultivars. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Effects of heat processing on soya bean fatty acids content and the lipoxygenase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žilić Slađana M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of increased temperatures on the lipoxygenase activity and changes of soya bean fatty acids were observed in the present study. The kernels of soya bean cultivars Bosa and ZPS 015 were subjected to the treatments of extrusion, autoclaving, micronisation and microwave roasting. Depending on the technological processing procedure, the kernels were exposed to temperatures ranging from 60 to 150°C for 25 to 30 seconds during extrusion and for 30 minutes during autoclaving. The temperature that developed in the course of the microwave radiation and autoclaving did not cause statistically significant differences between oil content in heat treated and fresh kernels of soya bean. However, the oil content was higher in soya bean flakes (micronized kernels and lower in grits than in fresh kernels. The heat treatments resulted in the significant decrease of the linolenic fatty acid content. Depending on the temperature and applied heat treatments, the content of linoleic and oleic fatty acid oscillated. High temperatures caused changes in unsaturated fatty acids with 18 carbon atoms resulting in relative increase of the stearic acid content. The lipoxygenase activity decreased in correlation with increased temperatures and the time of heating. The maximum drop of the activity was observed after kernel exposure to the extrusion and micronisation processes at the temperature of 100oC. However, a significant lipoxygenase activity increase was recorded in both studied cultivars after one-minute microwave heating, i.e. at the temperature about 60°C. A further temperature increase led to a gradual denaturation of the enzyme and therefore to its decreased activity.

  12. Effect of Calf Gender on Milk Yield and Fatty Acid Content in Holstein Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, James L.; Grove-White, Dai H.

    2017-01-01

    The scale of sexed semen use to avoid the birth of unwanted bull calves in the UK dairy industry depends on several economic factors. It has been suggested in other studies that calf gender may affect milk yield in Holsteins- something that would affect the economics of sexed semen use. The present study used a large milk recording data set to evaluate the effect of calf gender (both calf born and calf in utero) on both milk yield and saturated fat content. Linear regression was used to model data for first lactation and second lactation separately. Results showed that giving birth to a heifer calf conferred a 1% milk yield advantage in first lactation heifers, whilst giving birth to a bull calf conferred a 0.5% advantage in second lactation. Heifer calves were also associated with a 0.66kg reduction in saturated fatty acid content of milk in first lactation, but there was no significant difference between the genders in second lactation. No relationship was found between calf gender and milk mono- or polyunsaturated fatty acid content. The observed effects of calf gender on both yield and saturated fatty acid content was considered minor when compared to nutritional and genetic influences. PMID:28068399

  13. Biodiesel from the seed oil of Treculia africana with high free fatty acid content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adewuyi, Adewale [Redeemer' s University, Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Redemption City, Ogun State (Nigeria); Oderinde, Rotimi A.; Ojo, David F.K. [University of Ibadan, Industrial Unit, Department of Chemistry, Ibadan, Oyo State (Nigeria)

    2012-12-15

    Oil was extracted from the seed of Treculia africana using hexane. The oil was characterized and used in the production of biodiesel. Biodiesel was produced from the seed oil of T. africana using a two-step reaction system. The first step was a pretreatment which involved the use of 2 % sulfuric acid in methanol, and secondly, transesterification reaction using KOH as catalyst. Saponification value of the oil was 201.70 {+-} 0.20 mg KOH/g, free fatty acid was 8.20 {+-} 0.50 %, while iodine value was 118.20 {+-} 0.50 g iodine/100 g. The most dominant fatty acid was C18:2 (44 %). The result of the method applied showed a conversion which has ester content above 98 %, flash point of 131 {+-} 1.30 C, and phosphorus content below 1 ppm in the biodiesel. The biodiesel produced exhibited properties that were in agreement with the European standard (EN 14214). This study showed that the high free fatty acid content of T. africana seed oil can be reduced in a one-step pretreatment of esterification reaction using H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} as catalyst. (orig.)

  14. Oil content and fatty acids composition of poppy seeds cultivated in two localities of Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lančaričová Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Oil content, fatty acids profile, acid and saponification values of poppy seeds grown on two localities of the Slovak Republic were evaluated in the study. Statistically significant effects of locality, genotype and their interaction (P < 0.05 for numerous descriptors were proved by non-parametric tests. Results confirmed that variation in the analysed parameters was influenced by the colour of seeds. Ochre variety Redy contained the highest oil level in both localities (49.9 and 52.4% and linoleic acid level (74.3 and 71.6%. White-seeded Racek and Albín had the highest acid value (2.8 and 2.4% of free fatty acids and grey-seeded Malsar and blue-seeded Maratón contained the highest saponification value. Buddha, a high-morphine poppy variety, differed significantly in all monitored parameters. High negative interrelation between linoleic and oleic acids levels was observed. Oil content was positively correlated with linoleic acid and negatively with oleic acid. Weather conditions at the end of vegetation influenced the accumulation of oil and essential linoleic acid.

  15. Trans fatty acid contents in selected dietary fats in the Estonian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meremäe, Kadrin; Roasto, Mati; Kuusik, Sirje; Ots, Meelis; Henno, Merike

    2012-08-01

    In response to public concern, this study assessed the fatty acid (FA) composition of blended spreads, margarines and shortenings in the Estonian retail market in 2011. Special attention was paid to the trans fatty acids (TFA) composition. The changes in these characteristics of selected dietary fats in the market over recent years are also presented. Twenty-six edible fat brands, available in the Estonian retail market in 2011, were purchased and FA compositions were analyzed by chromatography. Saturated fatty acids (SFA) were the dominant group of FAs for all blended spreads (49.6 to 65.8%), and for the majority of shortenings (from 21.1 to 54.6%). Cis monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were the dominant group of FAs for the majority of margarines, ranging from 25.3% to 50.5%. The total TFA for blended spreads varied from 1.18% to 9.08%, for margarines from 0.04% to 34.96% and for shortenings from 0.14% to 39.50%. Octadecenoic (C18:1) isomers were the main TFA found. Compared to 2008/2009, the industrially produced TFA (IP-TFA) content in several of the dietary fat brands was much reduced in 2011. This voluntary reformulation was probably a response to consumer demand associated with a public health campaign directed against IP-TFA in Estonian foods, and were mainly achieved by replacing TFA with SFA C12:0-C16:0. Present paper is directed toward public health related institutions and food industries producing foods with potentially high contents of trans fatty acids (TFA). According to the public concern TFA content in domestic blended spreads has declined significantly over the past 3 y in Estonia. The reduction in the TFA content was achieved by replacing TFA with saturated fatty acids (SFA) (C12:0-C16:0). To shift food composition toward healthier product formulations, mandatory labeling of the sum of IP-TFA and SFA (C12:0-C16:0) was recommended. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Fatty acid composition and contents of trans monounsaturated fatty acids in frying fats, and in margarines and shortenings marketed in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, L.; Leth, Torben; Hansen, K.

    1998-01-01

    This study examined trans monounsaturated fatty acid contents in all margarines and shortenings marketed in Denmark, and in frying fats used by the fast-food restaurants Burger King and McDonald's. Trans C-18:1 content was 4.1 +/- 3.8% (g per 100 g fatty acids) in hard margarines, significantly...... higher than the content in soft margarines of 0.4 +/- 0.8%. Shortenings had an even higher content of trans C-18:1, 6.7 +/- 2.3%, than the hard margarines. Margarines and shortenings with high contents of long-chain fatty acids had about 20% total trans monoenoic of which close to 50% were made up...... of trans long-chain fatty acids. Both fast-food frying fats contained large amounts of trans C-18:1, 21.9 +/- 2.9% in Burger King and 16.6 +/- 0.4% in McDonald's. In Denmark the per capita supply of trans C-18:1 from margarines and shortenings and frying fats has decreased steadily during recent years...

  17. Nutrient Contents and Fatty Acids Profiles of Leaves and Seeds of Croton zambesicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muibat Olabisi Bello

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Croton zambesicus leaves and seeds were investigated for nutrient contents and fatty acids of their oils. Proximate analysis showed that the leaves and seeds contained (g/100 g moisture (7.88, 7.94; crude protein (13.13, 9.64; crude fibre (16.63, 15.45, crude fat (15.42, 26.73; ash (9.28, 4.15 and carbohydrate (55.35, 67.09, respectively. The seed contained higher level of potassium (2.2 g/100 g; iron (467.53 mg/100 g and strontium (869.27 mg/100 g while the leaf contained higher level of calcium (3.04 g/100 g. The leaves and seeds oils have iodine value above 100 mg/g oil and peroxide value below 10 Meq/kg. Palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acids were higher in concentrations in both the leaves and seeds oil among the saturated, mono unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids detected. The oils contained more polyunsaturated than saturated fatty acids. Both parts could be explored as food supplements.

  18. Oil and fatty acid contents in seed of Citrullus lanatus Schrad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarret, Robert L; Levy, Irvin J

    2012-05-23

    Intact seed of 475 genebank accessions of Citrullus ( C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. lanatus var. citroides) were analyzed for percent oil content using TD-NMR. Extracts from whole seed of 96 accessions of C. lanatus (30 var. citroides, 33 var. lanatus, and 33 egusi), C. colocynthis (n = 3), C. ecirrhosus (n = 1), C. rehmii (n = 1), and Benincasa fistulosa (n = 3) were also analyzed for their fatty acids content. Among the materials analyzed, seed oil content varied from 14.8 to 43.5%. Mean seed oil content in egusi types of C. lanatus was significantly higher (mean = 35.6%) than that of either var. lanatus (mean = 23.2%) or var. citroides (mean = 22.6%). Egusi types of C. lanatus had a significantly lower hull/kernel ratio when compared to other C. lanatus var. lanatus or C. lanatus var. citroides. The principal fatty acid in all C. lanatus materials examined was linoleic acid (43.6-73%). High levels of linoleic acid were also present in the materials of C. colocynthis (71%), C. ecirrhosus (62.7%), C. rehmii (75.8%), and B. fistulosa (73.2%), which were included for comparative purposes. Most all samples contained traces (lanatus, and its related species, germplasm.

  19. Effect of gamma 60Co irradiation on the lipid content and fatty acid composition of Nannochloropsis sp. microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermavitalini, Dini; Sari, Ika Puspita; Prasetyo, Endry Nugroho; Abdulgani, Nurlita; Saputro, Triono Bagus

    2017-06-01

    Nannochloropsissp. has been identified as a promising feed stock for biodiesel production in recent years. Nannochloropsis sp. have high lipid content between 31-68 % of dry biomass weight. Mutagenesis induced by Gamma 60Co irradiation can be utilized to alter Nannochloropsis sp. characteristic to get microalgae mutant strain that can produce a higher lipid content than the wild strain. The aim of this research was to know the effect of gamma 60Co irradiation to the biomass, lipid content and fatty acid compotition of Nannochloropsis sp. microalgae. In this research, irradiation was done in different doses there were 0, 2, 4, 6 and 10 Gray (Gy). Measuring microalgae biomass and lipid content were done in late exponential phase at the end of each treatment. Research design used is random complete with 95 % confident level for quantitative analysis based on biomass and lipid content. Fatty acid compotition was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results showed that gamma irradiated gave an effect on lipid content and fatty acid profile of Nannochloropsis sp. Tukey test showed total lipid content of control micoalgae (0 Gy) was significat different with 10 Gy irradiated microalgae, but no significant different with 2,4 and 6 Gy irradiated microalgae. The highest lipid content were found in 10 Gy irradiated microalgae equal to 62.65 %. Fatty acid profile of 10 Gy irradiated Nannochloropsis sp. had 9 fatty acids while control Nannochloropsis sp. had 6 fatty acids.

  20. Proximate Composition, Mineral Content and Fatty Acids Analyses of Aromatic and Non-Aromatic Indian Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Kumar Verma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Awareness on nutritive value and health benefits of rice is of vital importance in order to increase the consumption of rice in daily diet of the human beings. In this study, a total of six aromatic and two non-aromatic rice accessions grown in India were analysed for their nutritional quality attributes including proximate composition, mineral contents and fatty acids. Data with three replications were used to measure Pearson's simple correlation co-efficient in order to establish the relationship among various nutritional quality attributes. The result on proximate composition showed that Govind Bhog had the highest moisture (13.57% and fat (0.92% content, which signifies its tasty attribute. Badshah Bhog exhibited the highest fibre content (0.85%, carbohydrate content (82.70% and food energy (365.23 kCal per 100 g. Among the minerals, the higher Ca (98.75 mg/kg, Zn (17.00 mg/kg and Fe (31.50 mg/kg were in Gopal Bhog, whereas the highest Na (68.85 mg/kg was in Badshah Bhog, the highest K (500.00 mg/kg was in Swetganga, Khushboo and Sarbati. The highest contents of unsaturated fatty acids viz. oleic acid (49.14%, linoleic acid (46.99% and linolenic acid (1.27% were found in Sarbati, whereas the highest content of saturated fatty acids viz. myristic acid (4.60% and palmitic acid (31.91% were found in Govind Bhog and stearic acid (6.47% in Todal. The identified aromatic rice accessions Gopal Bhog, Govind Bhog and Badshah Bhog and non-aromatic rice accession Sarbati were found nutritionally superior among all eight tested accessions. The nutritional quality oriented attributes in this study were competent with recognized prominent aromatic and non-aromatic rice accessions as an index of their nutritional worth and recommend to farmers and consumers which may be graded as export quality rice with good unique nutritional values in international market.

  1. Fatty acid and sodium contents of commercial milk chocolate – analytical aspects and nutritional information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Cesar Susin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available SummaryChocolate consumption is usually associated with enjoyment, milk chocolate desserts being a very popular choice. Besides, the literature provides data suggesting health benefits for chocolate products as compared to non-chocolate candies. However, the lipid composition of cocoa and its commercial products has yet to be completely elucidated and understood, although much research has been carried out with this objective. Contributions to this objective frequently face difficulties in the field of Analytical Chemistry due to the complexity of the composition of such a food. On the other hand, the sodium content of foods is currently a major concern. Thus, this work aims to provide information concerning the composition of commercial milk chocolate in terms of its fatty acid profile and sodium content. To achieve this purpose, analytical adjustments and improvements to the methodology were made and described in this paper. Sodium (FAAS and a total of 50 fatty acids (GC-FID were determined in eight samples of milk chocolate bars from different manufacturers. The samples were purchased from retailers in Porto Alegre – Brazil. In the determination of the fatty acids, possible losses during methylation deserved special attention and were studied. Nevertheless, large differences were not found in comparison with the nutritional facts declared on the label. However, the results obtained for sodium demonstrated the importance of food inspection, considering the discrepancies found.

  2. Content of Trans Fatty Acids in Human Cheek Epithelium: Comparison with Serum and Adipose Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ransi A. Abraham

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies pertaining to trans fatty acids (TFA, which have been implicated in development of chronic diseases, are more relevant in developing countries where nutrition transition is changing traditional habits and practices. Measuring TFA is an arduous task because of the need for fat biopsies. This study identifies a tissue, which can be easily accessed for analytical measurement of trans fatty acid. In this cross-sectional study, fatty acid in adipose tissue, cheek epithelium, and blood samples were assessed by gas chromatography. Spearman correlation coefficient was computed to study the correlation of fatty acid distribution among the three tissues. The correlation coefficient of total trans fatty acid between cheek epithelium and serum was 0.30 ( and between cheek epithelium and adipose tissue was 0.33 (. This study is the first to report trans fatty acid profile in cheek epithelium giving scope for utilizing the cheek epithelium as a tissue for objective assessment of trans fatty acid intake.

  3. A Chemotaxonomic Approach to the Fatty Acid and Tocochromanol Content of Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Bağci, Eyüp

    2003-01-01

    In this study, the fatty acid, tocopherol and tocotrienol composition in the seed oil of Cannabis sativa L., which is traded under the common name hemp seed oil, were determined by using GLC and HPLC techniques. While a- linolenic, linoleic, oleic and palmitic acid were the main fatty acid components, g - linolenic (18:3 n-6) and stearidonic acid (18:4 n-3) were found as unusual minor fatty acids in the seed oil. g - linolenic acid is an important fatty acid used both as a healthy nutrient an...

  4. Fatty acid profile and cholesterol and retinol contents in different locations of Celta pig breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domínguez, R.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid profile (total, neutral and polar lipids and cholesterol and retinol contents of the intramuscular -Longissimus dorsi (LD and Psoas major (PM-, adipose -rump, covering Biceps femoris muscle, ventral and dorsal-, perirenal and hepatic fat of the Celta pig breed (Galicia, northwest Spain were evaluated. Oleic acid was the most abundant fatty acid, except in the polar lipids of the intramuscular fat, where the most abundant fatty acid was linoleic acid. The fatty acid composition of total and neutral lipids was influenced more by the location than the fatty acids of polar lipids. There were some differences only in minor fatty acids of intramuscular and subcutaneous fat between castrated females and castrated males. The fatty acids of neutral lipids were also more influenced by sex than the fatty acids of polar lipids. The cholesterol and retinol contents showed no significant differences by sex. The LD muscle showed a higher content of intramuscular fat than the PM muscle. The greatest cholesterol values were described in the liver. Subcutaneous locations showed higher cholesterol levels than muscles.Se estudió el perfil de los ácidos grasos y los contenidos en colesterol y retinol en la grasa intramuscular - Longissimus dorsi (LD y Psoas mayor (PM -, subcutánea -grupa, ventral, dorsal y la grasa que rodea al músculo Bíceps femoris -, perirrenal y hepática de cerdos de raza Celta (Galicia, noroeste de España. El ácido oleico fue el ácido graso más importante, excepto en los lípidos polares de la grasa intramuscular, donde el ácido graso más abundante fue el ácido linoleico. La composición de ácidos grasos de los lípidos totales y neutros estuvo más influenciada por la localización grasa que los ácidos grasos de los lípidos polares. Se encontraron ligeras diferencias entre hembras y machos castrados en algunos ácidos grasos minoritarios en la grasa intramuscular y subcutánea. Los ácidos grasos de los l

  5. An 11-bp insertion in Zea mays fatb reduces the palmitic acid content of fatty acids in maize grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Li, Hui; Li, Qing; Yang, Xiaohong; Zheng, Debo; Warburton, Marilyn; Chai, Yuchao; Zhang, Pan; Guo, Yuqiu; Yan, Jianbing; Li, Jiansheng

    2011-01-01

    The ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids in maize kernels strongly impacts human and livestock health, but is a complex trait that is difficult to select based on phenotype. Map-based cloning of quantitative trait loci (QTL) is a powerful but time-consuming method for the dissection of complex traits. Here, we combine linkage and association analyses to fine map QTL-Pal9, a QTL influencing levels of palmitic acid, an important class of saturated fatty acid. QTL-Pal9 was mapped to a 90-kb region, in which we identified a candidate gene, Zea mays fatb (Zmfatb), which encodes acyl-ACP thioesterase. An 11-bp insertion in the last exon of Zmfatb decreases palmitic acid content and concentration, leading to an optimization of the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids while having no effect on total oil content. We used three-dimensional structure analysis to explain the functional mechanism of the ZmFATB protein and confirmed the proposed model in vitro and in vivo. We measured the genetic effect of the functional site in 15 different genetic backgrounds and found a maximum change of 4.57 mg/g palmitic acid content, which accounts for ∼20-60% of the variation in the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids. A PCR-based marker for QTL-Pal9 was developed for marker-assisted selection of nutritionally healthier maize lines. The method presented here provides a new, efficient way to clone QTL, and the cloned palmitic acid QTL sheds lights on the genetic mechanism of oil biosynthesis and targeted maize molecular breeding.

  6. An 11-bp insertion in Zea mays fatb reduces the palmitic acid content of fatty acids in maize grain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    Full Text Available The ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids in maize kernels strongly impacts human and livestock health, but is a complex trait that is difficult to select based on phenotype. Map-based cloning of quantitative trait loci (QTL is a powerful but time-consuming method for the dissection of complex traits. Here, we combine linkage and association analyses to fine map QTL-Pal9, a QTL influencing levels of palmitic acid, an important class of saturated fatty acid. QTL-Pal9 was mapped to a 90-kb region, in which we identified a candidate gene, Zea mays fatb (Zmfatb, which encodes acyl-ACP thioesterase. An 11-bp insertion in the last exon of Zmfatb decreases palmitic acid content and concentration, leading to an optimization of the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids while having no effect on total oil content. We used three-dimensional structure analysis to explain the functional mechanism of the ZmFATB protein and confirmed the proposed model in vitro and in vivo. We measured the genetic effect of the functional site in 15 different genetic backgrounds and found a maximum change of 4.57 mg/g palmitic acid content, which accounts for ∼20-60% of the variation in the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids. A PCR-based marker for QTL-Pal9 was developed for marker-assisted selection of nutritionally healthier maize lines. The method presented here provides a new, efficient way to clone QTL, and the cloned palmitic acid QTL sheds lights on the genetic mechanism of oil biosynthesis and targeted maize molecular breeding.

  7. Chemical Composition and Fatty Acid Content of Some Spices and Herbs under Saudi Arabia Conditions

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    Fahad Mohammed Al-Jasass

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Some Saudi herbs and spices were analyzed. The results indicated that mustard, black cumin, and cress seeds contain high amount of fat 38.45%, 31.95% and 23.19%, respectively, as compared to clove (16.63%, black pepper (5.34% and fenugreek (4.51% seeds. Cress, mustard, black cumin and black pepper contain higher protein contents ranging from 26.61 to 25.45%, as compared to fenugreek (12.91% and clove (6.9%. Crude fiber and ash content ranged from 6.36 to 23.6% and from 3.57 to 7.1%, respectively. All seeds contain high levels of potassium (ranging from 383 to 823 mg/100g, followed by calcium (ranging from 75 to 270 mg/100g, Magnesium (ranged from 42 to 102 mg/100g and iron (ranged from 20.5 to 65 mg/100g. However, zinc, manganese and copper were found at low levels. The major fatty acids in cress and mustard were linolenic acid (48.43% and erucic acid (29.81%, respectively. The lenoleic acid was the major fatty acid in black cumin, fenugreek, black pepper and clove oils being 68.07%, 34.85%, 33.03% and 44.73%, respectively. Total unsaturated fatty acids were 83.24, 95.62, 86.46, 92.99, 81.34 and 87.82% for cress, mustard, black cumin, fenugreek, black pepper and clove, respectively. The differences in the results obtained are due to environmental factors, production areas, cultivars used to produce seeds and also due to the different methods used to prepare these local spices.

  8. Supplementation with Cashew Nut and Cottonseed Meal to Modify Fatty Acid Content in Lamb Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Elzania S; Mizubuti, Ivone Y; Oliveira, Ronaldo L; Pinto, Andréa P; Ribeiro, Edson L A; Gadelha, Carla R F; Campos, Ana C N; Pereira, Marília F; Carneiro, Maria S S; Arruda, Paulo C; Silva, Luciano P

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluates the effect of cashew nut meal (CNM), whole cottonseed (WCS), and calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (Ca-LCFA) on the fatty acid profiles of meat from hair lambs. Thirty-five 60-d-old, male, noncastrated Santa Ines lambs with an initial average body weight of 13.00 ± 1.80 kg were used in a randomized complete-block design with 7 blocks and 5 treatments. The experimental treatments consisted of a control diet (CON) without supplemental lipids and 4 test diets with different lipid supplements that were selected according to the degree of protection from ruminal hydrogenation and their polyunsaturated fatty acid richness. The tests diets included the following modifications: supplementation with WCS, supplementation with CNM, supplementation with both cottonseed and CNM (CSCNM), and supplementation with Ca-LCFA. The C18:1n9c content was highest in the meat of the animals fed the CNM diet (42.00%). The meat from lambs fed the WCS and Ca-LCFA diets had higher C18:0 contents (25.23 and 22.80%, respectively). The C16:1 content was higher in the meat from the animals fed the CNM and CON diets (1.54 and 1.49%, respectively). C18:2c9t11 concentration was higher in the meat from the animals fed the Ca-LCFA and CNM diets. The estimated enzyme activity of Δ9-desaturase C18 was highest in the muscles of the lambs fed the CON, CNM, and CSCNM diets. The use of cashew nuts in the diet resulted in an increase in the C18:2c9t11 content of the lamb meat, which improved the nutritional characteristics of the fat.

  9. COPPER STRESS ON CELLULAR CONTENTS AND FATTY ACID PROFILES IN CHLORELLA SPECIES

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    G. Sibi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Higher photosynthetic efficiency and biomass production with rapid growth makes microalgae as potential candidates over other energy crops in many applications. Heavy metals influence the production of secondary metabolites and lipd content of microalgae in particular. A study was conducted using six Chlorella species under heavy metal exposure to evaluate the copper stress on biomass, cellular and lipid contents. Preliminary growth studies indicated the growth tolerance levels of Chlorella in the presence of copper at 4.0 mg L-1 concentration. The total chlorophyll, protein and lipid content of the isolates were 1.7-3.45%, 0.43-0.70 mg g-1 and 0.02-0.11 mg g-1 respectively. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy analysis revealed that the percent composition of fatty acids varied among the species studied and the major group of fatty acids were C16:0, C18:1 and C18:2. Highest percent of fatty acids were found in C. vulgaris, C. protothecoides and C. pyrenoidosa. Copper have an impact on Chlorella species where biomass content was directly proportional to the lipid productivity. The results reflects the fact that copper stress on Chlorella species as the evidence of lipid production in both qualitative and quantitative manner. In conclusion, Chlorella species can be used for the sustainable producion of renewable energy through copper stress and removal of copper from aqueous solutions.

  10. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Content in Various Tissues of Different Persian Gulf Fish

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    MJ Zibaee Nezhad

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The fatty acids of omega-3 family have high nutritional value and can prevent coronary heart disease.These fatty acids are found in various fish and sea foods. To investigate the level of omega-3 fatty acids indifferent kind of fish head, muscle and liver from 30 species of fish collected from Persian Gulf.Material and Methods: In this experimental study, the fish were collected by hunting from Boushehr and Hormozgansea ports. Their head, muscle and liver fatty acids were determined on their methylated fatty acids dissolvedin N-hexin. Quantitative analysis of fatty acids was performed by gas chromatography (GC with methylmyristateused as the reference material in this analysis and the qualitative analysis of fatty acids was done bygas chromatography and mass spectrometer (GC- mass and cod liver oil which contained all of omega-3 fattyacids used as standard.Results: Our study showed that some fish were good sources of omega-3 fatty acids and Trout (Ghezel-ALA,Bartail flathead (Zaminkan-e-domnavari, Malabar blood snapper (Sorkhoo malabari had maximum levels ofomega-3 in all body tissues. Other types of fish were rich in omega 3 fatty acids in separate organs, such as liverin Bartail flathead (Zaminkan-e-domnavari, head in Sillago Sihama (Shoort and muscle in Trout (Ghezel-ALA. In contrast, lesser amount of omega 3 fatty acids is found in tissues of other species of fish such as Silverpomfret (Halva sefid, Longfin trevally (Gish-e-derazbale and Xiphophorus Hellerii (Dom-shamshiri.Conclusion: This research showed that the liver of fish had the highest level of omega-3 fatty acids and fish musclecontained more omega-3 fatty acids than the head. Thus for having maximum levels of omega-3 fatty acids inthe diet, all fish tissues can be served. As liver and head of fish are not usually consumed, it is recommended thatsuch organs be used for preparation of omega 3-containing cardio supportive supplements.

  11. Fatty acids of Thiobacillus thiooxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, R A

    1971-12-01

    Fatty acid spectra were made on Thiobacillus thiooxidans cultures both in the presence and absence of organic compounds. Small additions of glucose or acetate had no significant effect either on growth or fatty acid content. The addition of biotin had no stimulatory effect but did result in slight quantitative changes in the fatty acid spectrum. The predominant fatty acid was a C(19) cyclopropane acid.

  12. Screening of the entire USDA castor germplasm collection for oil content and fatty acid composition for optimum biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming Li; Morris, J Bradley; Tonnis, Brandon; Pinnow, David; Davis, Jerry; Raymer, Paul; Pederson, Gary A

    2011-09-14

    Castor has tremendous potential as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The oil content and fatty acid composition in castor seed are important factors determining the price for production and affecting the key fuel properties of biodiesel. There are 1033 available castor accessions collected or donated from 48 countries worldwide in the USDA germplasm collection. The entire castor collection was screened for oil content and fatty acid composition by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography (GC), respectively. Castor seeds on the average contain 48.2% oil with significant variability ranging from 37.2 to 60.6%. Methyl esters were prepared from castor seed by alkaline transmethylation. GC analysis of methyl esters confirmed that castor oil was composed primarily of eight fatty acids: 1.48% palmitic (C16:0), 1.58% stearic (C18:0), 4.41% oleic (C18:1), 6.42% linoleic (C18:2), 0.68% linolenic (C18:3), 0.45% gadoleic (C20:1), 84.51% ricinoleic (C18:1-1OH), and 0.47% dihydroxystearic (C18:0-2OH) acids. Significant variability in fatty acid composition was detected among castor accessions. Ricinoleic acid (RA) was positively correlated with dihydroxystearic acid (DHSA) but highly negatively correlated with the five other fatty acids except linolenic acid. The results for oil content and fatty acid composition obtained from this study will be useful for end-users to explore castor germplasm for biodiesel production.

  13. Branched Chain Fatty Acid (BCFA) Content of Foods and Estimated Intake in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, SangEun; Lawrence, Peter; Wang, Dong Hao

    2015-01-01

    Branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) are bioactive food components that constitute about 2% of fatty acids in cow’s milk fat. Little systematic information on the BCFA content of other foods is available to estimate dietary intakes. We report BCFA distribution and content of fresh and processed foods representing the major foods of Americans and estimate BCFA intake. BCFA are primarily components of dairy and ruminant foods, and were absent from chicken, pork, and salmon. Dairy and beef delivered most of the 500 mg per day mean intake; in comparison, intake of the widely studied long chain polyunsaturates eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is estimated to average 100 mg per day. Common adjustments in diet can double BCFA daily intake. The fermented foods sauerkraut and miso had appreciable fractions of BCFA but overall are low fat foods providing very small amounts in the diet, and other fermented foods did not contain BCFA as might have been expected from microbial exposure. These data support the quantitative importance of BCFA delivered primarily from dairy and beef and highlight the need for research into their health effects. PMID:24830474

  14. Branched chain fatty acid content of United States retail cow's milk and implications for dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran-Ressler, R R; Sim, D; O'Donnell-Megaro, A M; Bauman, D E; Barbano, D M; Brenna, J T

    2011-07-01

    Branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) have recently been shown to be a major component of the normal human newborn gastrointestinal tract and have long been known to be a component of human milk. Ruminant food products are major sources of fat in the American diet, but there are no studies of milkfat BCFA content in retail milk. We report here the profile and concentrations of BCFA in a representative sampling of retail milk in the 48 contiguous United States (US), and their estimated intake in the American diet. Conventionally produced whole fluid milk samples were obtained from 56 processing plants across the contiguous 48 states. Retail milk samples contain exclusively iso- and anteiso-BCFA with 14-18 carbons. BCFA were 2.05 ± 0.14%, w/w of milkfat fatty acids (mean ± SD), and anteiso-BCFA comprised more than half this total. Based on these data and USDA food availability data, the average per capita BCFA intake of Americans is estimated to be about 220 mg/d from dairy; if current dietary recommendations were followed, BCFA intake would be about 400 mg/d. Adding intake from beef consumption, these estimates rise to approximately 400 and 575 mg/d, respectively. These results indicate that BCFA intake is a substantial fraction of daily fat intake, in amounts exceeding those of many bioactive fatty acids.

  15. Variation in oil content, fatty acid and phytosterols profile of Onopordum acanthium L. during seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfaoui, Moufida Oueslati; Renaud, Justin; Ghazghazi, Hanen; Boukhchina, Sadok; Mayer, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This study has determined oil, fatty acid (FA) and phytosterols content during the ripening of the Tunisian Onopordum acanthium L. seeds. In total, nine FAs and six phytosterols were identified. The main FAs were linoleic acid (0.18-8.06 mg/g of seed) followed by oleic acid (0.051-2.45 mg/g of seed), palmitic acid and stearic acid. Pentadecanoic acid was detected, for the first time, in unripe fruits and the two last stages of development were characterised by a relative abundance of erucic acid. Overall, β-sitosterol (34.5-77.79% of total sterols) was the major 4-desmethylsterols during maturation. The first episodes of growth were characterised by the best amounts of stigmasterol and campesterol, while stigmastanol and Δ7 sitosterol had quoted the semi-ripe and fully ripe fruits; however, cholesterol was absent. These findings are useful in understanding a potential new source of important natural compounds (Phytosterols and USFA) found in this fruit and when harvest should be undertaken to optimise desired FA and phytosterols content.

  16. Micropropagation and Subsequent Enrichment of Carotenoids, Fatty Acids, and Tocopherol Contents in Sedum dasyphyllum L

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    Han Yong Park

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A promising micropropagation protocol has been systematically established and demonstrated for the enhanced production of carotenoids, tocopherol and fatty acids in shoot tissues of Sedum dasyphyllum. Shoot tip explants were grown on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium. Different concentrations of N6-benzyladenine (BA or thidiazuron (TDZ alone or in combination with α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA were tested in order to stimulate multiple shoot production. Ideal shoot induction (100% and maximized shoot numbers (36.4 were obtained on explants cultured on media incorporated with 2 μM BA and 1 μM NAA combinations. The in vitro-developed shoots rooted best on half-strength MS media incorporated with 2 μM indole 3-butyric acid. Plantlets were effectively acclimatized in the greenhouse with 100% survival rate. The composition and contents of bioactive compounds such as carotenoids, tocopherol and fatty acids in shoot tissues of S. dasyphyllum were investigated using HPLC and GC-MS. The most abundant carotenoid in the shoot tissue was all-E-lutein (40.3–70.5 μg g−1 FW followed by 9′-Z-neoxanthin (5.3–9.9 μg g−1 FW, all-E-violaxanthin (4.4–8.2 μg g−1 FW, and all-E-β-carotene (1.6–3.6 μg g−1 FW. The α-tocopherol contents of in vitro-raised shoots was 6.5-fold higher than shoots of greenhouse-grown plants. The primary fatty acids found in shoot tissues were α-linolenic acid (32.0–39.3%, linoleic acid (27.4–38.2%, palmitic acid (13.3–15.5%, and stearic acid (5.2–12.2%. In all, summarizing the findings, the micropropagated S. dasyphyllum showed significant enrichment of valuable bioactive carotenoids (92.3 μg g−1 FW, tocopherols (14.6 μg g−1 FW, and α-linolenic acid (39.3% compared to their greenhouse counterparts. The protocol demonstrated here could be applied for the mass propagation and production of enhanced bioactive compounds from S. dasyphyllum with credibility.

  17. Two-step in situ biodiesel production from microalgae with high free fatty acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Tao; Wang, Jun; Miao, Chao; Zheng, Yubin; Chen, Shulin

    2013-05-01

    The yield of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from microalgae biomass is generally low via traditional extraction-conversion route due to the deficient solvent extraction. In this study a two-step in situ process was investigated to obtain a high FAME yield from microalgae biomass that had high free fatty acids (FFA) content. This was accomplished with a pre-esterification process using heterogeneous catalyst to reduce FFA content prior to the base-catalyzed transesterification. The two-step in situ process resulted in a total FAME recovery up to 94.87±0.86%, which was much higher than that obtained by a one-step acid or base catalytic in situ process. The heterogeneous catalyst, Amberlyst-15, could be used for 8 cycles without significant loss in activity. This process have the potential to reduce the production cost of microalgae-derived FAME and be more environmental compatible due to the higher FAME yield with reduced catalyst consumption.

  18. Fatty acid and sterol contents during methyl jasmonate-induced leaf abscission in Kalanchoe blossfeldiana

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    Marian Saniewski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It was found previously that methyl jasmonate (JA-Me induced leaf abscission in Kalanchoe blossfeldiana. In present studies it was showed that JA-Me did not affect or only slightly affected the content of free and bound fatty acids in petioles and blades. ß-Sitosterol, campesterol and ß-amyrin were identified in petioles and blades of K. blossfeldiana; JA-Me decreased the content of campesterol in petioles and increased the content of ß-sitosterol in blades. In blades of plants treated with JA-Me disappearance of olean-12-one was indicated but appearance of 2H-cyclopropa[a]-naphthalen-2-one,l, la, 4, 5, 6, 7, 7a, 7b-octahydro-l, 1, 7, 7a-tetramethyl (aristolone was documented. The significance of these findings in leaf abscission induced by methyl jasmonate in K. blossfeldiana is discussed.

  19. Dietary levels of chia: influence on yolk cholesterol, lipid content and fatty acid composition for two strains of hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayerza, R; Coates, W

    2000-05-01

    Four hundred fifty H&N laying hens, half white and half brown, were fed for 90 d to compare a control diet to diets containing 7, 14, 21, and 28% chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed. Cholesterol content, total fat content, and fatty acid composition of the yolks were determined 30, 43, 58, 72, and 90 d from the start of the trial. Significantly less cholesterol was found in the egg yolks produced by the hens fed the diets with 14, 21, and 28% chia compared with the control, except at Day 90. Palmitic fatty acid content and total saturated fatty acid content decreased as chia percentage increased and as the trial progressed. Total omega-3 fatty acid content was significantly greater (P < 0.05) for both strains for all chia diets compared with the control diet. Total polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of the yolks from the chia diets was significantly greater (P < 0.05) than from the control diet. Generally, total PUFA content tended to be highest in the yolks of the white hens.

  20. DHA and EPA Content and Fatty Acid Profile of 39 Food Fishes from India

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    Bimal Prasanna Mohanty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA is the principal constituent of a variety of cells especially the brain neurons and retinal cells and plays important role in fetal brain development, development of motor skills, and visual acuity in infants, lipid metabolism, and cognitive support and along with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA it plays important role in preventing atherosclerosis, dementia, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer’s disease, and so forth. Being an essential nutrient, it is to be obtained through diet and therefore searching for affordable sources of these ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA is important for consumer guidance and dietary counseling. Fish is an important source of PUFA and has unique advantage that there are many food fish species available and consumers have a wide choice owing to availability and affordability. The Indian subcontinent harbors a rich fish biodiversity which markedly varies in their nutrient composition. Here we report the DHA and EPA content and fatty acid profile of 39 important food fishes (including finfishes, shellfishes, and edible molluscs from both marine water and freshwater from India. The study showed that fishes Tenualosa ilisha, Sardinella longiceps, Nemipterus japonicus, and Anabas testudineus are rich sources of DHA and EPA. Promotion of these species as DHA rich species would enhance their utility in public health nutrition.

  1. DHA and EPA Content and Fatty Acid Profile of 39 Food Fishes from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Bimal Prasanna; Ganguly, Satabdi; Mahanty, Arabinda; Sankar, T V; Anandan, R; Chakraborty, Kajal; Paul, B N; Sarma, Debajit; Syama Dayal, J; Venkateshwarlu, G; Mathew, Suseela; Asha, K K; Karunakaran, D; Mitra, Tandrima; Chanda, Soumen; Shahi, Neetu; Das, Puspita; Das, Partha; Akhtar, Md Shahbaz; Vijayagopal, P; Sridhar, N

    2016-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the principal constituent of a variety of cells especially the brain neurons and retinal cells and plays important role in fetal brain development, development of motor skills, and visual acuity in infants, lipid metabolism, and cognitive support and along with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) it plays important role in preventing atherosclerosis, dementia, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, and so forth. Being an essential nutrient, it is to be obtained through diet and therefore searching for affordable sources of these ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is important for consumer guidance and dietary counseling. Fish is an important source of PUFA and has unique advantage that there are many food fish species available and consumers have a wide choice owing to availability and affordability. The Indian subcontinent harbors a rich fish biodiversity which markedly varies in their nutrient composition. Here we report the DHA and EPA content and fatty acid profile of 39 important food fishes (including finfishes, shellfishes, and edible molluscs from both marine water and freshwater) from India. The study showed that fishes Tenualosa ilisha, Sardinella longiceps, Nemipterus japonicus, and Anabas testudineus are rich sources of DHA and EPA. Promotion of these species as DHA rich species would enhance their utility in public health nutrition.

  2. Assessment of trans fatty acids content in popular Western-style products in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, H; Yang, L; Yuan, H; Rao, P; Lo, Y M

    2008-10-01

    To date, the published information on trans fatty acids (TFAs) in food products in China remains scarce and of questionable accuracy. Systematic approaches to educate the consumers and to ensure proper labeling of TFAs are among the many urgent challenges the regulatory agencies in this rapidly growing country have to face. In the present study, 97 most popular, national brand food products on the Chinese market, including 6 cheeses, 10 chocolates, 10 crisps, chips, and fries, 10 ice creams, 15 margarines, 10 pies and cakes, 8 sauces and dressings, 19 wafers and biscuits, and 9 Chinese-style snacks, were assayed to profile their fat content and fatty acid composition, particularly the TFAs. The highest level of TFAs, up to 30.9% of total fatty acids, were found in pies. The average TFAs contents in different product categories, ranging from high to low, were: pie and cake (12.07%), cheese (6.95%), margarine (5.09%), wafer and biscuit (4.35%), ice cream (2.67%), sauce and dressing (2.65%), crisps, chips, and fries (2.15%), chocolate (1.44%), and Chinese-style snacks (0.83%). One hundred percent of cheese contained TFAs, so did pie and cake, followed by crisps, chips, and fries (90%), sauce and dressing (88%), ice cream and margarine (80%), chocolate (60%), wafer and biscuit (53%), then Chinese-style snacks (33%). Profiling of key TFAs constituents could yield information characteristic to the types of partially hydrogenated oils employed, which is a critical step towards product reformulation in order to reduce or eliminate TFAs in the products.

  3. Genetic parameters of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid content and the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids in bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyeurt, H; Dardenne, P; Dehareng, F; Bastin, C; Gengler, N

    2008-09-01

    Fatty acid composition influences the nutritional quality of milk and the technological properties of butter. Using a prediction of fatty acid (FA) contents by mid-infrared (MIR) spectrometry, a large amount of data concerning the FA profile in bovine milk was collected. The large number of records permitted consideration of more complex models than those used in previous studies. The aim of the current study was to estimate the effects of season and stage of lactation as well as genetic parameters of saturated (SAT) and monounsaturated (MONO) fatty acid contents in bovine milk and milk fat, and the ratio of SAT to unsaturated fatty acids (UNSAT) that reflect the hardness of butter (SAT:UNSAT), using 7 multiple-trait, random-regression test-day models. The relationship between these FA traits with common production traits was also studied. The data set contained 100,841 test-day records of 11,626 Holstein primiparous cows. The seasonal effect was studied based on unadjusted means. These results confirmed that milk fat produced during spring and summer had greater UNSAT content compared with winter (63.13 vs. 68.94% of SAT in fat, on average). The effect of stage of lactation on FA profile was studied using the same methodology. Holstein cows in early first lactation produced a lower content of SAT in their milk fat. Variance components were estimated using a Bayesian method via Gibbs sampling. Heritability of SAT in milk (0.42) was greater than heritability of SAT in milk fat (0.24). Estimates of heritability for MONO were also different in milk and fat (0.14 vs. 0.27). Heritability of SAT:UNSAT was moderate (0.27). For all of these traits, the heritability estimates and the genetic and phenotypic correlations varied through the lactation.

  4. Efect of Gamma 60Co Irradiation on The Growth, Lipid Content and Fatty Acid Composition of Botryococcus sp. Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dini Ermavitalini

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Botryococcus sp. is one of microalgae species that has a high lipid content as much as 75% of their dry weight. But, lipid production by microalgae is regulated by their environmental condition (pH, light, temperature, nutrition, etc. Mutagenesis induced by Gamma 60Co irradiation can be utilized to alter the Botryococcus sp. genetic to get microalgae mutant strain that can produce a higher lipid content than the wild strain. Botryococcus sp. was irradiated with different doses of gamma ray of 60Co  (0, 2, 4, 6, and 10 Gy,  and the effect  on the growth, lipid content, and fatty acid composition of microalgae were observed. Research design used is random complete (RAL with 95 %  confident level for quantitive analysis based on the biomass and lipid contents. More over fatty acid composition was analyzed by Gas Cromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. Results showed that Gamma irradiated gave an effect on growth and lipid content of Botryococcus sp. But between the control treatment (0 Gy with microalgae irradiated dose of 2 Gy, 4 Gy and 6 Gy were not significantly different. Whereas between the control with 10 Gy irradiated was significantly different. The highest biomassa and lipid content are found in 10 Gy irradiated microalgae with 0.833 gram biomass and 41% lipid content. Fatty acid profile of Botryococcus sp. control has 6 fatty acids while 10 Gy irradiated microalgae has 12 fatty acids, with the long-chain fatty acids increased, whereas short-chain fatty acids decreased.

  5. Oil content and fatty acid composition of some varieties of barley and sorghum grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawood, M. G.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Oil content of sorghum grains (average 4.57 % was nearly twice that of barley (average 2.27 %. Palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids were the most abundant fatty acids and that stearic acid content was low in barley and sorghum. The content of linolenic acid was higher in barley than in sorghum. The composition of sorghum oil, in general, was similar to corn oil and could be used for cooking and other uses of edible oils.El contenido en aceite de granos de sorgo (media del 4.57 % fue aproximadamente el doble del de cebada (media del 2,27 %. Los ácidos grasos más abundantes fueron el palmítico, oleico y linoleico y siendo bajo el ácido esteárico, esto tanto en cebada como en sorgo. El contenido del ácido linolénico fue mayor en la cebada que en el sorgo. En general la composición del aceite de sorgo fue similar a la del aceite de maíz y podría utilizarse para el cocinado y otros usos de los aceites comestibles.

  6. Fatty acid profile, cholesterol content and tenderness of ostrich meat as influenced by age at slaughter and muscle type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girolami, A; Marsico, I; D'Andrea, G; Braghieri, A; Napolitano, F; Cifuni, G F

    2003-07-01

    Ten Blue Neck ostriches were used to study the effect of age at slaughter (10-11 and 14-15 months) and muscle on fatty acid profile, cholesterol content and texture of meat. Fatty acid profile of ostrich meat was significantly affected by age at slaughter (Pmuscles (Piliofibularis (Pmuscle location. No effect of age on shear values was observed, whereas sensory panellists scored meat from younger birds as more tender (Piliofibularis was more tender (P<0.001).

  7. Fat content, energy value and fatty acid profile of donkey milk during lactation and implications for human nutrition

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    Martemucci Giovanni

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aims Milk contains numerous nutrients. The content of n-3 fatty acids, the n-6/n-3 ratio, and short- and medium-chain fatty acids may promote positive health effects. In Western societies, cow’s milk fat is perceived as a risk factor for health because it is a source of a high fraction of saturated fatty acids. Recently, there has been increasing interest in donkey’s milk. In this work, the fat and energetic value and acidic composition of donkey’s milk, with reference to human nutrition, and their variations during lactation, were investigated. We also discuss the implications of the acidic profile of donkey’s milk on human nutrition. Methods Individual milk samples from lactating jennies were collected 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210days after foaling, for the analysis of fat, proteins and lactose, which was achieved using an infrared milk analyser, and fatty acids composition by gas chromatography. Results The donkey’s milk was characterised by low fat and energetic (1719.2kJ·kg-1 values, a high polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA content of mainly α-linolenic acid (ALA and linoleic acid (LA, a low n-6 to n-3 FA ratio or LA/ALA ratio, and advantageous values of atherogenic and thrombogenic indices. Among the minor PUFA, docosahesaenoic (DHA, eicosapentanoic (EPA, and arachidonic (AA acids were present in very small amounts ( The fatty acid patterns were affected by the lactation stage and showed a decrease (P Conclusions The high level of unsaturated/saturated fatty acids and PUFA-n3 content and the low n-6/n-3 ratio suggest the use of donkey’s milk as a functional food for human nutrition and its potential utilisation for infant nutrition as well as adult diets, particular for the elderly.

  8. Patatin-related phospholipase pPLAIIIδ increases seed oil content with long-chain fatty acids in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Maoyin; Bahn, Sung Chul; Fan, Chuchuan; Li, Jia; Phan, Tien; Ortiz, Michael; Roth, Mary R; Welti, Ruth; Jaworski, Jan; Wang, Xuemin

    2013-05-01

    The release of fatty acids from membrane lipids has been implicated in various metabolic and physiological processes, but in many cases, the enzymes involved and their functions in plants remain unclear. Patatin-related phospholipase As (pPLAs) constitute a major family of acyl-hydrolyzing enzymes in plants. Here, we show that pPLAIIIδ promotes the production of triacylglycerols with 20- and 22-carbon fatty acids in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Of the four pPLAIIIs (α, β, γ, δ), only pPLAIIIδ gene knockout results in a decrease in seed oil content, and pPLAIIIδ is most highly expressed in developing embryos. The overexpression of pPLAIIIδ increases the content of triacylglycerol and 20- and 22-carbon fatty acids in seeds with a corresponding decrease in 18-carbon fatty acids. Several genes in the glycerolipid biosynthetic pathways are up-regulated in pPLAIIIδ-overexpressing siliques. pPLAIIIδ hydrolyzes phosphatidylcholine and also acyl-coenzyme A to release fatty acids. pPLAIIIδ-overexpressing plants have a lower level, whereas pPLAIIIδ knockout plants have a higher level, of acyl-coenzyme A than the wild type. Whereas seed yield decreases in transgenic plants that ubiquitously overexpress pPLAIIIδ, seed-specific overexpression of pPLAIIIδ increases seed oil content without any detrimental effect on overall seed yield. These results indicate that pPLAIIIδ-mediated phospholipid turnover plays a role in fatty acid remodeling and glycerolipid production.

  9. [The oil, fatty acid and squalene content of varieties of raw and processed amaranth grain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodas, Brenda; Bressani, Ricardo

    2009-03-01

    The oil, fatty acid and squalene content of varieties of raw and processed grain amaranth. Six amaranth grain varieties were processed to yield a nixtamalized flour, one cooked in water, one expanded, a malted one and a laminate samples after a thermic treatment. The chemical values of the raw samples contained from 14.5% to 15.1% protein, 5.9 to 6.7% ether extract and from 2.3% to 3.2% ash on a dry weight basis. The flours from the different processes yield products with a fat content which varied from 6.4% to 7.0% for the 6 varieties. The flours coming from dry heat processing contained higher oil levels than those flours coming from wet processes. The oil from only 3 varieties and from 4 processes were analyzed from its fatty acid composition. The oil contained on the average 17.85% of C16:0, 68.1% of stearic, olic and linoleic acids, 3.86% of C18:3, 5.1% of C20:0 and small amounts of C20:1 and C22:0. The squalene content in the oil of the processed flours varied from 7.0 to 9.6 g/100 g for the raw flour, 8.1 -12.6 g/100 g for the flour from wet cooking in water, 9.0 -12.7g/ 100 g for the flour from the nixtamalization process, 10.1-12.8g/ 100 g for the expanded grain flour, 9.0 to 11.2 g/100 g for the malted flour and 6.0-9.5 g/100 g for the laminated grain flour. The squalene averages per process showed statistical significant differences.

  10. Changes in the Content of Biogenic Amines and Fatty Acids in High Pressure-Processed Carp Flesh (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    KříŽek, Martin; Matějkoá, Kateřina; Dadáková, Eva; Špička, Jiří; Vácha, František; Vrchotová, NaděŽda

    2015-08-01

    Biogenic amine and fatty acid contents were determined in vacuum-packed fillets of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Samples were pressure treated at 300 and 500 MPa and were stored at 3.5 and 12°C for up to 28 days (control, 0 MPa) and 70 days (pressure-treated). The content of eight biogenic amines (putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, spermine, histamine, tyramine, tryptamine, and phenylethylamine) were determined. Putrescine and cadaverine were influenced by all factors (temperature, pressurization level, and time of storage). Tyramine content was the most sensitive indicator of the improper status of sample; levels exceeding 10 mg/kg indicated both the loss of meat freshness and temperature abuse, in spite of persisting good sensory indices. Neither storage temperature nor pressurization level had a statistically important effect on the contents of fatty acids. Only polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased slightly if the storage time exceeded 42 days.

  11. Content of non-esterified fatty acids in the blood plasma of rabbits with acute arginine pancreatitis and its correction

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    Y. F. Rivis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the content of non-esterified fatty acids in plasma and liver of rabbits with acute arginine pancreatitis and its correction by linseed oil. The experiment was carried out on male rabbits breed gray giant with live weight 3.8–4.0 kg. The material for the study was sampled from blood and liver. Lipids from plasma and liver were extracted with a mixture of chloroform and methanol. After that the non-esterified fatty acids were isolated and methylated. Methyl esters of fatty acids were studied by the gas-liquid chromatography with the chromatograph ''Chrom 5'' (Prague,CzechRepublic. We have found that the content of non-esterified fatty acids decreases in the blood plasma and liver of rabbits with the acute arginine pancreatitis. It takes place at the expense of a reduce of saturated fatty acids with odd and even number of carbon atoms in a chain, monounsaturated fatty acids of the families ω-7 and ω-9 and polyunsaturated fatty acids of the families ω-3 and ω-6. That may indicate a greater use of non-esterified fatty acids for energy metabolism and esterification of lipids. We suppose that this is a consequence of the probable increase in content of non-esterified and esterified cholesterol in the rabbits’ blood plasma. Those processes provoke the cholesterol deposits in blood vessels and therefore cardiovascular diseases. We tried to influence on the processes by addition of linseed oil to the rabbits diet. We have found that in the linseed oil-fed rabbits the content of non-esterified fatty acids decreases at the expense of saturated fatty acids with odd and even number of carbon atoms in a chain and monounsaturated fatty acids of the families ω-7 and ω-9 inblood plasma and liver of the rabbits with acute arginine pancreatitis. Furthermore the levels of non-esterified polyunsaturated fatty acids of ω-3 family increase in the rabbits’ plasma and liver. As this takes place the ratio of non

  12. Microbial Substrate Usage Indicated by C-14 Contents of Phospholipid Fatty Acids From Soil Organic Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rethemeyer, J.; Nadeau, M. J.; Grootes, P. M.; Kramer, C.; Gleixner, G.

    2004-05-01

    Phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA's) are generally associated with viable (bacterial) cell membranes. They are thought to be short-lived under normal soil conditions. We compare the C-14 levels in PLFA's obtained from soil samples from the,clean" experimental site at Rotthalmünster (Germany) with those from the agricultural research station at Halle (Germany), where the soil is contaminated with,old" carbon from lignite mining and industry. The most abundant PLFA's were isolated via preparative capillary gas chromatography of their methyl-esters at the Max-Planck Institute, Jena, and their C-14 concentration was determined via accelerator mass spectrometry at the Leibniz-Labor, Kiel. The C-14 levels of three mono-unsaturated fatty acids (n-C17:1, n-C18:1 (and n-C16:1)) are not statistically significant different from those of the contemporaneous atmosphere, indicating these fatty acids were derived from fresh plant material. C-14 levels significantly above those of the atmosphere in three saturated fatty acids (i/a-C15:0, n-C16:0 and cy-C18:0) from the surface soil of Rotthalmünster must derive from carbon fixed from the atmosphere several years earlier, when levels of bomb-C-14, remaining from the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests, especially of the early 1960's, were still higher. Lower C-14 levels in the same compounds from the Halle surface soil indicate the incorporation of "old" contaminant carbon. A below- atmospheric C-14 concentration in n-C18:0 in Rotthalmünster surface soil may reflect the partial incorporation of carbon from older, pre-bomb times. The C-14 concentrations show these PLFA's were synthesized predominantly from recent to sub-recent photosynthetic compounds, while the significant differences in C-14 concentration, observed between the PLFA's, indicate their production from soil organic matter fractions of different (recent) age and C-14 content. The Halle results show "old" carbon may be incorporated into PLFA's and thus reenter the soil

  13. The role of total fats, saturated/unsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol content in chicken meat as cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milićević, Dragan; Vranić, Danijela; Mašić, Zoran; Parunović, Nenad; Trbović, Dejana; Nedeljković-Trailović, Jelena; Petrović, Zoran

    2014-03-03

    The objective of the study was to present information about the chemical composition, the fatty acids profile, and cholesterol content of chicken meat in order to investigate the impact of chicken meat consumption on cardiovascular risk in the general population. A total of 48 6-wk-old broiler chickens broilers from two farms in June to November of 2012, and February of 2013, were used in this trial. Total lipid content was determined by extraction of fat by petrol ether (Soxhlet) after acid hydrolysis of samples. Fatty acids were determined by capillary gas chromatography. Cholesterol determination was performed by using HPLC/PDA system. The results indicate that the total free cholesterol content in raw breast and drumstick of chickens was in the range of 37,41-79,9 mg/100 g and 48,35-99,5 mg/100 g, respectively. The main fatty acids identified in all cuts were C18:1c9, C18:2n6, C16:0, C18:0, and C16:1. Decreasing the dietary n-6/n-3 clearly decreased the content in breast and drumstick muscle of C18:2n6, C18:3n3, and C20: 3n6, but increased that of C16:0, C18:0, and C20:2. Also, the major saturated fatty acid (SFA) (C16:0 and C18:0) was significantly differ among the four treatments. Our study shows that dietary fat and fatty acid composition influence the concentrations of total cholesterol content, total fat content, and fatty acid composition in broiler muscle. This information will aid in determining the burden of chicken meat as a cardiovascular risk factors disease and act as a planning tool for public-health Programmes.

  14. Saturated and trans fatty acids content in unpackaged traditional bakery products in Santa Fe city, Argentina: nutrition labeling relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negro, Emilse; González, Marcela Aída; Bernal, Claudio Adrián; Williner, María Rosa

    2016-12-20

    Studies have reported the relationship between the excessive intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and trans fatty acids (t-FA) and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Since 2006, the MERCOSUR countries require that the mandatory nutrition labeling should include information not only about the content of SFA but also about the content of t-FA. This does not apply to fractionated products at the point of retail, such as bakery products. This paper aimed to determine the total fat content and the fatty acid profile in unpackaged traditional bakery products (breads, biscuits and pastries) in Santa Fe, Argentina. Except for French bread, the contribution of t-FA and SFA to the total FA consumption from baked products was high. On the other hand, due to the high variability detected in the FA composition of bakery products between bakeries, it would be necessary to implement regulations making nutrition labeling mandatory in these products.

  15. Lipid class and fatty acid content of the leptocephalus larva of tropical eels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deibel, D; Parrish, C C; Grønkjær, P; Munk, P; Nielsen, T Gissel

    2012-06-01

    The leptocephalus larva of eels distinguishes the elopomorph fishes from all other bony fishes. The leptocephalus is long lived and increases in size primarily through the synthesis and deposition of glycosaminoglycans. Energy stored during the larval stage, in the form of glycosaminoglycan and lipids, is required to fuel migration, metamorphosis and metabolism of the subsequent glass eel stage. Despite the importance of energy storage by leptocephali for survival and recruitment, their diet, condition and lipid content and composition is essentially unknown. To gain further insight into energy storage and condition of leptocephali, we determined the lipid class and fatty acid concentration of larvae collected on a cross-shelf transect off Broome, northwestern Australia. The total lipid concentration of two families and four sub-families of leptocephali ranged from 2.7 to 7.0 mg g wet weight(-1), at the low end of the few published values. Phospholipid and triacylglycerol made up ca. 63 % of the total lipid pool. The triacylglycerol:sterol ratio, an index of nutritional condition, ranged from 0.9 to 3.7, indicating that the leptocephali were in good condition. The predominant fatty acids were 16:0 (23 mol%), 22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA, 16 mol%), 18:0 (8.2 mol%), 20:5n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA, 6.7 mol%), 18:1n-9 (6.4 mol%) and 16:1n-7 (6.3 mol%). The DHA:EPA ratio ranged from 2.4 to 2.9, sufficient for normal growth and development of fish larvae generally. The leptocephali had proportions of bacterial markers >4.4 %, consistent with the possibility that they consume appendicularian houses or other marine snow that is bacteria rich.

  16. Total fatty acid content of the plasma membrane of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is more responsible for ethanol tolerance than the degree of unsaturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Soo; Kim, Na-Rae; Choi, Wonja

    2011-03-01

    The effect of change in unsaturated fatty acid composition on ethanol tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae overexpressing ScOLE1 (∆9 fatty acid desaturase gene of S. cerevisiae), CaFAD2 (∆12 fatty acid desaturase gene of Candida albicans), or CaFAD3 (ω3 fatty acid desaturase gene of C. albicans) was examined. ScOLE1 over-expression increased the total unsaturated fatty acid content and enhanced ethanol tolerance, compared with a control strain. In contrast, overexpression of CaFAD2 and CaFAD3, which led to production of linoleic acid (18:2) and α-linolenic acid (18:3), respectively, neither changed total unsaturated fatty acids nor enhanced ethanol tolerance. The total unsaturated fatty acid content rather than the degree of unsaturation is thus an important factor for ethanol tolerance.

  17. INFLUENCE OF THE VOLATILE FATTY ACID CONTENT TO RADIATION VULCANIZED NATURAL RUBBER LATEX (RVNRL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIRINOS, Hugo David

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural rubber latex is a dispersion of natural rubber particles in water. These particles are coated with aprotein layer which will stabilize the dispersion in water by forming an electric charge in the layer. Any differentcondition affecting this layer disturbs the stability of dispersion. Microorganism attack disturbs the protein layerand consequently the stability of the dispersion. By adding 1.2% by weight of NH3, the stability of the dispersioncan be improved. The fresh latex was irradiated by Co-60 with irradiation dose of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 100 kGy.The results showed a relationship between the volatile fatty acid content (VFA, product from microorganismattack on carbohydrate and the green strength or the physical properties of vulcanized film. Low VFA numbershowing a higher physical strength of the film either un-vulcanized or vulcanized. It appeared that the structurewas responsible in yielding a good physical property of the film.

  18. Relationship between Fecal Content of Fatty Acids and Cyclooxygenase mRNA Expression and Fatty Acid Composition in Duodenal Biopsies, Serum Lipoproteins, and Dietary Fat in Colectomized Familial Adenomatous Polyposis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Almendingen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A few familial adenomatous polyposis studies have focused upon faecal sterols and bile acids but none has analysed the fecal content of fatty acids. We report here findings of an observational study on 29 colectomized familial adenomatous polyposis patients that describe the fecal content of fatty acids, and relate this to the proportions of fatty acids and levels of cyclooxygenase mRNA expression in duodenal biopsies, levels of serum lipoproteins, and diet. In the ileostomy group separately (n=12, the fecal content of arachidonic acid was correlated negatively to the proportions of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in duodenal biopsies. Total serum-cholesterol was negatively correlated to the fecal content of saturates and monounsaturates. The fecal palmitoleic acid/palmitic acid ratio was positively correlated to the levels of cyclooxygease-2 expression in duodenal biopsies.In the ileal-pouch-anal anastomosis group separately (n=17, significant correlations were found between the fecal contents of oleic acid, linoleic acid, and alpha-linolenic acid, and the proportions of myristic acid, oleic acid and eicosaenoic acid in duodenal biopsies. Dietary monounsaturates were positively correlated to different fecal fatty acids. Future studies should focus on molecular mechanisms relevant to fatty acid metabolism, inflammation, and angiogenesis, in addition to nutrition.

  19. [THE DETECTION OF CONTENT OF DIAGNOSTICALLY SIGNIFICANT FATTY ACIDS AND INDIVIDUAL TRIGLYCERIDES IN BIOLOGICAL MEDIUMS BASED ON INFRARED SPECTROMETRY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinin, A V; Krasheninnikov, V N; Sviridov, A P; Titov, V N

    2015-11-01

    The content of clinically important fatty acids and individual triglycerides in food and biological mediums are traditionally detected by gas and fluid chromatography in various methodical modifications. The techniques are hard-to-get in laboratories of clinical biochemistry. The study was carried out to develop procedures and equipment for operative quantitative detection of concentration of fatty acids, primarily palmitic saturated fatty acid and oleic mono unsaturated fatty acid. Also detection was applied to sums ofpolyenoic (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid) fatty acids in biological mediums (cod-liver oil, tissues, blood plasma) using spectrometers of short-range infrared band of different types: with Fourier transform, diffraction and combined scattering. The evidences of reliable and reproducible quantitative detection offatty acids were received on the basis of technique of calibration (regression) by projection on latent structures using standard samples of mixtures of oils and fats. The evaluation is implemented concerning possibility of separate detection of content of palmitic and oleic triglycerides in mediums with presence of water The choice of technical conditions and mode of application of certain types of infrared spectrometers and techniques of their calibration is substantiated

  20. Fatty acid composition and chlorophyll content of epiphytic lichens and a possible relation to their sensitivity to air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltman, I.H.; De Kok, L.J.; Juiper, P.J.C.; van Hasselt, P.R.

    1980-01-01

    Fatty acid composition and chlorophyll content of thirteen epiphytic lichen species were determined and related to the air pollution sensitivity of the lichens based upon field observations. A direct relation between the chlorophyll content and, to a lesser extent, the degree of unsaturation of the fatty acids of the lichen species and the sensitivity to air pollution was demonstrated. It is suggested that the sensitivity of lichens to air pollution is related to the degree of dependency of the mycobiont on the phycobiont as far as metabolic energy is concerned; in such a way that the stronger this dependency is, the more sensitive the lichen will be to air pollution.

  1. Lipid content and fatty acid composition of Mediterranean macro-algae as dynamic factors for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahlia M. El Maghraby

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the total lipid contents and fatty acid profiles, the marine macro-algae Jania rubens (Rhodophyceae, Ulva linza (Chlorophyceae and Padina pavonica (Phaeophyceae were evaluated for biodiesel production during the spring, summer and autumn. Seawater parameters such as pH, salinity and temperature were measured. The total lipid content varied from 1.56% (J. rubens to 4.14% (U. linza of dry weight, with the highest values occurring in spring. The fatty acid methyl ester profiles were analysed using gas chromatography. The highest percentage of total fatty acids was recorded in P. pavonica, with 6.2% in autumn, whereas the lowest was in J. rubens, with 68.6% in summer. The relative amount of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids was significantly higher in P. pavonica than in the other macro-algae. Seasonal variations in pH, salinity and temperature had no significant effect on the total lipid and fatty acid contents. Principal component analysis grouped brown and green algae together, whereas red alga grouped out. Furthermore, methyl ester profiles indicate that brown and green seaweeds are preferred, followed by red seaweeds, which appears to have little potential for oil-based products. Therefore, these seaweeds are not targets for biodiesel production.

  2. EFFECT OF DIETARY UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS ON SOME INDICATORS IN BLOOD PLASMA AND FATTY ACID CONTENT IN SELECTED TISSUES OF FATTENING LAMBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciszek BOROWIEC

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of protected CLA and linseed as supplements in the diets for fattening lambs on fatty acid profile and CLA content in loin and leg meat, liver and perirenal fat and on some biochemical indicators in blood plasma. The experiment was carried out on twelve 80 days old lambs, divided into 3 groups of 4 animals. The animals were fed with meadow hay and commercial concentrate “CJ”. The treatments were the control diet (IC and the control diet supplemented either with 0.5 % of protected CLA (IICLA or 2 % of crushed linseeds (IIINL. No statistically significant effect of the treatments on biochemical indicators in blood plasma was observed. CLA or linseed supplementation had also no effect on chemical composition and cholesterol content in analyzed tissues. Linseed supplementation had a significant effect (P<0.05 on liver and perirenal fat fatty acid profile and increased the CLA content in the liver.

  3. [Effect of the B-group vitamin complex on the blood content of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in patients with ischemic heart disease and hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodoevich, V P; Buko, V U

    1986-01-01

    Gas-liquid chromatography was used to study the blood content of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, under the influence of the functionally-associated vitamin-B complex, in 45 patients with coronary heart disease and essential hypertension. The vitamins were given daily in the following doses: thiamine diphosphate 50 mg, riboflavine 40 mg, calcium pantothenate 200 mg, nicotinic acid 200 mg and lipoic acid 50 mg. Favourable shifts leading to positive clinical effects were recorded in the fatty acid metabolism after 10-day taking the vitamin-B complex: the content of unsaturated (linoleic and arachidonic) fatty acids increased while that of saturated (stearic and palmitic) fatty acids decreased.

  4. Fatty acid profile, total cholesterol, vitamin content, and TBARS value of turkey breast muscle cured with the addition of lycopene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiepko, N; Chwastowska-Siwiecka, I; Kondratowicz, J; Mikulski, D

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of lycopene addition for curing turkey meat on the profile of fatty acids, total cholesterol, vitamin content, and the TBARS of the final products. The analyzed material comprised 64 breast muscles, of which 16 (RBM) were immediately transported to a laboratory. Another 16 (UBM) were heat treated in a convection steam oven, and 32 muscles were cured for 3 days in two types of curing mixture: without (CBM) and with (CBM+Lyc) tomato peel extract standardized for 5% lycopene content. After completed curing, samples were steamed and grilled under the same conditions as raw samples. Statistical analysis demonstrated the highest (P≤0.01) mean content of vitamin A (0.07 μg/g) in chilled muscles. The content of vitamin E was lower (P≤0.01) in UBM samples than in CBM+Lyc and RBM. The TBARS value was the lowest (P≤0.01) in RBM muscles (0.35 mg MDA/kg of meat). Although there were no differences between products, but lower TBARS were found in CBM+Lyc samples. The content of cholesterol was higher (P≤0.01) in CBM+Lyc products than in the RBM and UBM. RBM samples contained (P≤0.01) the lowest amount of saturated, monounsaturated, and hypercholesterolemic fatty acids, and the highest of unsaturated, polyunsaturated, and hypocholesterolemic fatty acids. CBM+Lyc samples contained (P≤0.01) less hypercholesterolemic and more hypocholesterolemic fatty acids than CBM group. Higher (P≤0.01) unsaturated/saturated and hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic fatty acid ratios were also found in CBM+Lyc products. The study demonstrated that the used processing technology caused reduction (P≤0.01) of n-3 and n-6 PUFA content. Findings suggest that the addition of lycopene in the process of meat curing and heat treatment in meat industry do not change the content of vitamins and cholesterol or alter the TBARS value in turkey meat products. Nevertheless, lycopene can be used to increase the content of essential

  5. Comparison of yolk fatty acid content, blood and egg cholesterol of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The KFO diets reduced the blood cholesterol, yolk linoleic acid and yolk ω-6 FA ... a decrease and an increase in the ratio of ω-6/ ω-3 FAs (P<0.05), respectively. ... olein oil (POO), Kilka fish oil (KFO), hens, egg omega-9 and omega-3 fatty acid.

  6. Seed oil content and fatty acid composition in a genebank collection of Cucurbita moschata Duchesne and C. argyrosperma C. Huber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data on intraspecific variability for seed oil content, fatty acid composition and seed oil characteristics in Cucurbita moschata and C. argyrosperma are lacking in the scientific literature. We examined 528 genebank accessions of C. moschata and 166 accessions of C. argyrosperma - that included mem...

  7. Adipose tissue omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid content and breast cancer in the euramic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simonsen, N.; Veer, P. van 't; Strain, J.J.; Martin-Moreno, J.M.; Huttunen, J.K.; Navajas, J.F.-C.; Martin, B.C.; Thamm, M.; Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Kok, F.J.; Kohlmeier, L.

    1998-01-01

    The fatty acid content of adipose tissue in postmenopausal breast cancer cases and controls from five European countries in the European Community Multicenter Study on Antioxidants, Myocardial Infarction, and Cancer (EURAMIC) breast cancer study (1991-1992) was used to explore the hypothesis that

  8. Adipose tissue omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid content and breast cancer in the euramic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simonsen, N.; Veer, P. van 't; Strain, J.J.; Martin-Moreno, J.M.; Huttunen, J.K.; Navajas, J.F.-C.; Martin, B.C.; Thamm, M.; Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Kok, F.J.; Kohlmeier, L.

    1998-01-01

    The fatty acid content of adipose tissue in postmenopausal breast cancer cases and controls from five European countries in the European Community Multicenter Study on Antioxidants, Myocardial Infarction, and Cancer (EURAMIC) breast cancer study (1991-1992) was used to explore the hypothesis that fa

  9. Effects of frying in various cooking oils on fatty acid content of farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our goal was to describe the effects of frying with various oils on the fatty acid content of rainbow trout. Four different oils were evaluated (peanut oil, high oleic sunflower oil, corn oil, and canola oil). Farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillets were sliced into three portions and eac...

  10. Correlation between seed size, protein and oil contents, and fatty acid composition in soybean genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maestri, Damián M.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen soybean genotypes (Glycine max (L. Merrill with maturity groups IV, V, VI or VII were grown in 1995/96 at the Estación Experimental Agropecuaria (EEA-INTA of Manfredi and Marcos Juárez, Argentina. The aim of this research was to determine possible associations between seed size, protein and oil contents, and fatty composition. Seed size varied between 13.9-21.0 g/100 seeds. Protein and oil contents ranged from 331 to 448 and from 198 to 267 g kg-1, respectively, and showed no significant correlation with seed size. There were significant correlations between seed size and individual fatty adds: positive with stearic and oleic and negative with linoleic. The results obtained suggest that seed size and its relationship with individual fatty acids must be considered in soybean breeding programs.

    Se analizaron 18 genotipos de soja (Glycine max (L. Merrill con grupos de madurez IV, V, VI o VIl, cultivados en 1995/96 en la Estación Experimental Agropecuaria (EEA-INTA de Manfredi y Marcos Juárez, Argentina. El propósito de la investigación fue determinar posibles asociaciones entre el tamaño del grano, los contenidos de proteínas y aceite y la composición de ácidos grasos del mismo. El tamaño del grano varió entre 13.9-21.0 g/100 granos. Los porcentajes de proteínas y aceite estuvieron comprendidos entre 331-448 y entre 198-267 g kg-1 respectivamente, y no mostraron correlaciones significativas con el tamaño del grano. Se observaron correlaciones significativas entre el tamaño del grano y determinados ácidos grasos: positivas con esteárico y oleico y negativa con linoleico. Las asociaciones encontradas podrían ser de utilidad en programas de mejoramiento de soja.

  11. Margarines and Fast-Food French Fries: Low Content of trans Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astiasarán, Iciar; Abella, Elena; Gatta, Giulia; Ansorena, Diana

    2017-06-28

    The lipid fraction of margarines and fast food French fries, two types of foods traditionally high in trans fatty acids (TFA), is assessed. TFA data reported worldwide during the last 20 years have been gathered and show that some countries still report high TFA amounts in these products. The content of TFA was analysed in margarines (two store and four premium brands) and French-fries from fast-food restaurants (five chains). All samples were collected in Pamplona (Navarra, Spain). The margarines showed mean values of 0.68% and 0.43% (g TFA/100 g fat) for the store and premium brands, respectively. The French fries' values ranged from 0.49% to 0.89%. All samples were lower than the 2% set by some European countries as the maximum legal content of TFA in fats, and contained less than 0.5 g/serving, so they could also be considered "trans free products". This work confirmed that the presence of TFA is not significant in the two analysed products and contributes updated food composition tables, key tools for epidemiological and nutrition studies.

  12. Pattern recognition of acorns from different Quercus species based on oil content and fatty acid profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abreu, José M.F.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was (i to characterize different species of Quercus genus and (ii to discriminate among them on the basis of the content and fatty acid composition of the oil in their fruits and/or their morphological aspects via pattern recognition techniques (Principal Component Analysis, PCA, Cluster Analysis, CA, and Discriminant Analysis, DA. Quercus rotundifolia Lam., Quercus suber L. and Quercus pyrenaica Willd., grown in the same stand in the centre of Portugal, were investigated. When oil content and respective fatty acid composition were used to characterize samples, well-separated groups corresponding to each of the species were observed by PCA and confirmed by CA and DA. The ‘‘width’’ and ‘‘length’’ of acorns exhibited a low discriminant power. Acorns from Q. rotundifolia showed the highest average oil content followed by Q. suber and Q. pyrenaica acorns (9.1, 5.2 and 3.8%, respectively. Fatty acid profiles of Q. rotundifolia and Q. suber oils are similar to olive oil while the oil from Q. pyrenaica acorns is more unsaturated.El objetivo de este estudio fué (i la caracterización de diferentes especies del género Quercus y (ii la clasificación de las mismas en base al contenido y composición de ácidos grasos del aceite de sus frutos y/o en sus caracteres morfológicos, via técnicas de patrón de reconocimiento (Análisis de Componentes Principales, ACP, Análisis de Cluster, AC, y Análisis Discriminante, AD. Se han estudiado Quercus rotundifolia Lam., Quercus suber L. y Quercus pyrenaica Willd., pertenecientes a la misma zona del centro de Portugal. Al emplear el contenido de aceite y sus respectivas composiciones de ácidos grasos para caracterizar a las muestras, el ACP reveló grupos bien separados correspondientes a cada especie, los cuales, a su vez, se confirmarón con el AC y el AD. El ‘‘ancho’’ y ‘‘longitud’’ de las bellotas

  13. Breast milk composition: fat content and fatty acid composition in vegetarians and non-vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, D A; Lönnerdal, B; Dewey, K G; Grivetti, L E

    1985-04-01

    Milk from vegetarians contained a lower proportion of fatty acids derived from animal fat and a higher proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from dietary vegetable fat. No significant differences were observed between dietary groups in percent fat in the milk or in proportions of fatty acids synthesized de novo in the mammary gland. Among women consuming less than 35 g animal fat per day, percent milk fat was significantly correlated with animal fat intake. Among women consuming greater than 35 g animal fat, percent fat in milk was positively correlated with percent of C10:0, C12:0, and C18:3 and negatively correlated with percent of C16:0 and C18:0 in the milk fat. These findings suggest that there is a maximum amount of C16:0 and C18:0 that can be taken up from the blood and subsequently secreted into the milk.

  14. Changes throughout lactation in phenotypic and genetic correlations between methane emissions and milk fatty acid contents predicted from milk mid-infrared spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanrobays, M.L.; Bastin, C.; Vandenplas, J.; Hammami, H.; Soyeurt, H.; Vanlierde, A.; Dehareng, F.; Froidmont, E.; Gengler, N.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate phenotypic and genetic correlations between methane production (MP) and milk fatty acid contents of first-parity Walloon Holstein cows throughout lactation. Calibration equations predicting daily MP (g/d) and milk fatty acid contents (g/100 dL of milk) were a

  15. Baking Reduces Prostaglandin, Resolvin, and Hydroxy-Fatty Acid Content of Farm-Raised Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raatz, Susan K.; Golovko, Mikhail Y.; Brose, Stephen A.; Rosenberger, Thad A.; Burr, Gary S.; Wolters, William R.; Picklo, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of seafood enriched in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. Several n-3 oxidation products from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) have known protective effects in the vasculature. It is not known whether consumption of cooked seafood enriched in n-3 PUFA causes appreciable consumption of lipid oxidation products. We tested the hypothesis that baking Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) increases the level of n-3 and n-6 PUFA oxidation products over raw salmon. We measured the content of several monohydroxy-fatty acids (MHFA), prostanoids, and resolvins. Our data demonstrate that baking did not change the overall total levels of MHFA. However, baking resulted in selective regio-isomeric loss of hydroxy fatty acids from arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), and EPA while significantly increasing hydroxyl-linoleic acid levels. The content of prostanoids and resolvins were reduced several-fold with baking. The inclusion of coating upon the salmon prior to baking reduced the loss of some MHFA but had no effect upon prostanoid losses incurred by baking. Baking did not decrease n-3 PUFA content indicating that baking of salmon is an acceptable means of preparation that does not alter the potential health benefits of high n-3 seafood consumption. The extent to which the levels of MHFA, prostanoids and resolvins in the raw or baked fish have physiologic consequence for humans needs to be determined. PMID:21919483

  16. Oil Content, Fatty Acid Composition and Distributions of Vitamin-E-Active Compounds of Some Fruit Seed Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Matthäus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil content, fatty acid composition and the distribution of vitamin-E-active compounds of selected Turkish seeds that are typically by-products of the food processing industries (linseed, apricot, pear, fennel, peanut, apple, cotton, quince and chufa, were determined. The oil content of the samples ranged from 16.9 to 53.4 g/100 g. The dominating fatty acids were oleic acid (apricot seed oil, peanut oil, and chufa seed oil in the range of 52.5 to 68.4 g/100 g and linoleic acid (pear seed oil, apple seed oil, cottonseed oil and quince seed oil with 48.1 to 56.3 g/100 g, while in linseed oil mainly α-linolenic acid (53.2 g/100 g and in fennel seed oil mainly 18:1 fatty acids (80.5 g/100 g with petroselinic acid predominating. The total content of vitamin-E-active compounds ranged from 20.1 (fennel seed oil to 96 mg/100 g (apple seed oil. The predominant isomers were established as α- and γ-tocopherol.

  17. Tannin, protein contents and fatty acid compositions of the seeds of several Vicia L. species from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kökten, Kağan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The seedoils of six Vicia species (Leguminosae were investigated for their protein, tannin contents and fatty acid compositions. The protein contents of the seeds were found to be between 21.87%-31.33%. The tannin contents of the seeds were found to be between 0.13%-1.07%. The fatty acid compositions of these six different species were determined by the GC of the methyl esters of their fatty acids. The oilseeds of Vicia species contain palmitic and stearic acids as the major component of their fatty acids, among the saturated acids, with small amounts of myristic, palmitoleic and margaric acids. The major unsaturated fatty acids found in the oilseeds were oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids. In this study, the total saturated fatty acids of Vicia species were between 18.5 and 22.4% while the total unsaturated fatty acids were between 71.1 and 80.3%.

    Las semillas oleaginosas de seis especies de Vicia (Leguninoas fueron investigadas por su proteína, contenido en taninos y composición en ácidos grasos. El contenido de proteína en las semillas vario entre un 21.87%-31.33%. El contenido de taninos en las semillas vario entre un 0.13%- 1.07%. La composición de ácidos grasos de estas seis diferentes especies fue determinada por GC mediante los esteres metílicos de sus ácidos grasos. Las semillas oleaginosas de las especies de Vicia contienen ácidos palmítico y esteárico como componentes mayoritarios entre los ácidos grasos saturados, con pequeñas cantidades de ácido mirístico, ácido palmitoleico y ácido margárico. Los ácidos grasos insaturados mayoritarios encontrados en las semillas oleaginosas fueron el ácido oleico, ácido linoleico y ácido linolénico. En este estudio, el contenido total de ácidos grasos saturado de las especies de Vicia vario entre 18.5 y 22.4% mientras que el de insaturados vario entre 71.1 y 80.3%.

  18. Retinol, alpha-tocopherol and fatty acid content in Bulgarian black Sea fish species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stancheva, M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to measure and evaluate the total lipids, fatty acid profile, retinol content and alpha-tocopherol content in the edible tissue of four commercially important fish species from the Bulgarian Black sea: Sprat (Sprattus sprattus, Round Goby (Neogobius rattan, Black Sea Horse Mackerel (Trahurus medditeraneus ponticus and Shad (Alosa pontica. Fat soluble vitamins were analyzed simultaneously using an HPLC system. The highest content of retinol was established in the Sprat (142.3 ± 4.4 μg/100g and the highest content of alphatocopherol was found in the Black Sea Horse Mackerel (1112.7 ± 39.2 μg/100g. The fatty acid (FA composition was analyzed by GC/MS. The content of omega 3 (n3 FAs was significantly higher (p , 0.001 than the content of omega 6 (n6 FAs in each of the analyzed fish samples. The n6/n3 FA ratio was within the recommended range (0.20–1.50 for Sprat, Round Goby and Shad. Relatively high levels of retinol and alpha-tocopherol, FA composition, n3/n6 FA and PUFA/SFA ratios indicate that these fish species have good nutritional quality.

    El objeto de la investigación presentada es definir y comparar los lípidos totales, el perfil de ácidos grasos y el contenido de retinol y alfa-tocoferol en el tejido comestible de cuatro especies de peces con importancia comercial del Mar Negro búlgaro —espadín (Sprattus Sprattus, gobio de boca negra (Neogobius Melanostomus, chicharro (Trachurus Trachurus y sábalo del Mar Negro (Caspialosa Pontica. Dos vitaminas liposolubles son analizadas simultáneamente mediante cromatografía líquida de alta eficacia (HPLC. El contenido mayor de retinol se encuentra en el espadín (142.3 ± 4.4 μg/100g, y de alfa-tocoferol en el chicharro (1112.7 ± 39.2 μg/100g. El contenido de ácidos grasos ha sido analizado mediante cromatografía gaseosa/espectrometría de masas (GC/MS. El contenido de ácidos grasos (AG

  19. High contents of very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in different moss species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beike, Anna K; Jaeger, Carsten; Zink, Felix; Decker, Eva L; Reski, Ralf

    2014-02-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are important cellular compounds with manifold biological functions. Many PUFAs are essential for the human diet and beneficial for human health. In this study, we report on the high amounts of very long-chain (vl) PUFAs (≥C₂₀) such as arachidonic acid (AA) in seven moss species. These species were established in axenic in vitro culture, as a prerequisite for comparative metabolic studies under highly standardized laboratory conditions. In the model organism Physcomitrella patens, tissue-specific differences in the fatty acid compositions between the filamentous protonema and the leafy gametophores were observed. These metabolic differences correspond with differential gene expression of fatty acid desaturase (FADS)-encoding genes in both developmental stages, as determined via microarray analyses. Depending on the developmental stage and the species, AA amounts for 6-31 %, respectively, of the total fatty acids. Subcellular localization of the corresponding FADS revealed the endoplasmic reticulum as the cellular compartment for AA synthesis. Our results show that vlPUFAs are highly abundant metabolites in mosses. Standardized cultivation techniques using photobioreactors along with the availability of the P. patens genome sequence and the high rate of homologous recombination are the basis for targeted metabolic engineering in moss. The potential of producing vlPUFAs of interest from mosses will be highlighted as a promising area in plant biotechnology.

  20. RENEWABLE ENERGY CONTENT OF FATTY ACID METHYL ESTERS (FAME AND GLYCEROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Toscano

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME and glycerol produced by transesterification reaction contain atoms that in the reagents belong to methanol and, therefore, are not renewable. A method to evaluate the content of the renewable and non-renewable energetic fraction, released during their combustion, was 52 Fig. 2 - Correlation between EFNR and NCM of FAME. Fig. 3 - Correlation between NCM and NS. Fig. 4 - Correlations between EFNR and NS. 07_Toscano(541_47 26-01-2010 9:35 Pagina 52 developed using a thermochemical criteria, based on bond dissociation energies and the knowledge of the molecular structure of the reagents and the products. Results show that the fraction of non-renewable energy in the most diffused FAME is lower than 1% depending on the lengths of the carbonaceous methyl esters. Meanwhile, the energetic supply for the GL of this fraction is about 1.6%. The data reported in this document can be used to develop a criteria that corrects the fiscal mechanism aspects of some renewable energy products.

  1. The effect of dietary alfalfa and flax sprouts on rabbit meat antioxidant content, lipid oxidation and fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Bosco, A; Castellini, C; Martino, M; Mattioli, S; Marconi, O; Sileoni, V; Ruggeri, S; Tei, F; Benincasa, P

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of dietary supplementation with flax and alfalfa sprouts on fatty acid, tocopherol and phytochemical contents of rabbit meat. Ninety weaned New Zealand White rabbits were assigned to three dietary groups: standard diet (S); standard diet+20g/d of alfalfa sprouts (A); and standard diet+20g/d of flax sprouts (F). In the F rabbits the Longissimus dorsi muscle showed a higher thio-barbituric acid-reactive value and at the same time significantly higher values of alpha-linolenic acid, total polyunsaturated and n-3 fatty acids. Additionally n-3/n-6 ratio and thrombogenic indices were improved. The meat of A rabbits showed intermediate values of the previously reported examined parameters. Dietary supplementation with sprouts produced meat with a higher total phytoestrogen content. The addition of fresh alfalfa and flax sprouts to commercial feed modified the fat content, fatty acid and phytochemical profile of the meat, but the flax ones worsened the oxidative status of meat.

  2. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the ... the blood in people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of ...

  3. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-6 fatty acids are types of fats. Some types are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean oils. Other types of omega-6 fatty acids are found in black currant ...

  4. Characterization of Lipids and Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Contents in Leaves and Roots of Crocus vallicola

    OpenAIRE

    YAYLI, Nurettin; KIRAN, Zerrin; SEYMEN, Hasan; GENÇ, Hasan

    2001-01-01

    The chemical composition of the fatty acids methyl esters (FAMEs) and other lipids in leaves and roots of Crocusvallicola were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS). In this work, twenty-eight compounds, including 22 FAMEs, 1 aldehyde, 3 hydrocarbons (substitute alkane and alkene), 2 alcohols in the leaves and twenty-one compounds (17 FAMEs, 1 anhydride, 1 substitute alcohol, 1 ketone, 1 substitute amide) in the roots were identified by GC-MS from C. vallicola. Th...

  5. Response of growth, protein and fatty acid content of Desmodesmus cuneatus to the repletion and depletion of nitrogen

    OpenAIRE

    mehdi naderi farsani; saeed meshkiniy; Ramin manaffar; zahra Asal pishe

    2015-01-01

      Introduction : Biomass and biochemical composition content (particular fatty acid profile, protein, Pigment) play an important role in commercial scale production of microorganisms. Nitrogen concentration is the most effective factor in biochemical composition and growth rate changes.   Materials and method s: The unicellular fresh water microalgae, Desmodesmus cuneatus ( Scenedesmaceae , Chlorophyta), was grown on BM medium under various concentration of nitrogen at 25°C and pH 7.0in a per...

  6. Differential Contribution of Endoplasmic Reticulum and Chloroplast ω-3 Fatty Acid Desaturase Genes to the Linolenic Acid Content of Olive (Olea europaea) Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, M Luisa; Sicardo, M Dolores; Martínez-Rivas, José M

    2016-01-01

    Linolenic acid is a polyunsaturated fatty acid present in plant lipids, which plays key roles in plant metabolism as a structural component of storage and membrane lipids, and as a precursor of signaling molecules. The synthesis of linolenic acid is catalyzed by two different ω-3 fatty acid desaturases, which correspond to microsomal- (FAD3) and chloroplast- (FAD7 and FAD8) localized enzymes. We have investigated the specific contribution of each enzyme to the linolenic acid content in olive fruit. With that aim, we isolated two different cDNA clones encoding two ω-3 fatty acid desaturases from olive (Olea europaea cv. Picual). Sequence analysis indicates that they code for microsomal (OepFAD3B) and chloroplast (OepFAD7-2) ω-3 fatty acid desaturase enzymes, different from the previously characterized OekFAD3A and OekFAD7-1 genes. Functional expression in yeast of the corresponding OepFAD3A and OepFAD3B cDNAs confirmed that they encode microsomal ω-3 fatty acid desaturases. The linolenic acid content and transcript levels of olive FAD3 and FAD7 genes were measured in different tissues of Picual and Arbequina cultivars, including mesocarp and seed during development and ripening of olive fruit. Gene expression and lipid analysis indicate that FAD3A is the gene mainly responsible for the linolenic acid present in the seed, while FAD7-1 and FAD7-2 contribute mostly to the linolenic acid present in the mesocarp and, therefore, in the olive oil. These results also indicate the relevance of lipid trafficking between the endoplasmic reticulum and chloroplast in determining the linolenic acid content of membrane and storage lipids in oil-accumulating photosynthetic tissues.

  7. Omega-3 fatty acids control productions of superoxide and nitrogen oxide and insulin content in INS-1E cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graciano, M F; Leonelli, M; Curi, R; R Carpinelli, A

    2016-12-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids have multiple effects in peripheral tissues and pancreatic beta cell function. Dietary depletion of omega-3 fatty acids is associated with pancreatic islet dysfunction and insulin resistance in rats. Herein, the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on pancreatic beta cell redox state and function were investigated. INS-1E insulin-secreting cells were incubated with EPA and DHA in combination with palmitic acid, and productions of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO) and insulin were measured. The involvement of the NADPH oxidase complex in ROS production and expression of the antioxidant enzymes was also investigated. After incubation for 1 or 48 h, productions of superoxide (by hydroethidine method), nitric oxide (by 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate-DAF-2DA assay), insulin (by radioimmunoassay), and expressions (by western blot analysis) of glutathione peroxidase (GPx-1) and gp91(PHOX) were measured. EPA and DHA reduced superoxide production after 1-h incubation. After 48 h, palmitic acid reduced superoxide production that was normalized by EPA treatment. Palmitic acid increased NO production that was reverted by EPA and DHA. Palmitic acid increased insulin secretion after 48 h, whereas both omega-3 fatty acids increased intracellular insulin content. EPA and DHA enhanced GPx-1 expression as well as gp91(PHOX) glycosylated form. In conclusion, EPA and DHA increased intracellular insulin content and antioxidant enzymatic defense capacity and decreased pro-oxidant generating activities that are associated with maintenance of pancreatic beta cell redox state in response to palmitic acid.

  8. Chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) as an omega-3 fatty acid source for broilers: influence on fatty acid composition, cholesterol and fat content of white and dark meats, growth performance, and sensory characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayerza, R; Coates, W; Lauria, M

    2002-06-01

    Five thousand four hundred, 1-d-old, male, Ross 308, broiler chicks were fed for 49 d to compare diets containing 10 and 20% chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed to a control diet. Cholesterol content, total fat content, and fatty acid composition of white and dark meats were determined at the end of the trial. A taste panel assessed meat flavor and preference. Cholesterol content was not significantly different among treatments; however, the 10% chia diet produced a lower fat content in the dark meat than did the control diet. Palmitic fatty acid content was less in both meat types when chia was fed, with differences being significant (P < 0.05), except for the white meat and the 20% chia diet. alpha-Linolenic fatty acid was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the white and dark meats with the chia diets. Chia significantly lowered the saturated fatty acid content as well as the saturated:polyunsaturated fatty acid and omega-6:omega-3 ratios of the white and dark meats compared to the control diet. No significant differences in flavor or preference ratings were detected among diets. Body weight and feed conversion were significantly lower with the chia diets than with the control, with weight reductions up to 6.2% recorded with the 20% chia diet.

  9. Cytochrome P450, peroxisome proliferation, and cytoplasmic fatty acid-binding protein content in liver, heart and kidney of the diabetic rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, W; van Bilsen, M; Wolffenbuttel, B H; van der Vusse, G J; Glatz, J F

    1999-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus generally results in an increased systemic fatty acid mobilization which can be associated with an increase in mitochondrial and peroxisomal beta-oxidation of fatty acids in selected tissues. The latter is usually accompanied by a concomitant increase in the tissue content of cytop

  10. Cytochrome P450, peroxisome proliferation, and cytoplasmic fatty acid-binding protein content in liver, heart and kidney of the diabetic rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, W; van Bilsen, M; Wolffenbuttel, B H; van der Vusse, G J; Glatz, J F

    1999-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus generally results in an increased systemic fatty acid mobilization which can be associated with an increase in mitochondrial and peroxisomal beta-oxidation of fatty acids in selected tissues. The latter is usually accompanied by a concomitant increase in the tissue content of cytop

  11. The effects of growing conditions on oil content, fatty acid composition and tocopherol content of some sunflower varieties produced in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpaslan, M; Gündüz, H

    2000-12-01

    The properties of some extensively cultivated sunflower seed varieties in Turkey and their oils were investigated. 1991-1992 crop year sunflower varieties harvested from Trakya University, Tekirdag Agricultural Faculty, Experiment field of Crop Science Department were used as research materials. The oil content, fatty acid composition and tocopherol content of sunflower seeds in 1991 and 1992 crop years were determined as 44.2-51.2% (on dry weight basis), 43.0-51.5% (on dry weight basis); oleic acid 14.8-18.5%, 32.9-40.1%; linoleic acid 69.5-74.5%, 49.7-55.7% and tocopherol content (as alpha-tocopherol) 648-860 mg/kg, 524-880 mg/kg, respectively. It was determined that the growing conditions significantly affected the fatty acid compositions of sunflower varieties studied. While the oleic acid content of the 1992 crop increased, the linoleic acid content of the same crop decreased compared to the 1991 crop.

  12. Callus Growth Kinetics of Physic Nut (Jatropha curcas L.) and Content of Fatty Acids from Crude Oil Obtained In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz Costa, Jefferson; da Silva, André Luís Lopes; Bier, Mário César Jucoski; Brondani, Gilvano Ebling; Gollo, André Luiz; Letti, Luiz Alberto Junior; Erasmo, Eduardo Andrea Lemus; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2015-06-01

    The callus growth kinetics allows identifying the appropriate moment for callus pealing and monitoring the accumulation of primary and secondary metabolites. The physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) is a plant species used for biofuel production due to its high oil content; however, this plant presents a great amount of bioactive compounds which can be useful for industry. The aim of this research was to establish a calli growth curve and to evaluate the fatty acid profile of crude oil extracted from callus. The callus growth kinetics presented a sigmoid standard curve with six distinct phases: lag, exponential, linear, deceleration, stationary, and decline. Total soluble sugars were higher at the inoculation day. Reducing sugars were higher at the inoculation day and at the 80th day. The highest percentage of ethereal extract (oil content) was obtained at the 120th day of culture, reaching 18 % of crude oil from the callus. The calli produced medium-chain and long-chain fatty acids (from 10 to 18 carbon atoms). The palmitic acid was the fatty acid with the highest proportion in oil (55.4 %). The lipid profile obtained in callus oil was different from the seed oil profile.

  13. FATTY ACID CONTENT IN BROILER´S ROSS 308 MEAT MUSCLES AFTER USING BEE POLLEN AND PROBIOTIC AS SUPPLEMENTARY DIET INTO THEIR FEED MIXTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Haščík

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was aimed to study the effect of the bee pollen and probiotic on broiler´s meat fatty acid. A total of 120 one day old chicks, which were divided into 4 groups (n=30. Central, E1 (400 mg.kg-1 bee pollen, E2 (3.3 g probiotic and E3 (400 mg.kg-1 bee pollen + 3.3 g probiotic of complete feed mixture, the probiotic has been added through drinking water. After 42 days broiler has been slaughtered to determine meat fatty acid concentrations. We found that the probiotic was increased about (78.9% of the essential fatty and bee pollen was increased about (68.4% of essential fatty acid in the experimental groups and there were found significant differences (P≤0.05 in monounsaturated acid (MUFA, heptadecanoic acid and omega-6 between control and E1groups. The mixed between bee pollen and probiotic were reduce the content of the essential fatty acid. However, bee pollen and probiotic were decreased nonessential fatty acid in broiler meat muscles and they were found significant difference (P≤0.05 in saturated fatty acid (SFA between control and E1, also between control and myristic acid. It was concluded that the bee pollen and probiotic have increased the fatty acid and decrease the non essential fatty acid in broiler meat muscles.

  14. Lipid class and fatty acid content of the Leptocephalus larva of tropical eels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deibel, D.; Parrish, C.C.; Grønkjær, P.

    2012-01-01

    storage and condition of leptocephali, we determined the lipid class and fatty acid concentration of larvae collected on a cross-shelf transect off Broome, northwestern Australia. The total lipid concentration of two families and four sub-families of leptocephali ranged from 2.7 to 7.0 mg g wet weight-1......, at the low end of the few published values. Phospholipid and triacylglycerol made up ca. 63 % of the total lipid pool. The triacylglycerol:sterol ratio, an index of nutritional condition, ranged from 0.9 to 3.7, indicating that the leptocephali were in good condition. The predominant fatty acids were 16......:0 (23 mol%), 22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA, 16 mol%), 18:0 (8.2 mol%), 20:5n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA, 6.7 mol%), 18:1n-9 (6.4 mol%) and 16:1n-7 (6.3 mol%). The DHA:EPA ratio ranged from 2.4 to 2.9, sufficient for normal growth and development of fish larvae generally. The leptocephali had...

  15. Lipid and fatty acid content in wild white seabream (Diplodus sargus) broodstock at different stages of the reproductive cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, M J; Rodríguez, C; Cejas, J R; Martín, M V; Jerez, S; Lorenzo, A

    2007-02-01

    The lipid and fatty acid content of the gonads, liver and muscle of wild white seabream males and females was studied at different stages of the reproductive cycle. Samples were taken from mature white seabream at pre-spawning (November), mid-spawning (March) and post-spawning (June) stages. The results showed that lipid accumulates in gonads and muscle from November to March. The gonadosomatic index (GSI) was also increased during this period. Male gonads showed a greater increase in polar lipid (PL) than neutral (NL), while female gonads displayed the reverse. The increase in both neutral and polar lipid was higher in the muscle of males than in females. In the same period, male livers showed no changes either in lipid content or the hepatosomatic index (HSI), while female livers registered an increase in both lipid content and HSI. Between March and June, in both males and females, total, neutral and polar lipid decreased sharply in the gonads and muscle. Muscular lipid content reduction was more pronounced in males than females. On the other hand, the lipid content of the liver in males and females remained relatively constant. In general terms, the amounts of major fatty acids (16:0, 18:1n-9, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3) in gonadal and muscular polar and neutral lipid in both males and females increased from November to March and declined thereafter. Variations of the liver fatty acid content were less extreme. In the period from mid-spawning to post-spawning, the presence of 20:4n-6 in polar and neutral lipid increased to a notable extent in all organs studied.

  16. Effects of feeding Mediterranean buffalo sorghum silage versus maize silage on the rumen microbiota and milk fatty acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ann Huws, Sharon; Chiariotti, Antonella; Sarubbi, Fiorella; Carfì, Francesca; Pace, Vilma

    2012-01-01

    Sorghum presents a sustainable feedstock for Mediterranean buffaloes due to its reduced water and nitrogen requirements compared with maize, which is currently fed primarily. We investigated the effects of feeding sorghum as opposed to maize on Mediterranean buffalo rumen microbial diversity and milk fatty acid content. Four cannulated lactating Mediterranean buffalo cows were fed a basal diet for one month before switching either to maize or sorghum-silage based diets for a 3-month period. Buffaloes were then changed over to the contrasting diet for a further one month. Rumen and milk samples were collected at the end of each month. DGGE- and T-RFLP-based dendrograms generated from rumen samples did not show an effect of diet on rumen bacterial diversity. Milk samples also did not differ in terms of their fatty acid content post sorghum feeding as compared with maize feeding. Thus, sorghum provides an environmentally beneficial alternative to maize for feeding Mediterranean buffalo with little effect on rumen microbial diversity or milk fatty acid composition compared with maize feeding.

  17. The effect of dietary Digestarom® herbal supplementation on rabbit meat fatty acid profile, lipid oxidation and antioxidant content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioli, S; Dal Bosco, A; Szendrő, Zs; Cullere, M; Gerencsér, Zs; Matics, Zs; Castellini, C; Dalle Zotte, A

    2016-11-01

    The experiment tested the effect of Digestarom® herbal supplementation on the antioxidant content, lipid oxidation and fatty acid profile of rabbit meat. At kindling, rabbit does and litters were divided into two dietary groups (N=162 kits/dietary group) and fed either a control diet (C) or the C diet supplemented with Digestarom® (D: 300mg/kg). At weaning (35days) four experimental fattening groups (54 rabbits each) were considered: CC, CD, DC and DD. After slaughtering (12weeks of age), Longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscles were dissected from 20 rabbits/group and analyzed. Rabbit meat of DD group was enriched in essential C18:3 n-3 fatty acid and in other long-chain PUFA of n-3 series. Despite meat of DD group displayed the highest peroxidability index, TBARs value was the lowest. Meat antioxidant content followed the rank order: DD>CD>DC>CC. Digestarom® improved fatty acid composition and oxidative status of rabbit meat, particularly when administered from weaning throughout the growing period.

  18. Maternal and fetal brain contents of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) at various essential fatty acid (EFA), DHA and AA dietary intakes during pregnancy in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goor, Saskia A; Dijck-Brouwer, D A Janneke; Fokkema, M Rebecca; van der Iest, Theo Hans; Muskiet, Frits A J

    We investigated essential fatty acids (EFA) and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP) in maternal and fetal brain as a function of EFA/LCP availability to the feto-maternal unit in mice. Diets varying in parent EFA, arachidonic acid (AA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were administered from

  19. Maternal and fetal brain contents of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) at various essential fatty acid (EFA), DHA and AA dietary intakes during pregnancy in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goor, Saskia A; Dijck-Brouwer, D A Janneke; Fokkema, M Rebecca; van der Iest, Theo Hans; Muskiet, Frits A J

    2008-01-01

    We investigated essential fatty acids (EFA) and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP) in maternal and fetal brain as a function of EFA/LCP availability to the feto-maternal unit in mice. Diets varying in parent EFA, arachidonic acid (AA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were administered from

  20. Fatty acid profile and elemental content of avocado (Persea americana Mill.) oil--effect of extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Mageshni; Moodley, Roshila; Jonnalagadda, Sreekanth B

    2012-01-01

    Interest in vegetable oil extracted from idioblast cells of avocado fruit is growing. In this study, five extraction methods to produce avocado oil have been compared: traditional solvent extraction using a Soxhlet or ultrasound, Soxhlet extraction combined with microwave or ultra-turrax treatment and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). Traditional Soxhlet extraction produced the most reproducible results, 64.76 ± 0.24 g oil/100 g dry weight (DW) and 63.67 ± 0.20 g oil/100 g DW for Hass and Fuerte varieties, respectively. Microwave extraction gave the highest yield of oil (69.94%) from the Hass variety. Oils from microwave extraction had the highest fatty acid content; oils from SFE had wider range of fatty acids. Oils from Fuerte variety had a higher monounsaturated: saturated FA ratio (3.45-3.70). SFE and microwave extraction produced the best quality oil, better than traditional Soxhlet extraction, with the least amount of oxidizing metals present.

  1. Proximate composition and fatty acid content of the mangrove oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae along the year seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cavalcanti Martino

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove oysters, Crassostrea rhizophorae were collected at the mangrove of "Barra de Guaratiba" district, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with the aim to determine the proximate composition and fatty acid content. Along the year seasons no statistical (P>0.05 difference was observed in the values of moisture, crude protein, crude lipid and ash. They were 82.0%; 9.7%; 1.7%; 3.2%, in average, respectively. However, glycogen was significantly (PCom o objetivo de determinar a composição centesimal e de ácidos graxos da ostra de mangue Crassostrea rhizophorae, amostras foram coletadas durante um ano no manguezal localizado na Barra de Guaratiba, na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Nenhuma diferença estatística (P>0,05 foi observada para os valores de umidade, proteína bruta, lipídio bruto e cinza, que foram em média: 82%; 9,7%; 1,7% e 3,2%, respectivamente. Por outro lado, os valores encontrados para o glicogênio foram significativamente diferentes (P<0,05 para as amostras de primavera (4,4% e inverno (4,2% do que para as amostras de verão (2,7% e outono (2,9%. Os ácidos graxos saturados e poliinsaturados foram respectivamente, os principais grupos de ácidos graxos das ostras, sendo que o ácido palmítico (16:0 foi o ácido graxo mais abundante em todos as amostras de ostras coletadas. O presente estudo demonstrou que esta espécie é caracterizada tanto por uma baixa concentração de lipídios (< 2,0% como também, por uma elevada concentração dos ácidos eicosapentaenóico (20:5n-3, EPA e docosahexaenóico (22:6n-3, DHA. Portanto, baseado no presente resultado é possível concluir que em termos de lipídios e de ácidos graxos a composição nutricional da C.rhizophorae é recomendável para o consumo humano.

  2. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) induced changes in oil content, fatty acid profiles and expression of four fatty acid biosynthetic genes in Chlorella vulgaris at early stationary growth phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusoh, Malinna; Loh, Saw Hong; Chuah, Tse Seng; Aziz, Ahmad; Cha, Thye San

    2015-03-01

    Microalgae lipids and oils are potential candidates for renewable biodiesel. Many microalgae species accumulate a substantial amount of lipids and oils under environmental stresses. However, low growth rate under these adverse conditions account for the decrease in overall biomass productivity which directly influence the oil yield. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of exogenously added auxin (indole-3-acetic acid; IAA) on the oil content, fatty acid compositions, and the expression of fatty acid biosynthetic genes in Chlorella vulgaris (UMT-M1). Auxin has been shown to regulate growth and metabolite production of several microalgae. Results showed that oil accumulation was highest on days after treatment (DAT)-2 with enriched levels of palmitic (C16:0) and stearic (C18:0) acids, while the linoleic (C18:2) and α-linolenic (C18:3n3) acids levels were markedly reduced by IAA. The elevated levels of saturated fatty acids (C16:0 and C18:0) were consistent with high expression of the β-ketoacyl ACP synthase I (KAS I) gene, while low expression of omega-6 fatty acid desaturase (ω-6 FAD) gene was consistent with low production of C18:2. However, the increment of stearoyl-ACP desaturase (SAD) gene expression upon IAA induction did not coincide with oleic acid (C18:1) production. The expression of omega-3 fatty acid desaturase (ω-3 FAD) gene showed a positive correlation with the synthesis of PUFA and C18:3n3.

  3. Fatty acid, tocopherol and carotenoid content in herbage and milk affected by sward composition and season of grazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Krogh; Fretté, Xavier; Kristensen, Troels

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the present work was to study to what extent grazing large amounts ofwhite clover (WCL), red clover (RCL), lucerne (LUC) or chicory (CHI) was suitable for production of bovine milk with a high milk fat content of tocopherols, carotenoids, α-linolenic acid and conjugated......), carotenoids (6 μg g−1) and α-tocopherol (21 μg g−1 milk fat). There were minor differences between herbage types and periods, but multivariate analysis of these data showed no clear grouping. Chemical composition of herbage varied with species as well as period, but it was not possible to relatemilk and feed...... contents of specific fatty acids, carotenoids or tocopherols. CONCLUSION: All four herbages tested were suitable for production of milk with a high content of beneficial compounds. Thus any of these herbages could be used in production of such differentiated milk based on a large proportion of grazing...

  4. Effects of dietary vitamin E on muscle vitamin E and fatty acid content in Aohan fine-wool sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Increasing the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content and decreasing the saturated fatty acid (SFA) content of mutton can help to improve its nutritional value for consumers. Several laboratories have evaluated the effects of vitamin E on the fatty acid (FA) composition of muscle in sheep. However, little information is available on wool sheep, even though wool sheep breeds are an important source of mutton, especially in northern China where sheep are extensively farmed. The present study was designed to address the effects of vitamin E on muscle FA composition in male Aohan fine-wool sheep. Methods Forty-two male Aohan fine-wool lambs (5 mo old) with similar initial body weight were randomly divided into seven groups and fed diets supplemented with 0 (control group), 20, 100, 200, 1,000, 2,000, or 2,400 IU/sheep/d vitamin E for 12 mo. Three lambs from each group were slaughtered to measure vitamin E and FA content in the longissimus lumborum (LL) and gluteus medius (GM) muscles. Results Vitamin E concentrations in the LL and GM increased significantly after 12 mo of vitamin E supplementation (P < 0.05). However, this increase did not occur in a dose-dependent manner because the muscle vitamin E concentration was highest in the 200 IU/sheep/d group. Dietary vitamin E supplementation also caused a significant reduction in SFA content and an increase in monounsaturated FA (MUFA) content in the LL and GM (P < 0.05). All six doses of vitamin E significantly increased cis9 trans11-conjugated linoleic acid (c9t11-CLA) content in the LL compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusions Dietary supplementation with vitamin E increased muscle vitamin E content and improved the nutritional value of mutton by decreasing SFA content and increasing MUFA and c9t11-CLA contents in Aohan fine-wool sheep. These effects were greatest in sheep fed a diet containing 200 IU/sheep/d vitamin E. PMID:23777843

  5. Production and characterization of ice cream with high content in oleic and linoleic fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marín-Suárez, Marta; García Moreno, Pedro Jesús; Padial-Domínguez, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Ice creams produced with unsaturated fats rich in oleic (OO, 70.7% of oleic) and linoleic (LO, 49.0% of linoleic) fatty acids, were compared to ice cream based on saturated coconut oil (CO, 50% of lauric acid). The globule size distribution of OO mix during aging (72 h at 4°C) followed a similar...... trend to CO mix, being stable after 48 h; whereas LO mix destabilized after 24 h. CO mix showed higher destabilization during ice cream production, but no significant differences among fats were observed in the particle size of the ice cream produced. The overrun was also lower for OO and LO ice creams...... (34.19 and 27.12%, respectively) compared to CO based ice cream (45.06%). However, an improved melting behavior, which gradually decreased from 88.69% for CO to 66.09% for LO ice cream, was observed....

  6. Homozygous and heterozygous GH transgenesis alters fatty acid composition and content in the liver of Amago salmon (Oncorhynchus masou ishikawae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Sugiyama

    2012-08-01

    Growth hormone (GH transgenic Amago (Oncorhynchus masou ishikawae, containing the sockeye GH1 gene fused with metallothionein-B promoter from the same species, were generated and the physiological condition through lipid metabolism compared among homozygous (Tg/Tg and heterozygous GH transgenic (Tg/+ Amago and the wild type control (+/+. Previously, we have reported that the adipose tissue was generally smaller in GH transgenic fish compared to the control, and that the Δ-6 fatty acyl desaturase gene was down-regulated in the Tg/+ fish. However, fatty acid (FA compositions have not been measured previously in these fish. In this study we compared the FAs composition and content in the liver using gas chromatography. Eleven kinds of FA were detected. The composition of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (SFA and MUFA such as myristic acid (14:0, palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7, and cis-vaccenic acid (cis-18:1n-7 was significantly (P<0.05 decreased in GH transgenic Amago. On the other hand, the composition of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs such as linoleic acid (18:2n-6, arachidonic acid (20:4n-6, and docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-3 was significantly (P<0.05 increased. Levels of serum glucose and triacylglycerol were significantly (P<0.05 decreased in the GH transgenics compared with +/+ fish. Furthermore, 3′-tag digital gene expression profiling was performed using liver tissues from Tg/Tg and +/+ fish, and showed that Mid1 interacting protein 1 (Mid1ip1, which is an important factor to activate Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, was down-regulated in Tg/Tg fish, while genes involved in FA catabolism were up-regulated, including long-chain-fatty-acid–CoA ligase 1 (ACSL1 and acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 3 (ACOX3. These data suggest that liver tissue from GH transgenic Amago showed starvation by alteration in glucose and lipid metabolism due to GH overexpression. The decrease of serum glucose suppressed Mid1ip1, and caused a decrease of de novo FA synthesis, resulting

  7. Response of growth, protein and fatty acid content of Desmodesmus cuneatus to the repletion and depletion of nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mehdi naderi farsani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction : Biomass and biochemical composition content (particular fatty acid profile, protein, Pigment play an important role in commercial scale production of microorganisms. Nitrogen concentration is the most effective factor in biochemical composition and growth rate changes.   Materials and method s: The unicellular fresh water microalgae, Desmodesmus cuneatus ( Scenedesmaceae , Chlorophyta, was grown on BM medium under various concentration of nitrogen at 25°C and pH 7.0in a period of 12 days . Daily cell counting was done using Neubauer haemocytometer to determine the growth rate, cell density and exponential time. The grown cells were harvested in the stationary phase to determine fatty acid and protein content.   Results : The maximum growth rate ( 0.35 ± 0.09 day−1 and cell density ( 36.00 ± 1.01 ×105 cell.ml-1 was achieved in 2.5 mM of nitrogen concentration . The maximum level of PUFA, was 25.31 % of the total fatty acids under N-sufficient conditions (5 mM nitrogen compared to 17.01 % under N-free. The maximum precentage of protein content ( 36.81 % was found at 5 mM nitrogen content and minimum ( 11.14 % was seen at nitrogen free medium . Discussion and conclusion : The results showed that control of nutrients plays an important role in microalgae culture. Any increase or decrease, depending on the type of nutrient, causes metabolic changes as well as changes in physiology and the nutritional value of microalgae. The nitrogen concentration of 2.5 mM may be more beneficial than other concentrations, as cell number is sustained in exponential phase longer.

  8. THE EFFECTS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED MAIZE SILAGE ON THE CONTENTS OF FATTY ACIDS IN BODY TISSUES OF LAMBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa SIMINSKA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the evaluation of fatty acids contents in meat and selected offal in lambs fed a diet containing silage of whole plants of genetically modified maize (Bt MON 810 line. The material consisted of 14 Polish Merino lambs of mean start body weight 24 kg. There were two feeding groups selected of 7 lambs each. In the control group (K the lambs were fed isogenic maize silage, which in the second group (GMO was substituted with the modified maize silage (Bt MON 810 line. After 70 days of feeding (feed portions were standardised according to the DLG system the lambs were slaughtered and dissected. The results were evaluated statistically and the significance of differences was calculated with the two factor variation analysis (nutrition, tissue. Feeding genetically modified maize silage did not change, in a statistically significant way, the contents of any main fatty acids in the pool of all acids nor the contents of the totals and their proportions, while the factor causing clear differences was the tissue. Differences for the majority of the results were statistically significant. Statistically significant interactions noted (nutrition x tissue are probably due to different values of these traits in the analysed tissues.

  9. The effect of N-stearoylethanolamine on cholesterol content, fatty acid composition and protein carbonylation level in rats with alimentary obesity-induced insulin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Onopchenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of N-stearoylethanolamine (NSE on liver free fatty acid composition, cholesterol content and carbonylated protein level in rats with obesity-induced insulin resistance (IR was studied in the work. The experimental insulin resistance was induced by prolonged high fat diet (58% of energy derived from fat for 6 months combined with one injection of low-dose (15 mg/kg of streptozotocin. The lipid assay showed a rise in liver free cholesterol content and a significant reduction in cholesterol esters level. Analyzing liver fatty acid composition, a decrease in polyunsaturated of fatty acid (PUFA level and an increase in monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA content was found. Fatty acid imbalance with high content of MUFA was associated with elevated level of protein carbonylation. The NSE administration (50 mg/kg of body weight for 2 weeks decreased free cholesterol content, increased cholesterol esters level and reduced free oleic fatty acid content in the liver of rats with IR. The effect of NSE on lipid imbalance led to a decrease in protein carbonylation level that may result in improvement of transmembrane protein function under obesity-induced insulin resistance state.

  10. Lipids in grain tissues of oat (Avena sativa): differences in content, time of deposition, and fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banas, Antoni; Debski, Henryk; Banas, Walentyna; Heneen, Waheeb K; Dahlqvist, Anders; Bafor, Maureen; Gummeson, Per-Olov; Marttila, Salla; Ekman, Asa; Carlsson, Anders S; Stymne, Sten

    2007-01-01

    Oat (Avena sativa) is unusual in comparison with other cereals since there are varieties with up to 18% oil content. The lipid content and fatty acid composition in different parts of the grain during seed development were characterized in cultivars Freja (6% oil) and Matilda (10% oil), using thin-layer and gas chromatography, and light and electron microscopy. The majority of lipids (86-90%) were found in the endosperm. Ninety-five per cent of the higher oil content of cv. Matilda compared with cv. Freja was due to increased oil content of the endosperm. Up to 84% of the lipids were deposited during the first half of seed development, when seeds where still green with a milky endosperm. Microscopy studies revealed that whereas oil bodies of the embryo and scutellum still contained a discrete shape upon grain maturation, oil bodies of the endosperms fused upon maturation and formed smears of oil.

  11. Effect of dietary alpha-linolenic fatty acid derived from chia when fed as ground seed, whole seed and oil on lipid content and fatty acid composition of rat plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayerza, Ricardo; Coates, Wayne

    2007-01-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most common cause of death in the Western world. In both the USA and the EU it accounts for over 600,000 deaths yearly. Early data showing the benefits n-3 fatty acids provide in preventing CHD disease were obtained using 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 fatty acids derived from fish. Recently, however, it has been shown that reduced risks of CHD and other cardiovascular diseases are found with 18:3n-3 fatty acid as well. To determine if 18:3n-3 fatty acids positively influence plasma composition, 32 male Wistar rats were fed ad libitum four isocaloric diets with the energy derived from corn oil (T(1)), whole chia seed (T(2)), ground chia seed (T(3)), or chia oil (T(4)) for 30 days. At the end of the feeding period the rats were sacrificed, and blood samples were analyzed to determine serum CHOL, HDL, LDL, TG content, hemogram, and fatty acid composition. Chia decreased serum TG content and increased HDL content. Only with the T(2) diet was TG significantly (p Chia significantly (p chia diets detected. Significant (p chia diets when compared to the control.

  12. Association of SSR markers with contents of fatty acids in olive oil and genetic diversity analysis of an olive core collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipek, M; Ipek, A; Seker, M; Gul, M K

    2015-03-27

    The purpose of this research was to characterize an olive core collection using some agronomic characters and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and to determine SSR markers associated with the content of fatty acids in olive oil. SSR marker analysis demonstrated the presence of a high amount of genetic variation between the olive cultivars analyzed. A UPGMA dendrogram demonstrated that olive cultivars did not cluster on the basis of their geographic origin. Fatty acid components of olive oil in these cultivars were determined. The results also showed that there was a great amount of variation between the olive cultivars in terms of fatty acid composition. For example, oleic acid content ranged from 57.76 to 76.9% with standard deviation of 5.10%. Significant correlations between fatty acids of olive oil were observed. For instance, a very high negative correlation (-0.812) between oleic and linoleic acids was detected. A structured association analysis between the content of fatty acids in olive oil and SSR markers was performed. STRUCTURE analysis assigned olive cultivars to two gene pools (K = 2). Assignment of olive cultivars to these gene pools was not based on geographical origin. Association between fatty acid traits and SSR markers was evaluated using the general linear model of TASSEL. Significant associations were determined between five SSR markers and stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids of olive oil. Very high associations (P olive.

  13. Fats and fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The absolute fat requirement of the human species is the amount of essential fatty acids needed to maintain optimal fatty acid composition of all tissues and normal eicosanoid synthesis. At most, this requirement is no more than about 5% of an adequate energy intake. However, fat accounts for appro...

  14. Halogenated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Wesén, Clas; Sundin, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Chlorinated fatty acids have been found to be major contributors to organohalogen compounds in fish, bivalves, jellyfish, and lobster, and they have been indicated to contribute considerably to organohalogens in marine mammals. Brominated fatty acids have been found in marine sponges. Also......, chlorinated lipids have been found in meat exposed to hypochlorite disinfected water, and in chlorine-treated flour and in products made from such flour. Following exposure to chlorine bleached pulp mill effluents, aquatic organisms may have elevated concentrations of chlorinated fatty acids in their lipids....... However, a natural production of halogenated fatty acids is also possible. In this paper we summarize the present knowledge of the occurrence of halogenated fatty acids in lipids and suggested ways of their formation. In Part II (Trends Anal. Chem. 16 (1997) 274) we deal with methods...

  15. Lipid content and essential fatty acid (EFA) composition of mature Congolese breast milk are influenced by mothers' nutritional status: impact on infants' EFA supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocquelin, G; Tapsoba, S; Dop, M C; Mbemba, F; Traissac, P; Martin-Prével, Y

    1998-03-01

    Optimum infant growth and development, especially neurodevelopment and visual acuity, require sufficient n-6 and n-3 essential fatty acid supplies from the placenta or breast milk. The lipid content and fatty acid composition of mature breast milk were measured in samples from 102 randomly selected Congolese mothers of 5-month-old infants, residing in a suburban district of Brazzaville. Mean body mass index (BMI) was 22.3; 14% of mothers were energy-deficient and 22% were overweight. Breast milk samples from these mothers were low in lipids (mean, 28.70 g/l), and 75% had a lipid content below reference values. Adequate lipid content was associated with a maternal diet high in carbohydrates and low in fats. Breast milk was rich in 8:0-14:0 fatty acids (25.97% of total fatty acids) and in polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially n-3. These findings appear related to Congolese mothers' frequent consumption of high-carbohydrate foods such as processed cassava roots, wheat bread, and doughnuts known to enhance 8:0-14:0 fatty acid biosynthesis, as well as locally produced foods such as fish, vegetable oil, leafy green vegetables, and high-fat fruit that provide n-6 and n-3 essential fatty acids. Milk lipid content was inversely associated with the maternal BMI, but was unrelated to maternal age or socioeconomic status. Since the essential fatty acid content of traditional complementary foods is lower than that present in breast milk, Congolese mothers should be encouraged to postpone the introduction of such foods until their infant is 4-6 months old.

  16. Influence of Indigenous Starter Cultures on the Free Fatty Acids Content During Ripening in Artisan Sausages Produced in the Basilicata Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Favati

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of indigenous starter cultures on the free fatty acids content during ripening of »salsiccia«, a typical dry fermented sausage produced in the Basilicata region, was studied. Three batches of »salsiccia« were produced using different starter mixtures (Lactobacillus sakei G20 and Staphylococcus xylosus S81; L. sakei G20 and S. xylosus S142; L. sakei G20 and S. xylosus S206, while the control batch was produced without a starter. The amounts of free fatty acids present in the samples at the end of the ripening period were not significantly different, suggesting that the lipolytic enzymes naturally occurring in meat could play a predominant role in the free fatty acids release. Oleic and linoleic acids were present in the highest concentrations, while only small quantities of short chain fatty acids were detected, with acetic acid being the most representative one.

  17. Relationships between the daily intake of unsaturated plant lipids and the contents of major milk fatty acids in dairy goats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez Marín, A.L.; Núñez Sánchez, N.; Garzón Sigler, A. I.; Peña Blanco, F.; Fuente, M.A. de la

    2015-07-01

    A meta-regression of the effects of the amount of plant lipids consumed by dairy goats on the contents of some milk fat fatty acids (FA) was carried out. Fourteen peer-reviewed published papers reporting 17 experiments were used in the study. Those experiments compared control diets without added fat with diets that included plant lipids rich in unsaturated FA, summing up to 64 treatments. The results showed that increasing daily intake of plant lipids linearly reduced the contents of all medium chain saturated FA in milk fat. Moreover, it was observed that the longer the chain of the milk saturated FA, the greater the negative effect of the plant lipid intake on their contents. On the other hand, the contents of stearic acid and the sum of oleic, linoleic and α-linolenic acids in milk fat linearly increased as daily plant lipid intake rose. The results obtained corroborate previous reports on the effects of feeding dairy goats with increasing amounts of unsaturated plant lipids on milk FA profile. (Author)

  18. Formation of volatile compounds in kefir made of goat and sheep milk with high polyunsaturated fatty acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cais-Sokolińska, D; Wójtowski, J; Pikul, J; Danków, R; Majcher, M; Teichert, J; Bagnicka, E

    2015-10-01

    This article explored the formation of volatile compounds during the production of kefir from goat and sheep milks with high polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) as a result of feeding animals forage supplemented with maize dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). The increased PUFA content of the goat and sheep milks resulted in significant changes to the fermentation process. In particular, apart from an increase in the time taken to ferment sheep milk, fermentation yielded less 2,3-butanedione. The highest quantities of this compound were assayed in kefir produced from goat milk with an increased content of PUFA. An increase of PUFA significantly elevated ethanal synthesis during lactose-alcohol fermentation of sheep milk. Neither the origin of milk (sheep or goat) nor the level of PUFA had any statistical effect on the amount of ethanal assayed during the fermentation of milk and within the finished product. The proportion of l(+)-lactic acid was higher in kefirs produced using goat milk compared with sheep milk and did not depend on the content of PUFA in milk fat. The content of PUFA had a significant effect on the aroma profile of the resulting kefirs. An increase in PUFA content resulted in the loss of whey aroma in goat milk kefirs and the animal odor in sheep milk kefirs, and a creamy aroma became more prevalent in kefirs made from sheep milk.

  19. Effects of carbon and nitrogen sources on fatty acid contents and composition in the green microalga, Chlorella sp. 227.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sunja; Lee, Dukhaeng; Luong, Thao Thanh; Park, Sora; Oh, You-Kwan; Lee, Taeho

    2011-10-01

    In order to investigate and generalize the effects of carbon and nitrogen sources on the growth of and lipid production in Chlorella sp. 227, several nutritional combinations consisting of different carbon and nitrogen sources and concentrations were given to the media for cultivation of Chlorella sp. 227, respectively. The growth rate and lipid content were affected largely by concentration rather than by sources. The maximum specific growth was negatively affected by low concentrations of carbon and nitrogen. There is a maximum allowable inorganic carbon concentration (less than 500~1,000 mM bicarbonate) in autotrophic culture, but the maximum lipid content per gram dry cell weight (g DCW) was little affected by the concentration of inorganic carbon within the concentration. The lipid content per g DCW was increased when the microalga was cultured with the addition of glucose and bicarbonate (mixotrophic) at a fixed nitrogen concentration and with the lowest nitrogen concentration (0.2 mM), relatively. Considering that lipid contents per g DCW increased in those conditions, it suggests that a high ratio of carbon to nitrogen in culture media promotes lipid accumulation in the cells. Interestingly, a significant increase of the oleic acid amount to total fatty acids was observed in those conditions. These results showed the possibility to induce lipid production of high quality and content per g DCW by modifying the cultivation conditions.

  20. Trans Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Ellin

    1997-09-01

    Fats and their various fatty acid components seem to be a perennial concern of nutritionists and persons concerned with healthful diets. Advice on the consumption of saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and total fat bombards us from magazines and newspapers. One of the newer players in this field is the group of trans fatty acids found predominantly in partially hydrogenated fats such as margarines and cooking fats. The controversy concerning dietary trans fatty acids was recently addressed in an American Heart Association (AHA) science advisory (1) and in a position paper from the American Society of Clinical Nutrition/American Institute of Nutrition (ASCN/AIN) (2). Both reports emphasize that the best preventive strategy for reducing risk for cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer is a reduction in total and saturated fats in the diet, but a reduction in the intake of trans fatty acids was also recommended. Although the actual health effects of trans fatty acids remain uncertain, experimental evidence indicates that consumption of trans fatty acids adversely affects serum lipid levels. Since elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it follows that intake of trans fatty acids should be minimized.

  1. Inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum enhances the organic and fatty acids content of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luís R; Pereira, Maria J; Azevedo, Jessica; Mulas, Rebeca; Velazquez, Encarna; González-Andrés, Fernando; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B

    2013-12-15

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) is one of the most important food crops for human and animal consumption, providing oil and protein at relatively low cost. The least expensive source of nitrogen for soybean is the biological fixation of atmospheric nitrogen by the symbiotic association with soil bacteria, belonging mainly to the genus Bradyrhizobium. This study was conducted to assess the effect of the inoculation of G. max with Bradyrhizobium japonicum on the metabolite profile and antioxidant potential of its seeds. Phenolic compounds, sterols, triterpenes, organic acids, fatty acids and volatiles profiles were characterised by different chromatographic techniques. The antioxidant activity was evaluated against DPPH, superoxide and nitric oxide radicals. Inoculation with B. japonicum induced changes in the profiles of primary and secondary metabolites of G. max seeds, without affecting their antioxidant capacity. The increase of organic and fatty acids and volatiles suggest a positive effect of the inoculation process. These findings indicate that the inoculation with nodulating B. japonicum is a beneficial agricultural practice, increasing the content of bioactive metabolites in G. max seeds owing to the establishment of symbiosis between plant and microorganism, with direct effects on seed quality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Aspects Regarding the Gross Chemical Composition and Fatty Acids Content of Some By-Products Obtained from the Biofuel Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Colibar

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Samples of by-products, obtained from the production of biofuels were collected. These products were introduced in different proportions in feed rations of fattening lambs. Gross chemical composition of feed was analyzed and compared with mean reference values. Ash and cellulose content does not influence the results. The percentage of raw protein, specific for each feed, is correlated with the body weight gain. Fat quantity of rape meal is the closest to that of granulated feed and also the highest compared with the other groups, so that it can justify the higher productive performance achieved by group 1, who received rape meal in ratio. The concentration of fatty acids was determined from analyzed feed after oils extraction, their saponification and their reading with a HPLC. The data showed that the fatty acid level is relatively close to that specified in the literature. Euricic acid, that is responsible for the toxic potential of the rape, has been found in rape meal.

  3. Comparison of gravimetric, creamatocrit and esterified fatty acid methods for determination of total fat content in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jian; Gay, Melvin C L; Lai, Ching Tat; Trengove, Robert D; Hartmann, Peter E; Geddes, Donna T

    2017-02-15

    The gravimetric method is considered the gold standard for measuring the fat content of human milk. However, it is labor intensive and requires large volumes of human milk. Other methods, such as creamatocrit and esterified fatty acid assay (EFA), have also been used widely in fat analysis. However, these methods have not been compared concurrently with the gravimetric method. Comparison of the three methods was conducted with human milk of varying fat content. Correlations between these methods were high (r(2)=0.99). Statistical differences (Pmilk) using the three methods. Overall, stronger correlation with lower mean (4.73g/L) and percentage differences (5.16%) was observed with the creamatocrit than the EFA method when compared to the gravimetric method. Furthermore, the ease of operation and real-time analysis make the creamatocrit method preferable. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. The change in cholesterol content of long chain fatty acid egg during processing and its influence to the Rattus norvegicus L. blood cholesterol content

    OpenAIRE

    Dini Hardini; Tri Yuwanta; Zuprizal (Zuprizal); Supadmo (Supadmo)

    2006-01-01

    Egg containing long chain unsaturated fatty acids is a functional food, because it is highly nutritious and could prevent diseases, (omega 3 and 6) such as coronary heart attack. The research was aimed to measure the change of egg cholesterol content during proceesing: frying, oiless frying and boiling and their influence to the blood plasma cholesterol of normal and hypercholesterolemia rat. Seven treatments of egg yolk were frying at 170°C for 3 min (welldone = GM), and 1min (half medium f...

  5. The effect of dietary fat on the fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of Hy-line and Warren hen eggs from Hy-line and Warren hens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Munoz, M. J.; Bastida, S.; Jimenez, O.; Lorenzo, C. de; Vergara, G.; Sanchez-Muniz, F. J.

    2009-07-01

    The present study analyzed the effect of dietary fat and strain on the fatty acid and cholesterol contents of eggs over a 20 month-period. Hy-line and Warren hens received three consecutive 7% lipid diets in which the basal constituents of the diet supplied 3% of the fats while the remaining 4% was composed of fats, oils or oleins added to progressively increase polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels, while decreasing dietary levels of both saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). In general, the percentages of most fatty acids in egg lipids were affected by changes in dietary lipids but not by the strain. Data suggest the existence of a dietary threshold for elaidic acid to appear in eggs. Mufa decreased and total PUFA increased throughout the study. The cholesterol egg content was higher at the animal fat plus soybean oil than at the animal fat or the olein plus soybean oil blend. Overall, results showed that changes in dietary lipids influenced fatty acid composition and hence atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes much more than the strain. (Author) 37 refs.

  6. Changes in the content of fatty acids in CA1 and CA3 areas of the hippocampus of Krushinsky-Molodkina rats after single and fivefold audiogenic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savina, Tatyana; Aripovsky, Alexander; Kulagina, Tatyana

    2017-09-01

    Audiogenic seizures (AS) are generalized seizures evoked by high frequency sounds. Since the hippocampus is involved in the generation and maintenance of seizures, the effect of AS on the composition and content of fatty acids in the CA1 and CA3 hippocampal areas of AS-susceptible Krushinsky-Molodkina (KM) rats on days 1, 3, and 14 after single and fivefold seizures were examined. The total content of all fatty acids in field СА1 was found to be lower compared with the control at all times of observation after both a single seizure or fivefold seizures. The total content of fatty acids in field СА3 decreased at all times of examination after a single seizure, whereas it remained unchanged on days 3 and 14 following five AS. The content of omega-3 fatty acids in both fields at all times of observation after a single seizure and fivefold AS did not significantly differ from that in intact animals. The absence of significant changes in the content of stearic and α-linolenic acids and a considerable decrease in the levels of palmitic, oleic, and eicosapentaenoic acids were common to both fields at all times after both a single seizure or fivefold AS. The changes in the content of fatty acids in the СА3 and СА1 fields of the brain of AS-susceptible rats indicate that fatty acids are involved in both the development of seizure activity and neuroprotective anticonvulsive processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of major and trace minerals, fatty acid composition, and cholesterol content of Protected Designation of Origin cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuelian, C L; Currò, S; Penasa, M; Cassandro, M; De Marchi, M

    2017-05-01

    Cheese provides essential nutrients for human nutrition and health, such as minerals and fatty acids (FA). Its composition varies according to milk origin (e.g., species and breed), rearing conditions (e.g., feeding and management), and cheese-making technology (e.g., coagulation process, addition of salt, ripening period). In recent years, cheese production has increased worldwide. Italy is one of the main producers and exporters of cheese. This study aimed to describe mineral, FA, and cholesterol content of 133 samples from 18 commercial cheeses from 4 dairy species (buffalo, cow, goat, and sheep) and from 3 classes of moisture content (hard, 45%). Mineral concentrations of cheese samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, and FA and cholesterol contents were determined by gas chromatography. Moisture and species had a significant effect on almost all traits: the highest levels of Na, Ca, and Fe were found in cheeses made from sheep milk; the greatest level of Cu was found in cow milk cheese, the lowest amount of K was found in buffalo milk cheese, and the lowest amount of Zn was found in goat cheeses. In all samples, Cr and Pb were not detected (below the level of detection). In general, total fat, protein, and minerals significantly increased when the moisture decreased. Buffalo and goat cheeses had the highest saturated FA content, and sheep cheeses showed the highest content of unsaturated and polyunsaturated FA, conjugated linoleic acid, and n-3 FA. Goat and sheep cheeses achieved higher proportions of minor FA than did cow and buffalo cheeses. Buffalo cheese exhibited the lowest cholesterol level. Our results confirm that cheese mineral content is mainly affected by the cheese-making process, whereas FA profile mainly reflects the FA composition of the source milk. This study allowed the characterization of mineral and FA composition and cholesterol content and revealed large variability among different commercial

  8. Statistical evaluation of fatty acid profile and cholesterol content in fish (common carp) lipids obtained by different sample preparation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiric, Aurelija; Trbovic, Dejana; Vranic, Danijela; Djinovic, Jasna; Petronijevic, Radivoj; Matekalo-Sverak, Vesna

    2010-07-01

    Studies performed on lipid extraction from animal and fish tissues do not provide information on its influence on fatty acid composition of the extracted lipids as well as on cholesterol content. Data presented in this paper indicate the impact of extraction procedures on fatty acid profile of fish lipids extracted by the modified Soxhlet and ASE (accelerated solvent extraction) procedure. Cholesterol was also determined by direct saponification method, too. Student's paired t-test used for comparison of the total fat content in carp fish population obtained by two extraction methods shows that differences between values of the total fat content determined by ASE and modified Soxhlet method are not statistically significant. Values obtained by three different methods (direct saponification, ASE and modified Soxhlet method), used for determination of cholesterol content in carp, were compared by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The obtained results show that modified Soxhlet method gives results which differ significantly from the results obtained by direct saponification and ASE method. However the results obtained by direct saponification and ASE method do not differ significantly from each other. The highest quantities for cholesterol (37.65 to 65.44 mg/100 g) in the analyzed fish muscle were obtained by applying direct saponification method, as less destructive one, followed by ASE (34.16 to 52.60 mg/100 g) and modified Soxhlet extraction method (10.73 to 30.83 mg/100 g). Modified Soxhlet method for extraction of fish lipids gives higher values for n-6 fatty acids than ASE method (t(paired)=3.22 t(c)=2.36), while there is no statistically significant difference in the n-3 content levels between the methods (t(paired)=1.31). The UNSFA/SFA ratio obtained by using modified Soxhlet method is also higher than the ratio obtained using ASE method (t(paired)=4.88 t(c)=2.36). Results of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that the highest positive impact to

  9. Fatty acid composition and contents of trans monounsaturated fatty acids in frying fats, and in margarines and shortenings marketed in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, L.; Leth, Torben; Hansen, K.

    1998-01-01

    of trans long-chain fatty acids. Both fast-food frying fats contained large amounts of trans C-18:1, 21.9 +/- 2.9% in Burger King and 16.6 +/- 0.4% in McDonald's. In Denmark the per capita supply of trans C-18:1 from margarines and shortenings and frying fats has decreased steadily during recent years....... The supply of trans C-18:1 from margarines and shortenings in the Danish diet is now 1.1 g per day....

  10. Effects of plant species, stage of maturity, and level of formic acid addition on lipolysis, lipid content, and fatty acid composition during ensiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivunen, E; Jaakkola, S; Heikkilä, T; Lampi, A-M; Halmemies-Beauchet-Filleau, A; Lee, M R F; Winters, A L; Shingfield, K J; Vanhatalo, A

    2015-09-01

    Forage type and management influences the nutritional quality and fatty acid composition of ruminant milk. Replacing grass silage with red clover (RC; L.) silage increases milk fat 18:3-3 concentration. Red clover has a higher polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity compared with grasses, which has been suggested to decrease lipolysis and . The present study characterized the abundance and fatty acid composition of esterified lipid and NEFA before and after ensiling of grass and RC to investigate the influence of forage species, growth stage, and extent of fermentation on lipolysis. A randomized block design with a 2 × 3 × 4 factorial arrangement of treatments was used. Treatments comprised RC or a mixture of timothy ( L.) and meadow fescue ( Huds.) harvested at 3 growth stages and treated with 4 levels of formic acid (0, 2, 4, and 6 L/t). Lipid in silages treated with 0 or 6 L/t formic acid were extracted and separated into 4 fractions by TLC. Total PPO activity in fresh herbage and the content of soluble bound phenols in all silages were determined. Concentrations of 18:3-3 and total fatty acids (TFA) were higher ( ensilage of RC decreases lipolysis . For both plant species, total PPO activity was not associated with the extent of lipolysis . However, bound phenols formed via PPO activity appear to have a role in protecting lipid and protein against degradation in grass and lowering proteolysis of RC during ensiling.

  11. Trans fatty acid content in Malaysian supermarket foods: a field-to-laboratory approach in assessing food risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karupaiah, Tilakavati; Tan, Hui Kuen; Ong, Wei Wen; Tan, Choon Heen; Sundram, Kalyana

    2014-01-01

    The extent of industrial trans fatty acids (TFA) in the food supply is unknown in Malaysia, whilst TFA disclosure on food labels is not mandatory by Malaysian food standards. Supermarket foods such as dairy products, fats and oils, meat products, snack foods, soups, and confectionery are commonly cited to be major contributors of TFA in the diet. A consumer survey (n = 622) was used to develop a food listing of these 'high risk' foods. TFA content of high-risk foods were analysed by gas chromatography. Food samples (n = 158) were analysed and their total TFA content were compared with Malaysian Food Standards. A wide variation in TFA content within food categories was indicated. Of the foods containing TFA, many food labels did not cite TFA content or the use of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVO) as an ingredient. Hypothesised estimates of TFA intake from these supermarket foods in a sample day's menu providing 2000 kcal projected a minimum intake of 0.5 g and a maximum intake of 5.2 g TFA. This study found there was no voluntary disclosure of TFA content on food labels or identifying PHVO as an ingredient. It appears that health education targeting consumers to minimise TFA consumption is required supported by mandatory PHVO disclosure on the food label.

  12. Determination of fatty acid, tocopherol and phyto sterol contents of the oils of various poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) seeds.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enric, H.; Tekin, A.; Musa Ozcan, M.

    2009-07-01

    The fatty acid, tocopherol and sterol contents of the oils of several poppy seeds were investigated. The main fatty acids in poppy seed oils were linoleic (687.6-739.2 g kg{sup -}1), oleic (141.3-192.8 g kg{sup -}1) and palmitic (76.8-92.8 g kg{sup -}1). The oils contained an appreciable amount of {gamma}-tocopherol (195.37-280.85 mg kg{sup -}1), with a mean value of 261.31 mg kg-1 and {alpha}-tocopherol (21.99-45.83 mg kg{sup -}1), with a mean value of 33.03 mg kg{sup -}1. The concentrations of total sterol ranged from 1099.84 mg kg{sup -}1 (K.pembe) to 4816.10 mg kg-1 (2. sinif beyaz), with a mean value of 2916.20 mg kg{sup -}1. The major sterols were {beta}-sitosterol, ranging from 663.91 to 3244.39 mg kg{sup -}1; campesterol, ranging from 228.59 to 736.50 mg kg{sup -}1; and {delta}{sup 5}-avenasterol, ranging from 103.90 to 425.02 mg kg{sup -}1. The studied varieties of poppy seeds from Turkey were found to be a potential source of valuable oil. (Author) 31 refs.

  13. Reproductive Cycle and Seasonal Variations in Lipid Content and Fatty Acid Composition in Gonad of the Cockle Fulvia mutica in Relation to Temperature and Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wenguang; LI Qi; KONG Lingfeng

    2013-01-01

    From March 2004 to February 2005,seasonal variations in lipid content and fatty acid composition of gonad of the cockle Fulvia mutica (Reeve) were studied on the eastern coast of China in relation to the reproductive cycle and environment conditions (e.g.,temperature and food availability).Histological analysis as well as lipid and fatty acid analyses were performed on neutral and polar lipids of the gonad.Results showed that gametogenesis occurred in winter and spring at the expense of lipids previously accumulated in summer and autumn,whereas spawning occurred in summer (20.4-24.6℃).The seasonal variation in lipid content was similar to that of the mean oocyte diameter.In both neutral and polar lipids,the 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 levels were relatively higher than saturated fatty acids,and polyunsaturated fatty acids were abundant,with series n-3 as the predominant component.Seasonal variations in the 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 levels and the principal n-3 fatty acids were clearly related to the reproductive cycle.The ∑(n-3)and ∑(n-6) values were relatively high during January-May,and the associated unsaturation index was significantly higher than that in other months.The results suggest that fatty acids play an important role in the gametogenesis of F.mutica.

  14. Reproductive cycle and seasonal variations in lipid content and fatty acid composition in gonad of the cockle Fulvia mutica in relation to temperature and food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenguang; Li, Qi; Kong, Lingfeng

    2013-09-01

    From March 2004 to February 2005, seasonal variations in lipid content and fatty acid composition of gonad of the cockle Fulvia mutica (Reeve) were studied on the eastern coast of China in relation to the reproductive cycle and environment conditions ( e.g., temperature and food availability). Histological analysis as well as lipid and fatty acid analyses were performed on neutral and polar lipids of the gonad. Results showed that gametogenesis occurred in winter and spring at the expense of lipids previously accumulated in summer and autumn, whereas spawning occurred in summer (20.4-24.6°C). The seasonal variation in lipid content was similar to that of the mean oocyte diameter. In both neutral and polar lipids, the 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 levels were relatively higher than saturated fatty acids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids were abundant, with series n-3 as the predominant component. Seasonal variations in the 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 levels and the principal n-3 fatty acids were clearly related to the reproductive cycle. The Σ(n-3) and Σ(n-6) values were relatively high during January-May, and the associated unsaturation index was significantly higher than that in other months. The results suggest that fatty acids play an important role in the gametogenesis of F. mutica.

  15. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis IX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carey, E. M.; Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Dils, R.

    1972-01-01

    # 1. I. [I-14C]Acetate was covalently bound to rabbit mammary gland fatty acid synthetase by enzymic transacylation from [I-14C]acetyl-CoA. Per mole of enzyme 2 moles of acetate were bound to thiol groups and up to I mole of acetate was bound to non-thiol groups. # 2. 2. The acetyl-fatty acid...... synthetase complex was isolated free from acetyl-CoA. It was rapidly hydrolysed at 30°C, but hydrolysis was greatly diminished at o°C and triacetic lactone synthesis occurred. In the presence of malonyl-CoA and NADPH, all the acetate bound to fatty acid synthetase was incorporated into long-chain fatty acids....... Hydrolysis of bound acetate and incorporation of bound acetate into fatty acids were inhibited to the same extent by guanidine hydrochloride. # 3. 3. Acetate was also covalently bound to fatty acid synthetase by chemical acetylation with [I-14C]acetic anhydride in the absence of CoASH. A total of 60 moles...

  16. Effect of Cultivars and Planting Date on Yield, Oil Content, and Fatty Acid Profile of Flax Varieties (Linum usitatissimum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricel Andrea Gallardo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the effect of cultivars and planting date on flax fatty acid profile, seed yield, and oil content, an assay with seven cultivars (Baikal, Prointa Lucero, Prointa Ceibal, Panambí INTA, Curundú INTA, Carapé INTA, and Tape INTA was carried out at Parana Agricultural Experimental Station, Argentina. Significant differences among cultivars were found for content of palmitic (5–7 g/100 g, stearic (5–8 g/100 g, linoleic (13–19 g/100 g, saturated (11–15 g/100 g, and unsaturated acids (92–96 g/100 g within the seven cultivars. The best seed yields were observed in Prointa Lucero and Carapé INTA varieties (2091.50 kg·ha−1 and 2183.34 kg·ha−1, respectively in the first planting date and in Carapé INTA and Prointa Lucero (1667 kg·ha−1 and 1886 kg·ha−1, respectively in the second planting date. A delayed planting date had a negative effect on seed yield (1950 kg·ha−1 and 1516 kg·ha−1 and oil content (845 kg·ha−1 and 644 kg·ha−1 but did not affect oil composition.

  17. Content of fatty acids and phenolics in Coratina olive oil from Tunisia: influence of irrigation and ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbou, Samia; Dabbou, Sihem; Chehab, Hechmi; Taticchi, Agnese; Servili, Maurizio; Hammami, Mohamed

    2015-03-01

    The quality indices and chemical composition of Coratina olive oil produced in the northern region of Tunisia were evaluated, to determine the effect of three different irrigation regimes of the trees on the olive oils. The olives were sampled at two different stages of maturity, the oils were extracted, and standard methods were used to analyze the composition and quality of the oils. The fatty-acid contents and quality parameters were only slightly affected by the irrigation regime. The contents of palmitic, oleic, and linoleic acids were above 12, 72, and 8%, respectively, for the second harvest, regardless of the irrigation level of the olive trees. Parameters such as the α-tocopherol content and the phenolic profile were found to be significantly affected by the harvesting time; however, inconsistent changes were observed for the irrigation regimes, especially for the oil of the second harvest. It was shown that the irrigation conditions of the olive trees as well as the harvesting time of the fruits gave rise to a diverse range of olive oils in Tunisia. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  18. Canola Oil in Lactating Dairy Cow Diets Reduces Milk Saturated Fatty Acids and Improves Its Omega-3 and Oleic Fatty Acid Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welter, Katiéli Caroline; Martins, Cristian Marlon de Magalhães Rodrigues; de Palma, André Soligo Vizeu; Martins, Mellory Martinson; Dos Reis, Bárbara Roqueto; Schmidt, Bárbara Laís Unglaube; Saran Netto, Arlindo

    2016-01-01

    To produce milk that is healthier for human consumption, the present study evaluated the effect of including canola oil in the diet of dairy cows on milk production and composition as well as the nutritional quality of this milk fat. Eighteen Holstein cows with an average daily milk yield of 22 (± 4) kg/d in the middle stage of lactation were used. The cows were distributed in 6 contemporary 3x3 Latin squares consisting of 3 periods and 3 treatments: control diet (without oil), 3% inclusion of canola oil in the diet and 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet (dry matter basis). The inclusion of 6% canola oil in the diet of lactating cows linearly reduced the milk yield by 2.51 kg/d, short-chain fatty acids (FA) by 41.42%, medium chain FA by 27.32%, saturated FA by 20.24%, saturated/unsaturated FA ratio by 39.20%, omega-6/omega-3 ratio by 39.45%, and atherogenicity index by 48.36% compared with the control treatment. Moreover, with the 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet of cows, there was an increase in the concentration of long chain FA by 45.91%, unsaturated FA by 34.08%, monounsaturated FA by 40.37%, polyunsaturated FA by 17.88%, milk concentration of omega-3 by 115%, rumenic acid (CLA) by 16.50%, oleic acid by 44.87% and h/H milk index by 94.44% compared with the control treatment. Thus, the inclusion of canola oil in the diet of lactating dairy cows makes the milk fatty acid profile nutritionally healthier for the human diet; however, the lactating performance of dairy cows is reduce.

  19. Canola Oil in Lactating Dairy Cow Diets Reduces Milk Saturated Fatty Acids and Improves Its Omega-3 and Oleic Fatty Acid Content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katiéli Caroline Welter

    Full Text Available To produce milk that is healthier for human consumption, the present study evaluated the effect of including canola oil in the diet of dairy cows on milk production and composition as well as the nutritional quality of this milk fat. Eighteen Holstein cows with an average daily milk yield of 22 (± 4 kg/d in the middle stage of lactation were used. The cows were distributed in 6 contemporary 3x3 Latin squares consisting of 3 periods and 3 treatments: control diet (without oil, 3% inclusion of canola oil in the diet and 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet (dry matter basis. The inclusion of 6% canola oil in the diet of lactating cows linearly reduced the milk yield by 2.51 kg/d, short-chain fatty acids (FA by 41.42%, medium chain FA by 27.32%, saturated FA by 20.24%, saturated/unsaturated FA ratio by 39.20%, omega-6/omega-3 ratio by 39.45%, and atherogenicity index by 48.36% compared with the control treatment. Moreover, with the 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet of cows, there was an increase in the concentration of long chain FA by 45.91%, unsaturated FA by 34.08%, monounsaturated FA by 40.37%, polyunsaturated FA by 17.88%, milk concentration of omega-3 by 115%, rumenic acid (CLA by 16.50%, oleic acid by 44.87% and h/H milk index by 94.44% compared with the control treatment. Thus, the inclusion of canola oil in the diet of lactating dairy cows makes the milk fatty acid profile nutritionally healthier for the human diet; however, the lactating performance of dairy cows is reduce.

  20. California Hass avocado: profiling of carotenoids, tocopherol, fatty acid, and fat content during maturation and from different growing areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qing-Yi; Zhang, Yanjun; Wang, Yue; Wang, David; Lee, Ru-po; Gao, Kun; Byrns, Russell; Heber, David

    2009-11-11

    The California Hass avocado ( Persea americana ) is an example of a domesticated berry fruit that matures on the tree during its growing season but ripens only after being harvested. Avocados are typically harvested multiple times during the growing season in California. Previous research has demonstrated potential health benefits of avocados and extracts of avocado against inflammation and cancer cell growth, but seasonal variations in the phytochemical profile of the fruits being studied may affect the results obtained in future research. Therefore, in the present study, avocados were harvested in January, April, July, and September, 2008, from four different growing locations in California (San Luis Obispo, Ventura, Riverside, and San Diego) and analyzed for total fat content, fatty acid profile, carotenoids, and vitamin E. A significant increase in total carotenoid and fat content of avocados from all regions was noted as the season progressed from January to September. Four carotenoids not previously described in the avocado were quantified. The total content of carotenoids was highly correlated with the total fat content (r = 0.99, p Hass avocado. Future clinical research on the health benefits of the avocado should specify the time of harvest, degree of ripening, growing area, and the total phytochemical profile of the fruit or extract being studied. These steps will enable researchers to account for potential nutrient-nutrient interactions that might affect the research outcomes.

  1. California Hass Avocado: Profiling of Carotenoids, tocopherol, fatty acid, and fat content during maturation and from different growing areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qing-Yi; Zhang, Yanjun; Wang, Yue; Wang, David; Lee, Ru-po; Gao, Kun; Byrns, Russell; Heber, David

    2009-01-01

    The California Hass avocado (Persea Americana) is an example of a domesticated berry fruit that matures on the tree during its growing season but ripens only after being harvested. Avocados are typically harvested multiple times during the growing season in California. Previous research has demonstrated potential health benefits of avocados and extracts of avocado against inflammation and cancer cell growth, but seasonal variations in the phytochemical profile of the fruits being studied may affect the results obtained in future research. Therefore in the present study, avocados were harvested in January, April, July and September 2008 from four different growing locations in California (San Luis Obispo, Ventura, Riverside and San Diego), and analyzed fortotal fat content, fatty acid profile, carotenoids and vitamin E. A significant increase in total carotenoid and fat content of avocados from all regions was noted as the season progressed from January to September. Four carotenoids not previously described in the avocado were quantified. The total content of carotenoids was highly correlated with total fat content (r=0.99, pavocado.. Future clinical research on the health benefits of the avocado should specify the time of harvest, degree of ripening, growing area and the total phytochemical profile of the fruit or extract being studied. These steps will enable researchers to account for potential nutrient-nutrient interactions that might affect the research outcomes. PMID:19813713

  2. Composition of amino acids, fatty acids and dietary fibre monomers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Composition of amino acids, fatty acids and dietary fibre monomers in kernels of ... Nuts are rich in protein and essential amino acids, and have a high energy value ... of protein, especially when combined with foods with high lysine content.

  3. A review of fatty acid profiles and antioxidant content in grass-fed and grain-fed beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Glenn A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Growing consumer interest in grass-fed beef products has raised a number of questions with regard to the perceived differences in nutritional quality between grass-fed and grain-fed cattle. Research spanning three decades suggests that grass-based diets can significantly improve the fatty acid (FA composition and antioxidant content of beef, albeit with variable impacts on overall palatability. Grass-based diets have been shown to enhance total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA (C18:2 isomers, trans vaccenic acid (TVA (C18:1 t11, a precursor to CLA, and omega-3 (n-3 FAs on a g/g fat basis. While the overall concentration of total SFAs is not different between feeding regimens, grass-finished beef tends toward a higher proportion of cholesterol neutral stearic FA (C18:0, and less cholesterol-elevating SFAs such as myristic (C14:0 and palmitic (C16:0 FAs. Several studies suggest that grass-based diets elevate precursors for Vitamin A and E, as well as cancer fighting antioxidants such as glutathione (GT and superoxide dismutase (SOD activity as compared to grain-fed contemporaries. Fat conscious consumers will also prefer the overall lower fat content of a grass-fed beef product. However, consumers should be aware that the differences in FA content will also give grass-fed beef a distinct grass flavor and unique cooking qualities that should be considered when making the transition from grain-fed beef. In addition, the fat from grass-finished beef may have a yellowish appearance from the elevated carotenoid content (precursor to Vitamin A. It is also noted that grain-fed beef consumers may achieve similar intakes of both n-3 and CLA through the consumption of higher fat grain-fed portions.

  4. Quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, and fatty acid content among several Hibiscus sabdariffa accession calyces based on maturity in a greenhouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavonols including quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, and fatty acids in plants have many useful health attributes including antioxidants, cholesterol lowering, and cancer prevention. Six accessions of roselle, Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces were evaluated for quercetin, kaempferol, and myricetin conte...

  5. Mineral, fatty acid, and flavonoid content in a subset of plant introductions from the pulse species, Macrotyloma uniflorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsegram, Macrotyloma uniflorum is an underutilized legume used as a pulse vegetable. The USDA, ARS, PGRCU conserves 36 horsegram accessions from countries worldwide. To determine if horsegram contains variable amounts of dietary minerals, fatty acids, and health enhancing nutraceuticals including...

  6. Using a gradient in food quality to infer drivers of fatty acid content in two filter-feeding aquatic consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, James H.; Richardson, William B.; Vallazza, Jon; Bartsch, Lynn; Bartsch, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Inferences about ecological structure and function are often made using elemental or macromolecular tracers of food web structure. For example, inferences about food chain length are often made using stable isotope ratios of top predators and consumer food sources are often inferred from both stable isotopes and fatty acid (FA) content in consumer tissues. The use of FAs as tracers implies some degree of macromolecular conservation across trophic interactions, but many FAs are subject to physiological alteration and animals may produce those FAs from precursors in response to food deficiencies. We measured 41 individual FAs and several aggregate FA metrics in two filter-feeding taxa to (1) assess ecological variation in food availability and (2) identify potential drivers of among-site variation in FA content. These taxa were filter feeding caddisflies (Family Hydropyschidae) and dreissenid mussels (Genus Dreissena), which both consume seston. Stable isotopic composition (C and N) in these taxa co-varied across 13 sites in the Great Lakes region of North America, indicating they fed on very similar food resources. However, co-variation in FA content was very limited, with only one common FA co-varying across this gradient (α-linolenic acid; ALA), suggesting these taxa accumulate FAs very differently even when exposed to the same foods. Based on these results, among-site variation in ALA content in both consumers does appear to be driven by food resources, along with several other FAs in dreissenid mussels. We conclude that single-taxa measurements of FA content cannot be used to infer FA availability in food resources.

  7. Encapsulated specialty oils commercialized in São Paulo state, Brazil: evaluation of identity (fatty acid profile and compliance of fatty acids and Vitamin E contents with nutrition labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Hirashima

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Encapsulated specialty oils commercialized in São Paulo state, Brazil, were evaluated for their identity (fatty acids profile and compliance with nutrition labeling (fatty acids and Vitamin E (alpha tocopherol contents. Twenty one samples [flaxseed oil (6, evening primrose (5, safflower (8, borage (1, and black currant (1] purchased from local markets or collected by the health surveillance agency were analyzed. The fatty acids and vitamin E contents were analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector and liquid chromatography with UV detector, respectively. Nine samples were adulterated (5 samples of safflower oil, 3 of flaxseed oil, and one of evening primrose. Among them, 3 flaxseed and 2 safflower oil samples were probably adulterated by the addition of soybean oil. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA was found in two safflower oils samples although the sale of oils with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA is not permitted by the National Health Surveillance Agency in Brazil (ANVISA. Only two samples presented all values in compliance with nutrition labeling (one safflower oil sample and one borage oil sample. The results show that a continuous monitoring of encapsulated specialty oils commercialized in Brazil is necessary including a greater number of samples and sanitary surveillance.

  8. Variations in fatty acid composition, glucosinolate profile and some phyto chemical contents in selected oil seed rape (Brassica napus L.) cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Din Saad El-Beltag, H.; Mohamed, A. A.

    2010-07-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is now the third most important source of edible oil in the world after soybean and palm oil. In this study seeds of five different rapeseed cultivars namely; pactol, silvo, topas, serw 4 and serw 6 were evaluated for their fatty acid composition, glucosinolate profile, amino acids, total tocopherols and phenolic content. Among all cultivars significant variability in fatty acids were observed. The oleic acid (C18:1) ranged from 56.31% to 58.67%, linoleic acid (C18:2) from 10.52% to 13.74%, {alpha}-linolenic acid (C18:3) from 8.83% to 10.32% and erucic acid (22:1) from 0.15% to 0.91%. The glucosinolate profile of rapeseed was also separated and identified using high-performance liquid chromatography. Small variations in the glucosinolate profile were observed among all tested cultivars; however, progoitrin and gluconapin were the major glucosinolate found. Additionally, silvo cultivar showed the highest total glucosinolate contents (5.97 {mu}mol/g dw). Generally, the contents of aspartic, glutamic, arginine and leucine were high, while the contents of tyrosine and isoleucine were low among all cultivars. For total tocopherols, the results indicated that both serw 6 and pactol cultivars had the highest total tocopherol contents (138.3 and 102.8 mg/100 g oil, respectively). Total phenolic contents varied from 28.0 to 35.4 mg/g dw. The highest total phenolic content was found in topas while the lowest value was detected in serw 6. These parameters; fatty acid contents, glucosinolate profile and amino acids together with total tocopherols and phenolic contents, could be taken into consideration by oilseed rape breeders as selection criteria for developing genotypes with modified seed quality traits in Brassica napus L. (Author)

  9. Effect of temperature, water content and free fatty acid on reverse micelle formation of phospholipids in vegetable oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtinen, Olli-Pekka; Nugroho, Robertus Wahyu N; Lehtimaa, Tuula; Vierros, Sampsa; Hiekkataipale, Panu; Ruokolainen, Janne; Sammalkorpi, Maria; Österberg, Monika

    2017-09-22

    The self-assembly of phospholipids in oil, specifically lecithin in rapeseed oil, was investigated by combining experimental and computational methods The influence of temperature, water, and free fatty acids on the onset of lecithin aggregation in the rapeseed oil was determined using the 7,7,8,8 -tetracyanoquinodimethane dye (TCNQ) solubilization method and the size and shape of the self-assembled lecithin structures were investigated by small-angle X-ray scattering and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy. In the absence of excess water in the system (0.03wt-% water in oil), stable cylindrical lecithin reverse micelles were observed above the critical micelle concentration (CMC). Comparing the aggregation response in room temperature and at 70°C revealed that CMC decreased with increasing temperature. Furthermore, already a modest amount of added water (0.3wt-% water in oil) was sufficient to induce the formation of lamellar lecithin structures, that phase separated from the oil. In low water content, oleic acid suppressed the formation of lecithin reverse micelles whereas in the presence of more water, the oleic acid stabilized the reverse micelles. Consequently, more water was needed to induce phase separation in the presence of oleic acid. Molecular dynamics simulations indicated that the stabilizing effect of oleic acid resulted from oleic acid enhancing phospholipid solubilization in the oil by forming a solvating shell around the phosphate head group. The findings showed that the response of the mixed surfactant system is a delicate interplay of the different components and variables. The significance of the observations is that multiple parameters need to be controlled for desired system response, for example towards vegetable oil purification or phospholipid based microemulsions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of Extractive Solvents on Lipid and Fatty Acids Content of Edible Freshwater Algal and Seaweed Products, the Green Microalga Chlorella kessleri and the Cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Vavra Ambrozova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Total lipid contents of green (Chlorella pyrenoidosa, C, red (Porphyra tenera, N; Palmaria palmata, D, and brown (Laminaria japonica, K; Eisenia bicyclis, A; Undaria pinnatifida, W, WI; Hizikia fusiformis, H commercial edible algal and cyanobacterial (Spirulina platensis, S products, and autotrophically cultivated samples of the green microalga Chlorella kessleri (CK and the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis (SP were determined using a solvent mixture of methanol/chloroform/water (1:2:1, v/v/v, solvent I and n-hexane (solvent II. Total lipid contents ranged from 0.64% (II to 18.02% (I by dry weight and the highest total lipid content was observed in the autotrophically cultivated cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis. Solvent mixture I was found to be more effective than solvent II. Fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography of their methyl esters (% of total FAMEs. Generally, the predominant fatty acids (all results for extractions with solvent mixture I were saturated palmitic acid (C16:0; 24.64%–65.49%, monounsaturated oleic acid (C18:1(n-9; 2.79%–26.45%, polyunsaturated linoleic acid (C18:2(n-6; 0.71%–36.38%, α-linolenic acid (C18:3(n-3; 0.00%–21.29%, γ-linolenic acid (C18:3(n-6; 1.94%–17.36%, and arachidonic acid (C20:4(n-6; 0.00%–15.37%. The highest content of ω-3 fatty acids (21.29% was determined in Chlorella pyrenoidosa using solvent I, while conversely, the highest content of ω-6 fatty acids (41.42% was observed in Chlorella kessleri using the same solvent.

  11. Variations in fatty acid composition, glucosinolate profile and some phytochemical contents in selected oil seed rape (Brassica napus L. cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Mohamed, Amal

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. is now the third most important source of edible oil in the world after soybean and palm oil. In this study seeds of five different rapeseed cultivars namely; pactol, silvo, topas, serw 4 and serw 6 were evaluated for their fatty acid composition, glucosinolate profile, amino acids, total tocopherols and phenolic content. Among all cultivars significant variability in fatty acids were observed. The oleic acid (C18:1 ranged from 56.31% to 58.67%, linoleic acid (C18:2 from 10.52% to 13.74%, α-linolenic acid (C18:3 from 8.83% to 10.32% and erucic acid (22:1 from 0.15% to 0.91%. The glucosinolate profile of rapeseed was also separated and identified using high-performance liquid chromatography. Small variations in the glucosinolate profile were observed among all tested cultivars; however, progoitrin and gluconapin were the major glucosinolate found. Additionally, silvo cultivar showed the highest total glucosinolate c ontents (5.97 μmol/g dw. Generally, the contents of aspartic, glutamic, arginine and leucine were high, while the contents of tyrosine and isoleucine were low among all cultivars. For total tocopherols, the results indicated that both serw 6 and pactol cultivars had the highest total tocopherol contents (138.3 and 102.8 mg/100 g oil, respectively. Total phenolic contents varied from 28.0 to 35.4 mg/g dw. The highest total phenolic content was found in topas while the lowest value was detected in serw 6. These parameters; fatty acid contents, glucosinolate profile and amino acids together with total tocopherols and phenolic contents, could be taken into consideration by oilseed rape breeders as selection criteria for developing genotypes with modified seed quality traits in Brassica napus L.La colza (Brassica napus L. es hoy en día el tercer cultivo más importante de aceites comestibles en el mundo tras el aceite de soja y de palma. En este estudio semillas de cinco cultivos diferentes de colza

  12. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Inflammatory Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip C. Calder

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Long chain fatty acids influence inflammation through a variety of mechanisms; many of these are mediated by, or at least associated with, changes in fatty acid composition of cell membranes. Changes in these compositions can modify membrane fluidity, cell signaling leading to altered gene expression, and the pattern of lipid mediator production. Cell involved in the inflammatory response are typically rich in the n-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid, but the contents of arachidonic acid and of the n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA can be altered through oral administration of EPA and DHA. Eicosanoids produced from arachidonic acid have roles in inflammation. EPA also gives rise to eicosanoids and these often have differing properties from those of arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids. EPA and DHA give rise to newly discovered resolvins which are anti-inflammatory and inflammation resolving. Increased membrane content of EPA and DHA (and decreased arachidonic acid content results in a changed pattern of production of eicosanoids and resolvins. Changing the fatty acid composition of cells involved in the inflammatory response also affects production of peptide mediators of inflammation (adhesion molecules, cytokines etc.. Thus, the fatty acid composition of cells involved in the inflammatory response influences their function; the contents of arachidonic acid, EPA and DHA appear to be especially important. The anti-inflammatory effects of marine n-3 PUFAs suggest that they may be useful as therapeutic agents in disorders with an inflammatory component.

  13. Halogenated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Sundin, Peter; Wesén, Clas

    1997-01-01

    Halogenated fatty acids are the major contributors to organohalogen compounds in lipids of marine mammals, fish, and bivalves. For the initial characterization of these recently noticed compounds, a determination of the halogen concentration has usually been combined with some lipid isolation...... and separation method. This review covers separation by solid phase chromatography, gel permeation chromatography, and liquid-liquid extraction, followed by halogen determination. All studies performed according to this outline have indicated that the major organohalogen compounds are chlorinated fatty acids...... bound in different lipids. For the detection and identification of individual, halogenated fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) liberated from the lipids, gas chromatography (GC) has been employed together with detection methods such as electron capture detection, electrolytic conductivity detection (ELCD...

  14. Relations between basic milk components and free fatty acid content in Holstein cow milk as lipolysis parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luděk Stádník

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate in detail the relationship between the basic milk components (fat and protein percentage and the free fatty acids (FFA content, as indicators of spontaneous and/or induced lipolysis. The additional aim of the study was to compare the FFA content of milk with respect to spontaneous and induced lipolysis. Milking was carried out in herringbone parlour twice a day. In total, 540 milk samples were obtained for evaluation of spontaneous (n=240 and induced lipolysis (n=300. The milk samples for determination of basic milk components and FFA (li¬polysis levels were collected during four subsequent lactation weeks. Milk samples for spontaneous lipolysis detection were taken directly in parlour immediately after milking using the ICAR methodology and subsequently grouped. Induced lipolysis was observed from bulk milk in time 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 hours after milking (T0-T4. The evaluation of basic components and FFA content was carried on MILKOSCAN F120 (Foss Electronic; Denmark. Statistical evaluation was carried out using SAS 9.3. (SAS/STAT® 9.3, 2011. An increase of one percentage of milk fat was equal to 0.318 mmol x 100 g-1 FFA decline (spontaneous lipolysis or from 0.232 to 0.370 mmol x 100 g-1 FFA decline (induced lipolysis T0-T4 respectively. One percentage increase of milk protein was equal to 1.219 mmol x 100 g-1 FFA increase (spontaneous lipolysis or 0.421 to 1.531 mmol x 100 g-1 FFA decrease (induced lipolysis T0 - T4 respectively. Significant differences (P<0.01 were detected among FFA content in relation to spontaneous and induced lipolysis evaluated during storage and cooling after milking. The minimal differences were detected between the FFA content during 4 hours cooling and storage of milk in the tank.

  15. Microelement contents and fatty acid compositions of Rhus coriaria L. and Pistacia terebinthus L. fruits spread commonly in the south eastern Anatolia region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizil, Suleyman; Turk, Murat

    2010-01-01

    Sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) and terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) are two important spice plants of south eastern Anatolia, Turkey. Nutrients, physical properties including moisture, ash, dry matter, protein, fatty oil and essential oil content, along with Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Ni, Pb, Zn and characteristics of fruit sizes and fatty acid compositions of both plants were determined from ripe fruits. The free fatty acid content was determined in the fruit oil, and the main fatty acids of sumac and terebinth were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. They included oleic, linoleic, palmitic and stearic acids in a ratio of 37.7% and 34.8%, 27.4% and 17.3%, 21.1% and 21.7% and, 4.7% and 2.5%, respectively. The fruits of both plants were rich in oil, fatty acids and minerals, suggesting that they are valuable for using in food. The data may also be useful for the evaluation of nutritional information.

  16. Effect of dose of calcium salts of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on percentage and fatty acid content of milk fat in midlactation holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesy, J G; McGuire, M A; Shafii, B; Hanson, T W

    2002-08-01

    Increasing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of milk fat from lactating dairy cattle has become a research interest due to the possible health benefits afforded humans consuming CLA. Dietary supplementation of CLA to lactating dairy cows is one potential method by which CLA content of milk and dairy products may be enhanced. Feeding CLA in calcium salt form could potentially deliver CLA to the lower digestive tract through prevention of biohydrogenation by rumen microbes. Milk fat depression (MFD) occurs when cows receive CLA-60, a commercially available CLA source containing numerous CLA isomers, abomasally. Our objectives were to determine the quantity of CLA as calcium salts required to elicit maximal MFD and to evaluate the effects of CLA supplementation on fatty acid composition of milk fat. Five Holstein cows at approximately 93 DIM were utilized in a 5 x 5 balanced Latin square crossover design. Periods were 14-d in length with a 5-d treatment phase and 9-d rest phase. Treatments were 5-d supplementation of 0, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 g of CLA-60 in calcium salt form. Milk samples were collected on d 5 of CLA supplementation and analyzed for composition and fatty acid profile. Regression analysis of milk fat data suggested that MFD was not maximized over the dose levels investigated, despite delivery of 34.5 g of trans-10, cis-12 CLA in the 100-g dose of CLA. Supplementation with 50 and 100 g of CLA per day resulted in a reduction of milk fat percent of 29 and 34%, respectively. Trend analysis indicated a linear decrease in the milk fat content of caprylic, capric, and lauric acids as the dose of CLA increased. Milk fat content of cis-9, trans-11, and trans-10, cis-12 CLA increased at an increasing rate as dose increased.

  17. Genetic resources of the functional food, teramnus labialis (L.f.) spreng for improving seed number, flavonol content, oil %, and fatty acid compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramnus labialis is used as food in India and has potential to be used as a functional food vegetable in the U.S.A. Photoperiod-sensitive T. labialis accessions were grown in the greenhouse from 2010 to 2011 and evaluated for flavonol content, oil %, and fatty acid compositions. Significant variati...

  18. The effect of the regulation on trans fatty acid content in Danish food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Torben; Jensen, Henrik G.; Mikkelsen, Aase Ærendahl;

    2006-01-01

    foods. A broader range of food was monitored with 253 samples in 2003 and 148 samples in 2005 after the Danish regulation was in effect. The investigations show that the TFA content has been reduced or removed from the products with high TFA content originally, like French fries, microwave oven popcorn...

  19. Lipid content and fatty acid composition of green algae Scenedesmus obliquus grown in a constant cell density apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, K. J.; Nakhost, Z.; Barzana, E.; Karel, M.

    1987-01-01

    The lipids of alga Scenedesmus obliquus grown under controlled conditions were separated and fractionated by column and thin-layer chromatography, and fatty acid composition of each lipid component was studied by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). Total lipids were 11.17%, and neutral lipid, glycolipid and phospholipid fractions were 7.24%, 2.45% and 1.48% on a dry weight basis, respectively. The major neutral lipids were diglycerides, triglycerides, free sterols, hydrocarbons and sterol esters. The glycolipids were: monogalactosyl diglyceride, digalactosyl diglyceride, esterified sterol glycoside, and sterol glycoside. The phospholipids included: phosphatidyl choline, phosphatidyl glycerol and phosphatidyl ethanolamine. Fourteen fatty acids were identified in the four lipid fractions by GLC. The main fatty acids were C18:2, C16:0, C18:3(alpha), C18:1, C16:3, C16:1, and C16:4. Total unsaturated fatty acid and essential fatty acid compositions of the total algal lipids were 80% and 38%, respectively.

  20. Genome-Wide Association Study Singles Out SCD and LEPR as the Two Main Loci Influencing Intramuscular Fat Content and Fatty Acid Composition in Duroc Pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Ros-Freixedes

    Full Text Available Intramuscular fat (IMF content and fatty acid composition affect the organoleptic quality and nutritional value of pork. A genome-wide association study was performed on 138 Duroc pigs genotyped with a 60k SNP chip to detect biologically relevant genomic variants influencing fat content and composition. Despite the limited sample size, the genome-wide association study was powerful enough to detect the association between fatty acid composition and a known haplotypic variant in SCD (SSC14 and to reveal an association of IMF and fatty acid composition in the LEPR region (SSC6. The association of LEPR was later validated with an independent set of 853 pigs using a candidate quantitative trait nucleotide. The SCD gene is responsible for the biosynthesis of oleic acid (C18:1 from stearic acid. This locus affected the stearic to oleic desaturation index (C18:1/C18:0, C18:1, and saturated (SFA and monounsaturated (MUFA fatty acids content. These effects were consistently detected in gluteus medius, longissimus dorsi, and subcutaneous fat. The association of LEPR with fatty acid composition was detected only in muscle and was, at least in part, a consequence of its effect on IMF content, with increased IMF resulting in more SFA, less polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, and greater SFA/PUFA ratio. Marker substitution effects estimated with a subset of 65 animals were used to predict the genomic estimated breeding values of 70 animals born 7 years later. Although predictions with the whole SNP chip information were in relatively high correlation with observed SFA, MUFA, and C18:1/C18:0 (0.48-0.60, IMF content and composition were in general better predicted by using only SNPs at the SCD and LEPR loci, in which case the correlation between predicted and observed values was in the range of 0.36 to 0.54 for all traits. Results indicate that markers in the SCD and LEPR genes can be useful to select for optimum fatty acid profiles of pork.

  1. PPARα signal pathway gene expression is associated with fatty acid content in yak and cattle longissimus dorsi muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, W; Liang, C N; Guo, X; Chu, M; Pei, J; Bao, P J; Wu, X Y; Li, T K; Yan, P

    2015-11-19

    Intramuscular fatty acid (FA) is related to meat qualities such as juiciness, tenderness, palatability, and shear force. PPARα plays an important role in lipid metabolism in the liver and skeletal muscle. This study investigated FA composition in yaks and cattle, in order to ascertain whether a correlation between PPARα signal pathway genes as candidate genes and meat FA composition in yaks and cattle exists. Statistical analyses revealed that levels of monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in yaks were significantly higher than those in cattle (P cattle (P cattle. However, LPL expression in yaks was significantly higher than that in cattle (P cattle, the mRNA level of PLTP was positively correlated with SFA (P meat quality.

  2. Nutritional composition, fatty acid and tocopherol contents of buriti (Mauritia flexuosa and patawa (Oenocarpus bataua fruit pulp from the amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Henri Darnet

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Buriti and patawa are two endemic palm trees from the Amazon region. Their pulps are traditionally consumed by the local population, but are underused and lesser known worldwide. Nutritional composition, fatty acid and tocopherol contents of the two palm pulps were determined by modern analytical methods: Gas Chromatography (CG and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC, based on the standards of AOCS (AMERICAN..., 2002 and AOAC (ASSOCIATION..., 1997, respectively. Buriti and patawa fruit pulps are highly nutritive, with respectively, high fat content (38.4% and 29.1% of dry matter (DM, protein content (7.6% and 7.4% of DM and dietary fibers (46% and 44.7% of DM. Buriti pulp can be considered healthy food due its high content of vitamin E (1169 µg.g-1 DM. Patawa pulp is highly oleaginous and its fatty acid composition is very similar to the ones of healthy oils, such as olive oil.

  3. The change in cholesterol content of long chain fatty acid egg during processing and its influence to the Rattus norvegicus L. blood cholesterol content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dini Hardini

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Egg containing long chain unsaturated fatty acids is a functional food, because it is highly nutritious and could prevent diseases, (omega 3 and 6 such as coronary heart attack. The research was aimed to measure the change of egg cholesterol content during proceesing: frying, oiless frying and boiling and their influence to the blood plasma cholesterol of normal and hypercholesterolemia rat. Seven treatments of egg yolk were frying at 170°C for 3 min (welldone = GM, and 1min (half medium fried = GSM using deep fryer , oilless frying at 70°C for10 min (fried = TM, and 6 min (half fried = TSM using Teflon pan, and boiling at 100°C for 10’ (boiled = RM dan 4 min (half boiled = RSM using pan provided with thermoregulator and a fresh omega egg as a control. The Completely randomized design was apllied for 4 weeks research period. The data from different treatments were analyzed by Orthogonal Contrast. Fifty 2 months old male rats Rattus norvegicus L. separated in 2 groups; normal and hypercholesterolemia (blood cholesterol > 200 mg dl-1. The rats were placed in individual cage, fed 15 g h-1 day-1 and water drinking ad libitum. The ration was composed of 90% basal commercial feed BR II and 10% egg yolk was given to each animal at 20% of live weight. Factorial 2 x 7 of completely randomized design was applied. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. Processsing method of egg affected to cholesterol content of egg, The lowest and the highest cholesterol contents were observed in TSM (0.30 g/100g and GM (0.37 g/100g, respectively. Biological test using Rattus norvegicus L rat showed that either fresh and processed long chain fatty acid egg decreased plasma cholesterol. The highest and the lowest decreases of cholesterol content were found in the group consumed RSM (8.64% and GM (1.77% for normal rat; and control (46.3% followed by RSM (44.53% and GM (24.86%, respectively. To maintain normal cholesterol and decrease

  4. Effect of forage conservation method, concentrate level and propylene glycol on the fatty acid composition and vitamin content of cows' milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shingfield, Kevin J; Salo-Väänänen, Pirjo; Pahkala, Eero; Toivonen, Vesa; Jaakkola, Seija; Piironen, Vieno; Huhtanen, Pekka

    2005-08-01

    Based on potential health benefits, there is a need to develop effective strategies for enhancing milk fat concentrations of cis-9 18:1, 18:3 n-3 and conjugated linoleic (CLA) content in milk without compromising the sensory or storage characteristics of processed milk or dairy products. Sixteen Finnish Ayrshire dairy cows were used in a cyclic change-over experiment with four 21-d experimental periods and a 4 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to evaluate the effects of forage conservation method, concentrate level and supplements of propylene glycol (PG), and their interactions on milk fatty acid composition and vitamin content. Experimental treatments consisted of four conserved forages offered ad libitum, supplemented with two levels of a standard concentrate (7 or 10 kg/d) and PG (0 and 210 g/d) fed as three equal meals. Primary growths of timothy and meadow fescue sward were conserved by ensiling with none (NA), an inoculant enzyme preparation (IE) or a formic acid based (FORM) additive or as hay 1 week later. Conservation of grass by drying rather than ensiling resulted in lower forage 18:2n-6, 18:3n-3, total fatty acid and fat-soluble vitamin concentrations. In spite of lower intakes, milk fat 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 content was higher (P acids, for hay, NA, IE and FORM silages, respectively). Forage conservation method had no clear effects on milk trans 18:1 or CLA content. Compared with silage, hay diets resulted in milk containing lower (P ascorbic acid, thiamine, pyridoxine or retinol content. Feeding more concentrates had no effect on milk fatty acid composition or milk vitamin content, other than lowering (P acids. Supplements of PG led to small (P acids and reduced (P ascorbic acid (16.1 v. 15.1 g/kg milk).

  5. Omega-3 fatty acids (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated fat that the body derives from food. Omega-3s (and omega-6s) are known as essential fatty acids (EFAs) because they are important for good health. ...

  6. Oil and fatty acid content in seed of Citrullus lanatus Schrad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intact seed of 475 genebank accessions of Citrullus (C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. lanatus var. citroides) were analyzed for percent oil content using TD-NMR. Extracts from whole seed of 96 accessions of Citrullus lanatus (30 var. citroides, 33 var. lanatus and 33 egusi), Citrullus colocynthis (n =...

  7. Diversity in oil content and fatty acid profile in seeds of wild cassava germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is the only commercial species of the Manihot genus, cultivated for its starchy tuber roots. However, cassava seeds are known to be rich in oils and fats, there are scant reports on the content and properties of oil from cassava seeds and its wild relatives. Wild Manihot ...

  8. Test of Inosinic Acid and Fatty Acid Contents in the Muscle of Jiangcun Yellow Chicken%江村黄鸡肌肉肌苷酸和脂肪酸含量的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    区炳庆; 景栋林; 张莹; 游影中; 黄得纯; 李华; 于辉

    2012-01-01

    试验测定了15周龄的江村黄鸡胸腿肌中肌苷酸与脂肪酸的含量.结果显示,江村黄鸡胸腿肌中肌苷酸含量为3.04 mg/g,饱和脂肪酸含量为24.60%,不饱和脂肪酸含量为31.93%,必需脂肪酸含量为16.02%,不饱和脂肪酸含量高于饱和脂肪酸.结果表明,江村黄鸡肉质在地方黄鸡中具有一定的品质资源优势.%The inosinie acid and fatty acid contents in the muscle of Jiangcun yellow chicken were measured at 15 weeks age. The results showed that the content of inosinie acid, saturated fatty acid, unsaturated fatty acid and essential fatty acid in Jiangcun yellow chicken was 3.04 mg/g, 24.60%, 31.93% and 16.02%, respectively, the contents of unsaturated fatty acid was relatively higher than saturated fatty acid. It indicated that Jiangcun yellow chicken had certain resource advantage in meat quality among the native yellow chicken.

  9. 婴幼儿配方奶粉中反式脂肪酸含量测定%The Content of Trans-fatty Acids in Infant Formula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶柏秋; 徐红颖

    2015-01-01

    According to the 62 samples from the seven infant formula milk powder brands purchased from Vanguard Supermarket in Hohhot, the contents of two kinds trans fatty acids in 62 samples are tested and confirmed. Capillary-gas chromatography and external standard quantitation is used to determine trans fatty acids. The method is simple, rapid, sensitive and suitable for the content analysis of trans fatty acids in infant formula. the contents of trans fatty acids are different in various brands of infant formula milk powder. Even the formulas from the same brand for different stages have different content of trans fatty acids.%通过对呼和浩特华润万家超市中采购的7个婴幼儿配方奶粉品牌,62个样品中的反-9-十八碳一烯酸甲酯和反-9,12-十八碳二烯酸甲酯两种反式脂肪酸含量状况的测定,探明反式脂肪酸在婴幼儿配方奶粉中的含量状况。采用气相色谱石英毛细柱外标法测定7个品牌62个样品的婴幼儿配方奶粉中反式脂肪酸含量。本法简单、快速、灵敏,适用于婴幼儿配方奶粉中的反式脂肪酸含量分析。不同品牌的婴幼儿配方奶粉中反式脂肪酸的含量各不相同,同一品牌不同阶段的婴幼儿奶粉含量也不相同。

  10. MODIFICATION OF THE N-3 POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS CONTENT IN MUSCLE TISSUE OF PIGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljenko Ernoić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to find out which combinations of oils give a desirable effect on n-3 PUFA content modification and total values increase in pigs’ meat without negative effects on fattening characteristics and carcass and meat quality of. The standard daily fattening pigs’ diet was supplemented with combinations of fish, linseed and rapeseed oils. The control group (A received 3% of animal (pork fat in their diet while 4 experimental groups received the following oil combinations: fish oil 0.5% + rapeseed oil 2.5% (B; fish oil 0.5% + linseed oil 2.5% (C; fish oil 1.0% + rapeseed oil 2.0% (D, and fish oil 1.0% + linseed oil 2.0% (E. The experiment was carried out in the last 4 weeks of fattening. A random sample of 50 pigs (Duroc x Swedish Landrace x Pietrain was divided into 5 groups with 10 pigs each of the equal ratio of both sexes. The results showed that the treatment and the sex statistically did not significantly influence daily gains whereas the interaction of the treatment and the sex did have a significant influence (p0.05 between the content of DHA in MLD in treatments A, B, and C. Increasing the content of fish oil in meals from 0.5% to 1% (treatments D and E produced a statistically significant increase of the DHA content compared to other groups (A, B, and C. The supplement of rapeseed oil (2% and fish oil (1% in pigs’ meals (treatment D influenced significantly higher disposal of n-3 PUFA in MLD compared to pigs fed with the supplement of 3% animal fat (treatment A. The ratio n-6/n-3 PUFA u MLD was statistically highly influenced (p<0.001 by the feeding treatment. The n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio ranged from 4.65:1 (barrows in treatment C to 20.14:1 (barrows in treatment A. The best n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio was observed in fattening pigs of both sexes from treatment C (5.00:1. Fattening pigs fed the combination of linseed oil and fish oil (treatments C and E had a better n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio in MLD (p<0.05, 5.00:1 and 6

  11. Determination of the antioxidant activity based on the content changes in fatty acid methyl esters in vegetable oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Housam Haj Hamdo; Zaid Al-Assaf; Warid Khayata

    2014-01-01

    Free radicals,which are generated in several biochemical reactions in the body,have been implicated as mediators of many diseases,including cancer,atherosclerosis and heart diseases.Although the endogenous antioxidants can scavenge these free radicals,they are often insufficient to maintain the in vivo redox balance.The antioxidant activity (AOA) was examined by addition of each tested antioxidants [alpha-tocopherol (a-T),beta-tocopherol (β-T),gamma-tocopherol (γ-T),delta-tocopherol (δ-T),butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA),2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT),and ascorbyle palmitate (AP)] to four types of different vegetable oils (sunflower oil,soybean oil,corn oil and olive oil).Moreover,content changes in fatty acids were then investigated every 3 months during the storage period.The results showed that the AOA was different among the tested antioxidants.The AOA for BHA was the most for different types of oil compared with other antioxidants,whereas the δ-T possessed the lowest AOA.

  12. The seed's protein and oil content, fatty acid composition, and growing cycle length of a single genotype of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) as affected by environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayerza, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    As a botanical source, variability in chia seed composition could be expected between growing locations, and between years within a location, due to genotype and environment effects as well genetic x environment's interactions. The objective of the present study was to determine the location effect on the growing cycle length, and seed's protein content, lipid content, and fatty acid profiles, of a single chia genotype. Seeds of chia genotype Tzotzol grown on eight sites in five different ecosystems were tested. One site was in Argentina, in the Semi-Arid Chaco ecosystem (T(5)); one was in Bolivia, in the Sub-Humid Chaco ecosystem (T(4)); and six in Ecuador, one in the Coastal Desert (T(3)), two on the Tropical Rain Forest (T(2)), and three in the Inter-Andean Dry Valley ecosystem (T(1)). Seeds from plants grown in T(4) and in T(3) contained significantly (P <0.05) more protein percentage than did seeds from the other three ecosystems. No significant (P <0.05) differences in protein content were found between T(3) and T(4), and between T(1), T(2), and T(5). Seeds from T(1) and T(5) ecosystems, with 33.5 and 32.2%, respectively, were the numerically highest oil content producers, but their results were only significantly (P <0.05) higher when compared with the T(2) seeds. Significant (P <0.05) differences in palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and alpha-linolenic fatty acids between oils from seeds grown in different ecosystems were detected, however. Oil of seeds grown in the T(3) ecosystem had the palmitic, stearic and oleic fatty acids' highest contents. Palmitic and oleic fatty acid levels were significantly (P <0.05) higher when were compared to that of seeds grown in the T(1) ecosystem, and stearic when was compared to that of seeds grown in the T(5) ecosystem; omega-6 linoleic fatty acid content was significantly (P <0.05) lower in oils of seeds produced in T(1), and T(2) than in those produced in T(3), T(4), and T(5) ecosystems; omega-3 alpha-linolenic fatty

  13. Cannabinoid-free Cannabis sativa L. grown in the Po valley: evaluation of fatty acid profile, antioxidant capacity and metabolic content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesma, G; Consonni, R; Gambaro, V; Remuzzi, C; Roda, G; Silvani, A; Vece, V; Visconti, G L

    2014-01-01

    Within a project aimed to reintroduce non-drug hemp cultivars in the Italian Po valley, for fibre but also high added-value nutraceutical production, investigation on locally grown plants has been performed, in order to assess their oil and metabolic content. This study provides useful information regarding three different hemp cultivars, from two sites, in view of their potential industrial application. The oil was characterised by a high unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio and by an almost perfect balance of ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids, as requested for healthy foods. The alcoholic extracts, for which a high content of amino acids and phenolic compounds has been highlighted, could provide dietary supplements to help in preventing oxidative stress. By investigating the Carmagnola cultivar, six known and four new lignanamides have been identified, confirming and assessing the general metabolic pattern in the seeds of these locally grown plants.

  14. Fatty Acid Composition of Meat from Ruminants, with Special Emphasis on trans Fatty Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Torben; Ovesen, L.; Hansen, K.

    1998-01-01

    The fatty acid composition was determined in 39 samples of beef, 20 samples of veal, and 34 samples of lamb, representative of the supply of ruminant meat in Denmark. Five cuts of beef and veal and three cuts of lamb with increasing fat content were selected, and analysis of the fatty acid methyl...... esters was performed by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) on a polar 50-m capillary column CP Sil 88 with flame-ionization detection. Lamb had the highest content of saturated fatty acids (52.8 +/- 1.8 g/100 g fatty acids), higher than beef and veal (45.3 +/- 3.1 and 45.4 +/- 0.8 g/100 g fatty acids...... of trans fatty acids from ruminant meat is estimated at 0.2 g/d....

  15. Influence of environmental factors on content of saturated fatty acids at the sn-2 position in Iranian extra virgin olive oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavian, Raheleh; Piravi, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    In this research the composition of fatty acids and saturated fatty acids at the sn-2 position [SFA (sn-2)] of triacylglycerols was determined in 9 samples of extra virgin olive oil from different regions of Iran, including Gilan, Golestan, Zanjan, and Qazvin in the north, Kermanshah in the west and Fars in the south of Iran. The analysis was performed using gas chromatography according to the standard methods of the International olive council (IOC). The relationship between SFA (sn-2) contents and some environmental factors such as temperature, annual rainfall and altitude was also investigated. 95% of confidence level and student test were used to analyze the data. Based on our findings, the main fatty acids in the samples were C18:1 (63.87%) and C16:0 as a saturated fatty acid (16.33%). The average amount of SFA (sn- 2) was 1.26% in extra virgin olive oils, which shows good agreement with Codex Alimentarius and IOC regulations. These results indicate that there is no relationship between the percentage of SFA (sn-2) and temperature or annual rainfall, but there is a direct relationship between the altitude of sampling region and SFA (sn-2) contents.

  16. Effect of source of dietary fat on pig performance, carcass characteristics and carcass fat content, distribution and fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realini, C E; Duran-Montgé, P; Lizardo, R; Gispert, M; Oliver, M A; Esteve-Garcia, E

    2010-08-01

    Seventy gilts were used to compare the effect of including 10% tallow (T), high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSF), sunflower oil (SFO), linseed oil (LO), a fat blend (FB), or an oil blend (OB) in finishing diets vs. feeding a semi-synthetic diet with no added fat (NF) on pig performance, carcass traits and carcass fatty acid (FA) composition. Carcasses from SFO-fed gilts had greater fat and lower lean compositions than carcasses from T-fed gilts. Gilts fed NF had greater loin fat than FB-fed gilts, and greater flare fat, loin intermuscular fat and fat:lean than T-fed gilts. Bellies from NF-fed gilts had lower lean and higher intermuscular fat and fat:lean than other diets except HOSF. Fat source had minor effects on animal performance, carcass characteristics and carcass fat content and distribution, whereas feeding NF resulted in carcasses and major cuts with higher fat content. Diets rich in polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) did not reduce fat deposition in separable fat depots with respect to monounsaturated FA (MUFA) and saturated FA (SFA). Carcasses from gilts fed NF had a high degree of saturation (40.6% SFA) followed by carcasses of T- and FB-fed gilts. Feeding HOSF, SFO and LO enriched diets elevated the percentages of MUFA (56.7%), n-6 (30.0%) and n-3 (16.6%) PUFA, respectively, whereas carcasses from gilts fed OB had greater percentages of n-3 FA (14.8% n-3, 0.9% EPA, 1.0% DPA, 3.1% DHA) than gilts fed FB (6.72% n-3, 0.1% EPA, 0.4% DPA, 0.1% DHA).

  17. Fatty Acid Composition of Meat from Ruminants, with Special Emphasis on trans Fatty Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Torben; Ovesen, L.; Hansen, K.

    1998-01-01

    esters was performed by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) on a polar 50-m capillary column CP Sil 88 with flame-ionization detection. Lamb had the highest content of saturated fatty acids (52.8 +/- 1.8 g/100 g fatty acids), higher than beef and veal (45.3 +/- 3.1 and 45.4 +/- 0.8 g/100 g fatty acids...

  18. Comparison of lipid content and Fatty Acid composition in the edible meat of wild and cultured freshwater and marine fish and shrimps from china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guipu; Sinclair, Andrew J; Li, Duo

    2011-03-09

    The lipid content and fatty acid composition in the edible meat of twenty-nine species of wild and cultured freshwater and marine fish and shrimps were investigated. Both the lipid content and fatty acid composition of the species were specified due to their unique food habits and trophic levels. Most of the marine fish demonstrated higher lipid content than the freshwater fish, whereas shrimps had the lowest lipid content. All the marine fish and shrimps had much higher total n-3 PUFA than n-6 PUFA, while most of the freshwater fish and shrimps demonstrated much lower total n-3 PUFA than n-6 PUFA. This may be the biggest difference in fatty acid composition between marine and freshwater species. The cultured freshwater fish demonstrated higher percentages of total PUFA, total n-3 PUFA, and EPA + DHA than the wild freshwater fish. Two freshwater fish, including bighead carp and silver carp, are comparable to the marine fish as sources of n-3 PUFA.

  19. Determination of Labeled Fatty Acids Content in Milk Products, Infant Formula, and Adult/Pediatric Nutritional Formula by Capillary Gas Chromatography: Collaborative Study, Final Action 2012.13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golay, Pierre-Alain; Moulin, Julie

    2016-01-01

    A collaborative study was conducted on AOAC First Action Method 2012.13 "Determination of Labeled Fatty Acids Content in Milk Products and Infant Formula by Capillary Gas Chromatography," which is based on an initial International Organization for Standardization (ISO)-International Dairy Federation (IDF) New Work Item that has been moved forward to ISO 16958:2015|IDF 231:2015 in November 2015. It was decided to merge the two activities after the agreement signed between ISO and AOAC in June 2012 to develop common standards and to avoid duplicate work. The collaborative study was performed after having provided highly satisfactory single-laboratory validation results [Golay, P.A., & Dong, Y. (2015) J. AOAC Int. 98, 1679-1696] that exceeded the performance criteria defined in AOAC Standard Method Performance Requirement (SMPR(®)) 2012.011 (September 29, 2012) on 12 products selected by the AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula (SPIFAN). After a qualification period of 1 month, 18 laboratories participated in the fatty acids analysis of 12 different samples in duplicate. Six samples were selected to meet AOAC SPIFAN requirements (i.e., infant formula and adult nutritionals in powder and liquid formats), and the other Six samples were selected to meet ISO-IDF requirements (i.e., dairy products such as milk powder, liquid milk, cream, butter, infant formula with milk, and cheese). The fatty acids were analyzed directly in all samples without preliminary fat extraction, except in one sample (cheese). Powdered samples were analyzed after dissolution (i.e., reconstitution) in water, whereas liquid samples (or extracted fat) were analyzed directly. After addition of the internal standards solution [C11:0 fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and C13:0 triacylglycerols (TAG)] to the samples, fatty acids attached to lipids were transformed into FAMEs by direct transesterification using methanolic sodium methoxide. FAMEs were separated using highly polar capillary GLC and were

  20. The effect of concentrations and volumes of methanol in reducing free fatty acid content of used cooking oil as biodiesel feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julianto, Tatang Shabur; Suratmi

    2017-03-01

    The research on purification of used cooking oil as biodiesel feedstock has been done. Refining was performed using methanol with varied concentrations and volumes. A total of 10 grams of used cooking oil was extracted using methanol with a variation concentration of 100%, 70%, 50% and 30%, and a variation of volume 10, 25, 50, 100, and 150 mL. After extraction, the free fatty acids contents of the extracted oil were analyzed. The results showed that pure methanol has the highest ability to reduce the content of free fatty acid with a percentage of reduction for 89.23%. The optimum ratio of used cooking oil and methanol is about 1:15 (v/v).

  1. Determination of the Authenticity of Dairy Products on the Basis of Fatty Acids and Triacylglycerols Content using GC Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Min; Kim, Na-Kyeong; Yang, Cheul-Young; Moon, Kyong-Whan; Kim, Jin-Man

    2014-01-01

    Milk fat is an important food component, and plays a significant role in the economics, functional nutrition, and chemical properties of dairy products. Dairy products also contain nutritional resources and essential fatty acids (FAs). Because of the increasing demand for dairy products, milk fat is a common target in economic fraud. Specifically, milk fat is often replaced with cheaper or readily available vegetable oils or animal fats. In this study, a method for the discrimination of milk fat was developed, using FAs profiles, and triacylglycerols (TGs) profiles. A total of 11 samples were evaluated: four milk fats (MK), four vegetable oils (VG), two pork lards (PL), and one beef tallow (BT). Gas chromathgraphy analysis were performed, to monitor the FAs content and TGs composition in MK, VG, PL, and BT. The result showed that qualitative determination of the MK of samples adulterated with different vegetable oils and animal fats was possible by a visual comparision of FAs, using C14:0, C16:0, C18:1n9c, C18:0, and C18:2n6c, and of TGs, using C36, C38, C40, C50, C52, and C54 profiles. Overall, the objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of the use of FAs and TGs in the detection of adulterated milk fat, and accordingly characterize the samples by the adulterant oil source, and level of adulteration. Also, based on this preliminary investigation, the usefulness of this approach could be tested for other oils in the future.

  2. Determination of the Authenticity of Dairy Products on the Basis of Fatty Acids and Triacylglycerols Content using GC Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheul-Young; Moon, Kyong-Whan

    2014-01-01

    Milk fat is an important food component, and plays a significant role in the economics, functional nutrition, and chemical properties of dairy products. Dairy products also contain nutritional resources and essential fatty acids (FAs). Because of the increasing demand for dairy products, milk fat is a common target in economic fraud. Specifically, milk fat is often replaced with cheaper or readily available vegetable oils or animal fats. In this study, a method for the discrimination of milk fat was developed, using FAs profiles, and triacylglycerols (TGs) profiles. A total of 11 samples were evaluated: four milk fats (MK), four vegetable oils (VG), two pork lards (PL), and one beef tallow (BT). Gas chromathgraphy analysis were performed, to monitor the FAs content and TGs composition in MK, VG, PL, and BT. The result showed that qualitative determination of the MK of samples adulterated with different vegetable oils and animal fats was possible by a visual comparision of FAs, using C14:0, C16:0, C18:1n9c, C18:0, and C18:2n6c, and of TGs, using C36, C38, C40, C50, C52, and C54 profiles. Overall, the objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of the use of FAs and TGs in the detection of adulterated milk fat, and accordingly characterize the samples by the adulterant oil source, and level of adulteration. Also, based on this preliminary investigation, the usefulness of this approach could be tested for other oils in the future. PMID:26761172

  3. Comparative researches on two direct transmethylation without prior extraction methods for fatty acids analysis in vegetal matrix with low fat content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmanescu Monica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of our work was to compare two methods, both based on direct transmethylation with different reagents, BF3/MeOH (boron trifluoride in methanol or HCl/MeOH (hydrochloride acid in methanol, in acid catalysis, without prior extraction, to find the fast, non-expensive but enough precise method for 9 principal fatty acids (lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, arahidic and behenic acids analysis in vegetal matrix with low fat content (forage from grassland, for nutrition and agrochemical studies. Results Comparatively, between the average values obtained for all analysed fatty acids by the two methods based on direct transmethylation without prior extraction no significantly difference was identified (p > 0.05. The results of fatty acids for the same forage sample were more closely to their average value, being more homogenous for BF3/MeOH than HCl/MeOH, because of the better accuracy and repeatability of this method. Method that uses BF3/MeOH reagent produces small amounts of interfering compounds than the method using HCl/MeOH reagent, results reflected by the better statistical parameters. Conclusion The fast and non-expensive BF3/methanol method was applied with good accuracy and sensitivity for the determination of free or combined fatty acids (saturated and unsaturated in forage matrix with low fat content from grassland. Also, the final extract obtained by this method, poorer in interfering compounds, is safer to protect the injector and column from contamination with heavy or non-volatile compounds formed by transmethylation reactions.

  4. Effect of different contents of extruded linseed in the sow diet on piglet fatty acid composition and hepatic desaturase expression during the post-natal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quelen, F; Boudry, G; Mourot, J

    2013-10-01

    n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) contribute to the normal growth and development of numerous organs in the piglet. The fatty acid composition of piglet tissues is linked to the fatty acid composition of sow milk and, consequently, to the composition of sow diet during the gestation and lactation period. In this study, we investigated the impact of different contents of extruded linseed in the sow diet on the fatty acid composition and desaturase gene expression of piglets. Sows received a diet containing either sunflower oil (low 18:3n-3 with 18:3n-3 representing 3% of total fatty acids) or a mixture of extruded linseed and sunflower oil (medium 18:3n-3 with 9% of 18:3n-3) or extruded linseed (high 18:3n-3 with 27% of 18:3n-3) during gestation and lactation. Fatty acid composition was evaluated on sow milk and on different piglet tissues at days 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28. The postnatal evolution of delta5 (D5D) and delta6 (D6D) desaturase mRNA expression was also measured in the liver of low 18:3n-3 and high 18:3n-3 piglets. The milk of high 18:3n-3 sows had higher proportions of n-3PUFA than that of low 18:3n-3 and medium 18:3n-3 sows. Piglets suckling the high 18:3n-3 sows had greater proportions of 18:3n-3, 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 in the liver, and of 22:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 in the brain than low 18:3n-3 and medium 18:3n-3 piglets. D5D and D6D mRNA expressions in piglet liver were not affected by the maternal diet at any age. In conclusion, extruded linseed in the sow diet modifies the n-3PUFA status of piglets during the postnatal period. However, a minimal content of 18:3n-3 in the sow diet is necessary to increase the n-3PUFA level in piglet liver and brain. Moreover, modifications in the n-3PUFA fatty acid composition of piglet tissue seem linked to the availability of 18:3n-3 in maternal milk and not to desaturase enzyme expression.

  5. Nutritional composition, fatty acid and tocopherol contents of buriti (Mauritia flexuosa) and patawa (Oenocarpus bataua) fruit pulp from the amazon region

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvain Henri Darnet; Luiza Helena Meller da Silva; Antonio Manoel da Cruz Rodrigues; Roseana Telles Lins

    2011-01-01

    Buriti and patawa are two endemic palm trees from the Amazon region. Their pulps are traditionally consumed by the local population, but are underused and lesser known worldwide. Nutritional composition, fatty acid and tocopherol contents of the two palm pulps were determined by modern analytical methods: Gas Chromatography (CG) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), based on the standards of AOCS (AMERICAN..., 2002) and AOAC (ASSOCIATION..., 1997), respectively. Buriti and patawa...

  6. Effect of soy lecithin on total cholesterol content, fatty acid composition and carcass characteristics in the Longissimus dorsi of Hanwoo steers (Korean native cattle).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang Zi; Park, Byung Ki; Hong, Byuong Chon; Ahn, Jun Sang; Shin, Jong Suh

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of soy lecithin on the total cholesterol content, the fatty acid composition and carcass characteristics in the Longissimus dorsi in Hanwoo steers. Hanwoo steers (24 head) were fed two diets: Control (CON) (concentrate + alcohol-fermented feed (AFF)) and soy lecithin treatment (CON + soy lecithin at 0.5% of the AFF). Soy lecithin treatment increased average daily gain, serum concentrations of triglyceride, total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in the blood. A lower cholesterol concentration was found in the Longissimus dorsi for the soy lecithin diet compared to the CON diet. With respect to the marbling score and quality grade of Longissimus dorsi, soy lecithin supplementation significantly increased the C20:5n3, C22:4 and polyunsaturated fatty acids contents compared to the CON diet. Soy lecithin supplementation would alter the total cholesterol content, polyunsaturated fatty acid profile and meat quality of Longissimus dorsi. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  7. Amino acid, mineral and fatty acid content of pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita spp) and Cyperus esculentus nuts in the Republic of Niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glew, R H; Glew, R S; Chuang, L-T; Huang, Y-S; Millson, M; Constans, D; Vanderjagt, D J

    2006-06-01

    Dried seeds and nuts are widely consumed by indigenous populations of the western Sahel, especially those who inhabit rural areas. In light of the need for quantitative information regarding the content of particular nutrients in these plant foods, we collected dried pumpkin (Cucurbita spp) seeds and nuts of Cyperus esculentus in the Republic of Niger and analyzed them for their content of essential amino acids, minerals and trace elements, and fatty acids. On a dry weight basis, pumpkin seed contained 58.8% protein and 29.8% fat. However, the lysine score of the protein was only 65% relative to the FAO/WHO protein standard. The pumpkin seed contained useful amounts of linoleic (92 microg/g dry weight) and the following elements (on a microg per g dry weight basis): potassium (5,790), magnesium (5,690), manganese (49.3), zinc (113), selenium (1.29), copper (15.4), chromium (2.84), and molybdenum (0.81), but low amounts of calcium and iron. Except for potassium (5,573 microg/g dry weight) and chromium (2.88 microg/g dry weight), the C. esculentis nuts contained much less of these same nutrients compared to pumpkin seeds. In conclusion, pumpkin seeds represent a useful source of many nutrients essential to humans. The data in this report should of practical value to public health officials in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa.

  8. Optimization of creamy vegetable spreads for fatty acid composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Ostrikov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cream-plant spreads optimization method by fatty acid content is developed. Product organoleptic properties analysis is carried out, its microstructure and fatty acid content is evaluated, acid and peroxide numbers are defined. Milk plasma active acidity alteration is examined and rational shelf life is determined.

  9. Effect of tanniniferous Terminalia chebula extract on rumen biohydrogenation, ∆(9)-desaturase activity, CLA content and fatty acid composition in longissimus dorsi muscle of kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Madhu Suman; Tyagi, A; Hossain, Sk Asraf; Tyagi, A K

    2012-03-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid, a fatty acid found in milk fat and ruminant meat is one of the functional food components. Modifying fatty acid composition so as to increase CLA and other beneficial PUFA/MUFA level and reducing SFA levels might be a key to enhance the neutraceutical and therapeutic value of ruminant-derived food products. In the present experiment, the effect of supplementation of polyphenol rich Terminalia chebula plant extract at different concentrations (1.06g/kg and 3.18g/kg of body weight in T1 and T2 groups, respectively) was investigated on fatty acid composition of rumen fluid, plasma, intramuscular fat and Δ9-desaturase activity in longissimus dorsi muscle of crossbred kids. Total MUFA and PUFA content in muscle were enhanced by 25 and 35%, respectively, whereas SFA was reduced by 20% thereby improving the desaturation index. Δ9-desaturase activity also increased by 47% resulting in an enhancement of total CLA content (58.73%) in muscle.

  10. Fatty acid synthesis is inhibited by inefficient utilization of unusual fatty acids for glycerolipid assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Philip D; Johnson, Sean R; Cao, Xia; Li, Jia; Nam, Jeong-Won; Jaworski, Jan G; Ohlrogge, John B; Browse, John

    2014-01-21

    Degradation of unusual fatty acids through β-oxidation within transgenic plants has long been hypothesized as a major factor limiting the production of industrially useful unusual fatty acids in seed oils. Arabidopsis seeds expressing the castor fatty acid hydroxylase accumulate hydroxylated fatty acids up to 17% of total fatty acids in seed triacylglycerols; however, total seed oil is also reduced up to 50%. Investigations into the cause of the reduced oil phenotype through in vivo [(14)C]acetate and [(3)H]2O metabolic labeling of developing seeds surprisingly revealed that the rate of de novo fatty acid synthesis within the transgenic seeds was approximately half that of control seeds. RNAseq analysis indicated no changes in expression of fatty acid synthesis genes in hydroxylase-expressing plants. However, differential [(14)C]acetate and [(14)C]malonate metabolic labeling of hydroxylase-expressing seeds indicated the in vivo acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity was reduced to approximately half that of control seeds. Therefore, the reduction of oil content in the transgenic seeds is consistent with reduced de novo fatty acid synthesis in the plastid rather than fatty acid degradation. Intriguingly, the coexpression of triacylglycerol synthesis isozymes from castor along with the fatty acid hydroxylase alleviated the reduced acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity, restored the rate of fatty acid synthesis, and the accumulation of seed oil was substantially recovered. Together these results suggest a previously unidentified mechanism that detects inefficient utilization of unusual fatty acids within the endoplasmic reticulum and activates an endogenous pathway for posttranslational reduction of fatty acid synthesis within the plastid.

  11. Fatty acid composition of Mediterranean buffalo milk fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Proto

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to investigate the variation in fatty acid composition of milk fat from four buffalo (Bubalus bubalis herds under different feeding management and ration composition. Changes in milk fatty acid composition were monitored on a weekly basis. Saturated fatty acids (65.5% predominated in buffalo milk fat; monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids were 27.0% and 4.5%, respectively. Of saturated fatty acids, the content of palmitic acid was the highest (30.6% followed by stearic acid (12.0% and myristic acid (10.7%. Of the unsaturated fatty acids the content of oleic acid was the highest (26.6%. The average content of conjugated linoleic acid (0.76±0.33 was higher than the maximal values generally reported for dairy cow.

  12. Total and free fatty acids content during the ripening of artisan and industrially manufactured “Chorizo de cebolla”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco, Inmaculada

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available "Chorizo de cebolla" is a traditional sausage made in the north west of Spain. In four batches manufactured by artisanal methods and 4 manufactured by industrial ones the contents of total and free fatty acids were assessed throughout ripening, taking from every batch samples of the mass before stuffing (0 days and of the sausage after 2, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 42 days of ripening. The profile of total fatty acids of the two types of sausage basically coincide with that found by other authors in pork fat. However, both types of sausage (artisanal and industrial differ significantly (pEl chorizo de cebolla es un embutido tradicional elaborado en el noroeste de España. En cuatro partidas fabricadas por procedimientos artesanales y 4 elaboradas industrialmente se determinó a lo largo de la maduración los contenidos en ácidos grasos totales y libres, tomando en cada partida muestras de masa antes de embutir (0 días y de chorizo a los 2, 7, 14, 21, 28 y 42 días de maduración. El perfil de ácidos grasos totales de los dos tipos de embutidos coincide básicamente con el encontrado por otros autores en grasa de cerdo. Sin embargo, ambos tipos de chorizo (artesanal e industrial difirieron significativamente (p< 0.05 en el porcentaje de ácidos grasos totales saturados e insaturados. Los chorizos elaborados artesanalmente presentaron porcentajes de ácidos grasos saturados significativamente superiores a los encontrados en los chorizos industriales. El contenido en ácidos grasos libres totales experimentó a lo largo de la maduración un incremento significativo (p< 0.05 desde valores medios de 459 ± 243 mg/100 g de grasa en la masa hasta 3687 ± 1670 mg/100 g de grasa en chorizo de 42 días, en los chorizos artesanales, y desde 560 ± 317 mg/100 g de grasa hasta 5157 ± 3673 mg/100 g en los industriales. Debido a la gran variabilidad entre las diferentes partidas, no se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en los

  13. Determination of fatty acid, tocopherol and phytosterol contents of the oils of various poppy (Papaver somniferum L. seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Özcan, Mehmet

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid, tocopherol and sterol contents of the oils of several poppy seeds were investigated. The main fatty acids in poppy seed oils were linoleic (687.6-739.2 g kg-1, oleic (141.3-192.8 g kg-1 and palmitic (76.8-92.8 g kg-1. The oils contained an appreciable amount of -tocopherol (195.37-280.85 mg kg-1, with a mean value of 261.31 mg kg-1 and α-tocopherol (21.99-45.83 mg kg-1, with a mean value of 33.03 mg kg-1. The concentrations of total sterol ranged from 1099.84 mg kg-1 (K.pembe to 4816.10 mg kg-1 (2. sınıf beyaz, with a mean value of 2916.20 mg kg-1. The major sterols were -sitosterol, ranging from 663.91 to 3244.39 mg kg-1; campesterol, ranging from 228.59 to 736.50 mg kg-1; and Δ5-avenasterol, ranging from 103.90 to 425.02 mg kg-1. The studied varieties of poppy seeds from Turkey were found to be a potential source of valuable oil.El contenido en ácidos grasos, tocoferoles y esteroles de aceites de varias semillas de adormidera fueron investigadas. Los principales ácidos grasos en el aceite de semilla de adormidera fueron el ácido linoleico (687.6-739.2 g kg-1, ácido oleico (141.3-192.8 g kg-1 y ácidos palmítico (76.8- 92.8 g kg-1. Los aceites contienen una cantidad apreciable de -tocoferol (195.37-280.85 mg kg-1, con un valor medio de 261.31 mg kg-1 y α-tocoferol (21.99-45.83 mg kg-1, con un valor medio de 33.03 mg kg-1. La concentración total de esteroles varió desde 1099.84 mg kg-1 (K.pembe a 4816.10 mg kg-1 (2. sınıf beyaz, con un valor medio de 2916.20 mg kg-1. El principal esterol fue el -sitosterol, que varió desde 663.91 a 3244.39 mg kg-1; el campesterol, que varió desde 228.59 a 736.50 mg kg-1; y el Δ5-avenasterol, que varió desde 103.90 a 425.02 mg kg-1. Las semillas estudiadas de las diferentes variedades de adormidera de Turquía pueden ser una fuente potencial de aceites con valor añadido.

  14. Determination of fatty acid content in deep-sea Alaska pollack%深海明太鱼油中脂肪酸含量的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    南京熙; 王海丽; 刘畅; 郑昌吉; 王妍; 金炯国; 卢秀花; 李官浩

    2011-01-01

    以正己烷为提取剂,采用超声法提取深海明太鱼油,经KOH-甲醇甲酯化处理后,利用气象色谱法对其脂肪酸进行分析,实现了深海明太鱼中脂肪酸的外标法定量。结果表明:深海明太鱼主要含有C14-C22的脂肪酸,其中不饱和脂肪酸含量占59.61%(峰面积百分比,下同),特别是具有重要生理作用的多不饱和脂肪酸,如C20:5(5,8,11,14,17-二十碳五烯酸,EPA,14.58%),C22:6(2,5,8,11,14,17-二十二碳六烯酸,DHA,10.63%)。%The contents of fatty acids in deep-sea Alaska pollack extracted out and enhanced in hexane by ultrasonic wave was esterified by KOH-CH3OH solution and was analyzed by gas chromatography(GC).According to the analysis of GC,19 fatty acids were identified,the main fatty acids in deep-sea fish oil are Cl2-C22 and 59.61%(peak area percent) of them are unsaturated fatty acids,especially polyunsaturated fatty acids which have important physiological function,such as 5,8,11,14,17-eicosapontaenoic acid(EPA,14.58%).2,5,8,11,14,17-docosahexaenoic acid(DHA,10.63%).

  15. The Effect of Aluminium on Antibacterial Properties and the Content of Some Fatty Acids in Microalgae, Chlorella vulgaris Beijernick, under Heterotrophic and Autotrophic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Abbaspour

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae are a group of organisms, which have a significant potential for industrial applications. These algae contain large amounts of lipids compounds that are beneficial to health, have antibacterial properties, and their extracted oil can be used for biofuel. In this study, microalgae Chlorella vulgaris Beijernick was grown in the culture medium BG-11 containing aluminium (AlCl3 under autotrophic and heterotrophic conditions. In each case, survival and growth, dry weight, internal aluminium content of the sample, antibacterial properties, the content of fatty acids accumulated in the algae and secreted into the culture medium in the logarithmic growth phase were studied. Aluminium significantly increased (P < .05 growth and dry weight in autotrophic treatment compared to the heterotrophic one. Most antibacterial properties were observed in methanol extracts of heterotrophic treatments containing 0.05% glucose. Aluminium also decreased fatty acids accumulation in the algae and increased fatty acids excretion into the culture medium in heterotrophic treatment compared to the autotrophic treatment. Survival of the sample was maintained in heterotrophic conditions and showed growth without lag phase, which is indicative of rapid acclimation of organisms in heterotrophic conditions. It seems that the mentioned characteristics make the single-celled green algae Chlorella vulgaris more efficient in different ways.

  16. Pineapple by-product and canola oil as partial fat replacers in low-fat beef burger: Effects on oxidative stability, cholesterol content and fatty acid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selani, Miriam M; Shirado, Giovanna A N; Margiotta, Gregório B; Rasera, Mariana L; Marabesi, Amanda C; Piedade, Sonia M S; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G

    2016-05-01

    The effect of freeze-dried pineapple by-product and canola oil as fat replacers on the oxidative stability, cholesterol content and fatty acid profile of low-fat beef burgers was evaluated. Five treatments were performed: conventional (CN, 20% fat) and four low-fat formulations (10% fat): control (CT), pineapple by-product (PA), canola oil (CO), and pineapple by-product and canola oil (PC). Low-fat cooked burgers showed a mean cholesterol content reduction of 9.15% compared to the CN. Canola oil addition improved the fatty acid profile of the burgers, with increase in the polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acids ratio and decrease in the n-6/n-3 ratio, in the atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes. The oxidative stability of the burgers was affected by the vegetable oil addition. However, at the end of the storage time (120 days), malonaldehyde values of CO and PC were lower than the threshold for the consumer's acceptance. Canola oil, in combination with pineapple by-product, can be considered promising fat replacers in the development of healthier burgers.

  17. Comparative investigation of minerals, chlorophylls contents, fatty acid composition and thermal profiles of olive leaves (Olea europeae L. as by-product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahloul, N.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a chemical (the minerals, chlorophyll contents and fatty acids and thermophysical investigation (DSC profile of four varieties of olive leaves grown in Tunisia. The total chlorophy1l contents of olive leaves ranged from 1132.33 to 1795.93 ppm. The results showed that linolenic acid (C18:3 is the major fatty acid in olive leaves (from 30.02 to 42.16%, followed by oleic acid (C18:1 and palmitic acid (C16:0. The thermal profiles of olive leaf extracts determined by their DSC melting curves revealed simple thermograms with a single peak after melting. The hexane extract of the Chemchali variety, which contained relatively high unsaturated fatty acids and low saturated fatty acid levels, exhibited the lowest peak temperature value (54.59 °C and required the smallest amount of energy for melting (31.57 J·g−1. This study showed that olive leaves possessed physicochemical properties and a fatty acid composition that may become interesting for industrial applications.Este trabajo presenta estudios de la composición química (minerales, contenido de clorofila y ácidos grasos e inves tigaciones termofísicas ( perfil DSC de cuatro variedades de hojas de olivo cultivadas en Túnez. Los contenidos totales de clorofila de las hojas de olivo oscilaron entre 1132,33 y 1795,93 ppm. Los resultados mostraron que el ácido linolénico (C18:3 es el ácido graso principal en las hojas de olivo (30,02 a 42,16%, seguido de los ácidos oleico (C18:1 y palmítico (C16:0. Los perfiles térmicos de los extractos de hoja de olivo determinados por sus curvas de fusion, DSC mostró termogramas simples con un solo pico después de la fusión. El extracto de hexano de la variedad Chemchali, que contenía ácidos grasos insaturados relativamente mas altos y bajos niveles de ácidos grasos saturados, exhibió el pico de temperatura más baja (54,59 °C y requiere menor energía para la fusión (31,57 J·g−1. Este estudio mostró que las hojas de olivo

  18. Effect of fat replacement by olive oil on the physico-chemical properties, fatty acids, cholesterol and tocopherol content of pâté

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, R.; Agregan, R.; GonCalves, A.; Lorenzo, J.M.

    2016-07-01

    The present study investigates the effects of olive oil when used as back fat replacers on the physico-chemical properties, fatty acids, cholesterol and α-tocopherol content of pâté. The replacement of back fat by olive oil at 50 and 100% did not affect the moisture, fat or protein contents, while it increased yellowness. According to texture parameters, reformulated pâté presented lower values for hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness. The use of olive oil significantly (P<0.05) affected the fatty acid content. The amount of MUFA increased, while the content of SFA and PUFA decreased as the back fat was replaced by olive oil. The replacement of fat resulted in an improvement in all nutritional indexes. Atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes decreased while the h/H ratio increased with fat replacement. At the same time, the content of α-tocopherol increased and the amount of cholesterol decreased with the addition of olive oil. Therefore, olive oil provides pâté with high levels of C18:1n9c and MUFA, natural antioxidants such as α-tocopherol and reduces cholesterol levels. As a general conclusion, the replacement of back fat by olive oil allows us to obtain a healthier product. (Author)

  19. Mercury, Fatty Acids Content and Lipid Quality Indexes in Muscles of Freshwater and Marine Fish on the Polish Market. Risk Assessment of Fish Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Łuczyńska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mercury content and fatty acids in muscles of Perca fluviatilis L. (European perch, Leuciscus idus L. (ide, Cyprinus carpio L. (European or common carp, Oncorhynchus mykiss Walb. (rainbow trout, Platichthys flesus L. (European flounder. and Clupea harengus L. (bream from the Polish market were investigated. The total mercury was processed with AAS. The fatty acids were analyzed by gas chromatography. The concentration of mercury in muscles varied from 0.006 to 0.138 mg/kg and decreased as follows: perch ≈ ide > flounder > herring ≈ bream ≈ rainbow trout > carp (p ≤ 0.05. There were only significant positive correlations between body weight and mercury content in muscle tissue of carp (r = 0.878, flounder (r = 0.925 and herring (r = 0.982 (p ≤ 0.05. The atherogenic index (AI, thrombogenicity index (TI and flesh-lipid quality index (FLQ were calculated as follows 0.33–0.70 (IA, 0.16–0.31 (IT and 13.01–33.22 (FLQ. Hypocholesterolemic (OFA and hypercholesterolemic fatty acids (DFA in muscles of fish ranged from 18.26 to 23.01 and from 73.91 to 78.46, respectively. In most cases, there were not significant correlations between size (body weight and total length and fatty acids in the muscles of the examined fish (p > 0.05. The Target Hazard Quotient (THQ values were below 1, which shows that there is no non-carcinogenic health risk to the consumer by consuming the examined fish.

  20. Determination of Fatty Acid in Asparagus by Gas Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra HAJRULAI-MUSLIU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Asparagus contain a lot of macronutrients and micronutrients including folate, dietary fibre (soluble and insoluble and phenolic compounds. Also asparagus is a good source of unsaturated linoleic and linolenic fatty acids which are precursors for Eicosapentanoic acid (EPA and Docosahexanoic acid (DHA. Unsaturated fatty acids have important biological effects and they have important role in human health. The objective of this study was to analyze fatty acid composition of asparagus as a potential source of linoleic and linolenic acid - a precursor for EPA and DHA. For this reason we analyzed fifty seven samples of asparagus collected from the local market. We used AOAC 996.06 method and analyses were performed with gas chromatograph with flame-ionization detector (GC-FID. The highest concentration of fatty acid in the asparagus was linoleic acid (C18:2n6 which content in asparagus is 25.620±1.0%. Also, asparagus is good source of -linolenic fatty acid (C18:3n3 and content of this fatty acid in asparagus is 8.840±0.3%. The omega-6 to omega-3 (n6/n3 ratio in asparagus was 3.19. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs were higher than monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs, and from saturated fatty acids, palmitic acid was most frequent with 24.324±1.0%. From our study we can conclude that asparagus is very good source of unsaturated fatty acids, especially linoleic and linolenic fatty acids.

  1. Comparison of fatty acid contents and composition in major lipid classes of larvae and adults of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from a steppe region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushchik, Nadezhda N; Yurchenko, Yuri A; Gladyshev, Michail I; Belevich, Olga E; Kalachova, Galina S; Kolmakova, Angelika A

    2013-10-01

    Emerging aquatic insects, including mosquitoes, are known to transfer to terrestrial ecosystems specific essential biochemicals, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). We studied fatty acid (FA) composition and contents of dominant mosquito populations (Diptera: Culicidae), that is, Anopheles messeae, Ochlerotatus caspius, Oc. flavescens, Oc. euedes, Oc. subdiversus, Oc. cataphylla, and Aedes cinereus, inhabited a steppe wetland of a temperate climate zone to fill up the gap in their lipid knowledge. The polar lipid and triacylglycerol fractions of larvae and adults were compared. In most studied mosquito species, we first found and identified a number of short-chain PUFA, for example, prominent 14:2n-6 and 14:3n-3, which were not earlier documented in living organisms. These PUFA, although occurred in low levels in adult mosquitoes, can be potentially used as markers of mosquito biomass in terrestrial food webs. We hypothesize that these acids might be synthesized (or retroconverted) by the mosquitoes. Using FA trophic markers accumulated in triacylglycerols, trophic relations of the mosquitoes were accessed. The larval diet comprised green algae, cryptophytes, and dinoflagellates and provided the mosquitoes with essential n-3 PUFA, linolenic, and eicosapentaenoic acids. As a result, both larvae and adults of the studied mosquitoes had comparatively high content of the essential PUFA. Comparison of FA proportions in polar lipids versus storage lipids shown that during mosquito metamorphosis transfer of essential eicosapentaenoic and arachidonic acids from the reserve in storage lipids of larvae to functional polar lipids in adults occurred.

  2. Impact of feeding and short-term temperature stress on the content and isotopic signature of fatty acids, sterols, and alcohols in the scleractinian coral Turbinaria reniformis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolosa, I.; Treignier, C.; Grover, R.; Ferrier-Pagès, C.

    2011-09-01

    This study assesses the combined effect of feeding and short-term thermal stress on various physiological parameters and on the fatty acid, sterol, and alcohol composition of the scleractinian coral Turbinaria reniformis. The compound-specific carbon isotope composition of the lipids was also measured. Under control conditions (26°C), feeding with Artemia salina significantly increased the symbiont density and chlorophyll content and the growth rates of the corals. It also doubled the concentrations of almost all fatty acid (FA) compounds and increased the n-alcohol and sterol contents. δ13C results showed that the feeding enhancement of FA concentrations occurred either via a direct pathway, for one of the major polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) compounds of the food (18:3n-3 FA), or via an enhancement of photosynthate transfer (indirect pathway), for the other coral FAs. Cholesterol (C27Δ5) was also directly acquired from the food. Thermal stress (31°C) affected corals, but differently according to their feeding status. Chlorophyll, protein content, and maximal photosynthetic efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) decreased to a greater extent in starved corals. In such corals, FA concentrations were reduced by 33%, (especially C16, C18 FAs, and n-3 PUFA) and the sterol content by 27% (especially the C28∆5,22 and C28∆5). The enrichment in the δ13C signature of the storage and structural FAs suggests that they were the main compounds respired during the stress to maintain the coral metabolism. Thermal stress had less effect on the lipid concentrations of fed corals, as only FA levels were reduced by 13%, with no major changes in their isotope carbon signatures. In conclusion, feeding plays an essential role in sustaining T. reniformis metabolism during the thermal stress.

  3. Transcriptomic Changes in Liver of Young Bulls Caused by Diets Low in Mineral and Protein Contents and Supplemented with n-3 Fatty Acids and Conjugated Linoleic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegolo, Sara; Cecchinato, Alessio; Mach, Núria; Babbucci, Massimiliano; Pauletto, Marianna; Bargelloni, Luca; Schiavon, Stefano; Bittante, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify transcriptional modifications and regulatory networks accounting for physiological and metabolic responses to specific nutrients in the liver of young Belgian Blue × Holstein bulls using RNA-sequencing. A larger trial has been carried out in which animals were fed with different diets: 1] a conventional diet; 2] a low-protein/low-mineral diet (low-impact diet) and 3] a diet enriched in n-3 fatty acids (FAs), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and vitamin E (nutraceutical diet). The initial hypothesis was that the administration of low-impact and nutraceutical diets might influence the transcriptional profiles in bovine liver and the resultant nutrient fluxes, which are essential for optimal liver function and nutrient interconversion. Results showed that the nutraceutical diet significantly reduced subcutaneous fat covering in vivo and liver pH. Dietary treatments did not affect overall liver fat content, but significantly modified the liver profile of 33 FA traits (out of the total 89 identified by gas-chromatography). In bulls fed nutraceutical diet, the percentage of n-3 and CLA FAs increased around 2.5-fold compared with the other diets, whereas the ratio of n6/n3 decreased 2.5-fold. Liver transcriptomic analyses revealed a total of 198 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) when comparing low-impact, nutraceutical and conventional diets, with the nutraceutical diet showing the greatest effects on liver transcriptome. Functional analyses using ClueGo and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis evidenced that DEGs in bovine liver were variously involved in energy reserve metabolic process, glutathione metabolism, and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Modifications in feeding strategies affected key transcription factors regulating the expression of several genes involved in fatty acid metabolism, e.g. insulin-induced gene 1, insulin receptor substrate 2, and RAR-related orphan receptor C. This study provides noteworthy insights into

  4. Long-term treatment with the pan-PPAR agonist tetradecylthioacetic acid or fish oil is associated with increased cardiac content of n-3 fatty acids in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strand Elin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excess peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR stimulation has been associated with detrimental health effects including impaired myocardial function. Recently, supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA has been associated with improved left ventricular function and functional capacity in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. We investigated the long-term effects of the pan-PPAR agonist tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA and/or high-dose fish oil (FO on cardiac fatty acid (FA composition and lipid metabolism. Male Wistar rats were given one out of four different 25% (w/v fat diets: control diet; TTA diet; FO diet; or diet containing both TTA and FO. Results After 50 weeks n-3 PUFA levels were increased by TTA and FO in the heart, whereas liver levels were reduced following TTA administration. TTA was associated with a decrease in arachidonic acid, increased activities of carnitine palmitoyltransferase II, fatty acyl-CoA oxidase, glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, and fatty acid synthase in the heart. Furthermore, cardiac Ucp3 and Cact mRNA was upregulated. Conclusions Long-term treatment with the pan-PPAR agonist TTA or high-dose FO induced marked changes in PUFA composition and enzymatic activity involved in FA metabolism in the heart, different from liver. Changes included increased FA oxidation and a selective increase in cardiac n-3 PUFA.

  5. Omega-3 Fatty Acids during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS DURING PREGNANCY S HARE W ITH W OMEN OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS DURING PREGNANCY During pregnancy, your ... the foods you eat and vitamins you take. Omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3s) are an important ...

  6. Impact of the Content of Fatty Acids of Oral Fat Tolerance Tests on Postprandial Triglyceridemia: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Monfort-Pires

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Whether the content of saturated (SFA, monounsaturated (MUFA, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA could differently influence postprandial triglycerides (TG is unknown. We examined possible differences in the postprandial TG response to fat tolerance tests (FTTs, in which SFA or unsaturated fatty acids were used. Crossover clinical trials investigating the effects of FTTs containing SFA and unsaturated fats on postprandial triglyceridemia in databases from 1994 until 2016 were searched. Of 356 studies, 338 were excluded and 18 were considered. TG net incremental areas under the curve were calculated using time-points or changes from baseline. Pooled effects of standardized mean differences and I2 test were used. Results: In 12 studies, responses to SFA versus PUFA meals, and in 16 studies versus MUFA meals were compared. Over 4 hours, no differences between SFA and unsaturated fats were observed. Over 8 hours a lower response to PUFA (SMD −2.28; 95%CI −4.16, −0.41 and a trend to lower response to MUFA (SMD −0.89, 95%CI −1.82, 0.04 were detected. FTTs shorter than 8 hours may not be sufficient to differentiate postprandial TG after challenges with distinct fatty acids. Clinical significance of different postprandial TG responses on cardiovascular risk in the long-term deserves investigation.

  7. Impact of the Content of Fatty Acids of Oral Fat Tolerance Tests on Postprandial Triglyceridemia: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfort-Pires, Milena; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Gomez-Delgado, Francisco; Lopez-Miranda, José; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Ferreira, Sandra Roberta Gouvea

    2016-01-01

    Whether the content of saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) could differently influence postprandial triglycerides (TG) is unknown. We examined possible differences in the postprandial TG response to fat tolerance tests (FTTs), in which SFA or unsaturated fatty acids were used. Crossover clinical trials investigating the effects of FTTs containing SFA and unsaturated fats on postprandial triglyceridemia in databases from 1994 until 2016 were searched. Of 356 studies, 338 were excluded and 18 were considered. TG net incremental areas under the curve were calculated using time-points or changes from baseline. Pooled effects of standardized mean differences and I2 test were used. Results: In 12 studies, responses to SFA versus PUFA meals, and in 16 studies versus MUFA meals were compared. Over 4 h, no differences between SFA and unsaturated fats were observed. Over 8 h a lower response to PUFA (SMD −2.28; 95% CI −4.16, −0.41) and a trend to lower response to MUFA (SMD −0.89, 95% CI −1.82, 0.04) were detected. FTTs shorter than 8 h may not be sufficient to differentiate postprandial TG after challenges with distinct fatty acids. Clinical significance of different postprandial TG responses on cardiovascular risk in the long-term deserves investigation. PMID:27657122

  8. 番茄红素油树脂中脂肪酸组成的分析%Analysis on the Content of Fatty Acids in Lycopene Oleoresin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张连富; 丁霄霖

    2001-01-01

    Lycopene oleoresin is a mixture of some kinds of oil-solublecompounds extracted from tomato puree using lipophilic solvents as a medium. It may contain many kinds of lipid such as fats and fatty acids, Vitamin E, sterol and phospholipid besides lycopene. The author analyzed the type and content of fatty acids in the lycopene oleoresin through the GC/MS of the AMP derivatives of them. The results show that the fatty acids in the lycopene oleoresin include 14∶0, 16∶0,18∶0,18∶1,18∶2,and 18∶3. The contents of saturated fatty acids and the unsaturated are about 75% and 25% respectively, and all of the fatty acids are no more than 18 C.%番茄红素油树脂是以番茄皮渣为原料、以非极性溶剂为介质来进行抽提而得到的油溶性成分的混合物,其中除含有番茄红素外,还含有一定数量油脂及脂肪酸,维生素E、甾醇及磷脂等类脂性成分.本研究通过对皂化后所得脂肪酸经AMP衍生化所产生衍生产物的GC/MS法,对其中的脂肪酸组成及其含量进行了分析.结果表明,番茄红素油树脂中脂肪酸组成包括14∶0,16∶0,18∶0,18∶1,18∶2,18∶3等几种,以饱和脂肪酸为主,约占脂肪酸总量的75%,而不饱和脂肪酸仅占25%,并且所有脂肪酸的碳链均较短.

  9. Effects of Mo, Zn, Sr and Ba loads on these elements' uptake and oil content and fatty acid composition of rapeseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kastori Rudolf R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Studied in the present paper were the long-term effects of the application of high Mo, Zn, Sr and Ba rates (0, 90, 270, and 810 kg ha-1 on rapeseed oil content and oil fatty acid composition. The trace elements were applied in the spring of 1991, while the rapeseed was sown on a calcareous сhernozem soil in 2001. The trace elements differed significantly in their rates of accumulation in rapeseed plants. Relative to the control, the Mo content of the stem increased up to 1,000 times, that of the chaff over 100 times, and that of the seed around 60 times. The levels of the other trace elements increased considerably less relative to the control. The increases were typically twofold to threefold, depending on the plant part involved. The trace elements accumulated the most in the vegetative plant parts, except for Zn, a major quantity of which was found in the seed as well. The application of the high rates of Sr, Zn and, to an extent. Mo reduced the seed oil content of rapeseed. However, the differences were not statistically significant. The application of the trace elements had no significant effect on the fatty acid composition of the rapeseed oil, either. The increased levels of the trace elements found in the rapeseed plants indicate that 11 years after application significant amounts of the applied elements are still present in the soil in a form available to plants. However, the rates were not high enough to affect the synthesis of oil and its fatty acid composition.

  10. Fatty Acid Desaturases, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Regulation, and Biotechnological Advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Je Min; Lee, Hyungjae; Kang, SeokBeom; Park, Woo Jung

    2016-01-04

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are considered to be critical nutrients to regulate human health and development, and numerous fatty acid desaturases play key roles in synthesizing PUFAs. Given the lack of delta-12 and -15 desaturases and the low levels of conversion to PUFAs, humans must consume some omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in their diet. Many studies on fatty acid desaturases as well as PUFAs have shown that fatty acid desaturase genes are closely related to different human physiological conditions. Since the first front-end desaturases from cyanobacteria were cloned, numerous desaturase genes have been identified and animals and plants have been genetically engineered to produce PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Recently, a biotechnological approach has been used to develop clinical treatments for human physiological conditions, including cancers and neurogenetic disorders. Thus, understanding the functions and regulation of PUFAs associated with human health and development by using biotechnology may facilitate the engineering of more advanced PUFA production and provide new insights into the complexity of fatty acid metabolism.

  11. Fatty Acid Desaturases, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Regulation, and Biotechnological Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je Min Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are considered to be critical nutrients to regulate human health and development, and numerous fatty acid desaturases play key roles in synthesizing PUFAs. Given the lack of delta-12 and -15 desaturases and the low levels of conversion to PUFAs, humans must consume some omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in their diet. Many studies on fatty acid desaturases as well as PUFAs have shown that fatty acid desaturase genes are closely related to different human physiological conditions. Since the first front-end desaturases from cyanobacteria were cloned, numerous desaturase genes have been identified and animals and plants have been genetically engineered to produce PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Recently, a biotechnological approach has been used to develop clinical treatments for human physiological conditions, including cancers and neurogenetic disorders. Thus, understanding the functions and regulation of PUFAs associated with human health and development by using biotechnology may facilitate the engineering of more advanced PUFA production and provide new insights into the complexity of fatty acid metabolism.

  12. Microbial oils as food additives: recent approaches for improving microbial oil production and its polyunsaturated fatty acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellou, Stamatia; Triantaphyllidou, Irene-Eva; Aggeli, Dimitra; Elazzazy, Ahmed Mohammed; Baeshen, Mohammed Nabih; Aggelis, George

    2016-02-01

    In this short review, we summarize the latest research in the production of polyunsaturated microbial oils that are of interest in food technology. The current research targets the productivity of oleaginous microorganisms, as well as the biosynthesis of particular polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). The most important efforts target the efficiency of the oleaginous machinery, via overexpression of key-enzymes involved in lipid biosynthesis, as well as the minimization of lipid degradation, by repressing genes involved in the β-oxidation pathway. The production of specific PUFAs is approached by homologous or heterologous expression of specific desaturases and elongases involved in PUFA biosynthesis in oleaginous microorganisms. New perspectives, such as the production of triacylglycerols of specific structure and the employment of adaptive experimental evolution for creating robust oleaginous strains able to produce PUFAs are also discussed.

  13. Ready-to-use therapeutic food with elevated n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content, with or without fish oil, to treat severe acute malnutrition: a randomized controlled trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jones, Kelsey D J

    2015-01-01

    Ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTF) are lipid-based pastes widely used in the treatment of acute malnutrition. Current specifications for RUTF permit a high n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content and low n-3 PUFA, with no stipulated requirements for preformed long-chain n-3 PUFA. The objective of this study was to develop an RUTF with elevated short-chain n-3 PUFA and measure its impact, with and without fish oil supplementation, on children\\'s PUFA status during treatment of severe acute malnutrition.

  14. Comparative effects of sesame seeds differing in lignan contents and composition on fatty acid oxidation in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Takashi; Azechi, Ayana; Kitade, Sayaka; Kunimatsu, Yoko; Suzuki, Natsuko; Nakajima, Chihiro; Ogata, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    We compared the physiological activities of sesame seeds rich in lignans from three varieties (Gomazou, Maruhime and Maruemon), and those from a conventional cultivar (Masekin) in rats. The sum of the values of fat-soluble lignans (sesamin and sesamolin) in seeds of Gomazou, Maruhime and Maruemon varieties was approximately double the value in Masekin. Seeds from Maruemon contained fat-soluble lignan most exclusively as sesamin while other varieties contained sesamin and sesamolin at about a 2:1 ratio. After a 16 d experiment, sesame seeds, added at 200 g/kg to the experimental diets, increased the activity and mRNA levels of fatty acid oxidation enzymes. Increases were stronger with seeds rich in lignans than with seeds from Masekin. In contrast, sesame seeds lowered the activity and mRNA levels of lipogenic enzymes. However, sesame seeds from all the varieties were comparable in affecting these parameters. Serum triacylglycerol concentrations were lower in rats fed diets containing sesame seeds rich in lignans than in those fed a diet free of sesame seeds or a diet containing seeds from the Masekin variety. Serum malondialdehyde (a marker of lipid peroxidation) was lower in rats fed diets containing sesame seeds rich in lignans than in those fed a sesame seed-free diet or Masekin diet. It is apparent that sesame seeds rich in lignans, irrespective of lignan composition, more profoundly affect hepatic fatty acid oxidation and serum triacylglycerol levels and possibly attenuate oxidative stress. Therefore, consumption of sesame seeds rich in lignans hopefully results in physiological activity to promote health.

  15. The impact of enhanced atmospheric carbon dioxide on yield, proximate composition, elemental concentration, fatty acid and vitamin C contents of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ikhtiar; Azam, Andaleeb; Mahmood, Abid

    2013-01-01

    The global average temperature has witnessed a steady increase during the second half of the twentieth century and the trend is continuing. Carbon dioxide, a major green house gas is piling up in the atmosphere and besides causing global warming, is expected to alter the physico-chemical composition of plants. The objective of this work was to evaluate the hypothesis that increased CO(2) in the air is causing undesirable changes in the nutritional composition of tomato fruits. Two varieties of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) were grown in ambient (400 μmol mol(-1)) and elevated (1,000 μmol mol(-1)) concentration of CO(2) under controlled conditions. The fruits were harvested at premature and fully matured stages and analyzed for yield, proximate composition, elemental concentration, fatty acid, and vitamin C contents. The amount of carbohydrates increased significantly under the enhanced CO(2) conditions. The amount of crude protein and vitamin C, two important nutritional parameters, decreased substantially. Fatty acid content showed a mild decrease with a slight increase in crude fiber. Understandably, the effect of enhanced atmospheric CO(2) was more pronounced at the fully matured stage. Mineral contents of the fruit samples changed in an irregular fashion. Tomato fruit has been traditionally a source of vitamin C, under the experimental conditions, a negative impact of enhanced CO(2) on this source of vitamin C was observed. The nutritional quality of both varieties of tomato has altered under the CO(2) enriched atmosphere.

  16. Fatty acid composition of human milk and infant formulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivančica Delaš

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate fatty acid composition of membrane lipids is necessary for structure and function of the developing nervous system. Rapid synthesis of brain tissue occurs during the last trimester of pregnancy and the early postnatal weeks. This synthesis of brain structure involves the formation of complex lipids, many of which contain significant quantities of essential fatty acids and their higher homologs. This study was undertaken to elucidate how fatty acid compositions of available diets for infants meet the requirements for essential fatty acids. Samples of infant formulas, present on the market, as well as milk samples obtained from breast feeding mothers, were extracted by chloroform : methanol mixtures in order to obtain total lipids. Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared and fatty acid composition was revealed by gas chromatography. Special interest was directed to the content of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The results have shown that infant formulas, designed to substitute mothers’ breast milk, contain medium chain fatty acids (C 10:0, C 12:0, along with the other saturated fatty acids, in the amounts acceptable for infants’ energy consumption. Although linoleic acid (C18:2, n-6 was present at the level expected to cover needs for essential fatty acids, most of the tested products did not contain sufficient amounts of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, despite the fact that these fatty acids are necessary for undisturbed brain development, ignoring the strong recommendations that they should be used as a supplement in infants’ food.

  17. Differentiation of Bacillus anthracis from Bacillus cereus by gas chromatographic whole-cell fatty acid analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence, D.; Heitefuss, S; Seifert, H S

    1991-01-01

    Three strains of Bacillus anthracis and seven strains of Bacillus cereus were grown on complex medium and on synthetic medium. Gas chromatographic analysis of whole-cell fatty acids of strains grown on complex medium gave nearly identical fatty acid patterns. Fatty acid patterns of strains grown on synthetic medium showed a high content of branched-chain fatty acids. Significant differences between the fatty acid patterns of the two species were found. Odd iso/anteiso fatty acid ratios were a...

  18. Role of bioactive fatty acids in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Hernández, Eva; Chávez-Tapia, Norberto C; Uribe, Misael; Barbero-Becerra, Varenka J

    2016-08-02

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by fat deposition in hepatocytes, and a strong association with nutritional factors. Dietary fatty acids are classified according to their biochemical properties, which confer their bioactive roles. Monounsaturated fatty acids have a dual role in various human and murine models. In contrast, polyunsaturated fatty acids exhibit antiobesity, anti steatosic and anti-inflammatory effects. The combination of these forms of fatty acids-according to dietary type, daily intake and the proportion of n-6 to n-3 fats-can compromise hepatic lipid metabolism. A chemosensory rather than a nutritional role makes bioactive fatty acids possible biomarkers for NAFLD. Bioactive fatty acids provide health benefits through modification of fatty acid composition and modulating the activity of liver cells during liver fibrosis. More and better evidence is necessary to elucidate the role of bioactive fatty acids in nutritional and clinical treatment strategies for patients with NAFLD.

  19. Effects of a Diet Enriched with Polyunsaturated, Saturated, or Trans Fatty Acids on Cytokine Content in the Liver, White Adipose Tissue, and Skeletal Muscle of Adult Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the effect of diet enriched with 30% lipids on cytokines content in different tissues. Swiss male mice were distributed into four groups treated for 8 weeks with control (C, normolipidic diet; soybean oil (S; lard (L; and hydrogenated vegetable fat (H. We observed an increase in carcass fat in groups S and L, and the total amount of fatty deposits was only higher in group L compared with C group. The serum levels of free fatty acids were lower in the L group, and insulin, adiponectin, lipid profile, and glucose levels were similar among the groups. IL-10 was lower in group L in mesenteric and retroperitoneal adipose tissues. H reduced IL-10 only in retroperitoneal adipose tissue. There was an increase in IL-6 in the gastrocnemius muscle of the L group, and a positive correlation between TNF-α and IL-10 was observed in the livers of groups C, L, and H and in the muscles of all groups studied. The results suggested relationships between the quantity and quality of lipids ingested with adiposity, the concentration of free fatty acids, and cytokine production in white adipose tissue, gastrocnemius muscle, and liver.

  20. TECHNOLOGY FOR OIL ENRICHED BY POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Leshukov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The technology of butter with the "OmegaTrin" complex with the balanced content of polynonsaturated fat acids is developed. Studied the fatty acid composition of milk - raw materials, optimal amount of insertion of polyunsaturated fatty acids, organoleptic characteristics of enriched butter; studied physico-chemical properties and biological value (biological effectiveness of the final product, fatty acid composition of a new product, set the shelf life and developed an oil recipe.

  1. Effects of boiling and roasting on proximate composition, lipid oxidation, fatty acid profile and mineral content of two sesame varieties commercialized and consumed in Far-North Region of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenyang, Noël; Ponka, Roger; Tiencheu, Bernard; Djikeng, Fabrice T; Azmeera, Thirupathi; Karuna, Mallampalli S L; Prasad, Rachapudi B N; Womeni, Hilaire M

    2017-04-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of boiling and roasting on the proximate, lipid oxidation, fatty acid profile and mineral content of two sesame seeds varieties. The proximate composition was significantly affected (PBoiling appeared to be the best processing method for cooking the two sesame varieties concerning oxidative stability and fatty acid profile. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Relationship between umbilical cord essential fatty acid content and the quality of general movements of healthy term infants at 3 months

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwstra, H; Dijck-Brouwer, DJ; Decsi, T; Boehm, G; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FA; Hadders-Algra, M

    2006-01-01

    Prenatal essential fatty acid (EFA) status might be an important factor in the development of the central nervous system (CNS). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between the fatty acid compositions of the umbilical blood vessels at birth, used as a proxy of prenatal EFA s

  3. Identification of characteristic fatty acids to quantify triacylglycerols in microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peili eShen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid profiles of lipids from microalgae are unique. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are generally enriched in polar lipids, whereas saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids constitute the majority of fatty acids in triacylglycerols (TAG. Each species has characteristic fatty acids, and their content is positively or negatively correlated with TAGs. The marine oleaginous diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum was used as the paradigm to determine the quantitative relationship between TAG and characteristic fatty acid content. Fatty acid profiles and TAG content of Phaeodactylum tricornutum were determined in a time course. C16:0/C16:1 and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n3 were identified as characteristic fatty acids in TAGs and polar lipids, respectively. The percentage of those characteristic fatty acids in total fatty acids had a significant linear relationship with TAG content and thus the correlation coefficient presenting r2 were 0.96, 0.94 and 0.97 respectively. The fatty acid-based method for TAG quantification could also be applied to other microalgae such as Nannochloropsis oceanica in which the r2 of C16:0, EPA were 0.94, 0.97 respectively and Chlorella pyrenoidosa, whose r2 value correspondingly between C18:1, C18:3 and TAG content were 0.91, 0.99 as well. This characteristic fatty acid-based method provided a distinct way to quantify TAGs in microalgae, by which TAGs could be measured precisely by immediate transesterification from wet biomass rather than using conventional methods. This procedure simplified the operation and required smaller samples than conventional methods.

  4. N-3 fatty acid intake altered fat content and fatty acid distribution in chicken breast muscle, but did not influence mRNA expression of lipid-related enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Anna; Nyquist, Nicole F; Thomassen, Magny; Høstmark, Arne T; Ostbye, Tone-Kari Knutsdatter

    2014-06-03

    The conversions of the n-3 and n-6 fatty acid of plant origin to the C20 and C22 very long chain fatty acids (LCPUFAs) is regulated by several cellular enzymes such as elongases and desaturases. Sixty-five male one-day old chickens (Ross 308) were randomly divided into four groups and given one of four diets; with or without linseed oil (LO), (the diets contained equal amounts of fat) and with low or high selenium (Se). Final body weight, amount of Se and fat in breast muscle, fatty acid profile, and gene expression for fatty acid desaturases (Fads1, Fads2, Fads9), HMG-CoA reductase, Acyl-CoA oxidase (Acox), carnitine palmitoyl transferase1 (Cpt1), superoxide dismutase (Sod) and glutathione peroxidase4 (Gpx4) were analyzed in all animals, and Gpx activity in whole blood was determined. mRNA expression of elongases and desaturases in chicken breast muscle was not affected by feed rich in C18:3n-3. The highly positive correlation between amount of fat in breast muscle and the product/precursor indices of monounsaturated fatty acid synthesis, and the negative correlation between muscle fat and indices of LCPUFA synthesis should be further studied. mRNA expression in chicken breast muscle of elongases and desaturases was not affected by feed rich in C18:3n-3. The highly positive correlation between amount of fat in breast muscle and the product/precursor indices of monounsaturated fatty acid synthesis, and the negative correlation between muscle fat and indices of LCPUFA synthesis should be further studied.

  5. Differential Effects of Dietary Fat Content and Protein Source on Bone Phenotype and Fatty Acid Oxidation in Female C57Bl/6 Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawin, Emily A.; Stroup, Bridget M.; Murali, Sangita G.; O’Neill, Lucas M.; Ntambi, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Glycomacropeptide (GMP) is a 64-amino acid glycophosphopeptide released from κ-casein during cheesemaking that promotes satiety, reduces body fat, increases bone mass and infers prebiotic and anti-inflammatory effects. The impact of adiposity and gender on bone health is unclear. Objective To determine how feeding female mice diets providing 60% Fat Kcal (high-fat) or 13% Fat Kcal (control) with either GMP or casein as the protein source impacts: body composition, ex vivo fatty acid oxidation, bone (femoral) biomechanical performance, and the relationship between body composition and bone. Methods Weanling female C57Bl/6 mice were fed high-fat (60% Fat Kcal) or control diets (13% Fat Kcal) with GMP or casein from 3 to 32 weeks of age with assessment of body weight and food intake. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Fatty acid oxidation was measured in liver, muscle, and fat tissues using 14C-palmitate. Plasma concentrations of hormones and cytokines were determined. Bone biomechanical performance was assessed by the 3-point bending test. Results Female mice fed high-fat diets showed increased fatty acid oxidation capacity in both gastrocnemius muscle and brown adipose tissue compared to mice fed the control diets with a lower fat content. Despite increased fat mass in mice fed the high-fat diets, there was little evidence of glucose impairment or inflammation. Mice fed the high-fat diets had significantly greater total body bone mineral density (BMD), femoral BMD, and femoral cross-sectional area than mice fed the control diets. Femora of mice fed the high-fat diets had increased yield load and maximum load before fracture, consistent with greater bone strength, but reduced post-yield displacement or ductility, consistent with bone brittleness. Female mice fed a high-fat GMP diet displayed increased fat oxidation capacity in subcutaneous fat relative to mice fed the high-fat casein diet. Regardless of dietary fat

  6. Characterization of the fatty acid composition of lamb commercially available in northern Spain: Emphasis on the trans-18:1 and CLA content and profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Lamas, Leire; Barron, Luis J R; Kramer, John K G; Etaio, Iñaki; Aldai, Noelia

    2016-07-01

    A survey of commercially available lamb meat was performed in northern Spain in order to evaluate their fatty acid (FA) composition with emphasis on trans fatty acid (TFA) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers. Samples were collected in spring (n=24) and winter (n=24) of 2013, and were obtained in about equal numbers from grocery stores and butcher-shops. Subcutaneous fat, known to be a sensitive indicator of TFA content in ruminants, was analyzed by GC-FID. In general, very few differences were observed between collection periods and type of stores because of the high variability within the groups that was believed to be associated with differences in genetics and feeding strategies. However, the 10t/11t ratio of all samples showed two clearly identifiable groups irrespective of the source: 1) when 10t/11t was >1, 10t-shifted samples; 2) when 10t/11t was ≤1, non-shifted samples where 11t-18:1 was the predominant isomer. These two groups were clearly identified and associated with distinct FAs using principal component analysis.

  7. Variation in lipid and free fatty acid content during spawning in two temperate octocorals with different reproductive strategies: surface versus internal brooder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viladrich, Núria; Bramanti, Lorenzo; Tsounis, Georgios; Chocarro, Blanca; Martínez-Quitana, Angela; Ambroso, Stefano; Madurell, Teresa; Rossi, Sergio

    2016-09-01

    This study investigates the energetic investment during spawning of two Mediterranean gorgonians characterized by different reproductive strategies: Corallium rubrum (internal brooder) and Paramuricea clavata (surface brooder). Sexual products (number of oocytes and spermatic sacs) were quantified, and biochemical characteristics (lipid content and free fatty acid content and composition) were determined to investigate the parental energetic investment and demand in reproduction. Results suggested that the majority of the energetic cost was due to reproductive activity (i.e., gametogenesis and spawning). The two species exhibited different life history strategies, with P. clavata investing more energy in reproduction than C. rubrum. However, P. clavata is reproductively more sensitive to inter-annual changes in environmental conditions.

  8. Pyrogenic transformation of Nannochloropsis oceanica into fatty acid methyl esters without oil extraction for estimating total lipid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jieun; Jung, Jong-Min; Lee, Jechan; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Choi, Tae O; Kim, Jae-Kon; Jeon, Young Jae; Kwon, Eilhann E

    2016-07-01

    This study fundamentally investigated the pseudo-catalytic transesterification of dried Nannochloropsis oceanica into fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) without oil extraction, which was achieved in less than 5min via a thermo-chemical pathway. This study presented that the pseudo-catalytic transesterification reaction was achieved in the presence of silica and that its main driving force was identified as temperature: pores in silica provided the numerous reaction space like a micro-reactor, where the heterogeneous reaction was developed. The introduced FAME derivatization showed an extraordinarily high tolerance of impurities (i.e., pyrolytic products and various extractives). This study also explored the thermal cracking of FAMEs derived from N. oceanica: the thermal cracking of saturated FAMEs was invulnerable at temperatures lower than 400°C. Lastly, this study reported that N. oceanica contained 14.4wt.% of dried N. oceanica and that the introduced methylation technique could be applicable to many research fields sharing the transesterification platform. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Apolipoprotein E4 allele is associated with substantial changes in the plasma lipids and hyaluronic acid content in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowska, E; Maciejewska, D; Ossowski, P; Drozd, A; Ryterska, K; Banaszczak, M; Milkiewicz, M; Raszeja-Wyszomirska, J; Slebioda, M; Milkiewicz, P; Jelen, H

    2013-12-01

    Fat may affect progression of liver damage in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this study we characterize the state of lipid metabolism in 22 patients with NAFLD and different Apo-E variants. Total concentration of plasma total fatty acids was quantified by gas chromatography, while their derivatives by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC ESI MS/MS). The ratio of plasma saturated fatty acid to monounsaturated fatty acid increased, whereas the ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids was reduced in Apo-E4 carriers. Simultaneously, the levels of individual plasma linoleic, arachidonic, and alpha linolenic acids significantly increased in subjects with the Apo-E4 allele. The 15-lipoxygenase metabolite, 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid, was significantly higher in Apo-E3 carriers (pacid was significantly elevated in Apo-E4 carriers (phyaluronic acid concentration (pacid synthesis and fatty acid dysfunction may induce fibrosis, while an inflammatory process may be the main cause of fibrosis in Apo-E3 carriers.

  10. Potential Production of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids from Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noer Abyor Handayani

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently, public awareness of healthcare importance increase. Polyunsaturated fatty acid is an essential nutrition for us, such arachidonic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. The need of Polyunsaturated fatty acid generally derived from fish oil, but fish oil has a high risk chemical contamination. Microalgae are single cell microorganism, one of Phaeodactylum tricornutum which have relatively high content of eicosapentaenoic acid (29,8%. Biotechnology market of Polyunsaturated fatty acid is very promising for both foods and feeds, because the availability of abundant raw materials and suitable to develop in the tropics. This literature review discusses about the content of Polyunsaturated fatty acid in microalgae, omega-3, omega-6, Polyunsaturated fatty acid production processes, and applications in public health

  11. Effect of pasture and soybean supplementation on fatty acid profile and CLA content in dairy cow milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Simonetto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA has been related to several beneficial effects on human and animal health (anticancerogens, antiatherogenics, etc. The main dietary source of CLA for humans are foods derived from ruminants. In dairy products CLA content depends on ruminal bio-hydrogenation of the dietary unsaturated fats and it is also related to the Δ9desaturase activity in the mammary gland. The CLA level of milk is affected by various factors, including diet composition, that seems to play an important role (Jensen, 2002. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of toasted and raw soybean addition to a mixed diet and...........

  12. [Omega-3 fatty acids in psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourre, Jean-Marie

    2005-02-01

    The brain is one of the organs with the highest level of lipids (fats). Brain lipids, formed of fatty acids, participate in the structure of membranes, for instance 50 % fatty acids are polyunsaturated in the gray matter, 1/3 are of the omega-3 family, and are thus of dietary origin. The omega-3 fatty acids (mainly alpha-linolenic acid, ALA) participated in one of the first experimental demonstration of the effect of dietary substances (nutrients) on the structure and function of the brain. Experiments were first of all carried out on ex vivo cultured brain cells, then on in vivo brain cells (neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes) from animals fed ALA deficient diet, finally on physicochemical (membrane fluidity), biochemical, physiological, neurosensory (vision an auditory responses), and behavioural or learning parameters. These findings indicated that the nature of polyunsaturated fatty acids (in particular omega-3) present in formula milks for human infants determines to a certain extend the visual, neurological, and intellectual abilities. Thus, in view of these results and of the high polyunsaturated fatty acid content of the brain, it is normal to consider that they could be involved in psychiatric diseases and in the cognitive decline of ageing. Omega-3 fatty acids appear effective in the prevention of stress, however their role as regulator of mood is a matter for discussion. Indeed, they play a role in the prevention of some disorders including depression (especially post partum), as well as in dementia, particularly Alzheimer's disease. Their role in major depression and bipolar disorder (manic-depressive disease), only poorly documented, is not clearly demonstrated. The intervention of omega-3 in dyslexia, autism, and schizophrenia has been suggested, but it does not necessarily infer a nutritional problems. The respective importance of the vascular system (where the omega-3 are actually active) and the cerebral parenchyma itself, remain to be

  13. Bioavailability of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchardt, Jan Philipp; Hahn, Andreas

    2013-07-01

    Supplements have reached a prominent role in improving the supply of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, such as Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA 20:5n-3) and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA 22:6n-3). Similar to other nutrients, the availability of omega-3 fatty acids is highly variable and determined by numerous factors. However, the question of omega-3 fatty acids bioavailability has long been disregarded, which may have contributed to the neutral or negative results concerning their effects in several studies. This review provides an overview of the influence of chemical binding form (free fatty acids bound in ethylesters, triacylglycerides or phospholipids), matrix effects (capsule ingestion with concomitant intake of food, fat content in food) or galenic form (i.e. microencapsulation, emulsification) on the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids. There is a need to systematically investigate the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids formulations, which might be a key to designing more effective studies in the future.

  14. A polymorphism in the stearoyl-CoA desaturase gene promoter influences monounsaturated fatty acid content of Duroc × Iberian hams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Henriquez-Rodriguez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Data on 74 dry-cured hams from Duroc × Iberian pigs were used to examine whether the tag polymorphism AY487830:g.2228T>C in the promoter region of the stearoyl-CoA desaturase [SCD] gene affect fat desaturation and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA as previously described in purebred Duroc hams. Samples were taken from sliced trays of dry-cured hams marketed as Jamón Ibérico de cebo, which were randomly purchased from the same supplier in different stores of the same supermarket chain. Genomic DNA was isolated from each sample to genotype for SCD and gender. Also, a sample of two slices was used to determine fat content and fatty acid (FA composition by gas chromatography. The effect of the genotype (TT and CT and gender (barrows and gilts was estimated under a Bayesian setting. Results showed that the SCD polymorphism was associated to fat composition but not to fat content, with TT hams showing increased C18:1n-7, C18:1n-9, C20:1n-9 and MUFA (probability between 0.92-0.98 and decreased C18:2n-6, C20:4n-6 and polyunsaturated FA (PUFA (probability between 0.91-0.99 as compared to the CT. As a result, the TT hams had more MUFA (0.95% and a higher MUFA/PUFA ratio (0.43 than the CT. Barrows had more saturated FA (SFA and less PUFA than gilts. No differences in MUFA content were found between genders. The SCD polymorphism had a greater impact on MUFA than using hams from barrows instead of gilts. It is concluded that the SCD polymorphism is a good tool to increase MUFA and MUFA/PUFA ratio in Duroc crossbred dry-cured hams.

  15. Profile of Fatty Acids, Amino Acids, Carotenoid Total, and α-Tocopherol from Flying Fish Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulia Azka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Flying fish are found in waters of eastern Indonesia, which until now is still limited information about nutritional content. The purpose of this research was determine the composition of fatty acids, amino acids, total carotenoids, α-tocopherol flying fish eggs (Hyrundicthys sp.. The composition of fatty acid was measured by gas chromatography (GC, while amino acids, total carotenoids, α-tocopherol was measured by High performanced Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Egg contained 22 fatty acids such as saturated fatty acid 29.71%, monounsaturated fatty acid 7.86%, and polysaturated fatty acid 13.64%. The result showed that eggs flying fish contained 17 amino acids, such as essential amino acid 14.96% and non-essential amino acids 20.27%. Eggs contained a total carotenoid of 245.37 ppm. α-tocopherol content of flying fish eggs by 1.06 ppm.

  16. DETERMINATION OF RAT CEREBRAL CORTEX FATTY ACID COMPOSITION AND CON-TENT BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY%气相色谱法分析大鼠大脑皮质脂肪酸组成及含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石如玲; 张煜; 杨磊; 杨志军

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To determine cerebral cortex fatty acid composition and content of rats. [Methods] Iipids were extracted from the cerebral cortex with methanol/dichloromethane and were methylesterified using methanol/acetyl chloride. Fatty acid methyl esters were then assayed by gas chromatography. [Results] Qualitative analysis results showed that there were 16 kinds of fatty acids in rat cerebral cortex, with major fatty acids as C18 : 0, followed by C16 : 0, C18 : 1, C20 : 4 and C22 6. The ratio of saturated fatty acids to unsaturated fatty acids in rat cerebral cortex was 1.22 : 1. [Conclusion] This study provided data on fatty acid composition and content of rat cerebral cortex, which laid the foundation for exploring the relation* ship between fatty acids and brain function.%[目的]对大鼠大脑皮质脂肪酸组成及含量进行分析测定.[方法]采用甲醇-二氯甲烷提取脑皮质总脂,用甲醇/乙酰氯法进行脂肪酸甲酯化,利用气相色谱法对脂肪酸组成及含量进行测定.[结果]定性分析结果表明大鼠脑皮质脂肪酸至少有16种,含量占优势的脂肪酸为C18:0、C16:0、C18:1、C20:4、C22:6;饱和与不饱和脂肪酸之比为1.22:1.[结论]该实验确定了大鼠大脑皮质脂肪酸的组成及含量,为进一步研究脂肪酸与脑功能打下了基础.

  17. Chemical composition, fatty acid content and antioxidant potential of meat from goats supplemented with Moringa (Moringa oleifera) leaves, sunflower cake and grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qwele, K; Hugo, A; Oyedemi, S O; Moyo, B; Masika, P J; Muchenje, V

    2013-03-01

    The present study determined the chemical composition, fatty acid (FA) content and antioxidant capacity of meat from goats supplemented with Moringa oleifera leaves (MOL) or sunflower cake (SC) or grass hay (GH). The meat from goat supplemented with MOL had higher concentrations of total phenolic content (10.62±0.27 mg tannic acid equivalent E/g). The MOL significantly scavenged 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic-acid (ABTS) radical to 93.51±0.19% (93.51±0.19%) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical to 58.95±0.3% than other supplements. The antioxidative effect of MOL supplemented meat on catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid oxidation (LO) was significantly (P<0.05) higher than other meat from goat feed on grass hay or those supplemented with sunflower seed cake. The present study indicated that the anti-oxidative potential of MOL may play a role in improving meat quality (chemical composition, colour and lipid stability). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Improvement of Medium Chain Fatty Acid Content and Antimicrobial Activity of Coconut Oil via Solid-State Fermentation Using a Malaysian Geotrichum candidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Khoramnia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Coconut oil is a rich source of beneficial medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs particularly lauric acid. In this study, the oil was modified into a value-added product using direct modification of substrate through fermentation (DIMOSFER method. A coconut-based and coconut-oil-added solid-state cultivation using a Malaysian lipolytic Geotrichum candidum was used to convert the coconut oil into MCFAs-rich oil. Chemical characteristics of the modified coconut oils (MCOs considering total medium chain glyceride esters were compared to those of the normal coconut oil using ELSD-RP-HPLC. Optimum amount of coconut oil hydrolysis was achieved at 29% moisture content and 10.14% oil content after 9 days of incubation, where the quantitative amounts of the modified coconut oil and MCFA were 0.330 mL/g of solid media (76.5% bioconversion and 0.175 mL/g of solid media (53% of the MCO, respectively. MCOs demonstrated improved antibacterial activity mostly due to the presence of free lauric acid. The highest MCFAs-rich coconut oil revealed as much as 90% and 80% antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. The results of the study showed that DIMOSFER by a local lipolytic G. candidum can be used to produce MCFAs as natural, effective, and safe antimicrobial agent. The produced MCOs and MCFAs could be further applied in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  19. Improvement of medium chain fatty acid content and antimicrobial activity of coconut oil via solid-state fermentation using a Malaysian Geotrichum candidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoramnia, Anahita; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Ghanbari, Raheleh; Ajdari, Zahra; Lai, Oi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Coconut oil is a rich source of beneficial medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) particularly lauric acid. In this study, the oil was modified into a value-added product using direct modification of substrate through fermentation (DIMOSFER) method. A coconut-based and coconut-oil-added solid-state cultivation using a Malaysian lipolytic Geotrichum candidum was used to convert the coconut oil into MCFAs-rich oil. Chemical characteristics of the modified coconut oils (MCOs) considering total medium chain glyceride esters were compared to those of the normal coconut oil using ELSD-RP-HPLC. Optimum amount of coconut oil hydrolysis was achieved at 29% moisture content and 10.14% oil content after 9 days of incubation, where the quantitative amounts of the modified coconut oil and MCFA were 0.330 mL/g of solid media (76.5% bioconversion) and 0.175 mL/g of solid media (53% of the MCO), respectively. MCOs demonstrated improved antibacterial activity mostly due to the presence of free lauric acid. The highest MCFAs-rich coconut oil revealed as much as 90% and 80% antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. The results of the study showed that DIMOSFER by a local lipolytic G. candidum can be used to produce MCFAs as natural, effective, and safe antimicrobial agent. The produced MCOs and MCFAs could be further applied in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  20. Effect of tomato juice consumption on the plasmatic lipid profile, hepatic HMGCR activity, and fecal short chain fatty acid content of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periago, María Jesús; Martín-Pozuelo, Gala; González-Barrio, Rocío; Santaella, Marina; Gómez, Victoria; Vázquez, Nuria; Navarro-González, Inmaculada; García-Alonso, Javier

    2016-10-12

    The aims of the present study were to ascertain, indirectly, the prebiotic role of tomato juice, by analyzing its effect on the content of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) in feces of rats, and to determine the plausible mechanisms related to the hypocholesterolemic effects of tomato juice and lycopene, evaluating the activity of hepatic HMGCR and the formation of propionic acid. Two commercially available tomato juices with differing contents of lycopene (low and high lycopene contents: Llyc and Hlyc tomato juices) were used. Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly divided into three experimental groups (n = 8): control group, normal diet and water; group 1, normal diet and Llyc tomato juice; and group 2, normal diet and Hlyc tomato juice, which were fed ad libitum for three weeks. Feces were collected at the beginning and the end of the study to determine SCFA, and blood and liver were obtained (after sacrificing the animals) to analyze the lipid plasmatic parameters and the HMGCR activity and total cholesterol, respectively. No significant differences were observed in the plasmatic parameters, except that HDL-cholesterol increased significantly after consumption of both tomato juices. Lycopene was accumulated in the liver in proportion to the amount ingested, and was observed to have an inhibitory effect on the HMGCR enzyme, according to the amount of lycopene in the liver. In relation to the SCFA in feces, no differences were observed in acetate and propionate after the consumption of tomato juice, but a significant increase in butyrate was observed in group 2 after the intake of Hlyc tomato juice. The content of this carboxylic acid together with excreted lycopene in feces could have a beneficial effect on colonic cells.

  1. Ready-to-use therapeutic food with elevated n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content, with or without fish oil, to treat severe acute malnutrition: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kelsey D J; Ali, Rehema; Khasira, Maureen A; Odera, Dennis; West, Annette L; Koster, Grielof; Akomo, Peter; Talbert, Alison W A; Goss, Victoria M; Ngari, Moses; Thitiri, Johnstone; Ndoro, Said; Knight, Miguel A Garcia; Omollo, Kenneth; Ndungu, Anne; Mulongo, Musa M; Bahwere, Paluku; Fegan, Greg; Warner, John O; Postle, Anthony D; Collins, Steve; Calder, Philip C; Berkley, James A

    2015-04-23

    Ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTF) are lipid-based pastes widely used in the treatment of acute malnutrition. Current specifications for RUTF permit a high n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content and low n-3 PUFA, with no stipulated requirements for preformed long-chain n-3 PUFA. The objective of this study was to develop an RUTF with elevated short-chain n-3 PUFA and measure its impact, with and without fish oil supplementation, on children's PUFA status during treatment of severe acute malnutrition. This randomized controlled trial in children with severe acute malnutrition in rural Kenya included 60 children aged 6 to 50 months who were randomized to receive i) RUTF with standard composition; ii) RUTF with elevated short chain n-3 PUFA; or iii) RUTF with elevated short chain n-3 PUFA plus fish oil capsules. Participants were followed-up for 3 months. The primary outcome was erythrocyte PUFA composition. Erythrocyte docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content declined from baseline in the two arms not receiving fish oil. Erythrocyte long-chain n-3 PUFA content following treatment was significantly higher for participants in the arm receiving fish oil than for those in the arms receiving RUTF with elevated short chain n-3 PUFA or standard RUTF alone: 3 months after enrollment, DHA content was 6.3% (interquartile range 6.0-7.3), 4.5% (3.9-4.9), and 3.9% (2.4-5.7) of total erythrocyte fatty acids (P RUTF with elevated short chain n-3 PUFA and fish oil capsules were acceptable to participants and carers, and there were no significant differences in safety outcomes. PUFA requirements of children with SAM are not met by current formulations of RUTF, or by an RUTF with elevated short-chain n-3 PUFA without additional preformed long-chain n-3 PUFA. Clinical and growth implications of revised formulations need to be addressed in large clinical trials. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01593969. Registered 4 May 2012.

  2. Changes in lipid content and fatty acid composition along the reproductive cycle of the freshwater mussel Dreissena polymorpha: Its modulation by clofibrate exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzara, Raimondo; Fernandes, Denise, E-mail: deniseferna@gmail.com; Faria, Melissa; Lopez, Jordi F.; Tauler, Roma; Porte, Cinta, E-mail: cinta.porte@cid.csic.es

    2012-08-15

    Total lipids and fatty acid profiles were determined along the reproductive cycle of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). A total of 33 fatty acids with carbon atoms from 14 to 22 were identified: palmitic acid (16:0) was the most abundant fatty acid (13-24%) followed by docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7). Some individual fatty acids (16:0, 16:2n-4, 18:1n-7, 18:2n-6, 18:3n-4, 18:4n-3, 20:4n-3, 20:5n-3) were strongly related to reproductive events, while others having structural-type functions (18:0 and 22:6n-3) were rather stable during the study period. Multivariate analysis of the whole data set using the multivariate curve resolution alternating least squares method confirmed the strong relationship of fatty acid profiles with the reproductive cycle of zebra mussel. Additionally, the effects of the pharmaceutical clofibrate on lipid composition and fatty acid profiles were assessed following 7-day exposure of zebra mussels to a wide range of concentrations (20 ng/L to 2 mg/L). A significant reduction in total triglycerides (38%-48%) together with an increase in the amount of fatty acids per gram wet weight (1.5- to 2.2-fold) was observed in the exposed mussels. This work highlights the ability of clofibrate to induce changes on the lipidome of zebra mussels at concentrations as low as 200 ng/L. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Clofibrate exposure leads to a reduction of total triglycerides in zebra mussel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amount of fatty acids per gram wet weight increased in exposed mussels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects were evidenced at concentrations of clofibrate as low as 200 ng/L. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fatty acid profiles were closely related to reproductive events.

  3. The effect of nitrogen limitation on acetyl-CoA carboxylase expression and fatty acid content in Chromera velia and Isochrysis aff. galbana (TISO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerlimann, Roger; Steinig, Eike J; Loxton, Heather; Zenger, Kyall R; Jerry, Dean R; Heimann, Kirsten

    2014-06-15

    Lipids from microalgae have become a valuable product with applications ranging from biofuels to human nutrition. While changes in fatty acid (FA) content and composition under nitrogen limitation are well documented, the involved molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) is a key enzyme in the FA synthesis and elongation pathway. Plastidial and cytosolic ACCases provide malonyl-CoA for de novo FA synthesis in the plastid and FA elongation in the endoplasmic reticulum, respectively. The present study aimed at investigating the expression of plastidial and cytosolic ACCase in Chromera velia and Isochrysis aff. galbana (TISO) and their impact on FA content and elongation level when grown under nitrogen-deplete conditions. In C. velia, plastidial ACCase was significantly upregulated during nitrogen starvation and with culture age, strongly correlating with increased FA content. Conversely, plastidial ACCase of I. aff. galbana was not differentially expressed in nitrogen-deplete cultures, but upregulated during the logarithmic phase of nitrogen-replete cultures. In contrast to plastidial ACCase, the cytosolic ACCase of C. velia was downregulated with culture age and nitrogen-starvation, strongly correlating with an increase in medium-chain FAs. In conclusion, the expression of plastidial and cytosolic ACCase changed with growth phase and nutrient status in a species-specific manner and nitrogen limitation did not always result in FA accumulation.

  4. Feeding dairy cows with full fat extruded or toasted soybean seeds as replacement of soybean meal and effects on milk yield, fatty acid profile and CLA content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Bittante

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the replacement of about 70% of soybean meal (SBM with extruded(ES or toasted (TS full-fat soybean seeds in diets for lactating cows on milk quality, fatty acid profile, and conjugatedlinoleic acid (CLA content. Eighteen lactating cows were assigned to 3 groups which received a basal diet, supplementedwith 1.8, 2.1 and 2.1 kg/head, respectively, of SBM, ES and TS. There was no significant effect on milk yield,calculated as the difference between daily yield during the experimental period and the mean of the last 5 days of adaptation(-1.65, -1.29 and -0.20 kg/d, respectively, for SBM, ES and TS; P>0.10 and milk quality parameters (fat, protein,urea and cheese making parameters among treatments. In the ES group there was a decrease in the short chainFA content (from C4 to C13 in milk fat (9.2 vs 11.0 and 10.8 g/100 g lipids, respectively, for ES, SBM and TS; PMedium chain FA (from C14 to C17 content in milk fat was lower for ES and TS groups compared with SBM (46.8 and48.0 vs 54.8 g/100 g lipids respectively; PSBM group compared to the others (34.3 vs 44.2 and 41.2 g/100 g lipids, respectively, for SBM, ES and TS; PThe replacement of SBM with ES enhanced oleic and linoleic acid and, particularly, CLA content. Intermediate values wereobserved for the TS group. CLA content (0.91, 0.62 and 0.56 g/100 g lipids, respectively, for ES, TS and SBM; Pincreased throughout the trial in all groups. ES also reduced the proportion of SFA with respect to SBM (65.2, 68.2 and70.9 g/100 g lipids, respectively, for ES, TS and SBM; Pin the same order; Pimproving the health-quality of milk. The various soybean products did not affect either metabolic profile (protein, urea,glucose, cholesterol, NEFA, triglycerides, liver parameters and mineral serum content or rumen parameters (pH, ammoniaand VFAs. The replacement of SBM with ES and TS permitted an improvement in the nutritional properties of milkwithout negatively

  5. Fatty Acid Oxidation Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... acid oxidation disorders are tested for in newborn screening? The March of Dimes recommends that all babies ... in behavior Diarrhea, nausea (feeling sick to your stomach) and throwing up Drowsiness Fever Fussiness Little appetite ...

  6. Fatty acids profiling reveals potential candidate markers of semen quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbinati, C; Caponecchia, L; Rago, R; Leoncini, E; Bottaccioli, A G; Ciacciarelli, M; Pacelli, A; Salacone, P; Sebastianelli, A; Pastore, A; Palleschi, G; Boccia, S; Carbone, A; Iuliano, L

    2016-11-01

    Previous reports showed altered fatty acid content in subjects with altered sperm parameters compared to normozoospermic individuals. However, these studies focused on a limited number of fatty acids, included a short number of subjects and results varied widely. We conducted a case-control study involving 155 patients allocated into four groups, including normozoospermia (n = 33), oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (n = 32), asthenozoospermia (n = 25), and varicocoele (n = 44). Fatty acid profiling, including 30 species, was analyzed by a validated gas chromatography (GC) method on the whole seminal fluid sample. Multinomial logistic regression modeling was used to identify the associations between fatty acids and the four groups. Specimens from 15 normozoospermic subjects were also analyzed for fatty acids content in the seminal plasma and spermatozoa to study the distribution in the two compartments. Fatty acids lipidome varied markedly between the four groups. Multinomial logistic regression modeling revealed that high levels of palmitic acid, behenic acid, oleic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) confer a low risk to stay out of the normozoospermic group. In the whole population, seminal fluid stearic acid was negatively correlated (r = -0.53), and DHA was positively correlated (r = 0.65) with sperm motility. Some fatty acids were preferentially accumulated in spermatozoa and the highest difference was observed for DHA, which was 6.2 times higher in spermatozoa than in seminal plasma. The results of this study highlight complete fatty acids profile in patients with different semen parameters. Given the easy-to-follow and rapid method of analysis, fatty acid profiling by GC method can be used for therapeutic purposes and to measure compliance in infertility trials using fatty acids supplements. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  7. Fatty acids composition in fruits of wild rose species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Nowak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The oil content and fatty acids profile of a number of Polish wild species of rose fruits were examined by GC. The total fatty acid contents ranged from 6.5% to 12.9% of dry mass in fruits. The composition of oils was similar in the investigated species. 17 components were identified. An average composition was estimated as follows: linoleic acid (44.4-55.7%, a-linolenic acid (18.6-31.4%, oleic acid (13.5-20.3%, palmitic acid (2.3-3.3%, stearic acid (1-2.5%, octadecenoic acid (0.38-0.72%, eicosenoic acid (0.3-0.7%, eicosadienoic acid (0-0.16%, erucic acid (0.03-0.17% and minor fatty acids. The results indicate that rose fruits are a rich source of unsaturated fatty acids, especially in R. rubiginosa, R. rugosa and R. dumalis. There were statistically significant (p<0.05 differences in fatty acid compositions of some species. Fatty acids were suggested to have a potential chemotaxonomic value in this genus.

  8. Maastricht essential fatty acid birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wurff, Inge; De Groot, Renate; Stratakis, Nikos; Gielen, Marij; Hornstra, Gerard; Zeegers, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    The Maastricht Essential Fatty Acid Birth cohort (MEFAB) was established in 1989 to study the changes in fatty acid concentration during pregnancy and how this related to the fatty acid concentrations of the neonate. The original sample contains data of 1203 subjects. Some participants whom particip

  9. [Possible route for thiamine participation in fatty acid synthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buko, V U; Larin, F S

    1976-01-01

    The possibility of thiamine partaking in the synthesis of fatty acids through the functions unrelated to the catalytic properties of thiamine-diphosphate was studied. Rats kept on a fat-free ration devoid of thiamine were given thiamine of thiochrome with no vitaminic properties. The total fatty acids content in different tissues and incorporation therein of tagged acetate and pyruvate was determined, while the fatty acids composition of the liver was investigated by using gas chromatography. Thiamine and thiochrome produced a similar effect on a number of the study factors, i.e. they forced down the total acids level in the spleen, intensified incorporation of tagged acetate and pyruvate in fatty acids of the heart and uniformly changed the fatty acids composition in the liver. It is suggested that the unindirectional effects of thiamine and thiochrome is due to the oxidative transformation of thiamine into thiochrome.

  10. Alteration of the phospho- or neutral lipid content and fatty acid composition in Listeria monocytogenes due to acid adaptation mechanisms for hydrochloric, acetic and lactic acids at pH 5.5 or benzoic acid at neutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastronicolis, Sofia K; Berberi, Anita; Diakogiannis, Ioannis; Petrova, Evanthia; Kiaki, Irene; Baltzi, Triantafillia; Xenikakis, Polydoros

    2010-10-01

    This study provides a first approach to observe the effects on Listeria monocytogenes of cellular exposure to acid stress at low or neutral pH, notably how phospho- or neutral lipids are involved in this mechanism, besides the fatty acid profile alteration. A thorough investigation of the composition of polar and neutral lipids from L. monocytogenes grown at pH 5.5 in presence of hydrochloric, acetic and lactic acids, or at neutral pH 7.3 in presence of benzoic acid, is described relative to cells grown in acid-free medium. The results showed that only low pH values enhance the antimicrobial activity of an acid. We suggest that, irrespective of pH, the acid adaptation response will lead to a similar alteration in fatty acid composition [decreasing the ratio of branched chain/saturated straight fatty acids of total lipids], mainly originating from the neutral lipid class of adapted cultures. Acid adaptation in L. monocytogenes was correlated with a decrease in total lipid phosphorus and, with the exception of cells adapted to benzoic acid, this change in the amount of phosphorus reflected a higher content of the neutral lipid class. Upon acetic or benzoic acid stress the lipid phosphorus proportion was analysed in the main phospholipids present: cardiolipin, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphoaminolipid and phosphatidylinositol. Interestingly only benzoic acid had a dramatic effect on the relative quantities of these four phospholipids.

  11. Essential fatty acid requirements of cats: pathology of essential fatty acid deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, M L; Anderson, B C; Rogers, Q R; Buffington, C A; Morris, J G

    1984-07-01

    The pathologic changes of essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency were studied in specific-pathogen-free, domestic shorthair cats which were fed purified diets for 1.5 to 2.5 years. Cats fed an EFA-deficient diet exhibited signs of deficiency: severe fatty degeneration of the liver, excessive fat in the kidneys, dystrophic mineralization of the adrenal glands, degeneration of the testes, and hyperkeratosis of the skin. Minor clinical pathologic changes were consistent with liver damage. Fatty acid analyses of plasma lipids revealed low concentrations of linoleate and other n6-fatty acids, and high concentrations of n7- and n9-fatty acids, consistent with EFA deficiency. These signs of deficiency were prevented by including safflower seed oil in the diet at a concentration to supply linoleate at 6.7% of dietary energy. Therefore, linoleate is an EFA for the cat, despite negligible conversion of linoleate to arachidonate in cat liver. However, in cats fed a diet containing linoleate, but lacking arachidonate, there was mild mineralization of the kidneys, and the neutral fat content of the liver was slightly higher than that of cats fed a diet containing arachidonate and other long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Also, 2 of the 19 cats fed arachidonate-deficient diets developed unusual inflammatory skin lesions. In cats fed a diet containing hydrogenated coconut oil, safflower seed oil, and chicken fat, fatty livers developed despite the presence of high levels of linoleate. The fatty livers appeared to result from a specific deleterious effect of the medium-chain triglycerides in hydrogenated coconut oil. Most of the organ pathologic changes of EFA deficiency in the cat can be prevented by feeding dietary linoleate. Linoleate meets the EFA requirement for functions which depend on proper membrane structure: growth, lipid transport, normal skin and coat condition, and maintenance of the epidermal permeability barrier. However, dietary arachidonate is required by the

  12. High content of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in red blood cells of Kenyan Maasai despite low dietary intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiage-Mokua Beatrice N

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing land restrictions and a reduced livestock-to-human ratio during the 20th century led the Maasai to lead a more sedentary, market-orientated lifestyle. Although plant-derived food nowadays contributes substantially to their diet, dairy products being high in saturated fatty acids (SFA and low in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA still are an important energy source. Since reliable data regarding the Maasai diet date back to the 1980s, the study objective was to document current diet practices in a Kenyan Maasai community and to investigate the fatty acid distribution in diet and red blood cells. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 26 Maasai (20 women, 6 men from Loodokilani, Kajiado District, Kenya. Food intake was described by the subjects via 24-h recall, and both food and blood samples were analysed. Results Two main foods - milk and ugali - constituted the Maasai diet in this region. A total of 0.9 L of milk and 0.6 kg of ugali were consumed per person and day to yield an energy intake of 7.6 MJ/d per person. A major proportion of ingested food contributing 58.3% to the total dietary energy (en% was plant-derived, followed by dairy products representing 41.1 en%. Fat consumed (30.5 en% was high in SFA (63.8% and low in PUFA (9.2%. Long-chain n-3 PUFA (EPA, DPA and DHA made up only 0.15% of the ingested fatty acids, but 5.9% of red blood cell fatty acids. Conclusion The study indicates the Maasai diet is rich in SFA and low in PUFA. Nevertheless, red blood cells are composed of comparable proportions of long-chain n-3 PUFA to populations consuming higher amounts of this fatty acid group.

  13. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Ameer Y; Burnham, W McIntyre; Auvin, Stéphane

    2010-08-01

    Omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are dietary fatty acids that are involved in a myriad of physiologic processes in the brain. There is some evidence suggesting that PUFAs-and particularly omega-3 PUFAs-may have anticonvulsant effects, both in humans and in animals. In the present review, we assess the evidence related to the antiseizure properties of the n-3 PUFAs, discuss their possible mechanism(s) of action, and make recommendations for future clinical trials. In general, the available data from cell cultures and whole animal studies support the idea that the n-3 PUFAs have antiseizure properties. Future clinical trials involving the n-3 PUFAs should involve higher doses and longer periods of administration in order to definitively assess their possible antiseizure effects.

  14. Association between butyrate and short-chain fatty acid concentrations in gut contents and faeces in weaning piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik

    2007-01-01

    of citrus pectin (soluble fibre) and barley hulls (insoluble fibre) and gastrointestinal contents were collected at euthanasia 9 days after weaning. In Trial 2, 120 pair-wise penned piglets were allocated to the same experimental diets as in Trial 1 (24 piglets per treatment), and fresh faecal samples were...

  15. Associations between omega-3 fatty acids, selenium content, and mercury levels in wild-harvested fish from the Dehcho Region, Northwest Territories, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Ellen S; Aristizabal Henao, Juan J; Kornobis, Katherine M; Hanning, Rhona M; Majowicz, Shannon E; Liber, Karsten; Stark, Ken D; Low, George; Swanson, Heidi K; Laird, Brian D

    2017-01-01

    To better understand the risks and benefits of eating wild-harvested fish from the Northwest Territories, Canada, levels of total mercury (HgT) and selenium (Se) and composition of omega-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA) were measured in muscle tissue of fish harvested from lakes in the Dehcho Region, Northwest Territories, Canada. Average HgT levels ranged from 0.057 mg/kg (cisco) to 0.551 mg/kg (northern pike), while average n-3 FA concentrations ranged from 101 mg/100 g (burbot) to 1,689 mg/100 g (lake trout). In contrast to HgT and n-3 FA, mean Se concentrations were relatively similar among species. Consequently, species such as lake whitefish, cisco, and longnose sucker displayed the highest nutrient levels relative to HgT content. Levels of HgT tended to increase with fish size, while Se and n-3 FA levels were typically not associated with fork length or fish weight. Interestingly, HgT concentration was occasionally inversely related to tissue nutrient content. Significant negative correlations were observed between Hg and n-3 FA for lake trout, northern pike, and walleye. There were also significant negative correlations between Hg and Se noted for lake whitefish, cisco, and northern pike. Samples with the highest nutritional content displayed, on occasion, lower levels of HgT. This study provides valuable information for the design of probabilistic models capable of refining public health messaging related to minimizing Hg risks and maximizing nutrient levels in wild-harvested fish in the Canadian subarctic.

  16. Characterization of Enzymes Involved in Fatty Acid Elongation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-11

    dihydroxyacetone reductase involved in phosphatidic acid biosynthesis [111]. Therefore, altered glycerophospholipid metabolism, along with reduced...in Mammals Increases with Muscle n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Content. PLoS ONE, 2006. 1: p. e65. 143. Cole, G.M., Lim, G.P., Yang, F., Teter, B...2007 Title of Dissertation: "Characterization of Enzymes Involved in Fatty Acid Elongation" APPROVAL SHEET Ernest Maynard, P .D. Department of

  17. Molten fatty acid based microemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noirjean, Cecile; Testard, Fabienne; Dejugnat, Christophe; Jestin, Jacques; Carriere, David

    2016-06-21

    We show that ternary mixtures of water (polar phase), myristic acid (MA, apolar phase) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB, cationic surfactant) studied above the melting point of myristic acid allow the preparation of microemulsions without adding a salt or a co-surfactant. The combination of SANS, SAXS/WAXS, DSC, and phase diagram determination allows a complete characterization of the structures and interactions between components in the molten fatty acid based microemulsions. For the different structures characterized (microemulsion, lamellar or hexagonal phases), a similar thermal behaviour is observed for all ternary MA/CTAB/water monophasic samples and for binary MA/CTAB mixtures without water: crystalline myristic acid melts at 52 °C, and a thermal transition at 70 °C is assigned to the breaking of hydrogen bounds inside the mixed myristic acid/CTAB complex (being the surfactant film in the ternary system). Water determines the film curvature, hence the structures observed at high temperature, but does not influence the thermal behaviour of the ternary system. Myristic acid is partitioned in two "species" that behave independently: pure myristic acid and myristic acid associated with CTAB to form an equimolar complex that plays the role of the surfactant film. We therefore show that myristic acid plays the role of a solvent (oil) and a co-surfactant allowing the fine tuning of the structure of oil and water mixtures. This solvosurfactant behaviour of long chain fatty acid opens the way for new formulations with a complex structure without the addition of any extra compound.

  18. 2006 marketplace survey of trans-fatty acid content of margarines and butters, cookies and snack cakes, and savory snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Matthew J; Harnack, Lisa J; Steffen, Lyn M; Jacobs, David R

    2008-02-01

    In recent years, newer technologies have been developed to reduce the trans-fat content of fats and oils used in manufacturing food products. To examine the implications of these changes on foods in the marketplace, a survey was conducted to assess current levels of trans and saturated fat in three food categories: margarines and butters; cookies and snack cakes; and savory snacks. A sampling of products from each category was conducted at a Wal-Mart Supercenter in the Minneapolis-St Paul, MN, metropolitan area in July of 2006. All information was obtained from product labels, except price, which was recorded from price listings on product shelving. Most margarines and butters (21 of 29), cookies and snack cakes (34 of 44), and savory snacks (31 of 40) were labeled as containing 0 g trans fat. However, some products contained substantial amounts of trans fat. Most notably, 3 of 40 savory snack products were labeled as containing > or =3 g trans fat. Significant inverse correlations were found between product price and the saturated and trans-fat content of margarines (r=-0.45) and savory snacks (r=-0.32). In conclusion, it appears that the food industry has made progress in reducing the trans-fat content in a variety of products. Nonetheless, consumers need to read product labels because the trans-fat content of individual products can vary considerably. Products that are lower in trans and saturated fat tend to cost more, which may be a barrier to their purchase for price-conscious consumers.

  19. Effects of particle size and dry matter content of a total mixed ration on intraruminal equilibration and net portal flux of volatile fatty acids in lactating dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Adam Christian; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2010-01-01

    Effects of physical changes in consistency of ruminal contents on intraruminal equilibration and net portal fluxes of volatile fatty acids (VFA) in dairy cows were studied. Four Danish Holstein cows (121 ± 17 d in milk, 591 ± 24 kg of body weight, mean ± SD) surgically fitted with a ruminal cannula......H or milk fat percentage. Cows maintained average ventral ruminal pH of 6.65 ± 0.02, medial ruminal pH of 5.95 ± 0.04, and milk fat of 4.42 ± 0.12% with chewing time of 28.0 ± 2.1 min/kg of DM when fed short particles. The medial ruminal pool of wet particulate matter was decreased by 10.53 ± 2.29 kg...... particles. The estimated ruminal fluid flow and therefore intraruminal VFA transport between medial and ventral phase was not affected by the FPS. In conclusion, the ruminal mat pool of VFA was proportional to the size of the mat and the only detected effects of decreasing FPS were decreasing the mat size...

  20. Trans fatty acids in a range of UK processed foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Mark; Pinchen, Hannah; Church, Susan; Elahi, Selvarani; Walker, Margaret; Farron-Wilson, Melanie; Buttriss, Judith; Finglas, Paul

    2013-10-01

    A survey to determine the trans fatty acid content of a range of processed foods was carried out in response to recent reformulation work by the food industry to lower the artificial trans fatty acid content of processed products. Sixty two composite samples, made up of between 5 and 12 sub-samples, were collected in 2010 and were analysed for fatty acids, and a range of nutrients. The foods analysed included pizza, garlic bread, breakfast cereals, quiche, fat spreads, a range of fish and meat products, chips, savoury snacks, confectionery and ice cream. Levels of trans fatty acids were reduced considerably compared with previous UK analyses of similar foods where comparisons are possible. Concentrations of trans elaidic acid (t9-C18:1) from hydrogenated oils in all samples were food. These results confirm information provided by the food industry in 2007 on the levels of trans fats in key processed food sectors.

  1. Fatty Acids, α-Tocopherol, β-Carotene and Lutein Contents in Forage Legumes, Forbs and a Grass-Clover Mixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elgersma, A.; Søegaard, Karen; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2013-01-01

    Fresh forages are an important natural source of vitamins and fatty acids in ruminant diets, and their concentrations in forage species are important for the quality of animal-derived foods such as dairy and meat products. The aims of this study were to obtain novel information on vitamins and fa...

  2. Fatty acid content, health and risk indices, physicochemical composition, and somatic cell counts of milk from organic and conventional farming systems in tropical south-eastern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgadillo-Puga, Claudia; Sánchez-Muñoz, Bernardo; Nahed-Toral, José; Cuchillo-Hilario, Mario; Díaz-Martínez, Margarita; Solis-Zabaleta, Roman; Reyes-Hernández, Aurora; Castillo-Domíguez, Rosa Maria

    2014-06-01

    Organic agriculture and livestock farming is claimed to promote animal welfare and can offer animal products with better hygienic-sanitary quality, based on principles of health, ecology, fairness, and care. However, no clear advantages of organic milk (OM) versus conventional milk (CM) from tropical conditions are available. The aims of the study were to determine fatty acid profile, health-promoting (HPI) and thrombogenic (TI) indices, physicochemical composition, and somatic cell counts (SCC) of OM and CM in tropical south-eastern Mexico. Female cross-breed cows (400-600 kg) were employed. CM had larger values of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) (63.6 %; 4.57 %) than OM (61.48 %; 4.22 %), while OM resulted in a larger value of monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) (34.3 %) than CM (31.7 %). HPI and TI showed that OM was more favorable than CM. Milk production and physicochemical composition (PC) as well as density had no significant difference, while SCC was significantly lower in OM than in CM on a monthly basis. These results showed that OM promotes a healthful and balanced diet, and is already produced by sustainable ecologic technologies employing traditional agrosilvopastoral management, which is more environmentally friendly and promotes ecological resilience.

  3. Human milk beyond one year post-partum: lower content of protein, calcium, and saturated very long-chain fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehadeh, Naim; Aslih, Nardin; Shihab, Shihab; Werman, Moshe J; Sheinman, Rivkah; Shamir, Raanan

    2006-01-01

    Maternal milk feeding for more than 1 year is encouraged by many health care authorities. We demonstrate that human milk beyond 1 year of lactation had a small but significantly lower concentration of protein, calcium, and long-chain saturated fatty acids compared with human milk at 3 months after delivery.

  4. A search for synbiotics: effects of enzymatically modified arabinoxylan and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens on short-chain fatty acids in the cecum content and plasma of rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tina Skau; Jensen, Bent Borg; Purup, Stig;

    2016-01-01

    Identification of dietary strategies to increase large intestinal production and absorption of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), especially butyrate, is of great interest due to the possible health promoting effects. We explored the effect of an enzymatically modified arabinoxylan-rich diet (EAXD...

  5. Dietary intake and adipose tissue content of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and subsequent 5-y change in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne U; Madsen, Lise; Skjøth, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    Background: Adding long-chain n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to a rodent diet reduces fat mass and prevents the development of obesity, but evidence of a similar effect in humans is rather limited.Objectives: We investigated the associations between dietary intake and adipose tissue...

  6. Fatty acid composition of selected prosthecate bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, R N; Schmidt, J M

    1976-10-11

    The cellular fatty acid composition of 14 strains of Caulobacter speices and types, two species of Prosthecomicrobium, and two species of Asticcacaulis was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. In most of these bacteria, the major fatty acids were octadecenoic acid (C18:1), hexadecenoic acid (C16:1) and hexadecanoic acid (C16:0). Some cyclopropane and branched chain fatty acids were detected in addition to the straight chained acids. Hydroxytetradecanoic acid was an important component of P.enhydrum but significant amounts of hydroxy acids were not detected in other prosthecate bacteria examined.

  7. Aspirin increases mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppala, Radha; Dudiak, Brianne; Beck, Megan E; Bharathi, Sivakama S; Zhang, Yuxun; Stolz, Donna B; Goetzman, Eric S

    2017-01-08

    The metabolic effects of salicylates are poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of aspirin on fatty acid oxidation. Aspirin increased mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid oxidation, but inhibited peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, in two different cell lines. Aspirin increased mitochondrial protein acetylation and was found to be a stronger acetylating agent in vitro than acetyl-CoA. However, aspirin-induced acetylation did not alter the activity of fatty acid oxidation proteins, and knocking out the mitochondrial deacetylase SIRT3 did not affect the induction of long-chain fatty acid oxidation by aspirin. Aspirin did not change oxidation of medium-chain fatty acids, which can freely traverse the mitochondrial membrane. Together, these data indicate that aspirin does not directly alter mitochondrial matrix fatty acid oxidation enzymes, but most likely exerts its effects at the level of long-chain fatty acid transport into mitochondria. The drive on mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation may be a compensatory response to altered mitochondrial morphology and inhibited electron transport chain function, both of which were observed after 24 h incubation of cells with aspirin. These studies provide insight into the pathophysiology of Reye Syndrome, which is known to be triggered by aspirin ingestion in patients with fatty acid oxidation disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Strong linkage of polar cod (Boreogadus saida) to sea ice algae-produced carbon: Evidence from stomach content, fatty acid and stable isotope analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlbach, Doreen; Schaafsma, Fokje L.; Graeve, Martin; Lebreton, Benoit; Lange, Benjamin Allen; David, Carmen; Vortkamp, Martina; Flores, Hauke

    2017-03-01

    The polar cod (Boreogadus saida) is considered an ecological key species, because it reaches high stock biomasses and constitutes an important carbon source for seabirds and marine mammals in high-Arctic ecosystems. Young polar cod (1-2 years) are often associated with the underside of sea ice. To evaluate the impact of changing Arctic sea ice habitats on polar cod, we examined the diet composition and quantified the contribution of ice algae-produced carbon (αIce) to the carbon budget of polar cod. Young polar cod were sampled in the ice-water interface layer in the central Arctic Ocean during late summer 2012. Diets and carbon sources of these fish were examined using 4 approaches: (1) stomach content analysis, (2) fatty acid (FA) analysis, (3) bulk nitrogen and carbon stable isotope analysis (BSIA) and (4) compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) of FAs. The ice-associated (sympagic) amphipod Apherusa glacialis dominated the stomach contents by mass, indicating a high importance of sympagic fauna in young polar cod diets. The biomass of food measured in stomachs implied constant feeding at daily rates of ∼1.2% body mass per fish, indicating the potential for positive growth. FA profiles of polar cod indicated that diatoms were the primary carbon source, indirectly obtained via amphipods and copepods. The αIce using bulk isotope data from muscle was estimated to be >90%. In comparison, αIce based on CSIA ranged from 34 to 65%, with the highest estimates from muscle and the lowest from liver tissue. Overall, our results indicate a strong dependency of polar cod on ice-algae produced carbon. This suggests that young polar cod may be particularly vulnerable to changes in the distribution and structure of sea ice habitats. Due to the ecological key role of polar cod, changes at the base of the sea ice-associated food web are likely to affect the higher trophic levels of high-Arctic ecosystems.

  9. [The high content of palmitinic fatty acid in food as a major cause of increase of concentration of cholesterol and low density lipoproteins and atheromatous plaques of arteries' intima].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, V N

    2013-02-01

    The positioning of individual triglycerides of blood serum in palmitinic and oleic lipoproteins ofvery low density in the order ofincrease of the rate constant of their hydrolysis under action of post-heparin lipoprotein leads to the sequence as follows: palmitoil-palmitoil-palmitate-->palmitoil-palmitoil-oleate-->palmitoil-oleil-palmitat-->oleil-palmitoil-palmitate-->oleil-palmitate-palmitate-->oleil-oleil-palmitate-->oleil-oleil-oleate. The shift to the left and to the right is discerned with this spectrum of isoforms of triglycerides. The shift to the left into direction of palmitinicc triglycerides occurs in case of eating of animal food (i.e. beef andfoodstuf of fat saw milk) when the content of palmitinic saturated fatty acid supersedes 15% of fatty acids total and under the development of endogenic syndrome of insulin resistance. The content of low density lipoproteins cholesterol is high in blood The shift to the right with prevalence of oleinic triglycerides occurs in case of low content of beef and foodstuff of fat saw milk in food, fish eating, seafood and olive oil. The physiologic levels of carbohydrates in food and insulin function are present too. The shift to the right initiates the action of insulin, ometa-3 essential polyenic fatty acids, glytazones and fibrates. They increase the activity of delta9-stearil-KoA-desaturase-2 and the transformation of palmitine saturated fatty acid into mono unsaturated oleinic fatty acid. The shift to the left forms the palmitine alternative of metabolism of substrate to supply cells with energy. The shift to the right is a more effective oleinic alternative.

  10. 芡欧鼠尾草脂肪酸成分分析%Oil Content and Fatty Acid Composition of Salvia hispanica L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡忠红; 易自力; 王红权; 艾辛; 谭昕; 陈智勇

    2011-01-01

    2006年引进芡欧鼠尾草作为新种质,组培脱毒后收种,通过连续3年的引种驯化,芡欧鼠尾草在湖南地区能顺利完成其生育期.为了解引种对其种子和营养器官中脂肪酸成分及含量的影响,对芡欧鼠尾草原种种子、引种第1代种子、引种第2代种子及各生长期茎叶干物质中脂肪酸按GB/T 17377-1998标准进行了全面分析.结果表明引种到我国的芡欧鼠尾草种子中亚麻酸含量高达195.39g/kg,占总脂质的60%以上,与原种相比没有显著差异,是一种极有潜力的绿色食品原料;检测还发现其茎叶干物质中含亚麻酸达6.38g/kg,即该品种还可开发为新型动物饲料,以获得富含DHA的动物制品.%As a new germplasm, Salvia hispanica L. Was introduced to Hunan for the first time in 2006. After detoxification by tissue culture,the nontoxic seeds were harvested. Salvia hispanica L. Could pass whole growth period in Hunan by continuous acclimatization from 2007 to 2009. Compositions and contents of Fatty Acid from seeds and vegetative organs were tested as per GB/T 17377-1998. The results showed :Salvia hispanica L. Seeds harvested in 2008 and 2009 .contained 195.39 g/kg linolenic acid in average, which occupied more than 60% in the content of total lip-ids. Compared with original seeds,it was obvious that there was no significant difference. Meanwhile,it appeared that this new germplasm could be thought as one potential green - food in future. In addition, studies presented that dry matter of vegetative organs contained 6.38 g/kg linolenic acid. In other words,this variety also could be cultivated as one new - type animal food in order to obtain abundant DHA.

  11. Advances in Food Composition Tables of Japan--Amino Acid, Fatty Acid and Available Carbohydrate Tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    The new revised version of the Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan (STFCJ 2015) will be published in 2015. The aim of the present paper is to share information on issues we have encountered during the revision. New analytical data on amino acid composition will be provided for approximately 230 foods, fatty acid composition for approximately 140 foods, and available carbohydrate (starch, glucose, fructose, sucrose, maltose, and lactose) composition for approximately 340 foods. These data will be published separately as three supplements to the STFCJ 2015: amino acid tables, fatty acid tables, and available carbohydrate tables. Available carbohydrate tables will also provide polyol (sorbitol and mannitol) and organic acid (acetic acid, lactic acid, citric acid, etc.) data. In the supplements, amino acid content will be adjusted for protein content calculated as reference nitrogen multiplied by a nitrogen to protein conversion factor, and fatty acid content adjusted for extractable lipid content, as in previous revisions. Available carbohydrate content, however, will be adjusted for water content. Values of protein content calculated as the sum of amino acid residues , lipid content expressed as triacylglycerol equivalents of fatty acids , and available carbohydrate content will appear in the main tables of the STFCJ 2015. Protein, fat and available carbohydrate contents were significantly decreased when the preferred analytical methods of FAO were applied instead of the acceptable methods. Online publication of Japanese and English versions of these tables, reference materials, and a retrievable food composition database is planned.

  12. Kefir Grains Change Fatty Acid Profile of Milk during Fermentation and Storage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C P Vieira

    Full Text Available Several studies have reported that lactic acid bacteria may increase the production of free fatty acids by lipolysis of milk fat, though no studies have been found in the literature showing the effect of kefir grains on the composition of fatty acids in milk. In this study the influence of kefir grains from different origins [Rio de Janeiro (AR, Viçosa (AV e Lavras (AD], different time of storage, and different fat content on the fatty acid content of cow milk after fermentation was investigated. Fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography. Values were considered significantly different when p<0.05. The highest palmitic acid content, which is antimutagenic compost, was seen in AV grain (36.6g/100g fatty acids, which may have contributed to increasing the antimutagenic potential in fermented milk. Higher monounsaturated fatty acid (25.8 g/100g fatty acids and lower saturated fatty acid (72.7 g/100g fatty acids contents were observed in AV, when compared to other grains, due to higher Δ9-desaturase activity (0.31 that improves the nutritional quality of lipids. Higher oleic acid (25.0 g/100g fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acid (28.2g/100g fatty acids and lower saturated fatty acid (67.2g/100g fatty acids contents were found in stored kefir relatively to fermented kefir leading to possible increase of antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic potential and improvement of nutritional quality of lipids in storage milk. Only high-lipidic matrix displayed increase polyunsaturated fatty acids after fermentation. These findings open up new areas of study related to optimizing desaturase activity during fermentation in order to obtaining a fermented product with higher nutritional lipid quality.

  13. Fatty acid composition and possible health effects of coconut constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehowich, D J; Gomes, A V; Barnes, J A

    2000-06-01

    The link between excessive consumption of dietary saturated fats and coronary heart disease (CHD) is now well established. Because of its high content of saturated fatty acids, the consumption of foods containing coconut oil may therefore be a risk factor for CHD. While the fatty acid composition of coconut oil is well established, relatively little is known about the other constituents of coconut: the milk, water, cream and meat fractions. In this study, we show that while the water fraction is low in lipid content, the milk contains about 24% of the fat content of oil and the cream and meat fractions about 34%. The other coconut constituents contain significant amounts of medium-chain triglycerides that are formed from fatty acids of chain length 8:0 to 14:0. It is these fatty acids, primarily 14:0, that are thought to be atherogenic. On the other hand, medium-chain triglycerides may be advantageous under some circumstances in that they are absorbed intact and do not undergo degradation and re-esterification processes. As a result, medium-chain triglycerides provide a ready source of energy and may be useful in baby foods or in diet therapy. Nevertheless, the possible negative effects of the saturated fatty acids and the absence of the essential fatty acid linolenic acid from all coconut constituents suggest that the coconut milk, oil and cream should not be used on a regular basis in adults.

  14. Breast milk: Fatty acid composition and maternal diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihela Dujmović

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Breast milk from healthy and well-nourished mothers is the preferred form of infants´ feeding in the first six months after parturition, and breastfeeding in this period supports the normal growth and development of new-born infants. During the first month postpartum, breast milk changes through three stages: colostrum, transitional milk and mature milk. Mature milk, which is excreted after the 16th day postpartum, contains on average 3.4-4.5 % lipids. Breast milk lipids fulfill 40-55 % of an infant´s daily energy needs and provide a supply of fat-soluble vitamins and fatty acids. The characteristics of milk lipids are largely determined by their fatty acid composition. In this work the general characteristics of breast milk and milk lipids, as well as the influence of maternal diet on composition of fatty acids in breast milk, are discussed. Breast milk provides all dietary essential fatty acids, linoleic acid (C18:2n-6 and α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3, as well as their longer-chain more-unsaturated metabolites, including arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6 and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n-3. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are of particular importance in visual and neural development, and their content in milk is a reflection of the mother´s current and long-term dietary intake. A positive association has been established between the maternal intake of fish and seafood and the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (especially docosahexaenoic acid in milk. Numerous researches have been shown that supplementation with docosahexaenoic acids during the last trimester of pregnancy and during lactation significantly increases the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in breast milk.

  15. Electrogenicity of hepatocellular fatty acid uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsing, C; Kassner, A; Gajdzik, L; Graf, J; Stremmel, W

    1998-08-18

    Sensitivity of cellular fatty acids uptake to the membrane potential difference is still a matter of controversy. For direct evaluation of potential sensitivity the effect of changing membrane potential on uptake of a fluorescent long chain fatty acid derivative, 12-NBD-stearate, in isolated rat hepatocytes, was examined. Changes in membrane potential were achieved by patch clamp procedures. Fatty acid influx was simultaneously determined by recording of cell fluorescence. Hyperpolarization from -30 to -70 mV accelerated fatty acid influx whereas depolarization to +50 mV reduced uptake. After obtaining equilibrium hyperpolarization increased cell fluorescence, whereas depolarization pushed NBD-stearate out of cells. Potential sensitivity of uptake was dependent on the fatty acid concentrations in the medium with most prominent effects at low unbound concentrations. These data show that, at low fatty acid concentrations, uptake is, in part, driven by an intracellular negative electric membrane potential.

  16. Determination of Labeled Fatty Acids Content in Milk Products, Infant Formula and Adult/Pediatric Nutritional Formula by Capillary Gas Chromatography: First Action 2012.13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-24

    The method described below is intended for the quantification of all fatty acids, including commercially important groups of fatty acids used for labeling reasons (i.e., TFA, SFA, MUFA, PUFA, omega-3, omega-6, omega-9) and/or individual fatty acids (i.e., LA, ALA, ARA, EPA, DHA) in milk products, infant formula and adult/pediatric nutritional formula. These products often contain milk fat and/or vegetable oils, and are supplemented or not supplemented with oils rich in long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). The determination is performed by direct transesterification of ready-to-feed liquid concentrate or powder products, without prior fat extraction. The single laboratory validation (SLV) data was submitted to the Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN) Expert Review Panel (ERP) for review at the AOAC INTERNATIONAL annual meeting held September 30 to October 3, 2012 in Las Vegas, Nevada. The ERP determined that the data reviewed met the Standard Method Performance Requirements (SMPR 2012.11) set by SPIFAN and was approved as an AOAC Official First Action. The analytical range for SPIFAN samples was between 0.001-7.94 g/100 g reconstituted product, or ready-to-feed liquid. The quantitation limit was estimated as 0.001 g/100 g, while repeatability and intermediate precision were both less than 1.8 % RSD above 0.05 g/100 g, and <3.5% RSD at 0.00 5g/100 g, respectively. Recovery values based on spiking experiments at two different levels of linoleic and linolenic acids ranged from 100.0% to 102.9% for 3 different SPIFAN products. All the parameters evaluated during the SLV were well within the values defined in SMPR 2012.011 (September 2012).

  17. Fatty Acids in Veterinary Medicine and Research

    OpenAIRE

    Rutland, Catrin S.; Mostyn, Alison; Simpson, Siobhan

    2017-01-01

    Fatty acid regulation is an essential process for all animals. A number of studies have shown that diet affects the levels/availability of fatty acids in the body but increasingly evidence shows that disease states can alter the amounts within the body too. Fatty acid levels and availability have been altered by a number of diseases, disorders and reactions including inflammatory responses, heart disease and heart failure and wound repair. They are also essential during the growth and develop...

  18. Effect of deodorizing technology on the content of trans -fatty acid in palm oil%脱臭工艺条件对棕榈油中反式脂肪酸含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾枝丽; 梁少华; 黄永娜; 沈丽

    2011-01-01

    研究了脱臭温度和脱臭时间对棕榈油中反式脂肪酸含量的影响.结果表明:脱臭温度和脱臭时间对棕榈油中反式油酸含量的影响很小;脱臭温度对棕榈油中反式亚油酸含量影响显著,脱臭时间对其影响的显著性次之;在脱臭温度255℃以下和脱臭时间40 min以下棕榈油中总反式脂肪酸的形成速度缓慢,相对含量低;在脱臭温度255℃以上和脱臭时间40 min以上棕榈油中总反式脂肪酸的形成速度快,但生成量相对较少,其最高含量为0.637%.%The effects of deodorizing temperature and time on the content of trans - fatty acid in palm oil were studied. The results showed that deodorizing temperature and time had little effects on the content of trans -oleic acid in palm oil. For trans - linoleic acid in palm oil, deodorizing temperature affected its content significantly, and deodorizing time affected its content secondly. Below 255 t and 40 min, the total trans - fatty acid in palm oil formed slowly and its content was relatively low, and above 255 t and 40 min, the total trans - fatty acid in palm oil formed rapidly, but the generation amount was relatively few, and its highest content was 0. 637%.

  19. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of crude oil from winter melon (Benincasa hispida) seed using response surface methodology and evaluation of its antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimakr, Mandana; Rahman, Russly Abdul; Taip, Farah Saleena; Adzahan, Noranizan Mohd; Sarker, Md Zaidul Islam; Ganjloo, Ali

    2012-10-08

    In the present study, ultrasound-assisted extraction of crude oil from winter melon seeds was investigated through response surface methodology (RSM). Process variables were power level (25-75%), temperature (45-55 °C) and sonication time (20-40 min). It was found that all process variables have significant (p composite design (CCD) was used to determine the optimum process conditions. Optimal conditions were identified as 65% power level, 52 °C temperature and 36 min sonication time for maximum crude yield (108.62 mg-extract/g-dried matter). The antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and fatty acid composition of extract obtained under optimized conditions were determined and compared with those of oil obtained by the Soxhlet method. It was found that crude extract yield (CEY) of ultrasound-assisted extraction was lower than that of the Soxhlet method, whereas antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of the extract obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction were clearly higher than those of the Soxhlet extract. Furthermore, both extracts were rich in unsaturated fatty acids. The major fatty acids of the both extracts were linoleic acid and oleic acid.

  20. Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Crude Oil from Winter Melon (Benincasa hispida Seed Using Response Surface Methodology and Evaluation of Its Antioxidant Activity, Total Phenolic Content and Fatty Acid Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Zaidul Islam Sarker

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, ultrasound-assisted extraction of crude oil from winter melon seeds was investigated through response surface methodology (RSM. Process variables were power level (25–75%, temperature (45–55 °C and sonication time (20–40 min. It was found that all process variables have significant (p < 0.05 effects on the response variable. A central composite design (CCD was used to determine the optimum process conditions. Optimal conditions were identified as 65% power level, 52 °C temperature and 36 min sonication time for maximum crude yield (108.62 mg-extract/g-dried matter. The antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and fatty acid composition of extract obtained under optimized conditions were determined and compared with those of oil obtained by the Soxhlet method. It was found that crude extract yield (CEY of ultrasound-assisted extraction was lower than that of the Soxhlet method, whereas antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of the extract obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction were clearly higher than those of the Soxhlet extract. Furthermore, both extracts were rich in unsaturated fatty acids. The major fatty acids of the both extracts were linoleic acid and oleic acid.

  1. Veal fatty acid composition of different breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Kos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Veal fatty acid composition in M. Longissimus thoracis was investigated in different calf breeds (Simmental, Holstein, Simmental x Holstein. Calves were reared on the same farm under identical feeding and handling conditions. Simmental calves had higher polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA but lower saturated fatty acid (SFA and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA values than Holstein and crossbreed calves (P<0,05. The PUFA/SFA ratio was the highest in Simmental calves and the lowest in Holstein calves. Simmental calves also had the highest n-6/n-3 ratio while the crossbreed calves had the lowest n-6/n-3 ratio.

  2. Effect of feeding hemp seed and hemp seed oil on laying hen performance and egg yolk fatty acid content: evidence of their safety and efficacy for laying hen diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gakhar, N; Goldberg, E; Jing, M; Gibson, R; House, J D

    2012-03-01

    Forty-eight 19-wk-old Bovan White laying hens were fed 1 of 5 diets containing either hemp seed (HS) or hemp seed oil (HO). The level of HO was 4, 8, or 12%, whereas the level was 10 or 20% for the HS. A set of 8 birds fed wheat-, barley-, and corn oil-based diets served as the control. Performance was monitored over 12 wk. Average hen-day egg production was not affected upon feeding of either HS or HO diets. Egg weight was higher than that of the controls for hens consuming the 20% HS diet (P hens consuming the 12% HO diet. The total egg yolk n-3 fatty acid content increased linearly (P laying hens up to a maximum level of 20 and 12%, respectively, does not adversely effect the performance of laying hens and leads to the enrichment of the n-3 fatty acid content of eggs.

  3. Discriminating isogenic cancer cells and identifying altered unsaturated fatty acid content as associated with metastasis status, using k-means clustering and partial least squares-discriminant analysis of Raman maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Martin; Krafft, Christoph; Ditzel, Henrik J

    2010-01-01

    discarded as they showed much smaller differences between the two cell lines compared to cytoplasm spectra. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was applied to distinguish the two cell lines. A cross-validated PLS-DA resulted in 92% correctly classified samples. Spectral differences were...... assigned to a higher unsaturated fatty acid content in the metastatic vs nonmetastatic cell line. Our study demonstrates the unique ability of Raman spectroscopy to distinguish minute differences at the subcellular level and yield new biological information. Our study is the first to demonstrate...... the association between polyunsaturated fatty acid content and metastatic ability in this unique cell model system and is in agreement with previous studies on this topic....

  4. Variation of content of lipid classes, sterols and fatty acids in gonads and digestive glands of Scrobicularia plana in relation to environment pollution levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrat, E; Couzinet-Mossion, A; Fossi Tankoua, O; Amiard-Triquet, C; Wielgosz-Collin, G

    2013-04-01

    Lipids are central for energy metabolism and their fate in bivalves is closely linked to environmental conditions and gametogenic cycle. In order to assess the pollution impact on lipid metabolism of bivalves, storage and structure lipids from samples of Scrobicularia plana were studied. These samples were collected during sexual maturity both from estuaries considered contaminated (Goyen and Blavet) and from a reference site (Bay of St Brieuc) for comparison. Lipids were extracted from the gonads and the digestive glands and further separated by column chromatography. Fatty acids and sterols were then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Correlations were shown between dioxin-like compounds (Eq-TCDD) and triacyglycerol levels (TAG). In the same way, glycolipids and contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and pollutants with estrogenic activity seem to be closely related. In a second time, lipid indices (ratio between storage and structure lipids) were evaluated. Whereas these indices are often used in fish to assess habitat quality with regards to differential anthropogenic pressure, the ratio TAG/sterols was not here significantly influenced by the site of origin of S. plana. Intersite fluctuations of the ratio TAG/phospholipids also remained very limited. This could be explained by the limited contamination level in studied sites but also by a contrasted response from organisms in different taxa (bivalves vs. fish). Environmental pollution is not the only factor able to induce changes in lipid classes. The trophic wealth seemed to be different between the reference site and contaminated estuaries, the total organic carbon content being higher in muddy estuarine sediments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Fatty acids composition of 10 microalgal species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thidarat Noiraksar

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids composition of 10 species of microalgae was determined at the exponential phase and the stationary phase. The microalgae consist of two species of diatoms, Bacillariophyceae, (Nitzschia cf. ovalis, Thalassiosira sp. five species of green microalgae, Prasinophyceae (Tetraselmis sp. and Chlorophyceae, (Dictyosphaerium pulchellum, Stichococcus sp., Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus falcatus and three species of blue green microalgae, Cyanophyceae (Anacystis sp., Synechococcus sp., Synechocystis sp..Medium for culture diatoms and green microalgae was F/2, and BG-11 media was used for Cyanophyceae. The microalgae were cultured beneath light intensity 143 μEm-2s-1, light: dark illustration 12:12 hrs., temperature 28ºC, and salinities 8-30 psu. The microalgae were harvested for analyzing fatty acid by centrivugal machine at 3500 rpm. for 5 min. at temperature 20ºC and stored at -80ºC prior to analysis.Fatty acids composition of microalgae differed from species to species. The majority fatty acids composition of diatoms at the exponential phase and the stationary phase were C16:1n-7 (17.12-31.47% and 28.22-42.02%, C16:0 (13.25-19.61% and 18.83-20.67%, C20:5 n-3 (16.65-26.67% and 11.32-23.68% respectively. The principle fatty acids composition of green microalgae, Prasinophyceae, Tetraselmis sp. were C18:3n-3 (16.17-16.67%, C16:0 (15.33-17.45%, C18:1n-9 (12.25-15.43%, C18:2n-6 (9.66-19.97%. The fatty acids composition of green microalgae, Chlorophyceae, were C18:3 n-3 (20.02-26.49% and 15.35- 30.63%, C16:0 (5.76-17.61% and 11.41-20.03%, C18:2n-6 (4.67-17.54% and 7.48-20.61% respectively. The major amounts of fatty acids content of blue green microalgae were C16:1n-7 (9.28-34.91% and 34.48- 35.04%, C14:0 (13.34-25.96% and 26.69-28.24%, C16:0 (5.89-29.15% and 5.70-16.81% except for Anacystis sp.which had a high amount of C18:3 n-3 (23.18-27.98% but low amount of C14:0 (3.66-4.98%.Bacillariophyceae contained the highest amount of highly unsaturated

  6. Identification of fatty acids in canine seminal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, R; Inostroza, K; Risopatrón, J; Sanchez, R; Sepúlveda, N

    2014-03-01

    Seminal plasma contains various biochemical components associated with sperm function. However, there is limited information regarding the fatty acid composition of seminal plasma and their effect on sperm. The aim of this study was to identify the fatty acid content in canine seminal plasma using gas chromatography. Twelve ejaculates were studied, the seminal plasma was obtained by centrifugation and then the lipids were extracted, methylated and analysed by chromatography. The total lipids in the seminal plasma were 2.5 ± 0.3%, corresponding to 85% saturated fatty acids (SFA) and 15% unsaturated fatty acids (UFA). The greatest proportions of SFA were palmitic acid (30.4%), stearic acid (23.4%) and myristic acid (5.3%) and of UFA oleic acid (9.0%). Therefore, the protocols and techniques used enabled the identification of 18 different fatty acids in canine seminal plasma, which constitutes a good method to evaluate and quantify the fatty acid profile in this species. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Study of Thiosemicarbazone Derivative of Essential Fatty Acid

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Essential fatty acids results in numerous health benefits. Only two fatty acids are known to be essential for human alpha-linolenic acid (an omega-3 fatty acid) and linoleic acid (an omega-6 fatty acid).The importance of omega-3 fatty acids for physical well-being has been recognised for several decades . Omega-3 fatty acids have anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, antiarrhythmic and hypolipidaemic effects. Cannabis sativa (Hemp) is an angiosperm belonging to the cannabaceae family and cannabi...

  8. Intake of fatty acids in Western Europe with emphasis on trans fatty acids: The TRANSFAIR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, K.F.A.M; Erp van - Baart, M.A.; Anttolainen, M.; Becker, W.; Church, S.M.; Couet, C.; Hermann-Kunz, E.; Kesteloot, H.; Leth, T.; Martins, I.; Moreiras, O.; Moschandreas, J.; Pizzoferrato, L.; Rimestad, A.H.; Thorgeirsdottir, H.; Amelsvoort, J.M.M. van; Aro, A.; Kafatos, A.G.; Lanzmann-Petithory, D.; Poppel, G. van

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To assess the intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) and other fatty acids in 14 Western European countries. Design and subjects: A maximum of 100 foods per country were sampled and centrally analysed. Each country calculated the intake of individual trans and other fatty acids, clusters of fa

  9. Intake of fatty acids in Western Europe with emphasis on trans fatty acids: The TRANSFAIR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, K.F.A.M; Erp van - Baart, M.A.; Anttolainen, M.; Becker, W.; Church, S.M.; Couet, C.; Hermann-Kunz, E.; Kesteloot, H.; Leth, T.; Martins, I.; Moreiras, O.; Moschandreas, J.; Pizzoferrato, L.; Rimestad, A.H.; Thorgeirsdottir, H.; Amelsvoort, J.M.M. van; Aro, A.; Kafatos, A.G.; Lanzmann-Petithory, D.; Poppel, G. van

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To assess the intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) and other fatty acids in 14 Western European countries. Design and subjects: A maximum of 100 foods per country were sampled and centrally analysed. Each country calculated the intake of individual trans and other fatty acids, clusters of

  10. Quantification of primary fatty acid amides in commercial tallow and tallow fatty acid methyl esters by HPLC-APCI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madl, Tobias; Mittelbach, Martin

    2005-04-01

    Primary fatty acid amides are a group of biologically highly active compounds which were already identified in nature. Here, these substances were determined in tallow and tallow fatty acid methyl esters for the first time. As tallow is growing in importance as an oleochemical feedstock for the soap manufacturing, the surfactant as well as the biodiesel industry, the amounts of primary fatty acid amides have to be considered. As these compounds are insoluble in tallow as well as in the corresponding product e.g. tallow fatty acid methyl esters, filter plugging can occur. For the quantification in these matrices a purification step and a LC-APCI-MS method were developed. Although quantification of these compounds can be performed by GC-MS, the presented approach omitted any derivatization and increased the sensitivity by two orders of magnitude. Internal standard calibration using heptadecanoic acid amide and validation of the method yielded a limit of detection of 18.5 fmol and recoveries for the tallow and fatty acid methyl ester matrices of 93% and 95%, respectively. A group of commercially available samples were investigated for their content of fatty acid amides resulting in an amount of up to 0.54%m/m (g per 100 g) in tallow and up to 0.16%m/m (g per 100 g) in fatty acid methyl esters.

  11. The role and mechanism of fatty acids in gallstones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuo-Dong Wu; Kazuhisa Uchiyama; Ying Fan

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cholelithiasis is a common entity in China, but its etiology and pathogenesis have not been fully elucidated. Pigment stones of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile duct still form a high proportion in China, while they are rare in Europeans. To date, reports on fatty acids in stones remain few. We analyzed the quantity of fatty acids in different stones from Chinese and Japanese cases and discussed the role and mechanism of fatty acids in the formation of pigment stones. METHODS: Clinical data from 18 Chinese and 37 Japanese patients with different types of stones were analyzed using the procedure for extracting fatty acids from gallstones and high performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: The total fatty acid and free fatty acid contents of pigment stones were markedly higher than those in black or cholesterol stones. The ratio of free saturated to free unsaturated fatty acids was highest in intrahepatic and less in extrahepatic pigment stones, which were signiifcantly different from the other two kinds of stones. CONCLUSIONS: This indicates that phospholipase participates in the course of pigment stone formation. The action of phospholipase A1 is more important than phospholipase A2.

  12. Analysis of Fruit Oil Content and Fatty Acid Composition of Seed Kernel Oil in Azadirachta indica ×Melia azedarach%杂交楝果实含油量及籽油脂肪酸组成分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱春玲; 周卫兵; 何祯祥

    2012-01-01

    The fruit oil content of 7-years-old hybrid neem tree which was produced from Azadirachta indica A. Juss and Melia azedarach by somatic hybridization technology, and the fatty acid composition of seed kernel oil were analyzed. Results showed lower oil content in fruit peel and fruit pulp, i.e. 1.65 % and 1.53 %, respectively. However, high oil content (39.20 % ) in seed kernel was found. Seed kernel oil was analyzed by GC-MS and six kinds of fatty acids were determined. There were linoleic acid( C18 : 2) 67.00 % , oleic acid ( C18 : 1 ) 18.03 % , palmitic acid ( C16 : 0 ) 8.96 %, stearic acid ( C18 : 0 ) 3.94 %, arachidic acid (C20:0)0.35 % and unknown fatty acid 1.72 %. The content of unsaturated fatty acid of seed kernel oil was 85.03%. Compared with the M. azedarach, the oil content of hybrid neem tree seed kernel was 1.6 percentage points higher.%对印楝和苦楝2个亲本采用体细胞融合技术杂交形成的7年生杂交楝进行了果实含油量测定,并对其籽油进行了脂肪酸组成分析。结果表明:果皮和果肉含油量较低,分别为1.65%和1.53%;种仁含油量较高,为39.20%。种仁经提取获得籽油后进行甲酯化处理,再进行GC—MS分析,共检测出6种脂肪酸。它们是亚油酸(C18:2)67.00%、油酸(C18:1)18.03%、棕榈酸(C16:0)8.96%、硬脂酸(C18:0)3.94%、花生酸(C20:0)0.35%和未知脂肪酸1.72%;其中不饱和脂肪酸占85.03%。杂交楝种仁含油量比苦楝高出1.6个百分点。

  13. Fate of microbial nitrogen, carbon, hydrolysable amino acids, monosaccharides, and fatty acids in sediment

    OpenAIRE

    Veuger, Bart; van Oevelen, Dick; Middelburg, Jack J.

    2012-01-01

    The fate of microbial carbon, nitrogen, hydrolysable amino acids (HAAs), monosaccharides, and fatty acids in sediment was investigated experimentally. The microbial community of a tidal flat sediment was labeled with C-13-enriched glucose and N-15-enriched ammonium, and sediment was incubated for up to 371 days. Analysis of total concentrations and C-13- and N-15 content of bulk sediment, hydrolysable amino acids (including D-alanine), monosaccharides, total fatty acids (TFAs), and phospholip...

  14. Synthesis of fatty acid methyl ester from the transesterification of high- and low-acid-content crude palm oil (Elaeis guineensis) and karanj oil (Pongamia pinnata) over a calcium-lanthanum-aluminum mixed-oxides catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syamsuddin, Y; Murat, M N; Hameed, B H

    2016-08-01

    The synthesis of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from the high- and low-acid-content feedstock of crude palm oil (CPO) and karanj oil (KO) was conducted over CaO-La2O3-Al2O3 mixed-oxide catalyst. Various reaction parameters were investigated using a batch reactor to identify the best reaction condition that results in the highest FAME yield for each type of oil. The transesterification of CPO resulted in a 97.81% FAME yield with the process conditions of 170°C reaction temperature, 15:1 DMC-to-CPO molar ratio, 180min reaction time, and 10wt.% catalyst loading. The transesterification of KO resulted in a 96.77% FAME yield with the conditions of 150°C reaction temperature, 9:1 DMC-to-KO molar ratio, 180min reaction time, and 5wt.% catalyst loading. The properties of both products met the ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standard requirements. The above results showed that the CaO-La2O3-Al2O3 mixed-oxide catalyst was suitable for high- and low-acid-content vegetable oil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of alcohol fermented feed on lactating performance, blood metabolites, milk Fatty Acid profile and cholesterol content in holstein lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X Z; Park, B K; Yan, C G; Choi, J G; Ahn, J S; Shin, J S

    2012-11-01

    A feeding experiment with 40 lactating Holstein cows and 4 dietary treatments was conducted to investigate supplementation with different levels of alcohol fermented feed to the TMR on lactating performance, blood metabolites, milk fatty acid profile and cholesterol concentration of blood and milk. Forty Holstein lactating cows (106±24 d post-partum; mean±SD) were distributed into four groups and randomly assigned to one of four treatments with each containing 10 cows per treatment. The treatment supplemented with TMR (DM basis) as the control (CON), and CON mixed with alcohol-fermented feeds (AFF) at a level of 5%, 10% and 15% of the TMR as T1, T2 and T3, respectively. Dry matter intake and milk yield were not affected by supplementation of AFF. An increased 4% FCM in the milk occurred in cows fed T3 diet compared with CON, while T1 and T2 diets decreased 4% FCM in a dose dependent manner. Supplementation of AFF increased the concentration of albumin, total protein (TP), ammonia, and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in serum compared with CON. In contrast, supplementation with AFF clearly decreased concentration of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and total cholesterol (TC) compare with CON. AFF supplementation increased the proportion of C18:1n9 and C18:2n6 compared to CON. A decrease in the concentration of saturated fatty acid (SFA) for T1, T2 and T3 resulted in an increased unsaturated fatty acid (USFA) to SFA ratio compared to CON. Concentration of cholesterol in milk fat was reduced in proportion to the supplemental level of AFF. Feeding a diet supplemented with a moderate level AFF to lactating cows could be a way to alter the feed efficiency and fatty acid profile of milk by increasing potentially human consumer healthy fatty acid without detrimental effects on feed intake and milk production. A substantially decreased cholesterol proportion in milk induced by supplementation AFF suggests that alcohol fermented feed may improve milk cholesterol levels

  16. Effect of Alcohol Fermented Feed on Lactating Performance, Blood Metabolites, Milk Fatty Acid Profile and Cholesterol Content in Holstein Lactating Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Z. Li

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A feeding experiment with 40 lactating Holstein cows and 4 dietary treatments was conducted to investigate supplementation with different levels of alcohol fermented feed to the TMR on lactating performance, blood metabolites, milk fatty acid profile and cholesterol concentration of blood and milk. Forty Holstein lactating cows (106±24 d post-partum; mean±SD were distributed into four groups and randomly assigned to one of four treatments with each containing 10 cows per treatment. The treatment supplemented with TMR (DM basis as the control (CON, and CON mixed with alcohol-fermented feeds (AFF at a level of 5%, 10% and 15% of the TMR as T1, T2 and T3, respectively. Dry matter intake and milk yield were not affected by supplementation of AFF. An increased 4% FCM in the milk occurred in cows fed T3 diet compared with CON, while T1 and T2 diets decreased 4% FCM in a dose dependent manner. Supplementation of AFF increased the concentration of albumin, total protein (TP, ammonia, and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in serum compared with CON. In contrast, supplementation with AFF clearly decreased concentration of blood urea nitrogen (BUN and total cholesterol (TC compare with CON. AFF supplementation increased the proportion of C18:1n9 and C18:2n6 compared to CON. A decrease in the concentration of saturated fatty acid (SFA for T1, T2 and T3 resulted in an increased unsaturated fatty acid (USFA to SFA ratio compared to CON. Concentration of cholesterol in milk fat was reduced in proportion to the supplemental level of AFF. Feeding a diet supplemented with a moderate level AFF to lactating cows could be a way to alter the feed efficiency and fatty acid profile of milk by increasing potentially human consumer healthy fatty acid without detrimental effects on feed intake and milk production. A substantially decreased cholesterol proportion in milk induced by supplementation AFF suggests that alcohol fermented feed may improve milk cholesterol

  17. DIETARY ADENINE ALLEVIATES FATTY LIVER INDUCED BY OROTIC ACID

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    Yohanes Buang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of dietary adenine in fatty liver induced by orotic acid (OA were studied. Rats were paired-fed 1% OA-supplemented diets with/or without 0.25% adenine or a diet without OA for 10 days. Serum lipid profiles were measured using enzyme assay kits. Lipids of liver tissues were extracted and liver lipid contents were determined. A peach of liver was prepared to determine the activities of fatty acid synthase (FAS and fatty acid β-oxidation. The results showed that liver TG content of OA-fed rats increased markedly in comparison to basal group.  However, the addition of adenine to the diet reversed promotion of liver TG content to basal level. It was also found that FAS activities decreased. Furthermore, these diets reversed the inhibition of fatty acid β-oxidation to basal level and induced the serum lipid levels secretion. Therefore, the alleviation of fatty liver in OA-treated rats given dietary adenine is associated with the inhibition of FAS activities accompanied with the promotion of mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation and the promotion of serum lipid secretion from the hepatic tissue into the bloodstream.

  18. Effect of fatty acids on leukocyte function

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    Pompéia C.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids have various effects on immune and inflammatory responses, acting as intracellular and intercellular mediators. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs of the omega-3 family have overall suppressive effects, inhibiting lymphocyte proliferation, antibody and cytokine production, adhesion molecule expression, natural killer cell activity and triggering cell death. The omega-6 PUFAs have both inhibitory and stimulatory effects. The most studied of these is arachidonic acid that can be oxidized to eicosanoids, such as prostaglandins, leukotrienes and thromboxanes, all of which are potent mediators of inflammation. Nevertheless, it has been found that many of the effects of PUFA on immune and inflammatory responses are not dependent on eicosanoid generation. Fatty acids have also been found to modulate phagocytosis, reactive oxygen species production, cytokine production and leukocyte migration, also interfering with antigen presentation by macrophages. The importance of fatty acids in immune function has been corroborated by many clinical trials in which patients show improvement when submitted to fatty acid supplementation. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain fatty acid modulation of immune response, such as changes in membrane fluidity and signal transduction pathways, regulation of gene transcription, protein acylation, and calcium release. In this review, evidence is presented to support the proposition that changes in cell metabolism also play an important role in the effect of fatty acids on leukocyte functioning, as fatty acids regulate glucose and glutamine metabolism and mitochondrial depolarization.

  19. 无芥酸甘蓝型油菜十八碳不饱和脂肪酸含量的QTL定位%QTL Analysis of 18-C Unsaturated Fatty Acid Contents in Zero-erucic Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨燕宇; 杨盛强; 陈哲红; 官春云; 陈社员; 刘忠松

    2011-01-01

    Rapeseed oil is a major edible oil source for human consumption. Its quality depends on its fatty acid composition. Among fatty acids, 18-C unsaturated fatty acids are most crucial. QTL mapping will pave a way for molecular breeding and cloning genes for fatty acid biosynthesis in rapeseed. In this study, the zero-erucic rapeseed parents HOP (high oleic) and Xiangyou 15 (low oleic) were used to construct a F2 population consisting of 189 individual plants. The construction of a genetic map containing 342 SSR markers and the mapping of QTLs for the 18-C unsaturated fatty acid contents were carried out. Two sampling methods, I.e., half-seed sampling from F2 single seeds and bulk-seed sampling from F2 individual plants (F3 seeds), were used to determine the fatty acid contents by gas chromatography. The correlations of the fatty acid contents between the two sampling methods as well as most of the correlations between these fatty acids were significant. Totally two major QTLs for oleic acid content were detected in the linkage groups (LG) of A5 and C5, which could explain 60~70% of the variance for oleic acid content. The superior one of the two QTLs was mapped in LG A5 and tightly linked to the FAD2 gene. The other one which located in LG C5 was a major QTL newly found for oleic acid content. The marker closest to this QTL was found to be homologous to the marker on the LG A5, implying the QTL on C5 was also associated with the FAD2 gene. Consistent effect of the two QTLs was confirmed using oleic acid contents determined by the two sampling methods. The QTLs for oleic acid content was found to be the ones for the linoleic acid content, which was consistent with the high significant correlation between the two fatty acids. Nevertheless, one more minor QTL for linoleic acid content with a low LOD value was shown on LG A4 using the bulk-seed method. For linolenic acid content, three major QTLs on LG A4, A5, and C4, respectively, were detected consistently using the

  20. Different impacts of short-chain fatty acids on saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in Aurantiochytrium sp. SD116.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaojin; Tan, Yanzhen; Liu, Yajun; Zhang, Jingtao; Liu, Guanglei; Feng, Yingang; Cui, Qiu

    2013-10-16

    Aurantiochytrium is an important docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) producer containing two kinds of fatty acid synthesis pathways, that is, the fatty acid synthase pathway (FAS) for saturated fatty acid synthesis and the polyketide synthase pathway (PKS) for polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis. To understand the regulation mechanism between the two pathways, the impacts of six short-chain fatty acids on the fatty acid synthesis of Aurantiochytrium sp. SD116 were studied. All short-chain fatty acids showed little effect on the cell growth, but some of them significantly affected lipid accumulation and fatty acid composition. Pentanoic acid and isovaleric acid greatly inhibited the synthesis of saturated fatty acids, whereas the polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis was not affected. Analysis of malic enzyme activity, which supplied NADPH for saturated fatty acids biosynthesis, indicated that the two fatty acid synthesis pathways can utilize different substrates and possess independent sources of NADPH.

  1. COMPARISON OF FATTY ACID PROFILES OF MALE AND FEMALE GIANT RED SHRIMPS (Aristaeomorpha foliacea RISSO, 1827) OBTAINED FROM MEDITERRANEAN SEA

    OpenAIRE

    İ.A. Olgunoglu; E. Artar; M. Gocer

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to detect the concentration of fatty acid in female and male specimens of commercially important giant red shrimp (Aristaeomorpha foliacea) obtained from (including 20 male shrimps and also 20 female shrimp) Mediterranean Sea. In fatty acid composition, the saturated fatty acid fraction was dominant, followed by polyunsaturated fatty acid and monounsaturated fatty acid for both sexes. The analyses indicated that PUFAs, and the MUFAs content were higher in female shr...

  2. Fatty Acid Composition of Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing.

    OpenAIRE

    Aktümsek, Abdurrahman; ÖZTÜRK, Celâleddin; KAŞIK, Giyasettin

    1998-01-01

    Fatty acid compositions of fruit body, stem, lamellae and total of Agaricus bisporus were seperately analysed by GLC. In the all fatty acid compositions of A. bisporus, linoleic acid were predominant. Percentages of linoleic acid were varied between 53.45 - 68.78%. It was showed that the other major fatty acids were palmitic, oleic and stearic acid in the fatty acid compositions.

  3. Phylogenomic reconstruction of archaeal fatty acid metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibrova, Daria V.; Galperin, Michael Y.; Mulkidjanian, Armen Y.

    2014-01-01

    While certain archaea appear to synthesize and/or metabolize fatty acids, the respective pathways still remain obscure. By analyzing the genomic distribution of the key lipid-related enzymes, we were able to identify the likely components of the archaeal pathway of fatty acid metabolism, namely, a combination of the enzymes of bacterial-type β-oxidation of fatty acids (acyl-CoA-dehydrogenase, enoyl-CoA hydratase, and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase) with paralogs of the archaeal acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase, an enzyme of the mevalonate biosynthesis pathway. These three β-oxidation enzymes working in the reverse direction could potentially catalyze biosynthesis of fatty acids, with paralogs of acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase performing addition of C2 fragments. The presence in archaea of the genes for energy-transducing membrane enzyme complexes, such as cytochrome bc complex, cytochrome c oxidase, and diverse rhodopsins, was found to correlate with the presence of the proposed system of fatty acid biosynthesis. We speculate that because these membrane complexes functionally depend on fatty acid chains, their genes could have been acquired via lateral gene transfer from bacteria only by those archaea that already possessed a system of fatty acid biosynthesis. The proposed pathway of archaeal fatty acid metabolism operates in extreme conditions and therefore might be of interest in the context of biofuel production and other industrial applications. PMID:24818264

  4. Polyunsaturated fatty acids for multiple sclerosis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monserrat Kong-González

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Fatty acids have an important role in structure and function of the nervous system. Recently, epidemiologic studies on neurodegenerative disorders have evaluated the usefulness of polyunsaturated fatty acids on multiple sclerosis. OBJECTIVE To examine recent studies, clinical trials, and reviews on the therapeutic effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids in multiple sclerosis. METHODS We conducted a search in MEDLINE/PubMed and Cochrane Library with the terms "fatty acids", "omega-3" and "omega-6" in combination with "multiple sclerosis". Articles were selected according to their relevance on the topic. RESULTS Epidemiologic studies have shown benefits of dietary supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids -especially omega-3- in relation to inflammatory, autoimmune and neurodegenerative disorders. In contrast, the studies do not show a beneficial effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids in multiple sclerosis. However, there are limitations related to design and sample issues in these studies CONCLUSIONS There is some evidence of a protective effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids on the risk of multiple sclerosis. Despite this, to date controlled trials have not produced definite results on the benefits of supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids in patients with multiple sclerosis. Any potential benefit will have to be confirmed in the long term.

  5. Fatty acids in an estuarine mangrove ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alikunhi, Nabeel M; Narayanasamy, Rajendran; Kandasamy, Kathiresan

    2010-06-01

    Fatty acids have been successfully used to trace the transfer of organic matter in coastal and estuarine food webs. To delineate these web connections, fatty acid profiles were analyzed in species of microbes (Azotobacter vinelandii, and Lactobacillus xylosus), prawns (Metapenaeus monoceros and Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and finfish (Mugil cephalus), that are associated with decomposing leaves of two mangrove species, Rhizophora apiculata and Avicennia marina. The fatty acids, except long chain fatty acids, exhibit changes during decomposition of mangrove leaves with a reduction of saturated fatty acids and an increase of monounsaturated fatty acids. The branched fatty acids are absent in undecomposed mangrove leaves, but present significantly in the decomposed leaves and in prawns and finfish, representing an important source for them. This revealed that the microbes are dominant producers that contribute significantly to the fishes and prawns in the mangrove ecosystem. This work has proved the fatty acid biomarkers as an effective tool for identifying the trophic interactions among dominant producers and consumers in this mangrove.

  6. Dioxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wadman, M.W.

    2007-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids play a central role in all biological systems. They are constituents of the plasma membrane and serve as precursors to signaling molecules generated in response to external events. The conversion of polyunsaturated fatty acids into signaling molecules starts by the hydrol

  7. Nickel inhibits mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppala, Radha; McKinney, Richard W; Brant, Kelly A; Fabisiak, James P; Goetzman, Eric S

    2015-08-07

    Nickel exposure is associated with changes in cellular energy metabolism which may contribute to its carcinogenic properties. Here, we demonstrate that nickel strongly represses mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation-the pathway by which fatty acids are catabolized for energy-in both primary human lung fibroblasts and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. At the concentrations used, nickel suppresses fatty acid oxidation without globally suppressing mitochondrial function as evidenced by increased glucose oxidation to CO2. Pre-treatment with l-carnitine, previously shown to prevent nickel-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in neuroblastoma cells, did not prevent the inhibition of fatty acid oxidation. The effect of nickel on fatty acid oxidation occurred only with prolonged exposure (>5 h), suggesting that direct inhibition of the active sites of metabolic enzymes is not the mechanism of action. Nickel is a known hypoxia-mimetic that activates hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF1α). Nickel-induced inhibition of fatty acid oxidation was blunted in HIF1α knockout fibroblasts, implicating HIF1α as one contributor to the mechanism. Additionally, nickel down-regulated the protein levels of the key fatty acid oxidation enzyme very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) in a dose-dependent fashion. In conclusion, inhibition of fatty acid oxidation by nickel, concurrent with increased glucose metabolism, represents a form of metabolic reprogramming that may contribute to nickel-induced carcinogenesis.

  8. Historical perspectives on fatty acid chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatty acids are basic renewable chemical building blocks that can be used as intermediates for a multitude of products. Today the global value of fatty acids exceeds 18 billion dollars and is expected to increase to nearly 26 billion over the period from 2014-2019. From it auspicious beginnings, the...

  9. Mechanisms of gene regulation by fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgiadi, A.; Kersten, A.H.

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of specific dietary fatty acids has been shown to influence risk and progression of several chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, cancer, and arthritis. In recent years, insights into the mechanisms underlying the biological effects of fatty acids have improved consi

  10. Incorporation of extracellular fatty acids by a fatty acid kinase-dependent pathway in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Joshua B; Frank, Matthew W; Jackson, Pamela; Subramanian, Chitra; Rock, Charles O

    2014-04-01

    Acyl-CoA and acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) synthetases activate exogenous fatty acids for incorporation into phospholipids in Gram-negative bacteria. However, Gram-positive bacteria utilize an acyltransferase pathway for the biogenesis of phosphatidic acid that begins with the acylation of sn-glycerol-3-phosphate by PlsY using an acyl-phosphate (acyl-PO4 ) intermediate. PlsX generates acyl-PO4 from the acyl-ACP end-products of fatty acid synthesis. The plsX gene of Staphylococcus aureus was inactivated and the resulting strain was both a fatty acid auxotroph and required de novo fatty acid synthesis for growth. Exogenous fatty acids were only incorporated into the 1-position and endogenous acyl groups were channeled into the 2-position of the phospholipids in strain PDJ39 (ΔplsX). Extracellular fatty acids were not elongated. Removal of the exogenous fatty acid supplement led to the rapid accumulation of intracellular acyl-ACP and the abrupt cessation of fatty acid synthesis. Extracts from the ΔplsX strain exhibited an ATP-dependent fatty acid kinase activity, and the acyl-PO4 was converted to acyl-ACP when purified PlsX is added. These data reveal the existence of a novel fatty acid kinase pathway for the incorporation of exogenous fatty acids into S. aureus phospholipids.

  11. Solution Structure and Backbone Dynamics of Human Liver Fatty Acid Binding Protein: Fatty Acid Binding Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Jun; Lücke, Christian; Chen, Zhongjing; Qiao, Ye; Klimtchuk, Elena; Hamilton, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), a cytosolic protein most abundant in liver, is associated with intracellular transport of fatty acids, nuclear signaling, and regulation of intracellular lipolysis. Among the members of the intracellular lipid binding protein family, L-FABP is of particular interest as it can i), bind two fatty acid molecules simultaneously and ii), accommodate a variety of bulkier physiological ligands such as bilirubin and fatty acyl CoA. To better understand the p...

  12. Propylenated fatty acids as emulsifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Shattory, Y.

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxy propylenyl stéarate, palmitate, laurate, oléate and linoleate were prepared by reaction of propylene oxide with fatty acid at 160 °C for five hours stirring in presence of potassium hydroxide as a catalyst. Physico-chemical properties of the five products, regarding their use as emulsifiers, were determined.

    Se prepararon estearato, palmitato, laurato, oleato y linoleato de hidroxipropilenilos mediante reacción de oxido de propileno con ácido graso a 160 °C durante cinco horas de agitación en presencia de hidróxido potásico como catalizador. Se determinaron las propiedades físico-químicas de los cinco productos, en cuanto a su uso como emulsionantes.

  13. Determination of selected fatty acids in dried sweat spot using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanďár, Roman; Drábková, Petra; Andrlová, Lenka; Kostelník, Adam; Čegan, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    A method is described for the determination of fatty acids in dried sweat spot and plasma samples using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Plasma and dried sweat spot samples were obtained from a group of blood donors. The sweat was collected from each volunteer during exercise. Sweat was spotted onto collection paper containing butylated hydroxytoluene. Fatty acids were derivatized with acetyl chloride in methanol to form methyl esters of fatty acids. The fatty acids in dried sweat spot samples treated with butylated hydroxytoluene and stored at -20°C were stable for 3 months. Our results indicate that sweat contains, among fatty acids with short chain, also fatty acids with long chain and unsaturated fatty acids. Linear relationships between percentage content of selected fatty acids in dried sweat spot and plasma were observed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Genetic mapping of QTLs controlling fatty acids provided insights into the genetic control of fatty acid synthesis pathway in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut, a high-oil crop with about 50% oil content, is either crushed for oil or used as edible products. Fatty acid composition determines the oil quality which has high relevance to consumer health, flavor, and shelf life of commercial products. In addition to the major fatty acids, oleic acid (C1...

  15. Changes of cellular fatty acids of soil Actinobacteria producing antibiotics

    OpenAIRE

    LIPENSKÁ, Ivana

    2010-01-01

    Changes of cellular fatty acids in membrane of Actinobacteria. Changes of fatty acids are significant biomarkers of changing conditions of surroundings. This can also indicate production of antibiotics along with production of atypical fatty acids.

  16. Argania spinosa var. mutica and var. apiculata: variation of fatty-acid composition, phenolic content, and antioxidant and α-amylase-inhibitory activities among varieties, organs, and development stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Adib, Saifeddine; Aissi, Oumayma; Charrouf, Zoubida; Ben Jeddi, Fayçal; Messaoud, Chokri

    2015-09-01

    Argania spinosa includes two varieties, var. apiculata and var. mutica. These argan varieties were introduced into Tunisia in ancient times and are actually cultivated in some botanic gardens. Little is known about the chemical differentiation among these argan varieties. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the fatty-acid composition, the total phenolic and flavonoid contents, and the antioxidant and α-amylase-inhibitory activities of leaf, seed, and pulp extracts of both argan varieties harvested during the months of January to April. The fatty-acid distribution was found to depend on the argan variety, the plant organ, and the harvest time. Significant variations in the phenolic contents were observed between the investigated varieties as well as between leaves, pulps, and seeds of each variety. As expected, phenolic compounds were found to be contributors to the antioxidant and α-amylase-inhibitory activities of both argan varieties. The chemical differentiation observed among the two argan varieties, based mainly on the fatty-acid composition, might have some chemotaxonomic value. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  17. Effects of perfluorinated fatty acids with different carbon chain length on fatty acid profiles of hepatic lipids in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Naomi; Yamazaki, Tohru; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Sunaga, Katsuyoshi; Tsuda, Tadashi; Mitsumoto, Atsushi; Kawashima, Yoichi

    2011-01-01

    Alterations by perfluorinated fatty acids (PFCAs) with a chain length of 6-9 carbons in the fatty acid profile of hepatic lipids of mice were investigated. The characteristic changes caused by all the PFCAs examined were increases in the contents and proportions of oleic acid (18 : 1), palmitoleic acid (16 : 1) and 8,11,14-eicosatrienoic acid (20 : 3) in hepatic lipids. Hepatic contents of palmitic acid were also increased by the treatments with the PFCAs. These effects were almost dependent on the hepatic concentrations of PFCA molecules regardless of their carbon chain length. Perfluorooctanoic acid elevated the expressions of mRNA encoding acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase, malic enzyme, stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) (SCD1 and 2), chain elongase (ELOVL5), Δ6 desaturase (Fads2), 1-acylglycerophosphocholine acyltransferase (LPCAT) (LPCAT3). The four PFCAs examined induced microsomal SCD and LPCAT in hepatic concentration-dependent manners regardless of carbon chain length. One linear regression line was confirmed between LPCAT activity and hepatic concentration of PFCA at wide range of the concentration, whereas the induction of SCD was saturable at relatively low concentration of PFCAs. These results suggest (i) that PFCAs with a chain length of 6-9 carbons change the fatty acid profile of hepatic lipids by increasing contents and proportions of 16 : 1, 18 : 1 and 20 : 3, (ii) that these alterations in fatty acid profile are caused by up-regulation of SCD, de novo fatty acid synthesis, chain elongase and Δ6 desaturase and (iii) that the mechanism underlying SCD induction is, in part, mediated through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α.

  18. Fatty acids composition of Spanish black (Morus nigra L.) and white (Morus alba L.) mulberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Salcedo, Eva M; Sendra, Esther; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A; Martínez, Juan José; Hernández, Francisca

    2016-01-01

    This research has determined qualitatively and quantitatively the fatty acids composition of white (Morus alba) and black (Morus nigra) fruits grown in Spain, in 2013 and 2014. Four clones of each species were studied. Fourteen fatty acids were identified and quantified in mulberry fruits. The most abundant fatty acids were linoleic (C18:2), palmitic (C16:0), oleic (C18:1), and stearic (C18:0) acids in both species. The main fatty acid in all clones was linoleic (C18:2), that ranged from 69.66% (MN2) to 78.02% (MA1) of the total fatty acid content; consequently Spanish mulberry fruits were found to be rich in linoleic acid, which is an essential fatty acid. The fatty acid composition of mulberries highlights the nutritional and health benefits of their consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Plasma Fatty Acid Profile of Gestating Ewes Supplemented with Fishmeal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamun M. Or-Rashid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The very long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (>18C cannot be adequately synthesized by ruminant tissues to meet their requirements; therefore, their concentration in body depends on the supply through feed. It may be possible to improve the essential fatty acid status of ruminant animals, during gestation by manipulating the maternal diet with Fishmeal (FM. The objectives of this research were to (1 determine the effect of fishmeal supplementation on the plasma fatty acid profile of ewes during late gestation and (2 determine the status of the plasma docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n3 of lambs born to these ewes. Approach: Eight gestating ewes [Rideau-Arcott, 97±5 kg initial body weight, 100 days of gestation] were used in a completely randomized design. Ewes were individually-housed and fed either a control diet (supplemented with soybean meal or a fishmeal supplemented diet. Blood samples were collected via jugular venipuncture for plasma fatty acids analysis on 100, 114, 128 and 142 days of “gestation”. Blood samples from the lambs were also collected via jugular venipuncture immediately after birth and before receiving their mothers’ colostrum. Plasma fatty acids were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. Results: The ewes from both groups, i.e., control and fishmeal supplemented, had a similar fatty acid profile prior to supplementation (at 100 days, p>0.05. Thereafter, there was an increase in eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n3, docosahexaenoic acid, total n3-PUFA and total very long chain n3-PUFA (>C18 contents in plasma for the fishmeal supplemented ewes compared to the control (p0.05 in total saturated fatty acids, total monounsaturated fatty acids, total conjugated linoleic acid, total trans-18:1, total cis-18:1, or total n6-PUFA contents in ewe plasma between control and fishmeal supplemented groups. Lambs born to ewes fed the fishmeal supplemented diet had greater (pConclusion: The ewes supplemented

  20. Investigation on the Protein Degradation, Free Fatty Acid Content and Area Fraction of Poosti Cheese, Iranian Traditional Cheese Ripened in Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Hemmatian

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: In this study, the proteolysis and lipolysis of Poosti cheese produced from raw sheep milk in mountainous eastern regions of Iran were investigated during 90 days of ripening. Materials and Methods: Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for proteolysis (SDS-PAGE and gas chromatography (GC for free fatty acids (FFAs were applied to investigate the intensity of lipid degradation. To evaluate the Poosti cheese microstructural changes, the area fraction parameter of the scanning electron microscopy (SEM micrographs was also calculated by the Image J software. Results: The most alteration in protein profile was occurred in the first month of aging for high activity of the proteolytic microorganisms in this period. The amount of free fatty acids was depended on their length due to the variety of involved mechanisms. In addition, the microstructural parameter was considerably affected by the aging as a consequence of the effect of salt on the activity of raw milk and skin micro flora. Conclusions: The decline in proteolysis rate during the last stage of aging could be correlated with the inhibitory effects of salt on the engaged microorganisms, and increase in the pore fraction of the microstructure during the first month of Poosti cheese aging could be due to casein rearrangement and gas release by the fermentative activity of microorganisms. Keywords: Proteolysis, Lipolysis, Poosti cheese, Raw sheep milk.

  1. Effects of dietary Dunaliella salina extract and highly unsaturated fatty acids on the fecundity and lipid content of pond-reared Penaeus japonicus brood-stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bermawi, N

    2013-01-01

    Five basic diets containing fresh squid meat and trash fish were supplemented with different amount of Dunaleilla salina extract (DSE) and highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA). Supplemented diets were fed to pond-reared Penaeus japonicus broodstock. Diet A was solely squid and trash fish. Diets B 1 and B2 were supplemented with 400 and 600mg DSE.kg-1 diet, respectively. Diets C1 and C2 were supplemented with HUFA 5 and 10g.kg-1 and 400mg.kg-1DSE, respectively. The results showed that the group fed diet C2 had the best reproductive performance in all experimental groups. It had the highest proportion of spawns (73.5%) and egg production per female (589.0) than all the other experimental groups. The fatty acid composition strongly affected fecundity and stress tolerance of broodstock. The results showed that both HUFA and beta-carotene DSE may play role in stress tolerance and reproductive performance

  2. Effect of cooking on the chemical composition of low-salt, low-fat Wakame/olive oil added beef patties with special reference to fatty acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, I; Cofrades, S; Cañeque, V; Díaz, M T; López, O; Jiménez-Colmenero, F

    2011-09-01

    Changes in chemical composition, with special reference to fatty acids, as affected by cooking, were studied in low-salt (0.5%)/low-fat patties (10%) with added Wakame (3%) and partial or total replacement of pork backfat with olive oil-in-water emulsion. The addition of Wakame and olive oil-in-water emulsion improved (P cooking retention values of moisture, fat, fatty acids and ash, which were close to 100%. Partial and total replacement of animal fat with olive oil-in-water emulsion reduced (P cooked patties was affected by product formulation. Unlike the case of all animal fat patties, when olive oil was added the cooking process increased (P Cooked formulated patties with seaweed and partial or total replacement of pork backfat by oil-in-water emulsion and with seaweed added were less calorie-dense and had lower SFAs levels, while samples with olive oil had higher MUFAs levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Teor lipídico e perfil de ácidos graxos da carne de capivara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris Lipid content and fatty-acids of capybara meat (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilo Salgado Jardim

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar o efeito dos fatores sexo e diferentes faixas de peso ao abate (30 a 40kg, 40 a 50kg e 50 a 60kg no teor de lipídeos e perfil de ácidos graxos (AG da carne de capivara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris. As amostras constituíram-se da porção cranial do músculo longissimus dorsi de 28 capivaras (16 machos e 12 fêmeas provenientes de um mesmo zoocriadouro. As análises foram realizadas no Laboratório de Certificação da Qualidade de Carnes e Derivados do Instituto de Tecnologia de Alimentos-ITAL, em SP. Os lipídeos foram extraídos com clorofórmio/metanol (2:1, segundo Folch et al. (1957 e a composição de AG, por cromatografia gasosa (Bragagnolo, 1997. O músculo longissimus dorsi in natura de capivara apresentou média de 0,82% de lipídeos. Houve diferença (PThis work aimed to evaluate the effect of the factors sex and different slaughter weight ranges (30-40kg, 40-50kg, 50-60kg on the lipid content and fatty acids profiles of capybara meat. The samples were constituted of the cranial portion of the longissimus dorsi muscle of 28 capybaras (16 males and 12 females, from the same farm. The analyses were carried out at the Meats and Derived Quality Certification Laboratory of the Food Technology Institute - ITAL, in SP. The lipids were extracted using chloroform/ methanol (2:1 (v/v mixture, following the methodology of Folch et al. (1957, and the composition of fatty acids analysed by gas chromatography (Bragagnolo, 1997. The raw loin of capybara presented 0,82% of lipids. There was significant difference (P 0,05 among the contents of these fatty acids in males and females, and in the different slaughter weight ranges. A few significant differences between the factors sex and slaughter weight ranges were noticed in minor fatty acids. Comparing to the domestic species, the capybara meat analyzed in this work presented low total lipid content and high percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  4. Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, A P; Aggarwal, K K; Zhang, P-Y

    2015-01-01

    Cardioceuticals are nutritional supplements that contain all the essential nutrients including vitamins, minerals, omega-3-fatty acids and other antioxidants like a-lipoic acid and coenzyme Q10 in the right proportion that provide all round protection to the heart by reducing the most common risks associated with the cardiovascular disease including high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels and factors that contribute to coagulation of blood. Omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to significantly reduce the risk for sudden death caused by cardiac arrhythmias and all-cause mortality in patients with known coronary heart disease. Omega-3 fatty acids are also used to treat hyperlipidemia and hypertension. There are no significant drug interactions with omega-3 fatty acids. The American Heart Association recommends consumption of two servings of fish per week for persons with no history of coronary heart disease and at least one serving of fish daily for those with known coronary heart disease. Approximately 1 g/day of eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid is recommended for cardio protection. Higher dosages of omega-3 fatty acids are required to reduce elevated triglyceride levels (2-4 g/day). Modest decreases in blood pressure occur with significantly higher dosages of omega-3 fatty acids.

  5. Training affects muscle phospholipid fatty acid composition in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Wu, B J; Willer, Mette

    2001-01-01

    Training improves insulin sensitivity, which in turn may affect performance by modulation of fuel availability. Insulin action, in turn, has been linked to specific patterns of muscle structural lipids in skeletal muscle. This study investigated whether regular exercise training exerts an effect...... on the muscle membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition in humans. Seven male subjects performed endurance training of the knee extensors of one leg for 4 wk. The other leg served as a control. Before, after 4 days, and after 4 wk, muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis. After 4 wk......, the phospholipid fatty acid contents of oleic acid 18:1(n-9) and docosahexaenoic acid 22:6(n-3) were significantly higher in the trained (10.9 +/- 0.5% and 3.2 +/- 0.4% of total fatty acids, respectively) than the untrained leg (8.8 +/- 0.5% and 2.6 +/- 0.4%, P

  6. Influence of fatty acid precursors, including food preservatives, on the growth and fatty acid composition of Listeria monocytogenes at 37 and 10degreesC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julotok, Mudcharee; Singh, Atul K; Gatto, Craig; Wilkinson, Brian J

    2010-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen that grows at refrigeration temperatures and increases its content of anteiso-C(15:0) fatty acid, which is believed to be a homeoviscous adaptation to ensure membrane fluidity, at these temperatures. As a possible novel approach for control of the growth of the organism, the influences of various fatty acid precursors, including branched-chain amino acids and branched- and straight-chain carboxylic acids, some of which are also well-established food preservatives, on the growth and fatty acid composition of the organism at 37 degrees C and 10 degrees C were studied in order to investigate whether the organism could be made to synthesize fatty acids that would result in impaired growth at low temperatures. The results indicate that the fatty acid composition of L. monocytogenes could be modulated by the feeding of branched-chain amino acid, C(4), C(5), and C(6) branched-chain carboxylic acid, and C(3) and C(4) straight-chain carboxylic acid fatty acid precursors, but the growth-inhibitory effects of several preservatives were independent of effects on fatty acid composition, which were minor in the case of preservatives metabolized via acetyl coenzyme A. The ability of a precursor to modify fatty acid composition was probably a reflection of the substrate specificities of the first enzyme, FabH, in the condensation of primers of fatty acid biosynthesis with malonyl acyl carrier protein.

  7. Bleaching condition optimization of low trans fatty acids content soybean oil%低反式脂肪酸含量大豆油脱色条件的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈岩峰; 陈晓慧; 刘晶; 王妍; 于殿宇

    2011-01-01

    对大豆油脱色过程中反式脂肪酸含量进行研究,通过单因素试验与响应面分析,对影响脱色的主要工艺参数进行了优化.得到低反式脂肪酸大豆油脱色的最佳工艺参数为:脱色温度97℃,脱色时间30 min,脱色剂用量3.8%.在真空度0.095 MPa、搅拌速度220 r/min条件下,按最佳工艺参数脱色,得到大豆油反式亚油酸含量为1.18%,脱色率达到96.57%.%The change of trans fatty acids content in bleaching process of soybean oil was studied. Based on the results of single - factor experiments and response surface analysis, the major parameters of bleaching were optimized. The best bleaching parameters of obtaining low trans fatty acids content soybean oil were determined as follows: bleaching temperature 97℃, bleaching time 30 min, decolorant quantity 3. 8%. Under the best parameters and vacuum degree 0. 095 Mpa,stirring speed 220 r/min,the trans lin-oleic acid content in bleached soybean oil was 1. 18% ,and the bleaching rate was 96. 57%.

  8. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in horses

    OpenAIRE

    Tanja Hess; Trinette Ross-Jones

    2014-01-01

    Polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are a family of essential fatty acids with many biological activities. These fatty acids are incorporated into cell membranes, changing their structural and functional characteristics. N-3 PUFA can act by modulating inflammatory responses at different levels. Omega-3 PUFA can be converted in the body to longer-chain n-3 PUFA at a limited rate and are differently converted in body systems. It appears that when specific longer-chain n-3 PUFA are de...

  9. 气相色谱/质谱法分析长白山脉松茸中的脂肪酸%Analysis of fatty acid content in Changbai mountains Tricholoma matsutake sing by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    南京熙; 高明; 孙佳; 李官浩; 金炯国

    2012-01-01

    建立了长白山脉松茸中脂肪酸的气相色谱/质谱(GC/MS)的测定方法。采用索氏提取法提取松茸中的粗脂肪,经过0.8mol/LKOH-甲醇溶液的甲酯化处理,并运用GC/MS联用技术对其脂肪酸进行了分离分析,同时结合有机质谱学规律,分别对饱和脂肪酸甲酯、单不饱和脂肪酸甲酯、多不饱和脂肪酸甲酯的裂解规律和质谱特征进行了分析归纳。通过质谱数据库检索,鉴定出长白山脉松茸中的9种主要脂肪酸,其中不饱和脂肪酸含量达86.2%,以油酸和亚油酸为主,油酸和亚油酸相对含量分别为34.2%和51.6%。通过对长白山区松茸中脂肪酸的分析,表明松茸是一种良好的保健营养植物,具有很好的开发利用前景。%A method of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry(GC/MS) was established to determine the fatty acids of Changbai mountain Tricholoma matsutake sing.The Tricholoma matsutake sing were extracted using Soxhlet extration method,derivatized with KOH-CH3OH solution,and analyzed by GC/MS.The fragmentation patterns and mass spectrometry characteristics of satutated fatty acids,monounsaturated,polyunsaturated fatty acids were analyzed and concluded by regular patterns of organic mass spectrometry.According to the database index,nine fatty acid components in Tricholoma matsutake sing were identified and the content of unsaturated fatty acid was 86.2%.The oleic acid(34.2%) and linoleic acid(51.6%) were main components among them.The qualitatived results of fatty acids in Tricholoma matsutake sing show that it is a good nutritional phant for health and it has better development and utilization prospect.

  10. Fatty acids profile of pulp and nuts of Brazilian fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Afonso da Costa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Fruits and nuts from the North and Northeast regions of Brazil were collected to determine the fatty acid profile of their oils. The species studied were Brazil (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K., Mucajá (Couma rigida M., Inajá (Maximiliana maripa D., Jenipapo (Genipa Americana L., and Buriti (Mauritia flexuosa L. nuts. Fatty acid methyl esters were analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID. Brazil nut major fatty acid was 18:3n-3 (α-linolenic acid, and Buriti nut had approximately 23 times more 18:3n-3 than the pulp. Mucajá nut presented high content of 12:0 (lauric acid and 16:0 (palmitic acid, and Mucajá pulp showed significant levels of 18:2n-6 (linoleic acid. Considering the PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acid sum values, almost all fruits and nuts analyzed presented very high levels of these compounds. Regarding n-6/n-3 ratio, only Brazil Nut, Buriti Nut, Inajá pulp, and Jenipapo pulp corresponded to the desired profile. These Brazilian fruits and nuts could be of potential interest due to their high nutritive value and lipid content.

  11. Production of hydroxy fatty acids by microbial fatty acid-hydroxylation enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Rok; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2013-12-01

    Hydroxy fatty acids are widely used in chemical, food, and cosmetic industries as starting materials for the synthesis of polymers and as additives for the manufacture of lubricants, emulsifiers, and stabilizers. They have antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities and therefore can be applied for medicinal uses. Microbial fatty acid-hydroxylation enzymes, including P450, lipoxygenase, hydratase, 12-hydroxylase, and diol synthase, synthesize regio-specific hydroxy fatty acids. In this article, microbial fatty acid-hydroxylation enzymes, with a focus on region-specificity and diversity, are summarized and the production of mono-, di-, and tri-hydroxy fatty acids is introduced. Finally, the production methods of regio-specific and diverse hydroxy fatty acids, such as gene screening, protein engineering, metabolic engineering, and combinatory biosynthesis, are suggested. © 2013.

  12. Determination of free fatty acids in beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravi, Elisabetta; Marconi, Ombretta; Sileoni, Valeria; Perretti, Giuseppe

    2017-01-15

    Free fatty acids (FFA) content of beer affects the ability to form a stable head of foam and plays an important role in beer staling. Moreover, the presence of saturated FAs is related sometimes to gushing problems in beer. The aim of this research was to validate an analytical method for the determination of FFAs in beer. The extraction of FFAs in beer was achieved via Liquid-Liquid Cartridge Extraction (LLCE), the FFAs extract was purified by Solid Phase Extraction (SPE), methylated by boron trifluoride in methanol, and injected into GC-FID system. The performance criteria demonstrate that this method is suitable for the analysis of medium and long chain FFAs in beer. The proposed method was tested on four experimental beers.

  13. Antisense technologies targeting fatty acid synthetic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jinshun; Liu, Feng; Jiang, Yuyang

    2012-05-01

    Fatty acid synthesis is a coordinated process involving multiple enzymes. Overexpression of some of these enzymes plays important roles in tumor growth and development. Therefore, these enzymes are attractive targets for cancer therapies. Antisense agents provide highly specific inhibition of the expression of target genes and thus have served as powerful tools for gene functional studies and potential therapeutic agents for cancers. This article reviews different types of antisense agents and their applications in the modulation of fatty acid synthesis. Patents of antisense agents targeting fatty acid synthetic enzymes are introduced. In addition, miR-122 has been shown to regulate the expression of fatty acid synthetic enzymes, and thus antisense agent patents that inhibit miR-122 expression are also discussed.

  14. Introduction to fatty acids and lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdge, Graham C; Calder, Philip C

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the structure, function and metabolism of fatty acids and lipids that are of particular importance in the context of parenteral nutrition. Lipids are a heterogeneous group of molecules that share the common property of hydrophobicity. Lipids range in structure from simple short hydrocarbon chains to more complex molecules, including triacylglycerols, phospholipids and sterols and their esters. Lipids within each class may differ structurally. Fatty acids are common components of complex lipids, and these differ according to chain length and the presence, number and position of double bonds in the hydrocarbon chain. Structural variation among complex lipids and among fatty acids gives rise to functional differences that result in different impacts upon metabolism and upon cell and tissue responses. Fatty acids and complex lipids exhibit a variety of structural variations that influence their metabolism and their functional effects.

  15. Egg fatty acid composition from lake trout fed two Lake Michigan prey fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Fitzsimons, J.D.; Tillitt, D.E.; Brown, S.B.

    2009-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that there were significant differences in the egg thiamine content in lake trout Salvelinus namaycush fed two Lake Michigan prey fish (alewife Alosa pseudoharengus and bloater Coregonus hoyi). Lake trout fed alewives produced eggs low in thiamine, but it was unknown whether the consumption of alewives affected other nutritionally important components. In this study we investigated the fatty acid composition of lake trout eggs when females were fed diets that resulted in different egg thiamine concentrations. For 2 years, adult lake trout were fed diets consisting of four combinations of captured alewives and bloaters (100% alewives; 65% alewives, 35% bloaters; 35% alewives, 65% bloaters; and 100% bloaters). The alewife fatty acid profile had higher concentrations of arachidonic acid and total omega-6 fatty acids than the bloater profile. The concentrations of four fatty acids (cis-13, 16-docosadienoic, eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids) were higher in bloaters than in alewives. Although six fatty acid components were higher in lake trout eggs in 2001 than in 2000 and eight fatty acids were lower, diet had no effect on any fatty acid concentration measured in lake trout eggs in this study. Based on these results, it appears that egg fatty acid concentrations differ between years but that the egg fatty acid profile does not reflect the alewife-bloater mix in the diet of adults. The essential fatty acid content of lake trout eggs from females fed alewives and bloaters appears to be physiologically regulated and adequate to meet the requirements of developing embryos.

  16. Egg fatty acid composition from lake trout fed two Lake Michigan prey fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeyfield, Dale C; Fitzsimons, John D; Tillitt, Donald E; Brown, Scott B

    2009-12-01

    We previously demonstrated that there were significant differences in the egg thiamine content in lake trout Salvelinus namaycush fed two Lake Michigan prey fish (alewife Alosa pseudoharengus and bloater Coregonus hoyi). Lake trout fed alewives produced eggs low in thiamine, but it was unknown whether the consumption of alewives affected other nutritionally important components. In this study we investigated the fatty acid composition of lake trout eggs when females were fed diets that resulted in different egg thiamine concentrations. For 2 years, adult lake trout were fed diets consisting of four combinations of captured alewives and bloaters (100% alewives; 65% alewives, 35% bloaters; 35% alewives, 65% bloaters; and 100% bloaters). The alewife fatty acid profile had higher concentrations of arachidonic acid and total omega-6 fatty acids than the bloater profile. The concentrations of four fatty acids (cis-13, 16-docosadienoic, eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids) were higher in bloaters than in alewives. Although six fatty acid components were higher in lake trout eggs in 2001 than in 2000 and eight fatty acids were lower, diet had no effect on any fatty acid concentration measured in lake trout eggs in this study. Based on these results, it appears that egg fatty acid concentrations differ between years but that the egg fatty acid profile does not reflect the alewife-bloater mix in the diet of adults. The essential fatty acid content of lake trout eggs from females fed alewives and bloaters appears to be physiologically regulated and adequate to meet the requirements of developing embryos.

  17. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids for women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourre, Jean-Marie

    2007-01-01

    This review details the specific needs of women for omega-3 fatty acids, including alpha linoleic acid (ALA) and the very long chain fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Omega-3 fatty acid (dietary or in capsules) ensures that a woman's adipose tissue contains a reserve of these fatty acids for the developing fetus and the breast-fed newborn infant. This ensures the optimal cerebral and cognitive development of the infant. The presence of large quantities of EPA and DHA in the diet slightly lengthens pregnancy, and improves its quality. Human milk contains both ALA and DHA, unlike that of other mammals. Conditions such as diabetes can alter the fatty acid profile of mother's milk, while certain diets, like those of vegetarians, vegans, or even macrobiotic diets, can have the same effect, if they do not include seafood. ALA, DHA and EPA, are important for preventing ischemic cardiovascular disease in women of all ages. Omega-3 fatty acids can help to prevent the development of certain cancers, particularly those of the breast and colon, and possibly of the uterus and the skin, and are likely to reduce the risk of postpartum depression, manic-depressive psychosis, dementias (Alzheimer's disease and others), hypertension, toxemia, diabetes and, to a certain extend, age-related macular degeneration. Omega-3 fatty acids could play a positive role in the prevention of menstrual syndrome and postmenopausal hot flushes. The normal western diet contains little ALA (less than 50% of the RDA). The only adequate sources are rapeseed oil (canola), walnuts and so-called "omega-3" eggs (similar to wild-type or Cretan eggs). The amounts of EPA and DHA in the diet vary greatly from person to person. The only good sources are fish and seafood, together with "omega-3" eggs.

  18. Fatty acid profiles of fin fish in Langkawi Island, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Farida; Jaswir, Irwandi; Khaza'ai, Huzwah; Hashim, Ridzwan

    2007-01-01

    Total lipid contents and fatty acid composition of 13 marine fish species namely, "jenahak" (Lutianus agentimaculatus), "kebasi" (Anadontostoma chacunda), "duri" (Arius cumatranus), "tenggiri batang" (Scomberomorus commersoni), "kembong" (Rastrelliger kanagurta), "kintan" or "sebalah" (Psettodes crumei), "kerisi" (Pristipomodes typus), "kerapu" (Epinephelus sexfasciatus), "gelama kling" (Sciaena dussumieri), "malong" (Congresax talabon), "laban" (Cynoglossus lingua), "yu 9" (Scolidon sorrakowah) and "bagi" (Aacnthurs nigrosis) commonly found in Pulau Tuba, one of the islands surrounding the popular tourist destination Langkawi in Malaysia were determined. All fish showed a considerable amount of unsaturated fatty acids particularly those with 4, 5 and 6 double bonds. Two physiologically important n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), i.e. eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docasahaexaenoic acid (DHA), made up of more than 50% of the total PUFAs. For saturated fatty acids, palmitic was found to be the major one in all types of fish studied. Based on DHA, EPA and arachidonic acid (AA) contents, "gelama kling" was found to be the best source (23, 11 and 7%, respectively) followed by "kerapu" (21, 10, 9%) and "sebalah" (19, 14, 4%).

  19. Autistic children exhibit decreased levels of essential Fatty acids in red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigandi, Sarah A; Shao, Hong; Qian, Steven Y; Shen, Yiping; Wu, Bai-Lin; Kang, Jing X

    2015-05-04

    Omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are essential nutrients for brain development and function. However, whether or not the levels of these fatty acids are altered in individuals with autism remains debatable. In this study, we compared the fatty acid contents between 121 autistic patients and 110 non-autistic, non-developmentally delayed controls, aged 3-17. Analysis of the fatty acid composition of red blood cell (RBC) membrane phospholipids showed that the percentage of total PUFA was lower in autistic patients than in controls; levels of n-6 arachidonic acid (AA) and n-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were particularly decreased (pautism.

  20. [Elimination of all trans fatty acids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katan, M B

    2008-02-09

    At the start of the 20th century, the production of trans fatty acids was originally largely driven by the increasing demand for margarine. The two Dutch margarine firms Van den Bergh and Jurgens played an important role in this early development. In the early 1990s it was shown that trans fatty acids increase the risk of heart disease. Unilever, the successor to Van den Bergh and Jurgens, then took the lead in eliminating trans fatty acids from retail foods worldwide. As a result, intake in The Netherlands fell from 15 g per day in 1980 to 3 g per day in 2003. Dairy products and meat are now the major source of trans fatty acids. The effects on health of these ruminant trans fatty acids are unclear. There are three lessons to be learned from the rise and fall of trans fatty acids. First, a history of safe use does not guarantee safety of food components, because routine surveillance will fail to detect adverse effects on common illnesses with long incubation periods. Second, it shows that it is more effective and easier to change the composition of foods than to change consumer behaviour. And third, governments can have a major impact on consumers' health by mandating the use of healthier food ingredients.

  1. Fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis in astrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auestad, N.

    1988-01-01

    Astrocytes were derived from cortex of two-day-old rat brain and grown in primary culture to confluence. The metabolism of the fatty acids, octanoate and palmitate, to CO{sub 2} in oxidative respiration and to the formation of ketone bodies was examined by radiolabeled tracer methodology. The net production of acetoacetate was also determined by measurement of its mass. The enzymes in the ketogenic pathway were examined by measuring enzymic activity and/or by immunoblot analyses. Labeled CO{sub 2} and labeled ketone bodies were produced from the oxidation of fatty acids labeled at carboxy- and {omega}-terminal carbons, indicating that fatty acids were oxidized by {beta}-oxidation. The results from the radiolabeled tracer studies also indicated that a substantial proportion of the {omega}-terminal 4-carbon unit of the fatty acids bypassed the {beta}-ketothiolase step of the {beta}-oxidation pathway. The ({sup 14}C)acetoacetate formed from the (1-{sup 14}C)labeled fatty acids, obligated to pass through the acetyl-CoA pool, contained 50% of the label at carbon 3 and 50% at carbon 1. In contrast, the ({sup 14}C)acetoacetate formed from the ({omega}-1)labeled fatty acids contained 90% of the label at carbon 3 and 10% at carbon 1.

  2. Trans fatty acids and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T A; McIntyre, M; Nicolosi, R J

    2001-01-01

    Trans fatty acids are found in partially hydrogenated vegetable oil, in meats, and in dairy products. Their effect on blood cholesterol concentrations was examined decades ago, but recently there has been renewed interest in understanding how trans fatty acids affect blood lipids and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. Current advice to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk includes decreasing the consumption of saturated and total fat to help manage blood cholesterol concentrations. Saturated fat contributes significantly to total fat intake and markedly raises blood cholesterol concentrations. Trans fatty acids, which are consumed in much smaller quantities, have been shown to be modestly hypercholesterolemic in studies that have substituted hydrogenated vegetable oils for unhydrogenated oils. In contrast, when partially hydrogenated vegetable oils containing trans fatty acids are substituted for cholesterol-raising saturated fats, blood cholesterol levels are reduced. Partially hydrogenated vegetable oils are used in place of saturated fat in many food products. These foods can help consumers lower their saturated fat intake to achieve dietary recommendations. The following review critically examines the role of hydrogenated fats in the food supply, the metabolism of trans fatty acids, and the scientific literature surrounding the effects of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils and trans fatty acids on blood cholesterol concentrations and cardiovascular disease risk.

  3. Fatty acid composition of subcutaneous and kidney fat depots of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    which had been kept for 90 days on one of five different diets. The diets were ..... A comparison of the fatty acid content of fat depots in the Boer goat as reported ... owing to the influencethat nutrition, notably the carbohydrate source, has on the ...

  4. RESEARCH ON FAT CONTENT AND COMPOSITION OF FATTY ACID OF WILD SOYBEAN ( G. soja) IN CHINA%中国野生大豆(G. soja)脂肪含量及其脂肪酸组成的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光宇; 王洋; 马晓萍

    2000-01-01

    Tht results of research on fat content, geographical distribution of fat content,relativity of fat content and major characters of botany, composition of fatty acid of wildsoybean (G. soja) in China were reported in this paper. These researches provide foundationfor further research and usage on wild soybean.%近二十年来,我国学者对野生大豆进行了多学科、不同层次的研究,取得卓越的成就,很多方面处于世界领先的地位。本文综述了中国野生大豆脂肪含量及其脂肪酸组成方面的研究结果,为深入开展野生大豆研究与利用提供参考信息。

  5. [Biology of essential fatty acids (EFA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobryniewski, Jacek; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2007-01-01

    Essential Fatty Acids (EFA), are unsaturated fatty acids not produced by human being, but essential for proper functioning of the human body. To EFA-s belongs: linoleic acid (LA) (18:2,cis detla(9,12), omega6)--precursor o f gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) (18:3,cisA6,9,12, )6) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)(18:3,cisdelta(9, 12, 15), omega3)--product of dehydrogenation of linoleic acid (LA). Most important EFA is gamma-linolenic acid (GLA)--18 carbons, one-carboxylic, non-branched fatty acid with 3 double cis-bonds (the last is situated by 6-th carbon from methylic end). The diet devoided of EFA leads to decreased growth, skin and kidney injury and infertility. Modern research of GLA and others EFA's is concerned mainly on therapeutic impact on the inflammatory process. The biogenic amines, cytokines, prostaglandins, tromboxanes and leukotrienes are the main inflammatory mediators. The last three are described with the common name eicosanoides (eico-twenty). Eicosanoides are synthesized from 20-carbon unsaturated fatty acids: dihomo-gamma-linoleic (DGLA) (20:3, cis delta(8,11,14), omega6), arachidonic acid (AA-20:4, cis delta(5,8,11,14), omega6), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA-20:5, cis delta(5,8,11,14,17, omega3). Derivatives of gamma and gamma-linolenic acids regulate the inflammatory process, through their opposed activity. PG2, leucotrien C4 and tromboxan A2 have the strongest proinflammatory action. Derivatives of alpha-linolenic acid 15-HETE and prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) have weak pro-inflammatory action, or even anti-inflammatory (PGE1), and additionally, they inhibit the transformation of arachidonic acid (AA) to leukotriens. delta6-desaturase (transformes linolenic acid into gamma-linolenic acid by making additional double bond) is the slowest step of the fatty acid metabolism. It's activity is impaired by many physiological and pathologic factors and leads to gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) deficiency. The gamma-linolenic acid

  6. Omega 3 fatty acids and the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakiner-Egilmez, Tulay

    2008-01-01

    The health benefits of fish oil have been known for decades. Most of the health benefits of fish oil can be attributed to the presence of omega-3 essential fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Clinical studies have suggested that DHA and EPA lower triglycerides; slow the buildup of atherosclerotic plaques; lower blood pressure slightly; as well as reduce the risk of death, heart attack, and arrhythmias. Studies have also shown that omega-3 fatty acids may slow the progression of vision loss from AMD and reverse the signs of dry eye syndrome.

  7. Expression of fatty acid synthase in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Christoph; Riener, Marc-Oliver; Kirovski, Georgi; Saugspier, Michael; Steib, Kathrin; Weiss, Thomas S; Gäbele, Erwin; Kristiansen, Glen; Hartmann, Arndt; Hellerbrand, Claus

    2010-03-25

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by hepatic lipid accumulation which starts with simple hepatic steatosis and may progress toward inflammation (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis [NASH]). Fatty acid synthase (FASN) catalyzes the last step in fatty acid biosynthesis, and thus, it is believed to be a major determinant of the maximal hepatic capacity to generate fatty acids by de novo lipogenesis. The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between hepatic steatosis and inflammation with FASN expression. In vitro incubation of primary human hepatocytes with fatty acids dose-dependently induced cellular lipid-accumulation and FASN expression, while stimulation with TNF did not affect FASN levels. Further, hepatic FASN expression was significantly increased in vivo in a murine model of hepatic steatosis without significant inflammation but not in a murine NASH model as compared to control mice. Also, FASN expression was not increased in mice subjected to bile duct ligation, an experimental model characterized by severe hepatocellular damage and inflammation. Furthermore, FASN expression was analyzed in 102 human control or NAFLD livers applying tissue micro array technology and immunohistochemistry, and correlated significantly with the degree of hepatic steatosis, but not with inflammation or ballooning of hepatocytes. Quantification of FASN mRNA expression in human liver samples confirmed significantly higher FASN levels in hepatic steatosis but not in NASH, and expression of SREBP1, which is the main transcriptional regulator of FASN, paralleled FASN expression levels in human and experimental NAFLD. In conclusion, the transcriptional induction of FASN expression in hepatic steatosis is impaired in NASH, while hepatic inflammation in the absence of steatosis does not affect FASN expression, suggesting that FASN may serve as a new diagnostic marker or therapeutic target for the progression of NAFLD.

  8. Simulation experiments for evolution of fatty acids in immature source rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The anhydrous, hydrous and bitumen-extrac- ted simulations were carried out for the immature source rocks from the Liaohe sag. It has been shown from the result that with increasing temperature in simulation experiments, the fatty acids content decreased at first and then increased. The decrease of fatty acids in immature rocks is presumably related to alkanes generation in immature oils, whilst the increase may be related to the fact that some additional fatty acids are generated from kerogen and the tightly bound fatty acids in kerogen are released as bound fatty acids in kerogen and unbound fatty acids in bitumen. The fact that the bitumen generated from kerogen contains fatty acids has demonstrated that some bound and tightly bound fatty acids in kerogen can be transferred into bitumen. The preferential fatty acids in the immature source rocks are found to be mono-carboxylic acids with longer chains, whilst krogen contains relatively more di-carboxylic acids. It has been found that the fatty acids in immature source rocks can be changed from that with more longer chains to that with more shorter chains when evolution extent has been increased. Based on simulation results and the fact that the majority of fatty acids in immature oils are those with longer chains, it is inferred that the contribution of fatty acids to forming alkanes in immature oils mainly takes place at the evolution stage with R0 (0.6%. The simulation experiments have also demonstrated that H2O could promote the generation of fatty acids with more di-carboxylic acids and delay alkanes formation from fatty acids.

  9. Production of unusual fatty acids in rapeseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roscoe Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable-derived oils are of interest for industrial applications partly because of the chemical similarity of plant oils to mineral oils but also because of the economic need to reduce overproduction of seed oils for nutritional use. Complex oils can be produced in seeds as a low cost agricultural product based on renewable solar energy that requires less refining and is biodegradable and thus produces less adverse effects on the environment. In addition, biotechnologies have accelerated selection programmes and increased the genetic diversity available for the development of new varieties of oilseeds with specific fatty acid compositions. In the developing oilseed, energy and carbon are stored as lipid under the form of triacylglycerol, that is, a glycerol molecule to which three fatty acids are esterified. Fatty acids comprise a linear chain of carbon atoms, the first of which carries an organic acid group. The chain length and the presence of double bonds determine the properties of the fatty acid which in turn determine the physical and chemical properties of the oil of storage lipids and hence their economic value. In addition to the common C16- and C18-saturated and unsaturated fatty acids of membrane lipids, the seed storage lipids of many plant species contain unusual fatty acids (UFAs which can vary in chain length, in the degree of unsaturation, possess double bonds in unusual positions, or can contain additional functional groups such as hydroxy, epoxy, cyclic and acetylenic groups [1]. These unusual fatty acids are of value as industrial feedstocks and their uses include the production of fuels and lubricants, soap and detergents, paints and varnishes, adhesives and plastics (Figure 1.

  10. Determination of fatty acid composition of γ-irradiated hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, and pistachios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gecgel, Umit; Gumus, Tuncay; Tasan, Murat; Daglioglu, Orhan; Arici, Muhammet

    2011-04-01

    Hazelnut, walnut, almonds, and pistachio nuts were treated with 1, 3, 5, and 7 kGy of gamma irradiation, respectively. Oil content, free fatty acid, peroxide value, and fatty acid composition of the nuts were investigated immediately after irradiation. The data obtained from the experiments indicated that gamma irradiation did not cause any significant change in the oil content of nuts. In contrast, free fatty acid and peroxide value of the nuts increased proportionally to the dose (p<0.05). Among the fatty acids determined, the concentration of total saturated fatty acids increased while total monounsaturated and total polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased with the irradiation dose (p<0.05 and <0.01).

  11. Determination of fatty acid composition of {gamma}-irradiated hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, and pistachios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gecgel, Umit, E-mail: ugecgel@nku.edu.t [Namik Kemal University, Agricultural Faculty, Department of Food Engineering, 59030 Tekirdag (Turkey); Gumus, Tuncay; Tasan, Murat; Daglioglu, Orhan; Arici, Muhammet [Namik Kemal University, Agricultural Faculty, Department of Food Engineering, 59030 Tekirdag (Turkey)

    2011-04-15

    Hazelnut, walnut, almonds, and pistachio nuts were treated with 1, 3, 5, and 7 kGy of gamma irradiation, respectively. Oil content, free fatty acid, peroxide value, and fatty acid composition of the nuts were investigated immediately after irradiation. The data obtained from the experiments indicated that gamma irradiation did not cause any significant change in the oil content of nuts. In contrast, free fatty acid and peroxide value of the nuts increased proportionally to the dose (p<0.05). Among the fatty acids determined, the concentration of total saturated fatty acids increased while total monounsaturated and total polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased with the irradiation dose (p<0.05 and <0.01).

  12. Long lifespans have evolved with long and monounsaturated fatty acids in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, Ismael; Naudí, Alba; Erritzøe, Johannes; Møller, Anders P; Barja, Gustavo; Pamplona, Reinald

    2015-10-01

    The evolution of lifespan is a central question in evolutionary biology, begging the question why there is so large variation among taxa. Specifically, a central quest is to unravel proximate causes of ageing. Here, we show that the degree of unsaturation of liver fatty acids predicts maximum lifespan in 107 bird species. In these birds, the degree of fatty acid unsaturation is positively related to maximum lifespan across species. This is due to a positive effect of monounsaturated fatty acid content, while polyunsaturated fatty acid content negatively correlates with maximum lifespan. Furthermore, fatty acid chain length unsuspectedly increases with maximum lifespan independently of degree of unsaturation. These findings tune theories on the proximate causes of ageing while providing evidence that the evolution of lifespan in birds occurs in association with fatty acid profiles. This suggests that studies of proximate and ultimate questions may facilitate our understanding of these central evolutionary questions.

  13. Digestion and absorption of fatty acids in the ruminant

    OpenAIRE

    Cuvelier, Christine; Cabaraux, Jean-François; Dufrasne, Isabelle; Istasse, Louis; Hornick, Jean-Luc

    2005-01-01

    From a biochemical point of view, in ruminants, there are two major groups of fatty acids. They are firstly the volatile fatty acids from the rumen metabolism of dietary carbohydrates, and secondly the fatty acids from the rumen metabolism of lipids. This second group is made of the fatty acids synthesized by the microorganisms of the rumen and the fatty acids originating from the hydrolysis of dietary triacylglycerols, which are mostly hydrogenated by microorganisms in the rumen before intes...

  14. Dietary walnut reduces hepatic triglyceride content in high-fat-fed mice via modulation of hepatic fatty acid metabolism and adipose tissue inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Youngshim; Abdelmegeed, Mohamed A; Akbar, Mohammed; Song, Byoung-Joon

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we evaluated the protective effects of dietary walnuts on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced fatty liver and studied the underlying mechanisms. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed either a regular rodent chow or HFD (45% energy-derived) with or without walnuts (21.5% energy-derived) for 20weeks. Walnut supplementation did not change HFD-induced increase in body weight or visceral fat mass. However, dietary walnuts significantly decreased the amounts of hepatic triglyceride (TG) observed in HFD-fed mice. The addition of walnuts significantly altered the levels of proteins, involved in the hepatic lipid homeostasis, including AMP-activated protein kinase, fatty acid synthase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α. Since adipocyte inflammation and apoptosis are reportedly important in regulating hepatic fat accumulation, we also evaluated the protective effects of walnuts on adipose tissue injury. Real-time polymerase chain reaction results revealed that adipose tissues isolated from mice fed the HFD+walnut diets showed significantly decreased levels of macrophage infiltration with suppressed expression of proinflammatory genes compared to those significantly elevated in mice fed HFD alone. These improvements also coincided with reduction of HFD-induced apoptosis of adipocytes by dietary walnuts. However, the supplemented walnuts did not significantly alter HFD-induced peripheral glucose intolerance or insulin resistance despite a trend of improvement. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the protective effects of walnuts against HFD-induced hepatic TG accumulation in mice are mediated, at least partially, by modulating the key proteins in hepatic lipid homeostasis and suppression of the genes related to adipose tissue inflammation and macrophage infiltration as well as prevention of adipocyte apoptosis.

  15. Active ingredients fatty acids as antibacterial agent from the brown algae Padina pavonica and Hormophysa triquetra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gihan Ahmed El Shoubaky; Essam Abd El Rahman Salem

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the fatty acids content in the brown algae Padina pavonica (P. pavonica) and Hormophysa triquetra (H. triquetra) and evaluate their potential antimicrobial activity as bioactive compounds.Methods:The fatty acid compositions of the examined species were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The antimicrobial activity of crude and fatty acids was assessed using the agar plug technique.Results:The fatty acids profile ranged from C8:0 to C20:4. Concentration of saturated fatty acids in P. pavonica was in the order palmitic>myristic>stearic whereas concentration of the unsaturated fatty acids was oleic acid>palmitoleic>9-cis-hexadecenoic>linoleic acid>α-linolenic>arachidonic> elaidic acid. H. triquetra contained high concentration of saturated fatty acids than those of P. pavonica which was in the order as follows: palmitic>margaric>myristic>nonadecyclic>stearic>caprylic>tridecylic>pentadecylic>lauric while the unsaturated fatty acids consisted of oleic>nonadecenoic>non adecadienoate>margaroleic. The crude and fatty acid extracts of H. triquetra and P. pavonica were biologically active on the tested pathogens. H.triquetra exhibited a larger inhibitory zone than P. pavonica. Conclusions: The brown algae P. pavonica and H. triquetra have high efficient amount of fatty acids and showed strong antibacterial activity, especially H. triquetra.

  16. The content of free fatty acids in relation to electronic nose sensors responses and sensory evaluation of cheese in a lamb skin sack (Sir iz mišine throughout ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milna Tudor Kalit

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The leading biochemical process during ripening of cheese in a lamb skin sack is lipolysis. In order to evaluate the influence of free fatty acids (FFA liberated during lipolysis, on the cheese in a sack flavour and aroma, the relationship between sensory properties (odour, taste and total sensory score and FFA content throughout ripening was determined. Additionally, differentiation of cheeses in various ripening stages was performed by analysis of specific profile of cheese volatile compounds using electronic nose. The obtained results demonstrated that the content of certain FFA is responsible for specific flavour and aroma in various ripening stages, which directly influence the consumers’ sensory scores of the cheese. The concentration of fatty acids C 14:0, C 14:1, C 17:0, C 18:0, C 18:2n-6 and C 23:0 (P<0.05, as well as C 16:0, C 18:3n-3, C 23:0 (P<0.01 in 45 days matured cheese resulted in significantly positive correlation with cheese odour. Concentrations of fatty acids C 8:0, C 17:0, C 18:0 C 18:1n-9t, C 18:1n-9c (P<0.05, C 14:0, C 16:0, C 16:1, C 18:3n-3, C 21:0, C 23:0 (P<0.01, C 12:0, and C 22:0 (P<0.001 correlated significantly with the cheese taste. As a consequence of the ripening time and the ripening conditions, C 4:0, C 6:0 and C 8:0 fatty acids were accumulated and contributed to the lower sensory scores of the 60 days matured cheese. Long-chain unsaturated FFAs ttC 18:2, C 20:2 and C 22:6n-3, also negatively correlated with the sensory properties of cheese in a sack, probably as precursors for synthesis of shorter acids and alcohols. Electronic nose analysis showed very well differentiation of cheeses in various ripening stages and these results are mostly in accordance with the results of consumers’ sensory assessment and physicochemical analyses. Well matured cheese was not well accepted by consumers due to the extensive lipolysis reactions in cheese during ripening. In terms of sensory quality electronic nose could

  17. Metabolically engineered cells for the production of polyunsaturated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention relates to the construction and engineering of cells, more particularly microorganisms for producing PUFAs with four or more double bonds from non-fatty acid substrates through heterologous expression of an oxygen requiring pathway. The invention especially involves...... improvement of the PUFA content in the host organism through fermentation optimization, e.g. decreasing the temperature and/or designing an optimal medium, or through improving the flux towards fatty acids by metabolic engineering, e.g. through over-expression of fatty acid synthases, over-expression of other...... enzymes involved in biosynthesis of the precursor for PUFAs, or codon optimization of the heterologous genes, or expression of heterologous enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of the precursor for PUFAs....

  18. Total lipids and fatty acids of strains of Metarhizium anisopliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pupin Antonio Marcos

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Two growth stages, conidia (C and mycelium (M, and two media, minimal medium (MM and complete medium (MC, were compared in 10 strains of M. anisopliae, and two strains of M. anisopliae var. majus were similar in percentages of total lipids. Tukey test for average of lipid content in conidia (C and mycelia (M cultured on minimal (MM and complete (MC media showed significant differences between means at the 5% level for mycelia and conidia, indicating variability in total lipid production and storage during growth. Strains 5 and 7, both variety majus, did not present sizable differences from variety anisopliae. For fatty acids, C18:1 and C18:2, oleic and linoleic, respectively, the differences were all highly significant (p= 1% with the highest means being obtained for conidia for fatty acid C18:1 and for myclelia for fatty acid C18:2.

  19. Fat tissue and fatty acid composition in lamb meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana KAIĆ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Meat is a food of high nutritional content which can make a valuable contribution in a human diet. Among other nutrients, meat is the main source of fats in the human diet and its presence in the daily meal of consumers in the developed countries is high. Consumers have become increasingly aware of the role of fat and fatty acids in their health status. Consequently, at the time of purchase of certain types of meats their requests are subjected to the frequent changes and growing demands. From this point of view it must be considered that fat and fatty acid composition of lamb meat could be highly influenced by the breed, age/weight of the animal, gender, diet, production system, and anatomical position of the muscles. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to describe the factors that may affect the fat tissue and fatty acid composition in lamb meat and their relation to the human health status.

  20. Trans fatty acid isomers from hydrogenated fats: The controversy about health implications

    OpenAIRE

    Valenzuela, Alfonso; King, Judith; Nieto, Susana

    1995-01-01

    Wherever there is a double bond in a fatty acid, there is also a possibility for isomerization. Under partial hydrogenation triacylglycerols composing oils'double bonds may change from cis to trans configuration, therefore products derived from hydrogenated oils such as margarines, shortenings and other industrial fats show high content of trans fatty acid isomers. The health implications of trans fatty acids in our d...

  1. Amino and fatty acids in carbonaceous meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvenvolden, K. A.

    1974-01-01

    Analyses of two carbonaceous meteorites have provided much of the latest evidence which seems to support Oparin's theory on the origin of life. The meteorites involved are the Murray meteorite, which fell in 1950, and the Murchison meteorite, which fell in 1969. The amino acids in the two meteorites are similar in composition. Eight of the twenty amino acids found belong to amino acids present in proteins. A number of monocarboxylic and dicarboxylic fatty acids were also found in the meteorites.

  2. Functional properties and fatty acids profile of different beans varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Turco, Vincenzo; Potortì, Angela Giorgia; Rando, Rossana; Ravenda, Pietro; Dugo, Giacomo; Di Bella, Giuseppa

    2016-10-01

    Dried seeds of four varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris, three of Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculata and two of Vigna angularis grown and marketed in Italy, Mexico, India, Japan, Ghana and Ivory Coast were analysed for fatty acids content. In oils from seeds of P. vulgaris, the main fatty acids were linolenic (34.7-41.5%) and linoleic (30.7-40.3%), followed by palmitic (10.7-16.8%). The first three aforementioned fatty acids in the lipid fraction of V. unguiculata varieties were 28.4, 28.7 and 26.2%, respectively; while in V. angularis varieties, main fatty acids were linoleic (36.4-39.1%) and palmitic (26.9-33.3%), followed by linolenic (17.9-22.2%). Statistical analyses indicate that botanical species play a rule in bean fatty acids distribution, while the same was not verified for geographical origin. Furthermore, the atherogenic index (AI) and the thrombogenic index (TI) were investigated for health and nutritional information. The results showed that these wide spread legumes have functional features to human health.

  3. Proportions of rumen volatile fatty acids in relation to milk fatty acid profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaeminck, B.; Fievez, V.; Dhanoa, M.S.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Dewhurst, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted in order to develop and validate principal component (PC) regressions for predicting rumen volatile fatty acid (VFA) proportions, based on a combination of milk odd and branched chain fatty acids (MOBCFA). Grass- or legume silage and concentrate-based diets were fed

  4. Manipulation of carbon flux into fatty acid biosynthesis pathway in Dunaliella salina using AccD and ME genes to enhance lipid content and to improve produced biodiesel quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Farhad Talebi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Advanced generations of biofuels basically revolve around non-agricultural energy crops. Among those, microalgae owing to its unique characteristics i.e. natural tolerance to waste and saline water, sustainable biomass production and high lipid content (LC, is regarded by many as the ultimate choice for the production of various biofuels such as biodiesel. In the present study, manipulation of carbon flux into fatty acid biosynthesis pathway in Dunaliella salina was achieved using pGH plasmid harboring AccD and ME genes to enhance lipid content and to improve produced biodiesel quality. The stability of transformation was confirmed by PCR after several passages. Southern hybridization of AccD probe with genomic DNA revealed stable integration of the cassette in the specific positions in the chloroplast genome with no read through transcription by indigenous promoters. Comparison of the LC and fatty acid profile of the transformed algal cell line and the control revealed the over-expression of the ME/AccD genes in the transformants leading to 12% increase in total LC and significant improvements in biodiesel properties especially by increasing algal oil oxidation stability. The whole process successfully implemented herein for transforming algal cells by genes involved in lipid production pathway could be helpful for large scale biodiesel production from microalgae.

  5. Proximate composition and quantification of fatty acids in five major Brazilian chocolate brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rúbia Michele Suzuki

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to characterize the centesimal composition and quantify fatty acids in regular and diet chocolate brands with emphasis on trans fatty acids. Regular and diet dark chocolate samples from the major brands analyzed were purchased from different local supermarkets in the city of Maringá. The brands were labeled with letters and five lots of each brand with three chocolate units per lot were analyzed in triplicate. We observed that the diet chocolates from the same brands presented larger lipid contents. The main fatty acids observed were saturated fatty acids (SFA, myristic acid (14:0, palmitic acid (16:0, and estearic acid (18:0. Among the monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and trans fatty acids, oleic acid (18:1n-9, linoleic acid (18:2n-6, and elaidic acid (18:1-9t predominated. The trans fatty acid contents found in the analyzed samples were lower than and/or in accordance with the limits proposed by the Brazilian regulation.

  6. Analysis of fatty acids and phytosterols in ethanol extracts of Nelumbo nucifera seeds and rhizomes by GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xu; Shen, Jian; Chang, Kyung Ja; Kim, Sung Hoon

    2013-07-17

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the fatty acid and phytosterol contents in ethanol extracts of lotus seeds and rhizomes. These ethanol extracts were extracted with hexane. The hexane extracts were hydrolyzed in a microwave reactor, and total fatty acids and phytosterols were analyzed. The hexane extracts were also subjected to silica gel column chromatography. Nonpolar components (triglycerides and steryl-fatty acid esters) were hydrolyzed, and then the contents were analyzed. Polar components (diglycerides, monoglycerides, fatty acids, and phytosterols) were analyzed directly. Seeds contained higher concentrations of fatty acids and phytosterols compared to rhizomes. Linoleic acid, palmitic acid, and oleic acid were the main fatty acid components in seeds and rhizomes, and most of them in seeds were in the ester form. In seeds, phytosterols existed mainly in the free form rather than in steryl-fatty acid ester form. β-Sitosterol was the most abundant phytosterol in seeds and rhizomes.

  7. QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF FATTY ACIDS IN INFANT FORMULA BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY WITHOUT DERIVATIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Oveisi

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids play important roles in biological systems and the newborns fatty acids requirements are covered only by the milk. It is of particular interest to qualify the content of the fatty acids in the milk. This study was performed to determine the levels of some fatty acids in the infant formulas and also to describe a method without derivatization for the fatty acids analysis and applying it to the control of infant formulas. Free fatty acids were produced by adding isopropanol- KOH to milk fat extract and heating it to saponify and acidify by H2SO4. Free fatty acids were extracted and were quantified by capillary gas chromatography on a fused silica column (AT-1000 and flame ionization detector. The average experimental values of lauric, palmitic, stearic and linoleic fatty acids contents of twenty infant formulas were 6.47, 16.52, 2.11 and 14.56 g/100g, respectively. The obtained experimental values of lauric and linoleic fatty acids contents of twenty infant formulas were in good agreement with the values proposed by standards of codex alimentary.

  8. 两段式脱臭过程对大豆油中反式脂肪酸含量的影响%Effect of Two- Stage Deodorizing Process on Content of TransFatty Acid in Soybean Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李振岚; 罗淑年; 史加宁; 冯丽丽; 于殿宇

    2011-01-01

    In this experiment, bleaching vegetable oil was chosen as a raw material, and two - stage deodoriza-tion was obtained by using the external heating method in the process of oil deodorizing. First, deodorizing temperature of the oil reached to 170 ℃ , and the direct steam came into the tray column in order to remove low boiling point materials, including ketone. The water steam pressure was 0.5 Mpa,deodorizing time was 12 min,the consumption of water stream was 1% of oil weight,and residual pressure was 266 Pa. After the preliminary deodorization,the content of trans fatty acid in Soybean Oil was 0.016 %. Then in order to remove high boiling point materials, such as Free fatty acid and hydrocarbon, deodorizing temperature reached to 240 ℃ , deodorizing time was 40 min, the consumption of water stream was 0.5% of oil weight and residual pressure was 266 Pa. The deodorizing time of the oil was greatly shortened at a high temperature,it was unlikely to form trans -fatty acids,and the trans -fatty acids content in the soybean oil was only 0.38%.%本试验以脱色大豆油为原料,采用两段式的脱臭方式,首先将脱色大豆油加热至170℃,通入直接蒸汽脱除油脂中的酮类等低沸点的物质,通入压力为0.5 MPa蒸汽,蒸汽用量为油重的0.3%,脱臭时间为12 min,残压为266Pa,初步脱臭后大豆油中反式脂肪酸的质量分数为0.016%,为了脱除油脂中的游离脂肪酸、烃类等高沸点的物质,将大豆油加热至240℃,蒸汽用量为油重的0.5%,脱臭时间为40 min,残压为266Pa.由于大豆油在高温条件下脱臭时间短,不易形成反式脂肪酸,成品油中反式脂肪酸质量分数仅为0.38%.

  9. Perfil de ácidos graxos e teor de colesterol de mortadela elaborada com óleos vegetais Fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of mortadella prepared with vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Felipe Ferraz Yunes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar o perfil de ácidos graxos e o teor de colesterol em mortadelas elaboradas com diferentes óleos vegetais. Nove tratamentos de mortadela foram elaborados com quatro diferentes óleos vegetais (canola, linhaça, oliva e soja, em dois níveis de substituição (50% e 100%. Os ácidos graxos e o teor de colesterol foram separados e identificados por cromatografia gasosa. Houve predominância dos ácidos graxos oleico, linoleico e palmítico. O teor de ácidos graxos saturados foi menor nos produtos que continham óleos vegetais. A relação PUFA/SFA foi menor no tratamento controle, enquanto que o maior valor foi observado no tratamento com 100% de óleo de linhaça. Os teores de colesterol encontrados foram semelhantes entre todos os tratamentos, sendo superior apenas no tratamento contendo 100% de óleo de soja. Logo, exceto o tratamento com 100% de óleo de soja, todos os outros tratamentos com óleos vegetais apresentaram uma melhor qualidade nutricional quando comparados com o controle.The aim of this study was to evaluate the fatty acid profile and the cholesterol content of mortadella prepared with different vegetable oils. Nine treatments were made with four different vegetable oils (canola, linseed, olive and soy using two substitution levels (50% and 100%. The fatty acids and the cholesterol content were separated and identified by gas chromatography. There was a prevalence of the oleic, linoleic and palmitic fatty acids. The saturated fatty acids were lower in the products with vegetable oils. The PUFA/SFA relation was lower in the control treatment while the higher value was observed in the 100% linseed oil treatment. The cholesterol levels found were similar between all the treatments, but a reduction of these levels were observed in the treatments, being superior only in treatment containing 100% of soybean oil. Thus, except the treatment with 100% of soybean oil, all the other treatments with

  10. Molar extinction coefficients of some fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, G. K.; Singh, Kulwant; Lark, B. S.; Gerward, L.

    2002-10-01

    The attenuation of gamma rays in some fatty acids, viz. formic acid (CH 2O 2), acetic acid (C 2H 4O 2), propionic acid (C 3H 6O 2), butyric acid (C 4H 8O 2), n-hexanoic acid (C 6H 12O 2), n-caprylic acid (C 8H 16O 2), lauric acid (C 12H 24O 2), myristic acid (C 14H 28O 2), palmitic acid (C 16H 32O 2), oleic acid (C 18H 34O 2) and stearic acid (C 18H 36O 2), has been measured at the photon energies 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. Experimental values for the molar extinction coefficient, the effective atomic number and the electron density have been derived and compared with theoretical calculations. There is good agreement between experiment and theory.

  11. Production of hydroxylated fatty acids in genetically modified plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somerville, Chris (Portola Valley, CA); Broun, Pierre (Burlingame, CA); van de Loo, Frank (Weston, AU); Boddupalli, Sekhar S. (Manchester, MI)

    2011-08-23

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  12. Primary Analysis of Oil Content and Fatty Acid Composition of Rose Seeds%玫瑰种子含油量及脂肪酸组成的初步分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩倩琰; 韩锦峰; 谷克仁

    2012-01-01

    为了解玫瑰种子的开发利用价值,对保加利亚大马士革玫瑰(Rosa damascena Mill)和甘肃苦水玫瑰(Rosa setata Rolfe×Rosa rugosa Thunb)种子在果实中的比例、种子含油量、主要脂肪酸组成成分进行了分析.结果表明,大马士革玫瑰和甘肃苦水玫瑰的种子占果实比例分别为43.06%和44.75%,种子含油量达9.06%和8.51%,其中以不饱和脂肪酸(如油酸、亚油酸、亚麻酸)为主,分别占脂肪酸总量的91.97%和88.91%.以亚油酸含量最高,占脂肪酸总量的52.95%和50.44%.玫瑰种子含油量高,油质好,具有很好的开发利用价值.%In order to understand the development and utilization value of rose seeds,the crude oil extracted from seeds of Rosa damascena Mill and Rosa setata Rolfe X Rosa rugosa Thunb was studied. The results showed that the oil content of seeds respectively accounted for 9. 06% and 8. 51%. The seeds oil contained 91. 97% and 88. 9% of unsaturated fatty. Linoleic acid was dominat; the content of linoleic acid respectively accounted for 52. 95% and 50. 44% of the total fatty acids. Rose seeds had a high oil content with good quality,so the rose seeds oil should be developed and utilized well.

  13. Evaluation of cooling strategies for pumping of milk - impact of fatty acid composition on free fatty acid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiking, Lars; Bertram, Hanne C; Björck, Lennart; Nielsen, Jacob H

    2005-11-01

    Cooling strategies for pumping of raw milk were evaluated. Milk was pumped for 450 s at 31 degrees C, or pumped after cooling to 4 degrees C and subsequently subjected to various incubation times. Two types of milk were used; i.e. milk from cows fed a diet high in saturated fat supplements resulting in significantly larger milk fat globules than the other type of milk which comes from cows fed a low-fat diet that stimulates high de novo fat synthesis. The content of liquid fat was determined by low-field 1H NMR, which showed that milk from cows given the saturated fat diet also contained less liquid fat at both 4 degrees and 31 degrees C than the other type of milk. This can be ascribed to the differences in the fatty acid composition of the milk as a result of the fatty acid composition of the diets. After pumping of the milk at 31 degrees C, measurement of fat globule size distribution revealed a significant coalescence of milk fat globules in the milk obtained from the saturated fat diet due to pumping. Pumping at 4 degrees C or pumping the other type of milk did not result in coalescence of milk fat globules. Formation of free fatty acids increased significantly in both types of milk by pumping at 31 degrees C. Cooling the milk to 4 degrees C immediately before pumping inhibited an increased content of free fatty acids. However, when the milk was incubated at 4 degrees C for 60 min after cooling and then subjected to pumping, a significant increase in the formation of free fatty acids was observed in both types of milk. It is suggested that this increase in free fatty acids is caused by transition of polymorphic crystal forms or higher level of attached lipoprotein lipases to the milk fat globule before pumping.

  14. Effect of Fenofibrate and Niacin on Intrahepatic Triglyceride Content, Very Low-Density Lipoprotein Kinetics, and Insulin Action in Obese Subjects with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Fabbrini, Elisa; Mohammed, B. Selma; Korenblat, Kevin M.; Magkos, Faidon; McCrea, Jennifer; Patterson, Bruce W.; Klein, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    Context: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease, particularly increased plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations and insulin resistance. Fenofibrate and extended release nicotinic acid (Niaspan) are used to treat hypertriglyceridemia and can affect fatty acid oxidation and plasma free fatty acid concentrations, which influence intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) content and metabolic function.

  15. Designer laying hen diets to improve egg fatty acid profile and maintain sensory quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Erin M; Ryland, Donna; Gibson, Robert A; Aliani, Michel; House, James D

    2013-07-01

    The fatty acid composition of eggs is highly reflective of the diet of the laying hen; therefore, nutritionally important fatty acids can be increased in eggs in order to benefit human health. To explore the factors affecting the hen's metabolism and deposition of fatty acids of interest, the current research was divided into two studies. In Study 1, the fatty acid profile of eggs from Bovan White hens fed either 8%, 14%, 20%, or 28% of the omega-6 fatty acid, linoleic acid (LA) (expressed as a percentage of total fatty acids), and an additional treatment of 14% LA containing double the amount of saturated fat (SFA) was determined. Omega-6 fatty acids and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) in the yolk were significantly (P hens fed either (1) 15% or 30% of the omega-3 fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) (of total fatty acids), and (2) low (0.5), medium (1), or high (2) ratios of SFA: LA+OA. Increasing this ratio resulted in marked increases in lauric acid, ALA, EPA, DPA, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), with decreases in LA and arachidonic acid. Increasing the dietary ALA content from 15% to 30% (of total fatty acids) did not overcome the DHA plateau observed in the yolk. No significant differences (P ≥ 0.05) in aroma or flavor between cooked eggs from the different dietary treatments were observed among trained panelists (n = 8). The results showed that increasing the ratio of SFA: LA+OA in layer diets has a more favorable effect on the yolk fatty acid profile compared to altering the LA content at the expense of OA, all while maintaining sensory quality.

  16. Aerobic training affects fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marini Marina

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The effect of exercise training on the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes was evaluated in an experimental animal model where rats were subjected to a ten-wk aerobic training. Five groups of rats were compared: sedentary rats at 19 or 23 wks of age, rats trained at moderate or high intensity sacrificed at 19 wks of age, and rats trained at high intensity, and sacrificed following 4 weeks of sedentary life. We had already demonstrated that cardioprotection correlates with training intensity and partially persists in detrained rats. Main findings are that rats trained at higher intensity display consistent signs of lipid peroxidation but a lower ω6/ω3 ratio and a lower content of trans fatty acids when compared to rats trained at lower intensity and to older sedentary rats. Trans fatty acids negatively affect cell membrane fluidity and permeability. Detrained rats showed intermediate values. Gene expression evaluation of selected enzymes involved in lipid biosynthesis revealed some of the adaptive mechanisms leading to the maintenance of membrane fatty acid homeostasis following exercise. The decrease in the amount of trans fatty and in the inflammatory pathways (i.e. ω6/ω3 ratio in high-intensity trained rats underscores the protective effect of high intensity aerobic training.

  17. Therapeutic Benefits Of ?-3 Fatty Acids from Fish

    OpenAIRE

    Samanta S Khora

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acids play important roles in human nutrition and disease management. Fish are rich in Omega-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (LC- PUFAs). Marine fish are the best source of these fatty acids. They typically include eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The major health maintenance and prevention of diseases recognized in EPA and DHA. These forms of fatty acids have excellent body usability com...

  18. INCLUSION OF KAPOK SEED OIL IN THE DIET FOR GROWING OF THIN-TAILED SHEEP TO REDUCE CHOLESTEROL AND TO IMPROVE OMEGA-SIX FATTY ACID CONTENTS OF LAMB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Bachrudin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to study the influence of protected kapok seed oil (PKSO supplementation in its combination with concentrate, in this case was rice bran (RB on lipid content of thin tailed sheep received field grass as basal feed. A number of 24 heads of male thin-tailed sheep were used as experimental material. These sheep were divided into 8 treatment groups. There were two treatment factors, i.e. : PKSO supplementation (S as factor I and RB supplementation (K as factor II. Factor I consisted of 2 levels, i.e. 0% (S0 and 10% (S1, whereas factor II consist of 4 levels, i.e. 0% (K0, 15% (K1, 30% (K2 and 45% (K3, respectively, based on dry matter (DM intake. Several variables were measured, namely content of intra muscular fat (IMF, iodine number of muscular fatty acid, content of meat cholesterol and omega 6 fatty acid (in this case linoleic acid. The collected data were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance with factorial treatment pattern (2 x 4 in completely randomized design (CRD. Content of IMF in sheep supplemented with 0 and 15% KSO levels was not significantly different from those without kapok seed oil (KSO supplementation at the same level of RB feeding (3.45 and 3.99% vs 3.01 and 3.75%. Supplementation of protected KSO in combination with 30 and 45% RP resulted in significantly increased (P < 0.05 IMF content (4.75 and 5.93% vs 4.32 and 5.40% and significantly decreased (P < 0.05 meat chollesterol content (62.46 and 65.26 mg/100 g vs 89.21 and 72.63 mg/100 g also significantly increased (P < 0.05 linoleic acid proportion (15.52 and 18.25% vs 3.68 and 4.04% and iodine number (12.52 and 10.25 vs 4.09 and 4.98.

  19. Unusual fatty acid substitution in lipids and lipopolysaccharides of Helicobacter pylori.

    OpenAIRE

    Geis, G; Leying, H; Suerbaum, S; Opferkuch, W

    1990-01-01

    Cellular fatty acids, phospholipid fatty acids, and lipopolysaccharide fatty acids of four strains of Helicobacter pylori were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. The presence of myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, 19-carbon cyclopropane fatty acid, beta-hydroxypalmitic acid, and beta-hydroxystearic acid was confirmed. In phospholipids, myristic acid and 19-carbon cyclopropane fatty acid were the major fatty acids. Hydroxy fatty acids and unsaturated fatt...

  20. Probing fatty acid metabolism in bacteria, cyanobacteria, green microalgae and diatoms with natural and unnatural fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beld, Joris; Abbriano, Raffaela; Finzel, Kara; Hildebrand, Mark; Burkart, Michael D

    2016-04-01

    In both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, fatty acid synthases are responsible for the biosynthesis of fatty acids in an iterative process, extending the fatty acid by two carbon units every cycle. Thus, odd numbered fatty acids are rarely found in nature. We tested whether representatives of diverse microbial phyla have the ability to incorporate odd-chain fatty acids as substrates for their fatty acid synthases and their downstream enzymes. We fed various odd and short chain fatty acids to the bacterium Escherichia coli, cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana. Major differences were observed, specifically in the ability among species to incorporate and elongate short chain fatty acids. We demonstrate that E. coli, C. reinhardtii, and T. pseudonana can produce longer fatty acid products from short chain precursors (C3 and C5), while Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 lacks this ability. However, Synechocystis can incorporate and elongate longer chain fatty acids due to acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase (AasS) activity, and knockout of this protein eliminates the ability to incorporate these fatty acids. In addition, expression of a characterized AasS from Vibrio harveyii confers a similar capability to E. coli. The ability to desaturate exogenously added fatty acids was only observed in Synechocystis and C. reinhardtii. We further probed fatty acid metabolism of these organisms by feeding desaturase inhibitors to test the specificity of long-chain fatty acid desaturases. In particular, supplementation with thia fatty acids can alter fatty acid profiles based on the location of the sulfur in the chain. We show that coupling sensitive gas chromatography mass spectrometry to supplementation of unnatural fatty acids can reveal major differences between fatty acid metabolism in various organisms. Often unnatural fatty acids have antibacterial or even therapeutic properties. Feeding of short

  1. [Fatty acids composition of the marine snails Phyllonotus pomum and Chicoreus brevifrons (Muricidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Armas, Haydelba; Yáñez, Dayanis; Reyes, Dilia; Salazar, Gabriel

    2010-06-01

    Muricid species of P. pomum and C. brevifrons are of economic importance in the Caribbean. This study includes a comparative evaluation of fatty acid content in the total lipid composition of Phyllonotus pomum and Chicoreus brevifrons. Snail samples were collected during the rainy, dry and transition seasons, in Punta Arena, Sucre (Venezuela). Total lipids were extracted and the specific fatty acid contents were analyzed by gas chromatography. Lipid concentrations varied between 0.87 and 1.85%, with minimum and maximum values corresponding to C. brevifrons collected during rainy and dry seasons, respectively. In the case of total lipids, a high concentration of unsaturated fatty acids (57.21-70.05%) was observed followed by saturated fatty acids (20.33-31.94%), during all seasons. The polyunsaturated occurred in higher proportion among the unsaturated fatty acids, except for P. pomum which showed higher proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids (38.95%) during the transition season. The prevailing fatty acids were: C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C20:1, C22:1 omega-11, C22:1 omega-9, C18:3 omega-3, C20:5 omega-3 and C22:6 omega-3, among which docosahexaenoic acid was the predominant polyunsaturated fatty acid, showing values between 4.62 and 33.11%. The presence of high concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids found in P. Pomum and C. brevifrons allow their recommendation for human consumption with appropriate resource utilization.

  2. Meat quality and intramuscular fatty acid composition of Catria Horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombetta, Maria Federica; Nocelli, Francesco; Pasquini, Marina

    2017-08-01

    In order to extend scientific knowledge on autochthonous Italian equine meat, the physical-chemical parameters of Catria Horse Longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle and its nutritional characteristics have been investigated. Ten steaks of Catria foal raised at pasture and fattened indoors for 2 months were dissected, and LT muscle was analyzed for chemical composition, total iron, drip loss, colorimetric characteristics, intramuscular fat, fatty acid profile and nutritional indexes. Steak dissection showed that LT muscle accounted for 36.78% and fat accounted for 9.19% of weight of steak. Regarding chemical composition, protein and fat content was 20.31% and 2.83%, respectively. Total iron content (1.95 mg/100 g) was lower than data reported in the literature. Color parameters showed a luminous and intense red hue muscle. The sum of unsaturated fatty acid composition (50.3%) was higher than the sum of saturated fatty acids (46.64 %). The fatty acid profile and nutritional values of Catria Horse meat could be modified adopting extensive rearing systems and grazing. The data suggests that further investigation on the composition of Catria Horse meat should be carried out to valorize this autochthonous breed, reared in sustainable livestock systems, and its meat in local short-chain systems. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  3. Tebuconazole Regulates Fatty Acid Composition of Etiolated Winter Wheat Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Korsukova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid composition of shoots of unhardened and hardened to cold etiolated winter wheat seedlings grown from seeds treated with tebuconazole-based protectant «Bunker» (content of tebuconazole 60 grams per liter, g/L, and the seedlings frost resistance has been studied. It is shown that treatment of winter wheat seeds by «Bunker» preparation (1,5 microliter per gram of seeds, µl/g is accompanied by an increase of the fatty acids unsaturation in the shoots and increase of the seedlings frost resistance (–8°C, 24 h. The most pronounced decrease in the content of saturated palmitic acid and increase in the content of unsaturated α-linolenic acid were observed during cold hardening of winter wheat seedlings grown from seeds treated by tebuconazole-based protectant. It is concluded that the seeds treatment with tebuconazole-based protectant causes changes of fatty acid composition of winter wheat seedlings to increase their frost resistance.

  4. Effect of fatty acids on self-assembly of soybean lecithin systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, C A; Valiente, M; Pons, R; Montalvo, G

    2015-07-01

    With the increasing interest in natural formulations for drug administration and functional foods, it is desirable a good knowledge of the phase behavior of lecithin/fatty acid formulations. Phase structure and properties of ternary lecithin/fatty acids/water systems are studied at 37°C, making emphasis in regions with relatively low water and fatty acid content. The effect of fatty acid saturation degree on the phase microstructure is studied by comparing a fully saturated (palmitic acid, C16:0), monounsaturated (oleic acid, C18:1), and diunsaturated (linoleic acid, C18:2) fatty acids. Phase determinations are based on a combination of polarized light microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering measurements. Interestingly, unsaturated (oleic acid and linoleic acid) fatty acid destabilizes the lamellar bilayer. Slight differences are observed between the phase diagrams produced by the unsaturated ones: small lamellar, medium cubic and large hexagonal regions. A narrow isotropic fluid region also appears on the lecithin-fatty acid axis, up to 8wt% water. In contrast, a marked difference in phase microsctructure was observed between unsaturated and saturated systems in which the cubic and isotropic fluid phases are not formed. These differences are, probably, a consequence of the high Krafft point of the C16 saturated chains that imply rather rigid chains. However, unsaturated fatty acids result in more flexible tails. The frequent presence of, at least, one unsaturated chain in phospholipids makes it very likely a better mixing situation than in the case of more rigid chains. This swelling potential favors the formation of reverse hexagonal, cubic, and micellar phases. Both unsaturated fatty acid systems evolve by aging, with a reduction of the extension of reverse hexagonal phase and migration of the cubic phase to lower fatty acid and water contents. The kinetic stability of the systems seems to be controlled by the unsaturation of fatty acids. Copyright © 2015

  5. Physical chemistry and engineering of membranes for fat - fatty acid separations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keurentjes, J.

    1991-01-01

    Fatty acids have to be removed from non-mineral oil for several purposes. In the refining of edible oils and fats they have to be removed as a contaminant. In the enzymatic hydrolysis of oils, a high content in fatty acids results in a reduced conversion rate. In order to maintain a suffici

  6. New insight into the SSC8 genetic determination of fatty acid composition in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Revilla, M.; Ramayo-Caldas, Y.; Castello, A.; Corominas, J.; Puig-Oliveras, A.; Ibanez-Escriche, N.; Munoz, M.; Ballester, M.; Folch, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fat content and fatty acid composition in swine are becoming increasingly studied because of their effect on sensory and nutritional quality of meat. A QTL (quantitative trait locus) for fatty acid composition in backfat was previously detected on porcine chromosome 8 (SSC8) in an Iberia

  7. Prevalent mutations in fatty acid oxidation disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, N; Andresen, B S; Bross, P

    2000-01-01

    UNLABELLED: The mutational spectrum in a given disease-associated gene is often comprised of a large number of different mutations, of which a single or a few are present in a large proportion of diseased individuals. Such prevalent mutations are known in four genes of the fatty acid oxidation: t...... of the disease in question and determination of the carrier frequency in the general population may help in elucidating the penetrance of the genotype. This is exemplified in disorders of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation....

  8. Fatty acids, eicosanoids and PPAR gamma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion-Letellier, Rachel; Savoye, Guillaume; Ghosh, Subrata

    2016-08-15

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) belongs to the family of nuclear nuclear receptors and is mainly expressed in adipose tissue, hematopoietic cells and the large intestine. Contrary to other nuclear receptors that mainly bind a single specific ligand, there are numerous natural PPARγ ligands, in particular fatty acids or their derivatives called eicosanoids. PPARγ have pleiotropic functions: (i) glucose and lipid metabolism regulation, (ii) anti-inflammatory properties, (iii) oxidative stress inhibition, (iv) improvement of endothelial function. Its role has been mainly studied by the use synthetic agonists. In this review, we will focus on the effects of PPARγ mediated through fatty acids and how these have beneficial health properties.

  9. SLC27 fatty acid transport proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Courtney M; Stahl, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The uptake and metabolism of long chain fatty acids (LCFA) are critical to many physiological and cellular processes. Aberrant accumulation or depletion of LCFA underlie the pathology of numerous metabolic diseases. Protein-mediated transport of LCFA has been proposed as the major mode of LCFA uptake and activation. Several proteins have been identified to be involved in LCFA uptake. This review focuses on the SLC27 family of fatty acid transport proteins, also known as FATPs, with an emphasis on the gain- and loss-of-function animal models that elucidate the functions of FATPs in vivo and how these transport proteins play a role in physiological and pathological situations.

  10. Fatty acid composition of forage herb species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warner, D.; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Cone, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    The use of alternative forage species in grasslands for intensive livestock production is receiving renewed attention. Data on fatty acid composition of herbs are scarce, so four herbs (Plantago lanceolata, Achillea millefolium, Cichorium intybus, Pastinaca sativa) and one grass species (timothy......, Phleum pratense) were sown in a cutting trial. The chemical composition and concentration of fatty acids (FA) of individual species were determined during the growing season. Concentrations of crude protein and FA were generally higher in the herbs than in timothy. C. intybus had the highest nutritive...

  11. Fatty acids and coronary heart disease

    OpenAIRE

    Woodside, J.V.; Kromhout, D

    2005-01-01

    During the last century much evidence has accumulated to suggest that from a public health perspective the type of fat is more important than the amount of fat. Saturated and trans-fatty acids increase and both n-6 and n-3 PUFA decrease the risk of CHD. Most of the knowledge about the effects of dietary fatty acids on CHD risk is based on observational studies and controlled dietary experiments with intermediate end points (e.g. blood lipoprotein fractions). Information from high-quality rand...

  12. Characterization and analysis of the cotton cyclopropane fatty acid synthase family and their contribution to cyclopropane fatty acid synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu X. H.; Shanklin J.; Rawat, R.

    2011-05-01

    Cyclopropane fatty acids (CPA) have been found in certain gymnosperms, Malvales, Litchi and other Sapindales. The presence of their unique strained ring structures confers physical and chemical properties characteristic of unsaturated fatty acids with the oxidative stability displayed by saturated fatty acids making them of considerable industrial interest. While cyclopropenoid fatty acids (CPE) are well-known inhibitors of fatty acid desaturation in animals, CPE can also inhibit the stearoyl-CoA desaturase and interfere with the maturation and reproduction of some insect species suggesting that in addition to their traditional role as storage lipids, CPE can contribute to the protection of plants from herbivory. Three genes encoding cyclopropane synthase homologues GhCPS1, GhCPS2 and GhCPS3 were identified in cotton. Determination of gene transcript abundance revealed differences among the expression of GhCPS1, 2 and 3 showing high, intermediate and low levels, respectively, of transcripts in roots and stems; whereas GhCPS1 and 2 are both expressed at low levels in seeds. Analyses of fatty acid composition in different tissues indicate that the expression patterns of GhCPS1 and 2 correlate with cyclic fatty acid (CFA) distribution. Deletion of the N-terminal oxidase domain lowered GhCPS's ability to produce cyclopropane fatty acid by approximately 70%. GhCPS1 and 2, but not 3 resulted in the production of cyclopropane fatty acids upon heterologous expression in yeast, tobacco BY2 cell and Arabidopsis seed. In cotton GhCPS1 and 2 gene expression correlates with the total CFA content in roots, stems and seeds. That GhCPS1 and 2 are expressed at a similar level in seed suggests both of them can be considered potential targets for gene silencing to reduce undesirable seed CPE accumulation. Because GhCPS1 is more active in yeast than the published Sterculia CPS and shows similar activity when expressed in model plant systems, it represents a strong candidate gene

  13. Characterization and analysis of the cotton cyclopropane fatty acid synthase family and their contribution to cyclopropane fatty acid synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawat Richa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyclopropane fatty acids (CPA have been found in certain gymnosperms, Malvales, Litchi and other Sapindales. The presence of their unique strained ring structures confers physical and chemical properties characteristic of unsaturated fatty acids with the oxidative stability displayed by saturated fatty acids making them of considerable industrial interest. While cyclopropenoid fatty acids (CPE are well-known inhibitors of fatty acid desaturation in animals, CPE can also inhibit the stearoyl-CoA desaturase and interfere with the maturation and reproduction of some insect species suggesting that in addition to their traditional role as storage lipids, CPE can contribute to the protection of plants from herbivory. Results Three genes encoding cyclopropane synthase homologues GhCPS1, GhCPS2 and GhCPS3 were identified in cotton. Determination of gene transcript abundance revealed differences among the expression of GhCPS1, 2 and 3 showing high, intermediate and low levels, respectively, of transcripts in roots and stems; whereas GhCPS1 and 2 are both expressed at low levels in seeds. Analyses of fatty acid composition in different tissues indicate that the expression patterns of GhCPS1 and 2 correlate with cyclic fatty acid (CFA distribution. Deletion of the N-terminal oxidase domain lowered GhCPS's ability to produce cyclopropane fatty acid by approximately 70%. GhCPS1 and 2, but not 3 resulted in the production of cyclopropane fatty acids upon heterologous expression in yeast, tobacco BY2 cell and Arabidopsis seed. Conclusions In cotton GhCPS1 and 2 gene expression correlates with the total CFA content in roots, stems and seeds. That GhCPS1 and 2 are expressed at a similar level in seed suggests both of them can be considered potential targets for gene silencing to reduce undesirable seed CPE accumulation. Because GhCPS1 is more active in yeast than the published Sterculia CPS and shows similar activity when expressed in model

  14. Fatty acid composition of freshwater wild fish in subalpine lakes: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconi, Mauro; Caprino, Fabio; Bellagamba, Federica; Busetto, Maria Letizia; Bernardi, Cristian; Puzzi, Cesare; Moretti, Vittorio Maria

    2015-03-01

    In this study, the proximate and fatty acid compositions of the muscle tissue of 186 samples of fish belonging to fifteen species of freshwater fish harvested in subalpine lakes (bleak, shad, crucian carp, whitefish, common carp, pike, black bullhead, burbot, perch, Italian roach, roach, rudd, wels catfish, chub and tench) were investigated. Most of the fish demonstrated a lipid content in the fillet lower than 2.0 g 100 g(-1) wet weight (range 0.6-9.7). A strong relationship between feeding behavior and fatty acid composition of the muscle lipids was observed. Planktivorous fish showed the lowest amounts of n-3 fatty acids (p < 0.05), but the highest monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) contents, in particular 18:1n-9. Conversely, carnivorous fish showed the highest amounts of saturated fatty acids and n-3 fatty acids (p < 0.05), but the lowest MUFA contents. Omnivorous fish showed substantial proportions of n-3 fatty acids and the highest contents of n-6 fatty acids. Principal component analysis showed a distinct separation between fish species according to their feeding habits and demonstrated that the most contributing trophic markers were 18:1n-9, 18:3n-3, 22:6n-3 and 20:4n-6. The quantitative amounts n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid in muscle tissues varied depending on the fish species, the lipid content and the feeding habits. Some species were very lean, and therefore would be poor choices for human consumption to meet dietary n-3 fatty acid requirements. Nevertheless, the more frequently consumed and appreciated fish, shad and whitefish, had EPA and DHA contents in the range 900-1,000 mg 100 g(-1) fresh fillet.

  15. [The fatty acids of membranes of erythrocytes in women with ischemic heart disease under effect of statins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dygaĭ, A M; Kotlovskiĭ, M Iu; Kirichenko, D A; Iakimovich, I Iu; Trereshina, D S; Kotlovskiĭ, Iu V; Titiov, V N

    2014-03-01

    The technique of evaluation of metabolism of fatty acids in vivo consists in detection of content of fatty acids in phospholipids of membranes of erythrocytes. The fatty acids are received with food, through synthesis on liver from carbohydrates and by katabolism of very long-chain polyolefinic fatty acids of food in peroxisomes of hepatocytes (oxidation, saturation and desaturation). In position sn-1 phospholipids more often than palmitic fatty acid (14%) stearic fatty acid is esterified (21% of all fatty acids). The palmitic, stearic and lignoceric saturated fatty acids are esterified into sn-1 phospholipids as 2:3:1. The simvastatin (80 mg per day) increased content of margarine, tricosanoic and hexacosanoic fatty acids by decrease of level of palmitic fatty acid. The ratio omega-3 polyolefinic fatty acids/omega-6 polyolefinic fatty acids reliably increased. The statins increase content of omega-3 polyolefinic fatty acids. In practice, it is necessary to differentiate the terms "atherosclerosis" and "atheromatosis". The atherosclerosis is a syndrome of intracellular deficiency of polyolefinic fatty acids, derangement of function of cells in vivo under decrease of biological availability for all cells (absorption blockage). The atheromatosis is such most significant clinically symptom of atherosclerosis as accumulation of non-saturated and polyolefinic fatty acids in pool of collection and utilization of biological "garbage" from blood plasma, in intima of elastic type arteries. The statins activate absorption of low density lipoproteins by cells and normalize biological availability of polyolefinic fatty acids which have a positive effect under atherosclerosis and on formation of atheromatosis.

  16. Ruminal Biohydrogenation Pattern of Poly-Unsaturated Fatty Acid as Influenced by Dietary Tannin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuraga Jayanegara

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Large amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids undergo transformation processes in the rumen through microbial biohydrogenation to form fatty acids with higher saturation degree. The respective process explains the high content of saturated fatty acids in products of ruminants and the potential risk of consumers’ health by consuming such products. Various nutritional approaches have been attempted to modulate biohydrogenation process in order to obtain healthier fatty acid profile from consumers’ perspective. The present paper is aimed to review the influence of dietary tannin, a naturally produced plant secondary compound, on the pattern of polyunsaturated fatty acids biohydrogenation occurring in the rumen. The effect of tannin on some key fatty acids involved in biohydrogenation process is presented together with the underlying mechanisms, particularly from up-to-date research results. Accordingly, different form of tannin as well as different level of the application are also discussed.

  17. Dietary fatty acids in metabolic syndrome, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascio, Giuseppe; Schiera, Gabriella; Di Liegro, Italia

    2012-01-01

    In the last few decades, the prevalence of overweight and essential obesity has been undergoing a fast and progressive worldwide increase. Obesity has been in turn linked to type II diabetes, with the total number of diabetic patients worryingly increasing, in the last fifteen years, suggesting a pandemic phenomenon. At the same time, an increase in the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases has been also recorded. Increasing evidence suggests that the diet is involved in such escalation. In particular, the progressive globalization of food industry allowed massive supply, at a relatively low price, of a great variety of pre-packed food and bakery products, with very high energy content. Most of this food contains high amounts of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and of hydrogenated or trans fatty acids (TFA), that probably represent the prominent risk factors in the diet. Herein we will report diffusion and possible impact on health of such molecules, with reference to coronary heart disease, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and diabetes. We will also discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms of action of fatty acids and fatty acid-derivatives which have been involved either in promoting or in preventing human pathologies. Free fatty acids (FFA) are not indeed only essential fuels for the organism. They also act as ligands for both membrane and nuclear receptors involved in different signaling pathways. Notably, some of these pathways can induce cell stress and apoptosis. Most important, FFA can affect glucose-induced insulin secretion and activate β-cell death. These events can be at least in part counteracted by polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  18. Pork as a Source of Omega-3 (n-3) Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Michael E R; Vahmani, Payam; Turner, Tyler D; Mapiye, Cletos; Juárez, Manuel; Prieto, Nuria; Beaulieu, Angela D; Zijlstra, Ruurd T; Patience, John F; Aalhus, Jennifer L

    2015-12-16

    Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world, but typical feeding practices give it a high omega-6 (n-6) to omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid ratio and make it a poor source of n-3 fatty acids. Feeding pigs n-3 fatty acids can increase their contents in pork, and in countries where label claims are permitted, claims can be met with limited feeding of n-3 fatty acid enrich feedstuffs, provided contributions of both fat and muscle are included in pork servings. Pork enriched with n-3 fatty acids is, however, not widely available. Producing and marketing n-3 fatty acid enriched pork requires regulatory approval, development costs, quality control costs, may increase production costs, and enriched pork has to be tracked to retail and sold for a premium. Mandatory labelling of the n-6/n-3 ratio and the n-3 fatty acid content of pork may help drive production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork, and open the door to population-based disease prevention polices (i.e., food tax to provide incentives to improve production practices). A shift from the status-quo, however, will require stronger signals along the value chain indicating production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork is an industry priority.

  19. Pork as a Source of Omega-3 (n-3 Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E.R. Dugan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world, but typical feeding practices give it a high omega-6 (n-6 to omega-3 (n-3 fatty acid ratio and make it a poor source of n-3 fatty acids. Feeding pigs n-3 fatty acids can increase their contents in pork, and in countries where label claims are permitted, claims can be met with limited feeding of n-3 fatty acid enrich feedstuffs, provided contributions of both fat and muscle are included in pork servings. Pork enriched with n-3 fatty acids is, however, not widely available. Producing and marketing n-3 fatty acid enriched pork requires regulatory approval, development costs, quality control costs, may increase production costs, and enriched pork has to be tracked to retail and sold for a premium. Mandatory labelling of the n-6/n-3 ratio and the n-3 fatty acid content of pork may help drive production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork, and open the door to population-based disease prevention polices (i.e., food tax to provide incentives to improve production practices. A shift from the status-quo, however, will require stronger signals along the value chain indicating production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork is an industry priority.

  20. Pork as a Source of Omega-3 (n-3) Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Michael E.R.; Vahmani, Payam; Turner, Tyler D.; Mapiye, Cletos; Juárez, Manuel; Prieto, Nuria; Beaulieu, Angela D.; Zijlstra, Ruurd T.; Patience, John F.; Aalhus, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world, but typical feeding practices give it a high omega-6 (n-6) to omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid ratio and make it a poor source of n-3 fatty acids. Feeding pigs n-3 fatty acids can increase their contents in pork, and in countries where label claims are permitted, claims can be met with limited feeding of n-3 fatty acid enrich feedstuffs, provided contributions of both fat and muscle are included in pork servings. Pork enriched with n-3 fatty acids is, however, not widely available. Producing and marketing n-3 fatty acid enriched pork requires regulatory approval, development costs, quality control costs, may increase production costs, and enriched pork has to be tracked to retail and sold for a premium. Mandatory labelling of the n-6/n-3 ratio and the n-3 fatty acid content of pork may help drive production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork, and open the door to population-based disease prevention polices (i.e., food tax to provide incentives to improve production practices). A shift from the status-quo, however, will require stronger signals along the value chain indicating production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork is an industry priority. PMID:26694475

  1. NMR-based metabolomics reveals that conjugated double bond content and lipid storage efficiency in HepG2 cells are affected by fatty acid cis/trans configuration and chain length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Najbjerg, Heidi; Young, Jette F; Bertram, Hanne Christine S.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study the metabolic response to various fatty acids was investigated in HepG2 cells by using a 1HNMRbased approach. To elucidate the effect of cis/trans configuration, the cells were exposed to either oleic acid (C18:1 cis-9), elaidic acid (C18:1 trans-9), vaccenic acid (C18:1 tran...

  2. Separation of free fatty acids from high free fatty acid crude palm oil using short-path distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japir, Abd Al-Wali; Salimon, Jumat; Derawi, Darfizzi; Bahadi, Murad; Yusop, Muhammad Rahimi

    2016-11-01

    The separation of free fatty acids (FFAs) was done by using short-path distillation (SPD). The separation parameters was at their boiling points, a feed amount of 2.3 mL/min, an operating pressure of 10 Torr, a condenser temperature of 60°C, and a rotor speed of 300 rpm. The physicochemical characteristics of oil before and after SPD were determined. The results showed that FFA % of 8.7 ± 0.3 and 0.9 ± 0.1 %, iodine value of 53.1 ± 0.4 and 52.7 ± 0.5 g I2/100 g, hydroxyl value of 32.5 ± 0.6 and 13.9 ± 1.1 mg KOH/g, unsaponifiable value of 0.31 ± 0.01 and 0.20 ± 0.15%, moisture content of 0.31 ± 0.01 and 0.24 ± 0.01 % for high free fatty acid crude palm oil before and after distillation, respectively. Gas chromatography (GC) results showed that the major fatty acids in crude palm oil (CPO) were palmitic acid (44.4% - 45%) followed by oleic acid (39.6% - 39.8%). In general, high free fatty acid crude pal