Lacerda, EM; Bowman, EW; Cliff, JM; Kingdon, CC; King, EC; Lee, JS; Clark, TG; Dockrell, HM; Riley, EM; Curran, H; Nacul, L
: The UK ME/CFS Biobank was launched in August 2011 following extensive consultation with professionals and patient representatives. The bioresource aims to enhance research on myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS), related to pathophysiology, biomarkers and therapeutic approaches. The cohort includes 18-60 year olds, encompassing 284 clinically-confirmed ME/CFS cases, 60 neurologist-diagnosed multiple sclerosis (MS) cases, and 135 healthy individuals. The Biobank contai...
de Vega, Wilfred C; Herrera, Santiago; Vernon, Suzanne D; McGowan, Patrick O
Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) is a debilitating idiopathic disease characterized by unexplained fatigue that fails to resolve with sufficient rest. Diagnosis is based on a list of symptoms and exclusion of other fatigue-related health conditions. Despite a heterogeneous patient population, immune and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function differences, such as enhanced negative feedback to glucocorticoids, are recurring findings in ME/CFS studies. Epigenetic modifications, such as CpG methylation, are known to regulate long-term phenotypic differences and previous work by our group found DNA methylome differences in ME/CFS, however the relationship between DNA methylome modifications, clinical and functional characteristics associated with ME/CFS has not been examined. We examined the DNA methylome in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of a larger cohort of female ME/CFS patients using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip Array. In parallel to the DNA methylome analysis, we investigated in vitro glucocorticoid sensitivity differences by stimulating PBMCs with phytohaemagglutinin and suppressed growth with dexamethasone. We explored DNA methylation differences using bisulfite pyrosequencing and statistical permutation. Linear regression was implemented to discover epigenomic regions associated with self-reported quality of life and network analysis of gene ontology terms to biologically contextualize results. We detected 12,608 differentially methylated sites between ME/CFS patients and healthy controls predominantly localized to cellular metabolism genes, some of which were also related to self-reported quality of life health scores. Among ME/CFS patients, glucocorticoid sensitivity was associated with differential methylation at 13 loci. Our results indicate DNA methylation modifications in cellular metabolism in ME/CFS despite a heterogeneous patient population, implicating these processes in immune and HPA
Barnden, L.; Casse, R.; Kwiatek, R.; Kitchener, M.; DelFante, P.; Burnet, R.; Behin-Ain, S.; Unger, S.
Full text: Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a complex disorder characterised by profound fatigue and neuropsychiatric dysfunction. Previous studies with cerebral perfusion SPECT (rCBF) scans were performed with inhomogeneous patient populations and were not analysed with Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM). We have used SPM to study subjects with moderate CFS based on the Fukuda criteria, who were not on medication and not depressed, compared to age matched control subjects. An apparent bimodal age distribution has been observed in CFS. Subjects were therefore divided into two age groups: 16-35 or under 35 (17 CFS, 11 control) and 36-61 or over 35 (15 CFS, 15 control). HMPAO brain SPECT was acquired on a 3-head camera. After lower window scatter subtraction, reconstruction with attenuation correction (mu=0.15/cm) and editing of facial activity, scans were spatially normalised (affine + 2x3x2 nonlinear) to SPM's anatomical space. SPM statistical analysis yielded the location, amplitude and corrected p-value of significant focal rCBF deficits. They were: for under 35, left lateral temporal lobe (13%, 0.004), the left insular region (15%, 0.006) and the right lentiform nucleus (15%, 0.01); and for over 35 the left lentiform nucleus (18%, 0.01). Counts at the most significant voxel in the under 35 age group permitted separation of the CFS and control groups with sensitivity 94% and specificity 100%. We are acquiring more controls to better define the age and sex dependence of rCBF in CFS. Analysis of associated clinical variables will be used to investigate the observed differences between the two age groups. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc
Maes, Michael; Kubera, Marta; Uytterhoeven, Marc; Vrydags, Nicolas; Bosmans, Eugene
Summary Background There is evidence that myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is characterized by activation of immune, inflammatory, oxidative and nitrosative stress (IO&NS) pathways. The present study was carried out in order to examine whether ME/CFS is accompanied by increased levels of plasma peroxides and serum oxidized LDL (oxLDL) antibodies, two biomarkers of oxidative stress. Material/Methods Blood was collected from 56 patients with ME/CFS and 37 normal volun...
Casse, R.; Chew, G.; Barnden, L.; DelFante, P.; Burnet, R.; Kwiatek, R.; Chew, J.; Behin-Ain, S.; Unger, S.
Full text: Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a debilitating and complex disorder characterised by profound fatigue and neuropsychiatric dysfunction. Previous studies with cerebral perfusion SPECT (rCBF) scans have yielded conflicting results. Most were performed with inhomogeneous patient populations and the findings were not based on a blinded visual analysis. To address this, HMPAO SPECT on a triple head gamma camera was performed on a group of 59 subjects. This group included 32 subjects (16-61 years, 24F and 8M) with moderate CFS based on the Fukuda criteria not on medication and not depressed and 27 normal volunteers (20-56 years, 16F and 11 M). Two blinded reviewers (RC and GC) separately assessed the SPECT studies. 28 brain structures were scored as either definitely abnormal(1), possibly abnormal(2) or normal(3-5). Abnormal results were only found in the temporal lobes and brainstem. The results (Sensitivity/Specificity) based on scores 1 or 2, show that that abnormal score yielded acceptable specificity but low sensitivity. Scores 1 or 2 improved sensitivity but reduced the specificity. This shows that visual analysis of brain SPECT is not a reliable discriminant test for CFS, although quantitative analysis with statistical parametric mapping (SPM) has demonstrated significant abnormalities. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc
In July 2010, at the Muscle Fatigue Meeting, I presented an overview of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Cancer Related Fatigue, emphasizing a critical interpretation of the potential association between Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Cancer Related Fatigue and a newly discovered retrovirus: Xenotropic Murine Related Virus. Since this association was hotly debated at that time, I suggested at the Meeting that it was wrong and most likely due to the identification of the wrong virus culprit. Today, 20 months after the Meeting, the first part of our prediction has turned out to be correct, as Xenotropic Murine Related Virus was shown to be a laboratory-created artefact. Still, the potential association of fatigue-syndromes with an infection (most likely viral) is sustained by a plethora of evidence and this overview will initially summarize data suggesting prior viral infection(s). The principal hypothesized mechanisms for both peripheral and central Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Cancer Related Fatigue will be then summarized, also indicating plausible associations and triggering factors. All evidence accrued so far suggests that further research work should be performed in this interesting area and in order to identify an infectious agent for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Cancer Related Fatigue. One candidate RNA virus, Micro-Foci inducing Virus, will be described in this overview. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Daniels, Jo; Brigden, Amberly; Kacorova, Adela
There is a lack of research examining the incidence of health anxiety in chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME), despite this being an important research area with potentially significant clinical implications. This preliminary study aimed to determine the incidence of anxiety and depression, more specifically health anxiety, in a sample of CFS/ME patients over a 3-month period. The research was a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study, using a consecutive sample of patients who were assessed in a CFS/ME service. Data were taken from the Short Health Anxiety Inventory and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale to identify incidence of anxiety, depression, and health anxiety. Data were collected from 45 CFS/ME patients over the sampling period. Thirty-one patients (68.9%) scored above the normal range but within the subclinical range of health anxiety, and 19 patients (42.2%) scored within the clinically significant health anxiety range. Anxiety and depression were common, with prevalence rates of 42.2% and 33.3% respectively, which is comparable to data found in a recent large-scale trial. Health anxiety in CFS/ME patients is likely to be common and warrants further investigation to provide a better insight into how this may influence treatment and symptom management. Anxiety and depression were common in a sample of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) patients, with a high proportion meeting criteria for severe health anxiety. While CFS/ME and health anxiety are distinct and separate conditions, it is unsurprising that patients with CFS/ME, who commonly report feeling 'delegitimized', may experience high levels of anxiety relating to their physical symptoms. Clinicians should consider screening for health anxiety due to the possible clinical implications for treatment; mutual maintenance may negatively influence treatment success in a complex condition such as CFS/ME. Health anxiety has been found to be common
Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME), Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS), and Chronic Fatigue (CF) are distinguished accurately: results of supervised learning techniques applied on clinical and inflammatory data.
Maes, Michael; Twisk, Frank N M; Johnson, Cort
There is much debate on the diagnostic classification of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME), Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) and chronic fatigue (CF). Post-exertional malaise (PEM) is stressed as a key feature. This study examines whether CF and CFS, with and without PEM, are distinct diagnostic categories. Fukuda's criteria were used to diagnose 144 patients with chronic fatigue and identify patients with CFS and CF, i.e. those not fulfilling the Fukuda's criteria. PEM was rated by means of a scale with defined scale steps between 0 and 6. CFS patients were divided into those with PEM lasting more than 24h (labeled: ME) and without PEM (labeled: CFS). The 12-item Fibromyalgia and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (FF) Rating Scale was used to measure severity of illness. Plasma interleukin-1 (IL-1), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, and lysozyme, and serum neopterin were employed as external validating criteria. Using fatigue, a subjective feeling of infection and PEM we found that ME, CFS, and CF were distinct categories. Patients with ME had significantly higher scores on concentration difficulties and a subjective experience of infection, and higher levels of IL-1, TNFα, and neopterin than patients with CFS. These biomarkers were significantly higher in ME and CFS than in CF patients. PEM loaded highly on the first two factors subtracted from the data set, i.e. "malaise-sickness" and "malaise-hyperalgesia". Fukuda's criteria are adequate to make a distinction between ME/CFS and CF, but ME/CFS patients should be subdivided into ME (with PEM) and CFS (without PEM). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Earlier studies have shown that genetic variability in the SLC6A4 gene encoding the serotonin transporter (5-HTT may be important for the re-uptake of serotonin (5-HT in the central nervous system. In the present study we investigated how the 5-HTT genotype i.e. the short (S versus long (L 5-HTTLPR allele and the SNP rs25531 A > G affect the physical and psychosocial functioning in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS. All 120 patients were recruited from The Department of Paediatrics at Oslo University Hospital, Norway, a national referral center for young CFS patients (12-18 years. Main outcomes were number of steps per day obtained by an accelerometer and disability scored by the Functional Disability Inventory (FDI. Patients with the 5-HTT SS or SLG genotype had a significantly lower number of steps per day than patients with the 5-HTT LALG, SLA or LALA genotype. Patients with the 5-HTT SS or SLG genotype also had a significantly higher FDI score than patients with the 5-HTT LALG, SLA or LALA genotype. Thus, CFS patients with the 5-HTT SS or SLG genotype had worse 30 weeks outcome than CFS patients with the 5-HTT LALG, SLA or LALA genotype. The present study suggests that the 5-HTT genotype may be a factor that contributes to maintenance of CFS.
Sanjay K Shukla
Full Text Available Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS is a disease characterized by intense and debilitating fatigue not due to physical activity that has persisted for at least 6 months, post-exertional malaise, unrefreshing sleep, and accompanied by a number of secondary symptoms, including sore throat, memory and concentration impairment, headache, and muscle/joint pain. In patients with post-exertional malaise, significant worsening of symptoms occurs following physical exertion and exercise challenge serves as a useful method for identifying biomarkers for exertion intolerance. Evidence suggests that intestinal dysbiosis and systemic responses to gut microorganisms may play a role in the symptomology of ME/CFS. As such, we hypothesized that post-exertion worsening of ME/CFS symptoms could be due to increased bacterial translocation from the intestine into the systemic circulation. To test this hypothesis, we collected symptom reports and blood and stool samples from ten clinically characterized ME/CFS patients and ten matched healthy controls before and 15 minutes, 48 hours, and 72 hours after a maximal exercise challenge. Microbiomes of blood and stool samples were examined. Stool sample microbiomes differed between ME/CFS patients and healthy controls in the abundance of several major bacterial phyla. Following maximal exercise challenge, there was an increase in relative abundance of 6 of the 9 major bacterial phyla/genera in ME/CFS patients from baseline to 72 hours post-exercise compared to only 2 of the 9 phyla/genera in controls (p = 0.005. There was also a significant difference in clearance of specific bacterial phyla from blood following exercise with high levels of bacterial sequences maintained at 72 hours post-exercise in ME/CFS patients versus clearance in the controls. These results provide evidence for a systemic effect of an altered gut microbiome in ME/CFS patients compared to controls. Upon exercise challenge, there
Beasant, Lucy; Mills, Nicola; Crawley, Esther
Paediatric chronic fatigue syndrome or myalgic encephalopathy (CFS/ME) is relatively common and disabling. Current guidance recommends referral to specialist services, although some general practitioners believe the label of CFS/ME is harmful and many are not confident about diagnosing CFS/ME. Aim Explore whether or not adolescents and their mothers value referral to a specialist service for young people with CFS/ME. A qualitative study nested within a feasibility study of interventions for CFS/ME [Specialist Medical Intervention and Lightning Evaluation (SMILE)]. In-depth interviews were undertaken with 13 mothers and 12 adolescents participating in the SMILE study. Transcripts were systematically assigned codes using the qualitative data organisation package NVivo and analysed thematically using techniques of constant comparison. Gaining access to the specialist service was difficult and took a long time. Mothers felt that they needed to be proactive and persistent, partly because of a lack of knowledge in primary and secondary care. Having gained access, mothers felt the CFS/ME service was useful because it recognised and acknowledged their child's condition and opened channels of dialogue between health-care professionals and education providers. Adolescents reported that specialist medical care resulted in better symptom management, although some adolescents did not like the fact that the treatment approach limited activity. Adolescents and their mothers value receiving a diagnosis from a specialist service and making progress in managing CFS/ME. General practitioners should support adolescents with CFS/ME in accessing CFS/ME specialist services, consistent with current guidance.
Falk Hvidberg, Michael; Brinth, Louise Schouborg; Olesen, Anne V
INTRODUCTION: Myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME)/chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a common, severe condition affecting 0.2 to 0.4 per cent of the population. Even so, no recent international EQ-5D based health-related quality of life (HRQoL) estimates exist for ME/CFS patients. The main purpose...... of this study was to estimate HRQoL scores using the EQ-5D-3L with Danish time trade-off tariffs. Secondary, the aims were to explore whether the results are not influenced by other conditions using regression, to compare the estimates to 20 other conditions and finally to present ME/CFS patient characteristics...... for use in clinical practice. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All members of the Danish ME/CFS Patient Association in 2013 (n=319) were asked to fill out a questionnaire including the EQ-5D-3L. From these, 105 ME/CFS patients were identified and gave valid responses. Unadjusted EQ-5D-3L means were calculated...
Michael Falk Hvidberg
Full Text Available Myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME/chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS is a common, severe condition affecting 0.2 to 0.4 per cent of the population. Even so, no recent international EQ-5D based health-related quality of life (HRQoL estimates exist for ME/CFS patients. The main purpose of this study was to estimate HRQoL scores using the EQ-5D-3L with Danish time trade-off tariffs. Secondary, the aims were to explore whether the results are not influenced by other conditions using regression, to compare the estimates to 20 other conditions and finally to present ME/CFS patient characteristics for use in clinical practice.All members of the Danish ME/CFS Patient Association in 2013 (n=319 were asked to fill out a questionnaire including the EQ-5D-3L. From these, 105 ME/CFS patients were identified and gave valid responses. Unadjusted EQ-5D-3L means were calculated and compared to the population mean as well as to the mean of 20 other conditions. Furthermore, adjusted estimates were calculated using ordinary least squares (OLS regression, adjusting for gender, age, education, and co-morbidity of 18 self-reported conditions. Data from the North Denmark Health Profile 2010 was used as population reference in the regression analysis (n=23,392.The unadjusted EQ-5D-3L mean of ME/CFS was 0.47 [0.41-0.53] compared to a population mean of 0.85 [0.84-0.86]. The OLS regression estimated a disutility of -0.29 [-0.21;-0.34] for ME/CFS patients in this study. The characteristics of ME/CFS patients are different from the population with respect to gender, relationship, employment etc.The EQ-5D-3L-based HRQoL of ME/CFS is significantly lower than the population mean and the lowest of all the compared conditions. The adjusted analysis confirms that poor HRQoL of ME/CFS is distinctly different from and not a proxy of the other included conditions. However, further studies are needed to exclude the possible selection bias of the current study.
Campion Peter D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME can cause profound and prolonged illness and disability, and poses significant problems of uncertainty for healthcare professionals in its diagnosis and management. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the nature of professional 'best practice' in working with people with CFS/ME. Methods The views and experiences of health care practitioners (HCPs were sought, who had been judged by people with CFS/ME themselves to have been particularly helpful and effective. Qualitative semi-structured interviews following a topic guide were carried out with six health care practitioners. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and subject to thematic analysis. Results Five main themes were developed: 1 Diagnosis; 2 Professional perspectives on living with CFS/ME; 3 Interventions for treatment and management; 4 Professional values and support for people with CFS/ME and their families; 5 Health professional roles and working practices. Key findings related to: the diagnostic process, especially the degree of uncertainty which may be shared by primary care physicians and patients alike; the continued denial in some quarters of the existence of CFS/ME as a condition; the variability, complexity, and serious impact of the condition on life and living; the onus on the person with CFS/ME to manage their condition, supported by HCPs; the wealth of often conflicting and confusing information on the condition and options for treatment; and the vital role of extended listening and trustful relationships with patients. Conclusions While professional frustrations were clearly expressed about the variability of services both in primary and specialist care and continuing equivocal attitudes to CFS/ME as a condition, there were also strong positive messages for people with CFS/ME where the right services are in place. Many of the findings from these practitioners seen by their
Jose Luis Rivas
Full Text Available Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS is a pathological condition characterized by incapacitating fatigue and a combination of neurologic, immunologic, and endocrine symptoms. At present its diagnosis is based exclusively on clinical criteria. Several studies have described altered immunologic profiles; therefore, we proposed to further examine the more significant differences, particularly T and NK cell subpopulations that could be conditioned by viral infections, to discern their utility in improving the diagnosis and characterization of the patients. The study included 76 patients that fulfilled the revised Canadian Consensus Criteria (CCC 2010 for ME/CFS and 73 healthy controls, matched for age and gender. Immunophenotyping of different T cell and natural killer cell subpopulations in peripheral blood was determined by flow cytometry. ME/CFS patients showed significantly lower values of T regulatory cells (CD4+CD25++(highFOXP3+ and higher NKT-like cells (CD3+CD16+/−CD56+ than the healthy individuals. Regarding NK phenotypes, NKG2C was significantly lower and NKCD69 and NKCD56 bright were significantly higher in the patients group. A classification model was generated using the more relevant cell phenotype differences (NKG2C and T regulatory cells that was able to classify the individuals as ME/CFS patients or healthy in a 70% of cases. The observed differences in some of the subpopulations of T and NK cells between patients and healthy controls could define a distinct immunological profile that can help in the diagnostic process of ME/CFS patients, contribute to the recognition of the disease and to the search of more specific treatments. However, more studies are needed to corroborate these findings and to contribute to establish a consensus in diagnosis.
Full Text Available Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS is a heterogeneous disorder of significant societal impact that is proposed to involve both host and environmentally derived aetiologies that may be autoimmune in nature. Immune-related symptoms of at least moderate severity persisting for prolonged periods of time are common in ME/CFS patients and B cell depletion therapy is of significant therapeutic benefit. The origin of these symptoms and whether it is infectious or inflammatory in nature is not clear, with seeking evidence of acute or chronic virus infections contributing to the induction of autoimmune processes in ME/CFS being an area of recent interest. This article provides a comprehensive review of the current evidence supporting an infectious aetiology for ME/CFS leading us to propose the novel concept that the intestinal microbiota and in particular members of the virome are a source of the “infectious” trigger of the disease. Such an approach has the potential to identify disease biomarkers and influence therapeutics, providing much-needed approaches in preventing and managing a disease desperately in need of confronting.
Full Text Available Last century there was a short burst of interest in the tryptophan related disorders of pellagra and related abnormalities that are usually presented in infancy. 1 , 2 Nutritional physiologists recognized that a severe human dietary deficiency of either tryptophan or the B group vitamins could result in central nervous system (CNS sequelae such as ataxia, cognitive dysfunction and dysphoria, accompanied by skin hyperpigmentation. 3 , 4 The current paper will focus on the emerging role of tryptophan in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS and fibromyalgia (FM.
... became ill. ME/CFS changes people’s ability to do daily tasks, like taking a shower or preparing a meal. ME/CFS often makes it hard to keep a job, go to school, and take part in family and social life. ME/CFS ...
Corbitt, Matthew; Campagnolo, N; Staines, D; Marshall-Gradisnik, S
Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and irritable bowel (IB) symptoms have been associated with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME). The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of these symptoms in CFS/ME, along with any evidence for probiotics as treatment. Pubmed, Scopus, Medline (EBSCOHost) and EMBASE databases were searched to source relevant studies for CFS/ME. The review included any studies examining GI symptoms, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and/or probiotic use. Studies were required to report criteria for CFS/ME and study design, intervention and outcome measures. Quality assessment was also completed to summarise the level of evidence available. A total of 3381 publications were returned using our search terms. Twenty-five studies were included in the review. Randomised control trials were the predominant study type (n = 24). Most of the studies identified examined the effect of probiotic supplementation on the improvement of IB symptoms in IBS patients, or IB symptoms in CFS/ME patients, as well as some other significant secondary outcomes (e.g. quality of life, other gastrointestinal symptoms, psychological symptoms). The level of evidence identified for the use of probiotics in IBS was excellent in quality; however, the evidence available for the use of probiotic interventions in CFS/ME was poor and limited. There is currently insufficient evidence for the use of probiotics in CFS/ME patients, despite probiotic interventions being useful in IBS. The studies pertaining to probiotic interventions in CFS/ME patients were limited and of poor quality overall. Standardisation of protocols and methodology in these studies is required.
Gerwyn, Morris; Maes, Michael
Here, we review potential causes of muscle dysfunction seen in many patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) such as the effects of oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS) and mitochondrial impairments together with reduced heat shock protein production and a range of metabolic abnormalities. Several studies published in the last few years have highlighted the existence of chronic O&NS, inflammation, impaired mitochondrial function and reduced heat shock protein production in many patients with ME/CFS. These studies have also highlighted the detrimental effects of chronically elevated O&NS on muscle functions such as reducing the time to muscle fatigue during exercise and impairing muscle contractility. Mechanisms have also been revealed by which chronic O&NS and or impaired heat shock production may impair muscle repair following exercise and indeed the adaptive responses in the striated muscle to acute and chronic increases in physical activity. The presence of chronic O&NS, low-grade inflammation and impaired heat shock protein production may well explain the objective findings of increased muscle fatigue, impaired contractility and multiple dimensions of exercise intolerance in many patients with ME/CFS.
Lattie, Emily G; Antoni, Michael H; Fletcher, Mary Ann; Czaja, Sara; Perdomo, Dolores; Sala, Andreina; Nair, Sankaran; Fu, Shih Hua; Penedo, Frank J; Klimas, Nancy
The onset of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) typically involves reductions in activities of daily living and social interactions (jointly referred to as "illness burden"). Emotional distress has been linked to increased reported symptoms, and stress management skills have been related to lower fatigue severity in CFS patients. Symptom severity and illness burden are highly correlated. The ability to manage stress may attenuate this relationship, allowing individuals to feel less burdened by the illness independent of the severity of their symptoms. This study aimed to evaluate if perceived stress management skills affect illness burden via emotional distress, independent of ME/CFS symptom severity. A total of 117 adults with ME/CFS completed measures of perceived stress management skills, emotional distress, ME/CFS symptom severity and illness burden. Regression analyses revealed that greater perceived stress management skills related to less social and fatigue-related illness burden, via lower emotional distress. This relationship existed independent of the association of symptom severity on illness burden, and was stronger among those not currently employed. Ability to manage stress is associated with a lower illness burden for individuals with ME/CFS. Future studies should evaluate the efficacy of psychosocial interventions in lowering illness burden by targeting stress management skills.
Morris, Gerwyn; Anderson, George; Galecki, Piotr; Berk, Michael; Maes, Michael
It is of importance whether myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a variant of sickness behavior. The latter is induced by acute infections/injury being principally mediated through proinflammatory cytokines. Sickness is a beneficial behavioral response that serves to enhance recovery, conserves energy and plays a role in the resolution of inflammation. There are behavioral/symptomatic similarities (for example, fatigue, malaise, hyperalgesia) and dissimilarities (gas...
Morris, Gerwyn; Anderson, George; Galecki, Piotr; Berk, Michael; Maes, Michael
It is of importance whether myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a variant of sickness behavior. The latter is induced by acute infections/injury being principally mediated through proinflammatory cytokines. Sickness is a beneficial behavioral response that serves to enhance recovery, conserves energy and plays a role in the resolution of inflammation. There are behavioral/symptomatic similarities (for example, fatigue, malaise, hyperalgesia) and dissimilarities (gastrointestinal symptoms, anorexia and weight loss) between sickness and ME/CFS. While sickness is an adaptive response induced by proinflammatory cytokines, ME/CFS is a chronic, disabling disorder, where the pathophysiology is related to activation of immunoinflammatory and oxidative pathways and autoimmune responses. While sickness behavior is a state of energy conservation, which plays a role in combating pathogens, ME/CFS is a chronic disease underpinned by a state of energy depletion. While sickness is an acute response to infection/injury, the trigger factors in ME/CFS are less well defined and encompass acute and chronic infections, as well as inflammatory or autoimmune diseases. It is concluded that sickness behavior and ME/CFS are two different conditions.
Frank N.M. Twisk
Full Text Available Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME was identified as a new clinical entity in 1959 and has been acknowledged as a disease of the central nervous system/neurological disease by the World Health Organisation since 1969. Cognitive impairment, (muscle weakness, circulatory disturbances, marked variability of symptoms, and, above all, post-exertional malaise: a long-lasting increase of symptoms after minor exertion, are distinctive symptoms of ME.Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS was introduced in 1988 and was redefined into clinically evaluated, unexplained (persistent or relapsing chronic fatigue, accompanied by at least four out of a list of eight symptoms, e.g. headaches and unrefreshing sleep, in 1994.Although the labels are used interchangeably, ME and CFS define distinct diagnostic entities. Post-exertional malaise and cognitive deficits e.g. are not mandatory for the diagnosis CFS, while obligatory for the diagnosis ME. Fatigue is not obligatory for the diagnosis ME.Since fatigue and other symptoms are subjective and ambiguous, research has been hampered. Despite this and other methodological issues, research has observed specific abnormalities in ME/CFS repetitively, e.g. immunological abnormalities, oxidative and nitrosative
Sammendrag Bakgrunn: ME/CFS blir definert som en ervervet kronisk sykdom med dyptgripende fysisk og psykisk utmattelse. Sykdommen har en kompleks systemisk karakter og fører ofte til livslang funksjonshemning eller invalidisering. Den opptrer gjerne sammen med symptomer på andre sykdommer (comorbiditet). Det er en usikkerhet rundt dette syndromet - da både når det gjelder definisjon, utbredelse, etiologi og behandling. Det er ingen registrering over syndromets utbredelse verken i Norge...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS or chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS has been used to name a range of chronic conditions characterized by extreme fatigue and other disabling symptoms. Attempts to estimate the burden of disease have been limited by selection bias, and by lack of diagnostic biomarkers and of agreed reproducible case definitions. We estimated the prevalence and incidence of ME/CFS in three regions in England, and discussed the implications of frequency statistics and the use of different case definitions for health and social care planning and for research. Methods We compared the clinical presentation, prevalence and incidence of ME/CFS based on a sample of 143,000 individuals aged 18 to 64 years, covered by primary care services in three regions of England. Case ascertainment involved: 1 electronic search for chronic fatigue cases; 2 direct questioning of general practitioners (GPs on cases not previously identified by the search; and 3 clinical review of identified cases according to CDC-1994, Canadian and Epidemiological Case (ECD Definitions. This enabled the identification of cases with high validity. Results The estimated minimum prevalence rate of ME/CFS was 0.2% for cases meeting any of the study case definitions, 0.19% for the CDC-1994 definition, 0.11% for the Canadian definition and 0.03% for the ECD. The overall estimated minimal yearly incidence was 0.015%. The highest rates were found in London and the lowest in East Yorkshire. All but one of the cases conforming to the Canadian criteria also met the CDC-1994 criteria, however presented higher prevalence and severity of symptoms. Conclusions ME/CFS is not uncommon in England and represents a significant burden to patients and society. The number of people with chronic fatigue who do not meet specific criteria for ME/CFS is higher still. Both groups have high levels of need for service provision, including health and social
Scholte Hans R
Full Text Available Abstract Background CFS is a clinical state with defined symptoms, but undefined cause. The patients may show a chronic state of immune activation and treatment with an antibiotic in this subgroup has been suggested. Methods In a retrospective study, the response of CFS patients to azithromycin, an antibiotic and immunomodulating drug, has been scored from the patients records and compared with clinical and laboratory data. Azithromycin was not the first choice therapy, but offered when the effect of counseling and L-carnitine was considered insufficient by the patient and the clinician. Results Of the 99 patients investigated, 58 reported a decrease in the symptoms by the use of azithromycin. These responding patients had lower levels of plasma acetylcarnitine. Conclusion The efficacy of azithromycin in the responsive patients could be explained by the modulating effect on a chronic primed state of the immune cells of the brain, or the activated peripheral immune system. Their lower acetylcarnitine levels may reflect a decreased antioxidant defense and/or an increased consumption of acetylcarnitine caused by oxidative stress.
Parslow, Roxanne M; Harris, Sarah; Broughton, Jessica; Alattas, Adla; Crawley, Esther; Haywood, Kirstie; Shaw, Alison
To synthesis the qualitative studies of children's experiences of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME). Systematic review and meta-ethnography. CFS/ME is an important disabling illness, with uncertain cause and prognosis. As a result, children with CFS/ME can find themselves living with greater uncertainty and stigma, exacerbating the impact of the condition. There is a growing body of qualitative research in CFS/ME, yet there has been no attempt to systematically synthesis the studies involving children. Studies exploring the experiences of children diagnosed with CFS/ME, published or unpublished, using qualitative methods were eligible. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHL databases were searched as well as grey literature, reference lists and contacting authors. Quality assessment was done independently using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) checklist. Studies were synthesised using techniques of meta-ethnography. Ten studies involving 82 children with CFS/ME aged 8-18 were included. Our synthesis describes four third-order constructs within children's experiences: (1) disruption and loss: physical, social and the self; (2) barriers to coping: suspension in uncertainty, problems with diagnosis and disbelief; (3) facilitators to coping: reducing uncertainty, credible illness narratives, diagnosis and supportive relationships and (4) hope, personal growth and recovery. CFS/ME introduces profound biographical disruption through its effects on children's ability to socialise, perform school and therefore how they see their future. Unfamiliarity of the condition, problems with diagnosis and felt stigma prevent children from forming a new illness identity. Children adopt coping strategies such as building credible explanations for their illness. Physical, social, emotional and self-dimensions of life should be included when treating and measuring outcomes from healthcare in paediatric CFS/ME. There is a need for greater recognition
Full Text Available Abstract Background NICE guidelines emphasise the need for a confident, early diagnosis of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/ Myalgic Encephalitis (CFS/ME in Primary Care with management tailored to the needs of the patient. Research suggests that GPs are reluctant to make the diagnosis and resources for management are currently inadequate. This study aimed to develop resources for practitioners and patients to support the diagnosis and management of CFS/ME in primary care. Methods Semi structured interviews were conducted with patients, carers, GPs, practice nurses and CFS/ME specialists in North West England. All interviews were audio recorded, transcribed and analysed qualitatively using open explorative thematic coding. Two patient involvement groups were consulted at each stage of the development of resources to ensure that the resources reflect everyday issues faced by people living with CFS/ME. Results Patients and carers stressed the importance of recognising CFS/ME as a legitimate condition, and the need to be believed by health care professionals. GPs and practice nurses stated that they do not always have the knowledge or skills to diagnose and manage the condition. They expressed a preference for an online training package. For patients, information on getting the most out of a consultation and the role of carers was thought to be important. Patients did not want to be overloaded with information at diagnosis, and suggested information should be given in steps. A DVD was suggested, to enable information sharing with carers and family, and also for those whose symptoms act as a barrier to reading. Conclusion Rather than use a top-down approach to the development of training for health care practitioners and information for patients and carers, we have used data from key stakeholders to develop a patient DVD, patient leaflets to guide symptom management and a modular e-learning resource which should equip GPs to diagnose and manage CFS
Collin, Simon M; Sterne, Jonathan A C; Hollingworth, William; May, Margaret T; Crawley, Esther
Objectives Provision of National Health Service (NHS) specialist chronic fatigue syndrome or myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) services in England has been deemed patchy and inconsistent. Our objective was to explore variation in the provision of NHS specialist CFS/ME services and to investigate whether access is related to measures of deprivation and inequality. Design Survey of all CFS/ME clinical teams in England, plus cross-sectional data from a subset of teams. Setting Secondary care. Outcome measures We used clinic activity data from CFS/ME clinical teams in England to describe provision of specialist CFS/ME services (referral, assessment and diagnosis rates per 1000 adults per year) during 2008–2011 according to Primary Care Trust (PCT) population estimates, and to investigate whether use of services was related to PCT-level measures of deprivation and inequality. We used postcode data from seven services to investigate variation in provision by deprivation. Results Clinic activity data were obtained from 93.9% (46/49) of clinical teams in England which between them received referrals from 84.9% (129/152) of PCTs. 12 PCTs, covering a population of 2.08 million adults, provided no specialist CFS/ME service. There was a six-fold variation in referral and assessment rates between services which could not be explained by PCT-level measures of deprivation and inequality. The median assessment rate in 2010 was 0.25 (IQR 0.17, 0.35) per 1000 adults per year. 91.9% (IQR 76.5%, 100.0%) of adults assessed were diagnosed with CFS/ME. Postcode data from seven clinical teams showed that assessment rates were equal across deprivation quartiles for four teams but were 40–50% lower in the most deprived compared with the most affluent areas for three teams. Conclusions Two million adults in England do not have access to a specialist CFS/ME service. In some areas which do have a specialist service, access is inequitable. This inequity may worsen with the impending
Collin, Simon M; Nuevo, Roberto; van de Putte, Elise M; Nijhof, Sanne L; Crawley, Esther
To investigate differences between young children, adolescents and adults with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME). Comparison of clinical cohorts from 8 paediatric and 27 adult CFS/ME services in the UK and a paediatric randomised controlled trial from the Netherlands. Outcome measures include: fatigue (the UK-Chalder Fatigue Scale); Disability (the UK-SF-36 physical function subscale; the Netherlands-CHQ-CF87); school attendance, pain, anxiety and depression (the UK-Hospital Anxiety & Depression Scale, Spence Children's Anxiety Scale; the Netherlands-Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children, Children's Depression Inventory); symptoms; time-to-assessment; and body mass index. We used multinomial regression to compare younger (aged fatigue, and had been ill for longer. Younger children were less likely to have cognitive symptoms (OR 0.18 (95% CI 0.13 to 0.25)) and more likely to present with a sore throat (OR 1.42 (1.07 to 1.90). Adolescents were more likely to have headaches (81.1%, OR 1.56 (1.36% to 1.80%)) and less likely to have tender lymph nodes, palpitations, dizziness, general malaise and pain, compared to adults. Adolescents were more likely to have comorbid depression (OR 1.51 (1.33 to 1.72)) and less likely to have anxiety (OR 0.46 (0.41 to 0.53)) compared to adults. Paediatricians need to recognise that children with CFS/ME present differently from adults. Whether these differences reflect an underlying aetiopathology requires further investigation. FITNET trial registration numbers are ISRCTN59878666 and NCT00893438. This paper includes secondary (post-results) analysis of data from this trial, but are unrelated to trial outcomes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Comparing specialist medical care with specialist medical care plus the Lightning Process® for chronic fatigue syndrome or myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial (SMILE Trial)
Crawley, Esther; Mills, Nicola; Hollingworth, Will; Deans, Zuzana; Sterne, Jonathan A; Donovan, Jenny L; Beasant, Lucy; Montgomery, Alan
Background Chronic fatigue syndrome or myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) is a relatively common and potentially serious condition with a limited evidence base for treatment. Specialist treatment for paediatric CFS/ME uses interventions recommended by National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) including cognitive behavioural therapy, graded exercise therapy and activity management. The Lightning Process® (LP) is a trademarked intervention derived from osteopathy, life-coachi...
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in human patients remain a controversial and perplexing condition with emerging zoonotic aspects. Recent advances in human medicine seem to indicate a bacterial etiology and the condition has already been described in horses, dogs, cats and birds of prey in association with micrococci-like organisms in the blood. To evaluate the possibility of a chronic bacteremia, a veterinary surgeon (the author) and his coworking wife, both diagnosed with CFS and meeting the CDC working case definition, were submitted to rapid blood cultures and fresh blood smears investigations. Blood cultures proved Staph-positive and micrococci-like organisms in the blood were repeatedly observed in the 3-year period preceding the arsenical therapy, during which several medicaments, including antibiotics, proved unsuccessful. Following treatment with a low dosage arsenical drug (potassium arsenite 0.5%, im., 1 ml/12 h, for 10 days) both patients experienced complete remission. At the post-treatment control made 1 month later, micrococci had disappeared from the blood, and the CD4/CD8 ratio was raising.
Broughton, Jessica; Harris, Sarah; Beasant, Lucy; Crawley, Esther; Collin, Simon M
Few studies have explored patients' experiences of treatment for CFS/ME. This study aims to fill this gap by capturing the perspective of patients who have been treated by NHS specialist CFS/ME services in England. Semi-structured interviews were conducted during the period June-September 2014 with 16 adults who were completing treatment at one of three outpatient NHS specialist CFS/ME services. Interviews were analysed thematically using constant comparison techniques, with particular attention paid to contrasting views. Three themes were identified: 'Journey to specialist services'; 'Things that help or hinder treatment'; and 'Support systems'. Within these themes nine sub-themes were identified. A wide range of factors was evident in forming participants' experiences, including personal characteristics such as perseverance and optimism, and service factors such as flexibility and positive, supportive relationships with clinicians. Participants described how specialist services played a unique role, which was related to the contested nature of the condition. Many participants had experienced a lack of validation and medical and social support before attending a specialist service. Patients' experiences of life before referral, and the concerns that they expressed about being discharged, highlighted the hardship and obstacles which people living with CFS/ME continue to experience in our society. The experiences of CFS/ME patients in our study showed that NHS specialist CFS/ME services played a vital role in patients' journeys towards an improved quality of life. This improvement came about through a process which included validation of patients' experiences, acceptance of change, practical advice and support, and therapeutic outcomes.
Milrad, Sara F; Hall, Daniel L; Jutagir, Devika R; Lattie, Emily G; Ironson, Gail H; Wohlgemuth, William; Nunez, Maria Vera; Garcia, Lina; Czaja, Sara J; Perdomo, Dolores M; Fletcher, Mary Ann; Klimas, Nancy; Antoni, Michael H
Poor sleep quality has been linked to inflammatory processes and worse disease outcomes in the context of many chronic illnesses, but less is known in conditions such as chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME). This study examines the relationships between sleep quality, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and CFS/ME symptoms. Sixty women diagnosed with CFS/ME were assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Fatigue Symptom Inventory (FSI) and Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-based CFS/ME symptom questionnaires. Circulating plasma pro-inflammatory cytokine levels were measured by ELISA. Multiple regression analyses examined associations between sleep, cytokines and symptoms, controlling for age, education, and body mass index. Poor sleep quality (PSQI global score) was associated with greater pro-inflammatory cytokine levels: interleukin-1β (IL-1β) (β=0.258, p=0.043), IL-6 (β=0.281, p=0.033), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) (β=0.263, p=0.044). Worse sleep quality related to greater fatigue severity (β=0.395, p=0.003) and fatigue-related interference with daily activities (β=0.464, p<0.001), and more severe and frequent CDC-defined core CFS/ME symptoms (β=0.499, p<0.001, and β=0.556, p<0.001, respectively). Results underscore the importance of managing sleep-related difficulties in this patient population. Further research is needed to identify the etiology of sleep disruptions in CFS/ME and mechanistic factors linking sleep quality to symptom severity and inflammatory processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) refers to marked and prolonged fatigue, for which no indentifiable cause can be found. Despite the presence of extensive symptoms, diagnosis is made when there is profound fatigue, lasting for a duration of six months, or longer. CFS is frequently seen in association with psychiatric ...
Prins, J.B.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Bleijenberg, G.
During the past two decades, there has been heated debate about chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) among researchers, practitioners, and patients. Few illnesses have been discussed so extensively. The existence of the disorder has been questioned, its underlying pathophysiology debated, and an effective
Sanders, Patricia; Korf, Jakob
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is now recognized as a medial disorder. In contrast to recent related reports, the present review focuses primarily on aetiological aspects of CFS. Four major hypotheses are reviewed. (1) Although CFS is often associated with viral infection, the presence of viruses
Lakhan, Shaheen E; Kirchgessner, Annette
Abstract Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a debilitating disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue and a combination of accompanying symptoms the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Many CFS patients complain of gut dysfunction. In fact, patients with CFS are more likely to report a previous diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a common functional disorder of the gut, and experience IBS-related symptoms. Recently, evidence for interactions between the intestin...
Lane, R; Soteriou, B; Zhang, H; Archard, L
Objective: To detect and characterise enterovirus RNA in skeletal muscle from patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and to compare efficiency of muscle energy metabolism in enterovirus positive and negative CFS patients.
Goedendorp, M. M.; Knoop, H.; Schippers, G. M.; Bleijenberg, G.
Background: Little is known about the lifestyle of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and its influence on symptoms of CFS. The present study aimed to investigate the lifestyle of patients with CFS, and to assess whether lifestyle factors are related to fatigue and functional impairments.
Goedendorp, M.M.; Knoop, H.; Schippers, G.M.; Bleijenberg, G.
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the lifestyle of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and its influence on symptoms of CFS. The present study aimed to investigate the lifestyle of patients with CFS, and to assess whether lifestyle factors are related to fatigue and functional impairments.
Huibers, M.J.H.; Beurskens, A.J.H.M.; Prins, J.B.; Kant, I.J.; Bazelmans, H.M.; Schayck, C.P. van; Knottnerus, J.A.; Bleijenberg, G.
BACKGROUND: Persistent fatigue among employees, burnout, and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) are three fatigue conditions that share some characteristics in theory. However, these conditions have not been compared in empirical research, despite conceptual similarities. METHODS: This cross sectional
Sharif, Kassem; Watad, Abdulla; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Lichtbroun, Michael; Martini, Mariano; Perricone, Carlo; Amital, Howard; Shoenfeld, Yehuda
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a heterogeneous disease which presents with pronounced disabling fatigue, sleep disturbances, and cognitive impairment that negatively affects patients' functional capability. CFS remains a poorly defined entity and its etiology is still in question. CFS is neither a novel diagnosis nor a new medical condition. From as early as the eighteenth century, a constellation of perplexing symptoms was observed that resembled symptoms of CFS. Commencing with "febricula" and ending with CFS, many names for the disease were proposed including neurocirculatory asthenia, atypical poliomyelitis, Royal Free disease, effort syndrome, Akureyri disease, Tapanui disease, chronic Epstein-Barr virus syndrome, and myalgic encephalitis. To date, it remains unclear whether CFS has an autoimmune component or is a condition that precedes a full-blown autoimmune disease. Research suggests that CFS may overlap with other diseases including postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS), autoimmune syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA), and Sjögren's syndrome. Additionally, it has been postulated that the earliest manifestations of some autoimmune diseases can present with vague non-specific symptoms similar to CFS. Sometimes only when exposed to a secondary stimulus (e.g., antigen) which could accelerate the natural course of the disease would an individual develop the classic autoimmune disease. Due to the similarity of symptoms, it has been postulated that CFS could simply be an early manifestation of an autoimmune disease. This paper will provide a historical background review of this disease and a discussion of CFS as an entity overlapping with multiple other conditions.
Investigating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of FITNET-NHS (Fatigue In Teenagers on the interNET in the NHS) compared to Activity Management to treat paediatric chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS)/myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME): protocol for a randomised controlled trial.
Baos, Sarah; Brigden, Amberly; Anderson, Emma; Hollingworth, William; Price, Simon; Mills, Nicola; Beasant, Lucy; Gaunt, Daisy; Garfield, Kirsty; Metcalfe, Chris; Parslow, Roxanne; Downing, Harriet; Kessler, David; Macleod, John; Stallard, Paul; Knoop, Hans; Van de Putte, Elise; Nijhof, Sanne; Bleijenberg, Gijs; Crawley, Esther
Paediatric chronic fatigue syndrome or myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) is a relatively common and disabling condition. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) recommends Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) as a treatment option for paediatric CFS/ME because there is good evidence that it is effective. Despite this, most young people in the UK are unable to access local specialist CBT for CFS/ME. A randomised controlled trial (RCT) showed FITNET was effective in the Netherlands but we do not know if it is effective in the National Health Service (NHS) or if it is cost-effective. This trial will investigate whether FITNET-NHS is clinically effective and cost-effective in the NHS. Seven hundred and thirty-four paediatric patients (aged 11-17 years) with CFS/ ME will be randomised (1:1) to receive either FITNET-NHS (online CBT) or Activity Management (delivered via video call). The internal pilot study will use integrated qualitative methods to examine the feasibility of recruitment and the acceptability of treatment. The full trial will assess whether FITNET-NHS is clinically effective and cost-effective. The primary outcome is disability at 6 months, measured using the SF-36-PFS (Physical Function Scale) questionnaire. Cost-effectiveness is measured via cost-utility analysis from an NHS perspective. Secondary subgroup analysis will investigate the effectiveness of FITNET-NHS in those with co-morbid mood disorders. If FITNET-NHS is found to be feasible and acceptable (internal pilot) and effective and cost-effective (full trial), its provision by the NHS has the potential to deliver substantial health gains for the large number of young people suffering from CFS/ME but unable to access treatment because there is no local specialist service. This trial will provide further evidence evaluating the delivery of online CBT to young people with chronic conditions. ISRCTN registry, registration number: ISRCTN18020851 . Registered on 4 August 2016.
Article Commentary: Kynurenine Pathway Pathologies: Do Nicotinamide and Other Pathway Co-Factors have a Therapeutic Role in Reduction of Symptom Severity, Including Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS and Fibromyalgia (FM
Full Text Available Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS and fibromyalgia (FM appear to meet the criteria of a tryptophan-kynurenine pathway disorder with potential neuroimmunological sequelae. Aspects of some of the putative precipitating factors have been previously outlined. 2 , 3 An analysis of the areas of metabolic dysfunction will focus on future directions for research and management. The definition of dual tryptophan pathways has increased the understanding of the mind-body, body-mind dichotomy. The serotonergic pathway highlights the primary (endogenous psychiatric disorders. The up-regulation of the kynurenine pathway by physical illnesses can cause neuropathic and immunological disorders 1 associated with secondary neuropsychiatric symptoms. Tryptophan and nicotinamide deficiencies fall within the protein energy malnutrition (PEM spectrum. They can arise if the kynurenine pathway is stressed by primary or secondary inflammatory conditions and the consequent imbalance of available catabolic/anabolic substrates may adversely influence convalescent phase efficiency. The replacement of depleted or reduced NAD+ levels and other cofactors can perhaps improve the clinical management of these disorders.
Full Text Available Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS is a debilitating and complex disorder characterized by profound fatigue with uncertain pathologic mechanism. Neuroimage may be an important key to unveil the central nervous system (CNS mechanism in CFS. Although most of the studies found gray matter (GM volumes reduced in some brain regions in CFS, there are many factors that could affect GM volumes in CFS, including chronic pain, stress, psychiatric disorder, physical activity, and insomnia, which may bias the results. In this paper, through reviewing recent literatures, we discussed these interferential factors, which overlap with the symptoms of CFS.
Schreurs, Karlein Maria Gertrudis; Veehof, M.M.; Passade, L.; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé
Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) was combined with graded exercise therapy (GET) for patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in an uncontrolled implementation study of an inpatient multidisciplinary group therapy. During the intake procedure, 160 CFS patients completed a questionnaire on
Nijs, J.; Crombez, G.; Meeus, M.; Knoop, H.; Damme, S.V.; Cauwenbergh, V.; Bleijenberg, G.
BACKGROUND: Besides chronic fatigue, patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) have debilitating widespread pain. Yet pain from CFS is often ignored by clinicians and researchers. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether pain is a unique feature of CFS, or does it share the same underlying mechanisms as
Full Text Available Introduction. Chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME is a debilitating disorder of unknown aetiology, characterised by severe disabling fatigue in the absence of alternative diagnosis. Historically, there has been a tendency to draw psychological explanations for the origin of fatigue; however, this model is at odds with findings that fatigue and accompanying symptoms may be explained by central and peripheral pathophysiological mechanisms, including effects of the immune, oxidative, mitochondrial, and neuronal pathways. For example, patient descriptions of their fatigue regularly cite difficulty in maintaining muscle activity due to perceived lack of energy. This narrative review examined the literature for evidence of biochemical dysfunction in CFS/ME at the skeletal muscle level. Methods. Literature was examined following searches of PUB MED, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar, using key words such as CFS/ME, immune, autoimmune, mitochondria, muscle, and acidosis. Results. Studies show evidence for skeletal muscle biochemical abnormality in CFS/ME patients, particularly in relation to bioenergetic dysfunction. Discussion. Bioenergetic muscle dysfunction is evident in CFS/ME, with a tendency towards an overutilisation of the lactate dehydrogenase pathway following low-level exercise, in addition to slowed acid clearance after exercise. Potentially, these abnormalities may lead to the perception of severe fatigue in CFS/ME.
Jason, Leonard A.; Skendrovic, Beth; Furst, Jacob; Brown, Abigail; Weng, Angela; Bronikowski, Christine
This article contrasts two case definitions for Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). We compared the empiric CFS case definition (Reeves et al., 2005) and the Canadian ME/CFS Clinical case definition (Carruthers et al., 2003) with a sample of individuals with CFS versus those without. Data mining with decision trees was used to identify the best items to identify patients with CFS. Data mining is a statistical technique that was used to help determine which of the surv...
Hughes, Alicia M.; Hirsch, Colette R.; Nikolaus, Stephanie; Chalder, Trudie; Knoop, Hans; Moss-Morris, Rona
This study aims to replicate a UK study, with a Dutch sample to explore whether attention and interpretation biases and general attentional control deficits in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) are similar across populations and cultures. Thirty eight Dutch CFS participants were compared to 52 CFS and
Lattie, Emily G; Antoni, Michael H; Fletcher, Mary Ann; Penedo, Frank; Czaja, Sara; Lopez, Corina; Perdomo, Dolores; Sala, Andreina; Nair, Sankaran; Fu, Shih Hua; Klimas, Nancy
Stressors and emotional distress responses impact chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) symptoms, including fatigue. Having better stress management skills might mitigate fatigue by decreasing emotional distress. Because CFS patients comprise a heterogeneous population, we hypothesized that the role of stress management skills in decreasing fatigue may be most pronounced in the subgroup manifesting the greatest neuroimmune dysfunction. In total, 117 individuals with CFS provided blood and saliva samples, and self-report measures of emotional distress, perceived stress management skills (PSMS), and fatigue. Plasma interleukin-1-beta (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and diurnal salivary cortisol were analyzed. We examined relations among PSMS, emotional distress, and fatigue in CFS patients who did and did not evidence neuroimmune abnormalities. Having greater PSMS related to less fatigue (p=.019) and emotional distress (pfatigue levels most strongly in CFS patients in the top tercile of IL-6, and emotional distress mediated the relationship between PSMS and fatigue most strongly in patients with the greatest circulating levels of IL-6 and a greater inflammatory (IL-6):anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokine ratio. CFS patients having greater PSMS show less emotional distress and fatigue, and the influence of stress management skills on distress and fatigue appear greatest among patients who have elevated IL-6 levels. These findings support the need for research examining the impact of stress management interventions in subgroups of CFS patients showing neuroimmune dysfunction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rasmussen, A K; Nielsen, H; Andersen, V
OBJECTIVE. To look for signs of immunodeficiencies and/or longstanding infections underlying chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). METHODS. Twenty-one patients fulfilling the Centers for Disease Control criteria for CFS were compared to 21 age and sex matched controls. A number of viral antibodies...
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is an increasingly common chronic medical condition that affects not only patients but also their families. Because family dynamics, particularly the family life cycle, can and does influence the disease process, those providing counseling to CFS patients and their families would do well to recognize these dynamics.…
Clark, James E; Davidson, Sean L; Maclachlan, Laura; Newton, Julia L; Watson, Stuart
Background: Previous studies have consistently shown increased rates of childhood adversity in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). However, such aetiopathogenic studies of CFS are potentially confounded by co-morbidity and misdiagnosis particularly with depression. Purpose: We examined the relationship between rates of childhood adversity using two complimentary approaches (1) a sample of CFS patients who had no lifetime history of depression and (2) a modelling approach. Methods: Childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ) administered to a sample of 52 participants with chronic fatigue syndrome and 19 controls who did not meet criteria for a psychiatric disorder (confirmed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV). Subsequently, Mediation Analysis (Baye's Rules) was used to establish the risk childhood adversity poses for CFS with and without depression. Results: In a cohort of CFS patients with depression comprehensively excluded, CTQ scores were markedly lower than in all previous studies and, in contrast to these previous studies, not increased compared with healthy controls. Post-hoc analysis showed that CTQ scores correlated with the number of depressive symptoms during the lifetime worst period of low mood. The probability of developing CFS given a history of childhood trauma is 4%, a two-fold increased risk compared to the general population. However, much of this risk is mediated by the concomitant development of major depression. Conclusions: The data suggests that previous studies showing a relationship between childhood adversity and CFS may be attributable to the confounding effects of co-morbid or misdiagnosed depressive disorder. Abbreviations: CFS: Chronic fatigue syndrome; CTQ: Childhood trauma questionnaire; MDD: Major depressive disorder; CA: Childhood adversity; P : Probability.
Staud, Roland; Mokthech, Meriem; Price, Donald D; Robinson, Michael E
Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) frequently demonstrate intolerance to physical exertion that is often reported as increased and long-lasting fatigue. Because no specific metabolic alterations have been identified in CFS patients, we hypothesized that sensitized fatigue pathways become activated during exercise corresponding with increased fatigue. After exhausting handgrip exercise, muscle metabolites were trapped in the forearm tissues of 39 CFS patients and 29 normal control (NC) by sudden occlusion for up to 5 minutes. A nonocclusive condition of similar duration was used as control. Repeated fatigue and pain ratings were obtained before and after exercise. Mechanical and heat hyperalgesia were assessed by quantitative sensory testing. All subjects fulfilled the 1994 Fukuda Criteria for CFS. Normal control and CFS subjects exercised for 6.6 (2.4) and 7.0 (2.7) minutes (P > 0.05). Forearm occlusion lasted for 4.7 (1.3) and 4.9 (1.8) minutes in NC and CFS subjects, respectively (P > 0.05). Although fatigue ratings of CFS subjects increased from 4.8 (2.0) to 5.6 (2.1) visual analogue scale (VAS) units during forearm occlusion, they decreased from 5.0 (1.8) to 4.8 (2.0) VAS units during the control condition without occlusion (P = 0.04). A similar time course of fatigue ratings was observed in NC (P > 0.05), although their ratings were significantly lower than those of CFS subjects (P fatigue in CFS patients consistent with sensitization of fatigue pathways. Future interventions that reduce sensitization of fatigue pathways in CFS patients may be of therapeutic benefit.
Reeves William C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Unremitting fatigue and unrefreshing sleep, hallmark traits of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS, are also pathognomonic of sleep disorders. Yet, no reproducible perturbations of sleep architecture, multiple sleep latency times or Epworth Sleepiness Scores are found to be associated consistently with CFS. This led us to hypothesize that sleep homeostasis, rather than sleep architecture, may be perturbed in CFS. To probe this hypothesis, we measured and compared EEG frequencies associated with restorative sleep between persons with CFS and matched controls, both derived from a population-based sample. Methods We evaluated overnight polysomnography (PSG in 35 CFS and 40 control subjects. PSG records were manually scored and epochs containing artifact removed. Fast Fourier Transformation was utilized to deconstruct individual EEG signals into primary frequency bands of alpha, delta, theta, sigma, and beta frequency domains. The spectral power of each frequency domain for each sleep state was compared between persons with CFS and matched controls. Results In persons with CFS, delta power was diminished during slow wave sleep, but elevated during both stage 1 and REM. Alpha power was reduced during stage 2, slow wave, and REM sleep. Those with CFS also had significantly lower theta, sigma, and beta spectral power during stage 2, Slow Wave Sleep, and REM. Discussion Employing quantitative EEG analysis we demonstrate reduced spectral power of cortical delta activity during SWS. We also establish reduced spectral power of cortical alpha activity, with the greatest reduction occurring during REM sleep. Reductions in theta, beta, and sigma spectral power were also apparent. Conclusion Unremitting fatigue and unrefreshing sleep, the waking manifestations of CFS, may be the consequence of impaired sleep homeostasis rather than a primary sleep disorder.
Godts, Daisy; Moorkens, Greta; Mathysen, Danny G P
To compare binocular vision measurements between Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) patients and healthy controls. Forty-one CFS patients referred by the Reference Centre for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome of the Antwerp University Hospital and forty-one healthy volunteers, matched for age and gender, underwent a complete orthoptic examination. Data of visual acuity, eye position, fusion amplitude, stereopsis, ocular motility, convergence, and accommodation were compared between both groups. Patients with CFS showed highly significant smaller fusion amplitudes (P convergence capacity (P accommodation range (P convergence and accommodation should be routinely examined. CFS patients will benefit from reading glasses either with or without prism correction in an earlier stage compared to their healthy peers. Convergence exercises may be beneficial for CFS patients, despite the fact that they might be very tiring. Further research will be necessary to draw conclusions about the efficacy of treatment, especially regarding convergence exercises. To our knowledge, this is the first prospective study evaluating binocular vision in CFS patients. © 2016 Board of regents of the University of Wisconsin System, American Orthoptic Journal, Volume 66, 2016, ISSN 0065-955X, E-ISSN 1553-4448.
Itoh, Yasuhiko; Shigemori, Tomoko; Igarashi, Tohru; Fukunaga, Yoshitaka
Fibromyalgia (FM) is characterized by widespread persistent pain and the presence of multiple discrete tender points. Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a syndrome characterized by debilitating fatigue associated with a variable number of non-specific complaints. Because neither condition had necessarily been recognized in children until recently, those patients have been treated as having school refusal without being diagnosed as having either syndrome. There is a considerable overlap of clinical symptoms between these two syndromes. It is therefore controversial as to whether these syndromes have the same pathogenesis or not. The aim of the present study was to clarify the relationship between these syndromes in children. Fifteen patients with FM and 21 patients with CFS were investigated both clinically and immunologically. Immunological assessments included thorough analysis of autoantibodies using several techniques. Anti-nuclear antibody titers were higher and the prevalence of anti-Sa antibody was far more frequent in CFS patients than in FM patients. CFS and FM are different from each other at least in childhood, from an immunological aspect, although some patients could have both conditions. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.
Wilfred C de Vega
Full Text Available Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS, also known as myalgic encephalomyelitis, is a complex multifactorial disease that is characterized by the persistent presence of fatigue and other particular symptoms for a minimum of 6 months. Symptoms fail to dissipate after sufficient rest and have major effects on the daily functioning of CFS sufferers. CFS is a multi-system disease with a heterogeneous patient population showing a wide variety of functional disabilities and its biological basis remains poorly understood. Stable alterations in gene function in the immune system have been reported in several studies of CFS. Epigenetic modifications have been implicated in long-term effects on gene function, however, to our knowledge, genome-wide epigenetic modifications associated with CFS have not been explored. We examined the DNA methylome in peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from CFS patients and healthy controls using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array, controlling for invariant probes and probes overlapping polymorphic sequences. Gene ontology (GO and network analysis of differentially methylated genes was performed to determine potential biological pathways showing changes in DNA methylation in CFS. We found an increased abundance of differentially methylated genes related to the immune response, cellular metabolism, and kinase activity. Genes associated with immune cell regulation, the largest coordinated enrichment of differentially methylated pathways, showed hypomethylation within promoters and other gene regulatory elements in CFS. These data are consistent with evidence of multisystem dysregulation in CFS and implicate the involvement of DNA modifications in CFS pathology.
Bould, Helen; Collin, Simon M; Lewis, Glyn; Rimes, Katharine; Crawley, Esther
To describe the prevalence of depression in children with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS)/myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) and investigate the relationship between depression in CFS/ME and clinical symptoms such as fatigue, disability, pain and school attendance. Cross-sectional survey data using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) collected at assessment. Specialist paediatric CFS/ME service in the South West. Children aged 12-18 years with CFS/ME. Depression was defined as scoring >9 on the HADS depression scale. 542 subjects had complete data for the HADS and 29% (156/542) (95% CI 25% to 33%) had depression. In a univariable analysis, female sex, poorer school attendance, and higher levels of fatigue, disability, pain, and anxiety were associated with higher odds of depression. Age of child and duration of illness were not associated with depression. In a multivariable analysis, the factors most strongly associated with depression were disability, with higher scores on the physical function subscale of the 36 item Short Form (SF-36). Depression is commonly comorbid with CFS/ME, much more common than in the general population, and is associated with markers of disease severity. It is important to screen for, identify and treat depression in this population.
Full Text Available The cause of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS is still enigmatic. Using indirect immunofluorescence testing for measuring antibody against human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6, this study investigated the association of CFS with infection by HHV-6. Seventeen patients (group A fulfilling the Centers for Disease Control (CDC definition for CFS were compared with eight patients (group B with chronic fatigue but not meeting the CDC criteria. No significant difference was found between the two groups for 30 parameters including sex, age, exposure to children and serology for Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, and toxoplasma. Univariate analysis showed that patients in group A complained more frequently of a sore throat, headache and of recurrent type of fatigue. These three parameters are discriminant in identifying patients who will meet the CDC case definition of CFS. The titre of antibody against HHV-6 in group A (1:99 was significantly higher than in group B (1:15 (P=0.007. Elevated HHV-6 titres suggests that this virus could be a cofactor in the pathogenesis of CFS.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS came to attention in the 1980s, but initial investigations did not find organic causes. Now decades later, the etiology of CFS has yet to be understood, and the role of genetic predisposition in CFS remains controversial. Recent reports of CFS association with the retrovirus xenotropic murine leukemic virus-related virus (XMRV or other murine leukemia related retroviruses (MLV might also suggest underlying genetic implications within the host immune system. Methods We present analyses of familial clustering of CFS in a computerized genealogical resource linking multiple generations of genealogy data with medical diagnosis data of a large Utah health care system. We compare pair-wise relatedness among cases to expected relatedness in the Utah population, and we estimate risk for CFS for first, second, and third degree relatives of CFS cases. Results We observed significant excess relatedness of CFS cases compared to that expected in this population. Significant excess relatedness was observed for both close (p Conclusions These analyses provide strong support for a heritable contribution to predisposition to Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. A population of high-risk CFS pedigrees has been identified, the study of which may provide additional understanding.
van de Putte, E. M.; Uiterwaal, C. S. P. M.; Bots, M. L.; Kuis, W.; Kimpen, J. L. L.; Engelbert, R. H. H.
To investigate whether constitutional laxity of the connective tissues is more frequently present in adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) than in healthy controls. Increased joint hypermobility in patients with CFS has been previously described, as has lower blood pressure in fatigued
de Lange, Floris P.; Koers, Anda; Kalkman, Joke S.; Bleijenberg, Gijs; Hagoort, Peter; van der Meer, Jos W. M.; Toni, Ivan
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a disabling disorder, characterized by persistent or relapsing fatigue. Recent studies have detected a decrease in cortical grey matter volume in patients with CFS, but it is unclear whether this cerebral atrophy constitutes a cause or a consequence of the disease. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is an…
Hall, Daniel L; Antoni, Michael H; Lattie, Emily G; Jutagir, Devika R; Czaja, Sara J; Perdomo, Dolores; Lechner, Suzanne C; Stagl, Jamie M; Bouchard, Laura C; Gudenkauf, Lisa M; Traeger, Lara; Fletcher, MaryAnn; Klimas, Nancy G
Persistent fatigue and depressive symptoms are both highly prevalent among patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) as well as breast cancer survivors. This study aimed to assess and directly compare perceptions of fatigue as highly interfering in one's daily functioning in both patient populations to better understand their relationships with depressed mood. Participants were 95 female CFS/ME patients and 67 females who were approximately 5 years post-treatment for stage 0-III breast cancer presenting with clinically elevated fatigue severity. Self-report measures were obtained on participants' fatigue-related interference in daily functioning and fatigue severity as well as depressed mood. Hierarchical regression was used to test effects controlling for relevant demographic, psychosocial, and medical covariates. CFS/ME patients endorsed greater depressed mood and fatigue interference than did fatigued breast cancer survivors, p's fatigued breast cancer survivors (β=.18, p =.19). CFS/ME patients reported elevated fatigue symptoms and depression relative to fatigued breast cancer survivors. In the former group, greater depressed mood was highly and significantly associated with greater fatigue-related inference in daily activities. Potential targets for cognitive behavioral interventions are discussed.
Full Text Available Abstract Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS is a debilitating disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue and a combination of accompanying symptoms the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Many CFS patients complain of gut dysfunction. In fact, patients with CFS are more likely to report a previous diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, a common functional disorder of the gut, and experience IBS-related symptoms. Recently, evidence for interactions between the intestinal microbiota, mucosal barrier function, and the immune system have been shown to play a role in the disorder's pathogenesis. Studies examining the microecology of the gastrointestinal (GI tract have identified specific microorganisms whose presence appears related to disease; in CFS, a role for altered intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis of the disease has recently been suggested. Mucosal barrier dysfunction promoting bacterial translocation has also been observed. Finally, an altered mucosal immune system has been associated with the disease. In this article, we discuss the interplay between these factors in CFS and how they could play a significant role in GI dysfunction by modulating the activity of the enteric nervous system, the intrinsic innervation of the gut. If an altered intestinal microbiota, mucosal barrier dysfunction, and aberrant intestinal immunity contribute to the pathogenesis of CFS, therapeutic efforts to modify gut microbiota could be a means to modulate the development and/or progression of this disorder. For example, the administration of probiotics could alter the gut microbiota, improve mucosal barrier function, decrease pro-inflammatory cytokines, and have the potential to positively influence mood in patients where both emotional symptoms and inflammatory immune signals are elevated. Probiotics also have the potential to improve gut motility, which is dysfunctional in many CFS patients.
Keijmel, Stephan P; Saxe, Johanna; van der Meer, Jos W M; Nikolaus, Stephanie; Netea, Mihai G; Bleijenberg, Gijs; Bleeker-Rovers, Chantal P; Knoop, Hans
Comparison of Q fever fatigue syndrome (QFS) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) patients, with a focus on markers of inflammation and fatigue-related cognitive-behavioural variables. Data from two independent prospective studies on QFS (n=117) and CFS (n=173), respectively, were pooled and analyzed. QFS patients were less often female, had a higher BMI, and had less often received treatment for depression before the onset of symptoms. After controlling for symptom duration and correcting for differences in diagnostic criteria for QFS and CFS with respect to the level of impairment and the presence of additional symptoms, differences in the proportion of females and BMI remained significant. After correction, QFS patients were also significantly older. In all analyses QFS patients were as fatigued and distressed as CFS patients, but reported less additional symptoms. QFS patients had stronger somatic attributions, and higher levels of physical activity. No differences were found with regard to inflammatory markers and in other fatigue-related cognitive-behavioural variables. The relationship between cognitive-behavioural variables and fatigue, previously established in CFS, could not be confirmed in QFS patients with the exception of the negative relationship between physical activity and fatigue. Differences and similarities between QFS and CFS patients were found. Although the relationship between perpetuating factors and fatigue previously established in CFS could not be confirmed in QFS patients, the considerable overlap in fatigue-related cognitive-behavioural variables and the relationship found between physical activity and fatigue may suggest that behavioural interventions could reduce fatigue severity in QFS patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hall, Daniel L.; Antoni, Michael H.; Lattie, Emily G.; Jutagir, Devika R.; Czaja, Sara J.; Perdomo, Dolores; Lechner, Suzanne C.; Stagl, Jamie M.; Bouchard, Laura C.; Gudenkauf, Lisa M.; Traeger, Lara; Fletcher, MaryAnn; Klimas, Nancy G.
Objective Persistent fatigue and depressive symptoms are both highly prevalent among patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) as well as breast cancer survivors. This study aimed to assess and directly compare perceptions of fatigue as highly interfering in one’s daily functioning in both patient populations to better understand their relationships with depressed mood. Methods Participants were 95 female CFS/ME patients and 67 females who were approximately 5 years post-treatment for stage 0-III breast cancer presenting with clinically elevated fatigue severity. Self-report measures were obtained on participants’ fatigue-related interference in daily functioning and fatigue severity as well as depressed mood. Hierarchical regression was used to test effects controlling for relevant demographic, psychosocial, and medical covariates. Results CFS/ME patients endorsed greater depressed mood and fatigue interference than did fatigued breast cancer survivors, p’sfatigued breast cancer survivors (β=.18, p=.19). Conclusions CFS/ME patients reported elevated fatigue symptoms and depression relative to fatigued breast cancer survivors. In the former group, greater depressed mood was highly and significantly associated with greater fatigue-related inference in daily activities. Potential targets for cognitive behavioral interventions are discussed. PMID:26180660
Full Text Available Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS is a debilitating syndrome characterized by fatigue which, by exclusion, cannot be ascribed to another illness. Because of the vagueness of the symptoms and signs in patients with CFS, various attempts have been made to define the syndrome and classification criteria have been developed (1- 3, of which the most well-known and used are those of Fukuda et al. (1 This classification includes two major criteria...
Faro, Mònica; Sàez-Francás, Naia; Castro-Marrero, Jesús; Aliste, Luisa; Fernández de Sevilla, Tomás; Alegre, José
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a chronic condition that predominantly affects women. To date, there are few epidemiologic studies on CFS in men. The objective of the study was to assess whether there are gender-related differences in CFS, and to define a clinical phenotype in men. A prospective, cross-sectional cohort study was conducted including CFS patients at the time of diagnosis. Sociodemographic data, clinical variables, comorbid phenomena, fatigue, pain, anxiety/depression, and health quality of life, were assessed in the CFS population. A comparative study was also conducted between genders. The study included 1309 CFS patients, of which 119 (9.1%) were men. The mean age and symptoms onset were lower in men than women. The subjects included 30% single men vs. 15% single women, and 32% of men had specialist work vs. 20% of women. The most common triggering factor was an infection. Widespread pain, muscle spasms, dizziness, sexual dysfunction, Raynaud's phenomenon, morning stiffness, migratory arthralgias, drug and metals allergy, and facial oedema were less frequent in men. Fibromyalgia was present in 29% of men vs. 58% in women. The scores on physical function, physical role, and overall physical health of the SF-36 were higher in men. The sensory and affective dimensions of pain were lower in men. The clinical phenotype of the men with CFS was young, single, skilled worker, and infection as the main triggering agent. Men had less pain and less muscle and immune symptoms, fewer comorbid phenomena, and a better quality of life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.
Roerink, M E; Lenders, J W M; Schmits, I C; Pistorius, A M A; Smit, J W; Knoop, H; van der Meer, J W M
Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is considered a diagnostic marker for chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). The aims of this study were to (i) compare POTS prevalence in a CFS cohort with fatigued patients not meeting CFS criteria, and (ii) assess activity, impairment and response to cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) in CFS patients with POTS (POTS-CFS) and without POTS (non-POTS-CFS). Prospective cohort study at the Radboud University Medical Centre in the Netherlands. Between June 2013 and December 2014, 863 consecutive patients with persistent fatigue were screened. Patients underwent an active standing test, filled out questionnaires and wore an activity-sensing device for a period of 12 days. A total of 419 patients with CFS and 341 non-CFS fatigued patients were included in the study. POTS prevalence in adult patients with CFS was 5.7% vs. 6.9% in non-CFS adults (P = 0.54). In adolescents, prevalence rates were 18.2% and 17.4%, respectively (P = 0.93). Adult patients with POTS-CFS were younger (30 ± 12 vs. 40 ± 13 years, P = 0.001) and had a higher supine heart rate (71 ± 11 vs. 65 ± 9 beats per min, P = 0.009) compared with non-POTS-CFS patients. Severity and activity patterns did not differ between groups. In patients with CFS, criteria for Systemic Exertion Intolerance Disease (SEID) were met in 76% of adults and 67% of adolescents. In these patients with CFS fulfilling the SEID criteria, the prevalence of POTS was not different from that in the overall CFS population. POTS-CFS adolescents had less clinically significant improvement after CBT than non-POTS-CFS adolescents (58% vs. 88%, P = 0.017). In adults with CFS, the prevalence of POTS was low, was not different from the rate in non-CFS fatigued patients and was not related to disease severity or treatment outcome. In POTS-CFS adolescents, CBT was less successful than in non-POTS-CFS patients. The evaluation of POTS appears to be of limited value for the diagnosis of CFS. © 2016 The
De Venter, Maud; Illegems, Jela; Van Royen, Rita; Moorkens, Greta; Sabbe, Bernard G C; Van Den Eede, Filip
There is wide consensus that childhood trauma plays an important role in the aetiology of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). The current study examines the differential effects of childhood trauma subtypes on fatigue and physical functioning in individuals suffering from CFS. Participants were 155 well-documented adult, predominantly female CFS patients receiving treatment at the outpatient treatment centre for CFS of the Antwerp University Hospital in Belgium. Stepwise regression analyses were conducted with outcomes of the total score of the Checklist Individual Strength (CIS) measuring fatigue and the scores on the physical functioning subscale of the Medical Outcomes Short Form 36 Health Status Survey (SF-36) as the dependent variables, and the scores on the five subscales of the Traumatic Experiences Checklist (TEC) as the independent variables. The patients' fatigue (β=1.38; p=0.025) and physical functioning scores (β=-1.79; p=0.034) were significantly predicted by childhood sexual harassment. There were no significant effects of emotional neglect, emotional abuse, bodily threat, or sexual abuse during childhood. Of the childhood trauma subtypes investigated, sexual harassment emerged as the most important predictor of fatigue and poor physical functioning in the CFS patients assessed. These findings have to be taken into account in further clinical research and in the assessment and treatment of individuals coping with chronic fatigue syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bazelmans, E; Vercoulen, J H; Galama, J M; van Weel, C; van der Meer, J W; Bleijenberg, G
To determine the prevalence of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and of primary fibromyalgia syndrome (PFS) in the Netherlands. Questionnaire. Department of Medical Psychology, University Hospital Nijmegen, the Netherlands. A questionnaire was mailed to all the 6657 general practitioners in the Netherlands in order to inform them of the existence of CFS and to ask them if they had any CFS or PFS patients in their practices. Sixty percent (n = 4027) of the general practitioners returned the questionnaire. Of all the general practitioners, 27% said they had no CFS patients, 23% said they had 1 CFS patient, while 21% had 2 CFS patients, and 29% said they had 3 or more CFS patients in their practice. Concerning PFS the results were 17% (no PFS patients), 18%, 18% and 47%, respectively. With a mean practice of 2486 patients per general practice, the estimated prevalence of CFS was 112 per 100,000 and that of PFS 157 per 100,000 persons. Of the CFS patients 81% were women and 55% were 25-44 years old; for PFS these figures were 87% and 48% respectively. Extrapolation of the study results indicates that there are at least 17,000 CFS patients and 24,000 PFS patients in the Netherlands. The found prevalence is probably an under-estimation.
Stringer, Elizabeth Ann; Baker, Katharine Susanne; Carroll, Ian R; Montoya, Jose G; Chu, Lily; Maecker, Holden T; Younger, Jarred W
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a debilitating disorder characterized by persistent fatigue that is not alleviated by rest. The lack of a clearly identified underlying mechanism has hindered the development of effective treatments. Studies have demonstrated elevated levels of inflammatory factors in patients with CFS, but findings are contradictory across studies and no biomarkers have been consistently supported. Single time-point approaches potentially overlook important features of CFS, such as fluctuations in fatigue severity. We have observed that individuals with CFS demonstrate significant day-to-day variability in their fatigue severity. Therefore, to complement previous studies, we implemented a novel longitudinal study design to investigate the role of cytokines in CFS pathophysiology. Ten women meeting the Fukuda diagnostic criteria for CFS and ten healthy age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched women underwent 25 consecutive days of blood draws and self-reporting of symptom severity. A 51-plex cytokine panel via Luminex was performed for each of the 500 serum samples collected. Our primary hypothesis was that daily fatigue severity would be significantly correlated with the inflammatory adipokine leptin, in the women with CFS and not in the healthy control women. As a post-hoc analysis, a machine learning algorithm using all 51 cytokines was implemented to determine whether immune factors could distinguish high from low fatigue days. Self-reported fatigue severity was significantly correlated with leptin levels in six of the participants with CFS and one healthy control, supporting our primary hypothesis. The machine learning algorithm distinguished high from low fatigue days in the CFS group with 78.3% accuracy. Our results support the role of cytokines in the pathophysiology of CFS.
Full Text Available Roland Staud,1 Taylor Kizer,1 Michael E Robinson2 1Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, 2Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA Objective: Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS complain of long-lasting fatigue and pain which are not relieved by rest and worsened by physical exertion. Previous research has implicated metaboreceptors of muscles to play an important role for chronic fatigue and pain. Therefore, we hypothesized that blocking impulse input from deep tissues with intramuscular lidocaine injections would improve not only the pain but also fatigue of CFS patients. Methods: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 58 CFS patients received 20 mL of 1% lidocaine (200 mg or normal saline once into both trapezius and gluteal muscles. Study outcomes included clinical fatigue and pain, depression, and anxiety. In addition, mechanical and heat hyperalgesia were assessed and serum levels of lidocaine were obtained after the injections. Results: Fatigue ratings of CFS patients decreased significantly more after lidocaine compared to saline injections (p = 0.03. In contrast, muscle injections reduced pain, depression, and anxiety (p < 0.001, but these changes were not statistically different between lidocaine and saline (p > 0.05. Lidocaine injections increased mechanical pain thresholds of CFS patients (p = 0.04 but did not affect their heat hyperalgesia. Importantly, mood changes or lidocaine serum levels did not significantly predict fatigue reductions. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that lidocaine injections reduce clinical fatigue of CFS patients significantly more than placebo, suggesting an important role of peripheral tissues for chronic fatigue. Future investigations will be necessary to evaluate the clinical benefits of such interventions. Keywords: muscle injections, lidocaine, metaboreceptor, chronic fatigue
Ross, S; Fantie, B; Straus, S F; Grafman, J
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) patients and controls were compared on a variety of mood state, personality, and neuropsychological measures, including memory, word finding, and attentional tasks that required participants to focus, sustain, or divide their attention, or to perform a combination of these functions. CFS patients demonstrated a selective deficit on 3 measures of divided attention. Their performance on the other neuropsychological tests of intelligence, fluency, and memory was no different than that of normal controls despite their reports of generally diminished cognitive capacity. There was an inverse relation between CFS patient fatigue severity and performance on 1 of the divided attention measures. Given these findings, it is probable that CFS patients will report more cognitive difficulties in real-life situations that cause them to divide their effort or rapidly reallocate cognitive resources between 2 response channels (vision and audition).
Evering, R.M.H.; Tönis, Thijs; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé
Deviations in daily physical activity patterns may play an important role in the development and maintenance of fatigue in the chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). The aim of this study is to gain insight into the objective daily physical activity pattern of patients with CFS in comparison with healthy
van Geelen, Stefan M; Sinnema, Gerben; Hermans, Hubert J M; Kuis, Wietse
Among clinical psychologists, consulting physicians, scientific researchers and society in general an image has emerged of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) as perfectionist, conscientious, hardworking, somewhat neurotic and introverted individuals with high personal standards, a great desire to be socially accepted and with a history of continuously pushing themselves past their limits. The aim of this article is to (a) give a concise review of the main recent studies on personality and CFS, (b) address the major methodological problems in the study of personality in CFS and (c) discuss some of the conceptual assumptions that seem to limit the research on personality and CFS. The results of the reviewed studies range from no evidence of major differences between the personalities of patients with CFS and controls, to evidence of severe psychopathology and personality disorder in patients with CFS. Although personality seems to play a role in CFS, it is difficult to draw general conclusions on the relation between personality and CFS. It is argued that this is partially due to the diversity and heterogeneity in study methods, patient populations, control groups and CFS case definitions. Personality should be regarded as an important factor to be studied in CFS. However, additional studies are needed, not focusing exclusively on personality disorder, or personality considered on a general trait level. In recent developments in personality research, the continually evolving life narrative that makes sense of, and gives direction to, an individual's life is also regarded as an important aspect of personality. New insights into personality and CFS might be gained by systematically studying the self-narratives of patients with the syndrome.
Katz, Ben Z.; Shiraishi, Yukiko; Mears, Cynthia J.; Binns, Helen J.; Taylor, Renee
Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a complex and controversial condition responsible for marked functional impairment. Infectious mononucleosis (IM) may be a predisposing factor for CFS. Among adults after IM, 9-12% may have symptomatic fatigue 6 months later. Rates of CFS in the general adolescent population are low (0.2%). Objective To prospectively characterize the course and outcome of CFS in adolescents during a 2 year period following IM. Design/Methods 301 adolescents (12-18 years) with IM were identified and screened for non-recovery 6 months following IM using a telephone screening interview. Non-recovered adolescents underwent a medical evaluation, and had follow-up screening at 12 and 24 months following IM. Following blind review, final diagnoses of CFS were made at 6, 12 and 24 months using established pediatric criteria. Results 6, 12 and 24 months following IM, 13%, 7% and 4%, respectively, of adolescents met criteria for CFS. Most individuals recovered with time; only 2 adolescents with CFS at 24 months seemed to have recovered or had an explanation for CFS at 12 months but then were reclassified as CFS at 24 months. All 13 adolescents with CFS 24 months following IM were female and on average reported greater fatigue severity at 12 months. Reported use of steroid therapy during the acute phase of IM did not increase the risk of developing CFS. Conclusions IM thus may be a risk factor for CFS in adolescents. Female gender and greater fatigue severity, but not reported steroid use during the acute illness, were associated with the development of CFS in adolescents. Further research is needed to determine other predictors of persistent fatigue following IM. PMID:19564299
Ickmans, Kelly; Meeus, Mira; Kos, Daphne; Clarys, Peter; Meersdom, Geert; Lambrecht, Luc; Pattyn, Nathalie; Nijs, Jo
In various chronic pain populations, decreased cognitive performance is known to be related to pain severity. Yet, this relationship has not been investigated in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). This study investigated the relationship between cognitive performance and (1) pain severity, (2) level of fatigue, and (3) self-reported symptoms and health status in women with CFS. Examining the latter relationships is important for clinical practice, since people with CFS are often suspected to exaggerate their symptoms. A sample of 29 female CFS patients and 17 healthy controls aged 18 to 45 years filled out three questionnaires (Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, Checklist Individual Strength (CIS), and CFS Symptom List) and performed three performance-based cognitive tests (psychomotor vigilance task, Stroop task, and operation span task), respectively. In both groups, pain severity was not associated with cognitive performance. In CFS patients, the level of fatigue measured with the CFS Symptom List, but not with the CIS, was significantly correlated with sustained attention. Self-reported mental health was negatively correlated with all investigated cognitive domains in the CFS group. These results provide evidence for the clinical importance of objectively measured cognitive problems in female CFS patients. Furthermore, a state-like measure (CFS Symptom List) appears to be superior over a trait-like measure (CIS) in representing cognitive fatigue in people with CFS. Finally, the lack of a significant relationship between cognitive performance and self-reported pain severity suggests that pain in CFS might be unique.
Peter C Rowe
Full Text Available Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS is a complex, multisystem disorder that can be disabling. CFS symptoms can be provoked by increased physical or cognitive activity, and by orthostatic stress. In preliminary work, we noted that CFS symptoms also could be provoked by application of longitudinal neural and soft tissue strain to the limbs and spine of affected individuals. In this study we measured the responses to a straight leg raise neuromuscular strain maneuver in individuals with CFS and healthy controls. We randomly assigned 60 individuals with CFS and 20 healthy controls to either a 15 minute period of passive supine straight leg raise (true neuromuscular strain or a sham straight leg raise. The primary outcome measure was the symptom intensity difference between the scores during and 24 hours after the study maneuver compared to baseline. Fatigue, body pain, lightheadedness, concentration difficulties, and headache scores were measured individually on a 0-10 scale, and summed to create a composite symptom score. Compared to individuals with CFS in the sham strain group, those with CFS in the true strain group reported significantly increased body pain (P = 0.04 and concentration difficulties (P = 0.02 as well as increased composite symptom scores (all P = 0.03 during the maneuver. After 24 hours, the symptom intensity differences were significantly greater for the CFS true strain group for the individual symptom of lightheadedness (P = 0.001 and for the composite symptom score (P = 0.005. During and 24 hours after the exposure to the true strain maneuver, those with CFS had significantly higher individual and composite symptom intensity changes compared to the healthy controls. We conclude that a longitudinal strain applied to the nerves and soft tissues of the lower limb is capable of increasing symptom intensity in individuals with CFS for up to 24 hours. These findings support our preliminary observations that increased mechanical
Ashton Kevin J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS is a multifactorial disorder that affects various physiological systems including immune and neurological systems. The immune system has been substantially examined in CFS with equivocal results, however, little is known about the role of neutrophils and natural killer (NK phenotypes in the pathomechanism of this disorder. Additionally the role of erythrocyte rheological characteristics in CFS has not been fully expounded. The objective of this present study was to determine deficiencies in lymphocyte function and erythrocyte rheology in CFS patients. Methods Flow cytometric measurements were performed for neutrophil function, lymphocyte numbers, NK phenotypes (CD56dimCD16+ and CD56brightCD16- and NK cytotoxic activity. Erythrocyte aggregation, deformability and fibrinogen levels were also assessed. Results CFS patients (n = 10 had significant decreases in neutrophil respiratory burst, NK cytotoxic activity and CD56brightCD16- NK phenotypes in comparison to healthy controls (n = 10. However, hemorheological characteristic, aggregation, deformability, fibrinogen, lymphocyte numbers and CD56dimCD16+ NK cells were similar between the two groups. Conclusion These results indicate immune dysfunction as potential contributors to the mechanism of CFS, as indicated by decreases in neutrophil respiratory burst, NK cell activity and NK phenotypes. Thus, immune cell function and phenotypes may be important diagnostic markers for CFS. The absence of rheological changes may indicate no abnormalities in erythrocytes of CFS patients.
Papanicolaou Dimitris A
Full Text Available Abstract Background The lack of standardized criteria for defining chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS has constrained research. The objective of this study was to apply the 1994 CFS criteria by standardized reproducible criteria. Methods This population-based case control study enrolled 227 adults identified from the population of Wichita with: (1 CFS (n = 58; (2 non-fatigued controls matched to CFS on sex, race, age and body mass index (n = 55; (3 persons with medically unexplained fatigue not CFS, which we term ISF (n = 59; (4 CFS accompanied by melancholic depression (n = 27; and (5 ISF plus melancholic depression (n = 28. Participants were admitted to a hospital for two days and underwent medical history and physical examination, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, and laboratory testing to identify medical and psychiatric conditions exclusionary for CFS. Illness classification at the time of the clinical study utilized two algorithms: (1 the same criteria as in the surveillance study; (2 a standardized clinically empirical algorithm based on quantitative assessment of the major domains of CFS (impairment, fatigue, and accompanying symptoms. Results One hundred and sixty-four participants had no exclusionary conditions at the time of this study. Clinically empirical classification identified 43 subjects as CFS, 57 as ISF, and 64 as not ill. There was minimal association between the empirical classification and classification by the surveillance criteria. Subjects empirically classified as CFS had significantly worse impairment (evaluated by the SF-36, more severe fatigue (documented by the multidimensional fatigue inventory, more frequent and severe accompanying symptoms than those with ISF, who in turn had significantly worse scores than the not ill; this was not true for classification by the surveillance algorithm. Conclusion The empirical definition includes all aspects of CFS specified in the 1994 case definition and identifies persons with
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-N-0962] Drug Development for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis; Public Workshop AGENCY... therapies to treat signs and symptoms related to chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and myalgic...
Bates, D W; Schmitt, W; Buchwald, D; Ware, N C; Lee, J; Thoyer, E; Kornish, R J; Komaroff, A L
Our goals were to determine the prevalence of unusual, debilitating fatigue and the frequency with which it was associated with the chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) or other physical or psychological illness in an outpatient clinic population. We prospectively evaluated a cohort of 1000 consecutive patients in a primary care clinic in an urban, hospital-based general medicine practice. The study protocol included a detailed history, physical examination, and laboratory and psychiatric testing. Five patients who came because of CFS studies were excluded. Of the remaining 995, 323 reported fatigue, and 271 (27%) complained of at least 6 months of unusual fatigue that interfered with their daily lives. Of the 271, self-report or record review revealed a medical or psychiatric condition that could have explained the fatigue in 186 (69%). Thus, 85 (8.5%) of 995 patients had a debilitating fatigue of at least 6 months' duration, without apparent cause. Of these patients, 48 refused further evaluation, and 11 were unavailable for follow-up; 26 completed the protocol. Three of the 26 were hypothyroid, and one had a major psychiatric disorder. Of the remaining 22 patients, three met Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for CFS, four met British criteria, and 10 met the Australian case definition. The point prevalences of CFS were thus 0.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0% to 0.6%), 0.4% (95% CI, 0% to 0.8%), and 1.0% (95% CI, 0.4% to 1.6%) using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, British, and Australian case definitions, respectively. These estimates were conservative, because they assumed that none of the patients who refused evaluation or were unavailable for follow-up would meet criteria for CFS. While chronic, debilitating fatigue is common in medical outpatients, CFS is relatively uncommon. Prevalence depends substantially on the case definition used.
Wyller, Vegard Bruun; Sørensen, Øystein; Sulheim, Dag; Fagermoen, Even; Ueland, Thor; Mollnes, Tom Eirik
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a prevalent and disabling condition among adolescents. The pathophysiology is poorly understood, but low-grade systemic inflammation has been suggested as an important component. This study compared circulating levels of individual cytokines and parameters of cytokine networks in a large set of adolescent CFS patients and healthy controls, and explored associations between cytokines and symptoms in the CFS group. CFS patients (12-18years old) were recruited nation-wide to a single referral center as part of the NorCAPITAL project (ClinicalTrials ID: NCT01040429). A broad case definition of CFS was applied, requiring three months of unexplained, disabling chronic/relapsing fatigue of new onset, whereas no accompanying symptoms were necessary. Thus, the case definition was broader than the Fukuda-criteria of CFS. Healthy controls having comparable distribution of gender and age were recruited from local schools. Twenty-seven plasma cytokines, including interleukins, chemokines and growth factors were assayed using multiplex technology. The results were subjected to network analyses using the ARACNE algorithm. Symptoms were charted by a questionnaire, and patients were subgrouped according to the Fukuda-criteria. A total of 120 CFS patients and 68 healthy controls were included. CFS patients had higher scores for fatigue (p<0.001) and inflammatory symptoms (p<0.001) than healthy controls. All cytokine levels and cytokine network parameters were similar, and none of the differences were statistically different across the two groups, also when adjusting for adherence to the Fukuda criteria of CFS. Within the CFS group, there were no associations between aggregate cytokine network parameters and symptom scores. Adolescent CFS patients are burdened by symptoms that might suggest low-grade systemic inflammation, but plasma levels of individual cytokines as well as cytokine network measures were not different from healthy controls, and
Lewis, I; Pairman, J; Spickett, G; Newton, J L
A significant proportion of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) also have postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS). We aimed to characterize these patients and differentiate them from CFS patients without POTS in terms of clinical and autonomic features. A total of 179 patients with CFS (1994 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria) attending one of the largest Department of Health-funded CFS clinical services were included in this study. Outcome measures were as follows: (i) symptom assessment tools including the fatigue impact scale, Chalder fatigue scale, Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS), orthostatic grading scale (OGS) and hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS-A and -D, respectively), (ii) autonomic function analysis including heart rate variability and (iii) haemodynamic responses including left ventricular ejection time and systolic blood pressure drop upon standing. CFS patients with POTS (13%, n = 24) were younger (29 ± 12 vs. 42 ± 13 years, P fatigued (Chalder fatigue scale, 8 ± 4 vs. 10 ± 2, P = 0.002), less depressed (HADS-D, 6 ± 4 vs. 9 ± 4, P = 0.01) and had reduced daytime hypersomnolence (ESS, 7 ± 6 vs. 10 ± 5, P = 0.02), compared with patients without POTS. In addition, they exhibited greater orthostatic intolerance (OGS, 11 ± 5; P < 0.0001) and autonomic dysfunction. A combined clinical assessment tool of ESS ≤9 and OGS ≥9 identifies accurately CFS patients with POTS with 100% positive and negative predictive values. The presence of POTS marks a distinct clinical group of CFS patents, with phenotypic features differentiating them from those without POTS. A combination of validated clinical assessment tools can determine which CFS patients have POTS with a high degree of accuracy, and thus potentially identify those who require further investigation and consideration for therapy to control heart rate. © 2013 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.
Light, Kathleen C; Agarwal, Neeraj; Iacob, Eli; White, Andrea T; Kinney, Anita Y; VanHaitsma, Timothy A; Aizad, Hannah; Hughen, Ronald W; Bateman, Lucinda; Light, Alan R
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) often worsens fatigue in patients with prostate cancer, producing symptoms similar to chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Comparing expression (mRNA) of many fatigue-related genes in patients with ADT-treated prostate cancer versus with CFS versus healthy controls, and correlating mRNA with fatigue severity may clarify the differing pathways underlying fatigue in these conditions. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed on leukocytes from 30 fatigued, ADT-treated prostate cancer patients (PCF), 39 patients with CFS and 22 controls aged 40-79, together with ratings of fatigue and pain severity. 46 genes from these pathways were included: (1) adrenergic/monoamine/neuropeptides, (2) immune, (3) metabolite-detecting, (4) mitochondrial/energy, (5) transcription factors. PCF patients showed higher expression than controls or CFS of 2 immune transcription genes (NR3C1 and TLR4), chemokine CXCR4, and mitochondrial gene SOD2. They showed lower expression of 2 vasodilation-related genes (ADRB2 and VIPR2), 2 cytokines (TNF and LTA), and 2 metabolite-detecting receptors (ASIC3 and P2RX7). CFS patients showed higher P2RX7 and lower HSPA2 versus controls and PCF. Correlations with fatigue severity were similar in PCF and CFS for only DBI, the GABA-A receptor modulator (r=-0.50, pfatigue and pain severity (r=+0.43 and +0.59, p=0.025 and p=0.001). PCF patients differed from controls and CFS in mean expression of 10 genes from all 5 pathways. Correlations with fatigue severity implicated DBI for both patient groups and P2RY1 for PCF only. These pathways may provide new targets for interventions to reduce fatigue. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schmaling, Karen B; Betterton, Karran L
The purpose of this study was to conduct a longitudinal examination of cognitive complaints and functional status in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) alone and those who also had fibromyalgia (CFS/FM). A total of 93 patients from a tertiary care fatigue clinic were evaluated on four occasions, each 6 months apart. Each evaluation included a tender point assessment, and self-reported functional status and cognitive complaints. Patients with CFS/FM reported significantly worse physical functioning, more bodily pain, and more cognitive difficulties (visuo-perceptual ability and verbal memory) than patients with CFS alone. Over time, bodily pain decreased only for participants with CFS alone. Verbal memory problems were associated with more bodily pain for both patient groups, whereas visuo-perceptual problems were associated with worse functional status for patients with CFS alone. This study adds to the literature on functional status, longitudinal course, and cognitive difficulties among patients with CFS and those with CFS and FM. The results suggest that patients with CFS/FM are more disabled, have more cognitive complaints, and improve more slowly over time than patients with CFS alone. Specific cognitive difficulties are related to worse functional status, which supports the addition of cognitive difficulties to the FM case criteria.
Greenberg, Shai; Frid, Mordechai
One of the major symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is reduced exercise and functional capacity and increased fatigue symptoms following physical effort. A review of the literature indicates that patients that suffer from CFS are characterized by: low aerobic capacity, higher heart rate during sub-maximal exercise, higher subjective effort prescription, reduced muscle strength, and prolonged recovery period. Although several symptoms are a result of lack of physical activity, several mechanisms were suggested to explain those symptoms: pathological heart rate control, reduced aerobic metabolic capacity, reduced blood supply to the working muscles and nerve system dysfunction. Participating in guided exercise programs was found to be the most effective treatment in improving exercise and functional capacity, reducing fatigue syndromes and improving patients' daily function.
Harvey Jeanna M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS is a complex, multi-symptom illness with a multisystem pathogenesis involving alterations in the nervous, endocrine and immune systems. Abnormalities in stress responses have been identified as potential triggers or mediators of CFS symptoms. This study focused on the stress mediator neuropeptide Y (NPY. We hypothesized that NPY would be a useful biomarker for CFS. Methods The CFS patients (n = 93 were from the Chronic Fatigue and Related Disorders Clinic at the University of Miami and met the 1994 case definition of Fukuda and colleagues. Healthy sedentary controls (n = 100 were from NIH or VA funded studies. Another fatiguing, multi-symptom illness, Gulf War Illness (GWI, was also compared to CFS. We measured NPY in plasma using a radioimmunoassay (RIA. Psychometric measures, available for a subset of CFS patients included: Perceived Stress Scale, Profile of Mood States, ATQ Positive & Negative Self-Talk Scores, the COPE, the Beck Depression Inventory, Fatigue Symptom Inventory, Cognitive Capacity Screening Examination, Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form-36, and the Quality of Life Scale. Results Plasma NPY was elevated in CFS subjects, compared to controls (p = .000 and to GWI cases (p = .000. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve analyses indicated that the predictive ability of plasma NPY to distinguish CFS patients from healthy controls and from GWI was significantly better than chance alone. In 42 patients with CFS, plasma NPY had significant correlations ( Conclusions This study is the first in the CFS literature to report that plasma NPY is elevated compared to healthy controls and to a fatigued comparison group, GWI patients. The significant correlations of NPY with stress, negative mood, general health, depression and cognitive function strongly suggest that this peptide be considered as a biomarker to distinguish subsets of CFS.
Gaber, Tarek A-Z K; Oo, Wah Wah; Ringrose, Hollie
Fatigue is a major cause of disability and handicap in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients. The management of this common problem is often difficult. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS/ME) is another common cause of fatigue which is prevalent in the same population of middle aged females commonly affected by MS. This report aims at examining the potential coexistence of MS and CFS/ME in the same patients. This is a retrospective study examining a cohort of MS patients referred for rehabilitation. The subjects were screened for CFS/ME symptoms. Sixty-four MS patients (43 females) were screened for CFS/ME. Nine patients (14%) with a mean age 52 (SD 9.7) who were all females fulfilled the Fukuda criteria for diagnosis of CFS/ME. Their symptoms, including muscular and joint pain, malaise and recurrent headaches, were not explained by the pattern of their MS. MS and CFS/ME are two common conditions with increased prevalence in middle aged females. As the diagnosis of CFS/ME is clinical with no positive clinical signs or investigations; it can be made with difficulty in the presence of another clear explanation for the disabling fatigue. Our results suggest that the two conditions may co-exist. Considering CFS/ME as a potential co-morbidity may lead to more focused and appropriate management.
... Everyone's level of tolerance is different. In 1999, soccer star Michelle Akers, who has CFS, played most ... Though there is no scientific evidence that poor nutrition plays a role in CFS, eating well may ...
Hou, Ruihua; Moss-Morris, Rona; Bradley, Brendan P; Peveler, Robert; Mogg, Karin
To investigate whether individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) show an attentional bias towards health-threat information. Attentional bias (AB) was assessed in individuals with CFS and healthy controls using a visual probe task which presented health-threat and neutral words and pictures for 500 ms. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess CFS symptoms, depression, anxiety, and social desirability. Compared to a healthy control group, the CFS group showed an enhanced AB towards heath-threat stimuli relative to neutral stimuli. The AB was not influenced by the type of stimulus (pictures vs. words). The finding of an AB towards health-threat information in individuals with CFS is supportive of models of CFS which underlie cognitive behavior therapy.
Kim, Jung-Eun; Seo, Byung-Kwan; Choi, Jin-Bong; Kim, Hyeong-Jun; Kim, Tae-Hun; Lee, Min-Hee; Kang, Kyung-Won; Kim, Joo-Hee; Shin, Kyung-Min; Lee, Seunghoon; Jung, So-Young; Kim, Ae-Ran; Shin, Mi-Suk; Jung, Hee-Jung; Park, Hyo-Ju; Kim, Sung-Phil; Baek, Yong-Hyeon; Hong, Kwon-Eui; Choi, Sun-Mi
The causes of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and idiopathic chronic fatigue (ICF) are not clearly known, and there are no definitive treatments for them. Therefore, patients with CFS and ICF are interested in Oriental medicine or complementary and alternative medicine. For this reason, the effectiveness of complementary and alternative treatments should be verified. We investigated the effectiveness of two forms of acupuncture added to usual care for CFS and ICF compared to usual care alone. A three-arm parallel, non-blinded, randomized controlled trial was performed in four hospitals. We divided 150 participants into treatment and control groups at the same ratio. The treatment groups (Group A, body acupuncture; Group B, Sa-am acupuncture) received 10 sessions for 4 weeks. The control group (Group C) continued usual care alone. The primary outcome was the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) at 5 weeks after randomization. Secondary outcomes were the FSS at 13 weeks and a short form of the Stress Response Inventory (SRI), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), and the EuroQol-5 Dimension (EQ-5D) at 5 and 13 weeks. Group A showed significantly lower FSS scores than Group C at 5 weeks (P = 0.023). SRI scores were significantly lower in the treatment groups than in the control group at 5 (Group A, P = 0.032; B, P fatigue in CFS and ICF patients. Clinical Research Information Service (CRIS) KCT0000508; Registered on 12 August 2012.
Wearden, Alison J; Emsley, Richard
To examine potential mediators of the effect of pragmatic rehabilitation on improvements in fatigue following a randomized controlled trial for patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS/ME) in primary care (IRCTN 74156610). Patients fulfilled the Oxford criteria for CFS. Ninety-five patients were randomized to pragmatic rehabilitation and 100 to general practitioner (GP) treatment as usual. The outcome was the Chalder fatigue scale score (0123 scoring) at end of treatment (20 weeks) and 1-year follow up (70 weeks). First, the effect of treatment on potential mediators was assessed. Then fatigue was regressed on significant mediators, treatment allocation, and baseline measures of fatigue and significant mediators. Reduction in limiting activities at 20 weeks mediated the positive effect of pragmatic rehabilitation on fatigue at 70 weeks (mediated effect size = -2.64, SE = 0.81, p = .001, proportion of effect mediated = 82.0%). Reduction in catastrophizing at 20 weeks mediated the positive effect of pragmatic rehabilitation on fatigue at 70 weeks (mediated effect size = -1.39, SE = 0.61, p = .023, proportion of effect mediated = 43.2%). Reductions in 70-week measures of fear avoidance, embarrassment avoidance, limiting activities, and all-or-nothing behavior all mediated improvement in fatigue at 70 weeks, although the causal direction of these cross-sectional effects cannot be determined. There were no between-group differences on measures of exercise capacity (a timed step test). Improvements in fatigue following pragmatic rehabilitation are related to changes in behavioral responses to and beliefs about fatigue.
Nagy-Szakal, Dorottya; Williams, Brent L; Mishra, Nischay; Che, Xiaoyu; Lee, Bohyun; Bateman, Lucinda; Klimas, Nancy G; Komaroff, Anthony L; Levine, Susan; Montoya, Jose G; Peterson, Daniel L; Ramanan, Devi; Jain, Komal; Eddy, Meredith L; Hornig, Mady; Lipkin, W Ian
Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is characterized by unexplained persistent fatigue, commonly accompanied by cognitive dysfunction, sleeping disturbances, orthostatic intolerance, fever, lymphadenopathy, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The extent to which the gastrointestinal microbiome and peripheral inflammation are associated with ME/CFS remains unclear. We pursued rigorous clinical characterization, fecal bacterial metagenomics, and plasma immune molecule analyses in 50 ME/CFS patients and 50 healthy controls frequency-matched for age, sex, race/ethnicity, geographic site, and season of sampling. Topological analysis revealed associations between IBS co-morbidity, body mass index, fecal bacterial composition, and bacterial metabolic pathways but not plasma immune molecules. IBS co-morbidity was the strongest driving factor in the separation of topological networks based on bacterial profiles and metabolic pathways. Predictive selection models based on bacterial profiles supported findings from topological analyses indicating that ME/CFS subgroups, defined by IBS status, could be distinguished from control subjects with high predictive accuracy. Bacterial taxa predictive of ME/CFS patients with IBS were distinct from taxa associated with ME/CFS patients without IBS. Increased abundance of unclassified Alistipes and decreased Faecalibacterium emerged as the top biomarkers of ME/CFS with IBS; while increased unclassified Bacteroides abundance and decreased Bacteroides vulgatus were the top biomarkers of ME/CFS without IBS. Despite findings of differences in bacterial taxa and metabolic pathways defining ME/CFS subgroups, decreased metabolic pathways associated with unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis and increased atrazine degradation pathways were independent of IBS co-morbidity. Increased vitamin B6 biosynthesis/salvage and pyrimidine ribonucleoside degradation were the top metabolic pathways in ME/CFS without IBS as well as in the
van der Schaaf, Marieke E; De Lange, Floris P; Schmits, Iris C; Geurts, Dirk E M; Roelofs, Karin; van der Meer, Jos W M; Toni, Ivan; Knoop, Hans
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is characterized by severe fatigue persisting for ≥6 months and leading to considerable impairment in daily functioning. Neuroimaging studies of patients with CFS have revealed alterations in prefrontal brain morphology. However, it remains to be determined whether these alterations are specific for fatigue or whether they relate to other common CFS symptoms (e.g., chronic pain, lower psychomotor speed, and reduced physical activity). We used magnetic resonance imaging to quantify gray matter volume (GMV) and the N-acetylaspartate and N-acetylaspartylglutamate/creatine ratio (NAA/Cr) in a group of 89 women with CFS. Building on previous reports, we tested whether GMV and NAA/Cr in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex are associated with fatigue severity, pain, psychomotor speed, and physical activity, while controlling for depressive symptoms. We also considered GMV and NAA/Cr differences between patients with CFS and 26 sex-, age-, and education-matched healthy controls. The presence of pain symptoms was the main predictor of both GMV and NAA/Cr in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of patients with CFS. More pain was associated with reduced GMVs and NAA/Cr, over and above the effects of fatigue, depressive symptoms, physical activity, and psychomotor speed. In contrast to previous reports and despite a large representative sample, global GMV did not differ between the CFS and healthy control groups. CFS, as diagnosed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria, is not a clinical entity reliably associated with reduced GMV. Individual variation in the presence of pain, rather than fatigue, is associated with neuronal alterations in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of patients with CFS. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Joustra, Monica L; Minovic, Isidor; Janssens, Karin A M; Bakker, Stephan J L; Rosmalen, Judith G M
BACKGROUND: Many chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) patients (35-68%) use nutritional supplements, while it is unclear whether deficiencies in vitamins and minerals contribute to symptoms in these patients. Objectives were (1) to determine vitamin and mineral status in
Kim, Byung-Hoon; Namkoong, Kee; Kim, Jae-Jin; Lee, Seojung; Yoon, Kang Joon; Choi, Moonjong; Jung, Young-Chul
The biological underpinnings of the psychological factors characterizing chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) have not been extensively studied. Our aim was to evaluate alterations of resting-state functional connectivity in CFS patients. Participants comprised 18 women with CFS and 18 age-matched female healthy controls who were recruited from the local community. Structural and functional magnetic resonance images were acquired during a 6-min passive-viewing block scan. Posterior cingulate cortex seeded resting-state functional connectivity was evaluated, and correlation analyses of connectivity strength were performed. Graph theory analysis of 90 nodes of the brain was conducted to compare the global and local efficiency of connectivity networks in CFS patients with that in healthy controls. The posterior cingulate cortex in CFS patients showed increased resting-state functional connectivity with the dorsal and rostral anterior cingulate cortex. Connectivity strength of the posterior cingulate cortex to the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex significantly correlated with the Chalder Fatigue Scale score, while the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) score was controlled. Connectivity strength to the rostral anterior cingulate cortex significantly correlated with the Chalder Fatigue Scale score. Global efficiency of the posterior cingulate cortex was significantly lower in CFS patients, while local efficiency showed no difference from findings in healthy controls. The findings suggest that CFS patients show inefficient increments in resting-state functional connectivity that are linked to the psychological factors observed in the syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jacob N. Ablin
Full Text Available Objective The current study is an innovative exploratory investigation, aiming at identifying differences in personality profiles within Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS patients. Method In total, 344 participants (309 female, 35 male reported suffering from FMS and/or CFS and consented to participate in the study. Participants were recruited at an Israeli FM/CFS patient meeting held in May 2013, and through an announcement posted on several social networks. Participants were asked to complete a research questionnaire, which included FMS criteria and severity scales, and measures of personality, emotional functioning, positivity, social support and subjective assessment of general health. In total, 204 participants completed the research questionnaire (40.7% attrition rate. Results A cluster analysis produced two distinct clusters, which differed significantly on psychological variables, but did not differ on demographic variables or illness severity. As compared to cluster number 2 (N = 107, participants classified into cluster number 1 (N = 97 showed a less adaptive pattern, with higher levels of Harm Avoidance and Alexithymia; higher prevalence of Type D personality; and lower levels of Persistence (PS, Reward dependence (RD, Cooperation, Self-directedness (SD, social support and positivity. Conclusion The significant pattern of results indicates at least two distinct personality profiles of FM and CFS patients. Findings from this research may help improve the evaluation and treatment of FM and CFS patients, based on each patient’s unique needs, psychological resources and weaknesses, as proposed by the current trend of personalized medicine.
Bakke, Laura A Wortinger; Endestad, Tor; Melinder, Annika Maria D; Øie, Merete Glenne; Sulheim, Dag; Fagermoen, Frode Even; Wyller, Vegard Bruun
Introduction: Studies of neurocognition suggest that abnormalities in cognitive control contribute to the pathophysiology of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in adolescents, yet these abnormalities remain poorly understood at the neurobiological level. Reports indicate that adolescents with CFS are significantly impaired in conflict processing, a primary element of cognitive control. Method: In this study, we examine whether emotional conflict processing is altered on behavioral and neural leve...
Full Text Available Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS is a debilitating disorder of unknown pathogenesis, characterised by fatigue, which is exacerbated after minimal exercise. We examined the effect of a single bout of aerobic exercise on leucocyte mRNA expression of genes putatively linked to exaggerated afferent signalling as an under-pinning of the fatigue state. A carefully-characterised sample of patients with CFS (N = 10 and healthy matched control participants (N = 12 were included. Participant ratings of fatigue and other symptoms, as well as blood samples, were obtained at baseline, and five other time-points up to 72 hours after 25 minutes of moderate-intensity cycling exercise. Leucocyte mRNA of 19 metabolite-sensing, adrenergic, immune and neurotransmission genes was examined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Patients with CFS reported substantial fatigue, functional impairment and poor sleep at baseline (all p < 0.02, and exercise immediately induced worsened patients’ fatigue (effect size, ES = 1.17. There were no significant changes in gene expression after exercise and patients did not differ from control participants at any time point. Higher levels of expression of ficolin (FCN1 and a purinergic receptor (P2RX4 in patients with CFS were found when all time points were combined. Patients with CFS did not show significant exercise-induced changes in leucocyte mRNA of 19 metabolite-sensing, adrenergic, immune and neurotransmission genes despite a prominent exacerbation of fatigue.
Shevchuk Nikolai A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Physiological fatigue can be defined as a reduction in the force output and/or energy-generating capacity of skeletal muscle after exertion, which may manifest itself as an inability to continue exercise or usual activities at the same intensity. A typical example of a fatigue-related disorder is chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS, a disabling condition of unknown etiology and with uncertain therapeutic options. Recent advances in elucidating pathophysiology of this disorder revealed hypofunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and that fatigue in CFS patients appears to be associated with reduced motor neurotransmission in the central nervous system (CNS and to a smaller extent with increased fatigability of skeletal muscle. There is also some limited evidence that CFS patients may have excessive serotonergic activity in the brain and low opioid tone. Presentation of the hypothesis This work hypothesizes that repeated cold stress may reduce fatigue in CFS because brief exposure to cold may transiently reverse some physiological changes associated with this illness. For example, exposure to cold can activate components of the reticular activating system such as raphe nuclei and locus ceruleus, which can result in activation of behavior and increased capacity of the CNS to recruit motoneurons. Cold stress has also been shown to reduce the level of serotonin in most regions of the brain (except brainstem, which would be consistent with reduced fatigue according to animal models of exercise-related fatigue. Finally, exposure to cold increases metabolic rate and transiently activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis as evidenced by a temporary increase in the plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone, beta-endorphin and a modest increase in cortisol. The increased opioid tone and high metabolic rate could diminish fatigue by reducing muscle pain and accelerating recovery of fatigued muscle, respectively. Testing
Wortinger, Laura Anne; Endestad, Tor; Melinder, Annika Maria D; Øie, Merete Glenne; Sulheim, Dag; Fagermoen, Even; Wyller, Vegard Bruun
Studies of neurocognition suggest that abnormalities in cognitive control contribute to the pathophysiology of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in adolescents, yet these abnormalities remain poorly understood at the neurobiological level. Reports indicate that adolescents with CFS are significantly impaired in conflict processing, a primary element of cognitive control. In this study, we examine whether emotional conflict processing is altered on behavioral and neural levels in adolescents with CFS and a healthy comparison group. Fifteen adolescent patients with CFS and 24 healthy adolescent participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing an emotional conflict task that involved categorizing facial affect while ignoring overlaid affect labeled words. Adolescent CFS patients were less able to engage the left amygdala and left midposterior insula (mpINS) in response to conflict than the healthy comparison group. An association between accuracy interference and conflict-related reactivity in the amygdala was observed in CFS patients. A relationship between response time interference and conflict-related reactivity in the mpINS was also reported. Neural responses in the amygdala and mpINS were specific to fatigue severity. These data demonstrate that adolescent CFS patients displayed deficits in emotional conflict processing. Our results suggest abnormalities in affective and cognitive functioning of the salience network, which might underlie the pathophysiology of adolescent CFS.
Underhill, R A
The etiology of myalgic encephalomyelitis also known as chronic fatigue syndrome or ME/CFS has not been established. Controversies exist over whether it is an organic disease or a psychological disorder and even the existence of ME/CFS as a disease entity is sometimes denied. Suggested causal hypotheses have included psychosomatic disorders, infectious agents, immune dysfunctions, autoimmunity, metabolic disturbances, toxins and inherited genetic factors. Clinical, immunological and epidemiological evidence supports the hypothesis that: ME/CFS is an infectious disease; the causal pathogen persists in patients; the pathogen can be transmitted by casual contact; host factors determine susceptibility to the illness; and there is a population of healthy carriers, who may be able to shed the pathogen. ME/CFS is endemic globally as sporadic cases and occasional cluster outbreaks (epidemics). Cluster outbreaks imply an infectious agent. An abrupt flu-like onset resembling an infectious illness occurs in outbreak patients and many sporadic patients. Immune responses in sporadic patients resemble immune responses in other infectious diseases. Contagion is shown by finding secondary cases in outbreaks, and suggested by a higher prevalence of ME/CFS in sporadic patients' genetically unrelated close contacts (spouses/partners) than the community. Abortive cases, sub-clinical cases, and carrier state individuals were found in outbreaks. The chronic phase of ME/CFS does not appear to be particularly infective. Some healthy patient-contacts show immune responses similar to patients' immune responses, suggesting exposure to the same antigen (a pathogen). The chronicity of symptoms and of immune system changes and the occurrence of secondary cases suggest persistence of a causal pathogen. Risk factors which predispose to developing ME/CFS are: a close family member with ME/CFS; inherited genetic factors; female gender; age; rest/activity; previous exposure to stress or toxins
Frank N.M. Twisk
Full Text Available Many researchers consider chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS to be a synonym of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME. However, the case criteria of ME and CFS define two distinct clinical entities. Although some patients will meet both case criteria, other patients can meet the diagnosis of ME and not fulfil the case criteria for CFS, while the diagnosis of CFS is largely insufficient to be qualified as a ME patient. ME is a neuromuscular disease with distinctive muscular symptoms, including prolonged muscle weakness after exertion, and neurological signs implicating cerebral dysfunction, including cognitive impairment and sensory symptoms. The only mandatory symptom of CFS is chronic fatigue. Chronic fatigue must be accompanied by at least four out of eight nonspecific symptoms: substantial impairment in short-term memory or concentration, a sore throat, tender lymph nodes, muscle pain, multijoint pain, a new type of headaches, unrefreshing sleep, and postexertional “malaise” lasting more than 24 h. So, regardless whether the name ME is appropriate or not, ME is not synonymous to CFS. That is not a matter of opinion, but a matter of definition. Due to the definitions of ME and CFS, “ME/CFS” does not exist and cannot be replaced by a new clinical entity (SEID: Systemic Exertion Intolerance Disease, as recently suggested.
Laura Anne Wortinger
Full Text Available Neural network investigations are currently absent in adolescent chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS. In this study, we examine whether the core intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs are altered in adolescent CFS patients. Eighteen adolescent patients with CFS and 18 aged matched healthy adolescent control subjects underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rfMRI. Data was analyzed using dual-regression independent components analysis, which is a data-driven approach for the identification of independent brain networks. Intrinsic connectivity was evaluated in the default mode network (DMN, salience network (SN, and central executive network (CEN. Associations between network characteristics and symptoms of CFS were also explored. Adolescent CFS patients displayed a significant decrease in SN functional connectivity to the right posterior insula compared to healthy comparison participants, which was related to fatigue symptoms. Additionally, there was an association between pain intensity and SN functional connectivity to the left middle insula and caudate that differed between adolescent patients and healthy comparison participants. Our findings of insula dysfunction and its association with fatigue severity and pain intensity in adolescent CFS demonstrate an aberration of the salience network which might play a role in CFS pathophysiology.
Kenna M Sleigh
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine whether influenza immunization is associated with early side effects, a deleterious impact on the illness course and depressed antibody response in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS.
Fuentes, K; Hunter, M A; Strauss, E; Hultsch, D F
Studies of cognitive performance among persons with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) have yielded inconsistent results. We sought to contribute to findings in this area by examining intraindividual variability as well as level of performance in cognitive functioning. A battery of cognitive measures was administered to 14 CFS patients and 16 healthy individuals on 10 weekly occasions. Analyses comparing the two groups in terms of level of performance defined by latency and accuracy scores revealed that the CFS patients were slower but not less accurate than healthy persons. The CFS group showed greater intraindividual variability (as measured by intraindividual standard deviations and coefficients of variation) than the healthy group, although the results varied by task and time frame. Intraindividual variability was found to be stable across time and correlated across tasks at each testing occasion. Intraindividual variability also uniquely differentiated the groups. The present findings support the proposition that intraindividual variability is a meaningful indicator of cognitive functioning in CFS patients.
Full Text Available The etiology of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS is unknown and no conventional medicine therapies are available. This report presents a clinical case of a patient suffering from CFS who was cured by traditional Korean medicine. A 33-year-old female patient had to take time off work because of terrible fatigue symptoms that did not respond to conventional treatments. Her disorder was significantly reduced by herbal medicine, acupuncture, and moxibustion. Changes in fatigue severity were evaluated using a visual analog scale (VAS and a numerical rating scale (NRS. NRS and VAS scores decreased from 70 and 8.1 to 37 and 3.7, respectively, during 3 months. This case reveals the therapeutic potential of traditional Korean medicine for CFS and fatigue-associated disorders.
Cook, Dane B.; Stegner, Aaron J.; Nagelkirk, Paul R.; Meyer, Jacob D.; Togo, Fumiharu; Natelson, Benjamin H.
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and fibromyalgia (FM) are chronic multisymptom illnesses with substantial clinical and diagnostic overlap. We have previously shown that when controlling for aerobic fitness and accounting for comorbid FM, CFS patients do not exhibit abnormal cardiorespiratory responses during maximal aerobic exercise compared to healthy controls, despite differences in pain and exertion. Purpose The purpose of the present study was to examine cardiac and perceptual responses to steady-state, submaximal exercise in CFS patients and healthy controls. Methods Twenty-one CFS patients [13 CFS with comorbid FM (CFS+FM)] and 14 controls completed 20 minutes of submaximal cycling exercise. Impedance cardiography was used to determine cardiac responses during exercise. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), perceived exertion (RPE) and leg-muscle pain were also measured. Data were analyzed using a doubly-multivariate, repeated-measures MANOVA to model the exercise response. Results There was a significant multivariate Time by Group interaction (p exercise response characterized by higher stoke index, ventilatory equivalents for oxygen and carbon dioxide and RPE, lower SBP and similar HR responses. Conclusions The present results extend upon our previous work with maximal exercise and show that CFS and CFS+FM differ in their responses to steady-state exercise. These results highlight the importance of accounting for comorbid conditions when conducting CFS research, particularly when examining psychophysiological responses to exercise. PMID:22157881
Duffy, Frank H; McAnulty, Gloria B; McCreary, Michelle C; Cuchural, George J; Komaroff, Anthony L
Previous studies suggest central nervous system involvement in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), yet there are no established diagnostic criteria. CFS may be difficult to differentiate from clinical depression. The study's objective was to determine if spectral coherence, a computational derivative of spectral analysis of the electroencephalogram (EEG), could distinguish patients with CFS from healthy control subjects and not erroneously classify depressed patients as having CFS. This is a study, conducted in an academic medical center electroencephalography laboratory, of 632 subjects: 390 healthy normal controls, 70 patients with carefully defined CFS, 24 with major depression, and 148 with general fatigue. Aside from fatigue, all patients were medically healthy by history and examination. EEGs were obtained and spectral coherences calculated after extensive artifact removal. Principal Components Analysis identified coherence factors and corresponding factor loading patterns. Discriminant analysis determined whether spectral coherence factors could reliably discriminate CFS patients from healthy control subjects without misclassifying depression as CFS. Analysis of EEG coherence data from a large sample (n = 632) of patients and healthy controls identified 40 factors explaining 55.6% total variance. Factors showed highly significant group differentiation (p EEG spectral coherence analysis identified unmedicated patients with CFS and healthy control subjects without misclassifying depressed patients as CFS, providing evidence that CFS patients demonstrate brain physiology that is not observed in healthy normals or patients with major depression. Studies of new CFS patients and comparison groups are required to determine the possible clinical utility of this test. The results concur with other studies finding neurological abnormalities in CFS, and implicate temporal lobe involvement in CFS pathophysiology.
Heins, Marianne J; Knoop, Hans; Burk, William J; Bleijenberg, Gijs
Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) can significantly reduce fatigue in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), but little is known about the process of change taking place during CBT. Based on a recent treatment model (Wiborg et al. J Psych Res 2012), we examined how (changes in) cognitions and behaviour are related to the decrease in fatigue. We included 183 patients meeting the US Centers for Disease Control criteria for CFS, aged 18 to 65 years, starting CBT. We measured fatigue and possible process variables before treatment; after 6, 12 and 18 weeks; and after treatment. Possible process variables were sense of control over fatigue, focusing on symptoms, self-reported physical functioning, perceived physical activity and objective (actigraphic) physical activity. We built multiple regression models, explaining levels of fatigue during therapy by (changes in) proposed process variables. We observed large individual variation in the patterns of change in fatigue and process variables during CBT for CFS. Increases in the sense of control over fatigue, perceived activity and self-reported physical functioning, and decreases in focusing on symptoms explained 20 to 46% of the variance in fatigue. An increase in objective activity was not a process variable. A change in cognitive factors seems to be related to the decrease in fatigue during CBT for CFS. The pattern of change varies considerably between patients, but changes in process variables and fatigue occur mostly in the same period. © 2013.
Eriksen Hege R
Full Text Available Abstract We present an integrative model of disease mechanisms in the Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS, unifying empirical findings from different research traditions. Based upon the Cognitive activation theory of stress (CATS, we argue that new data on cardiovascular and thermoregulatory regulation indicate a state of permanent arousal responses – sustained arousal – in this condition. We suggest that sustained arousal can originate from different precipitating factors (infections, psychosocial challenges interacting with predisposing factors (genetic traits, personality and learned expectancies (classical and operant conditioning. Furthermore, sustained arousal may explain documented alterations by establishing vicious circles within immunology (Th2 (humoral vs Th1 (cellular predominance, endocrinology (attenuated HPA axis, skeletal muscle function (attenuated cortical activation, increased oxidative stress and cognition (impaired memory and information processing. Finally, we propose a causal link between sustained arousal and the experience of fatigue. The model of sustained arousal embraces all main findings concerning CFS disease mechanisms within one theoretical framework.
Ostojic, Sergej M; Stojanovic, Marko; Drid, Patrik; Hoffman, Jay R; Sekulic, Damir; Zenic, Natasa
A variety of dietary interventions has been used in the management of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), yet no therapeutic modality has demonstrated conclusive positive results in terms of effectiveness. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of orally administered guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) on multidimensional fatigue inventory (MFI), musculoskeletal soreness, health-related quality of life, exercise performance, screening laboratory studies, and the occurrence of adverse events in women with CFS. Twenty-one women (age 39.3 ± 8.8 years, weight 62.8 ± 8.5 kg, height 169.5 ± 5.8 cm) who fulfilled the 1994 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for CFS were randomized in a double-blind, cross-over design, from 1 September 2014 through 31 May 2015, to receive either GAA (2.4 grams per day) or placebo (cellulose) by oral administration for three months, with a two-month wash-out period. No effects of intervention were found for the primary efficacy outcome (MFI score for general fatigue), and musculoskeletal pain at rest and during activity. After three months of intervention, participants receiving GAA significantly increased muscular creatine levels compared with the placebo group (36.3% vs. 2.4%; p fatigue and musculoskeletal soreness.
Chao, C-H; Chen, H-J; Wang, H-Y; Li, T-C; Kao, C-H
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a complex disorder characterized by profound and persistent fatigue and several comorbidities. CFS was previously reported to be associated with female sexual dysfunction. We propose that CFS might also be associated with organic erectile dysfunction (organic ED). We conducted a retrospective cohort study by using data from the National Health Insurance (NHI) Research Database. We identified 2156 male patients who were newly diagnosed with CFS between January 1, 2003 and December 31, 2006. After excluding those younger than 20 years and prevalent cases, 1976 patients were subjected to analysis, and 7904 people served as healthy controls. All study subjects were followed up from the index date to the date of organic ED diagnosis, withdrawal from the NHI program, or the end of 2011. Compared with the non-CFS cohort, the incidence density rate of organic ED was 1.88-fold higher than that in the CFS cohort (3.23 vs. 1.73 per 1000 person-years) with an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 1.88 (95% CI = 1.26-2.81) when adjusting for sex and comorbidities. The combined impacts of patients with CFS and cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes mellitus (DM), chronic kidney disease (CKD), depression, and anxiety showed a significant by joint association with organic ED risk compared with patients with no CFS and no counterpart comorbidity. The greatest magnitude of adjusted HR of ED for CFS was observed in individuals without any comorbidity (3.87, 1.95-7.66). The incidence of organic ED is higher among males aged 40 years and over for both CFS and non-CFS cohorts. As the number of comorbidity increases, the incidence of organic ED increases in males without CFS. Higher incidence of organic ED was observed in males with CVD, DM, CKD, depression, or anxiety for both CFS and non-CFS cohorts. © 2015 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.
Hou, Ruihua; Moss-Morris, Rona; Risdale, Anna; Lynch, Jeannette; Jeevaratnam, Preshan; Bradley, Brendan P; Mogg, Karin
Cognitive behavioural models of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) propose that attention processes, specifically, enhanced selective attention to health-threat related cues, may play an important role in symptom maintenance. The current study investigated attentional bias towards health-threat stimuli in CFS. It also examined whether individuals with CFS have impaired executive attention, and whether this was related to attentional bias. 27 participants with CFS and 35 healthy controls completed a Visual Probe Task measuring attentional bias, and an Attention Network Test measuring executive attention, alerting and orienting. Participants also completed self-report measures of CFS and mood symptoms. Compared to the control group, the CFS group showed greater attentional bias for health-threat words than pictures; and the CFS group was significantly impaired in executive attention. Furthermore, CFS individuals with poor executive attention showed greater attentional bias to health-threat related words, compared not only to controls but also to CFS individuals with good executive attention. Thus, this study revealed a significant relationship between attentional bias and executive attention in CFS: attentional bias to threat was primarily evident in those with impaired executive attention control. Taking account of individual differences in executive attention control in current intervention models may be beneficial for CFS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hughes, Alicia M; Hirsch, Colette R; Nikolaus, Stephanie; Chalder, Trudie; Knoop, Hans; Moss-Morris, Rona
This study aims to replicate a UK study, with a Dutch sample to explore whether attention and interpretation biases and general attentional control deficits in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) are similar across populations and cultures. Thirty eight Dutch CFS participants were compared to 52 CFS and 51 healthy participants recruited from the UK. Participants completed self-report measures of symptoms, functioning, and mood, as well as three experimental tasks (i) visual-probe task measuring attentional bias to illness (somatic symptoms and disability) versus neutral words, (ii) interpretive bias task measuring positive versus somatic interpretations of ambiguous information, and (iii) the Attention Network Test measuring general attentional control. Compared to controls, Dutch and UK participants with CFS showed a significant attentional bias for illness-related words and were significantly more likely to interpret ambiguous information in a somatic way. These effects were not moderated by attentional control. There were no significant differences between the Dutch and UK CFS groups on attentional bias, interpretation bias, or attentional control scores. This study replicated the main findings of the UK study, with a Dutch CFS population, indicating that across these two cultures, people with CFS demonstrate biases in how somatic information is attended to and interpreted. These illness-specific biases appear to be unrelated to general attentional control deficits.
Hanevik, Kurt; Kristoffersen, Einar; Mørch, Kristine; Rye, Kristin Paulsen; Sørnes, Steinar; Svärd, Staffan; Bruserud, Øystein; Langeland, Nina
The role of pathogen specific cellular immune responses against the eliciting pathogen in development of post-infectious chronic fatigue syndrome (PI-CFS) is not known and such studies are difficult to perform. The aim of this study was to evaluate specific anti-Giardia cellular immunity in cases that developed CFS after Giardia infection compared to cases that recovered well. Patients reporting chronic fatigue in a questionnaire study three years after a Giardia outbreak were clinically evaluated five years after the outbreak and grouped according to Fukuda criteria for CFS and idiopathic chronic fatigue. Giardia specific immune responses were evaluated in 39 of these patients by proliferation assay, T cell activation and cytokine release analysis. 20 Giardia exposed non-fatigued individuals and 10 healthy unexposed individuals were recruited as controls. Patients were clinically classified into CFS (n = 15), idiopathic chronic fatigue (n = 5), fatigue from other causes (n = 9) and recovered from fatigue (n = 10). There were statistically significant antigen specific differences between these Giardia exposed groups and unexposed controls. However, we did not find differences between the Giardia exposed fatigue classification groups with regard to CD4 T cell activation, proliferation or cytokine levels in 6 days cultured PBMCs. Interestingly, sCD40L was increased in patients with PI-CFS and other persons with fatigue after Giardia infection compared to the non-fatigued group, and correlated well with fatigue levels at the time of sampling. Our data show antigen specific cellular immune responses in the groups previously exposed to Giardia and increased sCD40L in fatigued patients.
Janssens, Karin A. M.; Zijlema, Wilma L.; Joustra, Monica L.; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.
Objective: Functional somatic syndromes (FSSs) have often been linked to psychopathology. The aim of the current study was to compare prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders among individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), fibromyalgia (FM), and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Methods: This
Vergauwen, Kuni; Huijnen, Ivan P J; Kos, Daphne; Van de Velde, Dominique; van Eupen, Inge; Meeus, Mira
To summarize measurement instruments used to evaluate activity limitations and participation restrictions in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and review the psychometric properties of these instruments. General information of all included measurement instruments was extracted. The methodological quality was evaluated using the COSMIN checklist. Results of the measurement properties were rated based on the quality criteria of Terwee et al. Finally, overall quality was defined per psychometric property and measurement instrument by use of the quality criteria by Schellingerhout et al. A total of 68 articles were identified of which eight evaluated the psychometric properties of a measurement instrument assessing activity limitations and participation restrictions. One disease-specific and 37 generic measurement instruments were found. Limited evidence was found for the psychometric properties and clinical usability of these instruments. However, the CFS-activities and participation questionnaire (APQ) is a disease-specific instrument with moderate content and construct validity. The psychometric properties of the reviewed measurement instruments to evaluate activity limitations and participation restrictions are not sufficiently evaluated. Future research is needed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the measurement instruments, including the other properties of the CFS-APQ. If it is necessary to use a measurement instrument, the CFS-APQ is recommended. Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Chronic fatigue syndrome causes activity limitations and participation restrictions in one or more areas of life. Standardized, reliable and valid measurement instruments are necessary to identify these limitations and restrictions. Currently, no measurement instrument is sufficiently evaluated with persons with CFS. If a measurement instrument is needed to identify activity limitations and participation restrictions with persons with CFS, it is recommended to use
Hakim, Alan; De Wandele, Inge; O'Callaghan, Chris; Pocinki, Alan; Rowe, Peter
Chronic fatigue is an important contributor to impaired health-related quality of life in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. There is overlap in the symptoms and findings of EDS and chronic fatigue syndrome. A proportion of those with CFS likely have EDS that has not been identified. The evaluation of chronic fatigue in EDS needs to include a careful clinical examination and laboratory testing to exclude common causes of fatigue including anemia, hypothyroidisim, and chronic infection, as well as dysfunction of major physiological or organ systems. Other problems that commonly contribute to fatigue in EDS include sleep disorders, chronic pain, deconditioning, cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction, bowel and bladder dysfunction, psychological issues, and nutritional deficiencies. While there is no specific pharmacological treatment for fatigue, many medications are effective for specific symptoms (such as headache, menstrual dysfunction, or myalgia) and for co-morbid conditions that result in fatigue, including orthostatic intolerance and insomnia. Comprehensive treatment of fatigue needs to also evaluate for biomechanical problems that are common in EDS, and usually involves skilled physical therapy and attention to methods to prevent deconditioning. In addition to managing specific symptoms, treatment of fatigue in EDS also needs to focus on maintaining function and providing social, physical, and nutritional support, as well as providing on-going medical evaluation of new problems and review of new evidence about proposed treatments. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Keech, Andrew; Sandler, Carolina X; Vollmer-Conna, Ute; Cvejic, Erin; Lloyd, Andrew R; Barry, Benjamin K
To design and validate an instrument to capture the characteristic post-exertional exacerbation of fatigue in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Firstly, patients with CFS (N=19) participated in five focus group discussions to jointly explore the nature of fatigue and dynamic changes after activity, and inform development of a self-report instrument - the Fatigue and Energy Scale (FES). The psychometric properties of the FES were then examined in two case-control challenge studies: a physically-demanding challenge (moderate-intensity aerobic exercise; N=10 patients), and a cognitively-demanding challenge (simulated driving; N=11 patients). Finally, ecological validity was evaluated by recording in association with tasks of daily living (N=9). Common descriptors for fatigue included 'exhaustion', 'tiredness', 'drained of energy', 'heaviness in the limbs', and 'foggy in the head'. Based on the qualitative data, fatigue was conceptualised as consisting of 'physical' and 'cognitive' dimensions. Analysis of the psychometric properties of the FES showed good sensitivity to the changing symptoms during a post-exertional exacerbation of fatigue following both physical exercise and driving simulation challenges, as well as tasks of daily living. The 'fatigue' experienced by patients with CFS covers both physical and cognitive components. The FES captured the phenomenon of a post-exertional exacerbation of fatigue commonly reported by patients with CFS. The characteristics of the symptom response to physical and cognitive challenges were similar. Both the FES and the challenge paradigms offer key tools to reliably investigate biological correlates of the dynamic changes in fatigue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kempke, S; Luyten, P; Claes, S; Goossens, L; Bekaert, P; Van Wambeke, P; Van Houdenhove, B
Research suggests that the personality factor of self-critical or maladaptive perfectionism may be implicated in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). However, it is not clear whether self-critical perfectionism (SCP) also predicts daily symptoms in CFS. Method In the present study we investigated whether SCP predicted fatigue and pain over a 14-day period in a sample of 90 CFS patients using a diary method approach. After completing the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ) as a measure of SCP, patients were asked each day for 14 days to complete Visual Analogue Scales (VAS) of fatigue, pain and severity of depression. Data were analysed using multilevel analysis. The results from unconditional models revealed considerable fluctuations in fatigue over the 14 days, suggesting strong temporal variability in fatigue. By contrast, pain was relatively stable over time but showed significant inter-individual differences. Congruent with expectations, fixed-effect models showed that SCP was prospectively associated with higher daily fatigue and pain levels over the 14-day period, even after controlling for levels of depression. This is the first study to show that SCP predicts both fatigue and pain symptoms in CFS in the daily course of life. Hence, therapeutic interventions aimed at targeting SCP should be considered in the treatment of CFS patients with such features.
Full Text Available Abstract Background A Giardia outbreak was associated with development of post-infectious functional gastrointestinal disorders (PI-FGID and chronic fatigue syndrome (PI-CFS. Markers of immune dysfunction have given conflicting results in CFS and FGID patient populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate a wide selection of markers of immune dysfunction in these two co-occurring post-infectious syndromes. Methods 48 patients, reporting chronic fatigue in a questionnaire study, were clinically evaluated five years after the outbreak and grouped according to Fukuda criteria for CFS (n=19 and idiopathic chronic fatigue (n=5 and Rome II criteria for FGIDs (n=54. 22 Giardia exposed non-fatigued individuals and 10 healthy unexposed individuals were recruited as controls. Peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry. Results In peripheral blood we found significantly higher CD8 T-cell levels in PI-FGID, and significantly lower NK-cell levels in PI-CFS patients. Severity of abdominal and fatigue symptoms correlated negatively with NK-cell levels. A tendency towards lower T-cell CD26 expression in FGID was seen. Conclusion Patients with PI-CFS and/or PI-FGID 5 years after Giardia lamblia infection showed alterations in NK-cell and CD8-cell populations suggesting a possible immunological abnormality in these conditions. We found no significant changes in other markers examined in this well-defined group of PI-CFS and PI-FGID elicited by a gastrointestinal infection. Controlling for co-morbid conditions is important in evaluation of CFS-biomarkers.
Valero, Sergi; Sáez-Francàs, Naia; Calvo, Natalia; Alegre, José; Casas, Miquel
Previous studies have reported consistent associations between Neuroticism, maladaptive perfectionism and depression with severity of fatigue in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS). Depression has been considered a mediator factor between maladaptive perfectionism and fatigue severity, but no studies have explored the role of neuroticism in a comparable theoretical framework. This study aims to examine for the first time, the role of neuroticism, maladaptive perfectionism and depression on the severity of CFS, analyzing several explanation models. A sample of 229 CFS patients were studied comparing four structural equation models, testing the role of mediation effect of depression severity in the association of Neuroticism and/or Maladaptive perfectionism on fatigue severity. The model considering depression severity as mediator factor between Neuroticism and fatigue severity is the only one of the explored models where all the structural modeling indexes have fitted satisfactorily (Chi square=27.01, p=0.079; RMSE=0.047, CFI=0.994; SRMR=0.033). Neuroticism is associated with CFS by the mediation effect of depression severity. This personality variable constitutes a more consistent factor than maladaptive perfectionism in the conceptualization of CFS severity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ekua W Brenu
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are known to regulate many biological processes and their dysregulation has been associated with a variety of diseases including Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME. The recent discovery of stable and reproducible miRNA in plasma has raised the possibility that circulating miRNAs may serve as novel diagnostic markers. The objective of this study was to determine the role of plasma miRNA in CFS/ME. RESULTS: Using Illumina high-throughput sequencing we identified 19 miRNAs that were differentially expressed in the plasma of CFS/ME patients in comparison to non-fatigued controls. Following RT-qPCR analysis, we were able to confirm the significant up-regulation of three miRNAs (hsa-miR-127-3p, hsa-miR-142-5p and hsa-miR-143-3p in the CFS/ME patients. CONCLUSION: Our study is the first to identify circulating miRNAs from CFS/ME patients and also to confirm three differentially expressed circulating miRNAs in CFS/ME patients, providing a basis for further study to find useful CFS/ME biomarkers.
Brenu, Ekua W.; Ashton, Kevin J.; Batovska, Jana; Staines, Donald R.; Marshall-Gradisnik, Sonya M.
Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to regulate many biological processes and their dysregulation has been associated with a variety of diseases including Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME). The recent discovery of stable and reproducible miRNA in plasma has raised the possibility that circulating miRNAs may serve as novel diagnostic markers. The objective of this study was to determine the role of plasma miRNA in CFS/ME. Results Using Illumina high-throughput sequencing we identified 19 miRNAs that were differentially expressed in the plasma of CFS/ME patients in comparison to non-fatigued controls. Following RT-qPCR analysis, we were able to confirm the significant up-regulation of three miRNAs (hsa-miR-127-3p, hsa-miR-142-5p and hsa-miR-143-3p) in the CFS/ME patients. Conclusion Our study is the first to identify circulating miRNAs from CFS/ME patients and also to confirm three differentially expressed circulating miRNAs in CFS/ME patients, providing a basis for further study to find useful CFS/ME biomarkers. PMID:25238588
Peter C. Rowe
Full Text Available Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS is a complex disease that affects children and adolescents as well as adults. The etiology has not been established. While many pediatricians and other health-care providers are aware of ME/CFS, they often lack essential knowledge that is necessary for diagnosis and treatment. Many young patients experience symptoms for years before receiving a diagnosis. This primer, written by the International Writing Group for Pediatric ME/CFS, provides information necessary to understand, diagnose, and manage the symptoms of ME/CFS in children and adolescents. ME/CFS is characterized by overwhelming fatigue with a substantial loss of physical and mental stamina. Cardinal features are malaise and a worsening of symptoms following minimal physical or mental exertion. These post-exertional symptoms can persist for hours, days, or weeks and are not relieved by rest or sleep. Other symptoms include cognitive problems, unrefreshing or disturbed sleep, generalized or localized pain, lightheadedness, and additional symptoms in multiple organ systems. While some young patients can attend school, on a full or part-time basis, many others are wheelchair dependent, housebound, or bedbound. Prevalence estimates for pediatric ME/CFS vary from 0.1 to 0.5%. Because there is no diagnostic test for ME/CFS, diagnosis is purely clinical, based on the history and the exclusion of other fatiguing illnesses by physical examination and medical testing. Co-existing medical conditions including orthostatic intolerance (OI are common. Successful management is based on determining the optimum balance of rest and activity to help prevent post-exertional symptom worsening. Medications are helpful to treat pain, insomnia, OI and other symptoms. The published literature on ME/CFS and specifically that describing the diagnosis and management of pediatric ME/CFS is very limited. Where published studies are lacking, recommendations
Rowe, Peter C.; Underhill, Rosemary A.; Friedman, Kenneth J.; Gurwitt, Alan; Medow, Marvin S.; Schwartz, Malcolm S.; Speight, Nigel; Stewart, Julian M.; Vallings, Rosamund; Rowe, Katherine S.
Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a complex disease that affects children and adolescents as well as adults. The etiology has not been established. While many pediatricians and other health-care providers are aware of ME/CFS, they often lack essential knowledge that is necessary for diagnosis and treatment. Many young patients experience symptoms for years before receiving a diagnosis. This primer, written by the International Writing Group for Pediatric ME/CFS, provides information necessary to understand, diagnose, and manage the symptoms of ME/CFS in children and adolescents. ME/CFS is characterized by overwhelming fatigue with a substantial loss of physical and mental stamina. Cardinal features are malaise and a worsening of symptoms following minimal physical or mental exertion. These post-exertional symptoms can persist for hours, days, or weeks and are not relieved by rest or sleep. Other symptoms include cognitive problems, unrefreshing or disturbed sleep, generalized or localized pain, lightheadedness, and additional symptoms in multiple organ systems. While some young patients can attend school, on a full or part-time basis, many others are wheelchair dependent, housebound, or bedbound. Prevalence estimates for pediatric ME/CFS vary from 0.1 to 0.5%. Because there is no diagnostic test for ME/CFS, diagnosis is purely clinical, based on the history and the exclusion of other fatiguing illnesses by physical examination and medical testing. Co-existing medical conditions including orthostatic intolerance (OI) are common. Successful management is based on determining the optimum balance of rest and activity to help prevent post-exertional symptom worsening. Medications are helpful to treat pain, insomnia, OI and other symptoms. The published literature on ME/CFS and specifically that describing the diagnosis and management of pediatric ME/CFS is very limited. Where published studies are lacking, recommendations are based on the
Anderson, Valerie R.; Jason, Leonard A.; Hlavaty, Laura E.
In previous qualitative research on Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS), researchers have focused on the experiences of patients with ME/CFS in tertiary care samples, which limit the representativeness of the findings to those with access to health care. This qualitative study examined the natural history of a community-based sample of people with ME/CFS. Participants (n=19) were categorized into persisting, incidence, or remitting groups based on their reported illnes...
Tollit, Michelle; Politis, Jennifer; Knight, Sarah
Background: It is often surmised that school functioning is significantly impacted in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS); however, how this phenomenon manifests itself has rarely been characterized. Methods: This systematic review synthesized and critically appraised methods, constructs, and instruments used to assess school functioning in students…
Tummers, Marcia; Knoop, Hans; Bleijenberg, Gijs
Objective: In this randomized noninferiority study, the effectiveness and efficiency of stepped care for chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) was compared to care as usual. Stepped care was formed by guided self-instruction, followed by cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) if the patient desired it. Care as usual encompassed CBT after a waiting period.…
Heins, M.J.; Knoop, H.; Lobbestael, J.; Bleijenberg, G.
Objective: To examine the relationship between a history of childhood maltreatment and the treatment response to cognitive behavior therapy for chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Methods: A cohort study in a tertiary care clinic with a referred sample of 216 adult patients meeting the Centers for
Werf, S.P. van der; Vree, B.P.W. de; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Bleijenberg, G.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the potential influence of body consciousness and levels of somatic symptom report upon information processing speed in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). BACKGROUND: According to a model of a fixed information processing capacity, it was
Sarvaiya, Kuldeep; Goswami, Sunita
To assess the effectiveness of TRPV1 modulators in animal model of Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). To assess central and peripheral behavioral activity of TRPV1 modulators. CFS was induced by forcing the rats to swim for 10min for 21 consecutive days. The rats were treated with capsaicin (TRPV1 agonist, 2.5mg/kg) and n-tert-butylcyclohexanol (TRPV1 antagonist, 10mg/kg) for 21days 30min before the exposure to stress procedure. The behavioral consequence of CFS was measured in terms of immobility time, grip strength, locomotor activity, and anxiety level using Rota rod, Actophotometer, and Elevated plus maze model respectively. The other parameters include Plasma corticosterone, adrenal gland and spleen weight, complete blood count, blood urea niterogen (BUN), Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Lipid peroxidation, catalase and reduced glutathione (GSH). TRPV1 modulators reversed (pchronic fatigue syndrome. The mechanism of action can be attributed to inhibition of TRPV1 channel and thereby modulating pain perception, neuroendocrine function, oxidative stress and immune function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Adamowicz, Jenna L; Caikauskaite, Indre; Friedberg, Fred
In chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), the lack of consensus on how recovery should be defined or interpreted has generated controversy and confusion. The purpose of this paper was to systematically review, compare, and evaluate the definitions of recovery reported in the CFS literature and to make recommendations about the scope of recovery assessments. A search was done using the MEDLINE, PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and Cochrane databases for peer review papers that contained the search terms "chronic fatigue syndrome" and "recovery," "reversal," "remission," and/or "treatment response." From the 22 extracted studies, recovery was operationally defined by reference with one or more of these domains: (1) pre-morbid functioning; (2) both fatigue and function; (3) fatigue (or related symptoms) alone; (4) function alone; and/or (5) brief global assessment. Almost all of the studies measuring recovery in CFS did so differently. The brief global assessment was the most common outcome measure used to define recovery. Estimates of recovery ranged from 0 to 66 % in intervention studies and 2.6 to 62 % in naturalistic studies. Given that the term "recovery" was often based on limited assessments and less than full restoration of health, other more precise and accurate labels (e.g., clinically significant improvement) may be more appropriate and informative. In keeping with common understandings of the term recovery, we recommend a consistent definition that captures a broad-based return to health with assessments of both fatigue and function as well as the patient's perceptions of his/her recovery status.
Rimes, Katharine A; Wingrove, Janet; Moss-Morris, Rona; Chalder, Trudie
Cognitive behavioural interventions are effective in the treatment of chronic fatigue, chronic fatigue syndrome (sometimes known as ME or CFS/ME) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Such interventions are increasingly being provided not only in specialist settings but in primary care settings such as Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) services. There are no existing competences for the delivery of "low-intensity" or "high-intensity" cognitive behavioural interventions for these conditions. To develop "high-intensity" and "low-intensity" competences for cognitive behavioural interventions for chronic fatigue, CFS/ME and IBS. The initial draft drew on a variety of sources including treatment manuals and other information from randomized controlled trials. Therapists with experience in providing cognitive behavioural interventions for CF, CFS/ME and IBS in research and clinical settings were consulted on the initial draft competences and their suggestions for minor amendments were incorporated into the final versions. Feedback from experienced therapists was positive. Therapists providing low intensity interventions reported that the competences were also helpful in highlighting training needs. These sets of competences should facilitate the training and supervision of therapists providing cognitive behavioural interventions for chronic fatigue, CFS/ME and IBS. The competences are available online (see table of contents for this issue: http://journals.cambridge.org/jid_BCP) or on request from the first author.
Sand, A.; Hulstaert, J.; Wanet, P.; Uyttersprot, A.; Meirleir, K. de
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a debilitating chronic illness of unknown cause characterized by mental fatigue and sensorimotor disturbances. Moreover, gastrointestinal symptoms (GI) are frequently noticed in those patients. A possible cause could be a dysfunction of the NANC neurotransmitter system in which Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide and NO plays an important role in the speed of the gastric relaxation. The Aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of gastric motility disorder in CFS patients. Materials and Methods: 51 patients affected by CFS (45 females and 6 males; mean age 38.5 ± 14.7 y) were prospectively studied by a gastric emptying scintigraphy and the results compared with a control population. The patients were categorized in two clinical groups according to the severity criteria of Holmes and Fukuda (H/F - or H/F +). The presence of GI symptoms was noticed for each patient. Gastric emptying was assessed by the standard procedure according to the guidelines of the Belgian Society of Nuclear Medicine. The acquisition of a series of 10 static images in anterior and posterior projections was started after a test meal (1 fried egg + 20 Mbq Tc99m sulfur colloids, 2 pieces of bread and 125 ml of water). Geometric means were calculated after correction for the half-life of Tc99m and the gastric half-emptying time (T1/2) was determined for each patient. Results: A significantly prolonged T 1/2 was found in CFS patients (97.8 ± 41.6 min) compared to our control population (70 ± 15 min) independently of the presence of associated GI symptoms. (p<0.01) There was also a close relationship between the T1/2 and severity of the CFS disease: the gastric emptying time of the two CFS groups (according to the H/F criteria) were respectively 78.9 and 112.9 min. which is highly significant. (p<0.05). Conclusion: We conclude that delayed gastric emptying is frequently encountered in patients with CFS (with mild or severe symptoms of gastroparesis) which
Maroti, Daniel; Molander, Peter; Bileviciute-Ljungar, Indre
Symptoms of Exhaustion Syndrome (ES) and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) are overlapping and create difficulties of differential diagnosis. Empirical studies comparing ES and CFS are scarce. This study aims to investigate if there are any emotional differences between ES and CFS. This cross-sectional study compared self-reported alexithymia and observer-rated emotional awareness in patients with ES (n = 31), CFS (n = 38) and healthy controls (HC) (n = 30). Self-reported alexithymia was measured with the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 (TAS-20) and emotional awareness with an observer-rated performance test, the Level of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS). Additionally, depression and anxiety were scored by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Results show that patients with ES expressed higher self-reported alexithymia in the TAS-20 compared to HC, but had similar emotional awareness capacity in the observer-rated performance test, the LEAS. Patients with CFS expressed more difficulties in identifying emotions compared to HCs, and performed significantly worse in the LEAS-total and spent more time completing the LEAS as compared to HC. Correlation and multiple regressions analyses revealed that depression and anxiety positively correlated with and explained part of the variances in alexithymia scores, while age and group explained the major part of the variance in LEAS. Findings of this study indicate that emotional status is different in patients with ES and CFS with respect to both self-reported alexithymia and observer-rated emotional awareness. Emotional parameters should be approached both in clinical investigation and psychotherapy for patients with ES and CFS. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Steven E Schutzer
Full Text Available Neurologic Post Treatment Lyme disease (nPTLS and Chronic Fatigue (CFS are syndromes of unknown etiology. They share features of fatigue and cognitive dysfunction, making it difficult to differentiate them. Unresolved is whether nPTLS is a subset of CFS.Pooled cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples from nPTLS patients, CFS patients, and healthy volunteers were comprehensively analyzed using high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS, coupled with immunoaffinity depletion methods to reduce protein-masking by abundant proteins. Individual patient and healthy control CSF samples were analyzed directly employing a MS-based label-free quantitative proteomics approach. We found that both groups, and individuals within the groups, could be distinguished from each other and normals based on their specific CSF proteins (p<0.01. CFS (n = 43 had 2,783 non-redundant proteins, nPTLS (n = 25 contained 2,768 proteins, and healthy normals had 2,630 proteins. Preliminary pathway analysis demonstrated that the data could be useful for hypothesis generation on the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying these two related syndromes.nPTLS and CFS have distinguishing CSF protein complements. Each condition has a number of CSF proteins that can be useful in providing candidates for future validation studies and insights on the respective mechanisms of pathogenesis. Distinguishing nPTLS and CFS permits more focused study of each condition, and can lead to novel diagnostics and therapeutic interventions.
Gotts, Zoe M; Ellis, Jason G; Deary, Vincent; Barclay, Nicola; Newton, Julia L
The precise relationship between sleep and physical and mental functioning in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) has not been examined directly, nor has the impact of daytime napping. This study aimed to examine self-reported sleep in patients with CFS and explore whether sleep quality and daytime napping, specific patient characteristics (gender, illness length) and levels of anxiety and depression, predicted daytime fatigue severity, levels of daytime sleepiness and cognitive functioning, all key dimensions of the illness experience. 118 adults meeting the 1994 CDC case criteria for CFS completed a standardised sleep diary over 14 days. Momentary functional assessments of fatigue, sleepiness, cognition and mood were completed by patients as part of usual care. Levels of daytime functioning and disability were quantified using symptom assessment tools, measuring fatigue (Chalder Fatigue Scale), sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale), cognitive functioning (Trail Making Test, Cognitive Failures Questionnaire), and mood (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). Hierarchical Regressions demonstrated that a shorter time since diagnosis, higher depression and longer wake time after sleep onset predicted 23.4% of the variance in fatigue severity (p naps predicted 25.6% of the variance in objective cognitive dysfunction (p napping predicted 32.2% of the variance in subjective cognitive dysfunction (p naps, those who mainly napped in the afternoon, and those with higher levels of anxiety, were more likely to be in the moderately sleepy group. Napping, particularly in the afternoon is associated with poorer cognitive functioning and more daytime sleepiness in CFS. These findings have clinical implications for symptom management strategies.
Staud, Roland; Boissoneault, Jeff; Craggs, Jason G; Lai, Song; Robinson, Michael E
One hallmark of chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is task related worsening of fatigue. Global brain hypoperfusion, abnormal regional activation, and altered functional connectivity of brain areas associated with cognition and memory have been reported but remain controversial. We enrolled 17 female participants fulfilling the CDC Criteria for ME/CFS and 16 matched healthy controls (HC). Using a 3T-Phillips Achieva MRI-scanner, pseudo-continuous arterial spin-labeling (pCASL), was used to study the dynamics of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and their relationship to mental fatigue in ME/CFS patients and HC during a demanding cognitive task, i.e. modified Paced-Auditory-Serial-Addition-Testing (PASAT). ME/CFS subjects reported more fatigue than HC at baseline (p fatigue in ME/CFS participants and HC. Although not different between groups, overall CBF significantly increased over the first 3 min of the PASAT and then decreased thereafter. Regional CBF (rCBF) changes were significantly different between groups during the post-task recovery period. Whereas improvement of fatigue of ME/CFS subjects was associated with decreased rCBF in both superior temporal gyri (STG), precuneus, and fusiform gyrus, it was associated with increased rCBF in the same areas in HC. Our results suggest that ME/CFS is associated with normal global CBF at rest and during a strenuous task (PASAT); however rCBF of several brain regions associated with memory, goal-oriented attention, and visual function was differentially associated with recovery from fatigue in ME/CFS patients and HC.
Jason, Leonard A; Paavola, Erin; Porter, Nicole; Morello, Morgan L
Text books are a cornerstone in the training of medical staff and students, and they are an important source of references and reviews for these professionals. The objective of this study was to determine both the quantity and quality of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) information included in medical texts. After reviewing 119 medical text books from various medical specialties, we found that 48 (40.3%) of the medical text books included information on CFS. However, among the 129 527 total pages within these medical text books, the CFS content was presented on only 116.3 (0.090%) pages. Other illnesses that are less prevalent, such as multiple sclerosis and Lyme disease, were more frequently represented in medical text books. These findings suggest that the topic ofCFS is underreported in published medical text books.
Boneva, Roumiana S; Lin, Jin-Mann S; Maloney, Elizabeth M; Jones, James F; Reeves, William C
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a debilitating condition of unknown etiology and no definitive pharmacotherapy. Patients are usually prescribed symptomatic treatment or self-medicate. We evaluated prescription and non-prescription drug use among persons with CFS in Georgia and compared it to that in non-fatigued Well controls and also to chronically Unwell individuals not fully meeting criteria for CFS. A population-based, case-control study. To identify persons with possible CFS-like illness and controls, we conducted a random-digit dialing telephone screening of 19,807 Georgia residents, followed by a detailed telephone interview of 5,630 to identify subjects with CFS-like illness, other chronically Unwell, and Well subjects. All those with CFS-like illness (n = 469), a random sample of chronically Unwell subjects (n = 505), and Well individuals (n = 641) who were age-, sex-, race-, and geographically matched to those with CFS-like illness were invited for a clinical evaluation and 783 participated (48% overall response rate). Clinical evaluation identified 113 persons with CFS, 264 Unwell subjects with insufficient symptoms for CFS (named ISF), and 124 Well controls; the remaining 280 subjects had exclusionary medical or psychiatric conditions, and 2 subjects could not be classified. Subjects were asked to bring all medications taken in the past 2 weeks to the clinic where a research nurse viewed and recorded the name and the dose of each medication. More than 90% of persons with CFS used at least one drug or supplement within the preceding two weeks. Among users, people with CFS used an average of 5.8 drugs or supplements, compared to 4.1 by ISF and 3.7 by Well controls. Persons with CFS were significantly more likely to use antidepressants, sedatives, muscle relaxants, and anti-acids than either Well controls or the ISF group. In addition, persons with CFS were significantly more likely to use pain-relievers, anti-histamines and cold/sinus medications than
Campagnolo, N; Johnston, S; Collatz, A; Staines, D; Marshall-Gradisnik, S
Chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) is characterised by unexplained fatigue for at least 6 months accompanied by a diverse but consistent set of symptoms. Diet modification and nutritional supplements could be used to improve patient outcomes, such fatigue and quality of life. We reviewed and discussed the evidence for nutritional interventions that may assist in alleviating symptoms of CFS/ME. Medline, Cinahl and Scopus were systematically searched from 1994 to May 2016. All studies on nutrition intervention were included where CFS/ME patients modified their diet or supplemented their habitual diet on patient-centred outcomes (fatigue, quality of life, physical activity and/or psychological wellbeing). Seventeen studies were included that meet the inclusion criteria. Of these, 14 different interventions were investigated on study outcomes. Many studies did not show therapeutic benefit on CFS/ME. Improvements in fatigue were observed for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydride (NADH), probiotics, high cocoa polyphenol rich chocolate, and a combination of NADH and coenzyme Q10. This review identified insufficient evidence for the use of nutritional supplements and elimination or modified diets to relieve CFS/ME symptoms. Studies were limited by the number of studies investigating the interventions, small sample sizes, study duration, variety of instruments used, and studies not reporting dietary intake method. Further research is warranted in homogeneous CFS/ME populations. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Dietetic Association.
R Erandie Ediriweera De Silva
Full Text Available Background: Chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalitis (CFS/ME is rarely diagnosed in South Asia (SA, although the symptoms of this condition are seen in the population. Lessons from UK based South Asian, Black and Minority Ethnic (BME communities may be of value in identifying barriers to diagnosis of CFS/ME in SA. Objectives: To explore why CFS/ME may not be commonly diagnosed in SA. Settings and Design: A secondary analysis of qualitative data on the diagnosis and management of CFS/ME in BME people of predominantly South Asian origin in the UK using 27 semi-structured qualitative interviews with people with CFE/ME, carers, general practitioners (GPs, and community leaders. Results: CFS/ME is seen among the BME communities in the UK. People from BME communities in the UK can present to healthcare practitioners with vague physical complaints and they can hold a biomedical model of illness. Patients found it useful to have a label of CFS/ME although some GPs felt it to be a negative label. Access to healthcare can be limited by GPs reluctance to diagnose CFS/ME, their lack of knowledge and patients negative experiences. Cultural aspects among BME patients in the UK also act as a barrier to the diagnosis of CFS/ME. Conclusion: Cultural values and practices influence the diagnosis of CFS/ME in BME communities. The variations in the perceptions around CFS/ME among patients, carers, and health professionals may pose challenges in diagnosing CFS/ME in SA as well. Raising awareness of CFS/ME would improve the diagnosis and management of patients with CFS/ME in SA.
Mariman, An; Delesie, Liesbeth; Tobback, Els; Hanoulle, Ignace; Sermijn, Erica; Vermeir, Peter; Pevernagie, Dirk; Vogelaers, Dirk
To assess undiagnosed and comorbid disorders in patients referred to a tertiary care center with a presumed diagnosis of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Patients referred for chronic unexplained fatigue entered an integrated diagnostic pathway, including internal medicine assessment, psychodiagnostic screening, physiotherapeutic assessment and polysomnography+multiple sleep latency testing. Final diagnosis resulted from a multidisciplinary team discussion. Fukuda criteria were used for the diagnosis of CFS, DSM-IV-TR criteria for psychiatric disorders, ICSD-2 criteria for sleep disorders. Out of 377 patients referred, 279 (74.0%) were included in the study [84.9% female; mean age 38.8years (SD 10.3)]. A diagnosis of unequivocal CFS was made in 23.3%. In 21.1%, CFS was associated with a sleep disorder and/or psychiatric disorder, not invalidating the diagnosis of CFS. A predominant sleep disorder was found in 9.7%, 19.0% had a psychiatric disorder and 20.8% a combination of both. Only 2.2% was diagnosed with a classical internal disease. In the total sample, a sleep disorder was found in 49.8%, especially obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, followed by psychophysiologic insomnia and periodic limb movement disorder. A psychiatric disorder was diagnosed in 45.2%; mostly mood and anxiety disorder. A multidisciplinary approach to presumed CFS yields unequivocal CFS in only a minority of patients, and reveals a broad spectrum of exclusionary or comorbid conditions within the domains of sleep medicine and psychiatry. These findings favor a systematic diagnostic approach to CFS, suitable to identify a wide range of diagnostic categories that may be subject to dedicated care. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Russell, Lindsey; Broderick, Gordon; Taylor, Renee; Fernandes, Henrique; Harvey, Jeanna; Barnes, Zachary; Smylie, AnneLiese; Collado, Fanny; Balbin, Elizabeth G; Katz, Ben Z; Klimas, Nancy G; Fletcher, Mary Ann
Validation of biomarkers for myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) across data sets has proven disappointing. As immune signature may be affected by many factors, our objective was to explore the shift in discriminatory cytokines across ME/CFS subjects separated by duration of illness. Cytokine expression collected at rest across multiple studies for female ME/CFS subjects (i) 18 years or younger, ill for 2 years or less (n = 18), (ii) 18-50 years of age, ill for 7 years (n = 22), and (iii) age 50 years or older (n = 28), ill for 11 years on average. Control subjects were matched for age and body mass index (BMI). Data describing the levels of 16 cytokines using a chemiluminescent assay was used to support the identification of separate linear classification models for each subgroup. In order to isolate the effects of duration of illness alone, cytokines that changed significantly with age in the healthy control subjects were excluded a priori. Optimal selection of cytokines in each group resulted in subsets of IL-1α, 6, 8, 15 and TNFα. Common to any 2 of 3 groups were IL-1α, 6 and 8. Setting these 3 markers as a triple screen and adjusting their contribution according to illness duration sub-groups produced ME/CFS classification accuracies of 75-88 %. The contribution of IL-1α, higher in recently ill adolescent ME/CFS subjects was progressively less important with duration. While high levels of IL-8 screened positive for ME/CFS in the recently afflicted, the opposite was true for subjects ill for more than 2 years. Similarly, while low levels of IL-6 suggested early ME/CFS, the reverse was true in subjects over 18 years of age ill for more than 2 years. These preliminary results suggest that IL-1α, 6 and 8 adjusted for illness duration may serve as robust biomarkers, independent of age, in screening for ME/CFS.
Brimacombe, Michael; Helmer, Drew A; Natelson, Benjamin H
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a medically unexplained illness that is diagnosed on the basis of a clinical case definition; so it probably is an illness with multiple causes producing the same clinical picture. One way of dealing with this heterogeneity is to stratify patients based on illness onset. We hypothesized that either the whole group of CFS patients or that group which developed CFS gradually would show a relation with birth order, while patients who developed CFS suddenly, probably due to a viral illness, would not show such a relation. We hypothesized the birth order effect in the gradual onset group because those patients have more psychological problems, and birth order effects have been shown for psychological characteristics. We compared birth order in our CFS patients to that in a comparison group derived from U.S. demographic data. We found a tendency that did not reach formal statistical significance for a birth order effect in the gradual onset group, but not in either the sudden onset or combined total group. However, the birth order effect we found was due to relatively increased rates of CFS in second-born children; prior birth order studies of personality characteristics have found such effects to be skewed toward first-born children. Thus, our data do support a birth order effect in a subset of patients with CFS. The results of this study should encourage a larger multicenter study to further explore and understand this relation.
Rasouli, Omid; Fors, Egil A; Borchgrevink, Petter Chr; Öhberg, Fredrik; Stensdotter, Ann-Katrin
This paper aimed to investigate motor proficiency in fine and gross motor function, with a focus on reaction time (RT) and movement skill, in patients with fibromyalgia (FM) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) compared to healthy controls (HC). A total of 60 individuals (20 CFS, 20 FM, and 20 HC), age 19-49 years, participated in this study. Gross motor function in the lower extremity was assessed using a RT task during gait initiation in response to an auditory trigger. Fine motor function in the upper extremity was measured during a precision task (the Purdue Pegboard test) where the number of pins inserted within 30 s was counted. No significant differences were found between FM and CFS in any parameters. FM and CFS groups had significantly longer RT than HC in the gait initiation ( p =0.001, and p =0.004 respectively). In the Purdue Pegboard test, 20% in the FM group, 15% in the CFS groups, and 0% of HC group, scored below the threshold of the accepted performance. However, there were no significant differences between FM, CFS, and HC in this task ( p =0.12). Compared to controls, both CFS and FM groups displayed significantly longer RT in the gait initiation task. Generally, FM patients showed the worst results in both tests, although no group differences were found in fine motor control, according to the Purdue Pegboard test.
Brenu Ekua W
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME is an etiologically unexplained disorder characterised by irregularities in various aspects of the immunological function. Presently, it is unknown whether these immunological changes remain consistent over time. This study investigates Natural Killer (NK cell cytotoxic activity, NK cell subsets (CD56brightCD16- and CD56dimCD16+ and cytokines, over the course of a12 month period in patients with CFS/ME. Methods The participants in the study comprised 65 (47.2 ± 11.5 years CFS/ME participants and 21 (45.2 ±9.3 years non-fatigued controls. Flow cytometry protocols were used to assess NK subsets and NK cytotoxic activity at various time points that included baseline (T1, 6 (T2 and 12 months (T3. Cytokine secretions were measured following mitogenic stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Results NK cytotoxic activity was significantly decreased in the CFS/ME patients at T1, T2 and T3 compared to the non-fatigued group. Additionally, in comparison to the non-fatigued controls, the CFS/ME group had significantly lower numbers of CD56brightCD16- NK cells at both T1 and T2. Interestingly, following mitogenic stimulation, cytokine secretion revealed significant increases in IL-10, IFN-γ and TNF-α at T1 in the CFS/ME group. A significant decrease was observed at T2 in the CFS/ME group for IL-10 and IL-17A while at T3, IL-2 was increased in the CFS/ME group in comparison to the non-fatigued controls. Overall cytotoxic activity was significantly decreased at T3 compared to T1 and T2. CD56brightCD16- NK cells were much lower at T2 compared to T1 and T3. IL-10 and IL-17A secretion was elevated at T2 in comparison to T1 and T3. Conclusion These results confirm decreases in immune function in CFS/ME patients, suggesting an increased susceptibility to viral and other infections. Furthermore, NK cytotoxic activity may be a suitable biomarker for diagnosing CFS
Full Text Available Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS is a clinically defined illness estimated to affect millions of people worldwide causing significant morbidity and an annual cost of billions of dollars. Currently there are no laboratory-based diagnostic methods for CFS. However, differences in gene expression profiles between CFS patients and healthy persons have been reported in the literature. Using mRNA relative quantities for 44 previously identified reporter genes taken from a large dataset comprising both CFS patients and healthy volunteers, we derived a gene profile scoring metric to accurately classify CFS and healthy samples. This metric out-performed any of the reporter genes used individually as a classifier of CFS.To determine whether the reporter genes were robust across populations, we applied this metric to classify a separate blind dataset of mRNA relative quantities from a new population of CFS patients and healthy persons with limited success. Although the metric was able to successfully classify roughly two-thirds of both CFS and healthy samples correctly, the level of misclassification was high. We conclude many of the previously identified reporter genes are study-specific and thus cannot be used as a broad CFS diagnostic.
Flores, Samantha; Brown, Abigail; Adeoye, Samuel; Jason, Leonard A; Evans, Meredyth
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a complex disorder affecting multiple body systems. The most commonly used definition of CFS is 6 or more months of fatigue and the presence of at least four of eight minor symptoms. In addition, many health and psychological conditions, including severe obesity-body mass index (BMI) of 40 kg/m(2) or greater-exclude individuals from a diagnosis of CFS. Obesity has been correlated with fatigue, sleep problems, and less satisfaction with general health, functioning, and vitality. The current study investigated weight trends over time in a community-based sample of individuals with CFS and healthy controls. The study further investigated the impact of comorbid weight issues on several health and disability outcomes in a subset of overweight individuals. Overweight and obese individuals with CFS demonstrated poorer functioning than controls who were similarly weighted. One participant was excluded because she had gained weight at a monitoring visit and her BMI was greater than 40 kg/m(2). The implications of these findings for health care workers are discussed. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.
Ocon, Anthony J
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) is defined as greater than 6 months of persistent fatigue that is experienced physically and cognitively. The cognitive symptoms are generally thought to be a mild cognitive impairment, but individuals with CFS subjectively describe them as "brain fog." The impairment is not fully understood and often is described as slow thinking, difficulty focusing, confusion, lack of concentration, forgetfulness, or a haziness in thought processes. Causes of "brain fog" and mild cognitive impairment have been investigated. Possible physiological correlates may be due to the effects of chronic orthostatic intolerance (OI) in the form of the Postural Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS) and decreases in cerebral blood flow (CBF). In addition, fMRI studies suggest that individuals with CFS may require increased cortical and subcortical brain activation to complete difficult mental tasks. Furthermore, neurocognitive testing in CFS has demonstrated deficits in speed and efficiency of information processing, attention, concentration, and working memory. The cognitive impairments are then perceived as an exaggerated mental fatigue. As a whole, this is experienced by those with CFS as "brain fog" and may be viewed as the interaction of physiological, cognitive, and perceptual factors. Thus, the cognitive symptoms of CFS may be due to altered CBF activation and regulation that are exacerbated by a stressor, such as orthostasis or a difficult mental task, resulting in the decreased ability to readily process information, which is then perceived as fatiguing and experienced as "brain fog." Future research looks to further explore these interactions, how they produce cognitive impairments, and explain the perception of "brain fog" from a mechanistic standpoint.
Lin Jin-Mann S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS is a debilitating illness with particular difficulties for healthcare providers because there are no diagnostic signs or laboratory tests and because management aims to merely improve symptoms. Further complicating management, healthcare providers' awareness concerning CFS has not been rigorously assessed. The present study aimed to ascertain United States (U.S. healthcare providers' awareness of CFS and to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs (KAB related to diagnosis and management of the illness. This information forms the foundation for developing CFS educational strategies. Methods We combined convenience and probability samples to measure CFS KAB among healthcare providers. In the convenience sample, 1,255 healthcare providers (81% response rate from 13 professional conferences completed a 12-item form. Descriptive statistics were reported for 9 KAB item responses and chi-square tests were performed for examining their association with giving a diagnosis of CFS. We used principal component analysis to construct multidimensional subscales and perform a general linear model to examine factors associated with subscales. The probability sample involved data on 15 CFS-specific questions from 2006 and 2007 DocStyles web-based panel surveys collected from 2,750 physicians (average response rate 55%. We calculated descriptive and chi-square statistics. The significance was set at two-tailed with the alpha level of 0.05. Results Healthcare providers in both samples were aware of CFS and exhibited a high level of knowledge. Overall, 96% of respondents in the DocStyles (probability sample had heard about CFS. Healthcare providers in the conference (convenience sample demonstrated good KAB scores; physicians' scores were highest on KAB scales and lowest in perception. Nurses' scores were lowest in knowledge. More than 40% of physicians reported ever giving a CFS diagnosis and in the Doc
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Twisk, Frank NM
Although myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) are considered to be synonymous, the definitional criteria for ME and CFS define two distinct, partially overlapping, clinical entities. ME, whether defined by the original criteria or by the recently proposed criteria, is not equivalent to CFS, let alone a severe variant of incapacitating chronic fatigue. Distinctive features of ME are: muscle weakness and easy muscle fatigability, cognitive impairment, circulatory deficits, a marked variability of the symptoms in presence and severity, but above all, post-exertional “malaise”: a (delayed) prolonged aggravation of symptoms after a minor exertion. In contrast, CFS is primarily defined by (unexplained) chronic fatigue, which should be accompanied by four out of a list of 8 symptoms, e.g., headaches. Due to the subjective nature of several symptoms of ME and CFS, researchers and clinicians have questioned the physiological origin of these symptoms and qualified ME and CFS as functional somatic syndromes. However, various characteristic symptoms, e.g., post-exertional “malaise” and muscle weakness, can be assessed objectively using well-accepted methods, e.g., cardiopulmonary exercise tests and cognitive tests. The objective measures acquired by these methods should be used to accurately diagnose patients, to evaluate the severity and impact of the illness objectively and to assess the positive and negative effects of proposed therapies impartially. PMID:26140274
Ashton Kevin J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME is characterised by severe prolonged fatigue, and decreases in cognition and other physiological functions, resulting in severe loss of quality of life, difficult clinical management and high costs to the health care system. To date there is no proven pathomechanism to satisfactorily explain this disorder. Studies have identified abnormalities in immune function but these data are inconsistent. We investigated the profile of markers of immune function (including novel markers in CFS/ME patients. Methods We included 95 CFS/ME patients and 50 healthy controls. All participants were assessed on natural killer (NK and CD8+T cell cytotoxic activities, Th1 and Th2 cytokine profile of CD4+T cells, expression of vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 2 (VPACR2, levels of NK phenotypes (CD56bright and CD56dim and regulatory T cells expressing FoxP3 transcription factor. Results Compared to healthy individuals, CFS/ME patients displayed significant increases in IL-10, IFN-γ, TNF-α, CD4+CD25+ T cells, FoxP3 and VPACR2 expression. Cytotoxic activity of NK and CD8+T cells and NK phenotypes, in particular the CD56bright NK cells were significantly decreased in CFS/ME patients. Additionally granzyme A and granzyme K expression were reduced while expression levels of perforin were significantly increased in the CFS/ME population relative to the control population. These data suggest significant dysregulation of the immune system in CFS/ME patients. Conclusions Our study found immunological abnormalities which may serve as biomarkers in CFS/ME patients with potential for an application as a diagnostic tool.
Full Text Available Introduction: Few studies have considered the factors independently associated with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS and/or fibromyalgia (FM or considered the impact of these conditions on health status using population-based data. Methods: We used data from the nationally representative 2010 Canadian Community Health Survey (n= 59 101 to describe self-reported health professional-diagnosed CFS and/or FM, and their associations with 6 health status indicators. Results: In 2010, diagnosed CFS and FM are reported by 1.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3%–1.6% and 1.5% (1.4%–1.7%, respectively, of the Canadian household population aged 12 years and over, with comorbid CFS and FM affecting 0.3% (0.3%–0.4% of that population. Prevalent CFS and/or FM were more common among women, adults aged 40 years and over, those with lowest income, and those with certain risk factors for chronic disease (i.e. obesity, physical inactivity and smoking. After controlling for differences between the groups, people with CFS and/or FM reported poorer health status than those with neither condition on 5 indicators of health status, but not on the measure of fair/poor mental health. Having both CFS and FM and having multiple comorbid conditions was associated with poorer health status. Conclusion: Co-occurrence of CFS and FM and having other chronic conditions were strongly related to poorer health status and accounted for much of the differences in health status. Understanding factors contributing to improved quality of life in people with CFS and/or FM, particularly in those with both conditions and other comorbidities, may be an important area for future research.
Brimmer Dana J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS is a debilitating chronic illness affecting at least 4 million people in the United States. Understanding its cost improves decisions regarding resource allocation that may be directed towards treatment and cure, and guides the evaluation of clinical and community interventions designed to reduce the burden of disease. Methods This research estimated direct and indirect costs of CFS and the impact on educational attainment using a population-based, case-control study between September 2004 and July 2005, Georgia, USA. Participants completed a clinical evaluation to confirm CFS, identify other illnesses, and report on socioeconomic factors. We estimated the effect of CFS on direct medical costs (inpatient hospitalizations, provider visits, prescription medication spending, other medical supplies and services and loss in productivity (employment and earnings with a stratified sample (n = 500 from metropolitan, urban, and rural Georgia. We adjusted medical costs and earnings for confounders (age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and geographic strata using econometric models and weighted estimates to reflect response-rate adjusted sampling rates. Results Individuals with CFS had mean annual direct medical costs of $5,683. After adjusting for confounding factors, CFS accounted for $3,286 of these costs (p Conclusions Study results indicate that chronic fatigue syndrome may lead to substantial increases in healthcare costs and decreases in individual earnings. Studies have estimated up to 2.5% of non-elderly adults may suffer from CFS. In Georgia, a state with roughly 5.5 million people age 18-59, illness could account for $452 million in total healthcare expenditures and $1.2 billion of lost productivity.
Full Text Available Elizabeth A Attree,1 Megan A Arroll,1 Christine P Dancey,1 Charlene Griffith,1 Amolak S Bansal1,2 1Chronic Illness Research Team, School of Psychology, University of East London, London, UK; 2Department of Immunology and the Sutton CFS Service, St Helier Hospital, Carshalton, UK Background: Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS is characterized by persistent emotional, mental, and physical fatigue accompanied by a range of neurological, autonomic, neuroendocrine, immune, and sleep problems. Research has shown that psychosocial factors such as anxiety and depression as well as the symptoms of the illness, have a significant impact on the quality of life of people with ME/CFS. In addition, individuals may suffer from deficits in memory and concentration. This study set out to explore the relationships between variables which have been found to contribute to cognitive performance, as measured by prospective and retrospective memory, and cognitive failures. Methods: Eighty-seven people with ME/CFS answered questionnaires measuring fatigue, depression, anxiety, social support, and general self-efficacy. These were used in a correlational design (multiple regression to predict cognitive function (self-ratings on prospective and retrospective memory, and cognitive failures. Results: Our study found that fatigue, depression, and general self-efficacy were directly associated with cognitive failures and retrospective (but not prospective memory. Conclusion: Although it was not possible in this study to determine the cause of the deficits, the literature in this area leads us to suggest that although the pathophysiological mechanisms of ME/CFS are unclear, abnormalities in the immune system, including proinflammatory cytokines, can lead to significant impairments in cognition. We suggest that fatigue and depression may be a result of the neurobiological effects of ME/CFS and in addition, that the neurobiological effects of the illness
Full Text Available Samantha C Johnston1,2 Donald R Staines1 Sonya M Marshall-Gradisnik1,2 1National Centre for Neuroimmunology and Emerging Diseases, Menzies Health Institute Queensland, 2School of Medical Sciences, Griffith University, Parklands, QLD, Australia Background: No epidemiological investigations have previously been conducted in Australia according to the current clinical definitions of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME. The aim of this study was to describe sociodemographic and illness characteristics of Australian patients with CFS/ME.Methods: A cross-sectional survey on the medical history of patients enrolled in an Australian CFS/ME research database between April 2013 and April 2015. Participants were classified according to Fukuda criteria and International Consensus Criteria.Results: A total of 535 patients diagnosed with CFS/ME by a primary care physician were identified. The mean age of all patients was 46.4 years (standard deviation 12.0; the majority were female (78.61%, Caucasian, and highly educated. Of these, 30.28% met Fukuda criteria. A further 31.96% met both Fukuda criteria and International Consensus Criteria. There were 14.58% reporting chronic fatigue but did not meet criteria for CFS/ME and 23.18% were considered noncases due to exclusionary conditions. Within those meeting CFS/ME criteria, the most common events prior to illness included cold or flu, gastrointestinal illness, and periods of undue stress. Of the 60 symptoms surveyed, fatigue, cognitive, and short-term memory symptoms, headaches, muscle and joint pain, unrefreshed sleep, sensory disturbances, muscle weakness, and intolerance to extremes of temperature were the most commonly occurring symptoms (reported by more than two-thirds of patients. Significant differences in symptom occurrence between Fukuda- and International Consensus Criteria-defined cases were also identified.Conclusion: This is the first study to summarize sociodemographic and
In this paper I ask whether there might be any one particular psychopathology likely to be linked specifically with the physical illness known as chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) or myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), and whether CFS/ME aids and abets and "fits' an original mental state. I think the question cannot yet be answered. However it is my hypothesis that in some personality structures the onset of CFS/ ME following a physical illness exacerbates negativity and is an aspect of ordinary depression where there is a lowering of energy levels and a loss of zest for life, or it may reveal the pathological aspect of unresolved rage. Depending on the degree of pathological disturbance, working with and through the rage may or may not result in a resolution of the symptoms of ME. In this paper I consider some of the problems in the transference and countertransference relationship, which make it extremely difficult to separate out reality from phantasy. There is then the further problem of the denial of the psyche by the patient as part of the violence inherent in the illness. One case is presented, an example of ME in a borderline male patient in whom resolution could not be achieved.
Audrey E Brown
Full Text Available Post exertional muscle fatigue is a key feature in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS. Abnormalities of skeletal muscle function have been identified in some but not all patients with CFS. To try to limit potential confounders that might contribute to this clinical heterogeneity, we developed a novel in vitro system that allows comparison of AMP kinase (AMPK activation and metabolic responses to exercise in cultured skeletal muscle cells from CFS patients and control subjects.Skeletal muscle cell cultures were established from 10 subjects with CFS and 7 age-matched controls, subjected to electrical pulse stimulation (EPS for up to 24h and examined for changes associated with exercise.In the basal state, CFS cultures showed increased myogenin expression but decreased IL6 secretion during differentiation compared with control cultures. Control cultures subjected to 16 h EPS showed a significant increase in both AMPK phosphorylation and glucose uptake compared with unstimulated cells. In contrast, CFS cultures showed no increase in AMPK phosphorylation or glucose uptake after 16 h EPS. However, glucose uptake remained responsive to insulin in the CFS cells pointing to an exercise-related defect. IL6 secretion in response to EPS was significantly reduced in CFS compared with control cultures at all time points measured.EPS is an effective model for eliciting muscle contraction and the metabolic changes associated with exercise in cultured skeletal muscle cells. We found four main differences in cultured skeletal muscle cells from subjects with CFS; increased myogenin expression in the basal state, impaired activation of AMPK, impaired stimulation of glucose uptake and diminished release of IL6. The retention of these differences in cultured muscle cells from CFS subjects points to a genetic/epigenetic mechanism, and provides a system to identify novel therapeutic targets.
Blomberg, Jonas; Gottfries, Carl-Gerhard; Elfaitouri, Amal; Rizwan, Muhammad; Rosén, Anders
Myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) often also called chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a common, debilitating, disease of unknown origin. Although a subject of controversy and a considerable scientific literature, we think that a solid understanding of ME/CFS pathogenesis is emerging. In this study, we compiled recent findings and placed them in the context of the clinical picture and natural history of the disease. A pattern emerged, giving rise to an explanatory model. ME/CFS often starts after or during an infection. A logical explanation is that the infection initiates an autoreactive process, which affects several functions, including brain and energy metabolism. According to our model for ME/CFS pathogenesis, patients with a genetic predisposition and dysbiosis experience a gradual development of B cell clones prone to autoreactivity. Under normal circumstances these B cell offsprings would have led to tolerance. Subsequent exogenous microbial exposition (triggering) can lead to comorbidities such as fibromyalgia, thyroid disorder, and orthostatic hypotension. A decisive infectious trigger may then lead to immunization against autoantigens involved in aerobic energy production and/or hormone receptors and ion channel proteins, producing postexertional malaise and ME/CFS, affecting both muscle and brain. In principle, cloning and sequencing of immunoglobulin variable domains could reveal the evolution of pathogenic clones. Although evidence consistent with the model accumulated in recent years, there are several missing links in it. Hopefully, the hypothesis generates testable propositions that can augment the understanding of the pathogenesis of ME/CFS. PMID:29497420
Versluis, R G; de Waal, M W; Opmeer, C; Petri, H; Springer, M P
To determine the prevalence of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in general practice. Descriptive. General practice and primary health care centres in Leyden region, the Netherlands. RNUH-LEO is a computerized database which contains the anonymous patient information of one general practice (with two practitioners) and four primary health care centres. The fourteen participating general practitioners were asked what International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC) code they used to indicate a patient with chronic fatigue or with CFS. With these codes and with the code for depression patients were selected from the database. It then was determined whether these patients met the criteria of CFS by Holmes et al. The general practitioners used 10 codes. Including the code for depression a total of 601 patients were preselected from a total of 23,000 patients in the database. Based on the information from the patients' records in the database, 42 of the preselected patients were selected who might fulfill the Holmes' criteria of CFS. According to the patients' own general practitioner, 25 of the 42 patients would fulfil the Holmes' criteria. The men:women ratio was 1:5. The prevalence of CFS in the population surveyed was estimated to be at least 1.1 per 1,000 patients.
The status of and future research into Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: the need of accurate diagnosis, objective assessment, and acknowledging biological and clinical subgroups
Twisk, Frank N. M.
Although Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME) and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) are used interchangeably, the diagnostic criteria define two distinct clinical entities. Cognitive impairment, (muscle) weakness, circulatory disturbances, marked variability of symptoms, and, above all, post-exertional malaise: a long-lasting increase of symptoms after a minor exertion, are distinctive symptoms of ME. This latter phenomenon separates ME, a neuro-immune illness, from chronic fatigue (syndrome), other disorders and deconditioning. The introduction of the label, but more importantly the diagnostic criteria for CFS have generated much confusion, mostly because chronic fatigue is a subjective and ambiguous notion. CFS was redefined in 1994 into unexplained (persistent or relapsing) chronic fatigue, accompanied by at least four out of eight symptoms, e.g., headaches and unrefreshing sleep. Most of the research into ME and/or CFS in the last decades was based upon the multivalent CFS criteria, which define a heterogeneous patient group. Due to the fact that fatigue and other symptoms are non-discriminative, subjective experiences, research has been hampered. Various authors have questioned the physiological nature of the symptoms and qualified ME/CFS as somatization. However, various typical symptoms can be assessed objectively using standardized methods. Despite subjective and unclear criteria and measures, research has observed specific abnormalities in ME/CFS repetitively, e.g., immunological abnormalities, oxidative and nitrosative stress, neurological anomalies, circulatory deficits and mitochondrial dysfunction. However, to improve future research standards and patient care, it is crucial that patients with post-exertional malaise (ME) and patients without this odd phenomenon are acknowledged as separate clinical entities that the diagnosis of ME and CFS in research and clinical practice is based upon accurate criteria and an objective assessment of characteristic symptoms
Jason, Leonard A.; Paavola, Erin; Porter, Nicole; Morello, Morgan L.
Textbooks are a cornerstone in the training of medical staff and students, and they are an important source of references and reviews for these professionals. The objective of this study was to determine both the quantity and quality of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) information included in medical texts. After reviewing 119 medical textbooks from various medical specialties, we found that 48 (40.3%) of the medical textbooks included information on CFS. However, among the 129,527 total pages within these medical textbooks, the CFS content was presented on only 116.3 (.090%) pages. Other illnesses that are less prevalent, such as Multiple Sclerosis and Lyme disease, were more frequently represented in medical textbooks. These findings suggest that the topic of CFS is under-reported in published medical textbooks. PMID:21128580
Full Text Available Abstract Background A waterborne outbreak of Giardia lamblia gastroenteritis led to a high prevalance of long-lasting fatigue and abdominal symptoms. The aim was to describe the clinical characteristics, disability and employmentloss in a case series of patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS after the infection. Methods Patients who reported persistent fatigue, lowered functional capacity and sickness leave or delayed education after a large community outbreak of giardiasis enteritis in the city of Bergen, Norway were evaluated with the established Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for CFS. Fatigue was self-rated by the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS. Physical and mental health status and functional impairment was measured by the Medical Outcome Severity Scale-short Form-36 (SF-36. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS was used to measure co-morbid anxiety and depression. Inability to work or study because of fatigue was determined by sickness absence certified by a doctor. Results A total of 58 (60% out of 96 patients with long-lasting post-infectious fatigue after laboratory confirmed giardiasis were diagnosed with CFS. In all, 1262 patients had laboratory confirmed giardiasis. At the time of referral (mean illness duration 2.7 years 16% reported improvement, 28% reported no change, and 57% reported progressive course with gradual worsening. Mean FSS score was 6.6. A distinctive pattern of impairment was documented with the SF-36. The physical functioning, vitality (energy/fatigue and social functioning were especially reduced. Long-term sickness absence from studies and work was noted in all patients. Conclusion After giardiasis enteritis at least 5% developed clinical characteristics and functional impairment comparable to previously described post-infectious fatigue syndrome.
Turgeon, Sue A.
Chronic fatigue syndrome, previously known as chronic mononucleosis or post-infectious fatigue, is a poorly understood illness characterized by chronic debilitating fatigue, recurrent flu-like symptoms, and few clinical or laboratory abnormalities. Attention was briefly focused on the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) as a causal agent, but that hypothesis is now in serious doubt. While a significant incidence of psychiatric illness has been demonstrated among patients with the chronic fatigue syndrom...
Leonard A. Jason; Nicole Porter; Elizabeth Shelleby; David S. Bell; Charles W. Lapp; Kathy Rowe; Kenny De Meirleir
The case definition for chronic fatigue syndrome was developed for adults (Fukuda et al. 1994), and this case definition may not be appropriate for use with children and adolescents. The lack of application of a consistent pediatric definition for this illness and the lack of a reliable instrument to assess it might lead to studies which lack sensitivity and specificity. In this article, a case definition is presented that has been endorsed by the International Association of ME/CFS.
Sathyapalan, Thozhukat; Beckett, Stephen; Rigby, Alan S; Mellor, Duane D; Atkin, Stephen L
Abstract Background Chocolate is rich in flavonoids that have been shown to be of benefit in disparate conditions including cardiovascular disease and cancer. The effect of polyphenol rich chocolate in subjects with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) has not been studied previously. Methods We conducted a double blinded, randomised, clinical pilot crossover study comparing high cocoa liquor/polyphenol rich chocolate (HCL/PR) in comparison to simulated iso-calorific chocolate (cocoa liquor free/lo...
Background Throughout the world, patients with chronic diseases/illnesses use complementary and alternative medicines (CAM). The use of CAM is also substantial among patients with diseases/illnesses of unknown aetiology. Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), also termed myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), is no exception. Hence, a systematic review of randomised controlled trials of CAM treatments in patients with CFS/ME was undertaken to summarise the existing evidence from RCTs of CAM treatments in this patient population. Methods Seventeen data sources were searched up to 13th August 2011. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of any type of CAM therapy used for treating CFS were included, with the exception of acupuncture and complex herbal medicines; studies were included regardless of blinding. Controlled clinical trials, uncontrolled observational studies, and case studies were excluded. Results A total of 26 RCTs, which included 3,273 participants, met our inclusion criteria. The CAM therapy from the RCTs included the following: mind-body medicine, distant healing, massage, tuina and tai chi, homeopathy, ginseng, and dietary supplementation. Studies of qigong, massage and tuina were demonstrated to have positive effects, whereas distant healing failed to do so. Compared with placebo, homeopathy also had insufficient evidence of symptom improvement in CFS. Seventeen studies tested supplements for CFS. Most of the supplements failed to show beneficial effects for CFS, with the exception of NADH and magnesium. Conclusions The results of our systematic review provide limited evidence for the effectiveness of CAM therapy in relieving symptoms of CFS. However, we are not able to draw firm conclusions concerning CAM therapy for CFS due to the limited number of RCTs for each therapy, the small sample size of each study and the high risk of bias in these trials. Further rigorous RCTs that focus on promising CAM therapies are warranted. PMID:21982120
Allen, John; Murray, Alan; Di Maria, Costanzo; Newton, Julia L
Autonomic nervous system dysfunction is frequently reported in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) with orthostatic intolerance, a common symptom that can be objectively assessed. The frequent finding of autonomic dysfunction and symptoms on standing has the potential to provide a diagnostic biomarker in chronic fatigue. In this study we explored the clinical value of non-invasive optical multi-site photoplethysmography (PPG) technology to assess cardiovascular responses to standing. Multi-site PPG pulses were collected from tissue pads of the ears, fingers and toes of 14 patients with CFS and 14 age-matched sedentary subjects using a measurement protocol of a 10 min baseline (subject supine) followed by 3 min of tilting on a tilt table (head-up to 70°). Percentage change in pulse timing (pulse transit time, PTTf) and pulse amplitude (AMP) at each site were calculated using beat-to-beat pulse wave analysis. A significant reduction in the overall pulse timing response to controlled standing was found for the CFS group (using summed absolute percentage change in PTTf for ear, finger and toe sites, median change of 26% for CFS and 37% for control with p = 0.002). There were no significant differences between subject groups for the AMP measure at any site. Changes in AMP with tilt were, however, weakly significantly and negatively correlated with fatigue severity (p < 0.05). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of timing measures produced an area under the curve of 0.81. Experimental linear discriminant classification analysis comparing both timing and amplitude measures produced an overall diagnostic accuracy of 82%. Pulse wave abnormalities have been observed in CFS and represent a potential objective measure to help differentiate between CFS patients and healthy controls. (paper)
Olson, Karin; Zimka, Oksana; Stein, Eleanor
In this article, we report the findings of our study on the nature of fatigue in patients diagnosed with chronic fatigue syndrome. Using ethnoscience as a design, we conducted a series of unstructured interviews and card sorts to learn more about how people with chronic fatigue syndrome describe fatigue. Participants (N = 14) described three distinct domains: tiredness, fatigue, and exhaustion. Most participants experienced tiredness prior to diagnosis, fatigue during daily life, and exhaustion after overexertion. We also discuss participants' ability to adapt to a variety of stressors and prevent shifts to exhaustion, and relate our findings to stress theory and other current research. Primary strategies that promoted adaptation to stressors included pacing and extended rest periods. These findings can aid health care professionals in detecting impending shifts between tiredness, fatigue, and exhaustion and in improving adaptive strategies, thereby improving quality of life. © The Author(s) 2015.
Leite, Jose Carlos de Carvalho; Drachler, Maria de L.; Killett, Anne; Kale, Swati; Nacul, Luis; McArthur, Maggie; Hong, Chia Swee; O'Driscoll, Lucy; Pheby, Derek; Campion, Peter; Lacerda, Elliana; Poland, Fiona
Background: Needs-based resource allocation is fundamental to equitable care provision, which can meet the often-complex, fluctuating needs of people with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME). This has posed challenges both for those providing and those seeking support providers, in building shared understanding of the condition and of actions to address it. This qualitative study reports on needs for equity in health and social care expressed by adults living with CFS/...
Van Oosterwijck, Jessica; Marusic, Uros; De Wandele, Inge; Paul, Lorna; Meeus, Mira; Moorkens, Greta; Lambrecht, Luc; Danneels, Lieven; Nijs, Jo
BACKGROUND: Patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis / chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) are unable to activate brain-orchestrated endogenous analgesia (or descending inhibition) in response to exercise. This physiological impairment is currently regarded as one factor explaining post-exertional malaise in these patients. Autonomic dysfunction is also a feature of ME/CFS. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to examine the role of the autonomic nervous system in exercise-induced analgesia in healthy...
Russell, Charlotte; Wearden, Alison J; Fairclough, Gillian; Emsley, Richard A; Kyle, Simon D
This study aimed to (1) examine the relationship between subjective and actigraphy-defined sleep, and next-day fatigue in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS); and (2) investigate the potential mediating role of negative mood on this relationship. We also sought to examine the effect of presleep arousal on perceptions of sleep. Twenty-seven adults meeting the Oxford criteria for CFS and self-identifying as experiencing sleep difficulties were recruited to take part in a prospective daily diary study, enabling symptom capture in real time over a 6-day period. A paper diary was used to record nightly subjective sleep and presleep arousal. Mood and fatigue symptoms were rated four times each day. Actigraphy was employed to provide objective estimations of sleep duration and continuity. Multilevel modelling revealed that subjective sleep variables, namely sleep quality, efficiency, and perceiving sleep to be unrefreshing, predicted following-day fatigue levels, with poorer subjective sleep related to increased fatigue. Lower subjective sleep efficiency and perceiving sleep as unrefreshing predicted reduced variance in fatigue across the following day. Negative mood on waking partially mediated these relationships. Increased presleep cognitive and somatic arousal predicted self-reported poor sleep. Actigraphy-defined sleep, however, was not found to predict following-day fatigue. For the first time we show that nightly subjective sleep predicts next-day fatigue in CFS and identify important factors driving this relationship. Our data suggest that sleep specific interventions, targeting presleep arousal, perceptions of sleep and negative mood on waking, may improve fatigue in CFS. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.
Gay, Charles W; Robinson, Michael E; Lai, Song; O'Shea, Andrew; Craggs, Jason G; Price, Donald D; Staud, Roland
Although altered resting-state functional connectivity (FC) is a characteristic of many chronic pain conditions, it has not yet been evaluated in patients with chronic fatigue. Our objective was to investigate the association between fatigue and altered resting-state FC in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). Thirty-six female subjects, 19 ME/CFS and 17 healthy controls, completed a fatigue inventory before undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Two methods, (1) data driven and (2) model based, were used to estimate and compare the intraregional FC between both groups during the resting state (RS). The first approach using independent component analysis was applied to investigate five RS networks: the default mode network, salience network (SN), left frontoparietal networks (LFPN) and right frontoparietal networks, and the sensory motor network (SMN). The second approach used a priori selected seed regions demonstrating abnormal regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in ME/CFS patients at rest. In ME/CFS patients, Method-1 identified decreased intrinsic connectivity among regions within the LFPN. Furthermore, the FC of the left anterior midcingulate with the SMN and the connectivity of the left posterior cingulate cortex with the SN were significantly decreased. For Method-2, five distinct clusters within the right parahippocampus and occipital lobes, demonstrating significant rCBF reductions in ME/CFS patients, were used as seeds. The parahippocampal seed and three occipital lobe seeds showed altered FC with other brain regions. The degree of abnormal connectivity correlated with the level of self-reported fatigue. Our results confirm altered RS FC in patients with ME/CFS, which was significantly correlated with the severity of their chronic fatigue.
Zoe M Gotts
Full Text Available The precise relationship between sleep and physical and mental functioning in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS has not been examined directly, nor has the impact of daytime napping. This study aimed to examine self-reported sleep in patients with CFS and explore whether sleep quality and daytime napping, specific patient characteristics (gender, illness length and levels of anxiety and depression, predicted daytime fatigue severity, levels of daytime sleepiness and cognitive functioning, all key dimensions of the illness experience.118 adults meeting the 1994 CDC case criteria for CFS completed a standardised sleep diary over 14 days. Momentary functional assessments of fatigue, sleepiness, cognition and mood were completed by patients as part of usual care. Levels of daytime functioning and disability were quantified using symptom assessment tools, measuring fatigue (Chalder Fatigue Scale, sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale, cognitive functioning (Trail Making Test, Cognitive Failures Questionnaire, and mood (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale.Hierarchical Regressions demonstrated that a shorter time since diagnosis, higher depression and longer wake time after sleep onset predicted 23.4% of the variance in fatigue severity (p <.001. Being male, higher depression and more afternoon naps predicted 25.6% of the variance in objective cognitive dysfunction (p <.001. Higher anxiety and depression and morning napping predicted 32.2% of the variance in subjective cognitive dysfunction (p <.001. When patients were classified into groups of mild and moderate sleepiness, those with longer daytime naps, those who mainly napped in the afternoon, and those with higher levels of anxiety, were more likely to be in the moderately sleepy group.Napping, particularly in the afternoon is associated with poorer cognitive functioning and more daytime sleepiness in CFS. These findings have clinical implications for symptom management strategies.
Gotts, Zoe M; Newton, Julia L; Ellis, Jason G; Deary, Vincent
Sleep disturbances are common in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), and one of the key symptom complaints, yet it has been neglected by previous qualitative research. The aim was to explore the specific role of sleep in patients' experience of their illness. A qualitative semi-structured interview format facilitated a detailed and open exploration of sleep, and the extent to which its management and problems were linked to the lived experience of CFS. Eleven semi-structured interviews were conducted with individuals with CFS. Data were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically, to explore and describe patients' experience of their sleep, and its impact on their condition. Sleep emerged as a key aspect of the illness experience, and its management and effect on daytime functioning was a central pre-occupation for all 11 participants; all of them saw sleep as playing a critical role in their illness through either maintaining or exacerbating existing symptoms. Exploration of individual experiences presented three overarching themes: (1) sleep pattern variability over illness course and from day to day; (2) effect of sleep on daytime functioning; and (3) attempts at coping and sleep management. Each patient with CFS has a unique experience of sleep. Despite the differing narratives regarding the role of sleep in CFS, all participants held the belief that sleep is a vital process for health and well-being which has had a direct bearing on the course and progression of their CFS. Also, every participant regarded their sleep as in some way 'broken' and in need of management/repair. Patients' insights demonstrate sleep-specific influences on their CFS, and the impact of disturbed sleep should be a consideration for clinical and research work. What is already known on this subject? Sleep disturbances are common in CFS, and one of the key symptom complaints, yet it has been neglected by previous qualitative research. Ontology of CFS is a matter of dispute, with models
Hurwitz, Barry E; Coryell, Virginia T; Parker, Meela; Martin, Pedro; Laperriere, Arthur; Klimas, Nancy G; Sfakianakis, George N; Bilsker, Martin S
The study examined whether deficits in cardiac output and blood volume in a CFS (chronic fatigue syndrome) cohort were present and linked to illness severity and sedentary lifestyle. Follow-up analyses assessed whether differences in cardiac output levels between CFS and control groups were corrected by controlling for cardiac contractility and TBV (total blood volume). The 146 participants were subdivided into two CFS groups based on symptom severity data, severe (n=30) and non-severe (n=26), and two healthy non-CFS control groups based on physical activity, sedentary (n=58) and non-sedentary (n=32). Controls were matched to CFS participants using age, gender, ethnicity and body mass. Echocardiographic measures indicated that the severe CFS participants had 10.2% lower cardiac volume (i.e. stroke index and end-diastolic volume) and 25.1% lower contractility (velocity of circumferential shortening corrected by heart rate) than the control groups. Dual tag blood volume assessments indicated that the CFS groups had lower TBV, PV (plasma volume) and RBCV (red blood cell volume) than control groups. Of the CFS subjects with a TBV deficit (i.e. > or = 8% below ideal levels), the mean+/-S.D. percentage deficit in TBV, PV and RBCV were -15.4+/-4.0, -13.2+/-5.0 and -19.1+/-6.3% respectively. Lower cardiac volume levels in CFS were substantially corrected by controlling for prevailing TBV deficits, but were not affected by controlling for cardiac contractility levels. Analyses indicated that the TBV deficit explained 91-94% of the group differences in cardiac volume indices. Group differences in cardiac structure were offsetting and, hence, no differences emerged for left ventricular mass index. Therefore the findings indicate that lower cardiac volume levels, displayed primarily by subjects with severe CFS, were not linked to diminished cardiac contractility levels, but were probably a consequence of a co-morbid hypovolaemic condition. Further study is needed to address
Virginia R. Falkenberg
Full Text Available Perforin ( PRF1 is essential for immune surveillance and studies report decreased perforin in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS, an illness potentially associated with stress and/or infection. We hypothesize that stress can influence regulation of PRF1 expression, and that this regulation will differ between CFS and non-fatigued (NF controls. We used the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST as a standardized acute psychosocial stress, and evaluated its effect on PRF1 expression and methylation in CFS (n = 34 compared with NF (n = 47 participants. During the TSST, natural killer (NK cells increased significantly in both CFS ( P = <0.0001 and NF subjects ( P = <0.0001. Unlike previous reports, there was no significant difference in PRF1 expression at baseline or during TSST between CFS and NF. However, whole blood PRF1 expression increased 1.6 fold during the TSST in both CFS ( P = 0.0003 and NF ( P = <0.0001. Further, the peak response immediately following the TSST was lower in CFS compared with NF ( P = 0.04. In addition, at 1.5 hours post TSST, PRF1 expression was elevated in CFS compared with NF (whole blood, P = 0.06; PBMC, P = 0.02. Methylation of seven CpG sites in the methylation sensitive region of the PRF1 promoter ranged from 38%-79% with no significant differences between CFS and NF. Although, the average baseline methylation of all seven CpG sites did not differ between CFS and NF groups, it showed a significant negative correlation with PRF1 expression at all TSST time points in both CFS (r = –0.56, P = <0.0001 and NF (r = –0.38, P = <0.0001. Among participants with high average methylation (≥65%, PRF1 expression was significantly lower in CFS than NF subjects immediately following TSST. These findings suggest methylation could be an important epigenetic determinant of inter-individual differences in PRF1 expression and that the differences in PRF1 expression and methylation between CFS and NF in the acute stress response require
Taylor, Renee R; O’Brien, Jane; Kielhofner, Gary; Lee, Sun-Wook; Katz, Ben; Mears, Cynthia
Introduction Chronic fatigue syndrome, termed myalgic encephalomyelitis in the United Kingdom (CFS/ME), is a debilitating condition involving severe exhaustion, cognitive difficulties, educational and vocational losses, and disruption of social activities and relationships. CFS/ME may affect volition (that is, value, interest and sense of competence). Purpose To test Model of Human Occupation (MOHO) concepts by comparing young people with and without CFS/ME in terms of occupational participation, volition and health-related quality of life during infection and over time. Method Three hundred and one people (12–18 years old) diagnosed with glandular fever were evaluated at the time of acute infection (baseline). Six months following diagnosis, 39 of them met the criteria for CFS/ME. A further 39 who recovered were randomly selected and matched to CFS/ME participants. Both groups were re-evaluated at 12 months and 24 months. The Occupational Self Assessment and the Child General Health Questionnaire were used to compare occupational participation. Results Those with CFS/ME reported lower levels of perceived competency, more difficulties with physical functioning and poorer general health status than those who recovered. Conclusion Those with CFS/ME report lower perceived competency, and compromises in physical functioning, school performance, social activities, emotional functioning and general health. This supports the MOHO assertion that impairments affect volition and quality of life. PMID:22102767
Marshall, Rebecca; Paul, Lorna; Wood, Les
The purpose of this study was to investigate the use and perceived benefit of complimentary and alternative medicine (CAM) and physiotherapy treatments tried by people with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) to ease painful symptoms. This study used a descriptive, cross-sectional design. People with CFS who experienced pain were recruited to this study. Participants were asked during a semistructured interview about the treatments they had tried to relieve their pain. Each interview was conducted in the home of the participant. Fifty participants were recruited, of which, 10 participants were severely disabled by CFS. Eighteen participants were trying different forms of CAM treatment for pain relief at the time of assessment. Three participants were currently receiving physiotherapy. Throughout the duration of their illness 45 participants reported trying 19 different CAM treatments in the search for pain relief. Acupuncture was reported to provide the most pain relief (n=16). Twenty-seven participants reported a total of 16 different interventions prescribed by their physiotherapist. The results of this study suggest some physiotherapy and CAM treatments may help people manage painful CFS symptoms. Future research should be directed to evaluating the effectiveness of interventions such as acupuncture or gentle soft tissue therapies to reduce pain in people with CFS.
Sachdeva, Anand Kamal; Kuhad, Anurag; Tiwari, Vinod; Arora, Vipin; Chopra, Kanwaljit
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a specific clinical condition that characterizes unexplained disabling fatigue. In the present study, chronic fatigue was produced in mice by subjecting them to forced swim inside a rectangular jar of specific dimensions for 6 min. daily for 15 days. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG; 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered daily 30 min. before forced swim session. Immobility period and post-swim fatigue was assessed on alternate days. On the 16th day, after assessment of various behavioural parameters, mice were killed to harvest the brain, spleen and thymus. There was significant increase in oxidative-nitrosative stress and tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels in the brain of mice subjected to water-immersion stress as compared with naive group. These behavioural and biochemical alterations were restored after chronic treatment with EGCG. The present study points out that EGCG could be of therapeutic potential in the treatment of chronic fatigue.
Pietrangelo, T; Toniolo, L; Paoli, A; Fulle, S; Puglielli, C; Fanò, G; Reggiani, C
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a disabling condition characterized by unexplained chronic fatigue that impairs normal activities. Although immunological and psychological aspects are present, symptoms related to skeletal muscles, such as muscle soreness, fatigability and increased lactate accumulation, are prominent in CFS patients. In this case-control study, the phenotype of the same biopsy samples was analyzed by determining i) fibre-type proportion using myosin isoforms as fibre type molecular marker and gel electrophoresis as a tool to separate and quantify myosin isoforms, and ii) contractile properties of manually dissected, chemically made permeable and calcium-activated single muscle fibres. The results showed that fibre-type proportion was significantly altered in CSF samples, which showed a shift from the slow- to the fast-twitch phenotype. Cross sectional area, force, maximum shortening velocity and calcium sensitivity were not significantly changed in single muscle fibres from CSF samples. Thus, the contractile properties of muscle fibres were preserved but their proportion was changed, with an increase in the more fatigue-prone, energetically expensive fast fibre type. Taken together, these results support the view that muscle tissue is directly involved in the pathogenesis of CSF and it might contribute to the early onset of fatigue typical of the skeletal muscles of CFS patients.
Full Text Available Epstein-Barr-Virus (EBV plays an important role as trigger or cofactor for various autoimmune diseases. In a subset of patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS disease starts with infectious mononucleosis as late primary EBV-infection, whereby altered levels of EBV-specific antibodies can be observed in another subset of patients.We performed a comprehensive mapping of the IgG response against EBV comparing 50 healthy controls with 92 CFS patients using a microarray platform. Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE and cancer-related fatigue served as controls. 3054 overlapping peptides were synthesised as 15-mers from 14 different EBV proteins. Array data was validated by ELISA for selected peptides. Prevalence of EBV serotypes was determined by qPCR from throat washing samples.EBV type 1 infections were found in patients and controls. EBV seroarray profiles between healthy controls and CFS were less divergent than that observed for MS or SLE. We found significantly enhanced IgG responses to several EBNA-6 peptides containing a repeat sequence in CFS patients compared to controls. EBNA-6 peptide IgG responses correlated well with EBNA-6 protein responses. The EBNA-6 repeat region showed sequence homologies to various human proteins.Patients with CFS had a quite similar EBV IgG antibody response pattern as healthy controls. Enhanced IgG reactivity against an EBNA-6 repeat sequence and against EBNA-6 protein is found in CFS patients. Homologous sequences of various human proteins with this EBNA-6 repeat sequence might be potential targets for antigenic mimicry.
Unger, E R; Lin, J-M S; Tian, H; Gurbaxani, B M; Boneva, R S; Jones, J F
Multiple case definitions are in use to identify chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Even when using the same definition, methods used to apply definitional criteria may affect results. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) conducted two population-based studies estimating CFS prevalence using the 1994 case definition; one relied on direct questions for criteria of fatigue, functional impairment and symptoms (1997 Wichita; Method 1), and the other used subscale score thresholds of standardized questionnaires for criteria (2004 Georgia; Method 2). Compared to previous reports the 2004 CFS prevalence estimate was higher, raising questions about whether changes in the method of operationalizing affected this and illness characteristics. The follow-up of the Georgia cohort allowed direct comparison of both methods of applying the 1994 case definition. Of 1961 participants (53 % of eligible) who completed the detailed telephone interview, 919 (47 %) were eligible for and 751 (81 %) underwent clinical evaluation including medical/psychiatric evaluations. Data from the 499 individuals with complete data and without exclusionary conditions was available for this analysis. A total of 86 participants were classified as CFS by one or both methods; 44 cases identified by both methods, 15 only identified by Method 1, and 27 only identified by Method 2 (Kappa 0.63; 95 % confidence interval [CI]: 0.53, 0.73 and concordance 91.59 %). The CFS group identified by both methods were more fatigued, had worse functioning, and more symptoms than those identified by only one method. Moderate to severe depression was noted in only one individual who was classified as CFS by both methods. When comparing the CFS groups identified by only one method, those only identified by Method 2 were either similar to or more severely affected in fatigue, function, and symptoms than those only identified by Method 1. The two methods demonstrated substantial concordance. While Method 2
... natural remedies that reduce chronic fatigue associated with chronic fatigue syndrome? Answers from Brent A. Bauer, M.D. Researchers ... a variety of natural products for effectiveness against chronic fatigue syndrome. Most results have been disappointing. A few remedies — ...
Roerink, Megan E; Knoop, Hans; Bredie, Sebastian J H; Heijnen, Michael; Joosten, Leo A B; Netea, Mihai G; Dinarello, Charles A; van der Meer, Jos W M
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a medically unexplained syndrome for which no somatic or pharmacological treatment has been proven effective. Dysfunction of the cytokine network has been suspected to play a role in the pathophysiology of CFS. The disturbances of the cytokine network detected in CFS patients are highly variable, in part due to the lack of adequate controls in many studies. Furthermore, all studies have been performed on peripheral venous blood of patients. As cytokines mainly act in tissues, for example, the brain, the information that can be derived from peripheral blood cells is limited. The information regarding the possible role of cytokines in the pathophysiology could come from intervention studies in which the activities of relevant cytokines are reduced, for example, reducing interleukin-1, interleukin-6 or tumor necrosis factor. In this study, the clinical usefulness of anakinra, an IL-1 antagonist, will be assessed in patients with CFS. A randomized placebo-controlled, double-blind trial will be conducted. Fifty adult female patients meeting the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) criteria for CFS and without psychiatric co-morbidity will be included. After inclusion, patients will be randomized between treatment with anakinra (recombinant human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist) or placebo. Each group will be treated for 4 weeks. Outcome measures will be assessed at baseline, after 4 weeks of intervention, and 6 months after baseline assessment. The primary outcome measure will be fatigue severity at 4 weeks, measured with the validated Checklist of Individual Strength (CIS). Secondary outcome measures are functional impairment, physical and social functioning, psychological distress, pain severity, presence of accompanying symptoms, and cytokine and cortisol concentrations. This is the first randomized placebo-controlled trial that will evaluate the effect of interference with IL-1 on the experience of fatigue in patients with CFS. The
Cvejic, Erin; Sandler, Carolina X; Keech, Andrew; Barry, Benjamin K; Lloyd, Andrew R; Vollmer-Conna, Uté
To explore changes in autonomic functioning, sleep, and physical activity during a post-exertional symptom exacerbation induced by physical or cognitive challenge in participants with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Thirty-five participants with CFS reported fatigue levels 24-h before, immediately before, immediately after, and 24-h after the completion of previously characterised physical (stationary cycling) or cognitive (simulated driving) challenges. Participants also provided ratings of their sleep quality and sleep duration for the night before, and after, the challenge. Continuous ambulatory electrocardiography (ECG) and physical activity was recorded from 24-h prior, until 24-h after, the challenge. Heart rate (HR) and HR variability (HRV, as high frequency power in normalized units) was derived from the ECG trace for periods of wake and sleep. Both physical and cognitive challenges induced an immediate exacerbation of the fatigue state (pfatigue in a well-defined group of participants with CFS. Larger studies employing challenge paradigms are warranted to further explore the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of post-exertional fatigue in CFS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Band, Rebecca; Barrowclough, Christine; Wearden, Alison
Previous literature has identified the importance of interpersonal processes for patient outcomes in chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME), particularly in the context of significant other relationships. The current study investigated expressed emotion (EE), examining the independent effects of critical comments and emotional overinvolvement (EOI) in association with patient outcomes. Fifty-five patients with CFS/ME and their significant others were recruited from specialist CFS/ME services. Significant other EE status was coded from a modified Camberwell Family Interview. Patient outcomes (fatigue severity, disability, and depression) were derived from questionnaire measures. Forty-four patients (80%) completed follow-up questionnaires 6-months after recruitment. Significant other high-EE categorized by both high levels of critical comments and high EOI was predictive of worse fatigue severity at follow-up. High-critical EE was associated with higher levels of patient depressive symptoms longitudinally; depressive symptoms were observed to mediate the relationship between high critical comments and fatigue severity reported at follow-up. There were higher rates of high-EE in parents than in partners, and this was because of higher rates of EOI in parents. Patients with high-EE significant others demonstrated poorer outcomes at follow-up compared with patients in low-EE dyads. One mechanism for this appears to be as a result of increased patient depression. Future research should seek to further clarify whether the role of interpersonal processes in CFS/ME differs across different patient-significant other relationships. The development of significant other-focused treatment interventions may be particularly beneficial for both patients and significant others. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
... a person’s immune system responses to stress or illness. Mental or physical stress -- Many people with ME/CFS have been under serious mental or physical stress before becoming ill. Energy ... the illness. Genetics or environmental factors may also play a ...
Sathyapalan, Thozhukat; Beckett, Stephen; Rigby, Alan S; Mellor, Duane D; Atkin, Stephen L
Chocolate is rich in flavonoids that have been shown to be of benefit in disparate conditions including cardiovascular disease and cancer. The effect of polyphenol rich chocolate in subjects with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) has not been studied previously. We conducted a double blinded, randomised, clinical pilot crossover study comparing high cocoa liquor/polyphenol rich chocolate (HCL/PR) in comparison to simulated iso-calorific chocolate (cocoa liquor free/low polyphenols(CLF/LP)) on fatigue and residual function in subjects with chronic fatigue syndrome. Subjects with CFS having severe fatigue of at least 10 out of 11 on the Chalder Fatigue Scale were enrolled. Subjects had either 8 weeks of intervention in the form of HCL/PR or CLF/LP, with a 2 week wash out period followed by 8 weeks of intervention with the other chocolate. Ten subjects were enrolled in the study. The Chalder Fatigue Scale score improved significantly after 8 weeks of the HCL/PR chocolate arm [median (range) Exact Sig. (2-tailed)] [33 (25 - 38) vs. 21.5 (6 - 35) 0.01], but that deteriorated significantly when subjects were given simulated iso-calorific chocolate (CLF/CP) [ 28.5 (17 - 20) vs. 34.5 (13-26) 0.03]. The residual function, as assessed by the London Handicap scale, also improved significantly after the HCL/PR arm [0.49 (0.33 - 0.62) vs. 0.64 (0.44 - 0.83) 0.01] and deteriorated after iso-calorific chocolate [00.44 (0.43 - 0.68) vs. 0.36 (0.33 - 0.62)0.03]. Likewise the Hospital Anxiety and Depression score also improved after the HCL/PR arm, but deteriorated after CLF/CP. Mean weight remained unchanged throughout the trial. This study suggests that HCL/PR chocolate may improve symptoms in subjects with chronic fatigue syndrome.
Jessie S. M. Chan
Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate the effectiveness of Baduanjin Qigong exercise on sleep, fatigue, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in chronic fatigue syndrome- (CFS- like illness and to determine the dose-response relationship. Methods. One hundred fifty participants with CFS-like illness (mean age = 39.0, SD = 7.9 were randomly assigned to Qigong and waitlist. Sixteen 1.5-hour Qigong lessons were arranged over 9 consecutive weeks. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, Chalder Fatigue Scale (ChFS, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS were assessed at baseline, immediate posttreatment, and 3-month posttreatment. The amount of Qigong self-practice was assessed by self-report. Results. Repeated measures analyses of covariance showed a marginally nonsignificant (P= 0.064 group by time interaction in the PSQI total score, but it was significant for the “subjective sleep quality” and “sleep latency” items, favoring Qigong exercise. Improvement in “subjective sleep quality” was maintained at 3-month posttreatment. Significant group by time interaction was also detected for the ChFS and HADS anxiety and depression scores. The number of Qigong lessons attended and the amount of Qigong self-practice were significantly associated with sleep, fatigue, anxiety, and depressive symptom improvement. Conclusion. Baduanjin Qigong was an efficacious and acceptable treatment for sleep disturbance in CFS-like illness. This trial is registered with Hong Kong Clinical Trial Register: HKCTR-1380.
Eichner, Edward R.
Discusses chronic fatigue syndrome as it affects elite athletes, noting that overtraining may mimic it. In some cases, athletes who have it perform exceedingly well in the face of debilitating fatigue. Among athletes and nonathletes, the cause and the mind-body connection are areas of controversy and research. (Author/SM)
Boneva, Roumiana S.; Lin, Jin-Mann S.; Unger, Elizabeth R.
Objective This study aims to examine whether gynecologic conditions are associated with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Methods This study includes a subset of 157 women from a population-based case-control study in Georgia, United States, conducted in 2004-2009. Gynecologic history was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs and ORs adjusted for body mass index and other covariates, where relevant, were estimated for gynecologic conditions between 84 CFS cases and 73 healthy controls. Results Cases and controls were of similar age. Women with CFS reported significantly more gynecologic conditions and surgical operations than controls: menopause status (61.9% vs 37.0%; OR, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.21-4.66), earlier mean age at menopause onset (37.6 vs 48.6 y; adjusted OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.09-1.36), excessive menstrual bleeding (73.8% vs 42.5%; adjusted OR, 3.33; 95% CI, 1.66-6.70), bleeding between periods (48.8% vs 23.3%; adjusted OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 1.60-6.86), endometriosis (29.8% vs 12.3%; adjusted OR, 3.67; 95% CI, 1.53-8.84), use of noncontraceptive hormonal preparations (57.1% vs 26.0%; adjusted OR, 2.95; 95% CI, 1.36-6.38), nonmenstrual pelvic pain (26.2% vs 2.7%; adjusted OR, 11.98; 95% CI, 2.57-55.81), and gynecologic surgical operation (65.5% vs 31.5%; adjusted OR, 3.33; 95% CI, 1.66-6.67), especially hysterectomy (54.8% vs 19.2%; adjusted OR, 3.23; 95% CI, 1.46-7.17). Hysterectomy and oophorectomy occurred at a significantly younger mean age in the CFS group than in controls and occurred before CFS onset in 71% of women with records of date of surgical operation and date of CFS onset. Conclusions Menstrual abnormalities, endometriosis, pelvic pain, hysterectomy, and early/surgical menopause are all associated with CFS. Clinicians should be aware of the association between common gynecologic problems and CFS in women. Further work is warranted to determine whether these conditions contribute to the development and
Sáez‐Francàs, Naia; Santillo, Dafna; Alegre, Jose
This review explores the current evidence on benefits and harms of therapeutic interventions in chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) and makes recommendations. CFS/ME is a complex, multi‐system, chronic medical condition whose pathophysiology remains unknown. No established diagnostic tests exist nor are any FDA‐approved drugs available for treatment. Because of the range of symptoms of CFS/ME, treatment approaches vary widely. Studies undertaken have heterogeneous designs and are limited by sample size, length of follow‐up, applicability and methodological quality. The use of rintatolimod and rituximab as well as counselling, behavioural and rehabilitation therapy programs may be of benefit for CFS/ME, but the evidence of their effectiveness is still limited. Similarly, adaptive pacing appears to offer some benefits, but the results are debatable: so is the use of nutritional supplements, which may be of value to CFS/ME patients with biochemically proven deficiencies. To summarize, the recommended treatment strategies should include proper administration of nutritional supplements in CFS/ME patients with demonstrated deficiencies and personalized pacing programs to relieve symptoms and improve performance of daily activities, but a larger randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluation is required to confirm these preliminary observations. At present, no firm conclusions can be drawn because the few RCTs undertaken to date have been small‐scale, with a high risk of bias, and have used different case definitions. Further, RCTs are now urgently needed with rigorous experimental designs and appropriate data analysis, focusing particularly on the comparison of outcomes measures according to clinical presentation, patient characteristics, case criteria and degree of disability (i.e. severely ill ME cases or bedridden). PMID:28052319
White, C; Schweitzer, R
Qualitative evidence suggests that personality may have special relevance to the predisposition, precipitation and perpetuation of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). This study compares three dimensions of personality - perfectionism, self-esteem, and emotional control in the personality profiles of CFS patients (N=44) and a control group (N=44) without a history of CFS, matched for age and gender. Participants were assessed on the MPS [Frost RO, Marten P, Lahart C, Rosenblate R. The dimensions of perfectionism. Cognit Ther Res 1990;14:449-468.]; the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale [Rosenberg M. Society and the Adolescent Self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ Press, 1965.]; the Courtauld Emotional Scale [Watson M, Greer S. Development of a questionnaire measure of emotional control. J Psychosom Res 1983;27:299-305.] and the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale [Crowne DP, Marlowe D. A new scale of social desirability independent of psychopathology. J Consult Psychol 1960;24:349-354.]. Analyses revealed that the CFS group reported higher levels than the control group on the Total Perfectionism score and Doubts about Actions and the Concern over Mistakes subscales. Furthermore, the CFS group also reported lower self-esteem than the control group. No difference between the two groups was found on the dimensions of emotional control and social desirability response bias. A developmental model of CFS, which considers the predisposing, precipitating, and perpetuating factors that may account for the course of the disorder irrespective of etiology, is proposed. In the context of the results, recommendations for practice and future research are discussed.
Full Text Available Omid Rasouli,1,2 Egil A Fors,3 Petter Chr Borchgrevink,4,5 Fredrik Öhberg,6 Ann-Katrin Stensdotter1 1Department of Neuromedicine and Movement Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; 2Department of Public Health and Nursing, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; 3Department of Public Health and Nursing, General Practice Research Unit, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; 4Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging, Pain and Palliation Research Group, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; 5National Competence Centre for Complex Symptom Disorders, St. Olav’s University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway; 6Department of Radiation Sciences, Biomedical Engineering, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden Purpose: This paper aimed to investigate motor proficiency in fine and gross motor function, with a focus on reaction time (RT and movement skill, in patients with fibromyalgia (FM and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS compared to healthy controls (HC.Methods: A total of 60 individuals (20 CFS, 20 FM, and 20 HC, age 19–49 years, participated in this study. Gross motor function in the lower extremity was assessed using a RT task during gait initiation in response to an auditory trigger. Fine motor function in the upper extremity was measured during a precision task (the Purdue Pegboard test where the number of pins inserted within 30 s was counted.Results: No significant differences were found between FM and CFS in any parameters. FM and CFS groups had significantly longer RT than HC in the gait initiation (p=0.001, and p=0.004 respectively. In the Purdue Pegboard test, 20% in the FM group, 15% in the CFS groups, and 0% of HC group, scored below the threshold of the accepted performance. However, there were no
Tobback, E; Mariman, A; Heytens, S; Declercq, T; Bouwen, A; Spooren, D; Snoeck, P; Van Dessel, K; D'Hooghe, S; Rimbaut, S; Vogelaers, D
The organization of care for patients with the chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in tertiary care referral centres from 2002 onwards, was negatively evaluated by the Belgian Health Care Knowledge Centre on the endpoint of socio-professional reintegration. Subsequently, the federal health authorities asked for the elaboration of a new and innovative model of stepped care, aiming at improved integration of diagnosis and treatment into primary care and between levels of health care for patients with CFS. The reference centre of the University Hospital Ghent took the initiative of recruiting partners in the Belgian provinces of East and West Flanders to guarantee the care for patients with medically unexplained symptoms, in particular abnormal fatigue and CFS. A new and innovative care model, in which general practitioners play a central role, emphasizes the importance of early recognition of the patient 'at risk', correct diagnosis and timely referral. Early detection and intervention is essential in order to avoid or minimize illness progression towards chronicity, to safeguard opportunities for significant health improvement as well as to enhance successful socio-professional reintegration. This approach covers both the large sample of patients developing somatic complaints without obvious disease in an early phase as well as the more limited group of patients with chronic illness, including CFS. Cognitive behavioural therapy and graded exposure/exercise therapy are the evidence based main components of therapy in the latter. A biopsychosocial model underlies the proposed path of care.
Moorkens, G; Berwaerts, J; Wynants, H; Abs, R
Previous studies have revealed that hormonal disturbances may accompany the chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Changes in the secretion of the pituitary-adrenal axis have been demonstrated, as well as abnormalities in the GH-IGF-I axis. However, data have not always been well characterized and were sometimes conflicting. The small number of CFS patients investigated in earlier studies may have played a role in the interpretation of the results. Hormonal testing was performed in 73 nonobese CFS patients and nonobese 21 age-and gender-matched healthy controls. We investigated GH, ACTH and cortisol responses to insulin-induced hypoglycaemia. In a subgroup of patients arginine and clonidine stimulation for GH was also performed. Nocturnal secretion of GH, ACTH and cortisol were determined. Serum levels of IGF-I, prolactin, TSH, and free thyroxine were also measured. Visceral fat mass was assessed by CT scanning. GH response to insulin induced hypoglycaemia assessed by peak value (17.0 +/- 13.1 microg/l vs. 22. 1 +/- 9.8 microg/l; P = 0.01) and by AUC (450.0 +/- 361.3 microg/l vs. 672.3 +/- 393.0 microg/l; P = 0.002) was significantly decreased in CFS patients vs. controls. Nocturnal GH secretion assessed by GH peak value (5.4 +/- 3.7 vs. 9.0 +/- 5.1 microg/l; P = 0.44) and by AUC (34.4 +/- 20.2 vs. 67.4 +/- 43.1; P = 0.045) was also significantly impaired in CFS patients. Arginine and clonidine administration showed no differences in GH secretion between CFS patients and controls. In the CFS group, GH peak values were significantly higher after ITT than after arginine (P = 0.017) or clonidine (P = 0.001). No differences in serum IGF-I levels were found between CFS patients and controls. Except for a significantly lower nocturnal cortisol peak value, no differences were found in ACTH and cortisol secretion between CFS patients and controls. Significantly higher serum prolactin levels (7.4 +/- 4.7 microg/l vs. 4.4 +/- 1.3 microg/l; P = 0.004) and significantly higher serum
Full Text Available Abstract Background NICE guidelines suggest that patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalitis (CFS/ME should be managed in Primary Care. Practice Nurses are increasingly being involved in the management of long-term conditions, so are likely to also have a growing role in managing CFS/ME. However their attitudes to, and experiences of patients with CFS/ME and its management must be explored to understand what barriers may exist in developing their role for this group of patients. The aim of this study was to explore Practice Nurses' understanding and beliefs about CFS/ME and its management. Methods Semi-structured interviews with 29 Practice Nurses. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and an iterative approach used to develop themes from the dataset. Results Practice nurses had limited understanding about CFS/ME which had been largely gained through contact with patients, friends, personal experiences and the media rather than formal training. They had difficulty seeing CFS/ME as a long term condition. They did identify a potential role they could have in management of CFS/ME but devalued their own skills in psychological intervention, and suggested counselling would be an appropriate therapeutic option. They recognised a need for further training and on going supervision from both medical and psychological colleagues. Some viewed the condition as contentious and held pejorative views about CFS/ME. Such scepticism and negative attitudes will be a significant barrier to the management of patients with CFS/ME in primary care. Conclusion The current role of Practice Nurses in the ongoing management of patients with CFS/ME is limited. Practice Nurses have little understanding of the evidence-base for treatment of CFS/ME, particularly psychological therapies, describing management options in terms of advice giving, self-help or counselling. Practice Nurses largely welcomed the potential development of their role in this area, but
Avellaneda Fernández, Alfredo; Pérez Martín, Álvaro; Izquierdo Martínez, Maravillas; Arruti Bustillo, Mar; Barbado Hernández, Francisco Javier; de la Cruz Labrado, Javier; Díaz-Delgado Peñas, Rafael; Gutiérrez Rivas, Eduardo; Palacín Delgado, Cecilia; Rivera Redondo, Javier; Ramón Giménez, José Ramón
Chronic fatigue syndrome is characterised by intense fatigue, with duration of over six months and associated to other related symptoms. The latter include asthenia and easily induced tiredness that is not recovered after a night's sleep. The fatigue becomes so severe that it forces a 50% reduction in daily activities. Given its unknown aetiology, different hypotheses have been considered to explain the origin of the condition (from immunological disorders to the presence of post-traumatic oxidative stress), although there are no conclusive diagnostic tests. Diagnosis is established through the exclusion of other diseases causing fatigue. This syndrome is rare in childhood and adolescence, although the fatigue symptom per se is quite common in paediatric patients. Currently, no curative treatment exists for patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. The therapeutic approach to this syndrome requires a combination of different therapeutic modalities. The specific characteristics of the symptomatology of patients with chronic fatigue require a rapid adaptation of the educational, healthcare and social systems to prevent the problems derived from current systems. Such patients require multidisciplinary management due to the multiple and different issues affecting them. This document was realized by one of the Interdisciplinary Work Groups from the Institute for Rare Diseases, and its aim is to point out the main social and care needs for people affected with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. For this, it includes not only the view of representatives for different scientific societies, but also the patient associations view, because they know the true history of their social and sanitary needs. In an interdisciplinary approach, this work also reviews the principal scientific, medical, socio-sanitary and psychological aspects of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. PMID:19857242
Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to review systematically the needs for support in managing illness and maintaining social inclusion expressed by people with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME Methods We carried out a systematic review of primary research and personal ('own' stories expressing the needs of people with CFS/ME. Structured searches were carried out on Medline, AMED, CINAHL, EMBASE, ASSIA, CENTRAL, and other health, social and legal databases from inception to November 2007. Study inclusion, data extraction and risk of bias were assessed independently in duplicate. Expressed needs were tabulated and a conceptual framework developed through an iterative process. Results Thirty two quantitative and qualitative studies, including the views of over 2500 people with CFS/ME with mainly moderate or severe illness severity, met the inclusion criteria. The following major support needs emerged: 1 The need to make sense of symptoms and gain diagnosis, 2 for respect and empathy from service providers, 3 for positive attitudes and support from family and friends, 4 for information on CFS/ME, 5 to adjust views and priorities, 6 to develop strategies to manage impairments and activity limitations, and 7 to develop strategies to maintain/regain social participation. Conclusions Although the studies were heterogeneous, there was consistent evidence that substantial support is needed to rebuild lives. Gaining support depends - most importantly - on the ability of providers of health and social care, colleagues, friends and relatives, and those providing educational and leisure services, to understand and respond to those needs.
Thompson, D P; Antcliff, D; Woby, S R
Chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalopathy (CFS/ME) is a chronic illness which can cause significant fatigue, pain and disability. Activity pacing is frequently advocated as a beneficial coping strategy, however, it is unclear whether pacing is significantly associated with symptoms in people with CFS/ME. The first aim of this study was therefore to explore the cross-sectional associations between pacing and levels of pain, disability and fatigue. The second aim was to explore whether changes in activity pacing following participation in a symptom management programme were related to changes in clinical outcomes. Cross-sectional study exploring the relationships between pacing, pain, disability and fatigue (n=114) and pre-post treatment longitudinal study of a cohort of patients participating in a symptom management programme (n=35). Out-patient physiotherapy CFS/ME service. One-hundred and fourteen adult patients with CFS/ME. Pacing was assessed using the chronic pain coping inventory. Pain was measured using a Numeric Pain Rating Scale, fatigue with the Chalder Fatigue Scale and disability with the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire. No significant associations were observed between activity pacing and levels of pain, disability or fatigue. Likewise, changes in pacing were not significantly associated with changes in pain, disability or fatigue following treatment. Activity pacing does not appear to be a significant determinant of pain, fatigue or disability in people with CFS/ME when measured with the chronic pain coping index. Consequently, the utility and measurement of pacing require further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Patrick, David M; Miller, Ruth R; Gardy, Jennifer L; Parker, Shoshana M; Morshed, Muhammad G; Steiner, Theodore S; Singer, Joel; Shojania, Kam; Tang, Patrick
A subset of patients reporting a diagnosis of Lyme disease can be described as having alternatively diagnosed chronic Lyme syndrome (ADCLS), in which diagnosis is based on laboratory results from a nonreference Lyme specialty laboratory using in-house criteria. Patients with ADCLS report symptoms similar to those reported by patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). We performed a case-control study comparing patients with ADCLS and CFS to each other and to both healthy controls and controls with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Subjects completed a history, physical exam, screening laboratory tests, 7 functional scales, reference serology for Lyme disease using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria, reference serology for other tick-associated pathogens, and cytokine expression studies. The study enrolled 13 patients with ADCLS (12 of whom were diagnosed by 1 alternative US laboratory), 25 patients with CFS, 25 matched healthy controls, and 11 SLE controls. Baseline clinical data and functional scales indicate significant disability among ADCLS and CFS patients and many important differences between these groups and controls, but no significant differences between each other. No ADCLS patient was confirmed as having positive Lyme serology by reference laboratory testing, and there was no difference in distribution of positive serology for other tick-transmitted pathogens or cytokine expression across the groups. In British Columbia, a setting with low Lyme disease incidence, ADCLS patients have a similar phenotype to that of CFS patients. Disagreement between alternative and reference laboratory Lyme testing results in this setting is most likely explained by false-positive results from the alternative laboratory. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Norheim, Katrine Brække; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Nordmark, Gunnel; Harboe, Erna; Gøransson, Lasse; Brun, Johan G; Wahren-Herlenius, Marie; Jonsson, Roland; Omdal, Roald
Fatigue is prevalent and disabling in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). Results from studies in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) indicate that genetic variation may influence fatigue. The aim of this study was to investigate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variations in pSS patients with high and low fatigue. A panel of 85 SNPs in 12 genes was selected based on previous studies in CFS. A total of 207 pSS patients and 376 healthy controls were genotyped. One-hundred and ninety-three patients and 70 SNPs in 11 genes were available for analysis after quality control. Patients were dichotomized based on fatigue visual analogue scale (VAS) scores, with VAS fatigue" (n = 53) and VAS ≥50 denominated "high fatigue" (n = 140). We detected signals of association with pSS for one SNP in SLC25A40 (unadjusted p = 0.007) and two SNPs in PKN1 (both p = 0.03) in our pSS case versus control analysis. The association with SLC25A40 was stronger when only pSS high fatigue patients were analysed versus controls (p = 0.002). One SNP in PKN1 displayed an association in the case-only analysis of pSS high fatigue versus pSS low fatigue (p = 0.005). This candidate gene study in pSS did reveal a trend for associations between genetic variation in candidate genes and fatigue. The results will need to be replicated. More research on genetic associations with fatigue is warranted, and future trials should include larger cohorts and multicentre collaborations with sharing of genetic material to increase the statistical power.
Powell, Daniel J H; Liossi, Christina; Moss-Morris, Rona; Schlotz, Wolff
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a psychoneuroendocrine regulator of the stress response and immune system, and dysfunctions have been associated with outcomes in several physical health conditions. Its end product, cortisol, is relevant to fatigue due to its role in energy metabolism. The systematic review examined the relationship between different markers of unstimulated salivary cortisol activity in everyday life in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and fatigue assessed in other clinical and general populations. Search terms for the review related to salivary cortisol assessments, everyday life contexts, and fatigue. All eligible studies (n=19) were reviewed narratively in terms of associations between fatigue and assessed cortisol markers, including the cortisol awakening response (CAR), circadian profile (CP) output, and diurnal cortisol slope (DCS). Subset meta-analyses were conducted of case-control CFS studies examining group differences in three cortisol outcomes: CAR output; CAR increase; and CP output. Meta-analyses revealed an attenuation of the CAR increase within CFS compared to controls (d=-.34) but no statistically significant differences between groups for other markers. In the narrative review, total cortisol output (CAR or CP) was rarely associated with fatigue in any population; CAR increase and DCS were most relevant. Outcomes reflecting within-day change in cortisol levels (CAR increase; DCS) may be the most relevant to fatigue experience, and future research in this area should report at least one such marker. Results should be considered with caution due to heterogeneity in one meta-analysis and the small number of studies. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Norris, Tom; Collin, Simon M; Tilling, Kate; Nuevo, Roberto; Stansfeld, Stephen A; Sterne, Jonathan Ac; Heron, Jon; Crawley, Esther
Little is known about persistence of or recovery from chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) in adolescents. Previous studies have small sample sizes, short follow-up or have focused on fatigue rather than CFS/ME or, equivalently, chronic fatigue, which is disabling. This work aimed to describe the epidemiology and natural course of CFS/ME in adolescents aged 13-18 years. Longitudinal follow-up of adolescents enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Avon, UK. We identified adolescents who had disabling fatigue of >6 months duration without a known cause at ages 13, 16 and 18 years. We use the term 'chronic disabling fatigue' (CDF) because CFS/ME was not verified by clinical diagnosis. We used multiple imputation to obtain unbiased estimates of prevalence and persistence. The estimated prevalence of CDF was 1.47% (95% CI 1.05% to 1.89%) at age 13, 2.22% (1.67% to 2.78%) at age 16 and 2.99% (2.24% to 3.75%) at age 18. Among adolescents with CDF of 6 months duration at 13 years 75.3% (64.0% to 86.6%) were not classified as such at age 16. Similar change was observed between 16 and 18 years (75.0% (62.8% to 87.2%)). Of those with CDF at age 13, 8.02% (0.61% to 15.4%) presented with CDF throughout the duration of adolescence. The prevalence of CDF lasting 6 months or longer (a proxy for clinically diagnosed CFS/ME) increases from 13 to 18 years. However, persistent CDF is rare in adolescents, with approximately 75% recovering after 2-3 years. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Fernie, Bruce A; Murphy, Gabrielle; Wells, Adrian; Nikčević, Ana V; Spada, Marcantonio M
Studies have reported that Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) and Graded Exercise Therapy (GET) are effective treatments for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS). One hundred and seventy-one patients undertook a course of either CBT (n = 116) or GET (n = 55) and were assessed on a variety of self-report measures at pre- and posttreatment and follow-up. In this paper we present analyses on treatment outcomes for CBT and GET in routine clinical practice and evaluate whether changes on subscales of the Metacognitions Questionnaire-30 (MCQ-30) predict fatigue severity independently of changes in other covariates, and across the two treatment modalities. Both CBT and GET were equally effective at decreasing fatigue, anxiety, and depression, and at increasing physical functioning. Changes on the subscales of the MCQ-30 were also found to have a significant effect on fatigue severity independently of changes in other covariates and across treatment modalities. The findings from the current study suggest that CFS treatment protocols for CBT and GET, based on those from the PACE trial, achieve similar to poorer outcomes in routine clinical practice as in a RCT.
Kumar, Anil; Garg, Ruchika
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is characterized by profound fatigue, which substantially interferes with daily activities. The aim of this study was to explore the protective effects of antidepressants in an animal model of CFS in mice. Male albino mice were forced to swim individually for a period of 6-min session each for 7 days. Imipramine (10 and 20 mg/kg), desipramine (10 and 20 mg/kg) and citalopram (5 and 10 mg/kg) were administered 30 min before forced swimming test on each day. Various behavior tests (immobility time, locomotor activity, anxiety-like behavior by plus maze and mirror chamber) followed by biochemical parameters (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, catalase and nitrite level) were assessed in chronic stressed mice. Chronic forced swimming for 7 days significantly caused increase in immobility period, impairment in locomotor activity, anxiety-like behavior, and oxidative stress (raised lipid peroxidation, nitrite activity and reduced glutathione and catalase activity) as compared with naïve mice (P immobility time, improved locomotor activity and anti-anxiety effect (in both plus maze and mirror chamber test), and attenuated oxidative stress in chronic stressed mice as compared with control (chronic fatigues) (P < 0.05). These results suggested that these drugs have protective effect and could be used in the management of chronic fatigue like conditions.
Bakken, Inger J; Tveito, Kari; Aaberg, Kari M; Ghaderi, Sara; Gunnes, Nina; Trogstad, Lill; Magnus, Per; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Håberg, Siri E
Chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) is a complex condition. Causal factors are not established, although underlying psychological or immunological susceptibility has been proposed. We studied primary care diagnoses for children with CFS/ME, with children with another hospital diagnosis (type 1 diabetes mellitus [T1DM]) and the general child population as comparison groups. All Norwegian children born 1992-2012 constituted the study sample. Children with CFS/ME (n = 1670) or T1DM (n = 4937) were identified in the Norwegian Patient Register (NPR) (2008-2014). Children without either diagnosis constituted the general child population comparison group (n = 1337508). We obtained information on primary care diagnoses from the Norwegian Directorate of Health. For each primary care diagnosis, the proportion and 99 % confidence interval (CI) within the three groups was calculated, adjusted for sex and age by direct standardization. Children with CFS/ME were more often registered with a primary care diagnosis of weakness/general tiredness (89.9 % [99 % CI 88.0 to 91.8 %]) than children in either comparison group (T1DM: 14.5 % [99 % CI: 13.1 to 16.0 %], general child population: 11.1 % [99 % CI: 11.0 to 11.2 %]). Also, depressive disorder and anxiety disorder were more common in the CFS/ME group, as were migraine, muscle pain, and infections. In the 2 year period prior to the diagnoses, infectious mononucleosis was registered for 11.1 % (99 % CI 9.1 to 13.1 %) of children with CFS/ME and for 0.5 % (99 % CI (0.2 to 0.8 %) of children with T1DM. Of children with CFS/ME, 74.6 % (1292/1670) were registered with a prior primary care diagnosis of weakness / general tiredness. The time span from the first primary care diagnosis of weakness / general tiredness to the specialist health care diagnosis of CFS/ME was 1 year or longer for 47.8 %. This large nationwide registry linkage study confirms that the clinical picture in CFS
Nijs, Jo; Roussel, Nathalie; Van Oosterwijck, Jessica; De Kooning, Margot; Ickmans, Kelly; Struyf, Filip; Meeus, Mira; Lundberg, Mari
Severe exacerbation of symptoms following physical activity is characteristic for chronic-fatigue syndrome (CFS) and fibromyalgia (FM). These exacerbations make it understandable for people with CFS and FM to develop fear of performing body movement or physical activity and consequently avoidance behaviour toward physical activity. The aims of this article were to review what measures are available for measuring fear of movement and avoidance behaviour, the prevalence fear of movement and avoidance behaviour toward physical activity and the therapeutic options with fear of movement and avoidance behaviour toward physical activity in patients with CFS and FM. The review revealed that fear of movement and avoidance behaviour toward physical activity is highly prevalent in both the CFS and FM population, and it is related to various clinical characteristics of CFS and FM, including symptom severity and self-reported quality of life and disability. It appears to be crucial for treatment (success) to identify CFS and FM patients displaying fear of movement and avoidance behaviour toward physical activity. Individually tailored cognitive behavioural therapy plus exercise training, depending on the patient's classification as avoiding or persisting, appears to be the most promising strategy for treating fear of movement and avoidance behaviour toward physical activity in patients with CFS and FM.
Yadav, Raj Kumar; Sarvottam, Kumar; Magan, Dipti; Yadav, Rashmi
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) is characterized by excessive fatigue after minimal physical or mental exertion, muscle and joint pain, poor concentration, dizziness, and sleep disturbances. We report here the effect of a yoga-based lifestyle intervention in a 30-year old male patient with a documented diagnosis of CFS with compromised quality of life (QoL) and altered personality. The patient initially attended a short-term yoga-based lifestyle intervention program that consisted of yoga-postures, breathing exercises (pranayama), meditation, group discussions, and individualized advice on stress management, diet and physical activity besides group support. Thereafter, patient attended 5 more such programs. There was a notable and consistent improvement in his clinical profile, positive aspects of personality and subjective well-being, and reduction in anxiety following this yoga-based lifestyle intervention. Overall, the results suggest that lifestyle intervention may improve clinical condition and personality in patients with CFS.
Janssens, Karin A M; Zijlema, Wilma L; Joustra, Monica L; Rosmalen, Judith G M
Functional somatic syndromes (FSSs) have often been linked to psychopathology. The aim of the current study was to compare prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders among individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), fibromyalgia (FM), and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This study was conducted in 94,516 participants (mean [standard deviation] age = 44.6 [12.5] years, 58.7% women) of the general-population cohort LifeLines. FSSs were assessed by self-reports. Mood disorders (i.e., major depressive disorder and dysthymia) and anxiety disorders (i.e., generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, panic disorder with/without agoraphobia, and agoraphobia) were assessed by means of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Risks on psychiatric disorders were compared for individuals with CFS, FM, and IBS by using logistic regression analyses adjusted for age and sex. Prevalence rates of CFS, FM, and IBS were 1.3%, 3.0%, and 9.7%, respectively. Individuals with CFS, FM, and IBS had significantly more mood (odds ratios [ORs] = 1.72-5.42) and anxiety disorders (ORs = 1.52-3.96) than did individuals without FSSs, but prevalence rates were low (1.6%-28.6%). Individuals with CFS more often had mood (ORs = 2.00-4.08) and anxiety disorders (ORs = 1.63-2.32) than did individuals with FM and IBS. Major depressive disorder was more common in FM than in IBS (OR = 1.58, 95% confidence interval = 1.24-2.01), whereas these groups did not differ on dysthymia or anxiety disorders. Mood and anxiety disorders are more prevalent in individuals with FSSs, and particularly CFS, than in individuals without FSSs. However, most individuals with FSSs do not have mood or anxiety disorders.
Harris, Sarah; Gilbert, Matthew; Beasant, Lucy; Linney, Catherine; Broughton, Jessica; Crawley, Esther
An estimated 10% of children and adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) experience eating difficulties; however, little is known about why these difficulties develop, what the impact is or how to manage them. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with adolescents (aged 12-17 years) attending a specialist service who have a primary diagnosis of CFS/ME and experience nausea, abdominal pain and/or eating difficulties. A total of 11 adolescents were interviewed (eight female, mean age: 15 years). Transcripts were analysed thematically using techniques of constant comparison which commenced soon after data collection and informed further interview protocols. Adolescents perceived their eating difficulties were caused by abdominal symptoms, being too fatigued to eat and changes to their senses of taste and smell. Some of the adolescents recognised how their eating difficulties were exacerbated and maintained by psychological factors of low mood and anxiety. The adolescents eating difficulties had a negative impact on their weight, fatigue, socialising and family life. They perceived helpful interventions to include modifying their diets, families adjusting and also medical interventions (e.g. medication). Adolescents identified that early education and support about diet and eating habits would have been helpful. If adolescents diagnosed with CFS/ME develop eating difficulties, this has a significant impact on their quality of life, illness and on their families. Not eating increases fatigue, low mood and anxiety which further exacerbates the eating difficulties. Clinicians should screen for eating difficulties in those with symptoms of nausea and abdominal pain, warn adolescents and their families of the risk of developing eating difficulties and provide interventions and support as early as possible.
Meer van der Jos
Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS with cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT relies on a correct classification of so called 'fluctuating active' versus 'passive' patients. For successful treatment with CBT is it especially important to recognise the passive patients and give them a tailored treatment protocol. In the present study it was evaluated whether CFS patient's physical activity pattern can be assessed most accurately with the 'Activity Pattern Interview' (API, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ or the CFS-Activity Questionnaire (CFS-AQ. Methods The three instruments were validated compared to actometers. Actometers are until now the best and most objective instrument to measure physical activity, but they are too expensive and time consuming for most clinical practice settings. In total 226 CFS patients enrolled for CBT therapy answered the API at intake and filled in the two questionnaires. Directly after intake they wore the actometer for two weeks. Based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves the validity of the three methods were assessed and compared. Results Both the API and the two questionnaires had an acceptable validity (0.64 to 0.71. None of the three instruments was significantly better than the others. The proportion of false predictions was rather high for all three instrument. The IPAQ had the highest proportion of correct passive predictions (sensitivity 70.1%. Conclusion The validity of all three instruments appeared to be fair, and all showed rather high proportions of false classifications. Hence in fact none of the tested instruments could really be called satisfactory. Because the IPAQ showed to be the best in correctly predicting 'passive' CFS patients, which is most essentially related to treatment results, it was concluded that the IPAQ is the preferable alternative for an actometer when treating CFS patients in clinical practice.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS is a complicated illness for providers and patients. Fewer than 20% of persons with CFS have been diagnosed and treated. For providers, compounding the issue are the challenges in making a diagnosis due to the lack of a biomedical marker. Methods The objective of the CFS diagnosis and management curriculum was to instruct core trainers as to the evaluation, diagnosis, and management of CFS. Over a two year period, 79 primary care physicians, physician assistants, and nurse practitioners from diverse regions in the U.S. participated as core trainers in a two day Train-the-Trainer (TTT workshop. As core trainers, the workshop participants were expected to show increases in knowledge, self-efficacy, and management skills with the primary goal of conducting secondary presentations. Results The optimal goal for each core trainer to present secondary training to 50 persons in the health care field was not reached. However, the combined core trainer group successfully reached 2064 primary care providers. Eighty-two percent of core trainers responded "Very good" or "Excellent" in a post-tessurvey of self-efficacy expectation and CFS diagnosis. Data from the Chicago workshops showed significant improvement on the Primary Care Opinion Survey (p Conclusion Data show the workshop was successful in meeting the objectives of increasing CFS knowledge and raising perceived self-efficacy towards making a diagnosis. The CFS TTT program informed an educational provider project by shifting the format for physicians to grand rounds and continuing medical education design while retaining TTT aspects for nurse practitioners and physicians assistants. Evaluations also indicate that secondary trainings may be more readily employed and accepted if administrative barriers are addressed early in the planning phases.
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chronic fatigue syndrome. 4.88a Section 4.88a Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE... Deficiencies § 4.88a Chronic fatigue syndrome. (a) For VA purposes, the diagnosis of chronic fatigue syndrome...
Owe, Jone Furlund; Næss, Halvor; Gjerde, Ivar Otto; Bødtker, Jørn Eilert; Tysnes, Ole-Bjørn
Chronic fatigue is a frequently occurring problem in both the primary and specialist health services. The Department of Neurology at Haukeland University Hospital has established a standard assessment for patients referred with suspected CFS/ME. This study reports diagnoses and findings upon assessment, and considers the benefit of supplementary examinations. Diagnoses and findings from examinations of 365 patients assessed for suspected CFS/ME are retrospectively reported. A total of 48 patients (13.2%) were diagnosed with CFS/ME, while a further 18 patients (4.9%) were diagnosed with post-infectious fatigue. Mental and behavioural disorders were diagnosed in 169 patients (46.3%), and these represented by far the largest group. Serious, but unrecognised somatic illness was discovered in two patients, while changes of uncertain significance were identified by MRI and lumbar puncture in a few patients. Fatigue is a frequently occurring symptom in the population. Thorough somatic and psychiatric investigation is necessary before referral to the specialist health services. Mental disorders and reactions to life crises are common and important differential diagnoses for CFS/ME. Long waiting times in the specialist health services may result in delayed diagnosis for these patients.
Mitra, Achintya; Sur, Tapas Kumar; Upadhyay, Sachhidananda; Bhattacharyya, Dipankar; Hazra, Jayram
Swarna Jibanti scientifically known as Coelogyne cristata Lindley (Orchidaceae), an orchid mentioned in Ayurvedic medicine is used to promote healthy life span. The present work was planned to study the efficacy of hydro-alcoholic extract of pseudobulbs of C.cristata (CCE) to assess its role on chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) induced behavioural and biochemical changes in aged Wistar rats compared to Panax ginseng (PG), a prototype anti-stress agent. CFS was induced by forced swimming for consecutive 21 days for fixed duration (15 min sessions). The criteria of CFS due to fatigue were counted using locomotor activity, depression and anxiety through automated photactometer, immobility time and plus maze activity respectively. Acute toxicity study of CCE (upto 2 g/kg, Limit test) was also performed. For CFS, animals were divided into five groups, naive control, control, CCE treated (25 mg/kg b.w., 250 mg/kg b.w.) and standard PG treated (100 mg/kg b.w.) groups. All drugs were given orally for consecutive 21 days along with CFS. After assessing behavioural parameters, all animals were sacrificed at day 21 and in vivo antioxidant potential of CCE was determined by lipid peroxides, nitrite, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in brain tissue. CCE was found to be non-toxic. CCE treated aged rats significantly improved (p < 0.001) the spontaneous locomotor movement with respect to control rats, while, decreased the mobility period or depression score. In CFS, CCE also enhanced the time spent (p < 0.001) in open arms while reducing the time spent in closed arm as compared to CFS control, indicating lowering anxiety score. Moreover, marked diminution in lipid peroxidation, nitrite and SOD level was exhibited after CCE treatment and significantly enhanced catalase level significantly (p < 0.01) with respect to CFS control. PG also showed similar actions. The results confirmed the potential therapeutic actions of CCE against experimentally induced CFS in
... your doctor to find a specific cause and treatment for your fatigue. The possibilities may include systemic inflammation, poor sleep, fibromyalgia, depression, hypothyroidism, muscle inflammation or side-effects of medications. Know ...
Teodoro, Tiago; Edwards, Mark J; Isaacs, Jeremy D
Functional cognitive disorder (FCD) describes cognitive dysfunction in the absence of an organic cause. It is increasingly prevalent in healthcare settings yet its key neuropsychological features have not been reported in large patient cohorts. We hypothesised that cognitive profiles in fibromyalgia (FM), chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and functional neurological disorders (FNDs) would provide a template for characterising FCD. We conducted a systematic review of studies with cognition-related outcomes in FM, CFS and FND. We selected 52 studies on FM, 95 on CFS and 39 on FND. We found a general discordance between high rates of subjective cognitive symptoms, including forgetfulness, distractibility and word-finding difficulties, and inconsistent objective neuropsychological deficits. Objective deficits were reported, including poor selective and divided attention, slow information processing and vulnerability to distraction. In some studies, cognitive performance was inversely correlated with pain, exertion and fatigue. Performance validity testing demonstrated poor effort in only a minority of subjects, and patients with CFS showed a heightened perception of effort. The cognitive profiles of FM, CFS and non-cognitive FND are similar to the proposed features of FCD, suggesting common mechanistic underpinnings. Similar findings have been reported in patients with mild traumatic brain injury and whiplash. We hypothesise that pain, fatigue and excessive interoceptive monitoring produce a decrease in externally directed attention. This increases susceptibility to distraction and slows information processing, interfering with cognitive function, in particular multitasking. Routine cognitive processes are experienced as unduly effortful. This may reflect a switch from an automatic to a less efficient controlled or explicit cognitive mode, a mechanism that has also been proposed for impaired motor control in FND. These experiences might then be overinterpreted due to
Singh, P K; Chopra, K; Kuhad, A; Kaur, I P
In recent years the interface between neuropsychiatry and gastroenterology has converged in to a new discipline referred to as enteric neuroscience. Implications of brain-gut communication in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders indicate a possible role of suitably packaged/delivered probiotics as newer therapeutic options. In the present study probable role of per-oral administration of free Lactobacillus acidophilus (LAB) and LAB loaded alginate beads in attenuation of the symptoms associated with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) were evaluated. Chronic fatigue syndrome following physical fatigue was induced in rats by forcing them to swim (forced swim test; FST) in water till exhaustion, after weighing them down with 10% their body weight, daily for 28 days. Immobility (I) and postswim fatigue time (PSF) were taken as suitable markers. Free LAB and LAB loaded floating beads (FBs) were administered, from 21 to 28 days. Immobility and PSF were found to increase considerably in FST rats (665 ± 22 s and 196 ± 6 s) as compared with the naïve (32 ± 7 s and 22 ± 2 s) at 20 days, establishing severe fatigue like behavior. FST control group exhibited significant (P < 0.05) hypertrophy of spleen, hypotrophy of thymus, and increased oxido-nitrosative stress in brain and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels in serum. Treatment with LAB and LAB FBs significantly decreased I and PSF and attenuated (P < 0.05) oxido-nitrosative stress and TNF-α levels. Spleen and thymus were also restored to their original size in this group. The findings suggest a valuable therapeutic role of LAB especially when incorporated into alginate beads for the treatment of CFS. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Mary A Fletcher
Full Text Available Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS studies from our laboratory and others described decreased natural killer cell cytotoxicity (NKCC and elevated proportion of lymphocytes expressing the activation marker, dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV also known as CD26. However, neither these assays nor other laboratory tests are widely accepted for the diagnosis or prognosis of CFS. This study sought to determine if NKCC or DPPIV/CD26 have diagnostic accuracy for CFS.Subjects included female and male CFS cases and healthy controls. NK cell function was measured with a bioassay, using K562 cells and (51Cr release. Lymphocyte associated DPPIV/CD26 was assayed by qualitative and quantitative flow cytometry. Serum DPPIV/CD26 was measured by ELISA. Analysis by receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve assessed biomarker potential. Cytotoxic function of NK cells for 176 CFS subjects was significantly lower than in the 230 controls. According to ROC analysis, NKCC was a good predictor of CFS status. There was no significant difference in NK cell counts between cases and controls. Percent CD2+ lymphocytes (T cells and NK cells positive for DPPIV/C26 was elevated in CFS cases, but there was a decrease in the number of molecules (rMol of DPPIV/C26 expressed on T cells and NK cells and a decrease in the soluble form of the enzyme in serum. Analyses by ROC curves indicated that all three measurements of DPPIV/CD26 demonstrated potential as biomarkers for CFS. None of the DPPIV/C26 assays were significantly correlated with NKCC.By ROC analysis, NKCC and three methods of measuring DPPIV/C26 examined in this study had potential as biomarkers for CFS. Of these, NKCC, %CD2+CD26+ lymphocytes and rMol CD26/CD2+ lymphocyte, required flow cytometry, fresh blood and access to a high complexity laboratory. Soluble DPPIV/C26 in serum is done with a standard ELISA assay, or with other soluble factors in a multiplex type of ELISA. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV on lymphocytes or in serum was
Background ‘Encephalomyelitis disseminata’ (multiple sclerosis) and myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) are both classified as diseases of the central nervous system by the World Health Organization. This review aims to compare the phenomenological and neuroimmune characteristics of MS with those of ME/CFS. Discussion There are remarkable phenomenological and neuroimmune overlaps between both disorders. Patients with ME/CFS and MS both experience severe levels of disabling fatigue and a worsening of symptoms following exercise and resort to energy conservation strategies in an attempt to meet the energy demands of day-to-day living. Debilitating autonomic symptoms, diminished cardiac responses to exercise, orthostatic intolerance and postural hypotension are experienced by patients with both illnesses. Both disorders show a relapsing-remitting or progressive course, while infections and psychosocial stress play a large part in worsening of fatigue symptoms. Activated immunoinflammatory, oxidative and nitrosative (O+NS) pathways and autoimmunity occur in both illnesses. The consequences of O+NS damage to self-epitopes is evidenced by the almost bewildering and almost identical array of autoantibodies formed against damaged epitopes seen in both illnesses. Mitochondrial dysfunctions, including lowered levels of ATP, decreased phosphocreatine synthesis and impaired oxidative phosphorylation, are heavily involved in the pathophysiology of both MS and ME/CFS. The findings produced by neuroimaging techniques are quite similar in both illnesses and show decreased cerebral blood flow, atrophy, gray matter reduction, white matter hyperintensities, increased cerebral lactate and choline signaling and lowered acetyl-aspartate levels. Summary This review shows that there are neuroimmune similarities between MS and ME/CFS. This further substantiates the view that ME/CFS is a neuroimmune illness and that patients with MS are immunologically primed to
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS is a disease of unknown aetiology. A patient with CFS had unexpected, marked recovery of CFS symptoms lasting for five months during and after cytotoxic chemotherapy for Hodgkin's disease. We reasoned that the transient CFS recovery was related to methotrexate treatment, which induces immunomodulation in part through B-cell depletion. Methods In a case series, this patient and two additional CFS patients were B-cell depleted by infusion of the monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody rituximab. Results All three had improvement of all CFS symptoms. Patients 1 and 2 had major amelioration from 6 weeks after intervention, patient 3 slight improvement from the same time, but then improved markedly from 26 weeks after intervention. The symptomatic effect lasted until weeks 16, 18 and 44, respectively. At relapse, all were retreated with a single (patient 1 or double rituximab infusion (patients 2 and 3. Again, all three had marked symptom improvement, mimicking their first response. After new symptom recurrence, patients 1 and 2 were given weekly oral methotrexate, patient 1 having effect also from this agent. Patients 1 and 2 were again treated for a third rituximab infusion after new relapse, again with a marked clinical benefit. No unexpected toxicity was seen. Conclusion These observations suggest that B-lymphocytes are involved in CFS pathogenesis for a subset of patients. Benefit for all CFS symptoms, the delayed symptom relief following B-cell depletion, the kinetics of relapses, and the effect also from methotrexate treatment, provide suggestive evidence that B-cells play a significant role in the ongoing clinical features, and that CFS may be amenable to therapeutic interventions aimed at modifying B-cell number and function. More systematic investigations of this therapeutic strategy, and of its biological basis, are now needed.
Wolbeek, M. ter
Fatigue is a common complaint among adolescents. In a pilot study, we observed 8% of healthy adolescents to report fatigue severity which was comparable to fatigue severity reported by chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) patients. This observation led to an extensive investigation on psychological,
Unger, Elizabeth R; Lin, Jin-Mann S; Tian, Hao; Natelson, Benjamin H; Lange, Gudrun; Vu, Diana; Blate, Michelle; Klimas, Nancy G; Balbin, Elizabeth G; Bateman, Lucinda; Allen, Ali; Lapp, Charles W; Springs, Wendy; Kogelnik, Andreas M; Phan, Catrina C; Danver, Joan; Podell, Richard N; Fitzpatrick, Trisha; Peterson, Daniel L; Gottschalk, C Gunnar; Rajeevan, Mangalathu S
In the Multi-Site Clinical Assessment of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (MCAM), we relied on expert clinician diagnoses to enroll patients from 7 specialty clinics in the United States in order to perform a systematic collection of data on measures of myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME)/chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Healthy persons and those with other illnesses that share some features with ME/CFS were enrolled in comparison groups. The major objectives were to: 1) use standardized questionnaires to measure illness domains of ME/CFS and to evaluate patient heterogeneity overall and between clinics; 2) describe the course of illness, identify the measures that best correlate with meaningful clinical differences, and assess the performances of questionnaires as patient/person-reported outcome measures; 3) describe prescribed medications, orders for laboratory and other tests, and management tools used by expert clinicians to care for persons with ME/CFS; 4) collect biospecimens for future hypothesis testing and for evaluation of morning cortisol profiles; and 5) identify measures that best distinguish persons with ME/CFS from those in the comparison groups and detect subgroups of persons with ME/CFS who may have different underlying causes. Enrollment began in 2012 and is planned to continue in multiple stages through 2017. We present the MCAM methods in detail, along with an initial description of the 471 patients with ME/CFS who were enrolled in stage 1. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
Maes, Michael; Ringel, Karl; Kubera, Marta; Anderson, George; Morris, Gerwyn; Galecki, Piotr; Geffard, Michel
Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is accompanied by activation of immuno-inflammatory pathways, increased bacterial translocation and autoimmune responses to serotonin (5-HT). Inflammation is known to damage 5-HT neurons while bacterial translocation may drive autoimmune responses. This study has been carried out to examine the autoimmune responses to 5-HT in ME/CFS in relation to inflammation and bacterial translocation. We examined 5-HT antibodies in 117 patients with ME/CFS (diagnosed according to the centers for disease control and prevention criteria, CDC) as compared with 43 patients suffering from chronic fatigue (CF) but not fulfilling the CDC criteria and 35 normal controls. Plasma interleukin-1 (IL-1), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, neopterin and the IgA responses to Gram-negative bacteria were measured. Severity of physio-somatic symptoms was measured using the fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome rating scale (FF scale). The incidence of positive autoimmune activity against 5-HT was significantly higher (pfatigue, neurocognitive and autonomic symptoms, sadness and a flu-like malaise. The results show that, in ME/CFS, increased 5-HT autoimmune activity is associated with activation of immuno-inflammatory pathways and increased bacterial translocation, factors which are known to play a role in the onset of autoimmune reactions. 5-HT autoimmune activity could play a role in the pathophysiology of ME/CFS and the onset of physio-somatic symptoms. These results provide mechanistic support for the notion that ME/CFS is a neuro-immune disorder. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jeffery, Diana D; Bulathsinhala, Lakmini; Kroc, Michelle; Dorris, Joseph
We compared prevalence, health care utilization, and costs over time for nonelderly adults diagnosed with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in relation to timing of federal approvals for FMS drugs. We used military health care claims from October 2006 to September 2010. Retrospective, multiple-year comparisons were conducted using trend analyses, and time series regression-based generalized linear models. Over 5 years, FMS prevalence rates increased from 0.307% to 0.522%, whereas IBS and CFS prevalence rates remained stable. The largest increase in FMS prevalence occurred between 2007 and 2008. Health care utilization was higher for FMS cases compared to IBS and CFS cases. Over 5 years, the total cost for FMS-related care increased $163.2 million, whereas IBS costs increased $14.9 million and CFS cost increased $3.7 million. Between 2006 and 2010, total pharmacy cost for FMS cases increased from $55 million ($3,641/person) to $96.3 million ($3,557/person). Although cause and effect cannot be established, the advent of federally approved drugs for FMS in concert with pharmaceutical industry marketing of these drugs coincide with the observed changes in prevalence, health care utilization, and costs of FMS relative to IBS and CFS. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Rasouli, Omid; Vasseljen, Ottar; Fors, Egil A; Lorås, Håvard W; Stensdotter, Ann-Katrin
As many similar symptoms are reported in fibromyalgia (FM) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), underlying defcits may potentially also be similar. Postural disequilibrium reported in both conditions may thus be explained by similar deviations in postural control strategies. 75 females (25/group FM, CFS and control, age 19-49 years) performed 60 s of quiet standing on a force platform in each of three conditions: 1) firm surface with vision, 2) firm surface without vision and, 3) compliant surface with vision. Migration of center of pressure was decomposed into a slow and a fast component denoting postural sway and lateral forces controlling postural sway, analyzed in the time and frequency domains. Main effects of group for the antero-posterior (AP) and medio-lateral (ML) directions showed that patients displayed larger amplitudes (AP, p = 0.002; ML, p = 0.021) and lower frequencies (AP, p controls. Post hoc analyses showed no significant differences between patient groups. In conclusion, both the CFS- and the FM-group differed from the control group. Larger postural sway and insufficient control was found in patients compared to controls, with no significant differences between the two patient groups.
van Eupen, Inge; Meirte, Jill; Van Cauwenbergh, Deborah; Moorkens, Greta; Meeus, Mira; Nijs, Jo
OBJECTIVE. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an activity pacing self-management (APSM) intervention in improving performance of daily life activities in women with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). METHOD. A total of 33 women with CFS (age 41.1 ± 11.2 yr) were randomly allocated to APSM (experimental group; n = 16) or relaxation (control group; n = 17). Main outcome measures included the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM; primary) and Checklist Individual Strength (CIS). RESULTS. COPM scores changed significantly over time in both groups (p = .03). The change in Satisfaction scores showed a significant difference in favor only of APSM (effect size = 0.74 [0.11, 1.4]). CIS scores decreased significantly in the experimental group only (p < .01). CONCLUSION. APSM was found to be feasible and effective in optimizing participation in desired daily life activities in women with CFS. Replication in a larger sample with long-term follow-up is required. PMID:26356665
Kos, Daphne; van Eupen, Inge; Meirte, Jill; Van Cauwenbergh, Deborah; Moorkens, Greta; Meeus, Mira; Nijs, Jo
To evaluate the effectiveness of an activity pacing self-management (APSM) intervention in improving performance of daily life activities in women with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). A total of 33 women with CFS (age 41.1±11.2 yr) were randomly allocated to APSM (experimental group; n=16) or relaxation (control group; n=17). Main outcome measures included the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM; primary) and Checklist Individual Strength (CIS). COPM scores changed significantly over time in both groups (p=.03). The change in Satisfaction scores showed a significant difference in favor only of APSM (effect size=0.74 [0.11, 1.4]). CIS scores decreased significantly in the experimental group only (p<.01). APSM was found to be feasible and effective in optimizing participation in desired daily life activities in women with CFS. Replication in a larger sample with long-term follow-up is required. Copyright © 2015 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Inui, Toshio; Kubo, Kentaro; Kuchiike, Daisuke; Uto, Yoshihiro; Nishikata, Takahito; Sakamoto, Norihiro; Mette, Martin
Gc protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) immunotherapy has been steadily advancing over the last two decades. Oral colostrum macrophage-activating factor (MAF) produced from bovine colostrum has shown high macrophage phagocytic activity. GcMAF-based immunotherapy has a wide application for use in treating many diseases via macrophage activation or for use as supportive therapy. Three case studies demonstrate that oral colostrum MAF can be used for serious infection and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) without adverse effects. We demonstrate that colostrum MAF shows promising clinical results in patients with infectious diseases and for symptoms of fatigue, which is common in many chronic diseases. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.
Wyller, Vegard B; Helland, Ingrid B
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) is characterized by severe impairment and multiple symptoms. Autonomic dysregulation has been demonstrated in several studies. We aimed at exploring the relationship between indices of autonomic cardiovascular control, the case definition from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC criteria), important clinical symptoms, and disability in adolescent chronic fatigue syndrome. 38 CFS patients aged 12-18 years were recruited according to a wide case definition (ie. not requiring accompanying symptoms) and subjected to head-up tilt test (HUT) and a questionnaire. The relationships between variables were explored with multiple linear regression analyses. In the final models, disability was positively associated with symptoms of cognitive impairments (p<0.001), hypersensitivity (p<0.001), fatigue (p=0.003) and age (p=0.007). Symptoms of cognitive impairments were associated with age (p=0.002), heart rate (HR) at baseline (p=0.01), and HR response during HUT (p=0.02). Hypersensitivity was associated with HR response during HUT (p=0.001), high-frequency variability of heart rate (HF-RRI) at baseline (p=0.05), and adherence to the CDC criteria (p=0.005). Fatigue was associated with gender (p=0.007) and adherence to the CDC criteria (p=0.04). In conclusion, a) The disability of CFS patients is not only related to fatigue but to other symptoms as well; b) Altered cardiovascular autonomic control is associated with certain symptoms; c) The CDC criteria are poorly associated with disability, symptoms, and indices of altered autonomic nervous activity.
NICU nurses have seen a dramatic increase in cases of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). The care needs of infants with NAS are highly demanding and can lead to feelings of frustration and emotional exhaustion among NICU nurses. Although studies have examined the experiences of nurses caring for NAS patients, none have specifically addressed the risk for compassion fatigue and burnout. Nurses need practical strategies to reduce their risk for compassion fatigue and burnout when caring for these patients. Improved education and implementation of self-care measures can help nurses more effectively manage stress and positively impact care of these infants and their families.
van de Putte, Elise M.; van Doornen, Lorenz J. P.; Engelbert, Raoul H. H.; Kuis, Wietse; Kimpen, Jan L. L.; Uiterwaal, Cuno S. P. M.
Our aim with this study was to assess the relation between chronic fatigue syndrome in adolescents and fatigue and associated symptoms in their fathers and mothers, more specifically the presence of chronic fatigue syndrome-like symptoms and psychologic distress. In this cross-sectional study, 40
Vos-Vromans, D C W M; Smeets, R J E M; Huijnen, I P J; Köke, A J A; Hitters, W M G C; Rijnders, L J M; Pont, M; Winkens, B; Knottnerus, J A
The aim of this trial was to evaluate the difference in treatment effect, at 26 and 52 weeks after the start of treatment, between cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and multidisciplinary rehabilitation treatment (MRT) for patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Multicentre, randomized controlled trial of patients with CFS. Participants were randomly assigned to MRT or CBT. Four rehabilitation centres in the Netherlands. A total of 122 patients participated in the trial. Primary outcomes were fatigue measured by the fatigue subscale of the Checklist Individual Strength and health-related quality of life measured by the Short-Form 36. Outcomes were assessed prior to treatment and at 26 and 52 weeks after treatment initiation. A total of 114 participants completed the assessment at 26 weeks, and 112 completed the assessment at 52 weeks. MRT was significantly more effective than CBT in reducing fatigue at 52 weeks. The estimated difference in fatigue between the two treatments was -3.02 [95% confidence interval (CI) -8.07 to 2.03; P = 0.24] at 26 weeks and -5.69 (95% CI -10.62 to -0.76; P = 0.02) at 52 weeks. Patients showed an improvement in quality of life over time, but between-group differences were not significant. This study provides evidence that MRT is more effective in reducing long-term fatigue severity than CBT in patients with CFS. Although implementation in comparable populations can be recommended based on clinical effectiveness, it is advisable to analyse the cost-effectiveness and replicate these findings in another multicentre trial. © 2015 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.
Full Text Available Bereavement may bring negative impacts on the mind, body, and spiritual well-being of grieving persons. Some bereaved persons with chronic fatigue syndrome- (CFS- illness experience a dual burden of distress. This study investigated the effects of bereavement on CFS-like illness by comparing bereaved and nonbereaved participants. It also adopted a random group design to investigate the effectiveness of Qigong on improving the well-being of bereaved participants. The Qigong intervention comprised 10 group sessions delivered twice a week for 5 weeks and home-practice for at least three times a week lasting 15–30 minutes each. The participants’ fatigue, anxiety, and depression, quality of life (QoL, and spiritual well-being were measured at baseline and 3 months after treatment. The bereaved participants experienced significantly greater mental fatigue (16.09 versus 14.44, p=0.017 and lower physical QoL (34.02 versus 37.17, p=0.011 than their nonbereaved counterparts. After 3 months, the mental fatigue (−8 versus −4, p=0.010 and physical fatigue (−10 versus −5, p=0.007 experienced by intervention group had declined significantly, and improvements on their spirituality (14 versus −2, p=0.013 and psychological QoL (8.91 versus 0.69, p=0.002 scores exceeded those of the control group.
Gurbaxani, Brian M; Jones, James F; Goertzel, Benjamin N; Maloney, Elizabeth M
To provide a mathematical introduction to the Wichita (KS, USA) clinical dataset, which is all of the nongenetic data (no microarray or single nucleotide polymorphism data) from the 2-day clinical evaluation, and show the preliminary findings and limitations, of popular, matrix algebra-based data mining techniques. An initial matrix of 440 variables by 227 human subjects was reduced to 183 variables by 164 subjects. Variables were excluded that strongly correlated with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) case classification by design (for example, the multidimensional fatigue inventory [MFI] data), that were otherwise self reporting in nature and also tended to correlate strongly with CFS classification, or were sparse or nonvarying between case and control. Subjects were excluded if they did not clearly fall into well-defined CFS classifications, had comorbid depression with melancholic features, or other medical or psychiatric exclusions. The popular data mining techniques, principle components analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), were used to determine how well the data separated into groups. Two different feature selection methods helped identify the most discriminating parameters. Although purely biological features (variables) were found to separate CFS cases from controls, including many allostatic load and sleep-related variables, most parameters were not statistically significant individually. However, biological correlates of CFS, such as heart rate and heart rate variability, require further investigation. Feature selection of a limited number of variables from the purely biological dataset produced better separation between groups than a PCA of the entire dataset. Feature selection highlighted the importance of many of the allostatic load variables studied in more detail by Maloney and colleagues in this issue  , as well as some sleep-related variables. Nonetheless, matrix linear algebra-based data mining approaches appeared to be of
Mellor Duane D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chocolate is rich in flavonoids that have been shown to be of benefit in disparate conditions including cardiovascular disease and cancer. The effect of polyphenol rich chocolate in subjects with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS has not been studied previously. Methods We conducted a double blinded, randomised, clinical pilot crossover study comparing high cocoa liquor/polyphenol rich chocolate (HCL/PR in comparison to simulated iso-calorific chocolate (cocoa liquor free/low polyphenols(CLF/LP on fatigue and residual function in subjects with chronic fatigue syndrome. Subjects with CFS having severe fatigue of at least 10 out of 11 on the Chalder Fatigue Scale were enrolled. Subjects had either 8 weeks of intervention in the form of HCL/PR or CLF/LP, with a 2 week wash out period followed by 8 weeks of intervention with the other chocolate. Results Ten subjects were enrolled in the study. The Chalder Fatigue Scale score improved significantly after 8 weeks of the HCL/PR chocolate arm [median (range Exact Sig. (2-tailed] [33 (25 - 38 vs. 21.5 (6 - 35 0.01], but that deteriorated significantly when subjects were given simulated iso-calorific chocolate (CLF/CP [ 28.5 (17 - 20 vs. 34.5 (13-26 0.03]. The residual function, as assessed by the London Handicap scale, also improved significantly after the HCL/PR arm [0.49 (0.33 - 0.62 vs. 0.64 (0.44 - 0.83 0.01] and deteriorated after iso-calorific chocolate [00.44 (0.43 - 0.68 vs. 0.36 (0.33 - 0.620.03]. Likewise the Hospital Anxiety and Depression score also improved after the HCL/PR arm, but deteriorated after CLF/CP. Mean weight remained unchanged throughout the trial. Conclusion This study suggests that HCL/PR chocolate may improve symptoms in subjects with chronic fatigue syndrome.
Morris, Gerwyn; Maes, Michael
This paper proposes a neuro-immune model for Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). A wide range of immunological and neurological abnormalities have been reported in people suffering from ME/CFS. They include abnormalities in proinflammatory cytokines, raised production of nuclear factor-κB, mitochondrial dysfunctions, autoimmune responses, autonomic disturbances and brain pathology. Raised levels of oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS), together with reduced levels of antioxidants are indicative of an immuno-inflammatory pathology. A number of different pathogens have been reported either as triggering or maintaining factors. Our model proposes that initial infection and immune activation caused by a number of possible pathogens leads to a state of chronic peripheral immune activation driven by activated O&NS pathways that lead to progressive damage of self epitopes even when the initial infection has been cleared. Subsequent activation of autoreactive T cells conspiring with O&NS pathways cause further damage and provoke chronic activation of immuno-inflammatory pathways. The subsequent upregulation of proinflammatory compounds may activate microglia via the vagus nerve. Elevated proinflammatory cytokines together with raised O&NS conspire to produce mitochondrial damage. The subsequent ATP deficit together with inflammation and O&NS are responsible for the landmark symptoms of ME/CFS, including post-exertional malaise. Raised levels of O&NS subsequently cause progressive elevation of autoimmune activity facilitated by molecular mimicry, bystander activation or epitope spreading. These processes provoke central nervous system (CNS) activation in an attempt to restore immune homeostatsis. This model proposes that the antagonistic activities of the CNS response to peripheral inflammation, O&NS and chronic immune activation are responsible for the remitting-relapsing nature of ME/CFS. Leads for future research are suggested based on this
Full Text Available Samantha Johnston,1 Ekua W Brenu,1 Donald Staines,1,2 Sonya Marshall-Gradisnik1 1Griffith Health Institute, School of Medical Sciences, National Centre for Neuroimmunology and Emerging Diseases, Griffith University, Parklands, QLD, Australia; 2Gold Coast Public Health Unit, Queensland Health, Robina, QLD, Australia Purpose: To perform a meta-analysis to examine variability among prevalence estimates for CFS/ME, according to the method of assessment used. Methods: Databases were systematically searched for studies on CFS/ME prevalence in adults that applied the 1994 Centers for Disease Control (CDC case definition.1 Estimates were categorized into two methods of assessment: self-reporting of symptoms versus clinical assessment of symptoms. Meta-analysis was performed to pool prevalences by assessment using random effects modeling. This was stratified by sample setting (community or primary care and heterogeneity was examined using the I2 statistic. Results: Of 216 records found, 14 studies were considered suitable for inclusion. The pooled prevalence for self-reporting assessment was 3.28% (95% CI: 2.24–4.33 and 0.76% (95% CI: 0.23–1.29 for clinical assessment. High variability was observed among self-reported estimates, while clinically assessed estimates showed greater consistency. Conclusion: The observed heterogeneity in CFS/ME prevalence may be due to differences in method of assessment. Stakeholders should be cautious of prevalence determined by the self-reporting of symptoms alone. The 1994 CDC case definition appeared to be the most reliable clinical assessment tool available at the time of these studies. Improving clinical case definitions and their adoption internationally will enable better comparisons of findings and inform health systems about the true burden of CFS/ME. Keywords: chronic fatigue syndrome, myalgic encephalomyelitis, prevalence, meta-analysis
de Carvalho Leite Jose C; de L Drachler Maria; Killett Anne; Kale Swati; Nacul Luis; McArthur Maggie; Hong Chia; O'Driscoll Lucy; Pheby Derek; Campion Peter; Lacerda Eliana; Poland Fiona
Abstract Background Needs-based resource allocation is fundamental to equitable care provision, which can meet the often-complex, fluctuating needs of people with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME). This has posed challenges both for those providing and those seeking support providers, in building shared understanding of the condition and of actions to address it. This qualitative study reports on needs for equity in health and social care expressed by adults living w...
Full Text Available Neurocognitive impairment is a feature of childhood chronic fatigue syndrome (CCFS. Several studies have demonstrated reduced attention control in CCFS patients in switching and divided attention tasks. In students, the extent of deterioration in task performance depends on the level of fatigue. Poor performance in switching and divided attention is common in both fatigued students and CCFS patients. Additionally, attentional functions show dramatic development from childhood to adolescence, suggesting that abnormal development of switching and divided attention may be induced by chronic fatigue. The brain structures associated with attentional control are situated in the frontal and parietal cortices, which are the last to mature, suggesting that severe fatigue in CCFS patients and students may inhibit normal structural and functional development in these regions. A combination of treatment with cognitive behavioral therapy and antidepressant medication is effective to improve attentional control processing in CCFS patients. Studies identifying the features of neurocognitive impairment in CCFS have improved our current understanding of the neurophysiological mechanisms of CCFS.
Vernon Suzanne D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic profiling of peripheral blood reveals altered immunity in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS however interpretation remains challenging without immune demographic context. The object of this work is to identify modulation of specific immune functional components and restructuring of co-expression networks characteristic of CFS using the quantitative genomics of peripheral blood. Methods Gene sets were constructed a priori for CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, CD19+ B cells, CD14+ monocytes and CD16+ neutrophils from published data. A group of 111 women were classified using empiric case definition (U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and unsupervised latent cluster analysis (LCA. Microarray profiles of peripheral blood were analyzed for expression of leukocyte-specific gene sets and characteristic changes in co-expression identified from topological evaluation of linear correlation networks. Results Median expression for a set of 6 genes preferentially up-regulated in CD19+ B cells was significantly lower in CFS (p = 0.01 due mainly to PTPRK and TSPAN3 expression. Although no other gene set was differentially expressed at p Conclusion Dissection of blood microarray profiles points to B cell dysfunction with coordinated immune activation supporting persistent inflammation and antibody-mediated NK cell modulation of T cell activity. This has clinical implications as the CD19+ genes identified could provide robust and biologically meaningful basis for the early detection and unambiguous phenotyping of CFS.
Collin, Simon M; Crawley, Esther
NHS specialist chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS/ME) services in England treat approximately 8000 adult patients each year. Variation in therapy programmes and treatment outcomes across services has not been described. We described treatments provided by 11 CFS/ME specialist services and we measured changes in patient-reported fatigue (Chalder, Checklist Individual Strength), function (SF-36 physical subscale, Work & Social Adjustment Scale), anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety & Depression Scale), pain (visual analogue rating), sleep (Epworth, Jenkins), and overall health (Clinical Global Impression) 1 year after the start of treatment, plus questions about impact of CFS/ME on employment, education/training and domestic tasks/unpaid work. A subset of these outcome measures was collected from former patients 2-5 years after assessment at 7 of the 11 specialist services. Baseline data at clinical assessment were available for 952 patients, of whom 440 (46.2%) provided 1-year follow-up data. Treatment data were available for 435/440 (98.9%) of these patients, of whom 175 (40.2%) had been discharged at time of follow-up. Therapy programmes varied substantially in mode of delivery (individual or group) and number of sessions. Overall change in health 1 year after first attending specialist services was 'very much' or 'much better' for 27.5% (115/418) of patients, 'a little better' for 36.6% (153/418), 'no change' for 15.8% (66/418), 'a little worse' for 12.2% (51/418), and 'worse' or 'very much worse' for 7.9% (33/418). Among former patients who provided 2- to 5-year follow-up (30.4% (385/1265)), these proportions were 30.4% (117/385), 27.5% (106/385), 11.4% (44/385), 13.5% (52/385), and 17.1% (66/385), respectively. 85.4% (327/383) of former patients responded "Yes" to "Do you think that you are still suffering from CFS/ME?" 8.9% (34/383) were "Uncertain", and 5.7% (22/383) responded "No". This multi-centre NHS study has shown that, although one third of patients
Lewith, G; Stuart, B; Chalder, T; McDermott, C; White, P D
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) is characterised by persistent fatigue, disability and a range of other symptoms. The PACE trial was randomised to compare four non-pharmacological treatments for patients with CFS in secondary care clinics. The aims of this sub study were to describe the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in the trial sample and to test whether CAM use correlated with an improved outcome. CAM use was recorded at baseline and 52weeks. Logistic and multiple regression models explored relationships between CAM use and both patient characteristics and trial outcomes. At baseline, 450/640 (70%) of participants used any sort of CAM; 199/640 (31%) participants were seeing a CAM practitioner and 410/640 (64%) were taking a CAM medication. At 52weeks, those using any CAM fell to 379/589 (64%). Independent predictors of CAM use at baseline were female gender, local ME group membership, prior duration of CFS and treatment preference. At 52weeks, the associated variables were being female, local ME group membership, and not being randomised to the preferred trial arm. There were no significant associations between any CAM use and fatigue at either baseline or 52weeks. CAM use at baseline was associated with a mean (CI) difference of 4.10 (1.28, 6.91; p=0.024) increased SF36 physical function score at 52weeks, which did not reach the threshold for a clinically important difference. CAM use is common in patients with CFS. It was not associated with any clinically important trial outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sáez-Francàs, Naia; Calvo, Natalia; Alegre, José; Castro-Marrero, Jesús; Ramírez, Nicolás; Hernández-Vara, Jorge; Casas, Miguel
Personality Disorders (PDs) and childhood traumatic experiences have been considered risk factors for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS). However, the relationship between these factors and their associated psychopathological impact has not been explored in this population. This study was designed to evaluate the association between different childhood traumas and the presence and number of PDs and current psychopathology in a sample of CFS patients. For this purpose, 166 CFS patients were evaluated with the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+ (PDQ-4+) and the Child Trauma Questionnaire. Other instruments were used to assess the associated psychopathology and the impact of fatigue. Of the total sample, 55 (33.1%) presented childhood trauma, the most frequent of which were emotional neglect (21.7%) and emotional abuse (18.1%). Considering PD presence, 79 (47.6%) patients presented some PD. There were no differences in frequency of physical childhood trauma in patients with and without PD. However, patients with PD had more frequently experienced emotional childhood trauma (OR=2.18, p=0.034). Severity of childhood trauma was related to a higher number of PDs, more severe depressive symptoms (p=0.025) and suicide risk (p=0.001). Patients with PD and any childhood trauma presented more severe depressive and irritable symptoms and a higher suicide risk than those without any PD and non-childhood traumatic event. These patients' psychopathological symptoms were similar to those of patients with childhood trauma and without PD. These results suggest that emotional childhood trauma but not physical childhood trauma is related to higher frequency of PD presence. More severe childhood emotional and physical traumas are related to a higher number of PDs and to more severe psychopathological symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Zi-Teng; Du, Xiu-Ming; Ma, Xiu-Juan; Zong, Ying; Chen, Ji-Kuai; Yu, Chen-Lin; Liu, Yan-Gang; Chen, Yong-Chun; Zhao, Li-Jun; Lu, Guo-Cai
The NLRP3 inflammasome (NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3) is an intracellular protein complex that plays an important role in innate immune sensing. Its activation leads to the maturation of caspase-1 and regulates the cleavage of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. Various studies have shown that activation of the immune system plays a pivotal role in the development of fatigue. However, the mechanisms underlying the association between immune activation and fatigue remained elusive, and few reports have described the involvement of NLRP3 inflammasome activation in fatigue. We established a mouse fatigue model with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 3 mg/kg) challenge combined with swim stress. Both behavioural and biochemical parameters were measured to illustrate the characteristics of this model. We also assessed NLRP3 inflammasome activation in the mouse diencephalon, which is the brain region that has been suggested to be responsible for fatigue sensation. To further identify the role of NLRP3 inflammasome activation in the pathogenesis of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), NLRP3 KO mice were also subjected to LPS treatment and swim stress, and the same parameters were evaluated. Mice challenged with LPS and subjected to the swim stress test showed decreased locomotor activity, decreased fall-off time in a rota-rod test and increased serum levels of IL-1β and IL-6 compared with untreated mice. Serum levels of lactic acid and malondialdehyde (MDA) were not significantly altered in the treated mice. We demonstrated increased NLRP3 expression, IL-1β production and caspase-1 activation in the diencephalons of the treated mice. In NLRP3 KO mice, we found remarkably increased locomotor activity with longer fall-off times and decreased serum IL-1β levels compared with those of wild-type (WT) mice after LPS challenge and the swim stress test. IL-1β levels in the diencephalon were also significantly decreased in the NLRP3 KO mice. By contrast, IL-6 levels were
Full Text Available A Martin Lerner,1 Safedin Beqaj21Department of Medicine, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Rochester, MI, USA; 2Pathology Inc, Torrance, CA, USAAbstract: A systematic 2001–2007 review of 142 chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS patients identified 106 CFS patients with elevated serum IgG antibodies to the herpesviruses Epstein–Barr virus (EBV, cytomegalovirus, or human herpesvirus (HHV 6 in single or multiple infections, with no other co-infections detected. We named these 106 patients group-A CFS. Eighty-six of these 106 group-A CFS patients (81% had elevated EBV early antibody, early antigen (diffuse, serum titers. A small group of six patients in the group-A EBV subset of CFS, additionally, had repetitive elevated-serum titers of antibody to the early lytic replication-encoded proteins, EBV dUTPase, and EBV DNA polymerase. The presence of these serum antibodies to EBV dUTPase and EBV DNA polymerase indicated EBV abortive lytic replication in these 6 CFS patients. None of 20 random control people (age- and sex-matched, with blood drawn at a commercial laboratory had elevated serum titers of antibody to EBV dUTPase or EBV DNA polymerase (P < 0.01. This finding needs verification in a larger group of EBV CFS subset patients, but if corroborated, it may represent a molecular marker for diagnosing the EBV subset of CFS. We review evidence that EBV abortive lytic replication with unassembled viral proteins in the blood may be the same in infectious mononucleosis (IM and a subset of CFS. EBV-abortive lytic replication in tonsil plasma cells is dominant in IM. No complete lytic virion is in the blood of IM or CFS patients. Complications of CFS and IM include cardiomyopathy and encephalopathy. Circulating abortive lytic-encoded EBV proteins (eg, EBV dUTPase, EBV DNA polymerase, and others may be common to IM and CFS. The intensity and duration of the circulating EBV-encoded proteins might differentiate the IM and EBV subsets of CFS
Staines, Donald R
Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disorder characterised by prolonged fatigue and debility and is mostly associated with post-infection sequelae although ongoing infection is unproven. Immunological aberration is likely and this may prove to be associated with an expanding group of vasoactive neuropeptides in the context of molecular mimicry and inappropriate immunological memory. Vasoactive neuropeptides including vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate activating polypeptide (PACAP) belong to the secretin/glucagon superfamily and act as hormones, neurotransmitters, immune modulators and neurotrophes. They are readily catalysed to smaller peptide fragments by antibody hydrolysis. They and their binding sites are immunogenic and are known to be associated with a range of autoimmune conditions. Vasoactive neuropeptides are widely distributed in the body particularly in the central, autonomic and peripheral nervous systems and have been identified in the gut, adrenal gland, reproductive organs, vasculature, blood cells and other tissues. They have a vital role in maintaining vascular flow in organs, and in thermoregulation, memory and concentration. They are co-transmitters for acetylcholine, nitric oxide, endogenous opioids and insulin, are potent immune regulators with primarily anti-inflammatory activity, and have a significant role in protection of the nervous system to toxic assault, promotion of neural development and the maintenance of homeostasis. This paper describes a biologically plausible mechanism for the development of CFS based on loss of immunological tolerance to the vasoactive neuropeptides following infection, significant physical exercise or de novo. It is proposed that release of these substances is accompanied by a loss of tolerance either to them or their receptor binding sites in CFS. Such an occurrence would have predictably serious consequences resulting from compromised function of the key roles these substances perform. All
Velleman, Sophie; Collin, Simon M; Beasant, Lucy; Crawley, Esther
Chronic fatigue syndrome or myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) is a disabling condition known to have a negative impact on all aspects of a child's life. However, little is understood about the impact of CFS/ME on siblings. A total of 34 siblings completed questionnaires measuring depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)), anxiety (HADS and Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS)) and European Quality-of-life-Youth (EQ-5D-Y). These scores were compared with scores from normative samples. Siblings had higher levels of anxiety on the SCAS than adolescents of the same age recruited from a normative sample; however, depression and quality-of-life were similar. Interviews were undertaken with nine siblings of children with CFS/ME who returned questionnaires. Interview data were analysed using a framework approach to thematic analysis. Siblings identified restrictions on family life, 'not knowing' and lack of communication as negative impacts on their family, and change of role/focus, emotional reactions and social stigma as negative impacts on themselves. They also described positive communication, social support and extra activities as protective factors. Paediatric services should be aware of the impact of CFS/ME on the siblings of children with CFS/ME, understand the importance of assessing paediatric CFS/ME patients within the context of their family and consider providing information for siblings about CFS/ME. © The Author(s) 2015.
Katz, Ben Z; Shiraishi, Yukiko; Mears, Cynthia J; Binns, Helen J; Taylor, Renee
The goal was to characterize prospectively the course and outcome of chronic fatigue syndrome in adolescents during a 2-year period after infectious mononucleosis. A total of 301 adolescents (12-18 years of age) with infectious mononucleosis were identified and screened for nonrecovery 6 months after infectious mononucleosis by using a telephone screening interview. Nonrecovered adolescents underwent a medical evaluation, with follow-up screening 12 and 24 months after infectious mononucleosis. After blind review, final diagnoses of chronic fatigue syndrome at 6, 12, and 24 months were made by using established pediatric criteria. Six, 12, and 24 months after infectious mononucleosis, 13%, 7%, and 4% of adolescents, respectively, met the criteria for chronic fatigue syndrome. Most individuals recovered with time; only 2 adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome at 24 months seemed to have recovered or had an explanation for chronic fatigue at 12 months but then were reclassified as having chronic fatigue syndrome at 24 months. All 13 adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome 24 months after infectious mononucleosis were female and, on average, they reported greater fatigue severity at 12 months. Reported use of steroid therapy during the acute phase of infectious mononucleosis did not increase the risk of developing chronic fatigue syndrome. Infectious mononucleosis may be a risk factor for chronic fatigue syndrome in adolescents. Female gender and greater fatigue severity, but not reported steroid use during the acute illness, were associated with the development of chronic fatigue syndrome in adolescents. Additional research is needed to determine other predictors of persistent fatigue after infectious mononucleosis.
Collin, Simon M; Bakken, Inger J; Nazareth, Irwin; Crawley, Esther; White, Peter D
Objective Trends in recorded diagnoses of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS, also known as 'myalgic encephalomyelitis' (ME)) and fibromyalgia (FM) in the UK were last reported more than ten years ago, for the period 1990-2001. Our aim was to analyse trends in incident diagnoses of CFS/ME and FM for the period 2001-2013, and to investigate whether incidence might vary by index of multiple deprivation (IMD) score. Design Electronic health records cohort study. Setting NHS primary care practices in the UK. Participants Participants: Patients registered with general practices linked to the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) primary care database from January 2001 to December 2013. Main outcome measure Incidence of CFS/ME, FM, post-viral fatigue syndrome (PVFS), and asthenia/debility. Results The overall annual incidence of recorded cases of CFS/ME was 14.8 (95% CI 14.5, 15.1) per 100,000 people. Overall annual incidence per 100,000 people for FM was 33.3 (32.8-33.8), for PVFS 12.2 (11.9, 12.5), and for asthenia/debility 7.0 (6.8, 7.2). Annual incidence rates for CFS/ME diagnoses decreased from 17.5 (16.1, 18.9) in 2001 to 12.6 (11.5, 13.8) in 2013 (annual percent change -2.8% (-3.6%, -2.0%)). Annual incidence rates for FM diagnoses decreased from 32.3 (30.4, 34.3) to 27.1 (25.5, 28.6) in 2007, then increased to 38.2 (36.3, 40.1) per 100,000 people in 2013. Overall annual incidence of recorded fatigue symptoms was 2246 (2242, 2250) per 100,000 people. Compared with the least deprived IMD quintile, incidence of CFS/ME in the most deprived quintile was 39% lower (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0.61 (0.50, 0.75)), whereas rates of FM were 40% higher (IRR 1.40 (0.95, 2.06)). Conclusion These analyses suggest a gradual decline in recorded diagnoses of CFS/ME since 2001, and an increase in diagnoses of fibromyalgia, with opposing socioeconomic patterns of lower rates of CFS/ME diagnoses in the poorest areas compared with higher rates of FM diagnoses.
Full Text Available Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS is a disease of unknown aetiology. Major CFS symptom relief during cancer chemotherapy in a patient with synchronous CFS and lymphoma spurred a pilot study of B-lymphocyte depletion using the anti-CD20 antibody Rituximab, which demonstrated significant clinical response in three CFS patients.In this double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II study (NCT00848692, 30 CFS patients were randomised to either Rituximab 500 mg/m(2 or saline, given twice two weeks apart, with follow-up for 12 months. Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV was not detected in any of the patients. The responses generally affected all CFS symptoms. Major or moderate overall response, defined as lasting improvements in self-reported Fatigue score during follow-up, was seen in 10 out of 15 patients (67% in the Rituximab group and in two out of 15 patients (13% in the Placebo group (p = 0.003. Mean response duration within the follow-up period for the 10 responders to Rituximab was 25 weeks (range 8-44. Four Rituximab patients had clinical response durations past the study period. General linear models for repeated measures of Fatigue scores during follow-up showed a significant interaction between time and intervention group (p = 0.018 for self-reported, and p = 0.024 for physician-assessed, with differences between the Rituximab and Placebo groups between 6-10 months after intervention. The primary end-point, defined as effect on self-reported Fatigue score 3 months after intervention, was negative. There were no serious adverse events. Two patients in the Rituximab group with pre-existing psoriasis experienced moderate psoriasis worsening.The delayed responses starting from 2-7 months after Rituximab treatment, in spite of rapid B-cell depletion, suggests that CFS is an autoimmune disease and may be consistent with the gradual elimination of autoantibodies preceding clinical responses. The present findings will impact
Surapaneni, Dinesh Kumar; Adapa, Sree Rama Shiva Shanker; Preeti, Kumari; Teja, Gangineni Ravi; Veeraragavan, Muruganandam; Krishnamurthy, Sairam
Shilajit has been used as a rejuvenator for ages in Indian ancient traditional medicine and has been validated for a number of pharmacological activities. The effect of processed shilajit which was standardized to dibenzo-α-pyrones (DBPs;0.43% w/w), DBP-chromoproteins (DCPs; 20.45% w/w) and fulvic acids (56.75% w/w) was evaluated in a rat model of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). The mitochondrial bioenergetics and the activity of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis were evaluated for the plausible mechanism of action of shilajit. CFS was induced by forcing the rats to swim for 15mins for 21 consecutive days. The rats were treated with shilajit (25, 50 and 100mg/kg) for 21 days before exposure to stress procedure. The behavioral consequence of CFS was measured in terms of immobility and the climbing period. The post-CFS anxiety level was assessed by elevated plus maze (EPM) test. Plasma corticosterone and adrenal gland weight were estimated as indices of HPA axis activity. Analysis of mitochondrial complex chain enzymes (Complex I, II, IV and V) and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) in prefrontal cortex (PFC) were performed to evaluate the mitochondrial bioenergetics and integrity respectively. Shilajit reversed the CFS-induced increase in immobility period and decrease in climbing behavior as well as attenuated anxiety in the EPM test. Shilajit reversed CFS-induced decrease in plasma corticosterone level and loss of adrenal gland weight indicating modulation of HPA axis. Shilajit prevented CFS-induced mitochondrial dysfunction by stabilizing the complex enzyme activities and the loss of MMP. Shilajit reversed CFS-induced mitochondrial oxidative stress in terms of NO concentration and, LPO, SOD and catalase activities. The results indicate that shilajit mitigates the effects of CFS in this model possibly through the modulation of HPA axis and preservation of mitochondrial function and integrity. The reversal of CFS-induced behavioral symptoms and
Hyde, Byron; Leveille, Jean; Vaudrey, Sheila; Green, Tracy
Thyroid malignancy in ME/CFS patients greatly exceeds the normal incidence of thyroid malignancy in any known subgroup. The thyroid malignancy incidence in the ME/CFS group may exceed 6,000 / 100,000. As part of their investigation, Myalgic Encephalomyelitis / Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) patients should be examined by thyroid ultrasound for evidence of thyroid pathology and malignancy. Thyroid pathology may be missed in this group of patients if investigation relies only upon serum testing for TSH, FT3, FT4, microsomal and thyroglobulin antibodies, which are usually normal. Thyroid uptake scans tend also to be normal and may also miss malignant lesions. A newly recognized syndrome may exist in ME/CFS patients characterized by: (a) thyroid malignancy, (b) persistent abnormal cortical and subcortical SPECT brain scans (NeuroSPECT), (c) failure of thyroidectomy surgery and hormone replacement to correct the fatigue syndrome, and (d) an unusual high incidence of cervical vertebrae osteoarthritic changes. ME/CFS patients with treated non-malignant thyroid disease and abnormal NeuroSPECT scans may also fail to improve despite adequate thyroid hormone replacement. A brief summary of the differences between ME and CFS is discussed. Lee, Hur and Ahn  stated that thyroid malignancy is said to be an infrequent occurrence found in 0.5 to 3 patients per 100,000 in the general population. They noted that in a subgroup of patients booked for mammography, a thyroid ultrasound was also performed. In this group, they found thyroid malignancy frequency was as high as 3 per 100,000. It is not known if their subgroup was at a higher risk for malignancy. Mittelstaedt  in the Globe and Mail states that thyroid malignancy was 15 per 100,000. In the past 100 patients whom I have investigated for (ME/CFS), with or without associated Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FS), I have found that 6% of these patients had thyroid malignancy. In each of these patients the diagnosis was made by
Attree, Elizabeth A; Dancey, Christine P; Pope, Alison L
People with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) have increased rates of depression, anxiety, and illness intrusiveness; they may also suffer from cognitive problems such as retrospective memory (RM) deficits and concentration difficulties that can stem from diminished information-processing capability. We predicted that this diminished capacity may also lead to deficits in other cognitive functions, such as prospective memory (ProM). Event-, time-, and activity-based ProM was assessed in 11 women with CFS and 12 healthy women using a computer-generated virtual environment (VE). RM was assessed using a free-recall test, and subjective assessment of both ProM and RM was assessed by questionnaire. Groups were equivalent in age and measures of IQ. People with CFS performed slightly worse than healthy controls on both the event- and time-based ProM measures, although these were not statistically significant. However, the CFS group performed significantly worse than the healthy controls on both the free recall-task and on subjective assessment of both RM and ProM. Women with CFS do have some subtle decrements in memory, particularly RM. However, it is possible that the decrements found in the present sample would be greater in real life. Further studies utilizing both healthy controls and illness controls are now needed to ascertain how sensitive the VE measure is and to inform the development of tasks in the VE that place progressively increasing demands on working memory capacity.
Burke, Susan G.
Presents current research on chronic fatigue syndrome, which currently afflicts mostly females between ages of 25 and 55. Notes that, because depression is common symptom of chronic fatigue syndrome, mental health practitioners are often involved with victims and must formulate appropriate treatment strategy that considers physiological,…
Chi, Aiping; Shen, Zhimei; Zhu, Wenfei; Sun, Yuliang; Kang, Yijiang; Guo, Fei
Herba Epimedii is one of the famous Traditional Chinese Medicines used to treat the chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). The polysaccharides are the main active components in H. epimedii. The aim of this study is to discover the therapeutic effect and metabolic mechanism of H. epimedii polysaccharides against CFS. The polysaccharide conjugates named HEP2-a were isolated from the leaves of H. epimedii using a water extraction method, and the general physicochemical properties of HEP2-a were analysed. In addition, a CFS rat model was established, and then, urinary metabonomic studies were performed using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) in combination with multivariate statistical analysis. The physicochemical properties revealed that HEP2-a had an average molecular weight of 13.6×10 4 Da and consisted of mannose (4.41%), rhamnose (5.43%), glucose (31.26%), galactose (27.07%), arabinose (23.43%), and galacturonic acid (8.40%). The amino acids in HEP2-a include glutamate, cysteine, leucine, tyrosine, lysine, and histidine. Molecular morphology studies revealed many highly curled spherical particles with diameters of 5-10µm in solids and 100-200nm for particles in water. Five metabolites in the HEP2-a group were oppositely and significantly changed compared to the CFS model group. Two metabolic pathways were identified as significant metabolic pathways involved with HEP2-a. The therapeutic effects of HEP2-a on CFS were partially due to the restoration of these disturbed pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Li, Sophie H; Sandler, Carolina X; Casson, Sally M; Cassar, Joanne; Bogg, Tina; Lloyd, Andrew R; Barry, Benjamin K
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a serious and debilitating illness that affects between 0.2%-2.6% of the world's population. Although there is level 1 evidence of the benefit of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) and graded exercise therapy (GET) for some people with CFS, uptake of these interventions is low or at best untimely. This can be partly attributed to poor clinician awareness and knowledge of CFS and related CBT and GET interventions. This trial aims to evaluate the effect of participation in an online education programme, compared with a wait-list control group, on allied health professionals' knowledge about evidence-based CFS interventions and their levels of confidence to engage in the dissemination of these interventions. A randomised controlled trial consisting of 180 consenting allied health professionals will be conducted. Participants will be randomised into an intervention group (n=90) that will receive access to the online education programme, or a wait-list control group (n=90). The primary outcomes will be: 1) knowledge and clinical reasoning skills regarding CFS and its management, measured at baseline, postintervention and follow-up, and 2) self-reported confidence in knowledge and clinical reasoning skills related to CFS. Secondary outcomes include retention of knowledge and satisfaction with the online education programme. The influence of the education programme on clinical practice behaviour, and self-reported success in the management of people with CFS, will also be assessed in a cohort study design with participants from the intervention and control groups combined. The study protocol has been approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee at The University of New South Wales (approval number HC16419). Results will be disseminated via peer-reviewed journal articles and presentations at scientific conferences and meetings. ACTRN12616000296437. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the
Borah, Mukundam; Sarma, Phulen; Das, Swarnamoni
Oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Keeping in view the proven antioxidant activity of Triticum aestivum L., this study has been undertaken to explore the potential therapeutic benefit of this plant in the treatment of CFS. To study the protective effect of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Triticum aestivum (EETA) in an experimental mice model of CFS. Five groups of albino mice (20-25 g) were selected for the study, with five animals in each group. Group A served as the naïve control and Group B served as the stressed control. Groups C and D received EETA (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg b.w.). Group E received imipramine (20 mg/kg b.w.). Except for Group A, mice in each group were forced to swim 6 min each for 7 days to induce a state of chronic fatigue. Duration of immobility was measured on every alternate day. After 7 days, various behavioral tests (mirror chamber and elevated plus maize test for anxiety, open field test for locomotor activity) and biochemical estimations (malondialdehyde [MDA] and catalase activity) in mice brain were performed. Forced swimming in the stressed group resulted in a significant increase in immobility period, decrease in locomotor activity and elevated anxiety level. The brain homogenate showed significantly increased MDA and decreased catalase levels. The extract-treated groups showed significantly (P < 0.05) improved locomotor activity, decreased anxiety level, elevated catalase levels and reduction of MDA. The study confirms the protective effects of EETA in CFS.
Peter C. Rowe
Full Text Available Individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS have heightened sensitivity and increased symptoms following various physiologic challenges, such as orthostatic stress, physical exercise, and cognitive challenges. Similar heightened sensitivity to the same stressors in fibromyalgia (FM has led investigators to propose that these findings reflect a state of central sensitivity. A large body of evidence supports the concept of central sensitivity in FM. A more modest literature provides partial support for this model in CFS, particularly with regard to pain. Nonetheless, fatigue and cognitive dysfunction have not been explained by the central sensitivity data thus far. Peripheral factors have attracted attention recently as contributors to central sensitivity. Work by Brieg, Sunderland, and others has emphasized the ability of the nervous system to undergo accommodative changes in length in response to the range of limb and trunk movements carried out during daily activity. If that ability to elongate is impaired—due to movement restrictions in tissues adjacent to nerves, or due to swelling or adhesions within the nerve itself—the result is an increase in mechanical tension within the nerve. This adverse neural tension, also termed neurodynamic dysfunction, is thought to contribute to pain and other symptoms through a variety of mechanisms. These include mechanical sensitization and altered nociceptive signaling, altered proprioception, adverse patterns of muscle recruitment and force of muscle contraction, reduced intra-neural blood flow, and release of inflammatory neuropeptides. Because it is not possible to differentiate completely between adverse neural tension and strain in muscles, fascia, and other soft tissues, we use the more general term neuromuscular strain. In our clinical work, we have found that neuromuscular restrictions are common in CFS, and that many symptoms of CFS can be reproduced by selectively adding neuromuscular strain
Nguyen, Chinh Bkrong; Alsøe, Lene; Lindvall, Jessica M; Sulheim, Dag; Fagermoen, Even; Winger, Anette; Kaarbø, Mari; Nilsen, Hilde; Wyller, Vegard Bruun
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a prevalent and disabling condition affecting adolescents. The pathophysiology is poorly understood, but immune alterations might be an important component. This study compared whole blood gene expression in adolescent CFS patients and healthy controls, and explored associations between gene expression and neuroendocrine markers, immune markers and clinical markers within the CFS group. CFS patients (12-18 years old) were recruited nation-wide to a single referral center as part of the NorCAPITAL project. A broad case definition of CFS was applied, requiring 3 months of unexplained, disabling chronic/relapsing fatigue of new onset, whereas no accompanying symptoms were necessary. Healthy controls having comparable distribution of gender and age were recruited from local schools. Whole blood samples were subjected to RNA sequencing. Immune markers were blood leukocyte counts, plasma cytokines, serum C-reactive protein and immunoglobulins. Neuroendocrine markers encompassed plasma and urine levels of catecholamines and cortisol, as well as heart rate variability indices. Clinical markers consisted of questionnaire scores for symptoms of post-exertional malaise, inflammation, fatigue, depression and trait anxiety, as well as activity recordings. A total of 29 CFS patients and 18 healthy controls were included. We identified 176 genes as differentially expressed in patients compared to controls, adjusting for age and gender factors. Gene set enrichment analyses suggested impairment of B cell differentiation and survival, as well as enhancement of innate antiviral responses and inflammation in the CFS group. A pattern of co-expression could be identified, and this pattern, as well as single gene transcripts, was significantly associated with indices of autonomic nervous activity, plasma cortisol, and blood monocyte and eosinophil counts. Also, an association with symptoms of post-exertional malaise was demonstrated. Adolescent CFS is
Arnett, S V; Clark, I A
Persistent and severe fatigue is a common part of the presentation of a diverse range of disease processes. There is a growing body of evidence indicating a common inflammatory pathophysiology underlying many conditions where fatigue is a primary patient concern, including chronic fatigue syndrome. This review explores current models of how inflammatory mediators act on the central nervous system to produce fatigue and sickness behaviour, and the commonality of these processes in conditions as diverse as surgical trauma, infection, various cancers, inflammatory bowel disease, connective tissue diseases and autoimmune diseases. We also discuss evidence indicating chronic fatigue syndrome may have important pathophysiological similarities with cytokine mediated sickness behaviour, and what lessons can be applied from sickness behaviour to chronic fatigue syndrome with regards to the diagnosis and management. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Janse, Anthonie; Worm-Smeitink, Margreet; Bussel-Lagarde, José; Bleijenberg, Gijs; Nikolaus, Stephanie; Knoop, Hans
Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for fatigue and disabilities in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). However, treatment capacity is limited. Providing web-based CBT and tailoring the amount of contact with the therapist to the individual needs of the patient may increase the efficiency of the intervention. Web-based CBT for adolescents with CFS has proven to be effective in reducing fatigue and increasing school attendance. In the proposed study the efficacy of a web-based CBT intervention for adult patients with CFS will be explored. Two different formats of web-based CBT will be tested. In the first format named protocol driven feedback, patients report on their progress and receive feedback from a therapist according to a preset schedule. In the second format named support on demand, feedback and support of the therapist is only given when patients ask for it. The primary objective of the study is to determine the efficacy of a web-based CBT intervention on fatigue severity. A randomized clinical trial will be conducted. Two-hundred-forty adults who have been diagnosed with CFS according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) consensus criteria will be recruited and randomized to one of three conditions: web-based CBT with protocol driven feedback, web-based CBT with support on demand, or wait list. Feedback will be delivered by therapists specialized in CBT for CFS. Each of the web-based CBT interventions will be compared to a wait list condition with respect to its effect on the primary outcome measure; fatigue severity. Secondary outcome measures are level of disability, physical functioning, psychological distress, and the proportion of patients with clinical significant improvement in fatigue severity. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline and six months post randomization. The web-based CBT formats will be compared with respect to the time therapists need to deliver the intervention. As far as we
de Carvalho Leite Jose C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Needs-based resource allocation is fundamental to equitable care provision, which can meet the often-complex, fluctuating needs of people with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME. This has posed challenges both for those providing and those seeking support providers, in building shared understanding of the condition and of actions to address it. This qualitative study reports on needs for equity in health and social care expressed by adults living with CFS/ME. Methods The participants were 35 adults with CFS/ME in England, purposively selected to provide variation in clinical presentations, social backgrounds and illness experiences. Accounts of experienced needs and needs-related encounters with health and social services were obtained through a focus group (n = 6 and semi-structured interviews (n = 35. These were transcribed and needs related topics identified through data-led thematic analysis. Findings Participants emphasised needs for personalised, timely and sustained support to alleviate CFS/ME impacts and regain life control, in three thematic areas: (1 Illness symptoms, functional limitations and illness management; (2 practical support and social care; (3 financial support. Access of people with CFS/ME to support from health and social services was seen to be constrained by barriers stemming from social, cultural, organisational and professional norms and practices, further heightened for disadvantaged groups including some ethnic minorities. These reduced opportunities for their illness to be explained or associated functional limitations and social disadvantages to be addressed through social support. Participants sought more understanding of bio-psycho-social aspects of CFS/ME, of felt needs of people with CFS/ME and of human rights and disability rights, for providing person-centred, equitable care. Conclusions Changes in attitudes of health practitioners, policy makers and general public
Switzer William M
Full Text Available Abstract Background XMRV, a xenotropic murine leukemia virus (MuLV-related virus, was recently identified by PCR testing in 67% of persons with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS and in 3.7% of healthy persons from the United States. To investigate the association of XMRV with CFS we tested blood specimens from 51 persons with CFS and 56 healthy persons from the US for evidence of XMRV infection by using serologic and molecular assays. Blinded PCR and serologic testing were performed at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC and at two additional laboratories. Results Archived blood specimens were tested from persons with CFS defined by the 1994 international research case definition and matched healthy controls from Wichita, Kansas and metropolitan, urban, and rural Georgia populations. Serologic testing at CDC utilized a Western blot (WB assay that showed excellent sensitivity to MuLV and XMRV polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies, and no reactivity on sera from 121 US blood donors or 26 HTLV-and HIV-infected sera. Plasma from 51 CFS cases and plasma from 53 controls were all WB negative. Additional blinded screening of the 51 cases and 53 controls at the Robert Koch Institute using an ELISA employing recombinant Gag and Env XMRV proteins identified weak seroreactivity in one CFS case and a healthy control, which was not confirmed by immunofluorescence. PCR testing at CDC employed a gag and a pol nested PCR assay with a detection threshold of 10 copies in 1 ug of human DNA. DNA specimens from 50 CFS patients and 56 controls and 41 US blood donors were all PCR-negative. Blinded testing by a second nested gag PCR assay at the Blood Systems Research Institute was also negative for DNA specimens from the 50 CFS cases and 56 controls. Conclusions We did not find any evidence of infection with XMRV in our U.S. study population of CFS patients or healthy controls by using multiple molecular and serologic assays. These data do not support an
Wang, Jia; Sun, Chengxin; Zheng, Yan; Pan, Hongling; Zhou, Yifa; Fan, Yuying
Ginseng acidic polysaccharide WGPA isolated from the root of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer was fractionated into WGPA-A and WGPA-N by anion-exchange chromatography. The antifatigue activity of ginseng acidic polysaccharide WGPA has been reported in our previous research. This present study was designed to identify its active component and elucidate the mechanism for preventing chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). WGPA, WGPA-A and WGPA-N were orally administered to mice once daily for 15 days. The effects of these compounds on physiological biomarkers of oxidative stress and on the morphology of the mitochondria in striated skeletal muscle were assessed. The results of forced swimming test-induced indicated that WGPA and WGPA-A could lengthen the swimming time, while WGPA-N could not. In addition, malondialdehyde and lactate dehydrogenase levels in serum were enhanced; while those of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were lowered. Interestingly, the structural degeneration of mitochondria were all ameliorated. These findings suggested that WGPA-A is the active component of WGPA, it might have potential therapeutic effects for CFS and the oxidative stress might be involved in the pathogenesis. Our results also provided essential data for a better understanding of the antifatigue effects of P. ginseng extracts.
Melinda L. Jackson
Full Text Available Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS is a multisystem illness, which may be associated with imbalances in gut microbiota. This study builds on recent evidence that sleep may be influenced by gut microbiota, by assessing whether changes to microbiota in a clinical population known to have both poor sleep and high rates of colonization with gram-positive faecal Streptococcus, can improve sleep. Twenty-one CFS participants completed a 22- day open label trial. Faecal microbiota analysis was performed at baseline and at the end of the trial. Participants were administered erythromycin 400 mg b.d. for 6 days. Actigraphy and questionnaires were used to monitor sleep, symptoms and mood. Changes in patients who showed a clinically significant change in faecal Streptococcus after treatment (responders; defined as post-therapy distribution<6% were compared to participants who did not respond to treatment. In the seven responders, there was a significant increase in actigraphic total sleep time (p=0.028 from baseline to follow up, compared with non-responders. Improved vigour scores were associated with a lower Streptococcus count (ρ=−0.90, p=0.037. For both the responders and the whole group, poorer mood was associated with higher Lactobacillus. Short term antibiotic treatment appears to be insufficient to effect sustainable changes in the gut ecosystem in most CFS participants. Some improvement in objective sleep parameters and mood were found in participants with reduced levels of gram-positive gut microbiota after antibiotic treatment, which is encouraging. Further study of possible links between gut microorganisms and sleep and mood disturbances is warranted.
Vos-Vromans, Desirée; Evers, Silvia; Huijnen, Ivan; Köke, Albère; Hitters, Minou; Rijnders, Nieke; Pont, Menno; Knottnerus, André; Smeets, Rob
A multi-centre RCT has shown that multidisciplinary rehabilitation treatment (MRT) is more effective in reducing fatigue over the long-term in comparison with cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), but evidence on its cost-effectiveness is lacking. To compare the cost-effectiveness of MRT versus CBT for patients with CFS from a societal perspective. A multi-centre randomized controlled trial comparing MRT with CBT was conducted among 122 patients with CFS diagnosed using the 1994 criteria of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and aged between 18 and 60 years. The societal costs (healthcare costs, patient and family costs, and costs for loss of productivity), fatigue severity, quality of life, quality-adjusted life-year (QALY), and cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were measured over a follow-up period of one year. The main outcome of the cost-effectiveness analysis was fatigue measured by the Checklist Individual Strength (CIS). The main outcome of the cost-utility analysis was the QALY based on the EuroQol-5D-3L utilities. Sensitivity analyses were performed, and uncertainty was calculated using the cost-effectiveness acceptability curves and cost-effectiveness planes. The data of 109 patients (57 MRT and 52 CBT) were analyzed. MRT was significantly more effective in reducing fatigue at 52 weeks. The mean difference in QALY between the treatments was not significant (0.09, 95% CI: -0.02 to 0.19). The total societal costs were significantly higher for patients allocated to MRT (a difference of €5,389, 95% CI: 2,488 to 8,091). MRT has a high probability of being the most cost effective, using fatigue as the primary outcome. The ICER is €856 per unit of the CIS fatigue subscale. The results of the cost-utility analysis, using the QALY, indicate that the CBT had a higher likelihood of being more cost-effective. The probability of being more cost-effective is higher for MRT when using fatigue as primary
So, Suzanna; Evans, Meredyth; Jason, Leonard A; Brown, Abigail
Most individuals with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) (Carruthers et al., 2003 ), Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME) (Carruthers et al., 2011 ), and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) (Fukuda et al., 1994 ) indicate that they experience fatigue and sharp decreases in energy levels, which hinder the ability to engage in physical activities (Friedberg & Jason, 1998 ). However, there are some individuals who reduce activity engagement in order to avoid a worsening of symptoms; thus these individuals may endorse lower levels of fatigue. Accordingly, those with low levels of fatigue but low endurance/stamina might be inadvertently excluded from some criteria based on the fatigue requirement. The current study serves as an exploration of the relationship between fatigue and stamina and the effects of these constructs on illness symptomology and their implications for assessment and diagnosis.
Single nucleotide polymorphisms and genotypes of transient receptor potential ion channel and acetylcholine receptor genes from isolated B lymphocytes in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome patients.
Marshall-Gradisnik, Sonya; Johnston, Samantha; Chacko, Anu; Nguyen, Thao; Smith, Peter; Staines, Donald
Objective The pathomechanism of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) is unknown; however, a small subgroup of patients has shown muscarinic antibody positivity and reduced symptom presentation following anti-CD20 intervention. Given the important roles of calcium (Ca 2+ ) and acetylcholine (ACh) signalling in B cell activation and potential antibody development, we aimed to identify relevant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and genotypes in isolated B cells from CFS/ME patients. Methods A total of 11 CFS/ME patients (aged 31.82 ± 5.50 years) and 11 non-fatigued controls (aged 33.91 ± 5.06 years) were included. Flow cytometric protocols were used to determine B cell purity, followed by SNP and genotype analysis for 21 mammalian TRP ion channel genes and nine mammalian ACh receptor genes. SNP association and genotyping analysis were performed using ANOVA and PLINK analysis software. Results Seventy-eight SNPs were identified in nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor genes in the CFS/ME group, of which 35 were in mAChM3. The remaining SNPs were identified in nAChR delta (n = 12), nAChR alpha 9 (n = 5), TRPV2 (n = 7), TRPM3 (n = 4), TRPM4 (n = 1) mAChRM3 2 (n = 2), and mAChRM5 (n = 3) genes. Nine genotypes were identified from SNPs in TRPM3 (n = 1), TRPC6 (n = 1), mAChRM3 (n = 2), nAChR alpha 4 (n = 1), and nAChR beta 1 (n = 4) genes, and were located in introns and 3' untranslated regions. Odds ratios for these specific genotypes ranged between 7.11 and 26.67 for CFS/ME compared with the non-fatigued control group. Conclusion This preliminary investigation identified a number of SNPs and genotypes in genes encoding TRP ion channels and AChRs from B cells in patients with CFS/ME. These may be involved in B cell functional changes, and suggest a role for Ca 2+ dysregulation in AChR and TRP ion channel signalling in the pathomechanism of CFS/ME.
David R Strayer
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME is a severely debilitating disease of unknown pathogenesis consisting of a variety of symptoms including severe fatigue. The objective of the study was to examine the efficacy and safety of a TLR-3 agonist, rintatolimod (Poly I: C(12U, in patients with debilitating CFS/ME. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A Phase III prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial comparing twice weekly IV rintatolimod versus placebo was conducted in 234 subjects with long-standing, debilitating CFS/ME at 12 sites. The primary endpoint was the intra-patient change from baseline at Week 40 in exercise tolerance (ET. Secondary endpoints included concomitant drug usage, the Karnofsky Performance Score (KPS, Activities of Daily Living (ADL, and Vitality Score (SF 36. Subjects receiving rintatolimod for 40 weeks improved intra-patient placebo-adjusted ET 21.3% (p = 0.047 from baseline in an intention-to-treat analysis. Correction for subjects with reduced dosing compliance increased placebo-adjusted ET improvement to 28% (p = 0.022. The improvement observed represents approximately twice the minimum considered medically significant by regulatory agencies. The rintatolimod cohort vs. placebo also reduced dependence on drugs commonly used by patients in an attempt to alleviate the symptoms of CFS/ME (p = 0.048. Placebo subjects crossed-over to receive rintatolimod demonstrated an intra-patient improvement in ET performance at 24 weeks of 39% (p = 0.04. Rintatolimod at 400 mg twice weekly was generally well-tolerated. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Rintatolimod produced objective improvement in ET and a reduction in CFS/ME related concomitant medication usage as well as other secondary outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00215800.
Kempke, Stefan; Luyten, Patrick; De Coninck, Sarah; Van Houdenhove, Boudewijn; Mayes, Linda C; Claes, Stephan
There is a paucity of studies that have investigated the assumption that early childhood trauma is associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS). The current study is the first to simultaneously investigate relationships among early childhood trauma, cortisol activity, and cortisol stress reactivity to psychosocial stress in a sample of well-screened CFS patients. We also examined whether self-critical perfectionism (SCP) plays a mediating role in the potential relationship between early trauma and neurobiological stress responses. A total of 40 female patients diagnosed with CFS were asked to provide morning saliva cortisol samples (after awakening, 30min later, and 1h later) for seven consecutive days as a measure of cortisol activity. In addition, patients were exposed to the Trier Social Stress Test, a well-validated stress test, to investigate the relationship between early childhood trauma and cortisol stress reactivity. Before the start of the study, patients completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short form (CTQ-SF) as a measure of early childhood trauma (i.e. sexual, physical and emotional traumatic experiences). SCP was measured with the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ). Data were analyzed by calculating several indices of cortisol secretion (i.e. Cortisol Awakening Response and Area Under the Curve). There was no association between early childhood trauma and cortisol as measured over the 7-day period. However, emotional neglect was significantly negatively related to cortisol reactivity in the TSST. SCP did not significantly mediate this association. Findings of this study suggest that emotional neglect is associated with blunted HPA axis reactivity, congruent with the assumption that CFS may reflect loss of adaptability of the neuroendocrine stress response system in at least a subgroup of patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Krahe, Anne Maree; Adams, Roger David; Nicholson, Leslie Lorenda
To assess the prevalence, severity and impact of fatigue on individuals with joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS)/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome - hypermobility type (EDS-HT) and establish potential determinants of fatigue severity in this population. Questionnaires on symptoms and signs related to fatigue, quality of life, mental health, physical activity participation and sleep quality were completed by people with JHS/EDS-HT recruited through two social media sites. Multiple regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of fatigue in this population. Significant fatigue was reported by 79.5% of the 117 participants. Multiple regression analysis identified five predictors of fatigue severity, four being potentially modifiable, accounting for 52.3% of the variance in reported fatigue scores. Predictors of fatigue severity were: the self-perceived extent of joint hypermobility, orthostatic dizziness related to heat and exercise, levels of participation in personal relationships and community, current levels of physical activity and dissatisfaction with the diagnostic process and management options provided for their condition. Fatigue is a significant symptom associated with JHS/EDS-HT. Assessment of individuals with this condition should include measures of fatigue severity to enable targeted management of potentially modifiable factors associated with fatigue severity. Implications for rehabilitation Fatigue is a significant symptom reported by individuals affected by joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome - hypermobility type. Potentially modifiable features that contribute to fatigue severity in this population have been identified. Targeted management of these features may decrease the severity and impact of fatigue in joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome - hypermobility type.
Lalremruta, Vanphawng; Prasanna, Gurunath S
To evaluate ethanolic extract of leaves of Aegle marmelos in an experimental animal model of chronic fatigue syndrome for potential therapeutic benefit. Age/weight-matched female Wistar albino rats were grouped into five groups. (Group I- V) (n = 8). Group I served as naïve control and II served as stress control. Except for group I animals, other group animals were subjected to forced swimming every day for 15 minutes to induce a state of chronic fatigue and simultaneously treated with ethanolic extract of Aegle marmelos (EEAM) 150 and 250 mg/kg b.w. and Imipramine (20 mg.kg b.w.), respectively. Duration of immobility, anxiety level and locomotor activity were assessed on day 1, 7, 14 and 21 followed by biochemical estimation of oxidative biomarkers at the end of the study. Treatment with EEAM (150 and 250 mg/kg b.w.) resulted in a statistically significant and dose dependent reduction (P immobility, reduction in anxiety and increase in locomotor activity. Dose dependent and significant reduction in LPO level and increase in CAT and SOD was observed in extract treated animals. The results are suggestive of potential protective effect of A. marmelos against experimentally induced CFS.
Jason, Leonard A; McManimen, Stephanie; Sunnquist, Madison; Newton, Julia L; Strand, Elin Bolle
The Institute of Medicine (IOM) recently developed clinical criteria for what had been known as chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Given the broad nature of the clinical IOM criteria, there is a need for a research definition that would select a more homogenous and impaired group of patients than the IOM clinical criteria. At the present time, it is unclear what will serve as the research definition. The current study focused on a research definition which selected homebound individuals who met the four IOM criteria, excluding medical and psychiatric co-morbidities. Our research criteria were compared to those participants meeting the IOM criteria. Those not meeting either of these criteria sets were placed in a separate group defined by 6 or more months of fatigue. Data analyzed were from the DePaul Symptom Questionnaire and the SF-36. Due to unequal sample sizes and variances, Welch's F tests and Games-Howell post hoc tests were conducted. Using a large database of over 1,000 patients from several countries, we found that those meeting a more restrictive research definition were even more impaired and more symptomatic than those meeting criteria for the other two groups. Deciding on a particular research case definition would allow researchers to select more comparable patient samples across settings, and this would represent one of the most significant methodologic advances for this field of study.
Eichner, Edward R.
Chronic fatigue syndrome became known nationally in l985 with a pseudoepidemic in a Nevada resort community. Initially and erroneously linked to the Epstein-Barr virus, the cause of this puzzling syndrome and the mind-body connection are areas of controversy and research. (Author/SM)
Stormorken, Eva; Jason, Leonard A; Kirkevold, Marit
Fatigue is a major problem among individuals with post-infectious fatigue syndrome (PIFS), also known as chronic fatigue syndrome or myalgic encephalomyelitis. It is a complex phenomenon that varies across illnesses. From a nursing perspective, knowledge and understanding of fatigue in this illness is limited. Nurses lack confidence in caring for these patients and devalue their professional role. The aim of this study was to explore in-depth the experiences of fatigue among individuals with PIFS. A detailed description of the phenomenon of fatigue is presented. Increased knowledge would likely contribute to more confident nurses and improved nursing care. A qualitative study with open interviews was employed. In-depth interviews with patients were fully transcribed and underwent a qualitative content analysis. A maximum variation sample of 26 affected adults between 26-59 years old was recruited from a population diagnosed at a fatigue outpatient clinic. The fatigue was a post-exertional, multidimensional, fluctuating phenomenon with varying degrees of severity and several distinct characteristics and was accompanied by concomitant symptoms. Fatigue was perceived to be an all-pervasive complex experience that substantially reduced the ability to function personally or professionally. A range of trigger mechanisms evoked or worsened the fatigue, but the affected were not always aware of what triggered it. There was an excessive increase in fatigue in response to even minor activities. An increase in fatigue resulted in the exacerbation of other concomitant symptoms. The term fatigue does not capture the participants' experiences, which are accompanied by a considerable symptom burden that contributes to the illness experience and the severe disability. Although some aspects of the fatigue experience have been reported previously, more were added in our study, such as the dimension of awakening fatigue and the characteristic beyond time, when time passes unnoticed
Wang, Xiang-Yi; Liu, Chang-Zheng; Lei, Bo
To observe the effect of acupuncture on the expression of T-box expressed in T cell (T-bet)/GATA binding factor-3 (GATA-3) in plasma of rats with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and explore the mechanism of acupuncture treatment for CFS. Forty-eight healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into blank control group, CFS model group, acupuncture group, and ginsenoside group (12 rats in each group). CFS rat model was established by combining restriction and cold water swimming. Acupuncture was applied to "Baihui"(GV 20), "Guanyuan" (CV 4) and "Zusanli" (ST 36, bilate-ral) acupoints, once a day for two weeks. The ginsenoside group was gavage administrated with ginsenoside, once a day for two weeks. After 14 days, behavioural changes were observed, and the expression levels of T-bet/GATA-3 genes in plasma were detected by RT-PCR. Compared with the blank control group, the time for immobility of forced suspensory test was signi-ficantly longer ( P <0.05) and the time for exhaustive swimming was significantly shortened ( P <0.05) in the CFS model group. Compared with the model group, the two indexes above-mentioned were reversed ( P <0.05) both in the acupuncture group and the ginsenoside group, and the effects in the acupuncture group were more significant than those in the ginsenoside group ( P <0.05). Compared with the blank control group, the expression level of T-cell transcription factor T-bet gene in plasma was higher in the CFS model group ( P <0.05), companied with lower GATA-3 gene expression ( P <0.05). The ratio of T-bet/GATA-3 was higher in the model group than in the blank control group( P <0.05). Compared with the CFS model group, all the indexes above-mentioned were reversed ( P <0.05) in the two treatment groups. Acupuncture group showed a better effect on reducing T-bet gene expression than the ginsenoside group ( P <0.05). Acupuncture can decrease the expression level of T-bet gene while increase the expression of GATA-3 gene, which may be associated
Ho, Rainbow T H; Chan, Jessie S M; Wang, Chong-Wen; Lau, Benson W M; So, Kwok Fai; Yuen, Li Ping; Sham, Jonathan S T; Chan, Cecilia L W
Chronic fatigue is common in the general population. Complementary therapies are often used by patients with chronic fatigue or chronic fatigue syndrome to manage their symptoms. This study aimed to assess the effect of a 4-month qigong intervention program among patients with chronic fatigue or chronic fatigue syndrome. Sixty-four participants were randomly assigned to either an intervention group or a wait list control group. Outcome measures included fatigue symptoms, physical functioning, mental functioning, and telomerase activity. Fatigue symptoms and mental functioning were significantly improved in the qigong group compared to controls. Telomerase activity increased in the qigong group from 0.102 to 0.178 arbitrary units (p chronic fatigue and chronic fatigue syndrome.
Kumar, Anil; Garg, Ruchika; Gaur, Vaibhav; Kumar, Puneet
The present study was designed to elucidate the possible nitric oxide (NO) mechanism in the protective effect of antidepressants using mice model of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Male albino laca mice were forced to swim for each 6 min session for 7 days and immobility period was measured on every alternate day (1(st), 3(rd), 5(th), 7(th)). After 7 days various behavioral tests (locomotor, mirror chamber, and plus maze tests for anxiety) were performed and biochemical estimations (lipid peroxidation, nitrite levels, GSH (reduced glutathione), and catalase activity) in mice brain were performed. Animals were pretreated with citalopram (5 and 10 mg/kg) and imipramine (10 and 20 mg/kg) daily for 7 days. The present study showed that continued forced swimming for 7 days caused chronic fatigue-induced anxiety-like behavior as assessed in mirror chamber, plus maze tests, and impairment in locomotor activity followed by oxidative damage (as evidenced by increased lipid peroxidation, nitrite levels, depleted reduced glutathione, and catalase activity) in animals. Seven days pretreatment with citalopram (5 and 10 mg/kg) and imipramine (10 and 20 mg/kg) significantly improved behavioral and biochemical alterations. Further, L-nitro-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME,5 mg/kg) and methylene blue (MB, 10 mg/kg) pretreatment with citalopram (5 mg/kg) or imipramine (10 mg/kg) potentiated their protective effect. However, l-arginine (100 mg/kg) pretreatment with citalopram (5 mg/kg) or imipramine (10 mg/kg) reversed their protective effect as compared with their effect per se (P < 0.05). The present study suggests that protective effect of citalopram and imipramine might be due to its NO modulation against chronic fatigue induced behavioral and biochemical alterations.
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Renewal of Charter for the Chronic Fatigue Syndrome... renewal of the charter for the Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Advisory Committee (CFSAC). FOR FURTHER... research about the epidemiology and risk factors relating to chronic fatigue syndrome, and identifying...
...)Veterans matched for age, height and weight. Serum OK, incidence of elevated OK, and muscle histology and fatigue rate and level of oxygen uptake relative to 02 delivery during forearm exercise were similar in both groups...
Travis J A Craddock
Full Text Available A key component in the body's stress response, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis orchestrates changes across a broad range of major biological systems. Its dysfunction has been associated with numerous chronic diseases including Gulf War Illness (GWI and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS. Though tightly coupled with other components of endocrine and immune function, few models of HPA function account for these interactions. Here we extend conventional models of HPA function by including feed-forward and feedback interaction with sex hormone regulation and immune response. We use this multi-axis model to explore the role of homeostatic regulation in perpetuating chronic conditions, specifically GWI and CFS. An important obstacle in building these models across regulatory systems remains the scarcity of detailed human in vivo kinetic data as its collection can present significant health risks to subjects. We circumvented this using a discrete logic representation based solely on literature of physiological and biochemical connectivity to provide a qualitative description of system behavior. This connectivity model linked molecular variables across the HPA axis, hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis in men and women, as well as a simple immune network. Inclusion of these interactions produced multiple alternate homeostatic states and sexually dimorphic responses. Experimental data for endocrine-immune markers measured in male GWI subjects showed the greatest alignment with predictions of a naturally occurring alternate steady state presenting with hypercortisolism, low testosterone and a shift towards a Th1 immune response. In female CFS subjects, expression of these markers aligned with an alternate homeostatic state displaying hypocortisolism, high estradiol, and a shift towards an anti-inflammatory Th2 activation. These results support a role for homeostatic drive in perpetuating dysfunctional cortisol levels through persistent
Jason, Leonard A.; And Others
The prevalence of chronic fatigue syndrome among 1,474 nurses was addressed through a mailed questionnaire (202 respondents). Demographic characteristics, symptoms, and possible prevalence rates are presented and discussed. Implications of these findings are considered, and the methodology used is analyzed. Suggestions are made for conducting…
Albrecht, Frank; Wallace, Marsha
Counselors often see persons with undiagnosed cases of chronic fatigue syndrome and may play an important role in referring these clients appropriately. Terminology, screening, epidemiology, course, and treatment are reviewed. Case histories illustrate how suspected cases can be distinguished from depression and other conditions. Diagnostic…
Jamal, G A; Hansen, S
Single fibre electromyography (SFEMG) was studied in 40 patients with the post-viral fatigue syndrome. These patients were also assessed clinically, serologically, virologically and immunologically. About 75% of the patients had definitely abnormal SFEMG results. This was regarded as evidence of abnormality in the peripheral part of the motor unit. The muscle fibre was the likely site of involvement.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Scant research has adequately addressed the impact of chronic fatigue syndrome on patients' daily activities and quality of life. Enumerating specific problems related to quality of life in chronic fatigue syndrome patients can help us to better understand and manage this illness. This study addresses issues of functional status in persons with chronic fatigue syndrome and other fatiguing illnesses in a population based sample, which can be generalized to all persons with chronic fatigue. Methods We conducted a random telephone survey in Wichita, Kansas to identify persons with chronic fatigue syndrome and other fatiguing illnesses. Respondents reporting severe fatigue of at least 1 month's duration and randomly selected non-fatigued respondents were asked to participate in a detailed telephone interview. Participants were asked about symptoms, medical and psychiatric illnesses, and about physical, social, and recreational functioning. Those meeting the 1994 chronic fatigue syndrome case definition, as determined on the basis of their telephone responses, were invited for clinical evaluation to confirm a diagnosis of chronic fatigue syndrome. For this analysis, we evaluated unemployment due to fatigue, number of hours per week spent on work, chores, and other activities (currently and prior to the onset of fatigue, and energy level. Results There was no difference between persons with chronic fatigue syndrome and persons with a chronic fatigue syndrome-like illness that could be explained by a medical or psychiatric condition for any of the outcomes we measured except for unemployment due to fatigue (15% vs. 40%, P Conclusions Persons with chronic fatigue syndrome are as impaired as persons whose fatigue could be explained by a medical or psychiatric condition, and they have less energy than non-fatigued controls.
Fukuda, Sanae; Nojima, Junzo; Motoki, Yukari; Yamaguti, Kouzi; Nakatomi, Yasuhito; Okawa, Naoko; Fujiwara, Kazumi; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Kuratsune, Hirohiko
We sought to determine whether oxidative stress and anti-oxidative activity could act as biomarkers that discriminate patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) from healthy volunteers at acute and sub-acute fatigue and resting conditions. We calculated the oxidative stress index (OSI) from reactive oxygen metabolites-derived compounds (d-ROMs) and the biological antioxidant potential (BAP). We determined changes in d-ROMs, BAP, and OSI in acute and sub-acute fatigue in two healthy groups, and compared their values at rest between patients with CFS (diagnosed by Fukuda 1994 criteria) and another group of healthy controls. Following acute fatigue in healthy controls, d-ROMs and OSI increased, and BAP decreased. Although d-ROMs and OSI were significantly higher after sub-acute fatigue, BAP did not decrease. Resting condition yielded higher d-ROMs, higher OSI, and lower BAP in patients with CFS than in healthy volunteers, but lower d-ROMs and OSI when compared with sub-acute controls. BAP values did not significantly differ between patients with CFS and controls in the sub-acute condition. However, values were significantly higher than in the resting condition for controls. Thus, measured of oxidative stress (d-ROMS) and anti-oxidative activity (BAP) might be useful for discriminating acute, sub-acute, and resting fatigue in healthy people from patients with CFS, or for evaluating fatigue levels in healthy people. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Monro, Jean A; Puri, Basant K
Currently, a psychologically based model is widely held to be the basis for the aetiology and treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS)/myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME)/systemic exertion intolerance disease (SEID). However, an alternative, molecular neurobiological approach is possible and in this paper evidence demonstrating a biological aetiology for CFS/ME/SEID is adduced from a study of the history of the disease and a consideration of the role of the following in this disease: nitric oxide and peroxynitrite, oxidative and nitrosative stress, the blood-brain barrier and intestinal permeability, cytokines and infections, metabolism, structural and chemical brain changes, neurophysiological changes and calcium ion mobilisation. Evidence is also detailed for biologically based potential therapeutic options, including: nutritional supplementation, for example in order to downregulate the nitric oxide-peroxynitrite cycle to prevent its perpetuation; antiviral therapy; and monoclonal antibody treatment. It is concluded that there is strong evidence of a molecular neurobiological aetiology, and so it is suggested that biologically based therapeutic interventions should constitute a focus for future research into CFS/ME/SEID.
Ruth R Miller
Full Text Available Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS is a debilitating disease causing indefinite fatigue. ME/CFS has long been hypothesised to have an infectious cause; however, no specific infectious agent has been identified. We used metagenomics to analyse the RNA from plasma samples from 25 individuals with ME/CFS and compare their microbial content to technical controls as well as three control groups: individuals with alternatively diagnosed chronic Lyme syndrome (N = 13, systemic lupus erythematosus (N = 11, and healthy controls (N = 25. We found that the majority of sequencing reads were removed during host subtraction, thus there was very low microbial RNA content in the plasma. The effects of sample batching and contamination during sample processing proved to outweigh the effects of study group on microbial RNA content, as the few differences in bacterial or viral RNA abundance we did observe between study groups were most likely caused by contamination and batch effects. Our results highlight the importance of including negative controls in all metagenomic analyses, since there was considerable overlap between bacterial content identified in study samples and control samples. For example, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Bacteriodes were found in both study samples and plasma-free negative controls. Many of the taxonomic groups we saw in our plasma-free negative control samples have previously been associated with diseases, including ME/CFS, demonstrating how incorrect conclusions may arise if controls are not used and batch effects not accounted for.
McComas, David C.; Strege, Susanne L.; Carpenter, Paul B. Hartman, Randy
The core Flight System (cFS) is a flight software (FSW) product line developed by the Flight Software Systems Branch (FSSB) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The cFS uses compile-time configuration parameters to implement variable requirements to enable portability across embedded computing platforms and to implement different end-user functional needs. The verification and validation of these requirements is proving to be a significant challenge. This paper describes the challenges facing the cFS and the results of a pilot effort to apply EXB Solution's testing approach to the cFS applications.
... may also have: Tender lymph nodes in the neck or armpits A sore throat that happens often Digestive issues, like irritable bowel syndrome Chills and night sweats Allergies and sensitivities to ...
Worm-Smeitink, M; Nikolaus, S; Goldsmith, K; Wiborg, J; Ali, S; Knoop, H; Chalder, T
Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) reduces fatigue and disability in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). However, outcomes vary between studies, possibly because of differences in patient characteristics, treatment protocols, diagnostic criteria and outcome measures. The objective was to compare outcomes after CBT in tertiary treatment centres in the Netherlands (NL) and the United Kingdom (UK), using different treatment protocols but identical outcome measures, while controlling for differences in patient characteristics and diagnostic criteria. Consecutively referred CFS patients who received CBT were included (NL: n=293, UK: n=163). Uncontrolled effect sizes for improvement in fatigue (Chalder Fatigue Questionnaire), physical functioning (SF-36 physical functioning subscale) and social functioning (Work and Social Adjustment Scale) were compared. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine whether patient differences explained outcome differences between centres. Effect sizes differed between centres for fatigue (Cohen's D NL=1.74, 95% CI=1.52-1.95; UK=0.99, CI=0.73-1.25), physical functioning (NL=0.99, CI=0.81-1.18; UK=0.33, CI=0.08-0.58) and social functioning (NL=1.47, CI=1.26-1.69; UK=0.61, CI=0.35-0.86). Patients in the UK had worse physical functioning at baseline and there were minor demographic differences. These could not explain differences in centre outcome. Effectiveness of CBT differed between treatment centres. Differences in treatment protocols may explain this and should be investigated to help further improve outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fenouillet, Emmanuel; Vigouroux, Aude; Steinberg, Jean Guillaume; Chagvardieff, Alexandre; Retornaz, Frédérique; Guieu, Regis; Jammes, Yves
Myalgic encephalomyelitis chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a common debilitating disorder associated with an intense fatigue, a reduced physical activity, and an impaired quality of life. There are no established biological markerof the syndrome. The etiology is unknown and its pathogenesis appears to be multifactorial. Various stressors, including intense physical activity, severe infection, and emotional stress are reported in the medical history of ME/CFS patients which raises the question whether any physiological and biological abnormalities usually found in these patients could be indicative of the etiology and/or the quality-of-life impairment. Thirty-six patients and 11 age-matched healthy controls were recruited. The following variables that appear to address common symptoms of ME/CFS were studied here: (1) muscle fatigue during exercise has been investigated by monitoring the compound muscle action potential (M-wave); (2) the excessive oxidative stress response to exercise was measured via two plasma markers (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances: TBARS; reduced ascorbic-acid: RAA); (3) a potential inflammatory component was addressed via expression of CD26 on peripheral blood mononuclear cells; (4) quality-of-life impairment was assessed using the London Handicap Scale (LHS) and the Medical Outcome Study Short Form-36 (SF-36). The medical history of each patient, including the presence of stressors such as intense sports practice, severe acute infection and/or severe emotional stress was documented. We observed that: (1) there were striking differences between cases and controls with regard to three biological variables: post-exercise M-wave, TBARS variations and CD26-expression at rest; (2) each of these three variables correlated with the other two; (3) abnormalities in the biomarkers associated with health-related quality of life: the LHS score was negatively correlated with the exercise-induced TBARS increase and positively correlated with CD26
Picariello, Federica; Ali, Sheila; Foubister, Caroline; Chalder, Trudie
Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is currently a first-line treatment for chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Even though the results from trials are promising, there is variability in patient outcomes. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of patients with CFS who undertook CBT at a specialist service for CFS. This was a qualitative study. Thirteen patients with CFS, approaching the end of CBT, participated in semi-structured interviews. In addition, participants were asked to rate their satisfaction with CBT and perceived level of improvement. The data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. The majority of participants were satisfied with treatment and reported marked improvements. This was evident from the ratings and corroborated by the qualitative data, yet recovery was in general incomplete. Participants often disclosed mixed feelings towards CBT prior to its start. Behavioural aspects of treatment were found useful, while participants were more ambivalent towards the cognitive aspects of treatment. The tailored nature of CBT and therapist contact were important components of treatment, which provided participants with support and validation. Engagement and motivation were crucial for participants to benefit from CBT, as well as the acceptance of a bio-psychosocial model of CFS. Illness beliefs around CFS were also discussed throughout the interviews, possibly impeding engagement with therapy. The results suggest that various factors may moderate the effectiveness of CBT, and a greater understanding of these factors may help to maximize benefits gained from CBT. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? CBT is effective in reducing CFS symptoms, but not all patients report marked improvements following treatment. Predictors of outcome have been explored in the literature. Few studies have looked at the experience of adult patients with CFS who have had CBT. What does this study add? Findings provide insights as to
Sarma, P; Borah, M; Das, S
The fruit of Cassia fistula Linn. is a legume, has antioxidant and lots of other medicinal properties. As oxidants are involved in the pathogenesis of chronic fatigue syndrome, the present study was done to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of fruit pulp of C. fistula Linn. (EECF) on forced swimming induced chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Albino mice of 25-40 grams were grouped into five groups (n=5). Group A served as naive control and group B served as stress control. Group C received EECF 200 mg/kg and group D received EECF 400 mg/kg respectively. Group E received imipramine 20 mg/kg (standard). All animals were treated with their respective agent orally daily for 7 days. Except for group A, animals in other groups were subjected to force swimming 6 min daily for 7 days to induce a state of chronic fatigue. Duration of immobility was assessed on day 1(st), 3(rd), 5(th) and 7(th). Anxiety level (by elevated plus maze and mirrored chamber) and loco-motor activity (by open field test) were assessed 24 h after last force swimming followed by biochemical estimations of oxidative biomarkers in brain homogenate at the end of study. Treatment with EECF resulted in significant reduction in the duration of immobility, reduced anxiety and increased loco-motor activity. Malondialdehyde level was also reduced and catalase level was increased in the extract treated group and standard group compared to stress control group. The study indicates that EECF has protective effect against experimentally induced CFS.
J.M. de Vries (Juna); M.L.C. Hagemans (Marloes); J.B.J. Bussmann (Hans); A.T. van der Ploeg (Ans); P.A. van Doorn (Pieter)
textabstractFatigue accounts for an important part of the burden experienced by patients with neuromuscular disorders. Substantial high prevalence rates of fatigue are reported in a wide range of neuromuscular disorders, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome and Pompe disease. Fatigue can be subdivided
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Brewers' yeast extract (BYE on daily activity in a mouse model of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS. CFS was induced by repeated injection of Brucella abortus (BA antigen every 2 weeks. BYE was orally administered to mice in a dose of 2 g per kg per day for 2 weeks before injecting BA and for 4 weeks thereafter. We evaluated daily running activity in mice receiving BYE as compared with that in untreated mice. Weekly variation of body weight (BW and survival in both groups was monitored during the observation period. Spleen weight (SW, SW/BW ratio, percent splenic follicular area and expression levels of interferon-γ (IFN-γ and interleukin-10 (IL-10 mRNA in spleen were determined in both groups at the time of sacrifice. The daily activity during 2 weeks after the second BA injection was significantly higher in the treated group than in the control. There was no difference in BW between both groups through the experimental course. Two mice in the control died 2 and 7 days after the second injection, whereas no mice in the treated group died. Significantly decreased SW and SW/BW ratio were observed in the treated mice together with elevation of splenic follicular area. There were suppressed IFN-γ and IL-10 mRNA levels in spleens from the treated mice. Our results suggest that BYE might have a protective effect on the marked reduction in activity following repeated BA injection via normalization of host immune responses.
Celletti, Claudia; Galli, Manuela; Cimolin, Veronica; Castori, Marco; Albertini, Giorgio; Camerota, Filippo
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of inherited connective tissue disorders characterised by joint hypermobility, skin hyperextensibility and tissue fragility. It has recently been shown that muscle weakness occurs frequently in EDS, and that fatigue is a common and clinically important symptom. The…
Turgeon, Sue A.
Chronic fatigue syndrome, previously known as chronic mononucleosis or post-infectious faligue, is a poorly understood illness characterized by chronic debilitating fatigue, recurrent flu-like symptoms, and few clinical or laboratory abnormalities. While a significant incidence of psychiatric illness has been demonstrated among patients with the chronic fatigue syndrome, there is also evidence of subtle immune system abnormalities, leading some researchers to postulate a multi-fatorial psycho...
M. T. Baedilova
Full Text Available The study included 84 children aged 12—16 years with chronic fatigue syndrome in the presence of mitral valve prolapse (MVP, who were treated with L-carnitine (Elcar 30% and Coenzyme Q10 (Kudevita. L-carnitine is involved in metabolic processes as a carrier of long-chain fatty acids from the cytoplasm to the mitochondria to produce ATP and acetyl-CoA. Coenzyme Q10 stimulates tissue respiration (aerobic processes and participates in electron transfer in the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The clinical efficacy of energy-rich drugs was investigated before and after their treatment. The therapy was based on the data of an investigation by M. Trivellato et al. on carnitine deficiency and on those of our trials: the children with MVP were observed to have a significant increase in malondialdehyde levels and conjugated diene oxidation indices, which underlie mitochondrial insufficiency. The investigation indicated that prior to their treatment 100% of the children had been observed to have fatigue after exercise, as well as headache, memory and attention focusing impairments, and idiopathic hypersomnia, 34% of the patients complained of palpitation, and 43% had stabbing cardialgia. Three months later, the children who had received combined energy-rich therapy were noted to have a pronounced positive effect: 82% of them had no clinical symptoms of chronic fatigue.
Morris, Gerwyn; Berk, Michael; Puri, Basant K
There is copious evidence of abnormalities in resting-state functional network connectivity states, grey and white matter pathology and impaired cerebral perfusion in patients afforded a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis, major depression or chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) (myalgic encephalomyelitis). Systemic inflammation may well be a major element explaining such findings. Inter-patient and inter-illness variations in neuroimaging findings may arise at least in part from regional genetic, epigenetic and environmental variations in the functions of microglia and astrocytes. Regional differences in neuronal resistance to oxidative and inflammatory insults and in the performance of antioxidant defences in the central nervous system may also play a role. Importantly, replicated experimental findings suggest that the use of high-resolution SPECT imaging may have the capacity to differentiate patients afforded a diagnosis of CFS from those with a diagnosis of depression. Further research involving this form of neuroimaging appears warranted in an attempt to overcome the problem of aetiologically heterogeneous cohorts which probably explain conflicting findings produced by investigative teams active in this field. However, the ionising radiation and relative lack of sensitivity involved probably preclude its use as a routine diagnostic tool.
Bårdsen, Kjetil; Nilsen, Mari Mæland; Kvaløy, Jan Terje; Norheim, Katrine Brække; Jonsson, Grete; Omdal, Roald
Fatigue occurs frequently in patients with cancer, neurological diseases and chronic inflammatory diseases, but the biological mechanisms that lead to and regulate fatigue are largely unknown. When the innate immune system is activated, heat shock proteins (HSPs) are produced to protect cells. Some extracellular HSPs appear to recognize cellular targets in the brain, and we hypothesize that fatigue may be generated by specific HSPs signalling through neuronal or glial cells in the central nervous system. From a cohort of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome, 20 patients with high and 20 patients with low fatigue were selected. Fatigue was evaluated with a fatigue visual analogue scale. Plasma concentrations of HSP32, HSP60, HSP72 and HSP90α were measured and analysed to determine if there were associations with the level of fatigue. Plasma concentrations of HSP90α were significantly higher in patients with high fatigue compared with those with low fatigue, and there was a tendency to higher concentrations of HSP72 in patients with high fatigue compared with patients with low fatigue. There were no differences in concentrations of HSP32 and HSP60 between the high- and low-fatigue groups. Thus, extracellular HSPs, particularly HSP90α, may signal fatigue in chronic inflammation. This supports the hypothesis that fatigue is generated by cellular defence mechanisms. © The Author(s) 2016.
Jason, Leonard A; Benton, Mary C; Valentine, Lisa; Johnson, Abra; Torres-Harding, Susan
Background ME/CFS is characterized by debilitating fatigue in addition to other physical and cognitive symptoms. It is estimated to affect over 800,000 adults in the U.S. ME/CFS often results in diminished functionality and increased economic impact. The economic impact of an illness is generally divided into two categories: direct and indirect costs. Despite high prevalence rates and the disabling nature of the illness, few studies have examined the costs of ME/CFS at the individual and soci...
... change in the person’s immune system and the way it responds to infection or stress. ME/CFS shares some features of autoimmune illnesses ( ... reside on top of the kidneys). The glands release various hormones, like ... called “the stress hormone,” helps to lower inflammation and calm down ...
Background As Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) has been known to follow Epstein-Bar virus (EBV) and other systemic infections; our objective was to describe differences in immune activation in post-infective CFS (PI-CFS) patients and recovered controls. We studied 301 adolescents prospectively over 24 months following the diagnosis of monospot-positive infectious mononucleosis (IM). We found an incidence of CFS at 6, 12 and 24 months of 13%, 7% and 4% respectively. Methods Using chemiluminescent imaging we measured the concentrations of IL-1a, 1b, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12 (p70), 13, 15, 17 and 23, IFN-γ, TNF-α and TNF-β in duplicate plasma samples available in bio-bank from 9 PI-CFS subjects and 12 recovered controls at 24 months post-infection. Results Standard comparative analysis indicated significant differences in IL-8 and 23 across subject groups. In constructing a linear classification model IL-6, 8 and 23 were selected by two different statistical approaches as discriminating features, with IL-1a, IL-2 and IFN-γ also selected in one model or the other. This supported an assignment accuracy of better than 80% at a confidence level of 0.95 into PI-CFS versus recovered controls. Conclusion These results suggest that co-expression patterns in as few as 5 cytokines associated with Th17 function may hold promise as a tool for the diagnosis of post-infectious CFS. PMID:22973830
Full Text Available Abstract Background As Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS has been known to follow Epstein-Bar virus (EBV and other systemic infections; our objective was to describe differences in immune activation in post-infective CFS (PI-CFS patients and recovered controls. We studied 301 adolescents prospectively over 24 months following the diagnosis of monospot-positive infectious mononucleosis (IM. We found an incidence of CFS at 6, 12 and 24 months of 13%, 7% and 4% respectively. Methods Using chemiluminescent imaging we measured the concentrations of IL-1a, 1b, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12 (p70, 13, 15, 17 and 23, IFN-γ, TNF-α and TNF-β in duplicate plasma samples available in bio-bank from 9 PI-CFS subjects and 12 recovered controls at 24 months post-infection. Results Standard comparative analysis indicated significant differences in IL-8 and 23 across subject groups. In constructing a linear classification model IL-6, 8 and 23 were selected by two different statistical approaches as discriminating features, with IL-1a, IL-2 and IFN-γ also selected in one model or the other. This supported an assignment accuracy of better than 80% at a confidence level of 0.95 into PI-CFS versus recovered controls. Conclusion These results suggest that co-expression patterns in as few as 5 cytokines associated with Th17 function may hold promise as a tool for the diagnosis of post-infectious CFS.
Nickel, J.C.; Tripp, D.A.; Pontari, M.
of associated conditions increased (ie localized, regional, systemic), pain, stress, depression and sleep disturbance increased while social support, sexual functioning and quality of life deteriorated. Anxiety and catastrophizing remained increased in all groups. Symptom duration was associated......Purpose: We characterized and compared the impact of clinical phenotypic associations between interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome and controls in relation to potentially related conditions, particularly irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome. Materials...... cystitis/painful bladder syndrome vs controls was irritable bowel syndrome 38.6% vs 5.2%, fibromyalgia 17.7% vs 2.6% and chronic fatigue syndrome 9.5% vs 1.7% (all p
Bathen, Trine; Velvin, Gry; Rand-Hendriksen, Svend; Robinson, Hilde Stendal
This study aims to investigate how fatigue affects adults with verified Marfan syndrome (MFS) in their daily lives, by examining fatigue levels and prevalence of severe fatigue compared to the general Norwegian population and individuals with other comparable chronic conditions. We investigated associations between socio-demographic characteristics, Marfan-related health problems, pain and fatigue. A cross-sectional study was conducted, using a postal questionnaire including the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) and questions on socio-demographic characteristics, Marfan-related health problems and pain. One hundred seventeen persons with MFS were invited to participate, 73 answered (62%). Participants reported significantly higher FSS scores and prevalence of severe fatigue compared to the general Norwegian population and patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but lower than for other chronic conditions. Participants with chronic pain reported higher fatigue scores than those without chronic pain. Participants on disability benefits reported higher fatigue scores than participants who were working or enrolled in higher education. Marfan-related health problems like aortic dissection and use of blood pressure medication were not significantly associated with fatigue. In multivariable regression analyses chronic pain and employment status were significantly associated with fatigue. The final multivariable model explained 24% of the variance in fatigue scores. Our results show that fatigue is common in MFS patients and that it interferes with their daily lives. Chronic pain and employment status show significant associations to fatigue. This implies that fatigue is important to address when meeting MFS patients in clinical practice. There is need for more research on fatigue in Marfan syndrome. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
... to help you find out what's causing your fatigue and recommend ways to relieve it. Fatigue itself is not a disease. Medical problems, treatments, and personal habits can add to fatigue. These include Taking certain medicines, such as antidepressants, ...
Williams, T E; Chalder, T; Sharpe, M; White, P D
Chronic fatigue syndrome is likely to be a heterogeneous condition. Previous studies have empirically defined subgroups using combinations of clinical and biological variables. We aimed to explore the heterogeneity of chronic fatigue syndrome. We used baseline data from the PACE trial, which included 640 participants with chronic fatigue syndrome. Variable reduction, using a combination of clinical knowledge and principal component analyses, produced a final dataset of 26 variables for 541 patients. Latent class analysis was then used to empirically define subgroups. The most statistically significant and clinically recognizable model comprised five subgroups. The largest, 'core' subgroup (33% of participants), had relatively low scores across all domains and good self-efficacy. A further three subgroups were defined by: the presence of mood disorders (21%); the presence of features of other functional somatic syndromes (such as fibromyalgia or irritable bowel syndrome) (21%); or by many symptoms - a group which combined features of both of the above (14%). The smallest 'avoidant-inactive' subgroup was characterized by physical inactivity, belief that symptoms were entirely physical in nature, and fear that they indicated harm (11%). Differences in the severity of fatigue and disability provided some discriminative validation of the subgroups. In addition to providing further evidence for the heterogeneity of chronic fatigue syndrome, the subgroups identified may aid future research into the important aetiological factors of specific subtypes of chronic fatigue syndrome and the development of more personalized treatment approaches.
Fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome are two symptom-defined conditions with many physical symptoms in common, such as muscle pain, fatigue, unrefreshing sleep, and impairment in memory or concentration. These two conditions often co-occur and frequently co-exist with other symptom-defined conditions (e.g., irritable bowel syndrome and recurrent headache), have a female predominance, and share psychosocial or psychiatric characteristics. It has been suggested that fibro...
Brooks, Joanna; King, Nigel; Wearden, Alison
Social isolation and stigma are frequently reported by patients with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis and relationships in the home environment with those close to the patients (their 'significant others') may thus be particularly important. Rather little attention has yet been paid to the beliefs and experiences of 'significant others' themselves in this context. This study sought to explore in-depth the beliefs and experiences of both patients and 'significant others' in relation to chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis. In-depth interviews using a semi-structured interview schedule designed around the core constructs of the Common-Sense Model of self-regulation were conducted with two patients with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis and their spouses. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was used to analyse interview data. Experiences of social interactions in relation to chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis with others outside of the relationship dyad emerged as a key issue for all participants when reflecting on their experiences of living with the condition. These concerns are presented under two themes: interactions with healthcare professionals and interactions with the social world. It is evident that significant others play an important role in the lived experience of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis. For both patients and significant others, the wider social world and interactions with outside others may be important influences on dyadic coping in chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis. Both future research and treatment interventions could usefully include a 'significant other' perspective.
Nørregaard, J; Bülow, P M; Prescott, E
the overlap between fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome. Only in two of 91 the muscle pain was found to be caused by another somatic disease during the median 4 year follow-up period. In one of the 83 attending subjects a somatic disease associated with muscle symptoms was established at the follow......-up visit. 60 out of 83 reported increased pain, 8 reported improvement of pain. The 83 subjects showed no significant fall in muscle strength during the follow-up period. The majority reported severe fatigue but only one fifth fulfilled the proposed chronic fatigue syndrome criteria....
Pacing, Conventional Physical Activity and Active Video Games to Increase Physical Activity for Adults with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Protocol for a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.
Ferrar, Katia Elizabeth; Smith, Ashleigh E; Davison, Kade
Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a serious illness of biological origin characterized by profound physical and cognitive exhaustion and postexertion malaise. Pacing is a common strategy used to manage available energy and complete activities of daily living; yet little research has investigated this as a strategy to increase physical activity levels. Typically, people living with ME/CFS are faced by unique barriers to physical activity participation and are less physically active than healthy peers. As such they are at increased risk of physical inactivity-related health consequences. Active video games may be a feasible and acceptable avenue to deliver physical activity intervention by overcoming many of the reported barriers to participation. The primary objective of this pilot study is to determine the feasibility and acceptability of active video games to increase physical activity levels of people with ME/CFS. The secondary aims are to explore the preliminary effectiveness of pacing and active video gaming to pacing alone and pacing plus conventional physical activity to increase the physical activity levels of adults with ME/CFS and explore the relationship between physical activity and cumulative inflammatory load (allostatic load). This study will use a mixed method design, with a 3-arm pilot randomized controlled trial, exit interviews, and collection of feasibility and process data. A total of 30 adults with ME/CFS will be randomized to receive either (1) pacing, (2) pacing and conventional physical activity, or (3) pacing and active video gaming. The intervention duration will be 6 months, and participants will be followed up for 6 months postintervention completion. The intervention will be conducted in the participant's home, and activity intensity will be determined by continuously monitored heart rate and ratings of perceived exertion. Feasibility and acceptability and process data will be collected during and at the end
Kadota, Yumiko; Cooper, Gavin; Burton, Alexander R; Lemon, Jim; Schall, Ulrich; Lloyd, Andrew; Vollmer-Conna, Ute
This study examined whether post-infective fatigue syndrome (PIFS) is associated with a disturbance in bidirectional autonomic signalling resulting in heightened perception of symptoms and sensations from the body in conjunction with autonomic hyper-reactivity to perceived challenges. We studied 23 patients with PIFS and 25 healthy matched control subjects. A heartbeat discrimination task and a pressure pain threshold test were used to assess interoceptive sensitivity. Cardiac response was assessed over a 4-min Stroop task. PIFS was associated with higher accuracy in heartbeat discrimination and a lower pressure pain threshold. Increased interoceptive sensitivity correlated strongly with current symptoms and potentiated differences in the cardiac response to the Stroop task, which in PIFS was characterized by insensitivity to task difficulty and lack of habituation. Our results provide the first evidence of heightened interoceptive sensitivity in PIFS. Together with the distinct pattern in cardiac responsivity these findings present a picture of physiological hyper-vigilance and response inflexibility. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sachdeva, Anand Kamal; Kuhad, Anurag; Tiwari, Vinod; Chopra, Kanwaljit
Three decades after the coining of the term chronic fatigue syndrome, the diagnosis of this illness is still symptom based and the aetiology remains elusive. Chronic fatigue syndrome pathogenesis seems to be multifactorial and the possible involvement of immune system is supported. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of the epigallocatechin gallate in a mouse model of immunologically induced chronic fatigue. On 19th day, after lipopolysaccharide/Brucella abortus administration, the mice showed significant increase in immobility period, post swim fatigue and thermal hyperalgesia. Behavioral deficits were coupled with enhanced oxidative-nitrosative stress as evident by increased lipid peroxidation, nitrite levels and decreased endogenous antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione and catalase) and inflammation (increased levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and tissue growth factor-beta). Chronic treatment with epigallocatechin gallate restored these behavioral and biochemical alterations in mice. The present study points out towards the beneficial effect of epigallocatechin gallate in the amelioration of chronic fatigue syndrome and thus may provide a new, effective and powerful strategy to treat chronic fatigue syndrome.
Gupta, Amit; Vij, Garima; Sharma, Sameer; Tirkey, Naveen; Rishi, Praveen; Chopra, Kanwaljit
Chronic fatigue syndrome, infection and oxidative stress are interrelated in epidemiological case studies. However, data demonstrating scientific validation of epidemiological claims regarding effectiveness of nutritional supplements for chronic fatigue syndrome are lacking. This study is designed to evaluate the effect of natural polyphenol, curcumin, in a mouse model of immunologically induced fatigue, where purified lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Brucella abortus (BA) antigens were used as immunogens. The assessment of chronic fatigue syndrome was based on chronic water-immersion stress test for 10 min daily for 19 days and the immobility time was taken as the marker of fatigue. Mice challenged with LPS or BA for 19 days showed significant increase in the immobility time and hyperalgesia on day 19, as well as marked increase in serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels. Concurrent treatment with curcumin resulted in significantly decreased immobility time as well as hyperalgesia. There was significant attenuation of oxidative stress as well as TNF-alpha levels. These findings strongly suggest that during immunological activation, there is significant increase in oxidative stress and curcumin can be a valuable option in the treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome.
Neu, Daniel; Mairesse, Olivier; Verbanck, Paul; Linkowski, Paul; Le Bon, Olivier
The aim of this study is to contribute to the sleep-related differentiation between daytime fatigue and sleepiness. 135 subjects presenting with sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (SAHS, n=58) or chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS, n=52) with respective sleepiness or fatigue complaints and a control group (n=25) underwent polysomnography and psychometric assessments for fatigue, sleepiness, affective symptoms and perceived sleep quality. Sleep EEG spectral analysis for ultra slow, delta, theta, alpha, sigma and beta power bands was performed on frontal, central and occipital derivations. Patient groups presented with impaired subjective sleep quality and higher affective symptom intensity. CFS patients presented with highest fatigue and SAHS patients with highest sleepiness levels. All groups showed similar total sleep time. Subject groups mainly differed in sleep efficiency, wake after sleep onset, duration of light sleep (N1, N2) and slow wave sleep, as well as in sleep fragmentation and respiratory disturbance. Relative non-REM sleep power spectra distributions suggest a pattern of power exchange in higher frequency bands at the expense of central ultra slow power in CFS patients during all non-REM stages. In SAHS patients, however, we found an opposite pattern at occipital sites during N1 and N2. Slow wave activity presents as a crossroad of fatigue and sleepiness with, however, different spectral power band distributions during non-REM sleep. The homeostatic function of sleep might be compromised in CFS patients and could explain why, in contrast to sleepiness, fatigue does not resolve with sleep in these patients. The present findings thus contribute to the differentiation of both phenomena. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wouters, Eveline J. M.; van Leeuwen, Ninke; Bossema, Ercolie R.; Kruize, Aike A.; Bootsma, Hendrika; Bijlsma, Johannes W. J.; Geenen, Rinie
Background Fatigue is a prevalent and debilitating problem in Sjogren's syndrome. It has been suggested that physical activity and cognitions about physical activity can influence fatigue. Objective The aim of this study was to examine fatigue and physical activity levels in patients with Sjogren's
Van Leeuwen; Bossema; Kruize; Geenen; Bijlsma; Bootsma; MD E.J.M. Wouters
Background Fatigue is a prevalent and debilitating problem in Sjögren's syndrome. It has been suggested that physical activity and cognitions about physical activity can influence fatigue. Objective The aim of this study was to examine fatigue and physical activity levels in patients with Sjögren's
Ko?er, Belgin; Tezcan, Mehmet Engin; Batur, Hale Zeynep; Haznedaro?lu, ?eminur; G?ker, Berna; ?rke?, Ceyla; ?etinkaya, R?meysa
Abstract Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence and pattern of cognitive dysfunction observed in primary Sj?gren's syndrome (PSS) and to examine the relationships between cognitive abilities, depression, fatigue, and quality of life. Materials and Methods Thirty?two subjects with PSS were compared with 19 healthy controls on comprehensive neuropsychological, depression, fatigue, health state, and daily?life activities tests. Results There was low performance ...
Arnold, Lesley M; Blom, Thomas J; Welge, Jeffrey A; Mariutto, Elizabeth; Heller, Alicia
To assess the efficacy and safety of duloxetine in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. A 12-week, randomized, double-blind study was designed to compare duloxetine 60-120 mg/d (n = 30) with placebo (n = 30) for efficacy and safety in the treatment of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. The primary outcome measure was the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory general fatigue subscale (range: 4-20, with higher scores indicating greater fatigue). Secondary measures were the remaining Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory subscales, Brief Pain Inventory, Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Symptom Inventory, Patient Global Impression of Improvement, and Clinical Global Impression of Severity. The primary analysis of efficacy for continuous variables was a longitudinal analysis of the intent-to-treat sample, with treatment-by-time interaction as the measure of effect. The improvement in the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory general fatigue scores for the duloxetine group was not significantly greater than for the placebo group (P = 0.23; estimated difference between groups at week 12 = -1.0 [95% CI: -2.8, 0.7]). The duloxetine group was significantly superior to the placebo group on the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory mental fatigue score, Brief Pain Inventory average pain severity and interference scores, Short Form-36 bodily pain domain, and Clinical Global Impression of Severity score. Duloxetine was generally well tolerated. The primary efficacy measure of general fatigue did not significantly improve with duloxetine when compared with placebo. Significant improvement in secondary measures of mental fatigue, pain, and global measure of severity suggests that duloxetine may be efficacious for some chronic fatigue syndrome symptom domains, but larger controlled trials are needed to confirm these results. Copyright © 2015 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by
Higgins, J Nicholas P; Pickard, John D; Lever, Andrew M L
Though not discussed in the medical literature or considered in clinical practice, there are similarities between chronic fatigue syndrome and idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) which ought to encourage exploration of a link between them. The cardinal symptoms of each - fatigue and headache - are common in the other and their multiple other symptoms are frequently seen in both. The single discriminating factor is raised intracranial pressure, evidenced in IIH usually by the sign of papilloedema, regarded as responsible for the visual symptoms which can lead to blindness. Some patients with IIH, however, do not have papilloedema and these patients may be clinically indistinguishable from patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Yet IIH is rare, IIH without papilloedema (IIHWOP) seems rarer still, while chronic fatigue syndrome is common. So are the clinical parallels spurious or is there a way to reconcile these conflicting observations? We suggest that it is a quirk of clinical measurement that has created this discrepancy. Specifically, that the criteria put in place to define IIH have led to a failure to appreciate the existence, clinical significance or numerical importance of patients with lower level disturbances of intracranial pressure. We argue that this has led to a grossly implausible distortion of the epidemiology of IIH such that the milder form of the illness (IIHWOP) is seen as less common than the more severe and that this would be resolved by recognising a connection with chronic fatigue syndrome. We hypothesise, therefore, that IIH, IIHWOP, lesser forms of IIH and an undetermined proportion of chronic fatigue cases are all manifestations of the same disorder of intracranial pressure across a spectrum of disease severity, in which this subset of chronic fatigue syndrome would represent the most common and least severe and IIH the least common and most extreme. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Li, Jinxia; Xie, Jingjun; Pan, Zhongqiang; Guo, Xiaoqing; Li, Ye; Fu, Ruiyang
To evaluate the clinical therapeutic effects and safety of chronic fatigue syndrome treated with transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) on the conception vessel and the governor vessel. Eighty-nine patients of chronic fatigue syndrome were randomized into an observation group (46 cases) and a control group (43 cases). In the observation group, TEAS was applied at Dazhui (GV 14) and Mingmen (GV 4), Shenque (CV 8) and Guanyuan (CV 4) [the current intensity: (14±2) mA]. In the control group, the simulated TEAS was applied at the same acupoints as the observation group (the current intensity: 1 mA). The treatment was given for 30 min, once a day, 5 times a week and the treatment of 4 weeks was as 1 session in the two groups. One session of treatment was required. Before treatment and at the end of 1 session of treatment, the fatigue severity scale (FSS) was adopted to evaluate the fatigue symptoms and the somatic and psychological health report (SPHERE) was adopted to evaluate the potential symptoms and observe the safety of TEAS therapy. At the end of treatment, FSS score and SPHERE score in the control group were not different significantly as compared with those before treatment (both P >0.05). FSS score and SPHERE score in the observation group were reduced significantly as compared with those before treatment (both P fatigue symptoms and the potential symptoms in the patients of chronic fatigue syndrome. It is a safe therapy.
Full Text Available Ehlers-Danlos syndrome hypermobility type a. k. a. joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS/EDS-HT is a hereditary musculoskeletal disorder associating generalized joint hypermobility with chronic pain. Anecdotal reports suggest a prominent role for kinesiophobia in disease manifestations, but no study has systematically addressed this point. Objective. To investigate the impact of kinesiophobia and its relationship with pain, fatigue, and quality of life in JHS/EDS-HT. Design. Cross-sectional study. Subjects/Patients. 42 patients (40 female and 2 male with JHS/EDS-HT diagnosis following standardized diagnostic criteria were selected. Methods. Disease features were analyzed by means of specific questionnaires and scales evaluating kinesiophobia, pain, fatigue, and quality of life. The relationships among variables were investigated using the Spearman bivariate analysis. Results. Kinesiophobia resulted predominantly in the patients’ sample. The values of kinesiophobia did not correlate with intensity of pain, quality of life, and (or the single component of fatigue. A strong correlation was discovered between kinesiophobia and general severity of fatigue. Conclusions. In JHS/EDS-HT, the onset of pain-avoiding strategies is related to the presence of pain but not to its intensity. The clear-cut correlation between kinesiophobia and severity of fatigue suggests a direct link between musculoskeletal pain and fatigue. In JHS/EDS-HT, the underlying mechanism is likely to be facilitated by primary disease characteristics, including hypotonia.
Full Text Available Fatigue is a debilitating condition with a significant impact on patients' quality of life. Fatigue is frequently reported by patients suffering from primary Sjögren's Syndrome (pSS, a chronic autoimmune condition characterised by dryness of the eyes and the mouth. However, although fatigue is common in pSS, it does not manifest in all sufferers, providing an excellent model with which to explore the potential underpinning biological mechanisms.Whole blood samples from 133 fully-phenotyped pSS patients stratified for the presence of fatigue, collected by the UK primary Sjögren's Syndrome Registry, were used for whole genome microarray. The resulting data were analysed both on a gene by gene basis and using pre-defined groups of genes. Finally, gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA was used as a feature selection technique for input into a support vector machine (SVM classifier. Classification was assessed using area under curve (AUC of receiver operator characteristic and standard error of Wilcoxon statistic, SE(W.Although no genes were individually found to be associated with fatigue, 19 metabolic pathways were enriched in the high fatigue patient group using GSEA. Analysis revealed that these enrichments arose from the presence of a subset of 55 genes. A radial kernel SVM classifier with this subset of genes as input displayed significantly improved performance over classifiers using all pathway genes as input. The classifiers had AUCs of 0.866 (SE(W 0.002 and 0.525 (SE(W 0.006, respectively.Systematic analysis of gene expression data from pSS patients discordant for fatigue identified 55 genes which are predictive of fatigue level using SVM classification. This list represents the first step in understanding the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of fatigue in patients with pSS.
Ranjani, Prajna; Khanna, Meeka; Gupta, Anupam; Nagappa, Madhu; Taly, Arun B; Haldar, Partha
Fatigue contributes significantly to the morbidity and affects the quality of life adversely in Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS). To determine the prevalence of fatigue in GBS in neurological rehabilitation setting and to study its clinical correlates. We performed secondary analysis of data of patients with GBS admitted in neurological rehabilitation ward of a tertiary care centre, recorded at both admission and discharge. Assessment of fatigue was done by Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), disability-status by Hughe's Disability Scale (HDS), functional-status by Barthel Index, anxiety/depression by Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, sleep disturbances by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and muscle weakness by Medical Research Council sum scores. A total of 90 patients (62 men) with mean age 34 years (95% CI 32.2, 37.7) were included. Median duration of, stay at neurological rehabilitation ward was 30 days, while that of symptoms was 18.5 days. Presence of fatigue at admission (FSS ≥ 4 in 39% patients) was associated with ventilator requirement (P = 0.021) and neuropathic pain (P = 0.03). Presence of fatigue at discharge (FSS ≥ 4 in 12% patients) was associated with disability- HDS (≥3) (P = 0.008), presence of anxiety (P = 0.042) and duration of stay at rehabilitation ward (P = 0.02). Fatigue did not correlate with age, gender, antecedent illness, muscle weakness, depression and sleep disturbances. Fatigue is prevalent in GBS during early recovery phase of illness. Despite motor recovery fatigue may persist. Knowledge about fatigue as burden of disease in these patients will improve patient care.
Full Text Available Background: Fatigue contributes significantly to the morbidity and affects the quality of life adversely in Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS. Objective: To determine the prevalence of fatigue in GBS in neurological rehabilitation setting and to study its clinical correlates. Materials and Methods: We performed secondary analysis of data of patients with GBS admitted in neurological rehabilitation ward of a tertiary care centre, recorded at both admission and discharge. Assessment of fatigue was done by Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS, disability-status by Hughe′s Disability Scale (HDS, functional-status by Barthel Index, anxiety/depression by Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, sleep disturbances by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and muscle weakness by Medical Research Council sum scores. Results: A total of 90 patients (62 men with mean age 34 years (95% CI 32.2, 37.7 were included. Median duration of, stay at neurological rehabilitation ward was 30 days, while that of symptoms was 18.5 days. Presence of fatigue at admission (FSS ≥ 4 in 39% patients was associated with ventilator requirement (P = 0.021 and neuropathic pain (P = 0.03. Presence of fatigue at discharge (FSS ≥ 4 in 12% patients was associated with disability- HDS (≥3 (P = 0.008, presence of anxiety (P = 0.042 and duration of stay at rehabilitation ward (P = 0.02. Fatigue did not correlate with age, gender, antecedent illness, muscle weakness, depression and sleep disturbances. Conclusion: Fatigue is prevalent in GBS during early recovery phase of illness. Despite motor recovery fatigue may persist. Knowledge about fatigue as burden of disease in these patients will improve patient care.
Zhang, Ziteng; Ma, Xiujuan; Xia, Zhenna; Chen, Jikuai; Liu, Yangang; Chen, Yongchun; Zhu, Jiangbo; Li, Jinfeng; Yu, Huaiyu; Zong, Ying; Lu, Guocai
Numerous experimental and clinical studies have suggested that the interaction between the immune system and the brain plays an important role in the pathophysiology of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). The NLRP3 inflammasome is an important part of the innate immune system. This complex regulates proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) maturation, which triggers different kinds of immune-inflammatory reactions. We employed repeated forced swims to establish a model of CFS in mice. NLRP3 knockout (KO) mice were also used to explore NLRP3 inflammasome activation in the mechanisms of CFS, using the same treatment. After completing repeated swim tests, the mice displayed fatigue-like behaviors, including locomotor activity and reduced fall-off time on the rota-rod test, which was accompanied by significantly higher mature IL-1β level in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) level in serum. We also found increased NLRP3 protein expression, NLRP3 inflammasome formation and increased mature IL-1β production in the PFC, relative to untreated mice. The NLRP3 KO mice displayed significantly moderated fatigue behaviors along with decreased PFC and serum IL-1β levels under the same treatment. These findings demonstrated the involvement of NLRP3 inflammasome activation in the mechanism of swimming-induced fatigue. Future therapies targeting the NLRP3/IL-1β pathway may have significant potential for fatigue prevention and treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
... meeting will be broadcast over the Internet as a real- time streaming video. It also will be recorded and... etiology, natural history, clinical trials, and related areas for chronic fatigue syndrome. The public is... sessions will be broadcast over the Internet as a real-time streaming video. It also will be recorded and...
Jones, Kathryn; Probst, Yasmine
To review the evidence for the role of dietary modifications in alleviating chronic fatigue syndrome symptoms. A systematic literature review was guided by PRISMA and conducted using Scopus, CINAHL Plus, Web of Science and PsycINFO scientific databases (1994-2016) to identify relevant studies. Twenty-two studies met the inclusion criteria, the quality of each paper was assessed and data extracted into a standardised tabular format. Positive outcomes were highlighted in some included studies for polyphenol intakes in animal studies, D-ribose supplementation in humans and aspects of symptom alleviation for one of three polynutrient supplement studies. Omega three fatty acid blood levels and supplementation with an omega three fatty acid supplement also displayed positive outcomes in relation to chronic fatigue syndrome symptom alleviation. Limited dietary modifications were found useful in alleviating chronic fatigue syndrome symptoms, with overall evidence narrow and inconsistent across studies. Implications for public health: Due to the individual and community impairment chronic fatigue syndrome causes the population, it is vital that awareness and further focused research on this topic is undertaken to clarify and consolidate recommendations and ensure accurate, useful distribution of information at a population level. © 2017 The Authors.
van Leeuwen, N.
Dryness and fatigue are prevalent and debilitating symptoms in Sjögren’s syndrome. In this thesis, consequences of dryness for patients’ well-being and daily life functioning, and possible targets for treatment were described. In the first part of this thesis, an encompassing overview of the
Hanevik, Kurt; Wensaas, Knut-Arne; Rortveit, Guri; Eide, Geir Egil; Mørch, Kristine; Langeland, Nina
Functional gastrointestinal disorders and fatigue may follow acute infections. This study aimed to estimate the persistence, prevalence, and risk of irritable bowel syndrome and chronic fatigue 6 years after Giardia infection. We performed a controlled prospective study of a cohort of 1252 individuals who had laboratory-confirmed Giardia infection during a waterborne outbreak in 2004. In total, 748 cohort cases (exposed) and 878 matched controls responded to a postal questionnaire 6 years later (in 2010). Responses were compared to data from the same cohort 3 years before (in 2007). The prevalences of irritable bowel syndrome (39.4%) by Rome III criteria and chronic fatigue (30.8%) in the exposed group 6 years after giardiasis were significantly elevated compared with controls, with adjusted relative risks (RRs) of 3.4 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.9-3.9) and 2.9 (95% CI, 2.3-3.4), respectively. In the exposed group, the prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome decreased by 6.7% (RR, 0.85 [95% CI, .77-.93]), whereas the prevalence of chronic fatigue decreased by 15.3% from 3 to 6 years after Giardia infection (RR, 0.69 [95% CI, .62-.77]). Giardia exposure was a significant risk factor for persistence of both conditions, and increasing age was a risk factor for persisting chronic fatigue. Giardia infection in a nonendemic setting is associated with an increased risk for irritable bowel syndrome and chronic fatigue 6 years later. The prevalences of both conditions decrease over time, indicating that this intestinal protozoan parasite may elicit very long-term, but slowly self-limiting, complications. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.
Worm-Smeitink, M; Gielissen, M; Bloot, L; van Laarhoven, H W M; van Engelen, B G M; van Riel, P; Bleijenberg, G; Nikolaus, S; Knoop, H
The Checklist Individual Strength (CIS) measures four dimensions of fatigue: Fatigue severity, concentration problems, reduced motivation and activity. On the fatigue severity subscale, a cut-off score of 35 is used. This study 1) investigated the psychometric qualities of the CIS; 2) validated the cut-off score for severe fatigue and 3) provided norms. Representatives of the Dutch general population (n=2288) completed the CIS. The factor structure was investigated using an exploratory factor analysis. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were determined. Concurrent validity was assessed in two additional samples by correlating the CIS with other fatigue scales (Chalder Fatigue Questionnaire, MOS Short form-36 Vitality subscale, EORTC QLQ-C30 fatigue subscale). To validate the fatigue severity cut-off score, a Receiver Operating Characteristics analysis was performed with patients referred to a chronic fatigue treatment centre (n=5243) and a healthy group (n=1906). Norm scores for CIS subscales were calculated for the general population, patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS; n=1407) and eight groups with other medical conditions (n=1411). The original four-factor structure of the CIS was replicated. Internal consistency (α=0.84-0.95) and test-retest reliability (r=0.74-0.86) of the subscales were high. Correlations with other fatigue scales were moderate to high. The 35 points cut-off score for severe fatigue is appropriate, but, given the 17% false positive rate, should be adjusted to 40 for research in CFS. The CIS is a valid and reliable tool for the assessment of fatigue, with a validated cut-off score for severe fatigue that can be used in clinical practice. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
... sleep. Fatigue is a lack of energy and motivation. Drowsiness and apathy (a feeling of not caring ... Call your provider right away if you have any of the following: Confusion or dizziness Blurred vision Little or no urine, or recent ...
Lloyd, Samantha; Chalder, Trudie; Rimes, Katharine A
The aim of this study was to investigate the long term efficacy of family-focused cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) compared with psycho-education in improving school attendance and other secondary outcomes in adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). A 24 month follow-up of a randomised controlled trial was carried out. Participants received either 13 one-hour sessions of family-focused CBT or four one-hour sessions of psycho-education. Forty-four participants took part in the follow-up study. The proportion of participants reporting at least 70% school attendance (the primary outcome) at 24 months was 90% in CBT group and 84% in psycho-education group; the difference between the groups was not statistically significant (OR = 1.29, p = 0.80). The proportion of adolescents who had recovered in the family-focused CBT group was 79% compared with 64% in the psycho-education, according to a definition including fatigue and school attendance. This difference was not statistically significant (Fisher's exact test, p = 0.34). Family-focused CBT was associated with significantly better emotional and behavioural adjustment at 24 month follow-up compared to psycho-education, as reported by both adolescents (F = 6.49, p = 0.02) and parents (F = 4.52, P = 0.04). Impairment significantly decreased in both groups between six and 24 month follow-ups, with no significant group difference in improvement over this period. Gains previously observed for other secondary outcomes at six month follow-up were maintained at 24 month follow-up with no further significant improvement or group differences in improvement. In conclusion, gains achieved by adolescents with CFS who had undertaken family-focused CBT and psycho-education generally continued or were maintained at two-year follow-up. The exception was that family-focused CBT was associated with maintained improvements in emotional and behavioural difficulties whereas psycho-education was associated with
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this project is to create an Integrated Development Environment (IDE) for the Core Flight System (CFS) software to reduce the time it takes to...
Amihăesei, Ioana Cristina; Cojocaru, Elena
Chronic fatigue syndrome is characterized by severe, persistent fatigue which is not relieved by rest and is not associated to other medical conditions. Other common symptoms are including concentration and memory impairment, muscle and multiple joints pain, extreme exhaustion after physical or mental exertions, irritable bowel syndrome-like symptoms and depression, anxiety, mood swings and panic attacks. Etiology of the syndrome is not yet clear, post-viral and stress hypotheses were not verified. Diagnosis is confirmed in case of new onset of severe fatigue, for six consecutive months or more; fatigue is leading to significant reduction of the activity levels and is accompanied by other four or more of the specific associated symptoms, which are also lasting for six months or longer. The management of the disease is based on cognitive behavioral therapy, graded exercise therapy and pacing; medication plays a minor role in therapy. The occupational status is severely affected, more than half of the cases being unable to work. Full recovery rate is in average of about 5%.
Pendergrast, Tricia; Brown, Abigail; Sunnquist, Madison; Jantke, Rachel; Newton, Julia L; Strand, Elin Bolle; Jason, Leonard A
The objective of this study was to examine individuals with myalgic encephalomyelitis and chronic fatigue syndrome who are confined to their homes due to severe symptomatology. The existing literature fails to address differences between this group, and less severe, nonhousebound patient populations. Participants completed the DePaul Symptom Questionnaire, a measure of myalgic encephalomyelitis and chronic fatigue syndrome symptomology, and the SF-36, a measure of health impact on physical/mental functioning. ANOVAs and, where appropriate, MANCOVAS were used to compare housebound and nonhousebound patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis and chronic fatigue syndrome across areas of functioning, symptomatology, and illness onset characteristics. Findings indicated that the housebound group represented one quarter of the sample, and were significantly more impaired with regards to physical functioning, bodily pain, vitality, social functioning, fatigue, postexertional malaise, sleep, pain, neurocognitive, autonomic, neuroendocrine, and immune functioning compared to individuals who were not housebound. Findings indicated that housebound patients have more impairment on functional and symptom outcomes compared to those who were not housebound. Understanding the differences between housebound and not housebound groups holds implications for physicians and researchers as they develop interventions intended for patients who are most severely affected by this chronic illness. © The Author(s) 2016.
Voermans, N C; Knoop, H; Bleijenberg, G; van Engelen, B G
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of inherited connective tissue disorders characterised by joint hypermobility, skin hyperextensibility and tissue fragility. It has recently been shown that muscle weakness occurs frequently in EDS, and that fatigue is a common and clinically important symptom. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between fatigue severity and subjective and objective measures of muscle weakness. Furthermore, the predictive value of muscle weakness for fatigue severity was determined, together with that of pain and physical activity. An explorative, cross-sectional, observational study. Thirty EDS patients, recruited from the Dutch patient association, were investigated at the neuromuscular outpatient department of a tertiary referral centre in The Netherlands. Muscle strength measured with manual muscle strength testing and hand-held dynamometry. Self-reported muscle weakness, pain, physical activity levels and fatigue were assessed with standardised questionnaires. Fatigue severity in EDS was significantly correlated with measured and self-reported muscle weakness (r=-0.408 for manual muscle strength, r=0.461 for hand-held dynamometry and r=0.603 for self-reported muscle weakness). Both muscle weakness and pain severity were significant predictors of fatigue severity in a multiple regression analysis. The results suggest a positive and direct relationship between fatigue severity and muscle weakness in EDS. Future research should focus on the relationship between fatigue, muscle weakness and objectively measured physical activity, preferably in a larger cohort of EDS patients. Copyright © 2010 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Williams, Ashley Mai; Christopher, Gary; Jenkinson, Elizabeth
Chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis can limit functional capacity, producing various degrees of disability and psychological distress. Semi-structured interviews explored the experiences of adults with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis being physically dependent on other people for help in daily life, and whether physical dependency affects their psychological well-being. Thematic analysis generated six themes: loss of independence and self-identity, an invisible illness, anxieties of today and the future, catch-22, internalised anger, and acceptance of the condition. The findings provide insight into the psychological impact of dependency. Implications for intervention include better education relating to chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis for family members, carers, and friends; ways to communicate their needs to others who may not understand chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis; and awareness that acceptance of the condition could improve psychological well-being.
Abu-Judeh, H H; Levine, S; Kumar, M; el-Zeftawy, H; Naddaf, S; Lou, J Q; Abdel-Dayem, H M
Chronic fatigue syndrome is a clinically defined condition of uncertain aetiology. We compared 99Tcm-HMPAO single photon emission tomography (SPET) brain perfusion with dual-head 18F-FDG brain metabolism in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Eighteen patients (14 females, 4 males), who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of the Centers for Disease Control for chronic fatigue syndrome, were investigated. Thirteen patients had abnormal SPET brain perfusion scans and five had normal scans. Fifteen patients had normal glucose brain metabolism scans and three had abnormal scans. We conclude that, in chronic fatigue syndrome patients, there is discordance between SPET brain perfusion and 18F-FDG brain uptake. It is possible to have brain perfusion abnormalities without corresponding changes in glucose uptake.
Koopman, Fieke S.; Brehm, Merel A.; Beelen, Anita; Voet, Nicole; Bleijenberg, Gijs; Geurts, Alexander; Nollet, Frans
Cognitive behavioural therapy does not reduce fatigue in post-polio syndrome, but is effective in facioscapulohumeral dystrophy. This difference in efficacy might be explained by a different role of cognitions in these conditions. To compare fatigue-related cognitions between patients with
Wensaas, Knut-Arne; Langeland, Nina; Hanevik, Kurt; Mørch, Kristine; Eide, Geir Egil; Rortveit, Guri
Giardia lamblia is a common cause of gastroenteritis worldwide, but there is limited knowledge about the long-term complications. To estimate the relative risk of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and chronic fatigue 3 years after acute giardiasis. Controlled historic cohort study with 3 years' follow-up. Data collected by mailed questionnaire. Waterborne outbreak of giardiasis in the city of Bergen, Norway. 817 patients exposed to Giardia lamblia infection verified by detection of cysts in stool samples and 1128 matched controls. IBS and chronic fatigue. The prevalence of IBS in the exposed group was 46.1%, compared with 14.0% in the control group, and the adjusted RR=3.4 (95% CI 2.9 to 3.8). Chronic fatigue was reported by 46.1% of the exposed group and 12.0% of the controls, the adjusted RR was 4.0 (95% CI 3.5 to 4.5). IBS and chronic fatigue were associated and the RR for the exposed group of having a combination of the two outcomes was 6.8 (95% CI 5.3 to 8.5). The RR was also increased for having just one of the two syndromes, 1.8 for IBS (95% CI 1.4 to 2.3) and 2.2 for chronic fatigue (95% CI 1.7 to 2.8). Infection with Giardia lamblia in a non-endemic area was associated with a high prevalence of IBS and chronic fatigue 3 years after acute illness, and the risk was significantly higher than in the control group. This shows that the potential consequences of giardiasis are more serious than previously known. Further studies are needed, especially in areas where giardiasis is endemic.
Full Text Available We have tested the hypothesis that restless leg syndrome (RLS is related to quality of sleep, fatigue and clinical disability in multiple sclerosis (MS. The diagnosis of RLS used the four minimum criteria defined by the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group. Fatigue was assessed by the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS >27, quality of sleep by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI >6, excessive daytime sleepiness by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS >10 and clinical disability by the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS. Forty-four patients (32 women aged 14 to 64 years (43 ± 14 with disease from 0.4 to 23 years (6.7 ± 5.9 were evaluated. Thirty-five were classified as relapsing-remitting, 5 as primary progressive and 4 as secondary progressive. EDSS varied from 0 to 8.0 (3.6 ± 2.0. RLS was detected in 12 cases (27%. Patients with RLS presented greater disability (P = 0.01, poorer sleep (P = 0.02 and greater levels of fatigue (P = 0.03. Impaired sleep was present in 23 (52% and excessive daytime sleepiness in 3 cases (6.8%. Fatigue was present in 32 subjects (73% and was associated with clinical disability (P = 0.000 and sleep quality (P = 0.002. Age, gender, disease duration, MS pattern, excessive daytime sleepiness and the presence of upper motor neuron signs were not associated with the presence of RLS. Fatigue was best explained by clinical disability and poor sleep quality. Awareness of RLS among health care professionals may contribute to improvement in MS management.
Vos-Vromans, D.C.; Smeets, R.J.P.; Rijnders, L.J.; Gorrissen, R.R.; Pont, M.; Koke, A.J.; Hitters, M.W.; Evers, S.M.; Knottnerus, A.J.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome experience extreme fatigue, which often leads to substantial limitations of occupational, educational, social and personal activities. Currently, there is no consensus regarding the treatment. Patients try many different therapies to
Preedy, V R; Smith, D G; Salisbury, J R; Peters, T J
AIMS--To investigate in detail various biochemical and pathophysiological indices of muscle pathology in acute onset post-viral fatigue syndrome (PVFS). METHODS--Twenty three patients with PVFS (of mean duration 4.6 years) were subjected to needle biopsy for histomorphometry and total RNA contents. Plasma analysis included serology and creatine kinase activities. Indices of whole body mass were also measured--namely, whole body potassium content and plasma carnosinase activities. RESULTS--Abo...
Viana, Celiana Figueiredo; Pradella-Hallinan, Márcia; Quadros, Abrahão Augusto Juviniano; Marin, Luis Fabiano; Oliveira, Acary Souza Bulle
It was to evaluate the degree of fatigue in patients with paralytic poliomyelitis (PP) and with post-polio syndrome (PPS), and correlate it with parameters of sleep and the circadian cycle. Thirty patients, 17 female (56.7%), participated in the study: they answered the Revised Piper Fatigue Scale and performed a nocturnal polysomnographic study. Eleven had PP (mean age±standard deviation of 47.9±6.4 years), and 19 had PPS (mean age±standard deviation of 46.4±5.6 years). Our study showed that fatigue was worse in the afternoon in the PP Group and had a progressive increase throughout the day in the PPS Group. We also observed compromised quality of sleep in both groups, but no statically significant difference was found in the sleep parameters measured by polysomnography. Fatigue has a well-defined circadian variation, especially in PPS Group. Poor sleep quality is associated with fatigue and, therefore, sleep disturbances should be evaluated and treated in this group of PPS.
Schindlbeck, Katharina A; Becker, Janek; Berger, Felix; Mehl, Arne; Rewitzer, Charlotte; Geffe, Sarah; Koch, Peter M; Preiß, Jan C; Siegmund, Britta; Maul, Jochen; Marzinzik, Frank
Inflammatory bowel disease has been associated with neurological symptoms including restless legs syndrome. Here, we investigated the impact of restless legs syndrome in patients with inflammatory bowel disease on sleep, fatigue, mood, cognition, and quality of life. Two groups of inflammatory bowel disease patients, with and without restless legs syndrome, were prospectively evaluated for sleep disorders, fatigue, daytime sleepiness, depression, anxiety, and health-related quality of life. Furthermore, global cognitive function, executive function, attention, and concentration were assessed in both groups. Disease activity and duration of inflammatory bowel disease as well as current medication were assessed by interview. Inflammatory bowel disease patients with and without restless legs syndrome were matched for age, education, severity, and duration of their inflammatory bowel disease. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease and clinically relevant restless leg syndrome suffered significantly more frequent from sleep disturbances including sleep latency and duration, more fatigue, and worse health-related quality of life as compared to inflammatory bowel disease patients without restless legs syndrome. Affect and cognitive function including cognitive flexibility, attention, and concentration showed no significant differences among groups, indicating to be not related to restless legs syndrome. Sleep disorders including longer sleep latency, shorter sleep duration, and fatigue are characteristic symptoms of restless legs syndrome in inflammatory bowel disease patients, resulting in worse health-related quality of life. Therefore, clinicians treating patients with inflammatory bowel disease should be alert for restless legs syndrome.
Ibn Yacoub, Yousra; Rostom, Samira; Laatiris, Assia; Hajjaj-Hassouni, Najia
Our aim was to evaluate fatigue and quality of life (QoL) in Moroccan patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (PSS) and determine their correlates with disease-related parameters. Fifty-seven consecutive patients with PSS according to the American-European Consensus group (AEGG) criteria were included. Demographic, clinical, biological and immunological characteristics for all patients were collected. Xerostomia was demonstrated by histological grading of lower lip glandular biopsy. A Schirmer test was performed to measure lachrymal flow. Oral, ocular, skin, vaginal and tracheal dryness were evaluated by using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Fatigue was assessed by the Multidimensional assessment of fatigue (MAF) and the QoL by using the generic instrument: SF-36. 90% of our patients were women. The mean age of patients was 53.73 ± 7.69 years, and the mean disease duration was 5.38 ± 4.11 years. The mean oral dryness was 68.38 ± 20.29, and the mean ocular dryness was 51.91 ± 14.03. The mean total score of the MAF was 26.73 ± 8.33, and 87.5% of our patients experienced severe fatigue. Also, physical and mental domains of QoL were altered in a significant way, and the severity of fatigue had a negative impact on SF-36 scores. MAF and SF-36 scores were correlated with the delay of diagnosis, the intensity of xerostomia and the activity of joint involvement. A low socioeconomic and educational level had a negative impact on fatigue scores and QoL. Histological grading of lower lip glandular biopsy, immunological status and the severity of systemic involvement had no correlations with fatigue scores or the alteration of QoL. Patients receiving antidepressant have lesser fatigue and those receiving Methotrexate have better SF-36 scores. In our data, there was a high prevalence of fatigue in Moroccan patients with PSS associated with altered QoL. Severe fatigue and reduced QoL seem to be related to the severity of joint involvement, xerostomia and both educational
Ryckeghem, Hannah; Delesie, Liesbeth; Tobback, Els; Lievens, Stefaan; Vogelaers, Dirk; Mariman, An
To explore the experiences and expectations of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome and general practitioners to develop the potential role of an advanced nurse practitioner at the diagnostic care path of abnormal fatigue developed for regional transmural implementation in the Belgian provinces of East and West Flanders. Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome experience an incapacitating chronic fatigue that is present for at least 6 months. Since many uncertainties exist about the causes and progression of the disease, patients have to cope with disbelief and scepticism. Access to health care may be hampered, which could lead to inappropriate treatments and guidance. Qualitative design. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with patients with chronic fatigue syndrome and general practitioners in Belgium. Data were collected over 9 months in 2014-2015. All interviews were audio recorded and transcribed for qualitative analysis using open explorative thematic coding. Fifteen patients and 15 general practitioners were interviewed. Three themes were identified: mixed feelings with the diagnosis, lack of one central intermediator and insufficient coordination. Participants stressed the need for education, knowledge and an intermediator to provide relevant information at the right time and to build up a trust relationship. This qualitative exploration underscores some clear deficiencies in the guidance of patients suffering from chronic fatigue syndrome and abnormal fatigue. An advanced nurse practitioner as a central intermediator in the transmural care of these patients could promote interdisciplinary/multidisciplinary collaboration and effective communication, provide education and ensure a structured and coordinated approach. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The ME/CFS Disease Register is one of six subprojects within the National ME/CFS Observatory, a research programme funded by the Big Lottery Fund and sponsored by Action for ME. A pilot study in East Anglia, East Yorkshire, and London aimed to address the problem of identifying representative groups of subjects for research, in order to be able to draw conclusions applicable to the whole ME/CFS population. While not aiming for comprehensive population coverage, this pilot register sought to recruit participants with ME/CFS in an unbiased way from a large population base. Those recruited are constituting a cohort for long-term follow-up to shed light on prognosis, and a sampling frame for other studies. Findings Patients with unidentified chronic fatigue were identified in GP databases using a READ-code based algorithm, and conformity to certain case definitions for ME/CFS determined. 29 practices, covering a population aged 18 to 64 of 143,153, participated. 510 patients with unexplained chronic fatigue were identified. 265 of these conformed to one or more case definitions. 216 were invited to join the register; 160 agreed. 96.9% of participants conformed to the CDC 1994 (Fukuda definition; the Canadian definition defined more precisely a subset of these. The addition of an epidemiological case definition increased case ascertainment by approximately 4%. A small-scale study in a specialist referral service in East Anglia was also undertaken. There was little difference in pattern of conformity to case definitions, age or sex among disease register participants compared with subjects in a parallel epidemiological study who declined to participate. One-year follow-up of 50 subjects showed little change in pain or fatigue scores. There were some changes in conformity to case definitions. Conclusions Objective evaluation indicated that the aim of recruiting participants with ME/CFS to a Disease Register had been fulfilled, and
Pheby, Derek; Lacerda, Eliana; Nacul, Luis; Drachler, Maria de Lourdes; Campion, Peter; Howe, Amanda; Poland, Fiona; Curran, Monica; Featherstone, Valerie; Fayyaz, Shagufta; Sakellariou, Dikaios; Leite, José Carlos de Carvalho
The ME/CFS Disease Register is one of six subprojects within the National ME/CFS Observatory, a research programme funded by the Big Lottery Fund and sponsored by Action for ME. A pilot study in East Anglia, East Yorkshire, and London aimed to address the problem of identifying representative groups of subjects for research, in order to be able to draw conclusions applicable to the whole ME/CFS population.While not aiming for comprehensive population coverage, this pilot register sought to recruit participants with ME/CFS in an unbiased way from a large population base. Those recruited are constituting a cohort for long-term follow-up to shed light on prognosis, and a sampling frame for other studies. Patients with unidentified chronic fatigue were identified in GP databases using a READ-code based algorithm, and conformity to certain case definitions for ME/CFS determined. 29 practices, covering a population aged 18 to 64 of 143,153, participated.510 patients with unexplained chronic fatigue were identified. 265 of these conformed to one or more case definitions. 216 were invited to join the register; 160 agreed. 96.9% of participants conformed to the CDC 1994 (Fukuda) definition; the Canadian definition defined more precisely a subset of these. The addition of an epidemiological case definition increased case ascertainment by approximately 4%. A small-scale study in a specialist referral service in East Anglia was also undertaken.There was little difference in pattern of conformity to case definitions, age or sex among disease register participants compared with subjects in a parallel epidemiological study who declined to participate.One-year follow-up of 50 subjects showed little change in pain or fatigue scores. There were some changes in conformity to case definitions. Objective evaluation indicated that the aim of recruiting participants with ME/CFS to a Disease Register had been fulfilled, and confirmed the feasibility of our approach to case identification
Rebecca J Stack
Full Text Available Primary Sjögren's Syndrome (pSS affects exocrine glands such as those producing the tear film, leading to dry and painful eyes, but is also associated with fatigue. The experience of fatigue in pSS, and its relationship with sicca symptoms, is poorly understood.Twenty people diagnosed with pSS were recruited to participate in a semi-structured qualitative interview about their symptoms experience. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis.People with pSS described physical tiredness, mental fatigue and ocular fatigue. Mental fatigue was characterised by difficulties in attention, particularly, the ability to follow conversations and short-term memory problems. Participants linked their experience of fatigue to feeling of depression, frustration, irritation and anxiety, and therefore, fatigue was suggested to have had a large impact on their psychological well-being. People with pSS also described a range of ocular symptoms including pain, dryness, and itching, which were compounded by fatigue. For some, eye fatigue was pervasive, and daily activities involving the eyes such as reading, using the computer and driving were impaired. In some cases, the level of ocular discomfort was so severe it prevented sleep, which in turn impacted on general fatigue levels.People with pSS experience fatigue in a range of ways; physical, mental and ocular fatigue were described. Fatigue was suggested to exacerbate other ocular symptoms, posed serious physical limitations and caused psychological distress. Further research into the nature of fatigue and ocular symptoms in pSS is required.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatigue and burnout are two concepts often linked in the literature. However, regardless of their commonalities they should be approached as distinct concepts. The current and ever-growing reforms regarding the delivery of nursing care in Cyprus, stress for the development of ways to prevent burnout and effectively manage fatigue that can result from working in stressful clinical environments. Methods To explore the factors associated with the burnout syndrome in Cypriot nurses working in various clinical departments. A random sampling method taking into account geographical location, specialty and type of employment has been used. Results A total of 1,482 nurses (80.4% were females working both in the private and public sectors completed and returned an anonymous questionnaire that included several aspects related to burnout; the MBI scale, questions related to occupational stress, and questions pertaining to self reported fatigue. Two-thirds (65.1% of the nurses believed that their job is stressful with the majority reporting their job as stressful being female nurses (67.7%. Twelve point eight percent of the nurses met Maslach’s criteria for burnout. The prevalence of fatigue in nurses was found 91.9%. The prevalence of fatigue was higher in females (93% than in males (87.5% (p = 0.003. As opposed to the burnout prevalence, fatigue prevalence did not differ among the nursing departments (p = 0.166 and among nurses with a different marital status (p = 0.553. Burnout can be associated adequately knowing if nurses find their job stressful, their age, the level of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. It has been shown that the fatigue may be thought of as a predictor of burnout, but its influence is already accounted by emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Conclusion The clinical settings in Cyprus appear as stress generating environment for nurses. Nurses working both in the private and public
De Wandele, Inge; Rombaut, Lies; De Backer, Tine; Peersman, Wim; Da Silva, Hellen; De Mits, Sophie; De Paepe, Anne; Calders, Patrick; Malfait, Fransiska
To investigate whether orthostatic intolerance (OI) is a significant predictor for fatigue in Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, hypermobility type (EDS-HT). Eighty patients with EDS-HT and 52 controls participated in the first part of the study, which consisted of questionnaires. Fatigue was evaluated using the Checklist Individual Strength (CIS). As possible fatigue determinants OI [Autonomic Symptom Profile (ASP)], habitual physical activity (Baecke), affective distress [Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)], pain (SF36), medication use and generalized hypermobility (5-point score of Grahame and Hakim regarding generalized joint hypermobility) were studied. Next, a 20 min head-up tilt (70°) was performed in a subsample of 39 patients and 35 controls, while beat-to-beat heart rate and blood pressure were monitored (Holter, Finometer Pro). Before and after tilt, fatigue severity was assessed using a numeric rating scale. Patients scored significantly higher on the CIS [total score: EDS: 98.2 (18.63) vs controls: 45.8 (16.62), P < 0.001] and on the OI domain of the ASP [EDS: 22.78 (7.16) vs controls: 6.5 (7.78)]. OI was prevalent in EDS-HT (EDS: 74.4%, controls: 34.3%, P = 0.001), and frequently expressed as postural orthostatic tachycardia (41.0% of the EDS group). Patients responded to tilt with a higher heart rate and lower total peripheral resistance (p < 0.001; p = 0.032). This altered response correlated with fatigue in daily life (CIS). In the EDS-HT group, tilt provoked significantly more fatigue [numeric rating scale increase: EDS: +3.1 (1.90), controls: +0.5 (1.24), P < 0.001]. Furthermore, the factors OI, pain, affective distress, decreased physical activity and sedative use explained 47.7% of the variance in fatigue severity. OI is an important determinant of fatigue in EDS-HT. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Rodríguez-Socarrás, Moisés; Vasquez, Juan Luis; Uvin, Pieter; Skjold-Kingo, Pernille; Gómez Rivas, Juan
To determine the factors related to stress, Burnout and depression in urology, as well as consequences in residents and urologists, in addition to the possible applicable strategies to diminish and treat them. Depression, stress and Burnout syndrome has become a problem in urology specialty. These topics have gained interest in international congresses and urological associations. Efforts are being made to find related factors as well as possible strategies and applicable support programs. Burnout frequency is higher among health professionals than general population, 40-76% in students and residents, its incidence has skyrocketed in recent years, in addition Urology is one of the specialties with highest incidence and severity. Its increase has been related to work overload, documentation, administrative/bureaucratic workload, hostile work environment; its consequences include poor work performance, medical errors, depression, substance abuse, disruption in family and couple relationships and suicidal ideation. Strategies for prevention including resilience training, lifestyle balance, teamwork, and support programs. Stress, burnout and depression are problems in urology, early detection, promoting individual techniques in resilience, lifestyle and teamwork are fundamental now and for the future of the specialty. Developing and implementing support programs should be seriously considered by health systems and urological associations.
Merkies, Ingemar S J; Kieseier, Bernd C
In the clinical evaluation of patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP), scant attention is paid to symptoms such as fatigue, pain and anxiety/depression. We aimed at addressing seminal studies that focused on the burden of these symptoms and their impact on quality of life (QoL) in these conditions. Fatigue, pain, and anxiety/depression are increasingly being recognized in patients with GBS and CIDP, although their pathophysiological provenance remains unknown. Fatigue and pain are significant in terms of prevalence and intensity, may be a presenting symptom, and can persist for years after apparent functional recovery, suggesting residual injury. Anxiety/depression has also been examined although studies are limited. Despite their negative impact on QoL, the long-term dynamics of these symptoms in patients with GBS and particularly CIDP receiving therapy in routine clinical practice have not been systematically evaluated. Such observations formed the basis for the ongoing (GAMEDIS) studies evaluating the effect of Gamunex on fatigue and depression in patients with CIDP, of which some preliminary data are presented. Strength and sensory deficits are the main areas of focus in patients with GBS and CIDP, but they do not explain the total reduction in QoL, suggesting the possible role of other complaints. A more comprehensive approach to patient care demands that factors such as pain, fatigue and anxiety/depression receive greater attention. The non-interventional GAMEDIS studies are expected to provide valuable insight into the long-term effectiveness of Gamunex in everyday practice. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Koçer, Belgin; Tezcan, Mehmet Engin; Batur, Hale Zeynep; Haznedaroğlu, Şeminur; Göker, Berna; İrkeç, Ceyla; Çetinkaya, Rümeysa
The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence and pattern of cognitive dysfunction observed in primary Sjögren's syndrome (PSS) and to examine the relationships between cognitive abilities, depression, fatigue, and quality of life. Thirty-two subjects with PSS were compared with 19 healthy controls on comprehensive neuropsychological, depression, fatigue, health state, and daily-life activities tests. There was low performance in Clock Drawing, COWAT, Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT), Colorless Word Reading (Stroop1) and Recognizing Colors (Stroop2) Patterns of STROOP test, SDLT, Auditory-Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), immediate and long-term verbal memory, Benton Judgment of Line Orientation Test (BJLOT), and in all the patterns of RCFT in PSS patients compared to the healthy control group ( p < .05). It was observed an increased depression frequency and fatigue severity, impairment in health condition, and a decreased quality of life in PSS cases compared to the healthy controls ( p < .05). All the depression, fatigue severity, and quality of life tests showed a significant positive correlation with each other ( p < .05). A significant negative correlation between Clock Drawing and SF-36-BP ( p = .031, r = -.382) and SF-36-GH ( p = .027, r = -.392) was observed. Clock Drawing, PASAT, and AVLT are very useful tests to determine the subclinical and clinical cognitive dysfunction to evaluate attention, information processing speed, executive functions, and short-term and long-term verbal memory in PSS patients. Depression and fatigue may not affect the neuropsychological tests performance.
Peterson, P K; Pheley, A; Schroeppel, J; Schenck, C; Marshall, P; Kind, A; Haugland, J M; Lambrecht, L J; Swan, S; Goldsmith, S
To provide a preliminary assessment of the efficacy and safety of fludrocortisone acetate treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome. A placebo-controlled, double-blind, random-allocation crossover trial of 6 weeks of fludrocortisone. An outpatient clinical trials unit. Twenty-five participants with chronic fatigue syndrome (mean age, 40 years; 19 [76%] women; mean duration of illness, 7.0 years) were recruited from a research and clinic registry. Five patients withdrew from the trial. All participants were scheduled to receive fludrocortisone acetate (0.1-0.2 mg) or a placebo for 6 weeks in each treatment. Self-administered questionnaires were completed at the beginning and end of each treatment arm that asked patients to rate the severity of their symptoms on a visual analogue scale. The Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, a reaction time test, and a treadmill exercise test were used to assess functional status. Blood pressure, heart rate, and plasma norepinephrine levels were obtained at baseline. Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded at the end of the exercise test and monitored at all subsequent visits. At baseline, the study participants reported symptom severity greater than 5 for most symptoms, and all had evidence of marked functional impairments. No improvement was observed in the severity of any symptom or in any test of function for the 20 participants who completed both arms of the trial. Blood pressure and heart rate readings were unaffected by treatment, and plasma norepinephrine levels did not differ from those of a healthy control group. The incidence of adverse experiences was similar in the fludrocortisone and placebo arms of the trial. Low-dose fludrocortisone does not provide sufficient benefit to be evident in a preliminary blinded trial of unselected patients with chronic fatigue syndrome.
Winger, Anette; Ekstedt, Mirjam; Wyller, Vegard B; Helseth, Sølvi
To explore the experience of being an adolescent with chronic fatigue syndrome. Despite ample research, chronic fatigue syndrome is still poorly understood, and there are still controversies related to the illness. Adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome are often unable to attend school and lose social relations with friends. The challenges they face will affect their quality of life. A qualitative, phenomenological hermeneutical design. Six boys and twelve girls, aged 12-18, were interviewed, emphasising their own experiences living with chronic fatigue syndrome. Analyses were performed using a phenomenological hermeneutical method. The core theme, 'Sometimes it feels as if the world goes on without me', encompasses the feelings an adolescent living with chronic fatigue syndrome might have about life. The core theme was supported by four subthemes: 'On the side of life--locked in and shut out'; 'the body, the illness and me'; 'if the illness is not visible to others, does it exist?'; and 'handling life while hoping for a better future'. The subthemes reflect the experience of social isolation, their own and others' understanding of the illness and hope for the future. Not being able to be with friends, or attend school, made the adolescents feel different and forgotten. They felt alienated in their own bodies and were struggling to be visible to themselves and to their surroundings. Spending less time with friends and more time with their parents constituted a threat to independence and development. Yet they managed to envision a better future despite all the difficulties. To provide effective support and constructive relations to adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome, all health professions involved need insight from the persons who are themselves ill. Health centres could function as resource centres for patients and healthcare professionals. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Ragna Lind,1 Arnold Berstad,2 Jan Hatlebakk,1,3 Jørgen Valeur21Department of Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, 2Unger-Vetlesen Institute, Department of Medicine, Lovisenberg Diakonale Hospital, Oslo, 3Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, NorwayBackground: Patients with unexplained self-reported food hypersensitivity and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS suffer from several health complaints, including fatigue. The aim of the present study was to validate a Norwegian translation of the Fatigue Impact Scale (FIS, and to assess the impact of fatigue in patients with self-reported food hypersensitivity and IBS, as compared with healthy controls.Methods: Thirty-eight patients with unexplained self-reported food hypersensitivity and IBS, who participated in the validation of the FIS completed the following additional questionnaires: the Short Form of Nepean Dyspepsia Index for assessment of quality of life, the Subjective Health Complaint Inventory, and questionnaires for diagnosis and severity of IBS. Impact of fatigue was studied in 43 patients with unexplained self-reported food hypersensitivity, 70% diagnosed with IBS, and 42 healthy controls.Results: Cronbach's α for the FIS was 0.98, indicating excellent agreement between individual items. Scores on the FIS correlated with scores on the Short Form of Nepean Dyspepsia Index (r = 0.50, P = 0.001, indicating good convergent validity, and were higher in patients (median 85.0, interquartile range 36.8–105.3 than in controls (median 14.0, interquartile range 3.0–29.0, P ≤0.0001.Conclusion: The Norwegian translation of the FIS performed excellently in patients with unexplained self-reported food hypersensitivity and IBS, with patients reporting significantly more impact of chronic fatigue than healthy controls.Keywords: irritable bowel syndrome, fatigue, food hypersensitivity, quality of life
Mizuno, Kei; Tanaka, Masaaki; Tanabe, Hiroki C.; Joudoi, Takako; Kawatani, Junko; Shigihara, Yoshihito; Tomoda, Akemi; Miike, Teruhisa; Imai-Matsumura, Kyoko; Sadato, Norihiro; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi
The ability to divide one's attention deteriorates in patients with childhood chronic fatigue syndrome (CCFS). We conducted a study using a dual verbal task to assess allocation of attentional resources to two simultaneous activities (picking out vowels and reading for story comprehension) and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Patients exhibited a much larger area of activation, recruiting additional frontal areas. The right middle frontal gyrus (MFG), which is included in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, of CCFS patients was specifically activated in both the single and dual tasks; this activation level was positively correlated with motivation scores for the tasks and accuracy of story comprehension. In addition, in patients, the dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus (dACC) and left MFG were activated only in the dual task, and activation levels of the dACC and left MFG were positively associated with the motivation and fatigue scores, respectively. Patients with CCFS exhibited a wider area of activated frontal regions related to attentional resources in order to increase their poorer task performance with massive mental effort. This is likely to be less efficient and costly in terms of energy requirements. It seems to be related to the pathophysiology of patients with CCFS and to cause a vicious cycle of further increases in fatigue. PMID:26594619
Mizuno, Kei; Tanaka, Masaaki; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Joudoi, Takako; Kawatani, Junko; Shigihara, Yoshihito; Tomoda, Akemi; Miike, Teruhisa; Imai-Matsumura, Kyoko; Sadato, Norihiro; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi
The ability to divide one's attention deteriorates in patients with childhood chronic fatigue syndrome (CCFS). We conducted a study using a dual verbal task to assess allocation of attentional resources to two simultaneous activities (picking out vowels and reading for story comprehension) and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Patients exhibited a much larger area of activation, recruiting additional frontal areas. The right middle frontal gyrus (MFG), which is included in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, of CCFS patients was specifically activated in both the single and dual tasks; this activation level was positively correlated with motivation scores for the tasks and accuracy of story comprehension. In addition, in patients, the dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus (dACC) and left MFG were activated only in the dual task, and activation levels of the dACC and left MFG were positively associated with the motivation and fatigue scores, respectively. Patients with CCFS exhibited a wider area of activated frontal regions related to attentional resources in order to increase their poorer task performance with massive mental effort. This is likely to be less efficient and costly in terms of energy requirements. It seems to be related to the pathophysiology of patients with CCFS and to cause a vicious cycle of further increases in fatigue.
Full Text Available The ability to divide one's attention deteriorates in patients with childhood chronic fatigue syndrome (CCFS. We conducted a study using a dual verbal task to assess allocation of attentional resources to two simultaneous activities (picking out vowels and reading for story comprehension and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Patients exhibited a much larger area of activation, recruiting additional frontal areas. The right middle frontal gyrus (MFG, which is included in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, of CCFS patients was specifically activated in both the single and dual tasks; this activation level was positively correlated with motivation scores for the tasks and accuracy of story comprehension. In addition, in patients, the dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus (dACC and left MFG were activated only in the dual task, and activation levels of the dACC and left MFG were positively associated with the motivation and fatigue scores, respectively. Patients with CCFS exhibited a wider area of activated frontal regions related to attentional resources in order to increase their poorer task performance with massive mental effort. This is likely to be less efficient and costly in terms of energy requirements. It seems to be related to the pathophysiology of patients with CCFS and to cause a vicious cycle of further increases in fatigue.
Schütte, Kurt H; Seerden, Stefan; Venter, Rachel; Vanwanseele, Benedicte
Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is a common overuse running injury with pathomechanics likely to be exaggerated by fatigue. Wearable accelerometry provides a novel alternative to assess biomechanical parameters continuously while running in more ecologically valid settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of outdoor running fatigue and MTSS on both dynamic loading and dynamic stability derived from trunk and tibial accelerometery. Runners with (n=14) and without (n=16) history of MTSS performed an outdoor fatigue run of 3200m. Accelerometer-based measures averaged per lap included dynamic loading of the trunk and tibia (i.e. axial peak positive acceleration, signal power magnitude, and shock attenuation) as well as dynamic trunk stability (i.e. tri-axial root mean square ratio, step and stride regularity, and sample entropy). Regression coefficients from generalised estimating equations were used to evaluate group by fatigue interactions. No evidence could be found for dynamic loading being higher with fatigue in runners with MTSS history (all measures p>0.05). One significant group by running fatigue interaction effect was detected for dynamic stability. Specifically, in MTSS only, decreases mediolateral sample entropy i.e. loss of complexity was associated with running fatigue (prunning state. We suggest that a practical outdoor running fatigue protocol that concurrently captures trunk accelerometry-based movement complexity warrants further prospective investigation as an in-situ screening tool for MTSS individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lind, Ragna; Berstad, Arnold; Hatlebakk, Jan; Valeur, Jørgen
Patients with unexplained self-reported food hypersensitivity and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) suffer from several health complaints, including fatigue. The aim of the present study was to validate a Norwegian translation of the Fatigue Impact Scale (FIS), and to assess the impact of fatigue in patients with self-reported food hypersensitivity and IBS, as compared with healthy controls. Thirty-eight patients with unexplained self-reported food hypersensitivity and IBS, who participated in the validation of the FIS completed the following additional questionnaires: the Short Form of Nepean Dyspepsia Index for assessment of quality of life, the Subjective Health Complaint Inventory, and questionnaires for diagnosis and severity of IBS. Impact of fatigue was studied in 43 patients with unexplained self-reported food hypersensitivity, 70% diagnosed with IBS, and 42 healthy controls. Cronbach's α for the FIS was 0.98, indicating excellent agreement between individual items. Scores on the FIS correlated with scores on the Short Form of Nepean Dyspepsia Index (r = 0.50, P = 0.001), indicating good convergent validity, and were higher in patients (median 85.0, interquartile range 36.8-105.3) than in controls (median 14.0, interquartile range 3.0-29.0, P ≤ 0.0001). The Norwegian translation of the FIS performed excellently in patients with unexplained self-reported food hypersensitivity and IBS, with patients reporting significantly more impact of chronic fatigue than healthy controls.
Maroti, Daniel; Westerberg, Annika Fryxell; Saury, Jean-Michel; Bileviciute-Ljungar, Indre
Patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome experience cognitive difficulties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of computerized training on working memory in this syndrome. Non-randomized (quasi-experimental) study with no-treatment control group and non-equivalent dependent variable design in a myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome-cohort. Patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome who participated in a 6-month outpatient rehabilitation programme were included in the study. Eleven patients who showed signs of working memory deficit were recruited for additional memory training and 12 patients with no working memory deficit served as controls. Cognitive training with computerized working memory tasks of increasing difficulty was performed 30-45 min/day, 5 days/week over a 5-week period. Short-term and working memory tests (Digit Span - forward, backward, total) were used as primary outcome measures. Nine of the 11 patients were able to complete the training. Cognitive training increased working memory (p = 0.003) and general attention (p = 0.004) to the mean level. Short-term memory was also improved, but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.052) vs prior training. The control group did not show any significant improvement in primary outcome measures. Cognitive training may be a new treatment for patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome.
Plotnikoff, Gregory; Barber, Melissa
Single-disorder or single-organ-system clinical practice guidelines are often of limited usefulness in guiding effective management of patients with chronic multidimensional signs and symptoms. The presence of multiple long-standing medical problems in a given patient despite intensive medical effort suggests that addressing systemic core imbalances could complement more narrowly focused approaches. A 72-year-old man experiencing longstanding depression, fatigue, irritable bowel syndrome, and chronic pain in the context of additional refractory illnesses was assessed and treated, guided by a system-oriented approach to underlying core imbalances termed functional medicine. This patient was referred from a team of clinicians representing primary care, cardiology, gastroenterology, hematology, and psychology. Prior treatment had been unsuccessful in managing multiple chronic comorbidities. Diagnostic assessment included comprehensive stool and nutritional/metabolic laboratory testing. The blood-, urine-, or stool-based measurements of relevant markers for multiple systemic issues, including digestion/absorption, inflammation, oxidative stress, and methylation, identified previously unrecognized root causes of his constellation of symptoms. These functional measurements guided rational recommendations for dietary choices and supplementation. The patient experienced steady and significant improvement in his mental health, fatigue, chronic pain, and irritable bowel syndrome-as well as the unexpected resolution of his chronic idiopathic pancytopenia. The success in this case suggests that other patients with chronic, complex, and treatment-refractory illness may benefit from a system-oriented assessment of core imbalances guided by specialized nutritional/metabolic and digestive laboratory testing.
Litleskare, Sverre; Rortveit, Guri; Eide, Geir Egil; Hanevik, Kurt; Langeland, Nina; Wensaas, Knut-Arne
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a complication that can follow gastrointestinal infection, but it is not clear if patients also develop chronic fatigue. We investigated the prevalence and odds ratio of IBS and chronic fatigue 10 years after an outbreak of Giardia lamblia, compared with a control cohort, and changes in prevalence over time. We performed a prospective follow-up study of 1252 laboratory-confirmed cases of giardiasis (exposed), which developed in Bergen, Norway in 2004. Statistics Norway provided us with information from 2504 unexposed individuals from Bergen, matched by age and sex (controls). Questionnaires were mailed to participants 3, 6, and 10 years after the outbreak. Results from the 3- and 6-year follow-up analyses have been published previously. We report the 10-year data and changes in prevalence among time points, determined by logistic regression using generalized estimating equations. The prevalence of IBS 10 years after the outbreak was 43% (n = 248) among 576 exposed individuals and 14% (n = 94) among 685 controls (adjusted odds ratio for development of IBS in exposed individuals, 4.74; 95% CI, 3.61-6.23). At this time point, the prevalence of chronic fatigue was 26% (n = 153) among 587 exposed individuals and 11% (n = 73) among 692 controls (adjusted odds ratio, 3.01; 95% CI, 2.22-4.08). The prevalence of IBS among exposed persons did not change significantly from 6 years after infection (40%) to 10 years after infection (43%; adjusted odds ratio for the change 1.03; 95% CI, 0.87-1.22). However, the prevalence of chronic fatigue decreased from 31% at 6 years after infection to 26% at 10 years after infection (adjusted odds ratio for the change 0.74; 95% CI, 0.61-0.90). The prevalence of IBS did not change significantly from 6 years after an outbreak of Giardia lamblia infection in Norway to 10 years after. However, the prevalence of chronic fatigue decreased significantly from 6 to 10 years afterward. IBS and chronic fatigue were
Davenport, Todd E; Stevens, Staci R; Baroni, Katie; Van Ness, J Mark; Snell, Christopher R
To determine the validity and reliability of Short Form 36 Version 2 (SF36v2) in sub-groups of individuals with fatigue. Thirty subjects participated in this study, including n = 16 subjects who met case definition criteria for chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and n = 14 non-disabled sedentary matched control subjects. SF36v2 and Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20) were administered before two maximal cardiopulmonary exercise tests (CPETs) administered 24 h apart and an open-ended recovery questionnaire was administered 7 days after CPET challenge. The main outcome measures were self-reported time to recover to pre-challenge functional and symptom status, frequency of post-exertional symptoms and SF36v2 sub-scale scores. Individuals with CFS demonstrated significantly lower SF36v2 and MFI-20 sub-scale scores prior to CPET. Between-group differences remained significant post-CPET, however, there were no significant group by test interaction effects. Subjects with CFS reported significantly more total symptoms (p validity to identify subjects who recovered from CPET challenge within 1 day and 7 days (p reliability and validity for clinical and research applications. Adequacy of sensitivity to change of SF36v2 as a result of a fatiguing stressor should be the subject of additional study.
Wu, Jian; Ding, Hai-shu; Ye, Da-tian
Currently, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) seriously affects people's normal living and work. In the present paper, the physiological parameters, such as tissue oxygenation saturation and heart rate, were used to evaluate the subjects' fatigue degree, and the fatigue resistance capsule and coffee were taken as a measure to adjust the fatigue. Human tissue oxygen saturation (rSO2) can be monitored noninvasively and in real time by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) based on spatially-resolved spectroscopy. Aiming at those brainworkers who need to work in an office for a long time; two static experiments were designed to evaluate the fatigue degree of the subjects who either take the fatigue resistance capsules/coffee or not. The rSO2 and heart rate (HR) of the subjects in the experiment group and contrast group were measured respectively for fatigue evaluation. This work particularly analyzed the changes in rSO2 in these two groups. The results show that the rSO2 of subjects in the experiment group evidently increased compared to that in the contrast group when the subjects took the fatigue resistance capsule or coffee, thereby show that the health food can reduce the fatigue to a certain extent.
Nuutinen, Mikko; Mustonen, Terhi; Häkkinen, Jukka
CFS toolbox is an open-source collection of MATLAB functions that utilizes PsychToolbox-3 (PTB-3). It is designed to allow a researcher to create and run continuous flash suppression experiments using a variety of experimental parameters (i.e., stimulus types and locations, noise characteristics, and experiment window settings). In a CFS experiment, one of the eyes at a time is presented with a dynamically changing noise pattern, while the other eye is concurrently presented with a static target stimulus, such as a Gabor patch. Due to the strong interocular suppression created by the dominant noise pattern mask, the target stimulus is rendered invisible for an extended duration. Very little knowledge of MATLAB is required for using the toolbox; experiments are generated by modifying csv files with the required parameters, and result data are output to text files for further analysis. The open-source code is available on the project page under a Creative Commons License ( http://www.mikkonuutinen.arkku.net/CFS_toolbox/ and https://bitbucket.org/mikkonuutinen/cfs_toolbox ).
Rasouli, Omid; Stensdotter, Ann-Katrin; Van der Meer, Audrey L H
Impaired postural control has been reported in static conditions in chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia, but postural control in dynamic tasks have not yet been investigated. Thus, we investigated measurements from a force plate to evaluate dynamic balance control during gait initiation in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia compared to matched healthy controls. Thirty female participants (10 per group) performed five trials of gait initiation. Center of pressure (CoP) trajectory of the initial weight shift onto the supporting foot in the mediolateral direction (CoPX) was analyzed using General Tau Theory. We investigated the hypothesis that tau of the CoPX motion-gap (τCoPx) is coupled onto an intrinsic tauG-guide (τG) by keeping the relation τCoPx=KτG, where K is a scaling factor that determines the relevant kinematics of a movement. Mean K values were 0.57, 0.55, and 0.50 in fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, and healthy controls, respectively. Both patient groups showed K values significantly higher than 0.50 (P0.5). The findings revealed a lower level of dynamic postural control in both fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome compared to controls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The article maintains that chronic fatigue syndrome can be properly understood only by taking an integrated perspective in which evolutionary, developmental and ecological aspects are considered. The integrative approach, supplemented by a complexity theory and psychoneuroimmunological research, is capable of explaining why there are so few structural aberrations to be found in chronic fatigue syndrome and why specific treatment is so difficult to establish. A major outcome of the investigation, that all individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome are diseased in their own way, emphasises the need to study the development of personalised life histories. It also highlights an ethical dimension; personalised disease defies essentialist thinking on patient management. Another major outcome, which follows from the developmental systems perspective, is the dissolution of ontological mind-body dualism. This in turn allows for a methodological complementation of the biological and phenomenological approaches to knowledge. New research strategies that may help to resolve chronic fatigue syndrome, grounded in the revised perspective on individual development, are suggested.
An under-active or over-active internal world? An exploration of parallel dynamics within psyche and soma, and the difficulty of internal regulation, in patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.
This paper explores the dynamics brought into analytic work when there is a symmetric fusion between psyche and soma within the patient. It will consider how such a fusion may emerge from reverberations between physical constitution and a lack of maternal attunement, containment and reflective function. I will describe the work with a patient, Jane, who was diagnosed with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME) during the course of her analysis. The dynamic of her physical symptoms within the analytic work, and the impact of her internal affects and internal 'objects' within the transference and countertransference, indicated a difficulty in finding an homeostatic balance resulting in overactivity and underactivity at both somatic and psychological levels. Using the clinical work with Jane this paper will also examine the interrelationship between mother-infant attachment, an inadequate internalized maternal reflective function, affect dysregulation, unconscious fusion, the lack of psyche-soma differentiation and the impact of the latter in relation to internal regulation systems, or lack of, in patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME). I will draw on similar work carried out by Holland (1997), Simpson (1997) and Simpson et al. (1997). The paper will also employ the concept of the reflective function (Fonagy 2001; Knox 2003), and consider Matte-Blanco's (1999) concepts of generalization and unconscious symmetry in relation to the patient's internal world. I go on to consider how analysis provides a point outside the 'fusion' that can enable the 'deadlock' to be broken.
Moldofsky, Harvey; Patcai, John
The long term adverse effects of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), a viral disease, are poorly understood. Sleep physiology, somatic and mood symptoms of 22 Toronto subjects, 21 of whom were healthcare workers, (19 females, 3 males, mean age 46.29 yrs.+/- 11.02) who remained unable to return to their former occupation (mean 19.8 months, range: 13 to 36 months following SARS) were compared to 7 healthy female subjects. Because of their clinical similarities to patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) these post-SARS subjects were similarly compared to 21 drug free female patients, (mean age 42.4 +/- 11.8 yrs.) who fulfilled criteria for fibromyalgia. Chronic post-SARS is characterized by persistent fatigue, diffuse myalgia, weakness, depression, and nonrestorative sleep with associated REM-related apneas/hypopneas, an elevated sleep EEG cyclical alternating pattern, and alpha EEG sleep anomaly. Post- SARS patients had symptoms of pre and post-sleep fatigue and post sleep sleepiness that were similar to the symptoms of patients with FMS, and similar to symptoms of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Both post-SARS and FMS groups had sleep instability as indicated by the high sleep EEG cyclical alternating pattern rate. The post-SARS group had a lower rating of the alpha EEG sleep anomaly as compared to the FMS patients. The post-SARS group also reported less pre-sleep and post-sleep musculoskeletal pain symptoms. The clinical and sleep features of chronic post-SARS form a syndrome of chronic fatigue, pain, weakness, depression and sleep disturbance, which overlaps with the clinical and sleep features of FMS and chronic fatigue syndrome.
Kei Mizuno, Ph.D.
Full Text Available Motivational signals influence a wide variety of cognitive processes and components of behavioral performance. Cognitive dysfunction in patients with childhood chronic fatigue syndrome (CCFS may be closely associated with a low motivation to learn induced by impaired neural reward processing. However, the extent to which reward processing is impaired in CCFS patients is unclear. The aim of the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study was to determine whether brain activity in regions related to reward sensitivity is impaired in CCFS patients. fMRI data were collected from 13 CCFS patients (mean age, 13.6 ± 1.0 years and 13 healthy children and adolescents (HCA (mean age, 13.7 ± 1.3 years performing a monetary reward task. Neural activity in high- and low-monetary-reward conditions was compared between CCFS and HCA groups. Severity of fatigue and the reward obtained from learning in daily life were evaluated by questionnaires. Activity of the putamen was lower in the CCFS group than in the HCA group in the low-reward condition, but not in the high-reward condition. Activity of the putamen in the low-reward condition in CCFS patients was negatively and positively correlated with severity of fatigue and the reward from learning in daily life, respectively. We previously revealed that motivation to learn was correlated with striatal activity, particularly the neural activity in the putamen. This suggests that in CCFS patients low putamen activity, associated with altered dopaminergic function, decreases reward sensitivity and lowers motivation to learn.
Berg, Gina M; Harshbarger, Jenni L; Ahlers-Schmidt, Carolyn R; Lippoldt, Diana
Compassion fatigue (CF) and burnout syndrome (BOS) are identified in trauma, emergency, and critical care nursing practices. The purpose of this qualitative study was to measure CF and BOS in a trauma team and allow them to share perceptions of related stress triggers and coping strategies. Surveys to measure CF and BOS and a focus group allowed a trauma team (12 practitioners) to share perceptions of related stress triggers and coping strategies. More than half scored at risk for CF and BOS. Stress triggers were described as situation (abuse, age of patient) versus injury-related. Personal coping mechanisms were most often reported. Both CF and BOS can be assessed with a simple survey tool. Strategies for developing a program culturally sensitive to CF and BOS are provided.
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Fukuda, Sanae; Nojima, Junzo; Kajimoto, Osami; Yamaguti, Kouzi; Nakatomi, Yasuhito; Kuratsune, Hirohiko; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi
The aim of this study was to evaluate the benefit of oral ubiquinol-10 supplementation in CFS patients using an open-label study and a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled (RCT) study. Twenty patients with CFS were randomly enrolled in an 8-week open-label oral ubiquinol-10 (150 mg ubiquinol-10/day) study. The patients and the attending physicians were not blinded to the supplementation. Forty-three patients with CFS were randomly assigned to receive either ubiquinol-10 (150 mg/day) or placebo every day for 12 weeks. The patients and the attending physicians were blinded to the supplementation, and a total of 31 patients (N = 17 in the ubiquinol group and 14 in the placebo group) completed the study. The beneficial effects of ubiquinol-10 were observed in the open-label study we conducted prior to the RCT. The RCT results suggest that supplementation with ubiquinol-10 for 12 weeks is effective for improving several CFS symptoms. © 2016 BioFactors, 42(4):431-440, 2016. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
Larun, L.; Malterud, K.
OBJECTIVE: To provide insight into patients' and doctors' experiences with CFS. METHODS: We compiled available qualitative studies and applied meta-ethnography to identify and translate across the studies. Analysis provided second-order interpretation of the original findings and developed third-...
National Weather Service NWS logo - Click to go to the NWS home page Climate Prediction Center Home Site government Web resources and services. CFS Seasonal Climate Forecasts CFS Forecast of Seasonal Climate discontinued after October 2012. This page displays seasonal climate anomalies from the NCEP coupled forecast
Koopman, F.S.; Beelen, A.; Gerrits, K.H.; Bleijenberg, G.; Abma, T.A.; Visser, M.; Nollet, F.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Postpoliomyelitis Syndrome (PPS) is a complex of late onset neuromuscular symptoms with new or increased muscle weakness and muscle fatigability as key symptoms. Main clinical complaints are severe fatigue, deterioration in functional abilities and health related quality of
Şahin, Sedef; Huri, Meral; Aran, Orkun Tahir; Uyanık, Mine
Background/aim: The Cancer Fatigue Scale (CFS) was developed to evaluate the severity of fatigue in patients with breast cancer. The aim of this study is to translate and culturally adapt a Turkish version and investigate the validity and reliability of the CFS in Turkish patients with fatigue symptoms. Materials and methods: Eighty participants completed the Turkish version of the CFS for breast cancer and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Core Questionnaire ″Core 30″ (EORTC QLQ-C30). Test-retest reliability was evaluated by repeating the CFS with a 7-day interval. Results: The CFS demonstrated high test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.95) and good internal consistency (Cronbach′s alpha = 0.74) for all domains. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy was found to be 0.819, which is considered to be satisfactory (>0.5). Correlations between domains of CFS physical and EORTC physical (r: 0.77), CFS cognitive and EORTC cognitive (r: 0.70), and CFS physical and EORTC fatigue (r: 0.80) were found to be significant. Conclusion: The Turkish version of the CFS is a reliable and valid instrument to assess physical, effective, and cognitive dimensions of fatigue. The CFS may be used to evaluate the severity of fatigue in Turkish-speaking breast cancer patients.
Pinxsterhuis, Irma; Sandvik, Leiv; Strand, Elin Bolle; Bautz-Holter, Erik; Sveen, Unni
To evaluate the effectiveness of a group-based self-management program for people with chronic fatigue syndrome. A randomized controlled trial. Four mid-sized towns in southern Norway and two suburbs of Oslo. A total of 137 adults with chronic fatigue syndrome. A self-management program including eight biweekly meetings of 2.5 hours duration. The control group received usual care. Primary outcome measure: Medical Outcomes Study-Short Form-36 physical functioning subscale. Fatigue severity scale, self-efficacy scale, physical and mental component summary of the Short Form-36, and the illness cognition questionnaire (acceptance subscale). Assessments were performed at baseline, and at six-month and one-year follow-ups. At the six-month follow-up, a significant difference between the two groups was found concerning fatigue severity ( p = 0.039) in favor of the control group, and concerning self-efficacy in favor of the intervention group ( p = 0.039). These significant differences were not sustained at the one-year follow-up. No significant differences were found between the groups concerning physical functioning, acceptance, and health status at any of the measure points. The drop-out rate was 13.9% and the median number of sessions attended was seven (out of eight). The evaluated self-management program did not have any sustained effect, as compared with receiving usual care.
Conclusion: Fatigue can lead to severe functional impairment with adverse workplace outcomes. One-day workshops can be effective in training OH professionals in how to diagnose and manage fatigue and CFS. Training may increase general knowledge of fatigue and confidence in fatigue management in an OH setting.
Bashir, Waseem A.; Connell, David A. [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, London, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Lewis, Steve [Craven Cottage, Fulham Football Club, London (United Kingdom); Cullen, Nicholas [The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Orthopaedics, London, Middlesex (United Kingdom)
Injuries to the peroneal tendons are relatively common worldwide but tendon rupture without significant trauma is uncommon. Ankle mechanics can be seriously affected by disruption of one or both of the peroneal tendons although complete rupture can also remain asymptomatic. Accessory ossicles are sesamoid bones and are common findings in routine radiology of the foot and ankle. Although in the vast majority these ''os'' are normal variants of anatomy, they can lead to painful syndromes and suffer fractures and even undergo degenerative changes in response to overuse and trauma. Although similar syndromes have been discussed in the surgical literature, there is a lack of literature describing the use of modern imaging in the accurate diagnosis and its subsequent assistance towards appropriate management of os peroneum friction syndrome complicated by sesamoid fatigue syndrome. This article presents the plain film, sonographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings in a case of os peroneum friction syndrome complicated by a sesamoid fatigue fracture as well as reviewing the pertinent literature. (orig.)
Bashir, Waseem A; Lewis, Steve; Cullen, Nicholas; Connell, David A
Injuries to the peroneal tendons are relatively common worldwide but tendon rupture without significant trauma is uncommon. Ankle mechanics can be seriously affected by disruption of one or both of the peroneal tendons although complete rupture can also remain asymptomatic. Accessory ossicles are sesamoid bones and are common findings in routine radiology of the foot and ankle. Although in the vast majority these "os" are normal variants of anatomy, they can lead to painful syndromes and suffer fractures and even undergo degenerative changes in response to overuse and trauma. Although similar syndromes have been discussed in the surgical literature, there is a lack of literature describing the use of modern imaging in the accurate diagnosis and its subsequent assistance towards appropriate management of os peroneum friction syndrome complicated by sesamoid fatigue syndrome. This article presents the plain film, sonographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings in a case of os peroneum friction syndrome complicated by a sesamoid fatigue fracture as well as reviewing the pertinent literature.
Bashir, Waseem A.; Connell, David A.; Lewis, Steve; Cullen, Nicholas
Injuries to the peroneal tendons are relatively common worldwide but tendon rupture without significant trauma is uncommon. Ankle mechanics can be seriously affected by disruption of one or both of the peroneal tendons although complete rupture can also remain asymptomatic. Accessory ossicles are sesamoid bones and are common findings in routine radiology of the foot and ankle. Although in the vast majority these ''os'' are normal variants of anatomy, they can lead to painful syndromes and suffer fractures and even undergo degenerative changes in response to overuse and trauma. Although similar syndromes have been discussed in the surgical literature, there is a lack of literature describing the use of modern imaging in the accurate diagnosis and its subsequent assistance towards appropriate management of os peroneum friction syndrome complicated by sesamoid fatigue syndrome. This article presents the plain film, sonographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings in a case of os peroneum friction syndrome complicated by a sesamoid fatigue fracture as well as reviewing the pertinent literature. (orig.)
A fatigue condition was manipulated for 15 moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) individuals through the course of a three-hour neuropsychological testing session. A comparison sample of 15 participants in a group of 'no history of TBI' was fatigued through the same approach. All fatigued participants (with and ...
Gupta, Amit; Vij, Garima; Chopra, Kanwaljit
Various putative theories involved in the development of chronic fatigue syndrome revolve around the role of stress, infection and oxidative stress. Scientific evidence highlighting the protective role of nutritional supplements in chronic fatigue syndrome is lacking. Based on these assumptions, the present study was designed to evaluate the effect of olive extract in a mouse model of immunologically-induced fatigue, wherein purified lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Brucella abortus (BA) antigen were used as immunogens. The assessment of chronic fatigue syndrome was based on immobility period during chronic water-immersion stress test for 10 min daily. The stress-induced hyperalgesia was measured by tail withdrawal latency. Mice challenged with LPS or BA for 19 days showed significant increase in the immobility time, hyperalgesia and oxidative stress on the 19th day. Serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels were also markedly increased with LPS or BA challenge. Concurrent treatment with olive extract resulted in a significant decrease in the immobility time as well as hyperalgesia. There was significant attenuation of oxidative stress as well as serum TNF-α levels. The results of the present study strongly indicate the role of oxidative stress and immunological activation in the pathophysiology of chronic fatigue syndrome and highlight the valuable role of olive extract in combating chronic fatigue syndrome. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jacquet, Alain; Grolleau, Adeline; Jove, Jérémy; Lassalle, Régis; Moore, Nicholas
To study the effect of a dietary supplement (TARGET 1®: a combination of casozepine, taurine, Eleutherococcus senticosus and extramel) on burnout symptomatology. A 12-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in workers engaged in professional contact with patients, students or clients. All were affected by burnout syndrome based on a score of ≥4 on the Burnout Measure Scale (BMS-10). The primary outcome measure was the change in the BMS-10 score; secondary outcome measures included the change in the Maslach's Burnout Inventory scale-Human Service Survey (MBI-HSS) score and the Beck Depression Inventory. Five scores were evaluated. Eighty-seven participants were enrolled in the study: 44 received the active formulation (verum group); 43 received placebo. After 12 weeks' supplementation, the placebo group showed significant improvements in scores for BMS-10, MBI-HSS fatigue and the Beck Depression Inventory, but MBI-HSS depersonalization and task management were not improved; the verum group showed significant improvements in all five scores. The verum group consistently showed significantly greater improvements in scores than the placebo group. TARGET 1® significantly improved the symptoms of burnout after 12 weeks' use. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Skapinakis, Petros; Lewis, Glyn; Mavreas, Venetsanos
Unexplained fatigue has been extensively studied but most of the samples used were from Western countries. To present international data on the prevalence of unexplained fatigue and fatigue as a presenting complaint in primary care. Method Secondary analysis of the World Health Organization study of psychological problems in general health care. A total of 5438 primary care attenders from 14 countries were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The prevalence of unexplained fatigue of 1-month duration differed across centres, with a range between 2.26 (95% CI 1.17-4.33) and 15.05 (95% CI 10.85-20.49). Subjects from more-developed countries were more likely to report unexplained fatigue but less likely to present with fatigue to physicians compared with subjects from less developed countries. In less-developed countries fatigue might be an indicator of unmet psychiatric need, but in more-developed countries it is probably a symbol of psychosocial distress.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The research performed under this proposal will assess the applicability of the Core Flight Software (CFS) within human-rated type architectures by prototyping and...
Xu, Wei; Zhou, Ri-Hua; Li, Lei; Jiang, Ming-Wei
To compare the differences of therapeutic effect of chronic fatigue syndrome treated with the combined therapy of coiling dragon needling and cupping on back and the western medicine therapy with Prednisone. Seventy-two cases were randomly divided into an acupuncture and cupping group (37 cases) and a Prednisone group (35 cases). In acupuncture and cupping group, Jiaji (EX-B 2) points of T1--L5 were applied with coiling dragon needling (once a day), combined with moving cupping on back (once every two days); in Prednisone group, Prednisone tablets were orally taken for 10 mg at 8:00 am. Seven days made one course, and 2 courses were carried on totally. FS-14 scale and BELL's chronic fatigue syndrome integral table were applied to evaluate the fatigue degree of patients before and after treatment, and the therapeutic effects of both groups were compared. After one course of treatment, the BELL's scores of both groups were obviously improved (both P 0.05); after two courses of treatment, the BELL's score in acupuncture and cupping group improved more obviously than that in Prednisone group, and the total effective rate of 91.9% (34/37) in acupuncture and cupping group was superior to that of 71.4% (25/35) in Prednisone group (P cupping on back is positive, superior to that of Prednisone with oral administration.
Meeus, Mira; Nijs, Jo; Vanderheiden, Tanja; Baert, Isabel; Descheemaeker, Filip; Struyf, Filip
To establish the effects of relaxation therapy on autonomic function, pain, fatigue and daily functioning in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome or fibromyalgia. A systematic literature study was performed. Using specific keywords related to fibromyalgia or chronic fatigue syndrome and relaxation therapy, the electronic databases PubMed and Web of Science were searched. Included articles were assessed for their risk of bias and relevant information regarding relaxation was extracted. The review was conducted and reported according to the PRISMA-statement. Thirteen randomized clinical trials of sufficient quality were included, resulting in a total of 650 fibromyalgia patients (11 studies) and 88 chronic fatigue syndrome patients (3 studies). None of the studies reported effects on autonomic function. Six studies reported the effect of guided imagery on pain and daily functioning in fibromyalgia. The acute effect of a single session of guided imagery was studied in two studies and seems beneficial for pain relief. For other relaxation techniques (eg. muscle relaxation, autogenic training) no conclusive evidence was found for the effect on pain and functioning in fibromyalgia patients comparison to multimodal treatment programs. For fatigue a multimodal approach seemed better than relaxation, as shown in the sole three studies on chronic fatigue syndrome patients. There is moderate evidence for the acute effect of guided imagery on pain, although the content of the visualization is a matter of debate. Other relaxation formats and the effects on functionality and autonomic function require further study. © The Author(s) 2014.
Castro-Marrero, Jesús; Zaragozá, Maria C; González-Garcia, Sergio; Aliste, Luisa; Sáez-Francàs, Naia; Romero, Odile; Ferré, Alex; Fernández de Sevilla, Tomás; Alegre, José
Non-restorative sleep is a hallmark symptom of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis. However, little is known about self-reported sleep disturbances in these subjects. This study aimed to assess the self-reported sleep quality and its impact on quality of life in a Spanish community-based chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis cohort. A prospective cross-sectional cohort study was conducted in 1,455 Spanish chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis patients. Sleep quality, fatigue, pain, functional capacity impairment, psychopathological status, anxiety/depression and health-related quality of life were assessed using validated subjective measures. The frequencies of muscular, cognitive, neurological, autonomic and immunological symptom clusters were above 80%. High scores were recorded for pain, fatigue, psychopathological status, anxiety/depression, and low scores for functional capacity and quality of life, all of which correlated significantly (all p quality of sleep as measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Multivariate regression analysis showed that after adjusting for age and gender, the pain intensity (odds ratio, 1.11; p quality of life (odds ratio, 0.96; both p quality. These findings suggest that this large chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis sample presents poor sleep quality, as assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and that this poor sleep quality is associated with many aspects of quality of life. © 2018 European Sleep Research Society.
DeFreitas, E.; Hilliard, B.; Cheney, P.R.; Bell, D.S.; Kiggundu, E.; Sankey, D.; Wroblewska, Z.; Palladino, M.; Woodward, J.P.; Koprowski, H. (Wistar Inst., Philadelphia, PA (United States))
Chronic fatigue immune dysfunction syndrome (CFIDS) is a recently recognized illness characterized by debilitating fatigue as well as immunological and neurological abnormalities. Once thought to be caused by Epstein-Barr virus, it is now thought to have a different but unknown etiology. The authors evaluted 30 adult and pediatric CFIDS patients from six eastern states for the presence of human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) types I and II by Western immunoblotting, polymerase chain reaction, and in situ hybridization of blood samples. The majority of patients were positive for HTLV antibodies by Western blotting and for HTLV-II gag sequences by polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization. Twenty nonexposure healthy controls were negative in all assays. These data support an association between an HTLV-II-like virus and CFIDS.
DeFreitas, E.; Hilliard, B.; Cheney, P.R.; Bell, D.S.; Kiggundu, E.; Sankey, D.; Wroblewska, Z.; Palladino, M.; Woodward, J.P.; Koprowski, H.
Chronic fatigue immune dysfunction syndrome (CFIDS) is a recently recognized illness characterized by debilitating fatigue as well as immunological and neurological abnormalities. Once thought to be caused by Epstein-Barr virus, it is now thought to have a different but unknown etiology. The authors evaluted 30 adult and pediatric CFIDS patients from six eastern states for the presence of human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) types I and II by Western immunoblotting, polymerase chain reaction, and in situ hybridization of blood samples. The majority of patients were positive for HTLV antibodies by Western blotting and for HTLV-II gag sequences by polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization. Twenty nonexposure healthy controls were negative in all assays. These data support an association between an HTLV-II-like virus and CFIDS
Kawabata, Minako; Ueno, Taro; Tomita, Jun; Kawatani, Junko; Tomoda, Akemi; Kume, Shoen; Kume, Kazuhiko
Accumulating evidence has shown a universality in the temporal organization of activity and rest among animals ranging from mammals to insects. Previous reports in both humans and mice showed that rest bout durations followed long-tailed (i.e., power-law) distributions, whereas activity bouts followed exponential distributions. We confirmed similar results in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Conversely, another report showed that the awakening bout durations, which were defined by polysomnography in bed, followed power-law distributions, while sleeping periods, which may correspond to rest, followed exponential distributions. This apparent discrepancy has been left to be resolved. Actigraphy data from healthy and disordered children were analyzed separately for two periods: time out of bed (UP period) and time in bed (DOWN period). When data over a period of 24 h were analyzed as a whole, rest bouts showed a power law distribution as previously reported. However, when UP and DOWN period data were analyzed separately, neither showed power law properties. Using a newly developed strict method, only 30% of individuals satisfied the power law criteria, even when the 24 h data were analyzed. The human results were in contrast to the Drosophila results, which revealed clear power-law distributions for both day time and night time rest through the use of a strict method. In addition, we analyzed the actigraphy data from patients with childhood type chronic fatigue syndrome (CCFS), and found that they showed differences from healthy controls when their UP and DOWN data were analyzed separately. These results suggested that the DOWN sleep, the bout distribution of which showed exponential properties, contributes to the production of long-tail distributions in human rest periods. We propose that separate analysis of UP and DOWN period data is important for understanding the temporal organization of activity.
Maness, Caroline; Saini, Prabhjyot; Bliwise, Donald L; Olvera, Victoria; Rye, David B; Trotti, Lynn M
Symptoms of the central disorders of hypersomnolence extend beyond excessive daytime sleepiness to include non-restorative sleep, fatigue and cognitive dysfunction. They share much in common with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome, recently renamed systemic exertion intolerance disease, whose additional features include post-exertional malaise and orthostatic intolerance. We sought to determine the frequency and correlates of systemic exertion intolerance disease in a hypersomnolent population. One-hundred and eighty-seven hypersomnolent patients completed questionnaires regarding sleepiness and fatigue; questionnaires and clinical records were used to assess for systemic exertion intolerance disease. Sleep studies, hypocretin and cataplexy were additionally used to assign diagnoses of hypersomnolence disorders or sleep apnea. Included diagnoses were idiopathic hypersomnia (n = 63), narcolepsy type 2 (n = 25), persistent sleepiness after obstructive sleep apnea treatment (n = 25), short habitual sleep duration (n = 41), and sleepiness with normal sleep study (n = 33). Twenty-one percent met systemic exertion intolerance disease criteria, and the frequency of systemic exertion intolerance disease was not different across sleep diagnoses (p = .37). Patients with systemic exertion intolerance disease were no different from those without this diagnosis by gender, age, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, depressive symptoms, or sleep study parameters. The whole cohort reported substantial fatigue on questionnaires, but the systemic exertion intolerance disease group exhibited more profound fatigue and was less likely to respond to traditional wake-promoting agents (88.6% versus 67.7%, p = .01). Systemic exertion intolerance disease appears to be a common co-morbidity in patients with hypersomnolence, which is not specific to hypersomnolence subtype but may portend a poorer prognosis for treatment response. © 2018 European Sleep Research Society.
Velvin, Gry; Bathen, Trine; Rand-Hendriksen, Svend; Geirdal, Amy Østertun
Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a severe autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder that might influence peoples work ability. This cross sectional study aims to investigate work participation in adults with verified MFS diagnosis and to explore how the health related consequences of MFS and other factors might influence work participation. The prevalence of health problems in young adults compared to older adults with MFS was examined in association to work participation. A postal questionnaire including questions about work participation, demographic characteristics, MFS related health problems, chronic pain, and fatigue was sent to 117 adults with verified MFS (Ghent 1), and 62% answered. Fifty-nine percent were employed or students, significantly lower work participation than the General Norwegian Population (GNP), but higher than the Norwegian population of people with disability. Most young adults worked full-time despite extensive health problems, but the average age for leaving work was low. Few had received any work adaptations prior to retiring from work. In multiple logistic regression analysis, only age, lower educational level and severe fatigue were significantly associated with low work participation; not MFS related health problems or chronic pain. Fatigue appears to be the most challenging health problem to deal with in work, but the covariance is complex. Focus on vocational guidance early in life, more appropriate work adaptations, and psychosocial support might improve the possibility for sustaining in work for adults with MFS. More research about work challenges in adults with MFS is needed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available With the development of Internet of Everything such as Internet of Things, Internet of People, and Industrial Internet, big data is being generated. Clustering is a widely used technique for big data analytics and mining. However, most of current algorithms are not effective to cluster heterogeneous data which is prevalent in big data. In this paper, we propose a high-order CFS algorithm (HOCFS to cluster heterogeneous data by combining the CFS clustering algorithm and the dropout deep learning model, whose functionality rests on three pillars: (i an adaptive dropout deep learning model to learn features from each type of data, (ii a feature tensor model to capture the correlations of heterogeneous data, and (iii a tensor distance-based high-order CFS algorithm to cluster heterogeneous data. Furthermore, we verify our proposed algorithm on different datasets, by comparison with other two clustering schemes, that is, HOPCM and CFS. Results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in clustering heterogeneous data.
Vos-Vromans, Desirée C W M; Smeets, Rob J E M; Rijnders, Leonie J M; Gorrissen, René R M; Pont, Menno; Köke, Albère J A; Hitters, Minou W M G C; Evers, Silvia M A A; Knottnerus, André J
Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome experience extreme fatigue, which often leads to substantial limitations of occupational, educational, social and personal activities. Currently, there is no consensus regarding the treatment. Patients try many different therapies to overcome their fatigue. Although there is no consensus, cognitive behavioural therapy is seen as one of the most effective treatments. Little is known about multidisciplinary rehabilitation treatment, a combination of cognitive behavioural therapy with principles of mindfulness, gradual increase of activities, body awareness therapy and pacing. The difference in effectiveness and cost-effectiveness between multidisciplinary rehabilitation treatment and cognitive behavioural therapy is as yet unknown. The FatiGo (Fatigue-Go) trial aims to compare the effects of both treatment approaches in outpatient rehabilitation on fatigue severity and quality of life in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. One hundred twenty patients who meet the criteria of chronic fatigue syndrome, fulfil the inclusion criteria and sign the informed consent form will be recruited. Both treatments take 6 months to complete. The outcome will be assessed at 6 and 12 months after the start of treatment. Two weeks after the start of treatment, expectancy and credibility will be measured, and patients will be asked to write down their personal goals and score their current performance on these goals on a visual analogue scale. At 6 and 14 weeks after the start of treatment, the primary outcome and three potential mediators-self-efficacy, causal attributions and present-centred attention-awareness-will be measured. Primary outcomes are fatigue severity and quality of life. Secondary outcomes are physical activity, psychological symptoms, self-efficacy, causal attributions, impact of disease on emotional and physical functioning, present-centred attention-awareness, life satisfaction, patient personal goals, self-rated improvement
Vos-Vromans Desirée CWM
Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome experience extreme fatigue, which often leads to substantial limitations of occupational, educational, social and personal activities. Currently, there is no consensus regarding the treatment. Patients try many different therapies to overcome their fatigue. Although there is no consensus, cognitive behavioural therapy is seen as one of the most effective treatments. Little is known about multidisciplinary rehabilitation treatment, a combination of cognitive behavioural therapy with principles of mindfulness, gradual increase of activities, body awareness therapy and pacing. The difference in effectiveness and cost-effectiveness between multidisciplinary rehabilitation treatment and cognitive behavioural therapy is as yet unknown. The FatiGo (Fatigue-Go trial aims to compare the effects of both treatment approaches in outpatient rehabilitation on fatigue severity and quality of life in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Methods One hundred twenty patients who meet the criteria of chronic fatigue syndrome, fulfil the inclusion criteria and sign the informed consent form will be recruited. Both treatments take 6 months to complete. The outcome will be assessed at 6 and 12 months after the start of treatment. Two weeks after the start of treatment, expectancy and credibility will be measured, and patients will be asked to write down their personal goals and score their current performance on these goals on a visual analogue scale. At 6 and 14 weeks after the start of treatment, the primary outcome and three potential mediators—self-efficacy, causal attributions and present-centred attention-awareness—will be measured. Primary outcomes are fatigue severity and quality of life. Secondary outcomes are physical activity, psychological symptoms, self-efficacy, causal attributions, impact of disease on emotional and physical functioning, present-centred attention-awareness, life
Jason, Leonard; Porter, Nicole; Shelleby, Elizabeth; Till, Lindsay; Bell, David S.; Lapp, Charles W.; Rowe, Kathy; De Meirleir, Kenny
The new diagnostic criteria for pediatric ME/CFS are structurally based on the Canadian Clinical Adult case definition, and have more required specific symptoms than the (Fukuda et al. Ann Intern Med 121:953-959, 1994) adult case definition. Physicians specializing in pediatric ME/CFS referred thirty-three pediatric patients with ME/CFS and 21…
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20 was developed in 1995. Since then, it has been widely used in cancer research and cancer-related illnesses but has never been validated in fatiguing illnesses or in a large US population-selected sample. In this study, we sought to examine the reliability and validity of the MFI-20 in the population of the state of Georgia, USA. Further, we assessed whether the MFI-20 could serve as a complementary diagnostic tool in chronically fatigued and unwell populations. Methods The data derive from a cross-sectional population-based study investigating the prevalence of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS in Georgia. The study sample was comprised of three diagnostic groups: CFS-like (292, chronically unwell (269, and well (222. Participants completed the MFI-20 along with several other measures of psychosocial functioning, including the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form-36 (SF-36, the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS, and the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI. We assessed the five MFI-20 subscales using several criteria: inter-item correlations, corrected item-total correlations, internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha coefficients, construct validity, discriminant (known-group validity, floor/ceiling effects, and convergent validity through correlations with the SF-36, SDS, and STAI instruments. Results Averaged inter-item correlations ranged from 0.38 to 0.61, indicating no item redundancy. Corrected item-total correlations for all MFI-20 subscales were greater than 0.30, and Cronbach's alpha coefficients achieved an acceptable level of 0.70. No significant floor/ceiling effect was observed. Factor analysis demonstrated factorial complexity. The MFI-20 also distinguished clearly between three diagnostic groups on all subscales. Furthermore, correlations with depression (SDS, anxiety (STAI, and functional impairment (SF-36 demonstrated strong convergent
Stormorken, Eva; Jason, Leonard A; Kirkevold, Marit
Post-infectious fatigue syndrome (PIFS), also known as post-viral fatigue syndrome, is a complex condition resulting in physical, cognitive, emotional, neurological, vocational and/or role performance disabilities in varying degrees that changes over time. The needs for health care resources are high, and costly, as is the economic burden on the affected individuals. Many factors may impact the trajectory, and frequently PIFS develops into a chronic condition. Health professionals lack understanding and knowledge, which results in delayed diagnosis, lack of recognition, appropriate treatment, support and practical help. The aim of our study was to explore, from the perspective of persons who had lived with PIFS for four years following an outbreak of Giardia l. induced enteritis, factors that may have impacted their illness trajectory and how these factors had played a role during different phases. In this retrospective exploratory qualitative study a group of 26 affected adults between 26 and 59 years old were selected for in-depth interviews. A maximum variation sample was recruited from a physician-diagnosed cohort of persons with PIFS enrolled at a tertiary outpatient fatigue clinic. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and subjected to qualitative content analysis. Unhelpful and helpful factors were associated with the healthcare system, health professionals and the affected persons were experienced as having an impact on the trajectory. External impacting factors which are related to the health care system, providers and the social security system are misdiagnosis, trivialization of symptoms, unhelpful advice, delayed diagnosis and lack of appropriate help. Internal impacting factors related to the affected individuals were lack of knowledge, overestimating functional capacity, assuming the condition will pass, ignoring body signals and denial. A model of impacting factors in each phase of the trajectory is presented. Unmet needs may
Full Text Available The PACE trial compared the effectiveness of adding adaptive pacing therapy (APT, cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT, or graded exercise therapy (GET, to specialist medical care (SMC for patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. This paper reports the relative cost-effectiveness of these treatments in terms of quality adjusted life years (QALYs and improvements in fatigue and physical function.Resource use was measured and costs calculated. Healthcare and societal costs (healthcare plus lost production and unpaid informal care were combined with QALYs gained, and changes in fatigue and disability; incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs were computed.SMC patients had significantly lower healthcare costs than those receiving APT, CBT and GET. If society is willing to value a QALY at £30,000 there is a 62.7% likelihood that CBT is the most cost-effective therapy, a 26.8% likelihood that GET is most cost effective, 2.6% that APT is most cost-effective and 7.9% that SMC alone is most cost-effective. Compared to SMC alone, the incremental healthcare cost per QALY was £18,374 for CBT, £23,615 for GET and £55,235 for APT. From a societal perspective CBT has a 59.5% likelihood of being the most cost-effective, GET 34.8%, APT 0.2% and SMC alone 5.5%. CBT and GET dominated SMC, while APT had a cost per QALY of £127,047. ICERs using reductions in fatigue and disability as outcomes largely mirrored these findings.Comparing the four treatments using a health care perspective, CBT had the greatest probability of being the most cost-effective followed by GET. APT had a lower probability of being the most cost-effective option than SMC alone. The relative cost-effectiveness was even greater from a societal perspective as additional cost savings due to reduced need for informal care were likely.
... fatigue syndrome (CFS), colic, fever, varicose veins, and hemorrhoids. Blueberry is also used for improving circulation, and ... fatigue syndrome (CFS). Fever. Sore throat. Varicose veins. Hemorrhoids. Bad circulation. Diarrhea. Constipation. Labor pains. Other conditions. ...
Zhuang, Cheng-Le; Mao, Xiang-Yu; Liu, Shu; Chen, Wei-Zhe; Huang, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Chang-Jing; Chen, Bi-Cheng; Shen, Xian; Yu, Zhen
Ginsenoside Rb1 is reported to possess anti-fatigue activity, but the mechanisms remain unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms responsible for the anti-fatigue effect of ginsenoside Rb1 on postoperative fatigue syndrome induced by major small intestinal resection (MSIR) in aged rat. Aged rats with MSIR were administrated with ginsenoside Rb1 (15 mg/kg) once a day from 3 days before surgery to the day of sacrifice, or with saline as corresponding controls. Rats without MSIR but going through the same surgery procedure were administrated with saline as blank controls. Anti-fatigue effect was assessed by an open field test; superoxide dismutase, reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde in skeletal muscle were determined. The mRNA levels of Akt2 and Nrf2 in skeletal muscle were measured by real-time quantitative PCR. The activation of Akt and Nrf2 was examined by western blot and immunohistofluorescence. Our results revealed that ginsenoside Rb1 significantly increased the journey and the rearing frequency, decreased the time of rest in aged rats with MSIR. In addition, ginsenoside Rb1 significantly reduced reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde release and increased the superoxide dismutase activity of skeletal muscle in aged rats with MSIR. Ginsenoside Rb1 also increased the expression of Akt2 and Nrf2 mRNA, up-regulated Akt phosphorylation and Nrf2 nuclear translocation. These findings indicate that ginsenoside Rb1 has an anti-fatigue effect on postoperative fatigue syndrome in aged rat, and the mechanism possibly involves activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway with subsequent Nrf2 nuclear translocation and induction of antioxidant enzymes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Dass, S; Bowman, S J; Vital, E M; Ikeda, K; Pease, C T; Hamburger, J; Richards, A; Rauz, S; Emery, P
Primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS) causes significant systemic symptoms including fatigue as well as glandular dysfunction. There are currently no effective systemic therapies; however, open label series have suggested that rituximab may be beneficial for systemic and glandular manifestations. Therefore, we performed a double blind, placebo-controlled, randomised pilot study of the efficacy of rituximab in reducing fatigue in pSS. A total of 17 patients with pSS and a score on fatigue visual analogue scale (VAS) >50 were randomised to receive either 2 infusions of rituximab 1 g or placebo; patients also received oral and intravenous steroids. Outcome measures included: the proportion of patients with >20% reduction in fatigue VAS, changes in pSS related symptoms, health related quality of life and immunological parameters of pSS. These were measured 6 months after therapy. There was significant improvement from baseline in fatigue VAS in the rituximab group (p<0.001) in contrast to the placebo group (p = 0.147). There was a significant difference between the groups at 6 months in the social functioning score of SF-36 (p = 0.01) and a trend to significant difference in the mental health domain score of SF-36 (p = 0.06). There was one episode of serum sickness in the rituximab treated group. This is the first double blind study of rituximab in pSS to show benefit; further studies are justified.
Voermans, N.C.; Knoop, H.; Bleijenberg, G.; Engelen, B.G.M. van
OBJECTIVES: Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of inherited connective tissue disorders characterised by joint hypermobility, skin hyperextensibility and tissue fragility. It has recently been shown that muscle weakness occurs frequently in EDS, and that
M.P.J. Garssen (Marcel)
textabstractChapter 1 is the general introduction of this thesis, in which di.erent aspects of the Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) are described. GBS is an acute post-infectious polyneuropathy, in which the immune system plays an important role. Insight in pathogenesis, clinical and
Zwarts, M J; Bleijenberg, G; van Engelen, B G M
Fatigue is a multidimensional concept covering both physiological and psychological aspects. Chronic fatigue is a typical symptom of diseases such as cancer, multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson's disease (PD) and cerebrovascular disorders but is also presented by people in whom no defined somatic disease has been established. If certain criteria are met, chronic fatigue syndrome can be diagnosed. The 4-item Abbreviated Fatigue Questionnaire allows the extent of the experienced fatigue to be assessed with a high degree of reliability and validity. Physiological fatigue has been well defined and originates in both the peripheral and central nervous system. The condition can be assessed by combining force and surface-EMG measurements (including frequency analyses and muscle-fibre conduction estimations), twitch interpolation, magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex and analysis of changes in the readiness potential. Fatigue is a well-known phenomenon in both central and peripheral neurological disorders. Examples of the former conditions are multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease and stroke. Although it seems to be a universal symptom of many brain disorders, the unique characteristics of the concomitant fatigue also point to a specific relationship with several of these syndromes. As regards neuromuscular disorders, fatigue has been reported in patients with post-polio syndrome, myasthenia gravis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, facioscapulohumeral dystrophy, myotonic dystrophy and hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type-I. More than 60% of all neuromuscular patients suffer from severe fatigue, a prevalence resembling that of patients with MS. Except for several rare myopathies with specific metabolic derangements leading to exercise-induced muscle fatigue, most studies have not identified a prominent peripheral cause for the fatigue in this population. In contrast, the central activation of the diseased neuromuscular system is generally found to be suboptimal. The
Verner, O M; Murashko, N K
Epidemiology information which testify to prevalence syndrome of chronic ustalostti (SV) is resulted in the article, and from some data this diagnosis is covered at more than 20% patients which carried neyroinfection. SV meets more frequent only in age 40-59, thus for women a disease is marked in 4 times more frequent, than for men. Today etiology of disease remains unknown, but the value of genetic, immunological factors, pathogens, neurogenic violations and features of feed is examined. Possibility of infectious etiology SV causes considerable interest of researchers, but at first this syndrome was examined as a sharp viral infection, where the most reliable exciter is consider the virus of Epshteyna-barr. Using of intravenous introduction of globulin for SV carries experimental character and grounded on a hypothesis about immunological or infectious etiology of this disease.
Clark, Lucy V; Pesola, Francesca; Thomas, Janice M; Vergara-Williamson, Mario; Beynon, Michelle; White, Peter D
Graded exercise therapy is an effective and safe treatment for chronic fatigue syndrome, but it is therapist intensive and availability is limited. We aimed to test the efficacy and safety of graded exercise delivered as guided self-help. In this pragmatic randomised controlled trial, we recruited adult patients (18 years and older) who met the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence criteria for chronic fatigue syndrome from two secondary-care clinics in the UK. Patients were randomly assigned to receive specialist medical care (SMC) alone (control group) or SMC with additional guided graded exercise self-help (GES). Block randomisation (randomly varying block sizes) was done at the level of the individual with a computer-generated sequence and was stratified by centre, depression score, and severity of physical disability. Patients and physiotherapists were necessarily unmasked from intervention assignment; the statistician was masked from intervention assignment. SMC was delivered by specialist doctors but was not standardised; GES consisted of a self-help booklet describing a six-step graded exercise programme that would take roughly 12 weeks to complete, and up to four guidance sessions with a physiotherapist over 8 weeks (maximum 90 min in total). Primary outcomes were fatigue (measured by the Chalder Fatigue Questionnaire) and physical function (assessed by the Short Form-36 physical function subscale); both were self-rated by patients at 12 weeks after randomisation and analysed in all randomised patients with outcome data at follow-up (ie, by modified intention to treat). We recorded adverse events, including serious adverse reactions to trial interventions. We used multiple linear regression analysis to compare SMC with GES, adjusting for baseline and stratification factors. This trial is registered at ISRCTN, number ISRCTN22975026. Between May 15, 2012, and Dec 24, 2014, we recruited 211 eligible patients, of whom 107 were assigned to the
Kim, Sangsoo; Choo, JongHoo; Ju, Sungbum
[Purpose] The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of aroma stimulation during isotonic exercise on the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and the blood fatigue factors of athletes who have patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). [Subjects and Methods] The research subjects were seven athletes in their twenties who suffer from PFPS. They were divided into a control group and an aroma stimulation group and performed isotonic exercises repeatedly. After exercising, the RPE and blood fatigue factors, including creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and ammonia, were measured through blood sampling. [Results] The aroma stimulus group showed significantly lower RPE than the control group immediately after exercising, which included leg presses, leg curls, bicep curls, and leg extensions. Among the blood fatigue factors, the change in LDH indicated the effect of aroma stimulation. [Conclusion] We confirmed that aroma stimulation during isotonic exercise has the positive effect of reducing the RPE and blood fatigue factors, such as blood LDH, of the athletes with PFPS.
McComas, David; Wilmot, Jonathan; Cudmore, Alan
In February 2015 the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) completed the open source release of the entire Core Flight Software (cFS) suite. After the open source release a multi-NASA center Configuration Control Board (CCB) was established that has managed multiple cFS product releases. The cFS was developed and is being maintained in compliance with the NASA Class B software development process requirements and the open source release includes all Class B artifacts. The cFS is currently running on three operational science spacecraft and is being used on multiple spacecraft and instrument development efforts. While the cFS itself is a viable flight software (FSW) solution, we have discovered that the cFS community is a continuous source of innovation and growth that provides products and tools that serve the entire FSW lifecycle and future mission needs. This paper summarizes the current state of the cFS community, the key FSW technologies being pursued, the development/verification tools and opportunities for the small satellite community to become engaged. The cFS is a proven high quality and cost-effective solution for small satellites with constrained budgets.
Lucija Tomljenovic PhD
Full Text Available We report the case of a 14-year-old girl who developed postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS with chronic fatigue 2 months following Gardasil vaccination. The patient suffered from persistent headaches, dizziness, recurrent syncope, poor motor coordination, weakness, fatigue, myalgias, numbness, tachycardia, dyspnea, visual disturbances, phonophobia, cognitive impairment, insomnia, gastrointestinal disturbances, and a weight loss of 20 pounds. The psychiatric evaluation ruled out the possibility that her symptoms were psychogenic or related to anxiety disorders. Furthermore, the patient tested positive for ANA (1:1280, lupus anticoagulant, and antiphospholipid. On clinical examination she presented livedo reticularis and was diagnosed with Raynaud’s syndrome. This case fulfills the criteria for the autoimmune/auto-inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA. Because human papillomavirus vaccination is universally recommended to teenagers and because POTS frequently results in long-term disabilities (as was the case in our patient, a thorough follow-up of patients who present with relevant complaints after vaccination is strongly recommended.
Nickel, J.C.; Tripp, D.A.; Pontari, M.
validated questionnaires focused on symptoms, suffering/coping and behavioral/social factors. Results: Questionnaires were completed by 205 patients with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome and 117 controls matched for age. Prevalence of selfreported associated condition diagnosis in interstitial...
Velvin, Gry; Bathen, Trine; Rand-Hendriksen, Svend; Geirdal, Amy Østertun
The objective with this study was to explore satisfaction with life (SWL) among adults with Marfan syndrome (MFS) compared to the general Norwegian population and other patient groups and