WorldWideScience

Sample records for fatal unintentional carbon

  1. A population based study of unintentional firearm fatalities

    OpenAIRE

    Cherry, D; Runyan, C; Butts, J

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To describe the circumstances of fatal unintentional firearm injuries in a statewide population in a region of the United States with high firearm fatality rates and to compare to similar data from an earlier period in the same state.

  2. Insomnia symptoms and risk for unintentional fatal injuries--the HUNT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugsand, Lars Erik; Strand, Linn B; Vatten, Lars J; Janszky, Imre; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon

    2014-11-01

    To assess the association between insomnia symptoms and risk of fatal unintentional injuries. Population-based prospective cohort study with a mean follow-up of 14 y, linking health survey data with information on insomnia symptoms to the National Cause of Death Registry. Nord-Trøndelag County, Norway. A total of 54,399 men and women 20-89 y of age who participated in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study between 1995 and 1997. N/A. There were 277 unintentional fatal injuries, including 57 fatal motor vehicle injuries during follow-up. There was a dose-dependent association between the number of insomnia symptoms and risk of unintentional fatal injuries (P for trend 0.001) and fatal motor vehicle injuries (P for trend 0.023), respectively. The proportion of unintentional fatal injuries cases that could have been prevented in the absence of difficulties initiating sleep, difficulties maintaining sleep, and having a feeling of nonrestorative sleep were 8%, 9%, and 8%, respectively. The corresponding estimates for motor vehicle injuries were 34%, 11%, and 10%. Insomnia is a major contributor to both unintentional fatal injuries in general as well as fatal motor vehicle injuries. Increasing public health awareness about insomnia and identifying persons with insomnia may be important in preventing unintentional fatal injuries.

  3. Unintentional non-fatal home-related injuries in Central Anatolia, Turkey: frequencies, characteristics, and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alptekin, Fadimana; Uskun, Ersin; Kisioglu, Ahmet Nesimi; Ozturk, Mustafa

    2008-05-01

    Injuries constitute a major public health problem worldwide. Homes are an important setting for non-fatal unintentional injuries. The aim of this study is to determine the frequency, the characteristics, and the outcome of unintentional non-fatal injuries in the household, and to describe the related risk factors through a community-based survey. The study was conducted using a household-based survey design. Eight hundred inhabitants were sampled from the entire population in the city centre by a stratified sampling method in 2004. All unintentional non-fatal home-related injuries occurring in the previous year were registered and examined, making special note of the mechanism of the injuries, the time and place of the incidents and their outcomes. The frequency of unintentional non-fatal home-related injuries requiring some form of medical attention was established as 10.8%. Falls were the most common injuries among all the study groups. Injury rates were highest among the oldest (aged > or =65) and youngest (aged adults having incomes under euro 500, individuals living alone, or the unemployed. Contact with hot objects/substances or hot liquid/gas was the leading mechanism in children 4 years of age or younger, falls ranking second. Falls are a significant problem particularly among older adults. Multiple analysis revealed that participants with low incomes, living alone and single or divorced had a high risk for injury at home. The findings related to disability highlighted a need to focus attention on the prevention of residential falls among the elderly, and the burns and falls among young children. Preventive measures should be prioritised to risk groups such as individuals with low incomes and those living alone.

  4. Fatal unintentional injuries in the home in the U.S., 2000-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Karin A; Rudd, Rose A; Mickalide, Angela D; Ballesteros, Michael F

    2013-03-01

    From 1992 to 1999, an average of more than 18,000 unintentional home injury deaths occurred in the U.S. annually. The objective of this study was to provide current prevalence estimates of fatal unintentional injury in the home. Data from the 2000-2008 National Vital Statistics System were used in 2011 to calculate average annual rates for unintentional home injury deaths for the U.S. overall, and by mechanism of injury, gender, and age group. From 2000 to 2008, there was an annual average of 30,569 unintentional injury deaths occurring in the home environment in the U.S. (10.3 deaths per 100,000). Poisonings (4.5 per 100,000) and falls (3.5 per 100,000) were the leading causes of home injury deaths. Men/boys had higher rates of home injury death than women/girls (12.7 vs 8.2 per 100,000), and older adults (≥80 years) had higher rates than other age groups. Home injury deaths and rates increased significantly from 2000 to 2008. More than 30,000 people die annually in the U.S. from unintentional injuries at home, with the trend rising since the year 2000. The overall rise is due in large part to the dramatic increase in deaths due to poisonings, and to a lesser degree falls at home. Unintentional home injuries are both predictable and preventable. Through a multifaceted approach combining behavioral change, adequate supervision of children, installation and maintenance of safety devices, and adherence to building codes, safety regulations and legislation, home injuries can be reduced. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. The Hidden Tragedy of Rivers: A Decade of Unintentional Fatal Drowning in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy E Peden

    Full Text Available Describe unintentional drowning deaths in rivers, creeks and streams (rivers in Australia and identify risk factors to inform prevention.This study is a cross-sectional, total population audit of all unintentional fatal drownings in Australian rivers between 1-July-2002 and 30-June-2012 using Australian coronial data. A modified Bonferroni test has been applied, deeming statistical significance p<0.03 and p<0.04 respectively.Rivers (n = 770; 26.6% were the leading location among the 2,892 people who died from unintentional fatal drowning. This is a rate of 0.37/100,000 people / annum. Within river drowning deaths common groups include; males (80.4%, adults (85.3%, adults who have consumed alcohol (25.5%, people who fell in (21.3%, people involved in non-aquatic transport incidents (18.2% and locals (74.0%. Children were 1.75 times more likely than adults (p<0.04 to drown in rivers as a result of a fall and adults 1.50 times more likely to drown in rivers as a result of watercraft incidents when compared to children. When compared to males, females were 2.27 and 4.45 times respectively more likely to drown in rivers as a result of incidents involving non-aquatic transport (p<0.04 and being swept away by floodwaters (p<0.04. Males were 2.66 and 4.27 times respectively more likely to drown in rivers as a result of watercraft incidents (p<0.04 and as a result of jumping in (p<0.04 when compared to females.While rivers are the leading location for drowning in Australia, little is understood about the risks. This study has identified key groups (males, adults, locals and activities. While males were more likely to drown, the risk profile for females differed.

  6. International travelers and unintentional fatal drowning in Australia--a 10 year review 2002-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peden, Amy E; Franklin, Richard C; Leggat, Peter A

    2016-02-01

    . Drowning deaths of travelers are commonly reported in the media, creating a perception that they are at a higher risk of drowning than residents. This may be true, due in part to unfamiliarity with the risks posed by the hazard, however there is limited information about drowning deaths of travelers in Australia. This study aims to identify the incidence of drowning among international travelers in Australia and examine the risk factors to inform prevention strategies. . Data on unintentional fatal drowning in Australian waterways of victims with a residential postcode from outside Australia were extracted from the Royal Life Saving Society-Australia National Fatal Drowning Database. . Between 1 July 2002 and 30 June 2012 drowning deaths among people known to be international travelers accounted for 4.3% (N = 123) of the 2870 drowning deaths reported in Australian waterways. Key locations for drowning deaths included beaches (39.0%), ocean/harbour (22.0%) and swimming pools (12.2%). Leading activities prior to drowning included swimming (52.0%), diving (17.9%) and watercraft incidents (13.0%). . International travelers pose a unique challenge from a drowning prevention perspective. The ability to exchange information on water safety is complicated due to potential language barriers, possible differences in swimming ability, different attitudes to safety in the traveler's home country and culture, a lack of opportunities to discuss safety, a relaxed attitude to safety which may result in an increase in risk taking behaviour and alcohol consumption. . Prevention is vital both to reduce loss of life in the aquatic environment and promote Australia as a safe and enjoyable holiday destination for international travelers. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Unintentional, non-fatal drowning of children: US trends and racial/ethnic disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, Heather; Myers, John; Liu, Gil; Davis, Deborah Winders

    2015-12-15

    The current study aimed to better understand trends and risk factors associated with non-fatal drowning of infants and children in the USA using two large, national databases. A secondary data analysis was conducted using the National Inpatient Sample and the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample databases. The analytic sample (n=19,403) included children near-drowning/non-fatal drowning. Descriptive, χ(2) and analysis of variance techniques were applied, and incidence rates were calculated per 100,000 population. Non-fatal drowning incidence has remained relatively stable from 2006 to 2011. In general, the highest rates of non-fatal drowning occurred in swimming pools and in children from racial/ethnic minorities. However, when compared with non-Hispanic Caucasian children, children from racial/ethnic minorities were more likely to drown in natural waterways than in swimming pools. Despite the overall lower rate of non-fatal drowning among non-Hispanic Caucasian children, the highest rate of all non-fatal drowning was for non-Hispanic Caucasian children aged 0-4 years in swimming pools. Children who were admitted to inpatient facilities were younger, male and came from families with lower incomes. Data from two large US national databases show lack of progress in preventing and reducing non-fatal drowning admissions from 2006 to 2011. Discrepancies are seen in the location of drowning events and demographic characteristics. New policies and interventions are needed, and tailoring approaches by age and race/ethnicity may improve their effectiveness. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Risk of fatal unintentional injuries in children by migration status: a nationwide cohort study with 46 years' follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Najmeh; Beiki, Omid; Mohammadi, Reza

    2015-04-01

    Injuries are responsible for much child and adolescent mortality in the world. To study the effect of parental birth country on the risk of fatal unintentional injuries. We established a cohort by linkages between Swedish national registers through personal identification number. The main variable was country of birth of parents. Children with both parents born in Sweden were the reference group. The cohort was followed up from the starting date of the study (1 January 1961) or date of birth, whichever occurred last, until the exit date, which was death due to unintentional injury, first emigration or end of the follow-up (31 December 2007), whichever came first. We calculated HRs with 95% CIs adjusted for age at exit, parental education and calendar period of birth by Cox proportional hazards models. We found a significantly higher risk of fatal unintentional injuries among children with a foreign background than among native children. We found a higher risk of fatal transportation-related injuries and drowning among boys with a foreign background and a higher risk of fatal burns/fire and falls among girls with a foreign background than among same sex native children. We also found a higher risk of fatal unintentional injuries among children with a foreign background at older ages than among native children at the same ages. Injury prevention work against unintentional injuries among children of foreign origin is more complex than that among native children. We recommend designing specific studies to find out the factors responsible and planning preventive interventions aiming at this particular group of children with a foreign background. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Unintentional fatal intoxications with mitragynine and O-desmethyltramadol from the herbal blend Krypton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronstrand, Robert; Roman, Markus; Thelander, Gunilla; Eriksson, Anders

    2011-05-01

    The leaves of Kratom, a medicinal plant in Southeast Asia, have been used as an herbal drug for a long time. At least one of the alkaloids present in Kratom, mitragynine, is a mu-receptor agonist. Both Kratom and an additional preparation called Krypton are available via the internet. It seems to consist of powdered Kratom leaves with another mu-receptor agonist, O-desmethyltramadol, added. O-Desmethyltramadol is an active metabolite of tramadol, a commonly prescribed analgesic. We present nine cases of intoxication, occurring in a period of less than one year, where both mitragynine and O-desmethyltramadol were detected in the postmortem blood samples. Neither tramadol nor N-desmethyltramadol was present in these samples, which implies that the ingested drug was O-desmethyltramadol. The blood concentrations of mitragynine, determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, ranged from 0.02 to 0.18 μg/g, and O-desmethyltramadol concentrations, determined by gas chromatography with nitrogen-specific detection, ranged from 0.4 to 4.3 μg/g. We believe that the addition of the potent mu-receptor agonist O-desmethyltramadol to powdered leaves from Kratom contributed to the unintentional death of the nine cases presented and conclude that intake of Krypton is not as harmless as it often is described on internet websites.

  10. County Poverty Concentration and Disparities in Unintentional Injury Deaths: A Fourteen-Year Analysis of 1.6 Million U.S. Fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karb, Rebecca A; Subramanian, S V; Fleegler, Eric W

    2016-01-01

    Unintentional injury is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States, and mortality due to injury has risen over the past decade. The social determinants behind these rising trends have not been well documented. This study examines the relationship between county-level poverty and unintentional injury mortality in the United States from 1999-2012. Complete annual compressed mortality and population data for 1999-2012 were obtained from the National Center for Health Statistics and linked with census yearly county poverty measures. The outcomes examined were unintentional injury fatalities, overall and by six specific mechanisms: motor vehicle collisions, falls, accidental discharge of firearms, drowning, exposure to smoke or fire, and unintentional poisoning. Age-adjusted mortality rates and time trends for county poverty categories were calculated, and multivariate negative binomial regression was used to determine changes over time in both the relative risk of living in high poverty concentration areas and the population attributable fraction. Age-adjusted mortality rates for counties with > 20% poverty were 66% higher mortality in 1999 compared with counties with < 5% poverty (45.25 vs. 27.24 per 100,000; 95% CI for rate difference 15.57,20.46), and that gap widened in 2012 to 79% (44.54 vs. 24.93; 95% CI for rate difference 17.13,22.09). The relative risk of living in the highest poverty counties has increased for all injury mechanisms with the exception of accidental discharge of firearms. The population attributable fraction for all unintentional injuries rose from 0.22 (95% CI 0.13,0.30) in 1999 to 0.35 (95% CI 0.22,0.45) in 2012. This is the first study that uses comprehensive mortality data to document the associations between county poverty and injury mortality rates for the entire US population over a 14 year period. This study suggests that injury reduction interventions should focus on areas of high or increasing poverty.

  11. History of maltreatment among unintentional injury deaths: analyses of Texas child fatality review data, 2005-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Sharyn E; Mirchandani, Gita; Rodriguez, Susan; Hellsten, John

    2011-02-01

    This report examines unintentional injury deaths among children with and without a history of child maltreatment. Data are from reviews of 1192 unintentional injury deaths occurring among children in Texas during 2005-2007. The study examined differences in child demographic characteristics, injury mechanism, and supervisor status at time of death between children with and without maltreatment history by using descriptive statistics and χ² tests. Separate analyses compared characteristics of asphyxia, drowning, and poisoning deaths. In 10% of the unintentional injury deaths that were reviewed, the child had a history of maltreatment. The prevalence of a history of maltreatment was highest among black decedents and lowest among white decedents. Prevalence of a history of maltreatment was highest among infant decedents and lowest among youth decedents, ages 10-14 years. Among deaths where there was no maltreatment history, 54% were due to motor vehicle related incidents, whereas 51% of deaths among children with maltreatment history were caused by drowning, asphyxia, and poisoning. Supervisors of child decedents with a history of maltreatment were significantly more likely to have been alcohol impaired (6.9% vs 1.6%; pdeath. Differences between child decedents with and without maltreatment history were observed in infant sleep surface in suffocation deaths, location and barrier type in drowning deaths, and substance type in poisoning deaths. These data show that the mechanisms and circumstances surrounding unintentional injury deaths among children with a history of maltreatment differ from those without a history of maltreatment. This underscores the need for appropriate interventions to prevent unintentional and intentional injuries in families with a history of maltreatment.

  12. County Poverty Concentration and Disparities in Unintentional Injury Deaths: A Fourteen-Year Analysis of 1.6 Million U.S. Fatalities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A Karb

    Full Text Available Unintentional injury is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States, and mortality due to injury has risen over the past decade. The social determinants behind these rising trends have not been well documented. This study examines the relationship between county-level poverty and unintentional injury mortality in the United States from 1999-2012. Complete annual compressed mortality and population data for 1999-2012 were obtained from the National Center for Health Statistics and linked with census yearly county poverty measures. The outcomes examined were unintentional injury fatalities, overall and by six specific mechanisms: motor vehicle collisions, falls, accidental discharge of firearms, drowning, exposure to smoke or fire, and unintentional poisoning. Age-adjusted mortality rates and time trends for county poverty categories were calculated, and multivariate negative binomial regression was used to determine changes over time in both the relative risk of living in high poverty concentration areas and the population attributable fraction. Age-adjusted mortality rates for counties with > 20% poverty were 66% higher mortality in 1999 compared with counties with < 5% poverty (45.25 vs. 27.24 per 100,000; 95% CI for rate difference 15.57,20.46, and that gap widened in 2012 to 79% (44.54 vs. 24.93; 95% CI for rate difference 17.13,22.09. The relative risk of living in the highest poverty counties has increased for all injury mechanisms with the exception of accidental discharge of firearms. The population attributable fraction for all unintentional injuries rose from 0.22 (95% CI 0.13,0.30 in 1999 to 0.35 (95% CI 0.22,0.45 in 2012. This is the first study that uses comprehensive mortality data to document the associations between county poverty and injury mortality rates for the entire US population over a 14 year period. This study suggests that injury reduction interventions should focus on areas of high or increasing poverty.

  13. Unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning hospitalization and emergency department counts and rates by county, year, and fire-relatedness among California residents,2000-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — This dataset contains case counts, rates, and confidence intervals of unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning (CO) inpatient hospitalizations and emergency...

  14. Homicide, suicide, and unintentional firearm fatality: comparing the United States with other high-income countries, 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Erin G; Hemenway, David

    2011-01-01

    Violent death is a major public health problem in the United States and throughout the world. A cross-sectional analysis of the World Health Organization Mortality Database analyzes homicides and suicides (both disaggregated as firearm related and non-firearm related) and unintentional and undetermined firearm deaths from 23 populous high-income Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development countries that provided data to the World Health Organization for 2003. The US homicide rates were 6.9 times higher than rates in the other high-income countries, driven by firearm homicide rates that were 19.5 times higher. For 15-year olds to 24-year olds, firearm homicide rates in the United States were 42.7 times higher than in the other countries. For US males, firearm homicide rates were 22.0 times higher, and for US females, firearm homicide rates were 11.4 times higher. The US firearm suicide rates were 5.8 times higher than in the other countries, though overall suicide rates were 30% lower. The US unintentional firearm deaths were 5.2 times higher than in the other countries. Among these 23 countries, 80% of all firearm deaths occurred in the United States, 86% of women killed by firearms were US women, and 87% of all children aged 0 to 14 killed by firearms were US children. The United States has far higher rates of firearm deaths-firearm homicides, firearm suicides, and unintentional firearm deaths compared with other high-income countries. The US overall suicide rate is not out of line with these countries, but the United States is an outlier in terms of our overall homicide rate.

  15. Using a retrospective cross-sectional study to analyse unintentional fatal drowning in Australia: ICD-10 coding-based methodologies verses actual deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peden, Amy E; Franklin, Richard C; Mahony, Alison J; Scarr, Justin; Barnsley, Paul D

    2017-12-21

    Fatal drowning estimates using a single underlying cause of death (UCoD) may under-represent the number of drowning deaths. This study explores how data vary by International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 coding combinations and the use of multiple underlying causes of death using a national register of drowning deaths. An analysis of ICD-10 external cause codes of unintentional drowning deaths for the period 2007-2011 as extracted from an Australian total population unintentional drowning database developed by Royal Life Saving Society-Australia (the Database). The study analysed results against three reporting methodologies: primary drowning codes (W65-74), drowning-related codes, plus cases where drowning was identified but not the UCoD. Australia, 2007-2011. Unintentional fatal drowning cases. The Database recorded 1428 drowning deaths. 866 (60.6%) had an UCoD of W65-74 (accidental drowning), 249 (17.2%) cases had an UCoD of either T75.1 (0.2%), V90 (5.5%), V92 (3.5%), X38 (2.4%) or Y21 (5.9%) and 53 (3.7%) lacked ICD coding. Children (aged 0-17 years) were closely aligned (73.9%); however, watercraft (29.2%) and non-aquatic transport (13.0%) were not. When the UCoD and all subsequent causes are used, 67.2% of cases include W65-74 codes. 91.6% of all cases had a drowning code (T75.1, V90, V92, W65-74, X38 and Y21) at any level. Defining drowning with the codes W65-74 and using only the UCoD captures 61% of all drowning deaths in Australia. This is unevenly distributed with adults, watercraft and non-aquatic transport-related drowning deaths under-represented. Using a wider inclusion of ICD codes, which are drowning-related and multiple causes of death minimises this under-representation. A narrow approach to counting drowning deaths will negatively impact the design of policy, advocacy and programme planning for prevention. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No

  16. Nonfatal, unintentional, non--fire-related carbon monoxide exposures--United States, 2004-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-22

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, nonirritating gas that is produced through the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. Sources of CO include combustion devices (e.g., boilers and furnaces), motor-vehicle exhaust, generators and other gasoline or diesel-powered engines, gas space heaters, woodstoves, gas stoves, fireplaces, tobacco smoke, and various occupational sources. CO poisoning is a leading cause of unintentional poisoning deaths in the United States; it was responsible for approximately 450 deaths each year during 1999-2004 and an estimated 15,200 emergency department (ED) visits each year during 2001-2003. Health effects of CO exposure can range from viral-like symptoms (e.g., fatigue, dizziness, headache, confusion, and nausea) to more severe conditions (e.g., disorientation, unconsciousness, long-term neurologic disabilities, coma, cardiorespiratory failure, and death). CO poisoning often is misdiagnosed and underdetected because of the nonspecific nature of symptoms. To update a previously published report and provide national estimates of CO-related ED visits during 2004-2006, CDC analyzed data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System--All Injury Program (NEISS-AIP) database. During 2004-2006, an estimated average of 20,636 ED visits for nonfatal, unintentional, non-fire-related CO exposures occurred each year. Approximately 73% of these exposures occurred in homes, and 41% occurred during winter months (December-February). Prevention efforts targeting residential and seasonal CO exposures can substantially reduce CO-related morbidity.

  17. A carbon dioxide fatality from dry ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisont, Smith; Chirachariyavej, Thamrong; Peonim, A V M Vichan

    2009-07-01

    This report documents a rare case of carbon dioxide intoxication in a young healthy male. The deceased hid in a small plastic container, size 1.5 x 1 x 1 m, and within 5 min he was located suffering convulsions and was reported as dead within minutes. Scene investigation revealed dry ice in the container. Autopsy findings were unremarkable. The probable cause of the convulsions was carbon dioxide intoxication due to both the dry ice sublimation and the small confined space in which he was hiding. This report emphasizes the significance of scene investigation in establishing the cause of the death.

  18. Unintentional Drowning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or transfer for further care (compared with a hospitalization rate of about 6% for all unintentional injuries). 1,2 These nonfatal drowning injuries can cause severe brain damage that may result in long-term disabilities such as memory problems, learning disabilities, and ...

  19. Unintentional Monuments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Runa

    2015-01-01

    unleashed more than the sliding of earth and stone as it triggered a fierce dispute between Israeli and Palestinian/Muslim interests. The crux of this crisis is to be found in the temporary bridge. In this short text, I suggest to see the bridge as an 'unintentional monument' as a way to understand...... the presence of historical and political powers in the shaping of space...

  20. High-resistivity unintentionally carbon-doped GaN layers with nitrogen as nucleation layer carrier gas grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this letter, high-resistivity unintentionally carbon-doped GaN layers with sheet resistivity greater than 106 Ω/□ have been grown on c-plane sapphire substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD. We have observed that the growth of GaN nucleation layers (NLs under N2 ambient leads to a large full width at half maximum (FWHM of (102 X-ray diffraction (XRD line in the rocking curve about 1576 arc sec. Unintentional carbon incorporation can be observed in the secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS measurements. The results demonstrate the self-compensation mechanism is attributed to the increased density of edge-type threading dislocations and carbon impurities. The AlGaN/GaN HEMT grown on the high-resistivity GaN template has also been fabricated, exhibiting a maximum drain current of 478 mA/mm, a peak transconductance of 60.0 mS/mm, an ON/OFF ratio of 0.96×108 and a breakdown voltage of 621 V.

  1. High-resistivity unintentionally carbon-doped GaN layers with nitrogen as nucleation layer carrier gas grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu; Sun, Shichuang; Deng, Xuguang; Fu, Kai; Yu, Guohao; Song, Liang; Hao, Ronghui; Fan, Yaming; Cai, Yong; Zhang, Baoshun

    2017-12-01

    In this letter, high-resistivity unintentionally carbon-doped GaN layers with sheet resistivity greater than 106 Ω/□ have been grown on c-plane sapphire substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). We have observed that the growth of GaN nucleation layers (NLs) under N2 ambient leads to a large full width at half maximum (FWHM) of (102) X-ray diffraction (XRD) line in the rocking curve about 1576 arc sec. Unintentional carbon incorporation can be observed in the secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) measurements. The results demonstrate the self-compensation mechanism is attributed to the increased density of edge-type threading dislocations and carbon impurities. The AlGaN/GaN HEMT grown on the high-resistivity GaN template has also been fabricated, exhibiting a maximum drain current of 478 mA/mm, a peak transconductance of 60.0 mS/mm, an ON/OFF ratio of 0.96×108 and a breakdown voltage of 621 V.

  2. Uk Armed Forces unintentional firearm injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, T; Rushforth, G

    2009-03-01

    To report on the incidence of unintentional firearm discharge and injury across the UK Armed Forces and present several cases of this wounding phenomenon. Munitions Incidents and Defects (MID) Cell data on UK Military Negligent Discharges and unintentional firearm injuries from 01 Jan 03 to 31 Dec 07 was categorised according to cause of injury, wound, service affiliation, incident context and weapon type. The injuries of three patients are described. Over the 5 year period there were 1158 Unintentional firearm discharges, forty three (4%) of which resulted in injury. Fifty five military personnel sustained unintentional firearm injuries during the review period, more than half of which were gunshot wounds and this included one fatality. The Regular Army suffers an average of 7.7 unintentional firearm injuries per 100 000 Regular Army person years. Unintentional firearm injury is well recognised across the civilian and police sectors worldwide. Despite the recent tempo of high grade training and operations that currently engage UK Armed Forces this form of injury remains uncommon. We hope to facilitate discussion with the chain of command to manage the risk of these injuries.

  3. The Unintentional Procrastination Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Fernie, Bruce A.; Bharucha, Zinnia; Nik?evi?, Ana V.; Spada, Marcantonio M.

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 The Author(s)Procrastination refers to the delay or postponement of a task or decision and is often conceptualised as a failure of self-regulation. Recent research has suggested that procrastination could be delineated into two domains: intentional and unintentional. In this two-study paper, we aimed to develop a measure of unintentional procrastination (named the Unintentional Procrastination Scale or the ‘UPS’) and test whether this would be a stronger marker of psychopathology than ...

  4. The unintentional procrastination scale

    OpenAIRE

    Fernie, Bruce A; Bharucha, Zinnia; Nikcevic, Ana V; Spada, Marcantonio M

    2017-01-01

    Procrastination refers to the delay or postponement of a task or decision and is often conceptualised as a failure of self-regulation. Recent research has suggested that procrastination could be delineated into two domains: intentional and unintentional. In this two-study paper, we aimed to develop a measure of unintentional procrastination (named the Unintentional Procrastination Scale or the 'UPS') and test whether this would be a stronger marker of psychopathology than intentional and gene...

  5. The Unintentional Procrastination Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernie, Bruce A; Bharucha, Zinnia; Nikčević, Ana V; Spada, Marcantonio M

    2017-01-01

    Procrastination refers to the delay or postponement of a task or decision and is often conceptualised as a failure of self-regulation. Recent research has suggested that procrastination could be delineated into two domains: intentional and unintentional. In this two-study paper, we aimed to develop a measure of unintentional procrastination (named the Unintentional Procrastination Scale or the 'UPS') and test whether this would be a stronger marker of psychopathology than intentional and general procrastination. In Study 1, a community sample of 139 participants completed a questionnaire that consisted of several items pertaining to unintentional procrastination that had been derived from theory, previous research, and clinical experience. Responses were subjected to a principle components analysis and assessment of internal consistency. In Study 2, a community sample of 155 participants completed the newly developed scale, along with measures of general and intentional procrastination, metacognitions about procrastination, and negative affect. Data from the UPS were subjected to confirmatory factor analysis and revised accordingly. The UPS was then validated using correlation and regression analyses. The six-item UPS possesses construct and divergent validity and good internal consistency. The UPS appears to be a stronger marker of psychopathology than the pre-existing measures of procrastination used in this study. Results from the regression models suggest that both negative affect and metacognitions about procrastination differentiate between general, intentional, and unintentional procrastination. The UPS is brief, has good psychometric properties, and has strong associations with negative affect, suggesting it has value as a research and clinical tool.

  6. Understanding scuba diving fatalities: carbon dioxide concentrations in intra-cardiac gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlet, Vincent; Dominguez, Alejandro; Augsburger, Marc; Lossois, Maisy; Egger, Coraline; Palmiere, Cristian; Vilarino, Raquel; Grabherr, Silke

    2017-06-01

    Important developments in the diagnosis of scuba diving fatalities have been made thanks to forensic imaging tool improvements. Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) permits reliable interpretation of the overall gaseous distribution in the cadaver. However, due to post-mortem delay, the radiological interpretation is often doubtful because the distinction between gas related to the dive and post-mortem decomposition artifactual gases becomes less obvious. We present six cases of fatal scuba diving showing gas in the heart and other vasculature. Carbon dioxide (CO₂) in cardiac gas measured by gas chromatography coupled to thermal conductivity detection were employed to distinguish decomposition from embolism based on the detection of decomposition gases (hydrogen, hydrogen sulfide and methane) and to confirm arterial gas embolism (AGE) or post-mortem offgasing diagnoses. A Radiological Alteration Index (RAI) was calculated from the scan. Based on the dive history, the intra-cadaveric gas was diagnosed as deriving from decomposition (one case, minimal RAI of 61), post-mortem decompression artifacts (two cases, intermediate RAI between 60 and 85) and barotrauma/AGE (three cases, maximal RAI between 85 and 100), illustrating a large distribution inside the bodies. MDCT scans should be interpreted simultaneously with compositional analysis of intra-cadaveric gases. Intra-cadaveric gas sampling and analysis may become useful tools for understanding and diagnosing scuba diving fatalities. In cases with short post-mortem delays, the CO₂ concentration of the cardiac gas provides relevant information about the circumstances and cause of death when this parameter is interpreted in combination with the diving profile.

  7. Mortality due to unintentional injuries in The Netherlands, 1950-1995

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.F. van Beeck (Ed); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); C.W.N. Looman (Caspar)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To detect and explain changing trends in incidence, case fatality rates, and mortality for unintentional injuries in the Netherlands for the years 1950 through 1995. METHODS: Using national registry data, the authors analyzed trends in traffic

  8. Fatal carbon monoxide poisoning: A lesson from a retrospective study at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asit Kumar Sikary

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carbon monoxide (CO is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, and nonirritating gas which makes it difficult for those who are exposed, to detect it, leading to unexpected death. This study was undertaken to see the pattern of fatal CO poisoning and to discuss preventive aspect. Materials and Methods: It was a retrospective descriptive study of fatal CO cases which were autopsied at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, from the year 2010 to the year 2015. The cases were analyzed as per age groups, circumstances of death, season of death, and sources of CO formation. Results and Discussion: The study involved 40 cases of fatal CO poisoning. About 80% of cases were reported in winter months. The maximum cases were reported in the month of January followed by November and December. All the cases except one, died with a source of CO nearby and the person was inside a room or some closed space without ventilation. Source of CO was firepot and electric room heater in most of the cases. Some cases were of CO build inside the car with a running engine. Most of the cases occurred accidentally. Conclusion: Clustering of cases is seen in winters. Poisoning can occur in different ways. The study documents the various possibilities of CO poisoning and advocates community education targeting the high-risk groups and masses, especially during the winter season.

  9. Dipoles, unintentional antennas and EMC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berend Danker

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiated emissions from equipment commonly originate from electronic circuits that act as electric dipoles created by the signal voltage between the signal conductors or as magnetic dipoles formed by the signal current flowing in a loop. Direct emission is mostly small, but circuits often couple to long conductors or large wiring loops which act as antennas and are efficient radiators. A comparable situation exists when short dipole antennas or small wiring loops receive ambient noise (susceptibility. Usually the amplitude of noise sources or the susceptibility of circuits is an invariable. The dipole strength increases with the distance between the conductors and the area. Shielding and proper grounding decreases the interaction via unintentional antennas. Short-circuiting and the insertion of lossy ferrite cores reduce the efficiency of unintentional antennas.

  10. Fatal carbon monoxide poisoning after the detonation of explosives in an underground mine: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markey, M A; Zumwalt, R E

    2001-12-01

    An unusual death caused by carbon monoxide poisoning after the detonation of explosives in an underground mine was investigated by the Office of the Medical Investigator of the State of New Mexico. The 50-year-old miner had 18 years of mining experience but no documented safety training. He collapsed approximately 20 minutes after entering the mine and working at the bottom of the single vertical shaft. The tight confines of the mine shaft hindered rescue personnel from reaching him, and the body was not recovered until 2 days later. The autopsy showed severe coronary artery atherosclerosis with remote and resolving myocardial microinfarcts, as well as the characteristic pink lividity of carbon monoxide poisoning, which was confirmed by laboratory analysis. Detailed investigation of the scene revealed no sources of carbon monoxide other than the explosives. The case represents an uncommon cause of death in mining that may have been avoided through the use of proper safety procedures, and illustrates the importance of recognizing the many sources of carbon monoxide.

  11. Demographic profile of intentional fatalities on railroad rights-of-way in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    One of the Federal Railroad Administrations (FRA) primary safety concerns is trespassing on railway rights-of-way. Some trespasser events end as fatalities which can be intentional or unintentional. This project reviews available trespasser data t...

  12. Epidemiology of unintentional injuries among children under six years old in floating and residential population in four communities in Beijing: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Gong, Limin; Wang, Huishan; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Xiaoying; Kaime-Atterhög, Wanjiku

    2014-05-01

    To explore and compare the epidemiological characteristics of non-fatal unintentional injury among children in floating and residential population. Using a structured survey, quantitative data were collected on a total of 352 floating and 201 residential families. Some potential influencing factors were questioned, such as socio-demographic characteristics, injury-related family environment, knowledge, attitude and behavior, and child's character. The self-reported incidence of non-fatal unintentional injuries was 11.9 % in the floating group and 12.9 % in the residential group. Unintentional injuries were more serious and caused more disease burden in floating children than residential children, with the average medical cost being over ten times in the floating group than in the residential group. Results of multiple regression analysis showed that children living in floating families have more risk of unintentional injuries than those children in residential families. Older children and children with extroverted character were more vulnerable to unintentional injuries. Risky family environment was also an important risk factor of unintentional injuries. Better household economic status and having more siblings appeared to reduce the probability of unintentional injuries among children. Floating children are more vulnerable to unintentional injuries comparing with residential children. These findings can be used as preliminary data supporting intervention strategies and activities to promote safe living environment and decrease injury incidence among floating children.

  13. Fatalism revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Phyllis D; Tyler, Indira D; Fogel, Joshua

    2008-11-01

    To review the concept of fatalism among African Americans by discussing how religiosity/spirituality may guide them in seeking cancer care in a positive rather than a fatalistic way. Nursing, social science, and medical journals. Using culturally targeted faith-based interventions to educate African Americans about cancer can serve as a strategy to increase cancer knowledge, decrease cancer fatalism, and ultimately increase cancer screening and treatment resulting in cancer activism. Nurses should advocate for faith-based initiatives to help address fatalism in the African American community, and to assist them in developing a more proactive role in cancer screening, treatment, and survivorship.

  14. Selective Fatalism.

    OpenAIRE

    Sunstein, Cass R

    1998-01-01

    Human beings are selectively fatalistic. Some risks appear as "background noise," whereas other, quantitatively identical risks cause enormous concern. This essay explores the reasons for selective fatalism and possible legal responses. Sometimes selective fatalism is a product of distributional issues, as people focus especially on risks that face particular groups; sometimes people adapt their preferences and beliefs so as to reduce concern with risks that they perceive themselves unable to...

  15. Carbon monoxide-related deaths from 1984 to 1993 in Vienna, Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, D; Schneider, B

    1995-05-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning occurs frequently in industrialized countries. Between 1970 and 1978 in Vienna, the capital of Austria, carbon-monoxide-rich coal gas was replaced with natural gas. Despite this fact, people still die of unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning. The main purpose of this study was to determine the reasons for unintentional carbon monoxide-related deaths, and further to describe the epidemiology of these fetal poisonings in Vienna between 1984 and 1993. A secondary purpose was to investigate whether intentional carbon monoxide poisoning still plays a role among suicides as was the case up to the 1970s. For this purpose we analyzed carbon monoxide-related deaths in Vienna from 1984 to 1993, based on actual autopsy reports of postmortems performed at the Viennese Institute of Forensic Medicine. Deaths due to fire were excluded. The main reason for unintentional carbon monoxide-related deaths in Vienna between 1984 and 1993 was flueless gas-fueled water heating appliances, overused especially by old people during the cold period of the year. The frequency of unintentional carbon monoxide-related deaths in 1993 was almost as high as in 1984. A total of 53% of deceased persons were over age 60. Most fatal carbon monoxide poisoning occurred during the cold period of the year. Suicides decreased significantly during the investigation period. In 76% of these deaths car exhaust fumes were inhaled, especially by men. In conclusion, we recommend programs to prevent unintentional carbon monoxide-related deaths. These programs should especially target the elderly. Flueless gas boilers should not be overused. Furthermore, apartments should be aired sufficiently, even during the cold period of the year.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Unintentional injury mortality among indigenous communities of Taiwan: trends from 2002 to 2013 and evaluation of a community-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Stephen W; Chong, Hiu Ha; Kao, Hui-Chuan

    2017-11-27

    Indigenous communities in Taiwan shoulder a disproportionate burden of unintentional injury fatalities. We compare unintentional injury mortality rate trends among Taiwan's indigenous communities and the general population from 2002 to 2013, and evaluate potential impact of a community-based injury prevention programme on indigenous unintentional injury death rates. Standardised and crude unintentional injury mortality rates were obtained from Taiwan government reports. Segmented linear regression was used to estimate and compare unintentional injury mortality rate trends before and after the intervention. Between 2002 and 2013, unintentional injury mortality rates among Taiwan's indigenous population significantly declined by about 4.5 deaths per 100 000 each year (pindigenous Taiwanese and the general population significantly decreased by approximately 1% each successive year (p=0.02). However, we were unable to detect evidence that the 'Healthy and Safe Tribe' programme was associated with a statistically significant decrease in the unintentional injury mortality rate trend among indigenous persons (p=0.81). Taiwanese indigenous communities remain at significantly higher risk of unintentional injury death, though the gap may be slowly narrowing. We found no evidence that the 'Healthy and Safe Tribe' indigenous injury-prevention programme significantly contributed to the nationwide decline in unintentional injury mortality among indigenous Taiwanese communities from 2009 to 2013. Future interventions to address the disproportionate burden of unintentional injury fatalities among indigenous Taiwanese should consider interventions with wider coverage of the indigenous population, and complementing grass roots led community-based interventions with structural policy interventions as well. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise

  17. Femme fatale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Tardío Gastón

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Our history is full of myths and topics. Therefore the image of femme fatale is frequent in the works of all periods and places. The author of this article first analyzes how the history and literature consistently showed and defined these women, and then presents examples that come from ancient Greece. The art is powered by their power of seduction and the article explains how this femme fatale appeared in literature and film. The article concludes with a brief overview of various arguments concerning women and feminism, present in the literary criticism.

  18. Prevention of unintentional childhood injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theurer, Wesley M; Bhavsar, Amit K

    2013-04-01

    Unintentional injury accounts for 40 percent of childhood deaths annually, most commonly from motor vehicle crashes. The proper use of child restraints is the most effective strategy to prevent injury or death. Motor vehicle restraint guidelines have recently been revised to an age-based system that delays the progression in type of restraint for most children. Strategies to prevent suffocation in children include using appropriate bedding, positioning babies on their backs to sleep, and removing items from the sleep and play environment that could potentially entrap or entangle the child. Fencing that isolates a swimming pool from the yard and surrounding area and "touch" adult supervision (i.e., an adult is in the water and able to reach and grab a child) have been shown to be most effective in preventing drownings. Swimming lessons are recommended for children older than four years. Poison prevention programs have been shown to improve prevention behavior among caregivers, but may not decrease poisoning incidence. Syrup of ipecac is not recommended. Smoke detector maintenance, a home escape plan, and educating children about how to respond during a fire emergency are effective strategies for preventing fire injuries or death. Fall injuries may be reduced by not using walkers for infants and toddlers or bunk beds for children six years and younger. Consistent helmet use while bicycling reduces head and brain injuries. Although direct counseling by physicians appears to improve some parental safety behaviors, its effect on reducing childhood injuries is uncertain. Community-based interventions can be effective in high-risk populations.

  19. Islamic fatalism

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    Helmer Ringgren

    1967-02-01

    Full Text Available The author sketches the historical background, then the teaching of the Koran, and finally, the development of the typical Islamic fatalism. The fatalism of Islam has to be viewed against the background of the ideas of pre-Islamic Arabia. Unfortunately, there is no other evidence from this epoch that a few poems on a very restricted range of topics which have been able to survive Islamic censure. The conventional and stereotyped character of these poems makes it difficult to decide to what extent they reflect commonly accepted views or the ideas of a certain group. In any case, they present a picture of the pagan Arab which is extremely idealized and formed after a rigid pattern. Historically speaking, Islamic 'fatalism' is the result of a combination of pre-Islamic fatalism and Muhammad's belief in God's omnipotence. From another point of view it is an interpretation of destiny that expresses man's feeling of total dependence, not on an impersonal power or universal order, but on an omnipotent God.

  20. 46 CFR 28.580 - Unintentional flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unintentional flooding. 28.580 Section 28.580 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING... caused by deploying all fully loaded davit-launched survival craft on one side of a vessel does not...

  1. Unintentional doping in GaN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tongtong; Oliver, Rachel A

    2012-07-21

    The optimisation of GaN-based electronic and optoelectronic devices requires control over the doping of the material. However, device performance, particular for lateral transport electronic devices, is degraded by the presence of unintentional doping, which for heteroepitaxial GaN layers grown in the polar (0001) orientation is mainly confined to a layer adjacent to the GaN/substrate interface. The use of scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) has demonstrated that this layer forms due to the high rate of incorporation of gas phase impurities, primarily oxygen, during the early stages of growth, when N-rich semi-polar facets are often present. The presence of such facets leads to additional unintentional doping when defect density reduction strategies involving a three-dimensional growth phase (such as epitaxial lateral overgrowth) are employed. Many semi-polar epitaxial layers, on the other hand, exhibit significant unintentional doping throughout their thickness, except when a three-dimensional growth phase is introduced to aid in defect density reduction resulting in the presence of (0001) and non-polar facets which incorporate less dopant. Non-polar epitaxial samples exhibit behaviour more similar to (0001)-oriented material, but oxygen diffusion from the sapphire substrate along prismatic stacking faults also locally affects the extent of the unintentional doping in this case.

  2. Unintentional injuries in the home in the United States Part I: mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runyan, Carol W; Casteel, Carri; Perkis, David; Black, Carla; Marshall, Stephen W; Johnson, Renee M; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Waller, Anna E; Viswanathan, Shankar

    2005-01-01

    Unintentional injuries are a leading cause of death in the United States. It is unclear, however, what proportion of these injuries occur in the home. The purpose of this paper is to quantify and describe fatal unintentional injuries that take place in the home environment. Data from the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) were used to calculate average annual rates for unintentional home injury deaths, with 95% confidence intervals from 1992 to 1999 for the United States overall, and by mechanism of injury, gender, and age group. From 1992 to 1999, an average of 18,048 unintentional home injury deaths occurred annually in the United States (6.83 deaths per 100,000). Home injury deaths varied by age and gender, with males having higher rates of home injury death than females (8.78 vs 4.97 per 100,000), and older adults (>/=70 years) having higher rates than all other age groups. Falls (2.25 per 100,000), poisoning (1.83 per 100,000), and fire/burn injuries (1.29 per 100,000) were the leading causes of home injury death. Rates of fall death were highest for older adults, poisoning deaths were highest among middle-aged adults, and fire/burn death rates were highest among children. Inhalation/suffocation and drowning deaths were important injury issues for young children. Unintentional injury in the home is a significant problem. Specific home injury issues include falls among older adults, poisonings among middle-aged adults, fire/burn injuries among older adults and children, and inhalation/suffocation and drowning among young children. In addition, recommendations are presented for improvements to the NVSS.

  3. Characteristics of unintentional drowning deaths in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Joseph; Li, Guohua

    2017-12-08

    The reported prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has increased markedly in the past two decades. Recent research indicates that children with ASD are at a substantially increased risk of injury mortality, particularly from unintentional drowning. The purpose of this study was to explore the circumstances of fatal unintentional drowning incidents involving children with ASD under 15 years of age. During January 2000 through May 2017, US newspapers reported a total of 23 fatal drowning incidents involving 18 boys and 5 girls with ASD. Age of victims ranged from 3 to 14 years (mean = 7.7 ± 2.9 years). These drowning incidents most commonly occurred in ponds (52.2%), followed by rivers (13.0%), and lakes (13.0%). For 11 incidents with location data available, the distance between victim residence and the water body where drowning occurred averaged 290.7 m (± 231.5 m). About three-quarters (73.3%) of the drowning incidents occurred in the afternoon hours from 12:00 to 18:59. Wandering was the most commonly reported activity that led to drowning, accounting for 73.9% of the incidents. Fatal drowning in children with ASD typically occur in water bodies near the victims' homes in the afternoon hours precipitated by wandering. Multifaceted intervention programs are urgently needed to reduce the excess risk of drowning in children with ASD.

  4. Epidemiology of Unintentional Child Injuries in the Makwanpur District of Nepal: A Household Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Puspa Raj; Towner, Elizabeth; Ellis, Matthew; Manandhar, Dharma; Pilkington, Paul; Mytton, Julie

    2015-11-30

    Secondary sources of information indicate that the proportion of child deaths due to injuries is increasing in Nepal. This study aimed to describe the epidemiology of unintentional injuries in children, explore risk factors and estimate the burden faced by families and the community in the Makwanpur district. We conducted a household survey in Makwanpur, covering 3441 households. Injuries that occurred during the 12 months before the survey and required treatment or caused the child to be unable to take part in usual activities for three or more days were included. We identified 193 cases of non-fatal unintentional child injuries from 181 households and estimated an annual rate of non-fatal injuries of 24.6/1000 children; rates for boys were double (32.7/1000) that for girls (16.8/1000). The rates were higher among the children of age groups 1-4 years and 5-9 years. Falls were the most common cause of non-fatal child injuries followed by burns in preschool children and road traffic injuries were the most likely cause in adolescence. Mean period of disability following injury was 25 days. The rates and the mechanisms of injury vary by age and gender. Falls and burns are currently the most common mechanisms of injury amongst young children around rural homes.

  5. Smoking and medication during pregnancy predict repeated unintentional injuries in early childhood but not single unintentional injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junger, Marianne; Japel, C.; Cote, S.; Xu, Q.; Boivin, M.; Tremblay, R.E.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates prospectively the development of single and repeated unintentional injuries from birth to 42 months in a random population sample of new-born children in Quebec (Canada) (N = 1,770). The outcome measures are single unintentional injuries (SUI) and repeated unintentional

  6. Status and risk factors of unintentional injuries among Chinese undergraduates: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Qiang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injuries affect all age groups but have a particular impact on young people. To evaluate the incidence of non-fatal, unintentional, injuries among undergraduates in Wenzhou, China, assess the burden caused by these injuries, and explore the associated risk factors for unintentional injuries among these undergraduates, we conducted a college-based cross-sectional study. Methods Participants were selected by a multi-stage random sampling method, and 2,287 students were asked whether they had had an injury in the last 12 months; the location, cause, and consequences of the event. The questionnaire included demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, lifestyle habits, and the scale of type A behaviour pattern (TABP. Multivariate logistic regression models were used; crude odds ratios (ORs, adjusted ORs and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs were estimated, with students having no injuries as the reference group. Results The incidence of injuries among undergraduates in Wenzhou was 18.71 injuries per 100 person-years (95%CI: 17.12~20.31 injuries per 100 person-years. Falls were the leading cause of injury, followed by traffic injuries, and animal/insect bites. Male students were more likely to be injured than female students. Risk factors associated with unintentional injuries among undergraduates were: students majoring in non-medicine (adjusted OR: 1.53; 95% CI: 1.19-1.96; type A behaviour pattern (adjusted OR: 2.99; 95% CI: 1.45-6.14; liking sports (adjusted OR: 1.86; 95% CI: 1.41-2.45. Conclusions Injuries have become a public health problem among undergraduates. Falls were the major cause of non-fatal injury. Therefore, individuals, families, schools and governments should promptly adopt preventive measures aimed at preventing and controlling morbidity due to non-fatal injury, especially among students identified to be at high-risk; such as male students with type A behaviour pattern who like sports.

  7. Status and risk factors of unintentional injuries among Chinese undergraduates: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hongying; Yang, Xinjun; Huang, Chenping; Zhou, Zumu; Zhou, Qiang; Chu, Maoping

    2011-07-05

    Injuries affect all age groups but have a particular impact on young people. To evaluate the incidence of non-fatal, unintentional, injuries among undergraduates in Wenzhou, China, assess the burden caused by these injuries, and explore the associated risk factors for unintentional injuries among these undergraduates, we conducted a college-based cross-sectional study. Participants were selected by a multi-stage random sampling method, and 2,287 students were asked whether they had had an injury in the last 12 months; the location, cause, and consequences of the event. The questionnaire included demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, lifestyle habits, and the scale of type A behaviour pattern (TABP). Multivariate logistic regression models were used; crude odds ratios (ORs), adjusted ORs and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated, with students having no injuries as the reference group. The incidence of injuries among undergraduates in Wenzhou was 18.71 injuries per 100 person-years (95%CI: 17.12~20.31 injuries per 100 person-years). Falls were the leading cause of injury, followed by traffic injuries, and animal/insect bites. Male students were more likely to be injured than female students. Risk factors associated with unintentional injuries among undergraduates were: students majoring in non-medicine (adjusted OR: 1.53; 95% CI: 1.19-1.96); type A behaviour pattern (adjusted OR: 2.99; 95% CI: 1.45-6.14); liking sports (adjusted OR: 1.86; 95% CI: 1.41-2.45). Injuries have become a public health problem among undergraduates. Falls were the major cause of non-fatal injury. Therefore, individuals, families, schools and governments should promptly adopt preventive measures aimed at preventing and controlling morbidity due to non-fatal injury, especially among students identified to be at high-risk; such as male students with type A behaviour pattern who like sports.

  8. Characteristics of pediatric firearm fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, B L; Moore, V L; Peclet, M; Haller, J A; Smialek, J; Hill, J L

    1990-01-01

    An increase in the awareness of the problem of gunshot fatalities in children has occurred nationwide over the last year. Unintentional firearm deaths are more common among children and young adults. These deaths may be addressed by preventive measures beyond those available for pediatric firearm suicide and homicide. This study focuses on the incidence of fatal gunshot injuries in children under 16 years of age during the years 1979 through 1987 in our state. Over the past 9 years 132 children (0 to 16 years) were shot and killed as a result of firearm injuries (M:F ratio, 3:1). No difference in absolute number in racial distribution existed. Deaths were classified as homicide, 61 (46%); accidental, 33 (25%); suicide, 29 (22%); undetermined, 7 (5%); and other, 2 (1.5%). Over 70% of these fatal injuries occurred in the home environment. Types of weapons involved included handguns (48%), shotguns (22%), rifles (17%), unspecified weapon (12%), and air rifle (1%). In a large number of cases, guns were found in the home unsecured. The perpetrator was known by the victim in 64 instances, while unknown in 27. Thirty-nine self-inflicted wounds and two shotgun blasts in the line of fire accounted for the remaining deaths. The most common anatomical injury and ultimate cause of death was cranial central nervous system (CNS) (62%), followed by chest/mediastinum (20%), abdomen (10%), and other (8%). A child who has sustained a firearm injury is more likely to know the perpetrator, be killed in the home by a readily available unsecured firearm, and die from severe head injury.

  9. Benzodiazepines: a major component in unintentional prescription drug overdoses with opioid analgesics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jann, Michael; Kennedy, William Klugh; Lopez, Gaylord

    2014-02-01

    The misuse and abuse of prescription medications in the United States continues to increase despite interventions by health care professionals, regulatory, and law enforcement agencies. Opioid analgesics are the leading class of prescription drugs that have caused unintentional overdose deaths. Benzodiazepines when taken alone are relatively safe agents in overdose. However, a 5-fold increase in deaths attributed to benzodiazepines occurred from 1999 to 2009. Emergency department visits related to opioid analgesics increased by 111% followed by benzodiazepines 89%. During 2003 to 2009, the 2 prescriptions drugs with the highest increase in death rates were oxycodone 264.6% and alprazolam 233.8%. Therefore, benzodiazepines have a significant impact on prescription drug unintentional overdoses second only to the opioid analgesics. The combination prescribing of benzodiazepines and opioid analgesics commonly takes place. The pharmacokinetic drug interactions between benzodiazepines and opioid analgesics are complex. The pharmacodynamic actions of these agents differ as their combined effects produce significant respiratory depression. Physician and pharmacy shopping by patients occurs, and prescription drug-monitoring programs can provide important information on benzodiazepine and opioid analgesic prescribing patterns and patient usage. Health care professionals need to inform patients and work closely with regulatory agencies and legislatures to stem the increasing fatalities from prescription drug unintentional overdoses.

  10. Cognitive and Behavioral Risk Factors for Unintentional Drowning Among Rural Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jiabin; Pang, Shulan; Schwebel, David C

    2016-04-01

    Unintentional drowning is among the top causes of pediatric death worldwide and the leading cause of death for children under age 14 in China. Environmental factors such as abundant bodies of water and psychosocial factors such as lack of parental supervision contribute to heightened risk of pediatric drowning in rural China, but little is known about the role of individual characteristics such as knowledge and perceived vulnerability in the drowning risk of rural Chinese children. The present study aimed to explore the cognitive and behavioral risk factors for unintentional drowning among school-aged rural Chinese children. Two hundred and eighty children (mean age = 10.03 years, range 8-13) enrolled at an elementary school in rural Zhejiang Province, China completed self-report assessments of knowledge about drowning prevention, perceived vulnerability toward drowning, and history of non-fatal drowning experiences, as well as demographic information. A simulation task using a dollhouse assessed children's anticipated behaviors with water. Fifty-two percent of the sample reported exposure to water sources at least once daily, and 21 % of the sample reported at least one non-fatal drowning experience in their lifetime. Regression analysis showed that male gender, better swimming ability, less safety knowledge, and lower levels of perceived vulnerability were associated with more self-reported risky practice in/near water. More safety knowledge also predicted safer behaviors in the dollhouse simulation task. None of the risk factors predicted self-reported history of non-fatal drowning incidents. High exposure to water sources and non-fatal drowning experiences were found among school-aged children in rural China. Drowning risk factors included demographic, cognitive, and behavioral characteristics of children. Results offer evidence for developing interventions in both Zhejiang Province and other regions with similar geographic and population characteristics.

  11. Unintentional child neglect: literature review and observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Emily; Billick, Stephen B

    2015-06-01

    Child abuse is a problem that affects over six million children in the United States each year. Child neglect accounts for 78% of those cases. Despite this, the issue of child neglect is still not well understood, partially because child neglect does not have a consistent, universally accepted definition. Some researchers consider child neglect and child abuse to be one in the same, while other researchers consider them to be conceptually different. Factors that make child neglect difficult to define include: (1) Cultural differences; motives must be taken into account because parents may believe they are acting in the child's best interests based on cultural beliefs (2) the fact that the effect of child abuse is not always immediately visible; the effects of emotional neglect specifically may not be apparent until later in the child's development, and (3) the large spectrum of actions that fall under the category of child abuse. Some of the risk factors for increased child neglect and maltreatment have been identified. These risk factors include socioeconomic status, education level, family composition, and the presence of dysfunction family characteristics. Studies have found that children from poorer families and children of less educated parents are more likely to sustain fatal unintentional injuries than children of wealthier, better educated parents. Studies have also found that children living with adults unrelated to them are at increased risk for unintentional injuries and maltreatment. Dysfunctional family characteristics may even be more indicative of child neglect. Parental alcohol or drug abuse, parental personal history of neglect, and parental stress greatly increase the odds of neglect. Parental depression doubles the odds of child neglect. However, more research needs to be done to better understand these risk factors and to identify others. Having a clearer understanding of the risk factors could lead to prevention and treatment, as it would allow

  12. [The twofold face of fatalism: collectivist fatalism and individualist fatalism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Amalio; Díaz, Darío

    2007-11-01

    Fatalism has been a central framework for understanding the psychological processes in cultures with pronounced collectivism that are economically poorly developed. In this context, fatalism emerges as cognitive schema defined by passive and submissive acceptance of an irremediable destiny, governed by some natural force or the will of some God. This image has now lost such a clear profile. But currently, fatalism also accompanies the life of people from individualist cultures, who live in a highly developed, or even opulent, economic context. In this case, fatalism is like some mood of uncertainty, insecurity, and helplessness following the events that characterize the society of global risk. In this paper, we propose a theory to develop the two faces of fatalism.

  13. Unintentional Injuries in Preschool Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Ethem; Dursun, Onur Burak; Esin, İbrahim Selcuk; Öğütlü, Hakan; Özcan, Halil; Mutlu, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death among children. Previous research has shown that most of the injuries occur in and around the home. Therefore, parents have a key role in the occurrence and prevention of injuries. In this study, we examined the relationship among home injuries to children and parental attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, parental attitudes, and children's behavioral problems. Forty children who were admitted to the emergency department because of home injuries constitute the study group. The control group also consisted of 40 children, who were admitted for mild throat infections. The parents filled out questionnaires assessing parental ADHD, child behavioral problems, and parenting attitudes. Scores were significantly higher for both internalizing disorders and externalizing disorders in study groups. We also found that ADHD symptoms were significantly higher among fathers of injured children compared with fathers of control groups. Democratic parenting was also found to correlate with higher numbers of injuries. Parenting style, as well as the psychopathology of both the parents and children, is important factors in children's injuries. A child psychiatrist visit following an emergency procedure may help to prevent further unintentional injuries to the child. PMID:26266395

  14. Predictors of unintentional childhood injuries seen at the Accident ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJP

    2015-12-12

    Dec 12, 2015 ... Background: Unintentional childhood injuries pose a major health challenge especially in developing countries. Aim: This study sought to determine the predictors of unintentional childhood injuries in the three tertiary health centres studied. Methods: The study was a cross- sectional study. Socio-.

  15. Determinants of Unintentional Leaks During CPAP Treatment in OSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebret, Marius; Arnol, Nathalie; Martinot, Jean-Benoît; Lambert, Loïc; Tamisier, Renaud; Pepin, Jean-Louis; Borel, Jean-Christian

    2018-04-01

    Unintentional leakage from the mouth or around the mask may lead to cessation of CPAP treatment; however, the causes of unintentional leaks are poorly understood. The objectives of this study were (1) to identify determining factors of unintentional leakage and (2) to determine the effect of the type of mask (nasal/oronasal) used on unintentional leakage. Seventy-four polysomnograms from patients with OSA syndrome treated with auto-CPAP were analyzed (23 women; 56 ± 13 years; BMI, 32.9 kg/m 2 (range, 29.0-38.0 kg/m 2 ). Polysomnographic recordings were obtained under auto-CPAP, and mandibular behavior was measured with a magnetic sensor. After sleep and respiratory scoring, polysomnographic signals were computed as mean values over nonoverlapping 10-s intervals. The presence/absence of unintentional leakage was dichotomized for each 10-s interval (yes/no). Univariate and multivariate conditional regression models estimated the risk of unintentional leaks during an interval "T" based on the explanatory variables from the previous interval "T-1." A sensitivity analysis for the type of mask was then conducted. The univariate analysis showed that mandibular lowering (mouth opening), a high level of CPAP, body position (other than supine), and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep increased the risk of unintentional leaks and microarousal decreased it. In the multivariate analysis, the same variables remained independently associated with an increased risk of unintentional leakage. The sensitivity analysis showed that oronasal masks reduced the risk of unintentional leaks in cases of mouth opening and REM sleep. Mouth opening, CPAP level, sleep position, and REM sleep independently contribute to unintentional leakage. These results provide a strong rationale for the definition of phenotypes and the individual management of leaks during CPAP treatment. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Buprenorphine infrequently found in fatal overdose in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paone, Denise; Tuazon, Ellenie; Stajic, Marina; Sampson, Barbara; Allen, Bennett; Mantha, Shivani; Kunins, Hillary

    2015-10-01

    Buprenorphine is an opioid agonist medication that is both safe and effective in the treatment of opioid use disorders and the prevention of opioid overdoses. Despite this, media coverage has highlighted public concerns about the potential safety consequences of buprenorphine misuse and diversion. To address the possible contribution of buprenorphine to overdose mortality, we systematically tested post mortem blood specimens from decedents who had died of an unintentional drug overdoses in 2013. We retrospectively tested consecutive drug overdose cases that occurred from June through October 2013. Cases with available blood specimens were tested for buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Toxicology results were linked to death certificates and case files from New York City Vital Statistics and New York City Office of the Chief Medical Examiner. Of the 98 unintentional drug overdose fatalities tested, only 2 (2.0%) tested positive for buprenorphine metabolites. All 98 unintentional fatalities involved multiple substances. Buprenorphine was infrequently found in drug overdose deaths in New York City. Since the safety and efficacy of buprenorphine are well documented, and overdoses resulting from buprenorphine treatment or diversion are very rare, facilitating access to buprenorphine treatment is strongly recommended. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evidence for unintentional emotional contagion beyond dyads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Dezecache

    Full Text Available Little is known about the spread of emotions beyond dyads. Yet, it is of importance for explaining the emergence of crowd behaviors. Here, we experimentally addressed whether emotional homogeneity within a crowd might result from a cascade of local emotional transmissions where the perception of another's emotional expression produces, in the observer's face and body, sufficient information to allow for the transmission of the emotion to a third party. We reproduced a minimal element of a crowd situation and recorded the facial electromyographic activity and the skin conductance response of an individual C observing the face of an individual B watching an individual A displaying either joy or fear full body expressions. Critically, individual B did not know that she was being watched. We show that emotions of joy and fear displayed by A were spontaneously transmitted to C through B, even when the emotional information available in B's faces could not be explicitly recognized. These findings demonstrate that one is tuned to react to others' emotional signals and to unintentionally produce subtle but sufficient emotional cues to induce emotional states in others. This phenomenon could be the mark of a spontaneous cooperative behavior whose function is to communicate survival-value information to conspecifics.

  18. Eradicated unintentional incorporated donor-type impurities of ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiuhua; Li, Binghui; Zhang, Zhenzhong; Shen, Dezhen

    2018-03-01

    Impurity control is essential for semiconductor doping. Through the systematic analysis of pollution sources, we determined that the residual electrons of as-grown unintentional doped zinc oxide (ZnO) films were derived from the unintentional incorporation of silicon, which grown by molecular beam epitaxy. At the same time, it was determined that unforeseen donor-type impurities (boron, carbon, chlorine and fluorine) were introduced during the nitrogen doping process. By subjecting the sources of the contamination to a surface passivation process, these donor-type impurities are controlled at a tolerable level. The residual electrons concentration of the unintentional doped ZnO film was lowered to 1 × 1015 cm-3, and the mobility was 155 cm2/V.s. Nitrogen-doped ZnO films exhibited p-type conductivity, with a hole concentration of 2 × 1016 cm-3 and a mobility of 10 cm2/V.s. Our results provide a pure foundation for further research on p-type doping of ZnO.

  19. Fatalism and Savings

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen, Wu; Joel, Shapiro

    2010-01-01

    We examine the impact of fatalism, the belief that one has little or no control over future events, on the decision of whether or not to save. We develop a model that predicts that fatalism decreases savings for moderately risk averse individuals, increases savings for highly risk averse individuals, and otherwise has no impact. Furthermore, fatalism decreases effort in learning about savings and investment options. We use data from National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) and find genera...

  20. Fatal childhood injuries in Finland, 1971-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkkari, Jari; Mattila, Ville; Kivistö, Juho; Niemi, Seppo; Palvanen, Mika; Kannus, Pekka

    2013-06-01

    Childhood injuries are a major public health problem worldwide, injuries being the leading cause of death and disability from early childhood through adolescence. To examine the 40-year nationwide trends in the number and incidence of fatal injuries among children aged 0-14 years in Finland, a country with a white European population of 5.3 million. Data were obtained from the Official Cause-of-Death Statistics of Finland during 1971-2010. The main categories for unintentional injury deaths were road traffic injury, water traffic injury, falls, drowning and poisoning. For intentional injury deaths, the main categories were suicide and homicide. In 1971, there were 109 fatal injuries involving girls and 207 involving boys, and in 2010, these numbers were 10 and 16. The corresponding incidence rates (per 100 000 children per year) were 20.1 and 2.3 (girls), and 36.7 and 3.5 (boys). The reduction in fatal injuries was mostly due to fewer unintentional injuries. The greatest decline occurred in the number of fatal motor vehicle injuries: from 57 (girls) and 92 (boys) in 1971 to 5 (girls) and 2 (boys) in 2010. Drownings followed a similar pattern. Violence-related deaths also showed a decreasing trend. In 1971, there were 14 intentional deaths in girls and 15 in boys, while in 2010 these numbers were 0 and 3, respectively. This nationwide study confirms a decline in childhood injury deaths over the last four decades, with the greatest declines occurring in the number of fatal motor vehicle injuries, drownings and intentional injuries.

  1. Fatality in a wine vat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Harpe, Romano; Shiferaw, Kebede; Mangin, Patrice; Burkhardt, Sandra

    2013-06-01

    Intoxication with carbon dioxide (CO2), a nonexplosive, colorless, and odorless gas does not cause any clinical symptoms or signs, with the occasional exception of sudation. Carbon dioxide is principally used in the food industry (70% of CO2 production), in particular to preserve foods and to carbonate beverages. Most fatalities resulting from CO2 intoxication are accidental and occur either in closed spaces or when dry ice is used in the food industry. In this case report, a 42-year-old male winemaker engineer was found dead, his head inside a wine vat that had been filled with grapes on the previous day and supplemented with dry ice to improve the taste of wine.

  2. Gun storage practices and risk of youth suicide and unintentional firearm injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, David C; Mueller, Beth A; Riedy, Christine; Dowd, M Denise; Villaveces, Andres; Prodzinski, Janice; Nakagawara, Jon; Howard, John; Thiersch, Norman; Harruff, Richard

    2005-02-09

    480 with control firearms. Of the shootings associated with the case firearms, 81 were suicide attempts (95% fatal) and 25 were unintentional injuries (52% fatal). After adjustment for potentially confounding variables, guns from case households were less likely to be stored unloaded than control guns (odds ratio [OR], 0.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.16-0.56). Similarly, case guns were less likely to be stored locked (OR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.17-0.45), stored separately from ammunition (OR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.34-0.93), or to have ammunition that was locked (OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.23-0.66) than were control guns. These findings were consistent for both handguns and long guns and were also similar for both suicide attempts and unintentional injuries. The 4 practices of keeping a gun locked, unloaded, storing ammunition locked, and in a separate location are each associated with a protective effect and suggest a feasible strategy to reduce these types of injuries in homes with children and teenagers where guns are stored.

  3. Worldwide Prevalence and Trends in Unintentional Drug Overdose: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Silvia S; Sampson, Laura; Cerdá, Magdalena; Galea, Sandro

    2015-11-01

    .4%, a median of 47%, and a standard deviation of 14.4%. Population-based crude overdose mortality rates (n = 28 samples) ranged from 0.04 to 46.6 per 100 000 person-years. This range is likely attributable to the diversity in regions, time periods, and samples. Most studies on longitudinal trends of overdose death rates or overdose-related hospitalization rates showed increases in overdose death rates and in overdose-related hospitalization rates across time, which have led to peaks in these rates at the present time. An overall trend of increasing deaths from prescription opioid use and decreasing deaths from illicit drug use in the past several years has been noted across most of the literature. With the increase in prescription opioid overdose deaths, drug overdose is not just an urban problem: rural areas have seen an important increase in overdose deaths. Lastly, cocaine, prescription opioids, and heroin are the drugs most commonly associated with unintentional drug overdoses worldwide and the demographic and psychiatric correlates associated with unintentional drug overdoses are similar globally. There is a need to invest in research to understand the distinct determinants of prescription drug overdose worldwide. Several other countries need to collect in a systematic and continuous fashion such data on sales of prescription opioids and other prescription drugs, nonmedical use of prescription drugs, and hospitalization secondary to overdoses on prescription drugs. The sparse evidence on the environmental determinants of overdose suggests a need for research that will inform the types of environmental interventions we can use to prevent drug overdose. Methodological issues for future studies include enhancing data collection methods on unintentional fatal and nonfatal overdoses, and collecting more detailed information on drug use history, source of drug use (for prescription drugs), and demographic and psychiatric history characteristics of the individual

  4. Suicide and unintentional injury mortality among homeless people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Sandra Feodor; Hjorthøj, Carsten Rygaard; Erlangsen, Annette

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Homeless people have elevated mortality, especially due to external causes. We aimed to examine suicide and unintentional injury mortality levels and identify predictors in the homeless population. METHODS: A nationwide, register-based cohort study of homeless people aged 16 years...... and older was carried out using the Danish Homeless Register, 1999-2008. RESULTS: In all, 32 010 homeless people (70.5% men) were observed. For men, the mortality rate was 174.4 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 150.6-198.1] per 100 000 person-years for suicide and 463.3 (95% CI = 424...... and unintentional injury. CONCLUSION: People in the homeless shelter population with a history of a psychiatric disorder constitute a high-risk group regarding the elevated suicide and unintentional injury mortality....

  5. National estimates of non-fatal firearm related injuries other than gunshot wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hootman, J; Annest, J; Mercy, J; Ryan, G; Hargarten, S

    2000-01-01

    Objective—To characterize non-fatal firearm related injuries other than gunshot wounds (non-GSWs) treated in hospital emergency departments in the United States that occur during routine gun handling and recreational use as well as violence related use of a firearm. Methods—Cases were identified through the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS). During the study period, 1 January 1993 through 31 December 1996, NEISS consisted of a nationally representative sample of 91 hospitals in the United States having at least six beds and providing 24 hour emergency services. Results—An estimated 65 374, or an average of 16 300 per year, non-fatal, non-GSWs were treated in American hospital emergency departments during the four year study period. Fifty seven per cent of all the non-fatal, non-GSWs were violence related, most of which involved being struck by a firearm. The majority of unintentional non-fatal, non-GSWs were self inflicted and occurred during routine gun handling or recreational use of a firearm; 43% of these injuries resulted from gun recoils. Conclusions—Non-fatal, non-GSWs make a notable contribution to the public health burden of firearm related injuries. Firearm related injury prevention programs should focus on not only the reduction of gunshot wounds but also the reduction of unintentional and violence related non-GSWs. PMID:11144625

  6. Unintentional Injuries and Violence among Adults in Northern Jordan: A Hospital-Based Retrospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzghoul, Manal M.; Shakhatreh, Mohammed K.; Al-sheyab, Nihaya

    2017-01-01

    Injuries (unintentional and intentional) are the main cause of death and disability worldwide, including Jordan. The main purpose of this hospital-based retrospective study was to identify characteristics, causes, and risk factors of unintentional injuries and violence among all adult patients who approached the Accidents and Emergency department because of injury in Northern Jordan. Data were collected retrospectively from four major hospitals from January 2008 to January 2013. A total of 2425 Jordanian individuals who accessed and were treated by the four hospitals were included in this study. The findings show that the majority of patients who approached the Accidents and Emergency departments in the four hospitals were males (n = 2044, 87.16%) versus females (n = 301, 12.8%). Violence was the most common reason of injury (70.66%), followed by road traffic crashes (23.21%). The most common anatomical locations of reported injuries were the head (38.74%), followed by abdomen/pelvis and lower back, among males and females (9.93%). Violence had a high significant effect on the site of injuries. Patients who had been injured to the head because of a stab wound or fighting were substantially over-involved in head injuries, with injury rates 3.88 and 7.51 times higher than those who had been injured to the head due to gunshot, respectively. Even patients who had been injured to the head because of assault show much higher involvement in injury risk than non-assault patients (Odds Ratio = 8.46). These findings highlight the need for a large national study to confirm the findings. It also draws attention to the importance of public awareness and to special injury prevention programs that not only focus on saving lives and lessening the number of injuries, illnesses, and fatalities, but also to limit the social and economic burden of injury among adults in Northern Jordan. PMID:28338614

  7. Unintentional Injuries, Violence, and the Health of Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This fact sheet defines unintentional injuries and violence as the terms are used by the CDC and provides statistics on the leading causes of injury mortality and morbidity among children and adolescents, as well as information on the context of injury occurrence. (Contains 2 tables.)

  8. The prevalence of intentional and unintentional injuries in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intentional and unintentional injuries were reported to be the second leading cause of Disability Adjusted Life Years in South Africa in 2000. We present household experiences of such injuries in 5 impoverished housing settlements in Johannesburg, Gauteng Province. Data for this study were extracted from the database of ...

  9. Childhood psychosocial development and fatal injuries in Gauteng, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, K; Van Niekerk, A

    2015-01-01

    In South Africa, injuries are the third leading cause of death and disability. Children are especially susceptible to unintentional injuries, especially pedestrian injuries, burns and drowning. Injury risk is informed by children's exposure to adverse environmental circumstances, and individual capacities dependent on developmental maturity. Boys are at greater risk than girls. This study investigates the incidence of fatal childhood injuries as well as sex differences across psychosocial development stages. Data on fatal injuries in Gauteng, South Africa's most populous province, were obtained from the National Injury Mortality Surveillance System. The analysis drew on Erikson's psychosocial theory of development which was used to create meaningful age groups. Age-specific population data from the 2011 Census were used to calculate rates, and significant differences were determined through the generation of risk ratios and confidence intervals. There were 5404 fatal injuries among children in Gauteng from 2008 to 2011. The average age of victims was 8.9 years, and the majority male (65.6%). In infancy, the mortality rates for all injuries and non-traffic unintentional injuries were significantly higher than for the other age groups. Burns were the most common cause of death in infancy and early childhood. Pedestrian injuries accounted for a third of mortality in preschool and school age, and homicide rates were significantly higher in adolescence than in the other developmental stages. For injuries in general, boys had significantly higher mortality rates than girls in all age groups except preschool. The only instance where the mortality rate for girls was significantly higher than for boys was for adolescent ingestion poisoning suicides. The exposure to environmental and social risks is differentially moderated with maturing age and levels of autonomy. The sex of the child also informs risk. The nature of these risks is important when considering child injury

  10. Unintentional Injuries In Children: Are Our Homes Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruque, Ahmad Vaqas; Mateen Khan, Muhammad Arif

    2016-05-01

    Unintentional injuries are a leading cause of death in childhood globally. Injuries lead to emotional trauma and financial burden for children, parents, and society. Here are the frequencies of unintentional injuries in children presented to the emergency and paediatric surgery clinics of the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan, from January to December 2012. Aretrospective chart review of children aged 0 day to 14 years presented with falls, burns, foreign body ingestion or inhalation, poisoning, fingers caught in doors, electrocution injuries and drowning, was conducted. Atotal of 165 children were included. Domestic injuries were frequently occurring injuries in our set-up which could be prevented by doing small adjustments to make the home safe for children.

  11. Pediatric unintentional injury: behavioral risk factors and implications for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwebel, David C; Gaines, Joanna

    2007-06-01

    Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death for children and adolescents between the ages of 1 and 18 in the United States, accounting for more deaths than the next 20 causes of mortality combined. It is estimated that pediatric injury accounts for more than $50 billion in annual losses from medical care costs, future wages, and quality of life. Despite these numbers, much remains to be learned about the behavioral risks for pediatric unintentional injury. This article reviews behavioral risk factors for pediatric unintentional injury risk, with a particular focus on four broad areas. First, we discuss the effects of demographic risk factors, including gender, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity. Second, we present information about child-specific risk factors, including temperament, personality, psychopathology, and cognitive development. Third, we discuss the influence of parents and other primary caregivers on childhood injury risk, with a particular focus on the effects of supervision and parenting quality and style. Finally, we discuss the role of peers on child injury risk. We conclude with a discussion of the ways in which the material reviewed has been translated into injury prevention techniques, with a focus on how pediatricians might use knowledge about etiological risk to prioritize safety counseling topics. We also present thoughts on four priorities for future research: injury risk in diverse nations and cultures; developmental effects of injury; the influence of multiple risk factors together on injury risk; and translation of knowledge about risk for injury into intervention and prevention techniques.

  12. Fatal colchicine intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smael Labib

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Colchicine is an alkaloid extracted from autumnal Colchicum plant which is used primarily for its anti-inflammatory therapy effect. Acute intoxication with colchicine is uncommon but often severe and results in multiple visceral organ dysfunctions. The intoxication severity and mortality are directly depending on the ingested dose. The treatment is manly symptomatic. However, the development of specific anti-colchicine immunotherapy would offer a new therapeutic perspective. Authors report a case of a young patient that ingested 40 tablets colchicine, which caused a multiple organ failure and with fatal outcome.

  13. Prevalence of driver physical factors leading to unintentional lane departure crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchino, Jessica B; Zuby, David S

    2017-07-04

    Some lane-keeping assist systems in development and production provide autonomous braking and steering to correct unintentional lane drift but otherwise require drivers to fully control their vehicles. The goal of this study was to quantify the proportion of drivers involved in unintentional lane drift crashes who would be unable to regain control of their vehicles to inform the design of such systems. The NHTSA's National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey collected in-depth, on-scene data for a nationally representative sample of 5,470 U.S. police-reported passenger vehicle crashes during 2005-2007 that occurred between 6 a.m. and midnight and for which emergency medical services were dispatched. The physical states of drivers involved in the 631 lane drift crashes in the sample, which represented 259,034 crashes nationally, were characterized. Thirty-four percent of drivers who crashed because they drifted from their lanes were sleeping or otherwise incapacitated. These drivers would be unlikely to regain full control of their vehicles if an active safety system prevented their initial drift. An additional 13% of these drivers had a nonincapacitating medical issue, blood alcohol concentration (BAC) ≥ 0.08%, or other physical factor that may not allow them to regain full vehicle control. When crashes involved serious or fatal injuries, 42% of drivers who drifted were sleeping or otherwise incapacitated, and an additional 14% were impacted by a nonincapacitating medical issue, BAC ≥ 0.08%, or other physical factor. Designers of active safety systems that provide autonomous lateral control should consider that a substantial proportion of drivers at risk of lane drift crashes are incapacitated. Systems that provide only transient corrective action may not ultimately prevent lane departure crashes for these drivers, and drivers who do avoid lane drift crashes because of these systems may be at high risk of other types of crashes when they attempt to regain

  14. Childhood unintentional injuries: Supervision and first aid provided

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabel Jonkheijm

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The aim of this study was to investigate the circumstances surrounding unintentional injuries of children and the appropriateness of the first aid provided by caregivers. Materials and Methods : This prospective study included children with aged range 0-12 years, who presented with an unintentional injury at the Trauma Unit of a hospital in Cape Town, South Africa, over a 3 month period. Caregivers were interviewed about the circumstances of the injury and the first aid provided. Experts classified the first aid as appropriate, appropriate but incomplete, or inappropriate. Results: A total of 313 children were included with a median age of 3.75 years. The most common causes of injury were falls (39.6%, n = 124, burns (23.9%, n = 75 and motor vehicle crashes (10.5%, n = 33. More than a quarter of the children (27.2%, n = 81 had been left under the supervision of another child below the age of 12. When the injury occurred, 7.1% (n = 22 of the children were unattended. First aid was provided in 43.1% (n = 134 of the cases. More than half of these interventions (53%, n = 72 were inappropriate or appropriate but incomplete. Conclusions: Especially young children are at risk for unintentional injuries. Lack of appropriate supervision increases this risk. Prevention education of parents and children may help to protect children from injuries. First-aid training should also be more accessible to civilians as both the providing of as well as the quality of first-aid provided lacked in the majority of cases.

  15. Unintentional Cannabis Ingestion in Children: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, John R; Smith, Nishelle E; Moulin, Aimee K

    2017-11-01

    To analyze published reports of unintentional cannabis ingestions in children to determine presenting signs and symptoms, route of exposure, treatment, and outcome. PubMed, OpenGrey, and Google Scholar were systematically searched. Articles were selected, reviewed, and graded using Oxford Center for Evidence-Based Medicine guidelines. Of 3316 articles, 44 were included (3582 children age ≤12 years). We found no high quality (Oxford Center for Evidence-Based Medicine level I or II) studies and 10 level III studies documenting lethargy as the most common presenting sign and confirming increasing incidence of unintentional ingestion in states having decriminalized medical and recreational cannabis. We identified 16 level IV case series, and 28 level V case reports with 114 children, mean age 25.2 ± 18.7 months, range 8 months to 12 years, and 50 female children (44%). The most common ingestion (n = 43, 38%) was cannabis resin, followed by cookies and joints (both n = 15, 13%). Other exposures included passive smoke, medical cannabis, candies, beverages, and hemp oil. Lethargy was the most common presenting sign (n = 81, 71%) followed by ataxia (n = 16, 14%). Tachycardia, mydriasis, and hypotonia were also commonly observed. All cases were cared for in the emergency department or admitted, and mean length of stay was 27.1 ± 27.0 hours. Twenty (18%) were admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit, and 7 (6%) were intubated. Unintentional cannabis ingestion by children is a serious public health concern and is well-documented in numerous studies and case reports. Clinicians should consider cannabis toxicity in any child with sudden onset of lethargy or ataxia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Childhood unintentional injuries: supervision and first aid provided.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonkheijm, Annabel; Zuidgeest, Jenny Johanna Hendrijntje; van Dijk, Monique; van As, Arjan Bastiaan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the circumstances surrounding unintentional injuries of children and the appropriateness of the first aid provided by caregivers. This prospective study included children with aged range 0-12 years, who presented with an unintentional injury at the Trauma Unit of a hospital in Cape Town, South Africa, over a 3 month period. Caregivers were interviewed about the circumstances of the injury and the first aid provided. Experts classified the first aid as appropriate, appropriate but incomplete, or inappropriate. A total of 313 children were included with a median age of 3.75 years. The most common causes of injury were falls (39.6%, n = 124), burns (23.9%, n = 75) and motor vehicle crashes (10.5%, n = 33). More than a quarter of the children (27.2%, n = 81) had been left under the supervision of another child below the age of 12. When the injury occurred, 7.1% (n = 22) of the children were unattended. First aid was provided in 43.1% (n = 134) of the cases. More than half of these interventions (53%, n = 72) were inappropriate or appropriate but incomplete. Especially young children are at risk for unintentional injuries. Lack of appropriate supervision increases this risk. Prevention education of parents and children may help to protect children from injuries. First-aid training should also be more accessible to civilians as both the providing of as well as the quality of first-aid provided lacked in the majority of cases.

  17. Fatal crocodile attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Saurabh; Shee, Biplab; Sukul, Biswajit

    2013-11-01

    Attacks on human beings by various animals leading to varied types of injuries and even death in some cases are not uncommon. Crocodile attacks on humans have been reported from a number of countries across the globe. Deaths in such attacks are mostly due to mechanical injuries or drowning. Bites by the crocodiles often cause the limbs to be separated from the body. The present case refers to an incident of a fatal attack by a crocodile on a 35 years old female where only the mutilated head of the female was recovered. Multiple lacerated wounds over the face and scalp along with fracture of the cranial bones was detected on autopsy. Two distinct bite marks in the form of punched in holes were noted over the parietal and frontal bones. Injuries on the head with its traumatic amputation from the body were sufficient to cause death. However, the presence of other fatal injuries on the unrecovered body parts could not be ruled out. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  18. Influences on and measures of unintentional group synchrony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Ellamil

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Many instances of large-scale coordination occur in real-life social situations without the explicit awareness of the individuals involved. While the majority of research to date has examined dyadic interactions – those between two individuals – during intentional or deliberate coordination, the present review surveys the handful of recent studies investigating behavioral and physiological synchrony across groups of more than two people when coordination was not an explicit goal. Both minimal (e.g., visual information, shared location and naturalistic (e.g., choir singing part, family relationship group interactions appear to promote unintentional group synchrony although they have so far only been studied separately. State differences in unintentional group synchrony, or the relative presence of coordination in various conditions, have tended to be assessed differently, such as using correlation-type relationships, compared to its temporal dynamics, or changes over time in the degree of coordination, which appear to be best captured using phase differences. Simultaneously evaluating behavioral, physiological, and social responses as well systematically comparing different synchrony measures could further our understanding of the influences on and measures of group synchrony, allowing us to move away from studying individual persons responding to static laboratory stimuli and towards investigating collective experiences in natural, dynamic social interactions.

  19. Profile and Risk Factor Analysis of Unintentional Injuries in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhamkar, Rahul; Seth, Bageshree; Setia, Maninder Singh

    2016-10-01

    To study the profile and various risk factors associated with unintentional injuries in children. The study is a cross sectional analysis of data collected from 351 children presenting with unintentional injury to a tertiary care hospital in Navi Mumbai, India. Data were collected about variables based on Haddon Phase Factor Matrix - host, environment and agent factors. Proportions for categorical variables across various groups were compared using Chi square test or Fisher's exact test. Logistic regression model was used to evaluate the factors. Falls (36 %) were the most common injuries followed by bites (23 %). Majority of children were school going children (38 %) followed by preschool children (29 %). Forty-seven percent were from lower socioeconomic class. Commonest place of injury was home (48 %) and the commonest time was evening (49 %). Though there was male predominance in injuries, the difference across gender did not vary significantly (p = 0.15). Poisonings were significantly more common in infants and toddlers and in rural population (p Injuries from rural area and lower socioeconomic class were more serious, requiring hospitalization; they were also more likely to present late to the hospital (p injuries varies widely as per the variations in agent, host and environmental factors. Socio-environmental, economic conditions and infancy-toddler age groups are predisposing risk factors for bites and poisoning. Although rural areas and lower socioeconomic class population are more vulnerable to serious types of injuries, they still lack essential basic medical care.

  20. Unintentionality of affective attention across visual processing stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andero eUusberg

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Affective attention involves bottom-up perceptual selection that prioritizes motivationally significant stimuli. To clarify the extent to which this process is automatic, we investigated the dependence of affective attention on the intention to process emotional meaning. Affective attention was manipulated by presenting IAPS images with variable arousal and intentionality by requiring participants to make affective and non-affective evaluations. Polytomous rather than binary decisions were required from the participants in order to elicit relatively deep emotional processing. The temporal dynamics of prioritized processing were assessed using Early Posterior Negativity (EPN, 175-300 ms as well as P3-like (P3, 300 – 500 ms and Slow Wave (SW, 500 – 1500 ms portions of the Late Positive Potential. All analysed components were differentially sensitive to stimulus categories suggesting that they indeed reflect distinct stages of motivational significance encoding. The intention to perceive emotional meaning had no effect on EPN, an additive effect on P3, and an interactive effect on SW. We concluded that affective attention went from completely unintentional during the EPN to partially unintentional during P3 and SW where top-down signals, respectively, complemented and modulated bottom-up differences in stimulus prioritization. The findings were interpreted in light of two-stage models of visual perception by associating the EPN with large-capacity initial relevance detection and the P3 as well as SW with capacity-limited consolidation and elaboration of affective stimuli.

  1. Paraquat: A fatal poison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Shashibhushan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraquat (1, 1′-dimethyl-4, 4′-dipyridylium is a bipyridilium herbicide used widely in our country and is a highly toxic compound. This compound is very notorious to cause rapid development of renal, liver, and respiratory failure with very high mortality due to lack of specific antidote and dearth of high-quality evidence-based treatment. Respiratory system involvement is the most common cause of death in these people. We hereby report a fatal case of a 30-year-old male with a history of paraquat consumption. The patient developed oliguric renal failure, deterioration of liver function, and acute respiratory distress syndrome over next few days. Different treatment modalities were tried to manage patient′s condition. In this case, none of the strategies worked well, and death ensued due to multi-organ dysfunction syndrome.

  2. Fatal poisoning in drug addicts in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steentoft, Anni; Teige, Brita; Ceder, Gunnel

    2001-01-01

    . For all countries the distribution of deaths according to geographical regions showed a decreasing number of drug deaths in the metropolitan area and an increasing number in other cities. Heroin/ morphine dominated as the cause of death and was responsible for about 90% of the cases in Norway. In Sweden...... and Denmark, however, heroin/morphine caused only about 70% of the fatal poisonings. About 30% of the fatal poisonings in Denmark and Sweden were caused by other group I drugs, in Denmark mainly methadone and in Sweden mainly propoxyphene. Apart from two cases in Sweden methadone deaths were not seen...... in the other Nordic countries. In Finland heroin/morphine deaths have increased from about 10% in 1991 to about 40% in 1997. Forty-four percent of the fatal poisonings in Finland were caused by other group I drugs, mainly codeine and propoxyphene. The two fatal poisonings in Iceland were caused by carbon...

  3. Fatalism as a Metaphysical Thesis

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    Ulrich Meyer

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Even though fatalism has been an intermittent topic of philosophy since Greek antiquity, this paper argues that fate ought to be of little concern to metaphysicians. Fatalism is neither an interesting metaphysical thesis in its own right, nor can it be identified with theses that are, such as realism about the future or determinism.

  4. Epidemiology of unintentional injuries in childhood: a population-based survey in general practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otters, H.; Schellevis, F.G.; Damen, J.; Wouden, J.C. van der; Suijlekom-Smit, L.W.A.; Koes, B.W.

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the incidence of unintentional injuries presented in general practice, and to identify children at risk from experiencing an unintentional injury. We used the data of all 0–17-yearold children from a representative survey in 96 Dutch general practices in 2001. We computed

  5. Psychopathology, Temperament and Unintentional Injury: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Richard; Simonoff, Emily; Silberg, Judy L.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Growing evidence indicates a link between unintentional injury and both disruptive and emotional psychopathology. We present further evidence of these associations and address the underlying mechanisms. We also examine the genetic contribution to unintentional injury. Methods: The Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent Behavioral…

  6. Behavioral and Social Sciences Theories and Models: Are They Used in Unintentional Injury Prevention Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifiletti, L. B.; Gielen, A. C.; Sleet, D. A.; Hopkins, K.

    2005-01-01

    Behavioral and social sciences theories and models have the potential to enhance efforts to reduce unintentional injuries. The authors reviewed the published literature on behavioral and social science theory applications to unintentional injury problems to enumerate and categorize the ways different theories and models are used in injury…

  7. Domestic unintentional injury of 1 to 5-year-old children in a rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Childhood unintentional injury, a major public health problem in India, is largely preventable. The aim of this study was to determine the burden and determinants of unintentional injury of 12 to 59 months old child at household level. Method: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted at Singur ...

  8. Unintentional drowning: Role of medicinal drugs and alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajunen, Tuulia; Vuori, Erkki; Vincenzi, Frank F; Lillsunde, Pirjo; Smith, Gordon; Lunetta, Philippe

    2017-05-19

    Alcohol is a well-known risk factor in unintentional drownings. Whereas psychotropic drugs, like alcohol, may cause psychomotor impairment and affect cognition, no detailed studies have focused on their association with drowning. Finland provides extensive post-mortem toxicological data for studies on drowning because of its high medico-legal autopsy rates. Drowning cases, 2000 through 2009, for which post-mortem toxicological analysis was performed, came from the database of the Toxicological Laboratory, Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Helsinki, using the ICD-10 nature-of-injury code T75.1. The data were narrowed to unintentional drowning, using the ICD-10 external-injury codes V90, V92, and W65-74. Each drowning case had its blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and concentrations of other drugs recorded. Evaluation of the contribution of psychotropic drugs to drowning was based on their blood concentration by means of a 6-grade scale. Among victims ≥15 years old, unintentional drownings numbered 1697, of which, 303 (17.9%) were boating-related and 1394 (82.1%) non-boating-related. Among these, 65.0% of boating-related and 61.8% of non-boating-related victims were alcohol-positive (=BAC ≥ 50 mg/dL). The male-to-female ratio in alcohol-positive drownings was 7.3. At least one psychotropic drug appeared in 453 (26.7%) drowning cases, with some victims' bodies showing up to 7 different drugs. Overall 70 different psychotropic drugs were detectable, with 134 (7.9%) cases both alcohol-negative and psychotropic-drug-positive, of these, 59 (3.5%) were graded 4 to 6, indicating a possible to very probable contribution to drowning. Our findings suggest that psychotropic drugs may play a significant role in drowning, in up to 14.5% of cases, independently or in association with alcohol. Psychotropic drugs alone or in association with alcohol may be an overlooked risk factor in drowning, due to their effects on psychomotor function and cognition. Future

  9. Clinical Features of Fatal Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiung-Zuei Chen

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available To characterize the clinical features of fatal asthma, we retrospectively analyzed the clinical characteristics of patients who died of an acute asthma attack in our hospital during a 15-year period from 1989 to 2003. Twelve patients had fatal asthma during this period, including eight who were dead on arrival in the emergency room (ER and three who died within 1 hour of admission to the ER. Patients were categorized into three groups according to the clinical presentations during the fatal attack: (1 rapid (< 3 hours decompensation in four patients; (2 gradual development of respiratory failure over several days in two patients; and (3 acute deterioration after unstable asthma lasting several days in six patients. All patients in groups 1 and 2 had reported previous near-fatal attacks. The proportion of young patients was highest in group 3, with half of them (3/6 younger than 35 years of age. Only one patient in group 3 had had a previous near-fatal attack. Five of the seven patients, with previous near-fatal attacks, had a pattern of decompensation during their fatal attack that was similar to their previous attacks. In conclusion, nearly all patients with fatal asthma in this study died outside of the hospital or within 1 hour after admission to the ER. Patients had patterns of decompensation during the fatal attack that were similar to those of their previous attacks. Early detection of warning signs, early admission to the ER, adequate treatment, and extremely close observation of patients, especially within 1 hour after ER arrival, may prevent or decrease the incidence of fatal asthmatic attack.

  10. Unintentional Exposure to Online Sexual Content and Sexual Behavior Intentions Among College Students in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingwen; Jemmott, John B

    2015-07-01

    This study examined the relations of unintentional exposure to Internet sexual content to intentions for sex and condom use and potential mediators of these relations, including attitudes, norms, and self-efficacy, among college students in China. A sample of 524 Chinese college students completed an online questionnaire. Mediation path analyses were conducted to test the theory of planned behavior as a model of the relations between unintentional exposure and intentions to have sex and use condoms. On average, students reported being unintentionally exposed to Internet sexual content about 3 to 4 times during the past month. Unintentional exposure was indirectly associated with intention to have sex, mediated through descriptive and injunctive norms. Descriptive norm was a stronger mediator for females than males. In contrast, unintentional exposure was unrelated to condom-use intention and mediators. The theory of planned behavior provides a model for the development of Internet-based interventions with these students. © 2014 APJPH.

  11. Working hours associated with unintentional sleep at work among airline pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Cristina Marqueze

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Tto identify factors associated with unintentional sleep at work of airline pilots. METHODS This is a cross-sectional epidemiological study conducted with 1,235 Brazilian airline pilots, who work national or international flights. Data collection has been performed online. We carried out a bivariate and multiple logistic regression analysis, having as dependent variable unintentional sleep at work. The independent variables were related to biodemographic data, characteristics of the work, lifestyle, and aspects of sleep. RESULTS The prevalence of unintentional sleep while flying the airplane was 57.8%. The factors associated with unintentional sleep at work were: flying for more than 65 hours a month, frequent technical delays, greater need for recovery after work, work ability below optimal, insufficient sleep, and excessive sleepiness. CONCLUSIONS The occurrence of unintentional sleep at work of airline pilots is associated with factors related to the organization of the work and health.

  12. Type A personality, hostility, time urgency and unintentional injuries among Chinese undergraduates: a matched case–control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Associations between type A behaviour pattern (TABP) and injuries are inconsistent. These inconsistencies may be due to different effects of various components of TABP, namely time urgency/impatience, hostility and competitive drive. It is important to examine the relationship between the global TABP, its two components, and unintentional injuries, among undergraduates in China. Methods On the basis of a previous cross-sectional study, we conducted a matched case–control study. 253 cases and an equal number of age-, gender-, and major-matched controls were included. The questionnaire solicited socio-demographic information, the experience of injuries, the scale of TABP, and other potential confounding factors. Besides the correlation between the global TABP and injuries, the influences of the two components of TABP on injuries were also evaluated. Conditional logistic regression was used to determine the crude odds ratios (ORs) and adjusted ORs of injury events. Results A dose–response relationship was apparent among students who rated themselves higher on the TABP scale (P-value for trend, 0.002), with a crude OR of 2.93 (95% CI: 0.93–9.19) for injuries comparing those with TABP to those with type B behaviour pattern (TBBP). After adjustment for potential confounding factors, TABP remained statistically significant, and the adjusted OR was 5.52 (95% CI: 1.43–21.27); from a comparison of students with TABP to those with TBBP. A dose–response relationship was also apparent between the hostility component and nonfatal injuries, both in crude analysis and after adjusting for other confounders. The relationship between time-hurry and injuries was not statistically significant, based on univariate and multivariate analyses. Conclusions Both the global TABP and the hostility component were associated with a dose response increase in the risk of non-fatal unintentional injuries among Chinese undergraduates. Further studies need to be conducted to

  13. Unintentional falls in older adults: a methodological historical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speechley, Mark

    2011-03-01

    PubMed lists over 6,000 references (700 reviews) on unintentional falls in older adults. This article traces key methodological milestones in the application of epidemiologic methods since the earliest publications in the late 1940s. Within the context of advances in case definition, sampling, measurement, research design, and statistical analysis, the article reviews estimates of frequency of occurrence, risk factor associations, morbidity and mortality consequences, demonstration of the multiple risk factor theory of falls using fall prevention interventions, and the challenges of fall risk prediction models. Methodological explanations are provided for observed heterogeneities, and the case is presented for moving beyond undifferentiated lists of risk factors by focusing on balance and gait as the factors through which the mechanistic effects of distal risk factors can be understood. Moreover, the case is made to advance our statistical analyses by looking at interactions among intrinsic risk factors and between intrinsic, extrinsic, and environmental factors.

  14. Childhood bruising distribution observed from eight mechanisms of unintentional injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibberd, Owen; Nuttall, Diane; Watson, Rhiannon E; Watkins, William J; Kemp, Alison Mary; Maguire, Sabine

    2017-12-01

    To inform the assessment of described mechanisms of bruising in children. Prospective cross-sectional study. The emergency department, and children in the local community. Children aged 0-13 years with bruises from unintentional injuries. bleeding disorder, medication affecting coagulation or child protection concerns. Injury incidents were categorised into one of eight causal mechanisms (fall fromsports or motor vehicle collision). Location, number and mechanism of bruising for each injury mechanism. 372 children had 559 injury incidents, resulting in 693 bruises; 85.2% of children were walking independently, with impact injuries and fall from standing height (including hitting an object) being the predominant mechanisms. A single bruise was observed in 81.7% of all incidents. Stair falls resulted in ≥3 bruises only with falls involving ≥10 steps (6/16). Bruising was rarely observed on the buttocks, upper arm, back of legs or feet. No bruises were seen in this dataset on ears, neck or genitalia. Petechial bruising was only noted in 1/293 unintentional incidents, involving a high-impact injury in a school-aged child. These findings have the potential to aid an assessment of the plausibility of the explanation given for a child with bruising. Certain bruise distributions were rarely observed, namely multiple bruises from a single mechanism, petechiae and bruising to the ears, neck or genitalia. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Ecological approaches to the prevention of unintentional injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Allegrante

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Injury as a cause of significant morbidity and mortality has remained fairly stable in countries with developed economies. Although injury prevention often is conceptualised as a biomedical construct, such a reductionist perspective overlooks the importance of the psychological, environmental, and sociocultural conditions as contributing factors to injury and its consequences. This paper describes the potential of the ecological model for understanding the antecedent causes of unintentional injuries and guiding injury prevention approaches. We review the origins and conceptualise the elements of the ecological model and conclude with some examples of applications of ecological approaches to the prevention of unintentional injury and promotion of community safety.

    Methods: A review of the English-language literature on the conceptualization of ecological models in public health and injury prevention, including the application of the ecological model in the prevention of falls and road traffic injuries and in the community safety promotion movement.

    Results: Three dimensions are important in social-ecological systems that comprise key determinants of injuries: 1 the individual and his or her behaviour, 2 the physical environment, and 3 the social environment. Social and environmental determinants have profound impact on population health and in the causation of injuries.

    Conclusions: Social and environmental determinants of injury should be studied with the same energy, urgency, and intellectual rigor as physical determinants. Application of the ecological model in injury prevention shows the most promise in falls injury prevention, road traffic injury prevention, and community safety promotion.

  16. Parental Perceptions, Risks, and Incidence of Pediatric Unintentional Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Catherine M; Weaver, Nancy L; Cioni, Claire; Fry, Jessica; Hamilton, Alyssa; Thompson, Samantha

    2017-10-06

    More than 9,000 children die annually from various causes of unintentional injury. Of all the pediatric unintentional injuries occurring in the United States, 8.7 million are treated in emergency departments, and 225,000 require hospitalization annually. Health education programs are available to address these injuries. The objective of this research was to examine the distribution of self-reported high priority injury risks in an urban Midwestern pediatric level 1 trauma center and investigate the relationship between parental perceptions and injury-prevention behaviors. Prevalence rates for 3 data sources are compared. Missouri Information for Community Assessment (MICA) was categorized to mirror variables corresponding with risks of injury presented in the Safe 'n' Sound (SNS) program. Level 1 trauma center data were examined to determine how the variables were distributed compared with MICA data and with the parent-reported levels. A total of 429 SNS surveys were compared with ED data and MICA data. For SNS users, car crashes were identified as the highest risk, specifically due to the use of incorrect car seats. The injuries seen most often in the emergency department were falls, and falls were also the most prevalent injury captured by MICA. Controlling for demographics, parental perceptions predicted several risks for injury. Because parental perceptions are significantly related to risks of injury, prevention programs aiming to decrease injuries could focus on the perceptions. Not only can perceptions be used to tailor health communication materials, these perceptions can be the targets of change. Further work might investigate the extent to which changes in perceptions result in increased adoption of safety practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Fatal diquat intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović-Stošić Jasmina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Since the introduction of diquat in agriculture practice in 1960's, about 40 cases of poisoning have been described in detail in medical literature. Case report. We presented two cases. A case one, a 35-year-old, previously healthy, woman ingested 14% diquat solution. The poisoning had fulminant course, consisted of severe stomachache, vomiting, cardiocirculatory shock, respiratory failure and cardiac arrest 20 hours post-ingestion. Autopsy revealed myocardial infarction, bronchopneumonia and incipient renal damage. A case two, a 64-year-old man developed severe gastroenteritis, corrosive lesions of mucosal surfaces, acute renal injury, arrhythmias, brain stem infarction and bronchopneumonia. The diagnosis of diquat poisoning was made retrospectively upon the clinical picture and identification of pesticides he had been exposed to. The patient died 18 days post-exposure. The most prominent findings on autopsy were pontine hemorrhage and infarction, bronchopneumonia, left ventricle papillary muscle infarction and renal tubular damage. Conclusion. Cardiocirculatory disturbances led to fatal complications, the heart and brain infarction. We pointed out the heart as one of the most severely affected organs in diquat poisoning.

  18. Fatal Drownings in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kathryn; Carter, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Drowning is a newly comprehended public health concern in Fiji. Defined as "the process of experiencing respiratory impairment from submersions or immersion in liquid," drowning has been identified as one of Fiji's 5 leading causes of death for those aged 1 to 29 years. The aim of this article was to develop the most parsimonious model that can be used to explain the number of monthly fatal drowning cases in Fiji. Based on a cross-section of 187 drowning incidents from January 2012 to April 2015, this observational study found the number of monthly drownings in Fiji was significantly affected by monthly rainfall ( P = .008, 95% confidence interval = 0.10-0.62) and the number of days comprising public holidays/weekends ( P = .018, 95% confidence interval = 0.06-0.60). Furthermore, the multiple coefficient of determination ( r 2 = .4976) indicated that almost half the variation in drownings was explained by rainfall and public holidays/weekend periods. Inadequate supervision, an inability to identify or carry out safe rescue techniques, and limited water-safety knowledge were identified as common risk factors. To overcome this preventable cause of death, technically guided interventions need to be actively embedded into a range of government policies and community health promotions, disaster management, and education programs.

  19. Global earthquake fatalities and population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Thomas L.; Savage, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Modern global earthquake fatalities can be separated into two components: (1) fatalities from an approximately constant annual background rate that is independent of world population growth and (2) fatalities caused by earthquakes with large human death tolls, the frequency of which is dependent on world population. Earthquakes with death tolls greater than 100,000 (and 50,000) have increased with world population and obey a nonstationary Poisson distribution with rate proportional to population. We predict that the number of earthquakes with death tolls greater than 100,000 (50,000) will increase in the 21st century to 8.7±3.3 (20.5±4.3) from 4 (7) observed in the 20th century if world population reaches 10.1 billion in 2100. Combining fatalities caused by the background rate with fatalities caused by catastrophic earthquakes (>100,000 fatalities) indicates global fatalities in the 21st century will be 2.57±0.64 million if the average post-1900 death toll for catastrophic earthquakes (193,000) is assumed.

  20. Fatalism in systematic aspect and fatalism in its functional context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustav Henningsen

    1967-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author explores ideas of how to approach the subject of fate and fatalism. Fate, when equated with a man's life, can be raised to an infinite number of powers—as illustrated in the well-known story of the philosopher who began to wonder whether he were awake or dreaming himself awake. It would be fertile for the study of Fatalism to devote itself to analyses of situations with a view to ascertaining in which situations Fatalism is used. It would be very interesting then to examine whether the typical situations of Fatalism are not such as exclude the application of religious, magical, or rational behaviour.

  1. Behavioral and social sciences theories and models: are they used in unintentional injury prevention research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifiletti, L B; Gielen, A C; Sleet, D A; Hopkins, K

    2005-06-01

    Behavioral and social sciences theories and models have the potential to enhance efforts to reduce unintentional injuries. The authors reviewed the published literature on behavioral and social science theory applications to unintentional injury problems to enumerate and categorize the ways different theories and models are used in injury prevention research. The authors conducted a systematic review to evaluate the published literature from 1980 to 2001 on behavioral and social science theory applications to unintentional injury prevention and control. Electronic database searches in PubMed and PsycINFO identified articles that combined behavioral and social sciences theories and models and injury causes. The authors identified some articles that examined behavioral and social science theories and models and unintentional injury topics, but found that several important theories have never been applied to unintentional injury prevention. Among the articles identified, the PRECEDE PROCEED Model was cited most frequently, followed by the Theory of Reasoned Action/Theory of Planned Behavior and Health Belief Model. When behavioral and social sciences theories and models were applied to unintentional injury topics, they were most frequently used to guide program design, implementation or develop evaluation measures; few examples of theory testing were found. Results suggest that the use of behavioral and social sciences theories and models in unintentional injury prevention research is only marginally represented in the mainstream, peer-reviewed literature. Both the fields of injury prevention and behavioral and social sciences could benefit from greater collaborative research to enhance behavioral approaches to injury control.

  2. Allegheny County Fatal Accidental Overdoses

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Fatal accidental overdose incidents in Allegheny County, denoting age, gender, race, drugs present, zip code of incident and zip code of residence. Zip code of...

  3. Stereotype activation is unintentional: Behavioural and event-related potenials evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Yang, Ya-Ping; Tan, Chen-Hao; Zhao, Xiang-Xia; Liu, Yong-He; Lin, Chong-De

    2016-04-01

    In this study, a priming Stroop paradigm was used to determine whether stereotype activation is unintentional. Priming conditions (priming/no-priming) and the relationship between priming and target (consistent/inconsistent/no-relation) were the independent variables; accuracy, reaction time and N400 amplitude were used as dependent variables. The reaction time revealed that stereotype activation is, to some extent, unintentional. Furthermore, the event-related potenial (ERP) results showed that N400 amplitude was larger for inconsistent conditions than for consistent conditions. This result supported the notion that stereotype activation is an unintentional and automatic process. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  4. Childhood fatalities in new Mexico: medical examiner-investigated cases, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, Sarah L

    2013-05-01

    To better understand risk factors and populations at risk of childhood fatalities, a review of all records of childhood deaths (≤19 years) between 2000 and 2010 from New Mexico's statewide medical examiner was conducted. Annually, 313-383 childhood deaths were investigated (3820 total). Males and American Indians were overrepresented (62% and 20.4% of deaths, respectively). The most common manner of death was natural (44.8%), followed by accidental (31.4%), homicide (8.8%), suicide (8.8%), and undetermined (4.1%). Infants under 1 year of age accounted for 41.4% of deaths. Motor vehicle crashes were responsible for the majority of accidental deaths (69%), followed by unintentional overdoses (6.9%), and drowning (5.3%). Gunshot wounds, either intentional or unintentional, caused 10.7% of childhood deaths. Complete medico-legal investigation of childhood fatalities is needed to provide public health agencies with adequate data to evaluate and prevent childhood deaths. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  5. Anticholinergic syndrome following an unintentional overdose of scopolamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela E Corallo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Carmela E Corallo1, Ann Whitfield2, Adeline Wu21Department of Pharmacy, The Alfred, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; 2Intensive Care Unit, Box Hill Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, AustraliaAbstract: Scopolamine hydrobromide (hyoscine is an antimuscarinic drug which is primarily used in the prophylaxis and treatment of motion sickness and as a premedication to dry bronchial and salivary secretions. In acute overdosage, the main clinical problem is central nervous system (CNS depression. In Australia, tablets containing scopolamine hydrobromide 0.3 mg are available over the counter in packs of ten. The recommended dose for adults is one to two tablets as a single dose, repeated four to six hours later, if required. The maximum dose stated on the pack is four tablets over a 24-hour period with a caution regarding drowsiness and blurred vision. We describe a patient who presented with symptoms of anticholinergic syndrome secondary to an unintentional overdose of scopolamine. Whilst at work, the patient noticed that he had forgotten his prescribed medication, domperidone, at home; a friend gave him some travel sickness medication which contained scopolamine for relief of nausea. On a previous occasion, he had experienced a similar, less severe reaction with another anticholinergic agent, loperamide. This report highlights the need to consider nonprescription products, ie, over the counter medications, herbal/nutritional supplements as causes of anticholinergic syndrome when a patient presents with symptoms suggestive of this diagnosis.Keywords: domperidone, scopolamine, nonprescription drugs, toxicity, anticholinergic syndrome

  6. Caesarean delivery complicated by unintentional subdural block and conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsharkawy, Hesham; Khanna, Ashish K; Barsoum, Sabri

    2013-01-01

    Combined spinal epidural (CSE) can provide excellent labor analgesia. Subdural block is also a potential but rare complication of attempted epidural placement during a CSE procedure, which may present as a block that is usually patchy in nature, with a component of sensory and/or motor deficit and a variable duration of action. In addition, a conversion disorder or a functional neurological disorder has been described with epidural and spinal anesthesia in obstetric patients. In this clinical report, we describe a 33-year-old G4P3 at 40 weeks gestation that received an unintentional subdural block as part of her labor analgesia and after an uneventful caesarean delivery presented with a conversion disorder. The rarity of the association between a subdural block and a conversion disorder complicated by the fact that the neurological deficit produced by the subdural block and that produced by a conversion disorder are similar in distribution made the clinical presentation and diagnosis a challenge for the obstetric anesthesia team. A functional neurological disorder of this nature complicating a subdural block in an obstetric anesthesia clinical practice has not been described so far.

  7. Highly chlorinated unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants generated during the methanol-based production of chlorinated methanes: A case study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lifei; Yang, Wenlong; Zhang, Linli; Li, Xiaoxiu

    2015-08-01

    The formation of unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants (POPs) may occur during various chlorination processes. In this study, emissions of unintentionally produced POPs during the methanol-based production of chlorinated methanes were investigated. High concentrations of highly chlorinated compounds such as decachlorobiphenyl, octachloronaphthalene, octachlorostyrene, hexachlorobutadiene, hexachlorocyclopentadiene, hexachlorobenzene, and pentachlorobenzene were found in the carbon tetrachloride byproduct of the methanol-based production of chlorinated methanes. The total emission amounts of hexachlorocyclopentadiene, hexachlorobutadiene, polychlorinated benzenes, polychlorinated naphthalenes, octachlorostyrene, and polychlorinated biphenyls released during the production of chlorinated methanes in China in 2010 were estimated to be 10080, 7350, 5210, 427, 212, and 167 kg, respectively. Moreover, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were formed unintentionally during chlorinated methanes production, the emission factor for PCDDs/DFs was 364 μg toxic equivalency quotient (TEQ) t(-1) product for residues, which should be added into the UNEP toolkit for updating. It was worth noting that a high overall toxic equivalency quotient from polychlorinated naphthalenes and PCDDs/DFs was generated from the chlorinated methanes production in China in 2010. The values reached 563 and 32.8 g TEQ, respectively. The results of the study indicate that more research and improved management systems are needed to ensure that the methanol-based production of chlorinated methanes can be achieved safely. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Using medico-legal data to investigate fatal older road user crash circumstances and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Sjaan; Bugeja, Lyndal; Smith, Daisy; Lamb, Ashne; Dwyer, Jeremy; Fitzharris, Michael; Newstead, Stuart; D'Elia, Angelo; Charlton, Judith

    2018-02-17

    This study used medico-legal data to investigate fatal older road user (ORU, aged 65 years and older) crash circumstances and risk factors relating to 4 key components of the Safe System approach (e.g., roads and roadsides, vehicles, road users, and speeds) to identify areas of priority for targeted prevention activity. The Coroners' Court of Victoria's (CCOV) Surveillance Database was searched to identify and describe the frequency and rate per 100,000 population of fatal ORU crashes in the Australian state of Victoria for 2013-2014. Information relating to the deceased ORU, crash characteristics and circumstances, and risk factors was extracted and analyzed. One hundred and thirty-eight unintentional fatal ORU crashes were identified in the CCOV Surveillance Database. Of these fatal ORU crashes, most involved older drivers (44%), followed by older pedestrians (32%), older passengers (17%), older pedal cyclists (4%), older motorcyclists (1%), and older mobility scooter users (1%). The average annual rate of fatal ORU crashes per 100,000 population was 8.1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.0-10.2). In terms of the crash characteristics and circumstances, most fatal ORU crashes involved a counterpart (98%), of which the majority were passenger cars (50%) or fixed/stationary objects (25%), including trees (46%) or embankments (23%). In addition, most fatal ORU crashes occurred close to home (73%), on-road (87%), on roads that were paved (94%), on roads with light traffic volume (37%), and during low-risk conditions: between 12 p.m. and 6 p.m. (44%), on weekdays (80%), during daylight (75%), and under dry/clear conditions (81%). Road user (RU) error was identified by the police and/or the coroner for the majority of fatal crashes (55%), with a significant proportion of deceased ORUs deemed to have failed to yield (54%) or misjudged (41%). RU error was the most significant factor identified in fatal ORU crashes, which suggests that there is a limited capacity of the

  9. A kinematic study on (unintentional imitation in bottlenose dolphins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa eSartori

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of observing other’s movements on subsequent performance in bottlenose dolphins. The imitative ability of non-human animals has intrigued a number of researchers. So far, however, studies in dolphins have been confined to intentional imitation concerned with the explicit request to imitate other agents. In the absence of instruction to imitate, do dolphins (unintentionally replicate other’s movement features? To test this, dolphins were filmed while reaching and touching a stimulus before and after observing another dolphin (i.e., model performing the same action. All videos were reviewed and segmented in order to extract the relevant movements. A marker was inserted post-hoc via software on the videos upon the anatomical landmark of interest (i.e. rostrum and was tracked throughout the time course of the movement sequence. The movement was analyzed using an in-house software developed to perform two-dimensional (2D post-hoc kinematic analysis. The results indicate that dolphins’ kinematics is sensitive to other’s movement features. Movements performed for the ‘visuomotor priming’ condition were characterized by a kinematic pattern similar to that performed by the observed dolphin (i.e., model. Addressing the issue of spontaneous imitation in bottlenose dolphins might allow ascertaining whether the potential or impulse to produce an imitative action is generated, not just when they intend to imitate, but whenever they watch another conspecific’s behavior. In closing, this will clarify whether motor representational capacity is a by-product of factors specific to humans or whether more general characteristics such as processes of associative learning prompted by high level of encephalization could help to explain the evolution of this ability.

  10. Underreporting of fatal poisonings in Brazil - A descriptive study using data from four information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Andrea Franco Amoras; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2018-04-04

    Poisoning is a worldwide problem that involves individuals of all ages and a range of chemicals. In this study, fatal poisoning cases that occurred in the Federal District of Brazil (DF) from 2009 to 2013 were described using information from four systems, and the reasons for underreporting of each system were discussed. Data were obtained from the mortality information system (SIM), the notifiable disease information system (SINAN), the poison information center (CIT), and the forensic medicine institute (IML) of the DF. In total, 288 cases were reported to SIM, 18 to SINAN, 29 to CIT and 101 cases identified in the IML. SIM data indicated a prevalence of 2.24 cases/year/100,000 individuals in the DF, higher than the national estimation (1.36). After eliminating the 98 duplicate cases among the systems, 338 fatal unique cases were identified, from which 74.0% were reported in only one system (mainly the SIM), 23.4% in two systems, 8 cases in three systems and only 1 case was reported in the four systems. Over two thirds of the 338 fatalities involved men (67.4%), and 46.9% involved individuals aged 20-39 years. Medications were the main agent involved (49.4%), followed by pesticides (29.9%). The fatalities occurred mainly after unintentional exposure (50.8%) and suicide (47.7%, of which 53.5% involved pesticides). These results confirmed the previous hypothesis that none of the information systems could capture the whole picture of fatal poisonings in the DF. Underreporting was found in all systems, indicating the need to improve the information quality and the coordination of data reporting, so that health authorities can better understand and reduce these fatalities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Myocardial perfusion at fatal infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid-Jacobsen, K; Møller, J T; Kjøller, E

    1992-01-01

    In a consecutive study of myocardial scintigraphy in acute ischemic syndrome, four patients had 99mTc-hexamibi injected intravenously before they developed fatal cardiogenic shock. Planar scintigraphy was performed after death. Slices of the hearts after autopsy were analyzed for scintigraphic...

  12. Unintentional injury prevention and the role of occupational therapy in the Solomon Islands: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daufanamae, Barbara U; Franklin, Richard C; Eagers, Jackie

    2016-01-01

    Unintentional injuries (injuries for which there is no evidence of a predetermined intent) are one of the leading causes of death worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Although evidence demonstrates unintentional injuries are preventable it is a public health challenge for many LMICs such as the Solomon Islands. Occupational therapists are well placed to contribute to injury prevention, as they have specialised skills to analyse the accessibility and safety of the environments within which people conduct their daily occupations. While the role of occupational therapy in unintentional injury prevention is well known in high-income countries, it is unfamiliar in LMICs, especially in the Solomon Islands. This integrative review aimed to explore the incidence of common unintentional injuries, and the burden in the Solomon Islands; and explore the potential role of occupational therapy in unintentional injury prevention in the Solomon Islands, based on current activities in LMICs. Articles were reviewed from six databases (Medline, CINAHL, OTDBase, OT Seeker, Scopus and PsychInfo). Five articles met the inclusion criteria for the first objective and 15 articles met the inclusion criteria for the second objective. These articles were thematically analysed where themes and codes associated with the research objectives were extracted and analysed. Unintentional injuries in the Solomon Islands reported in the literature included ocular trauma, falls from fruit trees and coconut palms, and road traffic crashes. Burden of injury reported was mostly associated with loss of productivity. Occupational therapists undertook rehabilitative, biomechanical, neurodevelopmental and educational roles in LMIC, focusing on tertiary and secondary injury prevention. This integrative review suggests that there is limited information regarding injury in the Solomon Islands. However, evidence is available in LMICs to suggest that occupational therapy services can

  13. Age trajectories of stroke case fatality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2011-01-01

    Mortality rates level off at older ages. Age trajectories of stroke case-fatality rates were studied with the aim of investigating prevalence of this phenomenon, specifically in case-fatality rates at older ages....

  14. Factors involved in fatal vehicle crashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    This report examines factors that contribute to fatal crashes involving a motor vehicle (e.g., car, truck, or bus). Accident level data was obtained from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administrations (NHTSAs) Fatality Analysis Reporting S...

  15. Understanding unintentional childhood home injuries: pilot surveillance data from Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Nukhba; Khan, Uzma R; Razzak, Junaid A; Puvanachandra, Prasanthi; Hyder, Adnan A

    2012-01-19

    Childhood injuries, an important public health issue, globally affects more than 95% of children living in low-and middle-income countries. The objective of this study is to describe the epidemiology of childhood unintentional injuries in Karachi, Pakistan with a specific focus on those occurring within the home environment. This was a secondary analysis of a childhood unintentional injury surveillance database setup in the emergency department of the Aga Khan Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan for 3 months. The data was collected by interviewing caretakers of children under 12 years of age presenting with an unintentional injury to the emergency departments of the four major tertiary care hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan. The surveillance included 566 injured children of which 409 (72%) injuries had taken place at/around home. Of 409 children, 66% were males and mostly between 5 and 11 years of age. Injuries commonly occurred during play time (51%). Fall (59%), dog bites (11%) and burns (9%) were the commonest mechanisms of injury. The majority of the children (78%) were directly discharged from the emergency room with predicted short term disability (42%). There were 2 deaths in the emergency department both due to falls. Childhood injury surveillance system provides valuable in-depth information on child injuries. The majority of these unintentional childhood injuries occur at home; with falls, dog bites and burns being the most common types of unintentional childhood home injuries. Specific surveillance systems for child injuries can provide new and valuable information for countries like Pakistan.

  16. [Correspondence analysis of association between types of unintentional injuries and influential factors among rural rear pupils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Dongmei; Wang, Peixi

    2015-07-01

    To explore the association between types of unintentional injuries and influential factors among rural rear pupils. The multistage stratified sampling method was used to select the study participant and thus 594 rural pupils were sampled, 292 rear pupils were confirmed and measured with unintentional injuries and influential factors of rural rear pupils scale. Binary logistic regression analysis indicate that the risk facts related to unintentional injury were left-behind status (OR = 2.68, 95% CI 1.06-6.79), gender (OR = 5.12, 95% C2.68-9.79) and surrounding environment (OR = 3.44, 95% CI 1.37-8.70). Correspondence analysis showed living with father, middle personality and low age were related possibly with traffic accident injury. Living with grandparents, extrovert personality and elder pupils were related possibly with unintentional falls injury. Living with mother, introvert personality and middle-age pupils were related possibly with animmal injury. The personality, ages and guardian types of rural rear pupils are correlated with types of unintentional injuries.

  17. Fatal motorcycle accidents and alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, C F; Hardt-Madsen, M

    1987-01-01

    ); 59% above 0.08%. In all cases where a pillion passenger was killed, the operator of the motorcycle had a BAC greater than 0.08%. Of the killed counterparts 2 were non-intoxicated, 2 had a BAC greater than 0.08%, and 4 were not tested. The results advocate that the law should restrict alcohol......A series of fatal motorcycle accidents from a 7-year period (1977-1983) has been analyzed. Of the fatalities 30 were operators of the motorcycle, 11 pillion passengers and 8 counterparts. Of 41 operators 37% were sober at the time of accident, 66% had measurable blood alcohol concentration (BAC...... consumption by pillion passengers as well as by the motorcycle operator. Suggestions made to extend the data base needed for developing appropriate alcohol countermeasures by collecting sociodemographic data on drivers killed or seriously injured should be supported....

  18. Mitragynine concentrations in two fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, Olwen; Roider, Gabriele; Stöver, Andreas; Graw, Matthias; Musshoff, Frank; Sachs, Hans; Bicker, Wolfgang

    2017-02-01

    Two cases of fatalities are reported of which the recreational use of Mitragyna speciosa ("kratom") could be confirmed. One of these cases presents with one of the highest postmortem mitragynine concentrations published to date. Our results show that even extremely high mitragynine blood concentrations following the consumption of kratom do not necessarily have to be the direct cause of death in such fatalities as a result of an acute overdose. The two cases are compared with regard to the differences in mitragynine concentrations detected and the role of mitragynine in the death of the subjects. Irrespective of the big differences in mitragynine concentrations in the postmortem blood samples, mitragynine was not the primary cause of death in either of the two cases reported here. Additionally, by rough estimation, a significant difference in ratio of mitragynine to its diastereomers in the blood and urine samples between the two cases could be seen. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fatal motorcycle accidents and alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, C F; Hardt-Madsen, M

    1987-01-01

    A series of fatal motorcycle accidents from a 7-year period (1977-1983) has been analyzed. Of the fatalities 30 were operators of the motorcycle, 11 pillion passengers and 8 counterparts. Of 41 operators 37% were sober at the time of accident, 66% had measurable blood alcohol concentration (BAC......); 59% above 0.08%. In all cases where a pillion passenger was killed, the operator of the motorcycle had a BAC greater than 0.08%. Of the killed counterparts 2 were non-intoxicated, 2 had a BAC greater than 0.08%, and 4 were not tested. The results advocate that the law should restrict alcohol...... consumption by pillion passengers as well as by the motorcycle operator. Suggestions made to extend the data base needed for developing appropriate alcohol countermeasures by collecting sociodemographic data on drivers killed or seriously injured should be supported....

  20. Chernobyl Accident Fatalities and Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    death of the movie director and the hospi- nobyl. Chronicle of Difficult Days." which talization of two cameramen. Dr. Baraba- wvas filmed in May 1986... disease occurred only as a result of eight fatalities were caused by combina- severe damage, which was incompatible tions of various syndrornes without...transplant complications Iemophilia 1 Thermal burns/internal contamination 2 Radiation induced vascular damage I 10 In Moscow. 56 of the 115 ARS patients

  1. ?Awake? ECCO2R superseded intubation in a near-fatal asthma attack

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Thomas-Michael; Bence, Tibor; Brettner, Franz

    2017-01-01

    Background Near-fatal asthma attacks are life threatening events that often require mechanical ventilation. Extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO2R) is, beside extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), a well-established rescue option whenever ventilation gets to its limits. But there seems to be very rare experience with those techniques in avoiding mechanical ventilation in severe asthma attacks. Case presentation A 67-year-old man with a near-fatal asthma attack deteriorated under ...

  2. Risk and prognostic factors of inpatient mortality associated with unintentional insecticide and herbicide poisonings: a retrospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu-Chien Chien

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Pesticide poisoning is an important public health problem worldwide. The study aimed to determine the risk of all-cause and cause-specific inpatient mortality and to identify prognostic factors for inpatient mortality associated with unintentional insecticide and herbicide pesticide poisonings. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of 3,986 inpatients recruited at hospitalization between 1999 and 2008 in Taiwan. We used the International Classification of Disease, 9th ed., Clinical Modification external causes of injury codes to classify poisoning agents into accidental poisoning by insecticides and herbicides. Comparisons in mortality rates were made between insecticide poisoning patients and herbicide poisoning patients by using the Cox proportional hazards models to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs. RESULTS: There were 168 deaths during 21,583 person-days of follow-up evaluation (7.8 per 1,000 person-days. The major causes of mortality for insecticide poisonings were the toxic effect of organophosphate and coma, and the major causes of mortality for herbicide poisonings were the toxic effect of other pesticides and the toxic effect of organophosphate. The mortality for herbicide exposure was fourfold higher than that for insecticide exposure. The factors associated with inpatient mortality were herbicide poisonings (HR = 4.58, 95% CI 3.29 to 6.37 and receiving mechanical ventilation treatment (HR = 3.85, 95% CI 2.73 to 5.42. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that herbicides stand out as the dominant agent for poisoning-related fatalities. The control of and limiting access to herbicide agents and developing appropriate therapeutic regimens, including emergency care, should be priorities.

  3. Risk factors associated with unintentional house fire incidents, injuries and deaths in high-income countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Samantha L; Johnson, Rhodri D; Weightman, Alison L; Rodgers, Sarah E; Arthur, Geri; Bailey, Rowena; Lyons, Ronan A

    2017-04-01

    To identify the distinguishing risk factors associated with unintentional house fire incidents, injuries and deaths. Systematic review. A range of bibliographical databases and grey literature were searched from their earliest records to January 2016. To ensure the magnitude of risk could be quantified, only those study types which contained a control group, and undertook appropriate statistical analyses were included. A best evidence synthesis was conducted instead of a meta-analysis due to study heterogeneity. Eleven studies investigating a variety of risk factors and outcomes were identified. Studies ranged from medium to low quality with no high quality studies identified. Characteristics commonly associated with increased risk of house fire incidents, injuries and fatalities included: higher numbers of residents, male, children under the age of 5 years, non-working households, smoking, low income, non-privately owned properties, apartments and buildings in poor condition. Several risk factors were only associated with one outcome (eg, living alone was only associated with increased risk of injurious fires), and households with older residents were at increased risk of injurious fires, but significantly less likely to experience a house fire in the first place. This best evidence synthesis indicates that several resident and property characteristics are associated with risk of experiencing house fire incidents, injuries or death. These findings should be considered by the Fire and Rescue Services and others with a role in fire prevention. Future research should adopt robust, standardised study designs to permit meta-analyses and enable stronger conclusions to be drawn. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Unintentional high-density p-type modulation doping of a GaAs/AlAs core-multishell nanowire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadczak, J; Plochocka, P; Mitioglu, A; Breslavetz, I; Royo, M; Bertoni, A; Goldoni, G; Smolenski, T; Kossacki, P; Kretinin, A; Shtrikman, Hadas; Maude, D K

    2014-05-14

    Achieving significant doping in GaAs/AlAs core/shell nanowires (NWs) is of considerable technological importance but remains a challenge due to the amphoteric behavior of the dopant atoms. Here we show that placing a narrow GaAs quantum well in the AlAs shell effectively getters residual carbon acceptors leading to an unintentional p-type doping. Magneto-optical studies of such a GaAs/AlAs core-multishell NW reveal quantum confined emission. Theoretical calculations of NW electronic structure confirm quantum confinement of carriers at the core/shell interface due to the presence of ionized carbon acceptors in the 1 nm GaAs layer in the shell. Microphotoluminescence in high magnetic field shows a clear signature of avoided crossings of the n = 0 Landau level emission line with the n = 2 Landau level TO phonon replica. The coupling is caused by the resonant hole-phonon interaction, which points to a large two-dimensional hole density in the structure.

  5. Fatal chlorine gas exposure at a metal recycling facility: Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Robert R; Boylstein, Randy; McCullough, Joel; Shumate, Alice; Yeoman, Kristin; Bailey, Rachel L; Cummings, Kristin J

    2018-04-12

    At least four workers at a metal recycling facility were hospitalized and one died after exposure to chlorine gas when it was accidentally released from an intact, closed-valved cylinder being processed for scrap metal. This unintentional chlorine gas release marks at least the third such incident at a metal recycling facility in the United States since 2010. We describe the fatal case of the worker whose clinical course was consistent with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) following exposure to high concentrations of chlorine gas. This case report emphasizes the potential risk of chlorine gas exposure to metal recycling workers by accepting and processing intact, closed-valved containers. The metal recycling industry should take steps to increase awareness of this established risk to prevent future chlorine gas releases. Additionally, public health practitioners and clinicians should be aware that metal recycling workers are at risk for chlorine gas exposure. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. [Fatal poisoning due to Indigofera].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labib, S; Berdai, M-A; Bendadi, A; Achour, S; Harandou, M

    2012-01-01

    Indigo, also known in Morocco as Nila, is a dye widely used in the coloring of Moroccan handicrafts. It is obtained from fermentation reactions on the leaves and branches of true indigo, Indigofera tinctoria, which is a widespread plant in tropical Africa and Asia. We report a case of fatal poisoning in a 3-year-old child after administration of indigo for therapeutic purposes. Death resulted from multiple organ failure. The toxicity of this compound is little known in the literature and deserves to be explored through toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic studies, in order to better determine the toxic constituents of the dye. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. The unintentional and unconscious exposure to radon (and other natural radionuclides)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.

    1998-01-01

    The radon programmes for dwellings (remediation of the risk and prevention of the risk) as well as radon programmes for workplaces in the Czech Republic are described. To implementation radiation protection against natural radiation sources on workplaces with unintentional and unconscious exposure to these sources of radiation is a new, but interesting and important task which need new approaches, time staff and effort

  8. Unintentional arterial puncture during cephalic vein cannulation: case report and anatomical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lirk, P.; Keller, C.; Colvin, J.; Colvin, H.; Rieder, J.; Maurer, H.; Moriggl, B.

    2004-01-01

    The cephalic antebrachial vein is often used for venous access. However, superficial radial arteries of the forearm are known and unintentional arterial puncture can result from attempts to cannulate the lateral veins of the arm. Accidental puncture of a superficial radial artery during peripheral

  9. Reexamining the association between child access prevention gun laws and unintentional shooting deaths of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, D W; Starnes, M

    2000-12-01

    A previous study estimated that child access prevention (CAP) laws, which hold adults criminally liable for unsafe firearm storage in the environment of children, were associated with a 23% decline in unintentional firearm mortality rates among children. To reassess the effects of CAP laws and more fully examine the consistency of the estimated law effects across states. A pooled time-series study of unintentional firearm mortality among children from 1979 through 1997. Setting. The 50 states and the District of Columbia. All children laws enacted before 1998 were aggregated, the laws were associated with a 17% decline unintentional firearm death rates among children. The laws' effects were not equal across states. Florida's CAP law was associated with a 51% decline; however, there were no statistically significant aggregate or state-specific law effects in the other 14 states with CAP laws. Florida's CAP law-1 of only 3 such laws allowing felony prosecution of violators-appears to have significantly reduced unintentional firearm deaths to children. However, there is no evidence of effects in the other 14 states with CAP laws.

  10. Population-Based Study of Unintentional Injury Incidence and Impact during Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivara, Frederick P.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Medically treated unintentional injuries of children and adolescents were studied for one year in the clinic and the emergency room of a health maintenance organization. The highest rates of injury resulted from falls, recreational activities, and competitive sports. Restricted activity was needed for 55.9 per cent of the injuries. (VM)

  11. Firearm availability and suicide, homicide, and unintentional firearm deaths among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew; Azrael, Deborah; Hemenway, David

    2002-03-01

    In the United States, more than 45,000 women died from gun violence over the last decade. To determine whether measures of firearm availability are related to rates of suicide, homicide, and unintentional firearm deaths among women in the United States. Pooled cross-sectional time series data on suicide, homicide, and unintentional firearm deaths (1988-1997) were used to estimate the association between the rate of violent death among women and four proxies of firearm availability. Two proxies came from survey reports of household firearm ownership rates; two were derived from mortality statistics. United States, 1988-1997. The increased rate of suicide and homicide in states with high gun levels was accounted for primarily by significantly elevated firearm suicide and firearm homicide rates. Unintentional firearm death rates were also increased in states with more guns. At the regional level, qualitatively similar results were obtained. Between 1988 and 1997, the suicide, homicide, and unintentional firearm death rates among women were disproportionately higher in states where guns were more prevalent. The elevated rates of violent death in states with more guns was not entirely explained by a state's poverty or urbanization and was driven primarily by lethal firearm violence, not by lethal nonfirearm violence.

  12. Unintentional Power Plays: Interpersonal Contextual Impacts in Child-Centred Participatory Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett-Swan, Jenna K.; Sargeant, Jonathon

    2018-01-01

    Background: Approaches to conducting research with children afford them varying degrees of participatory power. Despite children's varying roles within research, more needs to be understood about the influences of unintentional power plays and, in particular, interactions between participant and non-participants on children's participation in…

  13. Reducing Unintentional Plagiarism amongst International Students in the Biological Sciences: An Embedded Academic Writing Development Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divan, Aysha; Bowman, Marion; Seabourne, Anna

    2015-01-01

    There is general agreement in the literature that international students are more likely to plagiarise compared to their native speaker peers and, in many instances, plagiarism is unintentional. In this article we describe the effectiveness of an academic writing development programme embedded into a Biological Sciences Taught Masters course…

  14. Fatal accidental hypothermia and alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albiin, N; Eriksson, A

    1984-01-01

    A series of 51 fatal cases of accidental hypothermia in northern Sweden has been reviewed. The cases conform well to previous investigations with respect to the mean age of the victims (48 years) and a predominance of males. The cases occurred mainly during the winter months and on Saturdays. Most cases succumbed at temperatures below -10 degrees C. The most frequent necropsy findings were areas of frostbite with purple discoloration of the skin, reddish lividity and superficial erosions of the gastric mucosa. Paradoxical undressing was present in more than half of the cases. About two thirds of the cases were under the influence of alcohol with a mean blood alcohol concentration of 1.6 g/l. Furthermore, at least half of the cases could be considered habitual drunkards. In conclusion, the present series shows two main groups of fatal hypothermia victims: one group of elderly persons, mostly chronic abusers and under the influence of alcohol (approximately two-thirds of the series), and another of younger and sober persons, performing recognised sporting activities (approximately one-fourth of the series).

  15. Inequalities in unintentional injuries between indigenous and non-indigenous children: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Holger; Falster, Kathleen; Ivers, Rebecca; Jorm, Louisa

    2015-04-01

    Indigenous children suffer a disproportionally high burden of unintentional injuries. A more detailed understanding of the underlying causes, risk factors and gaps in research is required to inform prevention efforts and direct future research. The aim of this review was to systematically assess the evidence regarding differences in rates of unintentional injuries between indigenous and non-indigenous children and to identify leading causes and underlying risk factors contributing to these differences. We systematically searched the literature including 10 electronic databases, institutional websites and reference lists of relevant studies. Due to the substantial heterogeneity between studies, results were summarised in a narrative synthesis and no meta-analysis was carried out. A total of 39 studies were included in this review. Most studies were descriptive and only five adjusted for potential confounding in the analysis. Indigenous to non-indigenous rate ratios for morbidity and mortality for unintentional injury ranged from 1.2 to 2.3 and 1.8 to 8.2, respectively. The difference varied greatly by cause of injury and between studies, ranging from a reduced risk of hospitalisation due to fall injuries to a 17-fold increased risk of mortality due to pedestrian injuries. Burns, poisoning and transport injuries were the major contributors to the increased injury burden in indigenous children. The studies offered only limited insight into the underlying causes of these differences, but socioeconomic status and parents' educational attainment were contributing factors. Indigenous children experience a significantly higher burden of morbidity and mortality from unintentional injuries across different indigenous communities worldwide. Most of these injuries are highly preventable, presenting substantial potential to improve indigenous child health. However, there is limited evidence to illuminate the underlying risk factors for unintentional injuries in indigenous

  16. The empathy impulse: A multinomial model of intentional and unintentional empathy for pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, C Daryl; Spring, Victoria L; Todd, Andrew R

    2017-04-01

    Empathy for pain is often described as automatic. Here, we used implicit measurement and multinomial modeling to formally quantify unintentional empathy for pain: empathy that occurs despite intentions to the contrary. We developed the pain identification task (PIT), a sequential priming task wherein participants judge the painfulness of target experiences while trying to avoid the influence of prime experiences. Using multinomial modeling, we distinguished 3 component processes underlying PIT performance: empathy toward target stimuli (Intentional Empathy), empathy toward prime stimuli (Unintentional Empathy), and bias to judge target stimuli as painful (Response Bias). In Experiment 1, imposing a fast (vs. slow) response deadline uniquely reduced Intentional Empathy. In Experiment 2, inducing imagine-self (vs. imagine-other) perspective-taking uniquely increased Unintentional Empathy. In Experiment 3, Intentional and Unintentional Empathy were stronger toward targets with typical (vs. atypical) pain outcomes, suggesting that outcome information matters and that effects on the PIT are not reducible to affective priming. Typicality of pain outcomes more weakly affected task performance when target stimuli were merely categorized rather than judged for painfulness, suggesting that effects on the latter are not reducible to semantic priming. In Experiment 4, Unintentional Empathy was stronger for participants who engaged in costly donation to cancer charities, but this parameter was also high for those who donated to an objectively worse but socially more popular charity, suggesting that overly high empathy may facilitate maladaptive altruism. Theoretical and practical applications of our modeling approach for understanding variation in empathy are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. [Biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papyshev, I P; Astashkina, O G; Tuchik, E S; Nikolaev, B S; Cherniaev, A L

    2013-01-01

    Biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication remains a topical problem in forensic medical science and practice. We investigated materials obtained in the course of forensic medical expertise of the cases of fatal opium intoxication. The study revealed significant differences between myoglobin levels in blood, urine, myocardium, and skeletal muscles. The proposed approach to biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication enhances the accuracy and the level of evidence of expert conclusions.

  18. Cancer fatalism: the state of the science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powe, Barbara D; Finnie, Ramona

    2003-12-01

    Cancer fatalism--the belief that death is inevitable when cancer is present--has been identified as a barrier to participation in cancer screening, detection, and treatment. Yet this literature has not been reviewed in a comprehensive and systematic manner. Therefore, this literature review addressed (1) philosophical and theoretical underpinnings of cancer fatalism; (2) relationships among demographic factors, cancer fatalism, and cancer screening; (3) the role of cancer fatalism for patients diagnosed with cancer; and (4) intervention strategies. Most of the reviewed studies were descriptive or correlational, did not have an explicit theoretical framework, had varied definitions of fatalism, and reported screening as "intent to screen" or as "past screening behaviors." Review of the studies suggests that cancer fatalism develops over time and is most frequently reported among medically underserved persons and those with limited knowledge of cancer. Cancer fatalism may be modified through culturally relevant interventions that incorporate spirituality. Emphasis must be placed on recognizing the role of cancer fatalism when planning health promotion activities. Future studies should focus on the consistent measurement of cancer fatalism and testing intervention strategies.

  19. Dataset on psychosocial risk factors in cases of fatal and near-fatal physical child abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Clyde Pierce

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the psychosocial risk factors identified in the cases of 20 children less than four years of age who were victims of fatal or near-fatal physical abuse during a 12 month period in the Commonwealth of Kentucky. These data are related to the article “History, injury, and psychosocial risk factor commonalities among cases of fatal and near-fatal physical child abuse” (Pierce et al., 2017 [1].

  20. Drug involvement in fatal overdoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Ruhm

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Death certificate data from the Multiple Cause of Death (MCOD files were analyzed to better understand the drug categories most responsible for the increase in fatal overdoses occurring between 1999 and 2014. Statistical adjustment methods were used to account for the understatement in reported drug involvement occurring because death certificates frequently do not specify which drugs were involved in the deaths. The frequency of combination drug use introduced additional uncertainty and so a distinction was made between any versus exclusive drug involvement. Many results were sensitive to the starting and ending years chosen for examination. Opioid analgesics played a major role in the increased drug deaths for analysis windows starting in 1999 but other drugs, particularly heroin, became more significant for recent time periods. Combination drug use was important for all time periods and needs to be accounted for when designing policies to slow or reverse the increase in overdose deaths.

  1. Mortality from Unspecified Unintentional Injury among Individuals Aged 65 Years and Older by U.S. State, 1999–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xunjie Cheng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recent changes in unspecified unintentional injury mortality for the elderly by U.S. state remain unreported. This study aims to examine U.S. state variations in mortality from unspecified unintentional injury among Americans aged 65+, 1999–2013; Methods: Using mortality rates from the U.S. CDC’s Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS™, we examined unspecified unintentional injury mortality for older adults aged 65+ from 1999 to 2013 by state. Specifically, the proportion of unintentional injury deaths with unspecified external cause in the data was considered. Linear regression examined the statistical significance of changes in proportion of unspecified unintentional injury from 1999 to 2013; Results: Of the 36 U.S. states with stable mortality rates, over 8-fold differences were observed for both the mortality rates and the proportions of unspecified unintentional injury for Americans aged 65+ during 1999–2013. Twenty-nine of the 36 states showed reductions in the proportion of unspecified unintentional injury cause, with Oklahoma (−89%, Massachusetts (−86% and Oregon (−81% displaying the largest changes. As unspecified unintentional injury mortality decreased, mortality from falls in 28 states and poisoning in 3 states increased significantly. Mortality from suffocation in 15 states, motor vehicle traffic crashes in 12 states, and fire/burn in 8 states also decreased; Conclusions: The proportion of unintentional injuries among older adults with unspecified cause decreased significantly for many states in the United States from 1999 to 2013. The reduced proportion of unspecified injury has implications for research and practice. It should be considered in state-level trend analysis during 1999–2013. It also suggests comparisons between states for specific injury mortality should be conducted with caution, as large differences in unspecified injury mortality across states and over time

  2. Effects of Incomplete Ionization on Ga2O3 Power Device: Unintentional Donor with Energy 110 meV (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2017-0367 EFFECTS OF INCOMPLETE IONIZATION ON Β-Ga2O3 POWER DEVICE: UNINTENTIONAL DONOR WITH ENERGY 110 meV (PREPRINT...EFFECTS OF INCOMPLETE IONIZATION ON Β-Ga2O3 POWER DEVICE: UNINTENTIONAL DONOR WITH ENERGY 110 meV (PREPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-11-D-5801...found to have a donor energy of 110 meV. The existence of the unintentional donor is confirmed by temperature dependent admittance spectroscopy

  3. Buses involved in fatal accidents codebook 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This report provides documentation for UMTRIs file of Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA), 2007, : including distributions of the code values for each variable in the file. The 2007 BIFA file is a census of all : buses involved in a fatal acc...

  4. Buses involved in fatal accidents codebook 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    This report provides documentation for UMTRIs file of Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA), 2008, : including distributions of the code values for each variable in the file. The 2008 BIFA file is a census of all : buses involved in a fatal acc...

  5. Fatalism and Type of Information Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Richard P.; Nielsen, Angela B.

    Fatalism as measured by Rotter's internal-external locus of control scale is the degree to which a person generally believes that events affecting his life are largely determined by other forces rather than by his own efforts. The purpose of this paper is to examine behavioral science theory concerning fatalism, and develop and test which types of…

  6. Rain-related Fatal Crashes in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Hatim; Jackson, Terrance

    2013-04-01

    Weather has a direct impact on traffic safety. This study focuses on fatal crashes in the presence of rain. We reviewed information related to the events that lead to rain- related crashes in the Texas since 1982. Analysis of the data reveals that 12.4% of crashes in Texas were rain-related. Most rain-related crashes are located in Texas "Flash Flood Alley" which includes major urban centers. Fatal crash data and GIS are used to explore and identify the spatio-temporal distribution of the crashes. Spatial statistical techniques are used to identify significant patterns of rain-related fatal crashes. Logistic and nonlinear regression is used to identify and rank all environmental and non-environmental factors that contribute to fatal crashes. Focus will be on factors that amplify the rain effect. Identifying the variables contributing to these fatal crash types is necessary for the implementation of effective countermeasures for road weather safety purposes.

  7. Mortality rate and years of life lost from unintentional injury and suicide in South India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bose, Anuradha; Konradsen, Flemming; John, Jacob

    2006-01-01

    We calculated mortality rates and years of life lost because of unintentional injuries and suicides using community based information obtained prospectively over a 7-year period, from 1998 to 2004, among a rural and peri-urban population of 108,000 in South India. Per 100,000 population the total...... over the study period while 18.9% of all deaths in the population were attributable to unintentional injuries and suicides in the same period. The high burden is particularly notable in the 15-29 age group, where up to 70% of years of life lost are due to injury. The burden of injuries reported...... in this study is significantly higher than the figures reflected in available reports for India and is likely due to the under reporting in routine mortality statistics, particularly of suicides....

  8. Factors associated with state variations in homicide, suicide, and unintentional firearm deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, James H; Thompson, Amy J; Dake, Joseph A

    2004-08-01

    This study examined the relationship of 16 variables with homicide, suicide, and unintentional firearm deaths. This cross-sectional analysis, using adjusted partial correlation coefficients, found that state-level firearm homicide rates significantly varied by the prevalence of firearms and by percent of the population which was African American. Whereas, state-level variations in firearm suicide mortality significantly varied by firearm prevalence, per capita alcohol consumption, percent of the population which was African American, and level of urbanization. None of the variables were significantly (p < or = .05) related to state-level variations in unintentional firearm mortality. Furthermore, state gun laws had only a limited effect on firearm-related homicide deaths. Although the current study cannot determine causation, firearm mortality in its various forms is most commonly related to the prevalence of firearms and the percent of the population that is African American.

  9. New onset epilepsy following unintentional durotomy in a patient on anti-psychiatric medication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    West M

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We would like to present a rare case report describing a case in which new-onset tonic-clonic seizures occurred following an unintentional durotomy during lumbar discectomy and decompression. Unintentional durotomy is a frequent complication of spinal surgical procedures, with a rate as high as 17%. To our knowledge a case of new onset epilepsy has never been reported in the literature. Although dural tears during surgery and CSF hypovolaemia are thought to be the main contributing factors, one postulates on the effects of anti-psychiatric medication with epileptogenic properties. Amisulpride and Olanzapine can lower seizure threshold and should be used with caution in patients previously diagnosed with epilepsy. However manufacturers do not state that in cases where the seizure threshold is already lowered by CSF hypotension, new onset epilepsy might be commoner. Finally, strong caution and aggressive post-operative monitoring is advised for patients with CSF hypotension in combination with possible epileptogenic medication.

  10. Experiences and attitudes of collegiate athletic trainers regarding alcohol-related unintentional injury in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, James W; Metz, Stacie M; Entriken, Jack; Brenner, Christina J

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol-related unintentional injury (ARUI) has been an unexamined consequence of alcohol consumption by collegiate athletes. It has a potentially devastating effect on their athletic performances and careers. Awareness of this problem in athletes could have a huge effect on what athletic trainers (ATs) do to recognize, treat, and prevent it in a collegiate athlete population. To examine the experiences and attitudes among collegiate and university ATs about ARUI in the athletes in their care. Cross-sectional study. Web-based survey. A total of 1767 e-mail addresses for collegiate and university ATs within National Athletic Trainers' Association Districts 1, 2, 3, and 9. We calculated frequencies, percentages, and attitudes of ATs regarding ARUI in collegiate athletes during the 2010-2011 academic year. The resulting sample size for the analysis was 459 (26.0%) participants of the initial total sample. More than 56% (n = 260) of the ATs reported that they had evaluated, treated, or referred if needed at least 1 ARUI in a collegiate athlete. On average, these ATs had evaluated, treated, or referred if needed 3 alcohol-related unintentional injuries within the 2010-2011 academic year. About 73% (n = 331) of ATs agreed that ARUI is a serious problem. Nearly 80% (n = 358) indicated they believe ATs should receive more training to identify student-athletes with alcohol-related problems. Alcohol-related unintentional injury is a common and serious consequence of alcohol use among collegiate athletes. Many ATs also view it as a serious problem yet would like more training in how to address it. Alcohol-related unintentional injury may have important negative effects on the careers and athletic performances of athletes. Researchers need to determine how prevalent ARUI is in the collegiate athlete population and what ATs can do to address it.

  11. Unintentional dural puncture with a Tuohy needle increases risk of chronic headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Christopher Allen-John; Weyker, Paul David; Zhang, Li; Stanley, Susan; Coyle, D Tyler; Tang, Timothy; Smiley, Richard M; Flood, Pamela

    2012-07-01

    Neuraxial analgesia is chosen by almost half of women who give birth in the United States. Unintentional dural puncture is the most common complication of this pain management technique, occurring in 0.4% to 6% of parturients. Severe positional headaches develop acutely in 70% to 80% of these parturients. Acute postdural puncture headaches are well known, but few studies have investigated long-term sequelae. We investigated the incidence of and risk factors for chronic headache and chronic back pain in parturients who experienced unintentional dural puncture with a 17-gauge Tuohy needle compared with matched controls. In a case control design, 40 parturients who sustained unintentional dural puncture with a 17-gauge Tuohy needle over an 18-month period and 40 controls matched for age, weight, and time of delivery were recruited by telephone and 2 validated questionnaires were administered assessing headache and back pain symptoms 12 to 24 months after delivery. The incidence of chronic headaches in the study group (28%) was significantly higher than in the matched controls (5%) (OR = 7, P = 0.0129). Subjects who experienced dural punctures were more likely than controls to report chronic back pain (OR = 4, P = 0.0250), but treatment with an epidural blood patch was not a risk factor for chronic back pain. Patients who incur unintentional dural punctures with large-gauge needles are surprisingly likely to continue to suffer chronic headaches. Treatment with an epidural blood patch does not enhance the risk of chronic back pain. The pathophysiology underlying these symptoms and the best treatment for this syndrome are not known.

  12. Population-based characteristics of fatal and hospital admissions for poisoning in Fiji: TRIP Project-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiris-John, Roshini; Kafoa, Berlin; Wainiqolo, Iris; Reddy, Ravi Krishnan; McCaig, Eddie; Ameratunga, Shanthi N

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the incidence and characteristics of poisoning fatalities and hospital admissions among indigenous Fijians and Indians in Viti Levu, Fiji. Individuals with a mechanism of injury classified as poisoning were identified using the Fiji injury surveillance in hospitals system, a population-based registry established for 12 months in Viti Levu, and analysed using population-based denominators. The mean annual rates of fatalities and hospitalisations were 2.3 and 26.0 per 100 000, respectively. Over two-thirds of poisonings occurred among people of Indian ethnicity. Most intentional poisoning admissions occurred among women (58.3%) and in 15–29-year-old individuals (73.8%). Unintentional poisoning admission rates were highest among Indian boys aged 0–14 years. While over 75% of events occurred at home, the substances involved were not systematically identified. The findings indicate the need for a strategy that addresses the differing contexts across age group, gender and ethnicity, and a lead agency responsible for implementing and monitoring its effectiveness. PMID:23353079

  13. Cognitive aging and the distinction between intentional and unintentional mind wandering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seli, Paul; Maillet, David; Smilek, Daniel; Oakman, Jonathan M; Schacter, Daniel L

    2017-06-01

    A growing number of studies have reported age-related reductions in the frequency of mind wandering. Here, at both the trait (Study 1) and state (Study 2) levels, we reexamined this association while distinguishing between intentional (deliberate) and unintentional (spontaneous) mind wandering. Based on research demonstrating age-accompanied deficits in executive functioning, we expected to observe increases in unintentional mind wandering with increasing age. Moreover, because aging is associated with increased task motivation, we reasoned that older adults might be more engaged in their tasks, and hence, show a more pronounced decline in intentional mind wandering relative to young adults. In both studies, we found that older adults did indeed report lower rates of intentional mind wandering compared with young adults. However, contrary to our expectations, we also found that older adults reported lower rates of unintentional mind wandering (Studies 1 and 2). We discuss the implications of these findings for theories of age-related declines in mind wandering. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Traumatic Stress, Depression, and Recovery: Child and Parent Responses After Emergency Medical Care for Unintentional Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Bakker, Anne; Marsac, Meghan L; Fein, Joel A; Winston, Flaura Koplin

    2015-11-01

    To assess psychological symptoms in injured children (aged 8-17 years) and their parents after emergency department (ED) care to examine the relationship between posttraumatic stress and depression symptoms, co-occurrence of symptoms within families, and the relationship of these symptoms to parent-reported overall recovery. Children and parents (n = 263 child-parent dyads) were enrolled during ED treatment for unintentional injury. Approximately 5 months later, children and parents (n = 178 dyads) completed standardized measures of posttraumatic stress and depression symptoms and parents reported on child overall recovery. Follow-up assessments found significant posttraumatic stress symptoms in 15% of children and 5% of parents, significant depression symptoms in 13% of children and 16% of parents, and problematic overall recovery in 17% of children. For both children and parents, posttraumatic stress and depression symptom severity were strongly associated. Child and parent symptoms were only modestly associated with each other, and there were few families in which both child and parent had significant posttraumatic stress or depression. Parent symptoms, but not child symptoms, were inversely associated with children's overall recovery. For about 1 in 6 children and parents, unintentional injury treated in the ED can be associated with negative psychological sequelae and suboptimal recovery. Within families, child and parent responses may differ; their relative association with overall recovery deserves additional research. To promote emotional recovery, ED clinicians should be aware of the potential psychological impact of unintentional injury, provide timely evidence-based anticipatory guidance, and communicate these concerns to primary care clinicians.

  15. Unintentional Childhood Injuries in Urban and Rural Ujjain, India: A Community-Based Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Mathur

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Injuries are a major global public health problem. There are very few community-based studies on childhood injury from India. The objective of this cross-sectional, community-based survey was to identify the incidence, type, and risk factors of unintentional childhood injuries. The study was done in seven villages and ten contiguous urban slums in Ujjain, India. World Health Organization (WHO tested tools and definitions were used for the survey, which included 2518 households having 6308 children up to 18 years of age, with 2907 children from urban households and 3401 from rural households. The annual incidence of all injuries was 16.6%, 95% Confidence Interval 15.7–17.5%, (n = 1049. The incidence was significantly higher among boys compared to girls (20.2% versus 12.7%, respectively, was highest in age group 6–10 years of age (18.9%, and in urban locations (17.5%. The most commonly identified injury types were: physical injuries (71%, burns (16%, poisonings (10%, agriculture-related injuries (2%, near drowning (2%, and suffocations (2%. The most common place of injury was streets followed by home. The study identified incidence of different types of unintentional childhood injuries and factors associated with increased risk of unintentional injuries. The results can help in designing injury prevention strategies and awareness programs in similar settings.

  16. Retrospective evaluation of healing of periapical lesions after unintentional extrusion of mineral trioxide aggregate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiriz, Levent; Hazar Bodrumlu, Ebru

    2017-11-10

    During the apexification procedure for teeth with open apices, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) may be unintentionally extruded. The aim of the present study was the retrospective evaluation of the healing of periapical lesions in permanent incisor teeth with open apices after the unintentional extrusion of MTA. The clinical and radiographic records of 55 maxillary permanent central teeth treated by MTA apexification were evaluated. Filled teeth with unintentionally extruded MTA were selected as group 1 (n = 21), whereas the teeth with no MTA extrusion were selected as group 2 (n = 34). For each tooth, the clinical and radiographic records from a 3-year follow-up were investigated. Complete healing (CH) was observed in 19 teeth (90.4%) in group 1, whereas the same type of healing was observed in all 34 teeth (100%) in group 2 (p>0.05). At the 6-month follow-up appointment, 25 teeth (73.5%) showed CH in group 2, whereas 15 teeth (71.4%) showed CH at the 1-year follow-up in group 1 (pMTA extrusion was reduced in 17 teeth (85%) (pMTA does not prevent the healing of periapical lesions, but may be a delaying factor for periapical healing.

  17. Unintentional injuries treated in hospital emergency departments among persons aged 65 years and older, United States, 2006-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGrauw, Xinyao; Annest, Joseph L; Stevens, Judy A; Xu, Likang; Coronado, Victor

    2016-02-01

    With the aging of the United States population, unintentional injuries among older adults, and especially falls-related injuries, are an increasing public health concern. We analyzed emergency department (ED) data from the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample, 2006-2011. We examined unintentional injury trends by 5-year age groups, sex, mechanism, body region, discharge disposition, and primary payer. For 2011, we estimated the medical costs of unintentional injury and the distribution of primary payers, plus rates by injury mechanisms and body regions injured by 5-year age groups. From 2006 to 2011, the age-adjusted annual rate of unintentional injury-related ED visits among persons aged ≥ 65 years increased significantly from 7987 to 8163, per 100,000 population. In 2011, 65% of injuries were due to falls. Rates for fall-related injury ED visits increased with age and the highest rate was among those aged ≥ 100. Each year, about 85% of unintentional injury-related ED visits in this population were expected to be paid by Medicare. In 2011, the estimated lifetime medical cost of unintentional injury-related ED visits among those aged ≥ 65 years was $40 billion. Increasing rates of ED-treated unintentional injuries, driven mainly by falls among older adults, will challenge our health care system and increase the economic burden on our society. Prevention efforts to reduce falls and resulting injuries among adults aged ≥ 65 years have the potential to increase well-being and reduce health care spending, especially the costs covered by Medicare. With the aging of the U.S. population, unintentional injuries, and especially fall-related injuries, will present a growing challenge to our health care system as well as an increasing economic burden. To counteract this trend, we must implement effective public health strategies, such as increasing knowledge about fall risk factors and broadly disseminating evidence-based injury and fall prevention programs in both

  18. Fatal Necrotizing Fasciitis following Episiotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faris Almarzouqi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Necrotizing fasciitis is an uncommon condition in general practice but one that provokes serious morbidity. It is characterized by widespread fascial necrosis with relative sparing of skin and underlying muscle. Herein, we report a fatal case of necrotizing fasciitis in a young healthy woman after episiotomy. Case Report. A 17-year-old primigravida underwent a vaginal delivery with mediolateral episiotomy. Necrotizing fasciitis was diagnosed on the 5th postpartum day, when the patient was referred to our tertiary care medical center. Surgical debridement was initiated together with antibiotics and followed by hyperbaric oxygen therapy. The patient died due to septic shock after 16 hours from the referral. Conclusion. Delay of diagnosis and consequently the surgical debridement were most likely the reasons for maternal death. In puerperal period, a physician must consider necrotizing fasciitis as a possible diagnosis in any local sings of infection especially when accompanied by fever and/or tenderness. Early diagnosis is the key for low mortality and morbidity.

  19. 78 FR 38096 - Fatality Analysis Reporting System Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... Number NHTSA-2012-0168] Fatality Analysis Reporting System Information Collection AGENCY: National... comments on the following proposed collections of information: (1) Title: Fatal Analysis Reporting System... system that acquires national fatality information directly from existing State files and documents...

  20. Fatal injuries while under the influence of psychoactive drugs: a cross-sectional exploratory study in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyefeso, Adenekan; Schifano, Fabrizio; Ghodse, Hamid; Cobain, Kathryn; Dryden, Ruth; Corkery, John

    2006-01-01

    Background Studies of drug-related mortality rarely describe fatal injuries due to psychoactive drug intoxication (FIUI). The main aim of this study was to determine the nature, extent and pattern of FIUI. Methods This observational study covered the period January 1999 to December 2001. Data were provided by members of a study panel of coroners in England using a standard protocol. Sources of data for this study included autopsy protocols, death certificates, hospital records, police reports, toxicology reports and inquest transcripts. Inclusion criteria for this were (i) the mention of one or more psychoactive substances as contributing to fatality; and (ii) the presence of a Controlled Drug at post mortem. Results A total of 3,803 drug-related deaths of persons aged 16–64 years were reported by the study panel during the three-year period. The study panel accounted for 86% of drug-related deaths in England in this period. There were 147 FIUI cases (119 males, 28 females), giving a proportionate mortality ratio of approximately 4%. The majority of FIUI cases (84%) were aged 16–44 years, with a median age at death of 33 years (Quartile deviation = 7). Fifty-six percent of FIUI occurred in urban areas of England. The population of the study jurisdictions aged 16–64 years contributed 49,545,766 person-years (py) to the study, giving an annual crude rate of 3/1,000,000 person-years (py). Rates for male and females were 4.9 and 1.1/1,000,000 py respectively, giving a male/female rate ratio of 4.5 (95%CI = 2.9–6.8). The rates of intentional and unintentional FIUI were 2 and 1/1,000,000 py respectively. The leading mechanism for intentional FIUI was suffocation while the predominant mechanisms in unintentional FIUI were road traffic accidents and falls. There is a significant difference in the pattern of drug-specific risk between FIUI and fatal poisoning. Risks of intentional FIUI are elevated among Black and Minority Ethnic groups. Conclusion There are

  1. Fatal injuries while under the influence of psychoactive drugs: a cross-sectional exploratory study in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dryden Ruth

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of drug-related mortality rarely describe fatal injuries due to psychoactive drug intoxication (FIUI. The main aim of this study was to determine the nature, extent and pattern of FIUI. Methods This observational study covered the period January 1999 to December 2001. Data were provided by members of a study panel of coroners in England using a standard protocol. Sources of data for this study included autopsy protocols, death certificates, hospital records, police reports, toxicology reports and inquest transcripts. Inclusion criteria for this were (i the mention of one or more psychoactive substances as contributing to fatality; and (ii the presence of a Controlled Drug at post mortem. Results A total of 3,803 drug-related deaths of persons aged 16–64 years were reported by the study panel during the three-year period. The study panel accounted for 86% of drug-related deaths in England in this period. There were 147 FIUI cases (119 males, 28 females, giving a proportionate mortality ratio of approximately 4%. The majority of FIUI cases (84% were aged 16–44 years, with a median age at death of 33 years (Quartile deviation = 7. Fifty-six percent of FIUI occurred in urban areas of England. The population of the study jurisdictions aged 16–64 years contributed 49,545,766 person-years (py to the study, giving an annual crude rate of 3/1,000,000 person-years (py. Rates for male and females were 4.9 and 1.1/1,000,000 py respectively, giving a male/female rate ratio of 4.5 (95%CI = 2.9–6.8. The rates of intentional and unintentional FIUI were 2 and 1/1,000,000 py respectively. The leading mechanism for intentional FIUI was suffocation while the predominant mechanisms in unintentional FIUI were road traffic accidents and falls. There is a significant difference in the pattern of drug-specific risk between FIUI and fatal poisoning. Risks of intentional FIUI are elevated among Black and Minority Ethnic groups

  2. Application of highly silicon-doped marker layers in the investigation of unintentional doping in GaN on sapphire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    To provide a route to the assessment of the impact of inclined facets on unintentional n-type doping during the growth of c-plane GaN on sapphire, thin (100 nm), highly Si-doped (at 10 19 cm -3 ) marker layers have been incorporated into a GaN epitaxial layer grown by a method involving a transition from initial three-dimensional island growth to later, two-dimensional, planar growth. Imaging of the completed epitaxial layer in cross-section by scanning capacitance microscopy reveals the shapes of the islands, which were present during the early stages of growth and the relationship between the facets present and the incorporation of unintentional dopants. The results show that unintentional dopants are mostly incorporated on facets inclined to the [0 0 0 1] direction, and suggest that gaseous impurities present in the MOVPE reactor are one source of dopant species. -- Research highlights: →Scanning capacitance microscopy has been used to study unintentional doping in GaN epilayers. →Highly doped marker layers provide the means to track the growth and coalescence of the islands, which form the epilayer, and how this relates to the incorporation of unintentional dopants. →The results suggest that the presence of facets inclined to (0 0 0 1) is important in the incorporation of unintentional dopants.

  3. Fatal falls among older construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiuwen Sue; Wang, Xuanwen; Daw, Christina

    2012-06-01

    This study examines recent trends and patterns in fall fatalities in the U.S. construction industry to determine whether fatal falls among older workers are different from younger workers in this industry. Falls are the leading cause of fatalities in the U.S. construction industry. Given the increasingly aging workforce in construction, it is important to assess the risk of falls among older construction workers. Fatality data were obtained from the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries for the years 1992 through 2008. Denominators for death rates were estimated from the Current Population Survey. Stratified and multivariate analyses were performed to examine whether there are differences in fatal falls between older workers (> or = 55 years) and younger workers (16-54 years). Fatal falls in nonconstruction industries were excluded from this study. Older workers had higher rates of fatal falls than younger workers; results were significant in 11 of 14 construction occupations. Regression analysis indicated that older decedents had a higher likelihood that work-related death was caused by a fall, after controlling for major demographic and employment factors (odds ratio = 1.50, confidence interval [1.30, 1.72]). Falls from roofs accounted for one third of construction fatal falls, but falls from ladders caused a larger proportion of deadly falls in older decedents than in younger decedents. Older workers have a higher likelihood of dying from a fall. Roofs and ladders are particularly risky for older construction workers. As the construction workforce ages, there is an urgent need to enhance fall prevention efforts, provide work accommodations, and match work capabilities to job duties.

  4. Suicide and unintentional poisoning mortality trends in the United States, 1987-2006: two unrelated phenomena?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frost James L

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two counter trends in injury mortality have been separately reported in the US in recent times - a declining suicide rate and a rapidly rising unintentional poisoning mortality rate. Poisoning suicides are especially difficult to detect, and injury of undetermined intent is the underlying cause-of-death category most likely to reflect this difficulty. We compare suicide and poisoning mortality trends over two decades in a preliminary assessment of their independence and implications for suicide misclassification. Methods Description of overall and gender- and age-specific trends using national mortality data from WISQARS, the Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System, maintained by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC. Subjects were the 936,633 residents dying in the 50 states and the District of Columbia between 1987 and 2006 whose underlying cause of death was classified as suicide, unintentional poisoning, or injury mortality of undetermined intent. Results The official US suicide rate declined 18% between 1987 and 2000, from 12.71 to 10.43 deaths per 100,000 population. It then increased to 11.15 deaths per 100,000 by 2006, a 7% rise. By contrast to these much smaller rate changes for suicide, the unintentional poisoning mortality rate rose more than fourfold between 1987 and 2006, from 2.19 to 9.22 deaths per 100,000. Only the population aged 65 years and older showed a sustained decline in the suicide rate over the entire observation period. Consistently highest in gender-age comparisons, the elderly male rate declined by 35%. The elderly female rate declined by 43%. Unlike rate trends for the non-elderly, both declines appeared independent of corresponding mortality trends for unintentional poisoning and poisoning of undetermined intent. The elderly also deviated from younger counterparts by having a smaller proportion of their injury deaths of undetermined intent classified as poisoning

  5. Working hours associated with unintentional sleep at work among airline pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marqueze, Elaine Cristina; Nicola, Ana Carolina B; Diniz, Dag Hammarskjoeld M D; Fischer, Frida Marina

    2017-06-26

    Tto identify factors associated with unintentional sleep at work of airline pilots. This is a cross-sectional epidemiological study conducted with 1,235 Brazilian airline pilots, who work national or international flights. Data collection has been performed online. We carried out a bivariate and multiple logistic regression analysis, having as dependent variable unintentional sleep at work. The independent variables were related to biodemographic data, characteristics of the work, lifestyle, and aspects of sleep. The prevalence of unintentional sleep while flying the airplane was 57.8%. The factors associated with unintentional sleep at work were: flying for more than 65 hours a month, frequent technical delays, greater need for recovery after work, work ability below optimal, insufficient sleep, and excessive sleepiness. The occurrence of unintentional sleep at work of airline pilots is associated with factors related to the organization of the work and health. Identificar fatores associados aos cochilos não intencionais durante as jornadas de trabalho de pilotos da aviação regular. Estudo epidemiológico transversal conduzido com 1.235 pilotos brasileiros de avião do transporte aéreo regular, que realizavam voos nacionais ou internacionais, sendo a coleta de dados realizada on-line. Foi realizada análise de regressão logística bivariada e múltipla, tendo como variável dependente o cochilo não intencional durante o horário de trabalho. As variáveis independentes foram relacionadas a dados biodemográficos, características do trabalho, estilo de vida e aspectos do sono. A prevalência do cochilo não intencional enquanto pilotava o avião foi de 57,8%. Os fatores associados ao cochilo não intencional foram: voar por mais de 65 horas por mês, atrasos técnicos frequentes, maior necessidade de recuperação após o trabalho, capacidade para o trabalho inferior à ótima, sono insuficiente e sonolência excessiva. A ocorrência do cochilo n

  6. Fatalism and cancer screening in Appalachian Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royse, David; Dignan, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Fatalism may play a role in Appalachians' views about cancer screening and contribute to high rates of cancer incidence and mortality, but few studies have explored this issue. A probability telephone survey was conducted of 696 adults living in 51 Appalachian Kentucky counties inquiring about intentions to obtain cancer screening. The Life Orientation Test-Revised as a surrogate measure for fatalism and logistic regression was used to predict screening activity. Insurance coverage was the best overall predictor variable. Fatalism was significant in one model possibly reflecting an appreciation of the costs and barriers associated with obtaining screening in rural counties.

  7. Reporting Fatal Neglect in Child Death Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Debbie

    2018-01-01

    Child death reviews are conducted with the aim of preventing child deaths however, definitions, inclusion criteria for the review of child deaths and reporting practices vary across Child Death Review Teams (CDRTs). This article aims to identify a common context and understanding of fatal neglect reporting by reviewing definitional issues of fatal neglect and comparing reporting practice across a number of CDRTs. Providing a consistent context for identifying and reporting neglect-related deaths may improve the understanding of the impact of fatal neglect and the risk factors associated with it and therefore, improve the potential of CDRT review to inform prevention programs, policies, and procedures.

  8. States with low non-fatal injury rates have high fatality rates and vice-versa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendeloff, John; Burns, Rachel

    2013-05-01

    State-level injury rates or fatality rates are sometimes used in studies of the impact of various safety programs or other state policies. How much does the metric used affect the view of relative occupational risks among U.S. states? This paper uses a measure of severe injuries (fatalities) and of less severe injuries (non-fatal injuries with days away from work, restricted work, or job transfer-DART) to examine that issue. We looked at the correlation between the average DART injury rate (from the BLS Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses) and an adjusted average fatality rate (from the BLS Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries) in the construction sector for states for 2003-2005 and for 2006-2008. The RAND Human Subjects Protection Committee determined that this study was exempt from review. The correlations between the fatal and non-fatal injury rates were between -0.30 and -0.70 for all construction and for the subsector of special trade contractors. The negative correlation was much smaller between the rate of fatal falls from heights and the rate of non-fatal falls from heights. Adjusting for differences in the industry composition of the construction sector across states had minor effects on these results. Although some have suggested that fatal and non-fatal injury rates should not necessarily be positively correlated, no one has suggested that the correlation is negative, which is what we find. We know that reported non-fatal rates are influenced by workers' compensation benefits and other factors. Fatality rates appear to be a more valid measure of risk. Efforts to explain the variations that we find should be undertaken. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Drug involvement of fatally injured drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    While data focusing on the danger of driving under the influence : of alcohol is readily available and often cited, less is : known or discussed about drivers under the influence of : other drugs. The Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), : a ce...

  10. Fatal accidents among Danes with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Hansen, Thomas; Koch-Henriksen, Nils

    2006-01-01

    for death from accidents among persons with MS was 37% higher than that of the general population (SMR = 1.37). We found no significant excess risk for fatal road accidents (SMR = 0.80). The risk for falls was elevated (SMR = 1.29) but not statistically significantly so. The risks were particularly high......-1996. The end of follow-up was 1 January 1999. We calculated standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for various types of fatal accidents. A total of 76 persons (48 men and 28 women) died from accidents, whereas the expected number of fatalities from such causes was 55.7 (31.4 men and 24.3 women). Thus, the risk...... for deaths from burns (SMR = 8.90) and suffocation (SMR = 5.57). We conclude that persons with MS are more prone to fatal accidents than the general population. The excess risk is due not to traffic accidents but to burns and suffocation....

  11. A fatal case of creosote poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, C. E.; Muhleman, M. F.; Walters, E.

    1984-01-01

    A case of fatal creosote poisoning is described. On presentation, extensive oropharyngeal ulceration was noted and gastric lavage withheld. Post-mortem examination showed an intact oesophagus and stomach. PMID:6463007

  12. A fatal case of creosote poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Bowman, C. E.; Muhleman, M. F.; Walters, E.

    1984-01-01

    A case of fatal creosote poisoning is described. On presentation, extensive oropharyngeal ulceration was noted and gastric lavage withheld. Post-mortem examination showed an intact oesophagus and stomach.

  13. Fatalism and risk of adolescent depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, R E; Roberts, C R; Chen, I G

    2000-01-01

    This research examined fatalism, the belief in external control over life chances, as a risk factor for adolescent depression. Data were analyzed from a large (N = 5,423) sample of adolescents attending middle school in an ethnically diverse community in the southwest. It was hypothesized that adolescents who demonstrated greater fatalism would have a higher risk for depression. Bivariate associations between fatalism and depression were substantial, with an odds ratio (OR) of nearly 25 for depression with impairment and nearly 13 for depression without impairment. Adjustment for the effects of 10 covariates drawn from three domains (status attributes, stressors, and personal/social resources) essentially eliminated the association between fatalism and depression with impairment. However, the OR was still 2.6. The significant association between fatalism and depression without impairment (OR = 2.7) remained after adjustment for covariates. The results provide further support for models of depression which emphasize the role of psychosocial deficits. In this case, we found depression was associated not only with greater fatalism but also greater pessimism, lower self-esteem, more passive coping, and less social support.

  14. Baking soda: a potentially fatal home remedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, M H; Wason, S; Gonzalez del Rey, J; Benfield, M

    1995-04-01

    We present a case of a six-week-old infant who developed life-threatening complications after unintentional sodium bicarbonate intoxication. Baking soda was being used by the mother as a home remedy to "help the baby burp." A review of the literature regarding the use (or misuse) of baking soda follows. Our patient, along with the other noted case reports, emphasizes the need for warnings on baking soda products whose labels recommend its use as an antacid. Poisonings must be high in the differential diagnosis of any patient, regardless of age, who presents with altered mental status or status epilepticus.

  15. Value of CT in the Discrimination of Fatal from Non-Fatal Stercoral Colitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Cheng Hsien; Huang, Chen Chin; Wang, Li Jen; Wong, Yon Cheng; Wang, Chao Jan; Lo, Wang Chak; Lin, Being Chuan; Wan, Yung Liang; Haueh, Chuen

    2012-01-01

    Clinical presentation and physical signs may be unreliable in the diagnosis of stercoral colitis (SC). This study evaluates the value of computed tomography (CT) in distinguishing fatal from non-fatal SC. Ten patients diagnosed as SC were obtained from inter-specialist conferences. Additional 13 patients with suspected SC were identified via the Radiology Information System (RIS). These patients were divided into two groups; fatal and non-fatal SCs. Their CT images are reviewed by two board-certified radiologists blinded to the clinical data and radiographic reports. SC occurred in older patients and displayed no gender predisposition. There was significant correlation between fatal SC and CT findings of dense mucosa (p 0.017), perfusion defects (p = 0.026), ascites (p = 0.023), or abnormal gas (p = 0.033). The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of dense mucosa were 71%, 86%, and 81%, respectively. These figures were 75%, 79%, and 77% for perfusion defects; 75%, 80%, and 78% for ascites; and 50%, 93%, and 78% for abnormal gas, respectively. Each CT sign of mucosal sloughing and pericolonic abscess displayed high specificity of 100% and 93% for diagnosing fatal SC, respectively. However, this did not reach statistical significance in diagnosing fatal SC. CT appears to be valuable in discriminating fatal from non-fatal SC.

  16. Value of CT in the Discrimination of Fatal from Non-Fatal Stercoral Colitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Cheng Hsien; Huang, Chen Chin; Wang, Li Jen; Wong, Yon Cheng; Wang, Chao Jan; Lo, Wang Chak; Lin, Being Chuan; Wan, Yung Liang; Haueh, Chuen [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan (China)

    2012-06-15

    Clinical presentation and physical signs may be unreliable in the diagnosis of stercoral colitis (SC). This study evaluates the value of computed tomography (CT) in distinguishing fatal from non-fatal SC. Ten patients diagnosed as SC were obtained from inter-specialist conferences. Additional 13 patients with suspected SC were identified via the Radiology Information System (RIS). These patients were divided into two groups; fatal and non-fatal SCs. Their CT images are reviewed by two board-certified radiologists blinded to the clinical data and radiographic reports. SC occurred in older patients and displayed no gender predisposition. There was significant correlation between fatal SC and CT findings of dense mucosa (p 0.017), perfusion defects (p = 0.026), ascites (p = 0.023), or abnormal gas (p = 0.033). The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of dense mucosa were 71%, 86%, and 81%, respectively. These figures were 75%, 79%, and 77% for perfusion defects; 75%, 80%, and 78% for ascites; and 50%, 93%, and 78% for abnormal gas, respectively. Each CT sign of mucosal sloughing and pericolonic abscess displayed high specificity of 100% and 93% for diagnosing fatal SC, respectively. However, this did not reach statistical significance in diagnosing fatal SC. CT appears to be valuable in discriminating fatal from non-fatal SC.

  17. Source, Managemnt and Quantification of Unintentional POPs (PCDDD/Fs) in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charitra Sah, Ram

    2010-05-01

    The aim to prepare and present this paper is to highlight the source, management and quantification of the unintentional POPs in an unindustrialized least developing landlocked small country Nepal. The methodology adopted for this is the review of the relevant research documents and national initiative towards addressing this issues complemented with sharing of the first hand experience from the implementation of the POPs management activities undertaken by our organization. Nepal is a small country of size 147181 sq.km but having large sources of POPs including unintentional POPs (PCDD/Fs) mainly because of weak enforcement of the existing environment related laws, standards and international commitment including POPs Convention. Country became homes to about 75 tons of Obsolete Pesticide since last 30 years including about 44 percent (33 tons out of 75) are of known POPs. These obsolete pesticides including identified POPs have been poorly stored in some about 25 locations throughout the country. The major warehouse accommodating about 50 tons at Amlekhgunj has been located just in front of a high school where about 1000 children are being studying and found to have some health related problem due to the gasses emission from the warehouse as well as school playground field contaminated with these POPs pesticides. The playground soil contamination has been found from routine examination of the soil samples. In addition to pesticides including POPs were used in the agriculture and public health field in the past, there are several other practices as well as anthropogenic activities producing PCDD/Fs. The annual inventory of countrywide emission of unintentional POPs was estimated to be 312.55 g TEQ for Nepal (MOE 2004). This is very high for a country like Nepal least developing in terms of industrial and economy. This estimation was based on the UNEP Toolkit which has included the broad categories of waste such as waste incineration, ferrous and non ferrous metal

  18. The health consequences of child mental health problems and parenting styles: unintentional injuries among European schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Katherine M; Susser, Ezra; Pilowsky, Daniel J; Hamilton, Ava; Bitfoi, Adina; Goelitz, Dietmar; Kuijpers, Rowella C W M; Lesinskiene, Sigita; Mihova, Zlatka; Otten, Roy; Kovess, Viviane

    2014-10-01

    Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death for schoolchildren. We assessed the association between externalizing psychopathology, parenting style, and unintentional injury in European children in the community. Data were drawn from the School Children Mental Health in Europe project and included 4517 schoolchildren across seven diverse European regions. Past-year injuries serious enough to seek medical attention were reported by mothers. Child mental health problems were assessed using validated measures and reported by the mothers, teachers, and children. Parenting styles were based on The Parenting Scale and the Parent Behaviors and Attitudes Questionnaire. Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity symptoms and oppositional defiant symptoms had a higher risk of injury compared to other children whether based on parent report (OR=1.47, 95% C.I. 1.2-1.9), teacher report (OR=1.36, 95% C.I. 1.1-1.7), or parent and teacher report combined (OR=1.53, 95% C.I. 1.1-2.1). Children who self-reported oppositional symptoms also had higher risk of injury (OR=1.6, 95% C.I. 1.1-2.4). Low-caring behavior of parents increased the risk of injury (OR=1.4, 95% C.I. 1.1-1.9). Unintentional injury is a potential adverse health consequence of child externalizing problems. Interventions to improve parent-child relationships and prevention as well as focused treatment for externalizing problems may reduce the burden of injury. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The shrinking health advantage: unintentional injuries among children and youth from immigrant families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Natasha Ruth; Macpherson, Alison; Guan, Jun; Sheng, Lisa; Guttmann, Astrid

    2017-08-01

    Immigrants typically arrive in good health. This health benefit can decline as immigrants adopt behaviours similar to native-born populations. Risk of injury is low in immigrants but it is not known whether this changes with increasing time since migration. We sought to examine the association between duration of residence in Canada and risk of unintentional injury. Population-based cross-sectional study of children and youth 0 to 24 years in Ontario, Canada (2011-2012), using linked health and administrative databases. The main exposure was duration of Canadian residence (recent: 0-5 years, intermediate: 6-10 years, long-term: >10 years). The main outcome measure was unintentional injuries. Cause-specific injury risk by duration of residence was also evaluated. Poisson regression models estimated rate ratios (RR) for injuries. 999951 immigrants were included with 24.2% recent and 26.4% intermediate immigrants. The annual crude injury rates per 100000 immigrants were 6831 emergency department visits, 151 hospitalizations, and 4 deaths. In adjusted models, recent immigrants had the lowest risk of injury and risk increased over time (RR 0.79; 95% CI 0.77, 0.81 recent immigrants, RR 0.90; 95% CI 0.88, 0.92 intermediate immigrants, versus long-term immigrants). Factors associated with injury included young age (0-4 years, RR 1.30; 95% CI 1.26, 1.34), male sex (RR 1.52; 95% CI 1.49, 1.55), and high income (RR 0.93; 95% CI 0.89, 0.96 quintile 1 versus 5). Longer duration of residence was associated with a higher risk of unintentional injuries for most causes except hot object/scald burns, machinery-related injuries, non-motor vehicle bicycle and pedestrian injuries. The risk of these latter injuries did not change significantly with increasing duration of residence in Canada. Risk of drowning was highest in recent immigrants. Risk of all-cause and most cause-specific unintentional injuries in immigrants rises with increasing time since migration. This indicates the need

  20. Relating off-premises alcohol outlet density to intentional and unintentional injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Christopher; Smith, Karen; Gruenewald, Paul J; Ponicki, William R; Lee, Juliet P; Cameron, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the hypotheses that (i) intentional and unintentional injuries occur more frequently in areas with greater density of off-premises alcohol outlets; and (ii) larger and chain outlets selling cheaper alcohol contribute more substantially to injury risk than smaller and independent outlets. Ecological cross-sectional. From the 256 Statistical Area level 2 (SA2) census units in Melbourne, Australia, we selected a random sample of 62 units. There were 2119 Statistical Area level 1 (SA1) units nested within the selected SA2 units. The selected units contained 295 off-premises outlets. Two independent observers conducted premises assessments in all off-premises outlets, assessing the volume of alcohol available for sale (paces of shelf space), price (least wine price) and other operating characteristics (chain versus independent, drive-through). Outlet counts, assessed outlet characteristics and other area characteristics (population density, median age, median income, retail zoning) were aggregated within SA1 units. Dependent variables were counts of ambulance attended intentional injuries (assaults, stabbings, shootings) and unintentional injuries (falls, crush injuries and object strikes). In univariable analyses, chain outlets were larger (r = 0.383; P outlets. In Bayesian spatial Poisson models, off-premises outlet density was positively related to both intentional [incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.38; 95% credible interval (CI) = 1.19, 1.60] and unintentional injuries (IRR = 1.18; 95% CI = 1.06, 1.30). After disaggregation by outlet characteristics, chain outlet density was also related to both intentional (IRR = 1.35; 95% CI = 1.11, 1.64) and unintentional injuries (IRR = 1.20; 95% CI = 1.08, 1.38). Greater off-premises outlet density is related to greater incidence of traumatic injury, and chain outlets appear to contribute most substantially to traumatic injury risk. © 2015 Society for the Study of

  1. The shrinking health advantage: unintentional injuries among children and youth from immigrant families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Ruth Saunders

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immigrants typically arrive in good health. This health benefit can decline as immigrants adopt behaviours similar to native-born populations. Risk of injury is low in immigrants but it is not known whether this changes with increasing time since migration. We sought to examine the association between duration of residence in Canada and risk of unintentional injury. Methods Population-based cross-sectional study of children and youth 0 to 24 years in Ontario, Canada (2011-2012, using linked health and administrative databases. The main exposure was duration of Canadian residence (recent: 0–5 years, intermediate: 6–10 years, long-term: >10 years. The main outcome measure was unintentional injuries. Cause-specific injury risk by duration of residence was also evaluated. Poisson regression models estimated rate ratios (RR for injuries. Results 999951 immigrants were included with 24.2% recent and 26.4% intermediate immigrants. The annual crude injury rates per 100000 immigrants were 6831 emergency department visits, 151 hospitalizations, and 4 deaths. In adjusted models, recent immigrants had the lowest risk of injury and risk increased over time (RR 0.79; 95% CI 0.77, 0.81 recent immigrants, RR 0.90; 95% CI 0.88, 0.92 intermediate immigrants, versus long-term immigrants. Factors associated with injury included young age (0-4 years, RR 1.30; 95% CI 1.26, 1.34, male sex (RR 1.52; 95% CI 1.49, 1.55, and high income (RR 0.93; 95% CI 0.89, 0.96 quintile 1 versus 5. Longer duration of residence was associated with a higher risk of unintentional injuries for most causes except hot object/scald burns, machinery-related injuries, non-motor vehicle bicycle and pedestrian injuries. The risk of these latter injuries did not change significantly with increasing duration of residence in Canada. Risk of drowning was highest in recent immigrants. Conclusions Risk of all-cause and most cause-specific unintentional injuries in immigrants

  2. Unintentional Injuries and Psychosocial Correlates among in-School Adolescents in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Karl Peltzer; Supa Pengpid

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to provide estimates of the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of unintentional injury among school-going adolescents in Malaysia. Cross-sectional data from the Global School-Based Health Survey (GSHS) included 21,699 students (predominantly ?13 to ?17 years) that were selected by a two-stage cluster sample design to represent all secondary school students in Forms 1 to 5. The percentage of school children reporting one or more serious injuries in the past year was 34.9%, ...

  3. Key Impact Factors on Dam Break Fatalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, D.; Yu, Z.; Song, Y.; Han, D.; Li, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Dam failures can lead to catastrophes on human society. However, there is a lack of research about dam break fatalities, especially on the key factors that affect fatalities. Based on the analysis of historical dam break cases, most studies have used the regression analysis to explore the correlation between those factors and fatalities, but without implementing optimization to find the dominating factors. In order to understand and reduce the risk of fatalities, this study has proposed a new method to select the impact factors on the fatality. It employs an improved ANN (Artificial Neural Network) combined with LOOCV (Leave-one-out cross-validation) and SFS (Stepwise Forward Selection) approach to explore the nonlinear relationship between impact factors and life losses. It not only considers the factors that have been widely used in the literature but also introduces new factors closely involved with fatalities. Dam break cases occurred in China from 1954 to 2013 are summarized, within which twenty-five cases are selected with a comprehensive coverage of geographic position and temporal variation. Twelve impact factors are taken into account as the inputs, i.e., severity of dam break flood (SF), population at risk (PR), public understanding of dam break (UB), warning time (TW), evacuation condition (EC), weather condition during dam break (WB), dam break mode (MB), water storage (SW), building vulnerability (VB), dam break time (TB), average distance from the affected area to the dam (DD) and preventive measures by government (PG).From those, three key factors of SF, MB and TB are chosen. The proposed method is able to extract the key factors, and the derived fatality model performs well in various types of dam break conditions.

  4. Disease fatality and bias in survival cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Vaughn; Klein, Mitchel; Winquist, Andrea; Darrow, Lyndsey A; Steenland, Kyle

    2015-07-01

    Simulate how the effect of exposure on disease occurrence and fatality influences the presence and magnitude of bias in survivor cohorts, motivated by an actual survivor cohort under study. We simulated a cohort of 50,000 subjects exposed to a disease-causing exposure over time and followed forty years, where disease incidence was the outcome of interest. We simulated this 'inception' cohort under different assumptions about the effect of exposure on disease occurrence and fatality after disease occurrence. We then created a corresponding 'survivor' (or 'cross-sectional') cohort, where cohort enrollment took place at a specific date after exposure began in the inception cohort; subjects dying prior to that enrollment date were excluded. The disease of interest caused all deaths in our simulations, but was not always fatal. In the survivor cohort, person-time at risk began before enrollment for all subjects who did not die prior to enrollment. We compared exposure-disease associations in each inception cohort to those in corresponding survivor cohorts to determine how different assumptions impacted bias in the survivor cohorts. All subjects in both inception and survivor cohorts were considered equally susceptible to the effect of exposure in causing disease. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to calculate effect measures. There was no bias in survivor cohort estimates when case fatality among diseased subjects was independent of exposure. This was true even when the disease was highly fatal and more highly exposed subjects were more likely to develop disease and die. Assuming a positive exposure-response in the inception cohort, survivor cohort rate ratios were biased downwards when case fatality was greater with higher exposure. Survivor cohort effect estimates for fatal outcomes are not always biased, although precision can decrease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Drugs taken in fatal and non-fatal self-poisoning : A study in South London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J; Wessely, S

    This study compared the number and type of substances taken in deliberate self-poisoning with fatal (n=127) and non-fatal (n=521) outcome. The aims were (i) to describe substances typically involved in self-poisoning in England and Wales, (ii) to examine the role of drug 'cocktails' and (iii) to

  6. Unintentional injuries in children of Danish and foreign-born mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Bjarne; Møller, Hanne

    2009-08-01

    Unintentional injuries in children of foreign-born mothers were studied and compared with those in children of Danish-born mothers. A population of 173,504 children living in 32 municipalities in Denmark was followed from 1998 to 2003. Detailed information on childhood unintentional injuries from hospital records was linked to register data on parents' education, country of origin, income, family type, etc. Poisson regression was used to analyse differences in injury risk between children of different origins. We found 133,649 injuries, of which 15,389 occurred in children of foreign-born mothers. The injury rates in children of Western and non-Western origin were 0.83 (0.70-0.98) times and 0.84 (0.79- 0.90) times that of children of Danish-born mothers, respectively. The difference was largest in children of families with unemployed parents. The injury rate in girls of non-Western origin was 29% lower than in girls of Danish origin, while the rate in boys of non-Western origin was only 5% lower than in boys of Danish origin. This gender difference was particularly pronounced for sports and traffic injuries. Children of non-Western origin had a three-fold higher rate of burns caused by hot water, tea or oil than children of Danish origin. Prevention of injuries in children of non-Western origin should especially focus on scalds from tea, oil, and hot water.

  7. Unintentional selection, unanticipated insights: introductions, stocking and the evolutionary ecology of fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, J A

    2014-12-01

    Natural environmental change has produced countless opportunities for species to disperse into and persist in habitats where they previously did not exist. Introduction and stocking programmes have facilitated similar sorts of colonization opportunities across considerably greater geographical scales and often in much shorter periods of time. Even though the mechanism of colonization differs, the result can be the same: evolutionary change in the colonizing population in response to novel selection pressures. As a consequence, some human-mediated fish transfers have unintentionally yielded novel research opportunities to study how phenotypes and genes interact with their environment and affect ecological and evolutionary change. The primary purpose here is to explore how work, directly or indirectly involved with human-mediated transfers, has unintentionally yielded novel research and research opportunities in fish ecology and evolution. Insights have produced new knowledge or altered previously held perceptions on topics such as local adaptation, rate of evolutionary change, phenotypic plasticity, alternative reproductive strategies, population structure and colonization probability. Well-documented stocking programmes, especially in terms of history, numbers and original population sources, can provide highly fertile ground for generating further insights on the ecology and evolution of fishes and of the factors likely to influence the success of conservation-based, restoration programmes. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  8. Unintentional injuries among Chinese children with different types and severity of disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huiping; Xiang, Huiyun; Xia, Xin; Yang, Xia; Li, Dan; Stallones, Lorann; Du, Yukai

    2014-01-01

    Little research has been done in China to study injury in individuals with disability. We investigated the impact of type and severity of disability on injury among children with disability in Hubei Province of China. A sample of 1201 children with disability were matched with 1201 healthy children on gender, age, and neighborhood. Disability type and severity were determined using the Chinese national standards. Caregivers were interviewed face-to-face about nonfatal unintentional injuries suffered by the child in the past 12 months before the interview. Univariate χ(2) test and logistic regression models were used to investigate association between disability type/severity and nonfatal unintentional injuries. Injury rate among children with disability was significantly higher than that among children without disability (10.2% vs. 4.4%; P disability and injury varied by type and severity of disability. The magnitude of the association between the presence or absence of disability in children and their risk of injury was large and significant, regardless of the type or severity of the children's disabilities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effectiveness of the cigarette ignition propensity standard in preventing unintentional residential fires in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, Hillel R; Christiani, David C; Orav, E John; Dockery, Douglas W; Connolly, Gregory N

    2014-04-01

    We evaluated the Massachusetts Fire Safe Cigarette Law's (FSCL's) effectiveness in preventing residential fires. We examined unintentional residential fires reported to the Massachusetts Fire Incident Reporting System from 2004 to 2010. We analyzed FSCL effect on the likelihood of cigarette- versus noncigarette-caused fires and effect modification by fire scenario factors by using an interrupted time series regression model. We analyzed the effect of FSCL on monthly fire rates with Poisson regression. Cigarettes caused 1629 unintentional residential fires during the study period. The FSCL was associated with a 28% (95% confidence interval = 12%, 41%) reduction in the odds of cigarette- versus noncigarette-caused fires, although not in analyses restricted to casualty fires, with smaller sample size. The largest reductions were among fires in which human factors were involved; that were first ignited on furniture, bedding, or soft goods; that occurred in living areas; or that occurred in the summer or winter. The FSCL appears to have decreased the likelihood of cigarette-caused residential fires, particularly in scenarios for which the ignition propensity standard was developed. Current standards should be adopted, and the need for strengthening should be considered.

  10. Prevalence and predictors of mental disorders in intentionally and unintentionally injured emergency centre patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Westhuizen, Claire; Wyatt, Gail; Williams, John K.; Stein, Dan J.; Sorsdahl, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the prevalence and predictors of mental disorders amongst injured emergency centre (EC) patients in low- and middle-income countries. Patients presenting with either an intentional or unintentional injury were recruited (n=200). Mental health, injury and psychological trauma histories were assessed. Descriptive statistics and logistic regressions were conducted and predictors for current mental disorder were identified. Diagnostic criteria for a current mental disorder, including substance use disorders, were met by 59.5% of participants. Compared to those with an unintentional injury, intentionally injured participants were more likely to be diagnosed with a current mental disorder (66.9% vs 48.8%; p=0.01). High frequencies of previous intentional injuries predicted for current mental disorder (OR = 1.460, 95% CI 1.08-1.98), while male gender and witnessed community violence predicted substance use disorder diagnoses. Findings indicate that injured EC patients, particularly those with intentional injuries, are at risk for mental disorders. Psychosocial interventions in the EC context can potentially make an important contribution in reducing the burden of mental disorders and injuries in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:25126754

  11. Prognostic significance of unintentional body weight loss in colon cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yi-Hung; Shi, Chung-Sheng; Huang, Cheng Yi; Huang, Yun-Ching; Chin, Chih-Chien

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether unintentional body weight loss (BWL) provides additional clinical information in terms of tumor progression and prognosis in non-metastatic colon cancer. In the present study, a total of 2,406 consecutive colon cancer patients without metastasis were retrospectively enrolled. Unintentional BWL was defined as loss of >5% of body weight within the last 6-12 months, or defined subjectively upon fulfillment of at least two of the following: Evidence of change in clothing size and corroboration of the reported weight loss by family or friend. This category was recorded as present ('with') or absent ('without'). Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the correlation between BWL and the tumor characteristics and post-operative outcomes of patients with colon cancer. The Cox regression model was used to determine the association of BWL with long-term survival of colon cancer patients. A significant association between BWL and tumor location [right vs. left: Odds ratio (OR)=1.62; Pcolon cancer is not just a symptom, but it is also correlated with tumor location, size and depth, and is a prognostic factor for poor outcomes including overall survival and tumor relapse.

  12. Application of highly silicon-doped marker layers in the investigation of unintentional doping in GaN on sapphire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, R A

    2010-12-01

    To provide a route to the assessment of the impact of inclined facets on unintentional n-type doping during the growth of c-plane GaN on sapphire, thin (100 nm), highly Si-doped (at 10¹⁹ cm⁻³) marker layers have been incorporated into a GaN epitaxial layer grown by a method involving a transition from initial three-dimensional island growth to later, two-dimensional, planar growth. Imaging of the completed epitaxial layer in cross-section by scanning capacitance microscopy reveals the shapes of the islands, which were present during the early stages of growth and the relationship between the facets present and the incorporation of unintentional dopants. The results show that unintentional dopants are mostly incorporated on facets inclined to the [0001] direction, and suggest that gaseous impurities present in the MOVPE reactor are one source of dopant species. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Individual risk factors associated with general unintentional injuries and the relationship to traumatic dental injuries among children aged 0-15 years in the Swedish BITA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldin, Anna; Lundgren, Jesper; Norén, Jörgen G; Robertson, Agneta

    2016-08-01

    To investigate general unintentional injuries (GUI) and traumatic dental injuries (TDI) in relation to behavioral and psychosocial strengths and difficulties among Swedish children aged 0-17 years, and to investigate general unintentional injuries in relation to temperament and socioeconomic status among the same children. The study included 2363 children in four different age cohorts aged 3, 7, 11, and 15 years at the study start. Twelve Public Dental Service clinics in Sweden participated, representing different types of demographic areas, both rural and urban. Data were collected from parents and children through an interview, questionnaires, and dental records. Twenty-four percentage (24%) of the children had experienced a serious general unintentional injury (GUI) at some point during their lifetime up until 3 months prior to the study start. Children who were regarded by their parents as being injured more often than other children also had occasions with general unintentional injuries to a greater extent. Most general unintentional injuries occurred at home. Children with incidents of general unintentional injuries had occasions with TDI to a greater extent than children without general unintentional injury. Children, whose mothers had 11 years of school/education or less, were involved in more general unintentional injuries during the 3-month period prior to the study start, compared to children of mothers with higher education level. Children with general unintentional injuries had more traumatic dental injuries. Children who were assessed by their parents as being injured more often than other children also had occasions with general unintentional injuries to a greater extent. Temperament, behavioral and psychosocial strengths and difficulties had different impacts at different ages for experiencing a general unintentional injury. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Anticipating Early Fatality: Friends', Schoolmates' and Individual Perceptions of Fatality on Adolescent Risk Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soller, Brian; Williams, Kristi

    2015-01-01

    Past research indicates that anticipating adverse outcomes, such as early death (fatalism), is associated positively with adolescents' likelihood of engaging in risky behaviors. Health researchers and criminologists have argued that fatalism influences present risk taking in part by informing individuals' motivation for delaying gratification for the promise of future benefits. While past findings highlight the association between the anticipation of early death and a number of developmental outcomes, no known research has assessed the impact of location in a context characterized by high perceptions of fatality. Using data from Add Health and a sample of 9,584 adolescents (51 % female and 71 % white) nested in 113 schools, our study builds upon prior research by examining the association between friends', school mates', and individual perceptions of early fatality and adolescent risk behaviors. We test whether friends' anticipation of being killed prior to age 21 or location in a school where a high proportion of the student body subscribes to attitudes of high fatality, is associated with risky behaviors. Results indicate that friends' fatalism is positively associated with engaging in violent delinquency, non-violent delinquency, and drug use after controlling for individual covariates and prior individual risk-taking. Although friends' delinquency accounts for much of the effect of friends' fatalism on violence, none of the potential intervening variables fully explain the effect of friends' fatalism on youth involvement in nonviolent delinquency and drug use. Our results underscore the importance of friendship contextual effects in shaping adolescent risk-taking behavior and the very serious consequences perceptions of fatality have for adolescents' involvement in delinquency and drug use. PMID:23828725

  15. Drugs and other chemicals involved in fatal poisoning in England and Wales during 2000 – 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, S A; Flanagan, R J

    2014-01-01

    Fatal poisoning data can reveal trends in the poisons encountered, which can help guide prescribing practices and product safety and other legislation, and more recently has helped to monitor the use of emerging drugs of abuse ( ‘ legal highs ’ ). We searched Mortality Statistics – Injury and poisoning, Series DH4 (2000 – 2005), Mortality Statistics – Deaths registered in England and Wales, Series DR (2006 – 2011), and the Office for National Statistics drug poisoning database for information on fatal poisoning during 2000 – 2011. We also searched the Pubmed database for ‘ fatal ’ and ‘ poisoning ’ and ‘ England ’ and ‘ Wales ’ : this search yielded seven papers that gave relevant information on deaths reported during 2000 – 2011 that were not superseded by later publications. DEATHS FROM POISONING: The annual number of deaths from poisoning fell from 2000 (3092) to 2010 (2749), before increasing to 3341 in 2011. This increase was due in part to a change in the ICD coding relating to alcohol poisoning, suggesting that such deaths had been under-recorded previously. Although fatalities from dextropropoxyphene declined (287 in 2004 and 18 in 2011) following the withdrawal of co-proxamol (paracetamol [acetaminophen] and dextropropoxyphene [propoxyphene] mixture) during 2005 – 2007, deaths involving codeine and most notably tramadol (836 deaths during 2000 – 2011) increased. Deaths from paracetamol poisoning either alone, or with alcohol reached 89 in 2011, the lowest annual figure since 1974. However, in reality there has been no marked downward trend since 1999 despite reductions in pack size, continued publicity as to the dangers of paracetamol overdose, and improved liver failure treatment, including transplantation. The annual number of deaths from antidepressants remained relatively stable (median: 397, range: 335 – 469). Although the number of deaths from dosulepin [dothiepin] decreased (186 in 2000 and 49 in 2011), the

  16. Fatal dengue hemorrhagic fever in adults: emphasizing the evolutionary pre-fatal clinical and laboratory manifestations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ing-Kit Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A better description of the clinical and laboratory manifestations of fatal patients with dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF is important in alerting clinicians of severe dengue and improving management. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Of 309 adults with DHF, 10 fatal patients and 299 survivors (controls were retrospectively analyzed. Regarding causes of fatality, massive gastrointestinal (GI bleeding was found in 4 patients, dengue shock syndrome (DSS alone in 2; DSS/subarachnoid hemorrhage, Klebsiella pneumoniae meningitis/bacteremia, ventilator associated pneumonia, and massive GI bleeding/Enterococcus faecalis bacteremia each in one. Fatal patients were found to have significantly higher frequencies of early altered consciousness (≤24 h after hospitalization, hypothermia, GI bleeding/massive GI bleeding, DSS, concurrent bacteremia with/without shock, pulmonary edema, renal/hepatic failure, and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Among those experienced early altered consciousness, massive GI bleeding alone/with uremia/with E. faecalis bacteremia, and K. pneumoniae meningitis/bacteremia were each found in one patient. Significantly higher proportion of bandemia from initial (arrival laboratory data in fatal patients as compared to controls, and higher proportion of pre-fatal leukocytosis and lower pre-fatal platelet count as compared to initial laboratory data of fatal patients were found. Massive GI bleeding (33.3% and bacteremia (25% were the major causes of pre-fatal leukocytosis in the deceased patients; 33.3% of the patients with pre-fatal profound thrombocytopenia (<20,000/µL, and 50% of the patients with pre-fatal prothrombin time (PT prolongation experienced massive GI bleeding. CONCLUSIONS: Our report highlights causes of fatality other than DSS in patients with severe dengue, and suggested hypothermia, leukocytosis and bandemia may be warning signs of severe dengue. Clinicians should be alert to the potential development of massive GI bleeding

  17. Estimating cost ratio distribution between fatal and non-fatal road accidents in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Nurhidayah; Daud, Noorizam

    2014-07-01

    Road traffic crashes are a global major problem, and should be treated as a shared responsibility. In Malaysia, road accident tragedies kill 6,917 people and injure or disable 17,522 people in year 2012, and government spent about RM9.3 billion in 2009 which cost the nation approximately 1 to 2 percent loss of gross domestic product (GDP) reported annually. The current cost ratio for fatal and non-fatal accident used by Ministry of Works Malaysia simply based on arbitrary value of 6:4 or equivalent 1.5:1 depends on the fact that there are six factors involved in the calculation accident cost for fatal accident while four factors for non-fatal accident. The simple indication used by the authority to calculate the cost ratio is doubted since there is lack of mathematical and conceptual evidence to explain how this ratio is determined. The main aim of this study is to determine the new accident cost ratio for fatal and non-fatal accident in Malaysia based on quantitative statistical approach. The cost ratio distributions will be estimated based on Weibull distribution. Due to the unavailability of official accident cost data, insurance claim data both for fatal and non-fatal accident have been used as proxy information for the actual accident cost. There are two types of parameter estimates used in this study, which are maximum likelihood (MLE) and robust estimation. The findings of this study reveal that accident cost ratio for fatal and non-fatal claim when using MLE is 1.33, while, for robust estimates, the cost ratio is slightly higher which is 1.51. This study will help the authority to determine a more accurate cost ratio between fatal and non-fatal accident as compared to the official ratio set by the government, since cost ratio is an important element to be used as a weightage in modeling road accident related data. Therefore, this study provides some guidance tips to revise the insurance claim set by the Malaysia road authority, hence the appropriate method

  18. Prevention of unintentional injuries in early childhood: Using an E-health4Uth home safety intervention to promote parents’ child safety behaviours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E.J. van Scholing-van Beelen (Mirjam)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractEvery day around the world the lives of more than two thousand families are torn apart by the loss of a child due to an unintentional injury [1]. Such tragedy can change lives irrevocably. It is a major public health problem that requires urgent attention. “Unintentional injury” is

  19. Unintentional prescription opioid-related overdose deaths: description of decedents by next of kin or best contact, Utah, 2008-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Erin M; Lanier, William A; Merrill, Ray M; Crook, Jacob; Porucznik, Christina A; Rolfs, Robert T; Sauer, Brian

    2013-04-01

    Little is known about the characteristics that may predispose an individual to being at risk for fatal overdose from prescription opioids. To identify characteristics related to unintentional prescription opioid overdose deaths in Utah. Interviews were conducted (October 2008-October 2009) with a relative or friend most knowledgeable about the decedent's life. Analyses involved 254 decedents aged 18 or older, where cause of death included overdose on at least one prescription opioid. Decedents were more likely to be middle-aged, Caucasian, non-Hispanic/Latino, less educated, not married, or reside in rural areas than the general adult population in Utah. In the year prior to death, 87.4 % were prescribed prescription pain medication. Reported potential misuse prescription pain medication in the year prior to their death was high (e.g., taken more often than prescribed [52.9 %], obtained from more than one doctor during the previous year [31.6 %], and used for reasons other than treating pain [29.8 %, almost half of which "to get high"]). Compared with the general population, decedents were more likely to experience financial problems, unemployment, physical disability, mental illness (primarily depression), and to smoke cigarettes, drink alcohol, and use illicit drugs. The primary source of prescription pain medication was from a healthcare provider (91.8 %), but other sources (not mutually exclusive) included: for free from a friend or relative (24 %); from someone without their knowledge (18.2 %); purchase from a friend, relative, or acquaintance (16.4 %); and purchase from a dealer (not a pharmacy) (11.6 %). The large majority of decedents were prescribed opioids for management of chronic pain and many exhibited behaviors indicative of prescribed medication misuse. Financial problems, unemployment, physical disability, depression, and substance use (including illegal drugs) were also common.

  20. A fatal pulmonary infection by Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwa, V; Rai, S; Kharbanda, P; Kabra, S; Gur, R; Sharma, V K

    2006-01-01

    The reported case is of primary pulmonary nocardiosis, caused by Nocardia brasiliensis, in a immunocompromised patient, which ended fatally despite appropriate treatment. The partially acid fast filamentous bacterium was predominant on direct examination of the sputum. It was cultured on blood agar, MacConkey agar and by paraffin baiting technique. The bacterium was resistant to cotrimoxazole, the drug of choice for nocardiosis.

  1. 2015 ROW Fatality & Trespass Prevention Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Trespassing along railroad rights-of-way (ROW) is the leading cause of rail-related deaths. More than 500 preventable trespass fatalities and nearly as many injuries occur each year in the United States, and most of these incidents involve pedestrian...

  2. 2012 ROW fatality & trespass prevention workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    Trespassing along railroad and transit rights-of-way (ROW) is the leading cause of rail-related deaths in America. Nationally, more than 550 trespass fatalities and nearly as many injuries occur each year. The vast majority of these incidents are pre...

  3. Fatal cerebral oedema in adult diabetic ketoacidosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haringhuizen, A.; Tjan, D.H.; Grool, A.; Vugt, R. van; Zante, A.R. van

    2010-01-01

    In this report, a case of adult onset fatal cerebral oedema as a rare complication of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is described and confirmed at post-mortem pathological examination. The pathogenesis of cerebral oedema due to DKA is still unknown. Potential mechanisms include the administration of

  4. Can We Reduce Workplace Fatalities by Half?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Soo Quee Koh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Singapore, an island republic of over 5 million inhabitants, has 3.1 million workers. Most are employed in the service, finance and tourist/transport industry. Significant numbers work in manufacturing, construction and heavy industry. Following a series of construction and shipyard accidents with multiple deaths in 2004, the government announced its intention to reduce workplace fatalities from 4.9 to 2.5 per 100,000 by 2015. There was strong political will to achieve this target. The strategic approaches were to build workplace safety and health (WSH capabilities; implement legislative changes with enforcement; promote benefits of WSH and recognize best practices, and enhance partnership with stakeholders. The anticipated outcomes were to reduce workplace fatality and injury rates; have WSH as an integral part of business; and establish a progressive and pervasive WSH culture. With these measures, the workplace fatality rate declined from 4.9/100,000 in 2004, to 2.2/100,000 in 2010. However, other confounding factors could also account for this decline, and have to be considered. The next target, announced by Singapore’s Prime Minister in 2008, is to further reduce the workplace fatality rate to 1.8/100,000 by 2018, and to have “one of the best workplace safety records in the world”.

  5. Can we reduce workplace fatalities by half?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, David Soo Quee

    2012-06-01

    Singapore, an island republic of over 5 million inhabitants, has 3.1 million workers. Most are employed in the service, finance and tourist/transport industry. Significant numbers work in manufacturing, construction and heavy industry. Following a series of construction and shipyard accidents with multiple deaths in 2004, the government announced its intention to reduce workplace fatalities from 4.9 to 2.5 per 100,000 by 2015. There was strong political will to achieve this target. The strategic approaches were to build workplace safety and health (WSH) capabilities; implement legislative changes with enforcement; promote benefits of WSH and recognize best practices, and enhance partnership with stakeholders. The anticipated outcomes were to reduce workplace fatality and injury rates; have WSH as an integral part of business; and establish a progressive and pervasive WSH culture. With these measures, the workplace fatality rate declined from 4.9/100,000 in 2004, to 2.2/100,000 in 2010. However, other confounding factors could also account for this decline, and have to be considered. The next target, announced by Singapore's Prime Minister in 2008, is to further reduce the workplace fatality rate to 1.8/100,000 by 2018, and to have "one of the best workplace safety records in the world".

  6. Meeste suurim meistriteos - femme fatale / Marianne Kõrver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kõrver, Marianne, 1980-

    2006-01-01

    15.-21. maini on kinos Sõprus Manifesti filminädal, mis pühendatud prantsuse mängufilmidele, kus keskne karakter on femme fatale - saatuslik naine, meeste hukutaja. Ajalooline lühiülevaade selle naisetüübi kujutamisest religioonist kinokunstini

  7. Fatal anaphylactoid reaction following ioversol administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansman, Frank G. A.; Kieft, Hans; Harting, Johannes W.

    2007-01-01

    We report a fatal intravenous ioversol administration in a 60-year old male patient. Although the introduction of new low-osmolar non-ionogenic contrast media with a more favourable efficacy-toxicity balance has diminished the side-effects significantly, everyone involved in radiodiagnostic

  8. Fatal Disseminated Infection with Fusarium petroliphilum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ersal, Tuba; Al-Hatmi, Abdullah S M; Dalyan Cilo, Burcu; Curfs-Breuker, Ilse; Meis, Jacques F; Ozkalemkaş, Fahir; Ener, Beyza; van Diepeningen, Anne D

    2014-01-01

    Members of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) are causing the majority of the fusariosis in humans. Disseminated fusariosis has a high mortality and is predominantly observed in patients with leukemia. Here, we present the case of a fatal infection by a Fusarium strain with a degenerated

  9. Potentially fatal tricuspid valve aspergilloma detected after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Establishing a definitive and timely diagnosis remains difficult and there are many reports of undetected aspergillomas leading to fatalities in the perioperative period. We present a case report of preoperatively undiagnosed large mobile tricuspid valve aspergilloma obstructing the right ventricular inlet, diagnosed ...

  10. A Fatal Complication of Dermatomyositis: Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezgi Demirdöğen Çetinoğlu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Interstitial lung disease (ILD is a negative prognostic factor associated with increased morbidity and mortality in patients with dermatomyositis (DM. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is a rare complication of DM and it can be fatal. We present a 48-year-old woman with DM and ILD complicated by pneumomediastinum without pneumothorax and subcutaneous emphysema.

  11. Long-term health effects of unintentional injuries in Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Bjarne; Møller, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of self-reported health effects of unintentional injuries in the adult Danish population, including the limitation of daily activities and perceived general health. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the 2005 National Health...... reported poor health in general. The most severe health effects affected the head, neck and back, as well as multiple body parts. Those injuries that entailed the most severe health effects were caused by traffic injuries and falls. CONCLUSION: Long-term effects of injuries are prevalent in the adult...... population and most can be attributed to falls and traffic injuries. Back injuries and multiple injuries had the largest influence on perceived health. FUNDING: The work was supported by TrygFonden grant no. 7585-07. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant....

  12. Influence of sociodemographic factors on the risk of unintentional childhood home injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Bjarne; Nielsen, Jeppe W

    2008-01-01

    children for specific injury mechanisms and involved products. METHODS: Information on injuries in 173 504 children treated at emergency departments was recorded for the period 1998-2003. The information was linked to data including parents' education and income and family type, and the results were...... compared with those for a random sample of the population. RESULTS: A total of 50 561 injuries were analysed. The risk was 1.5 (1.5-1.6) for children with mothers having only primary education compared to tertiary education, and 1.5 (1.4-1.6) for children in families with the lowest vs. the highest income......BACKGROUND: While social differences in childhood injuries are recognized, less is known about how social and demographic differences relate to injury mechanism. The purpose of the study was to reveal how sociodemographic factors affect the incidence of unintentional home injuries in Danish...

  13. Partially Hydrogenated Graphene Materials Exhibit High Electrocatalytic Activities Related to Unintentional Doping with Metallic Impurities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovský, Ondřej; Libánská, Alena; Bouša, Daniel; Sedmidubský, David; Matějková, Stanislava; Sofer, Zdeněk

    2016-06-13

    Partially hydrogenated graphene materials, synthesized by the chemical reduction/hydrogenation of two different graphene oxides using zinc powder in acidic environment or aluminum powder in alkaline environment, exhibit high electrocatalytic activities, as well as electrochemical sensing properties. The starting graphene oxides and the resultant hydrogenated graphenes were characterized in detail. Their electrocatalytic activity was examined in the oxygen reduction reaction, whereas sensing properties towards explosives were tested by using picric acid as a redox probe. Findings indicate that the high electrocatalytic performance originates not only from the hydrogenation of graphene, but also from unintentional contamination of graphene with manganese and other metals during synthesis. A careful evaluation of the obtained data and a detailed chemical analysis are necessary to identify the origin of this anomalous electrocatalytic activity. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. China’s Indigenous Peoples? How Global Environmentalism Unintentionally Smuggled the Notion of Indigeneity into China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Hathaway

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article explores how global environmental organizations unintentionally fostered the notion of indigenous people and rights in a country that officially opposed these concepts. In the 1990s, Beijing declared itself a supporter of indigenous rights elsewhere, but asserted that, unlike the Americas and Australia, China had no indigenous people. Instead, China described itself as a land of “ethnic minority” groups, not indigenous groups. In some sense, the state’s declaration appeared effective, as none of these ethnic minority groups launched significant grassroots efforts to align themselves with the international indigenous rights movement. At the same time, as international environmental groups increased in number and strength in 1990s China, their policies were undergoing significant transformations to more explicitly support indigenous people. This article examines how this challenging situation arose, and discusses the unintended consequences after a major environmental organization, The Nature Conservancy (TNC, carried out a project using the language of indigeneity in China.

  15. Severe unintentional injuries sustained by Ohio children: Is there urban/rural variation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurster Ovalle, Victoria; Pomerantz, Wendy J; Anderson, Brit L; Gittelman, Michael A

    2016-10-01

    Determining at risk populations is essential to developing interventions that prevent injuries. This study examined the rates of severe unintentional injuries among urban versus rural Ohio children. Demographic and injury data for children 0 to 14 years old who had unintentional injuries from January 1, 2003, to December 31, 2012, were extracted retrospectively from the Ohio Trauma Acute Care Registry. Cases with no designated county were excluded. Injury rates per 100,000 children 14 years or younger were calculated annually using county of residence and US census data. Each county was assigned an urbanization level based on population density (A = most urban, D = most rural). There were 40,625 patients from 88 Ohio counties who met the inclusion criteria; the overall annual injury rate was 231.9. The mean age was 6.7 (SD, 4.5) years; 26,035 (64.1%) were male, and 31,468 (77.5%) were white. There were 593 deaths (1.5%). Injury rates by urbanization level were as follows: A: 120.4, B: 196.8, C: 249.1, and D: 247.4 (p = 0.04). Nearly 50% of all deaths occurred in the most urban counties. Those in the most urban areas were more likely to suffer injury from burns, drownings, and suffocations and less likely to be injured by animal bites or motorized vehicle collisions (p children (p injuries. Specific mechanisms of injury differed by demographics and urbanization in Ohio, suggesting areas for targeted injury prevention. Epidemiologic study, level III.

  16. A systematic review of technology-based interventions for unintentional injury prevention education and behaviour change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omaki, Elise; Rizzutti, Nicholas; Shields, Wendy; Zhu, Jeffrey; McDonald, Eileen; Stevens, Martha W; Gielen, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    The aims of this literature review are to (1) summarise how computer and mobile technology-based health behaviour change applications have been evaluated in unintentional injury prevention, (2) describe how these successes can be applied to injury-prevention programmes in the future and (3) identify research gaps. Studies included in this systematic review were education and behaviour change intervention trials and programme evaluations in which the intervention was delivered by either a computer or mobile technology and addressed an unintentional injury prevention topic. Articles were limited to those published in English and after 1990. Among the 44 technology-based injury-prevention studies included in this review, 16 studies evaluated locally hosted software programmes, 4 studies offered kiosk-based programmes, 11 evaluated remotely hosted internet programmes, 2 studies used mobile technology or portable devices and 11 studies evaluated virtual-reality interventions. Locally hosted software programmes and remotely hosted internet programmes consistently increased knowledge and behaviours. Kiosk programmes showed evidence of modest knowledge and behaviour gains. Both programmes using mobile technology improved behaviours. Virtual-reality programmes consistently improved behaviours, but there were little gains in knowledge. No studies evaluated text-messaging programmes dedicated to injury prevention. There is much potential for computer-based programmes to be used for injury-prevention behaviour change. The reviewed studies provide evidence that computer-based communication is effective in conveying information and influencing how participants think about an injury topic and adopt safety behaviours. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Early and unintentional release of planned motor actions during motor cortical preparation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colum D MacKinnon

    Full Text Available Voluntary movements are often preceded by a movement-related potential beginning as much as two seconds prior to the onset of movement. In light of evidence that motor actions can be prepared and initiated in less than 200 ms, the function of this early activity has remained enigmatic. We hypothesized that the movement-related potential reflects the state of preparation of the planned movement. This was tested by delivering a startling acoustic stimulus during the preparation phase of a load-release task. The cue to release the load was presented either 3.5 seconds after a warning cue (PREDICT condition or randomly between 4-12 seconds (REACT condition. Electroencephalographic, electromyographic and limb and load kinematic signals were recorded. In a subset of trials, a startle stimulus was delivered at -1500, -1000, -500, -250, -100 or 0 ms before the release cue. A contingent-negative variation (CNV waveform, with a late phase of slow-rising negativity beginning an average of 1459 ms prior to movement, was observed for the PREDICT condition but not the REACT condition. For both conditions, the startle stimulus frequently evoked the early and unintentional release of the load-release sequence. The incidence of release was significantly (p<0.001 correlated with the late phase of the CNV for the PREDICT condition but not the REACT condition. For the REACT condition, the incidence of movement release was subject-specific, constant across the preparation interval, and uncorrelated with cortical activity. The onset of movement release by the startle stimulus was significantly shorter (p<0.001 for the PREDICT compared to the REACT condition. These findings provide evidence that the late phase of the CNV reflects cortical activity mediating the progressive preparation and storage of the forthcoming movement and that during this phase an intense sensory stimulus can evoke early and unintentional release of the planned action.

  18. Unintentional formed PCDDs, PCDFs, and DL-PCBs as impurities in Chinese pentachloronitrobenzene products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jun; Gao, Jie; Yu, Gang; Yamazaki, Norimasa; Deng, Shubo; Wang, Bin; Weber, Roland

    2015-10-01

    Pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB) products have been reported to contain relatively high levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) as impurities. No data was available for Chinese PCNB products which are still produced and used in China. Therefore, we analysed Chinese PCNB products, including two raw pesticides and three formulations available on the market. In all samples, PCDDs, PCDFs, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) were detected at levels exceeding Japanese regulation limits. The concentrations of PCDDs and PCDFs (0.16 to 0.93 ng TEQ g(-1)) were lower than the PCNB formulations measured from the Australian market (3.9 ng TEQ g(-1)). However, the Toxic Equivalent (TEQ) contribution from DL-PCBs (0.7 to 2.5 ng TEQ g(-1)) to total TEQ was higher compared to PCDDs and PCDFs. This discovery demonstrated that it is necessary to consider the DL-PCBs impurity in organochlorine pesticides and other organochlorine chemicals in particular chlorinated aromatic compounds for adequate risk assessment. In addition to DL-PCBs, other unintentionally POPs-hexachlorobenzene (HCB) (3.7 to 52 ng g(-1)) and pentachlorobenzene (PeCBz) (0.04 to 0.3 ng g(-1)) which are listed in the Stockholm Convention-were detected in the PCNB samples. The PCNB production steps were assessed for their unintentional POPs formation potential. Thermolysis of the aromatic compounds using iron chloride (FeCl3) as catalyst is suggested as relevant production step for (DL-)PCBs formation. Since the levels in the formulated PCNB recalculated to active ingredient were higher compared to the raw pesticide, the formulation process (e.g., milling) may also have had an influence on additional PCDD/Fs and PCBs formation.

  19. Does living density matter for nonfatal unintentional home injury in Asian urban settings? Evidence from Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Emily Y Y; Kim, Jean H; Griffiths, Sian M; Lau, Joseph T F; Yu, Ignatius

    2009-11-01

    Injury is a major global disease burden for the twenty-first century. There are, however, few studies of unintentional household injury in Asian urban settings where living environments are characterized by extremely compact, high-living-density, multistory apartments. This study investigated the association between nonfatal unintentional household injuries with the resident's sociodemographic attributes and household characteristics in Hong Kong, the city with the world's highest population density. A cross-sectional retrospective recall study was conducted in May 2007 using a random telephone survey with a modified Chinese version of the World Health Organization Injury and Violence instrument. The study sample included 1,001 noninstitutionalized Cantonese-speaking Hong Kong residents of all ages, including foreign live-in domestic helpers. Multivariate regression was conducted to identify risk factors for nonfatal unintentional injuries in Hong Kong. Among a predominantly adult sample, household size and time spent at home were not associated with nonfatal unintentional household injuries in the general population in Hong Kong. The multivariate analyses indicated that female gender, owners of private homes, lower square footage of living space per person, and those with slip prevention devices in the bathroom were significantly associated with household injuries. Injured and noninjured groups were found to have adopted different injury prevention strategies toward household injuries. The results identified potential target groups for household injury prevention programs.

  20. Risk Factors for Acute Unintentional Poisoning among Children Aged 1–5 Years in the Rural Community of Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Kavinda Chandimal Dayasiri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acute poisoning in children is a major preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in both developed and developing countries. However, there is a wide variation in patterns of poisoning and related risk factors across different geographic regions globally. This hospital based case-control study identifies the risk factors of acute unintentional poisoning among children aged 1−5 years of the rural community in a developing Asian country. Methods. This hospital based case-control study included 600 children. Each group comprised three hundred children and all children were recruited at Anuradhapura Teaching Hospital, Sri Lanka, over two years (from February 2012 to January 2014. The two groups were compared to identify the effect of 23 proposed risk factors for unintentional poisoning using multivariate analysis in a binary logistic regression model. Results. Multivariate analysis identified eight risk factors which were significantly associated with unintentional poisoning. The strongest risk factors were inadequate supervision (95% CI: 15.4–52.6, employed mother (95% CI: 2.9–17.5, parental concern of lack of family support (95% CI: 3.65–83.3, and unsafe storage of household poisons (95% CI: 1.5–4.9. Conclusions. Since inadequate supervision, unsafe storage, and unsafe environment are the strongest risk factors for childhood unintentional poisoning, the effect of community education to enhance vigilance, safe storage, and assurance of safe environment should be evaluated.

  1. Investigating the role of behavioral factors in non-fatal accidents of urban and suburban driver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Azad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Road accidents are of the most important events, which cause death and injury of a large number of people and impose huge economic losses. According to previous studies, human factors are the main cause of traffic accidents. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of behavioral factors in driving-related non-fatal accidents. Material and Method: The present analytical study was carried out among 150 drivers of urban and suburban transportation system in Yazd province. The research tool was Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ which is consisted of two sections: demographic information and driving behavior. Result: 83/9 % of the participants reported to use safety belt nearly always. The highest deliberate violations, slips, and mistakes were belonged to drivers with age group of 18-25. Moreover, deliberate violations had a significant relationship with rage (P < 0.05. Survey of behavioral factors in terms of vehicle ownership type showed that “deliberate violations” and “slips and mistakes” high among personal bus drivers and state-owned bus drivers, respectively, which shows the significant association between these behavioral factors and ownership type. What is more, rates of deliberate and unintentional violations and slips were higher among those with a history of two times incidents (P < 0.004. Conclusion: The results revealed that behavioral factors such as age, type of vehicle ownership, and accident history played a significant role in occurrence of traffic accidents.

  2. Incidence of unintentional injuries in farming based on one year of weekly registration in Danish farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, K; Carstensen, O; Lauritsen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    In Denmark, farming ranks as the industry with the highest incidence rate of fatal injuries. For nonfatal injuries, insufficient registration practices prevent valid comparisons between occupations. This study examines the occurrence of farm accidents and injuries, as well as work-specific factors...

  3. Incidence of unintentional injuries in farming based on one year of weekly registration in Danish farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, K; Carstensen, Ole; Lauritsen, J M

    2000-01-01

    In Denmark, farming ranks as the industry with the highest incidence rate of fatal injuries. For nonfatal injuries, insufficient registration practices prevent valid comparisons between occupations. This study examines the occurrence of farm accidents and injuries, as well as work-specific factors......, via weekly registration in a representative sample of 393 farms in one county during 1 year....

  4. Road traffic crashes with fatal and non-fatal injuries in Arkhangelsk, Russia in 2005-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtsev, Alexander V; Nilssen, Odd; Lund, Johan; Grjibovski, Andrej M; Ytterstad, Børge

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated trends in traffic crashes with fatal and non-fatal injuries in Arkhangelsk, Russia in 2005-2010. Data were obtained from the road police. Negative binomial regression with time regressor was used to investigate trends in monthly incidence rates (IRs) of crashes, fatalities, and non-fatal injuries. During the six-year period, the police registered 4955 crashes with fatal and non-fatal injuries, which resulted in 217 fatalities and 5964 non-fatal injury cases. The IR of crashes with fatal and non-fatal injuries per total population showed no evident change, while the IR per increasing total number of motor vehicles decreased on average by 0.6% per month. Pedestrian crashes constituted 51.8% of studied crashes, and pedestrians constituted 54.6% of fatalities and 44.5% of non-fatal injuries. The IRs of pedestrian crashes and non-fatal pedestrian injuries per total population decreased on average by 0.3% per month, and these were the major trends in the data.

  5. Comparison of US metropolitan region pedestrian and bicyclist fatality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Robert J; Vargo, Jason; Sanatizadeh, Aida

    2017-09-01

    Annual US pedestrian and bicyclist fatalities involving motor vehicles have each increased by 30% in just six years, reaching their highest levels in two decades. To provide information to reverse this trend, we quantified pedestrian and bicyclist fatality rates in 46 of the largest US metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) during two five-year time periods: 1999-2003 and 2007-2011. We divided the annual average number of pedestrian and bicyclist fatalities during 1999-2003 from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System by the annual estimates of pedestrian and bicycle trips, kilometers traveled, and minutes traveled from the 2001 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) and the annual average number of fatalities from 2007 to 2011 by similar estimates from the 2009 NHTS. The five most dangerous regions for walking during 2007-2011 averaged 262 pedestrian fatalities per billion trips while the five safest averaged 49 pedestrian fatalities per billion trips. The five most dangerous regions for bicycling averaged 458 bicyclist fatalities per billion trips while the five safest averaged 75 bicyclist fatalities per billion trips. Random-effects meta-analysis identified eight metropolitan regions as outliers with low pedestrian fatality rates, six with high pedestrian fatality rates, one with a low bicyclist fatality rate, and five with high bicyclist fatality rates. MSAs with low pedestrian and bicycle fatality rates tended to have central cities recognized as Walk Friendly Communities and Bicycle Friendly Communities for investing in pedestrian and bicycle projects and programs. Random-effects meta-regression showed that certain socioeconomic characteristics and high pedestrian and bicyclist mode shares were associated with lower MSA fatality rates. Results suggest that pedestrian and bicycle infrastructure and safety programs should be complemented with strategies to increase walking and bicycling. In particular, safety initiatives should be honed to reduce pedestrian and

  6. Work zone fatal crashes involving large trucks, 2012 : [analysis brief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    In 2012, 30,800 fatal crashes took place on our Nations roadways, with 11.2 percent (3,464) involving at least 1 large truck. While the majority of all fatal crashes (98.2 percent) took place outside of a work zone in 2012, 547 fatal crashes (1.8 ...

  7. Cannabis, alcohol and fatal road accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jean-Louis; Gadegbeku, Blandine; Wu, Dan; Viallon, Vivian; Laumon, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to estimate the relative risks of responsibility for a fatal accident linked to driving under the influence of cannabis or alcohol, the prevalence of these influences among drivers and the corresponding attributable risk ratios. A secondary goal is to estimate the same items for three other groups of illicit drugs (amphetamines, cocaine and opiates), and to compare the results to a similar study carried out in France between 2001 and 2003. Police procedures for fatal accidents in Metropolitan France during 2011 were analyzed and 300 characteristics encoded to provide a database of 4,059 drivers. Information on alcohol and four groups of illicit drugs derived from tests for positivity and potential confirmation through blood analysis. The study compares drivers responsible for causing the accident, that is to say having directly contributed to its occurrence, to drivers involved in an accident for which they were not responsible, and who can be assimilated to drivers in general. The proportion of persons driving under the influence of alcohol is estimated at 2.1% (95% CI: 1.4-2.8) and under the influence of cannabis at 3.4% (2.9%-3.9%). Drivers under the influence of alcohol are 17.8 times (12.1-26.1) more likely to be responsible for a fatal accident, and the proportion of fatal accidents which would be prevented if no drivers ever exceeded the legal limit for alcohol is estimated at 27.7% (26.0%-29.4%). Drivers under the influence of cannabis multiply their risk of being responsible for causing a fatal accident by 1.65 (1.16-2.34), and the proportion of fatal accidents which would be prevented if no drivers ever drove under the influence of cannabis is estimated at 4.2% (3.7%-4.8%). An increased risk linked to opiate use has also been found to be significant, but with low prevalence, requiring caution in interpreting this finding. Other groups of narcotics have even lower prevalence, and the associated extra risks cannot be assessed. Almost a

  8. A Rare Fatal Complication of Llizarov Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikary, Asit Kumar; Kumar, Mahesh; Dhaka, Shivani; Subramanian, Arulselvi

    2018-03-01

    Ilizarov process is used for the management of multiple fractures, polytrauma conditions, cosmetic limb lengthening, and fracture malunion. Complications associated with the process are nerve palsy, joint contracture, premature or delayed osseous consolidation, a nonunion and permanent stiffness of the joint, pin tract infection, edema, and transient paresthesia, etc. In our case, there was a fatal complication. A 25-year-old African lady underwent the Ilizarov procedure for femur lengthening in a hospital in New Delhi, India. During her first distraction process, she suddenly collapsed at the hospital and could not be revived. At postmortem, a small hematoma was seen around the surgically fractured area. On histopathology of internal organs, fat globules were present in the vasculature of brain and lungs. Cause of death was opined as due to fat embolism. This is the first case reported of a fatal fat embolism following Ilizarov procedure for limb lengthening in a healthy adult. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. Cannabis, alcohol and fatal road accidents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Louis Martin

    Full Text Available This research aims to estimate the relative risks of responsibility for a fatal accident linked to driving under the influence of cannabis or alcohol, the prevalence of these influences among drivers and the corresponding attributable risk ratios. A secondary goal is to estimate the same items for three other groups of illicit drugs (amphetamines, cocaine and opiates, and to compare the results to a similar study carried out in France between 2001 and 2003.Police procedures for fatal accidents in Metropolitan France during 2011 were analyzed and 300 characteristics encoded to provide a database of 4,059 drivers. Information on alcohol and four groups of illicit drugs derived from tests for positivity and potential confirmation through blood analysis. The study compares drivers responsible for causing the accident, that is to say having directly contributed to its occurrence, to drivers involved in an accident for which they were not responsible, and who can be assimilated to drivers in general.The proportion of persons driving under the influence of alcohol is estimated at 2.1% (95% CI: 1.4-2.8 and under the influence of cannabis at 3.4% (2.9%-3.9%. Drivers under the influence of alcohol are 17.8 times (12.1-26.1 more likely to be responsible for a fatal accident, and the proportion of fatal accidents which would be prevented if no drivers ever exceeded the legal limit for alcohol is estimated at 27.7% (26.0%-29.4%. Drivers under the influence of cannabis multiply their risk of being responsible for causing a fatal accident by 1.65 (1.16-2.34, and the proportion of fatal accidents which would be prevented if no drivers ever drove under the influence of cannabis is estimated at 4.2% (3.7%-4.8%. An increased risk linked to opiate use has also been found to be significant, but with low prevalence, requiring caution in interpreting this finding. Other groups of narcotics have even lower prevalence, and the associated extra risks cannot be assessed

  10. Clash of Desires: Detective vs. Femme Fatale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Pituková

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the theme of desire presented in American hard-boiled detective fiction and its subsequent transformation on the screen in form of films noir of the 1940’s. The works in focus are novels The Maltese Falcon by Dashiell Hammett, Farewell, My Lovely by Raymond Chandler and Build My Gallows High by Daniel Mainwaring and their film noir adaptations – The Maltese Falcon (1941, Murder, My Sweet (1944 and Out of the Past (1947. The proposed paper seeks to offer a contrastive analysis of the novels and the films and situate them in their respective social and cultural contexts. The central conflict of this article is presented by the clash between the femme fatale’s and detective’s desires. Hard-boiled novels present femme fatale as a dame with a past, a spider woman, and the detective as a hero with no future, caught in her web of intrigues. The only way out for the detective is to suppress the sexual desire for the woman and hold strong to his professional code. The femme fatale’s desire for more and for better is deadly and dangerous for those who succumb to her lure, but the detective’s desire for truth can be fatal for the dark lady too.  This clash presented in the novels is confronted with the 1940’s Hollywood production. When the detective frees himself from the sexual lure of the fatal woman he has a chance to live and even bring her to justice, but she can still escape or decide herself what to do with her destiny. Both, the dame and the hero are victims of their desires. The 1940’s films noir’s femme fatales have to pay for their crimes, no matter how crafty, seductive or manipulative they are.  Thus these films present the masculine dominance as strong and undefeated.

  11. A fatal pulmonary infection by Nocardia brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadhwa V

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The reported case is of primary pulmonary nocardiosis, caused by Nocardia brasiliensis , in a immunocompromised patient, which ended fatally despite appropriate treatment. The partially acid fast filamentous bacterium was predominant on direct examination of the sputum. It was cultured on blood agar, MacConkey agar and by paraffin baiting technique. The bacterium was resistant to cotrimoxazole, the drug of choice for nocardiosis.

  12. Unusual cause of fatal anthrax meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlak, Emine; Parlak, Mehmet; Atli, Seval Bilgiç

    2015-03-01

    We report the case of fatal anthrax meningoencephalitis in the province of Muş located in eastern Anatolia, Turkey. The organism isolated from cerebrospinal fluid was identified as Bacillus anthracis. The patient was treated with crystallized penicillin G (24 MU/day IV) and ciprofloxacin (2 × 400/day IV), but died 5 days after hospitalization. Although it is a rare case, we consider that the patients who have skin, respiratory and neurological systems might also have hemorrhagic meningitis.

  13. Fatal lawn mower related projectile injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colville-Ebeling, Bonnie; Lynnerup, Niels; Banner, Jytte

    2014-01-01

    Fatal lawn mower related injuries are a relatively rare occurrence. In a forensic setting, the primary aim is to reconstruct the injury mechanism and establish the cause of death. A relatively rare, but characteristic type of injury is a so-called projectile or missile injury. This occurs when...... mechanism has not previously been reported as a cause of death. This case illustrates the importance of postmortem radiological imaging and interdisciplinary cooperation when establishing manner and cause of death in unusual cases....

  14. Fatalism and Mammography in a Multicultural Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron-Epel, Orna; Friedman, Nurit; Lernau, Omri

    2009-05-01

    Purpose/Objectives: To assess levels of fatalistic beliefs and their association with mammography use in four population groups in Israel.Design: Telephone survey.Setting: Maccabi Healthcare Services in Israel.Sample: A random sample of 1,550 Arabic and Jewish women.Methods: A random telephone survey was performed during May and June 2007. Women's fatalistic beliefs were measured. Information from claims records regarding mammography use was obtained for each woman.Main Research Variables: Levels of fatalistic beliefs and mammography use.Findings: Fatalistic beliefs included general beliefs that God or fate (external force) was the cause of cancer and related to cancer survivorship. The higher-educated women reported less fatalistic beliefs. Arab women reported more fatalistic beliefs compared to the other women. Mammography use was associated with fatalistic beliefs that external forces were the cause of cancer among Arab and immigrant women but not among veteran Jewish and ultraorthodox women. Fatalistic beliefs about cancer survivorship were not associated with mammography in any of the population groups. Levels of fatalism and education may explain the difference in rates of mammography among Arab and Jewish women.Conclusions: High levels of fatalism may inhibit women from having a mammogram, particularly Arab and immigrant women in Israel. However, this is not a generalizable result for all population groups and all types of fatalism.Implications for Nursing: Interventions to decrease fatalism in Arabs and immigrants may increase compliance with mammography. Nurses may achieve this by developing tailored messages for women who believe that external forces are the cause of cancer.

  15. Cathelicidin Insufficiency in Patients with Fatal Leptospirosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet C Lindow

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide; however, the role of the host immune response in disease progression and high case fatality (>10-50% is poorly understood. We conducted a multi-parameter investigation of patients with acute leptospirosis to identify mechanisms associated with case fatality. Whole blood transcriptional profiling of 16 hospitalized Brazilian patients with acute leptospirosis (13 survivors, 3 deceased revealed fatal cases had lower expression of the antimicrobial peptide, cathelicidin, and chemokines, but more abundant pro-inflammatory cytokine receptors. In contrast, survivors generated strong adaptive immune signatures, including transcripts relevant to antigen presentation and immunoglobulin production. In an independent cohort (23 survivors, 22 deceased, fatal cases had higher bacterial loads (P = 0.0004 and lower anti-Leptospira antibody titers (P = 0.02 at the time of hospitalization, independent of the duration of illness. Low serum cathelicidin and RANTES levels during acute illness were independent risk factors for higher bacterial loads (P = 0.005 and death (P = 0.04, respectively. To investigate the mechanism of cathelicidin in patients surviving acute disease, we administered LL-37, the active peptide of cathelicidin, in a hamster model of lethal leptospirosis and found it significantly decreased bacterial loads and increased survival. Our findings indicate that the host immune response plays a central role in severe leptospirosis disease progression. While drawn from a limited study size, significant conclusions include that poor clinical outcomes are associated with high systemic bacterial loads, and a decreased antibody response. Furthermore, our data identified a key role for the antimicrobial peptide, cathelicidin, in mounting an effective bactericidal response against the pathogen, which represents a valuable new therapeutic approach for leptospirosis.

  16. [Anaerobiospirillum thomasii bacteremia with fatal outcome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streitenberger, Edgardo R; Chavez, Claudio M; Rizzo, Mabel S; Suarez, Ariel I

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobiospirillum thomasii has been reported as a causative agent of diarrhea in humans; however no bacteremia associated with this pathogen has been described so far. We present here the first case of fatal A. thomasii bacteremia in an alcoholic patient. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Alcoholic beverages as determinants of traffic fatalities

    OpenAIRE

    Arranz Muñoz, José María; Gil, Ana Isabel

    2008-01-01

    The most important contribution of this research lies in considering the impact of wine, beer and liquors on the ratio of traffic fatalities because each kind of alcoholic beverage is characterized by different ethanol content. The data, drawn for case of Spain, validate our theoretical hypothesis. Our findings support the strategy of incrementing alcohol taxes in order to reduce the negative externalities of alcohol abuse. However, it is necessary to implement non-economic policies because o...

  18. Aluminum phosphide fatalities, new local experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abder-Rahman, H A; Battah, A H; Ibraheem, Y M; Shomaf, M S; el-Batainch, N

    2000-04-01

    Aluminum phosphide (AlP) pesticide is a highly toxic, low cost, and easily accessible rodenticidal agent. Its toxicity results from the liberation of phosphine gas upon exposure to moisture, which leads to multisystem involvement, resulting in serious consequences. The highly toxic parathion insecticide was a common cause of mortality in pesticide fatalities, prior to its banning. Its toxicity was familiar to the public as well as to physicians. Recently, ten fatalities due to AlP were encountered within a three-month period during spring, when it was used as a rodenticide in the vicinity of grain stores. The victims' ages ranged from 1-34 years. The circumstances of death were accidental in six cases, suicidal in two and possibly homicidal in two cases. Retrospectively, the clinical manifestations, scene investigation, autopsy, histological and toxicological findings supported the diagnosis of AlP intoxication. Immediate recognition was difficult due to unfamiliarity of the agent to the physicians. The occurrence of these fatalities might suggest changes of pattern in pesticide poisoning. This should raise the attention of the physician to the problem of AlP poisoning and also necessitates the awareness of the public to the hazards of this poison. Education, proper handling, strict observation and abiding by the regulations controlling this material are good protective measures against AlP poisoning.

  19. Fatalism Revisited: Further Psychometric Testing Across Two Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiney, Sue P; Gullatte, Mary; Hayne, Pearman D; Powe, Barbara; Habing, Brian

    2016-08-01

    Cancer fatalism may impact outcomes, particularly for African American (AA) women with breast cancer (BrCa). We examined the psychometrics of the modified Powe Fatalism Inventory in sample of AA women with BrCa from two studies. Only the predetermination and God's will items satisfy the conditions to be classified as a strong subscale. Our analysis identified that five items had strong psychometric properties for measuring fatalism for AA women with BrCa. However, these items do not include all the defining attributes of fatalism. A strong measure of fatalism strengthens our understanding of how this concept influences AA patient outcomes.

  20. Religious fatalism and its association with health behaviors and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Monica D; Schlundt, David G; McClellan, Linda H; Kinebrew, Tunu; Sheats, Jylana; Belue, Rhonda; Brown, Anne; Smikes, Dorlisa; Patel, Kushal; Hargreaves, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    To examine the association between religious fatalism and health care utilization, health behaviors, and chronic illness. As part of Nashville's REACH 2010 project, residents (n=1273) participated in a random telephone survey that included health variables and the helpless inevitability subscale of the Religious Health Fatalism Questionnaire. Religious health fatalism was higher among African Americans and older participants. Some hypotheses about the association between fatalism and health outcomes were confirmed. Religious fatalism is only partially predictive of health behaviors and outcomes and may be a response to chronic illness rather than a contributor to unhealthy behaviors.

  1. Unintentional drowning mortality, by age and body of water: an analysis of 60 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Yih; Wang, Yi-Fong; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Kawach, Ichiro

    2015-04-01

    To examine unintentional drowning mortality by age and body of water across 60 countries, to provide a starting point for further in-depth investigations within individual countries. The latest available three years of mortality data for each country were extracted from WHO Health Statistics and Information Services (updated at 13 November 2013). We calculated mortality rate of unintentional drowning by age group for each country. For countries using International Classification of Disease 10 (ICD-10) detailed 3 or 4 Character List, we further examined the body of water involved. A huge variation in age-standardised mortality rate (deaths per 100 000 population) was noted, from 0.12 in Turkey to 9.19 in Guyana. Of the ten countries with the highest age-standardised mortality rate, six (Belarus, Lithuania, Latvia, Russia, Ukraine and Moldova) were in Eastern Europe and two (Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan) were in Central Asia. Some countries (Japan, Finland and Greece) had a relatively low rank in mortality rate among children aged 0-4 years, but had a high rank in mortality rate among older adults. On the contrary, South Africa and Colombia had a relatively high rank among children aged 0-4 years, but had a relatively low rank in mortality rate among older adults. With regard to body of water involved, the proportion involving a bathtub was extremely high in Japan (65%) followed by Canada (11%) and the USA (11%). Of the 13 634 drowning deaths involving bathtubs in Japan between 2009 and 2011, 12 038 (88%) were older adults aged 65 years or above. The percentage involving a swimming pool was high in the USA (18%), Australia (13%), and New Zealand (7%). The proportion involving natural water was high in Finland (93%), Panama (87%), and Lithuania (85%). After considering the completeness of reporting and quality of classifying drowning deaths across countries, we conclude that drowning is a high-priority public health problem in Eastern Europe, Central Asia

  2. Content validity and inter-rater reliability of an instrument to characterize unintentional medication discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claeys, Coraline; Nève, Jean; Tulkens, Paul M; Spinewine, Anne

    2012-07-01

    Medication discrepancies are medication-related problems (MRPs) that frequently occur when patients are transferred between settings of care. Older patients are at high risk for several reasons, including high consumption of medicines, and physical and cognitive deficiencies that can impair the communication process. Most previous studies that have evaluated medication discrepancies used instruments designed for clinical practice, but a well-validated and reliable instrument for clinical research is still lacking. The aims of this study were to (i) develop an instrument to characterize medication discrepancies that fulfils quality requirements for classification of MRPs related to continuity of care and (ii) assess its content validity and inter-rater reliability. The instrument was developed based on three main inputs: (i) a literature review to collect information about the quality requirements of instruments to characterize MRPs; (ii) another literature review to identify existing instruments to characterize MRPs and, more specifically, medication discrepancies; and (iii) previous experience from a pilot study on Belgian patients discharged from surgical and medical wards. Content validity was assessed using a modified Delphi technique with 11 healthcare professionals. Content validity indexes were calculated. For inter-rater reliability, three pharmacists (one experienced and two naive) were asked to identify and categorize (type and cause of) unintentional medication discrepancies for 21 patients discharged from hospital into the community. The intra-class correlation coefficient was calculated to compare the number of discrepancies identified, and a paradox-resistant index (AC1) was used to determine the inter-rater reliability for the type and cause of the discrepancy. The instrument had 54 items classified in three sections (type of discrepancy, cause and intervention), with detailed specifications on how to use it. All evaluations relative to content

  3. Unintentional displacement of the retina after standard vitrectomy for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiragami, Chieko; Shiraga, Fumio; Yamaji, Hidetaka; Fukuda, Kouki; Takagishi, Mai; Morita, Misako; Kishikami, Takehiro

    2010-01-01

    To study unintentional displacement of the retina after standard vitrectomy for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). Prospective interventional case series. Forty-three eyes of 43 consecutive patients with cystic RRD involving 1 or more quadrants underwent successful standard vitrectomy with 20% sulfur hexafluoride gas injection. Neither scleral buckling nor retinotomy was performed. Fundus autofluorescence (FAF) imaging was subsequently recorded to detect displacement of the retina using the Topcon TRC-50DX (Topcon, Tokyo, Japan) at 10 days and 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively. Fluorescein angiography was also recorded using standard techniques for patients with abnormal FAF findings. Cyclotorsion and vertical deviation were measured postoperatively. The proportion of eyes with postoperative retinal displacement detected by FAF imaging. The mean age of these 43 patients was 60 years with a range of 39 to 77 years. Of the 43 eyes, retinal detachment involved 1 quadrant in 2 eyes, 2 quadrants in 31 eyes, 3 quadrants in 8 eyes, and 4 quadrants in 2 eyes. After complete reattachment of the retina, FAF photography demonstrated hyperfluorescent lines superiorly parallel to retinal vessels within the vascular arcade in 27 of the 43 eyes (62.8%). Fluorescein angiography did not demonstrate any abnormalities corresponding to the linear autofluorescence. This autofluorescence was hypothesized to originate from increased metabolic activity of the retinal pigment epithelium that had been preoperatively located under the major retinal vessels and was postoperatively exposed to light because of downward displacement of the retina. Of the 27 eyes with retinal displacement, 1 to 5 degrees of extorsion were seen in 16 eyes (59.3%), and 1 to 4 degrees of vertical deviation were seen in 13 eyes (48.1%). None of the 27 patients had diplopia or slant. The extent of retinal detachment (P = 0.019) and the macular status (on or off) (P = 0.016) were significantly associated with

  4. The impact of ScOxNy interlayers on unintentional doping and threading dislocations in GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, T; Moram, M A; Rao, D V Sridhara; Li, H; Kappers, M J; Oliver, R A

    2010-01-01

    To reduce the threading dislocation density in (0001) GaN grown on c-plane sapphire, a series of samples have been grown using scandium oxynitride (ScO x N y ) interlayers (ILs) on AlN-on-sapphire templates. Scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) has been employed to investigate the unintentional doping in GaN with varying ScO x N y IL thicknesses. The use of ScO x N y ILs decreases the threading dislocation density. An unintentionally n-doped layer has been identified by SCM close to the GaN/ScO x N y interface. The average width of this conductive layer has been quantified and found to increase as the ScO x N y IL thickness increases up to 13 nm.

  5. Unintentional injuries in child care centers in the United States: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashikawa, Andrew N; Newton, Manya F; Cunningham, Rebecca M; Stevens, Martha W

    2015-03-01

    The study systematically reviewed all types of unintentional injury and injury prevention research studies occurring within child care centers in the United States. A total of 2 reviewers searched 11 electronic databases to identify 53 articles meeting inclusion criteria. No studies used trauma registries or randomized control trials. Data were not pooled for further analysis because studies lacked standardized definitions for injury, rates, severity, exposure, and demographics. The following child care center injury rates were reported: (0.25-5.31 injuries per 100,000 child-hours); (11.3-18 injuries per 100 children per year); (6-49 injuries per 1000 child-years); (2.5-8.29 injuries per child-year); (2.6-3.3 injuries per child); (3.3-6.3 injuries per 100 observations); (635-835 medically attended injuries per year per 100,000 children and 271-364 child care center playground injuries per year per 100,000 children); and (3.8 injuries per child per 2000 exposure hours). Child care center injury rates were comparable to injury rates published for schools, playground, and summer camp. Most injuries were minor, while most severe injuries (fractures and concussions) were falls from playground structures. Future studies need to use standardized injury definitions and injury severity scales, focus efforts on preventing severe playground injuries in child care centers, and report child care parameters for inclusion in national injury databases. © The Author(s) 2013.

  6. Unintentional pediatric injuries in São Paulo. How often is it severe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abib, Simone de Campos Vieira; Françóia, Alessandra Mara; Waksman, Renata; Dolci, Maria Inês; Guimarães, Hélio Penna; Moreira, Frederico; BoarettoCezillo, Marcus Vinícius; Góes, Adenauer Marinho

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate severity and built a pilot of a national databank about pediatric trauma and to determine its severity. Prospective study of unintentional pediatric trauma in five hospitals in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. 916 patients in 4 months. 61.5% of traumatized children were male, average 6.5 years. 48. 4% were falls. Most families had an average monthly income less than three minimum wages. 42% of accidents occurred at home. 18.9% of children were alone. 59,8% of parents thought it could be prevented. 26.5% of children had previous accidents. GCS was severe: 5 patients, moderate: 8 patients. 21 patients were intubated (2.4%), RTS sports (p=0.045); pedestrian (p=0.006); child education (p=0.015) and cared by male (p=0.007). Severity occurred in 8.5% and was associated to falls, sports, traffic, child education, and cared by male. Simple preventive measures could have prevented most of the accidents. The tested tool for details was successful and can be used throughout the country.

  7. Adding the goal to learn strengthens learning in an unintentional learning task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, James R; De Houwer, Jan

    2012-08-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that contingency learning can take place in the absence of the intention to learn. For instance, in the color-word contingency learning task, each distracting word is presented most often in a given target color (e.g., "month" in red and "plate" in green), and less often in the other colors. Participants respond more quickly and accurately when the word is presented in the expected rather than an unexpected color, even though there is no reason why they would have the intention to learn the contingencies between the words and the colors. It remains to be determined, however, whether learning in such situations would benefit or suffer from adding the goal to learn contingencies. In the reported experiment, half of the participants were informed that each word was presented most often in a certain color, and they were instructed to try to learn these contingencies. The other half of the participants were not informed that contingencies would be present. The participants given the learning goal produced a larger response time contingency effect than did the control participants. In contrast to some results from other learning paradigms, these results suggest that intentional learning adds to, rather than interferes with, unintentional learning, and we propose an explanation for some of the conflicting results.

  8. Unintentional and Sequential Lead Exposure from a Ceramic Mug and Maca (Lepidium meyenii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Arbor, Kelly; Vo, Kathy; Wong, Flavia; Gajek, Ryszard

    2018-01-08

    Although the incidence of lead poisoning has decreased in the USA over the last 30 years, human exposures to lead-containing products are still reported. We present a case of unintentional lead exposure from a store-bought ceramic mug and a nutritional supplement. A 32-year-old female was found to have a whole blood lead concentration of 44 μg/dL. Evaluation of her home, occupation, and hobbies initially did not identify a source of lead exposure. Further investigation revealed that the likely etiology of the exposure was lead leaching from a ceramic mug used by the patient to drink hot lemon water while she was pregnant. She stopped drinking from the mug and her blood lead levels decreased, but increased a year later after she began to ingest a maca root powder supplement. Upon discontinuation of maca root powder ingestion, her blood lead levels decreased further. Over time, the acidity and heat of the hot lemon water used in the ceramic mug enhanced the breakdown of its leaded glaze. Maca powder, which is available as a nutritional supplement and is used to treat fatigue and enhance fertility, may contain lead and other minerals. Consumers, particularly women of childbearing age, and their physicians should be aware that imported products available from commercial retailers and internet vendors may contain significant amounts of lead.

  9. Growth condition dependence of unintentional oxygen incorporation in epitaxial GaN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Felix; Wirth, Steffen; Zimmermann, Friederike; Heitmann, Johannes; Mikolajick, Thomas; Schmult, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Growth conditions have a tremendous impact on the unintentional background impurity concentration in gallium nitride (GaN) synthesized by molecular beam epitaxy and its resulting chemical and physical properties. In particular for oxygen identified as the dominant background impurity we demonstrate that under optimized growth stoichiometry the growth temperature is the key parameter to control its incorporation and that an increase by 55 °C leads to an oxygen reduction by one order of magnitude. Quantitatively this reduction and the resulting optical and electrical properties are analyzed by secondary ion mass spectroscopy, photoluminescence, capacitance versus voltage measurements, low temperature magneto-transport and parasitic current paths in lateral transistor test structures based on two-dimensional electron gases. At a growth temperature of 665 °C the residual charge carrier concentration is decreased to below 10 15  cm -3 , resulting in insulating behavior and thus making the material suitable for beyond state-of-the-art device applications.

  10. Roger Williams’s Unintentional Contribution to the Creation of American Capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey Pratt

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that in attempting to protect the religious life from the sullying influence of worldly affairs, Roger Williams participated, albeit unintentionally, in creating the economic conditions that led to the birth of American capitalism. Although Williams argued for a separation of church and state, he did so not in the interest of defending economic liberty, but instead to preserve the sanctity of the church against the frequent immorality that seemed to him required in worldly governance. Questions of pricing and wages, lending and interest—issues that would until Williams’s intervention have been handled by the church in terms of Aquinas’ just price theory—fell outside of the church’s purview according to the new model described by Williams. The result was the creation of an “amoral” public space where the effective separation between spiritual and material concerns led to a kind of free-by-default economic marketplace. This paper traces the development and inadvertent consequences of this essentially theological idea as it took shape in the colonial era.

  11. Unintentional stoppages of trucks hauling high-level nuclear waste in Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glickman, T.S.

    1991-01-01

    Any unintentional stoppage of trucks hauling high-level nuclear waste in Nevada could intensify public concerns about the negative impacts of the Yucca Mountain Project. This paper provides estimates of the expected number and frequency of such stoppages under several alternative scenarios for the routing and volume of the anticipated truck shipments. At least twice as many truck stoppages are expected to occur on freeways as on non-freeways, and at least twice as many are expected to occur in rural areas as in other areas. The expected frequency of such stoppages in the state is estimated to range from about 3 per year to one every 3 1/2 years. About one in every 4 of the stoppages is expected to take place in Las Vegas and 3 out of every 4 are expected to be non-accidents such as mechanical disablements. The minimum duration of the stoppages is expected to be on the order of half an hour for disablements and an hour for accidents

  12. Does unintentional macular translocation after retinal detachment repair influence visual outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Vivek B; Ho, I-Van; Hunyor, Alex P

    2012-01-01

    To document the occurrence of postoperative macular translocation after retinal detachment repair and discuss its influence on visual outcome. Retrospective case series in a tertiary care setting. Five eyes of five patients presenting to our clinic with macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. All patients underwent surgical repair of the retinal detachment, with regular postoperative follow-up, including macular optical coherence tomography and fundus autofluorescence. Visual acuity and subjective visual symptoms in patients with anatomically successful retinal detachment repair, in whom inadvertent macular translocation was noted. Our series demonstrates the presence of unintentional macular translocation after retinal detachment repair, detected by fundus autofluorescence imaging. In contrast to previous reports, we document inadvertent macular translocation in one patient after scleral buckling surgery. In each case, the retina was fully reattached postoperatively and no other complications were identified. There was variability in the symptoms and objective visual outcomes after surgery. Inadvertent macular translocation can occur following repair of macula-off retinal detachment, and may be a significant contributor to poorer visual outcome after retinal detachment, despite objective surgical success. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2011 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  13. Unintentional Injuries and Psychosocial Correlates among in-School Adolescents in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2015-11-20

    The study aimed to provide estimates of the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of unintentional injury among school-going adolescents in Malaysia. Cross-sectional data from the Global School-Based Health Survey (GSHS) included 21,699 students (predominantly ≤13 to ≥17 years) that were selected by a two-stage cluster sample design to represent all secondary school students in Forms 1 to 5. The percentage of school children reporting one or more serious injuries in the past year was 34.9%, 42.1% of boys and 27.8% of girls. The two major causes of the most serious injury were "fall" (9.9%) and motor vehicle accident or being hit by a motor vehicle (5.4%), and the most frequent type of injury sustained was cut, puncture, or stab wound (6.2%) and a broken bone or dislocated joint (4.2%). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, sociodemographic factors (being male and low socioeconomic status), substance use (tobacco and cannabis use), frequent soft drink consumption, attending physical education classes three or more times a week, other risky behavior (truancy, ever having had sex, being bullied), psychological distress, and lack of parental or guardian bonding were associated with annual injury prevalence. Several factors were identified, which could be included in injury prevention promotion programs among secondary school children.

  14. Unintentional Injuries and Psychosocial Correlates among in-School Adolescents in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to provide estimates of the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of unintentional injury among school-going adolescents in Malaysia. Cross-sectional data from the Global School-Based Health Survey (GSHS included 21,699 students (predominantly ≤13 to ≥17 years that were selected by a two-stage cluster sample design to represent all secondary school students in Forms 1 to 5. The percentage of school children reporting one or more serious injuries in the past year was 34.9%, 42.1% of boys and 27.8% of girls. The two major causes of the most serious injury were “fall” (9.9% and motor vehicle accident or being hit by a motor vehicle (5.4%, and the most frequent type of injury sustained was cut, puncture, or stab wound (6.2% and a broken bone or dislocated joint (4.2%. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, sociodemographic factors (being male and low socioeconomic status, substance use (tobacco and cannabis use, frequent soft drink consumption, attending physical education classes three or more times a week, other risky behavior (truancy, ever having had sex, being bullied, psychological distress, and lack of parental or guardian bonding were associated with annual injury prevalence. Several factors were identified, which could be included in injury prevention promotion programs among secondary school children.

  15. Rates of Intentional and Unintentional Nonadherence to Peritoneal Dialysis Regimes and Associated Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhen Li; Lee, Vanessa Yin Woan; Kang, Augustine Wee Cheng; Chan, Sally; Foo, Marjorie; Chan, Choong Meng; Griva, Konstadina

    2016-01-01

    With increasing emphasis on expanding home-based dialysis, there is a need to understand adherence outcomes. This study set out to examine the prevalence and predictors of nonadherence among patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. A cross sectional sample of 201 peritoneal dialysis patients recruited between 2010-2011 from Singapore General Hospital completed measures of quality of life, medication beliefs, self-efficacy and emotional distress. Nonadherence rates were high; 18% for dialysis, 46% for medication and 78% for diet. Intentional nonadherence was more common for dialysis (p = .03), whereas unintentional nonadherence was more common for medication (p = .002). Multivariate models indicated significant associations for higher education (intermediate vs low OR = 3.18, high vs low OR = 4.70), lower environment quality of life (OR = 0.79), dialysis self-efficacy (OR = 0.80) with dialysis nonadherence; higher education (OR = 2.22), self-care peritoneal dialysis (OR = 3.10), perceived necessity vs concerns over medication (OR = 0.90), self-efficacy (OR = 0.76) with nonadherence to medication. The odds for nonadherence to diet were higher among patients who were younger (OR = 0.96), of Chinese ethnicity (OR = 2.99) and those reporting better physical health (OR = 1.30) and lower self-efficacy (OR = 0.49). Nonadherence is common in peritoneal dialysis. Self-efficacy and beliefs about medication are promising targets for interventions designed to improve adherence.

  16. Rates of Intentional and Unintentional Nonadherence to Peritoneal Dialysis Regimes and Associated Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Li Yu

    Full Text Available With increasing emphasis on expanding home-based dialysis, there is a need to understand adherence outcomes. This study set out to examine the prevalence and predictors of nonadherence among patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. A cross sectional sample of 201 peritoneal dialysis patients recruited between 2010-2011 from Singapore General Hospital completed measures of quality of life, medication beliefs, self-efficacy and emotional distress. Nonadherence rates were high; 18% for dialysis, 46% for medication and 78% for diet. Intentional nonadherence was more common for dialysis (p = .03, whereas unintentional nonadherence was more common for medication (p = .002. Multivariate models indicated significant associations for higher education (intermediate vs low OR = 3.18, high vs low OR = 4.70, lower environment quality of life (OR = 0.79, dialysis self-efficacy (OR = 0.80 with dialysis nonadherence; higher education (OR = 2.22, self-care peritoneal dialysis (OR = 3.10, perceived necessity vs concerns over medication (OR = 0.90, self-efficacy (OR = 0.76 with nonadherence to medication. The odds for nonadherence to diet were higher among patients who were younger (OR = 0.96, of Chinese ethnicity (OR = 2.99 and those reporting better physical health (OR = 1.30 and lower self-efficacy (OR = 0.49. Nonadherence is common in peritoneal dialysis. Self-efficacy and beliefs about medication are promising targets for interventions designed to improve adherence.

  17. Unintentional Injuries and Psychosocial Correlates among in-School Adolescents in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to provide estimates of the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of unintentional injury among school-going adolescents in Malaysia. Cross-sectional data from the Global School-Based Health Survey (GSHS) included 21,699 students (predominantly ≤13 to ≥17 years) that were selected by a two-stage cluster sample design to represent all secondary school students in Forms 1 to 5. The percentage of school children reporting one or more serious injuries in the past year was 34.9%, 42.1% of boys and 27.8% of girls. The two major causes of the most serious injury were “fall” (9.9%) and motor vehicle accident or being hit by a motor vehicle (5.4%), and the most frequent type of injury sustained was cut, puncture, or stab wound (6.2%) and a broken bone or dislocated joint (4.2%). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, sociodemographic factors (being male and low socioeconomic status), substance use (tobacco and cannabis use), frequent soft drink consumption, attending physical education classes three or more times a week, other risky behavior (truancy, ever having had sex, being bullied), psychological distress, and lack of parental or guardian bonding were associated with annual injury prevalence. Several factors were identified, which could be included in injury prevention promotion programs among secondary school children. PMID:26610542

  18. Analyzing temozolomide medication errors: potentially fatal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letarte, Nathalie; Gabay, Michael P; Bressler, Linda R; Long, Katie E; Stachnik, Joan M; Villano, J Lee

    2014-10-01

    The EORTC-NCIC regimen for glioblastoma requires different dosing of temozolomide (TMZ) during radiation and maintenance therapy. This complexity is exacerbated by the availability of multiple TMZ capsule strengths. TMZ is an alkylating agent and the major toxicity of this class is dose-related myelosuppression. Inadvertent overdose can be fatal. The websites of the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP), and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) MedWatch database were reviewed. We searched the MedWatch database for adverse events associated with TMZ and obtained all reports including hematologic toxicity submitted from 1st November 1997 to 30th May 2012. The ISMP describes errors with TMZ resulting from the positioning of information on the label of the commercial product. The strength and quantity of capsules on the label were in close proximity to each other, and this has been changed by the manufacturer. MedWatch identified 45 medication errors. Patient errors were the most common, accounting for 21 or 47% of errors, followed by dispensing errors, which accounted for 13 or 29%. Seven reports or 16% were errors in the prescribing of TMZ. Reported outcomes ranged from reversible hematological adverse events (13%), to hospitalization for other adverse events (13%) or death (18%). Four error reports lacked detail and could not be categorized. Although the FDA issued a warning in 2003 regarding fatal medication errors and the product label warns of overdosing, errors in TMZ dosing occur for various reasons and involve both healthcare professionals and patients. Overdosing errors can be fatal.

  19. Fatal poisoning among patients with drug addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, K. W.; Christoffersen, D. J.; Banner, J.

    2015-01-01

    in 2012 were included in the study. Results: A total of 188 fatal intoxications were recorded. The median age increased from 37.5 in 2007 to 41.5 in 2012. The majority were men (77%). Methadone (59%) was the main intoxicant. The decrease in the frequency of heroin/morphine deaths since 1997 (71......%) continued, declining to 44% in 2002, 33% in 2007 and finally to 27% in 2012. Few deaths from central stimulants (amphetamine and cocaine) occurred. Multiple drug use was common and consisted mainly of opioids, cocaine, amphetamine, cannabis, benzodiazepines and alcohol. Heroin/morphine use was most frequent...

  20. Fatal poisoning among patients with drug addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Christoffersen, Dorte J; Banner, Jytte

    2015-01-01

    in 2012 were included in the study. RESULTS: A total of 188 fatal intoxications were recorded. The median age increased from 37.5 in 2007 to 41.5 in 2012. The majority were men (77%). Methadone (59%) was the main intoxicant. The decrease in the frequency of heroin/morphine deaths since 1997 (71......%) continued, declining to 44% in 2002, 33% in 2007 and finally to 27% in 2012. Few deaths from central stimulants (amphetamine and cocaine) occurred. Multiple drug use was common and consisted mainly of opioids, cocaine, amphetamine, cannabis, benzodiazepines and alcohol. Heroin/morphine use was most frequent...

  1. Fatality as a Feature of Medical Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz-Sada Pablo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking advantage of an interesting clinical scenario, we want to introduce a discussion about fatality in our daily practice and the need to accept that. An 80 year-old man with non-traumatic spontaneous bleeding tendency came to the clinics. Although being on warfarin as a consequence of primary thrombotic prophylaxis due to an atrial fibrillation, full assessment was performed. Not only the rare entity found on him, but also the severe complication that happened afterwards challenged clinicians and led them to risky treatment options.

  2. [Fatal outcome after overdosage with antidepressants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gude, Martin Faurholdt; Jensen, Lisbet Tokkesdal; Bjerre-Kristensen, Lars

    2014-02-10

    Serotonin syndrome (SS) is a complication after overdosage with antidepressants. SS increases the level of circulating serotonin. Fatal outcome of SS is most often seen in cases where there has been an overdosage with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI)/selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRI) in combination with other serotonin increasing drugs. This case report describes the rapid development of symptoms in a 54-year-old man who ingested a total amount of 6.5 g of SSRI and SNRI drugs as the only drug types. It proves the importance of being aware of the symptoms of SS when the patient is first seen in the emergency department.

  3. Association between Unintentional Interpersonal Postural Coordination Produced by Interpersonal Light Touch and the Intensity of Social Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoya Ishigaki

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Interpersonal postural coordination (IPC produced by interpersonal light touch (ILT, whereby time-series variations in the postural sway between two people unintentionally resemble each other, may be a possible social interaction. From a sociopsychological standpoint, close mutual behavioral coordination is recognized as “social glue,” which represents the closeness of relationships and contributes to the building of a good rapport. Therefore, we hypothesized that if IPC functions as social glue, then IPC produced by ILT also represents a social relationship. Participants were dyadic pairs with a preexisting social relationship (acquaintance, friend, or best-friend, and we assessed the closeness between the partners. Postural sway in two quiet standing conditions—no touch (NT and ILT (a mutual light touch with <1 N condition—was concurrently measured with the side-by-side standing position, and the association of IPC with intradyadic closeness (rapport was analyzed using hierarchical linear modeling. The results showed that unintentional IPC was higher in both axes of the ILT condition than in NT condition. Additionally, IPC in the mediolateral axis (the partner side of the ILT condition was positively correlated with intradyadic closeness, whereas that in the anteroposterior axis (the non-partner side showed a negative association. As expected, IPC represented intradyadic closeness (rapport. Results indicate that, in unintentional IPC produced by ILT, the priority of processing sensory feedback for postural control, which is received from the individual and a partner, is modulated depending on the rapport in interactional coupled feedback loops between the two individuals (i.e., good rapport increases the degree of taking in feedback from a partner. Thus, unintentional IPC produced by ILT functions as social glue, and it provides an understanding of the sociopsychological aspect in the human-to-human postural coordination mechanism.

  4. Unintentional Injuries in Children Up to Six Years of Age and Related Parental Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santagati, Gabriella; Vezzosi, Luigi; Angelillo, Italo F

    2016-10-01

    To describe risk factors associated with unintentional injuries among children aged injuries and related preventive measures. A cross-sectional survey was conducted between May and July 2015 on a random sample of 794 parents of 3- to 6-year-old children through a self-administered anonymous questionnaire. A total of 409 parents participated. Two-thirds of the children had experienced at least 1 unintentional injury in the previous 12 months. More than one-half of these children were boys. The leading cause was falls; the injuries occurred mainly at home, and only 9.2% were brought for attention to an emergency department. Parents who did not believe that it is possible to prevent unintentional injuries were more likely to have had a child injured. Approximately 70% of respondents were aware of security measures to prevent pediatric injuries, and this knowledge was more prevalent in older parents and in those with at least a college level of education compared with those with a middle school education. The perceived utility of education about preventive measures of pediatric injuries had a mean value of 8.9 on a Likert scale of 1-10 (1, not useful, to 10, very useful) and was significantly higher in mothers. This study highlights a clear need for public health educational programs for parents regarding prevention of unintentional injuries in children as a valuable tool to increase safety and injury prevention and to reduce risks, because the majority of such injuries occur at home. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Alien plants introduced by different pathways differ in invasion success: unintentional introductions as a threat to natural areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Pyšek

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding the dimensions of pathways of introduction of alien plants is important for regulating species invasions, but how particular pathways differ in terms of post-invasion success of species they deliver has never been rigorously tested. We asked whether invasion status, distribution and habitat range of 1,007 alien plant species introduced after 1500 A.D. to the Czech Republic differ among four basic pathways of introduction recognized for plants. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Pathways introducing alien species deliberately as commodities (direct release into the wild; escape from cultivation result in easier naturalization and invasion than pathways of unintentional introduction (contaminant of a commodity; stowaway arriving without association with it. The proportion of naturalized and invasive species among all introductions delivered by a particular pathway decreases with a decreasing level of direct assistance from humans associated with that pathway, from release and escape to contaminant and stowaway. However, those species that are introduced via unintentional pathways and become invasive are as widely distributed as deliberately introduced species, and those introduced as contaminants invade an even wider range of seminatural habitats. CONCLUSIONS: Pathways associated with deliberate species introductions with commodities and pathways whereby species are unintentionally introduced are contrasting modes of introductions in terms of invasion success. However, various measures of the outcome of the invasion process, in terms of species' invasion success, need to be considered to accurately evaluate the role of and threat imposed by individual pathways. By employing various measures we show that invasions by unintentionally introduced plant species need to be considered by management as seriously as those introduced by horticulture, because they invade a wide range of seminatural habitats, hence representing even a greater

  6. Unintentional and Intentional Injuries Amongst Children in Malaysia: Addressing the ‘grey’ area of underlying cause of injuries

    OpenAIRE

    ANNE NOOR SRI JUWANEETA JAMALUDIN

    2018-01-01

    Children are considered to be one of the most vulnerable populations in the world. Injuries in children, either unintentional or intentional, have the same physical, mental and psychosocial effect as adults. Victims of child maltreatment, intimate partner violence and sexual violence have been shown to have a broad array of adverse health effects that can persist over a lifetime. Likewise, injuries from other causes (road traffic, falls, burns, etc.) can result in long-term neg...

  7. Understanding the Effect of Unintentional Doping on Transport Optimization and Analysis in Efficient Organic Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Deledalle

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we provide experimental evidence of the effects of unintentional p-type doping on the performance and the apparent recombination dynamics of bulk-heterojunction solar cells. By supporting these experimental observations with drift-diffusion simulations on two batches of the same efficient polymer-fullerene solar cells with substantially different doping levels and at different thicknesses, we investigate the way the presence of doping affects the interpretation of optoelectronic measurements of recombination and charge transport in organic solar cells. We also present experimental evidence on how unintentional doping can lead to excessively high apparent reaction orders. Our work suggests first that the knowledge of the level of dopants is essential in the studies of recombination dynamics and carrier transport and that unintentional doping levels need to be reduced below approximately 7×10^{15}  cm^{−3} for full optimization around the second interference maximum of highly efficient polymer-fullerene solar cells.

  8. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of family physicians and nurses regarding unintentional injuries among children under 15 years in Cairo, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elboray, Shereen; Elawdy, Mohamed Yehia; Dewedar, Sahar; Elezz, Nahla Abo; El-Setouhy, Maged; Smith, Gordon S; Hirshon, Jon Mark

    2017-03-01

    Unintentional injuries are a leading cause of death among children, especially in developing countries. Lack of reliable data regarding primary health care professionals' role in childhood unintentional injury prevention hinders the development of effective prevention strategies. A survey of 99 family physicians and nurses from 10 family health centres sought to develop insight into their knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding unintentional injury prevention for children injuries and injury prevention. Falls and road traffic crashes were identified as primary causes of childhood injuries by 54.5%. While >90% agreed injury prevention counselling (IPC) could be effective, only 50.5% provided IPC. Lack of time and educational materials were the leading barriers to provision of IPC (91.9% and 85.9%, respectively), while thinking counselling is not part of their clinical duties was the least perceived barrier (9.1%). There is a large disconnect between providers' knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding IPC, more training and provision of counselling tools are essential for improving IPC by Egyptian medical providers.

  9. A nationwide evidence-based study of factors associated with hospitalisations due to unintentional poisoning and poisoning mortality in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Wu-Chien; Chung, Chi-Hsiang; Lin, Chia-Hsin; Lai, Ching-Huang

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the epidemiologic characteristics of unintentional poisoning cases and the factors associated with inpatient mortality. Data were retrieved from the National Health Insurance database from 2005 to 2007. Patients with diagnosis classifications of ICD-9-CM E850-E869 (unintentional poisoning) were selected. SPSS 18.0 software was used for the analysis. In Taiwan between 2005 and 2007, a total of 11,523 patients were hospitalised due to unintentional poisoning, with a hospitalisation rate of 16.83 per 100,000, of which 60.1% and 39.9% were attributable to drug poisoning and solid, liquid and gas substance poisoning, respectively. The hospitalisation rate in men was higher than that of women. The age group of 45-64 had the highest hospitalisation rate of 52.85 per 100,000. The inpatient mortality rate increased with the presence of the following factors: age of 65 or older, surgery or procedure, a higher Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), short length of hospital stays, acute respiratory failure, alcohol poisoning, pesticide poisoning and a higher-level hospital visited. Methanol, herbicides and organophosphorus pesticide intoxications are associated with higher mortality rates. Therefore, when caring for patients poisoned by the above agents, healthcare professionals should look out for their clinical development to ensure quality of care and to reduce mortality.

  10. "Awake" ECCO2R superseded intubation in a near-fatal asthma attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Thomas-Michael; Bence, Tibor; Brettner, Franz

    2017-01-01

    Near-fatal asthma attacks are life threatening events that often require mechanical ventilation. Extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO 2 R) is, beside extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), a well-established rescue option whenever ventilation gets to its limits. But there seems to be very rare experience with those techniques in avoiding mechanical ventilation in severe asthma attacks. A 67-year-old man with a near-fatal asthma attack deteriorated under non-invasive ventilation conditions. Beside pharmacological treatment, the intensivists decided to use an extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal system (ECCO 2 R) to avoid sedation and intubation. Within only a few hours, there was a breakthrough and the patient's status improved continuously. One and a half days later, weaning from ECCO 2 R was already completed. The discussion deals with several advantages of extracorporeal lung support in acute asthma, the potential of avoiding intubation and sedation, as well as the benefits of a conscious and spontaneously breathing patient. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in general and ECCO 2 R in particular is a highly effective method for the treatment of an acute near-fatal asthma attack. Pathophysiological aspects favor the "awake" approach, without sedation, intubation, and mechanical ventilation. Therefore, experienced clinicians might consider "awake" ECCO 2 R in similar cases.

  11. Fatal rhabdomyolysis after torture by reverse hanging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollanen, Michael S

    2016-06-01

    Reverse hanging (also known as Palestinian hanging) is a form of positional torture where the victim is suspended for a prolonged period of time by the wrists, after the wrists are bound at the back. We report the first autopsy case of reverse hanging. We have discovered that fatal myoglobinuric renal failure due to rhabdomyolysis can be a complication of Palestinian hanging. An adult detainee, who underwent interrogation by authorities, was admitted to hospital from a prison and died in hospital after a few days. Death was due to myoglobinuric renal failure. An autopsy was performed. At autopsy, the body showed anasarca due to renal failure. There were healing ligature marks on the wrist and forearm, but no blunt impact injury to the shoulders or arms. There was extensive necrosis of the pectoralis major, biceps, and deltoid muscles, organizing hemoarthrosis of the right glenohumeral joint and hemorrhage into the joint capsule of the both glenohumeral joints. The kidneys showed evidence of myoglobin deposition grossly. The overstretching of the major muscles of the shoulder, in response to the prolonged Palestinian hanging, gave rise to the muscle necrosis. This case underscores the importance of conducting autopsies on people who die in custody, particularly if detained at times of political instability when torture may be practiced by state actors and others. This case also reveals that fatal rhabdomyolysis can occur by positional torture in a stress position, despite the absence of direct trauma due to blunt impacts.

  12. Novelty helmet use and motorcycle rider fatality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Thomas M; Troszak, Lara; Erhardt, Taryn; Trent, Roger B; Zhu, Motao

    2017-06-01

    To compare the risk of fatal injury across helmet types among collision-involved motorcyclists. We used data from a cohort of motorcyclists involved in police-reported traffic collisions. Eighty-four law enforcement agencies in California collected detailed information on helmet and rider characteristics during collision investigations in June 2012 through July 2013. Multiply-adjusted risk ratios were estimated with log-binomial regression. The adjusted fatal injury risk ratio for novelty helmets was 1.95 (95% CI 1.11-3.40, p 0.019), comparing novelty helmets with full-face helmets. The risk ratios for modular, open-face, and half-helmets, compared with full-face helmets, were not significant. A more complete understanding of the inadequacy of novelty helmets can be used in educational and law enforcement countermeasures to improve helmet use among motorcycling populations in California and other US states. Law enforcement approaches to mitigating novelty helmet use would seem attractive given that novelty helmets can be visually identified by law enforcement officers with sufficient training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Fatal hydrogen sulphide poisoning in unconfined spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogué, S; Pou, R; Fernández, J; Sanz-Gallén, P

    2011-05-01

    Fatal hydrogen sulphide poisoning usually occurs in confined spaces. We report two fatal accidents in unconfined spaces. The first accident caused the death of three workers who entered an unconfined room in a silo of sludge at the same time that a truck dumped several tons of sludge from water purification stations. The hydrogen sulphide that had accumulated inside the silo spilled out into the interior of the room due to a 'splashing effect' caused by the impact of the dumped sludge. The second accident occurred when the foreman of a wastewater treatment plant entered one of the substations to perform routine checks and suddenly lost consciousness. Although he was rapidly transferred to an intensive care unit, death occurred a few hours later. Hydrogen sulphide production was, in this case, due to an 'embolism effect' produced by the displacement of wastewater when the substation pumps were activated. We suggest ways in which accidents such as these caused by sudden release of hydrogen sulphide can be prevented.

  14. Air pollution and case fatality of SARS in the People's Republic of China: an ecologic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Shun-Zhang

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS has claimed 349 lives with 5,327 probable cases reported in mainland China since November 2002. SARS case fatality has varied across geographical areas, which might be partially explained by air pollution level. Methods Publicly accessible data on SARS morbidity and mortality were utilized in the data analysis. Air pollution was evaluated by air pollution index (API derived from the concentrations of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide and ground-level ozone. Ecologic analysis was conducted to explore the association and correlation between air pollution and SARS case fatality via model fitting. Partially ecologic studies were performed to assess the effects of long-term and short-term exposures on the risk of dying from SARS. Results Ecologic analysis conducted among 5 regions with 100 or more SARS cases showed that case fatality rate increased with the increment of API (case fatality = - 0.063 + 0.001 * API. Partially ecologic study based on short-term exposure demonstrated that SARS patients from regions with moderate APIs had an 84% increased risk of dying from SARS compared to those from regions with low APIs (RR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.41–2.40. Similarly, SARS patients from regions with high APIs were twice as likely to die from SARS compared to those from regions with low APIs. (RR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.31–3.65. Partially ecologic analysis based on long-term exposure to ambient air pollution showed the similar association. Conclusion Our studies demonstrated a positive association between air pollution and SARS case fatality in Chinese population by utilizing publicly accessible data on SARS statistics and air pollution indices. Although ecologic fallacy and uncontrolled confounding effect might have biased the results, the possibility of a detrimental effect of air pollution on the prognosis of SARS patients deserves further investigation.

  15. Comparing patient dissatisfaction and rational judgment in intentional medication non-adherence versus unintentional non-adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iihara, N; Nishio, T; Okura, M; Anzai, H; Kagawa, M; Houchi, H; Kirino, Y

    2014-02-01

    Patients' poor adherence to medications is reported to be related to the individual patients' beliefs and cognitions and their trust of the medical staff. However, the causes of the two forms of non-adherence, intentional and unintentional behaviours, have yet to be clarified. This study compared psychological latent factors associated with intentional and unintentional non-adherence to chronic medication regimens, focusing on the potential effects of (i) patients' dissatisfaction with treatment and their relationships with the medical staff and (ii) patients' subliminal rational thinking processes, which weighed the positive values such as their expectations of benefits from treatment against negative values such as their dissatisfaction. Two cross-sectional surveys were undertaken of patients given medications for chronic diseases, using a questionnaire developed and validated in this study. One survey was undertaken in three hospitals and the other survey, online throughout Japan. We scored the individual latent factors using the questionnaire and calculated the differential score between two negatively correlated latent factors to quantify patients' subliminal rational thinking process. We compared the adjusted odds ratio (OR) of latent factors between intentional and unintentional non-adherence to medication in both surveys. Of the eligible subjects, 149 hospitalized patients and 524 survey participants completed the questionnaire. Intentional non-adherence was associated with patient dissatisfaction with treatment including interpersonal relationships with medical staff in both hospitalized patients and online survey participants (95% confidence interval of adjusted OR for Dissatisfaction, 1·20-16·26 in the hospital-based survey and 1·33-3·45 in the online survey). In both surveys, intentional non-adherence was significantly associated with the differential score between two negatively correlated latent factors, Willingness and Dissatisfaction (P = 0

  16. Local extinction and unintentional rewilding of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) on a desert island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Benjamin T; Betancourt, Julio L; Epps, Clinton W; Crowhurst, Rachel S; Mead, Jim I; Ezcurra, Exequiel

    2014-01-01

    Bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) were not known to live on Tiburón Island, the largest island in the Gulf of California and Mexico, prior to the surprisingly successful introduction of 20 individuals as a conservation measure in 1975. Today, a stable island population of ∼500 sheep supports limited big game hunting and restocking of depleted areas on the Mexican mainland. We discovered fossil dung morphologically similar to that of bighorn sheep in a dung mat deposit from Mojet Cave, in the mountains of Tiburón Island. To determine the origin of this cave deposit we compared pellet shape to fecal pellets of other large mammals, and extracted DNA to sequence mitochondrial DNA fragments at the 12S ribosomal RNA and control regions. The fossil dung was 14C-dated to 1476-1632 calendar years before present and was confirmed as bighorn sheep by morphological and ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis. 12S sequences closely or exactly matched known bighorn sheep sequences; control region sequences exactly matched a haplotype described in desert bighorn sheep populations in southwest Arizona and southern California and showed subtle differentiation from the extant Tiburón population. Native desert bighorn sheep previously colonized this land-bridge island, most likely during the Pleistocene, when lower sea levels connected Tiburón to the mainland. They were extirpated sometime in the last ∼1500 years, probably due to inherent dynamics of isolated populations, prolonged drought, and (or) human overkill. The reintroduced population is vulnerable to similar extinction risks. The discovery presented here refutes conventional wisdom that bighorn sheep are not native to Tiburón Island, and establishes its recent introduction as an example of unintentional rewilding, defined here as the introduction of a species without knowledge that it was once native and has since gone locally extinct.

  17. Local extinction and unintentional rewilding of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis on a desert island.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin T Wilder

    Full Text Available Bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis were not known to live on Tiburón Island, the largest island in the Gulf of California and Mexico, prior to the surprisingly successful introduction of 20 individuals as a conservation measure in 1975. Today, a stable island population of ∼500 sheep supports limited big game hunting and restocking of depleted areas on the Mexican mainland. We discovered fossil dung morphologically similar to that of bighorn sheep in a dung mat deposit from Mojet Cave, in the mountains of Tiburón Island. To determine the origin of this cave deposit we compared pellet shape to fecal pellets of other large mammals, and extracted DNA to sequence mitochondrial DNA fragments at the 12S ribosomal RNA and control regions. The fossil dung was 14C-dated to 1476-1632 calendar years before present and was confirmed as bighorn sheep by morphological and ancient DNA (aDNA analysis. 12S sequences closely or exactly matched known bighorn sheep sequences; control region sequences exactly matched a haplotype described in desert bighorn sheep populations in southwest Arizona and southern California and showed subtle differentiation from the extant Tiburón population. Native desert bighorn sheep previously colonized this land-bridge island, most likely during the Pleistocene, when lower sea levels connected Tiburón to the mainland. They were extirpated sometime in the last ∼1500 years, probably due to inherent dynamics of isolated populations, prolonged drought, and (or human overkill. The reintroduced population is vulnerable to similar extinction risks. The discovery presented here refutes conventional wisdom that bighorn sheep are not native to Tiburón Island, and establishes its recent introduction as an example of unintentional rewilding, defined here as the introduction of a species without knowledge that it was once native and has since gone locally extinct.

  18. A kinematic study on (un)intentional imitation in bottlenose dolphins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Luisa; Bulgheroni, Maria; Tizzi, Raffaella; Castiello, Umberto

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of observing other’s movements on subsequent performance in bottlenose dolphins. The imitative ability of non-human animals has intrigued a number of researchers. So far, however, studies in dolphins have been confined to intentional imitation concerned with the explicit request to imitate other agents. In the absence of instruction to imitate, do dolphins (un)intentionally replicate other’s movement features? To test this, dolphins were filmed while reaching and touching a stimulus before and after observing another dolphin (i.e., model) performing the same action. All videos were reviewed and segmented in order to extract the relevant movements. A marker was inserted post hoc via software on the videos upon the anatomical landmark of interest (i.e., rostrum) and was tracked throughout the time course of the movement sequence. The movement was analyzed using an in-house software developed to perform two-dimensional (2D) post hoc kinematic analysis. The results indicate that dolphins’ kinematics is sensitive to other’s movement features. Movements performed for the “visuomotor priming” condition were characterized by a kinematic pattern similar to that performed by the observed dolphin (i.e., model). Addressing the issue of spontaneous imitation in bottlenose dolphins might allow ascertaining whether the potential or impulse to produce an imitative action is generated, not just when they intend to imitate, but whenever they watch another conspecific’s behavior. In closing, this will clarify whether motor representational capacity is a by-product of factors specific to humans or whether more general characteristics such as processes of associative learning prompted by high level of encephalization could help to explain the evolution of this ability. PMID:26300764

  19. Unintentional miRNA ablation is a risk factor in gene knockout studies: a short report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Osokine

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most powerful techniques for studying the function of a gene is to disrupt the expression of that gene using genetic engineering strategies such as targeted recombination or viral integration of gene trap cassettes. The tremendous utility of these tools was recognized this year with the awarding of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine to Capecchi, Evans, and Smithies for their pioneering work in targeted recombination mutagenesis in mammals. Another noteworthy discovery made nearly a decade ago was the identification of a novel class of non-coding genes called microRNAs. MicroRNAs are among the largest known classes of regulatory elements with more than 1000 predicted to exist in the mouse genome. Over 50% of known microRNAs are located within introns of coding genes. Given that currently about half of the genes in mouse have been knocked out, we investigated the possibility that intronic microRNAs may have been coincidentally deleted or disrupted in some of these mouse models. We searched published murine knockout studies and gene trap embryonic stem cell line databases for cases where a microRNA was located within or near the manipulated genomic loci, finding almost 200 cases where microRNA expression may have been disrupted along with another gene. Our results draw attention to the need for careful planning in future knockout studies to minimize the unintentional disruption of microRNAs. These data also raise the possibility that many knockout studies may need to be reexamined to determine if loss of a microRNA contributes to the phenotypic consequences attributed to loss of a protein-encoding gene.

  20. Local Extinction and Unintentional Rewilding of Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis) on a Desert Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Benjamin T.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Epps, Clinton W.; Crowhurst, Rachel S.; Mead, Jim I.; Ezcurra, Exequiel

    2014-01-01

    Bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) were not known to live on Tiburón Island, the largest island in the Gulf of California and Mexico, prior to the surprisingly successful introduction of 20 individuals as a conservation measure in 1975. Today, a stable island population of ∼500 sheep supports limited big game hunting and restocking of depleted areas on the Mexican mainland. We discovered fossil dung morphologically similar to that of bighorn sheep in a dung mat deposit from Mojet Cave, in the mountains of Tiburón Island. To determine the origin of this cave deposit we compared pellet shape to fecal pellets of other large mammals, and extracted DNA to sequence mitochondrial DNA fragments at the 12S ribosomal RNA and control regions. The fossil dung was 14C-dated to 1476–1632 calendar years before present and was confirmed as bighorn sheep by morphological and ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis. 12S sequences closely or exactly matched known bighorn sheep sequences; control region sequences exactly matched a haplotype described in desert bighorn sheep populations in southwest Arizona and southern California and showed subtle differentiation from the extant Tiburón population. Native desert bighorn sheep previously colonized this land-bridge island, most likely during the Pleistocene, when lower sea levels connected Tiburón to the mainland. They were extirpated sometime in the last ∼1500 years, probably due to inherent dynamics of isolated populations, prolonged drought, and (or) human overkill. The reintroduced population is vulnerable to similar extinction risks. The discovery presented here refutes conventional wisdom that bighorn sheep are not native to Tiburón Island, and establishes its recent introduction as an example of unintentional rewilding, defined here as the introduction of a species without knowledge that it was once native and has since gone locally extinct. PMID:24646515

  1. Heinrich Events: An Unintentional Discovery And Possible Consequences For The Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, H.

    2017-12-01

    Heinrich Events: An Unintentional Discovery And Its Possible Consequences For The FutureIn the mid 80ties an environmental impact assessment in relation to deep-sea dumping of medium-to-high level radioactive waste was carried out in the eastern margins of the Mid Atlantic Ridge next to the Bay of Biscaye. In one of the box corers recovered for radionuclide analysis a volcanic rock was found that triggered interest because of an unexpected geochemical feature on its surface. Subsequent investigations on the bordering sediment layer revealed hints on a massive ice rafting event possibly released from rapidly collapsing circum-Atlantic ice shields. The search for more of these events in numerous sediment cores exhibited a total of 11 layers since the end of the Saalian/Illinoian glaciation (OIS 6/5 to 2/1). The six events identified in the period OIS 4 to 2 indicated oceanographic conditions in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean that were different to those that prevailed during most time of this glacial period. Later, several authors proposed mechanisms that could have triggered the collapses, e.g. the Binge-Purge model (MacAyeal, 1993) or, access of relatively warm water to the grounding lines in conjunction with isostatic movements (Bassis, 2017). One of the consequences of rapid ice shield collapses is sea level rise. Paleo data report rates of up to several meters per century over a period of several centuries. The process described by Bassis et al. resembles to what nowadays can be observed along the ice margins of Greenland and the Antarctic where (man-made) warmed ocean water attacks the grounding lines. If this initiates something similar to a Heinrich event this is of widespread consequence for coasts, from displacement of populations to marine pollution. Thus, research on past Heinrich Events is important for understanding the future developments of the existing ice shields and climate change.

  2. Local extinction and unintentional rewilding of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) on a desert island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Benjamin T.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Epps, Clinton W.; Crowhurst, Rachel S.; Mead, Jim I.; Ezcurra, Exequiel

    2014-01-01

    Bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) were not known to live on Tiburón Island, the largest island in the Gulf of California and Mexico, prior to the surprisingly successful introduction of 20 individuals as a conservation measure in 1975. Today, a stable island population of ~500 sheep supports limited big game hunting and restocking of depleted areas on the Mexican mainland. We discovered fossil dung morphologically similar to that of bighorn sheep in a dung mat deposit from Mojet Cave, in the mountains of Tiburón Island. To determine the origin of this cave deposit we compared pellet shape to fecal pellets of other large mammals, and extracted DNA to sequence mitochondrial DNA fragments at the 12S ribosomal RNA and control regions. The fossil dung was 14C-dated to 1476–1632 calendar years before present and was confirmed as bighorn sheep by morphological and ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis. 12S sequences closely or exactly matched known bighorn sheep sequences; control region sequences exactly matched a haplotype described in desert bighorn sheep populations in southwest Arizona and southern California and showed subtle differentiation from the extant Tiburón population. Native desert bighorn sheep previously colonized this land-bridge island, most likely during the Pleistocene, when lower sea levels connected Tiburón to the mainland. They were extirpated sometime in the last ~1500 years, probably due to inherent dynamics of isolated populations, prolonged drought, and (or) human overkill. The reintroduced population is vulnerable to similar extinction risks. The discovery presented here refutes conventional wisdom that bighorn sheep are not native to Tiburón Island, and establishes its recent introduction as an example of unintentional rewilding, defined here as the introduction of a species without knowledge that it was once native and has since gone locally extinct.

  3. Association between unintentional injury during pregnancy and excess risk of preterm birth and its neonatal sequelae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiliang; Basso, Olga; Kramer, Michael S

    2015-11-01

    The sequelae of preterm births may differ, depending on whether birth follows an acute event or a chronic condition. In a population-based cohort study of 2,711,645 Canadian hospital deliveries from 2003 to 2012, 3,059 women experienced unintentional injury during pregnancy. We assessed the impact of the acute event on pregnancy outcome and on neonatal complications, such as nontraumatic intracranial hemorrhage, respiratory distress syndrome, intubation, and death. We adjusted for maternal age, parity, pregnancy conditions, and (for neonates) gestational age in logistic regression analyses. Injury was significantly associated with fetal mortality and early preterm delivery. For preterm infants born to injured women during the hospitalization for injury versus those born to noninjured women, the adjusted odds ratios were 2.25 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.23, 4.17) for neonatal death, 2.44 (95% CI: 1.76, 3.37) for respiratory distress, 2.20 (95% CI: 1.26, 3.84) for nontraumatic intracranial hemorrhage, and 2.17 (95% CI: 1.60, 2.96) for intubation, despite more favorable fetal growth in those born to noninjured women (adjusted birth-weight-for-gestational-age z score: 0.154 vs. 0.024, P = 0.041; small-for-gestational-age rate: 4.5% vs. 9.5%, P = 0.001). Our findings suggest that adaptation to the suboptimal intrauterine environment underlying chronic causes of preterm birth may protect preterm infants from adverse sequelae. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. School-based education programmes for the prevention of unintentional injuries in children and young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Elizabeth; Whitehead, Jessica; Mhizha-Murira, Jacqueline; Clarkson, Mandy; Watson, Michael C; Mulvaney, Caroline A; Staniforth, Joy Ul; Bhuchar, Munish; Kendrick, Denise

    2016-12-27

    Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death in children aged four to 18 years and are a major cause of ill health. The school setting offers the opportunity to deliver preventive interventions to a large number of children and has been used to address a range of public health problems. However, the effectiveness of the school setting for the prevention of different injury mechanisms in school-aged children is not well understood. To assess the effects of school-based educational programmes for the prevention of injuries in children and evaluate their impact on improving children's safety skills, behaviour and practices, and knowledge, and assess their cost-effectiveness. We ran the most recent searches up to 16 September 2016 for the following electronic databases: Cochrane Injuries Group Specialised Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; Ovid MEDLINE(R), Ovid MEDLINE(R) In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations; Ovid MEDLINE(R) Daily and Ovid OLDMEDLINE(R); Embase and Embase Classic (Ovid); ISI Web of Science: Science Citation Index Expanded; ISI Web of Science Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science; ISI Web of Science: Social Sciences Citation Index; ISI Web of Science: Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Social Sciences & Humanities; and the 14 October 2016 for the following electronic databases: Health Economics Evaluations Database (HEED); Health Technology Assessment Database (HTA); CINAHL Plus (EBSCO); ZETOC; LILACS; PsycINFO; ERIC; Dissertation Abstracts Online; IBSS; BEI; ASSIA; CSA Sociological Abstracts; Injury Prevention Web; SafetyLit; EconLit (US); PAIS; UK Clinical Research Network Study Portfolio; Open Grey; Index to Theses in the UK and Ireland; Bibliomap and TRoPHI. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised controlled trials (non-RCTs), and controlled before-and-after (CBA) studies that evaluated school-based educational programmes aimed at preventing a range of injury mechanisms. The

  5. [An autopsy case of fatal nicotine poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayasu, T; Ohshima, T; Lin, Z; Nishigami, J; Nakaya, T; Maeda, H; Tanaka, N

    1992-10-01

    A fatal case of nicotine poisoning is reported in which a 44-year-old female committed suicide in a short time by taking orally the eluate from tobacco. External examination showed no abnormal findings except for markedly dark red-purple postmortem lividity, and internal examination demonstrated no pathological changes but the signs of sudden death. Through the toxicological investigation by GC and GC-MS, however, nicotine was detected in the solution which she had taken orally and in the blood, urine and the contents of the stomach and small intestine. The nicotine concentrations of the blood, urine and contents of stomach and small intestine were 6.3 micrograms/ml, 1.5 micrograms/ml, 30 micrograms/ml and 71 micrograms/g respectively, and enough to be lethal.

  6. When attempts at robbing prey turn fatal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejean, Alain; Corbara, Bruno; Azémar, Frédéric; Carpenter, James M.

    2012-07-01

    Because group-hunting arboreal ants spread-eagle insect prey for a long time before retrieving them, these prey can be coveted by predatory flying insects. Yet, attempting to rob these prey is risky if the ant species is also an effective predator. Here, we show that trying to rob prey from Azteca andreae workers is a fatal error as 268 out of 276 potential cleptobionts (97.1 %) were captured in turn. The ant workers hunt in a group and use the "Velcro®" principle to cling firmly to the leaves of their host tree, permitting them to capture very large prey. Exceptions were one social wasp, plus some Trigona spp. workers and flies that landed directly on the prey and were able to take off immediately when attacked. We conclude that in this situation, previously captured prey attract potential cleptobionts that are captured in turn in most of the cases.

  7. Fatal primary meningoencephalitis caused by Naegleria fowleri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariq, Ali; Afridi, Faisal Iqbal; Farooqi, Badar Jahan; Ahmed, Sumaira; Hussain, Arif

    2014-07-01

    Naegleria fowleri is a free living parasite which habitats in fresh water reservoirs. It causes a fatal nervous system infection known as primary amoebic meningoencephalitis by invading through cribriform plate of nose and gaining entry into brain. We report a case of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis caused by Naegleria fowleri in Karachi, Pakistan, in a 42 years old male poultry farm worker having no history of swimming. Clinical course was fulminant and death occurred within one week of hospital admission. Naegleria fowleri was detected by wet mount technique in the sample of cerebrospinal fluid collected by lumbar puncture of patient. This is a serious problem and requires immediate steps to prevent general population to get affected by this lethal neurological infection.

  8. Shopping cart injuries, entrapment, and childhood fatality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Lisbeth; Charlwood, Cheryl; Byard, Roger W

    2008-09-01

    Shopping carts may be associated with a variety of injuries, particularly in toddlers and young children. These usually relate to falls from carts or to tip-overs. Injuries that are sustained include hematomas/contusions, abrasions, lacerations, fractures, and fingertip amputations. Fatal episodes are uncommon and are usually due to blunt craniocerebral trauma from falls. A case involving a 19-month-old girl is reported who became entrapped when she inserted her head through the side frame of a cart that had been removed from a supermarket and left at her home address. Death was caused by neck compression. Although rare, the potential for lethal entrapment during unsupervised play means that the presence of stray shopping carts at private residences and in public places, including playgrounds and parks, is of concern. Strategies, such as coin deposits, should be encouraged to assist in the return of such carts to supermarkets.

  9. Fatal exit the automotive black box debate

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalick, Tom

    2005-01-01

    "Fatal Exit: The Automotive Black Box Debate cuts through thirty years of political wrangling and institutional biases to provide an argument for the Motor Vehicle Event Data Recorder (MVEDR). This automotive equivalent of an airplane's flight recorder or black box is intended to solve the mysteries of car crashes and improve the safety of our roads. The reader is taken inside the automotive industry and the government highway safety establishment to foster an understanding of the politics and the positions on all sides of this safety debate. The author takes an unbiased approach, chronologically presenting each argument and uncovering the agendas and mandates of each of the stakeholders." "This publication is essential reading for all consumers who need to have their voices heard on this critical issue, as well as for attorneys, public safety advocates, public policy administrators, engineers, automotive professionals, journalists, and insurance executives."--Jacket.

  10. The metabolic effects of fatal cyanide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B. M.; Coles, N.; Lewis, P.; Braithwaite, R. A.; Nattrass, M.; FitzGerald, M. G.

    1989-01-01

    Metabolic and toxicological data were obtained during the first 24 hours following severe and eventually fatal cyanide poisoning. Initial blood cyanide concentrations were 804 mumol/l but fell rapidly over 24 hours following cobalt edetate therapy to 15 mumol/l. However, plasma thiocyanate concentrations rose over 24 hours (147-267 mumol/l) suggesting continued tissue detoxification. The major metabolic abnormality was lactic acidosis (initial pH 7.21, blood lactate 17.5 mmol/l) which corrected over 12 hours. Despite high circulating insulin concentrations the responses of blood glucose, plasma non-esterified fatty acid, blood glycerol and 3-hydroxybutyrate suggested marked insulin resistance. PMID:2616434

  11. Chronic fatal pneumocystosis in nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, K; Goto, Y; Yamazaki, S; Fujiwara, K

    1977-12-01

    A chronic pulmonary disease was encountered in nude mice of a barrier sustained colony, and Pneumocystis carinii was identified as the causative agent histopathologically as well as on impression smear preparations in the affected lungs. Fatal infection was seen only in old nude mice aged more than 6 months, while focal pulmonary lesions were developed without clinical signs in young adult nudes 2 to 3 months of age. The lesions produced in aged nude mice were characterized by propagation of mononuclear cells with the presence of foamy masses of P. carinii. Heterozygous littermates were much less susceptible to the infection but pneumocystic lesions could be produced readily by multiple treatment with immunosuppressants. The infection could be transmitted without immunosuppressant to non-infected nudes but not to heterozygous littermates after intranasal inoculation of affected tissue emulsion or by cage mating with severely affected nudes.

  12. Two fatal tiger attacks in zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantius, Britta; Wittschieber, Daniel; Schmidt, Sven; Rothschild, Markus A; Banaschak, Sibylle

    2016-01-01

    Two captive tiger attacks are presented that took place in Cologne and Münster zoos. Both attacks occurred when the handlers, intent on cleaning the enclosures, entered whilst the tigers accidently retained access to the location, and thus defended their territory against the perceived intruders. Both victims suffered fatal neck injuries from the bites. At Münster, colleagues managed to lure the tiger away from its victim to enable treatment, whilst the Cologne zoo tiger had to be shot in order to allow access to be gained. Whilst it was judged that human error led to the deaths of the experienced zookeepers, the investigation in Münster was closed as no third party was found to be at fault, whereas the Cologne zoo director was initially charged with being negligent. These charges were subsequently dismissed as safety regulations were found to be up to date.

  13. Fatal Colloid Cysts: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagman, Carlito; Rai, Kanwaldeep; Chung, Lawrance K; Nagasawa, Daniel T; Beckett, Joel S; Tucker, Alexander M; Yang, Isaac

    2017-11-01

    To accurately describe patient characteristics and the clinical presentation of fatal colloid cysts. A systematic literature search of 3 popular databases was performed. Inclusion criteria were individuals with sudden-onset death and colloid cysts identified on imaging and/or autopsy. The cause of death must have been ascribed to the colloid cyst to be eligible for data extraction. Deaths precipitated by lumbar puncture were excluded. Clinical data were extracted and descriptive statistics were ascertained. Subgroup analyses were performed to compare adults with pediatric patients. A total of 107 patients were included in the quantitative synthesis. The mean age was 28.5 years (standard deviation 13.3, range 6-79 years). Male and female patients were affected equally. Headache was the most frequent symptom (n = 86, 80%). There were 6 patients (5 adults and 1 child) who reported positional headaches. The mean duration of signs and symptoms was shorter in adults versus pediatric patients (2.1 days vs. 6.5 days, P = 0.02), and more adults presented with signs and symptoms for less than 24 hours than did pediatric patients (38% vs. 6%, P = 0.01). Colloid cyst mean diameter was 2.0 cm (standard deviation 1.1, range 0.5-7.9 cm) and 96% measured 1 cm or larger. Our data suggests that the prodrome preceding sudden death in the setting of a colloid cyst may be shorter in adults. Also, most fatal colloid cysts measured 1 cm or larger. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Fatal work injuries involving natural disasters, 1992-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayard, Gregory M

    2009-12-01

    Although a goal of disaster preparedness is to protect vulnerable populations from hazards, little research has explored the types of risks that workers face in their encounters with natural disasters. This study examines how workers are fatally injured in severe natural events. A classification structure was created that identified the physical component of the disaster that led to the death and the pursuit of the worker as it relates to the disaster. Data on natural disasters from the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries for the years 1992 through 2006 were analyzed. A total of 307 natural disaster deaths to workers were identified in 1992-2006. Most fatal occupational injuries were related to wildfires (80 fatalities), hurricanes (72 fatalities), and floods (62 fatalities). Compared with fatal occupational injuries in general, natural disaster fatalities involved more workers who were white and more workers who were working for the government. Most wildfire fatalities stemmed directly from exposure to fire and gases and occurred to those engaged in firefighting, whereas hurricane fatalities tended to occur more independently of disaster-produced hazards and to workers engaged in cleanup and reconstruction. Those deaths related to the 2005 hurricanes occurred a median of 36.5 days after landfall of the associated storm. Nearly half of the flood deaths occurred to passengers in motor vehicles. Other disasters included tornadoes (33 fatalities), landslides (17), avalanches (16), ice storms (14), and blizzards (9). Despite an increasing social emphasis on disaster preparation and response, there has been little increase in expert knowledge about how people actually perish in these large-scale events. Using a 2-way classification structure, this study identifies areas of emphasis in preventing occupational deaths from various natural disasters.

  15. Heavy vehicle driver fatalities: learning's from fatal road crash investigations in Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Lisa; Lyndal, Bugeja; Elias, Ibrahim Joseph

    2009-05-01

    This study describes the nature and extent of fatal heavy vehicle driver crashes in Victoria between 1999 and 2007 and the factors associated with the crash. A descriptive study was conducted comprising the population of heavy vehicle drivers killed in a road transport crash while operating a vehicle of > or =4.5 tonne Gross Vehicle Mass (GVM) for the purposes of work. Information about the nature of crash, environmental, driver, vehicle and occupational factors were collected from the coroner's death investigation file. Of the 91 deaths identified 61 were eligible for review. All 61 cases were male, solo drivers with a mean age of 44.7 years. Most vehicles were articulated in configuration. One-third of crash scenarios involved a single vehicle leaving the roadway on a straight road. One in every six fatally injured drivers was detected with the presence of stimulants or cannabis. Twenty-two drivers were travelling at excessive or inappropriate speeds for the circumstances. Seatbelt wearing status was documented for only 25 of 61 drivers. This study is the first to comprehensively examine a population of fatally injured heavy vehicle drivers using coroner's investigation files and these findings are consistent with previous, less detailed, Australian research. Information about potential associations between occupational factors and crash risk was limited. Improving driver safety requires incorporation of occupational factors into a standardised approach to heavy vehicle crash investigations.

  16. Has the great recession and its aftermath reduced traffic fatalities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, Robert B; Zhou, Yuhan

    2017-01-01

    An analysis of state-level data from 1984 to 2014 provides evidence on the relationship between economic recessions and US traffic fatalities. While there are large reductions associated with decreases in household median income, other policy variables tend to have additional and in some cases, larger effects. An increase in the inequality of the income distribution, measured by the Gini index, has reduced traffic fatalities. Graduated licensing policies, cell phone laws, and motorcycle helmet requirements are all associated with reductions in fatalities. Other factors include a proxy for medical technology, and access to emergency medical services (based on the percent of vehicle miles traveled in rural areas); reductions in the latter accounted for a substantial reduction in fatalities and is likely another indicator of reduced economic activity. Changes in the road network, mainly increases in the percent of collector roads has increased fatalities. Population growth is associated with increased traffic fatalities and changes in age cohorts has a small negative effect. Overall, results suggest that there has been a beneficial impact on traffic fatalities from reduced economic activity, but various policies adopted by the states have also reduced traffic fatalities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A fatal case of Babesia divergens infection in Northwestern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensi, Víctor; González, Luis Miguel; Fernández-Suárez, Jonathan; Sevilla, Elena; Navascués, Rafael Álvarez; Suárez, María Luisa; Lauret, María Eugenia; Bernardo, Angel; Carton, José Antonio; Montero, Estrella

    2018-02-21

    We describe a fatal case caused by the intra-erythrocytic Babesia divergens parasite in an elderly woman. This is the third case of fatal babesiosis reported in the last 15 years in Europe, and the only one in a patient with an intact spleen. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Danish diving-related fatalities 1999-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinkel, Julie; Bak, Peter; Hyldegaard, Ole

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The purpose was to explore causative tendencies among diving fatalities to prevent similar injuries in the future. METHODS: We report 33 fatal diving injuries that occurred among Danish divers during the period 1999-2012 in Scandinavian waters. The study was performed as a retrospective...

  19. Influence of Appalachian Fatalism on Adolescent Identity Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Tommy M.

    2007-01-01

    The influences of the fatalism frequently associated with Appalachian culture on adolescent identity processes were explored. The sample consisted of 91 Appalachian adolescents and 87 non-Appalachian adolescents. Participants completed measures of fatalism (operationalized in terms of higher hopelessness and lower optimism/efficacy scores) and…

  20. Bordetella bronchiseptica and fatal pneumonia of dogs and cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordetella bronchiseptica frequently causes nonfatal tracheobronchitis, but its role in fatal pneumonia is less well-studied. The objectives of this study were to identify the frequency of Bordetella bronchiseptica infection in fatal cases of bronchopneumonia in dogs and cats and to compare the diag...

  1. Fatal Child Maltreatment in England, 2005-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidebotham, Peter; Bailey, Sue; Belderson, Pippa; Brandon, Marian

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This paper presents comprehensive and up-to-date data covering 4 years of Serious Case Reviews into fatal child maltreatment in England. Methods: Information on all notified cases of fatal maltreatment between April 2005 and March 2009 was examined to obtain case characteristics related to a systemic classification of 5 broad groups of…

  2. Preventing unintentional injury in children and adolescents--the importance of local injury data collection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Carroll, C

    2012-02-01

    We sought to prospectively study all injuries in children and adolescents up to 16 years of age presenting to a regional Emergency Department (ED), to ascertain detailed injury patterns and to use this data to recommend injury prevention priorities. Electronic injury surveillance was prospectively collected over a 10 year period (1997-2007) in a hospital with a paediatric catchment population of 75,000 in a region with pockets of high social deprivation. All fatalities were obtained from data provided by the Central Statistics Office (CSO). Over a 10 year period, there were 31 fatalities, 5,408 admissions and 40,817 new attendances due to injury. Males outnumbered females in a 3:2 ratio. Of all injuries 24,317 (60%) occurred at home. Peak injury presentation time was in the evening between 18:00 and 20:00. Minor injuries (bruises, minor head injuries, lacerations and sprains) accounted for 32,456 (80%) of total. Fractures resulting from high falls (n=1,194) tended to result from bunk beds, staircases, horses, walls and playground equipment. Burns (n=630) involved hot liquids (tea, coffee), hot bath water, hot cooking oil and hot cooking plates. Pedestrian injuries (n=251) were predominantly \\'dart outs\\' in urban areas. Car passenger injuries (n=869) showed low rates of documented car restraint use. Poisonings (n= 1,153) were predominantly medicinal products. Cyclist injuries (n=477) indicated low documented use of appropriate helmet wear. Prevention priorities should focus on home injuries, hot liquid burn and scald injuries and high falls from walls, beds and playground equipment. To prevent road-related injuries and deaths, further legislation, urban planning and greater police enforcement is required.

  3. Fatal poisonings in Oslo: a one-year observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyerdahl Fridtjof

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute poisonings are common and are treated at different levels of the health care system. Since most fatal poisonings occur outside hospital, these must be included when studying characteristics of such deaths. The pattern of toxic agents differs between fatal and non-fatal poisonings. By including all poisoning episodes, cause-fatality rates can be calculated. Methods Fatal and non-fatal acute poisonings in subjects aged ≥16 years in Oslo (428 198 inhabitants were included consecutively in an observational multi-centre study including the ambulance services, the Oslo Emergency Ward (outpatient clinic, and hospitals, as well as medico-legal autopsies from 1st April 2003 to 31st March 2004. Characteristics of fatal poisonings were examined, and a comparison of toxic agents was made between fatal and non-fatal acute poisoning. Results In Oslo, during the one-year period studied, 103 subjects aged ≥16 years died of acute poisoning. The annual mortality rate was 24 per 100 000. The male-female ratio was 2:1, and the mean age was 44 years (range 19-86 years. In 92 cases (89%, death occurred outside hospital. The main toxic agents were opiates or opioids (65% of cases, followed by ethanol (9%, tricyclic anti-depressants (TCAs (4%, benzodiazepines (4%, and zopiclone (4%. Seventy-one (69% were evaluated as accidental deaths and 32 (31% as suicides. In 70% of all cases, and in 34% of suicides, the deceased was classified as drug or alcohol dependent. When compared with the 2981 non-fatal acute poisonings registered during the study period, the case fatality rate was 3% (95% C.I., 0.03-0.04. Methanol, TCAs, and antihistamines had the highest case fatality rates; 33% (95% C.I., 0.008-0.91, 14% (95% C.I., 0.04-0.33, and 10% (95% C.I., 0.02-0.27, respectively. Conclusions Three per cent of all acute poisonings were fatal, and nine out of ten deaths by acute poisonings occurred outside hospital. Two-thirds were evaluated as accidental

  4. Fatal poisonings in Oslo: a one-year observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornaas, Mari A; Teige, Brita; Hovda, Knut E; Ekeberg, Oivind; Heyerdahl, Fridtjof; Jacobsen, Dag

    2010-06-06

    Acute poisonings are common and are treated at different levels of the health care system. Since most fatal poisonings occur outside hospital, these must be included when studying characteristics of such deaths. The pattern of toxic agents differs between fatal and non-fatal poisonings. By including all poisoning episodes, cause-fatality rates can be calculated. Fatal and non-fatal acute poisonings in subjects aged > or =16 years in Oslo (428 198 inhabitants) were included consecutively in an observational multi-centre study including the ambulance services, the Oslo Emergency Ward (outpatient clinic), and hospitals, as well as medico-legal autopsies from 1st April 2003 to 31st March 2004. Characteristics of fatal poisonings were examined, and a comparison of toxic agents was made between fatal and non-fatal acute poisoning. In Oslo, during the one-year period studied, 103 subjects aged > or =16 years died of acute poisoning. The annual mortality rate was 24 per 100 000. The male-female ratio was 2:1, and the mean age was 44 years (range 19-86 years). In 92 cases (89%), death occurred outside hospital. The main toxic agents were opiates or opioids (65% of cases), followed by ethanol (9%), tricyclic anti-depressants (TCAs) (4%), benzodiazepines (4%), and zopiclone (4%). Seventy-one (69%) were evaluated as accidental deaths and 32 (31%) as suicides. In 70% of all cases, and in 34% of suicides, the deceased was classified as drug or alcohol dependent. When compared with the 2981 non-fatal acute poisonings registered during the study period, the case fatality rate was 3% (95% C.I., 0.03-0.04). Methanol, TCAs, and antihistamines had the highest case fatality rates; 33% (95% C.I., 0.008-0.91), 14% (95% C.I., 0.04-0.33), and 10% (95% C.I., 0.02-0.27), respectively. Three per cent of all acute poisonings were fatal, and nine out of ten deaths by acute poisonings occurred outside hospital. Two-thirds were evaluated as accidental deaths. Although case fatality rates were

  5. Fatal occupational accidents in Danish fishing vessels 1989-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Lise Hedegaard; Hansen, Henrik L; Jensen, Olaf

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to study the circumstances and incidence rates of fatal accidents in inspection obligated and non-inspection obligated Danish fishing vessels to identify areas for prevention. Information about the fatalities came from maritime authority reports, including vessel...... disaster reports, post mortem reports, maritime inquiries and police reports. The person- and vessel years at risk came from the Danish Directorate of Fisheries. During the period 1989-2005, 114 fatalities occurred. Sixty-one of the fatalities occurred in 36 vessel disasters mainly caused by foundering...... in foreign ports and alcohol intoxication. In the period 1995-2005, the overall incidence rate was 10 per 10,000 fishermen per year with no down-going trend during that period. The fatal accident rates are still too high, despite the efforts to reduce the risk. Increased focus on regular and repeated safety...

  6. Meta-analysis of the Unintentional Death of Children Aged 0 to 5 Years in China Between 1995 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Baoning; Yu, Jian'er

    2017-02-18

    The aim of this study was to identify the primary cause of and a means by which to prevent the unintentional injury and death of children aged 0 to 5 years in China. A systematic review of literature published in this area between 1995 and 2015, accessible via Chongqing VIP, Wanfang, CNKI, and PubMed databases, in addition to other electronic databases and related magazines and professional information, was conducted. The data were retrieved using Cochrane Systematic review methods. All information was judged using the Jadad method. A meta-analysis was carried out on homogeneous studies. RevMan 5.3 software was used to analyze the gathered information. A total of 125 related pieces of literature were retrieved. Of the 14 that met the inclusion criteria, 6 were of moderate quality and 8 of general quality. The meta-analysis showed that in a comparison of unintentional injury and death of male and female children, the odds ratio was [1.73 to 1.95] for a 95% confidence interval (P China. Considering the significant difference in the latter comparison, developing and implementing methods to reduce the unintentional injury and death of children in rural areas should receive greater attention.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

  7. Does Unintentional Splenic Radiation Predict Outcomes After Pancreatic Cancer Radiation Therapy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadha, Awalpreet S.; Liu, Guan; Chen, Hsiang-Chun; Das, Prajnan; Minsky, Bruce D.; Mahmood, Usama; Delclos, Marc E.; Suh, Yelin; Sawakuchi, Gabriel O.; Beddar, Sam; Katz, Matthew H.; Fleming, Jason B.; Javle, Milind M.; Varadhachary, Gauri R.; Wolff, Robert A.; Crane, Christopher H.; Wang, Xuemei; Thames, Howard; Krishnan, Sunil

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether severity of lymphopenia is dependent on radiation dose and fractional volume of spleen irradiated unintentionally during definitive chemoradiation (CRT) in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). Methods: 177 patients with LAPC received induction chemotherapy (mainly gemcitabine-based regimens) followed by CRT (median 50.4 Gy with concurrent capecitabine) from January 2006 to December 2012. Absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) was recorded at baseline, before CRT, and 2 to 10 weeks after CRT. Splenic dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters were reported as mean splenic dose (MSD) and percentage of splenic volume receiving at least 5- (V5), 10- (V10), 15- (V15), and 20-Gy (V20) dose. Overall survival (OS) was analyzed with use of the Cox model, and development of post-CRT severe lymphopenia (ALC <0.5 K/UL) was assessed by multivariate logistic regression with use of baseline and treatment factors. Results: The median post-CRT ALC (0.68 K/UL; range, 0.13-2.72) was significantly lower than both baseline ALC (1.42 K/UL; range, 0.34-3.97; P<.0001) and pre-CRT ALC (1.32 K/UL, range 0.36-4.82; P<.0001). Post-CRT ALC <0.5 K/UL was associated with inferior OS on univariate analysis (median, 11.1 vs 15.3 months; P=.01) and multivariate analysis (hazard ratio = 1.66, P=.01). MSD (9.8 vs 6 Gy, P=.03), median V10 (32.6 vs 16%, P=.04), V15 (23.2 vs 9.5%, P=.03), and V20 (15.4 vs 4.6%, P=.02) were significantly higher in patients with severe lymphopenia than in those without. On multivariate analysis, postinduction lymphopenia (P<.001; odds ratio [OR] = 5.25) and MSD (P=.002; OR= 3.42) were independent predictors for the development of severe post-CRT lymphopenia. Conclusion: Severe post-CRT lymphopenia is an independent predictor of poor OS in LAPC patients receiving CRT. Higher splenic doses increase the risk for the development of severe post-CRT lymphopenia. When clinically indicated, assessment of splenic DVHs before the

  8. Unintentional injuries in developing countries: the epidemiology of a neglected problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G S; Barss, P

    1991-01-01

    The WHO has a special office to coordinate global injury epidemiology and prevention; 2 world Bank policy and planning projects identified injuries as a priority area. The epidemiology of unintentional injuries based on the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, external causes codes: E800-E949, in developing countries is reviewed. Developing countries are those with an annual gross national product/capita of US$2500, based on 1986 figures form the World Bank. It includes countries generally with a population greater than 1 million. Only Sri Lanka, Thailand, Egypt, and Mauritius reported injury data to the WHO between 1977-87. There were no data available from the Caribbean and Central and South America. Information included here was obtained from a review of world literature on injuries indexed in 3 computer databases: Medlars, Biosis, and Excerpta Medica for the period 1966-90. 2500 reference titles and abstracts were reviewed. Those focusing on risk factors for and causes of injuries were selected for inclusion. Injury mortality is discussed in terms of its health impact and local population based studies. Injury morbidity discussion refers to the Gordon study on the rural Indian population and rates of injuries, urban studies in Brazil, Chile, Cuba, and Venezuela on causes of injury, and longterm disability from a Nepal study, and a Brazilian study on costs of injuries. The discussion of risk factors common to many injuries identifies age and sex particularly for the elderly, and alcohol or kola nuts as leading to higher accidents rates. Poverty, urban residence, and race are also suggested, but there is little evidence to support this. Specific attention is given to the following injuries: drowning, burns and fires, falls, poisoning, animal bites and wounds, machinery or tool or sharp objects, bicycles, eye, and disasters. Emergency medical services have been found to decrease trauma; it is suggested, that for those unable to afford mobile

  9. Does Unintentional Splenic Radiation Predict Outcomes After Pancreatic Cancer Radiation Therapy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadha, Awalpreet S.; Liu, Guan [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Chen, Hsiang-Chun [Department of Biostatistics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Das, Prajnan; Minsky, Bruce D.; Mahmood, Usama; Delclos, Marc E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Suh, Yelin [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Sawakuchi, Gabriel O. [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas, Houston, Texas (United States); Beddar, Sam [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Katz, Matthew H.; Fleming, Jason B. [Department of Surgical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Javle, Milind M.; Varadhachary, Gauri R.; Wolff, Robert A. [Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Crane, Christopher H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Wang, Xuemei [Department of Biostatistics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Thames, Howard [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Krishnan, Sunil, E-mail: skrishnan@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Purpose: To determine whether severity of lymphopenia is dependent on radiation dose and fractional volume of spleen irradiated unintentionally during definitive chemoradiation (CRT) in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). Methods: 177 patients with LAPC received induction chemotherapy (mainly gemcitabine-based regimens) followed by CRT (median 50.4 Gy with concurrent capecitabine) from January 2006 to December 2012. Absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) was recorded at baseline, before CRT, and 2 to 10 weeks after CRT. Splenic dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters were reported as mean splenic dose (MSD) and percentage of splenic volume receiving at least 5- (V5), 10- (V10), 15- (V15), and 20-Gy (V20) dose. Overall survival (OS) was analyzed with use of the Cox model, and development of post-CRT severe lymphopenia (ALC <0.5 K/UL) was assessed by multivariate logistic regression with use of baseline and treatment factors. Results: The median post-CRT ALC (0.68 K/UL; range, 0.13-2.72) was significantly lower than both baseline ALC (1.42 K/UL; range, 0.34-3.97; P<.0001) and pre-CRT ALC (1.32 K/UL, range 0.36-4.82; P<.0001). Post-CRT ALC <0.5 K/UL was associated with inferior OS on univariate analysis (median, 11.1 vs 15.3 months; P=.01) and multivariate analysis (hazard ratio = 1.66, P=.01). MSD (9.8 vs 6 Gy, P=.03), median V10 (32.6 vs 16%, P=.04), V15 (23.2 vs 9.5%, P=.03), and V20 (15.4 vs 4.6%, P=.02) were significantly higher in patients with severe lymphopenia than in those without. On multivariate analysis, postinduction lymphopenia (P<.001; odds ratio [OR] = 5.25) and MSD (P=.002; OR= 3.42) were independent predictors for the development of severe post-CRT lymphopenia. Conclusion: Severe post-CRT lymphopenia is an independent predictor of poor OS in LAPC patients receiving CRT. Higher splenic doses increase the risk for the development of severe post-CRT lymphopenia. When clinically indicated, assessment of splenic DVHs before the

  10. Unintentional conversion of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo caused by repositioning procedures for canalithiasis: transitional BPPV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babic, Borivoj B; Jesic, Snezana D; Milovanovic, Jovica D; Arsovic, Nenad A

    2014-05-01

    BPPV when diagnosed before any repositioning procedure is called primary BPPV. Primary BPPV canalithiasis treatment with repositioning procedures sometimes results in unintentional conversion of BPPV form: transitional BPPV. Objectives were to find transitional BPPV forms, how they influence relative rate of canal involvement and how to be treated. This study is a retrospective case review performed at an ambulatory, tertiary referral center. Participants were 189 consecutive BPPV patients. Main outcome measures were detection of transitional BPPV, outcome of repositioning procedures for transitional canalithiasis BPPV and spontaneous recovery for transitional cupulolithiasis BPPV. Canal distribution of primary BPPV was: posterior canal (Pc): 85.7% (162/189), horizontal canal (Hc): 11.6% (22/189), anterior canal (Ac): 2.6% (5/189); taken together with transitional BPPV it was: Pc: 71.3% (164/230), Hc: 26.5% (61/230), Ac: 2.2% (5/230). Transitional BPPV forms were: Hc canalithiasis 58% (24/41), Hc cupulolithiasis 37% (15/41) and common crux reentry 5% (2/41). Treated with barbecue maneuver transitional Hc canalithiasis cases either resolved in 58% (14/24) or transitioned further to transitional Hc cupulolithiasis in 42% (10/24). In follow-up of transitional Hc cupulolithiasis we confirmed spontaneous recovery in 14/15 cases in less than 2 days. The most frequent transitional BPPV form was Hc canalithiasis so it raises importance of barbecue maneuver treatment. Second most frequent was transitional Hc cupulolithiasis which very quickly spontaneously recovers and does not require any intervention. The rarest found transitional BPPV form was common crux reentry which is treated by Canalith repositioning procedure. Transitional BPPV taken together with primary BPPV may decrease relative rate of Pc BPPV, considerably increase relative rate of Hc BPPV and negligibly influence relative rate of Ac BPPV. Transitional BPPV forms can be produced by repositioning maneuvers

  11. Fatal train accidents on Europe's railways: 1980-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Andrew W

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of fatal train accident rates and trends on Europe's main line railways from 1980 to 2009. The paper uses a new set of data for the European Union together with Norway and Switzerland, assembled partly under the auspices of the European Railway Agency and partly on the author's own account. The estimated overall trend in the number of fatal train collisions and derailments per train-kilometre is -6.3% per year from 1990 to 2009, with a 95% confidence interval of -8.7% to -3.9%. The estimated accident rate in 2009 is 1.35 fatal collisions or derailments per billion train-kilometres, giving an estimated mean number of fatal accidents in 2009 of 6.0. The overall number of fatalities per fatal accident in 1990-2009 is 4.10, with no apparent long term change over time, giving an estimated mean of 24.6 fatalities per year in train collisions and derailments in 2009. There are statistically significant differences in the fatal train accident rates and trends between the different European countries, although the estimates of the rates and trends for many individual countries have wide confidence limits. The distribution of broad causes of accidents appears to have remained unchanged over the long term, so that safety improvements appear to have been across the board, and not focused on any specific cause. The most frequent cause of fatal train collisions and derailments is signals passed at danger. In contrast to fatal train collisions and derailments, the rate per train-kilometre of serious accidents at level crossings remained unchanged in 1990-2009. The immediate causes of most of the serious level crossing accidents are errors or violations by road users. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Institute for Safe Medication Practices and Poison Control Centers: Collaborating to Prevent Medication Errors and Unintentional Poisonings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaida, Allen J

    2015-06-01

    This article provides an overview on the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP), the only independent nonprofit organization in the USA devoted to the prevention of medication errors. ISMP developed the national Medication Errors Reporting Program (MERP) and investigates and analyzes errors in order to formulate recommendations to prevent further occurrences. ISMP works closely with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), drug manufacturers, professional organizations, and others to promote changes in package design, practice standards, and healthcare practitioner and consumer education. By collaborating with ISMP to share and disseminate information, Poison Control centers, emergency departments, and toxicologists can help decrease unintentional and accidental poisonings.

  13. Characteristics of fatal and hospital admissions for burns in Fiji: a population-based study (TRIP Project-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taoi, Mable; Wainiqolo, Iris; Kafoa, Berlin; Kool, Bridget; Naisaki, Asilika; McCaig, Eddie; Ameratunga, Shanthi

    2012-08-01

    Over 95% of burn deaths are estimated to occur in low-and-middle-income countries. However, the epidemiology of burn-related injuries in Pacific Island Countries is unclear. This study investigated the incidence and demographic characteristics associated with fatal and hospitalised burns in Fiji. This cross-sectional study utilised the Fiji Injury Surveillance in Hospital database to estimate the population-based incidence and contextual characteristics associated with burns resulting in death or hospital admission (≥12h) during a 12-month period commencing 1st October 2005. 116 people were admitted to hospital or died as a result of burns during the study period accounting for an overall annual incidence of 17.8/100,000 population, and mortality rate of 3.4/100,000. Most (92.2%) burns occurred at home, and 85.3% were recorded as unintentional. Burns were disproportionately higher among Fijian children compared with Fijian-Indian children with the converse occurring in adulthood. In adults, Indian women were at particularly high risk of death from self-inflicted burns as a consequence of 'conflict situations'. Burns are a significant public health burden in Fiji requiring prevention and management strategies informed by important differences in the context of these injuries among the major ethic groups of the country. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  14. Two Fatal Intoxications Involving Butyryl Fentanyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poklis, Justin; Poklis, Alphonse; Wolf, Carl; Hathaway, Cindie; Arbefeville, Elise; Chrostowski, Leszek; Devers, Kelly; Hair, Laura; Mainland, Mary; Merves, Michele; Pearson, Julia

    2016-01-01

    We present the case histories, autopsy findings and toxicology findings of two fatal intoxications involving the designer drug, butyryl fentanyl. The quantitative analysis of butyryl fentanyl in postmortem fluids and tissues was performed by an ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method. In the first case, butyryl fentanyl was the only drug detected with concentrations of 99 ng/mL in peripheral blood, 220 ng/mL in heart blood, 32 ng/mL in vitreous humor, 590 ng/mL in gastric contents, 93 ng/g in brain, 41 ng/g in liver, 260 ng/mL in bile and 64 ng/mL in urine. The cause of death was ruled fatal intoxication by butyryl fentanyl. In the second case, butyryl fentanyl was detected along with acetyl fentanyl, alprazolam and ethanol. The butyryl fentanyl concentrations were 3.7 ng/mL in peripheral blood, 9.2 ng/mL in heart blood, 9.8 ng/mL in vitreous humor, 4,000 ng/mL in gastric contents, 63 ng/g in brain, 39 ng/g in liver, 49 ng/mL in bile and 2 ng/mL in urine. The acetyl fentanyl concentrations were 21 ng/mL in peripheral blood, 95 ng/mL in heart blood, 68 ng/mL in vitreous humor, 28,000 ng/mL in gastric contents, 200 ng/g in brain, 160 ng/g in liver, 330 ng/mL in bile and 8 ng/mL in urine. In addition, the alprazolam concentration was 40 ng/mL and the ethanol concentration was 0.11 g/dL, both measured in peripheral blood. The cause of death in the second case was ruled a mixed drug intoxication. In both cases, the manner of death was accident. PMID:27339481

  15. Fatal toxic epidermal necrolysis associated with minoxidil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaoui, Lamis R; Chahine-Chakhtoura, Corinne

    2009-04-01

    Minoxidil is a direct-acting peripheral vasodilator for the treatment of symptomatic hypertension, or refractory hypertension associated with target organ damage, that is not manageable with a diuretic and two other antihypertensive drugs. The most frequent adverse events associated with minoxidil include hypertrichosis and cardiovascular events related to its powerful antihypertensive effect, and less frequently, rashes, bullous eruptions, and Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS). Evidence suggests that SJS and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are variants of a single disease with common causes and mechanisms, but differing severities. Epidermal detachment is mild in SJS, moderate in overlap SJS-TEN, and severe (> 30% of body surface area) in TEN. We describe a case of minoxidil-associated SJS that evolved into fatal TEN. A 69-year-old African-American woman with a history of chronic kidney disease was admitted to the hospital for a cerebrovascular accident and uncontrolled hypertension. On hospital day 12, oral minoxidil was added to her drug regimen. On day 23, she developed a maculopapular rash on her face that gradually diffused to her chest and back. Vesicles and papular lesions extended to her extremities and mucosal membranes; results of a skin biopsy revealed SJS. A positive Nikolsky's sign (blisters spread on application of pressure) was detected. On days 27-31, diffuse bullae developed with rash exacerbation. Skin detachment exceeded 30% and was consistent with TEN. The patient died on day 39. An evaluation of the causality and time course suggested that minoxidil was the most likely culpable drug, with a Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale score indicating that the likelihood of the association was possible (score of 3). The mechanism of this reaction has not been well elucidated. It may be related to an impaired clearance of the minoxidil metabolite, or an immune stimulation resulting in apoptosis and epidermis destruction. To our knowledge, this

  16. Fatalities in high school and college football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Barry P; Breit, Ilan; Beachler, Jason A; Williams, Aaron; Mueller, Frederick O

    2013-05-01

    Fatalities in football are rare but tragic events. The purpose was to describe the causes of fatalities in high school and college football players and potentially provide preventive strategies. Descriptive epidemiology study. We reviewed the 243 football fatalities reported to the National Center for Catastrophic Sports Injury Research from July 1990 through June 2010. Football fatalities averaged 12.2 per year, or 1 per 100,000 participants. There were 164 indirect (systemic) fatalities (average, 8.2 annually [or 0.7 per 100,000 participants]) and 79 direct (traumatic) fatalities (average, 4.0 annually [or 0.3 per 100,000 participants]). Indirect fatalities were 2.1 times more common than direct fatalities. The risk of a fatality in college compared with high school football players was 2.8 (95% CI, 0.7-8.2) times higher for all fatalities, 3.6 (95% CI, 2.5-5.3) times higher for indirect events, 1.4 (95% CI, 0.6-3.0) times higher for direct injuries, 3.8 (95% CI, 1.8-8.3) times higher for heat illness, and 66 (95% CI, 14.4-308) times higher for sickle cell trait (SCT) fatalities. Most indirect events occurred in practice sessions; preseason practices and intense conditioning sessions were vulnerable periods for athletes to develop heat illness or SCT fatalities, respectively. In contrast, most brain fatalities occurred during games. The odds of a fatality during the second decade, compared with the first decade of the study, were 9.7 (95% CI, 1.2-75.9) for SCT, 1.5 (95% CI, 0.8-2.9) for heat illness, 1.1 (95% CI, 0.8-1.7) for cardiac fatalities, and 0.7 (95% CI, 0.4-1.2) for brain fatalities. The most common causes of fatalities were cardiac failure (n = 100, 41.2%), brain injury (n = 62, 25.5%), heat illness (n = 38, 15.6%), SCT (n = 11, 4.5%), asthma and commotio cordis (n = 7 each, 2.9% each), embolism/blood clot (n = 5, 2.1%), cervical fracture (n = 4, 1.7%), and intra-abdominal injury, infection, and lightning (n = 3, 1.2% each). High school and college

  17. Fatalities from black powder percussion handguns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karger, B; Teige, K

    1998-12-21

    Three suicides and one homicide from black powder muzzle loading handguns are reported and the muzzle velocities of two weapons are recorded. The fatal head shots caused wide wound tracts traversing the brains and intracerebral haemorrhages remote from the tract were present in every case. The skulls showed considerable fractures which were pronounced in the cases of contact shots but were also present when the range of fire was 5 m. These extensive injuries from soft lead spheres with muzzle velocities of only approximately 200 m/s are attributed to the expansion of the spheres. The regularly occurring deformation resulted in 13-16 mm calibre missiles in the cases of .44 spheres. The special features of black powder such as incomplete and slow combustion resulted in intense soot deposits in the vicinity of the entrance wound and in long ranges the gunshot residues travelled. In contact shots, large pocket-like underminings even in deeper tissue layers, abundant soot along the trajectory and skin burns were observed.

  18. Retrospective study of fatal pneumonia in racehorses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvallo, Francisco R; Uzal, Francisco A; Diab, Santiago S; Hill, Ashley E; Arthur, Rick M

    2017-07-01

    Respiratory diseases have a major impact on racehorses in training and are often cited as the second most common reason of horses failing to perform. Cases were submitted by the California Horse Racing Board to the California Animal Health and Food Safety laboratory for postmortem examination between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2014. We determined the demographics of racehorses with fatal pneumonia, characterized the pathologic findings in animals with a postmortem diagnosis of respiratory infection, and determined the most significant pathogens associated with lower respiratory tract disease. We analyzed autopsy reports from 83 horses with a diagnosis of pneumonia, bronchopneumonia, and/or pleuropneumonia. The most common presentation was pleuropneumonia (71% of cases), with extensive areas of lytic necrosis and abscesses of the pulmonary parenchyma. Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus, a normal mucosal commensal of the upper respiratory tract of healthy horses, was the most commonly isolated organism (72% of cases), either in pure culture or accompanied by other aerobic or anaerobic bacteria. Its presence in the pulmonary parenchyma is associated with severe and extensive damage to the lung. Furthermore, this agent has zoonotic potential, which stresses the importance of early detection and proper management of cases of pneumonia in racehorses.

  19. Fatal toxoplasmosis in sand cats (Felis margarita).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pas, An; Dubey, J P

    2008-09-01

    The sand cat (Felis margarita) is a small-sized felid occurring in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The sand cat captive-breeding program at the Breeding Centre for Endangered Arabian Wildlife in Sharjah, UAE, has until recently been severely compromised by very high newborn mortality rates. Two different pairs of sand cats gave birth, respectively, to one and two litters (with a total of eight kittens) between 1999 and 2006. Seven out of eight kittens died between the third and 21st wk of life. Toxoplasmosis was confirmed as the cause of death in these two litters. Adult cats had high antibody titers to Toxoplasma gondii before pregnancy, suggesting that maternal immunity did not protect the kittens against infection with T. gondii and that maternal immunity might not have prevented transplacental transmission of the parasite. This observation contrasts with what is seen in domestic cats. To date, this is the first report on confirmed fatal toxoplasmosis and prevalence of T. gondii in sand cats.

  20. Consideraciones en tomo a "La fatal arrogancia"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Fernández Aguado

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The author makes here an analysis of Friedrick A. Hayek's The Fatal Conceit. This thinker considers that the best political-economical system for human civilization is capitalism, which has arised in an spontaneous, evolutive and adaptative way without any intention or plan thanks to a deus ex machina. Hayek shows himself as an advocate of capitalism and as an enemy of socialism; he despises solidarity and supports egoism as the motor of economy, for, according to him, without it society would not be where it is now. Hayek imports Darwin's evolutionary theory in order to justify economy's blind and fortuitous development, which in turn explains that capitalism is reached through a series of unforeseen and spontaneous events which are overcomed thanks to adaptation. Hayek draws historicist arguments at some poins, in an invalid way, rejecting everything that looks like socialism, and he makes mistakes where philosophical concepts are dealed with. Hayek's continuous reject towards Aristotle and his political-economical thesis obeys to the fact that the author rejects the Catholic Church, which, according to him, gathered the Aristotelian thesis through saint Thomas Aquinas. Hayek proposes a selfish and capitalist moral which one ought to accept if one does not wish for hunger and poverty.

  1. [Recurrent postpartum pyoderma gangrenosum and fatal cardiomyopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naciri, I; Meziane, M; Benzekri, L; Ghaouti, M; Senouci, K; Hassam, B

    2017-12-06

    We report a case of recurrent post-partum pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) complicated by post-partum cardiomyopathy (PPCM). A 23-year-old woman presented with a previous medical history of aseptic abscess of the left breast in her fourth pregnancy, which developed after surgical drainage of an inflammatory ulceration treated by atraumatic topical care. During her fifth pregnancy, the patient presented a large and painful ulceration in relation to the scar of the Caesarean section, despite the introduction of broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy. Bacteriological samples were negative. Histological examination militated in favor of PG. One week after initiation of corticosteroid therapy, the patient suddenly showed signs of heart failure. Based on trans-thoracic echocardiography PPCM was diagnosed, and the outcome was fatal. This observation raises the question of the relationship between PG and pregnancy and describes the association of PG and PPCM. PG occurs rarely during pregnancy and it may be induced by the rise in G-CSF levels found in pregnant women. The association with PPCM seen in our patient could have been due to the development of an anti-angiogenic climate at the end of pregnancy, together with inflammatory myocardial aggression linked to the PG. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Fatal cocaine intoxication in a body packer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brajković Gordana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. ‘Body packer’ syndrome with severe intoxication or sudden death may happen in persons who smuggle drugs in their body cavities. In case of lethal outcome when carrying cocaine, it is important, but sometimes difficult to determine whether death was due to intoxication or due to other causes. Therefore, it is necessary not only to quantify cocaine and its metabolites in biological material, but also based on their distribution in body fluids and tissues to conclude whether it is acute intoxication. We described a well-documented case of fatal poisoning in a body packer and post mortem distribution of the drug in biological samples. Case report. A 26-year-old man was brought to hospital with no vital signs. Resuscitation measures started at once, but with no success. Autopsy revealed 66 packets of cocaine in his digestive tract, one of which was ruptured. Hyperemia of the most of all internal organs and pulmonary and brain edema were found. High concentrations of cocaine, its metabolites benzoylecgonine and ecgonine methyl ester, as well as cocaine adulteration levamisole were proven in the post mortem blood and tissues by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MC method with selective-ion monitoring. Conclusion. The ratio of cocaine and its metabolites concentrations in the brain and blood obtained by LC-MS method can be used for forensic confirmation of acute intoxication with cocaine.

  3. Community Poverty and Child Abuse Fatalities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Caitlin A; Fleegler, Eric W; Monuteaux, Michael C; Wilson, Celeste R; Christian, Cindy W; Lee, Lois K

    2017-05-01

    Child maltreatment remains a problem in the United States, and individual poverty is a recognized risk factor for abuse. Children in impoverished communities are at risk for negative health outcomes, but the relationship of community poverty to child abuse fatalities is not known. Our objective was to evaluate the association between county poverty concentration and rates of fatal child abuse. This was a retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of child abuse fatalities in US children 0 to 4 years of age from 1999 to 2014 by using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Compressed Mortality Files. Population and poverty statistics were obtained from US Census data. National child abuse fatality rates were calculated for each category of community poverty concentration. Multivariate negative binomial regression modeling assessed the relationship between county poverty concentration and child abuse fatalities. From 1999 to 2014, 11 149 children 0 to 4 years old died of child abuse; 45% (5053) were poverty concentration had >3 times the rate of child abuse fatalities compared with counties with the lowest poverty concentration (adjusted incidence rate ratio, 3.03; 95% confidence interval, 2.4-3.79). Higher county poverty concentration is associated with increased rates of child abuse fatalities. This finding should inform public health officials in targeting high-risk areas for interventions and resources. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. Australian quad bike fatalities: what is the economic cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lower, Tony; Pollock, Kirrily; Herde, Emily

    2013-04-01

    To determine the economic costs associated with all quad bike-related fatalities in Australia, 2001 to 2010. A human capital approach to establish the economic costs of quad bike related fatalities to the Australian economy. The model included estimates on loss of earnings due to premature death and direct costs based on coronial records for ambulance, police, hospital, premature funeral, coronial and work safety authority investigation, and death compensation costs. All costs were calculated to 2010 dollars. The estimated total economic cost associated with quad bike fatalities over this period was $288.1 million, with an average cost for each fatality of $2.3 million. When assessing the average cost of incidents between age cohorts, those aged 25-34 years had the lowest number of fatalities but had the highest average cost ($4.2 million). Quad bike fatalities have a significant economic impact on Australian society that is increasing. Implications : Given the high cost to society, interventions to address quad bike fatalities have the potential to be highly cost-effective. Such interventions should focus on design approaches to improve the safety of quad bikes in terms of stability and protection in the event of a rollover. Additionally, relevant policy (e.g. no children under 16 years riding quads, no passengers) and intervention approaches (e.g. training and use of helmets) must also support the design modifications. © 2013 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2013 Public Health Association of Australia.

  5. Cancer fatalism: deterring early presentation and increasing social inequalities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeken, Rebecca J; Simon, Alice E; von Wagner, Christian; Whitaker, Katriina L; Wardle, Jane

    2011-10-01

    Fatalistic beliefs about cancer have been implicated in low uptake of screening and delay in presentation particularly in low socioeconomic status (SES) groups, but no studies have systematically evaluated interrelationships between SES, fatalism, and early detection behaviors. We explored whether (i) fatalism is associated with negative attitudes toward early detection, (ii) lower SES groups are more fatalistic, and (iii) SES differences in fatalism partly explain SES differences in attitudes toward early detection. In a population-representative sample of adults in Britain using computer-based interviews in the home setting, respondents (N = 2,018) answered two questions to index fatalism (expectations of cancer survival and cure) and two items on early detection attitudes (the perceived value of early detection and fear of symptom reporting). SES was indexed with a social grade classification. Fatalism was associated with being less positive about early detection (β = -0.40, P fatalism might explain SES differences in attitudes about early detection. In this population sample, SES differences in fatalism partly explained SES differences in the perceived value of early detection and fear of symptom presentation. Fatalistic beliefs about cancer should be targeted to promote early presentation of cancer and this may be particularly important for lower SES groups. ©2011 AACR

  6. Unintentional Injuries in Preschool Age Children: Is There a Correlation With Parenting Style and Parental Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Ethem; Dursun, Onur Burak; Esin, İbrahim Selcuk; Öğütlü, Hakan; Özcan, Halil; Mutlu, Murat

    2015-08-01

    Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death among children. Previous research has shown that most of the injuries occur in and around the home. Therefore, parents have a key role in the occurrence and prevention of injuries. In this study, we examined the relationship among home injuries to children and parental attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, parental attitudes, and children's behavioral problems.Forty children who were admitted to the emergency department because of home injuries constitute the study group. The control group also consisted of 40 children, who were admitted for mild throat infections. The parents filled out questionnaires assessing parental ADHD, child behavioral problems, and parenting attitudes.Scores were significantly higher for both internalizing disorders and externalizing disorders in study groups. We also found that ADHD symptoms were significantly higher among fathers of injured children compared with fathers of control groups. Democratic parenting was also found to correlate with higher numbers of injuries.Parenting style, as well as the psychopathology of both the parents and children, is important factors in children's injuries. A child psychiatrist visit following an emergency procedure may help to prevent further unintentional injuries to the child.

  7. Psychosocial correlates of unintentional weight loss in the second half of life in the German general population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Hajek

    Full Text Available Unintentional weight loss (UWL is common in older age and associated with adverse outcomes including mortality. The aim of the present study was to determine psychosocial correlates of UWL.Data were derived from a large, nationally representative study of community-dwelling individuals in the second half of life (40 years and over in Germany in 2014 (n = 7,933. Data on UWL were assessed in face-to-face interviews as unintentional loss of more than 5kg (11 pounds in weight in the past 12 months, and data on psychosocial factors were recorded in self-administered questionnaires.Multiple logistic regressions revealed that UWL was positively associated with depressive symptoms and positive affect, whereas it was negatively associated with self-esteem. Individuals with UWL were more likely to feel lonely and perceive themselves as socially excluded.The findings of important psychosocial correlates of UWL may help to identify individuals at risk for UWL in older age. This is in particular important since interventions to treat this phenomenon in older age are available that reduce adverse consequences resulting from UWL.

  8. Nordic ski jumping fatalities in the United States: a 50-year summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J R

    1988-06-01

    Nordic ski-jumping fatalities are rare events. Six jumping fatalities have occurred in the United States during the past 50 years. The fatality rate for nordic ski jumping, estimated to be roughly 12 fatalities/100,000 participants annually, appears to be within the range of fatality rates for other "risky" outdoor sports. Cervical fractures appear to be the most frequent fatal ski-jumping injury.

  9. Fatalism toward breast cancer among the women of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Rachel M; Hunter, Anita; Parker, Veronica G

    2003-08-01

    Personal beliefs about health and illness influence many people's decisions about seeking care. This research represents a study of beliefs about breast cancer held by African women in Ghana. In-person interviews based on the revised Powe fatalism inventory (rPFI) were held with 109 women. Correlational analysis and factor analysis were performed. There were negative, nonsignificant associations between fatalism and age (r = -.095, p = 0.33), and educational level (r = -.078, p = .422). Fatalism scores were relatively low, 3.78 on an 11 -point scale. Comparisons are made to responses by African American women in other studies.

  10. Unintentional ingestion of Cordyceps fungus-infected cicada nymphs causing ibotenic acid poisoning in Southern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Uyen Vy; Mendez Rojas, Bomar; Kirby, Ralph

    2017-09-01

    Cordyceps fungus found in infected cicada nymphs ("cicada flowers") is utilized in traditional Chinese medicine. Cordyceps fungus toxicity in humans has not been previously reported. We report 60 cases of apparent Cordyceps poisoning in Southern Vietnam. We retrospectively collected demographic and clinical data from the medical records (21 cases) and by telephone interview (39 cases) of patients admitted to seven hospitals in Southern Vietnam following ingestion of cicada flowers between 2008 and 2015. We also determined the species of Cordyceps present in the cicada flowers and performed a partial chemical analysis of the fungus. Sixty cases of toxic effects following ingestion of cicada flowers were documented. Symptom onset occurred within 60 minutes following ingestion. Symptoms included dizziness, vomiting, salivation, mydriasis, jaw stiffness, urinary retention, seizures, agitated delirium, hallucinations, somnolence and coma. None of the patients suffered liver or kidney injury. There was one fatality. The Cordyceps fungus involved in these poisoning was identified as Ophiocordyceps heteropoda. The presence of ibotenic acid was confirmed, but musimol and muscarine were absent. Cicada infected with Ophiocordyceps heteropoda in Vietnam contain ibotenic acid and are associated with a clinical syndrome consistent with its effects.

  11. Unintentional childhood injury patterns, odds, and outcomes in Kampala City: an analysis of surveillance data from the National Pediatric Emergency Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutto, Milton; Lawoko, Stephen; Nansamba, Catherine; Ovuga, Emilio; Svanstrom, Leif

    2011-01-01

    Unintentional Childhood Injuries pose a major public health challenge in Africa and Uganda. Previous estimates of the problem may have underestimated the childhood problem. We set to determine unintentional childhood injury pattern, odds, and outcomes at the National Paediatric Emergency unit in Kampala city using surveillance data. Incident proportions, odds and proportional rates were calculated and used to determine unintentional injury patterns across childhood (1-12 years). A total of 556 cases recorded between January and May 2008 were analyzed: majority had been transported to hospital by mothers using mini-buses, private cars, and motorcycles. Median distance from injury location to hospital was 5 km. Homes, roads, and schools were leading injury locations. Males constituted 60% of the cases. Play and daily living activities were commonest injury time activities. Falls, burns and traffic accounted for 70.5% of unintentional childhood injuries. Burns, open wounds, fractures were commonest injury types. Motorcycles, buses and passenger-cars caused most crashes. Play grounds, furniture, stairs and trees were commonest source of falls. Most burn injuries were caused by liquids, fires and hot objects. 43.8% of cases were admitted. 30% were discharged without disability; 10%, were disabled; 1%, died. Injury odds and proportional incidence rates varied with age, place and cause. Poisoning and drowning were rare. Local pediatric injury priorities should include home, road and school safety. Unintentional injuries are common causes of hospital visit by children under 13 years especially boys. Homes, roads and educational facilities are commonest unintentional injury sites. Significant age and gender differences exist in intentional injury causation, characteristics and outcomes. In its current form, our surveillance system seems inefficient in capturing poisoning and drowning. The local prevention priorities could include home, road and school safety; especially

  12. Fatal Fentanyl: One Pill Can Kill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Mark E; Gerona, Roy R; Davis, M Thais; Roche, Bailey M; Colby, Daniel K; Chenoweth, James A; Adams, Axel J; Owen, Kelly P; Ford, Jonathan B; Black, Hugh B; Albertson, Timothy E

    2017-01-01

    The current national opioid epidemic is a public health emergency. We have identified an outbreak of exaggerated opioid toxicity caused by fentanyl adulterated tablets purchased on the street as hydrocodone/acetaminophen. Over an 8-day period in late March 2016, a total of 18 patients presented to our institution with exaggerated opioid toxicity. The patients provided a similar history: ingesting their "normal dose" of hydrocodone/acetaminophen tablets but with more pronounced symptoms. Toxicology testing and analysis was performed on serum, urine, and surrendered pills. One of the 18 patients died in hospital. Five patients underwent cardiopulmonary resuscitation, one required extracorporeal life support, three required intubation, and two received bag-valve-mask ventilation. One patient had recurrence of toxicity after 8 hours after naloxone discontinuation. Seventeen of 18 patients required boluses of naloxone, and four required prolonged naloxone infusions (26-39 hours). All 18 patients tested positive for fentanyl in the serum. Quantitative assays conducted in 13 of the sera revealed fentanyl concentrations of 7.9 to 162 ng/mL (mean = 52.9 ng/mL). Pill analysis revealed fentanyl amounts of 600-6,900 μg/pill. The pills are virtually indistinguishable from authentic hydrocodone/acetaminophen tablets and are similar in weight. To date, our county has reported 56 cases of fentanyl opioid toxicity, with 15 fatalities. In our institution, the outbreak has stressed the capabilities and resources of the emergency department and intensive care units. A serious outbreak of exaggerated opioid toxicity caused by fentanyl-adulterated tablets purchased on the street as hydrocodone/acetaminophen is under way in California. These patients required higher dosing and prolonged infusions of naloxone. Additionally, observation periods off naloxone were extended due to delayed, recurrent toxicity. The outbreak has serious ramifications for public health and safety, law

  13. Pathologic features of fatal shark attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byard, R W; Gilbert, J D; Brown, K

    2000-09-01

    To examine the pattern of injuries in cases of fatal shark attack in South Australian waters, the authors examined the files of their institution for all cases of shark attack in which full autopsies had been performed over the past 25 years, from 1974 to 1998. Of the seven deaths attributed to shark attack during this period, full autopsies were performed in only two cases. In the remaining five cases, bodies either had not been found or were incomplete. Case 1 was a 27-year-old male surfer who had been attacked by a shark. At autopsy, the main areas of injury involved the right thigh, which displayed characteristic teeth marks, extensive soft tissue damage, and incision of the femoral artery. There were also incised wounds of the right wrist. Bony injury was minimal, and no shark teeth were recovered. Case 2 was a 26-year-old male diver who had been attacked by a shark. At autopsy, the main areas of injury involved the left thigh and lower leg, which displayed characteristic teeth marks, extensive soft tissue damage, and incised wounds of the femoral artery and vein. There was also soft tissue trauma to the left wrist, with transection of the radial artery and vein. Bony injury was minimal, and no shark teeth were recovered. In both cases, death resulted from exsanguination following a similar pattern of soft tissue and vascular damage to a leg and arm. This type of injury is in keeping with predator attack from underneath or behind, with the most severe injuries involving one leg. Less severe injuries to the arms may have occurred during the ensuing struggle. Reconstruction of the damaged limb in case 2 by sewing together skin, soft tissue, and muscle bundles not only revealed that no soft tissue was missing but also gave a clearer picture of the pattern of teeth marks, direction of the attack, and species of predator.

  14. Firearm fatalities in Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Madni, Osama; Kharosha, Magdy Abdel Azim; Shotar, Ali M

    2008-07-01

    This paper provides a database representing injury mortality in Dammam, Saudi Arabia, with the aim of establishing a system which will record information about the incidence of such deaths, identify new trends and give priority to violence prevention. The retrospective study was carried out on 64 fatalities from gunfire injuries at the Forensic Medicine Centre in Dammam, Saudi Arabia during the period from January 2002 - December 2006. The deaths included 55 cases of homicide, seven cases of suicide and two accidental shootings. Twenty-six victims were aged between 16-30 years and 24 victims were between 31-45 years. Fifty-nine of the cases were male. A handgun was the weapon used in 49 cases. The most common sites for the firearm entrance wounds were the head (45 cases) and the chest (35 cases). In the majority of cases (56.3%) a single shot was fired while in 15.6% of cases there were two shots. In 51.5% of cases no bullet was recovered from the body while a single bullet was recovered in 31.5% and two bullets in 6.2% of the cases. Distant range fire was observed in 65.6% of cases. Exit wounds were found on the head in 36.7% and on the chest in 28.7% of cases. The majority of victims were young males living in urban areas. This result should help in forming a strategy to improve the livelihoods of this group. The low incidence of alcohol abuse (one case, 1.56%) and only three cases (4.68%) of amphetamine abuse is significant.

  15. Estimated total costs from non-fatal and fatal bicycle crashes in the USA: 1997-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaither, Thomas W; Sanford, Thomas A; Awad, Mohannad A; Osterberg, E Charles; Murphy, Gregory P; Lawrence, Bruce A; Miller, Ted R; Breyer, Benjamin N

    2018-04-01

    Emergency department visits and hospital admissions resulting from adult bicycle trauma have increased dramatically. Annual medical costs and work losses of these incidents last were estimated for 2005 and quality-of-life losses for 2000. We estimated costs associated with adult bicycle injuries in the USA using 1997-2013 non-fatal incidence data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System with cost estimates from the Consumer Product Safety Commission's Injury Cost Model, and 1999-2013 fatal incidence data from the National Vital Statistics System costed by similar methods. Approximately 3.8 million non-fatal adult bicycle injuries were reported during the study period and 9839 deaths. In 2010 dollars, estimated adult bicycle injury costs totalled $24.4 billion in 2013. Estimated injury costs per mile bicycled fell from $2.85 in 2001 to $2.35 in 2009. From 1999 to 2013, total estimated costs were $209 billion due to non-fatal bicycle injuries and $28 billion due to fatal injuries. Inflation-free annual costs in the study period increased by 137% for non-fatal injuries and 23% for fatal injuries. The share of non-fatal costs associated with injuries to riders age 45 and older increased by 1.6% (95% CI 1.4% to 1.9%) annually. The proportion of costs due to incidents that occurred on a street or highway steadily increased by 0.8% (95% CI 0.4% to 1.3%) annually. Inflation-free costs per case associated with non-fatal bicycle injuries are increasing. The growth in costs is especially associated with rising ridership, riders 45 and older, and street/highway crashes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Fatal and non-fatal injury outcomes: results from a purposively sampled census of seven rural subdistricts in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonge, Olakunle; Agrawal, Priyanka; Talab, Abu; Rahman, Qazi S; Rahman, Akm Fazlur; Arifeen, Shams El; Hyder, Adnan A

    2017-08-01

    90% of the global burden of injuries is borne by low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, details of the injury burden in LMICs are less clear because of the scarcity of data and population-based studies. The Saving of Lives from Drowning project, implemented in rural Bangladesh, did a census on 1·2 million people to fill this gap. This Article describes the epidemiology of fatal and non-fatal injuries from the study. In this study, we used data from the baseline census conducted as part of the Saving of Lives from Drowning (SoLiD) project. The census was implemented in 51 unions from seven purposively sampled rural subdistricts of Bangladesh between June and November, 2013. Sociodemographic, injury mortality, and morbidity information were collected for the whole population in the study area. We analysed the data for descriptive measures of fatal and non-fatal injury outcomes. Age and gender distribution, socioeconomic characteristics, and injury characteristics such as external cause, intent, location, and body part affected were reported for all injury outcomes. The census covered a population of 1 169 593 from 270 387 households and 451 villages. The overall injury mortality rate was 38 deaths per 100 000 population per year, and 104 703 people sustained major non-fatal injuries over a 6-month recall period. Drowning was the leading external cause of injury death for all ages, and falls caused the most number of non-fatal injuries. Fatal injury rates were highest in children aged 1-4 years. Non-fatal injury rates were also highest in children aged 1-4 years and those aged 65 years and older. Males had more fatal and non-fatal injuries than females across all external causes except for burns. Suicide was the leading cause of injury deaths in individuals aged 15-24 years, and more than 50% of the suicides occurred in females. The home environment was the most common location for most injuries. The burden of fatal and non-fatal injuries

  17. Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Tips » Holiday and Seasonal Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences Emergency physicians are warning ... it bluntly, leaving your child in a hot car is like leaving your child in a lit ...

  18. Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Tips » Holiday and Seasonal Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences Emergency physicians are warning ... with leaving anyone, especially children in hot, unventilated vehicles during the summer. Children throughout the country die ...

  19. Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Share this! Home » Health Tips » Holiday and Seasonal Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences Emergency ... the overwhelming dangers associated with leaving anyone, especially children in hot, unventilated vehicles during the summer. Children ...

  20. Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home » Health Tips » Holiday and Seasonal Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences Emergency physicians are ... dangers associated with leaving anyone, especially children in hot, unventilated vehicles during the summer. Children throughout the ...

  1. Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips » Holiday and Seasonal Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences Emergency physicians are warning the ... children play in an unattended vehicle. Make a habit of looking in the vehicle before you get ...

  2. Post-transplant withdrawal of lamivudine results in fatal hepatitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post-transplant withdrawal of lamivudine results in fatal hepatitis flares in kidney transplant recipients, under immune suppression, with inactive hepatitis B infection. Bin Miao, Xiang-Ming Lao, Guo-Li Lin ...

  3. New Jersey motorcycle fatality rates : final report, December 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Motorcycle crashes have been increasing in recent years, more than doubling since 1991. In 2007 there were 84 fatal motorcycle crashes in New Jersey. This report describes the methods and findings of an investigation of motorcycle crashes in New Jers...

  4. Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips Campaigns SUBSCRIBE Health Tips Share this! Home » Health Tips » Holiday and Seasonal Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences Emergency physicians are warning the public about the overwhelming dangers associated with leaving anyone, ...

  5. Towards a Theory of Suicide: The Case for Modern Fatalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Dennis L.

    1980-01-01

    Explores the empirical relationship between fatalism and suicide in a population of youthful victims. Content analysis of case histories and suicide notes showed almost one-third experienced fatalistic thoughtways prior to their death. (Author)

  6. Dehydration Comes on Fast and Can Be Fatal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share this! Home » Health Tips » Holiday and Seasonal Dehydration comes on fast and can be fatal During ... at a higher risk ofbecoming dehydrated. Causes of Dehydration: Excessive sweating (from heat and/or exercise) with ...

  7. Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as high as 106 degrees Fahrenheit in that time and it often is fatal. Specifically, these extreme ... get out. If your infant or young child travels in a rear-facing car seat or the ...

  8. Fatality analysis reporting system and roadway inventory correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In this project, we developed an integrated database to provide new analysis capabilities : for discovering correlations between roadway characteristics and the occurrence of : fatality collisions. Specifically, the aim of this data analysis project ...

  9. Geo-demographic analysis of fatal motorcycle crashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the combined motor vehicle crash data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) with the Claritas geo-demographic database from the lifestyle perspective to determine the appropriate media to use in ...

  10. Fatal Candidemia in a Patient with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-16

    NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Fatal Candidcn1ia in a Patient \\\\ith Acute Lympboblastic Leukemia Brittany Lenz. MD. Arturo Dominguez.. MD. Adnan J’vlir. MD, PhD...Profoosionaf 7 ,0 Fatal Candidemia in a Patient with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Brittany Lenz, MD, Arturo Dominguez, MD, Adnan Mir, MD, PhD Objectives...with pre-B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia was admitted for presumed septic shock secondary to an unknown infectious etiology. The patient was

  11. A fatal case of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doganci, Levent; Tanyel, Esra; Basibuyuk, Hakki; Darka, Ozge

    2008-04-01

    In daily medical practice, streptococcal toxic shock syndrome is an infrequent clinical entity which carry a very high risk of fatality. Early recognition of this toxin mediated immunopathological disease is very important to apply necessary invasive procedures such as an prompt amputation of the effected areas to save the patient. Here, we report a 47 year-old male farmer with a fatal streptococcal toxic shock syndrome to highlight the importance of emergency care and aggresive surgical intervention in similar situations.

  12. Car mass and fatality risk: has the relationship changed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, L; Frick, M C

    1994-01-01

    The finding that the relative safety disadvantage of small compared with large cars is less for post-1980 cars than for pre-1980 cars has stimulated speculation that increasing fuel economy standards would increase fatalities less than previously expected. Fatal crashes between two cars of similar model year were examined to see whether this would be the case. Driver fatality risk in relation to car mass was examined with Fatal Accident Reporting System data for crashes between two cars of a specific model year. The relative risk for driver fatality in the lighter car compared with the other driver's risk in a car 50% heavier was as follows: for 1966 through 1979 cars, the risk was between 3.7 and 5.1; for 1984 cars, 2.6; and for 1990 cars, 4.1. The results suggest that the lesser mass effect observed for mid-1980s cars occurred because improved crashworthiness features appeared in small cars earlier than in large cars. As all cars are redesigned, the relationship between risk and mass can be expected to approach that observed earlier in pre-1980 cars. If so, future fatality increases from fuel economy increases will be greater than estimated on the basis of mid-1980 data.

  13. Risk factors for unintentional poisoning in children aged 1-3 years in NSW Australia: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmertmann, Marcia; Williamson, Ann; Black, Deborah; Wilson, Leigh

    2013-05-24

    Unintentional poisoning in young children is an important public health issue. Age pattern studies have demonstrated that children aged 1-3 years have the highest levels of poisoning risk among children aged 0-4 years, yet little research has been conducted regarding risk factors specific to this three-year age group and the methodologies employed varied greatly. The purpose of the current study is to investigate a broad range of potential risk factors for unintentional poisoning in children aged 1-3 years using appropriate methodologies. Four groups of children, one case group (children who had experienced a poisoning event) and three control groups (children who had been 'injured', 'sick' or who were 'healthy'), and their mothers (mother-child dyads) were enrolled into a case-control study. All mother-child dyads participated in a 1.5-hour child developmental screening and observation, with mothers responding to a series of questionnaires at home. Data were analysed as three case-control pairs with multivariate analyses used to control for age and sex differences between child cases and controls. Five risk factors were included in the final multivariate models for one or more case-control pairs. All three models found that children whose mothers used more positive control in their interactions during a structured task had higher odds of poisoning. Two models showed that maternal psychiatric distress increased poisoning risk (poisoning-injury and poisoning-healthy). Individual models identified the following variables as risk factors: less proximal maternal supervision during risk taking activities (poisoning-injury), medicinal substances stored in more accessible locations in bathrooms (poisoning-sick) and lower total parenting stress (poisoning-healthy). The findings of this study indicate that the nature of the caregiver-child relationship and caregiver attributes play an important role in influencing poisoning risk. Further research is warranted to explore the

  14. Using speeding detections and numbers of fatalities to estimate relative risk of a fatality for motorcyclists and car drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Richard

    2013-10-01

    Precise estimation of the relative risk of motorcyclists being involved in a fatal accident compared to car drivers is difficult. Simple estimates based on the proportions of licenced drivers or riders that are killed in a fatal accident are biased as they do not take into account the exposure to risk. However, exposure is difficult to quantify. Here we adapt the ideas behind the well known induced exposure methods and use available summary data on speeding detections and fatalities for motorcycle riders and car drivers to estimate the relative risk of a fatality for motorcyclists compared to car drivers under mild assumptions. The method is applied to data on motorcycle riders and car drivers in Victoria, Australia in 2010 and a small simulation study is conducted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Unconsciously induced song recall: the process of unintentional rather than so-called spontaneous evocations of music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz de Chumaceiro, C L

    1996-03-01

    This paper has presented the basis for a reformulation of the traditional psychoanalytic usage of the term spontaneous evocations. Illustrated with a supervisory example, I have argued for a return to Freud's original use of the word unintentional or to equivalent synonyms. The process whereby such unexpected music evocations appear in consciousness has been termed "unconsciously induced song recall." The role of serendipity in this theoretical reformulation will be addressed separately (see Díaz de Chumaceiro, 1995; Díaz de Chumaceiro and Yáber, 1994). Like dreams, music evocations can be subjected to analysis and interpretation, if when recalled by indirect or direct induction in treatment they are mentioned to the therapist. This basic principle of induced recall can be generalized to evocations of the art world at large.

  16. Authoritative knowledge and single women's unintentional pregnancies, abortions, adoption, and single motherhood: social stigma and structural violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Marcia A

    2003-09-01

    This article explores the sources of authoritative knowledge that shaped single, white, middle-class women's unintentional pregnancies and child-bearing decisions throughout five reproductive eras. Women who terminated a pregnancy were most influenced by their own personal needs and circumstances. birth mothers' decisions were based on external sources of knowledge, such as their mothers, social workers, and social pressures. In contrast, single mothers based their decision on instincts and their religious or moral beliefs. Reproductive policies further constrained and significantly shaped women's experiences. The social stigma associated with these forms of stratified maternity suggests that categorizing pregnant women by their marital status, or births as out-of-wedlock, reproduces the structural violence implicit to normative models of female sexuality and maternity. This mixed-method study included focus groups to determine the kinds of knowledge women considered authoritative, a mailed survey to quantify these identified sources, and one-on-one interviews to explore outcomes in depth.

  17. A socio-ecological model for unintentional injuries in minorities: a case study of Arab Israeli children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron-Epel, Orna; Ivancovsky, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Minority children have often been reported to be at high risk of injury. The higher levels of reported unintentional injuries among Arab children compared to Jewish children in Israel are mainly due to pedestrian traffic crashes, falls and burns. Arab children aged 1-4 years have a higher relative risk of injury compared to Jews. We suggest a socio-ecological model to explain these differences in risk based on individual, interpersonal, community and societal ecological levels of society. Each level is divided into social and physical environments and behaviour. Two main factors may contribute to the high rates of injury among Arab children: the quality of the physical environment in which the children live and play and the levels of child supervision. Socio-economic status may contribute to these differences at all ecological levels of society. This approach could be useful for researchers and practitioners to analyse similar issues in other communities and help develop appropriate interventions.

  18. The limited utility of screening laboratory tests and electrocardiograms in the management of unintentional asymptomatic pediatric ingestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, George Sam; Deakyne, Sara; Bajaj, Lalit; Yin, Shan; Heard, Kennon; Roosevelt, Genie

    2013-07-01

    Suspected ingestions are a common chief complaint to the emergency department although the majority of ingestions by children are insignificant. Assess the utility of screening laboratory tests and Electrocardiograms (ECGs) in unintentional asymptomatic pediatric poisonings. Retrospective chart review at a tertiary care children's hospital and a regional poison center of patients less than 12 years of age using ICD-9 codes from January 2005 through December 2008. Laboratory or ECG results requiring intervention and/or direct treatment, a non-RPC subspecialty consultation, and/or prolonged Emergency Department stay was considered changed management. Five hundred ninety five suspected ingestions met our criteria. The median age was 2.6 years (IQR 1.6, 3.0 years) and 56% were male. One laboratory test or ECG was obtained in 233 patients (39%). Of 24 screening ECGs, 32 complete blood counts and 34 blood gases, none were clinically significant. Fifty-two patients received screening metabolic panels, 3 were abnormal and 2 changed management (anion gap metabolic acidosis with unsuspected salicylate ingestions). None of the 127 (21%) screening acetaminophen levels changed management. Two of sixty-five (13%) screening salicylate levels changed management. Three screening urine toxicology tests on patients with altered mental status were positive without ingestion history. No patient under the age of 12 years with normal vital signs and normal mental status had positive screening tests. Screening laboratory tests and ECGs were of limited utility and rarely changed management despite being ordered in a significant number of patients. Screening tests are rarely indicated in unintentional overdoses in children who are asymptomatic. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. A large animal fatal extremity hemorrhage model and evaluation of a polymeric dressing (fatal extremity hemorrhage).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Thomas; Baer, David G; Kauvar, David S

    2006-11-01

    Extremity hemorrhage is a contributor to preventable battlefield mortality. The Army has liberalized tourniquet use guidelines in an attempt to prevent these deaths. To evaluate wound hemostatic agents that might allow for early tourniquet removal while maintaining hemorrhage control, a model of lethal extremity hemorrhage in the goat (Capra hircus) was developed and a polymeric dressing agent (BioFoam) tested. After administration of a spinal block, animals were placed in lateral recumbancy with a head-up tilt of 6 degrees, 500 mL crystalloid was injected and 600 u/Kg of heparin was administered. After tourniquet application to the thigh, a soft tissue and vascular injury was created by transecting muscles and the femoral artery. The polymeric wound dressing was applied and the tourniquet was released. In testing, the primary endpoint was mortality within the first hour after tourniquet release. None of the control animals survived the full hour. Two out of five (40%) of the treated animals survived. With survivors' survival time calculated as 60 minutes, survival time was found not to differ between treated (34 +/- 19 minutes) and untreated (29 +/- 18 minutes) animals (p = 0.77). The physical characteristics of tissue injury, need for anticoagulation, and manipulation of blood pressure are vital factors contributing to the lethality of a large animal fatal extremity hemorrhage model. BioFoam was successful in preventing fatal arterial extremity hemorrhage after the release of an effective tourniquet in some cases. An agent that can reliably allow for safe tourniquet removal and restoration of collateral circulation is a potential solution to tourniquet-associated morbidity in traumatic extremity injury. The model developed will serve as a rigorous test for such agents.

  20. Clinical diagnosis versus autopsy findings in polytrauma fatalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakler Johannes K

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives The aim of the study was to determine if differences in clinical diagnosis versus autopsy findings concerning the cause of death in polytrauma fatalities would be detected in 19 cases of fatal polytrauma from a Level 1 trauma centre. Methods Clinical diagnoses determining the cause of death in 19 cases of fatal polytrauma (2007 - 2008 from a Level 1 trauma centre were correlated with autopsy findings. Results In 13 cases (68%, the clinical cause of death and the cause of death as determined by autopsy were congruent. Marginal differences occurred in three (16% patients while obvious differences in interpreting the cause of death were found in another three (16% cases. Five fatalities (three with obvious differences and two with marginal differences were remarked as early death (1-4 h after trauma and one fatality with marginal differences as late death (>1 week after trauma. Obvious and marginal discrepancies mostly occurred in the early phase of treatment, especially when severely injured patients were admitted to the emergency room undergoing continued cardiopulmonary resuscitation, i. e. limiting diagnostic procedures, and thus the clinical cause of death was essentially determined by basic emergency diagnostics. Conclusions Autopsy as golden standard to define the cause of death in fatal polytrauma varies from the clinical point of view, depending on the patient's pre-existing condition, mechanism of polytrauma, necessity of traumatic cardiopulmonary resuscitation, survival time, and thus the possibility to perform emergency diagnostics. An autopsy should be performed at least in cases of early fatal polytrauma to help establishing the definite cause of death. Moreover, autopsy data should be included in trauma registries as a quality assessment tool.

  1. The profile of wounding in civilian public mass shooting fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Edward Reed; Shapiro, Geoff; Sarani, Babak

    2016-07-01

    The incidence and severity of civilian public mass shootings (CPMS) continue to rise. Initiatives predicated on lessons learned from military woundings have placed strong emphasis on hemorrhage control, especially via use of tourniquets, as means to improve survival. We hypothesize that both the overall wounding pattern and the specific fatal wounds in CPMS events are different from those in military combat fatalities and thus may require a new management strategy. A retrospective study of autopsy reports for all victims involved in 12 CPMS events was performed. Civilian public mass shootings was defined using the FBI and the Congressional Research Service definition. The site of injury, probable site of fatal injury, and presence of potentially survivable injury (defined as survival if prehospital care is provided within 10 minutes and trauma center care within 60 minutes of injury) was determined independently by each author. A total 139 fatalities consisting of 371 wounds from 12 CPMS events were reviewed. All wounds were due to gunshots. Victims had an average of 2.7 gunshots. Relative to military reports, the case fatality rate was significantly higher, and incidence of potentially survivable injuries was significantly lower. Overall, 58% of victims had gunshots to the head and chest, and only 20% had extremity wounds. The probable site of fatal wounding was the head or chest in 77% of cases. Only 7% of victims had potentially survivable wounds. The most common site of potentially survivable injury was the chest (89%). No head injury was potentially survivable. There were no deaths due to exsanguination from an extremity. The overall and fatal wounding patterns following CPMS are different from those resulting from combat operations. Given that no deaths were due to extremity hemorrhage, a treatment strategy that goes beyond use of tourniquets is needed to rescue the few victims with potentially survivable injuries. Prognostic/epidemiologic study, level IV

  2. Left ventricular hypertrophy and risk of fatal and non-fatal stroke EUROSTROKE: a collaborative study among research centres in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. Bots (Michiel); J. Tuomilehto; D.E. Grobbee (Diederick); P.J. Koudstaal (Peter Jan); Y. Nikitin; J.T. Salonen; P.C. Elwood; S. Malyutina; A. Freire de Concalves; J. Sivenius; A. di Carlo; P. Lagiou

    2002-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: This study investigated the association between electrocardiographically assessed left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and fatal, non-fatal, haemorrhagic and ischaemic stroke in four European cohorts participating in EUROSTROKE. METHODS: EUROSTROKE is a

  3. Presence of minor and major mental health impairment in adolescence and death from suicide and unintentional injuries/accidents in men: a national longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadum, Elin Anita; Fønnebø, Vinjar; Borud, Einar Kristian

    2017-01-01

    To examine the association between minor and major mental health impairment in late adolescence and death from suicide and unintentional injuries/accidents in men. In Norway, all men attend a compulsory military medical and psychological examination. We included 558 949 men aged 17-19 years at the time of military examination in 1980-1999 and followed them up for death from suicide and unintentional injuries/accidents until the end of 2013. We used Cox proportional hazard models to examine the association between the presence of minor and major mental health impairments at examination and death from suicide and unintentional injuries/accidents. Compared to men with no mental health impairment, those with minor mental health impairment was associated with an increased risk of death from suicide (adjusted HR (HR adj )=1.63, 95% CI 1.39 to 1.92), transport accidents (HR adj =1.33, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.63), accidental poisoning (HR adj =2.27, 95% CI 1.79 to 2.88) and other unintentional injuries/accidents (HR adj =1.54, 95% CI 1.17 to 2.02). In men with major mental health impairment, the risk of death from suicide and accidental poisoning was elevated two times (HR adj =2.29, 95% CI 1.85 to 2.85) and three times (HR adj =3.53, 95% CI 2.61 to 4.79), respectively. We found an increased risk of death from suicide and unintentional injuries/accidents in men who had minor and major mental health impairment at age 17-19 years. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Characteristics of schools in which fatal shootings occur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Apodaca, Roberto Flores; Brighton, Lauren M; Perkins, Ashley N; Jackson, Kiana N; Steege, Jessica R

    2012-04-01

    School-based violence, and fatal school shootings in particular, have gained increased attention in the media and psychological literature. Most reports have focused on the characteristics of perpetrators, but there is a growing awareness that school-related factors may also influence the occurrence of fatal school shootings. The current study examined several key characteristics of all schools where random (38) and targeted (96) fatal shootings occurred in the United States between 1966 and 2009. These were compared with a group (138) of schools randomly selected to represent the population of all schools in the United States. The size of a school's enrollment, urban or suburban locale, public funding, and predominantly non-white enrollment were positively associated with fatal shootings. Universities and colleges were disproportionately associated with random shootings and high schools with targeted ones. It was proposed that characteristics of schools that allow feelings of anonymity or alienation among students may help create environmental conditions associated with fatal school shootings. Implications for future research and interventions are considered.

  5. Motor vehicle fatalities among oil and gas extraction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retzer, Kyla D; Hill, Ryan D; Pratt, Stephanie G

    2013-03-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of work-related fatality in the U.S. as well as in the oil and gas extraction industry. This study describes the characteristics of motor vehicle-related fatalities in the oil and gas extraction industry using data from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics' Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries. It compares the risk of dying in a motor vehicle crash in this industry to other major industries and among different types and sizes of oil and gas extraction companies. There were 202 oil and gas extraction workers who died in a work-related motor vehicle crash from 2003 to 2009. The motor vehicle fatality rate for workers in this industry was 8.5 times that of all private wage and salary workers (7.6 vs. 0.9, poil and gas establishments (motor vehicle crash. Pick-up trucks were the most frequent type of vehicle occupied by the fatally injured worker (n=104, 51.5%). Safety belt non-use was identified in 38.1% (n=77) of the cases. Increased focus on motor vehicle safety in this industry is needed, in particular among small establishments. Extraction workers who drive light duty vehicles need to be a specific focus. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Evaluation of meteorological and epidemiological characteristics of fatal pulmonary embolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törő, Klára; Pongrácz, Rita; Bartholy, Judit; Váradi-T, Aletta; Marcsa, Boglárka; Szilágyi, Brigitta; Lovas, Attila; Dunay, György; Sótonyi, Péter

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify risk factors among epidemiological factors and meteorological conditions in connection with fatal pulmonary embolism. Information was collected from forensic autopsy records in sudden unexpected death cases where pulmonary embolism was the exact cause of death between 2001 and 2010 in Budapest. Meteorological parameters were detected during the investigated period. Gender, age, manner of death, cause of death, place of death, post-mortem pathomorphological changes and daily meteorological conditions (i.e. daily mean temperature and atmospheric pressure) were examined. We detected that the number of registered pulmonary embolism (No 467, 211 male) follows power law in time regardless of the manner of death. We first described that the number of registered fatal pulmonary embolism up to the nth day can be expressed as Y( n) = α ṡ n β where Y denotes the number of fatal pulmonary embolisms up to the nth day and α > 0 and β > 1 are model parameters. We found that there is a definite link between the cold temperature and the increasing incidence of fatal pulmonary embolism. Cold temperature and the change of air pressure appear to be predisposing factors for fatal pulmonary embolism. Meteorological parameters should have provided additional information about the predisposing factors of thromboembolism.

  7. Trends in occupational injuries and fatality in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkkan, Alpaslan; Pala, Kayihan

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the trend of occupational injuries in Turkey using epidemiologic criteria such as incidence mortality and fatality/all injuries recorded - rates. Safety and health data were obtained from the Annual Statistic Books of the Social Insurance Institution (1988-2006) and Social Security Institution (2007-2011) of Turkey. The results from the official data showed that although total employment is increasing the number of occupational injuries and incidence and mortality rates are decreasing. The results also demonstrate that occupational fatality/all injuries recorded - rate is increasing. The fatality/all injuries recorded - rate per 1000 injuries increased to 25.5 in 2011 from 8.6 in 1988. Each work day an average of five people died because of occupational injuries. The fatality/all injuries recorded - rate (the number of fatal cases per 1000 occupational injuries) is an important indicator of the injury rate for a country. Systems of occupational injury and illness surveillance constitute a critical resource for the management and reduction of occupational injuries and illness.

  8. Fatal methane and cyanide poisoning as a result of handling industrial fish: a case report and review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, M; Richmond, I

    2000-01-01

    The potential health hazards of handling industrial fish are well documented. Wet fish in storage consume oxygen and produce poisonous gases as they spoil. In addition to oxygen depletion, various noxious agents have been demonstrated in association with spoilage including carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and ammonia. A fatal case of methane and cyanide poisoning among a group of deep sea trawler men is described. Subsequent independent investigation as a result of this case led to the discovery of cyanides as a further potential noxious agent. This is thus the first case in which cyanide poisoning has been recognised as a potentially fatal complication of handling spoiled fish. The previous literature is reviewed and the implications of the current case are discussed. Key Words: industrial fish • methane • cyanide PMID:11064677

  9. The contribution of respiratory pathogens to fatal and non-fatal respiratory hospitalizations: a pilot study of Taqman Array Cards (TAC) in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njuguna, Henry N; Chaves, Sandra S; Emukule, Gideon O; Nyawanda, Bryan; Omballa, Victor; Juma, Bonventure; Onyango, Clayton O; Mott, Joshua A; Fields, Barry

    2017-08-25

    Respiratory diseases cause substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide, with sub-Saharan Africa bearing the greatest burden. Identifying etiologies of respiratory disease is important to inform cost effective treatment, prevention and control strategies. Testing for all of the different pathogens that are potentially associated with respiratory illnesses is challenging. We piloted the use of a multi-pathogen respiratory Taqman Array Cards (TAC) to identify pathogens in respiratory samples collected from non-fatal and fatal cases and their matched asymptomatic controls. This is a case control study comparing viral and bacterial pathogens detected among non-fatal and fatal cases to those detected among age and time matched asymptomatic controls. We used McNemar's test to compare proportions of pathogens detected among cases (non-fatal and fatal) to their matched asymptomatic controls. We used Mann-Whitney test to compare the distribution of median Cycle threshold (Ct) values among non-fatal and fatal cases to their corresponding asymptomatic controls. There were 72 fatal and 72 non-fatal cases matched to 72 controls. We identified at least one pathogen in 109/144 (76%) cases and 59/72 (82%) controls. For most pathogens, the median Ct values were lower among cases (fatal and non-fatal) compared to asymptomatic controls. Similar rates of pathogen detection among cases and controls make interpretation of results challenging. Ct-values might be helpful in interpreting clinical relevance of detected pathogens using multi-pathogen diagnostic tools.

  10. Malpractice claims and unintentional outcome of tonsil surgery and other standard procedures in otorhinolaryngology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windfuhr, Jochen P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Septoplasty, tonsillectomy (with and without adenoidectomy) and cervical lymph node excision are amongst the most common 50 inpatient operations in Germany. Intracapsular tonsillectomies (i.e. tonsillotomies) are increasingly performed. The aim of this study was to evaluate technical traps and pitfalls as well as alleged medical malpractice associated with tonsillectomy (TE), adenoidectomy (AE), tonsillotomy (TT), septoplasty (SP) and cervical lymph node excision (LN). Methods: A questionnaire was sent to the Regional Medical Conciliation Boards, Medical Services of the Health Insurance Companies (MDK) and Regional Institutes of Forensic Medicine in Germany to collect anonymized cases of complications following TE, TT, AE, LN and SP. The results were discussed in the light of the contemporary medical literature and published trials and verdicts in Germany. Results: The response rate of our survey was 55.9%. The Institutes of Forensic Medicine contributed nine cases, 49 cases were submitted by the Regional Conciliation Boards and none by MDK. All forensic cases were associated with exsanguinations following tonsillectomy including two children (5 and 8 years of age) and seven adults (aged 20 to 69 years). The fatal post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage (PTH) had occurred 8.7 days on average; four patients experienced the bleeding episode at home (day 5, 8, 9 and 17, respectively). Repeated episodes of bleeding requiring surgical intervention had occurred in 6 patients. Three Conciliation Boards submitted decicions associated with TT (1), AE (4), LN (3), SP (16) and TE (25). Cases with lethal outcome were not registered. Only three of the 49 cases were assessed as surgical malpractice (6.1%) including lesion of the spinal accessory nerve, wrong indication for TE and dental lesion after insertion of the mouth gag. The review of the medico legal literature yielded 71 published verdicts after AE and TE (29), LN (28) and SP (14) of which 37 resulted in compensation

  11. An approach to the evaluation of fatal hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türk, E E; Sperhake, J P; Pueschel, K; Tsokos, Michael

    2005-03-01

    The diagnosis of death caused by hypothermia can often only be made by exclusion. In this article, we discuss the significance of rectal temperature determination at the death scene for establishing the diagnosis of fatal hypothermia. Six cases of fatal hypothermia subjected to medico-legal autopsy at the Institute of Legal Medicine, Hamburg, Germany, were reviewed. Findings at external examination, autopsy findings with special regard to characteristics hypothermia-related changes, histological findings, and toxicology results were analyzed. In all cases investigated, a discrepancy between a low rectal temperature and other parameters for estimation of the time since death such as still displaceable postmortem lividity and electrical excitability of skeletal muscles was present, leading to the prompt suspicion of fatal hypothermia at the medico-legal death scene investigation. An early death scene investigation by a forensic specialist is of striking importance for establishing the correct diagnosis, because this discrepancy can only be observed in the early postmortem interval.

  12. Rising gasoline prices increase new motorcycle sales and fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, He; Wilson, Fernando A; Stimpson, Jim P; Hilsenrath, Peter E

    2015-12-01

    We examined whether sales of new motorcycles was a mechanism to explain the relationship between motorcycle fatalities and gasoline prices. The data came from the Motorcycle Industry Council, Energy Information Administration and Fatality Analysis Reporting System for 1984-2009. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) regressions estimated the effect of inflation-adjusted gasoline price on motorcycle sales and logistic regressions estimated odds ratios (ORs) between new and old motorcycle fatalities when gasoline prices increase. New motorcycle sales were positively correlated with gasoline prices (r = 0.78) and new motorcycle fatalities (r = 0.92). ARIMA analysis estimated that a US$1 increase in gasoline prices would result in 295,000 new motorcycle sales and, consequently, 233 new motorcycle fatalities. Compared to crashes on older motorcycle models, those on new motorcycles were more likely to be young riders, occur in the afternoon, in clear weather, with a large engine displacement, and without alcohol involvement. Riders on new motorcycles were more likely to be in fatal crashes relative to older motorcycles (OR 1.14, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.28) when gasoline prices increase. Our findings suggest that, in response to increasing gasoline prices, people tend to purchase new motorcycles, and this is accompanied with significantly increased crash risk. There are several policy mechanisms that can be used to lower the risk of motorcycle crash injuries through the mechanism of gas prices and motorcycle sales such as raising awareness of motorcycling risks, enhancing licensing and testing requirements, limiting motorcycle power-to-weight ratios for inexperienced riders, and developing mandatory training programs for new riders.

  13. Fatal traumatic brain injury with electrical weapon falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Mark W; Adamec, Jiri; Wetli, Charles V; Williams, Howard E

    2016-10-01

    While generally reducing morbidity and mortality, electrical weapons have risks associated with their usage, including eye injuries and falls. With sufficient probe spread, an uncontrolled fall to the ground typically occurs along with the possibility of a fatal brain injury. We analyzed possible risk factors including running and elevated surfaces with established head-injury criteria to estimate the risk of brain injury. We searched for cases of arrest-related or in-custody death, with TASER(®) electrical weapon usage where fall-induced injuries might have contributed to the death. We found 24 cases meeting our initial inclusion criteria of a fatal fall involving electronic control. We then excluded 5 cases as intentional jumps, leaving 19 cases of forced falls. Autopsy reports and other records were analyzed to determine which of these deaths were from brain injury caused by the fall. We found 16 probable cases of fatal brain injuries induced by electronic control from electrical weapons. Out of 3 million field uses, this gives a risk of 5.3 ± 2.6 PPM which is higher than the theoretical risk of electrocution. The mean age was 46 ± 14 years which is significantly greater that the age of the typical ARD (36 ± 10). Probe shots to the subject's back may present a higher risk of a fatal fall. The use of electronic control presents a small but real risk of death from fatal traumatic brain injury. Increased age represents an independent risk factor for such fatalities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  14. Drug and Alcohol Involvement in Four Types of Fatal Crashes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Eduardo; Voas, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the relationship of drunk and drugged driving to the occurrence of fatal crashes associated with speeding, failure to obey/yield, inattention, and seat belt nonuse. Method: We examined data for fatally injured drivers involved in single-vehicle crashes killed in states in which more than 79% of the drivers were tested for drugs other than alcohol and had a known result. Results: About 25% of the drivers tested positive for drugs, a figure almost double that estimated by the 2007 National Roadside Survey. Cannabinoids and stimulants each contributed to about 23% of the drug-positive results (6% among all fatally injured single-vehicle drivers). Stimulants more than cannabinoids were found to be associated with the four types of crashes under study. Some drugs showed a protective effect over the four crash types under study. Significant interactions between drugs and alcohol were observed. Stimulants contributed to the different types of fatal crashes irrespective of the levels of alcohol consumed by the drivers. Conclusions: This study provides further evidence of a link between drug consumption and fatal crashes. It also opens the door to some interesting and sometimes unexpected questions regarding the way drugs contribute to crashes, which we found varies depending on the type of crash considered, the class of drug, and the presence of alcohol. Research is also needed on drugs that could have a protective effect on the occurrence of fatal crashes. These findings could be highly relevant to the design of drug-related traffic laws and programs targeted at curbing drugged driving. PMID:21683038

  15. Projecting Fatalities in Crashes Involving Older Drivers, 2000-2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, P.S.

    2001-03-23

    As part of this research effort, we developed a new methodology for projecting elderly traffic crash fatalities. This methodology separates exposure to crashes from crash risk per se, and further divides exposure into two components, the number of miles driven and the likelihood of being a driver. This component structure permits conceptually different determinants of traffic fatalities to be projected separately and has thorough motivation in behavioral theory. It also permits finer targeting of particular aspects of projections that need improvement and closer linking of projections to possible policy instruments for influencing them.

  16. Asian and Hispanic Americans' cancer fatalism and colon cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Jungmi; Oh, Kyeung Mi

    2013-03-01

    To explore fatalistic attributions of colon cancer development among Asian and Hispanic Americans in comparison with non-Hispanic whites; also to examine the impacts of fatalism on adherence to the colon cancer screening guideline. For the analysis, the 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey data were employed. Both Asian and Hispanic Americans were more likely to make fatalistic attribution and were less likely to follow the guideline than whites. Particularly for Asians, fatalism was a significant predictor for not adhering to the guideline. These findings emphasize the need for cultural interventions to disrupt fatalistic attitudes towards colon cancer preventions.

  17. An intervention to decrease cancer fatalism among rural elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powe, B D; Weinrich, S

    1999-04-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a video intervention in decreasing cancer fatalism, increasing knowledge of colorectal cancer, and increasing participation in fecal-occult blood testing (FOBT). Repeated measures, pretest/post-test. Senior citizen centers in a rural southern state. Individuals were selected and assigned to the study group based on the center they attended. Centers were selected and assigned randomly to an intervention (n = 42) or control (n = 28) group. The age of the participants ranged from 52-92 years (X = 75). Pretest measures included the Powe Fatalism inventory, the Colorectal Cancer Knowledge Questionnaire, and the Demographic Data Questionnaire. The intervention group viewed the Medical University of South Carolina's video Telling the Story ... To Live is God's Will, and the control group viewed the American Cancer Society (ACS) video Colorectal Cancer: The Cancer No One Talks About. Hemoccult II kits were distributed to both groups at no cost. Post-test data were collected using the Powe Fatalism Inventory and the Colorectal Cancer Knowledge Questionnaire. Cancer fatalism, knowledge of colorectal cancer, and participation in FOBT. People who viewed the intervention video had a greater decrease in cancer fatalism scores and a greater increase in knowledge of colorectal cancer scores than the control group. Both groups had greater than 60% participation in FOBT. Telling the Story ... To Live is God's Will is an effective, self-contained, cost-effective intervention to decrease cancer fatalism and increase knowledge of colorectal cancer. The video was as effective as the ACS video on colorectal cancer in increasing participation in FOBT among rural elders. But, because Telling the Story ... To Live is God's Will also decreases cancer fatalism and increases knowledge, the potential exists for the increased screening behaviors to be maintained over time. Showing the video in waiting areas of community health centers to facilitate the discussion

  18. Fatal Cervical Spine Injury Following a Bicycle Crash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uhrenholt Lars

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Spinal injury following direct loading of the head and neck is a rare sequel of bicycle crashes. Fatal head injuries following bicycle crashes have been described in great detail and safety measures such as bicycle helmets have been developed accordingly. Less frequently, however, potentially severe cervical spine injuries have been described. We present the case of a middle-aged female who sustained an ultimately fatal cervical spine injury following a collision with a car whilst biking wearing a helmet. We discuss the literature regarding the protective effects of bicycle helmets, the relevance to cervical spine injury and legislation on mandatory use of helmets for injury prevention.

  19. Pharyngitis – fatal infectious disease or medical error?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Rorat

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Reporting on adverse events is essential to create a culture of safety, which focuses on protecting doctors and patients from medical errors. We present a fatal case of Streptococcus C pharyngitis in a 56-year-old man. The clinical course and the results of additional diagnostics and autopsy showed that sepsis followed by multiple organ failure was the ultimate cause of death. The clinical course appeared fatal due to a chain of adverse events, including errors made by the physicians caring for the patient for 10 days.

  20. Influence of civil defense on strategic countervalue fatalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, T.F.

    1982-01-01

    Two modeling studies were conducted to simulate the effect of fallout shelters on the outcome of a massive countervalue nuclear exchange between the Soviet Union and the United States. One was to determine the number of nuclear weapons required to mount an effective fallout attack against a country with dispersed population; the other was to determine the number of expected US fatalities resulting from a countervalue attack against US urban population centers. The results of these studies indicate that the number of weapons required to mount such an attack depends on the adequacy of the shelter system and that the evacuation of urban populations can substantially reduce expected fatality levels

  1. Fatal Eurasian Brown Bear Attacks-Two Swedish Fatalities in Modern Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Torfinn; Eriksson, Anders

    2015-11-01

    Fatal bear attacks on humans are uncommon with only one reported case in Sweden since 1902. The bear population is, however, growing and the frequency of confrontations is likely to increase. Case I-A 40-year-old hunter and his dog were found dead near a bear's den. Autopsy showed that a large portion of the face, facial skeleton, and anterior portion of the brain was missing. Autopsy of the bear showed two nonfatal gunshot wounds. Case II-A 61-year-old man and his dog were found dead outside a hunting lodge. Autopsy revealed numerous wounds, including partial evisceration of the intestines. The victim's blood ethanol concentration was 0.27%. These cases confirm the presence of risk factors identified by the Scandinavian Brown Bear Research Project, that is, provocation by a dog, encountering an injured bear, and appearing close to its den. An additional possible factor in case II was ethanol intoxication. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. Long-term trends in flood fatalities in the United State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Hatim; Chaturvedi, Smita

    2015-04-01

    This presentation reviews flood-related fatalities in the United States between 1959 and 2013. Information on flood fatality victims and the flood-causing events was obtained from the National Climatic Data Center. The data collected included the date, time, location, and weather conditions and the gender and age of the flood victims. Long term trends in the numbers of fatalities and fatality rates were analyzed. For most of the states fatalities were largely caused by single catastrophic events. The analysis indicates that the standardized annual flood fatality rates are decreasing significantly for all states. Vehicle related fatalities represent more than 50% of flood fatalities for most of the states and can be as high as 77%. A combination of improved hydrometeorological forecasting, educational programs aimed at enhancing public awareness of flood risk and the seriousness of flood warnings, and timely and appropriate action by local emergency and safety authorities will help further reduce flood fatalities in Texas.

  3. Child Fatality Review Teams: A Content Analysis of Social Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Emily M.; McCarthy, Sean C.

    2011-01-01

    Child fatality review teams (CFRTs) have existed since the 1970s; yet, a comprehensive understanding of their procedures, practices, and outcomes is lacking. This article addresses that gap in this study of CFRT state statutes. Findings indicate CFRT laws address nine areas of practice, from team composition, to purpose, to outcomes. Results also…

  4. Fatal Cryptococcal Meningitis in a Patient With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguzhan Sıtkı Dizdar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL are susceptible to infections, especially opportunistic infections. We have described a patient with CLL who had cryptococcal meningitis. Despite lack of previous immunosuppressive treatment history, the patient experienced serious and fatal fungal infection. Physicians should be alert for a diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis in patient with CLL who developed fever and headache.

  5. Fatal Fulminant Hepatic Failure in a Diabetic with Primary Dengue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Stalin; Iqbal, Nayyar; Anemon, P. Philip; Kumar, G. Shyam

    2010-01-01

    We report a 49-year-old diabetic with dengue hemorrhagic fever who developed fulminant hepatitis, severe coagulopathy, shock, and refractory metabolic acidosis and died on the eighth day of illness. This is the only second report of an adult with fatal fulminant hepatic failure due to dengue, and the first case arising from a primary dengue infection. PMID:21234316

  6. Fatal Gastrointestinal Perforations in sudden death cases in Last 10 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pathology unit of University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur in the year 2006 by reviewing the autopsy reports. There were 61 cases of GIT perforation out of 5579 autopsies conducted during a period of ten years (1996-2005). The incidence rate of fatal gastrointestinal perforation was 1.09% during this period. Out of these 61 cases, ...

  7. Fatal splenic rupture in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, S. C.; Slater, D. N.; Austin, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    A fatal case of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (Type IV) is described. Autopsy revealed splenic rupture that had resulted from spontaneous haemorrhage into the splenic parenchyma. This is a previously unrecorded complication of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of chest and abdominal pain in patients with this condition.

  8. Pattern of road traffic fatalities in Nairobi | Okemwa | Annals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Road traffic injuries continue to exert a huge burden on Kenya's healthcare services. Over 134,000 crashes occur on the Kenyan roads killing more than 2,600 and seriously injuring 11,000 people annually. Injury pattern among traffic trauma admissions have been recently described while that of fatalities ...

  9. Fatal angioedema induced by angiotensin conversion enzyme (ACE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACE inhibitors are often prescribed in the treatment of hypertension, heart failure and kidney disease. These drugs are on the Essential Drugs List, and are therefore used at primary to tertiary health care levels in South Africa. Angioedema is considered a rare, but potentially fatal side-effect of this agent, with a reported ...

  10. Prediction of traffic fatalities and prospects for mobility becoming ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Economic growth inevitably stimulates the growth of motorization levels. (motor vehicles per inhabitant, including 2- and 3-wheel motor vehicles). The higher the gross national income per capita (GNI/p) the higher the motorization level is, while the fatality rate per number of motor vehicle decays over time (Oppe & Koornstra ...

  11. Identification of new molecular alterations in Fatal Familial Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatal familial insomnia (FFI) is an autosomal dominant prion disease caused by a D178N mutation in PRNP in combination with methionine (Met) at codon 129 in the mutated allele of the same gene (D178N-129M haplotype). The present study analyzes pathological and molecular features in seven FFI cases c...

  12. Fatal hypertensive crisis as presentation of mitochondrial complex I deficiency.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohmeier, K.; Distelmaier, F.; Heuvel, L.P.W.J. van den; Rodenburg, R.J.T.; Smeitink, J.A.M.; Mayatepek, E.; Hoehn, T.

    2007-01-01

    Complex I deficiency is a frequent defect of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. We report on a 3-year-old boy, who rapidly deteriorated after sudden flushing and collapse. This fatal and unusual case was characterized by widely uncontrollable arterial hypertension. It might indicate that

  13. Femme fatale'i kütkes / Kadri Kõusaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kõusaar, Kadri, 1980-

    2006-01-01

    15.-21. maini on kinos Sõprus Manifesti filminädal "Femme fatale", mis pühendatud prantsuse mängufilmidele 1960.-1970. aastate tipprežissööridelt, kus keskne karakter on saatuslik naine. Lähemalt festivali filmidest, kus peaosades Brigitte Bardot, Catherine Deneuve, Jeanne Moreau

  14. Childhood and adolescent fatalities at the Pretoria Medico-Legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    violence (assault).[4]. The high incidence of child fatalities due to road traffic accidents has been well documented worldwide. In San Diego, Fraga et al.[1] reported. (in their study conducted at the medico-legal mortuary) that road traffic fatalites were the leading cause of accidental death (40.2% of cases). In. Nebraska ...

  15. Fatal motorcycle crashes: a growing public health problem in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehler, Douglas R; Ear, Chariya; Parker, Erin M; Sem, Panhavuth; Ballesteros, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the risk characteristics of fatal motorcycle crashes in Cambodia over a 5-year period (2007-2011). Secondary data analyses were conducted using the Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System, the only comprehensive and integrated road crash surveillance system in the country. Researchers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Handicap International found that (1) males are dying in motorcycle crashes roughly seven times more frequently than females; (2) motorcyclist fatalities increased by about 30% from 2007 to 2011; (3) the motorcyclist death rates per 100,000 population increased from 7.4 to 8.7 deaths from 2007 to 2011; and (4) speed-related crashes and not wearing motorcycle helmet were commonly reported for motorcyclist fatalities at approximately 50% and over 80% through the study years, respectively. Additionally, this study highlights that Cambodia has the highest motorcycle death rate in South-East Asia, far surpassing Thailand, Malaysia, and Myanmar. By recognising the patterns of fatal motorcycle crashes in Cambodia, local road-safety champions and stakeholders can design targeted interventions and preventative measures to improve road safety among motorcyclists.

  16. Childhood and adolescent fatalities at the Pretoria Medico-Legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Brazil, Modelli et al.,[8] reporting on deaths in children <12 years, found the leading external cause of death to be road traffic fatalities (22% of cases). ... Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital in Cape Town. They indicated that 430 children were involved as pedestrians in accidents over a. 12-month period, with 106 ...

  17. Near-fatal asthma phenotype in the ENFUMOSA Cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romagnoli, M.; Caramori, G.; Braccioni, F.; Ravenna, F.; Barreiro, E.; Siafakas, N. M.; Vignola, A. M.; Chanez, P.; Fabbri, L. M.; Papi, A.; Bel, E. H.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Near-fatal asthma (NFA) is characterized by severe asthma attacks usually requiring intensive care unit admission. This phenotype of asthma has been studied mainly in acute conditions. METHODS: The aim of our study was to compare the clinical, functional and inflammatory characteristics

  18. Second Fatal Case of Infective Endocarditis caused by Gemella bergeriae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijan Ukudeeva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Our case illustrates a fatal course of infection with Gemella bergeriae endocarditis that was complicated by cardiogenic shock due to perforation of the mitral valve with severe mitral regurgitation, extension of infection into the myocardium adjacent to the mitral valve, and coronary sinus thrombosis.

  19. Mapping patterns of pedestrian fatal accidents in Israel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Gitelman, Victoria; Bekhor, Shlomo

    2012-01-01

    This study intends to provide insight into pedestrian accidents by uncovering their patterns in order to design preventive measures and to allocate resources for identified problems. Kohonen neural networks are applied to a database of pedestrian fatal accidents occurred during the four-year period...

  20. Cancer fatalism and breast cancer screening in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurlock, Wanda Raby; Cullins, Leah S

    2006-01-01

    Despite significant advances in science, medicine, and technology African American women are more likely to die from breast cancer than Caucasian women. There is a growing body of literature that describes strategies to improve breast cancer screening among African American women. However, data suggest that African American women, compared to Caucasian women, are less likely to participate in regular breast cancer screening. The belief that a diagnosis of cancer will result in death has been identified as a potential barrier to cancer screening in African American population groups. However, research examining the degree to which perceptions of fatalism influence breast cancer screening in culturally and ethnically diverse population groups is scant. This repot describes the outcomes of a study undertaken to examine relationships between perceptions of cancer fatalism and breast cancer screening in African American women. Findings support the postulation that fatalism negatively influences health promoting practices such as breast cancer screening. However, contrary to prior research findings age was observed to be inversely associated with cancer fatalism.

  1. Postpartum Clostridium sordellii infection associated with fatal toxic shock syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørbye, C; Petersen, Ina Sleimann; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2000-01-01

    , respectively) are responsible for this potential. Reviewing the obstetric literature, only six cases of postpartum endometritis caused by C. sordellii, are described - all being fatal. In addition, one lethal case of spontaneous endometritis resulting from C. sordellii is reported. The clinical aspects...

  2. Non-fatal suicidal behaviour at the Johannesburg General Hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    served high rates are increasing on an international scale. Figures from the World Health Organization ... feelings or acts. They include high self-esteem and social “con- ... Keywords: Non-fatal suicidal behaviour, Non-suicide attempters, Past psychiatric history, Physical abuse, Sexual abuse, Self-harm. Received: 12.10.04.

  3. Cervical necrotizing fasciitis: A potentially fatal disease with varied ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Necrotizing fasciitis was recognized centuries ago by physicians. It is a rapidly progressive and potentially fatal soft‑tissue infection that is typified by soft‑tissue necrosis, especially affecting the subcutaneous tissues and fascia. Cervico‑facial necrotizing fasciitis is said to be uncommon, but when it occurs, it is often of ...

  4. Cervical Necrotizing Fasciitis: A Potentially Fatal Disease with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    She was referred from a primary health-care facility. Dental and medical history revealed no relevant. Cervical Necrotizing Fasciitis: A Potentially Fatal. Disease with Varied Etiology. Abdurrazaq TO, Ibikunle AA, Braimah RO. Department of Dental and Maxillofacial Surgery, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Usmanu Danfodiyo ...

  5. Prevalence, circumstances and consequences of non-fatal road traffi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence, circumstances and consequences of non-fatal road traffi c injuries and other bodily injuries among older people in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia ... injury, while younger age, residing in a rural area, hazardous or harmful alcohol use and having a sleeping problem were associated with other bodily injury.

  6. Non-fatal suicidal behaviour at the Johannesburg General Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Non-fatal suicidal behaviour (NFSB) severely impacts on the health services and the resources of a country and should be prevented. The aim of this control study was to describe a group of patients with NFSB and to elicit, if any, the factors associated with this behaviour compared to a non-suicidal control group.

  7. Ethylene Glycol and Metabolite Concentrations in Fatal Ethylene Glycol Poisonings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viinamäki, Jenni; Sajantila, Antti; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2015-01-01

    Ethylene glycol (EG) is used in antifreeze and other industrial products. It metabolizes to glycolic acid (GA) and oxalic acid (OX) that cause metabolic acidosis and are mainly responsible for the toxicity of EG. During 2010-2014, EG or GA was found in 25 postmortem cases in Finland. Of these cases, 21 were classified as fatal EG poisonings and 3 were classified as methanol (MeOH) poisonings. In this study, we report the concentrations of EG and GA in postmortem blood and urine samples of fatal EG or mixed MeOH/EG poisonings. In the fatal EG poisonings, the median EG and GA concentrations were 0.87 and 1.6 g/L in blood and 4.3 and 5.3 g/L in urine. The median urine-blood ratios were 3.8 and 3.1 for EG and GA. These results warrant the use of urine as a primary matrix for screening. In EG positive cases, the quantification of both EG and GA in blood is crucial as GA concentration appears to best indicate a fatal poisoning with an approximate threshold of 1.5 g/L. The measurement of urinary OX does not offer much additional value to toxic alcohol screening as it may originate from varying dietary conditions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Accidental fatal lung injury by compressed air: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayamane, Anand Parashuram; Pradeepkumar, M V

    2015-03-01

    Compressed air is being used extensively as a source of energy at industries and in daily life. A variety of fatal injuries are caused by improper and ignorant use of compressed air equipments. Many types of injuries due to compressed air are reported in the literature such as colorectal injury, orbital injury, surgical emphysema, and so on. Most of these injuries are accidental in nature. It is documented that 40 pounds per square inch pressure causes fatal injuries to the ear, eyes, lungs, stomach, and intestine. Openings of body are vulnerable to injuries by compressed air. Death due to compressed air injuries is rarely reported. Many cases are treated successfully by conservative or surgical management. Extensive survey of literature revealed no reports of fatal injury to the upper respiratory tract and lungs caused by compressed air. Here, we are reporting a fatal event of accidental death after insertion of compressed air pipe into the mouth. The postmortem findings are corroborated with the history and discussed in detail.

  9. Prediction of traffic fatalities and prospects for mobility becoming ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Logo of the Indian Academy of Sciences ... Global road safety; global prediction model; traffic volume; fatality risk; time-dependent model; income-dependent model; prediction scenarios; knowledge transfer. ... Also this model implies that at some point in time road traffic deaths will start declining for ever, also worldwide.

  10. 77 FR 74695 - Preventing Backover Injuries and Fatalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Occupational Safety and Health Administration [Docket No. OSHA-2010-0059] RIN... Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Notice of stakeholder meetings. SUMMARY: OSHA invites interested parties to participate in informal stakeholder meetings on preventing backover injuries and fatalities. OSHA plans to use...

  11. Substance use among Iranian drivers involved in fatal road accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin eAssari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the problem of substance use among drivers is not limited to a special part of the world, most published epidemiological reports on this topic is from industrial world.Aim: To determine drug use among Iranian adults who were imprisoned for vehicle accidents with fatality. Methods: This study enrolled 51 Iranian adults who were imprisoned for vehicle accidents with fatality. This sample came from a national survey of prisoners. Data was collected at entry to prisons during the last 4 months of 2008 in 7 prisons in different parts of the country. Self reported drug use was registered. Commercial substance use screening tests were also done. Results: Drug test was positive for opioids, cannabis and both in 37.3%, 2.0% and 13.7%, respectively. 29.4% tested positive for benzodiazepines. Using test introduced 23.5% of our sample as drug users, who had declined to report any drug use. Conclusion: Opioids are the most used illicit drug in the case of vehicle accidents with fatality, however, 20% of users do not declare their use. This high rate of drug use in vehicle accidents with fatality reflects the importance of drug use control as a part of injury prevention in Iran. There might be a need for drug screening after severe car accidents.

  12. Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... I Waiting So Long? Admission to the Hospital Heroes on Medicine's Front Line Observation Emergency Care Fact Sheet Health & Safety Tips Campaigns SUBSCRIBE Health Tips Share this! Home » Health Tips » Holiday and Seasonal Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences Emergency ...

  13. Violent and Fatal Youth Trauma: Is There a Missed Opportunity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Madlinger, DO

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Accidents and assaults (homicides are the leading causes of death among the youth of the United States, accounting for 53.3% of deaths among children aged 1 to19 years. Victim recidivism,defined as repeated visits to the emergency department (ED as a victim of violent trauma, is a significantly growing public health problem. As 5-year mortality rates for recidivism are as high as 20%,it is important to determine whether victims with a history of violent trauma are at increased risk for fatal outcome with their next trauma. We hypothesized that victims of violent trauma who have had 1 prior ED visit for violent trauma will have increased odds of fatal outcome.Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted for patients presenting with penetrating trauma to the ED from January 1, 1999 to December 31, 2009. All patients between the ages of 15 to 25 years who presented to the ED for any penetrating trauma were included. Patients with prior presentations for penetrating trauma were compared to those patients who were first-time presenters to determine the odds ratio of fatal outcome.Results: Overall, 15,395 patients were treated for traumatic presentations. Of these, 1,044 met inclusion criteria. Demographically, 79.4% were Hispanic, 19.4% were African American, and 0.96% were Caucasian. The average age was 21 years, and 98% of the population was male. One hundred and forty-seven (14% had prior presentations, and 897 (86% did not. Forty of the 147 patients (27%with prior presentations had a fatal outcome as compared to 29 patients of the 868 (3% without prior presentations, with odds ratio of 10.8 (95% confidence interval, 6.4–18.1; Pearson v2, P , 0.001. The 5-year mortality rate for those patients with fatal outcomes was calculated at 16.5%.Conclusion: Patients who had prior ED visits for penetrating trauma were at greater risk for fatal outcomes compared to those with no prior visits. Therefore, trauma-related ED visits might

  14. New design of upper waveguide with unintentionally doped InGaN layer for InGaN-based laser diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Feng; Zhao, Degang; Jiang, Desheng; Liu, Zongshun; Zhu, Jianjun; Chen, Ping; Yang, Jing; Liu, Wei; Li, Xiang; Liu, Shuangtao; Xing, Yao; Zhang, Liqun; Long, Heng; Li, Mo

    2017-12-01

    The optical and electrical characteristics of one new laser structure have been theoretically investigated, in which an unintentionally doped InGaN layer (u-InGaN) located between the last quantum barrier and the electron blocking layer is designed as the upper waveguide (UWG). It is found that this unintentionally doped InGaN layer is benefitted to achieve a low threshold current and larger output power due to a good optical field distribution and effective blockage of electron leakage. Meanwhile, according to the systematically analysis on the influence of indium content, background concentration and layer thickness, 100 nm In0.02Ga0.98N UWG with 1 × 1017 cm-3 background concentration is suitable for the new laser structure.

  15. Analysis of 86 fatal motorcycle frontal crashes in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Hui

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To analyze the injuries of motorcyclists involved in fatal motorcycle frontal crashes. Methods: A survey group involving multi-discipline experts was built to randomly collect data on fatal motor-cycle frontal collision accidents that occurred in Chongqing during 2006-2010. The sampled information included medi-cal or autopsy reports, blood alcohol concentration (BAC level, helmet use, accident witness, field sketch as well as field photos. The motorcyclist injuries were scored accord-ing to the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS 2005. The involved riders with a BAC level≥20 mg/ml were attributed to alco-hol use. Data were processed statistically with nonparamet-ric test via software SPSS 11.0. Results: A total of 86 fatal motorcycle frontal crashes were sampled and further analyzed. The age of motorcy-clists enrolled in this investigation showed nominal distri-bution and the middle-aged (30-39 years occupied the high-est percentage of fatalities. There were only 14 motorcyclists (16.3% wearing helmets at the moment of collision. And 12.8% of these motorcyclist crashes were attributable to alcohol use. Impact injury was the main fatal cause, accounting for 72% of motorcyclist deaths, followed by tumbling injury (26% and run-over (2%. Respectively 84%, 22% and 19% of motorcyclists who sustained head, chest and abdominal trauma died. Extremity injury was the most frequently ob-served injury type. Conclusions: This investigation is helpful to build accident prevention programs and develop protection de-vices which may effectively mitigate injuries and prevent deaths following motorcycle frontal collision accidents. Further investigations on motorcycle collision accidents are still needed. Key words: Motorcycles; Mortality; Accidents, traffic; Wounds and injuries

  16. Fuel economy and traffic fatalities: multivariate analysis of international data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noland, Robert B.

    2005-01-01

    In the US motor vehicle fuel economy standards were imposed in the late 1970s, in response to the oil crises of that decade. Since then, efforts to increase the standards have not occurred, one reason being the argument that smaller vehicles (which are generally more efficient) are considered less safe. Recent analyses (Energy J.( 2004)) suggests that variance in vehicle weights may be more important than the absolute weights of vehicles in making the highway network less safe. In Europe and other countries, which generally have smaller more efficient vehicle fleets, due to relatively high gasoline taxes, this debate has not occurred. In particular, countries such as Great Britain and Sweden have far safer road transport systems than the US but also have much more efficient vehicle fleets. This suggests that either vehicle weight and size are unimportant or if they have an effect it is small compared to other factors. This paper uses international data to build econometric models that examine whether average vehicle fuel economy has any association with road traffic fatalities, while controlling for other factors that are associated with fatalities. The effect on pedestrian fatalities is also analyzed. Cross-sectional time-series data on traffic fatalities from OECD countries is used and negative binomial regression models are developed using panel data to determine whether any associations are present. Results find that changes in vehicle efficiency are not associated with changes in traffic fatalities, suggesting either that size and weight changes over time have not had a strong effect or are not associated with fuel economy improvements

  17. Relationships between Sleep Behaviors and Unintentional Injury in Southern Chinese School-Aged Children: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yafei; Ma, Di; Chen, Ying; Cheng, Fuyuan; Liu, Xiangxiang; Li, Liping

    2015-10-16

    The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships between sleep behaviors and injury occurrence among Chinese school-aged children. Data were collected with self-administered questionnaires of a cross-sectional survey which covered the school-aged children from southeastern Chinese urban and rural areas in April 2010. Information was collected on unintentional injury in the past year, sleep duration, napping and daytime fatigue, sleeping pill use, and social-demographic variables. Multivariable logistic regression analyses, controlling for confounding factors, were conducted to assess sleep-related variables that were associated with injuries. Students who slept for less than 8 h had a 30% increased risk of injury (OR: 1.30; 95%CI: 1.01-1.69) compared with those who slept for 8-9 h. Lack of napping, snoring and use of sleeping pills were significantly associated with injury. Among different genders, the slight difference in sleep behaviors predicted the occurrence of injury. Rural children displayed more sleep behaviors associated with injury than urban children. The sleep behaviors of primary school students were more negatively correlated with injury occurrence than junior/senior high school children. Consideration should be given to the prevention of problematic sleep behaviors as a potential risk factor in order to decrease injury rates and promote the health of school-aged children.

  18. Successful unintentional ABO-incompatible renal transplantation: Blood group A1B donor into an A2B recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadeyi, Emmanuel A; Stratta, Robert J; Farney, Alan C; Pomper, Gregory J

    2014-05-01

    To report a successful unintentional transplantation of a deceased donor kidney from an "incompatible" A1B donor into a recipient who was blood group A2B with unsuspected preformed anti-A1 antibodies. The donor and recipient were both typed for ABO antigens. The recipient was tested for ABO and non-ABO antibodies. The recipient was typed for HLA class I and class II antigens, including HLA antibody screen. The T-and B-flow cytometry crossmatch test was performed using standard protocol. The donor-recipient pair was a complete six-antigen human leukocyte antigen mismatch, but final T- and B-flow cytometry cross-match tests were compatible. The recipient was a 65-year-old woman with a medical history of end-stage renal disease secondary to diabetic nephropathy who underwent kidney transplantation from a 46-year-old brain-dead standard criteria donor. The recipient's RBCs were negative with A1 lectin, and the recipient was thus typed as an A2 subgroup. Anti-A1 could be demonstrated in the recipient's plasma. The donor's RBCs were positive with A1 lectin, thereby conferring an A1 blood type. It is safe to transplant across the A1/A2 blood group barrier provided that the preformed antibodies are not reactive at 37°C and with anti-human globulin.

  19. Exploring the Athletic Trainer's Role in Assisting Student-Athletes Presenting With Alcohol-Related Unintentional Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Steven M; Barry, Adam E; Pitney, William A

    2015-09-01

    Compared with their nonathlete peers, collegiate athletes consume higher quantities of alcohol, drink with greater frequency, and exhibit an increased propensity to engage in heavy episodic drinking (ie, binge drinking), which often may result in alcohol-related consequences. Moreover, collegiate athletes are also more likely to engage in other maladaptive lifestyle behaviors, such as participating in physical fights and riding with an intoxicated driver, and less likely to engage in protective behaviors, such as wearing a helmet while operating a motorcycle, moped, or bicycle. Taken together, these behaviors clearly pose a health risk for student-athletes and increase the likelihood that they will experience an alcohol-related unintentional injury (ARUI). An ARUI represents a risk not only to the health and well-being of collegiate athletes but also to their athletic performances, collegiate careers, and potential professional opportunities. Therefore, athletic trainers need to be equipped with the knowledge and skills to provide face-to-face brief interventions to student-athletes presenting with ARUIs and to evaluate the effect of their involvement. We address potential action items for implementation by athletic trainers.

  20. Relationships between Sleep Behaviors and Unintentional Injury in Southern Chinese School-Aged Children: A Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafei Tan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships between sleep behaviors and injury occurrence among Chinese school-aged children. Data were collected with self-administered questionnaires of a cross-sectional survey which covered the school-aged children from southeastern Chinese urban and rural areas in April 2010. Information was collected on unintentional injury in the past year, sleep duration, napping and daytime fatigue, sleeping pill use, and social-demographic variables. Multivariable logistic regression analyses, controlling for confounding factors, were conducted to assess sleep-related variables that were associated with injuries. Students who slept for less than 8 h had a 30% increased risk of injury (OR: 1.30; 95%CI: 1.01–1.69 compared with those who slept for 8–9 h. Lack of napping, snoring and use of sleeping pills were significantly associated with injury. Among different genders, the slight difference in sleep behaviors predicted the occurrence of injury. Rural children displayed more sleep behaviors associated with injury than urban children. The sleep behaviors of primary school students were more negatively correlated with injury occurrence than junior/senior high school children. Consideration should be given to the prevention of problematic sleep behaviors as a potential risk factor in order to decrease injury rates and promote the health of school-aged children.

  1. The detection and prevention of unintentional consumption of DOx and 25x-NBOMe at Portugal's Boom Festival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Daniel; Barratt, Monica J; Pires, Cristiana Vale; Carvalho, Helena; Vilamala, Mireia Ventura; Espinosa, Iván Fornís; Valente, Helena

    2017-05-01

    This paper describes the misrepresentation of LSD at Portugal's Boom Festival 2014 and the prevention of unintentional consumption of DOx and 25x-NBOMe among LSD consumers attending a drug-checking service. Two hundred forty-five drug samples expected to contain LSD were submitted to the drug-checking service for chemical analysis. One hundred ten post-test questionnaires were successfully matched with test results. About 67.3% of the alleged LSD samples tested contained only LSD; 0.8% contained LSD combined with adulterants; 24.1% did not contain LSD but did contain another psychoactive substance, including 11.4% that were 2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine derivatives and 9.8% that were N-benzyl-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine derivatives; and no psychoactive substance was detected in 7.8%. The majority of service users who received unexpected test results regarding their alleged LSD (74.2%) reported that they did not intend to consume the drug. Following dissemination of alerts on day 2, a larger than expected proportion of all tests conducted were for LSD, when comparing the 2014 festival to 2012, where no such alert was disseminated. Although these results support the provision of integrated drug-checking services in party settings, evidence of their utility and effectiveness would be improved through future research incorporating more robust measures of outcomes following provision of drug-checking results. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Injury hospitalizations due to unintentional falls among the Aboriginal population of British Columbia, Canada: incidence, changes over time, and ecological analysis of risk markers, 1991-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Jin

    Full Text Available Aboriginal people in British Columbia (BC have higher injury incidence than the general population. Our project describes variability among injury categories, time periods, and geographic, demographic and socio-economic groups. This report focuses on unintentional falls.We used BC's universal health care insurance plan as a population registry, linked to hospital separation and vital statistics databases. We identified Aboriginal people by insurance premium group and birth and death record notations. We identified residents of specific Aboriginal communities by postal code. We calculated crude incidence and Standardized Relative Risk (SRR of hospitalization for unintentional fall injury, standardized for age, gender and Health Service Delivery Area (HSDA, relative to the total population of BC. We tested hypothesized associations of geographic, socio-economic, and employment-related characteristics with community SRR of injury by linear regression.During 1991 through 2010, the crude rate of hospitalization for unintentional fall injury in BC was 33.6 per 10,000 person-years. The Aboriginal rate was 49.9 per 10,000 and SRR was 1.89 (95% confidence interval 1.85-1.94. Among those living on reserves SRR was 2.00 (95% CI 1.93-2.07. Northern and non-urban HSDAs had higher SRRs, within both total and Aboriginal populations. In every age and gender category, the HSDA-standardized SRR was higher among the Aboriginal than among the total population. Between 1991 and 2010, crude rates and SRRs declined substantially, but proportionally more among the Aboriginal population, so the gap between the Aboriginal and total population is narrowing, particularly among females and older adults. These community characteristics were associated with higher risk: lower income, lower educational level, worse housing conditions, and more hazardous types of employment.Over the years, as socio-economic conditions improve, risk of hospitalization due to unintentional fall

  3. Years of life lost because of premature death due to intentional and unintentional accidents in Ghazvin province from 2004 till 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Jafari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accidents are the second cause of death in Iran and one of the significant challenges in public health. They can affect people in all ages. In this study, we try to calculate years of life lost due to intentional and unintentional injuries, which is considered as one of the main indicators for prioritizing public health problems.  Methods: This study is a practical cross sectional survey research HSR (health system research that uses secondary analysis on the death data of Ghazvin province. The calculations also take into account the WHO standards in age group, sex and years of life lost (YLL due to death.  Results: This study showed that the unintentional accidents were the leading cause of death based on YLL from 2004 until 2008 in Ghazvin province. The number of deaths due to intentional and unintentional accidents was 3796 deaths as of which 2954 (77.8% was male and 842 (22.2% female. In general three quarter of the YLL due to early death relates to accidents for males and less than a quarter relates to accidents for females. Between 2004 until 2008, the maximum number of years of life lost (YLL in both sexes is for the age group of 15 to 49.  Conclusion: Considering the high level of years of life lost (YLL due to accident in this province, especially in men, more appropriate interventions for the more risk prone age groups and male in general need to be taken into account.

  4. The outcome of North American pediatric unintentional mushroom ingestions with various decontamination treatments: an analysis of 14 years of TESS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuhler, M C; Sasser, H C; Watson, W A

    2009-03-15

    The optimum empiric decontamination therapy for unintentional pediatric mushroom ingestion is not known. We sought to determine case outcomes for unintentional mushroom ingestions in children by decontamination therapies utilized. The 1992-2005 American Association of Poison Control Centers Toxic Exposure Surveillance System was queried for cases of unintentional acute mushroom ingestions in children age <6 years. Cases were excluded if outcome was unknown, if exposure was coded as unrelated to the symptoms, or if there was co-ingestion of a non-mycoid substance. The treatment subgroups analyzed were ipecac, single-dose activated charcoal, and no gastric decontamination. 82,330 cases met the inclusion criteria with 22,454 cases excluded. There were 16 cases with major effects and no deaths. There were 57,531 cases in the three treatment subgroups. There was a significantly smaller percentage of cases with moderate or major outcomes in the ipecac subgroup compared to the no decontamination subgroup. There was a significantly greater percentage of cases with moderate or major outcomes in the activated charcoal compared to the no decontamination subgroup. If decontamination therapy is being performed, and this data suggests it may not be necessary, syrup of ipecac could still be considered an effective option.

  5. Quasi-likelihood generalized linear regression analysis of fatality risk data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Transportation-related fatality risks is a function of many interacting human, vehicle, and environmental factors. Statistically valid analysis of such data is challenged both by the complexity of plausible structural models relating fatality rates t...

  6. Fatalism and Familism Among Anglos and Mexican Americans in San Antonio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Buford E.; Glenn, Norval D.

    1976-01-01

    A comparison of the responses of Anglos and Mexican Americans to interview items designed to measure fatalism and familism shows a moderate ethnic difference in fatalism and a larger difference in familism. (Author/JC)

  7. 75 FR 52587 - 2009 Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS)/National Automotive Sampling System General...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 2009 Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS)/National Automotive Sampling System General Estimates System (NASS GES) Updates AGENCY: National Highway Traffic... Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA)--2009 Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) & National...

  8. Incidence, patterns and severity of reported unintentional injuries in Pakistan for persons five years and older: results of the National Health Survey of Pakistan 1990–94

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi Huma I

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background National level estimates of injuries are not readily available for developing countries. This study estimated the annual incidence, patterns and severity of unintentional injuries among persons over five years of age in Pakistan. Methods National Health Survey of Pakistan (NHSP 1990–94 is a nationally representative survey of the household. Through a two-stage stratified design, 18, 315 persons over 5 years of age were interviewed to estimate the overall annual incidence, patterns and severity of unintentional injuries for males and females in urban and rural areas over the preceding one year. Weighted estimates were computed adjusting for complex survey design using surveyfreq and surveylogistic option of SAS 9.1 software. Results The overall annual incidence of all unintentional injuries was 45.9 (CI: 39.3–52.5 per 1000 per year; 59.2 (CI: 49.2–69.2 and 33.2 (CI: 27.0–39.4 per 1000 per year among males and females over five years of age, respectively. An estimated 6.16 million unintentional injuries occur in Pakistan annually among persons over five years of age. Urban and rural injuries were 55.9 (95% CI: 48.1–63.7 and 41.2 (95% CI: 32.2–50.0 per 1000 per year, respectively. The annual incidence of injuries due to falls were 22.2 (95% CI: 18.0–26.4, poisoning 3.3 (95%CI: 0.5–6.1 and burn was 1.5 (95%CI: 0.9–2.1 per 1000 per year. The majority of injuries occurred at home 19.2 (95%CI: 16.0–22.4 or on the roads 17.0 (95%CI: 13.8–20.2. Road traffic/street, school and urban injuries were more likely to result in handicap. Conclusion There is high burden of unintentional injuries among persons over five years of age in Pakistan. These results are useful to plan further studies and prioritizing prevention programs on injuries nationally and other developing countries with similar situation.

  9. Alcohol and risk of admission to hospital for unintentional cutting or piercing injuries at home: a population-based case-crossover study

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    Thornley Simon

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cutting and piercing injuries are among the leading causes of unintentional injury morbidity in developed countries. In New Zealand, cutting and piercing are second only to falls as the most frequent cause of unintentional home injuries resulting in admissions to hospital among people aged 20 to 64 years. Alcohol intake is known to be associated with many other types of injury. We used a case-crossover study to investigate the role of acute alcohol use (i.e., drinking during the previous 6 h in unintentional cutting or piercing injuries at home. Methods A population-based case-crossover study was conducted. We identified all people aged 20 to 64 years, resident in one of three regions of the country (Greater Auckland, Waikato and Otago, who were admitted to public hospital within 48 h of an unintentional non-occupational cutting or piercing injury sustained at home (theirs or another's from August 2008 to December 2009. The main exposure of interest was use of alcohol in the 6-hour period before the injury occurred and the corresponding time intervals 24 h before, and 1 week before, the injury. Other information was collected on known and potential confounders. Information was obtained during face-to-face interviews with cases, and through review of their medical charts. Results Of the 356 participants, 71% were male, and a third sustained injuries from contact with glass. After adjustment for other paired exposures, the odds ratio for injury after consuming 1 to 3 standard drinks of alcohol during the 6-hour period before the injury (compared to the day before, compared to none, was 1.77 (95% confidence interval 0.84 to 3.74, and for four or more drinks was 8.68 (95% confidence interval 3.11 to 24.3. Smokers had higher alcohol-related risks than non-smokers. Conclusions Alcohol consumption increases the odds of unintentional cutting or piercing injury occurring at home and this risk increases with higher levels of drinking.

  10. Islamic Fatalism and the Clash of Civilizations: An Appraisal of a Contentious and Dubious Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Gabriel A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper will address the question of Islamic fatalism. Survey data will be used to assess Samuel P. Huntington's controversial "Clash of Civilizations" thesis and its emphasis on fatalism as an inherent characteristic of Islamic religion. The concept of fatalism is expanded and theorized as a function of both structural and…

  11. Moving beyond teen crash fatality statistics : the go-team study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    Despite a trend of decreasing teen fatalities due to motor vehicle crashes over the past decade, they remain the leading cause : of adolescent fatalities in Iowa. The purpose of this study was to create detailed case studies of each fatal motor vehic...

  12. Differences in Poisoning Mortality in the United States, 2003–2007: Epidemiology of Poisoning Deaths Classified as Unintentional, Suicide or Homicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Muazzam

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Poisoning, specifically unintentional poisoning, is a major public health problem in the United States (U.S.. Published literature that presents epidemiology of all forms of poisoning mortalities (i.e., unintentional, suicide, homicide together is limited. This report presents data and summarizes the evidence on poisoning mortality by demographic and geographic characteristics to describe the burden of poisoning mortality and the differences among sub-populations in the U.S. for a 5-year period.Methods: Using mortality data from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention’s Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System, we presented the age-specific and age-adjusted unintentional and intentional (suicide, homicide poisoning mortality rates by sex, age, race, and state of residence for the most recent years (2003–2007 of available data. Annual percentage changes in deaths and rates were calculated, and linear regression using natural log were used for time-trend analysis.Results: There were 121,367 (rate¼8.18 per 100,000 unintentional poisoning deaths. Overall, the unintentional poisoning mortality rate increased by 46.9%, from 6.7 per 100,000 in 2003 to 9.8 per100.000 in 2007, with the highest mortality rate among those aged 40–59 (rate¼15.36, males(rate¼11.02 and whites (rate¼8.68. New Mexico (rate¼18.2 had the highest rate. Unintentional poisoning mortality rate increased significantly among both sexes, and all racial groups except blacks (p,0.05 time-related trend for rate. Among a total of 29,469 (rate¼1.97 suicidal poisoning deaths, the rate increased by 9.9%, from 1.9 per 100,000 in 2003 to 2.1 per 100,000 in 2007, with the highest rate among those aged 40–59 (rate¼3.92, males (rate¼2.20 and whites (rate¼2.24. Nevada(rate¼3.9 had the highest rate. Mortality rate increased significantly among females and whites only (p,0.05 time-related trend for rate. There were 463 (rate¼0.03 homicidal poisoning

  13. Dread risk, September 11, and fatal traffic accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigerenzer, Gerd

    2004-04-01

    People tend to fear dread risks, that is, low-probability, high-consequence events, such as the terrorist attack on September 11, 2001. If Americans avoided the dread risk of flying after the attack and instead drove some of the unflown miles, one would expect an increase in traffic fatalities. This hypothesis was tested by analyzing data from the U.S. Department of Transportation for the 3 months following September 11. The analysis suggests that the number of Americans who lost their lives on the road by avoiding the risk of flying was higher than the total number of passengers killed on the four fatal flights. I conclude that informing the public about psychological research concerning dread risks could possibly save lives.

  14. Louisiana motorcycle fatalities linked to statewide helmet law repeal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Emai Lynn; Haydel, Micelle J

    2004-01-01

    On August 15, 1999, Louisiana's mandatory motorcycle helmet law was repealed. Our primary objective was to determine if the repeal resulted in an increase in motorcyclist morbidity and mortality. We retrospectively evaluated the frequency of helmet use and morbidity and mortality before and after the repeal of the law. Fatality statistics for Louisiana were obtained through the National Highway Safety Traffic Association between 1994 and 2002. Injury statistics were totaled for motorcyclists admitted to Medical Center of Louisiana New Orleans during the same period of time. Statewide, helmet use decreased 21.2% (p helmet law, while locally, helmet use decreased 34.7% (p Motorcycle helmet use decreased significantly and motorcyclist fatality rates increased significantly after repeal of the Louisiana mandatory helmet law.

  15. Fatal motorcycle accidents in the county of Funen (Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, C F; Hardt-Madsen, M

    1988-01-01

    and size of motorcycle in fatal motorcycle accidents seem to support introduction of a graduated licence depending on motorcycle size as well as operator age. Furthermore a limitation in the right to carry a pillion passenger should be considered, and the operator of the motorcycle carrying a pillion......A study of motorcycle fatalities in the period 1977-1983 in the county of Funen, Denmark was compared with an analysis of data obtained from the Accident Register at the Odense University Hospital. Among the operators killed one fifth were illegally operating the motorcycle. A remarkable...... to other studies. In the present study all but one victim were tested for blood-alcohol concentration (BAC). The results differ from previous studies in as much as 50% of the killed operators of an accident involving motorcycles had a BAC above 0.08%. The reported distribution by age, licensing experience...

  16. Hormone replacement therapy and risk of non-fatal stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A T; Lidegaard, O; Kreiner, S

    1997-01-01

    of hormone use and stroke, on which information was obtained from postal questionnaires, were controlled for by multivariate analyses based on log-linear graphical models. The analyses included data on 1422 cases classified in four subtypes of stroke (160 subarachnoid haemorrhage, 95 intracerebral......BACKGROUND: The effect of postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on the risk of subtypes of stroke is as yet unclear. To investigate the effect of oestrogen and combined oestrogen-progestagen therapy on the risk of non-fatal haemorrhagic and thromboembolic stroke, we carried out a case...... to some extent be explained by selection--HRT users being more aware of symptoms than non-users. INTERPRETATION: Unopposed oestrogen and combined oestrogen-progestagen replacement therapy have no influence on the risk of non-fatal thromboembolic or haemorrhagic stroke in women aged 45-64 years....

  17. The relationship between fatalism, dissociation, and trauma symptoms in Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwell, Ashley N; Cosden, Merith

    2009-01-01

    Numerous studies have documented an overrepresentation of posttraumatic stress disorder in the Latino population. However, the contributing factors to trauma symptomatology among Latinos are not fully understood. The present study examined 112 low-income, Latino outpatients in a mental health clinic to identify culturally relevant variables that predict trauma symptomatology. Fatalism, peritraumatic dissociation, acculturation, and demographic variables were analyzed. Peritraumatic dissociation was found to account for a significant percentage of the variance in trauma symptoms (21%) as measured by the Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire-Modified and the Trauma Symptom Inventory. Fatalism measured by the Multiphasic Assessment of Cultural Constructs was not found to be significantly associated with symptom severity. Also, acculturation variables did not predict peritraumatic dissociation. Implications of the findings for trauma research and practice are discussed.

  18. Caso fatal de balantidíase intestinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Conceição Pinheiro

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available Caso fatal de balantidíase em mulher desnutrida de 63 anos, criadora de porcos, da zona rural de Uberaba. A doença evoluiu em oito dias com disenteria, náusea e vômitos, culminando em óbito por enterorragia. A necropsia constatou-se colite ulcerada causada por B. coli, facilmente identificado ao exame histológico do intestino grosso.A fatal case of a 63-year old pig-raising country woman with an eight-day course of nausea, vomiting. dysentery with intestinal bleeding the latter being the direct cause of death. The autopsy showed ulcerative colitis due to B. coli, which was easily observed on histological examination of the large bowel.

  19. Postpartum Clostridium sordellii infection associated with fatal toxic shock syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørbye, C; Petersen, Ina Sleimann; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2000-01-01

    Clostridium bacteria are anaerobic Gram positive spore-form-ing bacilli, known to cause distinct clinical syndromes such as botulism, tetanus, pseudomembranous colitis and myonecrosis. The natural habitats of Clostridium species are soil, water and the gastrointestinal tract of animals and humans....... Clostridium sordellii is rarely encountered in clinical specimens (1% of Clostridium species), but it has been described as a human pathogen with fatal potential. Two toxins, a lethal and a hemorrhagic (that antigenically and pathophysiologically appear similar to Clostridium difficile toxins B and A......, respectively) are responsible for this potential. Reviewing the obstetric literature, only six cases of postpartum endometritis caused by C. sordellii, are described - all being fatal. In addition, one lethal case of spontaneous endometritis resulting from C. sordellii is reported. The clinical aspects...

  20. Fatal Cryptococcal Meningitis in a Patient With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguzhan Sıtkı Dizdar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL are susceptible to infections, especially opportunistic infections. We have described a patient with CLL who had cryptococcal meningitis. Despite lack of previous immunosuppressive treatment history, the patient experienced serious and fatal fungal infection. Physicians should be alert for a diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis in patient with CLL who developed fever and headache.

  1. Renal involvement in fatal cases of chikungunya virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Marcela; Acosta-Reyes, Jorge; Parra, Edgar; Guzmán, Luis; Beltrán, Mauricio; Gasque, Philippe; Mejía-García, Carlos; Viasus, Diego

    2018-03-23

    Information regarding physiopathology and complications in fatal cases of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is scarce. The aim of this study was to describe the frequency and severity of renal complications in fatal cases associated with CHIKV infection based on the clinical and histopathological features from post-mortem tissue biopsies. This retrospective study included fatal cases associated with CHIKV infection occurring from September 2014 through October 2015, reported to National System for Public Health Surveillance (SIVIGILA) and laboratory-confirmed by the National Institute of Health of Colombia. Medical records from 13 patients were available. Information was collected on history, physical examination, and haematological, biochemical, radiological, and virologic investigation reports. Diagnosis of CHIKV infection was performed by positive CHIKV-PCR on post-mortem tissue in 10 cases, positive CHIKV-PCR in serum in 6 cases and anti-CHIKV virus IgM in 2 cases. Only 3 cases were children (≤5 years old). Four cases had underlying diseases, mainly systemic arterial hypertension. The median value of creatinine at admission was 2.8 mg/dL (interquartile range 1.52-4.51). During hospitalization, 9 cases required ICU admission, 8 vasopressor support and 6 mechanical ventilation. Kidney histopathological findings were mainly acute interstitial nephritis (11 cases), congestion/oedema glomerular (10 cases) and acute tubular necrosis (5 cases). Renal impairment in fatal cases of CHIKV infection is frequent and related mainly to acute interstitial nephritis. These data demonstrate evidence of acquired kidney injuries during CHIKV infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Implementation of Flying Debris Fatal Risk Calculation in EUROPLEXUS

    OpenAIRE

    VALSAMOS GEORGIOS; CASADEI FOLCO; LARCHER MARTIN; SOLOMOS George

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a numerical approach for the calculation of fatality risk caused by the impact of flying debris on the human body. Following an explosion, the formation of a large number of high velocity flying fragments, especially from glass panes, is very possible. The velocity, the mass and the shape of these projectiles define their hazardousness. The developed numerical approach is integrated into fluid-structure interaction techniques, commonly used for the determination of the beh...

  3. Avoiding tragedy: lessons to be learned from a flyrock fatality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shea, C.W.; Clark, D. [US Department of the Interior, Knoxville, TN (United States). Office of the Field Solicitor

    1998-02-01

    The reasons for a fatality from fly rock at a Tennessee surface coal mine are discussed. Blast design was inadequate, and safety regulations were broken. The results of a US Office of Surface Mining report on this incident are discussed. Blast design had been changed without the possible consequences being considered. The blaster was imprisoned and the company had to pay exemplary damages. Blasting should not be done unless its precise effects can be calculated. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Car crash fatalities associated with fire in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viklund, Åsa; Björnstig, Johanna; Larsson, Magnus; Björnstig, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    To study the epidemiology and causes of death in fatal car crashes on Swedish roads in which the victim's vehicle caught fire. The data set is from the Swedish Transport Administrations in-depth studies of fatal crashes 1998-2008. Autopsies from all cases provided data on injuries, toxicological analyses, and cause of death. In total, 181 people died in 133 burning cars, accounting for 5 percent of all deaths in passenger cars, sport utility vehicles, vans, and minibuses during 1998 to 2008. The cause of death for a third of the victims was fire related, as burns and/or smoke inhalation injuries, with no fatal trauma injuries. Twenty-five of these 55 deaths were persons 19 years or younger and included 15 of 18 rear seat deaths. Over half of the 181 deaths were in vehicles that had collided with another vehicle and, of these cases, half were killed in collisions with heavy vehicles. The percentage of drivers with illegal blood alcohol concentrations (27%) and suicides (5.5%) were not higher than in other fatal crashes on Swedish roads. The ignition point of the fire was indicated in only half of the cases and, of those, half started in the engine compartment and one fourth started around the fuel tank or lines. Car fires are a deadly postcrash problem. Reducing this risk would be primarily a responsibility for the automotive industry. A multifactor approach could be considered as follows: risk-reducing design, insulation, reduced flammability in motor compartment fluids and plastics, and automatic fire extinguishing equipment. Inspiration could be found in how, for example, the auto racing and aviation industries handle this problem.

  5. Pathological findings of a fatal leopard seal attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutty, Guy N

    2007-03-01

    A unique case of a fatal leopard seal attack against an adult human female is presented. The death occurred in Rothera, Antarctica when the female was snorkeling while undertaking scientific research. The principle injuries occurred, during life, to the facial areas prior to the act of drowning. The method of attack of leopard seals against their natural prey is discussed and related to the findings on the deceased.

  6. Fatal septicemia due to Mycoplasma arginini: a new human zoonosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yechouron, A; Lefebvre, J; Robson, H G; Rose, D L; Tully, J G

    1992-09-01

    A 64-year-old slaughterhouse worker with advanced non-Hodgkin's lymphoma developed septicemia and pneumonia. Mycoplasma arginini, a wall-free prokaryote found in a variety of domestic animal hosts, was repeatedly isolated from blood and bronchial washings from the patient. Immunosuppression, in part caused by hypogammaglobulinemia, probably played a key role in predisposing the patient to a fatal infection. This case suggests that animal mycoplasmas should be considered in the list of infectious agents acquired by immunosuppressed hosts.

  7. [Omphalitis with fatal outcome in new-born baby boy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debes, N.M.; Dahl, M.; Jonsbo, F.

    2008-01-01

    Omphalitis is a serious condition with important morbidity and mortality, especially in developing countries. The most commonly involved micro-organisms are Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We describe a Danish patient with cellulitis, sev......, severe septicaemia, and portal vein thrombosis as fatal complications of omphalitis. In spite of early recognition and prompt treatment in this case, it was not possible to save the child Udgivelsesdato: 2008/1/14...

  8. Chain of events analysis for a scuba diving fatality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippmann, John; Stevenson, Christopher; McD Taylor, David; Williams, Jo; Mohebbi, Mohammadreza

    2017-09-01

    A scuba diving fatality usually involves a series of related events culminating in death. Several studies have utilised a chain of events-type analysis (CEA) to isolate and better understand the accident sequence in order to facilitate the creation of relevant countermeasures. The aim of this research was to further develop and better define a process for performing a CEA to reduce potential subjectivity and increase consistency between analysts. To develop more comprehensive and better-defined criteria, existing criteria were modified and a template was created and tested using a CEA. Modifications comprised addition of a category for pre-disposing factors, expansion of criteria for the triggers and disabling agents present during the incident, and more specific inclusion criteria to better encompass a dataset of 56 fatalities. Four investigators (raters) used both the previous criteria and this template, in randomly assigned order, to examine a sample of 13 scuba diver deaths. Individual results were scored against the group consensus for the CEA. Raters' agreement consistency was compared using the Index of Concordance and intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC). The template is presented. The index of concordance between the raters increased from 62% (194⁄312) using the previous criteria to 82% (257⁄312) with use of this template indicating a substantially higher inter-rater agreement when allocating criteria. The agreement in scoring with and without template use was also quantified by ICC which were generally graded as low, illustrating a substantial change in consistency of scoring before and after template use. The template for a CEA for a scuba diving fatality improves consistency of interpretation between users and may improve comparability of diving fatality reports.

  9. Estimating the risk of a scuba diving fatality in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippmann, John; Stevenson, Christopher; McD Taylor, David; Williams, Jo

    2016-12-01

    There are few data available on which to estimate the risk of death for Australian divers. This report estimates the risk of a scuba diving fatality for Australian residents, international tourists diving in Queensland, and clients of a large Victorian dive operator. Numerators for the estimates were obtained from the Divers Alert Network Asia-Pacific dive fatality database. Denominators were derived from three sources: Participation in Exercise, Recreation and Sport Surveys, 2001-2010 (Australian resident diving activity data); Tourism Research Australia surveys of international visitors to Queensland 2006-2014 and a dive operator in Victoria 2007-2014. Annual fatality rates (AFR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using an exact binomial test. Estimated AFRs were: 0.48 (0.37-0.59) deaths per 100,000 dives, or 8.73 (6.85-10.96) deaths per 100,000 divers for Australian residents; 0.12 (0.05-0.25) deaths per 100,000 dives, or 0.46 (0.20-0.91) deaths per 100,000 divers for international visitors to Queensland; and 1.64 (0.20-5.93) deaths per 100,000 dives for the dive operator in Victoria. On a per diver basis, Australian residents are estimated to be almost twenty times more likely to die whilst scuba diving than are international visitors to Queensland, or to lower than fourfold on a per dive basis. On a per dive basis, divers in Victoria are fourteen times more likely to die than are Queensland international tourists. Although some of the estimates are based on potentially unreliable denominator data extrapolated from surveys, the diving fatality rates in Australia appear to vary by State, being considerably lower in Queensland than in Victoria. These estimates are similar to or lower than comparable overseas estimates, although reliability of all such measurements varies with study size and accuracy of the data available.

  10. Fatal pneumoni med Panton-Valentine-leukocidinproducerende Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabøl, Peter Hedelund; Dessau, Ram Benny; Warnecke, Mads

    2010-01-01

    We describe a case of fatal pneumonia in a previously healthy 14-year-old boy. The patient was severely affected at the time of admission with high fever, tachypnea, tachycardia and peripheral cyanosis. The condition worsened despite treatment with antibiotics as well as respiratory and pressure ...... support. Acidosis and critical leucopenia supervened and the patient died just short of 24 hours after admission. Subsequent bacterial cultivation showed Panton-Valentine Leucocidin-producing Staphylococcus aureus....

  11. Left ventricular pseudoaneurysm as a fatal complication of purulent pericarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunkara, Bharath; Briasoulis, Alexandros; Afonso, Luis; Ramappa, Preeti

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a 48-year-old man with purulent pericarditis by Streptococcus viridans, despite aggressive treatment with antibiotics and partial pericardiectomy was complicated by left ventricle pseudo-aneurysm resulting in a fatal outcome. The case highlights the course of complicated purulent pericarditis and the use of noninvasive imaging for assessing early signs of pseudoaneurysm and its typical progression. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Medical marijuana laws, traffic fatalities, and alcohol consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, D. Mark; Rees, Daniel I.

    2011-01-01

    To date, 16 states have passed medical marijuana laws, yet very little is known about their effects. Using state-level data, we examine the relationship between medical marijuana laws and a variety of outcomes. Legalization of medical marijuana is associated with increased use of marijuana among adults, but not among minors. In addition, legalization is associated with a nearly 9 percent decrease in traffic fatalities, most likely to due to its impact on alcohol consumption. Our estimates pro...

  13. Unintentional Pharmaceutical-Related Medication Errors Caused by Laypersons Reported to the Toxicological Information Centre in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Michal; Leššo, Roman; Pelclová, Daniela

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of the article was to study unintentional pharmaceutical-related poisonings committed by laypersons that were reported to the Toxicological Information Centre in the Czech Republic. Identifying frequency, sources, reasons and consequences of the medication errors in laypersons could help to reduce the overall rate of medication errors. Records of medication error enquiries from 2013 to 2014 were extracted from the electronic database, and the following variables were reviewed: drug class, dosage form, dose, age of the subject, cause of the error, time interval from ingestion to the call, symptoms, prognosis at the time of the call and first aid recommended. Of the calls, 1354 met the inclusion criteria. Among them, central nervous system-affecting drugs (23.6%), respiratory drugs (18.5%) and alimentary drugs (16.2%) were the most common drug classes involved in the medication errors. The highest proportion of the patients was in the youngest age subgroup 0-5 year-old (46%). The reasons for the medication errors involved the leaflet misinterpretation and mistaken dose (53.6%), mixing up medications (19.2%), attempting to reduce pain with repeated doses (6.4%), erroneous routes of administration (2.2%), psychiatric/elderly patients (2.7%), others (9.0%) or unknown (6.9%). A high proportion of children among the patients may be due to the fact that children's dosages for many drugs vary by their weight, and more medications come in a variety of concentrations. Most overdoses could be prevented by safer labelling, proper cap closure systems for liquid products and medication reconciliation by both physicians and pharmacists. © 2016 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  14. Pedestrian fatality risk as a function of car impact speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosén, Erik; Sander, Ulrich

    2009-05-01

    Knowledge of the amount of violence tolerated by the human body is essential when developing and implementing pedestrian safety strategies. When estimating the potential benefits of new countermeasures, the pedestrian fatality risk as a function of impact speed is of particular importance. Although this function has been analysed previously, we state that a proper understanding does not exist. Based on the largest in-depth, pedestrian accident study undertaken to date, we derive an improved risk function for adult pedestrians hit by the front of passenger cars. Our results show far lower fatality risks than generally reported in the traffic safety literature. This discrepancy is primarily explained by sample bias towards severe injury accidents in earlier studies. Nevertheless, a strong dependence on impact speed is found, with the fatality risk at 50 km/h being more than twice as high as the risk at 40 km/h and more than five times higher than the risk at 30 km/h. Our findings should have important implications for the development of pedestrian accident countermeasures worldwide. In particular, the scope of future pedestrian safety policies and research should be broadened to include accidents with impact speeds exceeding 50 km/h.

  15. Fatal acute retropharyngeal hemorrhage in neurofibromatosis type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyron, Pierre-Antoine; Pollanen, Michael S

    2017-12-01

    We report the sudden death of a woman with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). The decedent developed acute respiratory distress and died rapidly despite an emergent cricothyroidotomy. An autopsy with postmortem CT scan was performed to determine the cause of the fatal respiratory collapse and to determine if death was related to neurofibromatosis. Postmortem examination revealed the classical external hallmarks of neurofibromatosis, including innumerable cutaneous neurofibromas. In addition, there was a massive retropharyngeal hematoma with fatal extrinsic compression of the airway. On macroscopic examination A localized 3 cm diameter tumor nodule was found in the soft tissues of the neck. Histologic examination of the nodule revealed a neurofibroma. In addition, histologic sections of the hematoma and surrounding soft tissues revealed plexiform neurofibroma with infiltration of the walls of small blood vessels and of the right vertebral artery. The fatal retropharyngeal hemorrhage was caused by diffuse infiltration of the blood vessels of the neck by plexiform neurofibroma. We concluded that the underlying cause of death was NF1. This case underscores the protean nature of neurofibroma, particularly when diffuse interstitial hemorrhage is present. Infiltration of soft tissues by neurofibroma may only be detectable on histologic examination.

  16. Quantifying ground impact fatality rate for small unmanned aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    La Cour-Harbo, Anders

    2018-01-01

    One of the major challenges of conducting operation of unmanned aircraft, especially operations beyond visual line-of-sight (BVLOS), is to make a realistic and sufficiently detailed risk assessment. An important part of such an assessment is to identify the risk of fatalities, preferably in a qua......One of the major challenges of conducting operation of unmanned aircraft, especially operations beyond visual line-of-sight (BVLOS), is to make a realistic and sufficiently detailed risk assessment. An important part of such an assessment is to identify the risk of fatalities, preferably...... in a quantitative way since this allows for comparison with manned aviation to determine whether an equivalent level of safety is achievable. This work presents a method for quantifying the probability of fatalities resulting from an uncontrolled descent of an unmanned aircraft conducting a BVLOS flight. The method...... is based on a standard stochastic model, and employs a parameterized high fidelity ground impact distribution model that accounts for both aircraft specifications, parameter uncertainties, and wind. The method also samples the flight path to create an almost continuous quantification of the risk...

  17. Fatal etnografi, Baudrillard og pædagogik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ulla Ambrosius

    Bogen, der bygger på min disputats Pædagogikkens Andet falder i to dele. Del 1 introducerer til og placerer videnskabsteoretisk de af Baudrillards begreber, jeg vælger at arbejde med som grundlag for fatal etnografi. I kapitel 1 vender jeg mig mod Baudrillards ’objekt’, der er grundkategori i......-kvalitative tradition. Jeg foreslår i den forbindelse endnu en skelnen mellem virkelighedsetnografi, der hører Pædagogikkens Første til og fatal etnografi, der er de metodologiske implikationer af Pædagogikkens Andet. Afsnittet rummer desuden en kritisk udfordring og diskussion af pædagogisk antropologi – udfordret af...... fatal etnografi. I kapitel 4 er vi så nået frem til den del af Baudrillards arbejde, jeg bruger til at løfte en særlig metodologi position igennem, som jeg udvikler med ’teori som fiktion’, social poetik og det umulige bytte. I del 2 er vi ’færdige’ med Baudrillard. Jeg har været igennem de ideer og...

  18. Fatalism, Diabetes Management Outcomes, and the Role of Religiosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardi, Vincent; Bellettiere, John; Nativ, Orit; Ladislav, Slezak; Hovell, Melbourne F; Baron-Epel, Orna

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to determine whether fatalistic beliefs were associated with elevated levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and to establish the role of religiosity in this relationship. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on a sample of 183 Jewish adults with diabetes visiting a large medical center in northern Israel. Self-administered questionnaires assessed level of religiosity, fatalistic beliefs, diabetes management behaviors, and demographic/personal characteristics; laboratory tests were used to measure HbA1c. Multivariate regression indicated that fatalism was significantly associated with HbA1c (β = 0.51, p = 0.01). The association was no longer statistically significant after including self-reported religiosity in the model (β = 0.31, p = 0.13). This phenomenon is likely due to a confounding relationship between the religious/spiritual coping component of the fatalism index and self-reported religiosity (r = 0.69). The results indicate that addressing fatalistic attitudes may be a viable strategy for improving diabetes management, but call for a better understanding of the interplay between religiosity and fatalism in this context.

  19. A review of drug therapy for sporadic fatal insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabaee Damavandi, Pardis; Dove, Martin T; Pickersgill, Richard W

    2017-09-03

    Sporadic fatal insomnia (sFI) is a rapid progressive neurodegenerative disease characterised by gradual to perpetual insomnia, followed by dysautonomia, coma and death. 1 The cause of sFI was recently mapped to a mutation in a protein, the prion, found in the human brain. It is the unfolding of the prion that leads to the generation of toxic oligomers that destroy brain tissue and function. Recent studies have confirmed that a methionine mutation at codon 129 of the human Prion is characteristic of sFI. Current treatment slows down the progression of the disease, but no cure has been found, yet. We used Molecular Docking and Molecular Dynamics simulation methods, to study the toxic Fatal-Insomnia-prion conformations at local unfolding. The idea was to determine these sites and to stabilise these regions against unfolding and miss-folding, using a small ligand, based on a phenothiazine "moiety". As a result we here discuss current fatal insomnia therapy and present seven novel possible compounds for in vitro and in vivo screening.

  20. The distribution of fatal risk in Ontario industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, C.K.; Forbes, W.F.; Hayward, L.M.

    1986-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate non-radiological risks of occupational fatalities in Ontario industries. The distribution of high-risk occupations was found to vary widely between the different industries for a number of reasons including the fact that insufficient data in some instances resulted in less than desirable reliability. However, in spite of various data limitations, a number of occupations had above average fatal risk rates in several industries, including Material Handlers and Related, N.E.C. (SOC-9319), Welders and Flame Cutters (SOC-8335), Truck Drivers (SOC-9175) and Mechanics and Repairmen, except Electrical (SOC-8589). The majority of occupations had rates below or close to the industry average; however, between 15% and 30% of the occupations in any given industry had fatal risk rates above the industry average. When the number of workers involved in different occupations was considered, between 18% and 40% of workers were in occupations with above average risk. Recommendations for future work are also provided

  1. FATAL FOETAL ABNORMALITY, IRISH CONSTITUTIONAL LAW, AND MELLET v IRELAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Londras, Fiona

    2016-12-27

    Under the Irish Constitution abortion is allowed only where the life of the pregnant woman is at risk. The provision in question, Article 40.3.3 (or the 8th Amendment) has long been criticised for failing to respect women's autonomy, and in Mellet v Ireland, the UN Human Rights Committee found that Amanda Jane Mellet, who travelled to Liverpool to access abortion following a finding that her foetus suffered a fatal abnormality, had suffered a violation of her rights under the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR). In this commentary I demonstrate the value of Mellet when compared to the possible legal findings in such circumstances under both the Constitution and the European Convention on Human Rights, and argue that the findings are not restricted to cases of fatal foetal abnormality. Rather, the Committee's decision illustrates the suffering that all women in Ireland who travel to access abortion experience, arguably constituting a violation of their right to be free from cruel, inhuman, and degrading treatment. On that reading, Mellet signifies the need to implement a comprehensive rethink of Irish abortion law including, but going beyond, access to abortion in cases of fatal foetal abnormality. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Consultative Committee on Road Traffic Fatalities: trauma audit methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, F T; Cordner, S M; Tremayne, A B

    2000-10-01

    Since 1992 the Consultative Committee on Road Traffic Fatalities in Victoria has identified deficiencies and errors in the management of 559 road traffic fatalities in which the patients were alive on arrival of ambulance services. The Committee also assessed the preventability of deaths. Reproducibility of results using its methodology has been shown to be statistically significant. The Committee's findings and recommendations, the latter made in association with the learned Colleges and specialist Societies, led to the establishment of a Ministerial Taskforce on Trauma and Emergency Services. As a consequence, in 2000, a new trauma care system will be implemented in Victoria. This paper presents a case example demonstrating the Committee's methodology. The Committee has two 12 member multidisciplinary evaluative panels. A retrospective evaluation was made of the complete ambulance, hospital and autopsy records of eligible fatalities. The clinical and pathological findings were analysed using a comprehensive data proforma, a narrative summary and the complete records. Resulting multidisciplinary discussion problems were identified and the potential preventability of death was assessed. In the present case example the Committee identified 16 management deficiencies of which 11 were assessed as having contributed to the patient's death; the death, however, was judged to be non-preventable. The presentation of this example demonstrating the Committee's methodology may be of assistance to hospital medical staff undertaking their own major trauma audit.

  3. Do recently diagnosed black breast cancer patients find questions about cancer fatalism acceptable? A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Vanessa B; Davis, Kimberly; Boisvert, Marc; Boisvert, Mare; Jennings, Yvonne; Montalvo, Becky

    2011-03-01

    Socio-cultural factors such as cancer fatalism have been understudied in cancer patients. Women from two cancer centers completed a structured phone survey and an open-ended cognitive interview. Socio-cultural variables of fatalism, hope, and spiritual coping were measured using standardized scales. Older women had significantly higher fatalism scores compared to younger women (p Fatalism rates were low. Ratings of hope and collaborative religious coping were high (m = 20, m = 35, respectively). Qualitative comments confirmed the overall low acceptability of the fatalism measures. Further research is needed to identify measures that are acceptable to newly diagnosed patients.

  4. Perceptions of cancer fatalism and cancer knowledge: a comparison of older and younger African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powe, Barbara D; Hamilton, Jill; Brooks, Patrice

    2006-01-01

    Cancer fatalism (the belief that death is inevitable when cancer is present) may influence cancer screening practices among older African American women. Little is known about cancer fatalism among younger women. Guided by the Patient/Provider/System Model, this descriptive study compares cancer fatalism and cancer knowledge among African American college students (n = 353) and women from primary care centers (n = 361). Their average age was 29 years. Data were collected using the Powe Fatalism Inventory and breast and cervical cancer knowledge scales. Women at health centers had higher cancer fatalism and lower cancer knowledge. Differences in life experiences may help explain these findings.

  5. Role of motorcycle type in fatal motorcycle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Eric R; Campbell, Marvin

    2010-12-01

    Motorcycles vary in design and performance capability, and motorcyclists may select certain motorcycle types based on driving preferences. Conversely, motorcycle performance capability may influence the likelihood of risky driving behaviors such as speeding. Both mechanisms may affect fatal crash risk when examined by motorcycle type. Although it was not possible to estimate the effect of each mechanism, the current study analyzed fatal crash data for evidence of motorcycle type differences in risky driving behaviors and risk of driver death. Street legal motorcycles were classified into 10 types based on design characteristics and then further grouped as cruiser/standard, touring, sport touring, sport/unclad sport, supersport, and all others. For each motorcycle type, driver death rates per 10,000 registered vehicle years and the prevalence of fatal crash characteristics such as speeding were analyzed. Differences among motorcycle types concerning the effect of engine displacement were examined using Poisson regression. Overall, driver death rates for supersport motorcycles were four times as high as those for cruiser/standard motorcycles. Fatally injured supersport drivers were most likely to have been speeding and most likely to have worn helmets, but least likely to have been impaired by alcohol compared with drivers of other motorcycle types. The patterns in driver factors held after accounting for the effects of age and gender. Increased engine displacement was associated with higher driver death rates for each motorcycle type. Strong effects of motorcycle type were observed on driver death rates and on the likelihood of risky driving behaviors such as speeding and alcohol impairment. Although the current study could not completely disentangle the effects of motorcycle type and rider characteristics such as age on driver death rates, the effects of both motorcycle type and rider age on the likelihood of risky driving behaviors were observed among fatally

  6. Sullivan mine fatalities and the role of air quality in mine-related incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillip, M.; Hockley, D.; Dawson, B.

    2008-01-01

    Four fatalities occurred at a partially reclaimed shaft waste dump at a closed mine in British Columbia (BC) in 2006. The deaths occurred at a seepage monitoring station that had recently been used without incident. However, samples taken after the deaths demonstrated that the air was depleted of oxygen and contained elevated levels of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). Extensive monitoring of the waste dump has shown that atmospheric air temperature, and not barometric pressure is the dominant controlling factor on air movement between the waste dump and the atmosphere. Changes in air movement resulted in a gas containing elevated levels of CO 2 and depressed oxygen levels to exit the dump. The study showed that the presence of sulfide minerals in waste rock can deplete oxygen from the air. A combination of sulfide minerals and carbonate minerals can lead to the production of CO 2 . Air temperatures that are higher than temperatures within waste dumps can lead to temperature-driven outflows of dump air. It was concluded that risk assessments of site components should be conducted in order to develop site-specific safe work procedures. 25 refs., 6 figs

  7. The ability of an electrocardiogram to predict fatal and non-fatal cardiac events in asymptomatic middle-aged subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terho, Henri K; Tikkanen, Jani T; Kenttä, Tuomas V; Junttila, M Juhani; Aro, Aapo L; Anttonen, Olli; Kerola, Tuomas; Rissanen, Harri A; Knekt, Paul; Reunanen, Antti; Huikuri, Heikki V

    2016-11-01

    The long-term prognostic value of a standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) for predicting cardiac events in apparently healthy middle-aged subjects is not well defined. A total of 9511 middle-aged subjects (mean age 43 ± 8.2 years, 52% males) without a known cardiac disease and with a follow-up 40 years were included in the study. Fatal and non-fatal cardiac events were collected from the national registries. The predictive value of ECG was separately analyzed for 10 and 30 years. Major ECG abnormalities were classified according to the Minnesota code. Subjects with major ECG abnormalities (N = 1131) had an increased risk of cardiac death after 10-years (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.7; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.1-2.5, p = 0.009) and 30-years of follow-up (HR 1.3, 95% CI, 1.1-1.5, p electrocardiogram are shown to have prognostic significance for cardiac events in elderly subjects without known cardiac disease. Our results suggest that ECG abnormalities increase the risk of fatal cardiac events also in middle-aged healthy subjects.

  8. Obesity is associated with fatal coronary heart disease independently of traditional risk factors and deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logue, Jennifer; Murray, Heather M; Welsh, Paul; Shepherd, James; Packard, Chris; Macfarlane, Peter; Cobbe, Stuart; Ford, Ian; Sattar, Naveed

    2011-04-01

    The effect of body mass index (BMI) on coronary heart disease (CHD) risk is attenuated when mediators of this risk (such as diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia) are accounted for. However, there is now evidence of a differential effect of risk factors on fatal and non-fatal CHD events, with markers of inflammation more strongly associated with fatal than non-fatal events. To describe the association with BMI separately for both fatal and non-fatal CHD risk after accounting for classical risk factors and to assess any independent effects of obesity on CHD risk. In the West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study BMI in 6082 men (mean age 55 years) with hypercholesterolaemia, but no history of diabetes or CVD, was related to the risk of fatal and non-fatal CHD events. After excluding participants with any event in the first 2 years, 1027 non-fatal and 214 fatal CHD events occurred during 14.7 years of follow-up. A minimally adjusted model (age, sex, statin treatment) and a maximally adjusted model (including known CVD risk factors and deprivation) were compared, with BMI 25-27.4 kg/m² as referent. The risk of non-fatal events was similar across all BMI categories in both models. The risk of fatal CHD events was increased in men with BMI 30.0-39.9 kg/m² in both the minimally adjusted model (HR = 1.75 (95% CI 1.12 to 2.74)) and the maximally adjusted model (HR = 1.60 (95% CI 1.02 to 2.53)). These hypothesis generating data suggest that obesity is associated with fatal, but not non-fatal, CHD after accounting for known cardiovascular risk factors and deprivation. Clinical trial registration WOSCOPS was carried out and completed before the requirement for clinical trial registration.

  9. Weight gain - unintentional

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... before Swollen feet and shortness of breath Uncontrollable hunger accompanied by palpitations , tremor, and sweating Vision changes ... must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get ...

  10. Weight loss - unintentional

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are you fainting ? Do you have occasional uncontrollable hunger with palpitations , tremor, and sweating ? Have you had ... must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get ...

  11. The influence of living along the U.S.-Mexico border on unintentional drug overdose death, New Mexico (USA), 2005-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nina G; Lathrop, Sarah L; Flores, Janet E; Landen, Michael G

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize unintentional drug overdose death patterns among Hispanic ethnicity/sex strata by residence in New Mexico counties that border Mexico and non-border counties. We analyzed medical examiner data for all unintentional drug overdose death in New Mexico during 2005-2009. Logistic and Poisson regression was used to examine the relationship of unintentional drug overdose death with border residence and demographics. Risk of overdose death was examined by the interactions of ethnicity, sex and border residence. During 2005-2009, the statewide drug overdose death rate was 17.6 per 100,000 (n=1812). Border decedents were more likely to have died from overdose of prescription opioids other than methadone (Schedule II, Adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR)=1.98; Schedule III/IV, aOR=1.56) but less likely to have died from heroin overdose (aOR=0.35), compared to non-border decedents. In population-based analyses, people living in border counties had lowest rates of overall overdose death and from illicit drugs, particularly heroin and cocaine. Hispanic males (adjusted incidence rate ratio [aRR]=2.41), Hispanic females (aRR=1.77) and non-Hispanic males (aRR=1.37) from non-border counties had higher risk of drug overdose death than their counterparts from border counties. Border residence had no effect on risk of drug overdose death among non-Hispanic females. Residents in border counties incurred a protective effect for drug overdose death, most pronounced among Hispanics. There is a component of overdose death risk for which border residence is a proxy, likely an array of cultural and healthcare-related factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The First-aid Advice and Safety Training (FAST) parents programme for the prevention of unintentional injuries in preschool children: a protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mytton, Julie A; Towner, Elizabeth Ml; Kendrick, Denise; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Emond, Alan; Ingram, Jenny; Blair, Peter S; Powell, Jane; Mulvaney, Caroline; Thomas, James; Deave, Toity; Potter, Barbara

    2014-02-01

    Unintentional injury is the leading cause of preventable death in children in the UK, and 0-4-year-olds frequently attend emergency departments following injuries in the home. Parenting programmes designed to support parents, promote behaviour change and enhance parent-child relationships have been shown to improve health outcomes in children. It is not known whether group-based parenting programmes have the potential to prevent unintentional injuries in preschool children. A study to develop a group-based parenting programme to prevent unintentional home injuries in preschool children, and assess the feasibility of evaluation through a cluster-randomised controlled trial. The intervention, designed for parents of children who have sustained a medically attended injury, will be developed with two voluntary sector organisations. The feasibility study will assess ability to recruit parents, deliver the programme and follow-up participants. Participants will complete questionnaires at baseline, 3 months and 6 months, and report injuries in their preschool children using a tool designed and validated for this study. Qualitative methods will assess user and deliverer perceptions of the programme. This study will develop the first group-based parenting programme to prevent injuries in preschool children, and design tools for parent-reported injury outcomes. A key challenge will be to recruit parents to participate in a manner that is non-stigmatising, and does not result in feelings of guilt or belief that they are perceived to be a bad parent. The findings will be used to prepare a trial to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the intervention.

  13. Risk of unintentional injuries in children and adolescents with ADHD and the impact of ADHD medications: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Goikoetxea, Maite; Cortese, Samuele; Aznarez-Sanado, Maite; Magallon, Sara; Luis, Elkin O; Zallo, Noelia Alvarez; de Castro-Manglano, Pilar; Soutullo, Cesar

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been related to increased rates of unintentional injuries. However, the magnitude of the effect and to which extent variables such as sex, age or comorbidity can influence this relationship is unknown. Additionally, and importantly, it is unclear if, and to which degree, ADHD medications can decrease the number of unintentional injuries. Due to the amount of economic and social resources invested in the treatment of injuries, filling these gaps in the literature is highly relevant from a public health standpoint. Here, we present a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the relationship between ADHD and unintentional injuries and assess the impact of pharmacological treatment for ADHD Methods and analysis We will combine results from 114 bibliographic databases for studies relating ADHD and risk of injuries. Bibliographic searches and data extraction will be carried out independently by two researchers. The studies’ risk of bias will be assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Articles reporting ORs or HRs of suffering an injury in ADHD compared with controls (or enough data to calculate them) will be combined using Robust Variance Estimation, a method that permits to include multiple non-independent outcomes in the analysis. All analyses will be carried out in Stata. Age, sex and comorbid conduct disorders will be considered as potential causes of variance and their effect analysed through meta-regression and subgroup analysis. Sensitivity analyses will exclude articles with longer follow-ups, non-stringent definitions of ADHD or controls and statistically uncontrolled/controlled outcomes. Studies implementing a self-controlled case series methodology to investigate if ADHD drugs reduce the risk of injuries will be combined with a generalised linear mixed model using the Poisson distribution and a log link function. Registration details PROSPERO—Prospective Register of

  14. Impaired Clearance And Enhanced Pulmonary Inflammatory/Fibrotic Response To Carbon Nanotubes In Myeloperoxidase-Deficient Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    during cooking of food or technological high temperature processing of metals and other materials) or unintentional (forest fires, volcano eruptions ...technique [26] employing CO in a continuous-flow gas phase as the carbon feedstock and Fe(CO)5 as the iron-containing catalyst precursor, and purified...microscopy, a specific method for collagen detection in tissue sections. Histochem J 11: 447–455. 32. Warheit DB, Laurence BR, Reed KL, Roach DH, Reynolds GA

  15. Fatal combined immunodeficiency associated with heterozygous mutation in STAT1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharfe, Nigel; Nahum, Amit; Newell, Andrea; Dadi, Harjit; Ngan, Bo; Pereira, Sergio L; Herbrick, Jo-Anne; Roifman, Chaim M

    2014-03-01

    Mutations in the gene for the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1, STAT1, have been shown to be associated with death at an early age due to overwhelming viral infection (complete STAT1 deficiency) or, more commonly, selective deficiencies to mycobacterial or fungal infection (typically heterozygous STAT1 mutations). To define the molecular basis of progressive combined immunodeficiency in a group of patients with fatal infections. We studied a group of unrelated patients who displayed an unusual progressive form of combined immunodeficiency. Whole exome sequencing assisted in confirming a common genetic defect in this group, which consisted of a heterozygous mutation of the STAT1 gene. STAT1 protein level as well as function was assessed, and a detailed evaluation of the immune system, including analysis of thymus tissue, was performed. Patients were found to carry de novo heterozygous mutations in STAT1 encoding T385A, I294T, or C284R amino acid substitutions. STAT1 expression appeared significantly decreased as a result of these changes but not completely absent, with diminished signaling responses. This group display progressive loss in lymphocyte number and function accompanied by increasing autoimmune features as well as severe, fatal infections. These findings show that some heterozygous aberrations of STAT1 can be associated with progressive combined immunodeficiency, quite distinct from the limited susceptibilities to infection previously reported for heterozygous STAT1 mutations. These mutations were not inherited, rather, arose de novo in each case. Accompanied by significant patient mortality, this finding suggests that this class of STAT1 mutation is ultimately fatal due to overwhelming infection. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Repeat non-fatal suicidal behaviour at Johannesburg Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M YH Moosa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe the characteristics of non-fatal suicide behaviour (NFSB in a group of patients and to determine factors, if any, that may be associated with repetition of this behaviour. Method. The study included all patients treated for NFSB at Johannesburg Hospital during the period August 2002 - October 2002. The information was gathered by means of a structured questionnaire designed to evaluate characteristics of the behaviour. Results. The study sample comprised 43 patients with NFSB (mean age 29.7 years, range of 16 - 75 years, of whom 26 (60% were female. Sixty-three per cent of the patients overdosed with medication and 33% ingested household poisons. Events that precipitated the event included relationship problems (70%, illness (12%, financial difficulties (9%, and depressed mood (9%. In 65% of patients the behaviour was impulsive. Factors associated with non-fatal repetition included being in the 18 - 30-year age group (76% (χ2 = 6.74, p < 0.05; being female (90% (χ2 = 4.75, p < 0.05; having children (90% (χ2 = 4.72, p < 0.05; a past psychiatric history (50% (χ2 = 4.08, p < 0.05; and the current attempt deemed medically serious (50% (χ2 = 6.67, p < 0.05. Conclusions. NFSB is a major problem in South Africa and the incidence is still increasing. Hospital-based interventions following admission are recommended to reduce repeat attempts in such patients. Significant factors associated with non-fatal repetition include among others, a history of a previous medically serious attempt and/or a known psychiatric illness.

  17. Psychiatric and medical features of near fatal asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D A; Yellowlees, P M; McLennan, G; Coates, J R; Frith, P A; Gluyas, P A; Latimer, K M; Luke, C G; Martin, A J; Ruffin, R E

    1995-03-01

    The associations between psychiatric caseness, denial, and self reported measures of handicap and morbidity due to asthma in patients suffering a near fatal attack of asthma have not been fully explored. Seventy seven consecutive subjects who presented to Adelaide teaching hospitals with a near fatal attack of asthma were assessed with a validated semi-structured interview following discharge from hospital. 43% of the patients scored > or = 5 on the GHQ-28 questionnaire. There was a positive correlation between GHQ-28 score and limitation to daily activities due to asthma, and between GHQ-28 score and days lost from work, school or usual daily activities, both of which were retained after adjusting for age and sex. Asthma severity did not show a clear association with GHQ-28 score. The asthmatic patients reported high levels of denial, 57% scoring more than 3 out of 5 on the denial scale of the Illness Behaviour Questionnaire. Presentation with a history of progressive respiratory distress was negatively associated with denial score. This persisted after adjustment for age and sex--that is, those with high denial scores were more likely to report presentation as sudden collapse than progressive respiratory distress. Psychiatric caseness (GHQ score > or = 5) is associated with high levels of morbidity in asthmatic patients who survive a near fatal attack of asthma. High levels of denial in asthmatic subjects may be life threatening. The link between morbidity associated with asthma and psychiatric features, along with other psychosocial issues, warrants further investigation. A broader paradigm than the traditional medical model should be considered when assessing patients with asthma.

  18. Causes of bat fatalities at wind turbines: Hypotheses and predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryan, P.M.; Barclay, R.M.R.

    2009-01-01

    Thousands of industrial-scale wind turbines are being built across the world each year to meet the growing demand for sustainable energy. Bats of certain species are dying at wind turbines in unprecedented numbers. Species of bats consistently affected by turbines tend to be those that rely on trees as roosts and most migrate long distances. Although considerable progress has been made in recent years toward better understanding the problem, the causes of bat fatalities at turbines remain unclear. In this synthesis, we review hypothesized causes of bat fatalities at turbines. Hypotheses of cause fall into 2 general categoriesproximate and ultimate. Proximate causes explain the direct means by which bats die at turbines and include collision with towers and rotating blades, and barotrauma. Ultimate causes explain why bats come close to turbines and include 3 general types: random collisions, coincidental collisions, and collisions that result from attraction of bats to turbines. The random collision hypothesis posits that interactions between bats and turbines are random events and that fatalities are representative of the bats present at a site. Coincidental hypotheses posit that certain aspects of bat distribution or behavior put them at risk of collision and include aggregation during migration and seasonal increases in flight activity associated with feeding or mating. A surprising number of attraction hypotheses suggest that bats might be attracted to turbines out of curiosity, misperception, or as potential feeding, roosting, flocking, and mating opportunities. Identifying, prioritizing, and testing hypothesized causes of bat collisions with wind turbines are vital steps toward developing practical solutions to the problem. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.

  19. Fatal Disseminated Tuberculous Peritonitis following Spontaneous Abortion: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munire Erman Akar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a rare case of fatal disseminated tuberculous peritonitis in a young woman with rapid progressive clinical course following spontaneous abortion of 20-week gestation. Clinical and laboratory findings were initially unremarkable. She underwent diagnostic laparoscopy which revealed numerous tiny implants on the peritoneum and viscera. Histopathology showed chronic caseating granulomas, and the tissue culture grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis. At fifth day of the antituberculous treatment multiorgan failure occurred in terms of pulmonary, hepatic, and renal insufficiency. She developed refractory metabolic acidosis with coagulopathy and pancytopenia, and she died of acute respiratory distress syndrome and septic shock on her twelfth day of hospitalization.

  20. Fatal poisoning from ingestion of Datura stramonium seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumba, Vassiliki A; Mitselou, Antigony; Vougiouklakis, Theodore

    2004-04-01

    A 19-y old male who intentionally ingested an unknown quantity of Datura stramonium seeds to experience its hallucinogenic effects was found dead. Hyoscyamine and scopolamine were detected in postmortem blood and urine. Blood concentrations of hyoscyamine and scopolamine were 1.1 and 0.2 microg/mL, respectively; in urine only hyoscyamine at 14.2 microg/mL was found. This fatality presents the highest blood concentrations ever reported and confirms that death was due to Datura Stramonium seed ingestion.

  1. Income and Preventable Mortality: The Case of Youth Traffic Fatalities

    OpenAIRE

    Donald Freeman

    2012-01-01

    The income-health gradient is a well-established finding in public health. This paper explores the gradient between income and different types of mortality: mortality that can be ameliorated via specific public policy measures, namely traffic fatalities, and mortality that is due to more “natural” causes, such as infectious disease. Using U.S. state-level data, growth in traffic mortality for 15-19 year-olds is shown to be more sensitive to initial levels of median income than growth in non-i...

  2. Risk of fatal amebic meningoencephalitis from waterborne Naegleria fowleri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallenbeck, William H.; Brenniman, Gary R.

    1989-03-01

    Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a fatal disease of the central nervous system caused primarily by the free-living ameba, Naegleria fowleri. PAM is primarily associated with swimming in various types of fresh water. World literature was reviewed in order to derive a risk analysis model that would be helpful in the management of PAM. The management of PAM risk is difficult, and the prevention of PAM is almost impossible. However, it is reassuring that the cases and risks estimated by the risk model are usually small, with individual annual risk on the order of 10-6.

  3. Assessing the impact of Syrian refugees on earthquake fatality estimations in southeast Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Bradley; Paradise, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    The influx of millions of Syrian refugees into Turkey has rapidly changed the population distribution along the Dead Sea Rift and East Anatolian fault zones. In contrast to other countries in the Middle East where refugees are accommodated in camp environments, the majority of displaced individuals in Turkey are integrated into local cities, towns, and villages - placing stress on urban settings and increasing potential exposure to strong earthquake shaking. Yet displaced populations are often unaccounted for in the census-based population models used in earthquake fatality estimations. This study creates a minimally modeled refugee gridded population model and analyzes its impact on semi-empirical fatality estimations across southeast Turkey. Daytime and nighttime fatality estimates were produced for five fault segments at earthquake magnitudes 5.8, 6.4, and 7.0. Baseline fatality estimates calculated from census-based population estimates for the study area varied in scale from tens to thousands of fatalities, with higher death totals in nighttime scenarios. Refugee fatality estimations were analyzed across 500 semi-random building occupancy distributions. Median fatality estimates for refugee populations added non-negligible contributions to earthquake fatalities at four of five fault locations, increasing total fatality estimates by 7-27 %. These findings communicate the necessity of incorporating refugee statistics into earthquake fatality estimations in southeast Turkey and the ongoing importance of placing environmental hazards in their appropriate regional and temporal context.

  4. Assessing the impact of Syrian refugees on earthquake fatality estimations in southeast Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Wilson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The influx of millions of Syrian refugees into Turkey has rapidly changed the population distribution along the Dead Sea Rift and East Anatolian fault zones. In contrast to other countries in the Middle East where refugees are accommodated in camp environments, the majority of displaced individuals in Turkey are integrated into local cities, towns, and villages – placing stress on urban settings and increasing potential exposure to strong earthquake shaking. Yet displaced populations are often unaccounted for in the census-based population models used in earthquake fatality estimations. This study creates a minimally modeled refugee gridded population model and analyzes its impact on semi-empirical fatality estimations across southeast Turkey. Daytime and nighttime fatality estimates were produced for five fault segments at earthquake magnitudes 5.8, 6.4, and 7.0. Baseline fatality estimates calculated from census-based population estimates for the study area varied in scale from tens to thousands of fatalities, with higher death totals in nighttime scenarios. Refugee fatality estimations were analyzed across 500 semi-random building occupancy distributions. Median fatality estimates for refugee populations added non-negligible contributions to earthquake fatalities at four of five fault locations, increasing total fatality estimates by 7–27 %. These findings communicate the necessity of incorporating refugee statistics into earthquake fatality estimations in southeast Turkey and the ongoing importance of placing environmental hazards in their appropriate regional and temporal context.

  5. Pedestrian fatalities and injuries involving Irish older people.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin, A J

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been established internationally that road traffic accidents (RTAs) involving older drivers follow clearly different patterns of timing, location and outcomes from those of younger age groups. Older pedestrians are also a vulnerable group and fewer analyses have been undertaken of the phenomenology of their injuries and fatalities. We studied the pattern of pedestrian RTAs in Ireland over a five-year period with the aim of identifying differences between older pedestrians (aged 65 or older) and younger adults. METHODS: We examined the datasets of the Irish National Road Authority (now the Road Safety Authority) from 1998-2002. We analysed patterns of crashes involving older pedestrians (aged 65) and compared them with younger adults (aged 18-64). RESULTS: Older people represented 36% (n = 134) of pedestrian fatalities and 23% of serious injuries while they only account for 19% of total RTAs. Mortality in RTA is more than doubled for older pedestrians compared to younger adults (RR 2.30). Most accidents involving older pedestrians happen in daylight with good visibility (56%) and in good weather conditions (77%). CONCLUSIONS: Older pedestrians are particularly vulnerable in RTAs. These occur more frequently during daylight hours and in good weather conditions. This may point to a need for prevention strategies that are targeted at the traffic environment and other road users rather than at older people.

  6. A fatal case of hypernatraemic dehydration in a neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staub, Eveline; Wilkins, Barry

    2012-09-01

    Problems with lactation can result in hypernatraemic dehydration in the neonate, with potentially severe adverse consequences. This is illustrated in this fatal case of a 10 day old neonate who presented with excessive hypernatraemic dehydration due to insufficient breast milk intake, resulting in cerebral sinus vein thrombosis with cerebral haemorrhage and infarction. Differential diagnosis included excessive sodium intake (through inappropriately mixed formula or house remedies or through hyperaldosteronism) and high water deficit (renal or gastrointestinal losses, nephrogenic or central diabetes insipidus), all of which were ruled out by specific investigations or history. No evidence was found for inborn error of metabolism. The dehydration in this baby, however, was accentuated by trans-epidermal water loss due to an ichthyosiform skin condition. This first ever reported Australian fatality from neonatal hypernatraemic dehydration supports the concern of health care professionals over rising incidences of this entity in exclusively breastfed infants, and should encourage endorsement of improved monitoring of weight loss in newborns and breastfeeding support for their mothers. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2012 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  7. Emergency management and mass fatalities: who owns the dead?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, Jim

    2009-11-01

    Mass fatality incidents are always unexpected and put a sudden stress on local response agencies to cooperate and share resources to accomplish tasks that are outside their normal activities. Lines of legal authority are often conflicting when two or more agencies are statutorily in charge. Within the USA, the local coroner system is almost universally delegated as responsible for all involved tasks including body recovery, yet the coroner is almost always the smallest responding agency, with the smallest labour pool from which to draw and the least experience of formal Incident Command System (ICS) procedures at large incidents. This paper explores the many tasks required following a mass fatality incident and the necessity for pre-event written agreements to be negotiated between local, state and federal agencies to ensure that material and personnel can be readily shared and reimbursed without bureaucratic misunderstanding in order to accomplish known objectives. Also explored are potential National Incident Management System conflicts in applying unified command to situations where legal authority and level of commitment are not synonymous.

  8. Traumatic asphyxia--fatal accident in an automatic revolving door.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortis, J; Falk, J; Rothschild, M A

    2015-09-01

    Due to continuing modernisation, the number of automatic doors in routine use, including powered revolving doors, has increased in recent years. Automatic revolving doors are found mostly in department stores, airports, railway stations and hospitals. Although safety arrangements and guidelines concerning the installation of automatic doors are in existence, their disregard in conjunction with obsolete or incorrect installation can lead to fatal accidents. In this report, a 19-month-old boy is described whose right arm was caught between the elements of an automatic revolving door. As a direct result of rescue attempts, the child's body was drawn further into the narrow gap between elements of the door. To get the boy's body out of the 4-cm-wide gap between the fixed outer wall of the revolving door and the revolving inner, back-up batteries had to be disconnected so as to stop the electrical motor powering the door. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was begun immediately after the rescue but was unsuccessful; the child was declared dead at the hospital he was taken to. The cause of death was a combination of compression-related skull and brain injury together with thoracic compression. This case shows an outstanding example of the preventive aspect as a special task of forensic medicine. Additionally, it serves as a warning for the correct installation and use of automatic revolving doors. Even so, small children should not use these doors on their own, but only with an alert companion, so as to prevent further fatal accidents of this sort.

  9. Fatal Hyperammonemic Brain Injury from Valproic Acid Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Bega

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyperammonemia is known to cause neuronal injury, and can result from valproic acid exposure. Prompt reduction of elevated ammonia levels may prevent permanent neurological injury. We report a case of fatal hyperammonemic brain injury in a woman exposed to valproic acid. Case: A 38-year-old woman with schizoaffective disorder and recent increase in valproic acid dosage presented with somnolence and confusion and rapidly progressed to obtundation. Brain MRI showed diffuse bilateral restricted diffusion in nearly the entire cerebral cortex. She had normal liver function tests but serum ammonia level was severely elevated at 288 µmol/l. Genetic testing showed no mutation in urea cycle enzymes. Despite successful elimination of ammonia with hemodialysis she developed fatal cerebral edema. Conclusion: Cerebral edema secondary to hyperammonemia is potentially reversible if recognized early. Ammonia excretion can be facilitated by initiation of hemodialysis and administration of scavenging agents (sodium phenylacetate and sodium benzoate. Severe hyperammonemia can result from valproic acid exposure even in the absence of hepatotoxicity or inborn errors of metabolism. It is important to check serum ammonia in any patient with encephalopathy who has had recent valproic acid exposure.

  10. Animal-caused fatalities in New Mexico, 1993-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, Sarah L

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate animal-caused fatalities in New Mexico using data collected during medicolegal death investigations, including toxicology, survival interval, and circumstances. A retrospective review of the computerized database and hard copies of files from a centralized, statewide medical examiner's office, excluding deaths due to zoonotic diseases and motor vehicle collisions involving animals. Between 1993 and 2004, 63 deaths caused by animals were reported in New Mexico. The majority of decedents were male (46/63, 73%) and non-Hispanic white (33/63, 52%). Horses were the most commonly implicated animals, with 43 (68%) deaths due to a person being thrown from, crushed, dragged, or kicked by a horse. Cattle caused 9 deaths (14%), dogs caused 3 (5%), and venomous animals caused 3, whereas a bear was responsible for 1 death. Ten decedents (16%) had alcohol present at the time of death, and 8 would have been over the legal blood alcohol concentration for driving (0.08%). Ten deaths (16%) were work-related and included deaths of jockeys and ranch workers. The majority of deaths (42/63, 67%) occurred in remote locations, potentially delaying access to treatment. Survival intervals ranged from 1 day to 33 years. Whereas both human and animal behavior can be difficult to predict, a review of animal-caused fatalities investigated by a medical examiner revealed that in many cases, deaths could have been prevented by either the use of protective gear or alterations in human behavior.

  11. Measles Case Fatality Rate in Bihar, India, 2011–12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murhekar, Manoj V.; Ahmad, Mohammad; Shukla, Hemant; Abhishek, Kunwar; Perry, Robert T.; Bose, Anindya S.; Shimpi, Rahul; Kumar, Arun; Kaliaperumal, Kanagasabai; Sethi, Raman; Selvaraj, Vadivoo; Kamaraj, Pattabi; Routray, Satyabrata; Das, Vidya Nand; Menabde, Nata; Bahl, Sunil

    2014-01-01

    Background Updated estimates of measles case fatality rates (CFR) are critical for monitoring progress towards measles elimination goals. India accounted for 36% of total measles deaths occurred globally in 2011. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to estimate measles CFR and identify the risk factors for measles death in Bihar–one of the north Indian states historically known for its low vaccination coverage. Methods We systematically selected 16 of the 31 laboratory-confirmed measles outbreaks occurring in Bihar during 1 October 2011 to 30 April 2012. All households of the villages/urban localities affected by these outbreaks were visited to identify measles cases and deaths. We calculated CFR and used multivariate analysis to identify risk factors for measles death. Results The survey found 3670 measles cases and 28 deaths (CFR: 0.78, 95% confidence interval: 0.47–1.30). CFR was higher among under-five children (1.22%) and children belonging to scheduled castes/tribes (SC/ST, 1.72%). On multivariate analysis, independent risk factors associated with measles death were age Measles CFR in Bihar was low. To further reduce case fatality, health authorities need to ensure that SC/ST are targeted by the immunization programme and that outbreak investigations target for vitamin A treatment of cases in high risk groups such as SC/ST and young children and ensure regular visits by health-workers in affected villages to administer vitamin A to new cases. PMID:24824641

  12. Pedestrian fatalities resulting from train-person collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Sérgio; Santos, Liliana; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Magalhães, Teresa; Santos, Agostinho

    2015-01-01

    Train-person collisions have a significant impact in our society, due to their negative economic and psychological effects. This work aims to study fatalities resulting from train-person collisions in Portugal. A retrospective study was conducted based on the analysis of autopsy reports related to train-person fatalities performed in the North Branch of the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences. Suicide was responsible for most of the cases, and males were more often involved in train-person collisions than females. Victims, between 40 and 59 years old, were found to be involved in a high percentage (39%) of the cases, and people older than 65 accounted for a significant percentage (40%) of the accidents. No seasonality was observed in suicide cases, but a decrease in accident numbers was registered in summer. Regarding weekday and time of day, afternoon and non-rush hour were the times when most suicides were observed, whereas accidents did not showed a specific weekday or time of day, except for rush hour, during which they were more frequent. Alcohol-positive blood analysis accounting for 25% of the cases. Differences from other European studies were found, which may be related to the different cultures of the countries/regions, as well as to the differences in the railway systems. More extensive studies must be performed in order to develop strategies to prevent train-person collisions.

  13. Fatal attraction: Explaining Russia's sensitive nuclear transfers to Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchinsky, Leah R.

    This paper explores Russia's sensitive nuclear assistance to Iran in an effort to determine why a supplier state might proliferate against its own apparent security interests. The goal is to help readers understand the supply-side dynamics of nuclear proliferation. Through careful reconstruction of the historical narrative, using open source data, this study tests the plausibility of a "fatalistic calculus" explanation, identified by Stephen Sestanovich as a possible driver for Russia's behavior. According to the hypothesis, Russia has cooperated with Iran as a way both to stay in the good graces of a neighbor that is suspected of developing nuclear weapons and to win short-term influence and profits. The paper also examines the role of other factors advanced in the existing supply-side literature, such as economic motives identified by physicist and nonproliferation scholar David Albright. The findings show that bureaucratic, economic and fatalistic factors have each played a role in motivating Russia's cooperation with Iran, with their relative importance shifting over time. Fatalism begets a strategy of Russian "minimaxing," in the lexicon of Russia scholar Robert Freedman, wherein Russia attempts to minimize damage to its relationship with the U.S. while maximizing influence in Iran via nuclear cooperation. Fatalism, as actualized by minimaxing, best explains Russia's behavior after former Russian president Vladmir Putin came to power, when the bureaucratic and economic arguments become less cogent.

  14. [Fatal alveolar haemorrhage following a "bang" of cannabis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassin, F; André, M; Rallec, B; Combes, E; Vinsonneau, U; Paleiron, N

    2011-09-01

    The new methods of cannabis consumption (home made water pipe or "bang") may be responsible for fatal respiratory complications. We present a case, with fatal outcome, of a man of 19 years with no previous history other than an addiction to cannabis using "bang". He was admitted to intensive care with acute dyspnoea. A CT scan showed bilateral, diffuse alveolar shadowing. He was anaemic with an Hb of 9.3g/l. Bronchoalveolar lavage revealed massive alveolar haemorrhage. Investigations for infection and immunological disorder were negative and toxicology was negative except for cannabis. Antibiotic treatment was given and favourable progress allowed early discharge. Death occurred 15 days later due to alveolar haemorrhage following a further "bang" of cannabis. Autopsy showed toxic alveolar haemorrhage. The probable mechanism is pulmonary damage due to acid anhydrides released by the incomplete combustion of cannabis in contact with plastic. These acids have a double effect on the lungs: a direct toxicity with severe inflammation of the mucosa leading to alveolar haemorrhage and subsequently the acid anhydrides may lead to the syndrome of intra-alveolar haemorrhage and anaemia described in occupational lung diseases by Herbert in Oxford in 1979. It manifests itself by haemoptysis and intravascular haemolysis. We draw attention to the extremely serious potential consequences of new methods of using cannabis, particularly the use of "bang" in homemade plastic materials. Copyright © 2011 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Fatal residential fire accidents in the municipality of Copenhagen, 1991-1996

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind; Gregersen, Markil Ebbe Gregers; Sabroe, Svend

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The death rate for fatal fire accidents in Denmark has doubled since 1951, mostly due to an increase in the number of fire accidents associated with smoking. The most common cause of residential fire deaths in Denmark today is smoking, often combined with alcohol intoxication or handi......BACKGROUND: The death rate for fatal fire accidents in Denmark has doubled since 1951, mostly due to an increase in the number of fire accidents associated with smoking. The most common cause of residential fire deaths in Denmark today is smoking, often combined with alcohol intoxication...... or handicap. METHODS: This was a case-control study of fatal fire accidents in private homes in the municipality of Copenhagen from 1991 to 1996. The fatal fire accidents were identified from a police register, and the two non-fatal fire accidents registered immediately before and after each fatal fire were...

  16. Analysis of the stochastic somatic fatalities evaluated in the German Nuclear Power Plant Risk Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrhardt, J.

    1981-10-01

    The number of latent cancer fatalities estimated in the German Risk Study (Phase A) is analyzed with respect to the essential models. Special attention is given to the following topics: (1) Allocation of the number of fatalities to the population living during the nuclear accident and to persons born afterwards. (2) Contributions of the relevant exposure pathways and types of cancer to the late fatalities. (3) Estimation of the number of fatalities expected within and beyond a distance of 540 km from the site (alteration of model assumptions). (4) Estimation of the relative portion of late fatalities caused by radiation doses below the dose limits of the German radiation protection regulations. Additionaly, the influence of a non-linear dose response function similar to WASH 1400 on the latent cancer fatalities is estimated. The above-mentioned results provide conclusions concerning necessary improvements of models in Phase B of the Risk Study. (orig.) [de

  17. Is Aristotle’s Response to the Argument for Fatalism in De Interpretatione 9 Successful?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Istvan Jr.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to figure out whether Aristotle’s response to the argument for fatalism in De Interpretatione 9 is a success. By “response” it is meant not simply the reasons Aristotle offers to highlight why fatalism does not accord with how we conduct our lives, but also the solution he devises to block the argument for fatalism. This paper finds that a Aristotle’s argument for fatalism is essentially bivalence plus that the truth of a proposition implies necessity, b that Aristotle’s solution is to restrict bivalence, c that this solution is coherent, and d that while this solution does not rule out the possibility of fatalism, it does succeed in blocking the argument for fatalism offered within chapter 9.

  18. Provider fatalism reduces the likelihood of HIV-prevention counseling in primary care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward, Wayne T; Koester, Kimberly A; Myers, Janet J; Morin, Stephen F

    2006-01-01

    We examined the relationship between provider fatalism, a belief that behavior change among HIV-infected patients is unlikely, and HIV-prevention counseling in 16 publicly funded clinics. HIV-seropositive patients (N = 618) completed surveys assessing prevention counseling in the past 6 months. Additionally, 144 interviews were conducted with providers, administrators, and patients to examine beliefs about prevention counseling. We summed the number of fatalistic comments made by providers and administrators in each clinic, and assigned these counts as clinic-level fatalism scores to survey participants. Patients in high fatalism clinics were less likely to report prevention counseling than patients in low fatalism clinics. This difference remained significant even after controlling for clinic characteristics or patients' sexual risk and health status. However, clients in high fatalism clinics were more likely to be White, gay, educated, and older. Provider fatalism is a barrier that must be addressed when implementing HIV-prevention counseling in primary care settings.

  19. Case-fatality rates for myocardial infarction declined in Denmark and Sweden during 1987-1999

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren; Abildstrom, Steen Z; Rosén, Måns

    2004-01-01

    and Sweden, and extended these measures with underlying deaths of ischemic heart disease and sudden deaths of unknown cause. RESULTS: Changed coding practice distorted trends of case fatality rates during the day of the event. In general, Denmark had higher case-fatality rates, but trends in hospital......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate trends in prognosis after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) between Denmark and Sweden using routinely collected data and different case-fatality measures. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We compared three case-fatality measures during 1987-1999 using national registries in Denmark.......55) and the odds ratios for case fatality during days 29-365 for 1999 vs. 1987 were 0.56 among men in Denmark (women 0.65) and 0.66 among men in Sweden (women 0.67). CONCLUSION: Short- and long-term prognosis improved considerably during 1987-1999 in Denmark and Sweden. Case fatality during the day of the event...

  20. Posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and non-fatal intentional self-harm in Massachusetts Veterans

    OpenAIRE

    Gradus, Jaimie L; Leatherman, Sarah; Raju, Sanjay; Ferguson, Ryan; Miller, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Background: The literature on the association between Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and fatal and non-fatal intentional self-harm (ISH) among Veterans who receive care within the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) is limited in scope and contradictory. The current study examines the association between PTSD and non-fatal ISH in a gender-stratified sample of patients who received care at a Massachusetts VHA treatment facility between 2000 and 2008. Methods: VHA electronic medical reco...