WorldWideScience

Sample records for fatal natural history

  1. Natural history of tuberculosis: duration and fatality of untreated pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV negative patients: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemersma, E.W.; van der Werf, M.J.; Borgdorff, M.W.; Williams, B.G.; Nagelkerke, N.J.D.

    2011-01-01

    Background The prognosis, specifically the case fatality and duration, of untreated tuberculosis is important as many patients are not correctly diagnosed and therefore receive inadequate or no treatment. Furthermore, duration and case fatality of tuberculosis are key parameters in interpreting

  2. Natural history of tuberculosis: duration and fatality of untreated pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV negative patients: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemersma, E.W.; van der Werf, M.J.; Borgdorff, M.W.; Williams, B.G.; Nagelkerke, N.J.D.

    2011-01-01

    Background The prognosis, specifically the case fatality and duration, of untreated tuberculosis is important as many patients are not correctly diagnosed and therefore receive inadequate or no treatment. Furthermore, duration and case fatality of tuberculosis are key parameters in interpreting epid

  3. Natural history of tuberculosis: duration and fatality of untreated pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV negative patients: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemersma, E.W.; van der Werf, M.J.; Borgdorff, M.W.; Williams, B.G.; Nagelkerke, N.J.D.

    2011-01-01

    Background The prognosis, specifically the case fatality and duration, of untreated tuberculosis is important as many patients are not correctly diagnosed and therefore receive inadequate or no treatment. Furthermore, duration and case fatality of tuberculosis are key parameters in interpreting epid

  4. Natural History of Tuberculosis: Duration and Fatality of Untreated Pulmonary Tuberculosis in HIV Negative Patients: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiemersma, Edine W.; van der Werf, Marieke J.; Borgdorff, Martien W.; Williams, Brian G.; Nagelkerke, Nico J. D.

    2011-01-01

    Background The prognosis, specifically the case fatality and duration, of untreated tuberculosis is important as many patients are not correctly diagnosed and therefore receive inadequate or no treatment. Furthermore, duration and case fatality of tuberculosis are key parameters in interpreting epidemiological data. Methodology and Principal Findings To estimate the duration and case fatality of untreated pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV negative patients we reviewed studies from the pre-chemotherapy era. Untreated smear-positive tuberculosis among HIV negative individuals has a 10-year case fatality variously reported between 53% and 86%, with a weighted mean of 70%. Ten-year case fatality of culture-positive smear-negative tuberculosis was nowhere reported directly but can be indirectly estimated to be approximately 20%. The duration of tuberculosis from onset to cure or death is approximately 3 years and appears to be similar for smear-positive and smear-negative tuberculosis. Conclusions Current models of untreated tuberculosis that assume a total duration of 2 years until self-cure or death underestimate the duration of disease by about one year, but their case fatality estimates of 70% for smear-positive and 20% for culture-positive smear-negative tuberculosis appear to be satisfactory. PMID:21483732

  5. Natural history of glaucoma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pan, Ying; Varma, Rohit

    2011-01-01

    .... This paper presents the natural history of open angle and angle closure glaucoma. We examine the glaucomatous progression in terms of changes in optic disk morphology and visual fields as well as the risk factors for progression...

  6. Natural hazard fatalities in Switzerland from 1946 to 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badoux, Alexandre; Andres, Norina; Techel, Frank; Hegg, Christoph

    2016-12-01

    A database of fatalities caused by natural hazard processes in Switzerland was compiled for the period between 1946 and 2015. Using information from the Swiss flood and landslide damage database and the Swiss destructive avalanche database, the data set was extended back in time and more hazard processes were added by conducting an in-depth search of newspaper reports. The new database now covers all natural hazards common in Switzerland, categorised into seven process types: flood, landslide, rockfall, lightning, windstorm, avalanche and other processes (e.g. ice avalanches, earthquakes). Included were all fatal accidents associated with natural hazard processes in which victims did not expose themselves to an important danger on purpose. The database contains information on 635 natural hazard events causing 1023 fatalities, which corresponds to a mean of 14.6 victims per year. The most common causes of death were snow avalanches (37 %), followed by lightning (16 %), floods (12 %), windstorms (10 %), rockfall (8 %), landslides (7 %) and other processes (9 %). About 50 % of all victims died in one of the 507 single-fatality events; the other half were killed in the 128 multi-fatality events. The number of natural hazard fatalities that occurred annually during our 70-year study period ranged from 2 to 112 and exhibited a distinct decrease over time. While the number of victims in the first three decades (until 1975) ranged from 191 to 269 per decade, it ranged from 47 to 109 in the four following decades. This overall decrease was mainly driven by a considerable decline in the number of avalanche and lightning fatalities. About 75 % of victims were males in all natural hazard events considered together, and this ratio was roughly maintained in all individual process categories except landslides (lower) and other processes (higher). The ratio of male to female victims was most likely to be balanced when deaths occurred at home (in or near a building), a situation

  7. Natural history of COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen; Lange, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The natural history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is usually described with a focus on change in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 ) over time as this allows for exploration of risk factors for an accelerated decline-and thus of developing COPD. From epidemiological studies we...

  8. Natural history of glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Ying

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To present an overview of the recent observations and research that shed light on the understanding of open and closed angle glaucoma. Methods: Literature review. Results: Glaucoma is a major eye problem afflicting millions of people worldwide. As the population increases, the number of people with glaucoma also increases, with glaucoma becoming an increasing public health concern. This paper presents the natural history of open angle and angle closure glaucoma. We examine the glaucomatous progression in terms of changes in optic disk morphology and visual fi elds as well as the risk factors for progression. Conclusions: This present review highlights the magnitude of glaucoma globally and the need for a greater understanding of this disease and its natural progression.

  9. The Case for Natural History

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Heather; Achiam, Marianne

    2017-03-01

    Fundamental knowledge of natural history is lacking in many western societies, as demonstrated by its absence in school science curricula. And yet, to meet local and global challenges such as environmental degradation, biodiversity loss and climate change, we need to better understand the living and non-living parts of the natural world. Many have argued passionately for an increased understanding of natural history; others have developed successful pedagogical programmes for applying knowledge of natural history in environmental initiatives. In joining wider calls, we choose here to focus on the educational value afforded by understanding the epistemological bases of natural history and its particular forms of reasoning. We also briefly discuss the ways in which an education in natural history provides the foundation for environmental and social justice efforts that directly affect the lives of young people and their communities. We end by highlighting the ease by which natural history may be incorporated in learning opportunities both in and outside of the classroom.

  10. The Case for Natural History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King, Heather; Achiam, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    Fundamental knowledge of natural history is lacking in many western societies, as demonstrated by its absence in school science curricula. And yet to meet local and global challenges such as environmental degradation, biodiversity loss and climate change, we need to better understand the living...... and non-living parts of the natural world. Many have argued passionately for an increased understanding of natural history; others have developed successful pedagogical programmes for applying a knowledge of natural history in environmental initiatives. In joining wider calls, we choose here to focus...... on the educational value afforded by understanding the epistemological bases of natural history and its particular forms of reasoning. We also briefly discuss the ways in which an education in natural history provides the foundation for environmental and social justice efforts that directly affect the lives of young...

  11. The Case for Natural History

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Heather; Achiam, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    Fundamental knowledge of natural history is lacking in many western societies, as demonstrated by its absence in school science curricula. And yet, to meet local and global challenges such as environmental degradation, biodiversity loss and climate change, we need to better understand the living and non-living parts of the natural world. Many have…

  12. Natural history museums and cyberspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wemmer, C.; Erixon-Stanford, M.; Gardner, A.L.

    1996-01-01

    Natural history museums are entering the electronic age as they increasingly use computers to build accessible and shareable databases that support research and education on a world-wide basis. Museums are exploring the Internet and other shared uses of electronic media to enhance their traditional roles in education, training, identifications, technical assistance, and collections management.

  13. A Natural History of Hygiene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie A Curtis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In unpacking the Pandora’s box of hygiene, the author looks into its ancient evolutionary history and its more recent human history. Within the box, she finds animal behaviour, dirt, disgust and many diseases, as well as illumination concerning how hygiene can be improved. It is suggested that hygiene is the set of behaviours that animals, including humans, use to avoid harmful agents. The author argues that hygiene has an ancient evolutionary history, and that most animals exhibit such behaviours because they are adaptive. In humans, responses to most infectious threats are accompanied by sensations of disgust. In historical times, religions, social codes and the sciences have all provided rationales for hygiene behaviour. However, the author argues that disgust and hygiene behaviour came first, and that the rationales came later. The implications for the modern-day practice of hygiene are profound. The natural history of hygiene needs to be better understood if we are to promote safe hygiene and, hence, win our evolutionary war against the agents of infectious disease.

  14. Natural History of Pseudoboine Snakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília P. Gaiarsa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though natural history information is crucial for answering key ecological, evolutionary, and conservation questions, basic studies are still lacking for Neotropical snakes. This study aims at contributing to the knowledge of the Neotropical tribe Pseudoboini, based on literature data, analysis of museum specimens and unpublished data. The tribe is mainly composed of moderate-sized snakes, although small and large-sized snakes also occur in the clade. Mean fecundity ranged from two (Rodriguesophis iglesiasi to 29 eggs (Clelia plumbea and the species are predominantly terrestrial and nocturnal. Most species are diet specialists and lizards are the most commonly consumed prey (found in the diet of 29 species, followed by small mammals (consumed by 20 species and snakes (consumed by 18 species. Although the tribe Pseudoboini appears to be well studied, for 15 species (32% only a small amount of information or none was available. We hope that our study can motivate research on the least known species.

  15. Natural history of Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, E Ray; Beck, Christopher A; Darwin, Kristin; Nichols, Paige; Brocht, Alicia F D; Biglan, Kevin M; Shoulson, Ira

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the natural history of Huntington disease will inform patients and clinicians on the disease course and researchers on the design of clinical trials. To determine the longitudinal change in clinical features among individuals with Huntington disease compared with controls. Prospective, longitudinal cohort study at 44 research sites in Australia (n = 2), Canada (n =4), and the United States (n = 38). Three hundred thirty-four individuals with clinically manifest Huntington disease who had at least 3 years of annually accrued longitudinal data and 142 controls consisting of caregivers and spouses who had no genetic risk of Huntington disease. Change in movement, cognition, behavior, and function as measured by the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale, the Mini-Mental State Examination, and vital signs. Total motor score worsened by 3.0 points (95% CI, 2.5-3.4) per year and chorea worsened by 0.3 point per year (95% CI, 0.1-0.5). Cognition declined by 0.7 point (95% CI, 0.6-0.8) per year on the Mini-Mental State Examination. Behavior, as measured by the product of frequency and severity score on the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale, worsened by 0.6 point per year (95% CI, 0.0-1.2). Total functional capacity declined by 0.6 point per year (95% CI, 0.5-0.7). Compared with controls, baseline body mass index was lower in those with Huntington disease (25.8 vs 28.8; P Huntington disease all declined in a monotonic manner. These data quantify the natural history of the disease and may inform the design of trials aimed at reducing its burden. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00313495.

  16. Natural history of Barrett's esophagus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rao Milind; Stephen E Attwood

    2012-01-01

    The natural history of Barrett's esophagus (BE) is difficult to quantify because,by definition,it should describe the course of the condition if left untreated.Pragmatically,we assume that patients with BE will receive symptomatic treatment with acid suppression,usually a proton pump inhibitor,to treat their heartburn.This paper describes the development of complications of stricture,ulcer,dysplasia and adenocarcinoma from this standpoint.Controversies over the definition of BE and its implications in clinical practice are presented.The presence of intestinal metaplasia and its relevance to cancer risk is discussed,and the need to measure the extent of the Barrett's epithelium (long and short segments) using the Prague guidelines is emphasized.Guidelines and international consensus over the diagnosis and management of BE are being regularly updated.The need for expert consensus is important due to the lack of randomized trials in this area.After searching the literature,we have tried to collate the important studies regarding progression of Barrett's to dysplasia and adenocarcinoma.No therapeutic studies yet reported show a clear reduction in the development of cancer in BE.The effect of pharmacological and surgical intervention on the natural history of Barrett's is a subject of ongoing research,including the Barrett's Oesophagus Surveillance Study and the aspirin and esomeprazole cancer chemoprevention trial with interesting results.The geographical variation and the wide range of outcomes highlight the difficulty of providing an individualized risk profile to patients with BE.Future studies on the interaction of genome wide abnormalities in Barrett's and their interaction with environmental factors may allow individualization of the risk of cancer developing in BE.

  17. Selected Natural Materials in History

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Julian F.V.Vincent

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1 Technology of natural materials Early man used conveniently shaped stones as tools."Workshop" areas have been found with large numbers of stones, some showing signs of being worked[1].However, organic materials like wood will decay under normal wet conditions in the presence of oxygen, so we won't find the same sort of evidence for wooden tools. It is safe to assume that early man used sticks as probes and clubs, and maybe even for making some sort of nestlike protection against the elements and predators, since we see chimpanzees and other animals doing this sort of thing. So wood, and almost certainly other plant materials such as fibrous leaves, and bone and other materials gleaned from dead animals, would be used from the earliest times. We need to know this in order to establish the idea that Man can be expected to have a long history of the use and manipulation of natural materials. This needs skills in choosing materials for certain uses on the basis of their mechanical properties,whether those properties are to do with the ease of shaping the material or the effectiveness of that material in use. Occasionally the material was chosen simply because it was readily available. If we find that a particular material was always used for a certain job, it's reasonable to deduce that Man was exerting materials selection criteria through experience.

  18. The natural history of oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dole, M

    1965-09-01

    The nuclear reactions occurring in the cores of stars which are believed to produce the element oxygen are first described. Evidence for the absence of free oxygen in the early atmosphere of the earth is reviewed. Mechanisms of creation of atmospheric oxygen by photochemical processes are then discussed in detail. Uncertainty regarding the rate of diffusion of water vapor through the cold trap at 70 km altitude in calculating the rate of the photochemical production of oxygen is avoided by using data for the concentration of hydrogen atoms at 90 km obtained from the Meinel OH absorption bands. It is estimated that the present atmospheric oxygen content could have been produced five to ten times during the earth's history. It is shown that the isotopic composition of atmospheric oxygen is not that of photosynthetic oxygen. The fractionation of oxygen isotopes by organic respiration and oxidation occurs in a direction to enhance the O(18) content of the atmosphere and compensates for the O(18) dilution resulting from photosynthetic oxygen. Thus, an oxygen isotope cycle exists in nature.

  19. The natural history of anencephaly.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Obeidi, Nidaa

    2012-01-31

    OBJECTIVE: Early elective termination of pregnancy is the most common outcome of a diagnosis of anencephaly in developed countries. Experience and expertise with management of ongoing pregnancies is limited. We aimed to investigate the natural history of these pregnancies from diagnosis to delivery and to determine timing of death. METHOD: A retrospective review of cases of anencephaly diagnosed between 2003 and 2009 in tertiary-referral university teaching hospitals in Cork. RESULTS: The majority of cases (25\\/26; 96%) were diagnosed prenatally at a median gestation of 21(+2) weeks (range 13(+4)-32(+4)). The median maternal age was 30 years (range 17-41) and 50% were primigravidae. Seven pregnancies were complicated by polyhydramnios and four deliveries were complicated by shoulder dystocia. The median gestation at delivery was 35 weeks (range 22(+5)-42(+6)); 69% of labours were induced at a median gestation of 34 weeks. Six women (6\\/26; 23%) had a pre-labour intrauterine fetal death and nine women (9\\/26; 35%) had an intrapartum fetal death. Median neonatal survival time was 55 min (range 10 min to 8 days). Six parents donated neonatal organs for transplantation. CONCLUSION: This study provides useful information for health professionals caring for patients with a diagnosis of anencephaly. The majority of these infants die prior to delivery but short-term survival is possible.

  20. Francis Bacon's natural history and civil history: a comparative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to offer a comparative survey of Bacon's theory and practice of natural history and of civil history, particularly centered on their relationship to natural philosophy and human philosophy. I will try to show that the obvious differences concerning their subject matter encompass a number of less obvious methodological and philosophical assumptions which reveal a significant practical and conceptual convergence of the two fields. Causes or axioms are prescribed as the theoretical end-products of natural history, whereas precepts are envisaged as the speculative outcomes derived from perfect civil history. In spite of this difference, causes and precepts are thought to enable effective action in order to change the state of nature and of man, respectively. For that reason a number of common patterns are to be found in Bacon's theory and practice of natural and civil history.

  1. The History of Nature and the Nature of History: Stephen Jay Gould on Science, Philosophy, and History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaser, Kent

    1999-01-01

    Considers Stephen Jay Gould's writings on the nature of history, specifically on the relationship between science and history. Addresses the scientific method, the foundations and procedures of historical explanation in science, history as contingency, and evolution as history. (CMK)

  2. Natural histories of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rennard, Stephen I; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    Concepts relating to the natural history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) arise most importantly from the classic study of Fletcher and colleagues (The Natural History of Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema, Oxford University Press, New York, 1976). This study, which evaluated working...

  3. Epidemiology and natural history of vestibular schwannomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangerup, Sven-Eric; Caye-Thomasen, Per

    2012-01-01

    This article describes various epidemiologic trends for vestibular schwannomas over the last 35 years, including a brief note on terminology. Additionally, it provides information on the natural history of tumor growth and hearing level following the diagnosis of a vestibular schwannoma. A treatm......This article describes various epidemiologic trends for vestibular schwannomas over the last 35 years, including a brief note on terminology. Additionally, it provides information on the natural history of tumor growth and hearing level following the diagnosis of a vestibular schwannoma....... A treatment strategy based on the natural history of tumor growth and hearing also is discussed....

  4. Francis Bacon's natural history and the Senecan natural histories of early modern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalobeanu, Dana

    2012-01-01

    At various stages in his career, Francis Bacon claimed to have reformed and changed traditional natural history in such a way that his new "natural and experimental history" was unlike any of its ancient or humanist predecessors. Surprisingly, such claims have gone largely unquestioned in Baconian scholarship. Contextual readings of Bacon's natural history have compared it, so far, only with Plinian or humanist natural history. This paper investigates a different form of natural history, very popular among Bacon's contemporaries, but yet unexplored by contemporary students of Bacon's works. I have provisionally called this form of natural history'Senecan' natural history, partly because it took shape in the Neo-Stoic revival of the sixteenth-century, partly because it originates in a particular cosmographical reading of Seneca's Naturales quaestiones. I discuss in this paper two examples of Senecan natural history: the encyclopedic and cosmographical projects of Pierre de la Primaudaye (1546-1619) and Samuel Purchas (1577-1626). I highlight a number of similarities between these two projects and Francis Bacon's natural history, and argue that Senecan natural history forms an important aspect in the historical and philosophical background that needs to be taken into consideration if we want to understand the extent to which Bacon's project to reform natural history can be said to be new.

  5. History without time: Buffon's natural history as a nonmathematical physique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoquet, Thierry

    2010-03-01

    While "natural history" is practically synonymous with the name of Buffon, the term itself has been otherwise overlooked by historians of science. This essay attempts to address this omission by investigating the meanings of "physique," "natural philosophy," and "history," among other terms, with the purpose of understanding Buffon's actual objectives. It also shows that Buffon never claimed to be a Newtonian and should not be considered as such; the goal is to provide a historical analysis that resituates Buffon's thought within his own era. This is done, primarily, by eschewing the often-studied question of time in Buffon. Instead, this study examines the nontemporal meanings of the word "history" within the naturalist's theory and method. The title of his Natural History is examined both as an indicator of the kind of science that Buffon was hoping to achieve and as a source of great misinterpretation among his peers. Unlike Buffon, many of his contemporaries actually envisioned the study of nature from a Baconian perspective where history was restricted to the mere collection of facts and where philosophy, which was the implicit and ultimate goal of studying nature, was seen, at least for the present, as unrealizable. Buffon confronts this tendency insofar as his Histoire naturelle claims to be the real physique that, along with describing nature, also sought to identify general laws and provide clear insight into what true knowledge of nature is or should be. According to Buffon, history (both natural and civil) is not analogous to mathematics; it is a nonmathematical method whose scope encompasses both nature and society. This methodological stance gives rise to the "physicization" of certain moral concepts--a gesture that was interpreted by his contemporaries as Epicurean and atheist. In addition, Buffon reduces a number of metaphysically tainted historical concepts (e.g., antediluvian monuments) to objects of physical analysis, thereby confronting the very

  6. The natural history of thalassemia intermedia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Borgna-Pignatti, Caterina; Marsella, Maria; Zanforlin, Nicolo

    2010-01-01

    The severity of thalassemia intermedia depends on the degree of imbalance between alpha and non-alpha chains as well as other genetic and environmental factors that modify the natural history of the disease...

  7. Natural history of cerebral saccular aneurysms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Natural history, Cerebral saccular aneurysm,. Aneurysmal rupture. .... as autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and Ehlers-. Danlos syndrome .... the method of defining 'acute' hypertension was not reported. Juvela et al25 ...

  8. History of non-fatal cardiovascular disease in a cohort of Dutch and British patients with haemophilia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Putte, Dietje E. Fransen; Fischer, Kathelijn; Makris, Michael; Tait, R. Campbell; Chowdary, Pratima; Collins, Peter W.; Meijer, Karina; Roosendaal, Goris; Schutgens, Roger E. G.; Mauser-Bunschoten, Eveline P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality is reported to be lower in haemophilia patients than in the general population, but information on the occurrence of non-fatal CVD is lacking. The aim of our study was to assess CVD history in a cohort of living haemophilia patients. Methods Retrospec

  9. The global role of natural disaster fatalities in decision-making: statistics, trends and analysis from 116 years of disaster data compared to fatality rates from other causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, James; Wenzel, Friedemann; McLennan, Amy; Daniell, Katherine; Kunz-Plapp, Tina; Khazai, Bijan; Schaefer, Andreas; Kunz, Michael; Girard, Trevor

    2016-04-01

    In this study, analysis is undertaken showing disaster fatalities trends from around the world using the CATDAT Natural Disaster and Socioeconomic Indicator databases from 1900-2015. Earthquakes have caused over 2.3 million fatalities since 1900; however absolute numbers of deaths caused by them have remained rather constant over time. However, floods have caused somewhere between 1.7 and 5.4 million fatalities, mostly in the earlier half of the 20th century (depending on the 1931 China floods). Storm and storm surges (ca. 1.3 million fatalities), on the other hand, have shown an opposite trend with increasing fatalities over the century (or a lack of records in the early 1900s). Earthquakes due to their sporadic nature, do not inspire investment pre-disaster. When looking at the investment in flood control vs. earthquakes, there is a marked difference in the total investment, which has resulted in a much larger reduction in fatalities. However, a key consideration for decision-makers in different countries around the world when choosing to implement disaster sensitive design is the risk of a natural disaster death, compared to other types of deaths in their country. The creation of empirical annualised ratios of earthquake, flood and storm fatalities from the year 1900 onwards vs. other methods of fatalities (cancer, diseases, accidents etc.) for each country using the CATDAT damaging natural disasters database is undertaken. On an annualised level, very few countries show earthquakes and other disaster types to be one of the highest probability methods for death. However, in particular years with large events, annual rates can easily exceed the total death count for a particular country. An example of this is Haiti, with the equivalent earthquake death rate in 2010 exceeding the total all-cause death rate in the country. Globally, fatality rates due to disasters are generally at least 1 order of magnitude lower than other causes such as heart disease. However, in

  10. Science literacy and natural history museums

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Antonio G Valdecasas; Ana M Correas

    2010-12-01

    It appears that developed countries, such as the US, the UK and Italy, are losing the race against irrationalism and arbitrary thinking in regard to nature and human interactions. The incidence of misguided beliefs and the detachment from and, in some cases, outright hostility toward science are on the rise. Paradoxically, this is probably the period in the history of advanced countries in which increasing public and personal efforts have been directed toward the dissemination of scientific knowledge to increase public understanding of science. This article vindicates the role of natural history museums in consolidating rational and critical scientific thinking while briefly examining scientific illiteracy in developed countries. It also discusses methods to improve the involvement of natural history museums in the promotion of rational thinking, the only appropriate avenue for objective knowledge.

  11. Science literacy and natural history museums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdecasas, Antonio G; Correas, Ana M

    2010-12-01

    It appears that developed countries, such as the US, the UK and Italy, are losing the race against irrationalism and arbitrary thinking in regard to nature and human interactions. The incidence of misguided beliefs and the detachment from and, in some cases, outright hostility toward science are on the rise. Paradoxically, this is probably the period in the history of advanced countries in which increasing public and personal efforts have been directed toward the dissemination of scientific knowledge to increase public understanding of science. This article vindicates the role of natural history museums in consolidating rational and critical scientific thinking while briefly examining scientific illiteracy in developed countries. It also discusses methods to improve the involvement of natural history museums in the promotion of rational thinking, the only appropriate avenue for objective knowledge.

  12. The Natural Science Underlying Big History

    CERN Document Server

    Chaisson, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    Nature's many varied complex systems (including galaxies, stars, planets, life, and society) are islands of order within the increasingly disordered universe. All organized systems are subject to physical, biological or cultural evolution, which together comprise the grander interdisciplinary subject of cosmic evolution. This is global history greatly extended, big history with a scientific basis, and natural history broadly portrayed across 14 billion years of time. Such evolution writ large has significant potential to unify the natural sciences into a holistic understanding of who we are and whence we came. No new science (beyond frontier, non-equilibrium thermodynamics) is needed to describe cosmic evolution's major milestones at a deep and empirical level. Quantitative models and experimental tests imply that a remarkable simplicity underlies the emergence and growth of complexity for a wide spectrum of known and diverse systems. In particular, energy rate density is an objective metric suitable to gauge...

  13. Epidemiology and natural history of atopic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Simon F

    2015-01-01

    The atopic diseases - atopic dermatitis, asthma, and hay fever - pose a great burden to the individual and society, not least, since these diseases have reached epidemic proportions during the past decades in industrialized and, more recently, in developing countries. Whereas the prevalence...... of the atopic diseases now seems to have reached a plateau in many Western countries, they are still on the increase in the developing world. This emphasizes continuing research aimed at identifying the causes, risk factors, and natural history of these diseases. Herein, the fundamental aspects of the natural...... history and epidemiology of the atopic diseases are reviewed....

  14. Kant on the history of nature: the ambiguous heritage of the critical philosophy for natural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Phillip R

    2006-12-01

    This paper seeks to show Kant's importance for the formal distinction between descriptive natural history and a developmental history of nature that entered natural history discussions in the late eighteenth century. It is argued that he developed this distinction initially upon Buffon's distinctions of 'abstract' and 'physical' truths, and applied these initially in his distinction of 'varieties' from 'races' in anthropology. In the 1770s, Kant appears to have given theoretical preference to the 'history' of nature [Naturgeschichte] over 'description' of nature [Naturbeschreibung]. Following Kant's confrontations with Johann Herder and Georg Forster in the late 1780s, Kant weakened the epistemic status of the 'history of nature' and gave theoretical preference to 'description of nature'. As a result, Kant's successors, such as Goethe, could draw from Kant either a justification for a developmental history of nature, or, as this paper argues, a warrant from the critical philosophy for denying the validity of the developmental history of nature as anything more than a 'regulative' idea of reason.

  15. Wormwood forest: a natural history of Chernobyl

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mycio, Mary

    2005-01-01

    ... of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Mycio, Mary. Wormwood forest : a natural history of Chernobyl / Mary Mycio. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN 0-309-09430-5 (cloth) 1. Radioisotopes- Environmental aspects- Ukraine- Chornobyl Region. 2. Chernobyl Nuclear Accident, Chornobyl, Ukraine, 1986- Environmental aspects. 3. Radioisotopes- Health asp...

  16. Climate and Human History of Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The paper investigates the ideas that have prevented environmental knowledge from developing into action and change. According to Clarence J. Glacken throughout European history design ideas about the relation between man and nature have prevented the many local observations of the negative...

  17. Natural selection: Finding specimens in a natural history collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, M. van; Bosch, A.P.J. van den; Hunt, S.; Meij, M. van der; Dekker, R.; Lendvai, P.

    2011-01-01

    The natural history domain is rich in information. For hundreds of years, biodiversity researchers have collected specimens and samples, and meticulously recorded the how, what, and where of these objects of research. To retrace this information, however, deep knowledge of the collection and

  18. Pedestrian fatality and natural light: Evidence from South Africa using a Bayesian approach

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Das, Sonali

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we use a Bayesian approach to investigate the relationship between pedestrian fatality records from Tshwane and time of fatality. Time of fatality is used as a proxy to reflect the presence of effective lighting, not precluding...

  19. Femme fatale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Tardío Gastón

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Our history is full of myths and topics. Therefore the image of femme fatale is frequent in the works of all periods and places. The author of this article first analyzes how the history and literature consistently showed and defined these women, and then presents examples that come from ancient Greece. The art is powered by their power of seduction and the article explains how this femme fatale appeared in literature and film. The article concludes with a brief overview of various arguments concerning women and feminism, present in the literary criticism.

  20. Fatalism moderates the relationship between family history of cardiovascular disease and engagement in health-promoting behaviors among at-risk rural Kentuckians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudd-Martin, Gia; Rayens, Mary Kay; Lennie, Terry A; Chung, Misook L; Gokun, Yevgeniya; Wiggins, Amanda T; Biddle, Martha J; Bailey, Alison L; Novak, M J; Casey, Baretta R; Moser, Debra K

    2015-01-01

    In rural communities that experience high rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality, family history education may enhance risk awareness and support engagement in healthy behaviors but could also engender fatalism. This study was conducted to assess if the relationship between family history and adherence to healthy lifestyle behaviors is moderated by fatalism. Baseline data were obtained from 1,027 adult participants in the HeartHealth in Rural Kentucky study. Multiple linear regression was used to determine whether fatalism moderated the relationship between high-risk family history of CVD and adherence to healthy lifestyle behaviors, controlling for sociodemographic variables and CVD risk factors. The relationship between family history and healthy behaviors was assessed for subgroups of participants divided according to the upper and lower quartiles of fatalism score. The relationship between high-risk family history of CVD and adherence to healthy behaviors was moderated by fatalism. Among those with the highest quartile of fatalism scores, high-risk family history predicted greater adherence to healthy behaviors, while among those in the lowest quartile, and among those with the middle 50% of fatalism scores, there was no association between family history and healthy behavior scores. Family history education can provide people at increased risk for CVD important information to guide health practices. This may be particularly relevant for those with a high degree of fatalistic thinking. In rural communities with limited health resources, family history education, combined with assessment of fatalism, may support better targeted interventions to enhance engagement in healthy behaviors. © 2014 National Rural Health Association.

  1. Natural History of HPV and Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-12

    Dr. Phil Castle, an intramural research scientist at the National Institutes of Health, talks about the natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections, and cervical cancer and other anogenital cancers.  Created: 10/12/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  2. The "History" of Victorian Scientific Naturalism: Huxley, Spencer and the "End" of natural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightman, Bernard

    2016-08-01

    As part of their defence of evolutionary theory, T. H. Huxley and Herbert Spencer argued that natural history was no longer a legitimate scientific discipline. They outlined a secularized concept of life from biology to argue for the validity of naturalism. Despite their support for naturalism, they offered two different responses to the decline of natural history. Whereas Huxley emphasized the creation of a biological discipline, and all that that entailed, Spencer was more concerned with constructing an entire intellectual system based on the idea of evolution. In effect, Spencer wanted to create a new scientific worldview based on evolutionary theory. This had consequences for their understanding of human history, especially of how science had evolved through the ages. It affected their conceptions of human agency, contingency, and directionality in history. Examining Huxley's and Spencer's responses to the "end" of natural history reveals some of the deep divisions within scientific naturalism and the inherent problems of naturalism in general. Whereas Huxley chose to separate the natural and the historical, Spencer opted to fuse them into a single system.

  3. Understanding the natural history of Gaucher disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Pramod K; Belmatoug, Nadia; vom Dahl, Stephan; Giugliani, Roberto

    2015-07-01

    Gaucher disease is a rare and extraordinarily heterogeneous inborn error of metabolism that exhibits diverse manifestations, a broad range of age of onset of symptoms, and a wide clinical spectrum of disease severity, from lethal disease during infancy to first age of onset of symptoms in octogenarians. Before the advent of the International Collaborative Gaucher Group (ICGG) Gaucher Registry, the understanding of the natural history and phenotypic range of Gaucher disease was based on isolated case reports and small case series. Limited data hindered understanding of the full spectrum of the disease leading to some early misconceptions about Gaucher disease, notably, that nonneuronopathic (type 1) disease was a disease of adults only. The global scope of the ICGG Gaucher Registry, with its vast body of longitudinal data, has enabled a real appreciation of both the phenotypic spectrum of Gaucher disease and its natural history. This body of evidence represents the foundation for accurate assessment of the response to specific therapies for Gaucher disease and to the development of standard-of-care to monitor disease activity. Here, we outline the key developments in delineating the natural history of this highly complex disease and role of the ICGG Gaucher Registry in this effort.

  4. Natural History of Small Renal Masses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Zhang; Xue-Song Li; Li-Qun Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To review the natural history and growth kinetics of small renal masses (SRMs).Data Sources:The literature concerning natural history and growth kinetics of SRMs was collected from PubMed published from 1990 to 2014.Study Selection:We included all the relevant articles on the active surveillance (AS) or delayed treatment for SRMs in English,with no limitation of study design.Results:SRMs under AS have a slow growth potential in general.The mean linear growth rate is 0.33 cm/year,the mean volumetric growth rate is 9.48 cm3/year.The rate of metastasis during AS is below 2%.Some factors are associated with the growth rate of SRMs,including tumor grade,histological subtype,initial tumor size,age,radiographic characteristics,and molecular markers.No definite predictor of growth rate of SRMs is defined at present.SRMs with high tumor grade and the subtype of clear cell renal cell carcinoma may have aggressive growth potential.Conclusions:AS is a reasonable choice for elderly patients with SRMs,who are at high risk from surgery.Progression during observation is the biggest concern while performing AS.There is no definite predictor of progression for SRMs under AS.Percutaneous renal biopsy providing immunohistological and genic biomarkers may improve the understanding of natural history of SRMs.

  5. The natural science underlying big history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaisson, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    Nature's many varied complex systems-including galaxies, stars, planets, life, and society-are islands of order within the increasingly disordered Universe. All organized systems are subject to physical, biological, or cultural evolution, which together comprise the grander interdisciplinary subject of cosmic evolution. A wealth of observational data supports the hypothesis that increasingly complex systems evolve unceasingly, uncaringly, and unpredictably from big bang to humankind. These are global history greatly extended, big history with a scientific basis, and natural history broadly portrayed across ∼14 billion years of time. Human beings and our cultural inventions are not special, unique, or apart from Nature; rather, we are an integral part of a universal evolutionary process connecting all such complex systems throughout space and time. Such evolution writ large has significant potential to unify the natural sciences into a holistic understanding of who we are and whence we came. No new science (beyond frontier, nonequilibrium thermodynamics) is needed to describe cosmic evolution's major milestones at a deep and empirical level. Quantitative models and experimental tests imply that a remarkable simplicity underlies the emergence and growth of complexity for a wide spectrum of known and diverse systems. Energy is a principal facilitator of the rising complexity of ordered systems within the expanding Universe; energy flows are as central to life and society as they are to stars and galaxies. In particular, energy rate density-contrasting with information content or entropy production-is an objective metric suitable to gauge relative degrees of complexity among a hierarchy of widely assorted systems observed throughout the material Universe. Operationally, those systems capable of utilizing optimum amounts of energy tend to survive, and those that cannot are nonrandomly eliminated.

  6. Natural history of uncomplicated sigmoid diverticulitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nicolas; C; Buchs; Neil; J; Mortensen; Frederic; Ris; Philippe; Morel; Pascal; Gervaz

    2015-01-01

    While diverticular disease is extremely common, the natural history(NH) of its most frequent presentation(i.e., sigmoid diverticulitis) is poorly investigated. Relevant information is mostly restricted to populationbased or retrospective studies. This comprehensive review aimed to evaluate the NH of simple sigmoid diverticulitis. While there is a clear lack of uniformity in terminology, which results in difficulties interpreting and comparing findings between studies, this review demonstrates the benign nature of simple sigmoid diverticulitis. The overall recurrence rate is relatively low, ranging from 13% to 47%, depending on the definition used by the authors. Among different risk factors for recurrence, patients with C-reactive protein > 240 mg/L are three times more likely to recur. Other risk factors include: Young age, a history of several episodes of acute diverticulitis, medical vs surgical management, male patients, radiological signs of complicated first episode, higher comorbidity index, family history of diverticulitis, and length of involved colon > 5 cm. The risk of developing a complicated second episode(and its corollary to require an emergency operation) is less than 2%-5%. In fact, the old rationale for elective surgery as a preventive treatment, based mainly on concerns that recurrence would result in a progressively increased risk of sepsis or the need for a colostomy, is not upheld by the current evidence.

  7. Natural History in Hispanic Journalism in the Late Eighteenth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo MORGADO GARCÍA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the Hispanic world of the late Eighteenth Century there was a certain amount of divulgation of Natural History, aided by the utilitarian nature of the Spanish Enlightenment, and by the fact that Natural History did not contradict Catholic doctrine. This paper approaches the diffusion of news of Natural History through periodicals, focusing on zoological references.

  8. [Natural history of HBV in dialysis population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizi, F; Martin, P; Lunghi, G; Ponticelli, C

    2004-01-01

    Dialysis patients remain at risk of acquiring hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The issue of the natural history of HBV among patients undergoing long-term dialysis remains unclear. Assessing the natural history of hepatitis B in patients on maintenance dialysis is problematic because of the unique characteristics of this population: serum aminotransferase activity is lower in dialysis patients compared with patients without renal disease; also, chronic hepatitis B has an insidious and prolonged natural history, and the competing mortality from complications of end-stage renal disease may obscure the long-term consequences of hepatitis B. HBV-related liver disease frequently runs an asymptomatic course in dialysis patients and the liver-related mortality in this population is very low; thus, the prognosis for chronic HBV infection in dialysis patients has been reported as benign. However, the frequency of liver cancer in dialysis patients appears higher than that observed in the general population, this has been related to a greater exposure to HBV/HCV. Cirrhosis is not a frequent comorbid condition in the dialysis population of industrialised countries, but the death rate for dialysis patients with cirrhosis is 35% higher than for those without it. In addition, it has been observed that liver disease remains a significant cause of mortality among HbsAg-positive carriers on dialysis in developing countries. The low viral load measured in dialysis patients with persistent HBsAg carriage could be accounted for by the relatively benign course of HBV-related liver disease in this population. Prospective clinical trials are under way to better define the virological features of HBV in the dialysis population.

  9. The Natural Science Underlying Big History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J. Chaisson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nature’s many varied complex systems—including galaxies, stars, planets, life, and society—are islands of order within the increasingly disordered Universe. All organized systems are subject to physical, biological, or cultural evolution, which together comprise the grander interdisciplinary subject of cosmic evolution. A wealth of observational data supports the hypothesis that increasingly complex systems evolve unceasingly, uncaringly, and unpredictably from big bang to humankind. These are global history greatly extended, big history with a scientific basis, and natural history broadly portrayed across ∼14 billion years of time. Human beings and our cultural inventions are not special, unique, or apart from Nature; rather, we are an integral part of a universal evolutionary process connecting all such complex systems throughout space and time. Such evolution writ large has significant potential to unify the natural sciences into a holistic understanding of who we are and whence we came. No new science (beyond frontier, nonequilibrium thermodynamics is needed to describe cosmic evolution’s major milestones at a deep and empirical level. Quantitative models and experimental tests imply that a remarkable simplicity underlies the emergence and growth of complexity for a wide spectrum of known and diverse systems. Energy is a principal facilitator of the rising complexity of ordered systems within the expanding Universe; energy flows are as central to life and society as they are to stars and galaxies. In particular, energy rate density—contrasting with information content or entropy production—is an objective metric suitable to gauge relative degrees of complexity among a hierarchy of widely assorted systems observed throughout the material Universe. Operationally, those systems capable of utilizing optimum amounts of energy tend to survive, and those that cannot are nonrandomly eliminated.

  10. Psoriasis: epidemiology, natural history, and differential diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basko-Plluska JL

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Juliana L Basko-Plluska, Vesna Petronic-RosicDepartment of Medicine, Section of Dermatology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated, inflammatory disease which affects primarily the skin and joints. It occurs worldwide, but its prevalence varies considerably between different regions of the world. Genetic susceptibility as well as environmental factors play an important role in determining the development and prognosis of psoriasis. Genome-wide association studies have identified many genetic loci as potential psoriasis susceptibility regions, including PSORS1 through PSORS7. Histocompatibility antigen (HLA studies have also identified several HLA antigens, with HLA-Cw6 being the most frequently associated antigen. Epidemiological studies identified several modifiable risk factors that may predispose individuals to developing psoriasis or exacerbate pre-existing disease. These include smoking, obesity, alcohol consumption, diet, infections, medications and stressful life events. The exact mechanism by which they trigger psoriasis remains to be elucidated; however, existing data suggest that they are linked through Th1-mediated immunological pathways. The natural history of psoriasis varies depending on the clinical subtype as well as special circumstances, including pregnancy and HIV infection. In general, psoriasis is a chronic disease with intermittent remissions and exacerbations. The differential diagnosis is vast and includes many other immune-mediated, inflammatory disorders.Keywords: psoriasis, epidemiology, natural history, differential diagnosis

  11. Francis Bacon and the classification of natural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the place of natural history within Bacon's divisions of the sciences in The Advancement of Learning (1605) and the later De dignitate et augmentis scientiarum (1623). It is shown that at various points in Bacon's divisions, natural history converges or overlaps with natural philosophy, and that, for Bacon, natural history and natural philosophy are not discrete disciplines. Furthermore, it is argued that Bacon's distinction between operative and speculative natural philosophy and the place of natural history within this distinction, are discontinuous with the later distinction between experimental and speculative philosophy that emerged in the methodology of the Fellows of the early Royal Society.

  12. Natural history of Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing KE

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is X-linked recessive hereditary disease. DMD gene mutations result in dystrophin deficiency, which causes not only muscle movement disorders but also scoliosis, cognitive dysfunction, urinary tract diseases, respiratory diseases and heart diseases. Most patients die in early adult for respiratory and circulatory failure. Early multidisciplinary therapies will significantly delay disease progression and improve patients' quality of life. However, DMD diagnosis and treatment exist significantly time delay now. In this study, we review the natural history of DMD, including motor, cognitive, respiratory and heart function, for improving DMD early recognition, diagnosis and treatment, so as to benefit DMD patients. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.05.004

  13. The dynamic nature of risk perceptions after a fatal transit accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernstedt, Kris; Murray-Tuite, Pamela

    2015-03-01

    In 2009, two trains of Washington, DC's Metrorail system collided, resulting in nine deaths and 50 serious injuries. Based on a multiwave survey of Metrorail users in the months after the crash, this article reports how the accident appears to have (1) changed over time the tradeoffs among safety, speed, frequency of service, cost, and reliability that the transit users stated they were willing to make in the postaccident period and (2) altered transit users' concerns about safety as a function of time and distance from the accident site. We employ conditional logit models to examine tradeoffs among stated preferences for system performance measures after the accident, as well as the influence that respondent characteristics of transit use, location, income, age, and gender have on these preference tradeoffs. As expected, respondents appear averse to longer headways between trains, longer travel durations, higher travel costs, a higher number of late trains, and a higher number of fatalities. The models also show evidence of higher aversion to fatalities from transit system operation among females compared to males. In addition, respondents less experienced with Metrorail travel and those with lower household incomes show higher aversion to fatalities, and this aversion increases as a subject's psychological distance from the accident site decreases. Contrary to expectations shaped by previous studies, aversion to fatalities appears to have increased between the early months after the accident and the end of the survey period, and the expected relationship between age and aversion to fatalities is not statistically significant. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  14. The natural history of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Hee-Kit

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been great advances in the conservative and surgical treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in the last few decades. The challenge for the physician is the decision for the optimal time to institute therapy for the individual child. This makes an understanding of the natural history and risk factors for curve progression of significant importance. Reported rates of curve progression vary from 1.6% for skeletally mature children with a small curve magnitude to 68% for skeletally immature children with larger curve magnitudes. Although the patient′s age at presentation, the Risser sign, the patient′s menarchal status and the magnitude of the curve have been described as risk factors for curve progression, there is evidence that the absolute curve magnitude at presentation may be most predictive of progression in the long term. A curve magnitude of 25º at presentation may be predictive of a greater risk of curve progression. Advances in research may unlock novel predictive factors, which are based on the underlying pathogenesis of this disorder.

  15. Geodiversity and the natural history of landforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Christian

    2014-05-01

    possible for a geomorphologist to travel back in the past, a delicate and speculative succession of operations: as noted by Schumm (1979, 485), "The extrapolation of measured average rates of erosion and deposition to longer periods of time is misleading, in the sense that they do not reveal the natural complexity of landform development or the variability of existing landforms". Any extrapolation in the past or future implies true actualiste approach verifying only methodological uniformitarianism (i.e. spatial and temporal invariance of natural laws) as well as quantitative models purged of any hint of gradualism and which takes into account variations of timing, frequency and intensity in the action of morphogenetic forcings. In continuation of Hack's work, the concepts of landscape sensitivity developed by Brunsden and Thornes (1979) explain that some landforms are particularly well fitted to the present conditions of endogenetic and exogenetic forcings (characteristic landforms) while others not at all (transient landforms). This highly effective approach within the Holocene and the Pleistocene marks the beginning of a return to the investigation of the past in geomorphology, given that for the Neogene or even older times, the ancient concept of "héritage" (Birot, 1958) seems more relevant than the concepts of transient or characteristic landforms. We propose here as an illustration to describe the sequence of landforms defined in the Southern Massif Central (France). The full sequence is to be observed between the Languedoc Lowlands and the Monts de Lacaune Highlands, while an elision of the lower terms of the sequence towards the Aquitaine Basin allow to highlight a highly significant limit between two modes of landform development at regional level. In short, the natural history of landforms deserve a high status in the Earth sciences: geomorphology not only needs mechanics and chemistry (i.e. the changing ratio of tectonic-driven to climatic-driven processes

  16. The Natural Link between Teaching History and Computer Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnworth, George M.

    1992-01-01

    Suggests that, because both history and computers are information based, there is an natural link between the two. Argues that history teachers should exploit the technology to help students to understand history while they become computer literate. Points out uses for databases, word processing, desktop publishing, and telecommunications in…

  17. Reconstructing the evolutionary history of natural languages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warnow, T.; Ringe, D.; Taylor, A. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper we present a new methodology for determining the evolutionary history of related languages. Our methodology uses linguistic information encoded as qualitative characters, and provides much greater precision than previous methods. Our analysis of Indo-European (IE) languages resolves questions that have troubled scholars for over a century.

  18. The Science of Nature and the Nature of Science: Natural History Museums On-line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkey, Roy

    2001-01-01

    Proposes a variety of criteria for evaluating the potential of natural history museum websites for enhancing student learning in science, especially in those aspects of the science curriculum concerned with processes, methods, evidence, and interpretation. Reveals a diversity of perspectives and assumptions about the scientific research undertaken…

  19. Diagnostic features in 10 naturally occurring cases of acute fatal canine leptospirosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissi, Daniel R; Brown, Cathy A

    2014-11-01

    The current report describes the diagnostic features in 10 cases of acute fatal canine leptospirosis with minimal renal and hepatic changes that may present a diagnostic challenge for the pathologist. Most affected dogs were less than 6 months of age and had a biochemical profile consistent with hepatorenal dysfunction. Clinical signs consisted of vomiting, depression, icterus, dehydration, diarrhea, and anorexia. All dogs died or were humanely euthanized within 3-7 days after the onset of clinical disease. Necropsy findings included pulmonary edema with hemorrhages, icterus, renal and hepatic pallor and swelling, and gastric edema with hemorrhage. Despite severe azotemia, histological changes in the kidneys were subtle in all dogs, and included mild renal tubular simplification, with single-cell necrosis and attenuation, along with minimal interstitial lymphoplasmacytic inflammation, edema, and hemorrhage. Hepatic lesions included scattered hepatocellular single-cell necrosis and hepatocellular dissociation. Prominent extrarenal lesions typically associated with uremia including vascular fibrinoid necrosis in multiple organs, pulmonary mineralization with occasional fibrinosuppurative exudation, and gastric mineralization were also present. Postmortem diagnostic confirmation was based on the detection of leptospiral antigen on fresh renal samples by fluorescent antibody test and on the demonstration of intact spirochetes in sections of kidneys using immunohistochemical staining. Acute fatal canine leptospirosis occurred as a fulminant hepatorenal disease affecting mainly young dogs, and the diagnosis was dependent on the recognition of the subtle renal changes with confirmation via fluorescent antibody testing or immunohistochemical staining.

  20. Curriculum Activities Guide for Natural History Exhibits, Grades K-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Wildlife Museum, Tucson, AZ.

    A natural history museum is a building where animals, plants, minerals, and other things in nature are kept and exhibited for study. This document is a curriculum guide to provide a variety of activities for educators and their students to use not only when visiting the International Wildlife Museum (Tuscon, Arizona), but also with natural history…

  1. Francis Bacon: constructing natural histories of the invisible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Doina-Cristina

    2012-01-01

    The natural histories contained in Francis Bacon's Historia naturalis et experimentalis seem to differ from the model presented in De augmentis scientiarum and the Descriptio globi intellectualis in that they are focused on the defining properties of matter, its primary schematisms and the spirits. In this respect, they are highly speculative. In this paper I aim to describe the Historia naturalis et experimentalis as a text about matter theory, the histories of which are ascending from what is most evident to the senses to what is least accessible to them. Moreover, the Latin natural histories are parts of a methodological procedure in which the provisional rules and axioms obtained in one history can be used as theoretical assumptions for another history, thereby permitting one to delve ever more profoundly into the structure of nature.

  2. Making "Nature" the history of a scientific journal

    CERN Document Server

    Baldwin, Melinda

    2015-01-01

    Making "Nature" is the first book to chronicle the foundation and development of Nature, one of the world's most influential scientific institutions. Now nearing its hundred and fiftieth year of publication, Nature is the international benchmark for scientific publication. Its contributors include Charles Darwin, Ernest Rutherford, and Stephen Hawking, and it has published many of the most important discoveries in the history of science, including articles on the structure of DNA, the discovery of the neutron, the first cloning of a mammal, and the human genome. But how did Nature become such an essential institution? In Making "Nature," Melinda Baldwin charts the rich history of this extraordinary publication from its foundation in 1869 to current debates about online publishing and open access. This pioneering study not only tells Nature's story but also sheds light on much larger questions about the history of science publishing, changes in scientific communication, and shifting notions of "scientific comm...

  3. The natural history of HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabin, C.A.; Lundgren, J.D.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review recent published literature around three areas: long-term nonprogression/viral control; predictors of viral load set point/disease progression; and the potential impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in early HIV infection. RECENT FINDINGS: The natural course...... of untreated HIV infection varies widely with some HIV-positive individuals able to maintain high CD4 cell counts and/or suppressed viral load in the absence of ART. Although similar, the underlying mechanistic processes leading to long-term nonprogression and viral control are likely to differ. Concerted...... the immunological deterioration which would otherwise be seen in untreated HIV infection, recent studies do not address the longer term clinical benefits of ART at this very early stage. SUMMARY: A better understanding of the relative influences of viral, host, and environmental factors on the natural course of HIV...

  4. The Natural History of Food Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Jessica; Sicherer, Scott; Wood, Robert

    2016-01-01

    On a population level, it is well recognized that some IgE-mediated childhood food allergies, such as milk and egg allergies, are more likely to resolve than others, such as peanut and tree nuts allergies. Unfortunately, some studies suggest that resolution rates may have slowed compared with impressions from past decades. The clinician can apply the knowledge of the epidemiology of these allergies to describe likely patient outcomes, and direct management in a general manner. However, the ability to evaluate and predict the natural course of specific food allergies for individual patients is essential to inform personalized patient care. Data are accumulating to assist in identifying whether a child's allergy has likely resolved, informing the timing of oral food challenges or subsequent testing. Exciting recent studies are increasingly identifying early prognostic markers as well. Emerging food allergy therapies carry risks and costs. Identifying which egg-allergic patient has likely persistent allergy, and which patient with peanut allergy may experience natural resolution, is becoming an important goal to identify the best candidates for these therapies. Although more work needs to be done to identify reliable predictive markers and validate them, there is already much known about the natural course of food allergies that can be applied by the clinician to improve patient care.

  5. Food allergy: epidemiology and natural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Jessica; Johns, Christina B

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence of food allergy is rising for unclear reasons, with prevalence estimates in the developed world approaching 10%. Knowledge regarding the natural course of food allergies is important because it can aid the clinician in diagnosing food allergies and in determining when to consider evaluation for food allergy resolution. Many food allergies with onset in early childhood are outgrown later in childhood, although a minority of food allergy persists into adolescence and even adulthood. More research is needed to improve food allergy diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.

  6. Ecology of zoonoses: natural and unnatural histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karesh, William B; Dobson, Andy; Lloyd-Smith, James O; Lubroth, Juan; Dixon, Matthew A; Bennett, Malcolm; Aldrich, Stephen; Harrington, Todd; Formenty, Pierre; Loh, Elizabeth H; Machalaba, Catherine C; Thomas, Mathew Jason; Heymann, David L

    2012-12-01

    More than 60% of human infectious diseases are caused by pathogens shared with wild or domestic animals. Zoonotic disease organisms include those that are endemic in human populations or enzootic in animal populations with frequent cross-species transmission to people. Some of these diseases have only emerged recently. Together, these organisms are responsible for a substantial burden of disease, with endemic and enzootic zoonoses causing about a billion cases of illness in people and millions of deaths every year. Emerging zoonoses are a growing threat to global health and have caused hundreds of billions of US dollars of economic damage in the past 20 years. We aimed to review how zoonotic diseases result from natural pathogen ecology, and how other circumstances, such as animal production, extraction of natural resources, and antimicrobial application change the dynamics of disease exposure to human beings. In view of present anthropogenic trends, a more effective approach to zoonotic disease prevention and control will require a broad view of medicine that emphasises evidence-based decision making and integrates ecological and evolutionary principles of animal, human, and environmental factors. This broad view is essential for the successful development of policies and practices that reduce probability of future zoonotic emergence, targeted surveillance and strategic prevention, and engagement of partners outside the medical community to help improve health outcomes and reduce disease threats.

  7. The natural history of yeast prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuite, Mick F

    2013-01-01

    Although prions were first discovered through their link to severe brain degenerative diseases in animals, the emergence of prions as regulators of the phenotype of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina has revealed a new facet of prion biology. In most cases, fungal prions are carried without apparent detriment to the host cell, representing a novel form of epigenetic inheritance. This raises the question of whether or not yeast prions are beneficial survival factors or actually gives rise to a "disease state" that is selected against in nature. To date, most studies on the impact of fungal prions have focused on laboratory-cultivated "domesticated" strains of S. cerevisiae. At least eight prions have now been described in this species, each with the potential to impact on a wide range of cellular processes. The discovery of prions in nondomesticated strains of S. cerevisiae and P. anserina has confirmed that prions are not simply an artifact of "domestication" of this species. In this review, I describe what we currently know about the phenotypic impact of fungal prions. I then describe how the interplay between host genotype and the prion-mediated changes can generate a wide array of phenotypic diversity. How such prion-generated diversity may be of benefit to the host in survival in a fluctuating, often hazardous environment is then outlined. Prion research has now entered a new phase in which we must now consider their biological function and evolutionary significance in the natural world.

  8. Dutch Natural History Museums in the service of nature preservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, H.

    1961-01-01

    Since the time of the great geographical discoveries, since Henry the Navigator of Portugal and Christopher Columbus started to open up the whole world to the curiosity of naturalists, the Dutch and the English have played an important role in the explorations of the riches of God’s Nature. The

  9. Dutch Natural History Museums in the service of nature preservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, H.

    1961-01-01

    Since the time of the great geographical discoveries, since Henry the Navigator of Portugal and Christopher Columbus started to open up the whole world to the curiosity of naturalists, the Dutch and the English have played an important role in the explorations of the riches of God’s Nature. The Mona

  10. HISTORY AND NATURE OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUGO ESCOBAR MELO

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The main intention of this document is to outstand a view of the Evolutive Psychology as an area ofspecific knowledge the approaches the course of changes and progress the construction of diversepsychological process thought life. The text identifies the classical historical antecedents of the currentEvolutive Psychology, its great landmarks and discusses some views about “evolution” and proposesa theoretical reflection from the disciplinary intersection perspective.Proposes that Evolutive Psychology shows ruptures and transformations in terms of a Overcomingthe image of the child as an adult in miniature. b Children, an organism that gets adapted and evolves.c The evolution of the child, the adolescent and the adult are different subjects d The subject as logicalthinker and scientific natural placed in the intersubjectivity e Identification and characterization ofunsuspected neonative competitions analogies homologies and improving rationality f Study of theinevitable transitions for aging and death. Discuses some current debates in the context of a conceptionof evolution that shows transformations, ruptures, regressions and reorganizations with progressionsthat do not establish lineal connections between the initial points with the final ones.

  11. The natural history of epilepsy in tuberous sclerosis complex

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Catherine Jean; Major, Philippe; Camposano, Susana; Muzykewicz, David; Thiele, Elizabeth Anne

    2009-01-01

    Background: Although epilepsy affects most patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), little is known about the natural history of epilepsy in this genetic disease. Methods: A retrospective chart review of all patients with TSC seen between January 2002 and October 2008. Charts were reviewed for a history of infantile spasms (IS), seizure other than IS, refractory epilepsy, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS), anticonvulsant medication use, ages of seizure onset, last seizure, last clinic ...

  12. Assembling the dodo in early modern natural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Natalie

    2015-09-01

    This paper explores the assimilation of the flightless dodo into early modern natural history. The dodo was first described by Dutch sailors landing on Mauritius in 1598, and became extinct in the 1680s or 1690s. Despite this brief period of encounter, the bird was a popular subject in natural-history works and a range of other genres. The dodo will be used here as a counterexample to the historical narratives of taxonomic crisis and abrupt shifts in natural history caused by exotic creatures coming to Europe. Though this bird had a bizarre form, early modern naturalists integrated the dodo and other flightless birds through several levels of conceptual categorization, including the geographical, morphological and symbolic. Naturalists such as Charles L'Ecluse produced a set of typical descriptive tropes that helped make up the European dodo. These long-lived images were used for a variety of symbolic purposes, demonstrated by the depiction of the Dutch East India enterprise in Willem Piso's 1658 publication. The case of the dodo shows that, far from there being a dramatic shift away from emblematics in the seventeenth century, the implicit symbolic roles attributed to exotic beasts by naturalists constructing them from scant information and specimens remained integral to natural history.

  13. Modernizing Natural History: Berkeley's Museum of Vertebrate Zoology in Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Mary E

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the twentieth century calls to modernize natural history motivated a range of responses. It was unclear how research in natural history museums would participate in the significant technological and conceptual changes that were occurring in the life sciences. By the 1960s, the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology at the University of California, Berkeley, was among the few university-based natural history museums that were able to maintain their specimen collections and support active research. The MVZ therefore provides a window to the modernization of natural history. This paper concentrates on the directorial transitions that occurred at the MVZ between 1965 and 1971. During this period, the MVZ had four directors: Alden H. Miller (Director 1940-1965), an ornithologist; Aldo Starker Leopold (Acting Director 1965-1966), a conservationist and wildlife biologist; Oliver P. Pearson (Director 1966-1971), a physiologist and mammalogist; and David B. Wake (Director 1971-1998), a morphologist, developmental biologist, and herpetologist. The paper explores how a diversity of overlapping modernization strategies, including hiring new faculty, building infrastructure to study live animals, establishing new kinds of collections, and building modern laboratories combined to maintain collections at the MVZ's core. The paper examines the tensions between the different modernization strategies to inform an analysis of how and why some changes were institutionalized while others were short-lived. By exploring the modernization of collections-based research, this paper emphasizes the importance of collections in the transformation of the life sciences.

  14. Ruptured Intracranial Mycotic Aneurysm in Infective Endocarditis: A Natural History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Kuo

    2010-01-01

    discovered on CT Angiography. His lesion quickly progressed into an intraparenchymal hemorrhage, requiring emergent craniotomy and aneurysm clipping. Current recommendations on the management of intracranial Mycotic Aneurysms are based on few retrospective case studies. The natural history of the patient's ruptured aneurysm is presented, as well as a literature review on the management and available treatment modalities.

  15. Revolutionizing the Use of Natural History Collections in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Karen E.; Prather, L. Alan; Cook, Joseph A.; Woolley, James; Bart, Henry L., Jr.; Monfils, Anna K.; Sierwald, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Natural history collections are an irreplaceable and extensive record of life, and form the basis of our understanding of biodiversity on our planet. Broad-scale educational accessibility to these vast specimen collections, specimen images, and their associated data is currently severely hampered. With emerging technologies and massive efforts…

  16. The Mushroom Curriculum: Using Natural History to Teach Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Describes the development and content of a freshman seminar titled "The Psychology of Mushrooms," which teaches psychology as natural history. This approach allowed the course to proceed from concrete experience to general principals of perception, learning, social, and abnormal psychology. (Author/LS)

  17. Rett syndrome diagnostic criteria: Lessons from the Natural History Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analysis of 819 participants enrolled in the Rett syndrome (RTT) Natural History Study, validates recently revised diagnostic criteria. Seven hundred sixty-five females fulfilled 2002 consensus criteria for classic (653/85.4%) or variant (112/14.6%) RTT. All participants classified as classic RTT fu...

  18. Short history of natural product research in the CSIR

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Walwyn, D

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Natural product research has been a major component of the CSIR's bioscience activities for its entire history, and particularly in the 1960s and 1970s. This type of work is also strongly aligned with one of the objectives of the CSIR, namely...

  19. School Visits to Natural History Museums: Teaching or Enriching?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Tali; Morag, Orly

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a 3-year study of school visits to four natural history museums and addresses the research agenda with regard to out-of-school learning. More specifically, the findings focus on the "process of learning" in museums. Comprehensive data collection allowed for an analysis of patterns of guided visits, the way the…

  20. Natural history collections as windows on evolutionary processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Michael W; Hammond, Talisin T; Wogan, Guinevere O U; Walsh, Rachel E; LaBarbera, Katie; Wommack, Elizabeth A; Martins, Felipe M; Crawford, Jeremy C; Mack, Katya L; Bloch, Luke M; Nachman, Michael W

    2016-02-01

    Natural history collections provide an immense record of biodiversity on Earth. These repositories have traditionally been used to address fundamental questions in biogeography, systematics and conservation. However, they also hold the potential for studying evolution directly. While some of the best direct observations of evolution have come from long-term field studies or from experimental studies in the laboratory, natural history collections are providing new insights into evolutionary change in natural populations. By comparing phenotypic and genotypic changes in populations through time, natural history collections provide a window into evolutionary processes. Recent studies utilizing this approach have revealed some dramatic instances of phenotypic change over short timescales in response to presumably strong selective pressures. In some instances, evolutionary change can be paired with environmental change, providing a context for potential selective forces. Moreover, in a few cases, the genetic basis of phenotypic change is well understood, allowing for insight into adaptive change at multiple levels. These kinds of studies open the door to a wide range of previously intractable questions by enabling the study of evolution through time, analogous to experimental studies in the laboratory, but amenable to a diversity of species over longer timescales in natural populations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Narrative and natural history in the eighteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrall, Mary

    2017-04-01

    In the eighteenth century, natural histories of animals incorporated narratives about animal behaviour and narratives of discovery and experimentation. Naturalists used first-person accounts to link the stories of their scientific investigations to the stories of the animal lives they were studying. Understanding nature depended on narratives that shifted back and forth in any given text between animal and human, and between individual cases and generalizations about species. This paper explores the uses of narrative through examples from the work of René-Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur and Abraham Trembley. In all cases, narrative took the genre of natural history well beyond straightforward description and classification. Prose accounts of insect actions and mechanisms worked in tandem with visual narratives embedded in the accompanying illustrations, where artists developed strategies for representing sequences of minute changes over time. By throwing into relief the narrative sections of natural histories, the examples considered here expose the role played by these tales of encounters with the insect world in the making of natural historical knowledge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 77 FR 74872 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Beneski Museum of Natural History, Amherst College, Amherst, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Beneski Museum of Natural History, Amherst College... Natural History, Amherst College (formerly the Pratt Museum of Natural History) has completed an inventory... the Beneski Museum of Natural History, Amherst College. Repatriation of the human remains to...

  3. Inselect: Automating the Digitization of Natural History Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Lawrence N; Blagoderov, Vladimir; Heaton, Alice; Holtzhausen, Pieter; Livermore, Laurence; Price, Benjamin W; van der Walt, Stéfan; Smith, Vincent S

    2015-01-01

    The world's natural history collections constitute an enormous evidence base for scientific research on the natural world. To facilitate these studies and improve access to collections, many organisations are embarking on major programmes of digitization. This requires automated approaches to mass-digitization that support rapid imaging of specimens and associated data capture, in order to process the tens of millions of specimens common to most natural history collections. In this paper we present Inselect-a modular, easy-to-use, cross-platform suite of open-source software tools that supports the semi-automated processing of specimen images generated by natural history digitization programmes. The software is made up of a Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux desktop application, together with command-line tools that are designed for unattended operation on batches of images. Blending image visualisation algorithms that automatically recognise specimens together with workflows to support post-processing tasks such as barcode reading, label transcription and metadata capture, Inselect fills a critical gap to increase the rate of specimen digitization.

  4. Natural history and information overload: The case of Linnaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Wille, Staffan; Charmantier, Isabelle

    2012-03-01

    Natural History can be seen as a discipline paradigmatically engaged in 'data-driven research.' Historians of early modern science have begun to emphasize its crucial role in the Scientific Revolution, and some observers of present day genomics see it as engaged in a return to natural history practices. A key concept that was developed to understand the dynamics of early modern natural history is that of 'information overload.' Taxonomic systems, rules of nomenclature, and technical terminologies were developed in botany and zoology to catch up with the ever increasing amount of information on hitherto unknown plant and animal species. In our contribution, we want to expand on this concept. After all, the same people who complain about information overload are usually the ones who contribute to it most significantly. In order to understand this complex relationship, we will turn to the annotation practices of the Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778). The very tools that Linnaeus developed to contain and reduce information overload, as we aim to demonstrate, facilitated a veritable information explosion that led to the emergence of a new research object in botany: the so-called 'natural' system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Inselect: Automating the Digitization of Natural History Collections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence N Hudson

    Full Text Available The world's natural history collections constitute an enormous evidence base for scientific research on the natural world. To facilitate these studies and improve access to collections, many organisations are embarking on major programmes of digitization. This requires automated approaches to mass-digitization that support rapid imaging of specimens and associated data capture, in order to process the tens of millions of specimens common to most natural history collections. In this paper we present Inselect-a modular, easy-to-use, cross-platform suite of open-source software tools that supports the semi-automated processing of specimen images generated by natural history digitization programmes. The software is made up of a Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux desktop application, together with command-line tools that are designed for unattended operation on batches of images. Blending image visualisation algorithms that automatically recognise specimens together with workflows to support post-processing tasks such as barcode reading, label transcription and metadata capture, Inselect fills a critical gap to increase the rate of specimen digitization.

  6. [Natural history, complications, safety and pregnancy in inflammatory bowel disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, María

    2015-09-01

    Numerous studies were presented in Digestive Disease Week 2015 (DDW 2015) on the natural history, complications, and safety of treatments in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), as well as novel findings on fertility, pregnancy, and breastfeeding. The present article reviews presentations on the natural history of IBD, the risk of complications and their prevention, treatment safety, aspects related to fertility, pregnancy, and breastfeeding, as well as the risk of cancer and its association with IBD and with drugs used in its treatment. In the next few years, more data will become available on treatment safety and the possible complications that can develop in IBD patients due to the disease itself and the drugs employed in its treatment, which will allow measures to be adopted to improve prognosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. The natural history of hepatitis C virus infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kenny-Walsh, E

    2012-02-03

    The natural history of HCV infection remains ill-defined. The knowledge accumulated on the progression of HCV to date is important, however. It is now abundantly clear that the progression of disease is generally slow, and the development of cirrhosis and its complications is a possibility, not a probability as hitherto thought. Predicting the outcome remains a quandary for clinicians. Ultimately it will be possible to define the natural history of hepatitis C infection through a combination of research in the fields of virology, immunology, and molecular biology and by monitoring the biochemical and histologic progress of the disease. Only then will it be possible to intervene appropriately and develop new therapies to prevent the progression to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

  8. Italian natural history museums on the verge of collapse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreone, Franco; Bartolozzi, Luca; Boano, Giovanni; Boero, Ferdinando; Bologna, Marco A; Bon, Mauro; Bressi, Nicola; Capula, Massimo; Casale, Achille; Casiraghi, Maurizio; Chiozzi, Giorgio; Delfino, Massimo; Doria, Giuliano; Durante, Antonio; Ferrari, Marco; Gippoliti, Spartaco; Lanzinger, Michele; Latella, Leonardo; Maio, Nicola; Marangoni, Carla; Mazzotti, Stefano; Minelli, Alessandro; Muscio, Giuseppe; Nicolosi, Paola; Pievani, Telmo; Razzetti, Edoardo; Sabella, Giorgio; Valle, Marco; Vomero, Vincenzo; Zilli, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The Italian natural history museums are facing a critical situation, due to the progressive loss of scientific relevance, decreasing economic investments, and scarcity of personnel. This is extremely alarming, especially for ensuring the long-term preservation of the precious collections they host. Moreover, a commitment in fieldwork to increase scientific collections and concurrent taxonomic research are rarely considered priorities, while most of the activities are addressed to public events with political payoffs, such as exhibits, didactic meetings, expositions, and talks. This is possibly due to the absence of a national museum that would have better steered research activities and overall concepts for collection management. We here propose that Italian natural history museums collaborate to instate a "metamuseum", by establishing a reciprocal interaction network aimed at sharing budgetary and technical resources, which would assure better coordination of common long-term goals and scientific activities.

  9. Natural selection. VII. History and interpretation of kin selection theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, S A

    2013-06-01

    Kin selection theory is a kind of causal analysis. The initial form of kin selection ascribed cause to costs, benefits and genetic relatedness. The theory then slowly developed a deeper and more sophisticated approach to partitioning the causes of social evolution. Controversy followed because causal analysis inevitably attracts opposing views. It is always possible to separate total effects into different component causes. Alternative causal schemes emphasize different aspects of a problem, reflecting the distinct goals, interests and biases of different perspectives. For example, group selection is a particular causal scheme with certain advantages and significant limitations. Ultimately, to use kin selection theory to analyse natural patterns and to understand the history of debates over different approaches, one must follow the underlying history of causal analysis. This article describes the history of kin selection theory, with emphasis on how the causal perspective improved through the study of key patterns of natural history, such as dispersal and sex ratio, and through a unified approach to demographic and social processes. Independent historical developments in the multivariate analysis of quantitative traits merged with the causal analysis of social evolution by kin selection.

  10. The natural history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mannino, DM; Watt, G; Hole, D

    2006-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the USA, and it remains one of the few diseases that continues to increase its numbers. The development and progression of COPD can vary dramatically between individuals. A low level of lung function rem...... function and may lead to more rapid declines in lung function. Better understanding of the natural history of COPD may lead to better definitions of specific COPD phenotypes, better interventions and improved outcomes....

  11. Tabanidae (Diptera) of the American Museum of Natural History Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Augusto Loureiro

    2016-07-11

    A checklist of Tabanidae in the American Museum of Natural History was compiled. Over 9,000 specimens were studied. The currently accepted taxa names have been listed based on general catalogs and recent publications. Where possible, modern locality names are given and determiners of each species are provided. A total of 882 species are listed in alphabetical order; including 52 primary and 219 secondary types. The collection includes a substantial global representation of species records for this family.

  12. The natural history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mannino, DM; Watt, G; Hole, D;

    2006-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the USA, and it remains one of the few diseases that continues to increase its numbers. The development and progression of COPD can vary dramatically between individuals. A low level of lung function rem...... function and may lead to more rapid declines in lung function. Better understanding of the natural history of COPD may lead to better definitions of specific COPD phenotypes, better interventions and improved outcomes....

  13. Enteroviral Meningitis: Natural History and Outcome of Pleconaril Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Desmond, R A; Accortt, N. A.; Talley, L.; Villano, S A; Soong, S.-J.; Whitley, R J

    2006-01-01

    Enteroviral meningitis causes appreciable morbidity in adults, including hospitalization, decreased activity, and headache. Limited data define the natural history of disease. No antiviral therapeutic agent has demonstrated improved outcome in controlled clinical trials. Pleconaril, an inhibitor of enterovirus replication, was tested in two placebo-controlled clinical trials. Of 607 randomized patients in a multicenter, double-blind placebo-controlled study of pleconaril (200 mg three times d...

  14. Is natural history really dead?: Toward the rebirth of natural history ¿Está realmente muerta la historia natural?: Hacia el renacimiento de la Historia Natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARY F WILLSON

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years natural history has been derided by some scientists as an old-fashion endeavor that does not follow the model of "hard" science and therefore should be considered "dead" and replaced by modern ecology, evolutionary biology, and conservation biology. We contend that natural history has much to offer to contemporary scientists and that it has a primary role in the creative process of generating novel hypotheses and designing significant field experiments and observationsEn años recientes, la historia natural ha sido desacreditada por científicos que la consideran un modelo obsoleto de ciencia y que, en consecuencia, se trataría de una disciplina "muerta" que ha sido reemplazada por la ecología moderna, la biología evolutiva y la biología de la conservación. Argumentamos aquí que la historia natural tiene mucho que ofrecer a los científicos contemporáneos y que juega un rol principal en el proceso de creación de hipótesis y en el diseño acertado de observaciones y experimentos de campo

  15. Natural History of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: Antecedents and Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Garima; Prasad, Asuri N.

    2012-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy represents the largest group of patients with treatment resistant/medically intractable epilepsy undergoing epilepsy surgery. The underpinnings of common forms of TLE in many instances begin in early life with the occurrence of an initial precipitating event. The first epileptic seizure often occurs after a variable latency period following this event. The precise natural history and progression following the first seizure to the development of TLE, its subsequent resolution through spontaneous remission or the development of treatment resistant epilepsy remain poorly understood. Our present understanding of the role played by these initial events, the subsequent latency to development of temporal lobe epilepsy, and the emergence of treatment resistance remains incomplete. A critical analysis of published data suggest that TLE is a heterogeneous condition, where the age of onset, presence or absence of a lesion on neuroimaging, the initial precipitating event, association with febrile seizures, febrile status epilepticus, and neurotropic viral infections influence the natural history and outcome. The pathways and processes through which these variables coalesce into a framework will provide the basis for an understanding of the natural history of TLE. The questions raised need to be addressed in future prospective and longitudinal observational studies. PMID:22937237

  16. Through the explanatory process in natural history and ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Simone

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I will deal with the explanatory process used in natural history and ecology. I argue that the development of knowledge in natural history and descriptive ecology is the result of a bottom-up process, which is mainly empirical and progresses continuously from entity perception to theory construction. I consider the role of observation in the development of abstract images of entities, patterns, and processes through concepts and theories from a "simple" cognitive point of view and without regard for computational aspects. I analyze whether natural history provides "real" scientific explanation or just mere observation of facts. I later discuss the role of principles and laws in the explanation of observed regularities and accidents and the importance of prediction. I use the study of the larvae of sponges to describe the process because they represent a good example of past and current scientific method. My main argument is pragmatic being that the only relevant matters of the explanatory process are the perspective from which we observe the facts, the categorization methods we are using, and an acknowledgement of their scientific rigor. We need to advance in our epistemology in order to capture all the different meanings that the word "science" has acquired rather than sticking to one dominated by currently accepted methodologies.

  17. Natural History of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: Antecedents and Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima Shukla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Temporal lobe epilepsy represents the largest group of patients with treatment resistant/medically intractable epilepsy undergoing epilepsy surgery. The underpinnings of common forms of TLE in many instances begin in early life with the occurrence of an initial precipitating event. The first epileptic seizure often occurs after a variable latency period following this event. The precise natural history and progression following the first seizure to the development of TLE, its subsequent resolution through spontaneous remission or the development of treatment resistant epilepsy remain poorly understood. Our present understanding of the role played by these initial events, the subsequent latency to development of temporal lobe epilepsy, and the emergence of treatment resistance remains incomplete. A critical analysis of published data suggest that TLE is a heterogeneous condition, where the age of onset, presence or absence of a lesion on neuroimaging, the initial precipitating event, association with febrile seizures, febrile status epilepticus, and neurotropic viral infections influence the natural history and outcome. The pathways and processes through which these variables coalesce into a framework will provide the basis for an understanding of the natural history of TLE. The questions raised need to be addressed in future prospective and longitudinal observational studies.

  18. Natural History of Rotator Cuff Disease and Implications on Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Degenerative rotator cuff disease is commonly associated with ageing and is often asymptomatic. The factors related to tear progression and pain development are just now being defined through longitudinal natural history studies. The majority of studies that follow conservatively treated painful cuff tears or asymptomatic tears that are monitored at regular intervals show slow progression of tear enlargement and muscle degeneration over time. These studies have highlighted greater risks for disease progression for certain variables, such as the presence of a full-thickness tear and involvement of the anterior aspect supraspinatus tendon. Coupling the knowledge of the natural history of degenerative cuff tear progression with variables associated with greater likelihood of successful tendon healing following surgery will allow better refinement of surgical indications for rotator cuff disease. In addition, natural history studies may better define the risks of nonoperative treatment over time. This article will review pertinent literature regarding degenerative rotator cuff disease with emphasis on variables important to defining appropriate initial treatments and refining surgical indications. PMID:26726288

  19. Can differences in the type, nature or amount of polysubstance use explain the increased risk of non-fatal overdose among psychologically distressed people who inject drugs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Kim S; McIlwraith, Fairlie; Dietze, Paul; Whittaker, Elizabeth; Burns, Lucy; Cogger, Shelley; Alati, Rosa

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates whether the type, nature or amount of polysubstance use can explain the increased risk of non-fatal overdose among people who inject drugs with severe psychological distress. Data came from three years (2011-2013) of the Illicit Drug Reporting System (IDRS), an annual sentinel sample of injecting drug users across Australia (n=2673). Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was used on 14 drug types to construct five latent factors, each representing a type of polysubstance use. Tests of measurement invariance were carried out to determine if polysubstance use profiles differed between those with and without severe psychological distress. Next, we regressed non-fatal overdose on the polysubstance use factors with differences in the relationships tested between groups. Among those with severe psychological distress a polysubstance use profile characterised by heroin, oxycodone, crystal methamphetamine and cocaine use was associated with greater risk of non-fatal overdose. Among those without severe psychological distress, two polysubstance use profiles, largely characterised by opioid substitution therapies and prescription drugs, were protective against non-fatal overdose. The types of polysubstance use profiles did not differ between people who inject drugs with and without severe psychological distress. However, the nature of use of one particular polysubstance profile placed the former group at a strongly increased risk of non-fatal overdose, while the nature of polysubstance use involving opioid substitution therapies was protective only among the latter group. The findings identify polysubstance use profiles of importance to drug-related harms among individuals with psychological problems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Connecting health and natural history: a failed initiative at the American Museum of Natural History, 1909-1922.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Julie K

    2014-10-01

    In 1909, curator Charles-Edward Winslow established a department of public health in New York City's American Museum of Natural History (AMNH). Winslow introduced public health as a biological science that connected human health-the modern sciences of physiology, hygiene, and urban sanitation-to the natural history of plants and animals. This was the only time an American museum created a curatorial department devoted to public health. The AMNH's Department of Public Health comprised a unique collection of live bacterial cultures-a "Living Museum"-and an innovative plan for 15 exhibits on various aspects of health. I show how Winslow, facing opposition from AMNH colleagues, gathered scientific experts and financial support, and explain the factors that made these developments seem desirable and possible. I finish with a discussion of how the Department of Public Health met an abrupt and "inglorious end" in 1922 despite the success of its collections and exhibitions.

  1. The Naturalized Nation: Anchoring, Objectification and Naturalized Social Representations of History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eemeli Hakoköngäs

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the connection between social representations of history and collective memory from the perspective of elementary concepts of social representations theory: anchoring, objectification and naturalization. The aims of the study are to arrive at a conceptual clarity of this connection and demonstrate how to apply basic concepts of social representations theory to the study of collective memory. The study also focuses on the naturalized characteristics of Finnish history. The data consist of the covers of twenty Finnish history books between the years 1965 and 2014. All the covers are embellished with typography or visual images. The covers were analysed using a semiotic approach in which the interest is in the description (denotation, the associations (connotation and the meaning system these construe (myth. The analysis shows how national history is concretized with visual images (objectification, how the meaning of representation is conveyed (anchoring and how collective memory is maintained (naturalization, transmitted and shaped during the years. The results show how the stable collective memories and changing social representations of history are interacting. The most frequently used visual element was the colour blue, which alludes to the Finnish flag, a symbol of the nation that represents the core of Finnish history. The study suggests that it is possible to conceptualize collective memories as naturalized social representations of history. It shows how processes of anchoring and objectification serve as tools of collective memory and how the naturalized conceptions are subtly changed. In addition, the study develops the use of visual semiotic analysis in social representations research.

  2. The Biology and Natural History of Aphaenogaster rudis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lubertazzi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Workers from the genus Aphaenogaster are among the most abundant ants in the hardwood forests of eastern North America. The biology of these so-called rudis-group ant species, including details about their sociometry, productivity, natural history, and behavior, are synthesized here using published and newly collected data. The latter was collected, in part, using an artificial field nest, and its construction and use are explained. Ants of the rudis group occur in high densities in forest habitats (0.5–1.3 nests m2, have moderate sized colonies (population means from 266 to 613 workers per nest, and are keystone seed dispersers. Many aspects of their life history and behavior follow an annual cycle that tracks seasonal changes. These include foraging, reproduction, the production of new workers and nest migrations. This synthesis highlights what is known about these ants and reveals gaps in our knowledge that require further study.

  3. 75 FR 52022 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL AGENCY... Natural History purchased these human remains from Joseph V. Tallman of Pendleton, OR (Field Museum of... County, OR, by Dr. Merton Miller for the Field Museum of Natural History (Field Museum of Natural...

  4. Testosterone Replacement Therapy on the Natural History of Prostate Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Aaron; Butcher, Michael J; Köhler, Tobias S

    2015-08-01

    The physiology of testosterone production and action are closely related to prostatic disease. An understanding of the natural history of testosterone and prostate growth and development is needed in order to understand this complex relationship. Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostate cancer, and sexual function are common disorders for which testosterone is thought to play a role. Proposed in this review are some theories as to how testosterone interacts to potentially ameliorate these conditions. Further research is needed, but we feel our proposed points are valid given the review of the literature.

  5. Impact of diabetes on the natural history of tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Restrepo, Blanca I.; Schlesinger, Larry S.

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the number one bacterial killer worldwide and the current increase in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (DM), particularly in countries where TB is also endemic, has led to the re-emerging importance of DM2 as a risk factor for TB. There is an urgent need to implement strategies for TB prevention among the millions of DM patients exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) worldwide, but knowledge is limited on how and when DM2 alters the natural history of this infection...

  6. Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma of the Liver: Etiology, Natural History and Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weirong Chen; Maogen Chen; Gaoyang Cai; Ziqun Liao

    2008-01-01

    @@ Introduction Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) is an uncommon vascular tumor, which also has been called histiocytoid haemangioma. This low-grade malignant tumor was first described as a distinctive entity in 1982 by Weiss and Enzinger[1]. Histopathologically, EHE is charac-terized by round or spindle-shaped endothelial cells with cytoplasmic vacuolation[2]. The tumor may occur in numerous organs, includingliver, lung, parotid grand, skin, pleura, thyroid, spleen, cardiac valve,radial artery, oral cavity and parapharyngeal space[2-11]. Many cases have been reported, but its etiology and natural history remain un-clear.

  7. Why we should care about evolution and natural history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Peter C.

    2016-01-01

    to take the discussion of science and religion beyond our own professional circles. Peter Harrison's The Territories of Science and Religion gives us an opportunity to do so. We can use his book to understand why people consistently get the relation wrong. However, we need to take the next step ourselves......, involve historians in the common academic goal, across disciplines, to make sense of the world around us and make that combined knowledge truly useful. Evolution and natural history might help to that effect....

  8. Natural knowledge as a propaedeutic to self-betterment: Francis Bacon and the transformation of natural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, James A T

    2012-01-01

    This paper establishes the 'emblematic' use of natural history as a propaedeutic to self-betterment in the Renaissance; in particular, in the natural histories of Gessner and Topsell, but also in the works of Erasmus and Rabelais. Subsequently, it investigates how Francis Bacon's conception of natural history is envisaged in relation to them. The paper contends that, where humanist natural historians understood the use of natural knowledge as a preliminary to individual improvement, Bacon conceived self-betterment foremost as a means to Christian charity, or social-betterment. It thus examines the transformation of the moralizing aspect of Renaissance natural history in Bacon's conception of his Great Instauration.

  9. Huntington disease: natural history, biomarkers and prospects for therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Christopher A; Aylward, Elizabeth H; Wild, Edward J; Langbehn, Douglas R; Long, Jeffrey D; Warner, John H; Scahill, Rachael I; Leavitt, Blair R; Stout, Julie C; Paulsen, Jane S; Reilmann, Ralf; Unschuld, Paul G; Wexler, Alice; Margolis, Russell L; Tabrizi, Sarah J

    2014-04-01

    Huntington disease (HD) can be seen as a model neurodegenerative disorder, in that it is caused by a single genetic mutation and is amenable to predictive genetic testing, with estimation of years to predicted onset, enabling the entire range of disease natural history to be studied. Structural neuroimaging biomarkers show that progressive regional brain atrophy begins many years before the emergence of diagnosable signs and symptoms of HD, and continues steadily during the symptomatic or 'manifest' period. The continued development of functional, neurochemical and other biomarkers raises hopes that these biomarkers might be useful for future trials of disease-modifying therapeutics to delay the onset and slow the progression of HD. Such advances could herald a new era of personalized preventive therapeutics. We describe the natural history of HD, including the timing of emergence of motor, cognitive and emotional impairments, and the techniques that are used to assess these features. Building on this information, we review recent progress in the development of biomarkers for HD, and potential future roles of these biomarkers in clinical trials.

  10. The Natural History of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV is a leading cause of chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as the most common indication for liver transplantation in many countries. Although the incidence of hepatitis C infection has dramatically decreased during the past decade, the worldwide reservoir of chronically infected persons is estimated at 170 million, or 3% of the global population. There is much controversy surrounding the natural history of hepatitis C infection. The rate of chronic HCV infection is affected by a person's age, gender, race, and viral immune response. Approximately 75%-85% of HCV-infected persons will progress to chronic HCV infection, and are at risk for the development of extrahepatic manifestations, compensated and decompensated cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. The rate of progression to cirrhosis is highly variable, and is influenced by several factors, including the amount of alcohol consumption, age of initial HCV infection, degree of inflammation and fibrosis on liver biopsy, HIV and HBV coinfection, and comordid conditions. An estimated 10%-15% of HCV-infected persons will advance to cirrhosis within the first 20 years. Persons with cirrhosis are at increased risk of developing HCC. An understanding of the natural history of hepatitis C is essential to effectively manage, treat, and counsel individuals with HCV infection.

  11. What can bioinformatics do for Natural History museums?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becerra, José María

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose the founding of a Natural History bioinformatics framework, which would solve one of the main problems in Natural History: data which is scattered around in many incompatible systems (not only computer systems, but also paper ones. This framework consists of computer resources (hardware and software, methodologies that ease the circulation of data, and staff expert in dealing with computers, who will develop software solutions to the problems encountered by naturalists. This system is organized in three layers: acquisition, data and analysis. Each layer is described, and an account of the elements that constitute it given.

    Se presentan las bases de una estructura bioinformática para Historia Natural, que trata de resolver uno de los principales problemas en ésta: la presencia de datos distribuidos a lo largo de muchos sistemas incompatibles entre sí (y no sólo hablamos de sistemas informáticos, sino también en papel. Esta estructura se sustenta en recursos informáticos (en sus dos vertientes: hardware y software, en metodologías que permitan la fácil circulación de los datos, y personal experto en el uso de ordenadores que se encargue de desarrollar soluciones software a los problemas que plantean los naturalistas. Este sistema estaría organizado en tres capas: de adquisición, de datos y de análisis. Cada una de estas capas se describe, indicando los elementos que la componen.

  12. Natural History Education for Students Heading into the Century of Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlynn, Terrance P.

    2008-01-01

    Undergraduate biology students receive little training in natural history or in organismal biology. Natural history allows students to visualize mechanisms of evolution and identify common themes in the structure and function of organisms. By emphasizing natural history in all aspects of biology instruction, we might become closer to achieving the…

  13. 78 FR 36241 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Oregon Museum of Natural and Cultural History...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... Oregon Museum of Natural and Cultural History has completed an inventory of human remains and associated... request to the University of Oregon Museum of Natural and Cultural History. If no additional requestors... Museum of Natural and Cultural History at the address in this notice by July 17, 2013. ADDRESSES:...

  14. 75 FR 14461 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Oregon Museum of Natural and Cultural History...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... funerary object in the possession of the University of Oregon Museum of Natural and Cultural History/Oregon... Museum of Natural and Cultural History/Oregon State Museum of Anthropology professional staff in... Natural and Cultural History/Oregon State Museum of Anthropology, it is likely that these are from...

  15. 77 FR 52058 - Notice of Inventory Completion: American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY... completion of an inventory of human remains in the possession of the American Museum of Natural History, New... following sentence: Officials of the American Museum of Natural History have determined that, pursuant to...

  16. 76 FR 43712 - Notice of Inventory Completion: American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The American Museum of Natural History... human remains may contact the American Museum of Natural History. Repatriation of the human remains...

  17. 78 FR 22285 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh, PA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Carnegie Museum of Natural History... associated funerary objects should submit a written request to the Carnegie Museum of Natural History. If...

  18. 75 FR 45659 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL AGENCY... made by the Field Museum of Natural History professional staff in consultation with representatives of... Museum of Natural History (Field Museum accession number 709). No known individuals were identified....

  19. 75 FR 435 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL AGENCY... of human remains in the possession of the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL. The human... remains was made by Field Museum of Natural History professional staff in consultation...

  20. 76 FR 43710 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Slater Museum of Natural History, University of Puget Sound...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Slater Museum of Natural History, University of Puget..., Slater Museum of Natural History, University of Puget Sound, 1500 North Warner St., Tacoma, WA 98416... inventory of human remains in the possession of the Slater Museum of Natural History, University of...

  1. 78 FR 19299 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Slater Museum of Natural History, University of Puget Sound...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Slater Museum of Natural History, University of Puget... the Slater Museum of Natural History. Disposition of the human remains to the Indian tribes stated... of Natural History and in the physical custody of the Burke Museum. The human remains were...

  2. 77 FR 25740 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History, New Haven, CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History, New Haven, CT... human remains may contact the Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History. Repatriation of the human remains... contact the Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History at the address below by May 31, 2012....

  3. 76 FR 48179 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Slater Museum of Natural History, University of Puget Sound...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Slater Museum of Natural History, University of Puget... itself to be culturally affiliated with the human remain may contact the Slater Museum of Natural History... cultural affiliation with the human remain should contact the Slater Museum of Natural History,...

  4. Life span history of non-fatal suicidal behaviours in a large sample of general practitioners' patients: data from Rovigo, Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanone Poma, S; Vicentini, S; Siviero, F; Grossi, A; Toniolo, E; Cocchio, S; Baldo, V; De Leo, Diego

    2014-11-01

    A survey about history of non-fatal suicidal behaviour was performed on 1,171 subjects in the waiting room of general practitioners' practices in the territory of Rovigo (Northern Italy). The mean age of interviewed subjects was 52.9 ± 17.0, with a majority of female individuals. Two and two percent admitted previous experience of non-suicidal self-injury, 4.7 % admitted having had serious suicidal thoughts/plans, and 1.8 % reported at least one suicide attempt. Compared to the rest of the sample, people with history of suicidal behaviours resulted to be of younger age (p < .05), whilst their level of well-being was poorer (p < .001). When compared to the results of the Italian arm of the European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders, carried out on general population samples, the present study produces higher rates of suicidality, despite the much higher mean age of the interviewed subjects compared to the general population.

  5. Nonfamilial Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: Prevalence, Natural History, and Clinical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingles, Jodie; Burns, Charlotte; Bagnall, Richard D; Lam, Lien; Yeates, Laura; Sarina, Tanya; Puranik, Rajesh; Briffa, Tom; Atherton, John J; Driscoll, Tim; Semsarian, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    Yield of causative variants in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is increased in some probands, suggesting different clinical subgroups of disease occur. We hypothesized that a negative family history and no sarcomere mutations represent a nonfamilial subgroup of HCM. We sought to determine the prevalence, natural history, and potential clinical implications of this nonfamilial subgroup of HCM. Four hundred and thirteen unrelated probands with HCM seen in a specialized HCM center between 2002 and 2015 and genetic testing performed were included in this retrospective cohort study. There were 251 (61%) probands with no reported family history of HCM, including 166 (40% of total) probands with no sarcomere mutation, that is, nonfamilial HCM. Quantified family pedigree data revealed no difference in mean number of first-degree relatives screened between nonfamilial and sarcomere-positive groups. Adjusted predictors of nonfamilial status were older age (odds ratio, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.06; P=0.0001), male sex (odds ratio, 1.96; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-3.45; P=0.02), hypertension (odds ratio, 2.80; 95% confidence interval, 1.57-5.00; P=0.0005), and nonasymmetric septal morphology (odds ratio, 3.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.64-7.08; P=0.001). They had a less severe clinical course with greater event-free survival from major cardiac events (P=0.04) compared with sarcomere-positive HCM probands. Genotype prediction scores showed good performance in identifying genotype-positive patients (area under the curve, 0.71-0.75) and, in combination with pedigree characteristics, were further improved. Approximately 40% of HCM probands have a nonfamilial subtype, with later onset and less severe clinical course. We propose a revised clinical pathway for management, highlighting the role of genetic testing, a detailed pedigree, and refined clinical surveillance recommendations for family members. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Tension in the Natural History of Human Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moll Henrike

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Michael Tomasello has greatly expanded our knowledge of human cognition and how it differs from that of other animals. In this commentary to his recent book A Natural History of Human Thinking, I first critique some of the presuppositions and arguments of his evolutionary story about how homo sapiens’ cognition emerged. For example, I question the strategy of relying on the modern chimpanzee as a model for our last shared ancestor, and I doubt the idea that what changed first over evolutionary time was hominin behavior, which then in turn brought about changes in cognition. In the second half of the commentary I aim to show that the author oscillates between an additive and a transformative account of human shared intentionality. I argue that shared intentionality shapes cognition in its entirety and therefore precludes the possibility that humans have the same, individual intentionality (as shown in, e.g. their instrumental reasoning as other apes.

  7. Natural history's hypothetical moments: narratives of contingency in Victorian culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Tina Young

    2009-01-01

    This essay focuses on the ways in which works by Robert Chambers, Charles Darwin, and George Eliot encouraged readers to imagine the future as contingent. But where Chambers alludes to Charles Babbage's computational engine and the period's life insurance industry to hint at the role of contingency in natural history, Darwin insists on the importance of contingently determined outcomes to speciation. The "Origin" consistently exercises the reader's speculative energies by generating conditional statements, causal hypotheses, adn diverging alternatives. "Adam Bede" constitutes its characters' interior lives around the proliferation of such contingent narratives. To reflect on the future or on the past, these works suggest, demands a temporal, moral, and narrative complexity in one's thinking.

  8. Natural history of the ERVWE1 endogenous retroviral locus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duret Laurent

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human HERV-W multicopy family includes a unique proviral locus, termed ERVWE1, whose full-length envelope ORF was preserved through evolution by the action of a selective pressure. The encoded Env protein (Syncytin is involved in hominoid placental physiology. Results In order to infer the natural history of this domestication process, a comparative genomic analysis of the human 7q21.2 syntenic regions in eutherians was performed. In primates, this region was progressively colonized by LTR-elements, leading to two different evolutionary pathways in Cercopithecidae and Hominidae, a genetic drift versus a domestication, respectively. Conclusion The preservation in Hominoids of a genomic structure consisting in the juxtaposition of a retrotransposon-derived MaLR LTR and the ERVWE1 provirus suggests a functional link between both elements.

  9. Natural history of the ERVWE1 endogenous retroviral locus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnaud, Bertrand; Beliaeff, Jean; Bouton, Olivier; Oriol, Guy; Duret, Laurent; Mallet, François

    2005-01-01

    Background The human HERV-W multicopy family includes a unique proviral locus, termed ERVWE1, whose full-length envelope ORF was preserved through evolution by the action of a selective pressure. The encoded Env protein (Syncytin) is involved in hominoid placental physiology. Results In order to infer the natural history of this domestication process, a comparative genomic analysis of the human 7q21.2 syntenic regions in eutherians was performed. In primates, this region was progressively colonized by LTR-elements, leading to two different evolutionary pathways in Cercopithecidae and Hominidae, a genetic drift versus a domestication, respectively. Conclusion The preservation in Hominoids of a genomic structure consisting in the juxtaposition of a retrotransposon-derived MaLR LTR and the ERVWE1 provirus suggests a functional link between both elements. PMID:16176588

  10. Ocular vascular occlusive disorders: Natural history of visual outcome☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayreh, Sohan Singh

    2014-01-01

    Ocular vascular occlusive disorders collectively constitute the most common cause of visual disability. Before a disease can be managed, it is essential to understand its natural history, so as to be able to assess the likely effectiveness of any intervention. I investigated natural history of visual outcome in prospective studies of 386 eyes with non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NA-AION), 16 eyes with non-arteritic posterior ischemic optic neuropathy, 697 eyes with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO), 67 eyes with hemi-CRVO (HCRVO), 216 eyes with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO), 260 eyes with central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO), 151 eyes with branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO) and 61 eyes with cilioretinal artery occlusion (CLRAO). My studies have shown that every one of these disorders consists of multiple distinct clinical sub-categories with different visual findings. When an ocular vascular occlusive disorder is caused by giant cell arteritis, which is an ophthalmic emergency, it would be unethical to do a natural history study of visual outcome in them, because in this case early diagnosis and immediate, intensive high-dose steroid therapy is essential to prevent any further visual loss, not only in the involved eye but also in the fellow, normal eye. In NA-AION in eyes seen ≤2 weeks after the onset, visual acuity (VA) improved in 41% of those with VA 20/70 or worse, and visual field (VF) improved in 26% of those with moderate to severe VF defect. In non-ischemic CRVO eyes with VA 20/70 or worse, VA improved in 47% and in ischemic CRVO in 23%; moderate to severe VF defect improved in 79% in non-ischemic CRVO and in 27% in ischemic CRVO. In HCRVO, overall findings demonstrated that initial VA and VF defect and the final visual outcome were different in non-ischemic from ischemic HCRVO – much better in the former than the latter. In major BRVO, in eyes with initial VA of 20/70 or worse, VA improved in 69%, and moderate to

  11. Natural history and management of basilar trunk artery aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliou, Guillaume; Sacho, Raphael H; Power, Sarah; Kostynskyy, Alex; Willinsky, Robert A; Tymianski, Michael; terBrugge, Karel G; Rawal, Sapna; Krings, Timo

    2015-04-01

    Basilar trunk aneurysms (BTAs), defined as aneurysms distal to the basilar origin and proximal to the origin of the superior cerebellar artery, are rare and challenging to manage. We describe the natural history and management in a consecutive series of BTAs. Between 2000 and 2013, 2522 patients with 3238 aneurysms were referred to our institution for aneurysm management. A retrospective review of this database was conducted to identify all patients with BTAs. In total, 52 patients had a BTA. Mean age was 56 (SD±18) years. Median clinical follow-up was 33 (interquartile range, 8-86) months, and imaging follow-up was 26 (interquartile range, 2-80.5) months. BTAs were classified into 4 causal subtypes: acute dissecting aneurysms, segmental fusiform ectasia, mural bleeding ectasia, and saccular aneurysms. Multiple aneurysms were more frequently noticed among the 13 saccular aneurysms when compared with overall population (P=0.021). There was preponderance of segmental ectasia or mural bleeding ectasia (P=0.045) in patients presenting with transit ischemic attack/stroke or mass effect. Six patients with segmental and 4 with mural bleeding ectasia demonstrated increasing size of their aneurysm, with 2 having subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by aneurysm rupture. None of the fusiform aneurysms that remained stable bled. BTAs natural histories may differ depending on subtype of aneurysm. Saccular aneurysms likely represent an underlying predisposition to aneurysm development because more than half of these cases were associated with multiple intracranial aneurysms. Intervention should be considered in segmental ectasia and chronic dissecting aneurysms, which demonstrate increase in size over time as there is an increased risk of subarachnoid hemorrhage. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Crucial steps in the natural history of inflammatory bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giovanni Latella; Claudio Papi

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD),including ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD),are chronic,progressive and disabling disorders.Over the last few decades,new therapeutic approaches have been introduced which have led not only to a reduction in the mortality rate but also offered the possibility of a favorable modification in the natural history of IBD.The identification of clinical,genetic and serological prognostic factors has permitted a better stratification of the disease,thus allowing the opportunity to indicate the most appropriate therapy.Early treatment with immunosuppressive drugs and biologics has offered the opportunity to change,at least in the short term,the course of the disease by reducing,in a subset of patients with IBD,hospitalization and the need for surgery.In this review,the crucial steps in the natural history of both UC and CD will be discussed,as well as the factors that may change their clinical course.The methodological requirements for high quality studies on the course and prognosis of IBD,the true impact of environmental and dietary factors on the clinical course of IBD,the clinical,serological and genetic predictors of the IBD course (in particular,which of these are relevant and appropriate for use in clinical practice),the impact of the various forms of medical treatment on the IBD complication rate,the role of surgery for IBD in the biologic era,the true magnitude of risk of colorectal cancer associated with IBD,as well as the mortality rate related to IBD will be stressed; all topics that are extensively discussed in separate reviews included in this issue of World Journal of Gastroenterology.

  13. Natural History and Clinical Consequences of Hepatitis B Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Calvin Q; Zhang, Jin X

    2005-01-01

    Despite the existence of Hepatitis B vaccination, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is still prevalent worldwide and accounts for significant morbidity and mortality. It is encouraging that majority of patients do recover from the acute infection, however, those that progress to chronic disease state is at great risk of developing complications such as hepatocellular carcinoma, cirrhosis and liver failure. Hepatitis B virus infection can be influenced by many factors such as host immune status, age at infection, and level of viral replication. The discovery about the existence of various genotypes and its association with different geographic distribution as well as the knowledge regarding mutant species has aid us in better understanding the nature of HBV infection and in delivering better care for patients. It is especially important to recognize those individuals with HBeAg-negative chronic HBV as they have a poorer prognosis compare with their counterparts, HBeAg-positive. Tremendous progress has been made over the years in understanding the behavior and clinical course of the disease; however, the natural history of HBV is complex and we still have much to explore and learn.

  14. Phenomenology of tics and natural history of tic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckman, James F

    2003-12-01

    Tic symptoms, the hallmark of Tourette's syndrome (TS), may simply be fragments of innate behavior. As such, the sensory urges that precede tics may illuminate some of the normal internal cues that are intimately involved in the assembly of behavioral sequences. The occurrence of tics in time appears to have fractal characteristics that may help to explain the waxing and waning course of tic disorders. Longitudinal studies are currently underway that should permit a close examination of the natural fluctuations in tic severity using valid and reliable clinician-rated scales of tic severity. The natural history of tics typically shows a marked decline during the course of adolescence. However, TS can also be associated with social, emotional, and academic difficulties in early adulthood. Comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder are likely to influence the long-term adaptive outcomes of individuals with TS. Future progress may also be expected as endophenotypes, and possibly genetic markers, are identified that are associated with specific comorbid conditions and etiologically distinct forms of TS.

  15. Natural history of fetal trisomy 13 after prenatal diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Sinead C; Walsh, Colin A; Burke, Annette L; McParland, Peter; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Morrison, John J

    2015-01-01

    There are currently limited data describing the natural history and outcome for fetal trisomy 13 diagnosed prenatally. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fetal and neonatal outcome for pregnancies with an established prenatal diagnosis of fetal trisomy 13, and a parental decision for continuation of the pregnancy. To this end, the obstetric and neonatal outcome data for such pregnancies, diagnosed at two referral Fetal Medicine Centers, were retrospectively obtained and examined. During the study period, there were 45 cases of trisomy 13 diagnosed at both units, of which 26 (56%) continued with the pregnancy to its natural outcome. There were 12 intrauterine deaths in the cohort resulting in a rate of 46.2% of intrauterine lethality. Conversely, the live birth rate was 53.8%. For infants born alive, neonatal death on day 1 of life occurred in 78.6% of cases. The overall early neonatal mortality rate was 93%. There was one infant death at 6 weeks of age and no survival noted beyond this period. These data provide reliable information for parental counseling pertaining to risk of intrauterine death when trisomy 13 is diagnosed prenatally. These data also indicate that the survival outcome is worse than that previously accepted from studies of postnatal follow up of live born infants with this diagnosis.

  16. Long-term natural history of Crohn's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hugh James Freeman

    2009-01-01

    Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory granulomatous process that usually involves different sites in the intestinal tract. Genetic and environmental factors are thought to play a role in its etiology and pathogenesis.The disorder has a heterogeneous clinical expression and data from tertiary care settings have documented its female predominance, occasional familial nature,and high rate of stricture formation and penetrating disease. It may appear from early childhood to late adulthood, although over 80% are currently diagnosed before age 40 years, usually with terminal ileal and colonic involvement. Several studies have now shown differences in phenotypic clinical expression depending on the initial age at diagnosis, with pediatric-onset disease being more severe and more extensive with more involvement of the upper gastrointestinal tract compared to adult-onset disease. In addition, longterm studies from these tertiary care settings have documented that the disorder may evolve with time into a more complex disease with stricture formation and penetrating disease complications (i.e. fistula and abscess). Although prolonged remission with no evidence of inflammatory disease may occur, discrete periods of symptomatic and active granulomatous inflammatory disease may re-appear over many decades. Long-term studies on the natural history have also suggested that discrete events (or agents) may precipitate this granulomatous inflammatory process.

  17. 76 FR 43720 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Homer Society of Natural History, Pratt Museum, Homer, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Homer Society of Natural History, Pratt Museum, Homer... History, Pratt Museum has completed an inventory of human remains, in consultation with the appropriate... affiliated with the human remains may contact the Homer Society of Natural History, Pratt...

  18. Natural History of Untreated Scoliosis in beta-Thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanastasiou, Dimitris A; Ellina, Aikaterini; Baikousis, Andreas; Pastromas, Basilis; Iliopoulos, Panos; Korovessis, Panagiotis

    2002-06-01

    A prospective study was performed. To investigate the natural history of untreated scoliosis in beta-thalassemia patients in a 10-year period. Several previous studies have demonstrated the bone deformities, particularly the high incidence of scoliosis, that is associated with beta-thalassemia. However, little is known about the evolution of scoliosis curvatures, and almost nothing is known about the natural history of this type of scoliosis and its associated lateral spinal curvatures. From a group of 115 patients with beta-thalassemia who were evaluated for scoliosis 10 years ago, 43 patients (37%) were re-evaluated 10 years later to study the evolution of the untreated scoliosis and lateral spinal curvatures. Scoliosis, thoracic kyphosis, thoracolumbar kyphosis, and lumbar lordosis were measured both in the initial and last observation and were compared with each other. All changes in scoliosis curve location, direction, and rate of resolving, as well as the changes in the magnitude of the lateral spine curves, were recorded. Scoliosis curves of more than 5 degrees were present in 34 (79%) of the 43 patients who were followed. Scoliosis progressed but was not statistically significant in 12% of the patients with thalassemia in a 10-year span. Ten years ago, 12 patients (28%) showed scoliosis of 10 degrees to 14 degrees, whereas in the last evaluation, 15 patients (35%) had scoliosis of 10 degrees to 19 degrees. The S-shaped scoliosis curve pattern was the most common (29%). In 10 years, the scoliosis curve pattern remained unchanged in 38% of the patients, and it changed in 38%, whereas 24% of the minor curves (5-9 degrees ) showed spontaneous "self-resolving" character. In the last evaluation, there were seven patients (16%) with new cases of scoliosis de novo. There was no sex-related predominance in prevalence of scoliosis in this series. There was a significant skeletal mature retardation in the patients with beta-thalassemia. There was a significant

  19. Impact of diabetes on the natural history of tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Blanca I; Schlesinger, Larry S

    2014-11-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the number one bacterial killer worldwide and the current increase in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (DM), particularly in countries where TB is also endemic, has led to the re-emerging importance of DM2 as a risk factor for TB. There is an urgent need to implement strategies for TB prevention among the millions of DM patients exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) worldwide, but knowledge is limited on how and when DM2 alters the natural history of this infection. In this review we summarize the current epidemiological, clinical and immunologic studies on TB and DM and discuss the clinical and public health implications of these findings. Specifically, we evaluate the mechanisms by which DM patients have a higher risk of Mtb infection and TB development, present with signs and symptoms indicative of a more infectious TB infection, and are more likely to have adverse TB treatment outcomes, including death. Emphasis is placed on type 2 DM given its higher prevalence in contemporary times, but the underlying role of hyperglycemia and of type 1 DM is also discussed.

  20. Heterogeneity of endoscopy negative heartburn: Epidemiology and natural history

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fabio Pace; Valentina Casini; Stefano Pallotta

    2008-01-01

    It has now become clear that only about 40% or less of patients with heartburn and/or regurgitation have esophagitis,and that the majority of them lack visible distal esophageal mucosa breaks.These subjects are referred to as non-erosive gastroesophageal reflux disease (NERD) patients.It has been estimated that in the Western world at least one tenth of the general population has at least weekly heartburn.This proportion seems to be lower in Asia,while prevalence is rapidly increasing.Although it would be extremely useful to have prospective information regarding the fate of such patients,the natural history of NERD is largely unknown,and very few studies in the literature have addressed this issue.These studies are for the greater part old,not well conducted,and suffer from methodological drawbacks including ill-defined entry criteria.However,a review of these studies indicates that a consistent minority of NERD patients may develop erosive disease at an approximate rate of about 10% per year.

  1. Large granular lymphocyte leukemia: natural history and response to treatment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fortune, Anne F

    2012-02-01

    Large granular lymphocyte leukemia (T-LGL) is an indolent T lymphoproliferative disorder that was difficult to diagnose with certainty until clonality testing of the T cell receptor gene became routinely available. We studied the natural history and response to treatment in 25 consecutive patients with T-LGL diagnosed between 2004 and 2008 in which the diagnosis was confirmed by molecular analysis, to define an effective treatment algorithm. The median age at diagnosis was 61 years (range 27-78), with a male to female ratio of 1:1.8 and presenting features of fatigue (n = 13), recurrent infections (n = 9), and\\/or abnormal blood counts (n = 5). Thirteen patients with symptomatic disease were treated as follows: pentostatin (nine patients), cyclosporine (six patients), methotrexate (three patients), and alemtuzumab in two patients in whom pentostatin was ineffective. Pentostatin was the single most effective therapy, with a response rate of 75% and minimal toxicity. The overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) 37 months from diagnosis were 80% and 52%, respectively. Treatment of T-LGL should be reserved for patients with symptomatic disease, but in this series, pentostatin treatment was less toxic and more effective than cyclosporine or methotrexate.

  2. The natural history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mannino, DM; Watt, G; Hole, D

    2006-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the USA, and it remains one of the few diseases that continues to increase its numbers. The development and progression of COPD can vary dramatically between individuals. A low level of lung function rem...... function and may lead to more rapid declines in lung function. Better understanding of the natural history of COPD may lead to better definitions of specific COPD phenotypes, better interventions and improved outcomes.......Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the USA, and it remains one of the few diseases that continues to increase its numbers. The development and progression of COPD can vary dramatically between individuals. A low level of lung function...... remains the cornerstone of COPD diagnosis and is a key predictor of prognosis. Lung function, however, is not the only factor in determining morbidity and mortality related to COPD, with factors such as body mass index, exercise capability and comorbid disease being important predictors of poor outcomes...

  3. Aspects of Honeybee Natural History According to the Solega

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aung Si

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Honeybees and their products are highly prized by many cultures around the world, and as a result, indigenous communities have come to possess rich and detailed knowledge of the biology of these important insects. In this paper, I present an in-depth investigation into some aspects of honeybee natural history, as related to me by the Solega people of southern India. The Solega recognize, name, and exploit four honeybee species, and are well aware of the geographical and temporal distributions of each one. In spite of not being beekeepers – as they only forage for wild honey – their knowledge of obscure and complex phenomena such as honeybee gender and reproduction rivals that of comparable, non-industrial beekeeping societies. Swarming, another hard-to-understand honeybee behavior, is also accurately explained by Solega consultants. I contrast this knowledge to that of European bee-keeping cultures, as evidenced by the writings of Aristotle and 18th century European beekeepers. This paper shows that the Solega have a reliable and internally consistent body of honeybee knowledge based entirely on brief encounters with these wild, migratory insects that are present in the forest for only part of the year.

  4. Tropical Endomyocardial Fibrosis: Natural History, Challenges, and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Antonio; Mocumbi, Ana Olga; Freers, Juergen; Lachaud, Matthias; Mirabel, Mariana; Ferreira, Beatriz; Narayanan, Kumar; Celermajer, David S; Sidi, Daniel; Jouven, Xavier; Marijon, Eloi

    2016-06-14

    Tropical endomyocardial fibrosis (EMF) is a neglected disease of poverty that afflicts rural populations in tropical low-income countries, with some certain high-prevalence areas. Tropical EMF is characterized by the deposition of fibrous tissue in the endomyocardium, leading to restrictive physiology. Since the first descriptions in Uganda in 1948, high-frequency areas for EMF have included Africa, Asia, and South America. Although there is no clear consensus on a unified hypothesis, it seems likely that dietary, environmental, and infectious factors may combine in a susceptible individual to give rise to an inflammatory process leading to endomyocardial damage and scar formation. The natural history of EMF includes an active phase with recurrent flare-ups of inflammation evolving to a chronic phase leading to restrictive heart failure. In the chronic phase, biventricular involvement is the most common presentation, followed by isolated right-sided heart disease. Marked ascites out of proportion to peripheral edema usually develops as a typical feature of EMF. EMF carries a very poor prognosis. In addition to medical management of heart failure, early open heart surgery (endocardectomy and valve repair/replacement) appears to improve outcomes to some extent; however, surgery is technically challenging and not available in most endemic areas. Increased awareness among health workers and policy makers is the need of the hour for the unhindered development of efficient preventive and therapeutic strategies.

  5. Res, veluti per machinas, conficiatur: natural history and the 'mechanical' reform of natural philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Ian G

    2012-01-01

    This paper revisits Bacon's persistent 'mechanical' imagery by which he described the 'aid' through which the human mind would be rendered adequate to framing axioms about nature's processes and properties that underlie all natural phenomena. It argues that the role Bacon ascribed to his own insights into the properties and motions of matter is crucial for grasping such instrumental imagery, because his own writings--both methodological and natural historical--need to be read as themselves comprising, at least in incipient form, the very instruments of which they speak. From that reflexive standpoint, this paper in particular focuses on the 'aid' to the senses that his natural histories were to have offered under the interpretative guidance offered by the Novum organum and other works. The 'hypothetical' status to which Bacon is often thought to have accorded his own natural philosophical insights does not adequately take into account the transformative power Bacon thought these insights should have through his own writings. The fact that Bacon was keenly sensitive to the psychological effects of textual authority in his intellectual milieu prompts new reflection concerning how he intended his own texts to be read, and how we should read them.

  6. 75 FR 16175 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Museum of Cultural and Natural History, Central Michigan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Museum of Cultural and Natural History, Central... possession of the Museum of Cultural and Natural History, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, MI. The... notice. A detailed assessment of the human remains was made by the Museum of Cultural and Natural...

  7. 75 FR 45658 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Museum of Cultural and Natural History, Central Michigan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Museum of Cultural and Natural History, Central... funerary objects in the possession of the Museum of Cultural and Natural History, Central Michigan... detailed assessment of the human remains was made by the Museum of Cultural and Natural...

  8. Science Education in U.S. Natural History Museums: A Historical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melber, Leah M.; Abraham, Linda M.

    2002-01-01

    Looks at past trends and future challenges to assist with the identification of the role of education in the natural history museum of the new millennium. As the educational role of natural history museums evolves, so do the ways in which public education of such concepts as the very nature of science is carried out in these institutions.…

  9. PUBLIC HEALTH IMPORTANCE OF SHATKRIYAKALA IN RELATION TO NATURAL HISTORY OF DISEASE

    OpenAIRE

    Janmejaya Samal

    2013-01-01

    Kriyakala, also known as Shatkriyakala, is predominantly a concept of Ayurveda which describes different phases of disease formation in its own unique way. This concept can be comparable with natural history of disease in modern medicine. Though many authorities compare it simply with pathogenesis but a meticulous look will reveal its relation with natural history of disease. A good understanding of natural history of disease helps to frame public health intervention strategies, more speciall...

  10. Contemporary Natural History and Management of Nonobstructive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maron, Martin S; Rowin, Ethan J; Olivotto, Iacopo; Casey, Susan A; Arretini, Anna; Tomberli, Benedetta; Garberich, Ross F; Link, Mark S; Chan, Raymond H M; Lesser, John R; Maron, Barry J

    2016-03-29

    Left ventricular outflow tract gradients are absent in an important proportion of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). However, the natural course of this important patient subgroup remains largely unresolved. The authors systematically employed exercise (stress) echocardiography to define those patients without obstruction to left ventricular outflow at rest and/or under physiological exercise and to examine their natural history and clinical course to create a more robust understanding of this complex disease. We prospectively studied 573 consecutive HCM patients in 3 centers (44 ± 17 years; 66% male) with New York Heart Association functional class I/II symptoms at study entry, including 249 in whom left ventricular outflow tract obstruction was absent both at rest and following physiological exercise (<30 mm Hg; nonobstructive HCM) and retrospectively assembled clinical follow-up data. Over a median follow-up of 6.5 years, 225 of 249 nonobstructive patients (90%) remained in classes I/II, whereas 24 (10%) developed progressive heart failure to New York Heart Association functional classes III/IV. Nonobstructive HCM patients were less likely to experience advanced limiting class III/IV symptoms than the 324 patients with outflow obstruction (1.6%/year vs. 7.4%/year rest obstruction vs. 3.2%/year provocable obstruction; p < 0.001). However, 7 nonobstructive patients (2.8%) did require heart transplantation for progression to end stage versus none of the obstructive patients. HCM-related mortality among nonobstructive patients was low (n = 8; 0.5%/year), with 5- and 10-year survival rates of 99% and 97%, respectively, which is not different from expected all-cause mortality in an age- and sex-matched U.S. population (p = 0.15). HCM patients with nonobstructive disease appear to experience a relatively benign clinical course, associated with a low risk for advanced heart failure symptoms, other disease complications, and HCM-related mortality, and

  11. Coastal Staphylinidae (Coleoptera: A worldwide checklist, biogeography and natural history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kee-Jeong Ahn

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We provide a list of the 392 described species of Staphylinidae confined to coastal habitats worldwide. The list is in taxonomic sequence by subfamily, tribe, and genus and includes 91 genera. We provide the page reference of the original description of every species and genus listed and of many synonyms. We note the existence of recent reviews, phylogenies and keys of each of the tribes and genera included. Coastal Staphylinidae contain eight subfamilies: Microsilphinae, Omaliinae, Pselaphinae, Aleocharinae, Oxytelinae, Scydmaeninae, Paederinae, and Staphylininae. By ‘coastal habitats’ we mean habitats existing on the sea coast and subject to inundation or at least splashing by the very highest tides. This includes rocky, boulder, coral, sandy, and muddy seashores, and at least portions of salt-marshes, estuaries, and mangrove swamps. We exclude the sand dune habitat and higher parts of sea-cliffs. The list notes distribution of all the species, first according to the ocean or sea on whose shores it has been recorded, and second by country (and for the larger countries by province or state. Although this distribution is undoubtedly incomplete, it provides a basis for future development of a dedicated database. The ‘Habitats, Habits, and Classificatory Notes’ section is designed to provide ecologists with further taxonomic and ecological information. It includes references to descriptions of the immature stages, behavior of adults and immatures, their food, natural enemies, and habitat. We would have preferred to separate these entities, but current knowledge of ecology is developed in few instances beyond natural history. The Pacific Ocean basin was the origin and contributed to the dispersal of the majority of specialist coastal Staphylinidae at the level of genus. However, at the level of species, species belonging to non-coastal-specialist genera are about as likely to occur on the shores of other oceans as on the shores of the

  12. Natural History of Aging in Cornelia de Lange Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    KLINE, ANTONIE D.; GRADOS, MARCO; SPONSELLER, PAUL; LEVY, HOWARD P.; BLAGOWIDOW, NATALIE; SCHOEDEL, CHRISTIANNE; RAMPOLLA, JONI; CLEMENS, DOUGLAS K.; KRANTZ, IAN; KIMBALL, AMY; PICHARD, CARMEN; TUCHMAN, DAVID

    2016-01-01

    Observations about the natural history of aging in Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) are made, based on 49 patients from a multidisciplinary clinic for adolescents and adults. The mean age was 17 years. Although most patients remain small, obesity may develop. Gastroesophageal reflux persists or worsens, and there are early long-term sequelae, including Barrett esophagus in 10%; other gastrointestinal findings include risk for volvulus, rumination, and chronic constipation. Submucous cleft palate was found in 14%, most undetected before our evaluation. Chronic sinusitis was noted in 39%, often with nasal polyps. Blepharitis improves with age; cataracts and detached retina may occur. Decreased bone density is observed, with occasional fractures. One quarter have leg length discrepancy and 39% scoliosis. Most females have delayed or irregular menses but normal gynecologic exams and pap smears. Benign prostatic hypertrophy occurred in one male prior to 40 years. The phenotype is variable, but there is a distinct pattern of facial changes with aging. Premature gray hair is frequent; two patients had cutis verticis gyrata. Behavioral issues and specific psychiatric diagnoses, including self-injury, anxiety, attention-deficit disorder, autistic features, depression, and obsessive-compulsive behavior, often worsen with age. This work presents some evidence for accelerated aging in CdLS. Of 53% with mutation analysis, 55% demonstrate a detectable mutation in NIPBL or SMC1A. Although no specific genotype–phenotype correlations have been firmly established, individuals with missense mutations in NIPBL and SMC1A appear milder than those with other mutations. Based on these observations, recommendations for clinical management of adults with CdLS are made. PMID:17640042

  13. Natural history of infraspinatus fatty infiltration in rotator cuff tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Barbara; Wall, Bryan; Walch, Gilles

    2010-07-01

    Muscular fatty infiltration (FI) represents an important prognostic factor in rotator cuff repair. The goal of this study was to analyze the natural history of infraspinatus FI in rotator cuff tears to determine the timing of the appearance and the speed of progression of this phenomenon. The preoperative MRI or CT-arthrograms of 1688 patients operated for rotator cuff tears were reviewed. The degree of infraspinatus FI was correlated with the type of tendon tear, patient sex, dominant hand, presence of traumatic injury, delay between the onset of symptoms and imaging studies, and age of the patients at imaging. Infraspinatus FI was graded on axial images according to Goutallier classification and described as minimal (stage 0 or 1), medium (stage 2), and severe (stages 3 and 4). Statistical regression was used to determine the most significant factors. Infraspinatus FI increased significantly in presence of an infraspinatus tendon tear and when multiple tendons were torn (P < .0005), with increasing delay between the onset of symptoms and imaging studies (P < .0005) and increasing patient age (P < .0005). Medium FI appeared on average 2 and a half years after the onset of symptoms, and severe FI appeared at an average of 4 years after symptom onset. Larger tendon tears, longer delays after tendon rupture and older patient age are associated with more severe and frequent FI. Stage 2 FI appears at an average of 2 and a half years after the onset of symptoms, and surgical repair should be done within this time frame if possible. 2010 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Determining Source Attenuation History to Support Closure by Natural Attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    425 Carmen Lebron 713-522-6300 Reset ESTCP ER-201032 i Final Report TABLE OF CONTENTS List of Tables...Source History Modeling Results at Building 780 Source Area. ..... 116 ESTCP ER-201032 vi Final Report Figure 5.38. Monte Carlo...119 Figure 5.39. Monte Carlo Sensitivity Analysis for Various Input Parameters for Source History Model at

  15. Dataset on psychosocial risk factors in cases of fatal and near-fatal physical child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Mary Clyde; Kaczor, Kim; Acker, Deborah; Webb, Tina; Brenzel, Allen; Lorenz, Douglas J; Young, Audrey; Thompson, Richard

    2017-10-01

    This article presents the psychosocial risk factors identified in the cases of 20 children less than four years of age who were victims of fatal or near-fatal physical abuse during a 12 month period in the Commonwealth of Kentucky. These data are related to the article "History, injury, and psychosocial risk factor commonalities among cases of fatal and near-fatal physical child abuse" (Pierce et al., 2017) [1].

  16. Traffic fatalities and economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopits, Elizabeth; Cropper, Maureen

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between traffic fatality risk and per capita income and uses it to forecast traffic fatalities by geographic region. Equations for the road death rate (fatalities/population) and its components--the rate of motorization (vehicles/population) and fatalities per vehicle (F/V)--are estimated using panel data from 1963 to 1999 for 88 countries. The natural logarithm of F/P, V/P, and F/V are expressed as spline (piecewise linear) functions of the logarithm of real per capita GDP (measured in 1985 international prices). Region-specific time trends during the period 1963-1999 are modeled in linear and log-linear form. These models are used to project traffic fatalities and the stock of motor vehicles to 2020. The per capita income at which traffic fatality risk (fatalities/population) begins to decline is 8600 US dollars (1985 international dollars) when separate time trends are used for each geographic region. This turning point is driven by the rate of decline in fatalities/vehicles as income rises since vehicles/population, while increasing with income at a decreasing rate, never declines with economic growth. Projections of future traffic fatalities suggest that the global road death toll will grow by approximately 66% over the next twenty years. This number, however, reflects divergent rates of change in different parts of the world: a decline in fatalities in high-income countries of approximately 28% versus an increase in fatalities of almost 92% in China and 147% in India. The road death rate is projected to rise to approximately 2 per 10,000 persons in developing countries by 2020, while it will fall to less than 1 per 10,000 in high-income countries.

  17. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: natural history and long term treatment effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asher Marc A

    2006-03-01

    risks of major surgery, a 6 to 29% chance of requiring re-operation, and the remote possibility of developing a pain management problem. Knowledge of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis natural history and long-term treatment effects is and will always remain somewhat incomplete. However, enough is know to provide patients and parents the information needed to make informed decisions about management options.

  18. Toward a Pedagogy for Australian Natural History: Learning to Read and Learning Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Alistair; Muller, Gregg

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we suggest that learning about natural history experientially can be thought of as a type of reading, where understanding is developed by using particular skills, processes and content. In our experience, teaching and learning natural history involves the generation of knowledge and understanding through relating direct personal…

  19. More than a Museum: Natural History is Relevant in 21st Century Environmental Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, R. R.; Murphy-Mariscal, M. L.; Barrows, C. W.

    2015-12-01

    In the Anthropocene, the relevancy of natural history in environmental science is challenged and marginalized today more than ever. We tested the hypothesis that natural history is relevant to the fields of environmental science and ecology by assessing the values, needs, and decisions related to natural history of graduate students and environmental science professionals across 31 universities and various employers, respectively, in California. Graduate students surveyed (93.3%) agreed that natural history was relevant to science, approximately 70% believed it "essential" for conducting field-based research; however, 54.2% felt inadequately trained to teach a natural history course and would benefit from additional training in natural history (> 80%). Of the 185 professionals surveyed, all felt that natural history was relevant to science and "essential" or "desirable" in their vocation (93%). Our results indicate a disconnect between the value and relevancy of natural history in 21st century ecological science and opportunities for gaining those skills and knowledge through education and training.

  20. 75 FR 52368 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Homer Society of Natural History, Pratt Museum, Homer, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ... Completion: Homer Society of Natural History, Pratt Museum, Homer, AK AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior... of the Homer Society of Natural History, Pratt Museum, Homer, AK. The human remains were removed from... associated funerary objects are present. The archeological and documentary evidence are in agreement that...

  1. Natural history of breast cancers detected in the Swedish mammography screening programme: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahl, Per-Henrik; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Mæhlen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The natural history of screen-detected breast cancers is not well understood. A previous analysis of the incidence change during the introduction of the Norwegian screening programme in the late 1990s suggested that the natural history of many screen-detected invasive breast cancers is to regress...

  2. Spontaneous gastro-pancreatic fistula - a hitherto unknown natural history of IPMN?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, V; Sarkar, R; Smithies, A; Razack, A; Wedgwood, K

    2012-06-01

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) is a distinct group of benign pancreatic neoplasms often discovered incidentally on imaging. Apart from their malignant potential, little is known about their natural history as most are surgically resected. We report an unusual presentation and possible natural history of IPMN in a patient who refused surgery and hence was on regular follow up.

  3. 75 FR 57288 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Utah Museum of Natural History, Salt Lake City, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Utah Museum of Natural History, Salt Lake City, UT... of Natural History, Salt Lake City, UT. The human remains and associated funerary objects were removed from Millard and Washington Counties, UT. This notice is published as part of the National...

  4. Long-Term Natural History and Complications of Collagenous Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh J Freeman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Microscopic forms of colitis have been described, including collagenous colitis, a possibly heterogeneous disorder. Collagenous colitis most often appears to have an entirely benign clinical course that usually responds to limited treatment. Sometimes significant extracolonic disorders, especially arthritis, spondylitis, thyroiditis and skin disorders, such as pyoderma gangrenosum, dominate the clinical course and influence the treatment strategy. However, rare fatalities have been reported and several complications, some severe, have been attributed directly to the colitis. Toxic colitis and toxic megacolon may develop. Concomitant gastric and small intestinal inflammatory disorders have been described including celiac disease and more extensive collagenous inflammatory disease. Colonic ulceration has been associated with the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, while other forms of inflammatory bowel disease, including ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease, may evolve directly from collagenous colitis. Submucosal ‘dissection’, colonic fractures, or mucosal tears and perforation, possibly from air insufflation during colonoscopy, have been reported. Similar changes may result from increased intraluminal pressures that may occur during radiological imaging of the colon. Neoplastic disorders of the colon may also occur during the course of collagenous colitis, including colon carcinoma and neuroendocrine tumours (ie, carcinoids. Finally, lymphoproliferative disease has been reported.

  5. Natural history of colloid cysts of the third ventricle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Thomas L; Limbrick, David D; Rich, Keith M; Wippold, Franz J; Dacey, Ralph G

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE Colloid cysts are rare, histologically benign lesions that may result in obstructive hydrocephalus and death. Understanding the natural history of colloid cysts has been challenging given their low incidence and the small number of cases in most reported series. This has complicated efforts to establish reliable prognostic factors and surgical indications, particularly for asymptomatic patients with incidental lesions. Risk factors for obstructive hydrocephalus in the setting of colloid cysts remain poorly defined, and there are no grading scales on which to develop standard management strategies. METHODS The authors performed a single-center retrospective review of all cases of colloid cysts of the third ventricle treated over nearly 2 decades at Washington University. Univariate analysis was used to identify clinical, imaging, and anatomical factors associated with 2 outcome variables: symptomatic clinical status and presentation with obstructive hydrocephalus. A risk-prediction model was defined using bootstrapped logistic regression. Predictive factors were then combined into a simple 5-point clinical scale referred to as the Colloid Cyst Risk Score (CCRS), and this was evaluated with receiver-operator characteristics. RESULTS The study included 163 colloid cysts, more than half of which were discovered incidentally. More than half of the incidental cysts (58%) were followed with surveillance neuroimaging (mean follow-up 5.1 years). Five patients with incidental cysts (8.8%) progressed and underwent resection. No patient with an incidental, asymptomatic colloid cyst experienced acute obstructive hydrocephalus or sudden neurological deterioration in the absence of antecedent trauma. Nearly half (46.2%) of symptomatic patients presented with hydrocephalus. Eight patients (12.3%) presented acutely, and there were 2 deaths due to obstructive hydrocephalus and herniation. The authors identified several factors that were strongly correlated with the 2

  6. [A brief history of the natural causes of human disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lips-Castro, Walter

    2015-01-01

    In the study of the causes of disease that have arisen during the development of humankind, one can distinguish three major perspectives: the natural, the supernatural, and the artificial. In this paper we distinguish the rational natural causes of disease from the irrational natural causes. Within the natural and rational causal approaches of disease, we can highlight the Egyptian theory of putrid intestinal materials called "wechdu", the humoral theory, the atomistic theory, the contagious theory, the cellular theory, the molecular (genetic) theory, and the ecogenetic theory. Regarding the irrational, esoteric, and mystic causal approaches to disease, we highlight the astrological, the alchemical, the iatrochemical, the iatromechanical, and others (irritability, solidism, brownism, and mesmerism).

  7. The Effect of Project-Based History and Nature of Science Practices on the Change of Nature of Scientific Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çibik, Ayse Sert

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the change of pre-service science teachers' views about the nature of scientific knowledge through Project-Based History and Nature of Science training and Conventional Method. The sample of the study consists of two groups of 3rd grade undergraduate students attending teacher preparation program of science…

  8. A joint history of the nature of genetic variation and the nature of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, K S

    2015-02-01

    This essay traces the history of concepts of genetic variation and schizophrenia from Darwin and Mendel to the present. For Darwin, the important form of genetic variation for evolution is continuous in nature and small in effect. Biometricians led by Pearson agreed and developed statistical genetic approaches utilizing trait correlations in relatives. Mendel studied discontinuous traits and subsequent Mendelians, led by Bateson, assumed that important genetic variation was large in effect producing discontinuous phenotypes. Although biometricians studied 'insanity', schizophrenia genetics under Kraepelin and Rüdin utilized Mendelian approaches congruent with their anatomical-clinical disease model of dementia praecox. Fisher showed, assuming many genes of small effect, Mendelian and Biometrical models were consilient. Echoing prior conflicts, psychiatric genetics since then has utilized both biometrical models, largely in twins, and Mendelian models, based on advancing molecular techniques. In 1968, Gottesman proposed a polygenic model for schizophrenia based on a threshold version of Fisher's theory. Since then, rigorous studies of the schizophrenia spectrum suggest that genetic risk for schizophrenia is more likely continuous than categorical. The last 5 years has seen increasingly convincing evidence from genome-wide association study (GWAS) and sequencing that genetic risk for schizophrenia is largely polygenic, and congruent with Fisher's and Gottesman's models. The gap between biometrical and molecular Mendelian models for schizophrenia has largely closed. The efforts to ground a categorical biomedical model of schizophrenia in Mendelian genetics have failed. The genetic risk for schizophrenia is widely distributed in human populations so that we all carry some degree of risk.

  9. Autosomal dominant cyclic hematopoiesis: Genetics, phenotype, and natural history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, S.E.; Stephens, K.; Dale, D.C. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Autosomal dominant cyclic hematopoiesis (ADCH; cyclic neutropenia) is a rare disorder manifested by transient neutropenia that recurs every three weeks. To facilitate mapping the ADCH gene by genetic linkage analysis, we studied 9 ADCH families with 42 affected individuals. Pedigrees revealed AD inheritance with no evidence for decreased penetrance. Similar intra- and interfamilial variable expression was observed, with no evidence to support heterogeneity. At least 3 families displayed apparent new mutations. Many adults developed chronic neutropenia, while offspring always cycled during childhood. Children displayed recurrent oral ulcers, gingivitis, lymphadenopathy, fever, and skin and other infections with additional symptoms. Interestingly, there were no cases of neonatal infection. Some children required multiple hospitalizations for treatment. Four males under age 18 died of Clostridium sepsis following necrotizing enterocolitis; all had affected mothers. No other deaths due to ADCH were found; most had improvement of symptoms and infections as adults. Adults experienced increased tooth loss prior to age 30 (16 out of 27 adults, with 9 edentulous). No increase in myelodysplasia, malignancy, or congenital anomalies was observed. Recombinant G-CSF treatment resulted in dramatic improvement of symptoms and infections. The results suggest that ADCH is not a benign disorder, especially in childhood, and abdominal pain requires immediate evaluation. Diagnosis of ADCH requires serial blood counts in the proband and at least one CBC in relatives to exclude similar disorders. Genetic counseling requires specific histories as well as CBCs of each family member at risk to determine status regardless of symptom history, especially to assess apparent new mutations.

  10. The natural history of multiple system atrophy: a prospective European cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenning, Gregor K; Geser, Felix; Krismer, Florian; Seppi, Klaus; Duerr, Susanne; Boesch, Sylvia; Köllensperger, Martin; Goebel, Georg; Pfeiffer, Karl P; Barone, Paolo; Pellecchia, Maria Teresa; Quinn, Niall P; Koukouni, Vasiliki; Fowler, Clare J; Schrag, Anette; Mathias, Christopher J; Giladi, Nir; Gurevich, Tanya; Dupont, Erik; Ostergaard, Karen; Nilsson, Christer F; Widner, Håkan; Oertel, Wolfgang; Eggert, Karla Maria; Albanese, Alberto; del Sorbo, Francesca; Tolosa, Eduardo; Cardozo, Adriana; Deuschl, Günther; Hellriegel, Helge; Klockgether, Thomas; Dodel, Richard; Sampaio, Cristina; Coelho, Miguel; Djaldetti, Ruth; Melamed, Eldad; Gasser, Thomas; Kamm, Christoph; Meco, Giuseppe; Colosimo, Carlo; Rascol, Olivier; Meissner, Wassilios G; Tison, François; Poewe, Werner

    2013-03-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a fatal and still poorly understood degenerative movement disorder that is characterised by autonomic failure, cerebellar ataxia, and parkinsonism in various combinations. Here we present the final analysis of a prospective multicentre study by the European MSA Study Group to investigate the natural history of MSA. Patients with a clinical diagnosis of MSA were recruited and followed up clinically for 2 years. Vital status was ascertained 2 years after study completion. Disease progression was assessed using the unified MSA rating scale (UMSARS), a disease-specific questionnaire that enables the semiquantitative rating of autonomic and motor impairment in patients with MSA. Additional rating methods were applied to grade global disease severity, autonomic symptoms, and quality of life. Survival was calculated using a Kaplan-Meier analysis and predictors were identified in a Cox regression model. Group differences were analysed by parametric tests and non-parametric tests as appropriate. Sample size estimates were calculated using a paired two-group t test. 141 patients with moderately severe disease fulfilled the consensus criteria for MSA. Mean age at symptom onset was 56·2 (SD 8·4) years. Median survival from symptom onset as determined by Kaplan-Meier analysis was 9·8 years (95% CI 8·1-11·4). The parkinsonian variant of MSA (hazard ratio [HR] 2·08, 95% CI 1·09-3·97; p=0·026) and incomplete bladder emptying (HR 2·10, 1·02-4·30; p=0·044) predicted shorter survival. 24-month progression rates of UMSARS activities of daily living, motor examination, and total scores were 49% (9·4 [SD 5·9]), 74% (12·9 [8·5]), and 57% (21·9 [11·9]), respectively, relative to baseline scores. Autonomic symptom scores progressed throughout the follow-up. Shorter symptom duration at baseline (OR 0·68, 0·5-0·9; p=0·006) and absent levodopa response (OR 3·4, 1·1-10·2; p=0·03) predicted rapid UMSARS progression. Sample size

  11. Two books in one: natural history and evolutionary theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, E L

    1998-08-01

    Evolutionary Ecology across Three Trophic Levels: Goldenrods, Gallmakers and Natural Enemies by W.G. Abrahamson and A.E. Weis Princeton University Press, Monographs in Population Biology, 1997. $29.95/£24.95 hbk (xiii+456 pages) ISBN 0 691 01208 3.

  12. Observational natural history and morphological taxonomy are indispensable for future challenges in biodiversity and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staab, Michael; Ohl, Michael; Zhu, Chao-Dong; Klein, Alexandra-Maria

    2015-01-01

    Global biodiversity is rapidly declining, leading inevitably to a loss of ecosystem functionality when species and their associated life-history traits vanish. Unfortunately, even in the 21(st) century, a large proportion of Earth's species are yet unknown and also for most described species science lacks a deeper understanding of the functional role of species and thus of ecosystems. In this Addendum we use the recent discovery of a new spider wasp with a unique natural history as an example to emphasize the importance to conduct basic observational natural history and traditional taxonomic research. We aim to encourage such 'old-fashioned' research and biologists from various research fields to report the many fascinating phenomena holding valuable natural history information they may encounter. Such detailed knowledge on species, their life-history traits, and their trophic interactions will be crucial to reliably address the challenges global change brings to the persistence of ecosystems.

  13. Fatal diving accidents in western Norway 1983-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramnefjell, M P; Morild, I; Mørk, S J; Lilleng, P K

    2012-11-30

    Despite efforts to reduce their number, fatal diving accidents still occur. The circumstances and post-mortem findings in 40 fatal diving accidents in western Norway from 1983 through 2007 were investigated. Diving experience, medical history and toxicology reports were retrieved. The material consisted of recreational divers, professional saturation divers and professional divers without experience with saturation. In 33 cases the diving equipment was examined as part of the forensic investigation. In 27 cases defects in the diving equipment were found. For six divers such defects were responsible for the fatal accidents. Eighteen divers died on the surface or less than 10 m below surface. Five divers reached below 100 msw, and two of them died at this depth. The fatalities were not season-dependent. However, wave-height and strength of currents were influential factors in some cases. Twelve divers were diving alone. Twenty divers had one buddy, 9 of these divers were alone at the time of death. The cause of death was drowning in 31 out of 40 divers; one of them had a high blood-ethanol concentration, in two other divers ethanol was found in the urine, indicating previous ethanol consumption. Nine divers died from sudden decompression, pulmonary barotraumas, underwater trauma and natural causes. The study shows that most of the fatal diving accidents could be avoided if adequate diving safety procedures had been followed.

  14. Natural History: the sense of wonder, creativity and progress in ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul K. Dayton

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay addresses the question of blending natural history and ecological wisdom into the genuine creativity exemplified by Prof. Ramon Margalef. Many have observed that modern biology is a triumph of precision over accuracy, and that ecology has sought maturity by striving toward this model in which the precision value of the tools has supplanted important questions. In pursuing a model of hard science, ecology has struggled with Popperian approaches designed to create a thin patina of real science over the vast seas of uncertainty so admired by the naturalists. We start with a discussion of the importance of natural history in ecology and conservation, and the present state of natural history in academic ecology. We then discuss the respect for natural history in human cultures, and conclude that an infatuation with authority has obfuscated the important truths to be found in nature. We consider some general processes associated with creativity, and finally we ask how natural history influences creativity in ecology. We conclude that the soaring creativity exemplified by Ramon Margalef is based on a joyful almost spiritual understanding of natural history and the courage to avoid authority.

  15. A pervasive denigration of natural history misconstrues how biodiversity inventories and taxonomy underpin scientific knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotterill, Fenton P D; Foissner, Wilhelm

    2010-01-01

    Embracing comparative biology, natural history encompasses those sciences that discover, decipher and classify unique (idiographic) details of landscapes, and extinct and extant biodiversity. Intrinsic to these multifarious roles in expanding and consolidating research and knowledge, natural history endows keystone support to the veracity of law-like (nomothetic) generalizations in science. What science knows about the natural world is governed by an inherent function of idiographic discovery; characteristic of natural history, this relationship is exemplified wherever an idiographic discovery overturns established wisdom. This nature of natural history explicates why inventories are of such epistemological importance. Unfortunately, a Denigration of Natural History weakens contemporary science from within. It expresses in the prevalent, pervasive failure to appreciate this pivotal role of idiographic research: a widespread disrespect for how natural history undergirds scientific knowledge. Symptoms of this Denigration of Natural History present in negative impacts on scientific research and knowledge. One symptom is the failure to appreciate and support the inventory and monitoring of biodiversity. Another resides in failures of scientiometrics to quantify how taxonomic publications sustain and improve knowledge. Their relevance in contemporary science characteristically persists and grows; so the temporal eminence of these idiographic publications extends over decades. This is because they propagate a succession of derived scientific statements, findings and/or conclusions - inherently shorter-lived, nomothetic publications. Widespread neglect of natural science collections is equally pernicious, allied with disregard for epistemological functions of specimens, whose preservation maintains the veracity of knowledge. Last, but not least, the decline in taxonomic expertise weakens research capacity; there are insufficient skills to study organismal diversity in all

  16. Fatal brodifacoum poisoning in a pony

    OpenAIRE

    Ayala, Ignacio; Rodríguez, Mª Jesús; Martos, Nieves; Zilberschtein, José; Ruíz, Isidro; Motas, Miguel

    2007-01-01

    Fatal brodifacoum poisoning in a pony is described; this condition has not previously been reported in ponies. Discussion of what factors in the pony’s history and treatment may have predisposed to the severity and ultimate death is provided.

  17. Natural history of pulmonary function in collagen VI-related myopathies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Foley, A Reghan; Quijano-Roy, Susana; Collins, James; Straub, Volker; McCallum, Michelle; Deconinck, Nicolas; Mercuri, Eugenio; Pane, Marika; D'Amico, Adele; Bertini, Enrico; North, Kathryn; Ryan, Monique M; Richard, Pascale; Allamand, Valérie; Hicks, Debbie; Lamandé, Shireen; Hu, Ying; Gualandi, Francesca; Auh, Sungyoung; Muntoni, Francesco; Bönnemann, Carsten G

    2013-01-01

    .... To further define the clinical course of these variants, we studied the natural history of pulmonary function in correlation to motor abilities in the collagen VI-related myopathies by analysing...

  18. Die Rhizostomeen-Sammlung des British Museum (Natural History) in London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiasny, G.

    1931-01-01

    Die Rhizostomeen-Sammlung des British Museum (Natural History) in London (South Kensington), die ich wahrend eines kurzen Aufenthaltes daselbst untersuchen konnte, umfasst folgende Formen: Cassiopea andromeda Eschscholtz, Australien, Mozambique, Madagascar, Suez. „ „ var. maldivensis Browne, Malediv

  19. Die Rhizostomeen-Sammlung des British Museum (Natural History) in London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiasny, G.

    1931-01-01

    Die Rhizostomeen-Sammlung des British Museum (Natural History) in London (South Kensington), die ich wahrend eines kurzen Aufenthaltes daselbst untersuchen konnte, umfasst folgende Formen: Cassiopea andromeda Eschscholtz, Australien, Mozambique, Madagascar, Suez. „ „ var. maldivensis Browne,

  20. Finding Shatter Cones in Meteorites from the Natural History Museum Vienna Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrière, L.; Brandstätter, F.; Koeberl, C.

    2013-09-01

    New findings of shatter cones in a few meteorites from the Natural History Museum Vienna as well as other impact metamorphism features are presented. Their occurrence in meteorites records hypervelocity collisions in the solar system.

  1. Representations of Nature of Science in Selected Histories of Science in

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Bing; Li, Yue; Chen, Bo

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the representations of nature of science (NOS) in the eight histories of science selected from three series of integrated science textbooks used in junior high school in China. Ten aspects of NOS were adopted in the analytical framework. It was found that NOS had not been well treated in the selected histories of…

  2. History of Science as an Instructional Context: Student Learning in Genetics and Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Young; Irving, Karen E.

    2010-01-01

    This study (1) explores the effectiveness of the contextualized history of science on student learning of nature of science (NOS) and genetics content knowledge (GCK), especially interrelationships among various genetics concepts, in high school biology classrooms; (2) provides an exemplar for teachers on how to utilize history of science in…

  3. Predicting the natural mortality of marine fish from life history characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislason, Henrik

    For fish much of the life history is determined by body size. Body size and asymptotic size significantly influences important life history processes such as growth, maturity, egg production, and natural mortality. Futhermore, for a population to persist, offspring must be able to replace their p...... of the species, and with the von Bertalanffy growth parameter K....

  4. History of Science as an Instructional Context: Student Learning in Genetics and Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Young; Irving, Karen E.

    2010-01-01

    This study (1) explores the effectiveness of the contextualized history of science on student learning of nature of science (NOS) and genetics content knowledge (GCK), especially interrelationships among various genetics concepts, in high school biology classrooms; (2) provides an exemplar for teachers on how to utilize history of science in…

  5. Representations of Nature of Science in Selected Histories of Science in

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Bing; Li, Yue; Chen, Bo

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the representations of nature of science (NOS) in the eight histories of science selected from three series of integrated science textbooks used in junior high school in China. Ten aspects of NOS were adopted in the analytical framework. It was found that NOS had not been well treated in the selected histories of…

  6. Predicting the natural mortality of marine fish from life history characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislason, Henrik

    For fish much of the life history is determined by body size. Body size and asymptotic size significantly influences important life history processes such as growth, maturity, egg production, and natural mortality. Futhermore, for a population to persist, offspring must be able to replace...

  7. A History of Research on Business and the Natural Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffman, Andrew J.; Georg, Susse

    and project its future directions. The field of Business and the Natural Environment (B&NE) has now reached that stage. After expanding in the early 1990s as a distinct field of empirical inquiry, it has grown to include contributions from the full gamut of business disciplines. This introductory chapter...... is an analytical synopsis of that work, and an introductory chapter to a Routledge Handbook that collects the major works of the field....

  8. Natural Inhibitors of Snake Venom Metalloendopeptidases: History and Current Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Viviane A.; Gomes-Neto, Francisco; Perales, Jonas; Neves-Ferreira, Ana Gisele C.; Valente, Richard H.

    2016-01-01

    The research on natural snake venom metalloendopeptidase inhibitors (SVMPIs) began in the 18th century with the pioneering work of Fontana on the resistance that vipers exhibited to their own venom. During the past 40 years, SVMPIs have been isolated mainly from the sera of resistant animals, and characterized to different extents. They are acidic oligomeric glycoproteins that remain biologically active over a wide range of pH and temperature values. Based on primary structure determination, mammalian plasmatic SVMPIs are classified as members of the immunoglobulin (Ig) supergene protein family, while the one isolated from muscle belongs to the ficolin/opsonin P35 family. On the other hand, SVMPIs from snake plasma have been placed in the cystatin superfamily. These natural antitoxins constitute the first line of defense against snake venoms, inhibiting the catalytic activities of snake venom metalloendopeptidases through the establishment of high-affinity, non-covalent interactions. This review presents a historical account of the field of natural resistance, summarizing its main discoveries and current challenges, which are mostly related to the limitations that preclude three-dimensional structural determinations of these inhibitors using “gold-standard” methods; perspectives on how to circumvent such limitations are presented. Potential applications of these SVMPIs in medicine are also highlighted. PMID:27571103

  9. Time: The Biggest Pattern in Natural History Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontier, Nathalie

    2016-10-01

    We distinguish between four cosmological transitions in the history of Western intellectual thought, and focus on how these cosmologies differentially define matter, space and time. We demonstrate that how time is conceptualized significantly impacts a cosmology's notion on causality, and hone in on how time is conceptualized differentially in modern physics and evolutionary biology. The former conflates time with space into a single space-time continuum and focuses instead on the movement of matter, while the evolutionary sciences have a tradition to understand time as a given when they cartography how organisms change across generations over or in time, thereby proving the phenomenon of evolution. The gap becomes more fundamental when we take into account that phenomena studied by chrono-biologists demonstrate that numerous organisms, including humans, have evolved a "sense" of time. And micro-evolutionary/genetic, meso-evolutionary/developmental and macro-evolutionary phenomena including speciation and extinction not only occur by different evolutionary modes and at different rates, they are also timely phenomena that follow different periodicities. This article focusses on delineating the problem by finding its historical roots. We conclude that though time might be an obsolete concept for the physical sciences, it is crucial for the evolutionary sciences where evolution is defined as the change that biological individuals undergo in/over or through time.

  10. 78 FR 19305 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History, New Haven, CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History... Natural History. DATES: Representatives of any Indian tribe that believes it has a cultural affiliation with the cultural items should contact the Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History at the address...

  11. 77 FR 25738 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History, New Haven, CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History... Natural History. DATES: Representatives of any Indian tribe that believes it has a cultural affiliation with the cultural items should contact the Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History at the address...

  12. 78 FR 48902 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Field Museum of Natural History... the Field Museum of Natural History have determined that the 56 cultural items described in this... Field Museum of Natural History has corrected a Notice of Intent to Repatriate published in the...

  13. 78 FR 50094 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate a Cultural Item: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent to Repatriate a Cultural Item: Field Museum of Natural History... Museum of Natural History. If no additional claimants come forward, transfer of control of the cultural... Field Museum of Natural History has corrected a Notice of Intent to Repatriate published in the...

  14. A natural history of mathematics: George Peacock and the making of English algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Kevin

    2013-06-01

    In a series of papers read to the Cambridge Philosophical Society through the 1820s, the Cambridge mathematician George Peacock laid the foundation for a natural history of arithmetic that would tell a story of human progress from counting to modern arithmetic. The trajectory of that history, Peacock argued, established algebraic analysis as a form of universal reasoning that used empirically warranted operations of mind to think with symbols on paper. The science of counting would suggest arithmetic, arithmetic would suggest arithmetical algebra, and, finally, arithmetical algebra would suggest symbolic algebra. This philosophy of suggestion provided the foundation for Peacock's "principle of equivalent forms," which justified the practice of nineteenth-century English symbolic algebra. Peacock's philosophy of suggestion owed a considerable debt to the early Cambridge Philosophical Society culture of natural history. The aim of this essay is to show how that culture of natural history was constitutively significant to the practice of nineteenth-century English algebra.

  15. Historia and materia: the philosophical implications of Francis Bacon's natural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giglioni, Guido

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the philosophical implications underlying Bacon's views on historical knowledge, paying special attention to that variety of historical knowledge described by Bacon as "natural." More specifically, this article explores the interplay of history (historia) and fable (fabula). In the sphere of thought, fabula is the equivalent to materia in nature. Both are described by Bacon as being "versatile" and "pliant." In Bacon's system of knowledge, philosophy, as the domain of reason, starts from historiae and fabulae, once memory and the imagination have fulfilled their cognitive tasks. This means that, for Bacon, there is no such thing as a pure use of reason. He advocates a kind of reason that, precisely because it is involved with matter's inner motions (its "appetites," in Bacon's characteristic language), is constitutively 'impure'. The article shows how the terms historia and fabula cover key semantic areas in defining Bacon's philosophy: historia may mean "history" as well as "story,"fabula "myth" as well "story". In both cases, we can see significant oscillations from a stronger meaning (close to those of matter and nature) to a weaker one (connected to wit and imagination), as if the power of nature decreases moving from histories and myths to stories. On the other hand, there are cases in which Bacon seems to stick to a diachronic view of the meaning of fables and histories, such that the transition from myths to history, especially natural history, is described as a collective effort towards reality and enlightenment.

  16. The natural history of the arboreal ant, Crematogaster ashmeadi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter R. Tschinkel

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The arboreal ant, Crematogaster ashmeadi Emery (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, is the most dominant arboreal ant in the pine forests of the coastal plain of northern Florida. The majority of pine trees harbor a colony of these ants. The colonies inhabit multiple chambers abandoned by bark-mining caterpillars, especially those of the family Cossidae, in the outer bark of living pines. They also inhabit ground level termite galleries in the bark, often locating the queen in galleries. The density of chambers and ants is highest in the base of the tree and drops sharply with height on the trunk. Because chambers are formed in the inner layer of bark, they gradually move outward as more bark layers are laid down, eventually sloughing off the tree's outer surface. Chambers have a mean lifetime of about 25 yr. The abundant chambers in pine bark are excavated by a small population of caterpillars and accumulate over decades. Ant colonies also inhabit abandoned galleries of woodboring beetles in dead branches in the crowns of pines. Because newly mated queens found colonies in abandoned woodboring beetle galleries in the first dead branches that form on pine saplings, C. ashmeadi is dependent on cavities made by other insects throughout its life cycle, and does little if any excavation of its own. Mature colonies nest preferentially in chambers greater than 10 cm2 in area, a relatively rare chamber size. In natural pine forests, this does not seem to limit the ant's populations.

  17. Comparing life history characteristics of Lake Michigan’s naturalized and stocked Chinook Salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, Janice A; Rogers, Mark W.; Bunnell, David B.; Claramunt, Randall M.; Collingsworth, Paris D.

    2016-01-01

    Lake Michigan supports popular fisheries for Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that have been sustained by stocking since the late 1960s. Natural recruitment of Chinook Salmon in Lake Michigan has increased in the past few decades and currently contributes more than 50% of Chinook Salmon recruits. We hypothesized that selective forces differ for naturalized populations born in the wild and hatchery populations, resulting in divergent life history characteristics with implications for Chinook Salmon population production and the Lake Michigan fishery. First, we conducted a historical analysis to determine if life history characteristics changed through time as the Chinook Salmon population became increasingly naturalized. Next, we conducted a 2-year field study of naturalized and hatchery stocked Chinook Salmon spawning populations to quantify differences in fecundity, egg size, timing of spawning, and size at maturity. In general, our results did not indicate significant life history divergence between naturalized and hatchery-stocked Chinook Salmon populations in Lake Michigan. Although historical changes in adult sex ratio were correlated with the proportion of naturalized individuals, changes in weight at maturity were better explained by density-dependent factors. The field study revealed no divergence in fecundity, timing of spawning, or size at maturity, and only small differences in egg size (hatchery > naturalized). For the near future, our results suggest that the limited life history differences observed between Chinook Salmon of naturalized and hatchery origin will not lead to large differences in characteristics important to the dynamics of the population or fishery.

  18. Grapple with a Giant Squid at the Natural History Museum's Darwin Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinkler, Abigail; Collins, Sally

    2009-01-01

    The Natural History Museum's new Darwin Centre fulfils three main roles. It is a state-of-the-art scientific research and collections facility, but it is also an awe-inspiring new public space that allows visitors to explore the natural world in an exciting and innovative way. With its opening, students can experience the relevance of the science…

  19. Paraquat: A fatal poison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Shashibhushan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraquat (1, 1′-dimethyl-4, 4′-dipyridylium is a bipyridilium herbicide used widely in our country and is a highly toxic compound. This compound is very notorious to cause rapid development of renal, liver, and respiratory failure with very high mortality due to lack of specific antidote and dearth of high-quality evidence-based treatment. Respiratory system involvement is the most common cause of death in these people. We hereby report a fatal case of a 30-year-old male with a history of paraquat consumption. The patient developed oliguric renal failure, deterioration of liver function, and acute respiratory distress syndrome over next few days. Different treatment modalities were tried to manage patient′s condition. In this case, none of the strategies worked well, and death ensued due to multi-organ dysfunction syndrome.

  20. The natural disasters and the urban asset modifications: the Melito Irpino case history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfido, Sabina; Spiga, Efisio

    2017-04-01

    The history of Melito Irpino, a small village in southern Italy is particular, though not unique in its genre. The development of its urban asset was, in fact, strongly affected by natural disasters such as hydrogeological and seismic events, which determined its transfer to another location. Due to its landslides and flooding it has been included since the beginning of the twentieth century among the unstable centers to be consolidated. The landslides were caused by peculiar geological characteristics of which the substrate essentially origins from different consistency Flysch elements. From the seismic point of view, Melito Irpino is part of the first category of the new seismic classification of the Campania Region. The most devastating earthquakes that damaged Melito date back to December 1456, which hit central and southern Italy and 5th June , 1688 which had the Sannio as epicentral area, both with l0 = XI MCS and M> 7 [1456: l0= XI MCS, Mw 7.2; 1688: l0 = XI MCS, Mw 7.O.] During the twentieth century, it was involved in two other disastrous earthquakes that caused serious damage to the village in 1930 with an intensity VIII and in 1962 with I = IX MCS and VIII ESI-07 intensity. The earthquake of 21st August 1962 was fatal for the village of Melito. In December of the same year it was left with 2182 inhabitants and 800 houses, most of which were unstable, 300 were to be demolished, 50 unrepairable and 200 were still uninhabitable yet repairable. From a geological point of view the situation turned even more dramatically when the whole valley area stretching from the old Ufita River bridge and the historical center of Melito was affected by a series of large slope instability such as rock falls, complex rotational slip, de facto complicating an extremely compromised situation. This was sufficient to encourage the transfer of the entire village in an other location. After more than half a century and considering the effects of two important earthquakes in 1962

  1. Early life history and habitat ecology of estuarine fishes: responses to natural and human induced change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Able

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the early life history of fishes and their habitats has proceeded from basic natural history to ecology, but we often need to return to natural history to address deficiencies in conceptual and quantitative models of ecosystems. This understanding is further limited by the complex life history of fishes and the lack of appreciation of shifting baselines in estuaries. These inadequacies are especially evident when we try to address the effects of human influences, e.g. fishing, urbanization, and climate change. Often our baselines are inadequate or inaccurate. Our work has detected these along the coasts of the U.S. in extensive time series of larval fish ingress into estuaries, studies of the effects of urbanization, and responses to catastrophes such as the BP oil spill. Long-term monitoring, especially, continues to provide critical insights

  2. Motorcycle fatalities in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Marizwan Abdul Manan; András Várhelyi

    2012-01-01

    Malaysia has the highest road fatality risk (per 100,000 population) among the ASEAN countries and more than 50% of the road accident fatalities involve motorcyclists. This study has collected and analysed data from the police, government authorities, and national and international research institutes. Only fatality data are used due to the severe underreporting of severe injuries (up to 600%) and slight injuries (up to 1400%). The analysis reveals that the highest numbers of motorcycle fatal...

  3. On "The Natural History of the Human Teeth" by Joseph Fox (published in 1803)

    OpenAIRE

    1987-01-01

    "The Natural History of the Human Teeth," written by English surgeon, John Hunter, was first published in 1771, and is one of the most famous works in the history of dentistry. In 1803, another English surgeon, Joseph Fox, also published a book with the same title as Hunter's, but it is not as famous as the former. However, Fox's work is remembered for its description of appliances for correcting dental irregularity and his account of diseases which affect children during their first dentitio...

  4. 76 FR 28067 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Field Museum of Natural History... to repatriate cultural items in the possession of the Field Museum of Natural History (Field Museum... History acquired the cultural items as a gift from the Kalamazoo Valley Museum, and accessioned them...

  5. The natural history of multiple system atrophy: a prospective European cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenning, Gregor K; Geser, Felix; Krismer, Florian; Seppi, Klaus; Duerr, Susanne; Boesch, Sylvia; Köllensperger, Martin; Goebel, Georg; Pfeiffer, Karl P; Barone, Paolo; Pellecchia, Maria Teresa; Quinn, Niall P; Koukouni, Vasiliki; Fowler, Clare J; Schrag, Anette; Mathias, Christopher J; Giladi, Nir; Gurevich, Tanya; Dupont, Erik; Ostergaard, Karen; Nilsson, Christer F; Widner, Håkan; Oertel, Wolfgang; Eggert, Karla Maria; Albanese, Alberto; del Sorbo, Francesca; Tolosa, Eduardo; Cardozo, Adriana; Deuschl, Günther; Hellriegel, Helge; Klockgether, Thomas; Dodel, Richard; Sampaio, Cristina; Coelho, Miguel; Djaldetti, Ruth; Melamed, Eldad; Gasser, Thomas; Kamm, Christoph; Meco, Giuseppe; Colosimo, Carlo; Rascol, Olivier; Meissner, Wassilios G; Tison, François; Poewe, Werner

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a fatal and still poorly understood degenerative movement disorder that is characterised by autonomic failure, cerebellar ataxia, and parkinsonism in various combinations. Here we present the final analysis of a prospective multicentre study by the European MSA Study Group to investigate the natural history of MSA. Methods Patients with a clinical diagnosis of MSA were recruited and followed up clinically for 2 years. Vital status was ascertained 2 years after study completion. Disease progression was assessed using the unified MSA rating scale (UMSARS), a disease-specific questionnaire that enables the semiquantitative rating of autonomic and motor impairment in patients with MSA. Additional rating methods were applied to grade global disease severity, autonomic symptoms, and quality of life. Survival was calculated using a Kaplan-Meier analysis and predictors were identified in a Cox regression model. Group differences were analysed by parametric tests and non-parametric tests as appropriate. Sample size estimates were calculated using a paired two-group t test. Findings 141 patients with moderately severe disease fulfilled the consensus criteria for MSA. Mean age at symptom onset was 56·2 (SD 8·4) years. Median survival from symptom onset as determined by Kaplan-Meier analysis was 9·8 years (95% CI 8·1–11·4). The parkinsonian variant of MSA (hazard ratio [HR] 2·08, 95% CI 1·09–3·97; p=0·026) and incomplete bladder emptying (HR 2·10, 1·02–4·30; p=0·044) predicted shorter survival. 24-month progression rates of UMSARS activities of daily living, motor examination, and total scores were 49% (9·4 [SD 5·9]), 74% (12·9 [8·5]), and 57% (21·9 [11·9]), respectively, relative to baseline scores. Autonomic symptom scores progressed throughout the follow-up. Shorter symptom duration at baseline (OR 0·68, 0·5–0·9; p=0·006) and absent levodopa response (OR 3·4, 1·1–10·2; p=0·03) predicted

  6. No specimen left behind: industrial scale digitization of natural history collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Blagoderov

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditional approaches for digitizing natural history collections, which include both imaging and metadata capture, are both labour- and time-intensive. Mass-digitization can only be completed if the resource-intensive steps, such as specimen selection and databasing of associated information, are minimized. Digitization of larger collections should employ an “industrial” approach, using the principles of automation and crowd sourcing, with minimal initial metadata collection including a mandatory persistent identifier. A new workflow for the mass-digitization of natural history museum collections based on these principles, and using SatScan® tray scanning system, is described.

  7. The natural history of surgically treated but radiotherapy-naïve nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, Eoin P

    2009-11-01

    Transsphenoidal surgery is indicated for patients with nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) causing compressive symptoms. Previous studies attempting to define the rate of recurrence\\/regrowth of surgically treated but radiation-naïve NFPAs were somewhat limited by selection bias and\\/or small numbers and\\/or lack of consistency of findings between studies. A better understanding of the natural history of this condition could allow stratification of recurrence risk and inform future management. We aimed to define the natural history of a large, mainly unselected cohort with surgically treated, radiotherapy (RT)-naïve NFPAs and to try to identify predictors of recurrence\\/regrowth.

  8. Dynamics in natural history collections: Decapod Crustaceans in Biological Reference Collections

    OpenAIRE

    Duró, Alícia; Pérez, Félix; Olivas, Francisco J.; Villanueva, Roger; Lombarte, Antoni; Abelló, Pere, 1959-

    2013-01-01

    One of the main goals of natural history collections is to preserve for a long term the specimens used for describing and naming new species for science. In this sense, the Biological Reference Collections (CBR) at the Institut de Ciències del Mar of the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas are a key site for the study and research on marine biodiversity since they act as a scientific marine reference facility. The concept of natural history collections is not dead. On the cont...

  9. Reemergence of the Natural History of Otolaryngologic Infections: Lessons Learned from 2 American Presidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naples, James; Schwartz, Marissa; Eisen, Marc

    2017-09-01

    Presidents George Washington and Theodore Roosevelt suffered complications of epiglottitis and otomastoiditis, respectively. The introduction of antibiotics and vaccinations against Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae has significantly reduced the incidence of these otolaryngologic infections, such that the natural history of the disease is rarely encountered. However, antibiotic resistance and pathogenic evolution has raised concern about increased virulence of these common organisms. A retrospective evaluation of the complications suffered by Washington and Roosevelt provides valuable insight to the natural history of common otolaryngologic infections that may reemerge as a result of organism evolution in response to antibiotics and vaccines.

  10. An Amphibious Being: How Maritime Surveying Reshaped Darwin's Approach to Natural History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponsel, Alistair

    2016-06-01

    This essay argues that Charles Darwin's distinctive approach to studying distribution and diversity was shaped by his face-to-face interactions with maritime surveyors during the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle (1831-1836). Introducing their hydrographic surveying methods into natural history enabled him to compare fossil and living marine organisms, to compare sedimentary rocks to present-day marine sediments, and to compare landscapes to submarine topology, thereby realizing Charles Lyell's fanciful ambition for a superior form of geology that might be practiced by an "amphibious being." Darwin's theories of continental uplift, coral reef formation, and the origin of species all depended on his amphibious natural history. This essay contributes to our understanding of theorizing in nineteenth-century natural history by illustrating that specific techniques of observing and collecting could themselves help to generate a particular theoretical orientation and, indeed, that such practical experiences were a more proximate source of Darwin's "Humboldtian" interest in distribution and diversity than Alexander von Humboldt's writings themselves. Darwin's debt to the hydrographers became obscured in two ways: through the "funneling" of credit produced by single-authorship publication in natural history and the "telescoping" of memory by which Darwin's new theories made him recall his former researches as though he had originally undertaken them for the very purpose of producing the later theory.

  11. Natural History of Thyroid Function in Adults with Down Syndrome--10-Year Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasher, V.; Gomez, G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The natural history of thyroid function in adults with Down syndrome (DS) is unknown. Method: This study investigated annual thyroid function tests in 200 adults with DS over a 10-year period. Results: Transient and persistent thyroid dysfunction was common. The 5- and 10-year incidence of definite hypothyroidism was 0.9%-1.64% and…

  12. The history of Acta Biotheoretica and the nature of theoretical biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reydon, T.A.C.; Dullemeijer, P.; Hemerik, L.

    2005-01-01

    In this introductory chapter, the three most recent editors of Acta Biotheoretica briefly discuss the history, aims and nature of the journal in the context of the unique character of theoretical biology in The Netherlands. We stress that the broad conception of theoretical biology from which the jo

  13. Teaching Science Rhetorically: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Natural History, 1948-1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePaolo, Charles

    1987-01-01

    Considers the different analogies used by James Rettie, Teilhard de Chardin, Robert Ardrey, Jacob Bronowski, Richard Leakey, Steven Weinberg, Heinz Pagels, and Carl Sagan to make concepts related to time and natural history accessible to the layperson. Suggests that these analogies be used at the undergraduate level in both humanities and science…

  14. On the taxonomy of Latonigena auricomis (Araneae, Gnaphosidae, with notes of geographical distribution and natural history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Jorge

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The male of Latonigena auricomis Simon, 1893 is described for the first time and the female is redescribed. New records are provided for Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. Notes on the natural history and a potential distribution model of the species are presented in the Neotropical Region.

  15. CORE EXPERIMENTS, NATURAL HISTORIES AND THE ART OF EXPERIENTIA LITERATA: THE MEANING OF BACONIAN EXPERIMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana JALOBEANU

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Experiment, as a new form of knowledge, was aBaconian creation. It was in Bacon’s project of Great Instauration and inBacon’s reformed natural history that experiment and experimentationceased to be illustrations of theories and become relatively autonomousdevices for the production of knowledge and for setting the mind straightin its attempts to gain knowledge. This paper explores the way in whichBacon’s Latin natural history transformed experiment and experimentationin such devices. More precisely, I investigate the way in which Bacon’sLatin natural histories were put together from a limited number ofsignificant experiments listed in the Novum Organum under the general title“instances of special power” or “instances of the lamp.” Contrary to thereceived view, my claim is that Bacon’s natural histories are based on alimited number of ‘core experiments’ and are generated through a specificmethodological procedure known under the name of experientia literata. Thispaper is an attempt to reconstruct the procedure of putting such naturalhistories together and a more in-depth exploration of their epistemologicaland therapeutic character.

  16. Long-term studies of the natural history of asthma in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Bønnelykke, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    secondary prevention through the use of inhaled corticosteroids can effectively halt the long-term disease progression in childhood. In conclusion, the natural history of asthma and the associated airway changes is still poorly understood, and we have not managed to translate findings from long-term studies...

  17. Natural History of Chronic Kidney Disease Stages 2-4 | Yousi | Arab ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natural History of Chronic Kidney Disease Stages 2-4. ... This study aimed to measure the rate of decline in kidney function among a group of CKD ... Progressors tended to have higher 24-hour urinary protein excretion (2.6 ± 3.6 versus 1.8 ...

  18. Natural history of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia : a review of prognostic biomarkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeneman, Margot M.; Kruitwagen, Roy F. P. M.; Nijman, Hans W.; Slangen, Brigitte F. M.; Van Gorp, Toon; Kruse, Arnold-Jan

    2015-01-01

    The natural history of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is largely unpredictable and current histopathological examination is unable to differentiate between lesions that will regress and those that will not. Therefore, most high-grade lesions are currently treated by surgical exc

  19. Cooperative Learning about Nature of Science with a Case from the History of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfensberger, Balz; Canella, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports a predominantly qualitative classroom study on cooperative learning about nature of science (NOS) using a case from the history of science. The purpose of the research was to gain insight into how students worked with the historical case study during cooperative group work, how students and teachers assessed the teaching unit,…

  20. Types of Recent Cephalopoda in the National Museum of Natural History, Leiden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeleveld, M.A.C.; Goud, J.; Gleadall, I.C.

    2003-01-01

    A list is given of five name-bearing taxa in the collection of the National Museum of Natural History in Leiden. There is also a brief discussion of purported type material and a summary of new information updating the types list of Sweeney & Roper, 1998.

  1. Changes and Stability in Reasoning after a Field Trip to a Natural History Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Harriet R.; To, Cheryl; Wormald, Daniel; Pegram, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Darwinian evolution is difficult to understand because of conceptual barriers stemming from intuitive ideas. This study examined understanding of evolution in 52 students (M = 14.48 years, SD = 0.89) before and after a guided field trip to a natural history museum and in a comparison group of 18 students (M = 14.17 years, SD = 0.79) who did not…

  2. Fossil Platygastroidea in the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platygastroid wasps preserved in Dominican amber and oil shale from the Kishenehn formation (Montana, USA) in the National Museum of Natural History are catalogued. Compression fossils in Kishenehn oil shale yield a specimen of Fidiobia, a specimen of Telenominae, and a specimen with a Scelio-type o...

  3. Type specimens of Maastrichtian fossils in the National Museum of Natural History, Leiden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leloux, J.

    2002-01-01

    The type specimens of Maastrichtian invertebrate fossils from Limburg, The Netherlands, present in the National Museum of Natural History, Leiden, are listed. The Upper Cretaceous plant type specimens from Limburg of Miquel that were once part of the Staring collection present in the Palaeobotanical

  4. Agency and industry : Charles C. Gillispie’s "The Natural History of Industry," then and now

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberts, L.L.

    2013-01-01

    Charles Coulston Gillispie’s “The Discovery of the Leblanc Process” and “The Natural History of Industry” (Isis 48 (1957): 152–70, 398–407) were unique, yet characteristic of their era. Together, they engaged with discussions of the historical relationship between science and industry. While influen

  5. How In-Service Science Teachers Integrate History and Nature of Science in Elementary Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacieminoglu, Esme

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how the in-service science teachers' (IST) perceptions and practices about curriculum and integration of the history of science (HOS) and the nature of science (NOS) affect their science courses. For this aim, how ISTs integrated the NOS and HOS in their elementary science courses for understanding of…

  6. Using History of Science to Teach Nature of Science to Elementary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Khadija E.; Masters, Heidi; Akerson, Valarie L.

    2015-01-01

    Science lessons using inquiry only or history of science with inquiry were used for explicit reflective nature of science (NOS) instruction for second-, third-, and fourth-grade students randomly assigned to receive one of the treatments. Students in both groups improved in their understanding of creative NOS, tentative NOS, empirical NOS, and…

  7. DinoViz: Exploring the History and Nature of Science through the Progression of Dinosaur Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2011-01-01

    Dinosaurs in the middle school classroom can be exciting. These extinct reptiles are both an exotic subject and familiar to our students. Because students are inherently interested, dinosaurs can serve as an effective portal for the integration of biology, geology, ecology, and the history and nature of science. The field of dinosaur study is…

  8. Classical Natural History: the importance of volunteers in collection management and research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reumer, J.W.F.; Post, K.

    2010-01-01

    As a result of increasing budget constraints and decreasing interest in classical natural history, the work effort of volunteer researchers and the need for private funding are of growing importance. A brief historical background is provided, showing the decreasing interest in the subject shown by g

  9. Using History of Science to Teach Nature of Science to Elementary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Khadija E.; Masters, Heidi; Akerson, Valarie L.

    2015-01-01

    Science lessons using inquiry only or history of science with inquiry were used for explicit reflective nature of science (NOS) instruction for second-, third-, and fourth-grade students randomly assigned to receive one of the treatments. Students in both groups improved in their understanding of creative NOS, tentative NOS, empirical NOS, and…

  10. Type specimens of amphibians in the National Museum of Natural History, Leiden, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gasso Miracle, M.E.; Hoek Ostende, van den L.W.; Arntzen, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    The amphibian type specimens held in the National Museum of Natural History in Leiden are listed. A total of 775 type specimens representing 143 taxon names were encountered. The list provides the original name, the original publication date, pagination and illustrations, current name, type locality

  11. Spinal tuberculosis, natural history of disease, classifications and principles of management with historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kush

    2016-08-01

    To describe the natural history spinal tuberculosis, classifications and principles of management based upon the grading of the neurological deficit. Review of literature was conducted with the aim to provide the clinico-radiological correlation of the natural history of spinal tuberculosis in different stages. Management strategy is developed based upon the severity of the neurological deficit. A five stage natural history of spinal tuberculosis is described. Stage of neurological involvement is further divided into 4 grades, predominantly on the basis of progressively increasing motor deficits as negligible, mild, moderate and severe with sensory and autonomic dysfunctions. Suitable principles of management with role of rest, braces, chemotherapy and surgery are discussed. Neurological deficit grading based management is developed. Grade 1 and 2, conservative treatment, grade 3, gray zone and grade 4, operative treatment is emphasized. The five stages of natural history of tuberculosis of spine have been developed from the clinician's point of view. Management of tuberculosis of spine, in general, it is no different than management of soft tissue tuberculosis, in HIV negative or positive patients. Role of surgery is very limited. Management of tubercular paraplegia, based upon the grading of paraplegia is simple, logical, efficient and easy to understand and remember by any orthopedic surgeon.

  12. 78 FR 2430 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Natural History Museum of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Natural History Museum of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT... City, UT 84108, telephone (801) 581-3876. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Notice is here given in accordance... Utah counties, UT. This notice is published as part of the National Park Service's...

  13. 78 FR 2434 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Natural History Museum of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Natural History Museum of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT..., Salt Lake City, UT 84108, telephone (801) 581-3876. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Notice is here given in... Elder counties, UT. This notice is published as part of the National Park Service's...

  14. 76 FR 28074 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Utah Museum of Natural History, Salt Lake City, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Utah Museum of Natural History, Salt Lake City, UT... City, UT. The human remains were removed from Snow Canyon State Park, Washington County, UT. This... individual were removed from Snow Canyon State Park, Washington County, UT, by hikers and reposited...

  15. Natural history of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia : a review of prognostic biomarkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeneman, Margot M.; Kruitwagen, Roy F. P. M.; Nijman, Hans W.; Slangen, Brigitte F. M.; Van Gorp, Toon; Kruse, Arnold-Jan

    2015-01-01

    The natural history of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is largely unpredictable and current histopathological examination is unable to differentiate between lesions that will regress and those that will not. Therefore, most high-grade lesions are currently treated by surgical exc

  16. The Learning Environment of Natural History Museums: Multiple Ways to Capture Students' Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberger, Yael; Tal, Tali

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an initial attempt to find out students' perceptions of class visits to natural history museums, with regard to the museum's role as a place for intellectual and social experience. The study followed up approximately 500 Grades 6-8 students who visited four museums of different sizes, locations and foci. Data sources…

  17. Changes and Stability in Reasoning after a Field Trip to a Natural History Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Harriet R.; To, Cheryl; Wormald, Daniel; Pegram, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Darwinian evolution is difficult to understand because of conceptual barriers stemming from intuitive ideas. This study examined understanding of evolution in 52 students (M = 14.48 years, SD = 0.89) before and after a guided field trip to a natural history museum and in a comparison group of 18 students (M = 14.17 years, SD = 0.79) who did not…

  18. A Conceptual Guide to Natural History Museum Visitors' Understanding of Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, E. Margaret; Spiegel, Amy N.; Gram, Wendy; Frazier, Brandy N.; Tare, Medha; Thompson, Sarah; Diamond, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Museum visitors are an ideal population for assessing the persistence of the conceptual barriers that make it difficult to grasp Darwinian evolutionary theory. In comparison with other members of the public, they are more likely to be interested in natural history, have higher education levels, and be exposed to the relevant content. If museum…

  19. Guided School Visits to Natural History Museums in Israel: Teachers' Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Revital; Bamberger, Yael; Morag, Orly

    2005-01-01

    Museums are favorite and respected resources for learning worldwide. In Israel, there are two relatively large science centers and a number of small natural history museums that are visited by thousands of students. Unlike other countries, studying museum visits in Israel only emerges in the last few years. The study focused on the roles and…

  20. Multiple Outcomes of Class Visits to Natural History Museums: The Students' View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberger, Yael; Tal, Tali

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and understand the range of outcomes of class visits to natural history museums. The theoretical framework is based on the multifaceted process of learning in free choice learning environments, and emphasizes the unique and individual learning experience in museum settings. The study's significance is in…

  1. Inflammatory bowel disease course in Crohn's disease: is the natural history changing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovics, Petra A; Mandel, Michael D; Lovasz, Barbara D; Lakatos, Peter L

    2014-03-28

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a multifactorial potentially debilitating disease. It has a variable disease course, but the majority of patients eventually develop penetrating or stricturing complications leading to repeated surgeries and disability. Studies on the natural history of CD provide invaluable data on its course and clinical predictors, and may help to identify patient subsets based on clinical phenotype. Most data are available from referral centers, however these outcomes may be different from those in population-based cohorts. New data suggest the possibility of a change in the natural history in Crohn's disease, with an increasing percentage of patients diagnosed with inflammatory disease behavior. Hospitalization rates remain high, while surgery rates seem to have decreased in the last decade. In addition, mortality rates still exceed that of the general population. The impact of changes in treatment strategy, including increased, earlier use of immunosuppressives, biological therapy, and patient monitoring on the natural history of the disease are still conflictive. In this review article, the authors summarize the available evidence on the natural history, current trends, and predictive factors for evaluating the disease course of CD.

  2. A Sanctuary for Science: The Hastings Natural History Reservation and the Origins of the University of California's Natural Reserve System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagona, Peter S

    2012-01-01

    In 1937 Joseph Grinnell founded the University of California's (U.C.) first biological field station, the Hastings Natural History Reservation. Hastings became a center for field biology on the West Coast, and by 1960 it was serving as a model for the creation of additional U.C. reserves. Today, the U.C. Natural Reserve System (NRS) is the largest and most diverse network of university-based biological field stations in the world, with 36 sites covering more than 135,000 acres. This essay examines the founding of the Hastings Reservation, and asks how it managed to grow and develop, in the 1940s and 1950s, during a time of declining support for natural history research. It shows how faculty and staff courted the support of key institutional allies, presented themselves as the guardians of a venerable tradition in nature study, and emphasized the station's capacity to document ecological change and inform environmental policy and management. In the years since, Hastings and other U.C. reserves have played crucial roles in California environmental politics. Biological field stations in the post-war era deserve more attention not only from historians of biology, but also from environmental historians and other scholars interested in the role of science in society.

  3. Coexistence of three different Drosophila species by rescheduling their life history traits in a natural population

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jay P. Yadav; Bashisth N. Singh

    2005-12-01

    We present evidence for coexistence of three different Drosophila species by rescheduling their life history traits in a natural population using the same resource, at the same time and same place. D. ananassae has faster larval development time (DT) and faster DT(egg-fly) than other two species thus utilizing the resources at maximum at both larval and adult stages respectively. Therefore, D. ananassae skips the interspecific competition at preadult stage but suffers more from intraspecific competition. However, D. melanogaster and D. biarmipes have rescheduled their various life history traits to avoid interspecific competition. Differences of ranks tests for various life history traits suggest that except for DT(egg-pupa), the difference of ranks is highest for the combination of D. melanogaster and D. ananassae for all other life history traits. This difference is maintained by tradeoffs between larval development time and pupal period and between pupal period and DT(egg-pupa) in D. ananassae.

  4. Virtual Visit to the ATLAS Control Room by Natural History Museum, London

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Experiment

    2012-01-01

    Nature Live is a programme of daily events which take place at the Natural History Museum, London. Nature Live brings together scientists and visitors to explore, discover and discuss the natural world and our place within it. In each event visitors get the chance to meet our scientists, see the specimens they study and ask lots of questions. Today Nature Live will feature a live link to the LHC control room at CERN. This will give visitors the amazing opportunity to ask questions to the physicists involved about the Large Hadron Collider experiments, Higgs particles and antimatter. As well as to discover how scientists at the Museum and at CERN are all looking back through deep time to answer those big questions on the origins of life, the universe and everything. http://atlas-live-virtual-visit.web.cern.ch/atlas-live-virtual-visit/2012/London_NatureLive-2012.html

  5. [Science and nation: romanticism and natural history in the works of E. J. da Silva Maia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kury, L

    1998-01-01

    The works of physician and naturalist Emílio Joaquim da Silva Maia (1808-59) can be viewed as a scientific project that discovers Brazil and its inhabitants. Maia's nationalism and his romantic view of nature formed the underpinnings of his scientific theories, especially his studies on zoological geography. He subordinated the issue of the biological specificity of different regions of the world to his era's debates on the construction of Brazil as an independent nation. In his interpretations of European natural history, Maia endeavored to understand Brazilian nature as a specific achievement of the Cosmos, in keeping with Alexander von Humboldt's approach.

  6. Multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma in an octogenarian: diagnosis, natural history, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psoinos, Charles M; Kandil, Dina; Piperdi, Bilal; Lambert, Laura A

    2012-02-01

    Multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma (MCPM) is a rare cystic proliferation most often seen in women of reproductive age with a history of prior abdominal surgery. This is a case report of an 83-year-old woman diagnosed with MCPM during an exploratory laparotomy for presumed peritoneal carcinomatosis from colon cancer. After complete removal of all visible MCPM, the patient remains free of both colon cancer and MCPM. This article reviews the literature with regards to the pathology, natural history, risk of malignant transformation, and current options for management of MCPM, including cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy.

  7. Recent history of natural hazards in Chile: imprints of earthquakes and volcanic events in lacustrine and marine sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Van Daele, Maarten

    2013-01-01

    In the past decade, a series of major endogenic, natural catastrophic events caused hundreds of thousands of casualties, as well as a tremendous amount of structural and economic damage. Megathrust earthquakes at subduction zones (i.e. interplate earthquakes) resulted in damage and fatalities over areas of hundreds of kilometers, and, moreover, triggered ocean-crossing tsunamis that in turn caused devastation on several continents. Smaller, but shallow, earthquakes were locally even more dest...

  8. [Fatalities in the bathtub].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trübner, K; Püschel, K

    1991-01-01

    A retrospective analysis concerning deaths in the bathtub was carried out in the Institute of Legal Medicine in Hamburg. The study includes 245 death cases between 1971 and 1988 (1% of all autopsies). 66 cases proved to be natural deaths, 76 were classified as suicides, 39 as accidents and 13 as homicides; 51 fatalities remained unclear with respect to one of these groups. Among the natural deaths sudden cardiac deaths were dominating (n = 39), among the suicides the intoxications (n = 37) and electrocutions (n = 20), and among the accidents the intoxications by carbon monoxide (n = 17) and electrocutions (n = 12). Out of 13 homicides only 2 were committed directly in the bathtub: One by drowning of a child and one by electric current via a hair dryer; in the other cases the dead body was put into the bathtub post mortem. About 50% of the victims were alcoholized. Signs of drowning were present in about 40% of all cases; the most frequent finding was emphysema aquosum.

  9. 78 FR 21413 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: The Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: The Field Museum of Natural History.... History and Description of the Cultural Items The 90 cultural items consist of Western Apache ceremonial... History, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribes or Native Hawaiian organizations,...

  10. Historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Jens Aage

    Historie i serien handler om læreplaner og læremidler og deres brug i skolefaget historie. Bogen indeholder nyttige redskaber til at analysere og vurdere læremidler......Historie i serien handler om læreplaner og læremidler og deres brug i skolefaget historie. Bogen indeholder nyttige redskaber til at analysere og vurdere læremidler...

  11. [Identification of ancient Chinese medicinal specimens preserved at Natural History Museum in London].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhong-zhen; Zhao, Kai-cun; Brand, Eric

    2015-12-01

    On-site field investigation was conducted to authenticate a batch of ancient Chinese medicinal decoction pieces that have been preserved in a rare collection at the Natural History Museum in London. These treasured artifacts comprise a portion of the Sloane Collection, and the nearly one hundred Chinese medicinal specimens examined within provide an objective record of the real situation regarding the Chinese medicinal materials in commercial circulation three hundred years ago. The precious data from this collection pro-vides an extremely valuable reference for the research into the history of medicinal exchange between China and the West during the Age of Exploration, shedding light on the evolution and historical changes in the species used in Chinese medicine, as well as the history of medicinal processing and decoction pieces.

  12. John Abernethy: Calvinist natural histories of the soul in the seventeenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Daniel C

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks at the relation of natural history, in its guise as an observational genre and one which tended to offer competing explanations of its phenomena, to the discourse of practical divinity. Natural history is here intended as a genre in which the practice of observation is accorded a significant place and a genre which lends itself to the accumulation of competing explanatory accounts of the phenomena ('polycausal'). In particular, it examines the relation of the cognitive and the practical with respect to a rather unusual instance of that discourse. It attempts to site the work of practical divinity vertically (to its own tradition), horizontally (to the local contexts of John Abernethy) and orthogonally (to the Baconian project of descriptive enquiry as a basis for philosophical enquiry).

  13. Olmesartan-associated enteropathy: new insights on the natural history? Report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiepatti, Annalisa; Biagi, Federico; Cumetti, Davide; Luinetti, Ombretta; Sonzogni, Aurelio; Mugellini, Amedeo; Corazza, Gino R

    2016-01-01

    The association between olmesartan and an enteropathy histologically indistinguishable from untreated celiac disease has recently been described. However, pathogenetic mechanisms leading to villous atrophy, prevalence, natural history and genetic background of this condition have not yet been defined. We describe here two cases of olmesartan-associated enteropathy and discuss some aspects of the natural history of this condition. In both patients, an infectious episode seems to have triggered the severe malabsorption syndrome which led them to hospitalization. High titer positive antinuclear antibodies with homogeneous pattern were found. Our reports add to a growing body of evidence suggesting that olmesartan-associated enteropathy should be considered in the presence of villous atrophy and negative celiac serology and in the diagnostic algorithm of non-responsive celiac disease.

  14. Connecting the Senses: Natural History and the British Museum in the Stereoscopic Magazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Davidson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the connection between touch and sight by examining one of the early photographic ventures at the British Museum and efforts to mediate between popular and specialist access to the natural history collections. Part of the Victorians' fascination for natural history came from its appeal to the senses. Acknowledging the link between tactile and visual experiences as a component of intellectual discovery was an essential part of this, and the contemporary craze for stereoscopic photographs offered a chance to exploit this association. The article analyses the role of the tactile in the presentation of museum objects by addressing the 'impression' of touch - conjured optically and in the mind's eye - and compares the relative merits of the stereoscope to create the illusion of immersion for the viewer and to effectively convey the tactile qualities of the objects portrayed.

  15. Natural history and the formation of the human being: Kant on active forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldow, Anik

    2016-08-01

    In his 1785-review of the Ideen zur Philosophie der Geschichte der Menschheit, Kant objects to Herder's conception of nature as being imbued with active forces. This attack is usually evaluated against the background of Kant's critical project and his epistemological concern to caution against the "metaphysical excess" of attributing immanent properties to matter. In this paper I explore a slightly different reading by investigating Kant's pre-critical account of creation and generation. The aim of this is to show that Kant's struggle with the forces of matter has a long history and revolves around one central problem: that of how to distinguish between the non-purposive forces of nature and the intentional powers of the mind. Given this history, the epistemic stricture that Kant's critical project imposes on him no longer appears to be the primary reason for his attack on Herder. It merely aggravates a problem that Kant has been battling with since his earliest writings.

  16. Composition and natural history notes of the coastal snake assemblage from Northern Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Ricardo; Mebert, Konrad; Fonseca, Érica; Rödder, Dennis; Solé, Mirco; Tinôco, Moacir Santos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Information about the snake diversity and their natural history from the Atlantic forest domain in Brazil refer mostly to inland forests than to coastal region. Within the state of Bahia, this knowledge is concentrated to the southeastern coastal stretch. Herein we report on the diversity of snakes from the restinga, ombrophilous forest and anthropogenic environment from the northern Atlantic coast of Bahia. We sampled nine sites for three years and visited four museum collections. Furthermore, we provide anecdotal natural history information, voucher analyses, literature complements, and a key to fascilitate species identification. We report a total of 774 snakes belonging to 50 species and 23 new distribution records for northeastern coast of Bahia, supplemented by new data on feeding and reproduction. The number of detected species is similar to numbers obtained in comparable studies from other Brazilian ecoregions. This study reports and focuses for the first time on all known species of snakes from the northeastern coast of Bahia. PMID:27594800

  17. [Impact of antiviral therapy on the natural history of hepatitis C virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Rodriguez, Conrado M; Gutierrez Garcia, Maria Luisa

    2014-12-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus infection affects around 150 million persons, and 350,000 persons worldwide die of this disease each year. Although the data on its natural history are incomplete, after the acute infection, most patients develop chronic forms of hepatitis C with variable stages of fibrosis. In these patients, continual inflammatory activity can cause significant fibrosis, cirrhosis, decompensation of the liver disease, or hepatocarcinoma. In the next few years, it is expected that hepatitis C virus infection and its complications will significantly increase, as will the incidence of hepatocarcinoma in Spain. This review presents the data on the natural history of hepatitis C virus infection and discusses the potential impact of antiviral therapy on the distinct stages of the disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  18. The importance of scientific collecting and natural history museums for comparative neuroanatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaniuk, Andrew N

    2011-05-01

    The comparative study of vertebrate brains is inherently dependent upon access to a sufficient number of species and specimens to perform meaningful comparisons. Although many studies rely on compiling published information, continued specimen collection, in addition to more extensive use of existing brain collections and natural history museums, are crucial for detailed neuroanatomical comparisons across species. This review highlights the importance of collecting species through a variety of means, details a marsupial brain collection, and stresses the potential of natural history museums as a resource for comparative neuroanatomy. By taking advantage of as many of these resources as possible, researchers can rapidly increase species coverage and generate a better understanding of how the brain evolves.

  19. [Natural history and eighteenth-century ideas regarding generation and heredity: Buffon and Bonnet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda, L A

    1995-01-01

    The intellectual course of natural history reveals three conceptual approaches. The first was the taxonomic point of view, where naturalists worked to name and classify the living beings created by God. The second approach was provided by the eighteenth century's philosophical doctrine of mechanism, which lent natural history its method of endeavoring to comprehend the workings of organisms, inasmuch as the world "ran". Calling into question the adequacy of prior message, the third approach argued that living things display characteristics quite distinct from those of non-living matter, making it necessary to understand processes rather than simply decompose phenomena to then analyze them. This inadequacy became apparent at the moment when ideas of generation and heredity ascribed a reproductive history to living things, a history where the act of one fellow creature being formed by another plays an important role in coming to understand the workings of life. The paper analyzes these conceptual approaches from the perspective of Buffon's and Bonnet's ideas on reproduction and heredity, which represented opposite schools of thought: epigenesis and preformation.

  20. Fatalities in Swedish skydiving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, Anton; Björnstig, Ulf

    2005-11-01

    Exact risk patterns in skydiving fatalities are not well known, but incomplete world injury data indicate that many are preventable. A comprehensive national material for Sweden of 37 skydiving fatalities 1964-2003 were reviewed to identify risk factors. In relation to jump volume, the period 1994-2003 had a fatality rate 11 times lower than 1964-1973. Student skydivers had the highest risk of fatal outcome, often caused by instability in freefall leading to unstable parachute activation with subsequent line entanglement, or parachute activation failure. Unintentional water landings also contributed to student fatality, with life jacket malfunctions, neglect to use life jackets, and automatic reserve parachute activation devices activated by water as aggravating factors. One-third of all fatalities had an inflated and operational parachute at some point prior to injury. A drastic worldwide increase in fatal landing incidents with fast wing parachutes during the 1990s did not occur in Sweden. Every fourth fatality caused by rapid deceleration against ground or water survived impact and died during transports or in hospitals. Rescue units and health care providers can improve management of skydiving incidents from knowledge about the incident and injury mechanisms we have described, and the skydiving community can target risk factors in preventive safety work.

  1. 75 FR 58425 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: American Museum of Natural History... intent to repatriate cultural items in the possession of the American Museum of Natural History, New York..., or Federal agency that has control of the cultural items. The National Park Service is...

  2. 75 FR 9925 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate a Cultural Item: The Cleveland Museum of Natural History...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... intent to repatriate a cultural item in the possession of The Cleveland Museum of Natural History... National Park Service Notice of Intent to Repatriate a Cultural Item: The Cleveland Museum of Natural History, Cleveland, OH AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice is here given...

  3. 78 FR 50091 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: University of Colorado Museum of Natural History...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... Shannon, Curator of Cultural Anthropology, University of Colorado Museum of Natural History, 218 UCB... Museum of Natural History have determined that: Pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 3001(3)(C), the five cultural items... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: University of Colorado Museum...

  4. 75 FR 52013 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: Field Museum of Natural History... to repatriate cultural items in the possession of the Field Museum of Natural History (Field Museum..., institution, or Federal agency that has control of the cultural items. The National Park Service is...

  5. Natural history and physiological determinants of changes in glucose tolerance in a non-diabetic population: the RISC Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrannini, E; Natali, A; Muscelli, E

    2011-01-01

    The natural history and physiological determinants of glucose intolerance in subjects living in Europe have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to increase our understanding of this area.......The natural history and physiological determinants of glucose intolerance in subjects living in Europe have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to increase our understanding of this area....

  6. Natural history of idiopathic abducens nerve paresis in a young adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussaindeen, Jameel Rizwana; Mani, Revathy; Rakshit, Archayeeta; Ramasubramanian, Srikanth; Vittal Praveen, Smitha

    2016-01-01

    The natural history of idiopathic abducens nerve paresis and the role of conservative management such as vision training during the recovery process is not well documented in the literature to the best of our knowledge. This case report presents the natural recovery process of idiopathic abducens nerve paresis in a young adult and the role of vision therapy in the recovery process. Copyright © 2016 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. "What if I do nothing?" The natural history of operable cancer of the alimentary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshava, H B; Rosen, J E; DeLuzio, M R; Kim, A W; Detterbeck, F C; Boffa, D J

    2017-04-01

    "Natural history", or anticipated survival without treatment, is critical for patients weighing risks and benefits of cancer surgery. Current estimates concerning the natural history of cancer includes patients whose poor health precludes treatment; a cohort whose fate is likely distinctly worse than those eligible for surgery ("operable"). The study objective was to evaluate survival among patients recommended for cancer surgery but went untreated, to determine the natural history of "operable" alimentary tract cancer. The NCDB was queried for untreated patients with clinical stage I-III esophageal, gastric, colon, and rectal cancer diagnosed between 2003 and 2009. Untreated patients who were recommended for surgery were considered "operable," while patients coded as surgically ineligible for health reasons were "inoperable." 5-year survival of untreated, "operable" alimentary tract cancers varied by clinical stage: esophageal cI = 10.0%, cII = 9.8%, cIII = 4.6%; gastric cI = 9.2%, cII = 5.8%, cIII = 4.3%; colon cI = 18.4%, cII = 5.0%, cIII = 10.4; and rectal cI = 17.1%, cII = 14.0%, cIII = 19.9%. At every timepoint, stage-specific survival of "operable" patients was superior to inoperable patients (p < 0.05). Additionally, median survival among "operable" patients at least doubled "inoperable" patients for each tumor. Natural history of patients with "operable" alimentary tract cancer is superior to that of "inoperable" patients. Preoperative counseling should be refined to reflect this distinction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  8. The analysis of the events of stellar visibility in Pliny's "Natural History"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickiforov, M. G.

    2016-07-01

    The Book XVIII of Pliny's "Natural History" contains about a hundred descriptions of the events of stellar visibility, which were used for the needs of agricultural calendar. The comparison between the calculated date of each event and the date given by Pliny shows that actual events of stellar visibility occurred systematically about ~10 days later with respect to the specified time. This discrepancy cannot be explained by errors of the calendar.

  9. The definition and natural history of severe exacerbation of hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUO Wei

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite different opinions on its definition and classification in the past, a consensus has gradually been reached regarding the naming, classification, and clinical diagnosis of liver failure. The classification of liver failure is described, and the definition and natural history of severe exacerbation of hepatitis B are summarized. Antiviral treatment and artificial liver support in the early stage are beneficial for clinical outcomes and prognosis.

  10. FROM THE HISTORY OF PHYSICS: Tricentenary of Isaac Newton's "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginzburg, Vitalii L.

    1987-01-01

    The first edition of Newton's "Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica" was published in 1687. The present paper is dedicated to the tricentenary of this event, which is important not just in the history of physics, but of science generally. After the Introduction, the paper continues with the following Sections: Before Newton, Principia, Principia and the method of principles, The nature of gravitation, Critique of Newtonian mechanics and its subsequent development, On Newton, Concluding remarks.

  11. From Darwin's Origin of Species toward a theory of natural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boero, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    Darwin is the father of evolutionary theory because he identified evolutionary patterns and, with Natural Selection, he ascertained the exquisitely ecological ultimate processes that lead to evolution. The proximate processes of evolution he proposed, however, predated the discovery of genetics, the backbone of modern evolutionary theory. The later discovery of the laws of inheritance by Mendel and the rediscovery of Mendel in the early 20th century led to two reforms of Darwinism: Neo-Darwinism and the Modern Synthesis (and subsequent refinements). If Darwin's evolutionary thought required much refinement, his ecological insight is still very modern. In the first edition of The Origin of Species, Darwin did not use either the word "evolution" or the word "ecology". "Ecology" was not coined until after the publication of the Origin. Evolution, for him, was the origin of varieties, then species, which he referred to as well-marked varieties, whereas, instead of using ecology, he used "the economy of nature". The Origin contains a high proportion of currently accepted ecological principles. Darwin labelled himself a naturalist. His discipline (natural history) was a blend of ecology and evolution in which he investigated both the patterns and the processes that determine the organization of life. Reductionist approaches, however, often keep the two disciplines separated from each other, undermining a full understanding of natural phenomena that might be favored by blending ecology and evolution through the development of a modern Theory of Natural History based on Darwin's vision of the study of life.

  12. The natural history of idiopathic scoliosis. A study of the incidence of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, F; Willner, S

    1988-04-01

    The natural history of idiopathic scoliosis has been studied between 1969 and 1985 in a well-controlled population of school children, 66,200 cases, between 7 and 16 years of age. The incidence of scoliosis needing treatment (25 degrees or more in progress in growing children) was studied with a cross-sectional as well as a longitudinal survey. When using a cross-sectional technique, a decrease of cases being treated was seen after the introduction of a conventional screening program--thus indicating a change in the natural history of moderate scoliosis. This could, however, be explained by the consequence of an accumulation of treated cases, formerly diagnosed and treated later on, seen immediately after the introduction of screening. When the longitudinal method was used, this trend could not be observed. And finally, when taking changes of indication of treatment and of the population into consideration, no tendency at all toward a change in the natural history could be seen.

  13. The Natural History and Prognosis of Primary Biliary Cirrhosis with Clinical Features of Autoimmune Hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Wang, Qixia; Wang, Zhaoyue; Miao, Qi; Xiao, Xiao; Tang, Ruqi; Chen, Xiaoyu; Bian, Zhaolian; Zhang, Haiyan; Yang, Yue; Sheng, Li; Fang, Jingyuan; Qiu, Dekai; Krawitt, Edward L; Gershwin, M Eric; Ma, Xiong

    2016-02-01

    Although a variant of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) characterized by features of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) has been recognized for many years, few studies with ample numbers of patients have focused on its natural history. This study aimed to clarify the natural history, prognosis, and response to therapy in a cohort of patients with PBC with AIH features. We retrospectively analyzed 277 PBC patients without AIH features and 46 PBC patients with AIH features seen between September 2004 and April 2014. The 5-year adverse outcome-free survival of PBC patients with AIH features was 58% compared to 81% in PBC patients without AIH features. Multivariate analysis in the patients with AIH features indicated that total bilirubin ≥ 2.70× the upper limit of normal predicted a poor prognosis (p = 0.008, relative risk 8.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.73, 40.73). Combination therapy with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and immunosuppression provided better short-term responses in PBC patients with AIH features, defined by multiple criteria. Higher aspartate aminotransferase (AST) level at accession suggested better prognosis for PBC patients with AIH features while worse prognosis for PBC patients without AIH features. PBC patients with AIH features differ from those without AIH features in terms of natural history, prognostic indicators, and response to therapy.

  14. What is low-risk prostate cancer and what is its natural history?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Helen; Parker, Chris

    2008-10-01

    This article reviews the definition, incidence, pathological characteristics and natural history of low risk localised prostate cancer. Low risk disease is typically defined as clinical stage T1/T2a, biopsy Gleason score reporting of outcomes and for the production of clinical guidelines. However, the low-risk disease is a broad category with a range of pathological characteristics and clinical behaviour. Many, but not all, low-risk prostate cancers are clinically insignificant, destined never to cause any harm. The challenge of managing low risk localized prostate cancer is to distinguish patients with clinically relevant cancers, who may benefit from radical treatment, from the remainder who do not need any intervention. The natural history of untreated low-risk localised prostate cancer has not been well studied, partly because it is a relatively recent entity, and partly because it has been standard practice for men with low risk disease to receive treatment. Data from watchful waiting in the pre-PSA era, modelling studies to take account of the lead time and overdiagnosis associated with PSA testing, and the early results of active surveillance can all provide insights into the likely natural history of low risk disease. There remains a major unmet need for markers of individual prostate cancer behaviour within the low-risk category. Such markers could be used to distinguish those men with truly indolent disease, suitable for observation, from those with significant prostate cancer that stand to benefit from treatment.

  15. What was historical about natural history? Contingency and explanation in the science of living things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Peter

    2016-08-01

    There is a long-standing distinction in Western thought between scientific and historical modes of explanation. According to Aristotle's influential account of scientific knowledge there cannot be an explanatory science of what is contingent and accidental, such things being the purview of a descriptive history. This distinction between scientia and historia continued to inform assumptions about scientific explanation into the nineteenth century and is particularly significant when considering the emergence of biology and its displacement of the more traditional discipline of natural history. One of the consequences of this nineteenth-century transition was that while modern evolutionary theory retained significant, if often implicit, historical components, these were often overlooked as evolutionary biology sought to accommodate itself to a model of scientific explanation that involved appeals to laws of nature. These scientific aspirations of evolutionary biology sometimes sit uncomfortably with its historical dimension. This tension lies beneath recent philosophical critiques of evolutionary theory and its modes of explanation. Such critiques, however, overlook the fact that there are legitimate modes of historical explanation that do not require recourse to laws of nature. But responding to these criticisms calls for a more explicit recognition of the affinities between evolutionary biology and history.

  16. Citizen science networks in natural history and the collective validation of biodiversity data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnhout, Esther; Lawrence, Anna; Turnhout, Sander

    2016-06-01

    Biodiversity data are in increasing demand to inform policy and management. A substantial portion of these data is generated in citizen science networks. To ensure the quality of biodiversity data, standards and criteria for validation have been put in place. We used interviews and document analysis from the United Kingdom and The Netherlands to examine how data validation serves as a point of connection between the diverse people and practices in natural history citizen science networks. We found that rather than a unidirectional imposition of standards, validation was performed collectively. Specifically, it was enacted in ongoing circulations of biodiversity records between recorders and validators as they jointly negotiated the biodiversity that was observed and the validity of the records. These collective validation practices contributed to the citizen science character or natural history networks and tied these networks together. However, when biodiversity records were included in biodiversity-information initiatives on different policy levels and scales, the circulation of records diminished. These initiatives took on a more extractive mode of data use. Validation ceased to be collective with important consequences for the natural history networks involved and citizen science more generally.

  17. Motorcycle fatalities in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Marizwan Abdul Manan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia has the highest road fatality risk (per 100,000 population among the ASEAN countries and more than 50% of the road accident fatalities involve motorcyclists. This study has collected and analysed data from the police, government authorities, and national and international research institutes. Only fatality data are used due to the severe underreporting of severe injuries (up to 600% and slight injuries (up to 1400%. The analysis reveals that the highest numbers of motorcycle fatalities occur in rural locations (61%, on primary roads (62% and on straight road sections (66%. The majority are riders (89%, 16 to 20 years old (22.5%, and 90% of the motorcycles are privately owned. Of those involved in fatal accidents, 75% of the motorcyclists wear helmets, and 35% do not have proper licences. The highest number of fatalities by type of collision is ‘angular or side’ (27.5%. Although fatal motorcyclist crashes mostly involve ‘passenger cars’ (28%, motorcyclists are responsible for 50% of the collisions either by crashing singly (25% or with other motorcyclists (25%. While male motorcyclists predominate (94% of fatalities, female motorcyclists aged 31 to 70, possessing ‘no licence’, not wearing helmets and travelling during the day, account for a higher percentage than male motorcyclists. Malaysia must acquire more motorcycle exposure data and establish an injury recording system and database based on hospital-records. To reduce motorcycle fatalities, it first has to understand why young male motorcyclists are prone to fatal crashes in the evenings and on weekends on rural primary roads, especially on straight road sections.

  18. Comparison at Necropsy of Heart Weight in Women Aged 20 to 29 Years With Fatal Trauma or Chemical Intoxication Versus Fatal Natural Cause (A Search for the Normal Adult Heart Weight).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackbourne, Brian D; Vasudevan, Anupama; Roberts, William C

    2017-03-01

    The present obesity epidemic makes determining the normal heart weight in adults difficult. This study examines the heart weight at autopsy in 104 women aged 20 to 29 years who died in 1978 to 1980 before the overweight epidemic ensued. Of the 104 cases, the hearts weighed ≤300 g in 86 (83%) and >300 g in 18 (17%). Of the 67 cases dying from an unnatural cause (trauma or chemical intoxication), only 3 (4%) had hearts weighing >300 g; of the 37 patients dying from a variety of natural causes, 15 (41%) had hearts weighing >300 g (p hearts in them ranged from 120 to 400 g (mean 262 ± 51; median 257 g); of the 22 cases (21%) in whom the BMI was >25 kg/m(2), the hearts ranged from 230 to 850 g (mean 351 ± 142; median 300 g). In conclusion, the cases dying from an unnatural cause had smaller mean heart weights than those women dying from a natural cause and those with a normal BMI (≤25 kg/m(2)) had smaller mean heart weights than those with a BMI >25 kg/m(2). The normal heart weight in young women dying from an unnatural cause with few exceptions is <300 g. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The natural history of ankylosing spondylitis in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Campana

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ankylosing spondylitis (AS is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the axial skeleton and evolves in stiffnes followed by ankylosis and disability. However, it may be difficult to exactly establish the natural history of the disease and the influence of risk factors of progression, since most patients are treated with various pharmacologic or non-pharmacologic agents, which may potentially influence the natural progression of the disease. In this context, we report here a very interesting case of a 40 year old man, presented to our outpatient clinic, 28 years after the onset of AS. Previously for personal reasons, did not choose not to undergo any treatment. This case allows us to evaluate the natural radiological progression of the disease and the influence of predictive risk factors.

  20. Reporting success rates in the treatment of vestibular schwannomas: are we accounting for the natural history?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Timothy; Lau, Tsz; Vasan, Rohit; Danner, Christopher; Youssef, A Samy; van Loveren, Harry; Agazzi, Siviero

    2014-06-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery is generally accepted as one of the best treatment options for vestibular schwannomas. We question whether growth control is an accurate measure of success in vestibular schwannoma treatment. We aim to clarify the success rate of stereotactic radiosurgery and adjust the reported results to the benign natural history of untreated tumors. All articles were taken from a PubMed search of the English literature from the years 2000-2011. Inclusion criteria were articles containing the number of patients treated, radiation technique, average tumor size, follow-up time, and percentage of tumors growing during follow-up. Data were extracted from 19 articles. Success rates were adjusted using published data that 17% to 30% of vestibular schwannomas grow. The average reported success rate for stereotactic radiosurgery across all articles was 95.5%. When considering 17% or 30% natural growth without intervention, the adjusted success rates became 78.2% and 86.9% respectively. These rates were obtained by applying the natural history growth percentages to any tumors not reported to be growing before radiosurgical intervention. Success in the treatment of vestibular schwannomas with stereotactic radiosurgery is often defined as lack of further growth. Recent data on the natural growth history of vestibular schwannomas raise the question of whether this is the best definition of success. We have identified a lack of continuity regarding the reporting of success and emphasize the importance of the clarification of the success of radiosurgery to make informed decisions regarding the best treatment options for vestibular schwannoma.

  1. Between the national and the universal: natural history networks in Latin America in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Regina Horta

    2013-12-01

    This essay examines contemporary Latin American historical writing about natural history from the nineteenth through the twentieth centuries. Natural history is a "network science," woven out of connections and communications between diverse people and centers of scholarship, all against a backdrop of complex political and economic changes. Latin American naturalists navigated a tension between promoting national science and participating in "universal" science. These tensions between the national and the universal have also been reflected in historical writing on Latin America. Since the 1980s, narratives that recognize Latin Americans' active role have become more notable within the renewal of the history of Latin American science. However, the nationalist slant of these approaches has kept Latin American historiography on the margins. The networked nature of natural history and Latin America's active role in it afford an opportunity to end the historiographic isolation of Latin America and situate it within world history.

  2. Follicle development and FSH secretion pattern of Ongole crossbred cow with natural twin birth history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aryogi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A research was done to obtain basic data about influence of natural twin birth history on reproduction of Ongole crossbred (PO cow, as a basic consideration in utilizing twin genetic potency to increase beef production. The research was done for three estrus cycles respectively, and consists of two activities. The first activity was done in Beef Cattle Research Station (BCReS at Grati sub-district, Pasuruan district – East Java, to observe number and development of follicle of ten cows with natural twin birth history (TP and ten cows with single birth history (SP. In this activit ultra sonography (USG equipment was used. The second activity was done in BCReS and in the Faculty of Veterinary Airlangga University at Surabaya, to observe concentration and profile of FSH using Bovine Blood Serum kit and IRMA method of five cows with TP and five PO cows with SP. Data obtained were analyzed using Chi-square test, t-test and descriptive presentation. Result shows that 23.33% of cows with TP produced two dominant (de Graf follicles in an estrus cycle and significantly (P < 0.01 higher FSH secretion concentration (1.26 – 3.13 times than that of cows with SP. It is concluded that PO cows with TP can produces more than one de Graf follicles in an estrus cycle and it has very high secretion concentration level of FSH.

  3. Bringing dinosaurs back to life: exhibiting prehistory at the American Museum of Natural History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieppel, Lukas

    2012-09-01

    This essay examines the exhibition of dinosaurs at the American Museum of Natural History during the first two decades of the twentieth century. Dinosaurs provide an especially illuminating lens through which to view the history of museum display practices for two reasons: they made for remarkably spectacular exhibits; and they rested on contested theories about the anatomy, life history, and behavior of long-extinct animals to which curators had no direct observational access. The American Museum sought to capitalize on the popularity of dinosaurs while mitigating the risks of mounting an overtly speculative display by fashioning them into a kind of mixed-media installation made of several elements, including fossilized bone, shellac, iron, and plaster. The resulting sculptures provided visitors with a vivid and lifelike imaginative experience. At the same time, curators, who were anxious to downplay the speculative nature of mounted dinosaurs, drew systematic attention to the material connection that tied individual pieces of fossilized bone to the actual past. Freestanding dinosaurs can therefore be read to have functioned as iconic sculptures that self-consciously advertised their indexical content.

  4. The natural history and incidence of Yersinia pestis and prospects for vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, E D; Oyston, P C F

    2012-07-01

    Plague is an ancient, serious, infectious disease which is still endemic in regions of the modern world and is a potential biothreat agent. This paper discusses the natural history of the bacterium and its evolution into a flea-vectored bacterium able to transmit bubonic plague. It reviews the incidence of plague in the modern world and charts the history of vaccines which have been used to protect against the flea-vectored disease, which erupts as bubonic plague. Current approaches to vaccine development to protect against pneumonic, as well as bubonic, plague are also reviewed. The considerable challenges in achieving a vaccine which is licensed for human use and which will comprehensively protect against this serious human pathogen are assessed.

  5. Annotated type catalogue of the Amphibulimidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea) in the Natural History Museum, London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breure, Abraham S H; Ablett, Jonathan D

    2011-01-01

    The type status is described of 39 taxa classified within the family Amphibulimidae (superfamily Orthalicoidea) and kept in the London museum. One taxon, Bulimus elaeodes Pfeiffer, 1853, is removed to the Strophocheilidae. Lectotypes are designated for Bulimus adoptus Reeve, 1849; Bulimus (Eurytus) eros Angas, 1878; Helix onca d'Orbigny, 1835; Amphibulima pardalina Guppy, 1868. The type status of the following taxon is changed to lectotype in accordance with Art. 74.6 ICZN: Strophocheilus (Dryptus) jubeus Fulton, 1908.As general introduction to this and following papers on Orthalicoid types in the Natural History Museum, a brief history of the London collection is given and several examples of handwriting from different authors are presented.

  6. How a Small Natural History Museum Promotes GeoScience Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damore, J.

    2004-12-01

    Established 23 years ago as a small aquarium, the Port Townsend Marine Science Center has grown to be a respected institution focused on marine education. Its recently opened Natural History Building highlights connections between marine ecology, the dynamic Washington shoreline, and the forces that shaped the region. An exhibit focal point is a hands-on Washington Geo-puzzle that demonstrates with sliding layers the tectonic forces that formed and continue to form our state. Another exhibit describes a local geologist's research concerning a seismic event 2300 years ago, evidence of which can be seen on a local beach. Last year when the Center received a grant of an AS-1 seismometer, earthquakes and plate tectonics became a natural direction to expand school programs and community involvement projects, especially with the Center's location in a seismically active part of the world. Public programs on earthquakes and tsunamis have generated strong community interest, and school programs and a youth summer camp with a seismology focus are planned. As an informal science center still actively engaged in program and exhibit design, we are eager to hear ideas from teachers and other educators on ways local museums can provide unique experiences that schools may not be able to offer. Port Townsend Marine Science Center, located in a popular state park on Washington's Olympic Peninsula is an important provider of marine and natural history education in the Puget Sound Basin. We offer classes for schools, teacher training workshops, summer camps, adult education, citizen science opportunities and many other programs.

  7. Marine Sciences: from natural history to ecology and back, on Darwin's shoulders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinando Boero

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The naturalist Charles Darwin founded modern ecology, considering in a single conceptual framework the manifold aspects regarding the organization of life at various levels of complexity and its relationship with the physical world. The development of powerful analytical tools led to abandon Darwin's natural history and to transform naturalists, as Darwin labelled himself, into the practitioners of more focused disciplines, aimed at tackling specific problems that considered the various aspects of the organization of life in great detail but, also, in isolation from each other. Among the various disciplines that stemmed from the Darwinian method, ecology was further split into many branches, and marine ecology was no exception. The compartmentalization of the marine realm into several sub-domains (e.g., plankton, benthos, nekton led to neglect of the connections linking the various parts that were separated for the ease of analyses that, in this way, prevented synthetic visions. The way marine sciences were studied also led to separate visions depending on the employed tools, so that ship-based biological oceanography developed almost separately from marine station-based marine biology. The necessity of putting together such concepts as biodiversity and ecosystem functioning is rapidly leading to synthetic approaches that re-discover the historical nature of ecology, leading to the dawn of a new natural history.

  8. Natural history and risk stratification of arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulot, Jean-Sébastien; Jouven, Xavier; Empana, Jean-Philippe; Frank, Robert; Fontaine, Guy

    2004-10-05

    Management of patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C) is complicated by the incomplete information on the natural history of the disease and by the lack of risk stratification for cardiovascular death. The aim of the study was the identification of risk factors related to long-term prognosis. Data were collected from 130 patients (100 men; age at onset of symptoms, 31.8+/-14.4 years) from a tertiary center between 1977 and 2000 who fulfilled the international standardized diagnostic criteria for ARVD/C. Risk factors for cardiovascular death were determined by a logistic regression model. After a mean follow-up of 8.1+/-7.8 years, 24 deaths were recorded, with a mean age at death of 54+/-19 years (annual mortality rate, 2.3%). There were 21 deaths with a cardiovascular origin (progressive heart failure for 14 patients and sudden death for the remaining 7 patients). All patients who died had a history of ventricular tachycardia. Multivariate analysis showed that after adjustment for sex, history of syncope, chest pain, inaugural ventricular tachycardia, recurrence of ventricular tachycardia, and QRS dispersion, clinical signs of right ventricular failure and left ventricular dysfunction both remained independently associated with cardiovascular mortality. The combined presence of one of these risk factors and ventricular tachycardia identifies high-risk subjects for cardiovascular mortality, whereas patients without ventricular tachycardia displayed the best prognosis. The information on the natural history of patients with ARVD allowed us to identify risks factors for cardiovascular mortality. An analysis of a large international registry is needed to refine these results.

  9. Natural history of Xenosaurus phalaroanthereon (Squamata, Xenosauridae, a Knob-scaled Lizard from Oaxaca, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio A. Lemos-Espinal

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We made observations on the natural history of a population of the lizard Xenosaurus phalaroanthereon from Oaxaca, Mexico. Females were larger than males (SVL. Most lizards were found completely inside rock crevices. Mean body temperature was 20.3°C. Body temperature wasrelated primarily to substrate temperature. Body temperature was not influenced by any crevice characteristic. Based on abdominal palpation, the size at maturity for females appears to be 117-119 mm SVL. Sex ratio did not differ from 1:1. We compare the ecology of this population to that of other Xenosaurus.

  10. Natural history of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy in the boxer dog: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurs, K M; Stern, J A; Reina-Doreste, Y; Spier, A W; Koplitz, S L; Baumwart, R D

    2014-01-01

    Boxer arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a disease that may result in sudden death or heart failure. To prospectively study the natural history of Boxer ARVC. 72 dogs (49 ARVC, 23 controls). Boxers >1 year of age were recruited for annual reevaluation. CONTROLS were defined as being ≥6 years of age and having right ventricular cardiomyopathy is a disease of middle age and frequently is associated with the striatin deletion. Syncope occurs in approximately 1/3 of affected dogs; systolic dysfunction is uncommon. The prognosis in many affected dogs is good. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  11. Onciderini Thomson, 1860 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Lamiinae) types of The Natural History Museum (BMNH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearns, Eugenio H; Barclay, Maxwell V L; Tavakilian, Gérard L

    2014-08-28

    The primary types of Onciderini Thomson, 1860 deposited at The Natural History Museum (BMNH), London, United Kingdom, are catalogued and illustrated. Data on the original combination, current name, and type locality are verified and presented. There are 39 primary types of Onciderini including 11 in Oncideres Lacordaire, 1830; and three each in Hesycha Fairmaire & Germain, 1859; Hypselomus Perty, 1832; Lamia Fabricius, 1775; and Tybalmia Thomson, 1868. Of the 39 primary types, 17 were described by H. W. Bates and seven by F. P. Pascoe. Five lectotypes are designated. Notes on additional Onciderini types once believed to be deposited at the BMNH are presented. 

  12. 7q11.23 Duplication Syndrome: Physical Characteristics and Natural History

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In order to describe the physical characteristics, medical complications, and natural history of classic 7q11.23 duplication syndrome [hereafter Dup7 (MIM 609757)], reciprocal duplication of the region deleted in Williams syndrome [hereafter WS (MIM 194050)], we systematically evaluated 53 individuals aged 1.25–21.25 years and 11 affected adult relatives identified in cascade testing. In this series, 27% of probands with Dup7 had an affected parent. Seven of the 26 de novo duplications that w...

  13. An Island Studies Course at a Liberal Arts Institution: Pedagogy from a Natural History Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sunderlin

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available An intellectual treatment of islands and isolation lends itself to a foundation in a liberal arts education. The introductory undergraduate course on island studies can serve as a topical platform on which to develop critical thinking, research, analytical, and creative thinking skills for beginning college students. The paper analyzes the natural history perspective in island studies and its methods of inquiry as pedagogical strategies that enhance the development of academic curiosity. The success of this approach to early undergraduate education is documented in traditional assessment and the direction that student-driven inquiry followed throughout the course. A course in island studies is a natural fit into progressive curriculum design strategies that are currently under development at many colleges and universities.

  14. Does Nature Have Historical Agency? World History, Environmental History, and How Historians Can Help Save the Planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltz, Richard C.

    2003-01-01

    The emerging sub-field of world history is all about connections and interactions. It challenges the received treatments of history which have focused on specific regions and civilizations as if they had been discrete realities unto themselves, and reminds people that nothing happens in a vacuum. But to date world historians have not taken this…

  15. From Darwin's Origin of Species toward a theory of natural history

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Darwin is the father of evolutionary theory because he identified evolutionary patterns and, with Natural Selection, he ascertained the exquisitely ecological ultimate processes that lead to evolution. The proximate processes of evolution he proposed, however, predated the discovery of genetics, the backbone of modern evolutionary theory. The later discovery of the laws of inheritance by Mendel and the rediscovery of Mendel in the early 20th century led to two reforms of Darwinism: Neo-Darwinism and the Modern Synthesis (and subsequent refinements). If Darwin's evolutionary thought required much refinement, his ecological insight is still very modern. In the first edition of The Origin of Species, Darwin did not use either the word “evolution” or the word “ecology”. “Ecology” was not coined until after the publication of the Origin. Evolution, for him, was the origin of varieties, then species, which he referred to as well-marked varieties, whereas, instead of using ecology, he used “the economy of nature”. The Origin contains a high proportion of currently accepted ecological principles. Darwin labelled himself a naturalist. His discipline (natural history) was a blend of ecology and evolution in which he investigated both the patterns and the processes that determine the organization of life. Reductionist approaches, however, often keep the two disciplines separated from each other, undermining a full understanding of natural phenomena that might be favored by blending ecology and evolution through the development of a modern Theory of Natural History based on Darwin's vision of the study of life. PMID:26097722

  16. Contribution of natural history collection data to biodiversity assessment in national parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, A.F.; Gilbert, A.T.; Hatfield, J.S.

    2004-01-01

    There has been mounting interest in the use of museum and herbaria collections to assess biodiversity; information is often difficult to locate and access, however, and few recommendations are available for effectively using natural history collections. As part of an effort to inventory vertebrates and vascular plants in U.S. national parks, we searched manually and by computer for specimens originating within or adjacent to 14 parks throughout the northeastern United States. We compared the number of specimens located to collection size to determine whether there was any effect on detection rate of specimens. We evaluated the importance of park characteristics (e.g., age since establishment, size, theme [natural vs. cultural]) for influencing the number of specimens found in a collection. We located >31,000 specimens and compiled associated records (hereafter referred to as specimens) from 78 collections; >9000 specimens were park-significant, originating either within park boundaries or in the local township where the park was located. We found >2000 specimens by means of manual searches, which cost $0.001?0.15 per specimen searched and $0.81?151.95 per specimen found. Collection effort appeared relatively uniform between 1890 and 1980, with low periods corresponding to significant sociopolitical events. Detection rates for specimens were inversely related to collection size. Although specimens were most often located in collections within the region of interest, specimens can be found anywhere, particularly in large collections international in scope, suggesting that global searches will be necessary to evaluate historical biodiversity. Park characteristics indicated that more collecting effort occurred within or adjacent to larger parks established for natural resources than in smaller historical sites. Because many institutions have not yet established electronic databases for collections, manual searches can be useful for retrieving specimens. Our results

  17. The Natural History of Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis after Liver Transplantation – a Single-Centre Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karli J Moncrief

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the natural history of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD after liver transplant, the predictors of PSC and IBD recurrence, and the interaction of these disease processes.

  18. Rosalind Franklin and the DNA molecular structure: A case of history of science to learn about the nature of science

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    José Antonio Acevedo-Díaz; Dr. Antonio García-Carmona

    2016-01-01

    The Rosalind Franklin’s case regarding the elucidation of the molecular structure of DNA is presented as an interesting story of the history of science to address a set of questions related to the nature of science (NOS...

  19. Suppressing Synonymy with a Homonym: The Emergence of the Nomenclatural Type Concept in Nineteenth Century Natural History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveen, J.

    2016-01-01

    ‘Type’ in biology is a polysemous term. In a landmark article, Paul Farber (Journal of the History of Biology 9(1): 93–119, 1976) argued that this deceptively plain term had acquired three different meanings in early nineteenth century natural history alone. ‘Type’ was used in relation to three

  20. History and Nature of Science in High School: Building up Parameters to Guide Educational Materials and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forato, Thais Cyrino de Mello; Martins, Roberto de Andrade; Pietrocola, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the main results of a research examining the didactic transposition of history and philosophy of science in high school level. The adaptation of history of science to this particular level, addressing some aspects of the nature of science aiming at the students' critical engagement, was analyzed by examining both the…

  1. Suppressing Synonymy with a Homonym: The Emergence of the Nomenclatural Type Concept in Nineteenth Century Natural History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveen, J.

    2016-01-01

    ‘Type’ in biology is a polysemous term. In a landmark article, Paul Farber (Journal of the History of Biology 9(1): 93–119, 1976) argued that this deceptively plain term had acquired three different meanings in early nineteenth century natural history alone. ‘Type’ was used in relation to three dist

  2. Using the History of Research on Sickle Cell Anemia to Affect Preservice Teachers' Conceptions of the Nature of Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Eric M.

    This paper examines how using a series of lessons developed from the history of research on sickle cell anemia affects preservice teacher conceptions of the nature of science (NOS). The importance of a pedagogy that has students do science through an integral use of the history of science is effective at enriching students' NOS views is presented.…

  3. History and Nature of Science in High School: Building up Parameters to Guide Educational Materials and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forato, Thais Cyrino de Mello; Martins, Roberto de Andrade; Pietrocola, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the main results of a research examining the didactic transposition of history and philosophy of science in high school level. The adaptation of history of science to this particular level, addressing some aspects of the nature of science aiming at the students' critical engagement, was analyzed by examining both the…

  4. Addressing Nature of Science Core Tenets with the History of Science: An Example with Sickle-Cell Anemia & Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Erica M.

    2007-01-01

    The history of science (HOS) has proven to be a useful pedagogical tool to help students learn about what has come to be regarded as an agreed upon set of core nature of science (NOS) tenets. The following article illustrates an example of how teachers can instrumentally use the history of research on heterozygote protection in sickle-cell anemia…

  5. Sharing Our Teachers: The Required Graduate Class at the American Museum of Natural History for Lehman College (CUNY)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Adriana E.; Kelly, Angela M.; Bayne, Gillian U.

    2010-01-01

    This reflective study explores the history and outcomes of a teacher education collaboration between the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) and Lehman College of The City University of New York (CUNY), in the Bronx, NY, USA. AMNH developed and teaches a Lehman course, Museum Resources for Teaching Science, for Master's degree candidates in…

  6. Addressing Nature of Science Core Tenets with the History of Science: An Example with Sickle-Cell Anemia & Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Erica M.

    2007-01-01

    The history of science (HOS) has proven to be a useful pedagogical tool to help students learn about what has come to be regarded as an agreed upon set of core nature of science (NOS) tenets. The following article illustrates an example of how teachers can instrumentally use the history of research on heterozygote protection in sickle-cell anemia…

  7. Lessons from the life history of natural fertility societies on child growth and maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawlik, Aneta; Hochberg, Ze'ev

    2012-06-19

    During the evolution of hominids, childhood and adolescence have been added as new life-history phases. The transition from infancy to childhood (ICT) confers a predictive adaptive response to energetic cues that strongly influence adult height, whereas the transition from juvenility to adolescence establishes longevity and the age of fertility. Evolutionary short-term adaptations to energy crises apparently use epigenetic mechanisms that defer the ICT, culminating in short stature. The study of hunter-gatherers gives us an indication of pre-demographic transition populations and their life style that prevailed for 99% of homo's evolution. The secular trend for receding age of pubertal development has been an adaptive response to positive environmental cues in terms of energy balance. In natural fertility preindustrial societies with limited access to modern contraception and health care, and whose economies are primarily subsistence-based, most resources are invested as somatic capital in human body size and fertility. Here we review results from databases for natural fertility societies, with the information on life history, population density, height and body mass, indices of adolescence and fertility. By using them it was possible to verify the ICT model as well as to explore pubertal parameters that are related to evolutionary fitness. They confirmed that body size was adaptively smaller in hostile environments, and was tightly associated with reproductive fitness.

  8. Natural history of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: a review of prognostic biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeneman, Margot M; Kruitwagen, Roy F P M; Nijman, Hans W; Slangen, Brigitte F M; Van Gorp, Toon; Kruse, Arnold-Jan

    2015-04-01

    The natural history of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is largely unpredictable and current histopathological examination is unable to differentiate between lesions that will regress and those that will not. Therefore, most high-grade lesions are currently treated by surgical excision, leading to overtreatment and unnecessary complications. Prognostic biomarkers may differentiate between lesions that will regress and those that will not, making individualized treatment of high-grade CIN possible. This review identifies several promising prognostic biomarkers. These biomarkers include viral genotype and viral DNA methylation (viral factors), human leukocyte antigen-subtypes, markers of lymphoproliferative response, telomerase amplification and human papillomavirus-induced epigenetic effects (host factors) and Ki-67, p53 and pRb (cellular factors). All identified biomarkers were evaluated according to their role in the natural history of high-grade CIN and according to established criteria for evaluation of biomarkers (prospective-specimen-collection, retrospective-blinded-evaluation [PROBE] criteria). None of the biomarkers meets the PROBE criteria for clinical applicability and more research on prognostic biomarkers in high-grade CIN is necessary.

  9. Sahagún's "Florentine codex," a little known Aztecan natural history of the Valley of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Henry M

    2006-01-01

    Franciscan missionary Fray Bernardino de Sahagún arrived in New Spain (Mexico) in 1529 to proselytize Aztecs surviving the Conquest, begun by Hernán Cortés in 1519. About 1558 he commenced his huge opus "Historia general de las cosas de Nueva España" completed in Latin-Nahuatl manuscript in 1569. The best surviving version, the "Florentine Codex," 1579 in Spanish-Nahuatl, is the basis for the editions published since 1829. The first English translation was issued in 13 volumes between 1950 and 1982, and the first facsimile was published in 1979. Book 11, "Earthly things," is a comprehensive natural history of the Valley of Mexico based on pre-Cortésian Aztec knowledge. Sahagún's work, largely unknown among English-speaking biologists, is an untapped treasury of information about Aztecan natural history. It also establishes the Aztecs as the preeminent pioneering naturalists of North American, and Sahagún and his colleagues as their documentarians.

  10. Juvenile osteochondritis dissecans: a 5-year review of the natural history using clinical and MRI evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Jacqueline A.; Cook, Jane V.; Warren, Mary E. [Radiology Department, Queen Mary' s Hospital for Children, Epsom and St Helier NHS Trust, Carshalton, Surrey SM5 1AA (United Kingdom); Churchill, Mark A. [Orthopaedic Department, Queen Mary' s Hospital for Children, Epsom and St Helier NHS Trust, Carshalton (United Kingdom)

    2003-06-01

    Although MRI prognostic features for juvenile osteochondritis dissecans (JOCD) have been determined, the natural history of JOCD on serial MRI has not been fully documented. To document the natural history of JOCD on serial MRI and to correlate this with arthroscopy and clinical outcome over a 5-year follow-up. Twenty-one knees in 19 patients (15 boys, 4 girls; age range 5-15 years) with JOCD underwent MRI and clinical follow-up over 5 years. Lesions were classified as stable or unstable on MRI and compared with clinical and arthroscopic data. On 5-year follow-up, 17 of 19 patients were asymptomatic and 2 of 19 had minimal pain. Fourteen arthroscopies were performed on 11/21 knees. One of twenty-one had fragment fixation. On initial MRI, eight knees had marked fragmentation, high signal at the fragment/bone interface and incomplete defects in the hyaline cartilage (MRI stage III-stable), but no tear. Of these, five had arthroscopy, all confirming intact cartilage. One of twenty-one knees was unstable (MRI stage IVb) with a detached osteochondral fragment, requiring surgery. Despite extensive subchondral bone changes on MRI, all cases with intact cartilage (95%) improved with conservative treatment. Early MRI allows prompt diagnosis and institution of conservative treatment. This results in healing and avoidance of surgery in most patients. (orig.)

  11. Shrub-Steppe Seasons A Natural History of the Mid-Columbia Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LE Rogers

    1995-08-01

    This book collects and updates a series of articles about the natural history of the Mid-Columbia region. The articles first appeared as a monthly column titled ''Natural History'' in the Tri-City Herald, beginning in May 1991. My approach has been to condense the best of what is known about the ecology of the region to a manageable length with little in the way of technical language and terms. Admittedly, there is a bias toward those topics and species on which I have either been personally involved or observed as part of the ecology research programs conducted on the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) Reserve. The ALE Reserve is situated on the northeast-facing flank of the Rattlesnake Hills. Rattlesnake Mountain with a crest of over 3,600 feet is visible throughout much of the Mid-Columbia. Shrub-steppe grasslands once covered a large part of the western United States but most have been converted to other uses. The ALE site is the only remaining sizeable acreage (120 square miles) that is in near pristine condition and provides the only clear indication as to what the early trappers, traders, pioneers, and tribal members may have encountered in their day-to-day activities. In this respect, ALE provides a visible touchstone linking the past with the present for all of us.

  12. Zoo Store 1 at the Natural History Museum, London: Meeting National Standards?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Carnall

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The Natural History Museum (NHM, London is at the forefront of natural history science, and a major player in developing standards for the care of these collections in museums. Around ten years ago, there was a great deal of activity developing policies and standards for the care of the different museum collections. Despite this, the feeling in the museum is that the management of the collections was neglected for some years. Since the Museum Registrar was appointed in 2004, the Museum hosted the International SPNHC Conference and has been working on implementing these policies. This paper examines how the NHM’s collections storage compares to the standards and policies to which the museum aspires. Zoo Store 1, one of the NHM’s oldest storerooms, is used as a case study. The investigation found that the store falls short of the aspired standards in documentation, security, storage and environmental conditions, but significant progress has been made in the last two years. Reasons range from historical problems inherited from previous generations of museum workers, the attitudes of personnel, and the sheer time that it takes to implement a series of standards across very large collections and numbers of staff.

  13. Natural history of the lizard Enyalius iheringii (Squamata, Leiosauridae in southern Brazilian Atlantic forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Rautenberg

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the natural history of the lizard Enyalius iheringii Boulenger, 1885, as well as other tropical lizards, are rare. In this study, some aspects of the natural history of this endemic species from the Atlantic forest are reported in areas of Vale do Itajaí, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Twenty individuals were found, of which 18 were collected. Most of them were found over the vegetation (n=17 and on the ground (n=3. The main defensive strategy displayed was camouflage (n=16. Jumping (n=1, jumping and running (n=1 and running (n=2 were also observed in some individuals. When handled, lizards exhibited mouth wide open, hissing, and occasionally biting, as well as color change in males. Regarding its diet, the numerically most important prey was beetles (Coleoptera, followed by Lepidoptera larvae. Beetles, lepidopteran larvae and spiders were the most frequent food items. Males and females did not differ in size. Three sexually mature females (100-113 mm SVL were found in December and January.

  14. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas: making a disposition using the natural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traverso, L William; Moriya, Toshiyuki; Hashimoto, Yasushi

    2012-04-01

    The process of Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) follows the adenoma-to-carcinoma sequence. If it progresses to malignancy about 5 years is required. Even though the process is slow IPMN provides the clinician with the opportunity to avoid malignancy if the patient is at risk. The natural history as observed through Kaplan Meier event curves for occurrence of malignancy show the process to malignancy is much faster (50% within 2 years) if pancreatitis-like symptoms are present or if the main pancreatic duct (MPD) is involved. Almost all decisions to resect (95% in our experience) are based on the presence of symptoms or the MPD location. Cyst size is used infrequently. Every patient with an IPMN should always have a planned follow-up and the frequency depends on the perceived risk of malignancy-immediate imaging if becomes symptomatic to every 2 to 3 years if asymptomatic side branch lesions. The natural history provides modern guidelines for making decisions in patients with a newly discovered IPMN.

  15. Vegetation history of the walnut forests in Kyrgyzstan (Central Asia): natural or anthropogenic origin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Ruth; Kaiser, Franziska; Schmidt, Kaspar; Ammann, Brigitta; Carraro, Gabriele; Grisa, Ennio; Tinner, Willy

    2008-03-01

    Extensive forests of common walnut ( Juglans regia L.) occur in the mountains of the Fergana and the Chatkal Ranges of Kyrgyzstan (Central Asia), where they form a rich cultural landscape with a mosaic of natural and planted forest stands, fields, pastures, and drier open areas. These remote forests are likely to be an important genetic resource for J. regia, not only for in situ conservation but also as a resource for tree breeding. Pollen and charcoal analyses of the sediments of four lakes and two peat bogs in the core regions of the walnut forests provide new data to infer the vegetation history of the last 6800 years in the Fergana and Chatkal Ranges in Kyrgyzstan. Our results suggest that the potential natural forests or woods in the modern walnut forest region were dominated by Juniperus together with trees of Betula, Fraxinus, Rosaceae, and possibly Acer. A special focus was put on the vegetation history of J. regia, as it has been suggested that the walnut forests of Kyrgyzstan might be a refuge for this tree. However, our results suggest that the stands of J. regia are at the most 2000 years old, most of them even only about 1000 years old and probably of anthropogenic origin, confirming an old legend that is still orally transmitted in Kyrgyzstan. As with other old and widespread cultivated plants, it is not easy to reconstruct the original distribution and determine the borders of the past natural ranges. A review of paleoecological data points to refugia in southern Europe, Syria, Kyrgyzstan, China, and the Himalaya, where Juglans possibly outlived the last glaciation.

  16. Natural history of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN): current evidence and implications for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, Claudio; Sarr, Michael G; Lillemoe, Keith D; Reber, Howard A

    2008-04-01

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) show varying degrees of dysplasia throughout the neoplasm that can range from adenoma to invasive carcinoma, with dysplastic changes of borderline neoplasms and carcinoma in situ in between. An understanding of the natural history, and especially the required time to transform into either carcinoma in situ or an invasive adenocarcinoma, is critically important for management policy. This topic serves as the rationale for the present analysis. At the beginning of February 2007, using the key word "IPMN" in PubMed, we initially selected 119 publications using the principal criteria as defined by the WHO classification. We identified 20 appropriate original reports and one consensus paper. Neither randomized control trials (RCT) or systematic reviews of RCTs (level 1 evidence) nor cohort studies or reviews of cohort studies (level 2 evidence) have been published. Only one report fit the criteria for level 3 evidence (case control study). Nineteen papers satisfied criteria for level 4 (cases series) and two for level 5 (expert opinion publication). After additional review and analysis, we considered only six reports to be "cornerstone papers" of merit for the final review. Clues to the natural history of IPMNs can be gained by using several methods to examine the articles: (a) to verify different prognoses between main and side branch duct subtypes; (b) to compare the average age of patients with benign vs. malignant IPMNs; (c) to summarize the findings of nonoperative, observational studies based on follow up by clinical, biochemical, and imaging techniques without operative resection; (d) to determine the prognostic importance of the status of the resection margin; and (e) to follow patients clinically after surgical resection. Although important aspects of the natural history of IPMN are still unknown, the following conclusions can be drawn: (1) Branch-duct IPMNs are less aggressive than main-duct IPMNs. (2

  17. Ulisse Aldrovandi's Color Sensibility: Natural History, Language and the Lay Color Practices of Renaissance Virtuosi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliano, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Famed for his collection of drawings of naturalia and his thoughts on the relationship between painting and natural knowledge, it now appears that the Bolognese naturalist Ulisse Aldrovandi (1522-1605) also pondered specifically color and pigments, compiling not only lists and diagrams of color terms but also a full-length unpublished manuscript entitled De coloribus or Trattato dei colori. Introducing these writings for the first time, this article portrays a scholar not so much interested in the materiality of pigment production, as in the cultural history of hues. It argues that these writings constituted an effort to build a language of color, in the sense both of a standard nomenclature of hues and of a lexicon, a dictionary of their denotations and connotations as documented in the literature of ancients and moderns. This language would serve the naturalist in his artistic patronage and his natural historical studies, where color was considered one of the most reliable signs for the correct identification of specimens, and a guarantee of accuracy in their illustration. Far from being an exception, Aldrovandi's 'color sensibility'spoke of that of his university-educated nature-loving peers.

  18. Straw men and fairy tales: Evaluating reactions to A Natural History of Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Craig T; Thornhill, Randy

    2003-08-01

    In this paper we respond to two frequent criticisms of our book, A Natural History of Rape (Thornhill & Palmer, 2000). The first criticism portrays the book as little more than a "just-so story" that human rape is an adaptation. We demonstrate that this portrayal is not accurate. The second criticism reflects a common response to the book s challenge of the popular assertion that rapists are not motivated by sexual desire but instead commit these crimes motivated by the urge to power, domination, and violence, and the urge to degrade and humiliate women. We demonstrate that such criticisms of our book are inherently contradictory and illogical. We believe it is important for sex researchers to understand that these sorts of criticisms are seriously flawed so that future research efforts toward understanding the causes of sexual coercion are not stalled.

  19. The natural history of a newly developed flexion contracture following primary total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anania, Andres; Abdel, Matthew P; Lee, Yuo-yu; Lyman, Stephen; González Della Valle, Alejandro

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the incidence, natural history, and functional consequences of a newly developed flexion contracture after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Forty patients with full knee extension preoperatively who developed a postoperative flexion contracture were match-paired 1:2 with 80 patients who had full extension. The incidence of a newly developed flexion contracture, ROM, and Knee Society scores (KSS) at six weeks, four months, and one year were analysed. The incidence of a new flexion contracture at six weeks was 14%, but diminished to 5% and 0.3% at four months and one year, respectively. One year after surgery, there was no difference in the KSS (p = 0.5). This study showed that the majority of patients who developed a new flexion contracture after TKA have full knee extension one year postoperatively. Moreover, knee extension and KSS at one year are equivalent to those patients who did not developed a flexion contracture.

  20. Natural history and treatment of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus coinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keeffe Emmet B

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV coinfection is not uncommon as a result of similar routes of infection. Patients who are coinfected represent a unique group with diverse serologic profiles. Combined chronic hepatitis B and C leads to more severe liver disease and an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. Furthermore, coinfected patients represent a treatment challenge. No standard recommendations exist for treatment of viral hepatitis due to dual HBV/HCV infection, and therefore treatment must be individualized based on patient variables such as serologic and virologic profiles, patient's prior exposure to antiviral treatment, and the presence of other parenterally transmitted viruses such as hepatitis D virus and human immunodeficiency virus. The natural history and treatment of patients with HBV and HCV coinfection is reviewed.

  1. Natural history of the mistletoe-feeding Thereus lomalarga (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae, Eumaeini) in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia, María Dolores; Robbins, Robert K

    2016-06-01

    The natural history and morphology of the immature stages of the butterfly Thereus lomalarga Robbins, Heredia & Busby are described and illustrated. The food plant is Oryctanthus alveolatus (H.B.K.) Kuijt (Loranthaceae). Chaetotaxy of the first instar is described and compared with that of three locally studied Thereus species. Larvae have four instars, and the dorsal nectary organ becomes functional in the third instar. They are facultatively tended by ants belonging to seven genera that are attracted to O. alveolatus by floral disc nectaries, honeydew producing Hemiptera, and secretory wounds produced by Hemiptera on the fleshy inflorescence rachis. The average period from egg to eclosion under lab conditions was 35.68 days. Females emerged before males. Adults of both sexes feed on nectar from the flowers of the food plant and on hemipteran secretions; adults were not observed feeding on other flowers. Campopleginae and Chalcidinae were the most important parasitoids.

  2. Friedreich Ataxia Clinical Outcome Measures: Natural History Evaluation in 410 Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regner, Sean R.; Wilcox, Nicholas; Friedman, Lisa S.; Seyer, Lauren; Schadt, Kim; Brigatti, Karlla W.; Perlman, Susan; Delatycki, Martin; Wilmot, George R.; Gomez, Christopher M.; Bushara, Khalaf O.; Mathews, Katherine D.; Subramony, S.H.; Ashizawa, Tetsuo; Ravina, Bernard; Brocht, Alicia; Farmer, Jennifer M.; Lynch, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Friedreich ataxia is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by ataxia, dysarthria, and areflexia. We report the progress of a large international non-interventional cohort (n = 410), tracking the natural history of disease progression using the neurological exam-based Friedreich Ataxia Rating Scale. We analyzed the rate of progression with cross-sectional analysis and longitudinal analysis over a 2-year period. The Friedreich Ataxia Rating Scale captured disease progression when used at 1 and 2 years following initial evaluation, with a lower ratio of standard deviation of change to mean change over 2 years of evaluation. However, modeling of disease progression identified substantial ceiling effects in the Friedreich Ataxia Rating Scale, suggesting this measure is most useful in patients before maximal deficit is approached. PMID:22752494

  3. Natural history of Micrablepharus maximiliani (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae in a Cerrado region of northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Dal Vechio

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Micrablepharus maximiliani (Reinhardt & Luetken, 1861 is a microteiid lizard widely distributed in the open areas of South America. Little is known about its ecology and reproductive biology. Here, we analyzed aspects of the natural history of a population of M. maximiliani from a Cerrado area in the state of Piauí, northeastern Brazil. Our results suggest that the reproductive activity of M. maximiliani might be seasonal in the Cerrado, since reproductive females were observed only in the dry season, whereas reproductive males were present in both seasons. Vitellogenic follicles and oviductal eggs were found simultaneously in one female, suggesting that females may produce more than one clutch per season. Sexual dimorphism was observed in body shape, and individuals were mainly restricted to a typical savanna physiognomy. The diet consisted of small arthropods, including spiders, crickets and cockroaches as the most important items.

  4. New concept in natural history and management of diabetes mellitus in thalassemia major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Ratna; Bajoria, Rekha

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus is a major endocrinopathy, which occurs due transfusional haemosiderosis and is found in 20-30% of adult patients with beta-thalassaemia worldwide, accounting for significant morbidity. It is multifactorial with iron loading being the dominant cause and its management poses a clinical challenge. Diabetes in thalassaemia patients is distinct from type 2 diabetes. It is peculiar in many aspects including its pathophysiology and occurs due to insulin resistance as well as islet cell insufficiency. This article reviews the natural history of diabetes in this presentation with emphasis on prevention monitoring and management. Use of MRI techniques may be useful for future monitoring as well as biochemical monitoring to prevent complications of diabetes. Early intervention with intensified chelation may reverse pancreatic function and structural changes as evident from MRI.

  5. Can we change the natural history of Crohn's disease with early immunomodulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, James

    2014-01-01

    In both children and adults, the natural history of Crohn's disease (CD) is characterized by relapsing and remitting bouts of intestinal inflammation, often associated with a progressive shift from inflammatory to complicated stricturing or penetrating disease behavior. The past 2 decades have seen a dramatic shift in therapeutic approach with the increasingly common use of early thiopurine immunomodulation. These maintenance medications were initially introduced primarily as corticosteroid-sparing agents capable of minimizing recurrent flares of inflammatory disease and have proven to be quite efficacious. Increasing evidence suggests, however, that thiopurines may only delay rather than prevent the development of complicated disease behavior. Data from both adult and pediatric CD populations from around the world are reviewed in terms of the effect of early immunomodulation on progression to complicated disease behavior, need for surgery, and prevention of recurrent disease after resection. The effect of thiopurines on the growth of children is also reviewed.

  6. Annotated type catalogue of land snails collected from Taiwan (Formosa) in the Natural History Museum, London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Chung-Chi

    2014-01-01

    The present catalogue lists the type specimens of land snail species, collected from Taiwan and deposited in the Natural History Museum, London. Thirty-seven nominal species described by Pfeiffer, Adams, Nevill, Moellendorff, Godwin-Austen and Gude were traced. I present here information on type status, collection data obtained from the registers and labels of each collection, and annotations on the current taxonomic affiliation. Lectotypes of 28 nominal (sub)species were newly designated. One holotype was fixed originally and two holotypes newly fixed by monotypy. Syntypes of two species and paralectotypes of three species were also discovered in the Museum. No specimen of the species Pupina adamsi Sowerby, 1878, which was supposed to be deposited in the NHM, was found. Pictures of the name-bearing types are provided for further research on biodiversity of the island.

  7. Natural history of periodontitis: Disease progression and tooth loss over 40 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramseier, C A; Ånerud, Å; Dulac, M; Lulic, M; Cullinan, M P; Seymour, G J; Faddy, M J; Büergin, W; Schätzle, M; Lang, N P

    2017-07-22

    To assess long-term attachment and periodontitis-related tooth loss (PTL) in untreated periodontal disease over 40 years. Data originated from the natural history of periodontitis study in Sri Lankan tea labourers first examined in 1970. In 2010, 75 subjects (15.6%) of the original cohort were re-examined. PTL over 40 years varied between 0 and 28 teeth (mean 13.1). Four subjects presented with no PTL while 12 were edentulous. Logistic regression revealed attachment loss as a statistically significant covariate for PTL (pcalculus were associated with disease initiation and that calculus, plaque and gingivitis were associated with loss of attachment and progression to advanced disease. Mean attachment loss calculus removal, plaque control and the control of gingivitis are essential in preventing disease progression, further loss of attachment and ultimately tooth loss. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. The mammal type specimens at the Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiig, Oystein; Bachmann, Lutz

    2013-11-15

    A catalog of mammalian type specimens in the collections of Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Norway, is presented. All type specimens in the Museum's mammal collection were revisited and the respective label information was compared with the data provided in the original descriptions. Most taxa were described from type series with no specimen particularly assigned to holotype. The compiled catalog of the type specimens is not intended as a taxonomic revision of the respective taxa, which is why we have not designated lectotypes from the collection's type series. Specimens that were clearly marked as "the type" in the original description were considered holotypes. The catalog consists of 19 taxa, with the year of authority corrected for three taxa.

  9. Liver disease in women: the influence of gender on epidemiology, natural history, and patient outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Jennifer; Peters, Marion G

    2013-10-01

    Women more commonly present with acute liver failure, autoimmune hepatitis, benign liver lesions, primary biliary cirrhosis, and toxin-mediated hepatotoxicity. Women less commonly have malignant liver tumors, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and viral hepatitis. There is a decreased rate of decompensated cirrhosis in women with hepatitis C virus infection, no survival difference in alcohol-related liver disease, and improved survival from hepatocellular carcinoma. In general, men are 2-fold more likely to die from chronic liver disease and cirrhosis than are women. Liver transplant occurs less commonly in women than in men, with variable disease outcomes based on etiology. This review highlights the epidemiology, natural history, treatment outcomes, and pathophysiology of common liver diseases in women and discusses how gender influences disease incidence, presentation, progression, and outcomes. Pregnancy-related liver disease is not covered.

  10. Natural history of stuttering to 4 years of age: a prospective community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Sheena; Onslow, Mark; Packman, Ann; Cini, Eileen; Conway, Laura; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Bavin, Edith L; Prior, Margot; Eadie, Patricia; Block, Susan; Wake, Melissa

    2013-09-01

    To document the natural history of stuttering by age 4 years, including (1) cumulative incidence of onset, (2) 12-month recovery status, (3) predictors of stuttering onset and recovery, and (4) potential comorbidities. The study cohort was a prospective community-ascertained cohort (the Early Language in Victoria Study) from Melbourne, Australia, of 4-year-old children (n = 1619; recruited at age 8 months) and their mothers. Outcome was stuttering onset by age 4 years and recovery within 12 months of onset, defined using concurrent monthly parent and speech pathologist ratings. Potential predictors: child gender, birth weight, birth order, prematurity, and twinning; maternal mental health and education; socioeconomic status; and family history of stuttering. Potential comorbidities: preonset and concurrent temperament, language, nonverbal cognition, and health-related quality of life. By age 4 years, the cumulative incidence of stuttering onset was 11.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.7% to 12.8%). Higher maternal education (P = .004), male gender (P = .02), and twinning (P = .005) predicted stuttering onset. At outcome, stuttering children had stronger language (mean [SD]: 105.0 [13.0] vs 99.6 [14.6]; mean difference 5.5, 95% CI: 3.1 to 7.8; P stuttering onset is common in preschoolers, adverse affects are not the norm in the first year after onset.

  11. Ataxia rating scales--psychometric profiles, natural history and their application in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saute, Jonas Alex Morales; Donis, Karina Carvalho; Serrano-Munuera, Carmen; Genis, David; Ramirez, Luís Torres; Mazzetti, Pilar; Pérez, Luis Velázquez; Latorre, Pilar; Sequeiros, Jorge; Matilla-Dueñas, Antoni; Jardim, Laura Bannach

    2012-06-01

    We aimed to perform a comprehensive systematic review of the existing ataxia scales. We described the disorders for which the instruments have been validated and used, the time spent in its application, its validated psychometric properties, and their use in studies of natural history and clinical trials. A search from 1997 onwards was performed in the MEDLINE, LILACS, and Cochrane databases. The web sites ClinicalTrials.gov and Orpha.net were also used to identify the endpoints used in ongoing randomized clinical trials. We identified and described the semiquantitative ataxia scales (ICARS, SARA, MICARS, BARS); semiquantitative ataxia and non-ataxia scales (UMSARS, FARS, NESSCA); a semiquantitative non-ataxia scale (INAS); quantitative ataxia scales (CATSYS 2000, AFCS, CCFS and CCFSw, and SCAFI); and the self-performed ataxia scale (FAIS). SARA and ICARS were the best studied and validated so far, and their reliability sustain their use. Ataxia and non-ataxia scores will probably provide a better view of the overall disability in long-term trials and studies of natural history. Up to now, no clear advantage has been disclosed for any of them; however, we recommend the use of specific measurements of gait since gait ataxia is the first significant manifestation in the majority of ataxia disorders and comment on the best scales to be used in specific ataxia forms. Quantitative ataxia scales will be needed to speed up evidence from phase II clinical trials, from trials focused on the early phase of diseases, and for secondary endpoints in phase III trials. Finally, it is worth remembering that estimation of the actual minimal clinically relevant difference is still lacking; this, together with changes in quality of life, will probably be the main endpoints to measure in future therapeutic studies.

  12. Natural history of chronic hepatitis B: what exactly has REVEAL revealed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iloeje, Uchenna H; Yang, Hwai-I; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2012-10-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a serious public health problem because of its worldwide prevalence and potential to cause adverse consequences. The Risk Evaluation of Viral Load Elevation and Associated Liver Disease/Cancer-Hepatitis B Virus (REVEAL-HBV) study carried out in Taiwan was used to investigate the natural history of chronic hepatitis B. The REVEAL-HBV study has established an HBV viral load paradigm in the natural history of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Serum HBV DNA level has been shown to be significantly and independently associated with incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cirrhosis and liver-related mortality across a biological gradient. It is also a major predictor of HBsAg seroclearance. Genetic features including HBV genotype and basal core promoter A1762T/G1764A mutant, and precore G1896A mutant were documented as predictors of HCC risk. Inactive HBV carriers still had an increased risk on HCC development and liver-related mortality compared with HBsAg -seronegatives. Nomograms focusing on facilitating risk communication between patients and clinicians were developed incorporating non-invasive clinical parameters to predict long-term HCC risk. These will hopefully contribute to evidence-based decisions in the clinical management of CHB patients. A somewhat provocative and novel finding from the REVEAL-HBV study is the association of chronic HBV infection in active replication with an increased pancreatic cancer risk especially in women less than 50 years old. This finding will hopefully spur further research in this area seeking confirmatory evidence. Finally, we hope that the REVEAL-HBV study will continue to be a source of data to answer other important questions in chronic hepatitis B research going forward. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Communication strategy of the National Museum of Natural History ”Grigore Antipa”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra Irina POPESCU

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the amplitude of the communication techniques in the public area in Western Countries and the spectacular development of publicity and public relations in this field, we find it interesting to analyze how and if this measure can be applied by Romanian public institutions and to Romanian public products. Thus, we discovered the sustained effort of the National Museum of Natural History “Grigore Antipa” (cultural nonprofit institution which delivers goods as public cultural products towards the entire nation’s population to promote itself and to communicate its activities to the public by using various techniques, both publicity and public relations, elaborating and creating exhibitions, conferences, festivals with interactive activities for the public, to involve him and transform him from a passive visitor of the museum into a participant at the cultural act. In 2003, the National Museum of Natural History “Grigore Antipa” from Bucharest began the implementation of an intense program of integrated marketing communication. The notion involves a strategic communication plan which uses more channels, addresses to various types of public and regards results achievement (cognitive, affective and behavior like – plan borrowed from the commercial area and applied in order to replace itself in the public’s mind, to achieve a larger exposure and to convince the public that, besides the scientific and educational role it plays, Antipa Museum offers also a relaxing way of spending free time. In this matter, I have analyzed the strategic and integrated communication plans of the museum, following each step, starting from research and to the result evaluation.

  14. Is prostate cancer different in black men? Answers from 3 natural history models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsodikov, Alex; Gulati, Roman; de Carvalho, Tiago M; Heijnsdijk, Eveline A M; Hunter-Merrill, Rachel A; Mariotto, Angela B; de Koning, Harry J; Etzioni, Ruth

    2017-06-15

    Black men in the United States have substantially higher prostate cancer incidence rates than the general population. The extent to which this incidence disparity is because prostate cancer is more prevalent, more aggressive, and/or more frequently diagnosed in black men is unknown. The authors estimated 3 independently developed models of prostate cancer natural history in black men and in the general population using an updated reconstruction of prostate-specific antigen screening, based on the National Health Interview Survey in 2005 and on prostate cancer incidence data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program during 1975 through 2000. By using the estimated models, the natural history of prostate cancer was compared between black men and the general population. The models projected that from 30% to 43% (range across models) of black men develop preclinical prostate cancer by age 85 years, a risk that is (relatively) 28% to 56% higher than that in the general population. Among men who had preclinical disease onset, black men had a similar risk of diagnosis (range, 35%-49%) compared with the general population (32%-44%), but their risk of progression to metastatic disease by the time of diagnosis was from 44% to 75% higher than that in the general population. Prostate cancer incidence patterns implicate higher incidence of preclinical disease and higher risk of metastatic progression among black men. The findings suggest screening black men earlier than white men and support further research into the benefit-harm tradeoffs of more aggressive screening policies for black men. Cancer 2017;123:2312-2319. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  15. The natural history and predictors of persistent problem behaviours in cystic fibrosis: a multicentre, prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Jane; Massie, John; Hay, Margaret; Jaffe, Adam; Glazner, Judith; Armstrong, David; Hiscock, Harriet

    2012-07-01

    In cystic fibrosis (CF), problems with sleep, eating/mealtime behaviours, physiotherapy adherence and parental mental health issues are common, yet their natural history and the extent of service use to address them are unknown. Follow up the 2007 cohort to determine: (1) prevalence of child sleep, eating/mealtime behaviours, physiotherapy adherence, and externalising/internalising problem behaviours and primary caregiver mental health status after a 3-year period; (2) natural history of child behaviours; (3) potentially modifiable predictors of persistent problems; and (4) service use for behaviours. Prospective cohort. Royal Children's Hospital, Monash Medical Centre and Sydney Children's Hospital (Australia) CF clinics. Caregivers, of children aged 3-8 years, who completed the baseline questionnaire. Child sleep, eating/mealtime behaviours, adherence with therapy and externalising and internalising behaviours. parenting style (low warmth), caregiver mental health status and sleep quality at baseline. 102 of 116 (88%) families participated. The prevalence of sleep and eating/mealtime problems at follow-up was similar to baseline. The prevalence of caregiver mental health symptoms remained higher than the community data. 71 out of 102 (70%) of the children experienced at least one persistent behaviour problem. Caregiver mental health difficulties predicted persistent child moderate to severe sleep problems (adjusted OR 6.5, 95% CI 1.2 to 36.2, p=0.03) and their persistently poor adherence to the physiotherapy regimen (adjusted OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.3 to 9.2, p=0.01). Child problem behaviours are common in children with CF, persist and are often predicted by the mental health of the parent. Routine surveillance for and management of child problem behaviours are recommended.

  16. Review article: the natural history of paediatric-onset ulcerative colitis in population-based studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumery, M; Duricova, D; Gower-Rousseau, C; Annese, V; Peyrin-Biroulet, L; Lakatos, P L

    2016-02-01

    A better knowledge of the natural history of disabling chronic diseases is essential to improve patient management, evaluate the impact of treatment strategies and provide predictors for disabling disease and comprehensive information for patients. To summarise our current knowledge issued from population-based studies of the natural history of ulcerative colitis (UC) in children. We searched MEDLINE (source PubMed) and international conference abstracts, and included all population-based studies that evaluated long-term outcome of paediatric-onset (<17 years at diagnosis) UC. A total of 26 population-based studies were considered in this review from the total of 61 articles or abstracts screened. Most patients presented disease extension and about two-thirds of patients had pancolitis at the end of follow-up. One-half of patients experienced extra-intestinal manifestations and primary sclerosing cholangitis was observed in 5-10% of patients. Overall, patients did not appear to have any significant growth retardation or delayed puberty. About two-thirds of patients required corticosteroid therapy and up to 25% were steroid dependent. An increased use of thiopurines was observed and the most recent data indicate that up to one-half of patients were exposed to thiopurines and 10-30% were exposed to anti-tumour necrosis factor. One-half of patients required hospitalisations and 20% of patients required colectomy after a follow-up of 10 years. Paediatric-onset UC is characterised by a high rate of disease extension. About 20% of patients had been operated at 10-year follow-up. New population-based studies are needed to evaluate the impact of new treatment strategies comprising immunosuppressants and biologics. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Natural History of Anal Human Papillomavirus Infection in Heterosexual Women and Risks Associated With Persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Ma, Yifei; Farhat, Sepideh; Jay, Julie; Hanson, Evelyn; Benningfield, Susanna; Jonte, Janet; Godwin-Medina, Cheryl; Wilson, Robert; Shiboski, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Background. Anal cancer is more common in women than in men, yet little is known about the natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV) in women. The objective was to examine the natural history of anal HPV in heterosexual women. Methods. Young women participating in an HPV cohort study were seen at 4-month intervals for cervical and anal HPV testing. Time to clearance was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier approach; risks for persistence were assessed using Cox regression models. Results. Seventy-five women (mean age, 23.5 ± 4.1 years) who tested positive for anal HPV were followed for a mean of 84.5 ± 44.9 months. By 3 years, 82.5% of anal non-16 high-risk (HR) HPV, 82.6% of low-risk (LR) HPV, and 76.2% of HPV-16 infections had cleared. By 3 years, only 36.4% of women had become negative for all HPV types. In the multivariable model, concurrent cervical HPV-16 (P anal touching during sex (P = .045), recent anal sex (P = .04), and no condom use during anal sex (P = .04) were associated with HPV-16 persistence. Greater number of new sex partners (P = .024) and condom use during vaginal sex (P = .003) were associated with clearance. Similar associations were found for clearance in all HR-HPV infections. Only concomitant cervical HPV was associated with non-16 HR-HPV persistence. Conclusions. The majority of anal HPV infections cleared within 3 years. HPV-16 infections were slower to clear than other HR-HPV infections, consistent with its role in anal cancer. Specific sexual behaviors were associated with persistence, suggesting that education and behavioral interventions may decrease persistence. PMID:24368624

  18. Types of Neotropical Mycetophilidae (Diptera) at the Natural History Museum collection, London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Souza Amorim, Dalton; Oliveira, Sarah Siqueira

    2013-01-01

    The primary types, secondary types, and some other identified specimens of 407 Neotropical species of Mycetophilidae at the Natural History Museum, London were examined. Notes were made on the condition of the primary types, their labels, and presence of other specimens in the type series. Additional comments are made about types, secondary types and some few other cases worth of note mistakenly determined to be at the NHM. Lectotypes are designated for syntypes of 17 species: Epicypta insipiens (Williston), Epicypta dolosa (Williston), Leia amabilis Williston, Leia concinna(Williston), Leia nitens (Williston), Megalopelma cellularis Edwards, Megalopelma fraudulenta (Williston), Megalopelma platyura Edwards, Mycetophila borgmeieri Edwards, Mycomya meridionalis Johannsen, Monoclona digitata Edwards, Mycomya peruviana Edwards, Neoempheria maculipennis Williston, Procycloneura paranensisEdwards, Stenophragma nigricauda Edwards, Tetragoneura simplex Edwards, Trizygia nitens Edwards. Three species–Leia biamputata Edwards, Leia fuscicornis Edwards, and Neallodia flavida Edwards–previously considered subjective junior synonyms in the literature were revalidated. Mycetophila rufoides nom. nov. is proposed for Mycetophila rufaLane (preocc. Macquart 1826). Mycetophila dolosa Williston is transferred to Epicypta, without being assigned to a particular subgenus. The type of Sceptonia paiaguensis Freeman is formally considered lost. Photographs taken of holotypes and lectotypes are included, helping taxonomic documentation and in some extent, species identification. After the nomenclatural acts in this paper, the Natural History Museum, London, now holds holotypes of 292 Neotropical species of the Mycetophilidae, 23 lectotypes, syntypes of 3 species that have syntypes in other collections, paratypes of 81 species that have holotypes in other collections, identified specimens of 5 species with types lost and specimens of three species which fit in other cases.

  19. Natural history of untreated renal cell carcinoma with venous tumor thrombus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Adam C; Whitson, Jared M; Meng, Maxwell V

    2013-10-01

    The natural history of untreated renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with venous tumor thrombus (VTT) is poorly characterized. We aimed to describe the natural history of this disease, and to identify prognostic factors associated with disease-specific survival. We identified patients in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database with untreated renal cell carcinoma and venous tumor thrombi. Disease-specific median and 1-year survival rates were determined, and disease-free survival curves were plotted using the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariable Cox regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with disease-specific and overall survival in this patient group. Of 2,265 patients with RCC and VTT, 390 (17%) underwent no treatment; 278 (71%) patients died during follow-up; of these, 243 deaths (87%) were due to RCC. Median and 1-year disease-specific survival for this group was 5 months and 29%, respectively. On multivariable analysis, the extent of tumor thrombus (HR 1.7 for T3c vs. T3b, 95% CI 1.0-2.7) and the presence of metastases (HR 3.1 for M+ vs. M0, 95% CI 1.7-5.5) were most strongly associated with disease-specific mortality. Prognosis is poor for the majority of untreated patients with RCC and VTT. Supradiaphragmatic thrombi and distant metastases are adverse prognostic factors in this patient group. This information is important when counseling patients as to the risk and benefits of surgical vs. nonoperative management of RCC and VTT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Marginal and mixed-effects models in the analysis of human papillomavirus natural history data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xiaonan; Gange, Stephen J; Zhong, Ye; Burk, Robert D; Minkoff, Howard; Massad, L Stewart; Watts, D Heather; Kuniholm, Mark H; Anastos, Kathryn; Levine, Alexandra M; Fazzari, Melissa; D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Plankey, Michael; Palefsky, Joel M; Strickler, Howard D

    2010-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) natural history has several characteristics that, at least from a statistical perspective, are not often encountered elsewhere in infectious disease and cancer research. There are, for example, multiple HPV types, and infection by each HPV type may be considered separate events. Although concurrent infections are common, the prevalence, incidence, and duration/persistence of each individual HPV can be separately measured. However, repeated measures involving the same subject tend to be correlated. The probability of detecting any given HPV type, for example, is greater among individuals who are currently positive for at least one other HPV type. Serial testing for HPV over time represents a second form of repeated measures. Statistical inferences that fail to take these correlations into account would be invalid. However, methods that do not use all the data would be inefficient. Marginal and mixed-effects models can address these issues but are not frequently used in HPV research. The current study provides an overview of these methods and then uses HPV data from a cohort of HIV-positive women to illustrate how they may be applied, and compare their results. The findings show the greater efficiency of these models compared with standard logistic regression and Cox models. Because mixed-effects models estimate subject-specific associations, they sometimes gave much higher effect estimates than marginal models, which estimate population-averaged associations. Overall, the results show that marginal and mixed-effects models are efficient for studying HPV natural history, but also highlight the importance of understanding how these models differ.

  1. Science on a salad plate?: Thinking about the representation of natural history in the Canadian Historic Dinner Service project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Keri

    2008-01-01

    The Women's Art Association of Canada marked the 400th anniversary of John Cabot's "discovery" of Canada (celebrated in 1897) through the production of the "Canadian Historic Dinner Service." The high-profile project, which resulted in a set of hand-painted porcelain dinnerware, was a celebration not only of nation-building, but also of the natural history of the country. Visual reference material provided to the women selected to create the individual pieces included photographs, natural history texts, and illustrations that W.H. Bartlett produced for Canadian Scenery earlier in the century. This article explores this visual reinterpretation of Canada's natural history in order to raise questions about how a recontextualization of scientific material shapes narratives of nation and nature in the 'New World'.

  2. História natural da hepatite crônica B Natural history of chronic hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Ferraz da Fonseca

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Estima-se que existam 350 milhões de portadores crônicos do VHB distribuídos ao redor do mundo. Três fases de infecção crônica pelo VHB são reconhecidas: fase de imunotolerância (HBsAg e HBeAg positivos, altos títulos de HBV-DNA, ALT normal e não evidência de doença hepática ativa; fase imunoativa ou de hepatite crônica B (HBsAg e HBeAg positivos, altos títulos de HBV-DNA, ALT elevada e evidência de doença hepática ativa; fase de portador inativo do VHB ou assintomático (HBsAg no soro sem o HBeAg , títulos do HBV-DNA An estimated 350 million people worldwide are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV. Three phases of chronic hepatitis B virus infection is are recognized: the immune tolerant phase (HBeAg-positive, high levels of serum HBV-DNA, normal ALT, and no evidence of active liver diseases, the immune clearance phase or chronic hepatitis phase (HBeAg-positive, high levels of serum HBV-DNA, elevated ALT, and active liver disease , and the inactive carrier state or asymptomatic phase (HBsAg-positive in serum without HBeAg, HBV-DNA levels than < 10(5 copies/mL, and normal ALT levels. Chronic hepatitis B is classified into 2 major forms: HBeAg-positive disease (wild-type HBV and HBeAg negative disease (pre-core/core promoter HBV variant. Both forms can lead to liver cirrhosis, hepatic decompensation and liver cancer. The purpose of this article is to review the principal aspects of natural history of chronic hepatitis B.

  3. Virtual Visit to the ATLAS Control Room during Researchers Night by Natural History Museum, London

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Experiment

    2012-01-01

    This event is part of EU Researchers Night, when institutions in more than 200 cities across Europe reveal the exciting science research taking place behind their doors and how science research is exciting, fun and vital to our daily lives. Following the success of Science Uncovered in 2010 and 2011, the Natural History Museum, London throws open its doors once again this September. There will be hundreds of inspiring scientific activities happening throughout the Museum's iconic galleries and behind the scenes. One big part of the night is a series of Nature Live events, where visitors get the chance to meet our scientists, see the specimens they study and join in the discussion. Throughout the night these events will feature live links to other scientific institutions across the world, including to the LHC control room at CERN. This will give visitors the amazing opportunity to ask questions to the physicists involved about the Large Hadron Collider experiments, Higgs particles and antimatter. As well as to...

  4. Natural history of the narrow endemics Ipomoea cavalcantei and I. marabaensis from Amazon Canga savannahs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiychuk, Elena; Kushnir, Sergei; Vasconcelos, Santelmo; Dias, Mariana Costa; Carvalho-Filho, Nelson; Nunes, Gisele Lopes; Dos Santos, Jorge Filipe; Tyski, Lourival; da Silva, Delmo Fonseca; Castilho, Alexandre; Fonseca, Vera Lucia Imperatriz; Oliveira, Guilherme

    2017-08-08

    Amazon comprises a vast variety of ecosystems, including savannah-like Canga barrens that evolved on iron-lateritic rock plateaus of the Carajás Mountain range. Individual Cangas are enclosed by the rain forest, indicating insular isolation that enables speciation and plant community differentiation. To establish a framework for the research on natural history and conservation management of endemic Canga species, seven chloroplast DNA loci and an ITS2 nuclear DNA locus were used to study natural molecular variation of the red flowered Ipomoea cavalcantei and the lilac flowered I. marabaensis. Partitioning of the nuclear and chloroplast gene alleles strongly suggested that the species share the most recent common ancestor, pointing a new independent event of the red flower origin in the genus. Chloroplast gene allele analysis showed strong genetic differentiation between Canga populations, implying a limited role of seed dispersal in exchange of individuals between Cangas. Closed haplotype network topology indicated a requirement for the paternal inheritance in generation of cytoplasmic genetic variation. Tenfold higher nucleotide diversity in the nuclear ITS2 sequences distinguished I. cavalcantei from I. marabaensis, implying a different pace of evolutionary changes. Thus, Canga ecosystems offer powerful venues for the study of speciation, multitrait adaptation and the origins of genetic variation.

  5. Comparison of 2 approaches for determining the natural history risk of brain arteriovenous malformation rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Helen; McCulloch, Charles E; Johnston, S Claiborne; Lawton, Michael T; Sidney, Stephen; Young, William L

    2010-06-15

    Estimating risk of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) for patients with unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in the natural course is essential for assessing risks and benefits of treatment. Traditionally, the survival period starts at the time of diagnosis and ends at ICH, but most patients are quickly censored because of treatment. Alternatively, a survival period from birth to first ICH, censoring at the date of diagnosis, has been proposed. The authors quantitatively compared these 2 timelines using survival analysis in 1,581 Northern California brain AVM patients (2000-2007). Time-shift analysis of the birth-to-diagnosis timeline and maximum pseudolikelihood identified the point at which the 2 survival curves overlapped; the 95% confidence interval was determined using bootstrapping. Annual ICH rates per 100 patient-years were similar for both the birth-to-diagnosis (1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18, 1.36) and the diagnosis-to-ICH (1.17, 95% CI: 0.89, 1.53) timelines, despite differences in curve morphology. Shifting the birth-to-diagnosis timeline an optimal amount (10.3 years, 95% CI: 3.3, 17.4) resulted in similar ICH survival curves (P = 0.979). These results suggest that the unconventional birth-to-diagnosis approach can be used to analyze risk factors for natural history risk in unruptured brain AVM patients, providing greater statistical power. The data also suggest a biologic change around age 10 years influencing ICH rate.

  6. NATURAL LAW, HISTORY AND POLITICS LEY NATURAL, HISTORIA Y POLÍTICA LEI NATURAL, HISTÓRIA E POLÍTICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Drane

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic philosophical vision and ethical principles of Catholic Natural Law claim universality. Natural Law thinking aspires to objectivity and universality and at the same time is open to the continuing influence from history and politics. The background principles of positive law historically go by the name of Natural Law. Suffering and injustice contribute to a vision both of the structure of human existence and of what we mean by humane law and ethics. When we confront a cultural crisis, Natural Law, looks not to the past but to the future. Few people today talk of the ethical dimensions of social realities in terms of Natural Law. This is true both in the Church and in the State. In bioethics, the principles rooted in the universal structure of human life have to provide direction and regulations on the playing field of contemporary life and medicine. A liberal Catholic perspective tries to keep in play the universal and the particular aspects of Natural Law reasoningLa visión filosófica básica y los principios éticos de la Ley Natural Católica demandan universalidad. El pensamiento de la Ley Natural aspira a la objetividad y universalidad y, al mismo tiempo, está abierto a la continua influencia de la historia y la política. Los principios que yacen en la base de la ley positiva históricamente reciben el nombre de Ley Natural. El sufrimiento y la injusticia contribuyen a una visión, tanto de la estructura de la existencia humana como de lo que entendemos por una ley y una ética humanas. Cuando enfrentamos una crisis cultural, la Ley Natural no mira hacia el pasado sino que hacia el futuro. Es poca la gente que hoy en día habla de las dimensiones éticas de las realidades sociales en términos de Ley Natural. Esto vale tanto para la Iglesia como para el Estado. En bioética, los principios enraizados en la estructura universal de la vida humana tienen que proporcionar dirección y regulación en el campo de juego de la vida y

  7. History and Philosophy of Science as a Guide to Understanding Nature of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Niaz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nature of science (NOS is considered to be a controversial topic by historians, philosophers of science and science educators. It is paradoxical that we all teach science and still have difficulties in understanding what science is and how it develops and progresses. A major obstacle in understanding NOS is that science is primarily ‘unnatural’, that is it cannot be learned by a simple observation of phenomena. In most parts of the world history and philosophy of science are ‘inside’ science content and as such can guide our understanding of NOS. However, some science educators consider the ‘historical turn’ as dated and hence neglect the historical approach and instead emphasize the model based naturalist view of science. The objective of this presentation is to show that the historical approach is very much a part of teaching science and actually complements naturalism. Understanding NOS generally requires two aspects of science: Domain general and domain specific. In the classroom this can be illustrated by discussing the atomic models developed in the early 20th century which constitute the domain specific aspect of NOS. This can then lead to an understanding of the tentative nature of science that is a domain general aspect of NOS. A review of the literature in science education reveals three views (among others of understanding NOS: a Consensus view: It attempts to include only those domain-general NOS aspects that are the least controversial (Lederman, Abd-El-Khalick; b Family resemblance view: Based on the ideas of Wittgenstein, this view promotes science as a cognitive system (Irzik, Nola; c Integrated view: this view postulates that both domain general and domain specific aspects of NOS are not dichotomous but rather need to be integrated and are essential if we want students to understand ‘science in the making’ (Niaz. The following framework helps to facilitate integration: i Elaboration of a theoretical framework

  8. From biomedicine to natural history research: EST resources for ambystomatid salamanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryant Susan V

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Establishing genomic resources for closely related species will provide comparative insights that are crucial for understanding diversity and variability at multiple levels of biological organization. We developed ESTs for Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum and Eastern tiger salamander (A. tigrinum tigrinum, species with deep and diverse research histories. Results Approximately 40,000 quality cDNA sequences were isolated for these species from various tissues, including regenerating limb and tail. These sequences and an existing set of 16,030 cDNA sequences for A. mexicanum were processed to yield 35,413 and 20,599 high quality ESTs for A. mexicanum and A. t. tigrinum, respectively. Because the A. t. tigrinum ESTs were obtained primarily from a normalized library, an approximately equal number of contigs were obtained for each species, with 21,091 unique contigs identified overall. The 10,592 contigs that showed significant similarity to sequences from the human RefSeq database reflected a diverse array of molecular functions and biological processes, with many corresponding to genes expressed during spinal cord injury in rat and fin regeneration in zebrafish. To demonstrate the utility of these EST resources, we searched databases to identify probes for regeneration research, characterized intra- and interspecific nucleotide polymorphism, saturated a human – Ambystoma synteny group with marker loci, and extended PCR primer sets designed for A. mexicanum / A. t. tigrinum orthologues to a related tiger salamander species. Conclusions Our study highlights the value of developing resources in traditional model systems where the likelihood of information transfer to multiple, closely related taxa is high, thus simultaneously enabling both laboratory and natural history research.

  9. From biomedicine to natural history research: EST resources for ambystomatid salamanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putta, Srikrishna; Smith, Jeramiah J; Walker, John A; Rondet, Mathieu; Weisrock, David W; Monaghan, James; Samuels, Amy K; Kump, Kevin; King, David C; Maness, Nicholas J; Habermann, Bianca; Tanaka, Elly; Bryant, Susan V; Gardiner, David M; Parichy, David M; Voss, S Randal

    2004-01-01

    Background Establishing genomic resources for closely related species will provide comparative insights that are crucial for understanding diversity and variability at multiple levels of biological organization. We developed ESTs for Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) and Eastern tiger salamander (A. tigrinum tigrinum), species with deep and diverse research histories. Results Approximately 40,000 quality cDNA sequences were isolated for these species from various tissues, including regenerating limb and tail. These sequences and an existing set of 16,030 cDNA sequences for A. mexicanum were processed to yield 35,413 and 20,599 high quality ESTs for A. mexicanum and A. t. tigrinum, respectively. Because the A. t. tigrinum ESTs were obtained primarily from a normalized library, an approximately equal number of contigs were obtained for each species, with 21,091 unique contigs identified overall. The 10,592 contigs that showed significant similarity to sequences from the human RefSeq database reflected a diverse array of molecular functions and biological processes, with many corresponding to genes expressed during spinal cord injury in rat and fin regeneration in zebrafish. To demonstrate the utility of these EST resources, we searched databases to identify probes for regeneration research, characterized intra- and interspecific nucleotide polymorphism, saturated a human – Ambystoma synteny group with marker loci, and extended PCR primer sets designed for A. mexicanum / A. t. tigrinum orthologues to a related tiger salamander species. Conclusions Our study highlights the value of developing resources in traditional model systems where the likelihood of information transfer to multiple, closely related taxa is high, thus simultaneously enabling both laboratory and natural history research. PMID:15310388

  10. Natural history and clinical features of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lu; Zhang, Bin; Chen, Ru; Tang, Lu; Liu, Rong; Yang, Yan; Yang, Yi; Liu, Xiaolu; Ye, Shan; Zhan, Siyan; Fan, Dongsheng

    2015-10-01

    To describe the natural history and clinical features of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in Chinese patients, and to report data on the prognostic factors for survival. All patients referred to our ALS centre between 2003 and 2012 were followed up every 3 months. Survival and tracheotomy were predefined as primary outcome measures. Group differences were analysed using parametric and non-parametric tests as appropriate. Survival was analysed using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analysis. Of the 1624 patients with ALS, 75.1% had limb-onset, 14.0% had bulbar-onset, 7.8% had flail-arm syndrome (FAS), 2.6% had progressive muscular atrophy and 0.5% had primary lateral sclerosis. The male:female ratio was 1.7:1, and the mean age at onset was 49.8 years. The median diagnostic delay was 14 months, and the median survival time after symptom onset was 71 months. Male gender, older age at symptom onset, lower body mass index, shorter diagnostic delay, bulbar-onset ALS phenotype, higher Airlie House category at presentation, rural place of residence, use of traditional Chinese medicine and a history of contact with pesticides were associated with poorer survival, whereas female gender or an FAS phenotype may have a better prognosis. The clinical characteristics and outcomes of Chinese patients with sporadic ALS were different compared with patients from other countries. Compared with other studies, the age at onset of Chinese patients was earlier, the percentage of bulbar-onset ALS was lower and the prognosis was better. This study substantially advances the understanding of the clinical features and epidemiology of this rare disease. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Fatal asthma or anaphylaxis?

    OpenAIRE

    Rainbow, J; Browne, G

    2002-01-01

    The incidence of anaphylaxis is under-reported. Children with asthma are frequently atopic and prone to allergic reactions. Parents and clinicians may attribute wheeze of rapid onset to acute severe asthma, rather than recognising an anaphylactic event. Two cases of fatal anaphylaxis are reported who were initially diagnosed as acute severe asthma, and responded poorly to bronchodilator treatment. Survivors of "acute asphyxic asthma" should be screened for reactions to common allergens that p...

  12. A Natural History Summary and Survey Protocol for the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogge, Mark K.; ,; Ahlers, Darrell; ,; Sferra, Susan J.; ,

    2010-01-01

    The Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) has been the subject of substantial research, monitoring, and management activity since it was listed as an endangered species in 1995. When proposed for listing in 1993, relatively little was known about the flycatcher's natural history, and there were only 30 known breeding sites supporting an estimated 111 territories rangewide (Sogge and others, 2003a). Since that time, thousands of presence/absences surveys have been conducted throughout the historical range of the flycatcher, and many studies of its natural history and ecology have been completed. As a result, the ecology of the flycatcher is much better understood than it was just over a decade ago. In addition, we have learned that the current status of the flycatcher is better than originally thought: as of 2007, the population was estimated at approximately 1,300 territories distributed among approximately 280 breeding sites (Durst and others, 2008a). Concern about the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher on a rangewide scale was brought to focus by Unitt (1987), who described declines in flycatcher abundance and distribution throughout the Southwest. E. t. extimus populations declined during the 20th century, primarily because of habitat loss and modification from activities, such as dam construction and operation, groundwater pumping, water diversions, and flood control. In 1991, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) designated the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher as a candidate category 1 species (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1991). In July 1993, the USFWS proposed to list E. t. extimus as an endangered species and to designate critical habitat under the Act (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1993). A final rule listing E. t. extimus as endangered was published in February 1995 (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1995); critical habitat was designated in 1997 (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1997). The USFWS Service released a Recovery Plan for

  13. The Natural History and Conservation of Indian Ocean Humpback Dolphins (Sousa plumbea) in South African Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plön, Stephanie; Cockcroft, Victor G; Froneman, William P

    2015-01-01

    Although most knowledge on the biology of Sousa plumbea has primarily come from South African waters, a number of research gaps remain on the natural history and status of the species in the region. Research on two populations in South African waters for which some historical data exist may aid in highlighting long-term changes in the biology and natural history of this little known coastal delphinid. Recent studies on the age, growth and reproduction of animals incidentally caught in shark nets in Richards Bay, KwaZulu-Natal, yielded a lower maximum age estimate of 24 (previously 46) growth-layer-groups (GLGs), sexual maturity of 7.5 and 8 GLGs in males and females (previously 12-13 and 10 GLGs, respectively), an ovulation rate of 0.2 and a 5-year calving interval (previously 0.3 and 3-year calving interval) than previously reported. These differences may be due to a difference in the interpretation of GLGs between observers or a predominance of young males being caught in the shark nets. Stomach content analysis revealed a change in the relative proportions of the main prey items over the past 25 years, but no difference in species richness or diversity was found between the sexes. No change in trophic level was recorded between 1972 and 2009. Field studies in Algoa Bay, Eastern Cape, conducted 16 years apart indicated a decline in the mean group size (from 7 to 3 animals), a decline in the maximum group size (from 24 to 13 animals), an increase in solitary individuals (15.4-36%), and a change in behaviour from predominantly foraging (64-18%) to mainly travelling (24-49%). The observed changes are suggestive of a change in food availability, resulting in a range shift or a potential decline in numbers. These studies indicate the importance of long-term studies to monitor population changes and their possible causes. A number of threats, such as shark nets, pollution (noise and chemical), and coastal development and disturbance, to the humpback dolphin populations

  14. Diversity, natural history, and geographic distribution of snakes in the Caatinga, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Thaís B; Nogueira, Cristiano; Marques, Otavio A V

    2014-09-19

    The present study is a synthesis on snake diversity and distribution in the Caatinga region of northeastern Brazil, providing an updated species list and data on natural history and geographic distribution. Our study is based on the careful revision of 7,102 voucher specimens, housed in 17 herpetological collections, complemented by data on taxonomic literature. We recorded a total of 112 snake species in the Caatinga, belonging to nine families: Anomalepididae, Leptotyphlopidae, Typhlopidae, Aniliidae, Boidae, Viperidae, Elapidae, Colubridae, and Dipsadidae. Our list includes at least 13 never recorded species for this region, as well as distribution records for all species known from the Caatinga (including expansion and new records of distribution). The snake assemblage of the Caatinga is complex, sharing species with other continental open areas (38.4%), forested areas (27.7%), and both open and forested areas (32.1%). The richest areas were isolated plateaus, followed by contact areas, semi-arid caatinga, and sandy dunes of the São Franscisco River. We identified 22 Caatinga endemic species with the sandy dunes of São Franscico River showing the highest endemism level (12 species, with six endemic species restricted to the area) followed by semi-arid caatinga, and isolated plateaus (eight endemic species each, and six and three endemic species with restricted distribution to each area, respectively). Most species show relatively restricted ranges in parts of the Caatinga. The snake assemblage in Caatinga includes mainly terrestrial species (38.4%), followed by fossorial/cryptozoic (26.8%), arboreal/semi-arboreal (26.8%), and aquatic/semi-aquatic (7.1%) species. Vertebrates are the most important dietary item (80.4%), with 56.6% of species being generalist consumers of this kind of prey; 24.4% are frog-eaters, 7.8% prey on caecilians/amphisbaenians, 6.7% lizard-eaters, 3.3% mammal-eaters, and 1.1% are fish-eaters. Only 18.7% of the snakes eat invertebrate

  15. Trial End Points and Natural History in Patients With G11778A Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Byron L.; Feuer, William J.; Schiffman, Joyce C.; Porciatti, Vittorio; Vandenbroucke, Ruth; Rosa, Potyra R.; Gregori, Giovanni; Guy, John

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Establishing the natural history of G11778A Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is important to determine the optimal end points to assess the safety and efficacy of a planned gene therapy trial. OBJECTIVE To use the results of the present natural history study of patients with G11778A LHON to plan a gene therapy clinical trial that will use allotopic expression by delivering a normal nuclear-encoded ND4 gene into the nuclei of retinal ganglion cells via an adeno-associated virus vector injected into the vitreous. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A prospective observational study initiated in 2008 was conducted in primary and referral institutional practice settings. Participants included 44 individuals with G11778A LHON, recruited between September 2008 and March 2012, who were evaluated every 6 months and returned for 1 or more follow-up visits (6–36 months) as of August 2012. EXPOSURES Complete neuro-ophthalmic examination and main measures. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Visual acuity, automated visual field testing, pattern electroretinogram, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. RESULTS Clinical measures were stable during the follow-up period, and visual acuity was as good as or better than the other visual factors used for monitoring patients. Based on a criterion of 15 or more letters from the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study chart, 13 eyes of 8 patients (18%) improved, but 24 months after the onset of symptoms, any further improvements were to no better than 20/100. Acuity recovery occurred in some patients despite continued marked retinal nerve fiber layer thinning indistinguishable from that in patients who did not recover visual acuity. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Spontaneous improvement of visual acuity in patients with G11778A LHON is not common and is partial and limited when it occurs, so improvements in vision with adeno-associated virus–mediated gene therapy of a synthetic wild-type ND4 subunit gene should be

  16. A prospective study on the natural history of patients with profound combined immunodeficiency: An interim analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speckmann, Carsten; Doerken, Sam; Aiuti, Alessandro; Albert, Michael H; Al-Herz, Waleed; Allende, Luis M; Scarselli, Alessia; Avcin, Tadej; Perez-Becker, Ruy; Cancrini, Caterina; Cant, Andrew; Di Cesare, Silvia; Finocchi, Andrea; Fischer, Alain; Gaspar, H Bobby; Ghosh, Sujal; Gennery, Andrew; Gilmour, Kimberly; González-Granado, Luis I; Martinez-Gallo, Monica; Hambleton, Sophie; Hauck, Fabian; Hoenig, Manfred; Moshous, Despina; Neven, Benedicte; Niehues, Tim; Notarangelo, Luigi; Picard, Capucine; Rieber, Nikolaus; Schulz, Ansgar; Schwarz, Klaus; Seidel, Markus G; Soler-Palacin, Pere; Stepensky, Polina; Strahm, Brigitte; Vraetz, Thomas; Warnatz, Klaus; Winterhalter, Christine; Worth, Austen; Fuchs, Sebastian; Uhlmann, Annette; Ehl, Stephan

    2017-04-01

    Absent T-cell immunity resulting in life-threatening infections provides a clear rationale for hematopoetic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in patients with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). Combined immunodeficiencies (CIDs) and "atypical" SCID show reduced, not absent T-cell immunity. If associated with infections or autoimmunity, they represent profound combined immunodeficiency (P-CID), for which outcome data are insufficient for unambiguous early transplant decisions. We sought to compare natural histories of severity-matched patients with/without subsequent transplantation and to determine whether immunologic and/or clinical parameters may be predictive for outcome. In this prospective and retrospective observational study, we recruited nontransplanted patients with P-CID aged 1 to 16 years to compare natural histories of severity-matched patients with/without subsequent transplantation and to determine whether immunologic and/or clinical parameters may be predictive for outcome. A total of 51 patients were recruited (median age, 9.6 years). Thirteen of 51 had a genetic diagnosis of "atypical" SCID and 14 of 51 of CID. About half of the patients had less than 10% naive T cells, reduced/absent T-cell proliferation, and at least 1 significant clinical event/year, demonstrating their profound immunodeficiency. Nineteen patients (37%) underwent transplantation within 1 year of enrolment, and 5 of 51 patients died. Analysis of the HSCT decisions revealed the anticipated heterogeneity, favoring an ongoing prospective matched-pair analysis of patients with similar disease severity with or without transplantation. Importantly, so far neither the genetic diagnosis nor basic measurements of T-cell immunity were good predictors of disease evolution. The P-CID study for the first time characterizes a group of patients with nontypical SCID T-cell deficiencies from a therapeutic perspective. Because genetic and basic T-cell parameters provide limited guidance

  17. The prevalence and natural history of urinary symptoms among recreational ketamine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winstock, Adam R; Mitcheson, Luke; Gillatt, David A; Cottrell, Angela M

    2012-12-01

    Study Type--Symptom prevalence (prospective cohort) Level of Evidence 1b. What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Case series have described lower urinary tract symptoms associated with ketamine use including severe pain, frequency, haematuria and dysuria. Little is known regarding the frequency of symptoms, relationship of symptoms with dose and frequency of use and natural history of symptoms once the ketamine user has stopped. This study describes the prevalence of ketamine use in a population of recreational drug users in a dance music setting. It shows a dose-frequency relationship with ketamine use. It shows that urinary symptoms associated with recreational ketamine use may lead to a considerable demand on health resources in the primary-, secondary- and emergency-care settings. It shows that symptoms may improve once ketamine use is decreased. • To investigate the prevalence and natural history of urinary symptoms in a cohort of recreational ketamine users. • A purposeful sampling technique was used. • Between November 2009 and January 2010 participants were invited to undertake an on-line questionnaire promoted by a national dance music magazine and website. • Data regarding demographics and illicit drug-use were collected. • Among respondents reporting recent ketamine use, additional information detailing their ketamine use, experience of urinary symptoms and use of related healthcare services was obtained. • In all, 3806 surveys were completed, of which 1285 (33.8%) participants reported ketamine use within the last year. • Of the ketamine users, 17% were found to be dependent on the drug; 26.6% (340) of recent ketamine users reported experiencing urinary symptoms. • Urinary symptoms were significantly related to both dose of ketamine used and frequency of ketamine use. • Of 251 users reporting their experience of symptoms over time in relationship to their use of ketamine, 51% reported improvement in urinary symptoms

  18. Clergymen abiding in the fields: the making of the naturalist observer in eighteenth-century Norwegian natural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenna, Brita

    2011-06-01

    By the mid-eighteenth century, governors of the major European states promoted the study of nature as part of natural-resource based schemes for improvement and economic self-sufficiency. Procuring beneficial knowledge about nature, however, required observers, collectors, and compilers who could produce usable and useful descriptions of nature. The ways governments promoted scientific explorations varied according to the form of government, the makeup of the civil society, the state's economic ideologies and practices, and the geographical situation. This article argues that the roots of a major natural history initiative in Denmark-Norway were firmly planted in the state-church organization. Through the clergymen and their activities, a bishop, supported by the government in Copenhagen, could gather an impressive collection of natural objects, receive observations and descriptions of natural phenomena, and produce natural historical publications that described for the first time many of the species of the north. Devout naturalists were a common species in the eighteenth century, when clergymen and missionaries involved themselves in the investigation of nature in Europe and far beyond. The specific interest here is in how natural history was supported and enforced as part of clerical practice, how specimen exchange was grafted on to pre-existing institutions of gift exchange, and how this influenced the character of the knowledge produced.

  19. Catalogue of the type-specimens of Bolitophilidae, Diadocidiidae and Ditomyiidae (Diptera, Bibionomorpha in the Natural History Museum, London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Lopes Falaschi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Catalogue of the type-specimens of Bolitophilidae, Diadocidiidae and Ditomyiidae (Diptera, Bibionomorpha in the Natural History Museum, London. A commented list of the types of three families of Bibionomorpha - Bolitophilidae, Diadocidiidae and Ditomyiidae - housed at the Natural History Museum (London is provided. This includes four holotypes and one paratype of five species of Bolitophilidae; one paratype and three syntypes of two species of Diadocidiidae; and 17 holotypes, 91 paratypes, four lectotypes, and fourteen paralectotypes of 38 species of Ditomyiidae. Lectotypes are designated for the Neotropical species of the ditomyiids Australosymmerus (Melosymmerus bisetosus Edwards, 1940 and A. (M. pediferus Edwards, 1940.

  20. Robust Trapdoor Tarantula Haploclastus validus Pocock, 1899: notes on taxonomy, distribution and natural history (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Thrigmopoeinae

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    Z.A. Mirza

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The genus Haploclastus is endemic to India and is represented by six species. One of the species H. validus Pocock, 1899 was described from Matheran and has remained poorly known in terms of its natural history and distribution. During recent surveys the species was for the first time found again since its description nearly 110 years ago. Based on the new material collected it is redescribed and data on its natural history and distribution are added. It is the first record of an Indian theraphosid spider, which closes its burrow with a trapdoor.

  1. Molecular and life-history effects of a natural toxin on herbivorous and non-target soil arthropods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Ommen Kloeke, A E Elaine; van Gestel, Cornelis A. M.; Styrishave, Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    Natural toxins, such as isothiocyanate (ITC), are harmful secondary metabolites produced by plants. Many natural toxins occur in commercial crops, yet their possible negative repercussions on especially non-target soil organisms are largely unknown. This study examined life-history and gene......-expression of especially stress-related genes and sugar metabolism. The regulation of a gene encoding a precursor of follistatin, furthermore, implied the inhibition of reproduction and may be an important molecular target that can be linked to the observed adverse effect of life-history traits....

  2. The type material of Mantodea (praying mantises) deposited in the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svenson, Gavin J

    2014-01-01

    The collection of Mantodea of the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, includes 26 holotypes, 7 allotypes, 4 lectotypes, 23 paratypes, and 1 paralectotype. Four type specimens were designated as lectotypes within this work. Highly accurate measurement data, high resolution images of specimens and labels, verbatim label data, georeferenced coordinates, original and newly assigned database codes, and bibliographic data are presented for all primary types. Label data for all paratype specimens in the collection are provide in tabular form. The location of the USNM collection has been moved to the Cleveland Museum of Natural History as a loan under the Off-site Enhancement Program.

  3. The Effect of Student Studies in The Nature and History of Science Lesson To The Level of The Knowledge About History of Science

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    Canan Laçin Şimşek

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of students’ inquires in the Nature and History of Science lessons on the level of their understanding of history of science. Another purpose of this study was to give students a richer perspective about different cultures that have made contributions to the advancement of science. This study is an action research. The participants for this study consist of 65 pre-service science teachers at the beginning and 66 pre-service science teacher at the end. Students’ initial understanding of history of science measured through an open ended questionnaire that was prepared by the author. To arrange the questionnaire Science and Technology Lesson Curriculum that prepared by National Education Ministry was used. Students were challenged to choose a subject (civilization or scientist to research. Then, the participants presented the results of their research projects on the history of science. The open-ended questionnaire was administered after students’ presentations. The content analysis of students’ responses to the open-ended questionnaire showed that while students gave examples about history of science and scientists that they had learned from the books or media at the beginning of the study, they provided more diverse and richer examples at the conclusion of the study.

  4. Natural history of de novo High Grade Glioma: first description of growth parabola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altieri, Roberto; Hirono, Seiichiro; Duffau, Hugues; Ducati, Alessandro; Fontanella, Marco; LA Rocca, Giuseppe; Melcarne, Antonio; Panciani, Pier P; Spena, Giannantonio; Garbossa, Diego

    2017-07-26

    Etiopathogenesis and physiopathology of gliomas are largely unknown. Recently, many authors have proved a strict correlation between the velocity of diametric expansion (VDE) on the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and the biological behavior of these tumors, especially in Low Grade Gliomas (LGGs). Unfortunately, natural history of High Grade Gliomas (HGGs) has not been well clarified because of its fast progression, late diagnoses and early surgical intervention. We describe, for the first time to our knowledge, the case of asymptomatic patient with an incidentally discovered de novo HGG with a total of 17 months of follow-up. A male patient was referred to our consultation for routinely follow-up after meningioma resection 5 years before. He underwent MRI every year without any neuroradiological alterations. A new MRI image presented a non-enhancing lesion in the right temporal lobe with 3.55 cm of Mean Tumor Diameter (MTD) and 35.6 mm/year of VDE. After two months interval, the lesion had 3.97 cm of MTD and 27.8 mm/year of VDE. Although we have strongly suggested surgical resection, patient have delayed the operation for personal issues. After other 3 months, the tumor showed enhancement with 4.5 of MTD and 17.4 mm/year of VDE. We speculate that the descending parabola is due to initial mass effect and hypoxia of the tumor core. We also underline the crucial role of the VDE determining, in order to predict the nature of the lesion and address the most effective treatment for each patient.

  5. Spinal Cord Injury Caused by Stab Wounds: Incidence, Natural History, and Relevance for Future Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughey, Euan J; Purcell, Mariel; Barnett, Susan C; Allan, David B

    2016-08-01

    Spinal cord injury caused by stab wounds (SCISW) results from a partial or complete transection of the cord, and presents opportunities for interventional research. It is recognized that there is low incidence, but little is known about the natural history or the patient's suitability for long-term clinical outcome studies. This study aims to provide population-based evidence of the demographics of SCISW, and highlight the issues regarding the potential for future research. The database of the Queen Elizabeth National Spinal Injuries Unit (QENSIU), the sole center for treating SCI in Scotland, was reviewed between 1994 and 2013 to ascertain the incidence, demographics, functional recovery, and mortality rates for new SCISW. During this 20 year period, 35 patients with SCISW were admitted (97.1% male, mean age 30.0 years); 31.4% had a cervical injury, 60.0% had a thoracic injury, and 8.6% had a lumbar injury. All had a neurological examination, with 42.9% diagnosed as motor complete on admission and 77.1% discharged as motor incomplete. A total of 70.4% of patients with an American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS) level of A to C on admission had an improved AIS level on discharge. Nine (25.7%) patients have died since discharge, with mean life expectancy for these patients being 9.1 years after injury (20-65 years of age). Patients had higher levels of comorbidities, substance abuse, secondary events, and poor compliance compared with the general SCI population, which may have contributed to the high mortality rate observed post-discharge. The low incidence, heterogeneous nature, spontaneous recovery rate, and problematic follow-up makes those with penetrating stab injuries of the spinal cord a challenging patient group for SCI research.

  6. The natural history of inflammatory pseudotumors in asymptomatic patients after metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almousa, Sulaiman A; Greidanus, Nelson V; Masri, Bassam A; Duncan, Clive P; Garbuz, Donald S

    2013-12-01

    Although pseudotumors have been reported in 32% of asymptomatic metal-on-metal hips, the natural history of asymptomatic pseudotumors is unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess changes over time in asymptomatic pseudotumors and the effect of revision on pseudotumor mass. Followup ultrasound was performed a mean of 25.8 months (range, 21-31 months) after the detection of 15 pseudotumors and five isolated fluid collections in a cohort of 20 asymptomatic patients (13 metal-on-metal, three metal-on-polyethylene, and four hip resurfacings) [42]. Changes in pseudotumors and fluid collections size and nature, and serum ion levels were determined. Among the 15 nonrevised patients, pseudotumors increased in size in six (four solid and two cystic) of 10 patients, three of which had clinically important increases (13-148 cm(3); 28-74 cm(3); 47-104 cm(3)). Three pseudotumors (one solid and two cystic) disappeared completely (the largest measured 31 cm(3)). One solid pseudotumor decreased in size (24 to 18 cm(3)). In five revised patients, pseudotumors completely disappeared in four patients. The fifth patient had two masses that decreased from 437 cm(3) to 262 cm(3) and 43 cm(3) to 25 cm(3). All revision patients had a reduction of chromium (40.42 μ/L to 2.69 μ/L) and cobalt ions (54.19 μ/L to 0.64 μ/L). Of five isolated fluid collections, four completely disappeared (two metal-on-metal and two metal-on-polyethylene) and one (metal-on-metal) increased from 26 cm(3) to 136 cm(3). Our observations suggest pseudotumors frequently increase in size in asymptomatic patients with occasional remission of small masses. Revision resulted in remission of pseudotumors.

  7. Natural history of spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA): a study of 223 Japanese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsuta, Naoki; Watanabe, Hirohisa; Ito, Mizuki; Banno, Haruhiko; Suzuki, Keisuke; Katsuno, Masahisa; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Sobue, Gen

    2006-06-01

    Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is an adult-onset motoneuron disease caused by a CAG-repeat expansion in the androgen receptor (AR) gene and for which no curative therapy exists. However, since recent research may provide opportunities for medical treatment, information concerning the natural history of SBMA would be beneficial in planning future clinical trials. We investigated the natural course of SBMA as assessed by nine activities of daily living (ADL) milestones in 223 Japanese SBMA patients (mean age at data collection = 55.2 years; range = 30-87 years) followed from 1 to 20 years. All the patients were diagnosed by genetic analysis. Hand tremor was an early event that was noticed at a median age of 33 years. Muscular weakness occurred predominantly in the lower limbs, and was noticed at a median age of 44 years, followed by the requirement of a handrail to ascend stairs at 49, dysarthria at 50, dysphagia at 54, use of a cane at 59 and a wheelchair at 61 years. Twenty-one of the patients developed pneumonia at a median age of 62 and 15 of them died at a median age of 65 years. The most common cause of death in these cases was pneumonia and respiratory failure. The ages at onset of each ADL milestone were strongly correlated with the length of CAG repeats in the AR gene. However CAG-repeat length did not correlate with the time intervals between each ADL milestone, suggesting that although the onset age of each ADL milestone depends on the CAG-repeat length in the AR gene, the rate of disease progression does not. The levels of serum testosterone, an important triggering factor for polyglutamine-mediated motoneuron degeneration, were maintained at relatively high levels even at advanced ages. These results provide beneficial information for future clinical therapeutic trials, although further detailed prospective studies are also needed.

  8. Natural history of age-related lobular involution and impact on breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radisky, Derek C; Visscher, Daniel W; Frank, Ryan D; Vierkant, Robert A; Winham, Stacey; Stallings-Mann, Melody; Hoskin, Tanya L; Nassar, Aziza; Vachon, Celine M; Denison, Lori A; Hartmann, Lynn C; Frost, Marlene H; Degnim, Amy C

    2016-02-01

    Age-related lobular involution (LI) is a physiological process in which the terminal duct lobular units of the breast regress as a woman ages. Analyses of breast biopsies from women with benign breast disease (BBD) have found that extent of LI is negatively associated with subsequent breast cancer development. Here we assess the natural course of LI within individual women, and the impact of progressive LI on breast cancer risk. The Mayo Clinic BBD cohort consists of 13,455 women with BBD from 1967 to 2001. The BBD cohort includes 1115 women who had multiple benign biopsies, 106 of whom had developed breast cancer. Within this multiple biopsy cohort, the progression of the LI process was examined by age at initial biopsy and time between biopsies. The relationship between LI progression and breast cancer risk was assessed using standardized incidence ratios and by Cox proportional hazards analysis. Women who had multiple biopsies were younger age and had a slightly higher family history of breast cancer as compared with the overall BBD cohort. Extent of LI at subsequent biopsy was greater with increasing time between biopsies and for women age 55 + at initial biopsy. Among women with multiple biopsies, there was a significant association of higher breast cancer risk among those with involution stasis (lack of progression, HR 1.63) as compared with those with involution progression, p = 0.036. The multiple biopsy BBD cohort allows for a longitudinal study of the natural progression of LI. The majority of women in the multiple biopsy cohort showed progression of LI status between benign biopsies, and extent of progression was highest for women who were in the perimenopausal age range at initial biopsy. Progression of LI status between initial and subsequent biopsy was associated with decreased breast cancer risk.

  9. Epidemiology and Natural History of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Alita; Younossi, Zobair M

    2012-06-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an important cause of liver disease burden across the world. By definition, although the histopathologic features of NAFLD are identical to that of alcoholic liver disease, its diagnosis requires absence of significant alcohol use and absence of other causes of chronic liver disease. We now know that NAFLD is not simply a disease of the Western world. It is manifested across the world, in varying rates, across gender, across varying ethnicities, and in its association with other host factors. In this review article, the definition of NAFLD, its spectrum, ranging from mild steatosis to hepatocellular injury and inflammation defined as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is discussed. Mild steatosis is generally a stable disease whereas NASH can be progressive. Based on current published literature, current incidence and prevalence of NAFLD and NASH are discussed. It is also accepted that these processes will continue to increase in prevalence with the rise of obesity, type II diabetes, and associated metabolic syndrome. Some of the risk factors have been well-established and are discussed. In addition, this review also presents emerging associations with other risk factors for NAFLD. Natural history of NAFLD is variable depending upon the histologic subtypes and other underlying comorbidities and is discussed in this review as well.

  10. The Natural History and Outcomes of the Patients with Carcinosarcoma Involving Kidney and Renal Pelvis

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    Jue Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The objective of this paper was to examine the epidemiology, natural history, and prognostic factors of carcinosarcoma of the kidney and renal pelvis (CSKP using population-based registry. Patients and Methods. Forty-three patients with CSKP, diagnosed between January 1973 and December 2007, were identified from the national Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER database and reviewed. Results. 79% of all patients with known SEER stage were classified as having regional or distant stage; almost all the patients with known histology grade had poorly or undifferentiated histology. The median cancer specific survival was 6 months (95% CI 4–9. The 1-year cancer-specific survival rate for entire cohort was 30.2%. There were no differences in terms of age at diagnosis, histological grade, tumor stage on presentation, and frequency of nephrectomy between carcinosarcoma of kidney (CSK or renal pelvis (CSP. In multivariate analysis, age at diagnosis, tumor stage, and year of diagnosis were found to be significant predictors for cancer-specific survival. Conclusion. CSKP commonly presented as high-grade, advanced stage disease, and was associated with a poor prognosis regardless of location.

  11. From Appearance of Adrenal Autoantibodies to Clinical Symptoms of Addison's Disease: Natural History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betterle, Corrado; Garelli, Silvia; Presotto, Fabio; Furmaniak, Jadwiga

    2016-01-01

    Recent progress in the immunopathology field has greatly improved our understanding of the natural history of autoimmune diseases, particularly of Addison's disease. Addison's disease is known to be a chronic illness characterized by adrenocortical gland insufficiency that develops following a long and mainly asymptomatic period, characterized by the presence of circulating autoantibodies directed to adrenal cortex antigens. In this chapter we describe the groups of subjects at risk of developing Addison's disease, together with the diagnostic tests considered the most appropriate for evaluating adrenal function: determination of basal plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, plasma renin activity, plasma aldosterone and cortisol levels, and cortisol levels after intravenous stimulation with ACTH (ACTH test). The employment of specific clinical, immunological and functional criteria in the subjects with autoantibodies to the adrenal cortex allows identifying those at risk of developing overt disease. The independent risk factors for the progression to adrenal failure have also been identified and they contribute to different risks of developing clinical Addison's disease. Based on the risk level, the subjects should be monitored over time to observe early signs of adrenal dysfunction, and start substitutive treatment as soon as possible. For patients presenting with high risk, prevention strategies and trials might be available. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Contemporary natural history of bicuspid aortic valve disease: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masri, Ahmad; Svensson, Lars G; Griffin, Brian P; Desai, Milind Y

    2017-09-01

    We performed a systematic review of the current state of the literature regarding the natural history and outcomes of bicuspid aortic valve (BAV). PubMed and the reference lists of the included articles were searched for relevant studies reporting on longitudinal follow-up of BAV cohorts (mean follow-up ≥2 years). Studies limited to patients undergoing surgical interventions were excluded. 13 studies (11 502 patients with 2-16 years of follow-up) met the inclusion criteria. There was a bimodal age distribution (30-40 vs ≥50 years), with a 3:1 male to female ratio. Complications included moderate to severe aortic regurgitation (prevalence 13%-30%), moderate to severe aortic stenosis (12%-37%), infective endocarditis (2%-5%) and aortic dilatation (20%-40%). Aortic dissection or rupture was rare, occurring in 38 patients (0.4%, 27/6446 in native BAV and 11/2232 in post). With current aggressive surveillance and prophylactic surgical interventions, survival in three out of four studies was similar to that of a matched general population. In this systematic review, valvular dysfunction warranting surgical intervention in patients with BAV were common, aortic dissection was rare and, with the current management approach, survival was similar to that of the general population. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Retina, Retinol, Retinal and the Natural History of Vitamin A as a Light Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Sun

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Light is both the ultimate energy source for most organisms and a rich information source. Vitamin A-based chromophore was initially used in harvesting light energy, but has become the most widely used light sensor throughout evolution from unicellular to multicellular organisms. Vitamin A-based photoreceptor proteins are called opsins and have been used for billions of years for sensing light for vision or the equivalent of vision. All vitamin A-based light sensors for vision in the animal kingdom are G-protein coupled receptors, while those in unicellular organisms are light-gated channels. This first major switch in evolution was followed by two other major changes: the switch from bistable to monostable pigments for vision and the expansion of vitamin A’s biological functions. Vitamin A’s new functions such as regulating cell growth and differentiation from embryogenesis to adult are associated with increased toxicity with its random diffusion. In contrast to bistable pigments which can be regenerated by light, monostable pigments depend on complex enzymatic cycles for regeneration after every photoisomerization event. Here we discuss vitamin A functions and transport in the context of the natural history of vitamin A-based light sensors and propose that the expanding functions of vitamin A and the choice of monostable pigments are the likely evolutionary driving forces for precise, efficient, and sustained vitamin A transport.

  14. Highlights in IBD Epidemiology and Its Natural History in the Paediatric Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Gasparetto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The number of patients of all age brackets diagnosed with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD has risen dramatically worldwide over the past 50 years. IBD’s changing epidemiology suggests that environmental factors play a major role in modifying disease expression. Aim. To review studies carried out worldwide analyzing IBD epidemiology. Methods. A Medline search indicating as keywords “Inflammatory Bowel Disease,” “epidemiology,” “natural history,” “Crohn’s Disease,” “Ulcerative Colitis,” and “IBD Unclassified” was performed. A selection of clinical cohort and systematic review studies that were carried out between 2002 and 2013 was reviewed. Studies referring to an earlier date were also considered whenever the data were relevant to our review. Results. The current mean prevalence of IBD in the total population of Western countries is estimated at 1/1,000. The highest prevalence and incidence rates of IBD worldwide are reported from Canada. Just as urbanization and socioeconomic development, the incidence of IBD is rising in China. Conclusions. Multicenter national registers and international networks can provide information on IBD epidemiology and lead to hypotheses about its causes and possible management strategies. The rising trend in the disease’s incidence in developing nations suggests that its epidemiological evolution is linked to industrialization and modern Westernized lifestyles.

  15. Review of the systematics, distribution, biogeography and natural history of Moroccan amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beukema, Wouter; De Pous, Philip; Donaire-Barroso, David; Boaerts, Sergé; Garcia-Porta, Joan; Escoriza, Daniel; Arribas, Oscar J; El Mouden, El Hassan; Carranza, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    The amphibian fauna of the Kingdom of Morocco was traditionally regarded as poor and closely related to its European counterpart. However, an increase in research during the last decades revealed a considerable degree of endemism amongst Moroccan amphibians, as well as phenotypic and genotypic inter- and intraspecific divergence. Despite this increase in knowledge, a comprehensible overview is lacking while several systematic issues have remained unresolved. We herein present a contemporary overview of the distribution, taxonomy and biogeography of Moroccan amphibians. Fourteen fieldtrips were made by the authors and colleagues between 2000 and 2012, which produced a total of 292 new distribution records. Furthermore, based on the results of the present work, we (i) review the systematics of the genus Salamandra in Morocco, including the description of a new subspecies from the Rif- and Middle Atlas Mountains, Salamandra algira splendens ssp. nov.; (ii) present data on intraspecific morphological variability of Pelobates varaldiiand Pleurodeles waltl in Morocco; (iii) attempt to resolve the phylogenetic position of Bufo brongersmai and erect a new genus for this species, Barbarophryne gen. nov.; (iv) summarize and assess the availability of tadpole-specific characteristics and bioacoustical data, and (v) summarize natural history data.

  16. Interrupting the natural history of diabetes mellitus: lifestyle, pharmacological and surgical strategies targeting disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavandi, Kaivan; Brownrigg, Jack; Hankir, Mohammed; Sood, Harpreet; Younis, Naveed; Worth, Joy; Greenstein, Adam; Soran, Handrean; Wierzbicki, Anthony; Goldsmith, David J

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades we have seen a surge in the incidence of diabetes in industrialized nations; a threat which has now extended to the developing world. Type 2 diabetes is associated with significant microvascular and macrovascular disease, with considerable impact on morbidity and mortality. Recent evidence has cast uncertainty on the benefits of very tight glycaemic goals in these individuals. The natural history of disease follows an insidious course from disordered glucose metabolism in a pre-diabetic state, often with metabolic syndrome and obesity, before proceeding to diabetes mellitus. In the research setting, lifestyle, pharmacological and surgical intervention targeted against obesity and glycaemia has shown that metabolic disturbances can be halted and indeed regressed if introduced at an early stage of disease. In addition to traditional anti-diabetic medications such as the glinides, sulphonylureas and the glitazones, novel therapies manipulating the endocannabinoid system, neurotransmitters, intestinal absorption and gut hormones have shown dual benefit in weight loss and glycaemic control normalisation. Whilst these treatments will not and should not replace lifestyle change, they will act as invaluable adjuncts for weight loss and aid in normalising the metabolic profile of individuals at risk of diabetes. Utilizing novel therapies to prevent diabetes should be the focus of future research, with the aim of preventing the challenging microvascular and macrovascular complications, and ultimately cardiovascular death.

  17. Role of antiviral therapy in the natural history of hepatitis Bvirus-related chronic liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a dynamic state of interactions among HBV, hepatocytes, and the hostimmune system. Natural history studies of chronichepatitis B (CHB) infection have shown an associationbetween active viral replication and adverse clinicaloutcomes such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.The goal of therapy for CHB is to improve quality of lifeand survival by preventing progression of the diseaseto cirrhosis, decompensation, end-stage liver disease,hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and death. This goalcan be achieved if HBV replication is suppressed ina sustained manner. The accompanying reduction inhistological activity of CHB lessens the risk of cirrhosisand of HCC, particularly in non-cirrhotic patients.However, CHB infection cannot be completely eradicated,due to the persistence of covalently closed circular DNAin the nucleus of infected hepatocytes, which may explainHBV reactivation. Moreover, the integration of the HBVgenome into the host genome may favour oncogenesis,development of HCC and may also contribute to HBVreactivation.

  18. Fabricating authenticity: modeling a whale at the American Museum of Natural History, 1906-1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Michael

    2010-06-01

    Historians of science have in recent years become increasingly attentive to the ways in which issues of process, matter, meaning, and value combine in the fabrication of scientific objects. This essay examines the techniques that went into the construction--and authentication--of one such scientific object: a model of a blue, or "sulfur-bottom," whale manufactured at the American Museum of Natural History in 1907. In producing their model, exhibitors at the American Museum employed a patchwork of overlapping discursive, procedural, and material techniques to argue that their fabrication was as authentic--as truthful, accurate, authoritative, and morally and aesthetically worthy of display--as an exhibit containing a real, preserved cetacean. Through an examination of the archival and published traces left by these exhibitors as they built their whale, I argue that the scientific meanings of authenticity at the American Museum were neither static nor timeless, but rather were subject to constant negotiation, examination, re-evaluation, and upkeep.

  19. Natural history of heartburn: A 10-year population-based study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linda Bjork Olafsdottir; Hallgrimur Gudjonsson; Heidur Hrund Jonsdottir; Bjarni Thjodleifsson

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To study the natural history and prevalence of heartburn at a 10-year interval, and to study the effect of heartburn on various symptoms and activities.METHODS: A population-based postal study was carried out. Questionnaires were mailed to the same ageand gender-stratified random sample of the Icelandic population (aged 18-75 years) in 1996 and again in 2006. Subjects were classified with heartburn if they reported heartburn in the preceding year and/or week,based on the definition of heartburn.RESULTS: Heartburn in the preceding year was reported in 42.8% (1996) and 44.2% (2006) of subjects, with a strong relationship between those who experienced heartburn in both years. Heartburn in the preceding week was diagnosed in 20.8%. There was a significant relationship between heartburn, dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome. Individuals with a body mass index (BMI)below or higher than normal weight were more likely to have heartburn. Heartburn caused by food or beverages was reported very often by 20.0% of subjects.CONCLUSION: Heartburn is a common and chronic condition. Subjects with a BMI below or higher than normal weight are more likely to experience heartburn.Heartburn has a great impact on daily activities, sleep and quality of life.

  20. The Natural History and Predictors for Intervention in Patients with Small Renal Mass Undergoing Active Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaher Bahouth

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To describe the natural history of small renal mass on active surveillance and identify parameters that could help in predicting the need for intervention in patients with small renal masses undergoing active surveillance. We also discuss the need for renal biopsy in the management of these patients. Methods. A retrospective analysis of 78 renal masses ≤4 cm diagnosed at our Urology Department at Bnai Zion Medical Center between September 2003 and March 2012. Results. Seventy patients with 78 small renal masses were analyzed. The mean age at diagnosis was 68 years (47–89. The mean follow-up period was 34 months (12–112. In 54 of 78 masses there was a growth of at least 2 mm between imaging on last available follow-up and diagnosis. Eight of the 54 (15% masses which grew in size underwent a nephron-sparing surgery, of which two were oncocytomas and six were renal cell carcinoma. Growth rate and mass diameter on diagnosis were significantly greater in the group of patients who underwent a surgery. Conclusions. Small renal masses might eventually be managed by active surveillance without compromising survival or surgical approach. All masses that were eventually excised underwent a nephron-sparing surgery. None of the patients developed metastases.

  1. Retina, retinol, retinal and the natural history of vitamin A as a light sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Ming; Kawaguchi, Riki; Kassai, Miki; Sun, Hui

    2012-12-19

    Light is both the ultimate energy source for most organisms and a rich information source. Vitamin A-based chromophore was initially used in harvesting light energy, but has become the most widely used light sensor throughout evolution from unicellular to multicellular organisms. Vitamin A-based photoreceptor proteins are called opsins and have been used for billions of years for sensing light for vision or the equivalent of vision. All vitamin A-based light sensors for vision in the animal kingdom are G-protein coupled receptors, while those in unicellular organisms are light-gated channels. This first major switch in evolution was followed by two other major changes: the switch from bistable to monostable pigments for vision and the expansion of vitamin A's biological functions. Vitamin A's new functions such as regulating cell growth and differentiation from embryogenesis to adult are associated with increased toxicity with its random diffusion. In contrast to bistable pigments which can be regenerated by light, monostable pigments depend on complex enzymatic cycles for regeneration after every photoisomerization event. Here we discuss vitamin A functions and transport in the context of the natural history of vitamin A-based light sensors and propose that the expanding functions of vitamin A and the choice of monostable pigments are the likely evolutionary driving forces for precise, efficient, and sustained vitamin A transport.

  2. Displaying Science: The Exhibits Revolution in Science and Natural History Museums, 1900--1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Karen

    2014-03-01

    Once defined primarily by their collections, by the end of the twentieth century, American natural history and science museums had become institutions defined largely by their displays. This talk will use life science and physics exhibits to illustrate how and why this transformation occurred. Efforts to modernize displays shaped and were themselves shaped by new institutional roles and identities for museums in twentieth-century science education and in American culture. Drawing on a forthcoming co-authored book (``Life on Display,'' U. Chicago, 2014) this talk will reveal the controversies that accompanied exhibition building, chronicling how and why curators, designers, and educators worked with and against one another to build displays intended to communicate new ideas about topics like evolution, animal behavior, and radiation to the American public. It explains that scientists were extraordinarily invested in the success of museums' displays and saw display as an integral element of their own public outreach work and research agendas. In turn, rapidly professionalizing exhibit designers were periodic participants in the research process, supplementing and sometimes prompting research projects through the displays they built. Presenting work that is co-authored by Rader and Victoria E.M. Cain (Northeastern University).

  3. Natural history of β-cell adaptation and failure in type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejandro, Emilyn U.; Gregg, Brigid; Blandino-Rosano, Manuel; Cras-Méneur, Corentin; Bernal-Mizrachi, Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is a complex disease characterized by β-cell failure in the setting of insulin resistance. The current evidence suggests that genetic predisposition, and environmental factors can impair the capacity of the β-cells to respond to insulin resistance and ultimately lead to their failure. However, genetic studies have demonstrated that known variants account for less than 10% of the overall estimated T2D risk, suggesting that additional unidentified factors contribute to susceptibility of this disease. In this review, we will discuss the different stages that contribute to the development of β-cell failure in T2D. We divide the natural history of this process in three major stages: susceptibility, β-cell adaptation and β-cell failure and provide an overview of the molecular mechanisms involved. Further research into mechanisms will reveal key modulators of β-cell failure and thus identify possible novel therapeutic targets and potential interventions to protect against β-cell failure. PMID:25542976

  4. Natural History of Aerosol Exposure with Marburg Virus in Rhesus Macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewers, Evan C; Pratt, William D; Twenhafel, Nancy A; Shamblin, Joshua; Donnelly, Ginger; Esham, Heather; Wlazlowski, Carly; Johnson, Joshua C; Botto, Miriam; Hensley, Lisa E; Goff, Arthur J

    2016-03-30

    Marburg virus causes severe and often lethal viral disease in humans, and there are currently no Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved medical countermeasures. The sporadic occurrence of Marburg outbreaks does not allow for evaluation of countermeasures in humans, so therapeutic and vaccine candidates can only be approved through the FDA animal rule-a mechanism requiring well-characterized animal models in which efficacy would be evaluated. Here, we describe a natural history study where rhesus macaques were surgically implanted with telemetry devices and central venous catheters prior to aerosol exposure with Marburg-Angola virus, enabling continuous physiologic monitoring and blood sampling without anesthesia. After a three to four day incubation period, all animals developed fever, viremia, and lymphopenia before developing tachycardia, tachypnea, elevated liver enzymes, decreased liver function, azotemia, elevated D-dimer levels and elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines suggesting a systemic inflammatory response with organ failure. The final, terminal period began with the onset of sustained hypotension, dehydration progressed with signs of major organ hypoperfusion (hyperlactatemia, acute kidney injury, hypothermia), and ended with euthanasia or death. The most significant pathologic findings were marked infection of the respiratory lymphoid tissue with destruction of the tracheobronchial and mediastinal lymph nodes, and severe diffuse infection in the liver, and splenitis.

  5. Maybe Aesop Was Right, the Tortoise Does Win: A Natural History of the Slow Reading Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Jason Niedermeyer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, there has been a growing recognition that society’s emphasis on speed and efficiency came with some costs: a loss of the ability to appreciate activities and understand their meanings.  Recently, this meta-movement has made its way into the literature on literacy, causing the author to embark on an investigation into the veracity of the claims that slow reading might also mean better reading.  A natural history approach was adopted for the analysis to evaluate whether there was evolutionary justification for the movement, leading to the review of relevant work in the fields of ethology, psychology, cognitive neuroscience, anthropology, sociology, linguistics, and literacy. The findings reveal an evolutionary push toward both speed and understanding, two aims that eventually come to be at odds in expert readers. It is the conclusion of the author that, from an evolutionary perspective, there may be justification for the start of a slow reading movement, but that it must be paired with practices that develop the capacity to read fast.

  6. The Natural History of Depression in Parkinson’s Disease within 30-Month Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Yuan Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Depression is one of the most common and persistent nonmotor syndromes occurring in 35% of patients diagnosed with PD. However, little information is known about the longitudinal study of its natural history of depression in PD. In this study, we identified 110 patients who are diagnosed with idiopathic PD and recruited them for assessing information about their PD related motor and nonmotor symptoms and rating scales. A follow-up evaluation was performed in 103 patients 30 months later. About 66.7% depressed patients at baseline were still depressed at follow-up, and 24.4% had incident depression among subjects without depression at baseline. Greater decline on MMSE (P=0.029, higher baseline UPDRS-II (P<0.001 score, change of UPDRS-II (P=0.026, and female (P<0.001 were associated with the worsening of HDRS scores. Higher baseline HDRS score (P<0.001 and greater decline on MMSE (P=0.001 were related to the occurrence of depression. In conclusion, cognitive decline is a disease related factor of worsening and the occurrence of depression. Activities of Daily Living (ADL symptoms in PD and female gender may be crucial factors of increasing depressive symptoms.

  7. Genetic analysis of the early natural history of epithelial ovarian carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavana Pothuri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The high mortality rate associated with epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC reflects diagnosis commonly at an advanced stage, but improved early detection is hindered by uncertainty as to the histologic origin and early natural history of this malignancy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report combined molecular genetic and morphologic analyses of normal human ovarian tissues and early stage cancers, from both BRCA mutation carriers and the general population, indicating that EOCs frequently arise from dysplastic precursor lesions within epithelial inclusion cysts. In pathologically normal ovaries, molecular evidence of oncogenic stress was observed specifically within epithelial inclusion cysts. To further explore potential very early events in ovarian tumorigenesis, ovarian tissues from women not known to be at high risk for ovarian cancer were subjected to laser catapult microdissection and gene expression profiling. These studies revealed a quasi-neoplastic expression signature in benign ovarian cystic inclusion epithelium compared to surface epithelium, specifically with respect to genes affecting signal transduction, cell cycle control, and mitotic spindle formation. Consistent with this gene expression profile, a significantly higher cell proliferation index (increased cell proliferation and decreased apoptosis was observed in histopathologically normal ovarian cystic compared to surface epithelium. Furthermore, aneuploidy was frequently identified in normal ovarian cystic epithelium but not in surface epithelium. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Together, these data indicate that EOC frequently arises in ovarian cystic inclusions, is preceded by an identifiable dysplastic precursor lesion, and that increased cell proliferation, decreased apoptosis, and aneuploidy are likely to represent very early aberrations in ovarian tumorigenesis.

  8. [Natural history of and risk factors for idiopathic atrial fibrillation recurrence (FAP Registry)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planas, Francesc; Romero-Menor, César; Vázquez-Oliva, Gabriel; Poblet, Teresa; Navarro-López, Francesc

    2006-11-01

    The natural history of idiopathic atrial fibrillation is not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of and risk factors for disease recurrence. The study involved 115 patients with a first episode of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation of unknown origin who were included the FAP registry, which contains data from 11 district hospitals in Catalonia, Spain. All patients underwent comprehensive clinical, laboratory, electro-cardiographic and echocardiographic investigations at baseline and were followed up periodically every 6 months to identify the occurrence of new symptomatic episodes and their complications. During a mean follow-up period of 912 (445) days, 32 (27.8%) patients experienced recurrence of atrial fibrillation. Those who experienced recurrence had a significantly higher left ventricular ejection fraction (P=.023) and smaller end-systolic volume (P<.001), and they were more likely to consume alcohol regularly (P=.013). Cox regression analysis confirmed that these variables had independent prognostic value. In contrast, the occurrence of syncope during the initial episode was associated with a lower likelihood of recurrence (P=.017). The risk of recurrence of idiopathic atrial fibrillation was high, and was enhanced by moderate alcohol consumption and increased left ventricular activity, probably of sympathetic origin. This trend was less marked in paroxysmal atrial fibrillation of vagal origin.

  9. Additive Hazard Regression Models: An Application to the Natural History of Human Papillomavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianhong Xie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are several statistical methods for time-to-event analysis, among which is the Cox proportional hazards model that is most commonly used. However, when the absolute change in risk, instead of the risk ratio, is of primary interest or when the proportional hazard assumption for the Cox proportional hazards model is violated, an additive hazard regression model may be more appropriate. In this paper, we give an overview of this approach and then apply a semiparametric as well as a nonparametric additive model to a data set from a study of the natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV in HIV-positive and HIV-negative women. The results from the semiparametric model indicated on average an additional 14 oncogenic HPV infections per 100 woman-years related to CD4 count < 200 relative to HIV-negative women, and those from the nonparametric additive model showed an additional 40 oncogenic HPV infections per 100 women over 5 years of followup, while the estimated hazard ratio in the Cox model was 3.82. Although the Cox model can provide a better understanding of the exposure disease association, the additive model is often more useful for public health planning and intervention.

  10. [Autoerotic fatalities in Greater Dusseldorf].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Benno; Hellen, Florence; Borchard, Nora; Huckenbeck, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Autoerotic fatalities in the Greater Dusseldorf area correspond to the relevant medicolegal literature. Our results included exclusively young to middle-aged, usually single men who were found dead in their city apartments. Clothing and devices used showed a great variety. Women's or fetish clothing and complex shackling or hanging devices were disproportionately frequent. In most cases, death occurred due to hanging or ligature strangulation. There was no increased incidence of underlying psychiatric disorders. In most of the deceased no or at least no remarkable alcohol intoxication was found. Occasionally, it may be difficult to reliably differentiate autoerotic accidents, accidents occurring in connection with practices of bondage & discipline, dominance & submission (BDSM) from natural death, suicide or homicide.

  11. Teaching Evolution & the Nature of Science via the History of Debates about the Levels at Which Natural Selection Operates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, William D.

    2013-01-01

    Students should not graduate from high school without understanding that scientific debates are essential components of scientific methodology. This article presents a brief history of ongoing debates regarding the hypothesis that group selection is an evolutionary mechanism, and it serves as an example of the role that debates play in correcting…

  12. New York City International Polar Weekend at the American Museum of Natural History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirman, S.; Turrin, M.; Macphee, R.

    2008-12-01

    The American Museum of Natural History, in partnership with Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory and the Earth Institute of Columbia University and Barnard College, is featuring the International Polar Year through a New York City International Polar Weekend (NYC-IPW) in 2007, 2008 and 2009. The event showcases current polar research, polar environmental changes, history and culture during two days of family programs and activities, performances, and lectures. The goal of the NYC-IPW is to engage diverse audiences and enhance the public understanding of polar science, in particular IPY research, through close interactions with polar experts. Activities for the public include many disciplines, ranging from the physical sciences and cultural anthropology to music and art, and are presented in many forms, from lectures, panels and films to posters and play. Highlights of the NYC-IPW include: 1) A polar fair for youth and adults, showcasing scientists, artists, and educators who have worked at one or both poles and including many interactive exhibits featuring such topics as life in New York at the end of the last Ice Age, how Arctic sea ice is changing, and life on and under the ice. 2) Performances and presentations oriented towards children and families, including Inuit Throat Singers, Central Park Zoo Theater Group, and a northern lights show. 3) Lectures showcasing current IPY research and addressing such issues as the possible effects of climate change on the poles and the rest of the world, as well as polar poetry, art and film. 4) A partnership with New York City Urban Advantage program for Middle School students in the city to meet with scientists, teachers and students who had participated in polar research and travel. 5) Norwegian Consulate sponsorship of science presenters and Sami performers. The March 2007 event involved 85 presenters and volunteers from 22 institutions, and attracted ca. 3,500 visitors. Approximately 5,000 visitors attended the February 2008

  13. The natural history of pedal puncture wounds in diabetics: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    East Jeffrey M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surgeons usually witness only the limb-threatening stages of infected, closed pedal puncture wounds in diabetics. Given that this catastrophic outcome often represents failure of conservative management of pre-infected wounds, some suggest consideration of invasive intervention (coring or laying-open for pre-infected wounds in hope of preventing contamination from evolving into infection, there being no evidence based guidelines. However, an invasive pre-emptive approach is only justifiable if the probability of progression to catastrophic infection is very high. Literature search revealed no prior studies on the natural history of closed pedal puncture wounds in diabetics. Methods A survey was conducted via an interviewer-administered questionnaire on 198 adult diabetics resident in the parish of St. James, Jamaica. The sample was selected using a purposive technique designed to mirror the social gradient and residential distribution of the target population and is twice the number needed to detect a prevalence of puncture wounds of 14% with a range of 7-21% in a random sample of the estimated adult diabetic population. Results The prevalence of a history of at least one closed pedal puncture wound since diagnosis of diabetes was 25.8% (CI; 19.6-31.9%. The only modifiable variable associated at the 5% level of significance with risk of pedal puncture wound, after adjustment by multivariable logistic regression, was site of interview/paying status, a variable substantially reflective of income more so than quality-of-care. Of 77 reported episodes of closed pedal puncture wound among 51 participants, 45.4% healed without medical intervention, 27.3% healed after non-surgical treatment by a doctor and 27.3% required surgical intervention ranging from debridement to below-knee amputation. Anesthetic foot (failure to feel the puncture and sole of the forefoot as site of puncture were the variables significantly associated with

  14. Integration of Field Studies and Undergraduate Research into an Interdisciplinary Course: Natural History of Tropical Carbonate Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eves, Robert L.; Davis, Larry E.; Brown, D. Gordon; Lamberts, William L.

    2007-01-01

    According to Carl Sagan (1987), "Science is a way of thinking much more than it is a body of knowledge." Field studies and undergraduate research provide students with the best opportunities for "thinking" about science, while at the same time acquiring a body of knowledge. Natural History of Tropical Carbonate Ecosystems is a…

  15. Mortality Risk of Untreated Myosin-Binding Protein C-Related Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Insight Into the Natural History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nannenberg, Eline A.; Michels, Michelle; Christiaans, Imke; Majoor-Krakauer, Danielle; Hoedemaekers, Yvonne M.; van Tintelen, J. Peter; Lombardi, M. Paola; ten Cate, Folkert J.; Schinkel, Arend F. L.; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; van Langen, Irene M.; Wilde, Arthur A. M.; Sijbrands, Eric J. G.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The goal of this study was to assess the mortality of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), partly in times when the disease was not elucidated and patients were untreated. Background HCM is feared for the risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). Insight in the natural history of the disorder is

  16. Cenozoic Molluscan types from Java (Indonesia) in the Martin Collection (Division of Cenozoic Mollusca), National Museum of Natural History, Leiden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek Ostende, van den L.W.; Leloux, J.; Wesselingh, F.P.; Winkler Prins, C.F.

    2002-01-01

    An inventory of type material in the ‘Martin Collection’ at the Division of Cenozoic Mollusca of the National Museum of Natural History, Leiden, The Netherlands has been made. In total 1842 lots containing over 5700 type specimens of 912 species were encountered. The status of the types is outlined.

  17. Ron Leuschner donates over 11,000 specimens of Pyraloidea to the National Museum of Natural History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron Leuschner, Past President of the Lepidopterists’ Society, donated over 11,000 specimens of the Pyraloidea to the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. This collection is strongly represented by specimens from the western United States and may prove to be on...

  18. What If I Don't Treat My PSA-Detected Prostate Cancer? Answers from Three Natural History Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gulati, Roman; Wever, Elisabeth M.; Tsodikov, Alex; Penson, David F.; Inoue, Lurdes Y. T.; Katcher, Jeffrey; Lee, Shih-Yuan; Heijnsdijk, Eveline A. M.; Draisma, Gerrit; de Koning, Harry J.; Etzioni, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Background: Making an informed decision about treating a prostate cancer detected after a routine prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test requires knowledge about disease natural history, such as the chances that it would have been clinically diagnosed in the absence of screening and that it would meta

  19. The natural history of developmental dysplasia of the hip: sonographic findings in infants of 1-3 months of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roovers, E.A.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magdalena M.; Mostert, Adriaan K.; Castelein, René M.; Zielhuis, Gerhard A.; Kerkhoff, Antoon

    2005-01-01

    The natural history of sonographic developmental dysplasia of the hip was determined in a population-based study in which 5170 infants were screened by ultrasound using Graf's method. Of the normal hips at the age of 1 month, 99.6% were still normal at the age of 3 months. Of the immature type

  20. The natural history of developmental dysplasia of the hip: sonographic findings in infants of 1-3 months of age.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roovers, E.A.; Boere-Boonekamp, M.M.; Mostert, A.K.; Castelein, R.M.; Zielhuis, G.A.; Kerkhoff, T.H.

    2005-01-01

    The natural history of sonographic developmental dysplasia of the hip was determined in a population-based study in which 5170 infants were screened by ultrasound using Graf's method. Of the normal hips at the age of 1 month, 99.6% were still normal at the age of 3 months. Of the immature type

  1. Online Teacher Education: A Formal-Informal Partnership between Brooklyn College and the American Museum of Natural History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miele, Eleanor; Shanley, Deborah; Steiner, Robert V.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the evolution of a partnership between Brooklyn College (BC) of the City University of New York (CUNY) and the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) that ultimately resulted in the formal incorporation of the museum's online Seminars on Science (SoS) courses into master's degree programs at Brooklyn College for teachers…

  2. On the Ethology of Female Homo Sapiens Sapiens at the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, Christopher

    This study is a followup to the author's earlier study of the learning differences exhibited by museum exhibit visitors and seeks to discern the effects of the pathological cultural problems identified by other researchers in a science education setting. The setting for this followup study was the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science.…

  3. A Natural History of an Environmentalist: Identifying Influences on Pro-sustainability Behavior Through Biography and Autoethnography

    OpenAIRE

    Evangelos Manolas; John Hockey; Michael Littledyke

    2013-01-01

    This natural history of an environmentalist uses autoethnography through biographical interview to investigate the contextual analysis of influences affecting active pro-sustainability behavior, which is interpreted as environmentalism. Education for sustainability categories of environmental, socio-cultural, political and economic factors were used to identify factors that interact to influence affective and cognitive domains, which affect environmentalist behavior. These influences in reali...

  4. From Teachers to Testers: How Parents Talk to Novice and Expert Children in a Natural History Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmquist, Sasha; Crowley, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    Informed by literature on childhood expertise in high-interest topics and parent-child conversation in museum settings, this study explored how children's level of dinosaur expertise influences family learning opportunities in a natural history museum. Interviews identified children with high and low dinosaur knowledge and assigned them to expert…

  5. Learning in a Personal Context: Levels of Choice in a Free Choice Learning Environment in Science and Natural History Museums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberger, Yael; Tal, Tali

    2007-01-01

    The study aims to characterize contextual learning during class visits to science and natural history museums. Based on previous studies, we assumed that "outdoor" learning is different from classroom-based learning, and free choice learning in the museums enhances the expression of learning in personal context. We studied about 750 students…

  6. History and Nature of Science in High School: Building Up Parameters to Guide Educational Materials and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forato, Thaís Cyrino de Mello; de Andrade Martins, Roberto; Pietrocola, Maurício

    2012-05-01

    This article presents the main results of a research examining the didactic transposition of history and philosophy of science in high school level. The adaptation of history of science to this particular level, addressing some aspects of the nature of science aiming at the students' critical engagement, was analyzed by examining both the historiographic requirements of history of science and the pedagogical recommendations of science teaching. The research included the elaboration of a pilot course on the history of optics, with historical texts and educational activities, and its application in a high school. We used three episodes of the history of optics, addressing some epistemological points, especially criticizing the naive empirical-inductive view of science. It was possible to identify a series of obstacles in using history of science and conveying philosophical views. Their analysis resulted in devising strategies to surmount or to circumvent them. We implemented those strategies in the classroom and analyzed the data that was obtained. As a result, we substantiated several of our proposals and found that some solutions require improvement. We suggest some generalizations, which can be understood as initial parameters for guiding the use of history and philosophy of science in science teaching. We used a qualitative methodology of educational research to plan, to collect and to analyze the data, examining the interaction between students, teacher and knowledge.

  7. Digitalization of the exceptional building and decorative stones collection of the Natural History Museum Vienna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrière, Ludovic; Steinwender, Christian

    2014-05-01

    The Natural History Museum Vienna (NHMV) owns one of the largest building, decorative, and ornamental stones collections in Europe. This important collection dates back to the 19th century and was initiated by curator Felix Karrer after a donation of the "Union-Baugesellschaft" (Karrer, 1892). It contains rock samples used for the construction of most of the famous buildings and monuments in Vienna and in the entire Austria and surrounding countries, as well as from other famous constructions and antique (Egyptian, Greek, Roman, etc.) monuments in the world. Decorative stones that were used for the inside parts of buildings as well as artificial materials, such as stucco, tiles, and building-materials like gravel, are also part of this collection. Unfortunately, most specimens of this collection cannot be displayed at the NHMV (i.e., only 500 specimens are visible in the display Hall I) and are therefore preserved in storage rooms, and not accessible to the public. The main objective of our project of digitalization is to share our rock collection and all treasures it contains with the large majority of interested persons, and especially to provide knowledge on these rocks for people who need this information, such as people who work in cultural, architectural, scientific, and commercial fields. So far 4,500 samples from our collection have been processed with the support of the Open Up! project (Opening up the Natural History Heritage for Europeana). Our database contains all information available on these samples (including e.g., the name of the rock, locality, historic use, heritage utilization, etc.), high-quality digital photographs (with both top and bottom sides of the samples), and scanned labels (both "old" NHMV labels and other (original) labels attached to the samples). We plan to achieve the full digitalization of our unique collection within the next two years and to develop a website to provide access to the content of our database (if adequate

  8. A DNA 'barcode blitz': rapid digitization and sequencing of a natural history collection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D N Hebert

    Full Text Available DNA barcoding protocols require the linkage of each sequence record to a voucher specimen that has, whenever possible, been authoritatively identified. Natural history collections would seem an ideal resource for barcode library construction, but they have never seen large-scale analysis because of concerns linked to DNA degradation. The present study examines the strength of this barrier, carrying out a comprehensive analysis of moth and butterfly (Lepidoptera species in the Australian National Insect Collection. Protocols were developed that enabled tissue samples, specimen data, and images to be assembled rapidly. Using these methods, a five-person team processed 41,650 specimens representing 12,699 species in 14 weeks. Subsequent molecular analysis took about six months, reflecting the need for multiple rounds of PCR as sequence recovery was impacted by age, body size, and collection protocols. Despite these variables and the fact that specimens averaged 30.4 years old, barcode records were obtained from 86% of the species. In fact, one or more barcode compliant sequences (>487 bp were recovered from virtually all species represented by five or more individuals, even when the youngest was 50 years old. By assembling specimen images, distributional data, and DNA barcode sequences on a web-accessible informatics platform, this study has greatly advanced accessibility to information on thousands of species. Moreover, much of the specimen data became publically accessible within days of its acquisition, while most sequence results saw release within three months. As such, this study reveals the speed with which DNA barcode workflows can mobilize biodiversity data, often providing the first web-accessible information for a species. These results further suggest that existing collections can enable the rapid development of a comprehensive DNA barcode library for the most diverse compartment of terrestrial biodiversity - insects.

  9. Incidental pancreatic cysts: natural history and diagnostic accuracy of a limited serial pancreatic cyst MRI protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nougaret, Stephanie; Escal, Laure; Guiu, Boris [Saint Eloi University Hospital, Department of Abdominal Imaging, Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Reinhold, Caroline; Chong, Jaron [McGill University, Department of Abdominal Imaging, MUHC, Montreal (Canada); Mercier, Gregoire; Molinari, Nicolas [CHU Montpellier, Department of Biostatistics, Montpellier (France); Fabre, Jean Michel [CHU Montpellier, Department of Surgery, Saint Eloi University Hospital, Montpellier (France)

    2014-05-15

    To examine the natural history of incidentally detected pancreatic cysts and whether a simplified MRI protocol without gadolinium is adequate for lesion follow-up. Over a 10-year period, 301-patients with asymptomatic pancreatic cysts underwent follow-up (45 months ± 30). The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol included axial, coronal T2-weighted images, MR cholangiopancreatographic and fat suppressed T1-weighted sequences before and after gadolinium. Three radiologists independently reviewed the initial MRI, the follow-up studies using first only unenhanced images, then secondly gadolinium-enhanced-sequences. Lesion changes during follow-up were recorded and the added value of gadolinium-enhanced sequences was determined by classifying the lesions into risk categories. Three hundred and one patients (1,174 cysts) constituted the study population. Only 35/301 patients (12 %) showed significant lesion change on follow-up. Using multivariate analysis the only independent factor of lesion growth (OR = 2.4; 95 % CI, 1.7-3.3; P < 0.001) and mural nodule development (OR = 1.9; 95 % CI, 1.1-3.4, P = 0.03) during follow-up was initial lesion size. No patient with a lesion initial size less than 2 cm developed cancer during follow-up. Intra-observer agreement with and without gadolinium enhancement ranged from 0.86 to 0.97. After consensus review of discordant cases, gadolinium-enhanced sequences demonstrated no added value. Most incidental pancreatic cystic lesions did not demonstrate change during follow-up. The addition of gadolinium-enhanced-sequences had no added-value for risk assignment on serial follow-up. (orig.)

  10. Approaches to Climate Literacy at the American Museum of Natural History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, R. V.

    2015-12-01

    The American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) offers a suite of courses, workshops and special events in climate change education for audiences ranging from young children to adults and utilizing both online and in-person formats. These offerings are supported by rich digital resources including video, animations and data visualizations. These efforts have the potential to raise awareness of climate change, deepen understandings and improve public discourse and decision-making on this critical issue. For adult audiences, Our Earth's Future offers participants a five-week course at AMNH that focuses on climate change science, impacts and communication, taking advantage of both AMNH expertise and exhibitry. Online versions of this course include both a ten-week course as well as three different three-week thematic courses. (The longer course is now available as a MOOC in Coursera.) These activities have been supported by a grant from IMLS. The results of independent evaluation provide insight into participant needs and how they might be addressed. For K-12 educators, the Museum's Seminars on Science program of online teacher professional development offers, in collaboration with its higher education partners, a graduate course in climate change that is authored by both an AMNH curator and leading NASA scientists. Developed with support from both NASA and NSF, the course provides a semester-equivalent introduction to climate change science for educators, including digital resources, assignments and discussions for classroom use. The results of independent evaluation will be presented. For younger audiences, the presentation will highlight resources from the AMNH Ology site; television programming conducted in partnership with HBO; Science Bulletinsvideos that include current climate change research; resources related to the GRACE mission for tracking water from space; and special event programming at the Museum on climate change. This presentation will address the

  11. The natural history of spina bifida in children pilot project: research protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alriksson-Schmidt, Ann I; Thibadeau, Judy K; Swanson, Mark E; Marcus, David; Carris, Kari L; Siffel, Csaba; Ward, Elisabeth

    2013-01-25

    Population-based empirical information to inform health care professionals working with children with spina bifida currently is lacking. Spina bifida is a highly complex condition that not only affects mobility but many additional aspects of life. We have developed a pilot project that focuses on a broad range of domains: surgeries, development and learning, nutrition and physical growth, mobility and functioning, general health, and family demographics. Specifically, we will: (1) explore the feasibility of identifying and recruiting participants using different recruitment sources, (2) test a multidisciplinary module to collect the data, (3) determine the utility of different methods of retrieving the data, and (4) summarize descriptive information on living with spina bifida. The overall objective of the project was to provide information for a future multistate prospective study on the natural history of spina bifida. Families with a child 3 to 6 years of age with a diagnosis of spina bifida were eligible for enrollment. Eligible families were identified through a US population-based tracking system for birth defects and from a local spina bifida clinic. This is an ongoing project with first results expected in 2013. This project, and the planned multistate follow-up project, will provide information both to health care professionals experienced in providing care to patients with spina bifida, and to those who have yet to work with this population. The long-term purpose of this project is to increase the knowledge about growing up with spina bifida and to guide health care practices by prospectively studying a cohort of children born with this condition.

  12. A review on the clinical spectrum and natural history of human influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punpanich, Warunee; Chotpitayasunondh, Tawee

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this review is to provide updated information on the clinical spectrum and natural history of human influenza, including risk factors for severe disease, and to identify the knowledge gap in this area. We searched the MEDLINE database of the recent literature for the period January 2009 to August 17, 2011 with regard to the abovementioned aspects of human influenza, focusing on A(H1N1)pdm09 and seasonal influenza. The clinical spectrum and outcomes of cases of A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza have been mild and rather indistinguishable from those of seasonal influenza. Sporadic cases covering a wide range of neurological complications have been reported. Underlying predisposing conditions considered to be high-risk for A(H1N1)pdm09 infections are generally similar to those of seasonal influenza, but with two additional risk groups: pregnant women and the morbidly obese. Co-infections with bacteria and D222/N variants or 225G substitution of the viral genome have also been reported to be significant factors associated with the severity of disease. The current knowledge gap includes: (1) a lack of clarification regarding the relatively greater severity of the Mexican A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza outbreak in the early phase of the pandemic; (2) insufficient data on the clinical impact, risk factors, and outcomes of human infections caused by resistant strains of influenza; and (3) insufficient data from less developed countries that would enable them to prioritize strategies for influenza prevention and control. Clinical features and risk factors of A(H1N1)pdm09 are comparable to those of seasonal influenza. Emerging risk factors for severe disease with A(H1N1)pdm09 include morbid obesity, pregnancy, bacterial co-infections, and D222/N variants or 225G substitution of the viral genome. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Pathophysiology and Natural History of Anorectal Sequelae Following Radiation Therapy for Carcinoma of the Prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeoh, Eric K., E-mail: eric.yeoh@health.sa.gov.au [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide (Australia); Discipline of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia); Holloway, Richard H. [Discipline of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia); Department of Gastroenterology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide (Australia); Fraser, Robert J. [Discipline of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia); Gastrointestinal Investigation Unit, Repatriation General Hospital, Adelaide (Australia); Botten, Rochelle J.; Di Matteo, Addolorata C.; Butters, Julie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide (Australia)

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: To characterize the prevalence, pathophysiology, and natural history of chronic radiation proctitis 5 years following radiation therapy (RT) for localized carcinoma of the prostate. Methods and Materials: Studies were performed in 34 patients (median age 68 years; range 54-79) previously randomly assigned to either 64 Gy in 32 fractions over 6.4 weeks or 55 Gy in 20 fractions over 4 weeks RT schedule using 2- and later 3-dimensional treatment technique for localized prostate carcinoma. Each patient underwent evaluations of (1) gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms (Modified Late Effects in Normal Tissues Subjective, Objective, Management and Analytic scales including effect on activities of daily living [ADLs]); (2) anorectal motor and sensory function (manometry and graded balloon distension); and (3) anal sphincteric morphology (endoanal ultrasound) before RT, at 1 month, and annually for 5 years after its completion. Results: Total GI symptom scores increased after RT and remained above baseline levels at 5 years and were associated with reductions in (1) basal anal pressures, (2) responses to squeeze and increased intra-abdominal pressure, (3) rectal compliance and (4) rectal volumes of sensory perception. Anal sphincter morphology was unchanged. At 5 years, 44% and 21% of patients reported urgency of defecation and rectal bleeding, respectively, and 48% impairment of ADLs. GI symptom scores and parameters of anorectal function and anal sphincter morphology did not differ between the 2 RT schedules or treatment techniques. Conclusions: Five years after RT for prostate carcinoma, anorectal symptoms continue to have a significant impact on ADLs of almost 50% of patients. These symptoms are associated with anorectal dysfunction independent of the RT schedules or treatment techniques reported here.

  14. More than just records: analysing natural history collections for biodiversity planning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren F Ward

    Full Text Available Natural History Collections (NHCs play a central role as sources of data for biodiversity and conservation. Yet, few NHCs have examined whether the data they contain is adequately representative of local biodiversity. I examined over 15,000 databased records of Hymenoptera from 1435 locations across New Zealand collected over the past 90 years. These records are assessed in terms of their geographical, temporal, and environmental coverage across New Zealand. Results showed that the spatial coverage of records was significantly biased, with the top four areas contributing over 51% of all records. Temporal biases were also evident, with a large proportion (40% of records collected within a short time period. The lack of repeat visits to specific locations indicated that the current set of NHC records would be of limited use for long-term ecological research. Consequently, analyses and interpretation of historical data, for example, shifts in community composition, would be limited. However, in general, NHC records provided good coverage of the diversity of New Zealand habitats and climatic environments, although fewer NHC records were represented at cooler temperatures (5000 mm/yr. Analyses of NHCs can be greatly enhanced by using simple techniques that examine collection records in terms of environmental and geographical space. NHCs that initiate a systematic sampling strategy will provide higher quality data for biodiversity research than ad hoc or point samples, as is currently the norm. Although NHCs provide a rich source of information they could be far better utilised in a range of large-scale ecological and conservation studies.

  15. Natural History of Cryptosporidiosis in a Birth Cohort in Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattula, Deepthi; Jeyavelu, Nithya; Prabhakaran, Ashok D; Premkumar, Prasanna S; Velusamy, Vasanthakumar; Venugopal, Srinivasan; Geetha, Jayanthi C; Lazarus, Robin P; Das, Princey; Nithyanandhan, Karthick; Gunasekaran, Chandrabose; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Sarkar, Rajiv; Wanke, Christine; Ajjampur, Sitara Swarna Rao; Babji, Sudhir; Naumova, Elena N; Ward, Honorine D; Kang, Gagandeep

    2017-02-01

    Cryptosporidium is a leading cause of moderate to severe childhood diarrhea in resource-poor settings. Understanding the natural history of cryptosporidiosis and the correlates of protection are essential to develop effective and sustainable approaches to disease control and prevention. Children (N = 497) were recruited at birth in semiurban slums in Vellore, India, and followed for 3 years with twice-weekly home visits. Stool samples were collected every 2 weeks and during diarrheal episodes were tested for Cryptosporidium species by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Serum samples obtained every 6 months were evaluated for seroconversion, defined as a 4-fold increase in immunoglobulin G directed against Cryptosporidium gp15 and/or Cp23 antigens between consecutive sera. Of 410 children completing follow-up, 397 (97%) acquired cryptosporidiosis by 3 years of age. PCR identified 1053 episodes of cryptosporidiosis, with an overall incidence of 0.86 infections per child-year by stool and serology. The median age for the first infection was 9 (interquartile range, 4-17) months, indicating early exposure. Although infections were mainly asymptomatic (693 [66%]), Cryptosporidium was identified in 9.4% of diarrheal episodes. The proportion of reinfected children was high (81%) and there was clustering of asymptomatic and symptomatic infections (P < .0001 for both). Protection against infection increased with the order of infection but was only 69% after 4 infections. Cryptosporidium hominis (73.3%) was the predominant Cryptosporidium species, and there was no species-specific protection. There is a high burden of endemic cryptosporidiosis in southern India. Clustering of infection is suggestive of host susceptibility. Multiple reinfections conferred some protection against subsequent infection. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  16. The natural history of Crohn's disease in children: a review of population-based studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duricova, Dana; Fumery, Mathurin; Annese, Vito; Lakatos, Peter L; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent; Gower-Rousseau, Corinne

    2017-02-01

    The incidence of Crohn's disease (CD) has been reported to increase. The aim of this review is to perform a comprehensive literature search of population-based studies focused on the natural history of paediatric-onset CD. A literature search of English and non-English language publications listed in the electronic database of MEDLINE (source PUBMED) and EMBASE from 1935 to 2016 was performed. Population-based studies or national cohorts reporting data on the short-term or long-term disease course of paediatric CD were included. Forty-nine paediatric and 15 nonpaediatric studies on CD have been identified. Up to one-third of children with inflammatory behaviour developed bowel complications more than 5 years after diagnosis. From 48 to 88% of children have experienced at least one corticosteroid course irrespective of the period of diagnosis and up to one-third became steroid dependent. Immunosuppressive preparations were used earlier and more frequently in newer than older cohorts (68 vs. 32% at 5 years) and more than one-third of children have received biological treatment early in the disease course. A decline in the surgery rate might be observed in more recent compared with older unselected populations. The relative risk of cancer in childhood-onset CD as well as the risk of death seem to have increased. Childhood-onset CD seems to be an aggressive phenotype of the disease. Compared with older cohorts, a trend towards decreasing surgical rate can be observed in newer cohorts paralleled by an increase in immunomodulator use and biologicals. Nevertheless, the causative role has yet to be investigated.

  17. Natural history of splenic vascular abnormalities after blunt injury: A Western Trauma Association multicenter trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzaur, Ben L; Dunn, Julie A; Leininger, Brian; Lauerman, Margaret; Shanmuganathan, K; Kaups, Krista; Zamary, Kirellos; Hartwell, Jennifer L; Bhakta, Ankur; Myers, John; Gordy, Stephanie; Todd, Samuel R; Claridge, Jeffrey A; Teicher, Erik; Sperry, Jason; Privette, Alicia; Allawi, Ahmed; Burlew, Clay Cothren; Maung, Adrian A; Davis, Kimberly A; Cogbill, Thomas; Bonne, Stephanie; Livingston, David H; Coimbra, Raul; Kozar, Rosemary A

    2017-05-30

    Following blunt splenic injury (BSI) there is conflicting evidence regarding the natural history and appropriate management of patients with vascular injuries of the spleen such as pseudoaneurysms or blushes. The purpose of this study was to describe the current management and outcomes of patients with PSA or BLUSH. Data was collected on adult (≥18) patients with BSI and a splenic vascular injury from 17 trauma centers. Demographic, physiologic, radiographic, and injury characteristics were gathered. Management and outcomes were collected. Univariate and multivariable analyses were used to determine factors associated with splenectomy. Two hundred patients with a vascular abnormality on CT scan were enrolled. Of those, 14.5% were managed with early splenectomy. Of the remaining, 59% underwent angiography and embolization (ANGIO) and 26.5% were observed. Of those who underwent ANGIO, 5.9% had a repeat ANGIO and 6.8% had splenectomy. Of those observed, 9.4% had a delayed ANGIO and 7.6% underwent splenectomy. There were no statistically significant differences between those observed and those who underwent ANGIO. There were 111 CT scans with splenic vascular injuries available for review by an expert trauma radiologist. The concordance between the original classification of the type of vascular abnormality and the expert radiologist's interpretation was 56.3%. Based on expert review the presence of an actively bleeding vascular injury was associated with a 40.9% risk of splenectomy. This was significantly higher than those with a non-bleeding vascular injury. In this series, the vast majority of patients are managed with ANGIO and usually embolization while splenectomy remains a rare event. However, patients with a bleeding vascular injury of the spleen are at high risk of non-operative failure no matter the strategy used for management. This group may warrant closer observation or an alternative management strategy. Prognostic Level III.

  18. The natural history of tunneled hemodialysis catheters removed or exchanged: a single-institution experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alomari, Ahmad I; Falk, Abigail

    2007-02-01

    To track the natural history of tunneled hemodialysis catheters requiring removal or exchange at a single institution. Over a 2-year period, tunneled hemodialysis catheters that presented to interventional radiology for removal or exchange were entered into this retrospective study. Patient demographics, catheter location, dwell time, and indication for removal were recorded. Pull-back contrast venography was performed with imaging over the chest. Catheters were then removed or exchanged. Three hundred thirty-four tunneled dialysis catheters were removed or exchanged in 207 patients; 108 male, median age 53 years. Dwell time, available from 296 catheters, ranged from 1 to 114 days (median, 66 days) for a total of 32,847 catheter days. One hundred three catheters were removed for infection, yielding a rate of infection requiring catheter removal of 3.0 per 1,000 catheter days. One hundred catheters were removed for other working access, and 96 catheters were exchanged for poor function. Two hundred sixty-five were removed or exchanged from the internal jugular vein, 22 from the subclavian vein, and 24 from the femoral vein. One hundred seventy-two (76%) of the 226 catheters studied with contrast had fibrin sheaths; of which 42 had thrombus identified along the catheter tract. One hundred ninety-three catheters were removed, and 141 catheters were exchanged for new catheters with 82 catheters receiving balloon disruption of the fibrin sheath. Approximately one third of tunneled dialysis catheters are removed for infection, one third for other working access, and one third for poor function. Catheters usually remain in the patient for a median of 2 months. Fibrin sheaths associated with hemodialysis catheters are very common. Thrombus formation around the sheath is frequent.

  19. An updated natural history model of cervical cancer: derivation of model parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Nicole G; Burger, Emily A; Sy, Stephen; Sharma, Monisha; Schiffman, Mark; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Hildesheim, Allan; Herrero, Rolando; Kim, Jane J

    2014-09-01

    Mathematical models of cervical cancer have been widely used to evaluate the comparative effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of preventive strategies. Major advances in the understanding of cervical carcinogenesis motivate the creation of a new disease paradigm in such models. To keep pace with the most recent evidence, we updated a previously developed microsimulation model of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical cancer to reflect 1) a shift towards health states based on HPV rather than poorly reproducible histological diagnoses and 2) HPV clearance and progression to precancer as a function of infection duration and genotype, as derived from the control arm of the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial (2004-2010). The model was calibrated leveraging empirical data from the New Mexico Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Registry (1980-1999) and a state-of-the-art cervical cancer screening registry in New Mexico (2007-2009). The calibrated model had good correspondence with data on genotype- and age-specific HPV prevalence, genotype frequency in precancer and cancer, and age-specific cancer incidence. We present this model in response to a call for new natural history models of cervical cancer intended for decision analysis and economic evaluation at a time when global cervical cancer prevention policy continues to evolve and evidence of the long-term health effects of cervical interventions remains critical. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  20. Insights from natural history collections: analysing the New Zealand macroalgal flora using herbarium data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Wendy A.; Dalen, Jennifer; Neill, Kate F.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Herbaria and natural history collections (NHC) are critical to the practice of taxonomy and have potential to serve as sources of data for biodiversity and conservation. They are the repositories of vital reference specimens, enabling species to be studied and their distribution in space and time to be documented and analysed, as well as enabling the development of hypotheses about species relationships. The herbarium of the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa (WELT) contains scientifically and historically significant marine macroalgal collections, including type specimens, primarily of New Zealand species, as well as valuable exsiccatae from New Zealand and Australia. The herbarium was initiated in 1865 with the establishment of the Colonial Museum and is the only herbarium in New Zealand where there has been consistent expert taxonomic attention to the macroalgae over the past 50 years. We examined 19,422 records of marine macroalgae from around New Zealand collected over the past 164 years housed in WELT, assessing the records in terms of their spatial and temporal coverage as well as their uniqueness and abundance. The data provided an opportunity to review the state of knowledge of the New Zealand macroalgal flora reflected in the collections at WELT, to examine how knowledge of the macroalgal flora has been built over time in terms of the number of collections and the number of species recognised, and identify where there are gaps in the current collections as far as numbers of specimens per taxon, as well as with respect to geographical and seasonal coverage. PMID:24399897

  1. The natural history of voiding function after robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lushun; Chung, Stephanie Fook-Chong Man; Yip, Sidney Kam Hung; Lau, Weber Kam On; Cheng, Christopher Wai Sam; Sim, Hong Gee

    2011-01-01

    We report the natural history of voiding function in men with clinically localized prostate cancer after robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RLRP), describing the trend of functional recovery, which is currently not well described using the robot-assisted laparoscopic approach. We determined the impact on voiding function by prospectively evaluating 100 consecutive men who underwent RLRP between May 2005 and December 2006 and compared their reported International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and Quality of Life (QOL) scores at 3, 6, and 12 months with preoperative scores after surgery. Patients with preoperative IPSS of 0-7 and 8-35 were defined as having mild lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and moderate to severe LUTS, respectively. Continence was achieved in 82%, 87%, and 91% of men at 3, 6, and 12 months after RLRP, respectively. There were statistically and clinically significant improvements in both IPSS and QOL preoperative scores at all studied time points for patients with moderate to severe preexisting LUTS. The mean IPSS scores for these patients preoperatively and at 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery were 14.1, 5.2, 3.0, and 2.9, respectively and the corresponding mean QOL scores were 3.4, 2.1, 1.6, and 1.6, respectively. Patients with mild preexisting LUTS showed no statistically significant improvement in IPSS at 3 and 6 months after surgery but significant improvement was found at 1 year (P = 0.04). Good continence recovery is expected in most patients undergoing RLRP. Patients with moderate to severe preexisting LUTS can expect early and clinically significant symptom and QOL improvements after RLRP. Patients with mild preexisting LUTS show significant symptom improvement at 1 year. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The right ventricle in Fabry disease: natural history and impact of enzyme replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, Markus; Breunig, Frank; Beer, Meinrad; Herrmann, Sebastian; Strotmann, Jörg; Hu, Kai; Emmert, Andrea; Voelker, Wolfram; Ertl, Georg; Wanner, Christoph; Weidemann, Frank

    2010-12-01

    Storage of globotriaosylceramides is present in the left and right ventricles of patients with Fabry disease. Improvement of left ventricular morphology and function during enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has previously been reported. To analyse the effects of long term ERT on right ventricular morphology and function. This was a prospective follow-up of 75 genetically confirmed consecutive Fabry patients for 3.1±1.8 years. According to treatment guidelines the natural history was followed in 18 patients, whereas 57 patients received ERT. Standard echocardiography, strain rate imaging for regional deformation of the right and left ventricle, and magnetic resonance tomography with late enhancement (LE) imaging for the detection of fibrosis were all performed at yearly intervals. Right ventricular hypertrophy was evident in 53 patients (71%) at baseline. A significant positive correlation was found between left and right ventricular wall thickness (r=0.76; pright ventricle. Patients with LE in the left ventricle presented with the lowest right ventricular deformation properties. In contrast to the left ventricle, there was no change in right ventricular wall thickness (baseline 6.9±1.6 mm vs follow-up 6.7±1.5 mm; p=0.44) or systolic strain rate (2.2±0.7/s vs 2.1±0.8/s; p=0.31) during follow-up with ERT. The degree of right ventricular involvement in Fabry disease is related to the left ventricular cardiomyopathy stage. ERT seems to have no direct impact on right ventricular morphology and function.

  3. More than just records: analysing natural history collections for biodiversity planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Darren F

    2012-01-01

    Natural History Collections (NHCs) play a central role as sources of data for biodiversity and conservation. Yet, few NHCs have examined whether the data they contain is adequately representative of local biodiversity. I examined over 15,000 databased records of Hymenoptera from 1435 locations across New Zealand collected over the past 90 years. These records are assessed in terms of their geographical, temporal, and environmental coverage across New Zealand. Results showed that the spatial coverage of records was significantly biased, with the top four areas contributing over 51% of all records. Temporal biases were also evident, with a large proportion (40%) of records collected within a short time period. The lack of repeat visits to specific locations indicated that the current set of NHC records would be of limited use for long-term ecological research. Consequently, analyses and interpretation of historical data, for example, shifts in community composition, would be limited. However, in general, NHC records provided good coverage of the diversity of New Zealand habitats and climatic environments, although fewer NHC records were represented at cooler temperatures (5000 mm/yr). Analyses of NHCs can be greatly enhanced by using simple techniques that examine collection records in terms of environmental and geographical space. NHCs that initiate a systematic sampling strategy will provide higher quality data for biodiversity research than ad hoc or point samples, as is currently the norm. Although NHCs provide a rich source of information they could be far better utilised in a range of large-scale ecological and conservation studies.

  4. The prevalence, incidence and natural history of primary sclerosing cholangitis in an ethnically diverse population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chin-Shang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC is a rare chronic cholestatic liver disease often associated with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD. Current epidemiological data are limited to studies of predominantly Caucasian populations. Our aim was to define the epidemiology of PSC in a large, ethnically diverse US population. Methods The Northern California Kaiser Permanente (KP database includes records from over 3 million people and was searched for cases of PSC between January 2000 and October 2006. All identified charts were reviewed for diagnosis confirmation, IBD co-morbidity, and major natural history endpoints. Results We identified 169 (101 males cases fulfilling PSC diagnostic criteria with a mean age at diagnosis of 44 years (range 11-81. The age-adjusted point prevalence was 4.15 per 100,000 on December 31, 2005. The age-adjusted incidence per 100,000 person-years was not significantly greater in men 0.45 (95% CI 0.33 - 0.61 than women 0.37 (95% CI 0.26 - 0.51. IBD was present in 109/169 (64.5% cases and was significantly more frequent in men than women with PSC (73.3% and 51.5%, respectively, p = 0.005. The cumulative average yearly mortality rate was 1.9%. Age and serum sodium, creatinine and bilirubin at diagnosis and albumin at last entry were identified as significant factors associated with death, liver transplant or cholangiocarcinoma. Conclusions The incidence and prevalence of PSC observed in a representative Northern California population are lower compared to previous studies in Caucasian populations and this might reflect differences in the incidence of PSC among various ethnic groups.

  5. Natural vs Anthropocene Streams in Europe: History, Ecology and Implications for Sustainable River Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T. G.; Lespez, L.; Sear, D. A.; Houben, P.; Klimek, K.

    2016-12-01

    In Europe as in North America the prevailing model of `natural' lowland streams is incised-meandering channels with silt-clay floodplains, and this model is the template for stream restoration. This papers tests this proposition using geological and historical data from across Europe and examines the implications for carbon sequestration and channel-floodplain restoration. Floodplain chronostratigraphy shows that early Holocene, pre-impact, European streams were predominantly multi-channel (anabranching) systems, and often choked with vegetation. In most cases floodplains were either non-existent or limited to adjacent organic-filled palaeochannels, spring/valley mires, flushes and hydromorphic soils. During the mid-Holocene and particularly 2-4 k BP, overbank silt-clay deposition transformed floodplains covering former wetlands and silting up secondary channels. This was followed by direct intervention in the Medieval period to a mill-based technological system. The final transformation was the `industrialiation of channels' through hard-engineering especially after the great acceleration of the Anthropocene. The primary factor in this sequence was accelerated soil erosion caused by deforestation and arable farming but with sediment delivery reflecting climatic fluctuations. Unlike North America where channel-floodplain transformation was rapid the transformation of European streams occurred over a much longer time-period in three phases; catchment driven sedimentation, Medieval management and finally industrialisation. Due to a combination of catchment controls, ecological change and the cultural value of this legacy it is both impractical, if not impossible, to restore European rivers to their pre-transformation state. However, attempts to restore them to intermediate historical (pre-industrial) states with some areas of anabranching, would have both ecological and carbon offset benefits. Sustainable restoration designed to maximise ecosystem services must be

  6. Insulitis and β-Cell Mass in the Natural History of Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Thompson, Martha; Fu, Ann; Kaddis, John S; Wasserfall, Clive; Schatz, Desmond A; Pugliese, Alberto; Atkinson, Mark A

    2016-03-01

    Descriptions of insulitis in human islets throughout the natural history of type 1 diabetes are limited. We determined insulitis frequency (the percent of islets displaying insulitis to total islets), infiltrating leukocyte subtypes, and β-cell and α-cell mass in pancreata recovered from organ donors with type 1 diabetes (n = 80), as well as from donors without diabetes, both with islet autoantibodies (AAb(+), n = 18) and without islet autoantibodies (AAb(-), n = 61). Insulitis was observed in four of four donors (100%) with type 1 diabetes duration of ≤1 year and two AAb(+) donors (2 of 18 donors, 11%). Insulitis frequency showed a significant but limited inverse correlation with diabetes duration (r = -0.58, P = 0.01) but not with age at disease onset. Residual β-cells were observed in all type 1 diabetes donors with insulitis, while β-cell area and mass were significantly higher in type 1 diabetes donors with insulitis compared with those without insulitis. Insulitis affected 33% of insulin(+) islets compared with 2% of insulin(-) islets in donors with type 1 diabetes. A significant correlation was observed between insulitis frequency and CD45(+), CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(+), and CD20(+) cell numbers within the insulitis (r = 0.53-0.73, P = 0.004-0.04), but not CD68(+) or CD11c(+) cells. The presence of β-cells as well as insulitis several years after diagnosis in children and young adults suggests that the chronicity of islet autoimmunity extends well into the postdiagnosis period. This information should aid considerations of therapeutic strategies seeking type 1 diabetes prevention and reversal.

  7. The natural history of molecular functions inferred from an extensive phylogenomic analysis of gene ontology data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç, Ibrahim; Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    The origin and natural history of molecular functions hold the key to the emergence of cellular organization and modern biochemistry. Here we use a genomic census of Gene Ontology (GO) terms to reconstruct phylogenies at the three highest (1, 2 and 3) and the lowest (terminal) levels of the hierarchy of molecular functions, which reflect the broadest and the most specific GO definitions, respectively. These phylogenies define evolutionary timelines of functional innovation. We analyzed 249 free-living organisms comprising the three superkingdoms of life, Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya. Phylogenies indicate catalytic, binding and transport functions were the oldest, suggesting a 'metabolism-first' origin scenario for biochemistry. Metabolism made use of increasingly complicated organic chemistry. Primordial features of ancient molecular functions and functional recruitments were further distilled by studying the oldest child terms of the oldest level 1 GO definitions. Network analyses showed the existence of an hourglass pattern of enzyme recruitment in the molecular functions of the directed acyclic graph of molecular functions. Older high-level molecular functions were thoroughly recruited at younger lower levels, while very young high-level functions were used throughout the timeline. This pattern repeated in every one of the three mappings, which gave a criss-cross pattern. The timelines and their mappings were remarkable. They revealed the progressive evolutionary development of functional toolkits, starting with the early rise of metabolic activities, followed chronologically by the rise of macromolecular biosynthesis, the establishment of controlled interactions with the environment and self, adaptation to oxygen, and enzyme coordinated regulation, and ending with the rise of structural and cellular complexity. This historical account holds important clues for dissection of the emergence of biomcomplexity and life.

  8. Thyroid iodine content and serum thyroglobulin: cues to the natural history of destruction-induced thyroiditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smallridge, R.C.; De Keyser, F.M.; Van Herle, A.J.; Butkus, N.E.; Wartofsky, L.

    1986-06-01

    Twenty-eight patients with destructive thyroiditis were followed to study the natural history of healing of thyroid gland injury. All had sequential measurements of thyroidal iodine (/sup 127/I) content by fluorescent scanning (normal mean, 10.1 mg), 17 had serial serum thyroglobulin (Tg) measurements (normal, less than 21 ng/ml), and 13 had perchlorate discharge studies during the recovery phase. Seventeen patients had painful subacute thyroiditis (SAT), 9 had painless thyroiditis with thyrotoxicosis (PTT), and 2 had postpartum thyroiditis with thyrotoxicosis (PPT). Thyroidal iodine content decreased from a mean of 9.8 to a nadir of 3.8 mg in patients with SAT and from 8.5 to a nadir of 3.5 mg in patients with PTT. Mean serum Tg concentrations were highest (approximately 165 ng/ml) in both groups 1-3 months after the onset of symptoms. Abnormalities in both /sup 127/I content and Tg levels persisted for 2 or more yr in some individuals. No patient had detectable Tg antibodies by hemagglutination, but low titers were detected intermittently by sensitive RIA in 5 PTT patients. Microsomal antibodies were positive in only 1 of 16 SAT patients, but in 4 of 7 PTT patients and in both PPT patients. Three patients had positive perchlorate discharge tests (2 of 8 with SAT, 0 of 4 with PTT, and 1 of 1 with PPT). Permanent hypothyroidism occurred in 3 patients (2 with PTT; 1 with SAT and positive antibodies), but did not correlate with perchlorate results. HLA typing and serum immunoglobulin measurements were not useful for predicting the clinical course. These data indicate that several years may be necessary for complete resolution of destructive thyroiditis; many patients have evidence of thyroid injury persisting long after serum thyroid hormone and TSH levels become normal.

  9. 7q11.23 Duplication syndrome: Physical characteristics and natural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Colleen A; Mervis, Carolyn B; Paciorkowski, Alex P; Abdul-Rahman, Omar; Dugan, Sarah L; Rope, Alan F; Bader, Patricia; Hendon, Laura G; Velleman, Shelley L; Klein-Tasman, Bonita P; Osborne, Lucy R

    2015-12-01

    In order to describe the physical characteristics, medical complications, and natural history of classic 7q11.23 duplication syndrome [hereafter Dup7 (MIM 609757)], reciprocal duplication of the region deleted in Williams syndrome [hereafter WS (MIM 194050)], we systematically evaluated 53 individuals aged 1.25-21.25 years and 11 affected adult relatives identified in cascade testing. In this series, 27% of probands with Dup7 had an affected parent. Seven of the 26 de novo duplications that were examined for inversions were inverted; in all seven cases one of the parents had the common inversion polymorphism of the WS region. We documented the craniofacial features of Dup7: brachycephaly, broad forehead, straight eyebrows, broad nasal tip, low insertion of the columella, short philtrum, thin upper lip, minor ear anomalies, and facial asymmetry. Approximately 30% of newborns and 50% of older children and adults had macrocephaly. Abnormalities were noted on neurological examination in 88.7% of children, while 81.6% of MRI studies showed structural abnormalities such as decreased cerebral white matter volume, cerebellar vermis hypoplasia, and ventriculomegaly. Signs of cerebellar dysfunction were found in 62.3%, hypotonia in 58.5%, Developmental Coordination Disorder in 74.2%, and Speech Sound Disorder in 82.6%. Behavior problems included anxiety disorders, ADHD, and oppositional disorders. Medical problems included seizures, 19%; growth hormone deficiency, 9.4%; patent ductus arteriosus, 15%; aortic dilation, 46.2%; chronic constipation, 66%; and structural renal anomalies, 18%. We compare these results to the WS phenotype and offer initial recommendations for medical evaluation and surveillance of individuals who have Dup7.

  10. Natural history and clinical assessment of Taiwanese patients with mucopolysaccharidosis IVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsiang-Yu; Chuang, Chih-Kuang; Chen, Ming-Ren; Chiu, Pao Chin; Ke, Yu-Yuan; Niu, Dau-Ming; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Hwu, Wuh-Liang; Lin, Ju-Li; Lin, Shuan-Pei

    2014-02-10

    Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA) is a rare lysosomal storage disorder caused by N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfatase deficiency, which catalyzes a step in the catabolism of glycosaminoglycans, keratan sulfate and chondroitin-6-sulfate. This disease has a variable age of onset and rate of progression. A retrospective analysis of medical records of 24 patients with MPS IVA (11 males, 13 females; current mean age ± SD, 12.6 ± 6.6 years; age range, 1.4-29.4 years) seen at 6 medical centers in Taiwan from January 1996 through June 2013 was performed. Mean ages of onset of symptoms and confirmed diagnosis were 2.0 ± 1.6 and 5.7 ± 4.5 years, respectively. The most prevalent clinical manifestations were kyphosis (100%), pectus carinatum (96%), abnormal gait (93%), striking short trunk dwarfism (92%), genu valgum (92%), and valvular heart disease (91%). Eight patients (33%) experienced at least one surgical procedure with the most common being ear tube insertion (25%), adenoidectomy (17%), tonsillectomy (13%), supraglottoplasty (13%), spinal decompression (13%), and spinal fusion (13%). The most prevalent cardiac valve abnormalities were aortic stenosis (45%) and mitral regurgitation (45%). At the time of the study, 8 out of 24 patients (33%) have died at the mean age of 17.2 ± 7.7 years. An understanding of the natural history involved in MPS IVA may allow early diagnosis of the disease. All affected Taiwanese patients experienced significant functional limitations. Adequate evaluations and timely management may improve clinical outcomes and quality of life.

  11. A DNA 'barcode blitz': rapid digitization and sequencing of a natural history collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Paul D N; Dewaard, Jeremy R; Zakharov, Evgeny V; Prosser, Sean W J; Sones, Jayme E; McKeown, Jaclyn T A; Mantle, Beth; La Salle, John

    2013-01-01

    DNA barcoding protocols require the linkage of each sequence record to a voucher specimen that has, whenever possible, been authoritatively identified. Natural history collections would seem an ideal resource for barcode library construction, but they have never seen large-scale analysis because of concerns linked to DNA degradation. The present study examines the strength of this barrier, carrying out a comprehensive analysis of moth and butterfly (Lepidoptera) species in the Australian National Insect Collection. Protocols were developed that enabled tissue samples, specimen data, and images to be assembled rapidly. Using these methods, a five-person team processed 41,650 specimens representing 12,699 species in 14 weeks. Subsequent molecular analysis took about six months, reflecting the need for multiple rounds of PCR as sequence recovery was impacted by age, body size, and collection protocols. Despite these variables and the fact that specimens averaged 30.4 years old, barcode records were obtained from 86% of the species. In fact, one or more barcode compliant sequences (>487 bp) were recovered from virtually all species represented by five or more individuals, even when the youngest was 50 years old. By assembling specimen images, distributional data, and DNA barcode sequences on a web-accessible informatics platform, this study has greatly advanced accessibility to information on thousands of species. Moreover, much of the specimen data became publically accessible within days of its acquisition, while most sequence results saw release within three months. As such, this study reveals the speed with which DNA barcode workflows can mobilize biodiversity data, often providing the first web-accessible information for a species. These results further suggest that existing collections can enable the rapid development of a comprehensive DNA barcode library for the most diverse compartment of terrestrial biodiversity - insects.

  12. Natural History of Cryptosporidiosis in a Birth Cohort in Southern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattula, Deepthi; Jeyavelu, Nithya; Prabhakaran, Ashok D.; Premkumar, Prasanna S.; Velusamy, Vasanthakumar; Venugopal, Srinivasan; Geetha, Jayanthi C.; Lazarus, Robin P.; Das, Princey; Nithyanandhan, Karthick; Gunasekaran, Chandrabose; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Sarkar, Rajiv; Wanke, Christine; Ajjampur, Sitara Swarna Rao; Babji, Sudhir; Naumova, Elena N.; Ward, Honorine D.; Kang, Gagandeep

    2017-01-01

    Background. Cryptosporidium is a leading cause of moderate to severe childhood diarrhea in resource-poor settings. Understanding the natural history of cryptosporidiosis and the correlates of protection are essential to develop effective and sustainable approaches to disease control and prevention. Methods. Children (N = 497) were recruited at birth in semiurban slums in Vellore, India, and followed for 3 years with twice-weekly home visits. Stool samples were collected every 2 weeks and during diarrheal episodes were tested for Cryptosporidium species by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Serum samples obtained every 6 months were evaluated for seroconversion, defined as a 4-fold increase in immunoglobulin G directed against Cryptosporidium gp15 and/or Cp23 antigens between consecutive sera. Results. Of 410 children completing follow-up, 397 (97%) acquired cryptosporidiosis by 3 years of age. PCR identified 1053 episodes of cryptosporidiosis, with an overall incidence of 0.86 infections per child-year by stool and serology. The median age for the first infection was 9 (interquartile range, 4–17) months, indicating early exposure. Although infections were mainly asymptomatic (693 [66%]), Cryptosporidium was identified in 9.4% of diarrheal episodes. The proportion of reinfected children was high (81%) and there was clustering of asymptomatic and symptomatic infections (P < .0001 for both). Protection against infection increased with the order of infection but was only 69% after 4 infections. Cryptosporidium hominis (73.3%) was the predominant Cryptosporidium species, and there was no species-specific protection. Conclusions. There is a high burden of endemic cryptosporidiosis in southern India. Clustering of infection is suggestive of host susceptibility. Multiple reinfections conferred some protection against subsequent infection. PMID:28013266

  13. Defining natural history: assessment of the ability of college students to aid in characterizing clinical progression of Niemann-Pick disease, type C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Shin

    Full Text Available Niemann-Pick Disease, type C (NPC is a fatal, neurodegenerative, lysosomal storage disorder. It is a rare disease with broad phenotypic spectrum and variable age of onset. These issues make it difficult to develop a universally accepted clinical outcome measure to assess urgently needed therapies. To this end, clinical investigators have defined emerging, disease severity scales. The average time from initial symptom to diagnosis is approximately 4 years. Further, some patients may not travel to specialized clinical centers even after diagnosis. We were therefore interested in investigating whether appropriately trained, community-based assessment of patient records could assist in defining disease progression using clinical severity scores. In this study we evolved a secure, step wise process to show that pre-existing medical records may be correctly assessed by non-clinical practitioners trained to quantify disease progression. Sixty-four undergraduate students at the University of Notre Dame were expertly trained in clinical disease assessment and recognition of major and minor symptoms of NPC. Seven clinical records, randomly selected from a total of thirty seven used to establish a leading clinical severity scale, were correctly assessed to show expected characteristics of linear disease progression. Student assessment of two new records donated by NPC families to our study also revealed linear progression of disease, but both showed accelerated disease progression, relative to the current severity scale, especially at the later stages. Together, these data suggest that college students may be trained in assessment of patient records, and thus provide insight into the natural history of a disease.

  14. INFLUENCE OF A POSITIVE FAMILY HISTORY AND ASSOCIATED ALLERGIC DISEASES ON THE NATURAL COURSE OF ASTHMA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ROORDA, RJ; GERRITSEN, J; VANAALDEREN, WMC; KNOL, K

    1992-01-01

    The outcome of childhood asthma was studied in a cohort of 406 asthmatic children, with emphasis on the influence of family history for allergic disease, as well as the influence of associated allergic diseases on prognosis. Sixty-two per cent had a positive family history for atopy. In young adulth

  15. Promoting Preservice Chemistry Teachers' Understanding about the Nature of Science through History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Huann-shyang; Chen, Chung-Chih

    2002-01-01

    Documents the benefits of teaching chemistry through history. The experimental group consisted of seniors enrolled in a teacher preparation program in which they learned how to teach chemistry through the history of science. The results of the analysis of covariance revealed that the experimental group outperformed the control group on an…

  16. Using the history of research on sickle-cell anemia to affect preservice teachers' conceptions of the nature of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Eric M.

    Preservice elementary teachers enrolled in an elective biology course participated in an eight-class unit of instruction based on the history of research in understanding the disease sickle-cell anemia. Students were introduced to the disease as a "mystery" for them to solve, and subsequently developed an understanding of the disease from several disciplines in biology (e.g., genetics, ecology, evolution, molecular biology). The unit involved open-ended problems in which students examined evidence and developed explanations in a manner analogous to the reasoning used by Anthony C. Allison and his colleagues during the early to middle part of the twentieth century. Throughout the unit, students were challenged to explicitly and reflectively connect their work with the historical material to more general conclusions about aspects of the nature of science. These aspects included (a) the nature of scientific theories, (b) the tentative nature of science, (c) the difference between scientific theories and laws, (d) the validity of observational methods in science, and (e) the subjective (theory-laden) nature of science. The research measured students' pre- and post-instruction views by using both an open-ended survey (VNOS) and follow-up, semi-structured interviews. The results indicated that an appreciable number of students underwent a change or enrichment in their views for some of the nature of science aspects. Moreover, change or enrichment in students' views was directly attributable to their work in the sickle-cell unit as evidenced from the specific examples students articulated in their post-instruction responses in support of their more informed views. In general, the findings of this research lend empirical support to the value of having students actively recapitulate the history of science to improve their nature of science conceptions. This is facilitated when the lessons challenge students to explicitly and reflectively develop views of the nature of

  17. [Fatal poisonings with propoxur].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfordt, J; Magerl, H; Vock, R

    1987-01-01

    The insecticide propoxur (2-isopropoxyphenyl-N-methylcarbamate) acts by blocking cholinesterase. This inhibition is fast and, unlike that brought about by organophosphorus compounds, reversible. The toxicity of propoxur to man is stated to be low compared with that of parathion. Only a small number of fatal intoxications have been published; at the Würzburg University Institute of Legal Medicine eight cases have been observed since 1978. In seven cases death occurred after deliberate oral ingestion of solutions of propoxur with suicidal intent, while in the other, intoxication was accidental, following inhalation of an aerosol containing propoxur. Organs and body fluids were investigated toxicologically and histologically. The results are presented and discussed. Special attention is paid to the combination of propoxur and alcohol.

  18. Portal hypertensive gastropathy: A systematic review of the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, natural history and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjeorgjievski, Mihajlo; Cappell, Mitchell S

    2016-02-08

    To describe the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, natural history, and therapy of portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG) based on a systematic literature review. Computerized search of the literature was performed via PubMed using the following medical subject headings or keywords: "portal" and "gastropathy"; or "portal" and "hypertensive"; or "congestive" and "gastropathy"; or "congestive" and "gastroenteropathy". The following criteria were applied for study inclusion: Publication in peer-reviewed journals, and publication since 1980. Articles were independently evaluated by each author and selected for inclusion by consensus after discussion based on the following criteria: Well-designed, prospective trials; recent studies; large study populations; and study emphasis on PHG. PHG is diagnosed by characteristic endoscopic findings of small polygonal areas of variable erythema surrounded by a pale, reticular border in a mosaic pattern in the gastric fundus/body in a patient with cirrhotic or non-cirrhotic portal hypertension. Histologic findings include capillary and venule dilatation, congestion, and tortuosity, without vascular fibrin thrombi or inflammatory cells in gastric submucosa. PHG is differentiated from gastric antral vascular ectasia by a different endoscopic appearance. The etiology of PHG is inadequately understood. Portal hypertension is necessary but insufficient to develop PHG because many patients have portal hypertension without PHG. PHG increases in frequency with more severe portal hypertension, advanced liver disease, longer liver disease duration, presence of esophageal varices, and endoscopic variceal obliteration. PHG pathogenesis is related to a hyperdynamic circulation, induced by portal hypertension, characterized by increased intrahepatic resistance to flow, increased splanchnic flow, increased total gastric flow, and most likely decreased gastric mucosal flow. Gastric mucosa in PHG shows increased susceptibility to gastrotoxic

  19. Portal hypertensive gastropathy: A systematic review of the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, natural history and therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjeorgjievski, Mihajlo; Cappell, Mitchell S

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To describe the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, natural history, and therapy of portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG) based on a systematic literature review. METHODS: Computerized search of the literature was performed via PubMed using the following medical subject headings or keywords: “portal” and “gastropathy”; or “portal” and “hypertensive”; or “congestive” and “gastropathy”; or “congestive” and “gastroenteropathy”. The following criteria were applied for study inclusion: Publication in peer-reviewed journals, and publication since 1980. Articles were independently evaluated by each author and selected for inclusion by consensus after discussion based on the following criteria: Well-designed, prospective trials; recent studies; large study populations; and study emphasis on PHG. RESULTS: PHG is diagnosed by characteristic endoscopic findings of small polygonal areas of variable erythema surrounded by a pale, reticular border in a mosaic pattern in the gastric fundus/body in a patient with cirrhotic or non-cirrhotic portal hypertension. Histologic findings include capillary and venule dilatation, congestion, and tortuosity, without vascular fibrin thrombi or inflammatory cells in gastric submucosa. PHG is differentiated from gastric antral vascular ectasia by a different endoscopic appearance. The etiology of PHG is inadequately understood. Portal hypertension is necessary but insufficient to develop PHG because many patients have portal hypertension without PHG. PHG increases in frequency with more severe portal hypertension, advanced liver disease, longer liver disease duration, presence of esophageal varices, and endoscopic variceal obliteration. PHG pathogenesis is related to a hyperdynamic circulation, induced by portal hypertension, characterized by increased intrahepatic resistance to flow, increased splanchnic flow, increased total gastric flow, and most likely decreased gastric mucosal flow. Gastric mucosa

  20. Natural and surgical history of Chiari malformation Type I in the pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeraniec, I Jonathan; Ksendzovsky, Alexander; Awad, Ahmed J; Fezeu, Francis; Jane, John A

    2016-03-01

    OBJECT The natural and surgical history of Chiari malformation Type I (CM-I) in pediatric patients is currently not well described. In this study the authors discuss the clinical and radiological presentation and outcomes in a large cohort of pediatric CM-I patients treated with either conservative or surgical management. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed 95 cases involving pediatric patients with CM-I who presented between 2004 and 2013. The patients ranged in age from 9 months to 18 years (mean 8 years) at presentation. The cohort was evenly split between the sexes. Twenty-five patients underwent posterior fossa decompression (PFD) with either dural splitting or duraplasty. Seventy patients were managed without surgery. Patients were followed radiologically (mean 44.8 months, range 1.2-196.6 months) and clinically (mean 66.3 months, range 1.2-106.5 months). RESULTS Seventy patients were treated conservatively and followed with serial outpatient neurological and radiological examinations, whereas 25 patients were treated with PFD. Of these 25 surgical patients, 11 were treated with duraplasty (complete dural opening) and 14 were treated with a dura-splitting technique (incomplete dural opening). Surgical intervention was associated with better clinical resolution of symptoms and radiological resolution of tonsillar ectopia and syringomyelia (p = 0.0392). Over the course of follow-up, 20 (41.7%) of 48 nonsurgical patients who were symptomatic at presentation experienced improvement in symptoms and 18 (75%) of 24 symptomatic surgical patients showed clinical improvement (p = 0.0117). There was no statistically significant difference in resolution of symptoms between duraplasty and dura-splitting techniques (p = 0.3572) or between patients who underwent tonsillectomy and tonsillopexy (p = 0.1667). Neither of the 2 patients in the conservative group with syrinx at presentation showed radiological evidence of resolution of the syrinx, whereas 14 (87.5%) of

  1. Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 (FGF-21 in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients: Natural History and Metabolic Implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena González

    Full Text Available Human fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF-21 is an endocrine liver hormone that stimulates adipocyte glucose uptake independently of insulin, suppresses hepatic glucose production and is involved in the regulation of body fat. Peritoneal dialysis (PD patients suffer potential interference with FGF-21 status with as yet unknown repercussions.The aim of this study was to define the natural history of FGF-21 in PD patients, to analyze its relationship with glucose homeostasis parameters and to study the influence of residual renal function and peritoneal functional parameters on FGF-21 levels and their variation over time.We studied 48 patients with uremia undergoing PD. Plasma samples were routinely obtained from each patient at baseline and at 1, 2 and 3 years after starting PD therapy.Plasma FGF-21 levels substantially increased over the first year and were maintained at high levels during the remainder of the study period (253 pg/ml (59; 685 at baseline; 582 pg/ml (60.5-949 at first year and 647 pg/ml (120.5-1116.6 at third year (p<0.01. We found a positive correlation between time on dialysis and FGF-21 levels (p<0.001, and also, those patients with residual renal function (RRF had significantly lower levels of FGF-21 than those without RRF (ρ -0.484, p<0.05. Lastly, there was also a significant association between FGF-21 levels and peritoneal protein losses (PPL, independent of the time on dialysis (ρ 0.410, p<0.05.Our study shows that FGF-21 plasma levels in incident PD patients significantly increase during the first 3 years. This increment is dependent on or is associated with RRF and PPL (higher levels in patients with lower RRF and higher PPL. FGF-21 might be an important endocrine agent in PD patients and could act as hormonal signaling to maintain glucose homeostasis and prevent potential insulin resistance. These preliminary results suggest that FGF-21 might play a protective role as against the development of insulin resistance over

  2. The natural history of venous thromboembolism: impact on ventilation/perfusion scan reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Henry W

    2002-07-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) are separate but related aspects of the same dynamic disease process known as venous thromboembolism (VTE). Recent community studies have shown that VTE is a major health issue for the developed world, with at least 201,000 new cases each year in the United States, comprising 107,000 with DVT and 94,000 with PE. A quarter of PE cases die within 7 days, some so rapidly that treatment or intervention is impossible. Despite the availability of heparin prophylaxis, the annual incidence of VTE has remained constant at 1 event per 1,000 person-years since 1979 but reaches 1 event per 100 person-years for the over-85-year-olds. The most important risk factors for VTE are hemostatic and environmental. The recent discoveries of factor V Leiden, prothrombin 20210A, and high concentrations of factor VIII have highlighted the increasing importance of a genetic predisposition to thrombophilia. Acquired hemostatic factors include pregnancy and the puerperium, oral contraception, hormone-replacement therapy, malignant tumors, and antiphospholipid syndromes. Important environmental risk factors include hospitalization with previous surgery or trauma, confinement in a care facility, neurologic disease or paraplegia after stroke, current or recent central venous catheter or transvenous pacemaker, and long airplane flights. Internists may be confused about the risk of PE after ventilation/perfusion (VQ) imaging. This may well arise from their use of the relative risk of PE after a low-probability category scan rather than the absolute risk obtained by incorporating the PE prevalence for their particular patient in the risk analysis. Ideally, personal communication with an experienced referring physician provides this clinical information for nuclear medicine. Diagnostic tools or checklists can be used as an alternative. A general knowledge of the natural history of VTE will encourage the nuclear medicine physician to provide an

  3. The inextricable axis of targeted diagnostic imaging and therapy: An immunological natural history approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Frederick O; Abbruzzese, Bonnie; Sanders, James; Metz, Wendy; Sturms, Kristyn; Ralph, David; Blue, Michael; Zhang, Jane; Bracci, Paige; Bshara, Wiam; Behr, Spencer; Maurer, Toby; Williams, Kenneth; Walker, Joshua; Beverly, Allison; Blay, Brooke; Damughatla, Anirudh; Larsen, Mark; Mountain, Courtney; Neylon, Erin; Parcel, Kaeli; Raghuraman, Kapil; Ricks, Kevin; Rose, Lucas; Sivakumar, Akhilesh; Streck, Nicholas; Wang, Bryan; Wasco, Christopher; Williams, Amifred; McGrath, Michael

    2016-03-01

    approaches. Beyond the elements of imaging applications of these agents is their evolution to therapeutic agents as well, and even in the neo-logical realm of theranostics. Characteristics of agents such as tilmanocept that exploit the natural history of diseases with remarkably high specificity are the expectations for the future of patient- and disease-centered diagnosis and therapy.

  4. The Natural History of Flare-Ups in Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva (FOP): A Comprehensive Global Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignolo, Robert J; Bedford-Gay, Christopher; Liljesthröm, Moira; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe P; Shore, Eileen M; Rocke, David M; Kaplan, Frederick S

    2016-03-01

    Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) leads to disabling heterotopic ossification (HO) from episodic flare-ups. However, the natural history of FOP flare-ups is poorly understood. A 78-question survey on FOP flare-ups, translated into 15 languages, was sent to 685 classically-affected patients in 45 countries (six continents). Five hundred patients or knowledgeable informants responded (73%; 44% males, 56% females; ages: 1 to 71 years; median: 23 years). The most common presenting symptoms of flare-ups were swelling (93%), pain (86%), or decreased mobility (79%). Seventy-one percent experienced a flare-up within the preceding 12 months (52% spontaneous; 48% trauma-related). Twenty-five percent of those who had received an intramuscular injection reported an immediate flare-up at the injection site, 84% of whom developed HO. Axial flare-ups most frequently involved the back (41.6%), neck (26.4%), or jaw (19.4%). Flare-ups occurred more frequently in the upper limbs before 8 years of age, but more frequently in the lower limbs thereafter. Appendicular flare-ups occurred more frequently at proximal than at distal sites without preferential sidedness. Seventy percent of patients reported functional loss from a flare-up. Thirty-two percent reported complete resolution of at least one flare-up and 12% without any functional loss (mostly in the head or back). The most disabling flare-ups occurred at the shoulders or hips. Surprisingly, 47% reported progression of FOP without obvious flare-ups. Worldwide, 198 treatments were reported; anti-inflammatory agents were most common. Seventy-five percent used short-term glucocorticoids as a treatment for flare-ups at appendicular sites. Fifty-five percent reported that glucocorticoids improved symptoms occasionally whereas 31% reported that they always did. Only 12% reported complete resolution of a flare-up with glucocorticoids. Forty-three percent reported rebound symptoms within 1 to 7 days after completing a course of

  5. Epidemiology, natural history, and indications for treatment of rotator cuff tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashjian, Robert Z

    2012-10-01

    The etiology of rotator cuff disease is likely multifactorial, including age-related degeneration and microtrauma and macrotrauma. The incidence of rotator cuff tears increases with aging with more than half of individuals in their 80s having a rotator cuff tear. Smoking, hypercholesterolemia, and genetics have all been shown to influence the development of rotator cuff tearing. Substantial full-thickness rotator cuff tears, in general, progress and enlarge with time. Pain, or worsening pain, usually signals tear progression in both asymptomatic and symptomatic tears and should warrant further investigation if the tear is treated conservatively. Larger (>1-1.5 cm) symptomatic full-thickness cuff tears have a high rate of tear progression and, therefore, should be considered for earlier surgical repair in younger patients if the tear is reparable and there is limited muscle degeneration to avoid irreversible changes to the cuff, including tear enlargement and degenerative muscle changes. Smaller symptomatic full-thickness tears have been shown to have a slower rate of progression, similar to partial-thickness tears, and can be considered for initial nonoperative treatment due to the limited risk for rapid tear progression. In both small full-thickness tears and partial-thickness tears, increasing pain should alert physicians to obtain further imaging as it can signal tear progression. Natural history data, along with information on factors affecting healing after rotator cuff repair, can help guide surgeons in making appropriate decisions regarding the treatment of rotator cuff tears. The management of rotator cuff tears should be considered in the context of the risks and benefits of operative versus nonoperative treatment. Tear size and acuity, the presence of irreparable changes to the rotator cuff or glenohumeral joint, and patient age should all be considered in making this decision. Initial nonoperative care can be safely undertaken in older patients (>70

  6. Portal hypertensive gastropathy: A systematic review of thepathophysiology, clinical presentation, natural history andtherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    AIM To describe the pathophysiology, clinical presentation,natural history, and therapy of portal hypertensivegastropathy (PHG) based on a systematic literaturereview.METHODS: Computerized search of the literature wasperformed via PubMed using the following medicalsubject headings or keywords: "portal" and "gastropathy";or "portal" and "hypertensive"; or "congestive"and "gastropathy"; or "congestive" and "gastroenteropathy".The following criteria were applied for studyinclusion: Publication in peer-reviewed journals, andpublication since 1980. Articles were independentlyevaluated by each author and selected for inclusionby consensus after discussion based on the followingcriteria: Well-designed, prospective trials; recent studies;large study populations; and study emphasis on PHG.RESULTS: PHG is diagnosed by characteristic endoscopicfindings of small polygonal areas of variableerythema surrounded by a pale, reticular border in amosaic pattern in the gastric fundus/body in a patientwith cirrhotic or non-cirrhotic portal hypertension. Histologicfindings include capillary and venule dilatation,congestion, and tortuosity, without vascular fibrinthrombi or inflammatory cells in gastric submucosa.PHG is differentiated from gastric antral vascular ectasiaby a different endoscopic appearance. The etiology ofPHG is inadequately understood. Portal hypertensionis necessary but insufficient to develop PHG becausemany patients have portal hypertension without PHG.PHG increases in frequency with more severe portalhypertension, advanced liver disease, longer liver diseaseduration, presence of esophageal varices, and endoscopicvariceal obliteration. PHG pathogenesis is related to ahyperdynamic circulation, induced by portal hypertension,characterized by increased intrahepatic resistance toflow, increased splanchnic flow, increased total gastricflow, and most likely decreased gastric mucosal flow.Gastric mucosa in PHG shows increased

  7. Bridging Early Childhood and Nature Education. Proceedings of the Roger Tory Peterson Institute of Natural History Forum (1990).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger Tory Peterson Inst. of Natural History, Inc., Jamestown, NY.

    This report was written to extend the findings of the Roger Tory Peterson Institute's 1990 forum on early-childhood environmental education. The report begins with an overview of Peterson's own childhood experiences that influenced his career as a naturalist. Peterson developed a hands-on interest in nature as a very young boy. His case is not…

  8. A Natural History of Dune and Beach Ridge Vegetation Along the Southeastern United States Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The underlying question of the proposed research is this: Given different geomorphological histories of coastal landforms eolian versus marine origins, can a biotic...

  9. Determination of Stress Histories in Structures by Natural Input Modal Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelm, Henrik P.; Brincker, Rune; Graugaard-Jensen, Jesper;

    2005-01-01

    In this paper it is shown that stress histories can be estimated with high accuracy by integrating measured accelerations to obtain displacement and then performing a modal decomposition of the so estimated displacements. The relation between the modal coordinate and the stress in an arbitrary po....... It is shown that the so estimated stress histories can replace strain gauge measurements in many cases, and it allows for an accurate estimation of fatigue damage....

  10. The fatality and morbidity components of the value of statistical life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Elissa Philip; Viscusi, W Kip

    2016-03-01

    The fatality risk-money tradeoff that is the value of a statistical life (VSL) may vary with the nature of the fatality event. While all fatalities involve loss of future life expectancy, the morbidity effects and their duration may differ. This article analyzes fatality risks accompanied by morbidity effects of different duration to disentangle the mortality and morbidity components of VSL using data from the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI). The VSL is comprised of the sum of the value of the fatality risk and the value of the morbidity risk. Labor market valuations of morbidity risks are positive, even for fatalities that are caused by traumatic injuries. The value of the fatality risk is the dominant component of VSL, rather than the value of the morbidity risk.

  11. [On natural history museums and their purpose. A lecture given by Leopold von Buch (1774-1853) in April 1838].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, Björn

    2011-12-01

    A manuscript of a lecture by the Prussian geologist Leopold von Buch given at the Berlin Society of the Friends of the Humanity was discovered at the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin. The text is a raw version of a passionate plea for the formation of natural history collections as science places, with a partly biting humor. Based on until now unknown anecdotes about naturalists like Kaspar Maria Graf Sternberg (1761-1838) and Friedrich Wilhelm Hoeninghaus (1771-1854) Leopold von Buch argues with von Sternberg for the scientific value of natural history collections. The repeating references to the works of Goethe and an extensive addendum of various Dante translations into German are striking. The lecture manuscript complements our knowledge about the thinking of this important geologist, and provides new insights into the science policy of his time.

  12. Fatal motorcycle accidents and alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, C F; Hardt-Madsen, M

    1987-01-01

    A series of fatal motorcycle accidents from a 7-year period (1977-1983) has been analyzed. Of the fatalities 30 were operators of the motorcycle, 11 pillion passengers and 8 counterparts. Of 41 operators 37% were sober at the time of accident, 66% had measurable blood alcohol concentration (BAC...

  13. The Royal Natural History Collection in Vienna (18th century): from possessing minerals as a private treasure towards territorial ambitions as consciousness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemun, M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with a famous private natural history collection of the court, transformed to a public collection of the state. Associated is a very important question: how cultural and political structures became a dimension of a collection. In order to establish a Court Natural History Cabinet of

  14. The Royal Natural History Collection in Vienna (18th century): from possessing minerals as a private treasure towards territorial ambitions as consciousness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemun, M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with a famous private natural history collection of the court, transformed to a public collection of the state. Associated is a very important question: how cultural and political structures became a dimension of a collection. In order to establish a Court Natural History Cabinet of

  15. Natural history of premacular hemorrhage due to severe acute anemia: clinical and anatomical features in two untreated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, Claudia Del; La Spina, Carlo; Mantovani, Elena; Gagliardi, Marco; Lattanzio, Rosangela; Pierro, Luisa

    2014-03-01

    Premacular retrohyaloid hemorrhage is a rare complication of acute severe anemia. The authors report two cases of premacular hemorrhage in which no treatment other than clinical and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography observation was performed. The natural history of this condition reveals that complete clinical resolution is not accompanied by full anatomical restoration. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2014;45:E5-E7.]. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Uncovering the natural history of cancer from post-mortem cross-sectional diameters of hepatic metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanin, Leonid; Rose, Jason

    2016-12-01

    We develop a mathematical and statistical methodology for estimation of important unobservable characteristics of the individual natural history of cancer from a sample of cross-sectional diameters of liver metastases measured at autopsy. Estimation of the natural history of cancer is based on a previously proposed stochastic model of cancer progression tailored to this type of observations. The model accounts for primary tumour growth, shedding of metastases, their selection, latency and growth in a given secondary site. The model was applied to the aforementioned data on 428 liver metastases detected in one untreated small cell lung cancer patient. Identifiable model parameters were estimated by the method of maximum likelihood and through minimizing the [Formula: see text] distance between theoretical and empirical cumulative distribution functions. The model with optimal parameters provided an excellent fit to the data. Results of data analysis support, if only indirectly, the hypothesis of the existence of stem-like cancer cells in the case of small cell lung carcinoma and point to the possibility of suppression of metastatic growth by a large primary tumour. They also lead to determination of the lower and upper bounds for the age of cancer onset and expected duration of metastatic latency. Finally, model-based inference on the patient's natural history of cancer allowed us to conclude that resection of the primary tumour would most likely not have had a curative effect. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. All rights reserved.

  17. Revealing Invisible Beauty, Ultra Detailed: The Influence of Low Cost UV Exposure on Natural History Specimens in 2D+ Digitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecko, Jonathan; Mathys, Aurore; Dekoninck, Wouter; De Ceukelaire, Marleen; VandenSpiegel, Didier; Semal, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Digitization of the natural history specimens usually occurs by taking detailed pictures from different sides or producing 3D models. Additionally this is normally limited to imaging the specimen while exposed by light of the visual spectrum. However many specimens can see in or react to other spectra as well. Fluorescence is a well known reaction to the ultraviolet (UV) spectrum by animals, plants, minerals etc. but rarely taken into account while examining natural history specimens. Our tests show that museum specimens still fluoresce when exposed to UV light of 395 nm and 365 nm, even after many years of preservation. When the UV exposure is used in the digitization of specimens using our low cost focus stacking (2D+) setup, the resulting pictures reveal more detail than the conventional 2D+ images. Differences in fluorescence using 395 nm or 365 nm UV lights were noticed, however there isn't a preferred wavelength as some specimens react more to the first, while others have better results with the latter exposure. Given the increased detail and the low cost of the system, UV exposure should be considered while digitizing natural history museum collections.

  18. Einstein Online: A Web-based Course for K-12 Teachers from the American Museum of Natural History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Robert

    2004-05-01

    Einstein Online: A Web-based Course for K-12 Teachers from the American Museum of Natural History Robert V. Steiner, Ph.D. Project Director, Seminars on Science American Museum of Natural History The American Museum of Natural History, in collaboration with Hebrew University and the Skirball Cultural Center, has created a major exhibit on Albert Einstein, including extensive coverage of his contributions to relativity, quantum mechanics and unified field theories as well as the social and political dimensions of his life. Leveraging the assets of this exhibit as well as the expertise of the Museum's Department of Astrophysics and its Education Department, a six-week online professional development course for K-12 teachers has been created, providing inquires into some of the frontiers of physics through rich media resources, facilitated discussion forums and assignments. The course, which requires only minimal Web access, offers a unique opportunity for teachers across the United States to explore modern physics guided by a working scientist and a skilled online facilitator. The course includes original essays by Museum scientists, images, video, simulations, web links and digital resources for classroom use. The course design, development, implementation and evaluation are reviewed.

  19. Historia natural de la infección por el VHC Natural history of hepatitis C virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    El curso generalmente indolente, lento y prolongado de la infección por el virus de la hepatitis C ha limitado la realización de estudios que valoren su historia natural. Dichos estudios han tenido como objetivo la probabilidad de muerte por enfermedad hepática, cirrosis hepática (compensada o descompensada) y/o hepatocarcinoma, o el desarrollo de una fibrosis hepática importante (substrato anatomopatológico indispensable para el desarrollo de las complicaciones de la cirrosis hepática). A pe...

  20. The natural history of the Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society from a modern perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena-Carrion, Jesus; Leder, Ron S

    2009-01-01

    The history of the IEEE EMBS runs hand in hand with the history of Biomedical Engineering both as a scientific discipline and as a profession. The conferences and publications led by IEEE EMBS, amongst other activities were a mirror of the evolution of Biomedical Engineering over the years and they equally contributed to shape Biomedical Engineering as we view it today. The IEEE EMBS provides a testimony of how a broad and diverse scientific community that comes from many diverse areas such as medicine, engineering, physics and chemistry and shares common purposes and interests can successfully work under the same designation of biomedical engineers. This account is a review of the history of Biomedical Engineering and the development of the IEEE EMBS since the inception of its predecessors, the AIEE Committee on Electrical Techniques in Medicine and Biology and the IRE Professional Group in Medical Electronics.

  1. Demography and natural history of the common fruit bat, Artibeus jamaicensis, on Barro Colorado Island, Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Bats were marked and monitored on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, to study seasonal and annual variation in distribution, abundance, and natural history from 1975 through 1980. Data gathered advances our knowledge about flocking; abundance; feeding strategies; social behavior; species richness; population structure and stability; age and sex ratios; life expectancy and longevity; nightly, seasonal, and annual movements; synchrony within and between species in reproductive activity; timing of reproductive cycles; survival and dispersal of recruits; intra-and inter-specific relationships; and day and night roost selection. Barro Colorado Island (BCI) harbors large populations of bats that feed on the fruit of canopy trees, especially figs. These trees are abundant, and the individual asynchrony of their fruiting rhythms results in a fairly uniform abundance of fruit. When figs are scarce, a variety of other fruits is available to replace them. This relatively dependable food supply attracts a remarkably rich guild of bats. Although we marked all bats caught, we tried to maximize the number of Artibeus jamaicensis netted, because it is abundant (2/3 of the total catch of bats on BCI), easily captured by conventional means (mist nets set at ground level), and responds well to handling and marking. An average Artibeus jamaicensis is a 45 g frugivore that eats roughly its weight in fruit every night. These bats prefer figs and often seek them out even when other types of fruit they might eat are far more abundant. They commute several hundred meters to feeding trees on the average, feeding on fruit from one to four trees each night, and returning to a single fruiting tree an average of four nights in succession. The bats tend to fly farther when fewer fig trees are bearing ripe fruit, and they feed from fewer trees, on the average, when the moon is nearly full. These bats, like their congeners, do not feed in the fruiting tree itself. Instead, they select a fruit and

  2. Inherited erythromelalgia due to mutations in SCN9A: natural history, clinical phenotype and somatosensory profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Aoibhinn; Schulman, Betsy; Ali, Zahid; Dib-Hajj, Sulayman D; Brock, Fiona; Cobain, Sonia; Mainka, Tina; Vollert, Jan; Tarabar, Sanela; Waxman, Stephen G

    2016-04-01

    Inherited erythromelalgia, the first human pain syndrome linked to voltage-gated sodium channels, is widely regarded as a genetic model of human pain. Because inherited erythromelalgia was linked to gain-of-function changes of sodium channel Na(v)1.7 only a decade ago, the literature has mainly consisted of reports of genetic and/or clinical characterization of individual patients. This paper describes the pattern of pain, natural history, somatosensory profile, psychosocial status and olfactory testing of 13 subjects with primary inherited erythromelalgia with mutations of SCN9A, the gene encoding Na(v)1.7. Subjects were clinically profiled using questionnaires, quantitative sensory testing and olfaction testing during the in-clinic phase of the study. In addition, a detailed pain phenotype for each subject was obtained over a 3-month period at home using diaries, enabling subjects to self-report pain attacks, potential triggers, duration and severity of pain. All subjects reported pain and heat in the extremities (usually feet and/or hands), with pain attacks triggered by heat or exercise and relieved mainly by non-pharmacological manoeuvres such as cooling. A large proportion of pain attacks (355/1099; 32%) did not involve a specific trigger. There was considerable variability in the number, duration and severity of pain attacks between subjects, even those carrying the same mutation within a family, and within individuals over the 12-13 week observation period. Most subjects (11/13) had pain between attacks. For these subjects, mean pain severity between pain attacks was usually lower than that during an attack. Olfaction testing using the Sniffin'T test did not demonstrate hyperosmia. One subject had evidence of orthostatic hypotension. Overall, there was a statistically significant correlation between total Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale scores (P= 0.005) and pain between attacks and for Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale Depression scores and pain

  3. Additional observations and notes on the natural history of the prairie rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis) in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Shipley, Bryon K; Newquist, Kristin L; Vera, Rebecca; Flood, Aryn A

    2013-11-01

    On account of their unique anatomy, physiology, natural history, ecology, and behavior, rattlesnakes make ideal subjects for a variety of different scientific disciplines. The prairie rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis) in Colorado was selected for investigation of its relationship to colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) with regard to spatial ecology. A total of 31 snakes were anesthetized and had radiotransmitters surgically implanted. In addition, at the time of their capture, all snakes underwent the following: (1) they had bacterial culture taken from their mouths for potential isolation of pathogenic bacteria; (2) similarly, they had cloacal bacterial cultures taken to assess potentially harmful bacteria passed in the feces; and (3) they had blood samples drawn to investigate the presence of any zoonotic agents in the serum of the snakes. The results of the study and their implications are discussed here. Traditionally, a low incidence of bacterial wound infection has been reported following snakebite. Nevertheless, the oral cavity of snakes has long been known to house a wide variety of bacterial flora. In our study, 10 different bacterial species were isolated from the mouths of the rattlesnakes, 6 of which are capable of being zoonotic pathogens and inducing human disease. More studies are necessary to see why more rattlesnake bites do not become infected despite the presence of such pathogenic bacteria. The results of fecal bacteria isolated revealed 13 bacterial species, 12 of which can cause disease in humans. Of the snakes whose samples were cultured, 26% were positive for the presence of the pathogen Salmonella arizonae, one of the causative agents of reptile-related salmonellosis in humans. It has long been reported that captive reptiles have a much higher incidence than wild, free-ranging species. This study shows the incidence of Salmonella in a wild, free-ranging population of rattlesnakes. In addition, Stenotrophomonas

  4. [Fatal electrocution in prison].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grellner, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    The clarification of deaths from electric current can be difficult when electric skin marks are missing or overlooked. In the following, the fatal electric accident of a 21-year-old man in prison is reported with a scene which primarily seemed to be inconspicuous. The autopsy disclosed typical electric marks in the skin of the left thumb and the corresponding part of the left index finger. A second inspection of the jail room, which was large enough for three men, but occupied by the deceased alone, led to the finding of widely spread utensils (two forks with signs of corrosion and deformation of the prongs, radio cable with socket, water container) for the self-construction of a kind of "immersion heater" for the heating of water. The man must have suffered electrocution when touching the prongs of the forks. Death supposedly occurred due to disturbances of the cardiac rhythm after a longer interval of maintained ability to act. The case again proves the difficulties in the detection and examination of possible electric deaths in which unusual sources of electricity must be considered.

  5. Fatal diquat intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović-Stošić Jasmina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Since the introduction of diquat in agriculture practice in 1960's, about 40 cases of poisoning have been described in detail in medical literature. Case report. We presented two cases. A case one, a 35-year-old, previously healthy, woman ingested 14% diquat solution. The poisoning had fulminant course, consisted of severe stomachache, vomiting, cardiocirculatory shock, respiratory failure and cardiac arrest 20 hours post-ingestion. Autopsy revealed myocardial infarction, bronchopneumonia and incipient renal damage. A case two, a 64-year-old man developed severe gastroenteritis, corrosive lesions of mucosal surfaces, acute renal injury, arrhythmias, brain stem infarction and bronchopneumonia. The diagnosis of diquat poisoning was made retrospectively upon the clinical picture and identification of pesticides he had been exposed to. The patient died 18 days post-exposure. The most prominent findings on autopsy were pontine hemorrhage and infarction, bronchopneumonia, left ventricle papillary muscle infarction and renal tubular damage. Conclusion. Cardiocirculatory disturbances led to fatal complications, the heart and brain infarction. We pointed out the heart as one of the most severely affected organs in diquat poisoning.

  6. The logic of comparative life history studies for estimating key parameters, with a focus on natural mortality rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenig, John M; Then, Amy Y.-H.; Babcock, Elizabeth A.; Hall, Norman G.; Hewitt, David A.; Hesp, Sybrand A.

    2016-01-01

    There are a number of key parameters in population dynamics that are difficult to estimate, such as natural mortality rate, intrinsic rate of population growth, and stock-recruitment relationships. Often, these parameters of a stock are, or can be, estimated indirectly on the basis of comparative life history studies. That is, the relationship between a difficult to estimate parameter and life history correlates is examined over a wide variety of species in order to develop predictive equations. The form of these equations may be derived from life history theory or simply be suggested by exploratory data analysis. Similarly, population characteristics such as potential yield can be estimated by making use of a relationship between the population parameter and bio-chemico–physical characteristics of the ecosystem. Surprisingly, little work has been done to evaluate how well these indirect estimators work and, in fact, there is little guidance on how to conduct comparative life history studies and how to evaluate them. We consider five issues arising in such studies: (i) the parameters of interest may be ill-defined idealizations of the real world, (ii) true values of the parameters are not known for any species, (iii) selecting data based on the quality of the estimates can introduce a host of problems, (iv) the estimates that are available for comparison constitute a non-random sample of species from an ill-defined population of species of interest, and (v) the hierarchical nature of the data (e.g. stocks within species within genera within families, etc., with multiple observations at each level) warrants consideration. We discuss how these issues can be handled and how they shape the kinds of questions that can be asked of a database of life history studies.

  7. College Students Constructing Collective Knowledge of Natural Science History in a Collaborative Knowledge Building Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Huang-Yao; Chai, Ching Sing; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates whether engaging college students (n = 42) in a knowledge building environment would help them work as a community to construct their collective knowledge of history of science and, accordingly, develop a more informed scientific view. The study adopted mixed-method analyses and data mainly came from surveys and student…

  8. College Students Constructing Collective Knowledge of Natural Science History in a Collaborative Knowledge Building Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Huang-Yao; Chai, Ching Sing; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates whether engaging college students (n = 42) in a knowledge building environment would help them work as a community to construct their collective knowledge of history of science and, accordingly, develop a more informed scientific view. The study adopted mixed-method analyses and data mainly came from surveys and student…

  9. The Saline Chymistry of Color in Seventeenth Century English Natural History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Anna Marie

    2015-01-01

    Before Newton's seminal work on the spectrum, seventeenth-century English natural philosophers such as Robert Boyle, Robert Hooke, Nehemliah Grew and Robert Plot attributed the phenomenon of color in the natural world to salts and saline chymistry. They rejected Aristotelian ideas that color was related to the object's hot and cold qualities, positing instead that saline principles governed color and color changes in flora, fauna and minerals. In our study, we also characterize to what extent chymistry was a basic analytical tool for seventeenth-century English natural historians.

  10. The paradoxical advantages and disadvantages of natural selection: the case history of Charles Darwin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieb, J

    2007-01-01

    The biology of natural selection is an enduring mystery, as is the nature of Charles Darwin's chronic illness. Of the theories advanced to explain the latter, Oedipal conflicts and Chagas' disease are preeminent. Hypomania, however, propelled Darwin to the pinnacle of scientific achievement and good health, the depression that followed condemning him to intellectual stagnation, lethargy, impaired memory and concentration, and incapacitating gastrointestinal disorders. Examples of natural selection in humans are much sought after when, ironically, one need look no further than Darwin himself.

  11. Tourism, nature and environmental history: leisure farms on the banks of the Capivara Dam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Arruda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Tourism Organization the number of international travels, in 2012, around the world surpassed 1 billion, of which more than half had as purpose of travel tourism. Among the targets of the 'holiday trips "are the beach, the countryside, nature reserves, etc.. Certain forms of perception and / or representation of natural attract tourists to these areas. This text exposes the construction of a theme, the relationship between tourism and nature, from a case study: the leisure farms on the banks of the Capivara Dam, Paranapanema River, north of the state of Paraná.

  12. Geochemistry of Carbonates on Mars: Implications for Climate History and Nature of Aqueous Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Niles, Paul B.; Catling, David C.; Berger, Gilles; Chassefière, Eric; Ehlmann, Bethany L.; Michalski, Joseph R.; Morris, Richard; Ruff, Steven W.; Sutter, Brad

    2013-01-01

    Ongoing research on martian meteorites and a new set of observations of carbonate minerals provided by an unprecedented series of robotic missions to Mars in the past 15 years help define new constraints on the history of martian climate with important crosscutting themes including: the CO_2 budget of Mars, the role of Mg-, Fe-rich fluids on Mars, and the interplay between carbonate formation and acidity. Carbonate minerals have now been identified in a wide range of localities on Mars as...

  13. The nature and dynamics of world religions: a life-history approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumard, Nicolas; Chevallier, Coralie

    2015-11-07

    In contrast with tribal and archaic religions, world religions are characterized by a unique emphasis on extended prosociality, restricted sociosexuality, delayed gratification and the belief that these specific behaviours are sanctioned by some kind of supernatural justice. Here, we draw on recent advances in life history theory to explain this pattern of seemingly unrelated features. Life history theory examines how organisms adaptively allocate resources in the face of trade-offs between different life-goals (e.g. growth versus reproduction, exploitation versus exploration). In particular, recent studies have shown that individuals, including humans, adjust their life strategy to the environment through phenotypic plasticity: in a harsh environment, organisms tend to adopt a 'fast' strategy, pursuing smaller but more certain benefits, while in more affluent environments, organisms tend to develop a 'slow' strategy, aiming for larger but less certain benefits. Reviewing a range of recent research, we show that world religions are associated with a form of 'slow' strategy. This framework explains both the promotion of 'slow' behaviours such as altruism, self-regulation and monogamy in modern world religions, and the condemnation of 'fast' behaviours such as selfishness, conspicuous sexuality and materialism. This ecological approach also explains the diffusion pattern of world religions: why they emerged late in human history (500-300 BCE), why they are currently in decline in the most affluent societies and why they persist in some places despite this overall decline.

  14. Natural history of whitefly in Costa Rica: an evolutionary starting point

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, J.M.S.; Gort, G.; Lenteren, van J.C.; Vet, L.E.M.

    2004-01-01

    1. To understand evolution of foraging behaviour in the whitefly parasitoid Encarsia formosa (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae), natural densities and distributions of whitefly (Homoptera, Aleyrodidae) were quantified in E. formosa's presumed area of origin, the Neotropics. 2. Leaves were collected in Costa

  15. Natural history of whitefly in Costa Rica: an evolutionary starting point

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, J.S.M.; Gort, G.; Van Lenteren, J.C.; Vet, L.E.M.

    2004-01-01

    To understand evolution of foraging behaviour in the whitefly parasitoid Encarsia formosa (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae), natural densities and distributions of whitefly (Homoptera, Aleyrodidae) were quantified in E. formosa's presumed area of origin, the Neotropics. Leaves were collected in Costa Rican

  16. Natural history of whitefly in Costa Rica: an evolutionary starting point

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, J.M.S.; Gort, G.; Lenteren, van J.C.; Vet, L.E.M.

    2004-01-01

    1. To understand evolution of foraging behaviour in the whitefly parasitoid Encarsia formosa (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae), natural densities and distributions of whitefly (Homoptera, Aleyrodidae) were quantified in E. formosa's presumed area of origin, the Neotropics. 2. Leaves were collected in Costa

  17. The importance of natural history and research collections to environmental reconstruction and remediation, and the establishment of shifting baselines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopnarine, P. D.; Anderson, L.; Roopnarine, D.; Gillikin, D. P.; Leal, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Earth's environments are changing more rapidly today than at almost any time in the Phanerozoic. These changes are driven by human activities, and include climate change, landscape alteration, fragmentation and destruction, environmental pollution, species overexploitation, and invasive species. The rapidity of the changes challenges our best efforts to document what is changing, how it has changed, and what has been lost. Central to these efforts, therefore, is the proper documentation, archiving and curation of past environments. Natural history and other research collections form the core of this documentation, and have proven vital to recent studies of environmental change. Those collections are, however, generally under-utilized and under-appreciated by the general research community. Also, their utility is hampered by insufficient availability of the data, and the very nature of what has been collected in the past. Past collections emphasized a typological approach, placing emphasis on individual specimens and diversity, whether geological or biological, while what is needed today is greater emphasis on archiving entire environments. The concept of shifting baselines establishes that even on historical time scales, the notion of what constitutes an unaltered environment is biased by a lack of documentation and understanding of environments in the recent past. Baselines are necessary, however, for the proper implementation of mitigating procedures, for environmental restoration or remediation, and for predicting the near-term future. Here we present results from a study of impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWH) on the American oyster Crassostrea virginica. Natural history collections of specimens from the Gulf and elsewhere have been crucial to this effort, and serve as an example of how important such collections are to current events. We are examining the effects of spill exposure on shell growth and tissue development, as well as the potential

  18. The Leeuwenhoek Lecture 2000 The natural and unnatural history of methane-oxidizing bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Dalton, Howard

    2005-01-01

    Methane gas is produced from many natural and anthropogenic sources. As such, methane gas plays a significant role in the Earth's climate, being 25 times more effective as a greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide. As with nearly all other naturally produced organic molecules on Earth, there are also micro-organisms capable of using methane as their sole source of carbon and energy. The microbes responsible (methanotrophs) are ubiquitous and, for the most part, aerobic. Although anaerobic methanot...

  19. Time Trek: a 13.7 km long nature trail leading through the history of the Universe and the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehto, Kirsi; Lehto, Harry J.; Brozinski, Ari; Gardner, Esko; Eklund, Olav; Rajala, Kirsi; Räsänen, Matti; Sääksjärvi, Ilari; Vainio, Laura; Vuorisalo, Timo

    2013-01-01

    With the aim to visualize the span of time since the formation of our Universe we have set up a nature and hiking trail called `Time Trek'. The 13.7 km length of the trail corresponds to the age of the Universe, and portrays its history including events important for Earth and life. One kilometre corresponds to a billion years, and one metre to a million years of time. The trek combines astronomical, physical, geological and biological time lines, and presents a holistic view of the history of time. It helps people to comprehend the causal and temporal connections of different phenomena. To the trekker, it offers a concrete experience of the lengths and proportions of different time periods, which otherwise are very difficult to understand.

  20. Allegheny County Fatal Accidental Overdoses

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Fatal accidental overdose incidents in Allegheny County, denoting age, gender, race, drugs present, zip code of incident and zip code of residence. Zip code of...

  1. Snakes of an urban-rural landscape in the central Andes of Colombia: species composition, distribution, and natural history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Andrés Rojas-Morales

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available From 2005 to 2011, I studied the composition, distribution and natural history of an Andean urban-rural snake assemblage at the Cordillera Central of Colombia, based on three data sources: (1 examination of specimens in the MHN-UC [Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad de Caldas], (2 incidental encounters by author, and (3 collection of data by other researchers. Additionally, I provide natural history notes for the species involved. A total of 14 species, including two subspecies of snakes, belonging to 12 genera and four families, have been found in the studied area (municipality of Manizales, Caldas. Taking into account this total, 10 had atleast one record in the urban area, 13 in the rural area and 14 in forested areas. Only Liophis epinephelus bimaculatus was found exclusively in forest environment. Three species (21.4% are apparently endemic to the region, six species (42.8% correspond to afauna representative of the Tropical–Andean range of South America, four species (28.5% are distributed from Central America to the tropical Andes, and only one species is widely distributed in the whole continent. The snake assemblage in Manizales is mostly terrestrial, and in general, the species tend to be more active in the rainy periods of the year (mainly from October–December, and most of them may occasionally be found in urban areas, mainly close to areas of vegetation such as crops and pastures.

  2. Natural history and morphology of the hoverfly Pseudomicrodon biluminiferus and its parasitic relationship with ants nesting in bromeliads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Volker S; Morales, Mírian N; Marinoni, Luciane; Kamke, Rafael; Steiner, Josefina; Zillikens, Anne

    2014-03-12

    The syrphid subfamily Microdontinae is characterized by myrmecophily of their immature stages, i.e., they develop in ant nests. Data on natural history of microdontines are scarce, especially in the Neotropics. Based on fieldwork in southern Brazil, this study provided new data on development and ecology of the hoverfly Pseudomicrodon biluminiferus (Hull) (Diptera: Syrphidae) as well as the first morphological descriptions of male genitalia, larvae, and pupa. Immature specimens were specifically found in colonies of the ant species Crematogaster limata Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) found in rosettes of the bromeliad species Aechmea lindenii (E. Morren) Baker (Poales: Bromeliaceae) and A. nudicaulis (L.) Grisebach. Third instar larvae were observed preying on ant larvae, revealing the parasitic nature of P. biluminiferus. In this and several other aspects, the natural history of P. biluminiferus is similar to that of Holarctic microdontine species. Exceptions include: (i) indications that adults of P. biluminiferus outlast the winter months (in contrast to 3(rd)instar larvae in Holarctic species) and (ii) P. biluminiferus' relationship with bromeliads. The importance of bromeliads for this host-parasite system is evaluated in this paper. The single occurrence of another, unidentified microdontine species' pupae in a nest of the ant species Camponotus melanoticus Emery (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is reported.

  3. Fatalism in Thomas Hardy’s Jude the Obscure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun; Gengmei; Zhou; Juntao

    2014-01-01

    Hardy is distinguished for his deep understanding of human nature and his insight of human life and experience.This paper will make an exploration about the theme of Jude the Obscure,which conveys the strong sense of fatalism,to show Hardy’s life outlook and reveal his pessimistic views towards society and human nature.

  4. Fatalism in Thomas Hardy’s Jude the Obscure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Gengmei; Zhou Juntao

    2014-01-01

    Hardy is distinguished for his deep understanding of human nature and his insight of human life and experience. This paper will make an exploration about the theme of Jude the Obscure, which conveys the strong sense of fatalism, to show Hardy’s life outlook and reveal his pessimistic views towards society and human nature.

  5. Circumstances and witness characteristics associated with overdose fatality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, Amy S B; Tracy, Melissa; Galea, Sandro

    2009-10-01

    Emergency physicians have an opportunity to provide overdose fatality prevention interventions to individuals at risk for experiencing or witnessing an overdose to reduce fatality. The present study uses data about the most recent overdose observed by a sample of inner-city drug users to determine the circumstances of overdose that are associated with overdose fatality. Participants (n=690) aged 18 years or older were recruited with targeted street outreach. All participants had used heroin or cocaine in the previous 2 months and had witnessed at least 1 overdose. Survey data included the circumstances of the last overdose witnessed, including actions taken, drug use behavior, the location of the event, and whether or not the overdose was fatal (the outcome measure). One hundred fifty-two (21.7%) of the witnessed overdoses were fatal. Witness powdered cocaine use (adjusted odds ratio=1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0 to 2.6) and injection drug history (adjusted odds ratio=0.5; 95% CI 0.3 to 0.9) were associated with the last witnessed overdose being fatal. Witnessed overdoses that occurred in public or abandoned buildings compared with homes were more likely to be fatal (adjusted odds ratio=1.9; 95% CI 1.0 to 3.5), as were overdoses in which witnesses sought outside medical help (adjusted odds ratio=1.5; 95% CI 1.0 to 2.1). Future prevention interventions may fruitfully target users of powdered cocaine, drug users without a history of injecting, and individuals who use drugs in public or abandoned buildings for brief interventions on responding when witnessing an overdose to reduce mortality.

  6. UK multiple sclerosis risk-sharing scheme: a new natural history dataset and an improved Markov model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palace, Jacqueline; Bregenzer, Thomas; Tremlett, Helen; Oger, Joel; Zhu, Fheng; Boggild, Mike; Duddy, Martin; Dobson, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Objectives In 2002, the UK's National Institute for Health and Care Excellence concluded that the multiple sclerosis (MS) disease modifying therapies; interferon-β and glatiramer acetate, were not cost effective over the short term but recognised that reducing disability over the longer term might dramatically improve the cost effectiveness. The UK Risk-sharing Scheme (RSS) was established to ensure cost-effective provision by prospectively collecting disability-related data from UK-treated patients with MS and comparing findings to a natural history (untreated) cohort. However, deficiencies were found in the originally selected untreated cohort and the resulting analytical approach. This study aims to identify a more suitable natural history cohort and to develop a robust analytical approach using the new cohort. Design The Scientific Advisory Group, recommended the British Columbia Multiple Sclerosis (BCMS) database, Canada, as providing a more suitable natural history comparator cohort. Transition probabilities were derived and different Markov models (discrete and continuous) with and without baseline covariates were applied. Setting MS clinics in Canada and the UK. Participants From the BCMS database, 898 ‘untreated’ patients with MS considered eligible for drug treatment based on the UK's Association of British Neurologists criteria. Outcome measure The predicted Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score was collected and assessed for goodness of fit when compared with actual outcome. Results The BCMS untreated cohort contributed 7335 EDSS scores over a median 6.4 years (6357 EDSS ‘transitions’ recorded at consecutive visits) during the period 1980–1995. A continuous Markov model with ‘onset age’ as a binary covariate was deemed the most suitable model for future RSS analysis. Conclusions A new untreated MS cohort from British Columbia has been selected and will be modelled using a continuous Markov model with onset age as a baseline

  7. A natural history of the deep-sea aplacophoran Prochaetoderma yongei and its relationship to confamilials (Mollusca, Prochaetodermatidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheltema, Amélie H.; Ivanov, Dmitry L.

    2009-09-01

    Previously published studies are woven together into a natural history of a deep-sea aplacophoran mollusc species, Prochaetoderma yongei Scheltema, 1985, and its confamilial species in the Prochaetodermatidae. This amphi-Atlantic species occurs sometimes in great numbers at upper bathyal depths, rivaling polychaetes in numerical dominance. It appears to be an opportunist, with wide geographic and depth distribution, rapid development from lecithotrophic larva to settlement and maturity, and omnivory. A short illustrated morphological description using characters useful for identifying all prochaetodermatid species should prove useful to nontaxonomists whose business is the deep-sea benthic fauna.

  8. Natural history of spontaneous aortic intramural hematoma progression: Six years follow-up with cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Lei

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We described a 6 years follow-up of a spontaneous aortic intramural hematoma (IMH with cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR examination. Since multiple factors may play roles in the natural history of IMH, the patient experienced the course of progression, which included hematoma absorption, ulcer-like lesion, aneurysm and limited dissection. The initial and follow-up CMR examination included 3D CE MRA and non-enhanced "bright blood" pulse sequence. The inherent advantage of outstanding contrast with plain scan, which shorten the scan time and avoid potential risk of contrast agent, might make the fast gradient echo sequence as an alternative method when following stable IMH.

  9. Fatal disease: misplaced amebae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, S.A.

    1977-04-01

    More than 75 cases of primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAME) have been reported within the past twenty years. By 1970, it was obvious to most investigators that there was an association of the majority of cases of PAME with a recent history of swimming or diving in warm water of high organic content. Lakes, rivers, ponds, swimming pools, drainage ditches, hot springs, domestic waste water, septic-tank effluent, and bathtubs--all have been linked to PAME. Because of the widespread distribution and survival of the organisms and the projected growth of new power plants and new industries, it can be expected that the number of cases of PAME will increase. (CAJ)

  10. Natural history of TPA-untreated minor stroke in the North Dublin population stroke study

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Marnane, M

    2011-05-01

    Introduction: Current guidelines recommend caution when considering emergency tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) therapy for patients with minor neurological deficits. However few data exist regarding the “natural history” (without tPA) of stroke in unselected population-based cohorts. We sought to evaluate the risk of long term disability in “minor stroke” patients.\\r\

  11. History of theoretical conceptions development of nature and sources of intellectual property right

    OpenAIRE

    V. Virchenko

    2013-01-01

    Article is devoted to analysis of evolution of the theoretical approaches to investigation of nature and sources of intellectual property right. Peculiarities of origin and contents of the industrial property theory, contractual theory, rent theory and delictual theory are investigated. Intangible construction and conception of personal rights are considered. The contents of sole rights theory, intellectual rights theory and clientella theory are analyzed.

  12. Natural history, clinicoradiologic correlates, and response to triclabendazole in acute massive fascioliasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, Luis A; Tagle, Martin; Terashima, Angelica; Bussalleu, Alejandro; Ramirez, Cesar; Carrasco, Carlos; Valdez, Luis; Huerta-Mercado, Jorge; Freedman, David O; Vinetz, Joseph M; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2008-02-01

    Fascioliasis is highly endemic in the Andean region of South America. Newer serological assays have improved our ability to diagnose acute fascioliasis. The diagnosis was established by Fasciola hepatica serology (Fas2-ELISA or Western blot) in 10 patients. Identifiable exposure included ingestion of watercress (N = 8), alfalfa juice (N = 5), and lettuce (N = 1). Computed tomography of the abdomen showed hepatomegaly (N = 9), track-like hypodense lesions with subcapsular location (N = 8), and subcapsular hematoma (N = 2). Radiologic sequelae included cyst calcifications detectable at least 3 years after treatment. Stool examinations were negative for F. hepatica eggs; serology was positive (Arc II [N = 2], Fas2-ELISA [N = 6], Western blot [N = 2]). The syndrome of eosinophilia, fever, and right upper quadrant pain, elevated transaminases without jaundice, hypodense liver lesions on CT, and an appropriate exposure history suggests acute fascioliasis. Fascioliasis is specifically treatable with a single dose of triclabendazole.

  13. Evolution of senescence in nature: physiological evolution in populations of garter snake with divergent life histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Kylie A; Bronikowski, Anne M

    2010-02-01

    Evolutionary theories of aging are linked to life-history theory in that age-specific schedules of reproduction and survival determine the trajectory of age-specific mutation/selection balances across the life span and thus the rate of senescence. This is predicted to manifest at the organismal level in the evolution of energy allocation strategies of investing in somatic maintenance and robust stress responses in less hazardous environments in exchange for energy spent on growth and reproduction. Here we report experiments from long-studied populations of western terrestrial garter snakes (Thamnophis elegans) that reside in low and high extrinsic mortality environments, with evolved long and short life spans, respectively. Laboratory common-environment colonies of these two ecotypes were tested for a suite of physiological traits after control and stressed gestations. In offspring derived from control and corticosterone-treated dams, we measured resting metabolism; mitochondrial oxygen consumption, ATP and free radical production rates; and erythrocyte DNA damage and repair ability. We evaluated whether these aging biomarkers mirrored the evolution of life span and whether they were sensitive to stress. Neonates from the long-lived ecotype (1) were smaller, (2) consumed equal amounts of oxygen when corrected for body mass, (3) had DNA that damaged more readily but repaired more efficiently, and (4) had more efficient mitochondria and more efficient cellular antioxidant defenses than short-lived snakes. Many ecotype differences were enhanced in offspring derived from stress-treated dams, which supports the conclusion that nongenetic maternal effects may further impact the cellular stress defenses of offspring. Our findings reveal that physiological evolution underpins reptilian life histories and sheds light on the connectedness between stress response and aging pathways in wild-dwelling organisms.

  14. History of natural resource use and environmental impacts in an interfluvial upland forest area in western Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Siren

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Much of the research done on environmental impacts by Amazonian indigenous peoples in the past focus on certain areas where archaeological remains are particularly abundant, such as the Amazon River estuary, the seasonally inundated floodplain of the lower Amazon, and various sites in the forest-savannah mosaic of the southern Amazon The environmental history of interfluvial upland areas has received less attention. This study reconstructed the history of human use of natural resources in an upland area of 1400 km2 surrounding the indigenous Kichwa community of Sarayaku in the Ecuadorian Amazon, based on oral history elicited from local elders as well as historical source documents and some modern scientific studies. Although data is scarce, one can conclude that the impacts of humans on the environment have varied in time and space in quite intricate ways. Hunting has affected, and continues affecting, basically the whole study area, but it is now more concentrated in space than what it has probably ever been before. Also forest clearing has become more concentrated in space but, in addition, it has gone from affecting only hilltops forests to affecting alluvial plains as well as hilltops and, lately, also the slopes of the hills.

  15. Going the whole orang: Darwin, Wallace and the natural history of orangutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyhe, John; Kjærgaard, Peter C

    2015-06-01

    This article surveys the European discovery and early ideas about orangutans followed by the contrasting experiences with these animals of the co-founders of evolution by natural selection, Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace. The first non-human great ape that both of them interacted with was the orangutan. They were both profoundly influenced by what they saw, but the contexts of their observations could hardly be more different. Darwin met orangutans in the Zoological Gardens in London while Wallace saw them in the wild in Borneo. In different ways these observations helped shape their views of human evolution and humanity's place in nature. Their findings played a major role in shaping some of the key questions that were pursued in human evolutionary studies during the rest of the nineteenth century. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of variceal bleeding on natural history of ACLF and management options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mahtab, Mamun; Akbar, Sheikh Mohammad Fazle; Garg, Hitendra

    2016-05-01

    Patients with diagnosed and undiagnosed chronic liver diseases experience one or more acute assaults of a hepatic nature and develop a downhill course of liver diseases, a condition regarded as acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). It is a medical emergency, the prognosis of ACLF is extremely bad and considerable numbers of patients with ACLF die even after diagnosis and receiving conservative treatment. ACLF is characterized by jaundice, coagulopathy, ascites and encephalopathy. ACLF patients are very sick and associated with different hemodynamic profiles and have very high 3-month mortality. As these groups of patients have high baseline hepatic venous pressure gradients, the chances of variceal bleed are also high, and the impact is also greater in comparison to stable cirrhosis; however, evidence is lacking to substantiate such effects. The aim of this review is to discuss the natural course of variceal bleeding in ACLF patients and to develop insights into the management of variceal bleeding in ACLF.

  17. Writing on Pigments in Natural History and Art Technology in Sixteenth-Century Germany and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltrogge, Doris

    2015-01-01

    Renaissance painters used a number of inorganic color materials. The development of mineralogy as a discipline opened a new discourse on mineral pigments. Agricola and other naturalists were familiar with the contemporary writings on art technology, but their focus was different. Therefore, the exchange of knowledge between these two color worlds remained selective. One possible meeting point was the Kunstkammer where the study of natural objects and materials was combined with an interest in the manual execution of a painting.

  18. Tuberculosis in elephants-a reemergent disease: diagnostic dilemmas, the natural history of infection, and new immunological tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, J N; Mikota, S K

    2015-05-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) in elephants has been described since ancient times. However, it was not until 1996 when infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis was identified in a herd of circus elephants that significant research into this disease began. The epidemiology and natural history of TB were unknown in elephants since there had been no comprehensive screening programs, and diagnostic techniques developed for cervidae and bovidae were of unknown value. And, while precepts of test and slaughter were the norm for cattle and deer, this was considered untenable for an endangered species. With no precedent for the treatment of TB in animals, treatment regimens for elephants were extrapolated from human protocols, which guided changes to the Guidelines for the Control of Tuberculosis in Elephants. In the absence of diagnostic testing to confirm cure in elephants, the efficacy of these treatment regimens is only beginning to be understood as treated elephants die and are examined postmortem. However, because of pressures arising from public relations related to elephant husbandry and the added considerations of TB infection in animals (whether real or imagined), sharing of information to aid in research and treatment has been problematic. Here we review the challenges and successes of the diagnosis of tuberculosis in elephants and discuss the natural history of the disease to put the work of Landolfi et al on the immunological response to tuberculosis in elephants in perspective. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. A multicentre case control study on complicated coeliac disease: two different patterns of natural history, two different prognoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagi, Federico; Marchese, Alessandra; Ferretti, Francesca; Ciccocioppo, Rachele; Schiepatti, Annalisa; Volta, Umberto; Caio, Giacomo; Ciacci, Carolina; Zingone, Fabiana; D'Odorico, Anna; Carroccio, Antonio; Ambrosiano, Giuseppe; Mansueto, Pasquale; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Piscaglia, Anna Chiara; Andrealli, Alida; Astegiano, Marco; Segato, Sergio; Neri, Matteo; Meggio, Alberto; de Pretis, Giovanni; De Vitis, Italo; Gobbi, Paolo; Corazza, Gino Roberto

    2014-08-07

    Coeliac disease is a common enteropathy characterized by an increased mortality mainly due to its complications. The natural history of complicated coeliac disease is characterised by two different types of course: patients with a new diagnosis of coeliac disease that do not improve despite a strict gluten-free diet (type A cases) and previously diagnosed coeliac patients that initially improved on a gluten-free diet but then relapsed despite a strict diet (type B cases). Our aim was to study the prognosis and survival of A and B cases. Clinical and laboratory data from coeliac patients who later developed complications (A and B cases) and sex- and age-matched coeliac patients who normally responded to a gluten-free diet (controls) were collected among 11 Italian centres. 87 cases and 136 controls were enrolled. Complications tended to occur rapidly after the diagnosis of coeliac disease and cumulative survival dropped in the first months after diagnosis of complicated coeliac disease. Thirty-seven cases died (30/59 in group A, 7/28 in group B). Type B cases presented an increased survival rate compared to A cases. Complicated coeliac disease is an extremely serious condition with a high mortality and a short survival. Survival depends on the type of natural history.

  20. HCV/HTLV coinfection: Does HTLV-1 interfere in the natural history of HCV-related diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marcelo Costa; Silva, Carolina Alves Costa; Machado, Gustavo Uzêda; Atta, Ajax; M Freire, Songeli; Carvalho, Edgar; Schinoni, Maria Isabel; Paraná, Raymundo

    2016-11-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) coinfection occurs in many regions. However, few studies have focused on the natural history of HCV-induced liver disease in coinfected patients. To describe the clinical, epidemiological, and histopathological aspects of HTLV-1/HCV coinfection in Brazil. A cross-sectional study with 23 patients coinfected with HCV/HTLV. The control groups consisted of 21 patients monoinfected with HCV and 20 patients monoinfected with HTLV-1. The cytokine profiles (Th1 and Th2 cell responses), clinical, laboratory features, and histopathological aspects were examined. The control group for cytokine analysis validation consisted of patients monoinfected with HTLV, and a fourth group consisted of healthy blood donors. No anthropometric differences present between the three infected groups. We observed higher serum concentrations of IFN-γ in patients coinfected with HCV/HTLV-1 than those in HCV monoinfected patients. The HCV/HTLV-1 coinfected group also exhibited a higher degree of liver steatosis than the HCV monoinfected patients. Results suggest that HCV/HTLV-1 coinfection may result in a different pattern of HCV infection due to the immunologic disorders likely associated with HTLV-1, but there is no clear evidence of the HTLV role in the natural history of HCV infection. J. Med. Virol. 88:1967-1972, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.