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Sample records for fat thigh muscle

  1. Differentiation of fat, muscle, and edema in thigh MRIs using random forest classification

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    Kovacs, William; Liu, Chia-Ying; Summers, Ronald M.; Yao, Jianhua

    2016-03-01

    There are many diseases that affect the distribution of muscles, including Duchenne and fascioscapulohumeral dystrophy among other myopathies. In these disease cases, it is important to quantify both the muscle and fat volumes to track the disease progression. There has also been evidence that abnormal signal intensity on the MR images, which often is an indication of edema or inflammation can be a good predictor for muscle deterioration. We present a fully-automated method that examines magnetic resonance (MR) images of the thigh and identifies the fat, muscle, and edema using a random forest classifier. First the thigh regions are automatically segmented using the T1 sequence. Then, inhomogeneity artifacts were corrected using the N3 technique. The T1 and STIR (short tau inverse recovery) images are then aligned using landmark based registration with the bone marrow. The normalized T1 and STIR intensity values are used to train the random forest. Once trained, the random forest can accurately classify the aforementioned classes. This method was evaluated on MR images of 9 patients. The precision values are 0.91+/-0.06, 0.98+/-0.01 and 0.50+/-0.29 for muscle, fat, and edema, respectively. The recall values are 0.95+/-0.02, 0.96+/-0.03 and 0.43+/-0.09 for muscle, fat, and edema, respectively. This demonstrates the feasibility of utilizing information from multiple MR sequences for the accurate quantification of fat, muscle and edema.

  2. HIV Infection Is Associated with Increased Fatty Infiltration of the Thigh Muscle with Aging Independent of Fat Distribution.

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    Javzandulam Natsag

    Full Text Available Lower muscle density on computed tomography (CT provides a measure of fatty infiltration of muscle, an aspect of muscle quality that has been associated with metabolic abnormalities, weakness, decreased mobility, and increased fracture risk in older adults. We assessed the cross-sectional relationship between HIV serostatus, age, thigh muscle attenuation, and thigh muscle cross-sectional area (CSA.Mean CT-quantified Hounsfield units (HU of the thigh muscle bundle and CSA were evaluated in 368 HIV-infected and 145 HIV-uninfected men enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS Cardiovascular Substudy using multivariable linear regression. Models all were adjusted for HIV serostatus, age, race, and body mass index (BMI; each model was further adjusted for covariates that differed by HIV serostatus, including insulin resistance, hepatitis C, malignancy, smoking, alcohol use, and self-reported limitation in physical activity.HIV-infected men had greater thigh muscle CSA (p<0.001 but lower muscle density (p<0.001 compared to HIV-uninfected men. Muscle density remained lower in HIV-infected men (p = 0.001 when abdominal visceral adiposity, and thigh subcutaneous adipose tissue area were substituted for BMI in a multivariable model. Muscle density decreased by 0.16 HU per year (p<0.001 of increasing age among the HIV-infected men, but not in the HIV-uninfected men (HIV x age interaction -0.20 HU; p = 0.002.HIV-infected men had lower thigh muscle density compared to HIV-uninfected men, and a more pronounced decline with increasing age, indicative of greater fatty infiltration. These findings suggest that lower muscle quality among HIV-infected persons may be a risk factor for impairments in physical function with aging.

  3. Thigh muscle segmentation of chemical shift encoding-based water-fat magnetic resonance images: The reference database MyoSegmenTUM.

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    Sarah Schlaeger

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI can non-invasively assess muscle anatomy, exercise effects and pathologies with different underlying causes such as neuromuscular diseases (NMD. Quantitative MRI including fat fraction mapping using chemical shift encoding-based water-fat MRI has emerged for reliable determination of muscle volume and fat composition. The data analysis of water-fat images requires segmentation of the different muscles which has been mainly performed manually in the past and is a very time consuming process, currently limiting the clinical applicability. An automatization of the segmentation process would lead to a more time-efficient analysis. In the present work, the manually segmented thigh magnetic resonance imaging database MyoSegmenTUM is presented. It hosts water-fat MR images of both thighs of 15 healthy subjects and 4 patients with NMD with a voxel size of 3.2x2x4 mm3 with the corresponding segmentation masks for four functional muscle groups: quadriceps femoris, sartorius, gracilis, hamstrings. The database is freely accessible online at https://osf.io/svwa7/?view_only=c2c980c17b3a40fca35d088a3cdd83e2. The database is mainly meant as ground truth which can be used as training and test dataset for automatic muscle segmentation algorithms. The segmentation allows extraction of muscle cross sectional area (CSA and volume. Proton density fat fraction (PDFF of the defined muscle groups from the corresponding images and quadriceps muscle strength measurements/neurological muscle strength rating can be used for benchmarking purposes.

  4. Thigh muscle volume predicted by anthropometric measurements and correlated with physical function in the older adults.

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    Chen, B B; Shih, T T F; Hsu, C Y; Yu, C W; Wei, S Y; Chen, C Y; Wu, C H; Chen, C Y

    2011-06-01

    (1) to correlate thigh muscle volume measured by magnetic resonance image (MRI) with anthropometric measurements and physical function in elderly subjects; (2) to predict MRI-measured thigh muscle volume using anthropometric measurements and physical functional status in elderly subjects. Cross-sectional, nonrandomized study. Outpatient clinic in Taiwan. Sixty-nine elderly subjects (33 men and 36 women) aged 65 and older. The anthropometric data (including body height, body weight, waist size, and thigh circumference), physical activity and function (including grip strength, bilateral quadriceps muscle power, the up and go test, chair rise, and five meters walk time) and bioelectrical impedance analysis data (including total body fat mass, fat-free mass, and predictive muscle size) were measured. MRI-measured muscle volume of both thighs was used as the reference standard. The MRI-measured thigh volume was positively correlated with all anthropometric data, quadriceps muscle power and the up and go test as well as fat-free mass and predictive muscle mass, whereas it was negatively associated with age and walk time. In predicting thigh muscle volume, the variables of age, gender, body weight, and thigh circumference were significant predictors in the linear regression model: Muscle volume (cm3) =4226.3-42.5 × Age (year)-955.7 × gender (male=1, female=2) + 45.9 × body weight(kg) + 60.0 × thigh circumference (cm) (r2 = 0.745, P estimate = 581.6 cm3). The current work provides evidence of a strong relationship between thigh muscle volume and physical function in the elderly. We also developed a prediction equation model using anthropometric measurements. This model is a simple and noninvasive method for everyday clinical practice and follow-up.

  5. Nutritional value of breast and thigh muscle of chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar under intensive fattening conditions

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    Radovan Jůzl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to evaluate the nutritional value of the breast and thigh muscle of chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar under intensive fattening conditions. Commercial feeding mixtures for broilers were used. Live weight of 60 partridges (birds were not sexed was controlled during 90 days of fattening. After the fattening was finished, 30 birds were selected to monitor the carcass yield. Breast and thigh muscle were used for chemical analysis of crude protein (Kjeldahl method, total lipids (fat analyser ANKOMXT10, ash (Muffle furnace - 550° C and gross energy (calorimetry. Average values ​​of live weight were increasing in the course of fattening; at the end of fattening the live weight reached 0.452 kg. The carcass yield, breast muscle yield and thigh yield were evaluated (73.72%, 18.09%, 20.80%, respectively. Chemical analysis showed a highly significant difference (P ≤ 0.01 between the breast and thigh muscle for crude protein, fat, ash and gross energy. The ash content demonstrated a significant difference (P ≤ 0.05 between the breast and thigh muscle. This study brings new data on the nutritional value of the meat of chukar partridge that can be used for reccomendation of a suitable feeding mixture.

  6. Lean muscle volume of the thigh has a stronger relationship with muscle power than muscle strength in women with knee osteoarthritis.

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    Davison, Michael J; Maly, Monica R; Keir, Peter J; Hapuhennedige, Sandani M; Kron, Amie T; Adachi, Jonathan D; Beattie, Karen A

    2017-01-01

    Thigh lean muscle and intramuscular fat have been implicated in the impairment of physical function observed in people with knee osteoarthritis. We investigated the relationships of quadriceps and hamstrings intramuscular fat fraction and lean muscle volume with muscle power and strength, controlling for neuromuscular activation, and physical performance in women with knee OA. Women (n=20) 55years or older with symptomatic, radiographic knee osteoarthritis underwent a 3.0T magnetic resonance imaging scan of the thigh of their most symptomatic knee. Axial fat-separated images were analyzed using software to quantify intramuscular fat and lean muscle volumes of the quadriceps and hamstrings. To quantify strength and power of the knee extensors and flexors, participants performed maximum voluntary isometric contraction and isotonic knee extensions and flexions, respectively. Electromyography of the quadriceps and hamstrings was measured. Participants also completed five physical performance tests. Quadriceps and hamstrings lean muscle volumes were related to isotonic knee extensor (B=0.624; p=0.017) and flexor (B=1.518; p=0.032) power, but not knee extensor (B=0.001; p=0.615) or flexor (B=0.001; p=0.564) isometric strength. Intramuscular fat fractions were not related to isotonic knee extensor or flexor power, nor isometric strength. No relationships were found between intramuscular fat or lean muscle volume and physical performance. Muscle power may be more sensitive than strength to lean muscle mass in women with knee osteoarthritis. Thigh lean muscle mass, but neither intramuscular nor intermuscular fat, is related to knee extensor and flexor power in women with knee osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Association between Thigh Muscle Volume and Leg Muscle Power in Older Women.

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    Ulrich Lindemann

    Full Text Available The construct of sarcopenia is still discussed with regard to best appropriate measures of muscle volume and muscle function. The aim of this post-hoc analysis of a cross-sectional experimental study was to investigate and describe the hierarchy of the association between thigh muscle volume and measurements of functional performance in older women. Thigh muscle volume of 68 independently living older women (mean age 77.6 years was measured via magnetic resonance imaging. Isometric strength was assessed for leg extension in a movement laboratory in sitting position with the knee flexed at 90° and for hand grip. Maximum and habitual gait speed was measured on an electronic walk way. Leg muscle power was measured during single leg push and during sit-to-stand performance. Thigh muscle volume was associated with sit-to-stand performance power (r = 0.628, leg push power (r = 0.550, isometric quadriceps strength (r = 0.442, hand grip strength (r = 0.367, fast gait speed (r = 0.291, habitual gait speed (r = 0.256, body mass index (r = 0.411 and age (r = -0.392. Muscle power showed the highest association with thigh muscle volume in healthy older women. Sit-to-stand performance power showed an even higher association with thigh muscle volume compared to single leg push power.

  8. The muscle CT of thigh in chronic Werdnig-Hoffmann disease

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    Horikawa, Hirosei; Konagaya, Masaaki; Takayanagi, Tetsuya; Otsuji, Hideaki

    1986-01-01

    In this paper, the muscle CT of thigh in chronic Werdnig-Hoffmann disease (chronic WH) was evaluated. The subjects were five cases of chronic WH (3 males and 2 females, ages ranging from 6 to 22 years) and four control males. All cases showed symmetrical muscular weakness. The proximal muscle were more affected than the distal in the upper limbs. But the muscle strength of hip adduction was relatively spared as compared with other strength of lower limbs. The CT scan was carried out at the upper quarter level between lesser trochanter and medial condyle of the femur. The muscle CT of cases aged 6 and 7 years showed the severely decreased cross-sectional area of muscle without significant decrease in density. The atrophic muscles were surrounded by a large amount of low density area. The hamstring muscles and the adductor muscles, especially adductor longus muscle (ALM), were less affected than the quadriceps femoris muscles. Spotty and moth-eaten low density areas were observed dominantly in the severely affected muscles. In the advanced cases, only ALM could be identified on the CT image. The other muscles were unable to be identified because of severe atrophy with extremely low density. These CT findings suggest the process of muscular wastings of chronic WH as follows; at first muscle fibers are atrophied due to denervation and sooner or later replaced with fat tissue. Moreover, the preservation of ALM suggests that loss of anterior horn cells does not always go on homogeneously. (author)

  9. Ultrasound assessment of hamstring muscle size using posterior thigh muscle thickness.

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    Abe, Takashi; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Thiebaud, Robert S

    2016-05-01

    Several studies have investigated the relationship between ultrasound-measured muscle thickness (MT) and individual muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and muscle volume (MV) in extremity and trunk muscles; however, the hamstring muscle has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between posterior thigh MT by ultrasound and the muscle CSA and MV of the hamstring obtained by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Ten young women aged 20-31 had MT measured by ultrasound at three sites on the medial anterior (50% of thigh length; TL) and posterior (50% and 70% of TL) aspects of the thigh. On the same day, a series of continuous muscle CSA along the thigh was measured by MRI. In each slice, the anatomical CSA of the hamstring (biceps femoris, semitendinosus and semimembranosus) and quadriceps muscle was analysed, and the CSAs at 50% and 70% of TL and maximal CSA of the hamstring (CSAmax ) were determined. MV was calculated by multiplying CSA by slice thickness. A significant correlation was observed between posterior 50% MT and 50% hamstring CSA (r = 0·848, P = 0·002) and between posterior 70% MT and 70% hamstring CSA (r = 0·679, P = 0·031). Posterior 50% MT (r = 0·732, P = 0·016) and 50% MTxTL (r = 0·873, P = 0·001) were also correlated to hamstring MV. Anterior:posterior 50% thigh MT ratio was correlated to MV ratio of quadriceps and hamstring muscles (r = 0·803, P = 0·005). Our results suggest that posterior thigh MT reflects hamstring muscle CSA and MV. The anterior:posterior MT ratio may serve as a surrogate for MV ratio of quadriceps and hamstring. © 2014 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Metastasis of Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma to Bilateral Thigh Muscles

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    Zarah Lucas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance. Laryngeal cancer infrequently results in distant metastases, but metastasis to skeletal muscle is extremely uncommon. Observations. A 55-year-old male presenting with progressive dyspnea and hoarseness was found to have Stage IVA T4aN2cM0 laryngeal cancer and eventually underwent total laryngectomy. Before the patient could be started on adjuvant chemoradiation, the patient developed masses on both thighs. Biopsy revealed metastatic squamous cell carcinoma consistent with the primary laryngeal cancer. He was offered palliative chemotherapy; however, he developed new soft tissue masses to the left of his stoma and in the prevertebral area one week later. He also had new cervical and supraclavicular nodes and a pathological compression fracture of L3. Patient died within 4 months of diagnosis. Conclusions. Distant metastasis such as skeletal metastasis portends a poor prognosis. Further studies are required to determine the best course of treatment in these patients.

  11. KNEE-JOINT LOADING IN KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS: INFLUENCE OF ABDOMINAL AND THIGH FAT

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    Messier, Stephen P.; Beavers, Daniel P.; Loeser, Richard F.; Carr, J. Jeffery; Khajanchi, Shubham; Legault, Claudine; Nicklas, Barbara J.; Hunter, David J.; DeVita, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Using three separate models that included total body mass, total lean and total fat mass, and abdominal and thigh fat as independent measures, we determined their association with knee-joint loads in older overweight and obese adults with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods Fat depots were quantified using computed tomography and total lean and fat mass determined with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry in 176 adults (age = 66.3 yr., BMI = 33.5 kg·m−2) with radiographic knee OA. Knee moments and joint bone-on-bone forces were calculated using gait analysis and musculoskeletal modeling. Results Higher total body mass was significantly associated (p ≤ 0.0001) with greater knee compressive and shear forces, compressive and shear impulses (p knee extensor moments (p = 0.003). Regression analysis with total lean and total fat mass as independent variables revealed significant positive associations of total fat mass with knee compressive (p = 0.0001), shear (p knee extension moment (p = 0.008). Gastrocnemius and quadriceps forces were positively associated with total fat mass. Total lean mass was associated with knee compressive force (p = 0.002). A regression model that included total thigh and total abdominal fat found both were significantly associated with knee compressive and shear forces (p ≤ 0.04). Thigh fat was associated with the knee abduction (p = 0.03) and knee extension moment (p = 0.02). Conclusions Thigh fat, consisting predominately of subcutaneous fat, had similar significant associations with knee joint forces as abdominal fat despite its much smaller volume and could be an important therapeutic target for people with knee OA. PMID:25133996

  12. Knee joint loading in knee osteoarthritis: influence of abdominal and thigh fat.

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    Messier, Stephen P; Beavers, Daniel P; Loeser, Richard F; Carr, J Jeffery; Khajanchi, Shubham; Legault, Claudine; Nicklas, Barbara J; Hunter, David J; Devita, Paul

    2014-09-01

    Using three separate models that included total body mass, total lean and total fat mass, and abdominal and thigh fat as independent measures, we determined their association with knee joint loads in older overweight and obese adults with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Fat depots were quantified using computed tomography, and total lean and fat mass were determined with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry in 176 adults (age, 66.3 yr; body mass index, 33.5 kg·m) with radiographic knee OA. Knee moments and joint bone-on-bone forces were calculated using gait analysis and musculoskeletal modeling. Higher total body mass was significantly associated (P ≤ 0.0001) with greater knee compressive and shear forces, compressive and shear impulses (P knee extensor moments (P = 0.003). Regression analysis with total lean and total fat mass as independent variables revealed significant positive associations of total fat mass with knee compressive (P = 0.0001), shear (P knee extension moment (P = 0.008). Gastrocnemius and quadriceps forces were positively associated with total fat mass. Total lean mass was associated with knee compressive force (P = 0.002). A regression model that included total thigh and total abdominal fat found that both were significantly associated with knee compressive and shear forces (P ≤ 0.04). Thigh fat was associated with knee abduction (P = 0.03) and knee extension moment (P = 0.02). Thigh fat, consisting predominately of subcutaneous fat, had similar significant associations with knee joint forces as abdominal fat despite its much smaller volume and could be an important therapeutic target for people with knee OA.

  13. Characteristic MR image finding of squatting exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis of the thigh muscles.

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    Yeon, Eung K; Ryu, Kyung N; Kang, Hye J; Yoon, So H; Park, So Y; Park, Ji S; Jin, Wook

    2017-04-01

    To describe the characteristic MRI appearance of squatting-induced rhabdomyolysis involving the thigh muscles. This study consisted of 10 cases obtained at 3 institutions from 2005 to 2015. A retrospective review was performed to obtain clinical information and MR scans for rhabdomyolysis of the thigh muscles. MRI was analyzed according to the distribution and degree of muscle involvement; the degree was assessed and graded as normal, mild or prominent. The mean patient age was 20.2 years (range, 15-24 years), and 7 of the 10 patients were male. All patients had history of excessive squatting action, suffered clinically from bilateral thigh pain and were confirmed to have rhabdomyolysis through analysis of serum creatine kinase (CK) levels. All of the patients (10/10) exhibited diffuse mild to prominent degree involvement of the anterior thigh muscles according to fluid-sensitive MR sequences. Among the anterior thigh muscles, the rectus femoris was spared in 8 patients (8/10) and mild degree involved in 2 patients (2/10). Thus, no cases exhibited prominent degree involvement of the rectus femoris muscle. Preservation of the rectus femoris muscle on MRI in squatting-induced rhabdomyolysis may be useful for differentiating rhabdomyolysis from other aetiologies. Advances in knowledge: Preservation of rectus femoris on MRI is distinguishable finding in squatting-induced rhabdomyolysis and reflects the functional anatomy of anterior thigh muscles.

  14. Comparison of MRI and DXA to measure muscle size and age-related atrophy in thigh muscles.

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    Maden-Wilkinson, T M; Degens, H; Jones, D A; McPhee, J S

    2013-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were used to examine the thigh lean mass in young and old men and women. A whole-body DXA scan was used to estimate thigh lean mass in young (20 men; 22.4±3.1y; 18 women; 22.1±2.0y) and older adults (25 men; 72.3±4.9y; 28 women; 72.0±4.5y). Thigh lean mass determined with a thigh scan on the DXA or full thigh MRI scans were compared. Although the thigh lean mass quantified by DXA and MRI in young and older participants were correlated (R(2)=0.88; polder than young individuals, while the other thigh muscles were only 18% smaller. DXA underestimates the age-related loss of thigh muscle mass in comparison to MRI. The quadriceps muscles were more susceptible to age-related atrophy compared with other thigh muscles.

  15. Electromyography of the thigh muscles during lifting tasks in kneeling and squatting postures

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    Gallagher, S.; Pollard, J.; Porter, W.L. [NIOSH, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Research Laboratory

    2011-07-01

    Underground coal miners who work in low-seam mines frequently handle materials in kneeling or squatting postures. To assess quadriceps and hamstring muscle demands in these postures, nine participants performed lateral load transfers in kneeling and squatting postures, during which electromyographic (EMG) data were collected. EMG activity was obtained at five points throughout the transfer for three quadriceps muscles and two hamstring muscles from each thigh. ANOVA results indicated that EMG data for nine of 10 thigh muscles were affected by an interaction between posture and angular position of the load lifted (p <0.001). Muscles of the right thigh were most active during the lifting portion of the task (lifting a block from the participant's right) and activity decreased as the block was transferred to the left. Left thigh muscles showed the opposite pattern. EMG activity for the majority of thigh muscles was affected by the size of the base of support provided by different postures, with lower EMG activity observed with a larger base of support and increased activity in postures where base of support was reduced (p<0.05). Thigh EMG activity was lowest in postures with fully flexed knees, which may explain worker preference for this posture. However, such postures are also associated with increased risk of meniscal damage.

  16. Effect of magnesium on reactive oxygen species production in the thigh muscles of broiler chickens.

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    Liu, Y X; Guo, Y M; Wang, Z

    2007-02-01

    1. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of magnesium (Mg) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the thigh muscles of broiler chickens. A total of 96 1-d-old male Arbor Acre broiler chickens were randomly allocated into two groups, fed either on low-Mg or control diets containing about 1.2 g/kg or 2.4 g Mg/kg dry matter. 2. The low-Mg diet significantly increased malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and decreased glutathione (GSH) in the thigh muscles of broiler chickens. ROS production in the thigh muscle homogenate was significantly higher in the low-Mg group than in the control group. Compared with the control, muscle Mg concentration of broiler chickens from the low-Mg group decreased by 9.5%. 3. Complex II and III activities of the mitochondrial electron transport chain in broilers on low-Mg diet increased by 23 and 35%, respectively. Significant negative correlations between ROS production and the activities of mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) complexes were observed. 4. The low-Mg diet did not influence contents of iron (Fe) or calcium (Ca) in the thigh muscles of broiler chickens and did not influence unsaturated fatty acid composition (except C18:2) in the thigh muscles. 5. A low-Mg diet decreased Mg concentration in the thigh muscles of broiler chickens and then induced higher activities of mitochondrial ETC, consequently increasing ROS production. These results suggest that Mg modulates the oxidation-anti-oxidation system of the thigh muscles at least partly through affecting ROS production.

  17. Neuromuscular properties of the thigh muscles in patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome

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    Gerrits, K.H.; Voermans, N.C.; Haan, A. de; Engelen, B.G.M. van

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS), a connective tissue disorder, may lead to impaired contractile function of lower limb muscles. METHODS: To test this hypothesis and to understand the possible mechanisms involved, isometric function of the thigh muscles was investigated at different joint

  18. Neuromuscular properties of the thigh muscles in patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, K.H.L.; Voermans, N.C.; de Haan, A.; van Engelen, B.G.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS), a connective tissue disorder, may lead to impaired contractile function of lower limb muscles. Methods: To test this hypothesis and to understand the possible mechanisms involved, isometric function of the thigh muscles was investigated at different joint

  19. Dietary oxidized poultry offal fat: broiler performance and oxidative stability of thigh meat during chilled storage

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    AMC Racanicci

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary oxidized poultry offal fat on the performance of broilers and on the oxidative stability of dark chicken meat. One hundred and sixty male chicks were fed a corn-soybean meal diet containing 4% fresh or oxidized poultry fat from 10 to 47 days of age. Fresh fat was stored frozen until diets were produced, and oxidized fat was obtained by electrical heating (110 to 120 ºC. Birds were slaughtered at 47 days of age, and carcass characteristics were measured. Skinless and deboned thigh meat was stored chilled during 12 days, and samples were periodically collected to assess their quality and oxidative stability. Dietary oxidized fat did not affect bird performance or carcass characteristics. During chilled storage, meat color (L*, a* and b* was not affected by dietary treatments; however, TBARS (Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances values were higher (P<0.05 in thigh meat from chickens fed the oxidized fat, indicating that oxidative stability was adversely affected.

  20. The adequate rocuronium dose required for complete block of the adductor muscles of the thigh.

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    Fujimoto, M; Kawano, K; Yamamoto, T

    2018-03-01

    Rocuronium can prevent the obturator jerk during transurethral resection of bladder tumors. We investigated the adequate rocuronium dose required for complete block of the thigh adductor muscles, and its correlation with individual responses of the adductor pollicis muscle to rocuronium. Eleven patients scheduled for transurethral resection of bladder tumors under general anesthesia were investigated. After general anesthesia induction, neuromuscular monitoring of the adductor pollicis muscle and ultrasonography-guided stimulation of the obturator nerve was commenced. Rocuronium, 0.15 mg/kg, was repeatedly administered intravenously. The adequate rocuronium dose required for complete block of the thigh muscles, defined as the cumulative dose of rocuronium administered until that time, and its correlation with the first twitch response of the adductor pollicis muscle on train-of-four stimulation after initial rocuronium administration was analyzed. The rocuronium dose found adequate for complete block of the thigh muscles was 0.30 mg/kg in seven patients and 0.45 mg/kg in the remaining four patients, which did not correlate with the first twitch response. At the time of complete block of the thigh muscles, the neuromuscular blockade level of the adductor pollicis muscle varied greatly, although the level was never more profound than a post-tetanic count of 1. Although the response of the adductor pollicis muscle to rocuronium cannot be used to determine the adequate rocuronium dose required for complete block of the thigh muscles, intense blockade, with maintenance of post-tetanic count at ≤ 1 in the adductor pollicis muscle is essential to prevent the obturator jerk. © 2017 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Effect of Vegetable Oil Fortified Feeds on the Content of Fatty Acids in Breast and Thigh Muscles in Broiler Chickens

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    Tereza Krejčí-Treu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work was to compare the effect of six vegetable oils added to feeding mixtures that were administered to broiler chickens on the content of major fatty acids in chicken meat. The experiment started with 90 one-day-old Ross 308 meat hybrid male chickens that were divided into six groups. Chickens were fed complete feeding mixtures for the prefattening (BR1, fattening (BR2, and post-fattening (BR3 of broiler chickens. The BR1 feeding mixture was administered to chickens aged 1-10 days, the BR2 feeding mixture was given from Day 11 to Day 30, and the BR3 feeding mixture was then administered until Day 42. The BR1 feeding mixture that was administered to all six groups during the first ten days of the experiment was supplemented with soybean oil. BR2 and BR3 feeding mixtures used to feed chickens aged 11-42 days were fortified with soybean oil (SO Group, rapeseed oil (RO Group, sunflower oil (SFO Group, flaxseed oil (FO Group, olive oil (OO Group, and evening primrose oil (EPO Group. The vegetable oils used differed by the composition of fatty acids, particularly by the content of oleic acid, linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid. The use of the above-described experimental diets in young broilers from Day 11 to 42 had a significant effect on the content of fatty acids in the fat from breast and thigh muscles. The content of α-linolenic acid in breast and thigh muscles of broilers that received the feed containing flaxseed oil (21.16 g/100 g of oil and 17.13 g/100 g of oil, respectively significantly increased (p ⪬ 0.01. The highest content of linoleic acid (p ⪬ 0.01 in breast and thigh muscles was found in chickens that were fed the feed containing primrose oil (59.13 g/100 g and 51.71 g/100 g. A significant increase (p ⪬ 0.01 in the level of oleic acid was detected in both breast and thigh muscles of broilers that received olive oil fortified feed (52.44 g/100 g and 43.70 g/100 g of oil. No significant variation was

  2. Improvement of Reliability of Diffusion Tensor Metrics in Thigh Skeletal Muscles.

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    Keller, Sarah; Chhabra, Avneesh; Ahmed, Shaheen; Kim, Anne C; Chia, Jonathan M; Yamamura, Jin; Wang, Zhiyue J

    2018-05-01

    Quantitative diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of skeletal muscles is challenging due to the bias in DTI metrics, such as fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD), related to insufficient signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). This study compares the bias of DTI metrics in skeletal muscles via pixel-based and region-of-interest (ROI)-based analysis. DTI of the thigh muscles was conducted on a 3.0-T system in N = 11 volunteers using a fat-suppressed single-shot spin-echo echo planar imaging (SS SE-EPI) sequence with eight repetitions (number of signal averages (NSA) = 4 or 8 for each repeat). The SNR was calculated for different NSAs and estimated for the composite images combining all data (effective NSA = 48) as standard reference. The bias of MD and FA derived by pixel-based and ROI-based quantification were compared at different NSAs. An "intra-ROI diffusion direction dispersion angle (IRDDDA)" was calculated to assess the uniformity of diffusion within the ROI. Using our standard reference image with NSA = 48, the ROI-based and pixel-based measurements agreed for FA and MD. Larger disagreements were observed for the pixel-based quantification at NSA = 4. MD was less sensitive than FA to the noise level. The IRDDDA decreased with higher NSA. At NSA = 4, ROI-based FA showed a lower average bias (0.9% vs. 37.4%) and narrower 95% limits of agreement compared to the pixel-based method. The ROI-based estimation of FA is less prone to bias than the pixel-based estimations when SNR is low. The IRDDDA can be applied as a quantitative quality measure to assess reliability of ROI-based DTI metrics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Decreased torque and electromyographic activity in the extensor thigh muscles in chondromalacia patellae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väätäinen, U; Airaksinen, O; Jaroma, H; Kiviranta, I

    1995-01-01

    The alterations in thigh muscle properties of chondromalacia patellae patients during isometric and dynamic endurance tests were studied using a variokinetic knee testing system linked to surface EMG. A total of 41 patients (chondromalacia group) with arthroscopically certified chondromalacia of the patella were studied. The control group consisted of 31 healthy adult volunteers with no history of knee pain or trauma. Peak torque values were 21% (p chondromalacia group than in the control group. The decrease in the ratio between integrated EMG (IEMG) and measured force were found in all parts of the quadriceps femoris muscle in patients with chondromalacia of the patella in isometric extension. No change in the normalized IEMG levels of the thigh muscles were found between chondromalacia patients and controls in dynamic endurance test. The severity of the chondromalacia of the patella did not affect the level of electromyographic activation in thigh muscles. The ratio of normalized EMG levels of vastus medialis and vastus lateralis did not differ between the groups. The present study showed that chondromalacia patellae patients have reduced force and electromyographic activation levels of quadriceps femoris muscle. Especially, the explosive strength of the quadriceps femoris muscle is reduced.

  4. Simultaneous thigh muscle metastasis from lung cancer and Escherichia coli gas producing myonecrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Gonzalo E.; Coursey, Courtney A.; Martinez, Salutario; Dodd, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    We present the case of a 41-year-old man with known large cell lung cancer who had undergone left pneumonectomy 7 months prior and who presented with a large intramuscular mass involving the posterior left thigh and upper calf. This thigh mass was ultimately surgically explored, and specimens yielded both Escherichia coli organisms and cells reflecting a skeletal muscle metastasis from the patient's known lung cancer. The patient was also found to have a rectal metastasis from his lung cancer. Intramuscular abscesses produced by gastrointestinal tract flora are a well-known presentation of colon cancer. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of the simultaneous occurrence of a skeletal muscle metastasis and an E. coli abscess in the same anatomic location. We believe the patient's rectal metastasis may have been the intermediate step in this process. (orig.)

  5. Simultaneous thigh muscle metastasis from lung cancer and Escherichia coli gas producing myonecrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Gonzalo E. [Hospital Italiano, Department of Radiology, Cordoba (Argentina); Coursey, Courtney A.; Martinez, Salutario [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States); Dodd, Leslie [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Durham, NC (United States)

    2008-08-15

    We present the case of a 41-year-old man with known large cell lung cancer who had undergone left pneumonectomy 7 months prior and who presented with a large intramuscular mass involving the posterior left thigh and upper calf. This thigh mass was ultimately surgically explored, and specimens yielded both Escherichia coli organisms and cells reflecting a skeletal muscle metastasis from the patient's known lung cancer. The patient was also found to have a rectal metastasis from his lung cancer. Intramuscular abscesses produced by gastrointestinal tract flora are a well-known presentation of colon cancer. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of the simultaneous occurrence of a skeletal muscle metastasis and an E. coli abscess in the same anatomic location. We believe the patient's rectal metastasis may have been the intermediate step in this process. (orig.)

  6. The 6-minute walk test, motor function measure and quantitative thigh muscle MRI in Becker muscular dystrophy: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Dirk; Hafner, Patricia; Rubino, Daniela; Schmid, Maurice; Neuhaus, Cornelia; Jung, Hans; Bieri, Oliver; Haas, Tanja; Gloor, Monika; Fischmann, Arne; Bonati, Ulrike

    2016-07-01

    Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) has an incidence of 1 in 16 000 male births. This cross-sectional study investigated the relation between validated functional scores and quantitative MRI (qMRI) of thigh muscles in 20 ambulatory BMD patients, aged 18.3-60 years (mean 31.2; SD 11.1). Clinical assessments included the motor function measure (MFM) and its subscales, as well as timed function tests such as the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) and the timed 10-m run/walk test. Quantitative MRI of the thigh muscles included the mean fat fraction (MFF) using a 2-point Dixon (2-PD) technique, and transverse relaxation time (T2) measurements. The mean MFM value was 80.4%, SD 9.44 and the D1 subscore 54.5%, SD 19.9. The median 6MWT was 195m, IQR 160-330.2. The median 10-m run/walk test was 7.4 seconds, IQR 6.1-9.3. The mean fat fraction of the thigh muscles was 55.6%, SD 17.4%, mean T2 relaxation times of all muscles: 69.9 ms, SD 14.4. The flexors had the highest MFF and T2 relaxation times, followed by the extensors and the adductors. MFF and global T2 relaxation times were highly negatively correlated with the MFM total, D1-subscore and 6MWT, and positively correlated with the 10 m run/walk test time (p < 0.01). Age was not correlated with MFF, global T2 relaxation time or clinical assessments. Both MFF and T2 measures in the thigh muscle were well correlated with clinical function in BMD and may serve as a surrogate outcome measure in clinical trials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Long-term follow-up of MRI changes in thigh muscles of patients with Facioscapulohumeral dystrophy: A quantitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatehi, Farzad; Salort-Campana, Emmanuelle; Le Troter, Arnaud; Lareau-Trudel, Emilie; Bydder, Mark; Fouré, Alexandre; Guye, Maxime; Bendahan, David; Attarian, Shahram

    2017-01-01

    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is one of the most common hereditary muscular disorders. Currently FSHD has no known effective treatment and detailed data on the natural history are lacking. Determination of the efficacy of a given therapeutic approach might be difficult in FSHD given the slow and highly variable disease progression. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been widely used to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate in vivo the muscle alterations in various neuromuscular disorders. The main aim of the present study was to investigate longitudinally the time-dependent changes occurring in thigh muscles of FSHD patients using quantitative MRI and to assess the potential relationships with the clinical findings. Thirty-five FSHD1 patients (17 females) were enrolled. Clinical assessment tools including manual muscle testing using medical research council score (MRC), and motor function measure (MFM) were recorded each year for a period ranging from 1 to 2 years. For the MRI measurements, we used a new quantitative index, i.e., the mean pixel intensity (MPI) calculated from the pixel-intensity distribution in T1 weighted images. The corresponding MPI scores were calculated for each thigh, for each compartment and for both thighs totally (MPItotal). The total mean pixel intensity (MPItotal) refers to the sum of each pixel signal intensity divided by the corresponding number of pixels. An increased MPItotal indicates both a raised fat infiltration together with a reduced muscle volume thereby illustrating disease progression. Clinical scores did not change significantly over time whereas MPItotal increased significantly from an initial averaged value of 39.6 to 41.1 with a corresponding rate of 0.62/year. While clinical scores and MPItotal measured at the start of the study were significantly related, no correlation was found between the rate of MPItotal and MRC sum score changes, MFMtotal and MFM subscores. The relative rate of MPItotal

  8. Long-term follow-up of MRI changes in thigh muscles of patients with Facioscapulohumeral dystrophy: A quantitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Fatehi

    Full Text Available Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD is one of the most common hereditary muscular disorders. Currently FSHD has no known effective treatment and detailed data on the natural history are lacking. Determination of the efficacy of a given therapeutic approach might be difficult in FSHD given the slow and highly variable disease progression. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has been widely used to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate in vivo the muscle alterations in various neuromuscular disorders. The main aim of the present study was to investigate longitudinally the time-dependent changes occurring in thigh muscles of FSHD patients using quantitative MRI and to assess the potential relationships with the clinical findings. Thirty-five FSHD1 patients (17 females were enrolled. Clinical assessment tools including manual muscle testing using medical research council score (MRC, and motor function measure (MFM were recorded each year for a period ranging from 1 to 2 years. For the MRI measurements, we used a new quantitative index, i.e., the mean pixel intensity (MPI calculated from the pixel-intensity distribution in T1 weighted images. The corresponding MPI scores were calculated for each thigh, for each compartment and for both thighs totally (MPItotal. The total mean pixel intensity (MPItotal refers to the sum of each pixel signal intensity divided by the corresponding number of pixels. An increased MPItotal indicates both a raised fat infiltration together with a reduced muscle volume thereby illustrating disease progression. Clinical scores did not change significantly over time whereas MPItotal increased significantly from an initial averaged value of 39.6 to 41.1 with a corresponding rate of 0.62/year. While clinical scores and MPItotal measured at the start of the study were significantly related, no correlation was found between the rate of MPItotal and MRC sum score changes, MFMtotal and MFM subscores. The relative rate of

  9. Progression and variation of fatty infiltration of the thigh muscles in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, a muscle magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenzhu; Zheng, Yiming; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Zhaoxia; Xiao, Jiangxi; Yuan, Yun

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the progression and variation of fatty infiltration of the thigh muscles of Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients. Muscle magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure the degree of fatty infiltration of the thigh muscles of 171 boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (mean age, 6.09 ± 2.30 years). Fatty infiltration was assigned using a modified Mercuri's scale 0-5 (normal-severe). The gluteus maximus and adductor magnus were affected in patients less than two years old, followed by the biceps femoris. Quadriceps and semimembranosus were first affected at the age of five to six years; the sartorius, gracilis and adductor longus remained apparently unaffected until seven years of age. Fatty infiltration of all the thigh muscles developed rapidly after seven years of age. The standard deviation of the fatty infiltration scores ranged from 2.41 to 4.87 before five years old, and from 6.84 to 11.66 between six and ten years old. This study provides evidence of highly variable degrees of fatty infiltration in children of different ages with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and indicates that fatty infiltration progresses more quickly after seven years of age. These findings may be beneficial for the selection of therapeutic regimens and the analysis of future clinical trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Reliability of computed tomography measurements in assessment of thigh muscle cross-sectional area and attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strandberg, Sören; Wretling, Marie-Louise; Wredmark, Torsten; Shalabi, Adel

    2010-01-01

    Advancement in technology of computer tomography (CT) and introduction of new medical imaging softwares enables easy and rapid assessment of muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and attenuation. Before using these techniques in clinical studies there is a need for evaluation of the reliability of the measurements. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the inter- and intra-observer reliability of ImageJ in measuring thigh muscles CSA and attenuation in patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury by computer tomography. 31 patients from an ongoing study of rehabilitation and muscle atrophy after ACL reconstruction were included in the study. Axial CT images with slice thickness of 10 mm at the level of 150 mm above the knee joint were analyzed by two investigators independently at two times with a minimum of 3 weeks between the two readings using NIH ImageJ. CSA and the mean attenuation of individual thigh muscles were analyzed for both legs. Mean CSA and mean attenuation values were in good agreement both when comparing the two observers and the two replicates. The inter- and intraclass correlation (ICC) was generally very high with values from 0.98 to 1.00 for all comparisons except for the area of semimembranosus. All the ICC values were significant (p < 0,001). Pearson correlation coefficients were also generally very high with values from 0.98 to 1.00 for all comparisons except for the area of semimembranosus (0.95 for intraobserver and 0.92 for interobserver). This study has presented ImageJ as a method to monitor and evaluate CSA and attenuation of different muscles in the thigh using CT-imaging. The method shows an overall excellent reliability with respect to both observer and replicate

  11. Quantitative ultrasound tissue characterization in shoulder and thigh muscles – a new approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgensen Kurt

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The echogenicity patterns of ultrasound scans contain information of tissue composition in muscles. The aim was: (1 to develop a quantitative ultrasound image analysis to characterize tissue composition in terms of intensity and structure of the ultrasound images, and (2 to use the method for characterization of ultrasound images of the supraspinatus muscle, and the vastus lateralis muscle. Methods Computerized texture analyses employing first-order and higher-order grey-scale statistics were developed to objectively characterize ultrasound images of m. supraspinatus and m. vastus lateralis from 9 healthy participants. Results The mean grey-scale intensity was higher in the vastus lateralis muscle (p -2 and for m. supraspinatus: 0.016 mm-2. Conclusion The higher intensity and the higher number of blobs in the vastus lateralis muscle indicates that the thigh muscle contained more non-contractile components than the supraspinatus muscle, and that the muscle was coarser. The image analyses supplemented each other and gave a more complete description of the tissue composition in the muscle than the mean grey-scale value alone.

  12. Quantifying the Elastic Property of Nine Thigh Muscles Using Magnetic Resonance Elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakouch, Mashhour K; Charleux, Fabrice; Bensamoun, Sabine F

    2015-01-01

    Pathologies of the muscles can manifest different physiological and functional changes. To adapt treatment, it is necessary to characterize the elastic property (shear modulus) of single muscles. Previous studies have used magnetic resonance elastography (MRE), a technique based on MRI technology, to analyze the mechanical behavior of healthy and pathological muscles. The purpose of this study was to develop protocols using MRE to determine the shear modulus of nine thigh muscles at rest. Twenty-nine healthy volunteers (mean age = 26 ± 3.41 years) with no muscle abnormalities underwent MRE tests (1.5 T MRI). Five MRE protocols were developed to quantify the shear moduli of the nine following thigh muscles at rest: rectus femoris (RF), vastus medialis (VM), vastus intermedius (VI), vastus lateralis (VL), sartorius (Sr), gracilis (Gr), semimembranosus (SM), semitendinosus (ST), and biceps (BC). In addition, the shear modulus of the subcutaneous adipose tissue was analyzed. The gracilis, sartorius, and semitendinosus muscles revealed a significantly higher shear modulus (μ_Gr = 6.15 ± 0.45 kPa, μ_ Sr = 5.15 ± 0.19 kPa, and μ_ ST = 5.32 ± 0.10 kPa, respectively) compared to other tissues (from μ_ RF = 3.91 ± 0.16 kPa to μ_VI = 4.23 ± 0.25 kPa). Subcutaneous adipose tissue had the lowest value (μ_adipose tissue = 3.04 ± 0.12 kPa) of all the tissues tested. The different elasticities measured between the tissues may be due to variations in the muscles' physiological and architectural compositions. Thus, the present protocol could be applied to injured muscles to identify their behavior of elastic property. Previous studies on muscle pathology found that quantification of the shear modulus could be used as a clinical protocol to identify pathological muscles and to follow-up effects of treatments and therapies. These data could also be used for modelling purposes.

  13. Estimation of thigh muscle mass with magnetic resonance imaging in older adults and people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Sunita; Takai, Karen Pr; Macintyre, Donna L; Reid, Darlene

    2008-02-01

    Quantifying muscle mass is an essential part of physical therapy assessment, particularly in older adults and in people with chronic conditions associated with muscle atrophy. The purposes of this study were to examine the relationship between muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and volume by use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to compare anthropometric estimations of midthigh CSA with measurements obtained from MRI. Twenty older adults who were healthy and 20 people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), matched for age, sex, and body mass index, underwent MRI to obtain measurements of thigh muscle CSA and volume. Anthropometric measurements (skinfold thickness and thigh circumference) were used to estimate midthigh CSA. Muscle volumes were significantly lower in the people with COPD than in the older adults who were healthy. Moderate to high correlations were found between midthigh CSA and volume in both groups (r=.61-.94). Anthropometric measurements tended to overestimate midthigh CSA in both the people with COPD (estimated CSA=64.9+/-17.8; actual CSA=48.3+/-10.2 cm(2)) and the older adults who were healthy (estimated quadriceps femoris muscle CSA=65.0+/-14.0; actual CSA=56.8+/-13.5 cm(2)). Furthermore, the estimated quadriceps femoris muscle CSAs were not sensitive enough to detect a difference in muscle size between people with COPD and controls. Thigh circumference alone was not different between groups and showed only low to moderate correlations with muscle volume (r=.19-.47). Muscle CSA measured from a single slice provides a good indication of volume, but the most representative slice should be chosen on the basis of the muscle group of interest. Thigh circumference is not correlated with muscle volume and, therefore, should not be used as an indicator of muscle size. The development of population-specific reference equations for estimating muscle CSA from anthropometric measurements is warranted.

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound and real-time ultrasound elastography of the thigh muscles in congenital muscle dystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drakonaki, Eleni E. [University of Crete, Radiology Department, Heraklion (Greece); Allen, Gina M. [Green Templeton College, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    Congenital muscle dystrophy includes a range of genetic disorders characterized by muscle weakness and contractures. We report the magnetic resonance (MR), ultrasound (US) and real-time sonoelastography (RTE) imaging findings of the thigh muscles of a 15-year-old boy with Bethlem myopathy diagnosed with clinical, electromyographic and histopathological criteria. Ultrasound and MR showed hyperechoic appearance and high signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted sequences respectively at the periphery of the vastus lateralis and the long head of the biceps femoris muscles, and at a central area within the rectus femoris muscles. RTE was employed to examine the elastic properties of the muscle. The elastograms were presented as colour-coded maps superimposed on the B-mode images and revealed that the elastographic pattern correlated with the MR and US pattern of involvement. The abnormal muscle areas were stiffer (blue) than the normal-appearing areas (green), a finding that probably correlates with the presence of dystrophic collagen at the affected areas. This report suggests that RTE could be used as an additional imaging tool to evaluate the pattern of muscle changes in congenital myopathy. Further studies are needed to investigate the specificity and clinical value of RTE in the diagnosis and monitoring of neuromuscular disease. (orig.)

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound and real-time ultrasound elastography of the thigh muscles in congenital muscle dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drakonaki, Eleni E.; Allen, Gina M.

    2010-01-01

    Congenital muscle dystrophy includes a range of genetic disorders characterized by muscle weakness and contractures. We report the magnetic resonance (MR), ultrasound (US) and real-time sonoelastography (RTE) imaging findings of the thigh muscles of a 15-year-old boy with Bethlem myopathy diagnosed with clinical, electromyographic and histopathological criteria. Ultrasound and MR showed hyperechoic appearance and high signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted sequences respectively at the periphery of the vastus lateralis and the long head of the biceps femoris muscles, and at a central area within the rectus femoris muscles. RTE was employed to examine the elastic properties of the muscle. The elastograms were presented as colour-coded maps superimposed on the B-mode images and revealed that the elastographic pattern correlated with the MR and US pattern of involvement. The abnormal muscle areas were stiffer (blue) than the normal-appearing areas (green), a finding that probably correlates with the presence of dystrophic collagen at the affected areas. This report suggests that RTE could be used as an additional imaging tool to evaluate the pattern of muscle changes in congenital myopathy. Further studies are needed to investigate the specificity and clinical value of RTE in the diagnosis and monitoring of neuromuscular disease. (orig.)

  16. Anterior thigh composition measured using ultrasound imaging to quantify relative thickness of muscle and non-contractile tissue: a potential biomarker for musculoskeletal health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agyapong-Badu, Sandra; Warner, Martin; Samuel, Dinesh; Stokes, Maria; Narici, Marco; Cooper, Cyrus

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to use ultrasound imaging to provide objective data on the effects of ageing and gender on relative thickness of quadriceps muscle and non-contractile tissue thickness (subcutaneous fat, SF, combined with perimuscular fascia). In 136 healthy males and females (aged 18–90 years n = 63 aged 18–35 years; n = 73 aged 65–90) images of the anterior thigh (dominant) were taken in relaxed supine using B-mode ultrasound imaging. Thickness of muscle, SF and perimuscular fascia were measured, and percentage thickness of total anterior thigh thickness calculated. Independent t-tests compared groups. Correlation between tissue thickness and BMI was examined using Pearson’s coefficient. Muscle thickness was: 39  ±  8 mm in young males, 29  ±  6 mm in females, 25  ±  4 mm in older males and 20  ±  5 mm in females. Percentage muscle to thigh thickness was greater in young participants (p = 0.001). Percentage SF and fascia was 17  ±  6% in young and 26  ±  8% in older males, 32  ±  7% in young and 44  ±  7% in older females. BMI was similar for age and correlated moderately with non-contractile tissue (r = 0.54; p < 0.001) and poorly with muscle (r = −0.01; p = 0.93). In conclusion, this novel application of ultrasound imaging as a simple and rapid means of assessing thigh composition (relative thickness of muscle and non-contractile tissue) may help inform health status, e.g. in older people at risk of frailty and loss of mobility, and aid monitoring effects of weight loss or gain, deconditioning and exercise. (paper)

  17. Timed function tests, motor function measure, and quantitative thigh muscle MRI in ambulant children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy: A cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Simone; Hafner, Patricia; Klein, Andrea; Rubino-Nacht, Daniela; Gocheva, Vanya; Schroeder, Jonas; Naduvilekoot Devasia, Arjith; Zuesli, Stephanie; Bernert, Guenther; Laugel, Vincent; Bloetzer, Clemens; Steinlin, Maja; Capone, Andrea; Gloor, Monika; Tobler, Patrick; Haas, Tanja; Bieri, Oliver; Zumbrunn, Thomas; Fischer, Dirk; Bonati, Ulrike

    2018-01-01

    The development of new therapeutic agents for the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy has put a focus on defining outcome measures most sensitive to capture treatment effects. This cross-sectional analysis investigates the relation between validated clinical assessments such as the 6-minute walk test, motor function measure and quantitative muscle MRI of thigh muscles in ambulant Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients, aged 6.5 to 10.8 years (mean 8.2, SD 1.1). Quantitative muscle MRI included the mean fat fraction using a 2-point Dixon technique, and transverse relaxation time (T2) measurements. All clinical assessments were highly significantly inter-correlated with p muscle MRI values significantly correlated with all clinical assessments with the extensors showing the strongest correlation. In contrast to the clinical assessments, quantitative muscle MRI values were highly significantly correlated with age. In conclusion, the motor function measure and timed function tests measure disease severity in a highly comparable fashion and all tests correlated with quantitative muscle MRI values quantifying fatty muscle degeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation for computerized axial tomography to three anthropomorphic methods to estimate the thigh muscle area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Vieitez, Jorge Alberto; Alvarez Cuesta, Jose Alberto; Williams Wilson, Luis

    2001-01-01

    Three anthropometric methods to estimate the thigh muscle area (TMA, cm) were evaluated. Seventeen young males were taken as a sample. The TMA was estimated by using the formulas of Gurney-Jellife, Jones-Pearson, Housh, and others. In the same place where the measurements of circumferences and skinfolds were made, the TAM was determined by computerized axial tomography. It was used as a reference criterion with which the anthropometric values were compared. The methods of Gurney-Jellife and Jones-Pearson significantly overestimated the TAM obtained by CAT (9.0 + - 12.8 cm 2 [4.4 %]; p = 0.01 and 22.0 + - 14.9 cm 2 [10.9 %]; p = 1.6 . 10-5, respectively), whereas that of Housh and others underestimated the values of CAT (-48.8 + - 11.7 cm 2 [24.1 %]; p = 9.4 . 10-12). The Gurney-Jellife equation was the only one that proved to be interchangeable with CAT, on obtaining a coefficient of correlation (r) and a slope of regression (b) for the difference and the average between both methods that were not statistically significant (r 0,421; b = 0,21 + - 0.12, p = 0.09). It was concluded that of the 3 studied anthropometric methods, the Gurney-Jellife method offers the most accurate TAM values

  19. Skeletal muscle fat content is inversely associated with bone strength in young girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Joshua N; Funk, Janet L; Chen, Zhao; Lisse, Jeffrey R; Blew, Robert M; Lee, Vinson R; Laudermilk, Monica; Lohman, Timothy G; Going, Scott B

    2011-09-01

    Childhood obesity is an established risk factor for metabolic disease. The influence of obesity on bone development, however, remains controversial and may depend on the pattern of regional fat deposition. Therefore, we examined the associations of regional fat compartments of the calf and thigh with weight-bearing bone parameters in girls. Data from 444 girls aged 9 to 12 years from the Jump-In: Building Better Bones study were analyzed. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) was used to assess bone parameters at metaphyseal and diaphyseal sites of the femur and tibia along with subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT, mm(2) ) and muscle density (mg/cm(3) ), an index of skeletal muscle fat content. As expected, SAT was positively correlated with total-body fat mass (r = 0.87-0.89, p  .05), except the distal tibia (β = 0.09, p = .03). In conclusion, skeletal muscle fat content of the calf and thigh is inversely associated with weight-bearing bone strength in young girls. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  20. Managing Knee Osteoarthritis: The Effects of Body Weight Supported Physical Activity on Joint Pain, Function, and Thigh Muscle Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeler, Jason; Christian, Mathew; Cooper, Juliette; Leiter, Jeffrey; MacDonald, Peter

    2015-11-01

    To determine the effect of a 12-week lower body positive pressure (LBPP)-supported low-load treadmill walking program on knee joint pain, function, and thigh muscle strength in overweight patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Prospective, observational, repeated measures investigation. Community-based, multidisciplinary sports medicine clinic. Thirty-one patients aged between 55 and 75 years, with a body mass index ≥25 kg/m and mild-to-moderate knee OA. Twelve-week LBPP-supported low-load treadmill walking regimen. Acute knee joint pain (visual analog scale) during full weight bearing treadmill walking, chronic knee pain, and joint function [Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) questionnaire] during normal activities of daily living, and thigh muscle strength (isokinetic testing). Appropriate methods of statistical analysis were used to compare data from baseline and follow-up evaluation. Participants reported significant improvements in knee joint pain and function and demonstrated significant increases in thigh muscle strength about the degenerative knee. Participants also experienced significant reductions in acute knee pain during full weight bearing treadmill walking and required dramatically less LBPP support to walk pain free on the treadmill. Data suggest that an LBPP-supported low-load exercise regimen can be used to significantly diminish knee pain, enhance joint function, and increase thigh muscle strength, while safely promoting pain-free walking exercise in overweight patients with knee OA. These findings have important implications for the development of nonoperative treatment strategies that can be used in the management of joint symptoms associated with progressive knee OA in at-risk patient populations. This research suggests that LBPP-supported low-load walking is a safe user-friendly mode of exercise that can be successfully used in the management of day-to-day joint symptoms associated with knee OA, helping to improve the

  1. The neuromechanical functional contractile properties of the thigh muscles measured using tensiomyography in male athletes and non-athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toskić Lazar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Involuntary neuromechanical muscle contractile properties, especially of the extensor muscles and knee joint flexors as the largest muscle groups of the caudal part of the body, play an important role in both everyday movement and sport. Based on these data we can obtain important information on the functional properties of muscles. The basic means of evaluation of the functional involuntary neuromechanical muscles contractile properties is the non-invasive tensiomyographic method (TMG. The aim of this study was to determine the differences between the involuntary neuromechanical contractile properties of the thigh muscles measured using the TMG method on a sample of male athletes and non-athletes. The sample of participants was made up of 17 athletes and 10 non-athletes. By applying the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA and the t-test, we achieved results which indicate that of the overall 30 variables, a difference was determined among 13 of them. Most of the differences were determined for the extensor muscles of the right knee, especially of the rectus femoris muscle. It was also shown that in addition to the main knee joint extensor muscle (rectus femoris the main knee joint flexor muscle (biceps femoris also takes part in the definition of the difference between athletes and non-athletes. The results have shown that the following variables: contraction time (Tc and delay contraction time (Td are the functional parameters for which the highest difference between athletes and non-athletes were determined (from t = -2.284, p < 0.05 for the vastus lateralis of the right leg to t = -4.018, p < 0.01 for the rectus femoris of the left leg. These results have shown that it is possible to determine the differences in the functional involuntary neuromechanical contractile properties of the thigh muscles among trained and untrained individuals using the tensiomyographic method, but at the same time indicated that these differences were very

  2. The Effect of Utilization of Sweet Potato Flour as Energy Source of Broiler Feed at Finisher Period to Carcass Weight, Chest Weight, Thigh Weight and Abdominal Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonok Supartini

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of current research is was to know the effect of feeding sweet potato flour as a source of energy to carcass weight, chest weight, thigh weight, and abdominal fat.The material of the research were 80 finisher male broiler with initial weight of 963.37 ± 31.23 g. Completely Randomized Design (CRD used for research method which consisted of 4 treatment, namely feeding without sweet potato flour (P0, with concentration of sweet potato flour of 10% (P1, 20% (P2 and 30% (P3.The parameter of research were carcass weight, chest weight,thigh weight and abdominal fat. The results showed that the gift effect of sweet potato flour to carcass weight were P0 1199.4%; P1 1138.98%; P2 1076.6; P3 1038.2; chest weight of P0 358.08; P1 366.6; P2 337.8; and P3 323.4%; thigh weight of P0 479.8; P1 472.94; P2 468.4; and P3 442; and abdominal fat of P0 33.2; P1 35.6; P2 25.4; P3 27.8. It could be concluded that the concentration of 10% sweet potato flour from total feeding gave the best treatment.   Keywords : sweet potato flour, carcass weight, chest weight, thigh weight, abdominal fat

  3. Impact of Weight Loss on Physical Function with Changes in Strength, Muscle Mass, and Muscle Fat Infiltration in Overweight to Moderately Obese Older Adults: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J. Santanasto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Evaluate the effects of weight loss on muscle mass and area, muscle fat infiltration, strength, and their association with physical function. Methods. Thirty-six overweight to moderately obese, sedentary older adults were randomized into either a physical activity plus weight loss (PA+WL or physical activity plus successful aging health education (PA+SA program. Measurements included body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computerized tomography, knee extensor strength, and short physical performance battery (SPPB. Results. At 6 months, PA+WL lost greater thigh fat and muscle area compared to PA+SA. PA+WL lost 12.4% strength; PA+SA lost 1.0%. Muscle fat infiltration decreased significantly in PA+WL and PA+SA. Thigh fat area decreased 6-fold in comparison to lean area in PA+WL. Change in total SPPB score was strongly inversely correlated with change in fat but not with change in lean or strength. Conclusion. Weight loss resulted in additional improvements in function over exercise alone, primarily due to loss of body fat.

  4. Heterogeneous recruitment of quadriceps muscle portions and fibre types during moderate intensity knee-extensor exercise: effect of thigh occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Söderlund, Karin; Relu, Mihai U.

    2009-01-01

    temperature increase (DeltaT(m)) in RF was 0.52+/-0.09 degrees C, which was 57% and 73% higher (Pmuscle CP in slow twitch (ST) and fast......The involvement of quadriceps femoris muscle portions and fibre type recruitment was studied during submaximal knee-extensor exercise without and with thigh occlusion (OCC) and compared with responses during intense exercise. Six healthy male subjects performed 90-s of moderate exercise without...... twitch (FT) fibres was 81% and 91% of resting levels, respectively, with lower (Pfibres had CP levels below mean-1 SD, respectively, with corresponding values for FT fibres being 41...

  5. Deep soft tissue leiomyoma of the thigh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, G.M.T.; Saifuddin, A.; Sandison, A.

    1999-01-01

    A case of ossified leiomyoma of the deep soft tissues of the left thigh is presented. The radiographic appearance suggested a low-grade chondrosarcoma. MRI of the lesion showed signal characteristics similar to muscle on both T1- and T2-weighted spin echo sequences with linear areas of high signal intensity on T1-weighted images consistent with medullary fat in metaplastic bone. Histopathological examination of the resected specimen revealed a benign ossified soft tissue leiomyoma. (orig.)

  6. Differential Proteome Analysis of Breast and Thigh Muscles between Korean Native Chickens and Commercial Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian De Liu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Korean native chickens (Woorimotdak™, KNC and commercial broilers (Ross, CB show obvious differences in meat flavor after cooking. To understand the contribution of protein and peptide for meat flavor, 2-dimensional (2-D gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry was performed. A total of 16 protein spots were differentially expressed in the breast and thigh meat between the two breeds. A total of seven protein spots were represented by different levels between KNC and CB for breast meat. Among them three protein spots (TU39149, TU40162 and TU39598 showed increases in their expressions in KNC while other four protein spots (BU40125, BU40119, BU40029 and BU39904 showed increases in CB. All nine protein spots that were represented by different levels between KNC and CB for thigh meat showed increases in their expression in KNC. Phosphoglucomutase 1 (PGM 1, myosin heavy chain (MyHC, heat shock protein B1 (HSP27, cytochrome c reductase (Enzyme Q, Glyoxylase 1, DNA methyltransferase 3B (DNA MTase 3 were identified as the main protein spots by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. These results can provide valuable basic information for understanding the molecular mechanism responsible for breed specific differences in meat quality, especially the meat flavour.

  7. Influence of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear on Thigh Muscle Strength and Hamstring-to-Quadriceps Ratio: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sung-Eun; Park, Min-Ji; Lee, Dae-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical compensation after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear could cause quadriceps weakness and hamstring activation, preventing anterior tibial subluxation and affecting the expected hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio. Although quadriceps weakness often occurs after ACL tears, it remains unclear whether hamstring strength and hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio increase in ACL deficient knees. This meta-analysis compared the isokinetic muscle strength of quadriceps and hamstring muscles, and the hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio, of the injured and injured limbs of patients with ACL tears. This meta-analysis included all studies comparing isokinetic thigh muscle strengths and hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio in the injured and uninjured legs of patients with ACL tear, without or before surgery. Thirteen studies were included in the meta-analysis. Quadriceps and hamstring strengths were 22.3 N∙m (95% CI: 15.2 to 29.3 N∙m; Phamstring-to-quadriceps ratio was 4% greater in ACL deficient than in uninjured limbs (95% CI: 1.7% to 6.3%; Phamstring muscles of patients with ACL tear, with the decrease in quadriceps strength being 3-fold greater. These uneven reductions slightly increase the hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio in ACL deficient knees. PMID:26745808

  8. Muscle-skeletal model of the thigh: a tool for understanding the biomechanics of gait in patients with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravera, Emiliano Pablo; Catalfamo Formento, Paola Andrea; José Crespo, Marcos; Andrés Braidot, Ariel

    2011-12-01

    Cerebral Palsy represents the most common cause of physical disability in modern world and within the pediatrics orthopedics units. The gait analysis provides great contributions to the understanding of gait disorders in CP. Giving a more comprehensive treatment plan, including or excluding surgical procedures that can potentially decrease the number of surgical interventions in the life of these patients. Recommendations for orthopedic surgery may be based on a quantitative description of how to alter the properties probably muscle force generation, and how this affects the action of the muscle to determine how these muscles, impaired by disease or surgery, contributing to the movement of the segments of the limb during crouch gait. So the causes and appropriate treatment of gait abnormalities are difficult to determine because the movements generated by the muscular forces of these patients are not clearly understood. A correct determination of the etiology of abnormal patterns of the knee is the key to select the appropriate therapy, presenting a major challenge at present since there is no theoretical basis to determine the biomechanical causes of abnormal gait of these patients. The potential and necessity of using correct biomechanical models that consistently study the abnormalities becomes clear. Reinforcing and correcting a simple gait analysis and eliminating the unknowns when selecting the appropriate treatment is crucial in clinical settings. In this paper a computer muscle-skeletal model is proposed. The model represents a person's thigh simulating the six most representative muscles and joints of the hip and knee. In this way you can have a better understanding of gait abnormalities present in these patients. So the quality of these estimates of individual muscle dynamics facilitate better understanding of the biomechanics of gait pathologies helping to reach better diagnosis prior to surgery and rehabilitation treatments.

  9. Muscle-skeletal model of the thigh: a tool for understanding the biomechanics of gait in patients with cerebral palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravera, Emiliano Pablo; Catalfamo Formento, Paola Andrea; Crespo, Marcos José; Braidot, Ariel Andrés

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral Palsy represents the most common cause of physical disability in modern world and within the pediatrics orthopedics units. The gait analysis provides great contributions to the understanding of gait disorders in CP. Giving a more comprehensive treatment plan, including or excluding surgical procedures that can potentially decrease the number of surgical interventions in the life of these patients. Recommendations for orthopedic surgery may be based on a quantitative description of how to alter the properties probably muscle force generation, and how this affects the action of the muscle to determine how these muscles, impaired by disease or surgery, contributing to the movement of the segments of the limb during crouch gait. So the causes and appropriate treatment of gait abnormalities are difficult to determine because the movements generated by the muscular forces of these patients are not clearly understood. A correct determination of the etiology of abnormal patterns of the knee is the key to select the appropriate therapy, presenting a major challenge at present since there is no theoretical basis to determine the biomechanical causes of abnormal gait of these patients. The potential and necessity of using correct biomechanical models that consistently study the abnormalities becomes clear. Reinforcing and correcting a simple gait analysis and eliminating the unknowns when selecting the appropriate treatment is crucial in clinical settings. In this paper a computer muscle-skeletal model is proposed. The model represents a person's thigh simulating the six most representative muscles and joints of the hip and knee. In this way you can have a better understanding of gait abnormalities present in these patients. So the quality of these estimates of individual muscle dynamics facilitate better understanding of the biomechanics of gait pathologies helping to reach better diagnosis prior to surgery and rehabilitation treatments.

  10. Influence of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear on Thigh Muscle Strength and Hamstring-to-Quadriceps Ratio: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jung; Lee, Jin-Hyuck; Ahn, Sung-Eun; Park, Min-Ji; Lee, Dae-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical compensation after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear could cause quadriceps weakness and hamstring activation, preventing anterior tibial subluxation and affecting the expected hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio. Although quadriceps weakness often occurs after ACL tears, it remains unclear whether hamstring strength and hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio increase in ACL deficient knees. This meta-analysis compared the isokinetic muscle strength of quadriceps and hamstring muscles, and the hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio, of the injured and injured limbs of patients with ACL tears. This meta-analysis included all studies comparing isokinetic thigh muscle strengths and hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio in the injured and uninjured legs of patients with ACL tear, without or before surgery. Thirteen studies were included in the meta-analysis. Quadriceps and hamstring strengths were 22.3 N∙m (95% CI: 15.2 to 29.3 N∙m; Pratio was 4% greater in ACL deficient than in uninjured limbs (95% CI: 1.7% to 6.3%; Pratio in ACL deficient knees.

  11. Muscle tension increases impact force but decreases energy absorption and pain during visco-elastic impacts to human thighs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Felix; Pain, Matthew T G

    2018-01-23

    Despite uncertainty of its exact role, muscle tension has shown an ability to alter human biomechanical response and may have the ability to reduce impact injury severity. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of muscle tension on human impact response in terms of force and energy absorbed and the subjects' perceptions of pain. Seven male martial artists had a 3.9 kg medicine ball dropped vertically from seven different heights, 1.0-1.6 m in equal increments, onto their right thigh. Subjects were instructed to either relax or tense the quadriceps via knee extension (≥60% MVC) prior to each impact. F-scan pressure insoles sampling at 500 Hz recorded impact force and video was recorded at 1000 Hz to determine energy loss from the medicine ball during impact. Across all impacts force was 11% higher, energy absorption was 15% lower and time to peak force was 11% lower whilst perceived impact intensity was significantly lower when tensed. Whether muscle is tensed or not had a significant and meaningful effect on perceived discomfort. However, it did not relate to impact force between conditions and so tensing may alter localised injury risk during human on human type impacts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Instrumental evaluation of colour changes in broiler breast and thigh muscles after irradiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabielski, J.; Jaworska-Piasecka, A.; Stangierski, J.

    2004-01-01

    Colour changes in Biceps femoris, Rectus femoris and Pectoralis major broiler chicken muscles were determined with a reflectance colorimeter after irradiation with gamma 60Co rays. The muscles were irradiated with doses of 2, 3, 5, 7 and 10 kGy. The colour parameters L*, a* and b* were measured after 2, 5, 7 and 9 days of refrigerated storage of muscles at 1 deg C using a MINOLTA CR-200b reflectance colorimeter. The saturation of colour C* was also calculated and the significance of redness and yellowness effect on saturation was estimated by a linear regression analysis. Only in the Biceps femoris muscle were all the examined colour parameters found to be dependent both on storage time and irradiation treatment, however, the relationship between the dose and the measured effect demonstrated no linear characteristics. It was noted that the difference between the irradiated and control Biceps femoris muscles resulted from different trends of L*, b* and C* changes during storage

  13. Diffusion-Tensor Imaging of Thigh Muscles in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: Correlation of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient and Fractional Anisotropy Values With Fatty Infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gui Dian; Liang, Ying Yin; Xu, Ping; Ling, Jian; Chen, Ying Ming

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the correlation of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) values with fatty infiltration in the thigh muscles of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) using diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI). Twenty-one boys with DMD were recruited. The grade of fatty infiltration and the ADC and FA values of four thigh muscles (rectus femoris, semitendinosus, sartorius, and gracilis) were measured, and the FA and ADC values were compared with the grade of fatty infiltration. Twenty age-matched healthy boys were enrolled as the control group. The differences in the ADC and FA values of the thigh muscles between patients with DMD and the control group were compared. The patients with DMD showed lower FA values and higher ADC values in all measured muscles when compared with the control group. The FA and ADC values were correlated with the grade of fatty infiltration. For the rectus femoris muscle, r = -0.753 and p = 0.007 for FA, and r = 0.685 and p = 0.001 for ADC. For the semitendinosus muscle, r = -0.621 and p = 0.041 for FA, and r = 0.705 and p = 0.021 for ADC. For the sartorius muscle, r = -0.662 and p = 0.027 for FA, and r = 0.701 and p = 0.017 for ADC. For the gracilis muscle, r = -0.618 and p = 0.043 for FA, and r = 0.695 and p = 0.022 for ADC. Damage to the thigh muscles in patients with DMD can be detected by ADC and FA values using DTI. DTI can be used to assess the severity of the disease.

  14. Fat Replacement of Paraspinal Muscles with Aging in Healthy Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlqvist, Julia R; Vissing, Christoffer R; Hedermann, Gitte

    2017-01-01

    also tested for association with sex, body mass index (BMI), physical activity, and lower back pain. RESULTS: Both paraspinal and leg fat fractions correlated directly with age (P ages, fat fraction was higher in paraspinal than leg muscles. The age-related increase in fat fraction...... was associated with lumbar paraspinal fat fraction (P activity or lower back pain. CONCLUSION: The paraspinal muscles were more susceptible to age-related changes than leg muscles. Further, men had......PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to investigate the age-related changes in fatty replacement and cross-sectional area (CSA) of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar paraspinal muscles versus leg muscles in healthy adults and to test for association between muscle fat fraction and lifestyle factors...

  15. Influence of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear on Thigh Muscle Strength and Hamstring-to-Quadriceps Ratio: A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Jung Kim

    Full Text Available Theoretical compensation after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL tear could cause quadriceps weakness and hamstring activation, preventing anterior tibial subluxation and affecting the expected hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio. Although quadriceps weakness often occurs after ACL tears, it remains unclear whether hamstring strength and hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio increase in ACL deficient knees. This meta-analysis compared the isokinetic muscle strength of quadriceps and hamstring muscles, and the hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio, of the injured and injured limbs of patients with ACL tears. This meta-analysis included all studies comparing isokinetic thigh muscle strengths and hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio in the injured and uninjured legs of patients with ACL tear, without or before surgery. Thirteen studies were included in the meta-analysis. Quadriceps and hamstring strengths were 22.3 N∙m (95% CI: 15.2 to 29.3 N∙m; P<0.001 and 7.4 N∙m (95% CI: 4.3 to 10.5 N∙m; P<0.001 lower, respectively, on the injured than on the uninjured side. The mean hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio was 4% greater in ACL deficient than in uninjured limbs (95% CI: 1.7% to 6.3%; P<0.001. Conclusively, Decreases were observed in both the quadriceps and hamstring muscles of patients with ACL tear, with the decrease in quadriceps strength being 3-fold greater. These uneven reductions slightly increase the hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio in ACL deficient knees.

  16. MRI findings, patterns of disease distribution, and muscle fat fraction calculation in five patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2 F disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaeta, Michele; Mileto, Achille; Minutoli, Fabio; Settineri, Nicola; Donato, Rocco; Ascenti, Giorgio; Blandino, Alfredo [Policlinico ' ' G. Martino' ' , Dipartimento di Scienze Radiologiche, Messina (Italy); Mazzeo, Anna; Di Leo, Rita [Policlinico ' ' G. Martino' ' , Dipartimento di Neuroscienze, Scienze Psichiatriche ed Anestesiologiche, Messina (Italy)

    2012-05-15

    To describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) pattern of muscle involvement and disease progression in five patients with late-onset Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease type 2 F, due to a previously unknown mutation. Five patients (three males, two females) underwent MRI of the lower limbs to define the pattern of muscle involvement and evaluate the muscle fat fraction (MFF) of residual thigh muscle with gradient-echo (GRE) dual-echo dual-flip angle technique. Evaluation of fatty infiltration both by visual inspection and MFF calculation was performed. A proximal-to-distal gradient of muscle involvement was depicted in male patients with extensive muscle wasting of lower legs, less severe impairment of distal thigh muscles, and sparing of proximal thigh muscles. A peculiar phenotype finding was that no or only slight muscle abnormalities could be found in the two female patients. We described the pattern of muscle involvement and disease progression in a family with CMT disease type 2 F. GRE dual-echo dual-flip angle MRI technique is a valuable technique to obtain a rapid quantification of MFF. (orig.)

  17. Quantitative ultrasound tissue characterization in shoulder and thigh muscles – a new approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P.K.; Jensen, B.R.; Darvann, Tron Andre

    2006-01-01

    Background: The echogenicity patterns of ultrasound scans contain information of tissue composition in muscles. The aim was: ( 1) to develop a quantitative ultrasound image analysis to characterize tissue composition in terms of intensity and structure of the ultrasound images, and ( 2) to use th...

  18. EMG changes in thigh and calf muscles in fin swimming exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammes, Y; Delliaux, S; Coulange, M; Jammes, C; Kipson, N; Brerro-Saby, C; Bregeon, F

    2010-08-01

    Because previous researchers have reported a reduced lactic acid production that accompanies a delayed or an absent ventilatory threshold (VTh) in water-based exercise, we hypothesized that the metaboreflex, activated by muscle acidosis, might be absent in fin swimming. This motor response, delaying the occurrence of fatigue, is characterized by a decreased median frequency (MF) of electromyographic (EMG) power spectrum. Seven healthy subjects performed a maximal fin swimming exercise protocol with simultaneous recordings of surface EMGs in VASTUS MEDIALIS (VM), TIBIALIS ANTERIOR (TA) and GASTROCNEMIUS MEDIALIS (GM). We computed the root mean square (RMS) and MF and recorded the compound evoked muscle potential (M-wave) in VM. We also measured the propulsive force and oxygen uptake (VO (2)), and determined VTh. VTh was absent in 4/7 subjects and measured at 70-90% of VO (2max) in the other three. In the three studied muscles, the global EMG activity (RMS) increased while the MF decreased in proportion of VO (2), the MF changes being significantly higher in VM (-29%) and GM (-39%) than in TA (-19%). Because no M-wave changes were noted, the MF decline was attributed to the recruitment of low-frequency, fatigue-resistant motor units. Our most important finding is the persistence of the metaboreflex even in a situation of reduced muscle acidosis. (c) Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.

  19. Asymmetry and Thigh Muscle Coactivity in Fatigued Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Reconstructed Elite Skiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Matthew J; Aagaard, Per; Herzog, Walter

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The acute effects of fatigue on functional interlimb asymmetry and quadriceps/hamstring muscle activity levels, including preparatory coactivation during squat jump takeoff and landing, were evaluated in elite alpine ski racers with/without anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR......). METHODS: Twenty-two elite ski racers (ACLR, n = 11; control, n = 11) performed an 80-s repeated squat jump test (jump test) on a dual force plate system with simultaneous EMG recordings in vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, semitendinosus, and biceps femoris. Asymmetry index (AI) and jump height of body...

  20. Aflatoxin B1 residues in imported and local broiler, s breast and thigh muscle in Kurdistan region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.P. Candlan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Residues of Aflatoxins and their metabolites might be present in meat and other products of animals receiving Aflatoxin contaminated feeds which could subsequently create health problems in man. Eighty nine imported (Iran/Khosh pokht; (Turkey/Yam-tapilic, Lades, Senplic, Kapidac, Kozoa, Oznesilpilic and (Brazil, hilal, Sadia, and 90 locally produced (Hoshiar poultry farm, Nihad poultry farm, Hokar poultry farm, Mansoor poultry farm, AL-Shimal poultry house, Mardin poultry house and AL-Eetimad poultry slaughterhouse broiler breast and thigh muscle samples were examined for residual Aflatoxin B1 using ELIZA test. Results revealed that out of 89 imported samples only 21 (23.59% were positive, but only 2 (2.24% were rejected, while the remaining 87 samples (97.75% were acceptable. Concerning the local samples, results showed that 19 samples (21.11% were positive, but 10 (11.11% were rejected, while the remaining 80 samples (88.88% were accepted. The public health importance of residual AFB1 in broiler meat samples was discussed.

  1. Influence of muscle fiber type composition on early fat accumulation under high-fat diet challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Ning; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Yee, Grace M; Kitajima, Yoichiro; Katagiri, Sayaka; Kojima, Motoyasu; Anzai, Keizo; Eguchi, Yuichiro; Hamilton, James A

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether differences in muscle fiber types affect early-stage fat accumulation, under high fat diet challenge in mice. Twelve healthy male C57BL/6 mice experienced with short-term (6 weeks) diet treatment for the evaluation of early pattern changes in muscular fat. The mice were randomly divided into two groups: high fat diet (n = 8) and normal control diet (n = 4). Extra- and intra-myocellular lipid (EMCL and IMCL) in lumbar muscles (type I fiber predominant) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscle (type II fiber predominant) were determined using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Correlation of EMCL, IMCL and their ratio between TA and lumbar muscles was evaluated. EMCL increased greatly in both muscle types after high fat diet. IMCL in TA and lumbar muscles increased to a much lower extent, with a slightly greater increase in TA muscles. EMCLs in the 2 muscles were positively correlated (r = 0.84, p = 0.01), but IMCLs showed a negative relationship (r = -0.84, p = 0.01). In lumbar muscles, high fat diet significantly decreased type I fiber while it increased type II fiber (all p≤0.001). In TA muscle, there was no significant fiber type shifting (p>0.05). Under short-time high fat diet challenge, lipid tends to initially accumulate extra-cellularly. In addition, compared to type II dominant muscle, Type I dominant muscle was less susceptible to IMCL accumulation but more to fiber type shifting. These phenomena might reflect compensative responses of skeletal muscle to dietary lipid overload in order to regulate metabolic homeostasis.

  2. Deep soft tissue leiomyoma of the thigh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, G.M.T.; Saifuddin, A. [Department of Radiology, The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital Trust, Brockley Hill (United Kingdom); Sandison, A. [Department of Pathology, The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital Trust, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    A case of ossified leiomyoma of the deep soft tissues of the left thigh is presented. The radiographic appearance suggested a low-grade chondrosarcoma. MRI of the lesion showed signal characteristics similar to muscle on both T1- and T2-weighted spin echo sequences with linear areas of high signal intensity on T1-weighted images consistent with medullary fat in metaplastic bone. Histopathological examination of the resected specimen revealed a benign ossified soft tissue leiomyoma. (orig.) With 3 figs., 13 refs.

  3. Effects of filtering methods on muscle and fat cross-sectional area measurement by pQCT: a technical note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherk, Vanessa D; Bemben, Michael G; Palmer, Ian J; Bemben, Debra A

    2011-01-01

    Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) is most commonly used for bone density and morphology assessment of the limbs, but it can also be used for soft tissue area quantification by segmenting regions representing different tissues. Scanning and analyzing cross-sectional areas of larger thighs present a special challenge due to increased statistical noise created from fewer detected x-ray photons. The purpose of this technical note is to compare total, muscle and fat cross-sectional area (CSA) measurements of the midthigh with Stratec 3000 pQCT scans using no filter, a weak smoothing filter and a strong smoothing filter to CSA measurements of midthigh MRI scans analyzed by Image J, a public domain image processing program. Nine healthy men and women participated in this study. CSAs did not differ significantly between MRI and strongly filtered pQCT images with per cent differences ranging from −3.1% for muscle to +6.5% for fat. The per cent difference in muscle CSA values between MRI and pQCT with the weak filter (−24.0 ± 38.0%) or no filter (−44.9 ± 22.7%) was strongly related to total thigh CSA (r = 0.78–0.92, p < 0.05). We propose that the midthigh can be assessed for soft tissue area measurements with pQCT, provided that strong smoothing filter is utilized. (note)

  4. Lower Mitochondrial Energy Production of the Thigh Muscles in Patients With Low-Normal Ankle-Brachial Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlGhatrif, Majd; Zane, Ariel; Oberdier, Matt; Canepa, Marco; Studenski, Stephanie; Simonsick, Eleanor; Spencer, Richard G; Fishbein, Kenneth; Reiter, David; Lakatta, Edward G; McDermott, Mary M; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2017-08-30

    Lower muscle mitochondrial energy production may contribute to impaired walking endurance in patients with peripheral arterial disease. A borderline ankle-brachial index (ABI) of 0.91 to 1.10 is associated with poorer walking endurance compared with higher ABI. We hypothesized that in the absence of peripheral arterial disease, lower ABI is associated with lower mitochondrial energy production. We examined 363 men and women participating in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging with an ABI between 0.90 and 1.40. Muscle mitochondrial energy production was assessed by post-exercise phosphocreatine recovery rate constant ( k PCr) measured by phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the left thigh. A lower post-exercise phosphocreatine recovery rate constant reflects decreased mitochondria energy production.The mean age of the participants was 71±12 years. A total of 18.4% had diabetes mellitus and 4% were current and 40% were former smokers. Compared with participants with an ABI of 1.11 to 1.40, those with an ABI of 0.90 to 1.10 had significantly lower post-exercise phosphocreatine recovery rate constant (19.3 versus 20.8 ms -1 , P =0.015). This difference remained significant after adjusting for age, sex, race, smoking status, diabetes mellitus, body mass index, and cholesterol levels ( P =0.028). Similarly, post-exercise phosphocreatine recovery rate constant was linearly associated with ABI as a continuous variable, both in the ABI ranges of 0.90 to 1.40 (standardized coefficient=0.15, P =0.003) and 1.1 to 1.4 (standardized coefficient=0.12, P =0.0405). An ABI of 0.90 to 1.10 is associated with lower mitochondrial energy production compared with an ABI of 1.11 to 1.40. These data demonstrate adverse associations of lower ABI values with impaired mitochondrial activity even within the range of a clinically accepted definition of a normal ABI. Further study is needed to determine whether interventions in persons with ABIs of 0.90 to 1.10 can prevent

  5. Mid-thigh cortical bone structural parameters, muscle mass and strength, and association with lower limb fractures in older men and women (AGES-Reykjavik Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesdottir, Fjola; Aspelund, Thor; Siggeirsdottir, Kristin; Jonsson, Brynjolfur Y; Mogensen, Brynjolfur; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Harris, Tamara B; Gudnason, Vilmundur G; Lang, Thomas F; Sigurdsson, Gunnar

    2012-05-01

    In a cross-sectional study we investigated the relationship between muscle and bone parameters in the mid-thigh in older people using data from a single axial computed tomographic section through the mid-thigh. Additionally, we studied the association of these variables with incident low-trauma lower limb fractures. A total of 3,762 older individuals (1,838 men and 1,924 women), aged 66-96 years, participants in the AGES-Reykjavik study, were studied. The total cross-sectional muscular area and knee extensor strength declined with age similarly in both sexes. Muscle parameters correlated most strongly with cortical area and total shaft area (adjusted for age, height, and weight) but explained lower limb fractures. Small muscular area, low knee extensor strength, large MA, low cortical thickness, and high BR were significantly associated with fractures in both sexes. Our results show that bone and muscle loss proceed at different rates and with different gender patterns.

  6. Haemodynamic responses to exercise, ATP infusion and thigh compression in humans: insight into the role of muscle mechanisms on cardiovascular function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Alonso, J.; Mortensen, S.P.; Jeppesen, Tina Dysgaard

    2008-01-01

    on cardiovascular function during exercise, we determined leg and systemic haemodynamic responses in healthy men during (1) incremental one-legged knee-extensor exercise, (2) step-wise femoral artery ATP infusion at rest, (3) passive exercise (n=10), (4)femoral vein or artery ATP infusion (n=6), and (5) cyclic...... exercise also increased blood flow (DeltaLBF 0.7 +/- 0.1 l min(-1)), yet the increase in muscle and systemic perfusion, unrelated to elevations in aerobic metabolism, accounted only for approximately 5% of peak exercise hyperaemia.Likewise, thigh compressions alone or in combination with passive exercise...

  7. Does caffeine alter muscle carbohydrate and fat metabolism during exercise?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Terry E; Battram, Danielle S; Dela, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    and carbohydrate metabolism. While caffeine certainly mobilizes fatty acids from adipose tissue, rarely have measures of the respiratory exchange ratio indicated an increase in fat oxidation. However, this is a difficult measure to perform accurately during exercise, and small changes could be physiologically...... important. The few studies examining human muscle metabolism directly have also supported the fact that there is no change in fat or carbohydrate metabolism, but these usually have had a small sample size. We combined the data from muscle biopsy analyses of several similar studies to generate a sample size...

  8. Dietary energy source affecting fat deposition mechanism, muscle fiber metabolic and overall meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Al-Hijazeen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to investigate the effect of two dietary energy sources, soy bean oil, and sucrose on regulatory mechanisms of meat preservation. Twenty one day-old Hubbard commercial broilers were randomly allocated into two dietary treatment groups with six replicates per treatment, and four broilers per replicate. All birds were coded for the influence of energy source: fat based diet (FD, and sugar based diet (SD. Formulated grower diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. The chickens were slaughtered and then boneless, skinless ground chicken tight meat was prepared. Both raw and cooked meats were analyzed for lipid and protein oxidation, and sensory panel evaluation. In addition, meat from the small muscles of the raw thigh was used to evaluate other meat quality characteristics. Proximate analyses showed no significant differences between both dietary treatments on protein, ash and moisture percentage values. Meat samples of the group that was fed FD showed higher significant values of both TBARS and total carbonyl at day 7 of storage time. However, samples of the second group (Fed SD showed lower values of both ultimate pH and water separation % using raw thigh meat. The effect of FD treatment on the meat composition appeared clearly especially on fat percentage content. In addition, meat samples obtained from chickens fed SD showed better significant values of the overall acceptability attribute. According to the current findings, sucrose could be an excellent alternative to oil in dietary broilers which improved the meat preservation bio-system, and post-mortem storage stability.

  9. ASSOCIATION OF KNEE PAIN WITH A REDUCTION IN THIGH MUSCLE STRENGTH – A CROSS-SECTIONAL ANALYSIS INCLUDING 4553 OSTEOARTHRITIS INITIATIVE PARTICIPANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhdorfer, Anja; Wirth, Wolfgang; Eckstein, Felix

    2016-01-01

    Objective To cross-sectionally determine the quantitative relationship of age-adjusted, sex-specific isometric knee extensor and flexor strength to patient-reported knee pain. Methods Difference of thigh muscle strength by age, and that of age-adjusted strength per unit increase on the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) knee pain scale, was estimated from linear regression analysis of 4553 Osteoarthritis Initiative participants (58% women). Strata encompassing the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) in knee pain were compared to evaluate a potentially non-linear relationship between WOMAC pain levels and muscle strength. Results In Osteoarthritis Initiative participants without pain, the age-related difference in isometric knee extensor strength was −9.0%/−8.2% (women/men) per decade, and that of flexor strength was −11%/−6.9%. Differences in age-adjusted strength values for each unit of WOMAC pain (1/20) amounted to −1.9%/−1.6% for extensor and −2.5%/−1.7% for flexor strength. Differences in torque/weight for each unit of WOMAC pain ranged from −3.3 to − 2.1%. There was no indication of a non-linear relationship between pain and strength across the range of observed WOMAC values, and similar results were observed in women and men. Conclusion Each increase by 1/20 units in WOMAC pain was associated with a ~2% lower age-adjusted isometric extensor and flexor strength in either sex. As a reduction in muscle strength is known to prospectively increase symptoms in knee osteoarthritis and as pain appears to reduce thigh muscle strength, adequate therapy of pain and muscle strength is required in knee osteoarthritis patients to avoid a vicious circle of self-sustaining clinical deterioration. PMID:27836675

  10. Quantitative assessment of fat infiltration in the rotator cuff muscles using water-fat MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardo, Lorenzo; Karampinos, Dimitrios C; Lansdown, Drew A; Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Lee, Sonia; Maroldi, Roberto; Ma, C Benjamin; Link, Thomas M; Krug, Roland

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate a chemical shift-based fat quantification technique in the rotator cuff muscles in comparison with the semiquantitative Goutallier fat infiltration classification (GC) and to assess their relationship with clinical parameters. The shoulders of 57 patients were imaged using a 3T MR scanner. The rotator cuff muscles were assessed for fat infiltration using GC by two radiologists and an orthopedic surgeon. Sequences included oblique-sagittal T1-, T2-, and proton density-weighted fast spin echo, and six-echo gradient echo. The iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least-squares estimation (IDEAL) was used to measure fat fraction. Pain and range of motion of the shoulder were recorded. Fat fraction values were significantly correlated with GC grades (P 0.9) showing consistent increase with GC grades (grade = 0, 0%-5.59%; grade = 1, 1.1%-9.70%; grade = 2, 6.44%-14.86%; grade = 3, 15.25%-17.77%; grade = 4, 19.85%-29.63%). A significant correlation between fat infiltration of the subscapularis muscle quantified with IDEAL versus 1) deficit in internal rotation (Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient [SRC] = 0.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.13-0.60, P infiltration measures of the supraspinatus muscle were significantly correlated with a deficit in abduction (SRC coefficient = 0.45, 95% CI 0.20-0.60, P water-fat magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques is possible and significantly correlates with shoulder pain and range of motion. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. [Repair of pressure sores over ischial tuberosity with long head of biceps femoris muscle flap combined with semi-V posterior thigh fasciocutaneous flap].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Heng-lin; Shen, Chuan-an; Chai, Jia-ke; Li, Hua-tao

    2012-02-01

    To explore the clinical effect of transplantation of the long head of biceps femoris muscle flap in combination with semi-V posterior thigh fasciocutaneous flap for repair of pressure sores over ischial tuberosity. Eight patients with 10 deep pressure sores over ischial tuberosity were admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital to the PLA General Hospital and the 98th Hospital of PLA from April 2004 to June 2010. The wounds measured from 2 cm × 2 cm to 6 cm × 4 cm were covered with the long head of biceps femoris muscle flap and semi-V posterior thigh fasciocutaneous flap (ranged from 10 cm × 6 cm to 13 cm × 8 cm). The condition of flaps was observed and followed up for a long time. All flaps survived. Nine wounds healed by first intention. Subcutaneous accumulation of fluids occurred in one wound with formation of a sinus at drainage site, and it healed after dressing change for 25 days. Patients were followed up for 7 to 34 months. Sore recurred in one patient 9 months after surgery, and it was successfully repaired with the same flap for the second time. Flaps in the other 7 patients appeared satisfactory with soft texture and without ulceration. This combined flap is easy in formation and transfer, and it causes little side injury with good resistance against pressure. It is a new method for repair of pressure sore over sacral region.

  12. Effects of organic selenium in broiler feed on the content of selenium and fatty acid profile in lipids of thigh muscle tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlata Kralik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to determine the effects of selenium supplementation to broiler feed on the content of selenium, total fatty acids in lipids and on the oxidative stability of broiler thigh muscle tissue. The experiment involved 40 broilers fattened for 42 days. During the first three weeks, all broilers consumed starter diet containing 22% crude protein. After three weeks, broilers were divided into two groups and fed finisher diets containing 18% crude protein and supplemented with 3% sunflower oil and 3% linseed oil. Group 1 was not administered artificial selenium; Group 2 was supplemented with organic selenium at the amount of 0.5 mg Se/kg of feed. Significantly higher (P P P > 0.05 and increase of linolenic acid and total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (P < 0.05 in thigh muscle tissue of broilers. Since selenium and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are nutricines, our results show that the produced broiler meat may be considered as functional food.

  13. Type and intensity of activity and risk of mobility limitation: the mediating role of muscle parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.; Simonsick, E.M.; Colbert, L.H.; Brach, J.S.; Rubin, S.M.; Kritchevsky, S.B.; Newman, A.B.; Harris, T.B.

    2005-01-01

    2,719 kcal/wk of total physical activity). The study outcome, incident mobility limitation, was defined as two consecutive, semiannual self-reports of any difficulty walking one quarter of a mile or climbing 10 steps. Thigh muscle area, thigh muscle attenuation (a marker of fat infiltration in

  14. Effect of protein-xanthophylls (PX) concentrate of alfalfa supplementation on physico-chemical properties of turkey breast and thigh muscles during ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwowska, M; Stadnik, J; Dolatowski, Z J; Grela, E R

    2010-10-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effects of a dietary protein-xanthophylls (PX) concentrate of alfalfa to turkey diets (at 15 and 30 g kg(-1) feed) on the physico-chemical properties of breast and thigh muscles during ageing. The experiment involved 120 turkeys (Big-6 type) allotted to 3 groups (group I-control group; group II--with 1.5% supplementation of the protein-xanthophylls (PX) concentrate; group III--with 3% supplementation of the protein-xanthophylls (PX) concentrate). Measurements of pH, water holding capacity, color, oxymyoglobin content, TBARS and oxidation-reduction potential showed that the addition of protein-xanthophylls (PX) concentrate of alfalfa to a turkey diet did not cause deterioration of breast and thigh meat quality. In addition, changes in color, oxymyoglobin content, TBARS and oxidation-reduction potential values suggested that the inclusion of the concentrate to turkey diets acts as an antioxidant in the raw meat. Copyright (c) 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. IL-6 selectively stimulates fat metabolism in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolsk, Emil; Mygind, Helene; Grøndahl, Thomas S

    2010-01-01

    and glucose metabolism and signaling of both adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. Eight healthy postabsorptive males were infused with either rhIL-6 or saline for 4 h, eliciting IL-6 levels of ~40 and ~1 pg/ml, respectively. Systemic, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue fat and glucose metabolism was assessed......Interleukin (IL)-6 is chronically elevated in type 2 diabetes but also during exercise. However, the exact metabolic role, and hence the physiological significance, has not been elucidated. The objective of this study was to investigate the in vivo effect of recombinant human (rh) IL-6 on human fat...... before, during, and 2 h after cessation of the infusion. Glucose metabolism was unaffected by rhIL-6. In contrast, rhIL-6 increased systemic fatty acid oxidation approximately twofold after 60 min, and it remained elevated even 2 h after the infusion. The increase in oxidation was followed by an increase...

  16. IL-6 selectively stimulates fat metabolism in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolsk, Emil; Mygind, Helene; Grøndahl, Thomas S

    2010-01-01

    and glucose metabolism and signaling of both adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. Eight healthy postabsorptive males were infused with either rhIL-6 or saline for 4 h, eliciting IL-6 levels of ∼40 and ∼1 pg/ml, respectively. Systemic, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue fat and glucose metabolism was assessed......Interleukin (IL)-6 is chronically elevated in type 2 diabetes but also during exercise. However, the exact metabolic role, and hence the physiological significance, has not been elucidated. The objective of this study was to investigate the in vivo effect of recombinant human (rh) IL-6 on human fat...... before, during, and 2 h after cessation of the infusion. Glucose metabolism was unaffected by rhIL-6. In contrast, rhIL-6 increased systemic fatty acid oxidation approximately twofold after 60 min, and it remained elevated even 2 h after the infusion. The increase in oxidation was followed by an increase...

  17. Muscle cramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the lower leg/calf Back of the thigh (hamstrings) Front of the thigh (quadriceps) Cramps in the ... Names Cramps - muscle Images Chest stretch Groin stretch Hamstring stretch Hip stretch Thigh stretch Triceps stretch References ...

  18. A higher protein intake is not associated with 5-year change in mid-thigh muscle cross-sectional area by computed tomography in older adults : the health, aging, and body composition (Health ABC) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verreijen, A.M.; Engberink, M.F.; Brouwer, I.A.; Cawthon, P.M.; Newman, A.B.; Tylavsky, F.A.; Harris, T.B.; Weijs, P.J.M.; Visser, M.

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: A higher protein intake is suggested to preserve muscle mass during aging, and may therefore reduce the risk for sarcopenia. We explored whether the amount, type (animal/vegetable) and essential amino acid (EAA) composition of protein intake were associated with 5-year change in mid-thigh

  19. VARIATIONS IN NEUROMUSCULAR ACTIVITY OF THIGH MUSCLES DURING WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION IN CONSIDERATION OF DIFFERENT BIOMECHANICAL VARIABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Perchthaler

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this study was to systematically analyze the impact of biomechanical variables in terms of different vibration frequencies, amplitudes and knee angles on quadriceps femoris and hamstring activity during exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV. 51 healthy men and women (age 55 ± 8 years voluntary participated in the study and were randomly allocated to five different vibration-frequency groups. Each subject performed 9 static squat positions (3 amplitudes x 3 knee angles on a side alternating vibration platform. Surface electromyography (EMG was used to record the neuromuscular activity of the quadriceps femoris and hamstring muscles. Maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs were performed prior to the measurements to normalize the EMG signals. A three-way mixed ANOVA was performed to analyze the different effects of the biomechanical variables on muscle activity. Depending on the biomechanical variables, EMG muscle activity ranged between 18.2 and 74.1 % MVC in the quadriceps femoris and between 5.2 and 27. 3 % MVC in the hamstrings during WBV. The highest levels of muscle activation were found at high frequencies and large amplitudes. Especially in the quadriceps femoris muscle, a WBV frequency of 30 Hz led to a significant increase in muscle activity compared to the other tested frequencies. However, it seems that knee angle is only relevant for the quadriceps femoris muscle. The results of this study should give more information for developing individual training protocols for WBV treatment in different practical applications

  20. Lower physical activity is associated with fat infiltration within skeletal muscle in young girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fat infiltration within skeletal muscle is strongly associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome. Lower physical activity may be a risk factor for greater fat infiltration within skeletal muscle, although whether lower physical activity is associated with fat infiltrati...

  1. Development of a phantom mimicking the functional and structural behaviors of the thigh muscles characterized with magnetic resonance elastography technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakouch, Mashhour K; Charleux, Fabrice; Bensamoun, Sabine F

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE) is a non invasive technique based on the propagation of shear waves in soft tissues providing the quantification of the mechanical properties [1]. MRE was successfully applied to healthy and pathological muscles. However, the MRE muscle methods must be further improved to characterize the deep muscles. A way will be to develop phantom mimicking the muscle behavior in order to set up new MRE protocol. Thus, the purpose of this study is to create a phantom composed of a similar skeletal muscle architecture (fiber, aponorosis) and equivalent elastic properties as a function of the muscle state (passive or active). Two homogeneous phantoms were manufactured with different concentrations of plastisol to simulate the elastic properties in relaxed (50% of plastisol) and contracted (70% of plastisol) muscle conditions. Moreover, teflon tubing pipes (D = 0.9 mm) were thread in the upper part of the phantom (50%) to represent the muscle fibers and a plastic sheet (8 × 15 cm) was also included in the middle of the phantom to mimic the aponeurosis structure. Subsequently, MRE tests were performed with two different pneumatic drivers, tube and round, (f = 90Hz) to analyze the effect of the type of driver on the wave propagation. Then, the wavelength was measured from the phase images to obtain the elastic properties (shear modulus). Both phantoms revealed elastic properties which were in the same range as in vivo muscle in passive (μ(50%) = 2.40 ± 0.18 kPa ) and active (6.24 ± 0.21 kPa) states. The impact of the type of driver showed higher values (about 1.2kPa) with the tube. The analysis of the wave behavior revealed a sliding along the plastic sheet as it was observed for in vivo muscle study. The wave was also sensitive to the presence of the fibers where gaps were identified. The present study demonstrates the ability of the phantom to mimic the structural and functional properties of the muscle.

  2. Statistical mapping of the effect of knee extension on thigh muscle viscoelastic properties using magnetic resonance elastography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnhill, Eric; Kennedy, Paul; Van Beek, Edwin J R; Roberts, Neil; Hammer, Steven; Brown, Colin

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal muscle viscoelastic properties reflect muscle microstructure and neuromuscular activation. Elastographic methods, including magnetic resonance elastography, have been used to characterize muscle viscoelastic properties in terms of region of interest (ROI) measurements. The present study extended this approach to create thresholded pixel-by-pixel maps of viscoelastic properties of skeletal muscle during rest and knee extension in eleven subjects. ROI measurements were taken for individual quadricep muscles and the quadriceps region as a whole, and the viscoelastic parameter map pixels were statistically tested at positive false discovery rate q ⩽ 0.25. ROI measurements showed significant (p ⩽ 0.05) increase in storage modulus (G′) and loss modulus (G″), with G″ increasing more than G′, in agreement with previous findings. The q-value maps further identified the vastus intermedius as the primary driver of this change, with greater G″/G′ increase than surrounding regions. Additionally, a cluster of significant decrease in G″/G′ was found in the region of vastus lateralis below the fulcrum point of the lift. Viscoelastic parameter mapping of contracted muscle allows new insight into the relationship between physiology, neuromuscular activation, and human performance. (paper)

  3. Repeatability of chemical-shift-encoded water-fat MRI and diffusion-tensor imaging in lower extremity muscles in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponrartana, Skorn; Andrade, Kristine E; Wren, Tishya A L; Ramos-Platt, Leigh; Hu, Houchun H; Bluml, Stefan; Gilsanz, Vicente

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the repeatability of water-fat MRI and diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) as quantitative biomarkers of pediatric lower extremity skeletal muscle. MRI at 3 T of a randomly selected thigh and lower leg of seven healthy children was studied using water-fat separation and DTI techniques. Muscle-fat fraction, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and fractional anisotropy (FA) values were calculated. Test-retest and interrater repeatability were assessed by calculating the Pearson correlation coefficient, intraclass correlation coefficient, and Bland-Altman analysis. Bland-Altman plots show that the mean difference between test-retest and interrater measurements of muscle-fat fraction, ADC, and FA was near 0. The correlation coefficients and intraclass correlation coefficients were all between 0.88 and 0.99 (p DTI measurements in lower extremity skeletal muscles are objective repeatable biomarkers in children. This knowledge should aid in the understanding of the number of participants needed in clinical trials when using these determinations as an outcome measure to noninvasively monitor neuromuscular disease.

  4. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ISOMETRIC THIGH MUSCLE STRENGTH AND MINIMAL CLINICALLY IMPORTANT DIFFERENCES (MCIDS) IN KNEE FUNCTION IN OSTEOARTHRITIS – DATA FROM THE OSTEOARTHRITIS INITIATIVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhdorfer, Anja; Wirth, Wolfgang; Eckstein, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship between thigh muscle strength and clinically relevant differences in self-assessed lower limb function. Methods Isometric knee extensor and flexor strength of 4553 Osteoarthritis Initiative participants (2651 women/1902 men) was related to Western Ontario McMasters Universities (WOMAC) physical function scores by linear regression. Further, groups of Male and female participant strata with minimal clinically important differences (MCIDs) in WOMAC function scores (6/68) were compared across the full range of observed values, and to participants without functional deficits (WOMAC=0). The effect of WOMAC knee pain and body mass index on the above relationships was explored using stepwise regression. Results Per regression equations, a 3.7% reduction in extensor and a 4.0% reduction in flexor strength were associated with an MCID in WOMAC function in women, and a 3.6%/4.8% reduction in men. For strength divided by body weight, reductions were 5.2%/6.7% in women and 5.8%/6.7% in men. Comparing MCID strata across the full observed range of WOMAC function confirmed the above estimates and did not suggest non-linear relationships across the spectrum of observed values. WOMAC pain correlated strongly with WOMAC function, but extensor (and flexor) muscle strength contributed significant independent information. Conclusion Reductions of approximately 4% in isometric muscle strength and of 6% in strength/weight were related to a clinically relevant difference in WOMAC functional disability. Longitudinal studies will need to confirm these relationships within persons. Muscle extensor (and flexor) strength (per body weight) provided significant independent information in addition to pain in explaining variability in lower limb function. PMID:25303012

  5. Relationship between isometric thigh muscle strength and minimum clinically important differences in knee function in osteoarthritis: data from the osteoarthritis initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhdorfer, Anja; Wirth, Wolfgang; Eckstein, Felix

    2015-04-01

    To determine the relationship between thigh muscle strength and clinically relevant differences in self-assessed lower leg function. Isometric knee extensor and flexor strength of 4,553 Osteoarthritis Initiative participants (2,651 women and 1,902 men) was related to the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) physical function scores by linear regression. Further, groups of male and female participant strata with minimum clinically important differences (MCIDs) in WOMAC function scores (6 of 68 units) were compared across the full range of observed values and to participants without functional deficits (WOMAC score 0). The effect of WOMAC knee pain and body mass index on the above relationships was explored using stepwise regression. Per regression equations, a 3.7% reduction in extensor strength and a 4.0% reduction in flexor strength were associated with an MCID in WOMAC function in women, and, respectively, a 3.6% and 4.8% reduction in men. For strength divided by body weight, reductions were 5.2% and 6.7%, respectively, in women and 5.8% and 6.7%, respectively, in men. Comparing MCID strata across the full observed range of WOMAC function confirmed the above estimates and did not suggest nonlinear relationships across the spectrum of observed values. WOMAC pain correlated strongly with WOMAC function, but extensor (and flexor) muscle strength contributed significant independent information. Reductions of approximately 4% in isometric muscle strength and of 6% in strength per body weight were related to a clinically relevant difference in WOMAC functional disability. Longitudinal studies will need to confirm these relationships within persons. Muscle extensor (and flexor) strength (per body weight) provided significant independent information in addition to pain in explaining variability in lower leg function. Copyright © 2015 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  6. Structured Light Scanning of Skin, Muscle and Fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilm, Jakob; Jensen, Sebastian Hoppe Nesgaard; Aanæs, Henrik

    of error that various encoding strategies show, and propose an error correcting model, which can bring down the measurement bias considerably. Samples of raw and unprocessed pig tissue were used with the number of sampled surface points Nmeat = 1.2 * 106, Nskin = 4.0 * 106 and Nfat = 2.1 * 106 from 8......We investigate the quality of structured light 3D scanning on pig skin, muscle and fat. These particular materials are interesting in a number of industrial and medical use-cases, and somewhat challenging because they exhibit subsurface light scattering. Our goal therefor is to quantify the amount...

  7. Thigh muscle activity, knee motion, and impact force during side-step pivoting in agility-trained female basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilderman, Danielle R; Ross, Scott E; Padua, Darin A

    2009-01-01

    Improving neuromuscular control of hamstrings muscles might have implications for decreasing anterior cruciate ligament injuries in females. To examine the effects of a 6-week agility training program on quadriceps and hamstrings muscle activation, knee flexion angles, and peak vertical ground reaction force. Prospective, randomized clinical research trial. Sports medicine research laboratory. Thirty female intramural basketball players with no history of knee injury (age = 21.07 +/- 2.82 years, height = 171.27 +/- 4.66 cm, mass = 66.36 +/- 7.41 kg). Participants were assigned to an agility training group or a control group that did not participate in agility training. Participants in the agility training group trained 4 times per week for 6 weeks. We used surface electromyography to assess muscle activation for the rectus femoris, vastus medialis oblique, medial hamstrings, and lateral hamstrings for 50 milliseconds before initial ground contact and while the foot was in contact with the ground during a side-step pivot maneuver. Knee flexion angles (at initial ground contact, maximum knee flexion, knee flexion displacement) and peak vertical ground reaction force also were assessed during this maneuver. Participants in the training group increased medial hamstrings activation during ground contact after the 6-week agility training program. Both groups decreased their vastus medialis oblique muscle activation during ground contact. Knee flexion angles and peak vertical ground reaction force did not change for either group. Agility training improved medial hamstrings activity in female intramural basketball players during a side-step pivot maneuver. Agility training that improves hamstrings activity might have implications for reducing anterior cruciate ligament sprain injury associated with side-step pivots.

  8. Improved olefinic fat suppression in skeletal muscle DTI using a magnitude-based dixon method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burakiewicz, Jedrzej; Hooijmans, Melissa T; Webb, Andrew G; Verschuuren, Jan J G M; Niks, Erik H; Kan, Hermien E

    2018-01-01

    To develop a method of suppressing the multi-resonance fat signal in diffusion-weighted imaging of skeletal muscle. This is particularly important when imaging patients with muscular dystrophies, a group of diseases which cause gradual replacement of muscle tissue by fat. The signal from the olefinic fat peak at 5.3 ppm can significantly confound diffusion-tensor imaging measurements. Dixon olefinic fat suppression (DOFS), a magnitude-based chemical-shift-based method of suppressing the olefinic peak, is proposed. It is verified in vivo by performing diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-based quantification in the lower leg of seven healthy volunteers, and compared to two previously described fat-suppression techniques in regions with and without fat contamination. In the region without fat contamination, DOFS produces similar results to existing techniques, whereas in muscle contaminated by subcutaneous fat signal moved due to the chemical shift artefact, it consistently showed significantly higher (P = 0.018) mean diffusivity (MD). Because fat presence lowers MD, this suggests improved fat suppression. DOFS offers superior fat suppression and enhances quantitative measurements in the muscle in the presence of fat. DOFS is an alternative to spectral olefinic fat suppression. Magn Reson Med 79:152-159, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  9. Contraction-induced skeletal muscle FAT/CD36 trafficking and FA uptake is AMPK independent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeppesen, J.; Albers, P. H.; Rose, A. J.; Birk, J. B.; Schjerling, P.; Dzamko, N.; Steinberg, G. R.; Kiens, B.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms regulating FA translocase CD36 (FAT/CD36) translocation and FA uptake in skeletal muscle during contractions. In one model, wild-type (WT) and AMP-dependent protein kinase kinase dead (AMPK KD) mice were exercised or extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus (SOL) muscles were contracted, ex vivo. In separate studies, FAT/CD36 translocation and FA uptake in response to muscle contractions were investigated in the perfused rat hindlimb. Exercise induced a similar increase in skeletal muscle cell surface membrane FAT/CD36 content in WT (+34%) and AMPK KD (+37%) mice. In contrast, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside only induced an increase in cell surface FAT/CD36 content in WT (+29%) mice. Furthermore, in the perfused rat hindlimb, muscle contraction induced a rapid (1 min, +15%) and sustained (10 min, +24%) FAT/CD36 relocation to cell surface membranes. The increase in cell surface FAT/CD36 protein content with muscle contractions was associated with increased FA uptake, both in EDL and SOL muscle from WT and AMPK KD mice and in the perfused rat hindlimb. This suggests that AMPK is not essential in regulation of FAT/CD36 translocation and FA uptake in skeletal muscle during contractions. However, AMPK could be important in regulation of FAT/CD36 distribution in other physiological situations. PMID:21297178

  10. Contraction-induced skeletal muscle FAT/CD36 trafficking and FA uptake is AMPK independent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Jacob; Albers, Peter Hjorth; Rose, Adam John

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms regulating FAT/CD36 translocation and fatty acid uptake in skeletal muscle during contractions. In one model, WT and AMPK KD mice were exercised or EDL and SOL muscles were contracted, ex vivo. In separate studies, FAT/CD36 translo...

  11. Effect of addition of pollen and propolis to feeding mixtures during the production of broiler chickens ROSS 308 to the colour of thigh and breast muscle and pH determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Šulcerová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify influence of pollen and propolis added to the feeding mixture in the diet of broiler chickens Ross 308 to colour breast and thigh muscles in relation to pH values. A total of 198 units 1 day-old Ross 308 hybrid combinations divided into 6 groups according to the feeding mixtures were investigated on meat quality characteristics changes. Muscle colour of breasts and thighs was measured and compared with pH in three times, pH1, pH2 and pHult. Feeding with various additions to feeding mixtures for chicken showed small impact of low content (200 or 300 mg.kg−1 propolis to meat quality characteristics. Higher effect on breast quality was found in group with 400 mg.kg−1 pollen addition to feed, there was faster and deeper postmortal process level found, although without negative impact on meat quality. Meat colour and muscle pH of chicken in this experiment was pale and had low ultimate pH. In these parameters were found correlation. Chicken meat of this experimental animals was paler and had the lowest ultimate pH, altough in group with higher addition it wasn’t confirmed. Raw meat breast pH was significantly lower than thigh muscles in all measurement time. Various feeding especially pollen had significant impact on breast colour which was paler although without negative displays attended of pH decline. Significant relationships are between breast and thigh L*a*b* values and pH1 respectively.

  12. Normal mitochondrial function and increased fat oxidation capacity in leg and arm muscles in obese humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ara, I; Larsen, S; Stallknecht, Bente Merete

    2011-01-01

    was that fat oxidation during exercise might be differentially preserved in leg and arm muscles after weight loss.Methods:Indirect calorimetry was used to calculate fat and carbohydrate oxidation during both progressive arm-cranking and leg-cycling exercises. Muscle biopsy samples were obtained from musculus...... deltoideus (m. deltoideus) and m. vastus lateralis muscles. Fibre-type composition, enzyme activity and O(2) flux capacity of saponin-permeabilized muscle fibres were measured, the latter by high-resolution respirometry.Results:During the graded exercise tests, peak fat oxidation during leg cycling...... and the relative workload at which it occurred (FatMax) were higher in PO and O than in C. During arm cranking, peak fat oxidation was higher in O than in C, and FatMax was higher in O than in PO and C. Similar fibre-type composition was found between groups. Plasma adiponectin was higher in PO than in C and O...

  13. Hip abductors and thigh muscles strength ratios and their relation to electromyography amplitude during split squat and walking lunge exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Stastny

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The hip abductors (HAB, quadriceps (Q and hamstrings (H reciprocal strength ratios are predictors of electromyography (EMG amplitude during load carrying walking at moderate intensity. Therefore, these strength ratios might predict also the EMG during the exercises as walking lunge (WL or split squat (SSq at submaximal intensity. Objective: To determine whether the EMG amplitude of vastus mediali (VM, vastus laterali (VL, biceps femoris (BF and gluteus medius (Gmed is associated with muscle strength ratio during SSqs and WLs. To determine whether the EMG amplitude differs between individuals with HAB/H ratio above and below one and between individuals with H/Q or HAB/Q ratio above and below 0.5 during SSqs and WLs. Methods: 17 resistance-trained men (age 29.6 ± 4.6 years with at least 3 years of strength training performed in cross-sectional design 5 s maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC on an isokinetic dynamometer for knee extension, knee flexion, and hip abduction. The MVIC was used to normalize the EMG signal and estimate the individual strength ratios. Than participants performed WL and SSq for a 5 repetition maximum, to find out muscle activity at submaximal intensity of exercise. Results: The H/Q ratio was associated by Kendall's tau (τ with VM (τ = .33 and BF (τ = -.71 amplitude, HAB/Q ratio was associated with BF (τ = -.43 and Gmed (τ = .38 amplitude, as well as HAB/H was associated with VM (τ = -.41 and Gmed (τ = .74 amplitude. ANOVA results showed significant differences between SSq and WL (F(4, 79 = 10, p < .001, ηp2 = .34 in Gmed amplitude, where WL resulted in higher Gmed amplitude compared to SSq. Other significant differences were found between H/Q groups (F(4, 29 = 3, p = .04, ηp2 = .28 in VM and Gmed amplitude, where group with H/Q > 0.5 showed higher VMO amplitude and lower Gmed amplitude. Furthermore, significant difference was found

  14. Non-uniform muscle fat replacement along the proximodistal axis in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooijmans, M T; Niks, E H; Burakiewicz, J; Anastasopoulos, C; van den Berg, S I; van Zwet, E; Webb, A G; Verschuuren, J J G M; Kan, H E

    2017-05-01

    The progressive replacement of muscle tissue by fat in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) has been studied using quantitative MRI between, but not within, individual muscles. We studied fat replacement along the proximodistal muscle axis using the Dixon technique on a 3T MR scanner in 22 DMD patients and 12 healthy controls. Mean fat fractions per muscle per slice for seven lower and upper leg muscles were compared between and within groups assuming a parabolic distribution. Average fat fraction for a small central slice stack and a large coverage slice stack were compared to the value when the stack was shifted one slice (15 mm) up or down. Higher fat fractions were observed in distal and proximal muscle segments compared to the muscle belly in all muscles of the DMD subjects (p muscle end regions are exposed to higher mechanical strain, which points towards mechanical disruption of the sarcolemma as one of the key factors in the pathophysiology. Overall, this non-uniformity in fat replacement needs to be taken into account to prevent sample bias when applying quantitative MRI as biomarker in clinical trials for DMD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Consumption of sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup does not increase liver fat or ectopic fat deposition in muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Stephen; Lowndes, Joshua; Sinnett, Stephanie; Yu, Zhiping; Rippe, James

    2013-06-01

    It has been postulated that fructose-induced triglyceride synthesis is augmented when accompanied by glucose. Chronic elevations could lead to excess fat accumulation in the liver and ectopic fat deposition in muscles, which in turn could contribute to the induction of abnormalities in glucose homeostasis, insulin resistance, and the subsequent development of type 2 diabetes. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of the addition of commonly consumed fructose- and (or) glucose-containing sugars in the usual diet on liver fat content and intramuscular adipose tissue. For 10 weeks, 64 individuals (mean age, 42.16 ± 11.66 years) consumed low-fat milk sweetened with either high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) or sucrose; the added sugar matched consumption levels of fructose in the 25th, 50th, and 90th percentiles of the population. The fat content of the liver was measured with unenhanced computed tomography imaging, and the fat content of muscle was assessed with magnetic resonance imaging. When the 6 HFCS and sucrose groups were averaged, there was no change over the course of 10 weeks in the fat content of the liver (13.32% ± 10.49% vs. 13.21% ± 10.75%; p > 0.05), vastus lateralis muscle (3.07 ± 0.74 g per 100 mL vs. 3.15 ± 0.84 g per 100 mL; p > 0.05), or gluteus maximus muscle (4.08 ± 1.50 g per 100 mL vs. 4.24 ± 1.42 g per 100 mL; p > 0.05). Group assignment did not affect the result (interaction > 0.05). These data suggest that when fructose is consumed as part of a typical diet in normally consumed sweeteners, such as sucrose or HFCS, ectopic fat storage in the liver or muscles is not promoted.

  16. Skeletal Muscle Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Lower Limbs in Late-onset Lipid Storage Myopathy with Electron Transfer Flavoprotein Dehydrogenase Gene Mutations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Yi Liu; Ming Jin; Zhi-Qiang Wang; Dan-Ni Wang; Jun-Jie He; Min-Ting Lin; Hong-Xia Fu

    2016-01-01

    Background:Lipid storage myopathy (LSM) is a genetically heterogeneous group with variable clinical phenotypes.Late-onset multiple acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenation deficiency (MADD) is a rather common form of LSM in China.Diagnosis and clinical management of it remain challenging,especially without robust muscle biopsy result and genetic detection.As the noninvasion and convenience,muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a helpful assistant,diagnostic tool for neuromuscular disorders.However,the disease-specific MRI patterns of muscle involved and its diagnostic value in late-onset MADD have not been systematic analyzed.Methods:We assessed the MRI pattern and fat infiltration degree of the lower limb muscles in 28 late-onset MADD patients,combined with detailed clinical features and gene spectrum.Fat infiltration degree of the thigh muscle was scored while that ofgluteus was described as obvious or not.Associated muscular atrophy was defined as obvious muscle bulk reduction.Results:The mean scores were significantly different among the anterior,medial,and posterior thigh muscle groups.The mean of fat infiltration scores on posterior thigh muscle group was significantly higher than either anterior or medial thigh muscle group (P < 0.001).Moreover,the mean score on medial thigh muscle group was significantly higher than that of anterior thigh muscle group (P < 0.01).About half of the patients displayed fat infiltration and atrophy in gluteus muscles.Of 28 patients,12 exhibited atrophy in medial and/or posterior thigh muscle groups,especially in posterior thigh muscle group.Muscle edema pattern was not found in all the patients.Conclusions:Late-onset MADD patients show a typical muscular imaging pattern of fat infiltration and atrophy on anterior,posterior,and medial thigh muscle groups,with major involvement of posterior thigh muscle group and gluteus muscles and a sparing involvement of anterior thigh compartment.Our findings also suggest that muscle MRI of

  17. Ratio of muscle mass to fat mass assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis is significantly correlated with liver fat accumulation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurinami, Noboru; Sugiyama, Seigo; Morita, Ayami; Yoshida, Akira; Hieshima, Kunio; Miyamoto, Fumio; Kajiwara, Keizo; Jinnouch, Katsunori; Jinnouchi, Tomio; Jinnouchi, Hideaki

    2018-05-01

    Obesity and ectopic fat accumulation are important conditions of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Our aim was to determine whether bioelectrical impedance body composition analysis combined with blood test results could estimate liver ectopic fat accumulation in patients with treatment-naïve T2DM. Subjects were 119 untreated T2DM patients. Computed tomography scans were performed to calculate the liver to spleen attenuation ratio (L/S ratio) as a measure of liver fat accumulation, with excess liver fat accumulation defined as an L/S ratio analysis using InBody770. The Nagelkerke R 2 test showed that the muscle mass/fat mass ratio (muscle/fat ratio) was the most suitable variable among anthropometric factors and body component indexes for estimating liver fat accumulation. The muscle/fat ratio was significantly correlated with the L/S ratio (ρ = 0.4386, P analysis showed that the muscle/fat ratio (odds ratio 0.40, 95% confidence interval 0.22-0.73, P ratio 1.06, 95% confidence interval 1.02-1.10, P analysis, the cutoff value of the muscle/fat ratio for excess liver fat accumulation was 2.34. In patients with treatment-naïve T2DM, the muscle/fat ratio and ALT are useful for estimating the presence of excess liver fat accumulation in daily clinical practice. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Association of visceral fat area with abdominal skeletal muscle distribution in overweight Japanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Noriko I; Murakami, Haruka; Ohmori, Yumi; Aiba, Naomi; Morita, Akemi; Watanabe, Shaw; Miyachi, Motohiko

    2016-07-20

    Quantitative evaluation of visceral fat mass and skeletal muscle mass is important for health promotion. Recently, some studies suggested the existence of adipocyte-myocyte negative crosstalk. If so, abdominal skeletal muscles may easily and negatively affected not only by the age but also the visceral fat because age-related reduction in abdominal region is greater compared with limbs. We cross-sectionally examined the existence of quantitative associations between visceral fat area and abdominal skeletal muscle distribution in overweight people. A total of 230 Japanese males and females who aged 40-64 years and whose body mass index (BMI) was 28.0-44.8kg/m 2 participated in this study. The cross-sectional area (CSA) of the visceral fat, subcutaneous fat, and abdominal skeletal muscles, namely, the rectus abdominis, abdominal oblique, erector spinae, and iliopsoas muscles were measured by the computed tomography images. Stepwise regression analyses revealed the existence of sex difference in the relation between visceral fat CSA and other morphological variables. In males, BMI was a positive, and the iliopsoas muscle group CSA was a negative contributor of the visceral fat CSA. In females, both age and BMI were selected as positive contributors. These data suggested that the visceral fat CSA may negatively associated with iliopsoas muscle group CSA in males. In females, the visceral fat CSA was not significantly related to the distribution of the abdominal skeletal muscle groups. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial bioenergetics and morphology in high fat diet induced obesity and insulin resistance: focus on dietary fat source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalba ePutti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that skeletal muscle mitochondria play a key role in high fat diet induced insulin resistance. Two opposite views are debated on mechanisms by which mitochondrial function could be involved in skeletal muscle insulin resistance. In one theory, mitochondrial dysfunction is suggested to cause intramyocellular lipid accumulation leading to insulin resistance. In the second theory, excess fuel within mitochondria in the absence of increased energy demand stimulates mitochondrial oxidant production and emission, ultimately leading to the development of insulin resistance. Noteworthy, mitochondrial bioenergetics is strictly associated with the maintenance of normal mitochondrial morphology by maintaining the balance between the fusion and fission processes. A shift towards mitochondrial fission with reduction of fusion protein, mainly mitofusin 2, has been associated with reduced insulin sensitivity and inflammation in obesity and insulin resistance development. However, dietary fat source during chronic overfeeding differently affects mitochondrial morphology. Saturated fatty acids induce skeletal muscle insulin resistance and inflammation associated with fission phenotype, whereas ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids improve skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity and inflammation, associated with a shift toward mitochondrial fusion phenotype. The present minireview focuses on mitochondrial bioenergetics and morphology in skeletal muscle insulin resistance, with particular attention to the effect of different dietary fat sources on skeletal muscle mitochondria morphology and fusion/fission balance.

  20. Fat to muscle ratio measurements with dual energy x-ray absorbtiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, A. [Shenzhen College of International Education, 1st HuangGang Park St., Shenzhen, GuangDong (China); Luo, J. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University at Buffalo, 332 Bonner Hall, Buffalo, NY 14260-1920 (United States); Wang, A. [Department of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Broadbent, C. [School of Engineering, Columbia University, 1130 Amsterdam Av., New York, NY 10027 (United States); Zhong, J. [Department of English, Dartmouth College, 6032 Sanborn House, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Dilmanian, F.A. [Departments of Radiation Oncology, Neurology, and Radiology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Zafonte, F.; Zhong, Z. [National Synchrotron Light Source II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Bldg. 743, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2015-07-11

    Accurate measurement of the fat-to-muscle ratio in animal model is important for obesity research. An efficient way to measure the fat to muscle ratio in animal model using dual-energy absorptiometry is presented in this paper. A radioactive source exciting x-ray fluorescence from a target material is used to provide the two x-ray energies needed. The x-rays, after transmitting through the sample, are measured with an energy-sensitive Ge detector. Phantoms and specimens were measured. The results showed that the method was sensitive to the fat to muscle ratios with good linearity. A standard deviation of a few percent in the fat to muscle ratio could be observed with the x-ray dose of 0.001 mGy.

  1. Skeletal Muscle and Liver Lipidomics and the Regulation of FAT/CD36

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordy, Andreas Børsting

    induced obesity in mice, we observed an increased muscle and liver lipid content, analyzed by mass spectrometry, concomitant with decreased glucose tolerance. We observed that treadmill exercise-training in high-fat fed mice resulted in a reduction in the lipid content in the liver, but not in muscle...... that the current worldwide obesity epidemic has resulted in the increased prevalence of “metabolic disease clusters”, including type 2 diabetes, fatty liver disease and dyslipidemia. Excessive plasma lipids can result in the accumulation of lipid metabolites at ectopic sites including skeletal muscle and liver...... during isolated muscle contractions. On the contrary, previous observations suggest that a permanent relocation of FAT/CD36 protein to the sarcolemma induces intracellular lipid accumulation, resulting in insulin resistance. Therefore, FAT/CD36 has been linked to insulin resistance. Whether increased FAT...

  2. Blocked muscle fat oxidation during exercise in neutral lipid storage disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laforêt, Pascal; Ørngreen, Mette; Preisler, Nicolai

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether impaired exercise capacity in neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy is solely caused by muscle weakness or whether a defect in energy metabolism (blocked fat oxidation) may also play a role.......To determine whether impaired exercise capacity in neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy is solely caused by muscle weakness or whether a defect in energy metabolism (blocked fat oxidation) may also play a role....

  3. Thigh circumference and risk of heart disease and premature death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, Berit L; Frederiksen, Peder

    2009-01-01

    of follow-up for total death. RESULTS: A small thigh circumference was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and coronary heart diseases and total mortality in both men and women. A threshold effect for thigh circumference was evident, with greatly increased risk of premature death below...... circumference seems to be associated with an increased risk of developing heart disease or premature death. The adverse effects of small thighs might be related to too little muscle mass in the region. The measure of thigh circumference might be a relevant anthropometric measure to help general practitioners...... in early identification of individuals at an increased risk of premature morbidity and mortality....

  4. Analysis of fatty infiltration and inflammation of the pelvic and thigh muscles in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD): grading of disease involvement on MR imaging and correlation with clinical assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Merrow, Arnold C; Shiraj, Sahar; Wong, Brenda L; Horn, Paul S; Laor, Tal

    2013-10-01

    Prior reports focus primarily on muscle fatty infiltration in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). However, the significance of muscle edema is uncertain. To evaluate the frequency and degree of muscle fat and edema, and correlate these with clinical function. Forty-two boys (ages 5-19 years) with DMD underwent pelvic MRI. Axial T1- and fat-suppressed T2-weighted images were evaluated to grade muscle fatty infiltration (0-4) and edema (0-3), respectively. Degree and frequency of disease involvement were compared to clinical evaluations. Gluteus maximus had the greatest mean fatty infiltration score, followed by adductor magnus and gluteus medius muscles, and had the most frequent and greatest degree of fatty infiltration. Gluteus maximus also had the greatest mean edema score, followed by vastus lateralis and gluteus medius muscles. These muscles had the most frequent edema, although the greatest degree of edema was seen in other muscles. There was correlation between cumulative scores of fatty infiltration and all clinical evaluations (P muscles with the most frequent fatty infiltration had the greatest degree of fatty infiltration and correlated with patient function. However, the muscles with the most frequent edema were different from those with the greatest degree of edema. Thus, edema may not predict patient functional status.

  5. The influence of fat infiltration of back extensor muscles on osteoporotic vertebral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Kwang-Young; Kim, Dae-Hee; Choi, Dong-Hyuk; Kim, Choong-Young; Kim, Jeong-Seok; Choi, Yong-Soo

    2013-12-01

    Retrospective study. To investigate the influence of fat infiltration at low back extensor muscles on osteoporotic vertebral fracture. In persons with stronger back muscles, the risk of osteoporotic vertebral fractures will likely be lower than in those persons with weaker back muscles. However, the degree of influence of fat infiltration of the back extensor muscle on osteoporotic vertebral fracture remains controversial. Two hundred and thirty-seven patients who had undergone lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging and bone mineral density (BMD) were enrolled in this study. The amount of low back extensor muscle was determined using the pseudocoloring technique on an axial view of the L3 level. The patients were divided into two groups: osteoporotic vertebral fracture group (group A) and non-fracture group (group B). The amount of low back extensor muscle is compared with BMD, degenerative change of disc, osteophyte grade of facet joint and promontory angle to reveal the association between these factors. A negative correlation is found between age and the amount of low back extensor muscle (p=0.001). The amount of low back extensor muscle in group A and group B was 60.3%±14.5% and 64.2%±9.3% respectively, thus showing a significantly smaller amount of low back extensor muscle in the osteoporotic vertebral fracture group (p=0.015). Fat infiltration of low back extensor muscle was increased in osteoporotic vertebral fracture patients. Therefore, fat infiltration of low back extensor muscle in an elderly person may be a risk factor of osteoporotic vertebral fracture.

  6. Methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism analysis of fat and muscle tissues in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, J D; Li, M Z; Zhou, S L; Zhou, C W; Li, X W

    2012-09-26

    DNA methylation may be involved in regulating the expression of protein-coding genes, resulting in different fat and muscle phenotypes. Using a methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism approach, we obtained 7423 bands by selective amplification of genomic DNA from six different fat depots and two heterogeneous muscle types from Duroc/Landrace/Yorkshire cross-bred pigs. The degrees of DNA methylation, determined by the percentages of hemi- and fully methylated sites relative to the total number of CCGG sites, were similar in male and female pigs for each specific tissue [χ(2) test; P (two-tailed) > 0.05]. Gender bias was therefore ignored. There were significant differences in the degree of DNA methylation among the eight tissue types [χ(2) test; P(total) (two-tailed) = 0.009]. However, similar degrees of methylation were observed among the six fat depots [χ(2) test; P(fat) (two-tailed) = 0.24 > 0.05]and between the two muscle types [χ(2) test; P(muscle) (two-tailed) = 0.76 > 0.05]. We conclude that the degree of DNA methylation differs between porcine fat and muscle tissue, but that the methylation status of a particular tissue type is similar, despite being deposited at different body sites.

  7. COMPARISSON OF DIFFERENT IN VIVO ESTIMATORS OF BODY FAT AND MUSCLE CONTENT IN ADULT CREOLE GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hania Vilar-Martinez

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of ultrasound measurements (ULT, body condition score (BCS and body mass index (BMI to predict body fat and muscle in goats. Twenty-four adult, ovariectomized, creole goats were fed individually to achieve dissimilar stable body weights (26 to 66 kg. After a six-week period of stabilization BCS was evaluated (average of 4 separate evaluations and BMI calculated (BW/(length x heightx10; average of 2 independent length and height measurements. Fat and muscle coverage over the dorsal (12-13th, lumbar (1st and coxal (1st vertebrae were measured by ultrasound imaging. Animals were slaughtered and visceral fat dissected and weighed. Left half carcass weights were obtained and muscle and fat were dissected and weighed. Left half carcass data were adjusted to whole carcass data. Simple  regression analyses were performed with ULT, BCS and BMI as predictors and visceral (VF, carcass (CF and total fat (TF, and muscle (MU as response variables. Coefficients of variation (CV were calculated for BCS and BMI estimations. ULT measurement of total tissue (fat + muscle coverage over dorsal vertebrae presented the highest predictive value for ULT measurements; thus this measurement is the only reported. Coefficients of determination (R2 for VF, CF and TF were .55, .76 and .68; .78, .82 and .87; .81, .81 and .88 for ULT, BCS and BMI as predictors. R2 for MU were .67, .84 and .76 using ULT, BCS and BMI as predictors. R2 for proportions of VF/BW, CF/BW and TF/BW were .47, .73 and .65; .75, .78 and .88; .74, .71 and .85; when ULT, BCS and BMI were used as predictors. R2 for MS/BW were ≤ .10 using ULT, BCS and BMI as predictors. CV was greater in BCS estimation as compared to BMI estimation (9.7 vs. 3.1 %. BCS and BMI were more accurate in vivo predictors than ULT for body fat content, fat as proportion of BW and body muscle content. ULT, BCS and BMI were completely worthless for predicting

  8. Myostatin inhibition in muscle, but not adipose tissue, decreases fat mass and improves insulin sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingqing Guo

    Full Text Available Myostatin (Mstn is a secreted growth factor expressed in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue that negatively regulates skeletal muscle mass. Mstn(-/- mice have a dramatic increase in muscle mass, reduction in fat mass, and resistance to diet-induced and genetic obesity. To determine how Mstn deletion causes reduced adiposity and resistance to obesity, we analyzed substrate utilization and insulin sensitivity in Mstn(-/- mice fed a standard chow. Despite reduced lipid oxidation in skeletal muscle, Mstn(-/- mice had no change in the rate of whole body lipid oxidation. In contrast, Mstn(-/- mice had increased glucose utilization and insulin sensitivity as measured by indirect calorimetry, glucose and insulin tolerance tests, and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. To determine whether these metabolic effects were due primarily to the loss of myostatin signaling in muscle or adipose tissue, we compared two transgenic mouse lines carrying a dominant negative activin IIB receptor expressed specifically in adipocytes or skeletal muscle. We found that inhibition of myostatin signaling in adipose tissue had no effect on body composition, weight gain, or glucose and insulin tolerance in mice fed a standard diet or a high-fat diet. In contrast, inhibition of myostatin signaling in skeletal muscle, like Mstn deletion, resulted in increased lean mass, decreased fat mass, improved glucose metabolism on standard and high-fat diets, and resistance to diet-induced obesity. Our results demonstrate that Mstn(-/- mice have an increase in insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake, and that the reduction in adipose tissue mass in Mstn(-/- mice is an indirect result of metabolic changes in skeletal muscle. These data suggest that increasing muscle mass by administration of myostatin antagonists may be a promising therapeutic target for treating patients with obesity or diabetes.

  9. 99mTc-HDP Bone Scan Findings of Acute Rhabdomyolysis of Lumbar Multifidus and Thigh Muscles and Bone Scan and US Signs of Acute Tubular Necrosis in Excessive Rabbit's Leaping: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahk, Yong Whee; Kim, Jang Min

    2008-01-01

    Marked rhabdomyolysis (RML) complicated by acute tubular necrosis is not a rare disease. It is characterized by disintegration of skeletal muscle fibers due to a variety of causes including excessive physical exercise, trauma, operation, infection, bed-ridden life, alcohol, drugs, toxins, exhaustion and others. We report a case of RML with acute renal failure studied using magnification bone scan which specifically identified the muscles injured by excessive rabbit's leap. The injured muscles recognized were the multifidus of the lumbar spine and the anterior and posterior muscle groups of the thigh. In addition, 99 mTc-HDP bone scan findings of acute tubular necrosis correlated with that of the sonographic signs are described. Patient was treated simply with normal saline hydration and bed rest and uneventfully recovered to be discharged on the fourth hospital day. Lab data on the final hospital day: LDH=20 IU/L (normalized) and CPK=600 IU/L (still higher than normal), BUN=14.2 mg/dl (normalized) and creatinin=1.5 mg/dl (normalized) GOT=20 mg/dl (normalized) and GPT=72 mg/dl (higher than normal), respectively

  10. {sup 99m}Tc-HDP Bone Scan Findings of Acute Rhabdomyolysis of Lumbar Multifidus and Thigh Muscles and Bone Scan and US Signs of Acute Tubular Necrosis in Excessive Rabbit's Leaping: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Yong Whee; Kim, Jang Min [Sung Ae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    Marked rhabdomyolysis (RML) complicated by acute tubular necrosis is not a rare disease. It is characterized by disintegration of skeletal muscle fibers due to a variety of causes including excessive physical exercise, trauma, operation, infection, bed-ridden life, alcohol, drugs, toxins, exhaustion and others. We report a case of RML with acute renal failure studied using magnification bone scan which specifically identified the muscles injured by excessive rabbit's leap. The injured muscles recognized were the multifidus of the lumbar spine and the anterior and posterior muscle groups of the thigh. In addition, {sup 99}mTc-HDP bone scan findings of acute tubular necrosis correlated with that of the sonographic signs are described. Patient was treated simply with normal saline hydration and bed rest and uneventfully recovered to be discharged on the fourth hospital day. Lab data on the final hospital day: LDH=20 IU/L (normalized) and CPK=600 IU/L (still higher than normal), BUN=14.2 mg/dl (normalized) and creatinin=1.5 mg/dl (normalized) GOT=20 mg/dl (normalized) and GPT=72 mg/dl (higher than normal), respectively.

  11. The Influence of Protein Supplementation on Muscle Hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardi, A.; Welis, W.

    2018-04-01

    The problem of this study was the lack of knowledge about nutrition, so the use of protein supplements to support the occurrence of muscle hypertrophy is not optimal. The use of natural supplements is a substitute of the manufacturer's supplements. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of natural protein supplementation to muscle hypertrophy.The method of the research was a quasi experiment. There are 26 subject and were divided two group. Instrument of this research is to use tape measure and skinfold to measure muscle rim and thickness of fat in arm and thigh muscle. Then to calculate the circumference of the arm and thigh muscles used the formula MTC - (3.14 x TSF). MTC is the arm muscle or thigh muscle and TSF is the thickness of the muscles of the arm or thigh muscles. Data analysis technique used was t test at 5% significant level. The result of the research showed that average score of arm muscle hypertrophy at pretest control group was 255.61 + 17.69 mm and posttest average score was 263.48.58 + 17.21 mm and average score of thigh muscle hypertrophy at pretest control group was 458.32 + 8.72 mm and posttest average score was 468.78 + 11.54 mm. Average score of arm muscle hypertrophy at pretest experiment group was 252.67 + 16.05 mm and posttest average score was 274.58 ± 16.89 mm and average score of thigh muscle hypertrophy at pretest experiment group was 459.49 ± 6.99 mm and posttest average score was 478.70 + 9.05 mm. It can be concluded that there was a significant effect of natural protein supplementation on muscle hypertrophy.

  12. LOW MID-UPPER ARM CIRCUMFERENCE AND MORTALITY IN OLDER PERSONS: THE INFLUENCE OF FAT AND MUSCLE MASS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delmonico, M.J.; Harris, T.B.; Visser, M.; Park, S.W.; Conroy, M.B.; Velasquez-Mieyer, P.; Boudreau, R.; Manini, T.M.; Nevitt, M.; Newman, A.B.; Goodpaster, B.H.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Sarcopenia is thought to be accompanied by increased muscle fat infiltration. However, no longitudinal studies have examined concomitant changes in muscle mass, strength, or fat infiltration in older adults. Objective: We present longitudinal data on age-related changes in leg

  13. Dietary fat influences the expression of contractile and metabolic genes in rat skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Mizunoya

    Full Text Available Dietary fat plays a major role in obesity, lipid metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases. To determine whether the intake of different types of dietary fats affect the muscle fiber types that govern the metabolic and contractile properties of the skeletal muscle, we fed male Wistar rats with a 15% fat diet derived from different fat sources. Diets composed of soybean oil (n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA-rich, fish oil (n-3 PUFA-rich, or lard (low in PUFAs were administered to the rats for 4 weeks. Myosin heavy chain (MyHC isoforms were used as biomarkers to delineate the skeletal muscle fiber types. Compared with soybean oil intake, fish oil intake showed significantly lower levels of the fast-type MyHC2B and higher levels of the intermediate-type MyHC2X composition in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL muscle, which is a fast-type dominant muscle. Concomitantly, MyHC2X mRNA levels in fish oil-fed rats were significantly higher than those observed in the soybean oil-fed rats. The MyHC isoform composition in the lard-fed rats was an intermediate between that of the fish oil and soybean oil-fed rats. Mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4, and porin mRNA showed significantly upregulated levels in the EDL of fish oil-fed rats compared to those observed in soybean oil-fed and lard-fed rats, implying an activation of oxidative metabolism. In contrast, no changes in the composition of MyHC isoforms was observed in the soleus muscle, which is a slow-type dominant muscle. Fatty acid composition in the serum and the muscle was significantly influenced by the type of dietary fat consumed. In conclusion, dietary fat affects the expression of genes related to the contractile and metabolic properties in the fast-type dominant skeletal muscle, where the activation of oxidative metabolism is more pronounced after fish oil intake than that after soybean oil intake.

  14. Factors regulating fat oxidation in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiens, Bente; Alsted, Thomas Junker; Jeppesen, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    In modern societies, oversupply of calories leads to obesity and chronic metabolic stress, which may lead to development of disease. Oversupply of calories is often associated with elevated plasma lipid concentrations and accumulation of lipids in skeletal muscle leading to decreased insulin...

  15. Muscle structural changes in mitochondrial myopathy relate to genotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, David B.; Langkilde, Annika Reynberg; Ørngreen, Mette C.

    2003-01-01

    It is well known that morphological changes at the cellular level occur in muscle of patients with mitochondrial myopathy (MM), but changes in muscle structure with fat infiltration and gross variation of muscle fiber size with giant fibers, normally encountered in the muscular dystrophies, have...... typically not been associated with mitochondrial disease. We investigated gross and microscopic muscle morphology in thigh muscles by muscle biopsy and MRI in 16 patients with MM, and compared findings with those obtained in muscular dystrophy patients and healthy subjects. Changes of muscle architecture...

  16. Psoas muscle cross-sectional area as a measure of whole body lean muscle mass in maintenance hemodialysis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Glen R.; Ikizler, Talat A.; Chen, Xiaorui; Heilbrun, Marta E.; Wei, Guo; Boucher, Robert; Beddhu, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Objective We investigate whether psoas or paraspinous muscle area measured on a single L4–5 image is a useful measure of whole lean body mass compared to dedicated mid-thigh magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Design Observational study. Setting Outpatient dialysis units and a research clinic. Subjects 105 adult participants on maintenance hemodialysis. No control group was used. Exposure variables Psoas muscle area, paraspinous muscle area, and mid-thigh muscle area (MTMA) were measured by MRI. Main outcome measure Lean body mass was measured by dual-energy absorptiometry (DEXA) scan. Results In separate multivariable linear regression models, psoas, paraspinous, and mid-thigh muscle area were associated with increase in lean body mass. In separate multivariate logistic regression models, c-statistics for diagnosis of sarcopenia (defined as lean body mass) were 0.69 for paraspinous muscle area, 0.81 for psoas muscle area, and 0.89 for mid-thigh muscle area. With sarcopenia defined as lean body mass, the corresponding c-statistics were 0.71, 0.92, and 0.94. Conclusions We conclude that psoas muscle area provides a good measure of whole body muscle mass, better than paraspinous muscle area but slightly inferior to mid thigh measurement. Hence, in body composition studies a single axial MR image at the L4–L5 level can be used to provide information on both fat and muscle and may eliminate the need for time-consuming measurement of muscle area in the thigh. PMID:26994780

  17. Muscle fat content and abdominal adipose tissue distribution investigated by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging in obese children and youths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonvig, Cilius E; Bille, Dorthe S; Chabanova, Elizaveta

    2012-01-01

    The degree of fat deposition in muscle and its implications for obesity-related complications in children and youths are not well understood. One hundred and fifty-nine patients (mean age: 13.3 years; range: 6-20) with a body mass index (BMI) >90(th) percentile for age and sex were included. Muscle...... fat content (MFC) was measured in the psoas muscle by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The patients were assigned to two groups: MFC...

  18. Independent Aftereffects of Fat and Muscle: Implications for neural encoding, body space representation, and body image disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturman, Daniel; Stephen, Ian D.; Mond, Jonathan; Stevenson, Richard J; Brooks, Kevin R.

    2017-01-01

    Although research addressing body size misperception has focused on socio-cognitive processes, such as internalization of the “ideal” images of bodies in the media, the perceptual basis of this phenomenon remains largely unknown. Further, most studies focus on body size per se even though this depends on both fat and muscle mass – variables that have very different relationships with health. We tested visual adaptation as a mechanism for inducing body fat and muscle mass misperception, and assessed whether these two dimensions of body space are processed independently. Observers manipulated the apparent fat and muscle mass of bodies to make them appear “normal” before and after inspecting images from one of four adaptation conditions (increased fat/decreased fat/increased muscle/decreased muscle). Exposure resulted in a shift in the point of subjective normality in the direction of the adapting images along the relevant (fat or muscle) axis, suggesting that the neural mechanisms involved in body fat and muscle perception are independent. This supports the viability of adaptation as a model of real-world body size misperception, and extends its applicability to clinical manifestations of body image disturbance that entail not only preoccupation with thinness (e.g., anorexia nervosa) but also with muscularity (e.g., muscle dysmorphia). PMID:28071712

  19. Maternal high fat diet alters skeletal muscle mitochondrial catalytic activity in adult male rat offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Anne Pileggi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A maternal high-fat (HF diet during pregnancy can lead to metabolic compromise such as insulin resistance in adult offspring. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction is one mechanism contributing to metabolic impairments in insulin resistant states. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate whether mitochondrial dysfunction is evident in metabolically compromised offspring born to HF-fed dams. Sprague-Dawley dams were randomly assigned to receive a purified control diet (CD; 10% kcal from fat or a high fat diet (HFD; 45% kcal from fat for 10 days prior to mating, throughout pregnancy and during lactation. From weaning, all male offspring received a standard chow diet and soleus muscle was collected at day 150. Expression of the mitochondrial transcription factors nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF1 and mitochondrial transcription factor A (mtTFA were downregulated in HF offspring. Furthermore, genes encoding the mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS respiratory complex subunits were supressed in HF offspring. Moreover, protein expression of the complex I subunit, NDUFB8, was downregulated in HF offspring (36%, which was paralleled by decreased maximal catalytic linked activity of complex I and III (40%. Together, these results indicate that exposure to a maternal HF diet during development may elicit lifelong mitochondrial alterations in offspring skeletal muscle.

  20. The Crucial Role of C18-Cer in Fat-Induced Skeletal Muscle Insulin Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blachnio-Zabielska, Agnieszka U; Chacinska, Marta; Vendelbo, Mikkel H; Zabielski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Muscle bioactive lipids accumulation leads to several disorder states. The most common are insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes. There is an ongoing debate which of the lipid species plays the major role in induction of muscle IR. Our aim was to elucidate the role of particular lipid group in induction of muscle IR. The analyses were performed on muscle from the following groups of rats: 1. Control, fed standard diet, 2 HFD, fed high fat diet, 3. HFD/Myr, fed HFD and treated with myriocin (Myr), an inhibitor of ceramide de novo synthesis. We utilized [U13C] palmitate isotope tracer infusion and mass spectrometry to measure content and synthesis rate of muscle long-chain acyl-CoA (LCACoA), diacylglycerols (DAG) and ceramide (Cer). HFD led to intramuscular accumulation of LCACoA, DAG and Cer and skeletal muscle IR. Myr-treatment caused decrease in Cer (most noticeable for stearoyl-Cer and oleoyl-Cer) and accumulation of DAG, possibly due to re-channeling of excess of intramuscular LCACoA towards DAG synthesis. An improvement in insulin sensitivity at both systemic and muscular level coincided with decrease in ceramide, despite elevated intramuscular DAG. The improved insulin sensitivity was associated with decreased muscle stearoyl- and oleoyl-ceramide content. The results indicate that accumulation of those ceramide species has the greatest impact on skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity in rats. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Ursolic acid increases skeletal muscle and brown fat and decreases diet-induced obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven D Kunkel

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle Akt activity stimulates muscle growth and imparts resistance to obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease. We recently found that ursolic acid increases skeletal muscle Akt activity and stimulates muscle growth in non-obese mice. Here, we tested the hypothesis that ursolic acid might increase skeletal muscle Akt activity in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. We studied mice that consumed a high fat diet lacking or containing ursolic acid. In skeletal muscle, ursolic acid increased Akt activity, as well as downstream mRNAs that promote glucose utilization (hexokinase-II, blood vessel recruitment (Vegfa and autocrine/paracrine IGF-I signaling (Igf1. As a result, ursolic acid increased skeletal muscle mass, fast and slow muscle fiber size, grip strength and exercise capacity. Interestingly, ursolic acid also increased brown fat, a tissue that shares developmental origins with skeletal muscle. Consistent with increased skeletal muscle and brown fat, ursolic acid increased energy expenditure, leading to reduced obesity, improved glucose tolerance and decreased hepatic steatosis. These data support a model in which ursolic acid reduces obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease by increasing skeletal muscle and brown fat, and suggest ursolic acid as a potential therapeutic approach for obesity and obesity-related illness.

  2. Application of cell co-culture system to study fat and muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandurangan, Muthuraman; Hwang, Inho

    2014-09-01

    Animal cell culture is a highly complex process, in which cells are grown under specific conditions. The growth and development of these cells is a highly unnatural process in vitro condition. Cells are removed from animal tissues and artificially cultured in various culture vessels. Vitamins, minerals, and serum growth factors are supplied to maintain cell viability. Obtaining result homogeneity of in vitro and in vivo experiments is rare, because their structure and function are different. Living tissues have highly ordered complex architecture and are three-dimensional (3D) in structure. The interaction between adjacent cell types is quite distinct from the in vitro cell culture, which is usually two-dimensional (2D). Co-culture systems are studied to analyze the interactions between the two different cell types. The muscle and fat co-culture system is useful in addressing several questions related to muscle modeling, muscle degeneration, apoptosis, and muscle regeneration. Co-culture of C2C12 and 3T3-L1 cells could be a useful diagnostic tool to understand the muscle and fat formation in animals. Even though, co-culture systems have certain limitations, they provide a more realistic 3D view and information than the individual cell culture system. It is suggested that co-culture systems are useful in evaluating the intercellular communication and composition of two different cell types.

  3. Balanced Diet-Fed Fat-1 Transgenic Mice Exhibit Lower Hindlimb Suspension-Induced Soleus Muscle Atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Nasri Marzuca-Nassr

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The consequences of two-week hindlimb suspension (HS on skeletal muscle atrophy were investigated in balanced diet-fed Fat-1 transgenic and C57BL/6 wild-type mice. Body composition and gastrocnemius fatty acid composition were measured. Skeletal muscle force, cross-sectional area (CSA, and signaling pathways associated with protein synthesis (protein kinase B, Akt; ribosomal protein S6, S6, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1, 4EBP1; glycogen synthase kinase3-beta, GSK3-beta; and extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1/2, ERK 1/2 and protein degradation (atrophy gene-1/muscle atrophy F-box, atrogin-1/MAFbx and muscle RING finger 1, MuRF1 were evaluated in the soleus muscle. HS decreased soleus muscle wet and dry weights (by 43% and 26%, respectively, muscle isotonic and tetanic force (by 29% and 18%, respectively, CSA of the soleus muscle (by 36%, and soleus muscle fibers (by 45%. Fat-1 transgenic mice had a decrease in the ω-6/ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs ratio as compared with C57BL/6 wild-type mice (56%, p < 0.001. Fat-1 mice had lower soleus muscle dry mass loss (by 10% and preserved absolute isotonic force (by 17% and CSA of the soleus muscle (by 28% after HS as compared with C57BL/6 wild-type mice. p-GSK3B/GSK3B ratio was increased (by 70% and MuRF-1 content decreased (by 50% in the soleus muscle of Fat-1 mice after HS. Balanced diet-fed Fat-1 mice are able to preserve in part the soleus muscle mass, absolute isotonic force and CSA of the soleus muscle in a disuse condition.

  4. Utility and reliability of non-invasive muscle function tests in high-fat-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Huenchullan, Sergio F; McLennan, Susan V; Ban, Linda A; Morsch, Marco; Twigg, Stephen M; Tam, Charmaine S

    2017-07-01

    What is the central question of this study? Non-invasive muscle function tests have not been validated for use in the study of muscle performance in high-fat-fed mice. What is the main finding and its importance? This study shows that grip strength, hang wire and four-limb hanging tests are able to discriminate the muscle performance between chow-fed and high-fat-fed mice at different time points, with grip strength being reliable after 5, 10 and 20 weeks of dietary intervention. Non-invasive tests are commonly used for assessing muscle function in animal models. The value of these tests in obesity, a condition where muscle strength is reduced, is unclear. We investigated the utility of three non-invasive muscle function tests, namely grip strength (GS), hang wire (HW) and four-limb hanging (FLH), in C57BL/6 mice fed chow (chow group, n = 48) or a high-fat diet (HFD group, n = 48) for 20 weeks. Muscle function tests were performed at 5, 10 and 20 weeks. After 10 and 20 weeks, HFD mice had significantly reduced GS (in newtons; mean ± SD: 10 weeks chow, 1.89 ± 0.1 and HFD, 1.79 ± 0.1; 20 weeks chow, 1.99 ± 0.1 and HFD, 1.75 ± 0.1), FLH [in seconds per gram body weight; median (interquartile range): 10 weeks chow, 2552 (1337-4964) and HFD, 1230 (749-1994); 20 weeks chow, 2048 (765-3864) and HFD, 1036 (717-1855)] and HW reaches [n; median (interquartile range): 10 weeks chow, 4 (2-5) and HFD, 2 (1-3); 20 weeks chow, 3 (1-5) and HFD, 1 (0-2)] and higher falls [n; median (interquartile range): 10 weeks chow, 0 (0-2) and HFD, 3 (1-7); 20 weeks chow, 1 (0-4) and HFD, 8 (5-10)]. Grip strength was reliable in both dietary groups [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.5-0.8; P tests are valuable and reliable tools for assessment of muscle strength and function in high-fat-fed mice. © 2017 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

  5. Hot-boning enhances cook yield of boneless skinless chicken thighs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, H; Bowker, B C; Buhr, R J; Brambila, G Sanchez

    2014-06-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of postmortem deboning time on cook yield of boneless skinless chicken thighs. In experiment 1, chicken thigh meat was deboned at 0.75 (hot-bone), 2, and 24 h postmortem (PM) and trimmed to obtain mainly iliotibialis muscle. Samples were cooked directly from a frozen state. Cook yield of the muscle was significantly influenced by PM deboning time. Hot-boned thighs exhibited a 7% greater cook yield than the samples deboned at 24 h. In experiment 2, boneless skinless chicken thighs were deboned at 0.3, 2, and 24 h PM and cooked directly from a fresh, never-frozen state at 24 h PM. Cook yield of the hot-boned thighs was significantly higher than those of the 2 and 24 h deboned samples, which did not differ from each other. In experiment 3, whole legs (thigh + drumstick) were cut from the carcass backbone at 0.3 (hot-cut), 2, and 24 h PM. Thighs were separated from the legs (drumsticks) at either the same time the whole legs were removed from the carcasses or at 24 h PM. Intact thighs (bone in) were cooked fresh at 24 h PM. Color of fresh thigh muscles, cook yield, and Warner-Bratzler shear force of cooked samples were measured. Cook yield of the thighs cut from the backbone before chilling was significantly higher than those cut from the carcasses at 2 and 24 h PM, which did not differ from each other. The PM time at which intact thighs were separated from the leg (drumstick) did not influence cook yield. These results demonstrate that postmortem deboning time can significantly affect cook yield of boneless skinless chicken thigh products. Deboning chicken thighs after chilling reduces the cook yield. Differences in the cook yield of thighs may also result from the removal of whole chicken legs from the carcass backbone. Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. Young men with low birthweight exhibit decreased plasticity of genome-wide muscle DNA methylation by high-fat overfeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stine C; Gillberg, Linn; Bork-Jensen, Jette

    2014-01-01

    The association between low birthweight (LBW) and risk of developing type 2 diabetes may involve epigenetic mechanisms, with skeletal muscle being a prime target tissue. Differential DNA methylation patterns have been observed in single genes in muscle tissue from type 2 diabetic and LBW...... individuals, and we recently showed multiple DNA methylation changes during short-term high-fat overfeeding in muscle of healthy people. In a randomised crossover study, we analysed genome-wide DNA promoter methylation in skeletal muscle of 17 young LBW men and 23 matched normal birthweight (NBW) men after...... a control and a 5 day high-fat overfeeding diet....

  7. Impact of fat mass distribution body shapes on muscles strength and the joints pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerf Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our study focuses on fat mass distribution body shapes type as measured to determine their effect on skeletal muscle strengthening lumbar extensors (upper and lower limbs where our background confirms that every girl has a natural body type of rectangle, apple, pear, or hourglass. It is good for her to know which type of body shape she is, so she can learn what exercises to do, whereas similar studies suggest that it is much better to challenge weight problems with exercise and dietary measures before resorting to figure shaping. For this purpose, our study was carried out with a total of thirty students, females listed in the Institute of Physical Education and Sport, University of Mostaganem, aged between 20 and 23 years; their homogeneity was based on age, sex, and academic specialty, classified based on the body mass index (BMI into two groups (normal and overweight and based on their body shape′s type into three groups (9 pear shape, 10 rectangle shape, and 11 hourglass shape as a protocol experimental to examine the impact of fat mass distribution body shapes type on lumbar extensor strength. Based on our data analysis, we confirm that the pear and the rectangle shape affect the strength lumbar extensors due to body weight distribution which increases the risks relating to the skeletal muscles. Weight gain is a factor contributing to the weakness of skeletal muscles. However, the body shape explains the anomalies of the distribution of fat mass and BMI risk observed in our sample in the lower and upper part of the body recorded by the values of Killy test and endurance of trunk, the case of the pear and the rectangle shape back pain, which are consisting in excess of the body fat distributed in comparison with less percentage of muscle mass. Whereas this difference can affect the pelvic position.

  8. Effect of bee pollen extract as a supplemental diet on broilers´s ross 308 breast and thigh meat muscles fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Haščík

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to study the effect of the bee pollen extract on the broiler Ross 308 breast and thigh meat fatty acids. The experiment enrolled 90 chicks in one day old, which were divided into 3 groups (control, E1 and E2. The broiler has been bred in a cage condition for 42 days. To the experimental groups were added bee pollen extract in the amount (400, 800  Normal 0 false false false SK JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Calibri;} mg.kg-1. The chickens have been bred in a cage conditions, each cage was equipped with feed dispenser and water intake was ensured ad libitum through a self feed-pump. The temperature was controlled during the fattening period and it was 33 °C at the first day and every week was reduced about 2 °C the end temperature was 23 °C. At the end of the experiment the fatty acids have beenevaluatedby using Agilent 7890A Gas Chromatograph apparatus (USA. The findings have been shown that the myristoleic acid, linoleic acid, linoelaidic acid, arachidonic acid, and archaic acid were decreased after using the bee pollen into broiler feed mixture otherwise, the bee pollen has been increased the polemic acids and oleic acid and there were found no significant differences (P ≥0.05 among all the experimental groups.From the recent experiment, we conclude that bee pollen extract has decreasedthe fattyacids except palmitoleic acid acid and oleic acid, whichwere higher compared to control groupand there were no significant differences (P ≥0.05 between experimental groups.

  9. One-year high fat diet affects muscle-but not brain mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, Tenna; Grunnet, Niels; Quistorff, Bjørn

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that few weeks of high fat (HF) diet may induce metabolic disturbances and mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletalmuscle. However, little is known about the effects of long-term HF exposure and effects on brain mitochondria are unknown. Wistarrats were fed either chow (13E% fat......) or HF diet (60E% fat) for 1 year. The HF animals developed obesity, dyslipidemia, insulinresistance, and dysfunction of isolated skeletal muscle mitochondria: state 3 and state 4 were 30% to 50% increased (P .... Adding also succinate in state 3 resulted in ahigher substrate control ratio (SCR) with PC, but a lower SCR with pyruvate (P mitochondria from the same animal showed no changes with the substrates relevant...

  10. Reducing body fat with altitude hypoxia training in swimmers: role of blood perfusion to skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Michael; Liao, Chin-An; Huang, Chih-Yang; Lee, Wen-Chih; Hou, Chien-Wen; Yu, Szu-Hsien; Harris, M Brennan; Hsu, Tung-Shiung; Lee, Shin-Da; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2013-02-28

    Swimmers tend to have greater body fat than athletes from other sports. The purpose of the study was to examine changes in body composition after altitude hypoxia exposure and the role of blood distribution to the skeletal muscle in swimmers. With a constant training volume of 12.3 km/day, young male swimmers (N = 10, 14.8 ± 0.5 years) moved from sea-level to a higher altitude of 2,300 meters. Body composition was measured before and after translocation to altitude using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) along with 8 control male subjects who resided at sea level for the same period of time. To determine the effects of hypoxia on muscle blood perfusion, total hemoglobin concentration (THC) was traced by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in the triceps and quadriceps muscles under glucose-ingested and insulin-secreted conditions during hypoxia exposure (16% O2) after training. While no change in body composition was found in the control group, subjects who trained at altitude had unequivocally decreased fat mass (-1.7 ± 0.3 kg, -11.4%) with increased lean mass (+0.8 ± 0.2 kg, +1.5%). Arterial oxygen saturation significantly decreased with increased plasma lactate during hypoxia recovery mimicking 2,300 meters at altitude (~93% versus ~97%). Intriguingly, hypoxia resulted in elevated muscle THC, and sympathetic nervous activities occurred in parallel with greater-percent oxygen saturation in both muscle groups. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence that increased blood distribution to the skeletal muscle under postprandial condition may contribute to the reciprocally increased muscle mass and decreased body mass after a 3-week altitude exposure in swimmers.

  11. Delayed presentation of compartment syndrome of the thigh secondary to quadriceps trauma and vascular injury in a soccer athlete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moo Ing How

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: A high index of suspicion for compartment syndrome is needed in all severe quadriceps contusion. Vascular injury can cause thigh compartment syndrome in sports trauma. MRI findings of deep thigh muscle swelling and “blow-out” tear of the vastus lateralis are strongly suggestive of severe quadriceps injury, and may be a harbinger of delayed thigh compartment syndrome.

  12. Comparison of skeletal muscle mass to fat-free mass ratios among different ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, T; Bemben, M G; Kondo, M; Kawakami, Y; Fukunaga, T

    2012-01-01

    Asians seem to have less skeletal muscle mass (SMM) than other ethnic groups, but it is not clear whether relative SMM, i.e., SMM / height square or SMM to fat-free mass (FFM) ratio, differs among different ethnic groups at the same level of body mass index (BMI). To compare the SMM to fat-free mass (FFM) ratio as well as anthropometric variables and body composition among 3 ethnic groups. Three hundred thirty-nine Japanese, 343 Brazilian, and 183 German men and women were recruited for this cross-sectional study. Muscle thickness (MTH) and subcutaneous fat thickness (FTH) were measured by ultrasound at nine sites on the anterior and posterior aspects of the body. FTH was used to estimate the body density, from which fat mass and fat-free mass (FFM) was calculated by using Brozek equation. Total SMM was estimated from ultrasound-derived prediction equations. Percentage body fat was similar among the ethnic groups in men, while Brazilians were higher than Japanese in women. In German men and women, absolute SMM and FFM were higher than in their Japanese and Brazilians counterparts. SMM index and SMM:FFM ratios were similar among the ethnic groups in women, excluding SMM:FFM ratio in Brazilian. In men, however, these relative values (SMM index and SMM:FFM ratio) were still higher in Germans. After adjusting for age and BMI, the SMM index and SMM:FFM ratios were lower in Brazilian men and women compared with the other two ethnic groups, while the SMM index and SMM:FFM ratios were similar in Japanese and German men and women, excluding SMM:FFM ratio in women. Our results suggest that relative SMM is not lower in Asian populations compared with European populations after adjusted by age and BMI.

  13. Role and metabolism of free leucine in skeletal muscle in protein sparing action of dietary carbohydrate and fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Kiwao; Ishikawa, Tamotsu

    1977-01-01

    Feeding rats with either a carbohydrate meal or a fat meal to the previously fasted rats caused significant decrease in urinary output of urea and total nitrogen. The content of free leucine in skeletal muscle decreased in the rats fed either a carbohydrate meal or a fat meal. Feeding of either a carbohydrate meal or a fat meal stimulated incorporation of L-leucine-1- 14 C into protein fraction of skeletal muscle and reduced its oxidation to 14 CO 2 . These results suggest that the metabolism of leucine is under nutritional regulation and that the decrease in content of free leucine in skeletal muscle might be caused by enhanced reutilization of leucine into protein by the feeding of a carbohydrate meal or a fat meal. The role of free leucine in skeletal muscle as a regulator of protein turnover in the tissue are discussed in relation to the metabolism of this branched chain amino acid. (auth.)

  14. Long-standing morel-lavallee lesion in the proximal thigh: ultrasound and MR findings with surgical and histopathological correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puig, J.; Pelaez, I.; Banos, J.; Balliu, E.; Maroto, A.; Pedraza, S.; Casas, M.

    2006-01-01

    A 65-year-old man presented with a soft mass in his proximal right thigh. Ultrasonography showed a well-defined anechoic lesion with slightly internal echoes. On MRI, the mass was hypointense and minimally hyperintense compared with muscle at T 1 and hyperintense at T 2 , with a hypointense peripheral rim on both sequences. No signal loss was observed on T 1 -weighted fat-suppression MRI. The clinical setting, imaging findings and histopathological features were consistent with a long-standing Morel-Lavallee lesion

  15. Distinctive genes determine different intramuscular fat and muscle fiber ratios of the longissimus dorsi muscles in Jinhua and landrace pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Wu

    Full Text Available Meat quality is determined by properties such as carcass color, tenderness and drip loss. These properties are closely associated with meat composition, which includes the types of muscle fiber and content of intramuscular fat (IMF. Muscle fibers are the main contributors to meat mass, while IMF not only contributes to the sensory properties but also to the plethora of physical, chemical and technological properties of meat. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that determine meat composition in different pig breeds. In this report we show that Jinhua pigs, a Chinese breed, contains much higher levels of IMF than do Landrace pigs, a Danish breed. We analyzed global gene expression profiles in the longissimus dorsi muscles in Jinhua and Landrace breeds at the ages of 30, 90 and 150 days. Cross-comparison analysis revealed that genes that regulate fatty acid biosynthesis (e.g., fatty acid synthase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase are expressed at higher levels in Jinhua pigs whereas those that regulate myogenesis (e.g., myogenic factor 6 and forkhead box O1 are expressed at higher levels in Landrace pigs. Among those genes which are highly expressed in Jinhua pigs at 90 days (d90, we identified a novel gene porcine FLJ36031 (pFLJ, which functions as a positive regulator of fat deposition in cultured intramuscular adipocytes. In summary, our data showed that the up-regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis regulatory genes such as pFLJ and myogenesis inhibitory genes such as myostatin in the longissimus dorsi muscles of Jinhua pigs could explain why this local breed produces meat with high levels of IMF.

  16. Distinctive genes determine different intramuscular fat and muscle fiber ratios of the longissimus dorsi muscles in Jinhua and landrace pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting; Zhang, Zhenhai; Yuan, Zhangqin; Lo, Li Jan; Chen, Jun; Wang, Yizhen; Peng, Jinrong

    2013-01-01

    Meat quality is determined by properties such as carcass color, tenderness and drip loss. These properties are closely associated with meat composition, which includes the types of muscle fiber and content of intramuscular fat (IMF). Muscle fibers are the main contributors to meat mass, while IMF not only contributes to the sensory properties but also to the plethora of physical, chemical and technological properties of meat. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that determine meat composition in different pig breeds. In this report we show that Jinhua pigs, a Chinese breed, contains much higher levels of IMF than do Landrace pigs, a Danish breed. We analyzed global gene expression profiles in the longissimus dorsi muscles in Jinhua and Landrace breeds at the ages of 30, 90 and 150 days. Cross-comparison analysis revealed that genes that regulate fatty acid biosynthesis (e.g., fatty acid synthase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase) are expressed at higher levels in Jinhua pigs whereas those that regulate myogenesis (e.g., myogenic factor 6 and forkhead box O1) are expressed at higher levels in Landrace pigs. Among those genes which are highly expressed in Jinhua pigs at 90 days (d90), we identified a novel gene porcine FLJ36031 (pFLJ), which functions as a positive regulator of fat deposition in cultured intramuscular adipocytes. In summary, our data showed that the up-regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis regulatory genes such as pFLJ and myogenesis inhibitory genes such as myostatin in the longissimus dorsi muscles of Jinhua pigs could explain why this local breed produces meat with high levels of IMF.

  17. Impact of Fat Infiltration in Cervical Extensor Muscles on Cervical Lordosis and Neck Pain: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Choong-Young; Lee, Sang-Min; Lim, Seong-An; Choi, Yong-Soo

    2018-06-01

    Weakness of cervical extensor muscles causes loss of cervical lordosis, which could also cause neck pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of fat infiltration in cervical extensor muscles on cervical lordosis and neck pain. Fifty-six patients who suffered from neck pain were included in this study. Fat infiltration in cervical extensor muscles was measured at each level of C2-3 and C6-7 using axial magnetic resonance imaging. The visual analogue scale (VAS), 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12), and Neck Disability Index (NDI) were used for clinical assessment. The mean fat infiltration was 206.3 mm 2 (20.3%) at C2-3 and 240.6 mm 2 (19.5%) at C6-7. Fat infiltration in cervical extensor muscles was associated with high VAS scores at both levels ( p = 0.047 at C2-3; p = 0.009 at C6-7). At C2-3, there was a negative correlation between fat infiltration of the cervical extensor muscles and cervical lordosis (r = -0.216; p = 0.020). At C6-7, fat infiltration in the cervical extensor muscles was closely related to NDI ( p = 0.003) and SF-12 ( p > 0.05). However, there was no significant correlation between cervical lordosis and clinical outcomes (VAS, p = 0.112; NDI, p = 0.087; and SF-12, p > 0.05). These results suggest that fat infiltration in the upper cervical extensor muscles has relevance to the loss of cervical lordosis, whereas fat infiltration in the lower cervical extensor muscles is associated with cervical functional disability.

  18. Balanced Diet-Fed Fat-1 Transgenic Mice Exhibit Lower Hindlimb Suspension-Induced Soleus Muscle Atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzuca-Nassr, Gabriel Nasri; Murata, Gilson Masahiro; Martins, Amanda Roque; Vitzel, Kaio Fernando; Crisma, Amanda Rabello; Torres, Rosângela Pavan; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Kang, Jing Xuan; Curi, Rui

    2017-10-06

    The consequences of two-week hindlimb suspension (HS) on skeletal muscle atrophy were investigated in balanced diet-fed Fat-1 transgenic and C57BL/6 wild-type mice. Body composition and gastrocnemius fatty acid composition were measured. Skeletal muscle force, cross-sectional area (CSA), and signaling pathways associated with protein synthesis (protein kinase B, Akt; ribosomal protein S6, S6, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1, 4EBP1; glycogen synthase kinase3-beta, GSK3-beta; and extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1/2, ERK 1/2) and protein degradation (atrophy gene-1/muscle atrophy F-box, atrogin-1/MAFbx and muscle RING finger 1, MuRF1) were evaluated in the soleus muscle. HS decreased soleus muscle wet and dry weights (by 43% and 26%, respectively), muscle isotonic and tetanic force (by 29% and 18%, respectively), CSA of the soleus muscle (by 36%), and soleus muscle fibers (by 45%). Fat-1 transgenic mice had a decrease in the ω-6/ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) ratio as compared with C57BL/6 wild-type mice (56%, p Balanced diet-fed Fat-1 mice are able to preserve in part the soleus muscle mass, absolute isotonic force and CSA of the soleus muscle in a disuse condition.

  19. [Fast visualization of fat infiltration in dorsal muscles of the trunk at lumbar spinal column by magnetic resonance images (MR)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Miguelsanz, María Juliana; Herrera-Hervás, Luis; Franco-López, María de Los Ángeles

    2014-11-01

    In magnetic resonance, fat is considered an "unwanted artifact or signal" which is suppressed when performing a clinical study, unless otherwise specified. The increase in obesity and associated diseases has become necessary to study fat deposits both in adipose tissue and ectopic fat. In this paper, we analyze the information that is available from the CD which patients receive after undergoing magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen along with the medical report, using a personal computer, focusing on the fat deposits in spinal muscles of healthy adult volunteers or analyzes nonspecific low back pain. The application of colored interfaces or windows on gray resonance images is very useful to display fat deposits, especially when the observer is not familiar with these images. It is a fast, easy and intuitive method of semiquantitative muscle visualization of the ectopic fat. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  20. Muscle and genotype effects on fatty acid composition of goat kid intramuscular fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriano Domenech

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the fatty acid composition of the major muscles in goats from different breeds. Forty entire male suckling kids, 20 Criollo Cordobes and 20 Anglo Nubian, were slaughtered at 75 days of age and the fatty acid composition of their longissimus thoracis (LT and semitendinosus (ST muscles was analysed to clarify the effects of genotype and muscle type on goat kid meat. Genotype had a great influence on the fatty acid composition of goat kid meat. Meat from Criollo Cordobes had greater saturated (P<0.001 and lower monounsaturated (P<0.001 and polyunsaturated fatty acids (P=0.002 concentration than meat from Anglo Nubian, showing higher saturated fatty acids (SFA. On the other hand, intramuscular fat content from both genotypes was higher (P=0.042 in ST muscle, while the lowest cholesterol levels were observed in ST of Criollo Cordobes (P=0.038. That higher fat content resulted in lower relative contents of total polyunsaturated (P<0.001 and n-3 (P=0.002 fatty acids due to the lower contribution of the membrane phospholipids.

  1. Pyrrolidine Dithiocarbamate (PDTC Attenuates Cancer Cachexia by Affecting Muscle Atrophy and Fat Lipolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiao Miao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cachexia is a kind of whole body metabolic disorder syndrome accompanied with severe wasting of muscle and adipose tissue. NF-κB signaling plays an important role during skeletal muscle atrophy and fat lipolysis. As an inhibitor of NF-κB signaling, Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC was reported to relieve cancer cachexia; however, its mechanism remains largely unknown. In our study, we showed that PDTC attenuated cancer cachexia symptom in C26 tumor bearing mice models in vivo without influencing tumor volume. What’s more, PDTC inhibited muscle atrophy and lipolysis in cells models in vitro induced by TNFα and C26 tumor medium. PDTC suppressed atrophy of myotubes differentiated from C2C12 by reducing MyoD and upregulating MuRF1, and preserving the expression of perilipin as well as blocking the activation of HSL in 3T3-L1 mature adipocytes. Meaningfully, we observed that PDTC also inhibited p38 MAPK signaling besides the NF-κB signaling in cancer cachexia in vitro models. In addition, PDTC also influenced the protein synthesis of skeletal muscle by activating AKT signaling and regulated fat energy metabolism by inhibiting AMPK signaling. Therefore, PDTC primarily influenced different pathways in different tissues. The study not only established a simple and reliable screening drugs model of cancer cachexia in vitro but also provided new theoretical basis for future treatment of cancer cachexia.

  2. The Gluteus Medius Vs. Thigh Muscles Strength Ratio and Their Relation to Electromyography Amplitude During a Farmer’s Walk Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stastny Petr

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The strength ratio between hamstrings and quadriceps (H/Q is associated with knee injuries as well as hip abductor muscle (HAB weakness. Sixteen resistance trained men (age, 32.5 ± 4.2 years performed 5 s maximal isometric contractions at 75° of knee flexion/extension and 15° of hip abduction on a dynamometer. After this isometric test they performed a Farmer´s walk exercise to find out if the muscle strength ratio predicted the electromyography amplitude expressed as a percentage of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC. The carried load represented a moderate intensity of 75% of the exercise six repetitions maximum (6RM. Electromyography data from the vastus medialis (VM, vastus lateralis (VL, biceps femoris (BF and gluteus medius (Gmed on each leg were collected during the procedure. The groups selected were participants with H/Q ≥ 0.5, HQ < 0.5, HAB/H ≥ 1, HAB/H < 1, HAB/Q ≥ 0.5 and HAB/Q < 0.5. One way ANOVA showed that Gmed activity was significantly greater in the group with HAB/H < 1 (42 ± 14 %MVIC as compared to HAB/H ≥ 1 (26 ± 10 %MVIC and HAB/Q < 0.5 (47 ± 19 %MVIC compared to HAB/Q ≥ 0.5 (26 ± 12 %MVIC. The individuals with HAB/H < 1 were found to have greater activation of their Gmed during the Farmer’s walk exercise. Individuals with HAB/Q < 0.5 had greater activation of the Gmed. Gmed strength ratios predict the muscle involvement when a moderate amount of the external load is used. The Farmer’s walk is recommended as an exercise which can strengthen the gluteus medius, especially for individuals with a HAB/H ratio < 1 and HAB/Q < 0.5.

  3. Insulin action in human thighs after one-legged immobilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Kiens, Bente; Mizuno, M.

    1989-01-01

    Insulin action was assessed in thighs of five healthy young males who had one knee immobilized for 7 days by a splint. The splint was not worn in bed. Subjects also used crutches to prevent weight bearing of the immobilized leg. Immobilization decreased the activity of citrate synthase and 3-OH......-acyl-CoA-dehydrogenase in the vastus lateralis muscle by 9 and 14%, respectively, and thigh volume by 5%. After 7 days of immobilization, a two-step euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp procedure combined with arterial and bilateral femoral venous catheterization was performed. Insulin action on glucose uptake and tyrosine release...... of the thighs at mean plasma insulin concentrations of 67 (clamp step I) and 447 microU/ml (clamp step II) was decreased by immobilization, whereas immobilization did not affect insulin action on thigh exchange of free fatty acids, glycerol, O2, or potassium. Before and during the clamp step I, lactate release...

  4. The superficial temporal fat pad and its ramifications for temporalis muscle construction in facial approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Carl N; Devine, Matthew

    2009-10-30

    The construction of the facial muscles (particularly those of mastication) is generally thought to enhance the accuracy of facial approximation methods because they increase attention paid to face anatomy. However, the lack of consideration for non-muscular structures of the face when using these "anatomical" methods ironically forces one of the two large masticatory muscles to be exaggerated beyond reality. To demonstrate and resolve this issue the temporal region of nineteen caucasoid human cadavers (10 females, 9 males; mean age=84 years, s=9 years, range=58-97 years) were investigated. Soft tissue depths were measured at regular intervals across the temporal fossa in 10 cadavers, and the thickness of the muscle and fat components quantified in nine other cadavers. The measurements indicated that the temporalis muscle generally accounts for construction of the STFP and the temporalis muscle for future facial approximation casework. This study warrants further investigations of the temporalis muscle and the STFP in younger age groups and demonstrates that untested facial approximation guidelines, including those propounded to be anatomical, should be cautiously regarded.

  5. Multidisciplinary care of obese children and adolescents for one year reduces ectopic fat content in liver and skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Chabanova, Elizaveta; Ohrt, Johanne Dam

    2015-01-01

    .49-3.85) and the median age was 14 years (10-17). At the end of the observational period, the 40 children and adolescents (21 girls) significantly decreased their BMI SDS, liver fat, muscle fat, and visceral adipose tissue volume. The prevalence of hepatic steatosis changed from 28 to 20 % (p = 0.26) and the prevalence...... of muscular steatosis decreased from 75 to 45 % (p = 0.007). Changes in liver and muscle fat were independent of changes in BMI SDS, baseline degree of obesity, duration of treatment, age, sex, and pubertal developmental stage. CONCLUSIONS: A 1-year multidisciplinary intervention program in the setting...

  6. Engineering brown fat into skeletal muscle using ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction gene delivery in obese Zucker rats: Proof of concept design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastarrachea, Raul A; Chen, Jiaxi; Kent, Jack W; Nava-Gonzalez, Edna J; Rodriguez-Ayala, Ernesto; Daadi, Marcel M; Jorge, Barbara; Laviada-Molina, Hugo; Comuzzie, Anthony G; Chen, Shuyuan; Grayburn, Paul A

    2017-09-01

    Ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) is a novel means of tissue-specific gene delivery. This approach systemically infuses transgenes precoupled to gas-filled lipid microbubbles that are burst within the microvasculature of target tissues via an ultrasound signal resulting in release of DNA and transfection of neighboring cells within the tissue. Previous work has shown that adenovirus containing cDNA of UCP-1, injected into the epididymal fat pads in mice, induced localized fat depletion, improving glucose tolerance, and decreasing food intake in obese diabetic mice. Our group recently demonstrated that gene therapy by UTMD achieved beta cell regeneration in streptozotocin (STZ)-treated mice and baboons. We hypothesized that gene therapy with BMP7/PRDM16/PPARGC1A in skeletal muscle (SKM) of obese Zucker diabetic fatty (fa/fa) rats using UTMD technology would produce a brown adipose tissue (BAT) phenotype with UCP-1 overexpression. This study was designed as a proof of concept (POC) project. Obese Zucker rats were administered plasmid cDNA contructs encoding a gene cocktail with BMP7/PRDM16/PPARGC1A incorporated within microbubbles and intravenously delivered into their left thigh. Controls received UTMD with plasmids driving a DsRed reporter gene. An ultrasound transducer was directed to the thigh to disrupt the microbubbles within the microcirculation. Blood samples were drawn at baseline, and after treatment to measure glucose, insulin, and free fatty acids levels. SKM was harvested for immunohistochemistry (IHC). Our IHC results showed a reliable pattern of effective UTMD-based gene delivery in enhancing SKM overexpression of the UCP-1 gene. This clearly indicates that our plasmid DNA construct encoding the gene combination of PRDM16, PPARGC1A, and BMP7 reprogrammed adult SKM tissue into brown adipose cells in vivo. Our pilot established POC showing that the administration of the gene cocktail to SKM in this rat model of genetic obesity using UTMD

  7. Fat-Free Mass and Skeletal Muscle Mass Five Years After Bariatric Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Lance E; Yu, Wen; Goodpaster, Bret H; DeLany, James P; Widen, Elizabeth; Lemos, Thaisa; Strain, Gladys W; Pomp, Alfons; Courcoulas, Anita P; Lin, Susan; Janumala, Isaiah; Thornton, John C; Gallagher, Dympna

    2018-07-01

    This study investigated changes in fat-free mass (FFM) and skeletal muscle 5 years after surgery in participants from the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2 trial. A three-compartment model assessed FFM, and whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) quantified skeletal muscle mass prior to surgery (T0) and 1 year (T1), 2 years (T2), and 5 years (T5) postoperatively in 93 patients (85% female; 68% Caucasian; age 44.2 ± 11.6 years) who underwent gastric bypass (RYGB), sleeve gastrectomy, or adjustable gastric band. Repeated-measures mixed models were used to analyze the data. Significant weight loss occurred across all surgical groups in females from T0 to T1. FFM loss from T0 to T1 was greater after RYGB (mean ± SE: -6.9 ± 0.6 kg) than adjustable gastric band (-3.5 ± 1.4 kg; P FFM (-3.3 ± 0.7 kg; P FFM loss while maintaining FFM and skeletal muscle from T1 to T5. Between 1 and 5 years following common bariatric procedures, FFM and skeletal muscle are maintained or decrease minimally. The changes observed in FFM and muscle during the follow-up phase may be consistent with aging. © 2018 The Obesity Society.

  8. Whole-body fat oxidation determined by graded exercise and indirect calorimetry: a role for muscle oxidative capacity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, P; Saltin, B; Helge, J W

    2006-01-01

    During whole-body exercise, peak fat oxidation occurs at a moderate intensity. This study investigated whole-body peak fat oxidation in untrained and trained subjects, and the presence of a relation between skeletal muscle oxidative enzyme activity and whole-body peak fat oxidation. Healthy male...... subjects were recruited and categorized into an untrained (N=8, VO(2max) 3.5+/-0.1 L/min) and a trained (N=8, VO(2max) 4.6+/-0.2 L/min) group. Subjects performed a graded exercise test commencing at 60 W for 8 min followed by 35 W increments every 3 min. On a separate day, muscle biopsies were obtained...... oxidation was determined. The body composition was determined by DEXA. Whole-body peak fat oxidation (250+/-25 and 462+/-33 mg/min) was higher (Ptrained compared with untrained subjects, respectively. Muscle...

  9. Mapping quantitative trait loci affecting fatness and breast muscle weight in meat-type chicken lines divergently selected on abdominal fatness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neau André

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Quantitative trait loci (QTL for abdominal fatness and breast muscle weight were investigated in a three-generation design performed by inter-crossing two experimental meat-type chicken lines that were divergently selected on abdominal fatness. A total of 585 F2 male offspring from 5 F1 sires and 38 F1 dams were recorded at 8 weeks of age for live body, abdominal fat and breast muscle weights. One hundred-twenty nine microsatellite markers, evenly located throughout the genome and heterozygous for most of the F1 sires, were used for genotyping the F2 birds. In each sire family, those offspring exhibiting the most extreme values for each trait were genotyped. Multipoint QTL analyses using maximum likelihood methods were performed for abdominal fat and breast muscle weights, which were corrected for the effects of 8-week body weight, dam and hatching group. Isolated markers were assessed by analyses of variance. Two significant QTL were identified on chromosomes 1 and 5 with effects of about one within-family residual standard deviation. One breast muscle QTL was identified on GGA1 with an effect of 2.0 within-family residual standard deviation.

  10. Evaluation of 2-point, 3-point, and 6-point Dixon magnetic resonance imaging with flexible echo timing for muscle fat quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Alexandra; Meyer, Heiko; Nickel, Marcel D; Nittka, Mathias; Raithel, Esther; Chaudry, Oliver; Friedberger, Andreas; Uder, Michael; Kemmler, Wolfgang; Quick, Harald H; Engelke, Klaus

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate and compare 2-point (2pt), 3-point (3pt), and 6-point (6pt) Dixon magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences with flexible echo times (TE) to measure proton density fat fraction (PDFF) within muscles. Two subject groups were recruited (G1: 23 young and healthy men, 31 ± 6 years; G2: 50 elderly men, sarcopenic, 77 ± 5 years). A 3-T MRI system was used to perform Dixon imaging on the left thigh. PDFF was measured with six Dixon prototype sequences: 2pt, 3pt, and 6pt sequences once with optimal TEs (in- and opposed-phase echo times), lower resolution, and higher bandwidth (optTE sequences) and once with higher image resolution (highRes sequences) and shortest possible TE, respectively. Intra-fascia PDFF content was determined. To evaluate the comparability among the sequences, Bland-Altman analysis was performed. The highRes 6pt Dixon sequences served as reference as a high correlation of this sequence to magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been shown before. The PDFF difference between the highRes 6pt Dixon sequence and the optTE 6pt, both 3pt, and the optTE 2pt was low (between 2.2% and 4.4%), however, not to the highRes 2pt Dixon sequence (33%). For the optTE sequences, difference decreased with the number of echoes used. In conclusion, for Dixon sequences with more than two echoes, the fat fraction measurement was reliable with arbitrary echo times, while for 2pt Dixon sequences, it was reliable with dedicated in- and opposed-phase echo timing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of the Combined Application of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation and Volitional Contractions on Thigh Muscle Strength, Knee Pain and Physical Performance in Women at Risk for Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabe, Kaitlin G; Matsuse, Hiroo; Jackson, Anthony; Segal, Neil A

    2018-05-28

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a leading cause of disability that is associated with quadriceps weakness. However, strengthening in people with or with risk factors for knee OA can be poorly tolerated. To assess the efficacy of a twelve-week low-load exercise program, using a hybrid training system (HTS) that utilizes the combination of neuromuscular electrical stimulation and volitional contractions, for improving thigh muscle strength, knee pain and physical performance in women with or with risk factors for knee OA. Randomized, single-blind, controlled trial SETTING: Exercise training laboratory PARTICIPANTS: Forty-two women, age 44-85 years, with risk factors for knee OA INTERVENTIONS: Participants randomized to 12 weeks of biweekly low-load resistance training either with HTS or on an isokinetic dynamometer (control). Maximum isokinetic knee extensor torque. Secondary measures included: maximum isokinetic knee flexor torque, knee pain (KOOS), and timed 20-meter walk and chair-stand tests. HTS and control both resulted in muscle strengthening, reduced knee pain and improved physical performance. HTS group quadriceps and hamstring strength increased by 0.06±0.04 Nm/kg (p>.05) and 0.05±0.02 Nm/kg (p=.02), respectively. Control group quadriceps and hamstring strength increased by 0.03±0.04 Nm/kg (p>.05) and 0.06±0.02 Nm/kg (p=.009), respectively. Knee pain improved by 11.9±11.5 points (pmeter walk time decreased by 1.60±2.04 seconds (p=.005) and 0.95±1.2 seconds (p=.004), and chair stand time decreased by 4.8±10.0 seconds (p>.05) and 1.9±4.7 seconds (p>.05) in the HTS and control groups, respectively. These results did not differ statistically between HTS and control groups. These results suggest HTS is effective for improving pain and physical performance in women with risk factors for knee OA. However, HTS does not appear to be superior to low-load resistance training for improving muscle strength, pain or physical function. Copyright © 2018 American

  12. Fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Katrine Kleberg

    In 1727, the English physician Thomas Short wrote: “I believe no Age did ever afford more instances of Corpulency than our own.” Even in the 18th century, fatness was addressed as an issue of special contemporary concern. This thesis probes concepts and perceptions of fatness in Western European...... Medicine c. 1700–1900. It has been written with particular attention to whether and how fatness has been regarded as a disease during that period in history. One purpose of the thesis is to investigate the immediate period before fatness allegedly became problematized. Another purpose has been to grasp...

  13. Influenza A (H3N2-induced rhabdomyolysis complicating anterior compartment syndrome: Serial changes in muscle MRI T2 fat suppression imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadanori Hamano

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions: Muscle MRI T2 fat suppression imaging is a useful method to monitor influenza A induced rhabdomyolysis. We should keep in mind the possibilities of rhabdomyolysis and ACS in patients with influenza A infection presenting serious muscle pain.

  14. Quantifying disease activity in fatty-infiltrated skeletal muscle by IDEAL-CPMG in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankodi, Ami; Bishop, Courtney A; Auh, Sungyoung; Newbould, Rexford D; Fischbeck, Kenneth H; Janiczek, Robert L

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the use of iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least-squares estimation Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (IDEAL-CPMG) to simultaneously measure skeletal muscle apparent fat fraction and water T 2 (T 2,w ) in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). In twenty healthy volunteer boys and thirteen subjects with DMD, thigh muscle apparent fat fraction was measured by Dixon and IDEAL-CPMG, with the IDEAL-CPMG also providing T 2,w as a measure of muscle inflammatory activity. A subset of subjects with DMD was followed up during a 48-week clinical study. The study was in compliance with the Patient Privacy Act and approved by the Institutional Review Board. Apparent fat fraction in the thigh muscles of subjects with DMD was significantly increased compared to healthy volunteer boys (p Muscle T 2,w measured by IDEAL-CPMG was independent of changes in apparent fat fraction. Muscle T 2,w was higher in the biceps femoris and vastus lateralis muscles of subjects with DMD (p muscles and six-minute walk distance (6MWD) in subjects with DMD. IDEAL-CPMG allowed independent and simultaneous quantification of skeletal muscle fatty degeneration and disease activity in DMD. IDEAL-CPMG apparent fat fraction and T 2,w may be useful as biomarkers in clinical trials of DMD as the technique disentangles two competing biological processes. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Differential requirement for utrophin in the induced pluripotent stem cell correction of muscle versus fat in muscular dystrophy mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda J Beck

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is an incurable degenerative muscle disorder. We injected WT mouse induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs into mdx and mdx∶utrophin mutant blastocysts, which are predisposed to develop DMD with an increasing degree of severity (mdx <<< mdx∶utrophin. In mdx chimeras, iPSC-dystrophin was supplied to the muscle sarcolemma to effect corrections at morphological and functional levels. Dystrobrevin was observed in dystrophin-positive and, at a lesser extent, utrophin-positive areas. In the mdx∶utrophin mutant chimeras, although iPSC-dystrophin was also supplied to the muscle sarcolemma, mice still displayed poor skeletal muscle histopathology, and negligible levels of dystrobrevin in dystrophin- and utrophin-negative areas. Not only dystrophin-expressing tissues are affected by iPSCs. Mdx and mdx∶utrophin mice have reduced fat/body weight ratio, but iPSC injection normalized this parameter in both mdx and mdx∶utrophin chimeras, despite the fact that utrophin was compromised in the mdx∶utrophin chimeric fat. The results suggest that the presence of utrophin is required for the iPSC-corrections in skeletal muscle. Furthermore, the results highlight a potential (utrophin-independent non-cell autonomous role for iPSC-dystrophin in the corrections of non-muscle tissue like fat, which is intimately related to the muscle.

  16. Multidisciplinary care of obese children and adolescents for one year reduces ectopic fat content in liver and skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Chabanova, Elizaveta; Ohrt, Johanne Dam; Nielsen, Louise Aas; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Thomsen, Henrik S; Holm, Jens-Christian

    2015-12-30

    Ectopic fat deposition in liver and skeletal muscle tissue is related to cardiovascular disease risk and is a common metabolic complication in obese children. We evaluated the hypotheses of ectopic fat in these organs could be diminished following 1 year of multidisciplinary care specialized in childhood obesity, and whether this reduction would associate with changes in other markers of metabolic function. This observational longitudinal study evaluated 40 overweight children and adolescents enrolled in a multidisciplinary treatment protocol at the Children's Obesity Clinic, Holbæk, Denmark. The participants were assessed by anthropometry, fasting blood samples (HbA1c, glucose, insulin, lipids, and biochemical variables of liver function), and liver and muscle fat content assessed by magnetic resonance spectroscopy at enrollment and following an average of 12.2 months of care. Univariate linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, treatment duration, baseline degree of obesity, and pubertal developmental stage were used for investigating possible associations. The standard deviation score (SDS) of baseline median body mass index (BMI) was 2.80 (range: 1.49-3.85) and the median age was 14 years (10-17). At the end of the observational period, the 40 children and adolescents (21 girls) significantly decreased their BMI SDS, liver fat, muscle fat, and visceral adipose tissue volume. The prevalence of hepatic steatosis changed from 28 to 20 % (p = 0.26) and the prevalence of muscular steatosis decreased from 75 to 45 % (p = 0.007). Changes in liver and muscle fat were independent of changes in BMI SDS, baseline degree of obesity, duration of treatment, age, sex, and pubertal developmental stage. A 1-year multidisciplinary intervention program in the setting of a childhood obesity outpatient clinic confers a biologically important reduction in liver and muscle fat; metabolic improvements that are independent of the magnitude of concurrent weight loss

  17. Erythropoietin over-expression protects against diet-induced obesity in mice through increased fat oxidation in muscles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernille Hojman

    Full Text Available Erythropoietin can be over-expressed in skeletal muscles by gene electrotransfer, resulting in 100-fold increase in serum EPO and significant increases in haemoglobin levels. Earlier studies have suggested that EPO improves several metabolic parameters when administered to chronically ill kidney patients. Thus we applied the EPO over-expression model to investigate the metabolic effect of EPO in vivo.At 12 weeks, EPO expression resulted in a 23% weight reduction (P<0.01 in EPO transfected obese mice; thus the mice weighed 21.9+/-0.8 g (control, normal diet, 21.9+/-1.4 g (EPO, normal diet, 35.3+/-3.3 g (control, high-fat diet and 28.8+/-2.6 g (EPO, high-fat diet. Correspondingly, DXA scanning revealed that this was due to a 28% reduction in adipose tissue mass.The decrease in adipose tissue mass was accompanied by a complete normalisation of fasting insulin levels and glucose tolerance in the high-fat fed mice. EPO expression also induced a 14% increase in muscle volume and a 25% increase in vascularisation of the EPO transfected muscle. Muscle force and stamina were not affected by EPO expression. PCR array analysis revealed that genes involved in lipid metabolism, thermogenesis and inflammation were increased in muscles in response to EPO expression, while genes involved in glucose metabolism were down-regulated. In addition, muscular fat oxidation was increased 1.8-fold in both the EPO transfected and contralateral muscles.In conclusion, we have shown that EPO when expressed in supra-physiological levels has substantial metabolic effects including protection against diet-induced obesity and normalisation of glucose sensitivity associated with a shift to increased fat metabolism in the muscles.

  18. Low-intensity aerobic exercise training: inhibition of skeletal muscle atrophy in high-fat-diet-induced ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Jin; Lee, Won Jun

    2017-09-30

    Postmenopausal women are highly susceptible to diseases, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis, or skeletal muscle atrophy and many people recognize the need for regular physical activity. Aerobic exercise training is known to improve the oxidative capacity and insulin sensitivity of skeletal muscles. This study aimed to investigate the role of low-intensity aerobic exercise training on skeletal muscle protein degradation or synthesis in the plantaris muscles of high-fat-fed ovariectomized rats. Ovariectomized female rats were divided into two groups: a high-fat diet-sedentary group (HFD), and a high-fat diet-aerobic exercise group (HFD+EX). The exercise group exercised aerobically on a treadmill 5 days/week for 8 weeks. The rats progressively ran 30 min/day at 15 m/min, up to 40 min/day at 18 m/min, 0% slope, in the last 4 weeks. Although aerobic exercise led to significantly increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation at Thr172, phosphorylation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) substrate Thr389 S6K1 level did not decrease. Additionally, even though Akt activity did not increase at Ser473, the atrogin-1 level significantly decreased in the exercise group compared to the non-exercise group. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that high-fat-induced TSC2 protein expression was eliminated in response to aerobic exercise. These results suggest that aerobic exercise can inhibit skeletal muscle protein degradation, but it cannot increase protein synthesis in the plantaris muscle of high-fat-fed ovariectomized rats. Our findings have implications in understanding skeletal muscle mass maintenance with low intensity aerobic exercise in post-menopausal women. ©2017 The Korean Society for Exercise Nutrition

  19. Molecular Factors Underlying the Deposition of Intramuscular Fat and Collagen in Skeletal Muscle of Nellore and Angus Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Taiane S; Sanglard, Letícia M P; Silva, Walmir; Chizzotti, Mário L; Rennó, Luciana N; Serão, Nick V L; Silva, Fabyano F; Guimarães, Simone E F; Ladeira, Márcio M; Dodson, Michael V; Du, Min; Duarte, Marcio S

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that intramuscular adipogenesis and fibrogenesis may concomitantly occur in skeletal muscle of beef cattle. Thus, we hypothesized that the discrepancy of intramuscular fat content in beef from Nellore and Angus was associated with differences in intramuscular adipogenesis and fibrogenesis during the finishing phase. To test our hypothesis, longissimus muscle samples of Nellore (n = 6; BW = 372.5 ± 37.3 kg) and Angus (n = 6; BW = 382.8 ± 23.9 kg) cattle were collected for analysis of gene and protein expression, and quantification of intramuscular fat and collagen. Least-squares means were estimated for the effect of Breed and differences were considered at P ≤ 0.05. A greater intramuscular fat content was observed in skeletal muscle of Angus compared to Nellore cattle (P≤0.05). No differences were observed for mRNA expression of lipogenic and lipolytic markers ACC, FAS, FABP4, SERBP-1, CPT-2, LPL, and ACOX (P > 0.05) in skeletal muscle of Nellore and Angus cattle. Similarly, no differences were observed in mRNA expression of adipogenic markers Zfp423, PPARγ, and C/EBPα (P>0.05) However, a greater PPARγ protein content was observed in skeletal muscle of Angus compared to Nellore cattle (P≤0.05). A greater abundance of adipo/fibrogenic cells, evaluated by the PDGFRα content, was observed in skeletal muscle of Angus than Nellore cattle (P≤0.05). No differences in fibrogenesis were observed in skeletal muscle of Angus and Nellore cattle, which is in accordance with the lack of differences in intramuscular collagen content in beef from both breeds (P>0.05). These findings demonstrate that difference in intramuscular fat content is associated with a slightly enhanced adipogenesis in skeletal muscle of Angus compared to Nellore cattle, while no difference in fibrogenesis.

  20. Genetic parameters for carcass traits and in vovo measured muscle and fat depth in Danish Texel and Shropshire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maxa, Jan; Norberg, Elise; Berg, Peer

    2007-01-01

    Genetic parameters for carcass traits and ultrasonic scanning measurements were estimated for Danish Texel and Shropshire, the most common sheep breeds in Denmark. Data used in this study were collected from 1990 to 2005 by the Danish Agricultural Advisory Service. A multivariate animal model.......12 for Shropshire. Carcass conformation was highly heritable, 0.45 for Texel and 0.36 for Shropshire. The heritability for FAT was 0.11 for Texel and 0.19 for Shropshire. Genetic correlations between MD and FORM, and FD and FAT were positive and favourable. It was concluded that ultrasound measures on live animals...... was used for estimation of (co)variance components for muscle depth (MD), fat depth (FD), carcass conformation score (FORM) and carcass fatness (FAT). Heritabilities for MD were 0.29 and 0.28 for Texel and Shropshire, respectively. Diverging heritabilities were found for FD - 0.39 for Texel and 0...

  1. Comparison of clinical semi-quantitative assessment of muscle fat infiltration with quantitative assessment using chemical shift-based water/fat separation in MR studies of the calf of post-menopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alizai, Hamza; Nardo, Lorenzo; Karampinos, Dimitrios C.; Joseph, Gabby B.; Yap, Samuel P.; Baum, Thomas; Krug, Roland; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M. [University of California, San Francisco, Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Research Group, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2012-07-15

    The goal of this study was to compare the semi-quantitative Goutallier classification for fat infiltration with quantitative fat-fraction derived from a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) chemical shift-based water/fat separation technique. Sixty-two women (age 61 {+-} 6 years), 27 of whom had diabetes, underwent MRI of the calf using a T1-weighted fast spin-echo sequence and a six-echo spoiled gradient-echo sequence at 3 T. Water/fat images and fat fraction maps were reconstructed using the IDEAL algorithm with T2* correction and a multi-peak model for the fat spectrum. Two radiologists scored fat infiltration on the T1-weighted images using the Goutallier classification in six muscle compartments. Spearman correlations between the Goutallier grades and the fat fraction were calculated; in addition, intra-observer and inter-observer agreement were calculated. A significant correlation between the clinical grading and the fat fraction values was found for all muscle compartments (P < 0.0001, R values ranging from 0.79 to 0.88). Goutallier grades 0-4 had a fat fraction ranging from 3.5 to 19%. Intra-observer and inter-observer agreement values of 0.83 and 0.81 were calculated for the semi-quantitative grading. Semi-quantitative grading of intramuscular fat and quantitative fat fraction were significantly correlated and both techniques had excellent reproducibility. However, the clinical grading was found to overestimate muscle fat. (orig.)

  2. Green tea extracts ameliorate high-fat diet-induced muscle atrophy in senescence-accelerated mouse prone-8 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Shintaro; Ishino, Mayu; Kitazawa, Hidefumi; Yoto, Ai; Shimba, Yuki; Mochizuki, Yusuke; Unno, Keiko; Meguro, Shinichi; Tokimitsu, Ichiro; Miura, Shinji

    2018-01-01

    Muscle atrophy (loss of skeletal muscle mass) causes progressive deterioration of skeletal function. Recently, excessive intake of fats was suggested to induce insulin resistance, followed by muscle atrophy. Green tea extracts (GTEs), which contain polyphenols such as epigallocatechin gallate, have beneficial effects on obesity, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance, but their effects against muscle atrophy are still unclear. Here, we found that GTEs prevented high-fat (HF) diet-induced muscle weight loss in senescence-accelerated mouse prone-8 (SAMP8), a murine model of senescence. SAMP8 mice were fed a control diet, an HF diet, or HF with 0.5% GTEs (HFGT) diet for 4 months. The HF diet induced muscle weight loss with aging (measured as quadriceps muscle weight), whereas GTEs prevented this loss. In HF diet-fed mice, blood glucose and plasma insulin concentrations increased in comparison with the control group, and these mice had insulin resistance as determined by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). In these mice, serum concentrations of leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2 (LECT2), which is known to induce insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, were elevated, and insulin signaling in muscle, as determined by the phosphorylation levels of Akt and p70 S6 kinases, tended to be decreased. In HFGT diet-fed mice, these signs of insulin resistance and elevation of serum LECT2 were not observed. Although our study did not directly show the effect of serum LECT2 on muscle weight, insulin resistance examined using HOMA-IR indicated an intervention effect of serum LECT2 on muscle weight, as revealed by partial correlation analysis. Accordingly, GTEs might have beneficial effects on age-related and HF diet-induced muscle weight loss, which correlates with insulin resistance and is accompanied by a change in serum LECT2.

  3. Trunk muscle quality assessed by computed tomography: Association with adiposity indices and glucose tolerance in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltais, Alexandre; Alméras, Natalie; Lemieux, Isabelle; Tremblay, Angelo; Bergeron, Jean; Poirier, Paul; Després, Jean-Pierre

    2018-04-12

    Thigh muscle attenuation measured by computed tomography (CT) has been shown to be a reliable and useful index of skeletal muscle fat infiltration. Thigh muscle fat content assessed by CT has been linked to obesity and type 2 diabetes and is a correlate of insulin resistance in sedentary individuals. However, as measurement of mid-thigh fat content requires the assessment of another region of interest beyond the usual abdominal scan required to measure levels of visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue, this study aimed at testing the hypothesis that skeletal muscle fat measured from a single abdominal scan (L 4 -L 5 ) would also provide information relevant to the estimation of muscle fat infiltration as it relates to cardiometabolic risk. Abdominal (L 4 -L 5 ) and mid-thigh CT scans were performed in a sample of 221 sedentary men covering a wide range of adiposity values. Trunk muscles on the L 4 -L 5 scan were classified into 2 groups: 1) psoas and 2) core muscles. The two scans were segmented to calculate muscle areas, mean attenuation values as well as low-attenuation muscle (LAM) areas, the latter being considered as an index of skeletal muscle fat infiltration. Body mass index (BMI), body composition and waist circumference were assessed and a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed. Mid-thigh, psoas and core LAM areas were all significantly associated with body composition indices (0.46 ≤ r ≤ 0.71, p < 0.0001) whereas trunk muscle indices were more strongly associated with visceral adiposity and waist circumference (0.54 ≤ r ≤ 0.79, p < 0.0001) than were mid-thigh muscle variables (0.44 ≤ r ≤ 0.62, p < 0.0001). Mid-thigh LAM area as well as psoas and core LAM areas were significantly associated with fasting glucose, 2-h plasma glucose levels, the glucose area under the curve and with the HOMA-IR index (mid-thigh LAM area: 0.18 ≤ r ≤ 0.25, p < 0.01; psoas LAM area: 0

  4. Alternate-Day High-Fat Diet Induces an Increase in Mitochondrial Enzyme Activities and Protein Content in Rat Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Kawamura, Takuji; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2016-04-06

    Long-term high-fat diet increases muscle mitochondrial enzyme activity and endurance performance. However, excessive calorie intake causes intra-abdominal fat accumulation and metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an alternating day high-fat diet on muscle mitochondrial enzyme activities, protein content, and intra-abdominal fat mass in rats. Male Wistar rats were given a standard chow diet (CON), high-fat diet (HFD), or alternate-day high-fat diet (ALT) for 4 weeks. Rats in the ALT group were fed a high-fat diet and standard chow every other day for 4 weeks. After the dietary intervention, mitochondrial enzyme activities and protein content in skeletal muscle were measured. Although body weight did not differ among groups, the epididymal fat mass in the HFD group was higher than those of the CON and ALT groups. Citrate synthase and beta-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase activities in the plantaris muscle of rats in HFD and ALT were significantly higher than that in CON rats, whereas there was no difference between HFD and ALT groups. No significant difference was observed in muscle glycogen concentration or glucose transporter-4 protein content among the three groups. These results suggest that an alternate-day high-fat diet induces increases in mitochondrial enzyme activities and protein content in rat skeletal muscle without intra-abdominal fat accumulation.

  5. The Relation between Non-adipose Muscle Fat and Hepatic Steatosis Studied with Localized 1H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1H MRS) and LC-MS Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginneken, van V.J.T.; Booms, Ronald; Verheij, Elwin; Vries, Evert De; Greef, Der Jan Van

    2016-01-01

    Aim/objective: In this study we investigated ectopic fat storage in the muscle and the liver using 1H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1H-MRS). The inability to store fat in adipose tissue leads to ectopic Triacylglycerol (TG) accumulation in muscle followed by the liver: the so called “overflow

  6. Comparison of clinical semi-quantitative assessment of muscle fat infiltration with quantitative assessment using chemical shift-based water/fat separation in MR studies of the calf of post-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizai, Hamza; Nardo, Lorenzo; Karampinos, Dimitrios C; Joseph, Gabby B; Yap, Samuel P; Baum, Thomas; Krug, Roland; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M

    2012-07-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the semi-quantitative Goutallier classification for fat infiltration with quantitative fat-fraction derived from a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) chemical shift-based water/fat separation technique. Sixty-two women (age 61 ± 6 years), 27 of whom had diabetes, underwent MRI of the calf using a T1-weighted fast spin-echo sequence and a six-echo spoiled gradient-echo sequence at 3 T. Water/fat images and fat fraction maps were reconstructed using the IDEAL algorithm with T2* correction and a multi-peak model for the fat spectrum. Two radiologists scored fat infiltration on the T1-weighted images using the Goutallier classification in six muscle compartments. Spearman correlations between the Goutallier grades and the fat fraction were calculated; in addition, intra-observer and inter-observer agreement were calculated. A significant correlation between the clinical grading and the fat fraction values was found for all muscle compartments (P infiltration of muscle commonly occurs in many metabolic and neuromuscular diseases. • Image-based semi-quantitative classifications for assessing fat infiltration are not well validated. • Quantitative MRI techniques provide an accurate assessment of muscle fat.

  7. Age-related fat deposition in multifidus muscle could be a marker for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitajima, Yoichiro; Eguchi, Yuichiro; Ishibashi, Eriko

    2010-01-01

    Although nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with visceral obesity, the relationship between visceral fat accumulation and skeletal muscle steatosis in patients with NAFLD has not been established. We evaluated: the relationship between multifidus muscular tissue steatosis, visceral fat accumulation, and biochemical data in a cross-sectional study, and the influence of weight reduction on multifidus muscular tissue steatosis in a longitudinal study. Three hundred thirty-three NAFLD patients were enrolled. Hepatic steatosis, visceral fat area, and the multifidus muscle/subcutaneous fat attenuation ratio (MM/F ratio) were evaluated by computed tomography. To evaluate how weight reduction produced by diet and exercise affected the MM/F ratio, changes in the MM/F ratio were compared between weight reduction and non-weight reduction groups. There was a gender difference in MM/F ratios. The MM/F ratio was significantly correlated with age (male r=0.613, P<0.01; female r=0.440, P<0.01). The MM/F ratio was positively correlated with visceral fat area (male: r=0.262, P<0.01; female: r=0.214, P<0.01). A decrease in the MM/F ratio, concomitant with reduced visceral fat accumulation, led to alleviation of hepatic steatosis in 20 patients with weight reduction, but not in 22 patients without weight reduction. The MM/F ratio was closely related to aging and visceral fat accumulation. The MM/F ratio was improved by weight reduction, indicating that fat accumulation in the multifidus muscle evaluated by computed tomography might be a therapeutic indicator of NAFLD. (author)

  8. Effect of vitamin A depletion on fat deposition in finishing pigs, intramuscular fat content and gene expression in the longissimus muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tous, Nuria; Lizardo, R; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2014-01-01

    /kg; n=16). The treatment without supplemental vitamin A did not affect growth performance parameters, only a trend to increase final body weight was observed when compared with animals fed with vitamin A in the diet. However, reduced perirenal fat and a trend to increase muscle depth between the 3th...... and 4th ribs was observed in the animals fed the diet with no supplemental vitamin A. These results suggested a reduction of fatness when vitamin A was omitted in the diet, contrary to the initial hypothesis. Intramuscular fat content was not affected by the reduction of the dietary vitamin A levels...... below the requirements; in fact the trend was opposite to the original hypothesis. The content of retinol in the liver was increased when the animals were fed higher levels of dietary vitamin A but animals fed without vitamin A diet also produced retinol, although in a reduced amount, which could...

  9. Lumbar paraspinal muscle fat infiltration is independently associated with sex, age, and inter-vertebral disc degeneration in symptomatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia, Julio; Besa, Pablo; Lobos, Daniel; Campos, Mauricio; Arrieta, Cristobal; Andia, Marcelo; Uribe, Sergio

    2018-01-29

    To determine the association of paraspinal muscles and psoas relative cross-sectional area (RCSA) and fat signal fraction (FSF) with sex, age, and intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) in symptomatic patients. We retrospectively evaluated 80 adult patients with spinal symptoms using T2-weighted magnetic resonance images. We determined RCSA and FSF of the paraspinal muscles (erector spinae and multifidus) and psoas from L1-L2 to L5-S1; we determined IDD using the Pfirrmann classification. We compared differences in muscle RCSA and FSF based on sex and IDD, and we correlated age and IDD with RCSA and FSF. Using multivariate linear regression analyses, we determined the impact of sex, age, and IDD on RCSA and FSF. Men exhibited larger psoas RCSA but not larger paraspinal muscles RCSA than women. Women had larger FSF in the paraspinal muscles and psoas. Increasing IDD was associated with larger FSF if ≥2 Pfirrmann grades were observed. IDD correlated with FSF of the paraspinal muscles, and age correlated with FSF of the paraspinal muscles and psoas. IDD was less consistently correlated with RCSA, but age correlated negatively with RCSA of all three muscles. Linear regression analyses demonstrated that sex, age, and IDD were each independently associated with FSF of the paraspinal muscles; additionally, sex and age, but not IDD, were associated with psoas FSF. RCSA was less consistently influenced by these three variables. Sex, age, and IDD are independently associated with paraspinal muscles FSF; only sex and age influence psoas FSF.

  10. Malonyl-CoA and carnitine in regulation of fat oxidation in human skeletal muscle during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roepstorff, Carsten; Halberg, Nils; Hillig, Thore

    2005-01-01

    Intracellular mechanisms regulating fat oxidation were investigated in human skeletal muscle during exercise. Eight young, healthy, moderately trained men performed bicycle exercise (60 min, 65% peak O2 consumption) on two occasions, where they ingested either 1) a high-carbohydrate diet (H-CHO) ...

  11. Proximate and fatty acid composition of zebra (Equus quagga burchellii) muscle and subcutaneous fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Louwrens C; Geldenhuys, Greta; Cawthorn, Donna-Mareè

    2016-08-01

    The meat from African game species is healthy, naturally produced and increasingly popular with consumers. Among these species, zebra (Equus quagga burchellii) are growing in number in South Africa, with the meat from surplus animals holding potential to contribute to food security and economic stability. Despite being consumed locally and globally, little information exists on the composition of zebra meat. This study aimed to determine the proximate composition of zebra meat as well as the fatty acid composition of the intramuscular (IMF) and subcutaneous (SCF) fat. Zebra longissimus lumborum muscle was shown to have a high mean protein content (22.29 g per 100 g) and low mean fat content (1.47 g per 100 g). High proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were found in the IMF (41.15%) and SCF (37.71%), mainly comprising α-linolenic (C18:3n-3) and linoleic (C18:2n-6) acids. Furthermore, the IMF and SCF had favourable PUFA/saturated fatty acid ratios (>0.4) and omega-6/omega-3 ratios (<4), indicating that both components are healthy lipid food sources. This study has shed new light on the nutritional value of zebra meat, which will not only be important for food product labelling, nutritional education and incorporation into food composition databases, but will also be indispensable for marketing and export purposes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Erythropoietin over-expression protects against diet-induced obesity in mice through increased fat oxidation in muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojman, Pernille; Brolin, Camilla; Gissel, Hanne; Brandt, Claus; Zerahn, Bo; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Gehl, Julie

    2009-06-12

    Erythropoietin can be over-expressed in skeletal muscles by gene electrotransfer, resulting in 100-fold increase in serum EPO and significant increases in haemoglobin levels. Earlier studies have suggested that EPO improves several metabolic parameters when administered to chronically ill kidney patients. Thus we applied the EPO over-expression model to investigate the metabolic effect of EPO in vivo.At 12 weeks, EPO expression resulted in a 23% weight reduction (Pincrease in muscle volume and a 25% increase in vascularisation of the EPO transfected muscle. Muscle force and stamina were not affected by EPO expression. PCR array analysis revealed that genes involved in lipid metabolism, thermogenesis and inflammation were increased in muscles in response to EPO expression, while genes involved in glucose metabolism were down-regulated. In addition, muscular fat oxidation was increased 1.8-fold in both the EPO transfected and contralateral muscles.In conclusion, we have shown that EPO when expressed in supra-physiological levels has substantial metabolic effects including protection against diet-induced obesity and normalisation of glucose sensitivity associated with a shift to increased fat metabolism in the muscles.

  13. Eicosapentaenoic and Docosahexaenoic Acid-Enriched High Fat Diet Delays Skeletal Muscle Degradation in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikul K. Soni

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Low-grade chronic inflammatory conditions such as ageing, obesity and related metabolic disorders are associated with deterioration of skeletal muscle (SkM. Human studies have shown that marine fatty acids influence SkM function, though the underlying mechanisms of action are unknown. As a model of diet-induced obesity, we fed C57BL/6J mice either a high fat diet (HFD with purified marine fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA (HFD-ED, a HFD with corn oil, or normal mouse chow for 8 weeks; and used transcriptomics to identify the molecular effects of EPA and DHA on SkM. Consumption of ED-enriched HFD modulated SkM metabolism through increased gene expression of mitochondrial β-oxidation and slow-fiber type genes compared with HFD-corn oil fed mice. Furthermore, HFD-ED intake increased nuclear localization of nuclear factor of activated T-cells (Nfatc4 protein, which controls fiber-type composition. This data suggests a role for EPA and DHA in mitigating some of the molecular responses due to a HFD in SkM. Overall, the results suggest that increased consumption of the marine fatty acids EPA and DHA may aid in the prevention of molecular processes that lead to muscle deterioration commonly associated with obesity-induced low-grade inflammation.

  14. [Effect of Jinlida on DGAT1 in Skeletal Muscle in Fat-Induced Insulin Resistance ApoE -/- Mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xin; Zhang, Hui-xin; Cui, Wen-wen

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the effect of Jinlida on DGAT1 in skeletal muscle in fat-induced insulin resistance ApoE-/- mice. Eight male C57BL/6J mice were used as normal group. 40 male ApoE -/- mice were fed high-fat diet for 16 weeks and divided into five groups: control group, rosiglitazone group, and Jinlida low, middle and high dose groups. Then corresponding drugs were administrated intragastrically for eight weeks. TG content in skeletal muscle was measured by enzymic enzymatic, Glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was used to evaluate the degree of insulin resistance in mice. The mRNA and protein expression of insulin receptor substrate (IRS-1) and diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) in skeletal muscle were measured by real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR)and Western blot. Jinlida particles reduced fasting blood glucose (FBG) cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), free fatty acid (FFA)and fasting insulin (FIns) levels, raised insulin sensitive index (ISI), improved glucose tolerance, and reduced skeletal muscle lipid deposition in ApoE -/- mice significantly. Jinlida particles increased the expression of IRS-1 mRNA and protein, and reduced DGAT1. Jinlida can alleviate the expression of DGAT in skeletal muscle in fat-induced insulin resistance ApoE-/- mice.

  15. 1H-MRS Measured Ectopic Fat in Liver and Muscle in Danish Lean and Obese Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Chabanova, Elizaveta; Andersson, Ehm Astrid; Ohrt, Johanne Dam; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Thomsen, Henrik S; Holm, Jens-Christian

    2015-01-01

    This cross sectional study aims to investigate the associations between ectopic lipid accumulation in liver and skeletal muscle and biochemical measures, estimates of insulin resistance, anthropometry, and blood pressure in lean and overweight/obese children. Fasting plasma glucose, serum lipids, serum insulin, and expressions of insulin resistance, anthropometry, blood pressure, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy of liver and muscle fat were obtained in 327 Danish children and adolescents aged 8-18 years. In 287 overweight/obese children, the prevalences of hepatic and muscular steatosis were 31% and 68%, respectively, whereas the prevalences in 40 lean children were 3% and 10%, respectively. A multiple regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, body mass index z-score (BMI SDS), and pubertal development showed that the OR of exhibiting dyslipidemia was 4.2 (95%CI: [1.8; 10.2], p = 0.0009) when hepatic steatosis was present. Comparing the simultaneous presence of hepatic and muscular steatosis with no presence of steatosis, the OR of exhibiting dyslipidemia was 5.8 (95%CI: [2.0; 18.6], p = 0.002). No significant associations between muscle fat and dyslipidemia, impaired fasting glucose, or blood pressure were observed. Liver and muscle fat, adjusted for age, sex, BMI SDS, and pubertal development, associated to BMI SDS and glycosylated hemoglobin, while only liver fat associated to visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue and intramyocellular lipid associated inversely to high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Hepatic steatosis is associated with dyslipidemia and liver and muscle fat depositions are linked to obesity-related metabolic dysfunctions, especially glycosylated hemoglobin, in children and adolescents, which suggest an increased cardiovascular disease risk.

  16. Reference Centile Curves for Body Fat Percentage, Fat-free Mass, Muscle Mass and Bone Mass Measured by Bioelectrical Impedance in Asian Indian Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiplonkar, Shashi; Kajale, Neha; Ekbote, Veena; Mandlik, Rubina; Parthasarathy, Lavanya; Borade, Ashwin; Patel, Pinal; Patel, Prerna; Khadilkar, Vaman; Khadilkar, Anuradha

    2017-12-15

    To create gender-specific percentile curves for percent body fat (%BF) by Bio electrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) for screening adiposity and risk of hypertension in Indian children and generate reference curves for percent fat-free mass (%FFM), muscle mass (%LM) and bone mineral content (BMC) by using bioelectrical impedance. Secondary analysis of data from previous multicenter cross-sectional studies. Private schools from five regions of India. A random sample of 3850 healthy school children (2067 boys) (5-17 yr) from private schools in five major Indian cities. Anthropometry, blood pressure (BP) and body composition were measured by bioelectrical impedance. Reference curves were generated by the LMS method. %BF, %FFM, %LM, BMC and BP. Median %BF increased by 6% from 5 to 13 years of age and declined (around 2%) up to 17 years in boys. In girls, %BF increased by 8% from 5 to 14 years and thereafter declined by 3%. Based upon the risk of hypertension, the new cut-offs of 75th and 85th percentile of %BF were proposed for detecting over fatness and excess fatness in children. Median %FFM was 90% at 5 yrs and decreased till 12 years, and then showed a slight increase to 84% at 17 yrs in boys. In girls, it was 86% at 5 yrs and decreased till 15 yrs, and plateaued at 71.8% at 17 yrs. Reference curves for percent body fat for Indian children would be useful to screen children for health risk in clinical set up.

  17. Effects of exercise improves muscle strength and fat mass in patients with high fracture risk: A randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding-Cheng Chan

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The deterioration of the musculoskeletal system imposes significant impact on physical activity. Exercise is an important strategy which minimizes these changes. It is not clear which type of exercise provides better improvement on low physical performance, low muscle mass and low strength of sarcopenia. We aim to develop an integrated care (IC model and compare its relative efficacy in limb fat free mass, muscle strength, and physical performance with low extremities exercise (LEE in community dwelling older adults with high risk of fractures (Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX® ≧3% for hip fracture, ≧20% for major osteoporotic fracture or 1-min osteoporosis risk test (≧1 point or fall (≧2 falls in previous year. Methods: Patients were assigned randomized to participate in either IC or LEE group (n = 55 each for 3 months. All participants received education including home-based exercise. The IC group consisted of different modalities of exercise while the LEE group performed machine-based low extremities exercise. Fat free mass, muscle strength, and physical performance were measured at their baseline and 3-months follow-up. Results: Mean age was 73.8 ± 7 years with 69.1% women. Entire cohort demonstrated significant increment in fat free mass, muscle strength (4 indicators and physical performance (3 indicators. However, between group differences were not significant. Conclusion: With regular supervise exercise; both groups are equally effective in decreasing fat mass and increasing physical performance, muscle mass and strength. However, the IC group required fewer resources and thus more financially feasible in a community setting. Keywords: Bone mineral density, Gender differences, Integrated care, Low extremities exercise, Muscle strength

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging analysis of the upper cervical spine extensor musculature in an asymptomatic cohort: an index of fat within muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, J.M.; Galloway, G.J.; Jull, G.A.; Noteboom, J.T.; Centeno, C.J.; Gibbon, W.W.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To establish a simple method to quantify muscle/fat constituents in cervical muscles of asymptomatic women using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to determine whether there is an age effect within a defined age range. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MRI of the upper cervical spine was performed for 42 asymptomatic women aged 18-45 years. The muscle and fat signal intensities on axial spin echo T1-weighted images were quantitatively classified by taking a ratio of the pixel intensity profiles of muscle against those of intermuscular fat for the rectus capitis posterior major and minor and inferior obliquus capitis muscles bilaterally. Inter- and intra-examiner agreement was scrutinized. RESULTS: The average relative values of fat within the upper cervical musculature compared with intermuscular fat indicated that there were only slight variations in indices between the three sets of muscles. There was no significant correlation between age and fat indices. There were significant differences for the relative fat within the muscle compared with intermuscular fat and body mass index for the right rectus capitis posterior major and right and left inferior obliquus capitis muscles (p=0.032). Intraclass correlation coefficients for intraobserver agreement ranged from 0.94 to 0.98. Inter-rater agreement of the measurements ranged from 0.75 to 0.97. CONCLUSION: A quantitative measure of muscle/fat constituents has been developed, and results of this study indicate that relative fatty infiltration is not a feature of age in the upper cervical extensor muscles of women aged 18-45 years

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging analysis of the upper cervical spine extensor musculature in an asymptomatic cohort: an index of fat within muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, J.M. [Division of Physiotherapy, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia)]. E-mail: jimelliott@plbb.net; Galloway, G.J. [Center for Magnetic Resonance, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Jull, G.A. [Division of Physiotherapy, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Noteboom, J.T. [Department of Physical Therapy, Regis University, Denver, CO, USA (United States); Centeno, C.J. [Centeno Clinic, Westminster, CO, USA (United States); Gibbon, W.W. [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia)

    2005-03-01

    AIM: To establish a simple method to quantify muscle/fat constituents in cervical muscles of asymptomatic women using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to determine whether there is an age effect within a defined age range. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MRI of the upper cervical spine was performed for 42 asymptomatic women aged 18-45 years. The muscle and fat signal intensities on axial spin echo T1-weighted images were quantitatively classified by taking a ratio of the pixel intensity profiles of muscle against those of intermuscular fat for the rectus capitis posterior major and minor and inferior obliquus capitis muscles bilaterally. Inter- and intra-examiner agreement was scrutinized. RESULTS: The average relative values of fat within the upper cervical musculature compared with intermuscular fat indicated that there were only slight variations in indices between the three sets of muscles. There was no significant correlation between age and fat indices. There were significant differences for the relative fat within the muscle compared with intermuscular fat and body mass index for the right rectus capitis posterior major and right and left inferior obliquus capitis muscles (p=0.032). Intraclass correlation coefficients for intraobserver agreement ranged from 0.94 to 0.98. Inter-rater agreement of the measurements ranged from 0.75 to 0.97. CONCLUSION: A quantitative measure of muscle/fat constituents has been developed, and results of this study indicate that relative fatty infiltration is not a feature of age in the upper cervical extensor muscles of women aged 18-45 years.

  20. Dynamic proteome profiling of individual proteins in human skeletal muscle after a high-fat diet and resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camera, Donny M; Burniston, Jatin G; Pogson, Mark A; Smiles, William J; Hawley, John A

    2017-12-01

    It is generally accepted that muscle adaptation to resistance exercise (REX) training is underpinned by contraction-induced, increased rates of protein synthesis and dietary protein availability. By using dynamic proteome profiling (DPP), we investigated the contribution of both synthesis and breakdown to changes in abundance on a protein-by-protein basis in human skeletal muscle. Age-matched, overweight males consumed 9 d of a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet during which time they either undertook 3 sessions of REX or performed no exercise. Precursor enrichment and the rate of incorporation of deuterium oxide into newly synthesized muscle proteins were determined by mass spectrometry. Ninety proteins were included in the DPP, with 28 proteins exhibiting significant responses to REX. The most common pattern of response was an increase in turnover, followed by an increase in abundance with no detectable increase in protein synthesis. Here, we provide novel evidence that demonstrates that the contribution of synthesis and breakdown to changes in protein abundance induced by REX differ on a protein-by-protein basis. We also highlight the importance of the degradation of individual muscle proteins after exercise in human skeletal muscle.-Camera, D. M., Burniston, J. G., Pogson, M. A., Smiles, W. J., Hawley, J. A. Dynamic proteome profiling of individual proteins in human skeletal muscle after a high-fat diet and resistance exercise. © FASEB.

  1. Muscle metabolism during graded quadriceps exercise in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn W; Stallknecht, Bente; Galbo, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    , oxidation of plasma free fatty acids increases and accordingly oxidation of other fat sources decreases. These findings are in contrast to whole body measurements performed during graded exercise involving a large muscle mass during which fat oxidation peaks at around 60% of .......The aim of the study was to examine local muscle metabolism in response to graded exercise when the involved muscle mass is too small to elicit marked hormonal changes and local blood flow restriction. Nine healthy overnight fasted male subjects performed knee extension exercise with both thighs...... intensity. In conclusion, in the presence of a high blood flow and oxygen supply and only small hormonal changes, total fat oxidation in muscle increases from rest to light exercise, but then remains constant with exercise intensity up to heavy exercise. However, with increasing exercise intensity...

  2. The physiological role of fat body and muscle tissues in response to cold stress in the tropical cockroach Gromphadorhina coquereliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymon Chowański

    Full Text Available Protective mechanisms against cold stress are well studied in terrestrial and polar insects; however, little is known about these mechanisms in tropical insects. In our study, we tested if a tropical cockroach Gromphadorhina coquereliana, possesses any protective mechanisms against cold stress. Based on the results of earlier studies, we examined how short-term (3 h cold (4°C influences biochemical parameters, mitochondrial respiration activity, and the level of HSPs and aquaporins expression in the fat body and leg muscles of G. coquereliana. Following cold exposure, we found that the level of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins did not change significantly. Nevertheless, we observed significant changes in mitochondrial respiration activity. The oxygen consumption of resting (state 4 and phosphorylating (state 3 mitochondria was altered following cold exposure. The increase in respiratory rate in state 4 respiration was observed in both tissues. In state 3, oxygen consumption by mitochondria in fat body was significantly lower compared to control insects, whereas there were no changes observed for mitochondria in muscle tissue. Moreover, there were cold-induced changes in UCP protein activity, but the changes in activity differed in fat body and in muscles. Additionally, we detected changes in the level of HSP70 and aquaporins expression. Insects treated with cold had significantly higher levels of HSP70 in fat body and muscles. On the other hand, there were lower levels of aquaporins in both tissues following exposure to cold. These results suggest that fat body play an important role in protecting tropical insects from cold stress.

  3. The effect of a high monounsaturated fat diet on body weight, back fat and loin muscle growth in high and medium-lean pig genotypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mas, G.; Soler, J.; Llavall, M.; Tibau, J.; Roca, R.; Coll, D.; Fabrega, E.

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the use of a diet rich in oleic acid could have an effect on daily weight gain, backfat and loin muscle (Longissimus thoracis) depth. One hundred and ninety-two barrows and gilts, from two genotypes were fed a grain and soy diet (CONTROL with 28% C18:1) or a similar diet enriched with oleic acid (HO with 43% C18:1, Greedy-Grass OLIVA). The pigs were housed in 16 pens in groups of 12 according to their sex, diet and genotype. From 75 days of age every three weeks, the pigs were weighed and the backfat and loin muscle depth were ultrasonically recorded (PIGLOG). The inclusion of the dietary fat had no significant effect on the growth variables nor on the backfat and loin muscle depth measurements taken. However, the barrows resulted in higher live weight and backfat compared to the gilts at the end of the trial. Conversely, the gilts showed higher loin depth. Moreover, York-sired pigs were heavier than Pietrain-sired pigs during the whole trial and showed higher backfat at the last two measurements. Pietrain-sired pigs had higher loin muscle depth at the last measurements. The results of the present study suggest that the addition of a dietary fat into diets aiming at modifying the meat fatty acid profile has no detrimental effects on performance variables, or on backfat and loin muscle growth and thus, no negative economic impact for producers. (Author) 37 refs.

  4. Disseminated lymphoma presenting as acute thigh pain and renal failure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brown, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    A 66-year-old diabetic man presented with severe right thigh swelling and pain together with acute renal failure. At autopsy, this was found to be due to disseminated high grade B cell lymphoma invading the psoas muscle and multiple organs, including the kidneys. The unique presentation of this case emphasizes the need for increased awareness of the variety of ways in which lymphoma can manifest itself.

  5. Effects of exercise improves muscle strength and fat mass in patients with high fracture risk: A randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ding-Cheng; Chang, Chirn-Bin; Han, Der-Sheng; Hong, Cian-Hui; Hwang, Jawl-Shan; Tsai, Keh-Sung; Yang, Rong-Sen

    2017-10-26

    The deterioration of the musculoskeletal system imposes significant impact on physical activity. Exercise is an important strategy which minimizes these changes. It is not clear which type of exercise provides better improvement on low physical performance, low muscle mass and low strength of sarcopenia. We aim to develop an integrated care (IC) model and compare its relative efficacy in limb fat free mass, muscle strength, and physical performance with low extremities exercise (LEE) in community dwelling older adults with high risk of fractures (Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX ® )) ≧3% for hip fracture, ≧20% for major osteoporotic fracture or 1-min osteoporosis risk test (≧1 point) or fall (≧2 falls in previous year). Patients were assigned randomized to participate in either IC or LEE group (n = 55 each) for 3 months. All participants received education including home-based exercise. The IC group consisted of different modalities of exercise while the LEE group performed machine-based low extremities exercise. Fat free mass, muscle strength, and physical performance were measured at their baseline and 3-months follow-up. Mean age was 73.8 ± 7 years with 69.1% women. Entire cohort demonstrated significant increment in fat free mass, muscle strength (4 indicators) and physical performance (3 indicators). However, between group differences were not significant. With regular supervise exercise; both groups are equally effective in decreasing fat mass and increasing physical performance, muscle mass and strength. However, the IC group required fewer resources and thus more financially feasible in a community setting. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Objective measurement of minimal fat in normal skeletal muscles of healthy children using T2 relaxation time mapping (T2 maps) and MR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Serai, Suraj; Merrow, Arnold C; Wang, Lily; Horn, Paul S; Laor, Tal

    2014-02-01

    Various skeletal muscle diseases result in fatty infiltration, making it important to develop noninvasive biomarkers to objectively measure muscular fat. We compared T2 relaxation time mapping (T2 maps) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) with physical characteristics previously correlated with intramuscular fat to validate T2 maps and MRS as objective measures of skeletal muscle fat. We evaluated gluteus maximus muscles in 30 healthy boys (ages 5-19 years) at 3 T with T1-weighted images, T2-W images with fat saturation, T2 maps with and without fat saturation, and MR spectroscopy. We calculated body surface area (BSA), body mass index (BMI) and BMI percentile (BMI %). We performed fat and inflammation grading on T1-W imaging and fat-saturated T2-W imaging, respectively. Mean T2 values from T2 maps with fat saturation were subtracted from T2 maps without fat saturation to determine T2 fat values. We obtained lipid-to-water ratios by MR spectroscopy. Pearson correlation was used to assess relationships between BSA, BMI, BMI %, T2 fat values, and lipid-to-water ratios for each boy. Twenty-four boys completed all exams; 21 showed minimal and 3 showed no fatty infiltration. None showed muscle inflammation. There was correlation between BSA, BMI, and BMI %, and T2 fat values (P values and lipid-to-water ratios (P skeletal muscles, even in microscopic amounts, and validate each other. Both techniques might enable detection of minimal pathological fatty infiltration in children with skeletal muscle disorders.

  7. Dixon-based MRI for assessment of muscle-fat content in phantoms, healthy volunteers and patients with achillodynia: comparison to visual assessment of calf muscle quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Michael A.; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Buck, Florian M. [University Hospital Balgrist, Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Espinosa, Norman [University Hospital Balgrist, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zurich (Switzerland); Raptis, Dimitri A. [University Hospital Zurich, Clinic of Visceral and Transplant Surgery, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-06-15

    To quantify the muscle fat-content (MFC) in phantoms, volunteers and patients with achillodynia using two-point Dixon-based magnetic resonance imaging (2pt-MRI{sub DIXON}) in comparison to MR spectroscopy (MRS) and visual assessment of MFC. Two-point Dixon-based MRI was used to measure the MFC of 15 phantoms containing 0-100 % fat-content and calf muscles in 30 patients (13 women; 57 ± 15 years) with achillodynia and in 20 volunteers (10 women; 30 ± 14 years) at 1.5 T. The accuracy of 2pt-MRI{sub DIXON} in quantification of MFC was assessed in vitro using phantoms and in vivo using MRS as the standard of reference. Fat-fractions derived from 2pt-MRI{sub DIXON} (FF{sub DIXON}) and MRS (FF{sub MRS}) were related to visual assessment of MFC (Goutallier grades 0-4) and Achilles-tendon quality (grade 0-4). Excellent linear correlation was demonstrated for FF{sub DIXON} with phantoms and with FF{sub MRS} in patients (p{sub c} = 0.997/0.995; p < 0.001). FF{sub DIXON} of the gastrocnemius muscle was significantly higher (p = 0.002) in patients (7.0 % ± 4.7 %) compared with volunteers (3.6 % ± 0.7 %), whereas visual-grading showed no difference between both groups (p > 0.05). FF{sub MRS} and FF{sub DIXON} were significantly higher in subjects with (>grade 1) structural damage of the Achilles-tendon (p = 0.01). Two-point Dixon-based MRI allows for accurate quantification of MFC, outperforming visual assessment of calf muscle fat. Structural damage of the Achilles tendon is associated with a significantly higher MFC. (orig.)

  8. Caloric restriction induces energy-sparing alterations in skeletal muscle contraction, fiber composition and local thyroid hormone metabolism that persist during catch-up fat upon refeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Bresciani M. De Andrade

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Weight regain after caloric restriction results in accelerated fat storage in adipose tissue. This catch-up fat phenomenon is postulated to result partly from suppressed skeletal muscle thermogenesis, but the underlying mechanisms are elusive. We investigated whether the reduced rate of skeletal muscle contraction-relaxation cycle that occurs after caloric restriction persists during weight recovery and could contribute to catch-up fat. Using a rat model of semistarvation-refeeding, in which fat recovery is driven by suppressed thermogenesis, we show that contraction and relaxation of leg muscles are slower after both semistarvation and refeeding. These effects are associated with (i higher expression of muscle deiodinase type 3 (DIO3 which inactivates tri-iodothyronine (T3, and lower expression of T3-activating enzyme, deiodinase type 2 (DIO2, (ii slower net formation of T3 from its T4 precursor in muscles, and (iii accumulation of slow fibers at the expense of fast fibers. These semistarvation-induced changes persisted during recovery and correlated with impaired expression of transcription factors involved in slow-twitch muscle development.We conclude that diminished muscle thermogenesis following caloric restriction results from reduced muscle T3 levels, alteration in muscle-specific transcription factors, and fast-to-slow fiber shift causing slower contractility. Energy-sparing effects persist during weight recovery and likely contribute to catch-up fat.

  9. Caloric restriction induces energy-sparing alterations in skeletal muscle contraction, fiber composition and local thyroid hormone metabolism that persist during catch-up fat upon refeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Andrade, Paula B M; Neff, Laurence A; Strosova, Miriam K; Arsenijevic, Denis; Patthey-Vuadens, Ophélie; Scapozza, Leonardo; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Ruegg, Urs T; Dulloo, Abdul G; Dorchies, Olivier M

    2015-01-01

    Weight regain after caloric restriction results in accelerated fat storage in adipose tissue. This catch-up fat phenomenon is postulated to result partly from suppressed skeletal muscle thermogenesis, but the underlying mechanisms are elusive. We investigated whether the reduced rate of skeletal muscle contraction-relaxation cycle that occurs after caloric restriction persists during weight recovery and could contribute to catch-up fat. Using a rat model of semistarvation-refeeding, in which fat recovery is driven by suppressed thermogenesis, we show that contraction and relaxation of leg muscles are slower after both semistarvation and refeeding. These effects are associated with (i) higher expression of muscle deiodinase type 3 (DIO3), which inactivates tri-iodothyronine (T3), and lower expression of T3-activating enzyme, deiodinase type 2 (DIO2), (ii) slower net formation of T3 from its T4 precursor in muscles, and (iii) accumulation of slow fibers at the expense of fast fibers. These semistarvation-induced changes persisted during recovery and correlated with impaired expression of transcription factors involved in slow-twitch muscle development. We conclude that diminished muscle thermogenesis following caloric restriction results from reduced muscle T3 levels, alteration in muscle-specific transcription factors, and fast-to-slow fiber shift causing slower contractility. These energy-sparing effects persist during weight recovery and contribute to catch-up fat.

  10. High Fat Diet-Induced Changes in Mouse Muscle Mitochondrial Phospholipids Do Not Impair Mitochondrial Respiration Despite Insulin Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulshof, Martijn F. M.; van den Berg, Sjoerd A. A.; Schaart, Gert; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Smit, Egbert; Mariman, Edwin C. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus and muscle insulin resistance have been associated with reduced capacity of skeletal muscle mitochondria, possibly as a result of increased intake of dietary fat. Here, we examined the hypothesis that a prolonged high-fat diet consumption (HFD) increases the saturation of muscle mitochondrial membrane phospholipids causing impaired mitochondrial oxidative capacity and possibly insulin resistance. Methodology C57BL/6J mice were fed an 8-week or 20-week low fat diet (10 kcal%; LFD) or HFD (45 kcal%). Skeletal muscle mitochondria were isolated and fatty acid (FA) composition of skeletal muscle mitochondrial phospholipids was analyzed by thin-layer chromatography followed by GC. High-resolution respirometry was used to assess oxidation of pyruvate and fatty acids by mitochondria. Insulin sensitivity was estimated by HOMA-IR. Principal Findings At 8 weeks, mono-unsaturated FA (16∶1n7, 18∶1n7 and 18∶1n9) were decreased (−4.0%, p<0.001), whereas saturated FA (16∶0) were increased (+3.2%, p<0.001) in phospholipids of HFD vs. LFD mitochondria. Interestingly, 20 weeks of HFD descreased mono-unsaturated FA while n-6 poly-unsaturated FA (18∶2n6, 20∶4n6, 22∶5n6) showed a pronounced increase (+4.0%, p<0.001). Despite increased saturation of muscle mitochondrial phospholipids after the 8-week HFD, mitochondrial oxidation of both pyruvate and fatty acids were similar between LFD and HFD mice. After 20 weeks of HFD, the increase in n-6 poly-unsaturated FA was accompanied by enhanced maximal capacity of the electron transport chain (+49%, p = 0.002) and a tendency for increased ADP-stimulated respiration, but only when fuelled by a lipid-derived substrate. Insulin sensitivity in HFD mice was reduced at both 8 and 20 weeks. Conclusions/Interpretation Our findings do not support the concept that prolonged HF feeding leads to increased saturation of skeletal muscle mitochondrial phospholipids resulting in a decrease in

  11. High fat diet-induced changes in mouse muscle mitochondrial phospholipids do not impair mitochondrial respiration despite insulin resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joris Hoeks

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus and muscle insulin resistance have been associated with reduced capacity of skeletal muscle mitochondria, possibly as a result of increased intake of dietary fat. Here, we examined the hypothesis that a prolonged high-fat diet consumption (HFD increases the saturation of muscle mitochondrial membrane phospholipids causing impaired mitochondrial oxidative capacity and possibly insulin resistance. METHODOLOGY: C57BL/6J mice were fed an 8-week or 20-week low fat diet (10 kcal%; LFD or HFD (45 kcal%. Skeletal muscle mitochondria were isolated and fatty acid (FA composition of skeletal muscle mitochondrial phospholipids was analyzed by thin-layer chromatography followed by GC. High-resolution respirometry was used to assess oxidation of pyruvate and fatty acids by mitochondria. Insulin sensitivity was estimated by HOMA-IR. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: At 8 weeks, mono-unsaturated FA (16∶1n7, 18∶1n7 and 18∶1n9 were decreased (-4.0%, p<0.001, whereas saturated FA (16∶0 were increased (+3.2%, p<0.001 in phospholipids of HFD vs. LFD mitochondria. Interestingly, 20 weeks of HFD descreased mono-unsaturated FA while n-6 poly-unsaturated FA (18∶2n6, 20∶4n6, 22∶5n6 showed a pronounced increase (+4.0%, p<0.001. Despite increased saturation of muscle mitochondrial phospholipids after the 8-week HFD, mitochondrial oxidation of both pyruvate and fatty acids were similar between LFD and HFD mice. After 20 weeks of HFD, the increase in n-6 poly-unsaturated FA was accompanied by enhanced maximal capacity of the electron transport chain (+49%, p = 0.002 and a tendency for increased ADP-stimulated respiration, but only when fuelled by a lipid-derived substrate. Insulin sensitivity in HFD mice was reduced at both 8 and 20 weeks. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Our findings do not support the concept that prolonged HF feeding leads to increased saturation of skeletal muscle mitochondrial phospholipids resulting in a decrease in

  12. The diseasome of physical inactivity--and the role of myokines in muscle--fat cross talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente K

    2009-01-01

    , neurodegeneration and tumour growth. Evidence suggests that the protective effect of exercise may to some extent be ascribed to the anti-inflammatory effect of regular exercise, which can be mediated via a reduction in visceral fat mass and/or by induction of an anti-inflammatory environment with each bout...... of exercise. The finding that muscles produce and release myokines provides a conceptual basis to understand the mechanisms whereby exercise influences metabolism and exerts anti-inflammatory effects. According to our theory, contracting skeletal muscles release myokines, which work in a hormone-like fashion...

  13. Erythropoietin over-expression protects against diet-induced obesity in mice through increased fat oxidation in muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hojman, Pernille; Brolin, Camilla; Gissel, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    patients. Thus we applied the EPO over-expression model to investigate the metabolic effect of EPO in vivo.At 12 weeks, EPO expression resulted in a 23% weight reduction (Pobese mice; thus the mice weighed 21.9+/-0.8 g (control, normal diet,) 21.9+/-1.4 g (EPO, normal diet), 35.......3+/-3.3 g (control, high-fat diet) and 28.8+/-2.6 g (EPO, high-fat diet). Correspondingly, DXA scanning revealed that this was due to a 28% reduction in adipose tissue mass.The decrease in adipose tissue mass was accompanied by a complete normalisation of fasting insulin levels and glucose tolerance......-physiological levels has substantial metabolic effects including protection against diet-induced obesity and normalisation of glucose sensitivity associated with a shift to increased fat metabolism in the muscles....

  14. Muscle quality, aerobic fitness and fat mass predict lower-extremity physical function in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misic, Mark M; Rosengren, Karl S; Woods, Jeffrey A; Evans, Ellen M

    2007-01-01

    Muscle mass, strength and fitness play a role in lower-extremity physical function (LEPF) in older adults; however, the relationships remain inadequately characterized. This study aimed to examine the relationships between leg mineral free lean mass (MFLM(LEG)), leg muscle quality (leg strength normalized for MFLM(LEG)), adiposity, aerobic fitness and LEPF in community-dwelling healthy elderly subjects. Fifty-five older adults (69.3 +/- 5.5 years, 36 females, 19 males) were assessed for leg strength using an isokinetic dynamometer, body composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and aerobic fitness via a treadmill maximal oxygen consumption test. LEPF was assessed using computerized dynamic posturography and stair ascent/descent, a timed up-and-go task and a 7-meter walk with and without an obstacle. Muscle strength, muscle quality and aerobic fitness were similarly correlated with static LEPF tests (r range 0.27-0.40, p < 0.05); however, the strength of the independent predictors was not robust with explained variance ranging from 9 to 16%. Muscle quality was the strongest correlate of all dynamic LEPF tests (r range 0.54-0.65, p < 0.001). Using stepwise linear regression analysis, muscle quality was the strongest independent predictor of dynamic physical function explaining 29-42% of the variance (p < 0.001), whereas aerobic fitness or body fat mass explained 5-6% of the variance (p < 0.05) depending on performance measure. Muscle quality is the most important predictor, and aerobic fitness and fat mass are secondary predictors of LEPF in community-dwelling older adults. These findings support the importance of exercise, especially strength training, for optimal body composition, and maintenance of strength and physical function in older adults.

  15. Muscle ceramide content is similar after 3 weeks’ consumption of fat or carbohydrate diet in a crossover design in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, J. W.; Tobin, L.; Drachmann, Tue

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of prolonged adaptation to fat- or carbohydrate-rich diet on muscle ceramide in type 2 diabetes patients, using a longitudinal crossover study. Eleven type 2 diabetes patients consumed isocaloric fat- or carbohydrate-rich diet for 3 weeks in random order...... sensitivity, muscle glycogen, triacylglycerol and ceramide content were similar. Plasma adiponectin concentration was significantly higher after fat compared with carbohydrate-rich diet. Results indicated that following fat-rich diet intake muscle ceramide and triacylglycerol concentrations were not different...... compared with that after carbohydrate-rich diet. Furthermore, plasma adiponectin concentration was higher after fat-rich compared with carbohydrate-rich diet, but insulin sensitivity remained similar despite the major difference in dietary macronutrient composition....

  16. Restoration of Muscle Mitochondrial Function and Metabolic Flexibility in Type 2 Diabetes by Exercise Training Is Paralleled by Increased Myocellular Fat Storage and Improved Insulin Sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meex, R.C.R.; Schrauwen-Hinderling, V.B.; Moonen-Kornips, E.; Schaart, G.; Mensink, M.R.; Phielix, E.; Weijer, van de T.; Sels, J.P.; Schrauwen, P.; Hesselink, M.K.C.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE-Mitochondrial dysfunction and fat accumulation in skeletal muscle (increased intramyocellular lipid [IMCL]) have been linked to development of type 2 diabetes. We examined whether exercise training could restore mitochondrial function and insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2

  17. Skeletal muscle CT of lower extremities in myotonic dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Ryosuke; Imai, Terukuni; Sadashima, Hiromichi; Matsumoto, Sadayuki; Yamamoto, Toru; Kusaka, Hirofumi; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Maya, Kiyomi; Tanabe, Masaya

    1988-01-01

    We evaluated the leg and thigh muscles of 4 control subjects and 10 patients with myotonic dystrophy using computed tomography. Taking previous reports about the skeletal muscle CT of myotonic dystrophy into account, we concluded that the following 5 features are characteristic of myotonic dystrophy: 1. The main change is the appearance of low-density areas in muscles; these areas reflect fat tissue. In addition, the muscle mass decreases in size. 2. The leg is more severely affected than the thigh. 3. In the thigh, although the m. quadriceps femoris, especially the vastus muscles, tends to be affected, the m. adductor longus and magnus tend to be preserved. 4. In the leg, although the m. tibialis anterior and m. triceps surae tend to be affected, the m. peroneus longus, brevis, and m. tibialis posterior tend to be preserved. 5. Compensatory hypertrophy is often observed in the m. rectus femoris, m. adductor longus, m. adductor magnus, m. peroneus longus, and m. peroneus brevis, accompanied by the involvement of their agonist muscles. (author)

  18. Automated assessment of thigh composition using machine learning for Dixon magnetic resonance images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu Xin; Chong, Mei Sian; Tay, Laura; Yew, Suzanne; Yeo, Audrey; Tan, Cher Heng

    2016-10-01

    To develop and validate a machine learning based automated segmentation method that jointly analyzes the four contrasts provided by Dixon MRI technique for improved thigh composition segmentation accuracy. The automatic detection of body composition is formulized as a three-class classification issue. Each image voxel in the training dataset is assigned with a correct label. A voxel classifier is trained and subsequently used to predict unseen data. Morphological operations are finally applied to generate volumetric segmented images for different structures. We applied this algorithm on datasets of (1) four contrast images, (2) water and fat images, and (3) unsuppressed images acquired from 190 subjects. The proposed method using four contrasts achieved most accurate and robust segmentation compared to the use of combined fat and water images and the use of unsuppressed image, average Dice coefficients of 0.94 ± 0.03, 0.96 ± 0.03, 0.80 ± 0.03, and 0.97 ± 0.01 has been achieved to bone region, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), inter-muscular adipose tissue (IMAT), and muscle respectively. Our proposed method based on machine learning produces accurate tissue quantification and showed an effective use of large information provided by the four contrast images from Dixon MRI.

  19. Protein Profiles for Muscle Development and Intramuscular Fat Accumulation at Different Post-Hatching Ages in Chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Liu

    Full Text Available Muscle development and growth influences the efficiency of poultry meat production, and is closely related to deposition of intramuscular fat (IMF, which is crucial in meat quality. To clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying muscle development and IMF deposition in chickens, protein expression profiles were examined in the breast muscle of Beijing-You chickens at ages 1, 56, 98 and 140 days, using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ. Two hundred and four of 494 proteins were expressed differentially. The expression profile at day 1 differed greatly from those at day 56, 98 and 140. KEGG pathway analysis of differential protein expression from pair-wise comparisons (day 1 vs. 56; 56 vs. 98; 98 vs. 140, showed that the fatty acid degradation pathway was more active during the stage from day 1 to 56 than at other periods. This was consistent with the change in IMF content, which was highest at day 1 and declined dramatically thereafter. When muscle growth was most rapid (days 56-98, pathways involved in muscle development were dominant, including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, cardiac muscle contraction, tight junctions and focal adhesion. In contrast with hatchlings, the fatty acid degradation pathway was downregulated from day 98 to 140, which was consistent with the period for IMF deposition following rapid muscle growth. Changes in some key specific proteins, including fast skeletal muscle troponin T isoform, aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 and apolipoprotein A1, were verified by Western blotting, and could be potential biomarkers for IMF deposition in chickens. Protein-protein interaction networks showed that ribosome-related functional modules were clustered in all three stages. However, the functional module involved in the metabolic pathway was only clustered in the first stage (day 1 vs. 56. This study improves our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying muscle development and IMF

  20. A whey-protein supplement increases fat loss and spares lean muscle in obese subjects: a randomized human clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Loren S

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study evaluated a specialized whey fraction (Prolibra™, high in leucine, bioactive peptides and milk calcium for use as a dietary supplement to enhance weight loss. Methods This was a randomized, double-blind, parallel-arm, 12-week study. Caloric intake was reduced 500 calories per day. Subjects consumed Prolibra or an isocaloric ready-to-mix beverage 20 minutes before breakfast and 20 minutes before dinner. Body fat and lean muscle tissue were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. Body weight and anthropometric measurements were recorded every 4 weeks. Blood samples were taken at the beginning and end of the study. Statistical analyses were performed on all subjects that completed (completer analysis and all subjects that lost at least 2.25 kg of body weight (responder analysis. Within group significance was determined at P Results Both groups lost a significant amount of weight and the Prolibra group tended to lose more weight than the control group; however the amount of weight loss was not significantly different between groups after 12 weeks. Prolibra subjects lost significantly more body fat compared to control subjects for both the completer (2.81 vs. 1.62 kg P = 0.03 and responder (3.63 vs. 2.11 kg, P = 0.01 groups. Prolibra subjects lost significantly less lean muscle mass in the responder group (1.07 vs. 2.41 kg, P = 0.02. The ratio of fat to lean loss (kg fat lost/kg lean lost was much larger for Prolibra subjects for both completer (3.75 vs. 1.05 and responder (3.39 vs. 0.88 groups. Conclusion Subjects in both the control and treatment group lost a significant amount of weight with a 500 calorie reduced diet. Subjects taking Prolibra lost significantly more body fat and showed a greater preservation of lean muscle compared to subjects consuming the control beverage. Because subjects taking Prolibra lost 6.1% of their body fat mass, and because a 5% reduction of body fat mass has been shown to

  1. Effects of short-term high-fat overfeeding on genome-wide DNA methylation in the skeletal muscle of healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, S C; Brøns, Charlotte; Bork-Jensen, Jette

    2012-01-01

    Energy-dense diets that are high in fat are associated with a risk of metabolic diseases. The underlying molecular mechanisms could involve epigenetics, as recent data show altered DNA methylation of putative type 2 diabetes candidate genes in response to high-fat diets. We examined the effect...... of a short-term high-fat overfeeding (HFO) diet on genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in human skeletal muscle....

  2. Enzymatic regulation of glucose disposal in human skeletal muscle after a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehleman, Tanya L; Peters, Sandra J; Heigenhauser, George J F; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2005-01-01

    Whole body glucose disposal and skeletal muscle hexokinase, glycogen synthase (GS), pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), and PDH kinase (PDK) activities were measured in aerobically trained men after a standardized control diet (Con; 51% carbohydrate, 29% fat, and 20% protein of total energy intake) and a 56-h eucaloric, high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet (HF/LC; 5% carbohydrate, 73% fat, and 22% protein). An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; 1 g/kg) was administered after the Con and HF/LC diets with vastus lateralis muscle biopsies sampled pre-OGTT and 75 min after ingestion of the oral glucose load. The 90-min area under the blood glucose and plasma insulin concentration vs. time curves increased by 2-fold and 1.25-fold, respectively, after the HF/LC diet. The pre-OGTT fraction of GS in its active form and the maximal activity of hexokinase were not affected by the HF/LC diet. However, the HF/LC diet increased PDK activity (0.19 +/- 0.05 vs. 0.08 +/- 0.02 min(-1)) and decreased PDH activation (0.38 +/- 0.08 vs. 0.79 +/- 0.10 mmol acetyl-CoA.kg wet muscle(-1).min(-1)) before the OGTT vs. Con. During the OGTT, GS and PDH activation increased by the same magnitude in both diets, such that PDH activation remained lower during the HF/LC OGTT (0.60 +/- 0.11 vs. 1.04 +/- 0.09 mmol acetyl-CoA.kg(-1).min(-1)). These data demonstrate that the decreased glucose disposal during the OGTT after the 56-h HF/LC diet was in part related to decreased oxidative carbohydrate disposal in skeletal muscle and not to decreased glycogen storage. The rapid increase in PDK activity during the HF/LC diet appeared to account for the reduced potential for oxidative carbohydrate disposal.

  3. Regulation of metabolism by dietary carbohydrates in two lines of rainbow trout divergently selected for muscle fat content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalam, Biju Sam; Medale, Françoise; Kaushik, Sadasivam; Polakof, Sergio; Skiba-Cassy, Sandrine; Panserat, Stephane

    2012-08-01

    Previous studies in two rainbow trout lines divergently selected for lean (L) or fat (F) muscle suggested that they differ in their ability to metabolise glucose. In this context, we investigated whether genetic selection for high muscle fat content led to a better capacity to metabolise dietary carbohydrates. Juvenile trout from the two lines were fed diets with or without gelatinised starch (17.1%) for 10 weeks, after which blood, liver, muscle and adipose tissues were sampled. Growth rate, feed efficiency and protein utilisation were lower in the F line than in the L line. In both lines, intake of carbohydrates was associated with a moderate post-prandial hyperglycaemia, a protein sparing effect, an enhancement of nutrient (TOR-S6) signalling cascade and a decrease of energy-sensing enzyme (AMPK). Gene expression of hepatic glycolytic enzymes was higher in the F line fed carbohydrates compared with the L line, but concurrently transcripts for the gluconeogenic enzymes was also higher in the F line, possibly impairing glucose homeostasis. However, the F line showed a higher gene expression of hepatic enzymes involved in lipogenesis and fatty acid bioconversion, in particular with an increased dietary carbohydrate intake. Enhanced lipogenic potential coupled with higher liver glycogen content in the F line suggests better glucose storage ability than the L line. Overall, the present study demonstrates the changes in hepatic intermediary metabolism resulting from genetic selection for high muscle fat content and dietary carbohydrate intake without, however, any interaction for an improved growth or glucose utilisation in the peripheral tissues.

  4. Recurrent gossypiboma in the thigh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, Ajay; Anchan, Chetan; Agarwal, Manish G.; Jambhekar, Nirmala A.; Badwe, Rajendra A.

    2007-01-01

    Gossypiboma, an iatrogenic mass lesion caused by a retained surgical sponge is an extremely rare event following musculoskeletal procedures. This entity is therefore a very unusual experience and can create considerable confusion. Unsuspecting surgeons may thus be caught out by this unlikely presentation. We present our experience with a recurrent gossypiboma in the thigh occurring several years after surgical evacuation of a similar gossypiboma from the same anatomic location with interval resolution of symptoms. The purpose of this case report is to highlight the possibility of a ''recurrent'' soft tissue mass occurring for reasons other than a neoplasm. In the absence of a definitive biopsy diagnosis of tumor in patients who have undergone prior surgical procedures in that area, it may be more prudent to adopt a conservative surgical resection rather than a conventional radical resection as warranted by the dramatic clinical presentation mimicking a soft tissue sarcoma. (orig.)

  5. Effect of modified fasting therapy on body weight, fat and muscle mass, and blood chemistry in patients with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Koh-Woon; Song, Mi-Yeon; Chung, Seok-Hee; Chung, Won-Seok

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and safety of modified fasting therapy using fermented medicinal herbs and exercise on body weight, fat and muscle mass, and blood chemistry in obese subjects. Twenty-six patients participated in a 14-day fast, during which they ingested a supplement made from fermented medicinal herbs and carbohydrates (intake: 400-600 kcal/d). The schedule included 7 prefasting relief days and 14 days of stepwise reintroduction of food. The patients also took part in an exercise program that incorporated Qigong, weight training, and walking exercises. The efficacy of treatments was observed by assessing body fat mass and muscle mass, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), cholesterol, and triglycerides in each study period. Specific symptoms or side effects were reported. Body weight and body fat mass both decreased significantly by (5.16 ± 0.95) and (3.89 ± 0.79) kg (both P fasting therapy using fermented medicinal herbs and exercise could be effective and safe on obese patients.

  6. Skeletal Muscle TRIB3 Mediates Glucose Toxicity in Diabetes and High- Fat Diet–Induced Insulin Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mengrui; Kim, Teayoun; Jariwala, Ravi H.; Garvey, W. John; Luo, Nanlan; Kang, Minsung; Ma, Elizabeth; Tian, Ling; Steverson, Dennis; Yang, Qinglin; Fu, Yuchang

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, we used muscle-specific TRIB3 overexpressing (MOE) and knockout (MKO) mice to determine whether TRIB3 mediates glucose-induced insulin resistance in diabetes and whether alterations in TRIB3 expression as a function of nutrient availability have a regulatory role in metabolism. In streptozotocin diabetic mice, TRIB3 MOE exacerbated, whereas MKO prevented, glucose-induced insulin resistance and impaired glucose oxidation and defects in insulin signal transduction compared with wild-type (WT) mice, indicating that glucose-induced insulin resistance was dependent on TRIB3. In response to a high-fat diet, TRIB3 MOE mice exhibited greater weight gain and worse insulin resistance in vivo compared with WT mice, coupled with decreased AKT phosphorylation, increased inflammation and oxidative stress, and upregulation of lipid metabolic genes coupled with downregulation of glucose metabolic genes in skeletal muscle. These effects were prevented in the TRIB3 MKO mice relative to WT mice. In conclusion, TRIB3 has a pathophysiological role in diabetes and a physiological role in metabolism. Glucose-induced insulin resistance and insulin resistance due to diet-induced obesity both depend on muscle TRIB3. Under physiological conditions, muscle TRIB3 also influences energy expenditure and substrate metabolism, indicating that the decrease and increase in muscle TRIB3 under fasting and nutrient excess, respectively, are critical for metabolic homeostasis. PMID:27207527

  7. Live animal assessments of rump fat and muscle score in Angus cows and steers using 3-dimensional imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhee, M J; Walmsley, B J; Skinner, B; Littler, B; Siddell, J P; Cafe, L M; Wilkins, J F; Oddy, V H; Alempijevic, A

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a proof of concept for using off-the-shelf Red Green Blue-Depth (RGB-D) Microsoft Kinect cameras to objectively assess P8 rump fat (P8 fat; mm) and muscle score (MS) traits in Angus cows and steers. Data from low and high muscled cattle (156 cows and 79 steers) were collected at multiple locations and time points. The following steps were required for the 3-dimensional (3D) image data and subsequent machine learning techniques to learn the traits: 1) reduce the high dimensionality of the point cloud data by extracting features from the input signals to produce a compact and representative feature vector, 2) perform global optimization of the signatures using machine learning algorithms and a parallel genetic algorithm, and 3) train a sensor model using regression-supervised learning techniques on the ultrasound P8 fat and the classified learning techniques for the assessed MS for each animal in the data set. The correlation of estimating hip height (cm) between visually measured and assessed 3D data from RGB-D cameras on cows and steers was 0.75 and 0.90, respectively. The supervised machine learning and global optimization approach correctly classified MS (mean [SD]) 80 (4.7) and 83% [6.6%] for cows and steers, respectively. Kappa tests of MS were 0.74 and 0.79 in cows and steers, respectively, indicating substantial agreement between visual assessment and the learning approaches of RGB-D camera images. A stratified 10-fold cross-validation for P8 fat did not find any differences in the mean bias ( = 0.62 and = 0.42 for cows and steers, respectively). The root mean square error of P8 fat was 1.54 and 1.00 mm for cows and steers, respectively. Additional data is required to strengthen the capacity of machine learning to estimate measured P8 fat and assessed MS. Data sets for and continental cattle are also required to broaden the use of 3D cameras to assess cattle. The results demonstrate the importance of capturing

  8. Cortical bone deficit and fat infiltration of bone marrow and skeletal muscle in ambulatory children with mild spastic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Daniel G; Singh, Harshvardhan; Miller, Freeman; Barbe, Mary F; Slade, Jill M; Pohlig, Ryan T; Modlesky, Christopher M

    2017-01-01

    Nonambulatory children with severe cerebral palsy (CP) have underdeveloped bone architecture, low bone strength and a high degree of fat infiltration in the lower extremity musculature. The present study aims to determine if such a profile exists in ambulatory children with mild CP and if excess fat infiltration extends into the bone marrow. Ambulatory children with mild spastic CP and typically developing children (4 to 11years; 12/group) were compared. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to estimate cortical bone, bone marrow and total bone volume and width, bone strength [i.e., section modulus (Z) and polar moment of inertia (J)], and bone marrow fat concentration in the midtibia, and muscle volume, intermuscular, subfascial, and subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT) volume and intramuscular fat concentration in the midleg. Accelerometer-based activity monitors worn on the ankle were used to assess physical activity. There were no group differences in age, height, body mass, body mass percentile, BMI, BMI percentile or tibia length, but children with CP had lower height percentile (19th vs. 50th percentile) and total physical activity counts (44%) than controls (both pChildren with CP also had lower cortical bone volume (30%), cortical bone width in the posterior (16%) and medial (32%) portions of the shaft, total bone width in the medial-lateral direction (15%), Z in the medial-lateral direction (34%), J (39%) and muscle volume (39%), and higher bone marrow fat concentration (82.1±1.8% vs. 80.5±1.9%), subfascial AT volume (3.3 fold) and intramuscular fat concentration (25.0±8.0% vs. 16.1±3.3%) than controls (all pfat infiltration estimates, except posterior cortical bone width, were still present (all pchildren with CP compared to controls emerged (pchildren with mild spastic CP exhibit an underdeveloped bone architecture and low bone strength in the midtibia and a greater infiltration of fat in the bone marrow and surrounding musculature compared to typically

  9. Dietary Fat Quantity and Type Induce Transcriptome-Wide Effects on Alternative Splicing of Pre-mRNA in Rat Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Adam J; Ravi, Suhana; Jefferson, Leonard S; Kimball, Scot R; Schilder, Rudolf J

    2017-09-01

    Background: Fat-enriched diets produce metabolic changes in skeletal muscle, which in turn can mediate changes in gene regulation. Objective: We examined the high-fat-diet-induced changes in skeletal muscle gene expression by characterizing variations in pre-mRNA alternative splicing. Methods: Affymetrix Exon Array analysis was performed on the transcriptome of the gastrocnemius/plantaris complex of male obesity-prone Sprague-Dawley rats fed a 10% or 60% fat (lard) diet for 2 or 8 wk. The validation of exon array results was focused on troponin T ( Tnnt3 ). Tnnt3 splice form analyses were extended in studies of rats fed 10% or 30% fat diets across 1- to 8-wk treatment periods and rats fed 10% or 45% fat diets with fat sources from lard or mono- or polyunsaturated fats for 2 wk. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was used to measure body composition. Results: Consumption of a 60% fat diet for 2 or 8 wk resulted in alternative splicing of 668 and 726 pre-mRNAs, respectively, compared with rats fed a 10% fat diet. Tnnt3 transcripts were alternatively spliced in rats fed a 60% fat diet for either 2 or 8 wk. The high-fat-diet-induced changes in Tnnt3 alternative splicing were observed in rats fed a 30% fat diet across 1- to 8-wk treatment periods. Moreover, this effect depended on fat type, because Tnnt3 alternative splicing occurred in response to 45% fat diets enriched with lard but not in response to diets enriched with mono- or polyunsaturated fatty acids. Fat mass (a proxy for obesity as measured by NMR) did not differ between groups in any study. Conclusions: Rat skeletal muscle responds to overconsumption of dietary fat by modifying gene expression through pre-mRNA alternative splicing. Variations in Tnnt3 alternative splicing occur independently of obesity and are dependent on dietary fat quantity and suggest a role for saturated fatty acids in the high-fat-diet-induced modifications in Tnnt3 alternative splicing. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Effects of high-fat diet and physical activity on pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-4 in mouse skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinnankoski-Tuikka Rita

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The expression of PDK4 is elevated by diabetes, fasting and other conditions associated with the switch from the utilization of glucose to fatty acids as an energy source. It is previously shown that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α, a master regulator of energy metabolism, coactivates in cell lines pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-4 (PDK4 gene expression via the estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα. We investigated the effects of long-term high-fat diet and physical activity on the expression of PDK4, PGC-1α and ERRα and the amount and function of mitochondria in skeletal muscle. Methods Insulin resistance was induced by a high-fat (HF diet for 19 weeks in C57BL/6 J mice, which were either sedentary or with access to running wheels. The skeletal muscle expression levels of PDK4, PGC-1α and ERRα were measured and the quality and quantity of mitochondrial function was assessed. Results The HF mice were more insulin-resistant than the low-fat (LF -fed mice. Upregulation of PDK4 and ERRα mRNA and protein levels were seen after the HF diet, and when combined with running even more profound effects on the mRNA expression levels were observed. Chronic HF feeding and voluntary running did not have significant effects on PGC-1α mRNA or protein levels. No remarkable difference was found in the amount or function of mitochondria. Conclusions Our results support the view that insulin resistance is not mediated by the decreased qualitative or quantitative properties of mitochondria. Instead, the role of PDK4 should be contemplated as a possible contributor to high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance.

  11. Early decrease in dietary protein:energy ratio by fat addition and ontogenetic changes in muscle growth mechanisms of rainbow trout: short- and long-term effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alami-Durante, Hélène; Cluzeaud, Marianne; Duval, Carine; Maunas, Patrick; Girod-David, Virginia; Médale, Françoise

    2014-09-14

    As the understanding of the nutritional regulation of muscle growth mechanisms in fish is fragmentary, the present study aimed to (1) characterise ontogenetic changes in muscle growth-related genes in parallel to changes in muscle cellularity; (2) determine whether an early decrease in dietary protein:energy ratio by fat addition affects the muscle growth mechanisms of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) alevins; and (3) determine whether this early feeding of a high-fat (HF) diet to alevins had a long-term effect on muscle growth processes in juveniles fed a commercial diet. Developmental regulation of hyperplasia and hypertrophy was evidenced at the molecular (expression of myogenic regulatory factors, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and myosin heavy chains (MHC)) and cellular (number and diameter of white muscle fibres) levels. An early decrease in dietary protein:energy ratio by fat addition stimulated the body growth of alevins but led to a fatty phenotype, with accumulation of lipids in the anterior part, and less caudal muscle when compared at similar body weights, due to a decrease in both the white muscle hyperplasia and maximum hypertrophy of white muscle fibres. These HF diet-induced cellular changes were preceded by a very rapid down-regulation of the expression of fast-MHC. The present study also demonstrated that early dietary composition had a long-term effect on the subsequent muscle growth processes of juveniles fed a commercial diet for 3 months. When compared at similar body weights, initially HF diet-fed juveniles indeed had a lower mean diameter of white muscle fibres, a smaller number of large white muscle fibres, and lower expression levels of MyoD1 and myogenin. These findings demonstrated the strong effect of early feed composition on the muscle growth mechanisms of trout alevins and juveniles.

  12. Aggressive angiomyxoma of the thigh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffernan, E.J.; Alkubaidan, F.O.; Munk, P.L. [Vancouver General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vancouver, BC (Canada); University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Hayes, M.M. [BC Cancer Agency, Department of Pathology, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Clarkson, P.W. [BC Cancer Agency, Department of Surgery, Radiation Oncology and Developmental Radiotherapeutics, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2008-07-15

    Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare tumour that typically occurs in the perineum in women of reproductive age. A small number of cases occurring in men have been reported, all of which were located in the low pelvis, perineum or scrotum. While benign, the tumour is locally infiltrative and consequently has a high rate of local recurrence following surgery; therefore, accurate pre-operative diagnosis is important. The characteristic location of these tumours in the low pelvis or perineum has led to speculation that aggressive angiomyxomas arise from a mesenchymal cell that is unique to the perineum. We describe a case of aggressive angiomyxoma arising in the thigh of a 54-year-old man, which we believe is the first reported instance of this rare neoplasm occurring remote from the pelvis or perineum in a male patient. Cross-sectional imaging demonstrated a well-defined mass that had low density on CT and high intensity on fluid-sensitive MR sequences. Biopsy was non-diagnostic and excision was performed. At histological analysis, the tumour exhibited the characteristic features of aggressive angiomyxoma, with bland spindle cells and large, hyalinised blood vessels in a hypocellular myxoid matrix. Extensive immunohistochemical staining further supported the diagnosis. While the imaging features of these tumours are non-specific and suggestive of myxoid neoplasms, the diagnosis should be considered whenever biopsy of a myxoid-appearing mass yields hypocellular, non-diagnostic material, despite adequate sampling. (orig.)

  13. High Fat Diet-Induced Skeletal Muscle Wasting Is Decreased by Mesenchymal Stem Cells Administration: Implications on Oxidative Stress, Ubiquitin Proteasome Pathway Activation, and Myonuclear Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Abrigo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity can lead to skeletal muscle atrophy, a pathological condition characterized by the loss of strength and muscle mass. A feature of muscle atrophy is a decrease of myofibrillar proteins as a result of ubiquitin proteasome pathway overactivation, as evidenced by increased expression of the muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases atrogin-1 and MuRF-1. Additionally, other mechanisms are related to muscle wasting, including oxidative stress, myonuclear apoptosis, and autophagy. Stem cells are an emerging therapy in the treatment of chronic diseases such as high fat diet-induced obesity. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are a population of self-renewable and undifferentiated cells present in the bone marrow and other mesenchymal tissues of adult individuals. The present study is the first to analyze the effects of systemic MSC administration on high fat diet-induced skeletal muscle atrophy in the tibialis anterior of mice. Treatment with MSCs reduced losses of muscle strength and mass, decreases of fiber diameter and myosin heavy chain protein levels, and fiber type transitions. Underlying these antiatrophic effects, MSC administration also decreased ubiquitin proteasome pathway activation, oxidative stress, and myonuclear apoptosis. These results are the first to indicate that systemically administered MSCs could prevent muscle wasting associated with high fat diet-induced obesity and diabetes.

  14. Responses of skeletal muscle lipid metabolism in rat gastrocnemius to hypothyroidism and iodothyronine administration: a putative role for FAT/CD36.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Assunta; De Matteis, Rita; Moreno, Maria; Napolitano, Laura; Busiello, Rosa Anna; Senese, Rosalba; de Lange, Pieter; Lanni, Antonia; Goglia, Fernando

    2012-11-15

    Iodothyronines such as triiodothyronine (T(3)) and 3,5-diiodothyronine (T(2)) influence energy expenditure and lipid metabolism. Skeletal muscle contributes significantly to energy homeostasis, and the above iodothyronines are known to act on this tissue. However, little is known about the cellular/molecular events underlying the effects of T(3) and T(2) on skeletal muscle lipid handling. Since FAT/CD36 is involved in the utilization of free fatty acids by skeletal muscle, specifically in their import into that tissue and presumably their oxidation at the mitochondrial level, we hypothesized that related changes in lipid handling and in FAT/CD36 expression and subcellular redistribution would occur due to hypothyroidism and to T(3) or T(2) administration to hypothyroid rats. In gastrocnemius muscles isolated from hypothyroid rats, FAT/CD36 was upregulated (mRNA levels and total tissue, sarcolemmal, and mitochondrial protein levels). Administration of either T(3) or T(2) to hypothyroid rats resulted in 1) little or no change in FAT/CD36 mRNA level, 2) a decreased total FAT/CD36 protein level, and 3) further increases in FAT/CD36 protein level in sarcolemma and mitochondria. Thus, the main effect of each iodothyronine seemed to be exerted at the level of FAT/CD36 cellular distribution. The effect of further increases in FAT/CD36 protein level in sarcolemma and mitochondria was already evident at 1 h after iodothyronine administration. Each iodothyronine increased the mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation rate. However, the mechanisms underlying their rapid effects seem to differ; T(2) and T(3) each induce FAT/CD36 translocation to mitochondria, but only T(2) induces increases in carnitine palmitoyl transferase system activity and in the mitochondrial substrate oxidation rate.

  15. Upper Limb Evaluation in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: Fat-Water Quantification by MRI, Muscle Force and Function Define Endpoints for Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricotti, Valeria; Evans, Matthew R B; Sinclair, Christopher D J; Butler, Jordan W; Ridout, Deborah A; Hogrel, Jean-Yves; Emira, Ahmed; Morrow, Jasper M; Reilly, Mary M; Hanna, Michael G; Janiczek, Robert L; Matthews, Paul M; Yousry, Tarek A; Muntoni, Francesco; Thornton, John S

    2016-01-01

    A number of promising experimental therapies for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) are emerging. Clinical trials currently rely on invasive biopsies or motivation-dependent functional tests to assess outcome. Quantitative muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could offer a valuable alternative and permit inclusion of non-ambulant DMD subjects. The aims of our study were to explore the responsiveness of upper-limb MRI muscle-fat measurement as a non-invasive objective endpoint for clinical trials in non-ambulant DMD, and to investigate the relationship of these MRI measures to those of muscle force and function. 15 non-ambulant DMD boys (mean age 13.3 y) and 10 age-gender matched healthy controls (mean age 14.6 y) were recruited. 3-Tesla MRI fat-water quantification was used to measure forearm muscle fat transformation in non-ambulant DMD boys compared with healthy controls. DMD boys were assessed at 4 time-points over 12 months, using 3-point Dixon MRI to measure muscle fat-fraction (f.f.). Images from ten forearm muscles were segmented and mean f.f. and cross-sectional area recorded. DMD subjects also underwent comprehensive upper limb function and force evaluation. Overall mean baseline forearm f.f. was higher in DMD than in healthy controls (pmuscle f.f. as a biomarker to monitor disease progression in the upper limb in non-ambulant DMD, with sensitivity adequate to detect group-level change over time intervals practical for use in clinical trials. Clinical validity is supported by the association of the progressive fat transformation of muscle with loss of muscle force and function.

  16. Intrauterine Growth Retardation Increases the Susceptibility of Pigs to High-Fat Diet-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Skeletal Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingbo; Chen, Daiwen; Yao, Ying; Yu, Bing; Mao, Xiangbing; He, Jun; Huang, Zhiqing; Zheng, Ping

    2012-01-01

    It has been recognized that there is a relationship between prenatal growth restriction and the development of metabolic-related diseases in later life, a process involved in mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) increases the susceptibility of offspring to high-fat (HF) diet-induced metabolic syndrome. Recent findings suggested that HF feeding decreased mitochondrial oxidative capacity and impaired mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle. Therefore, we hypothesized that the long-term consequences of IUGR on mitochondrial biogenesis and function make the offspring more susceptible to HF diet-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Normal birth weight (NBW), and IUGR pigs were allotted to control or HF diet in a completely randomized design, individually. After 4 weeks of feeding, growth performance and molecular pathways related to mitochondrial function were determined. The results showed that IUGR decreased growth performance and plasma insulin concentrations. In offspring fed a HF diet, IUGR was associated with enhanced plasma leptin levels, increased concentrations of triglyceride and malondialdehyde (MDA), and reduced glycogen and ATP contents in skeletal muscle. High fat diet-fed IUGR offspring exhibited decreased activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). These alterations in metabolic traits of IUGR pigs were accompanied by impaired mitochondrial respiration function, reduced mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) contents, and down-regulated mRNA expression levels of genes responsible for mitochondrial biogenesis and function. In conclusion, our results suggest that IUGR make the offspring more susceptible to HF diet-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:22523560

  17. The effects of high-fat diets composed of different animal and vegetable fat sources on the health status and tissue lipid profiles of male Japanese quail (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Donaldson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective The current study aimed to investigate the impact of high-fat diets composed of different animal and vegetable fat sources on serum metabolic health markers in Japanese quail, as well as the overall lipid content and fatty acid profiles of the edible bird tissues following significantly increased dietary lipid supplementation. Methods Fifty seven male quail were divided into six groups and fed either a standard diet or a diet enriched with one of five different fats (22% coconut oil, lard, palm oil, soybean oil, or sunflower oil for 12 weeks. The birds were subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test following the feeding period, after which they were euthanized and blood, liver, breast, and thigh muscle samples collected. Total fat content and fatty acid profiles of the tissue samples, as well as serum uric acid, triglyceride, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, aspartate transaminase, and total bilirubin concentrations were assessed. Results High-fat diet feeding had no significant effects on the glucose tolerance of the birds. Dietary fatty acid profiles of the added fats were reflected in the lipid profiles of both the liver and breast and thigh muscle tissues, indicating successful transfer of dietary fatty acids to the edible bird tissues. The significantly increased level of lipid inclusion in the diets of the quail used in the present study was unsuccessful in increasing the overall lipid content of the edible bird tissues. Serum metabolic health markers in birds on the high-fat diets were not significantly different from those observed in birds on the standard diet. Conclusion Thus, despite the various high-fat diets modifying the fatty acid profile of the birds’ tissues, unlike in most mammals, the birds maintained a normal health status following consumption of the various high-fat diets.

  18. Upper arm fat and muscle in stunted and non-stunted children aged 0-24 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagus Winandi Arundito

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The prevalence of stunting in Indonesia is high, with particularly negative impacts on health during childhood as well as adolescence. Stunting impacts the health of children as well as adults, especially with  regards to future obesity. Therefore, evaluating body composition of stunted children before 2 years of age is necessary. Objective To compare upper arm fat and muscle measurements in stunted and non-stunted children aged 0-24 months of age. Methods We analyzed secondary data of the Division of Nutrition and Metabolic Disease, Department of Child Health, Universitas Gadjah Mada Medical School, Yogyakarta which were collected using cluster random sampling from the Yogyakarta Special Province. We compared upper arm fat area (UFA, including the upper arm fat area estimate (UFE and the upper arm fat percentage (UFP, as well as upper arm muscle area (UMA and upper arm muscle area estimate (UME, among stunted and non-stunted children aged 0-24 months. Results We analyzed 2,195 children. The prevalence of stunting was 354/2,195 (16.1%. The UFA, UFE, and UFP among stunted children were significantly lower compared to non-stunted children aged 7-12 months [UFA: 4.48 vs. 5.05 cm2 (P <0.001, respectively; UFE: 4.88 vs. 5.55 cm2 (P <0.001, respectively; and UFP: 30.82 vs. 32.58% (P = 0.03, respectively]. The UMA in children aged 7-12 months was also significantly lower in stunted than in non-stunted children [11.31 vs. 11.79 cm2 (P = 0.02, respectively], as well as in children aged 13-24 months [11.05 vs. 11.75 cm2 (P <0.001, respectively]. In addition, the UME in children aged 13-24 months was significantly lower in stunted compared to non-stunted children [10.50 vs. 11.18 cm2 (P <0.001, respectively]. Conclusion The UFA in children aged 7-12 months is smaller in stunted than in non-stunted children, whereas UMA in children aged 7-12 months and 13-24 months was smaller in stunted compared to non-stunted children.

  19. Characterization of French and Spanish dry-cured hams: influence of the volatiles from the muscles and the subcutaneous fat quantified by SPME-GC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Peña, Carolina M; Luna, Guadalupe; García-González, Diego L; Aparicio, Ramón

    2005-04-01

    The influence of the volatile compounds on the characterization of Spanish and French dry-cured hams was studied. Thirty volatiles were quantified in each one of four locations (biceps femoris, semimembranosus and semitendinosus muscles and subcutaneous fat) of 29 dry-cured hams by solid-phase microextraction gas-chromatography (SPME-GC). The Brown-Forsythe univariate test allowed determination of the volatiles that individually could characterize (p0.95), then selected the most remarkable volatile compounds. Four compounds from the subcutaneous fat (methyl benzene and octanol) and the semitendinosus muscle (2-butanone and 2-octanone) allowed 100% correct classifications by geographic origin. On the other hand, only two compounds from the subcutaneous fat (octanol) and the biceps femoris muscle (3-methyl 1-butanol) correctly classified all the samples by the breed type. The ability of these variables to classify the samples was checked by the unsupervised procedure of principal components.

  20. Muscle fat content and abdominal adipose tissue distribution investigated by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging in obese children and youths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cilius E. Fonvig

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The degree of fat deposition in muscle and its implications for obesity-related complications in youth are not well understood. One hundred and fifty-nine patients (mean age: 13.3 years; range: 6-20 with a body mass index (BMI >90th percentile for age and sex were included. Muscle fat content (MFC was measured in the psoas muscle by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The patients were assigned to two groups: MFC <5% or ³5%. Visceral adipose tissue volume (VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue volume (SAT were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Blood samples were obtained from 119 patients, and liver enzyme concentrations and other variables were measured. The data were analysed to detect any associations between MFC and BMI standard deviation scores, VAT and SAT, blood values, and physical activity levels. The mean BMI standard deviation score (SDS was 3.04 (range 1.32-5.02. The mean MFC was 8.9% (range 0.8-46.7, and 118 (74.2% of 159 patients had an MFC ³5%. Children with a high MFC had a higher BMI SDS (P=0.03 and had a higher VAT, but not SAT or SAT/VAT ratio. Both intramyocellular lipid (IMCL and extramyocellular lipid (EMCL content were elevated in patients with an MFC ³5%. Blood values and physical activity levels did not differ between the two groups. Severely obese children and adolescents tend to have a high MFC, which is associated with elevated VAT and IMCL and EMCL content. An increased MFC may be associated with impaired metabolic processes, which may predispose young people to obesity-related complications.

  1. Computed tomographic findings of skeletal muscles in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Ryosuke; Imai, Terukuni; Sadashima, Hiromichi; Matsumoto, Sadayuki; Yamamoto, Toru; Kusaka, Hirobumi; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Maya, Kiyomi; Tanabe, Masaya

    1989-01-01

    We evaluated the Computed Tomographic (CT) findings of skeletal muscles in 12 cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), 1 case of spinal progressive muscular atrophy (SPMA), and 1 case of Kugelberg-Welander disease. CT examination was performed in the neck, shoulders, abdomen, pelvis, thighs, and lower legs, 15 muscles were selected for evaluation. The following muscles tended to be affected: m. transversospinalis (12 cases were abnormal), m. deltoideus (10), m. subscapularis (10), m. infraspinatus (10), mm. dorsi (12), hamstring muscles (14), m. tibialis anterior (14), and m. triceps surae (14). On the contrary, the following muscles tended to be preserved: m. sternocleidomastoideus (only 7 cases were abnormal), m. psoas major (7), m. gluteus maximus (7), m. rectus femoris (7), m. sartorius (7) and m. gracilis (6). The distribution of the muscles affected showed neither proximal nor distal dominancy. As the disease advanced, however, all the muscles became affected without any severity. CT findings of skeletal muscles in ALS were characterized by muscle atrophy and fat infiltration, which showed a patchy, linear, or moth-eaten appearance. In mildly affected cases, there was muscle atrophy without internal architectual changes. In moderately affected cases, muscle atrophy advanced and internal architectural changes (patchy, linear, and moth-eaten fat infiltration) became evident. In most advanced cases, every muscle showed a ragged appearance because of severe muscle atrophy and internal architectural changes. These findings were well distinguished from those of SPMA, which resembled the CT pattern of primary muscle diseases. (author)

  2. Computed tomographic findings of skeletal muscles in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Ryosuke; Imai, Terukuni; Sadashima, Hiromichi; Matsumoto, Sadayuki; Yamamoto, Toru; Kusaka, Hirobumi; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Maya, Kiyomi; Tanabe, Masaya (Kitano Hospital, Osaka (Japan))

    1989-04-01

    We evaluated the Computed Tomographic (CT) findings of skeletal muscles in 12 cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), 1 case of spinal progressive muscular atrophy (SPMA), and 1 case of Kugelberg-Welander disease. CT examination was performed in the neck, shoulders, abdomen, pelvis, thighs, and lower legs, 15 muscles were selected for evaluation. The following muscles tended to be affected: m. transversospinalis (12 cases were abnormal), m. deltoideus (10), m. subscapularis (10), m. infraspinatus (10), mm. dorsi (12), hamstring muscles (14), m. tibialis anterior (14), and m. triceps surae (14). On the contrary, the following muscles tended to be preserved: m. sternocleidomastoideus (only 7 cases were abnormal), m. psoas major (7), m. gluteus maximus (7), m. rectus femoris (7), m. sartorius (7) and m. gracilis (6). The distribution of the muscles affected showed neither proximal nor distal dominancy. As the disease advanced, however, all the muscles became affected without any severity. CT findings of skeletal muscles in ALS were characterized by muscle atrophy and fat infiltration, which showed a patchy, linear, or moth-eaten appearance. In mildly affected cases, there was muscle atrophy without internal architectual changes. In moderately affected cases, muscle atrophy advanced and internal architectural changes (patchy, linear, and moth-eaten fat infiltration) became evident. In most advanced cases, every muscle showed a ragged appearance because of severe muscle atrophy and internal architectural changes. These findings were well distinguished from those of SPMA, which resembled the CT pattern of primary muscle diseases. (author).

  3. 1H-MRS Measured Ectopic Fat in Liver and Muscle in Danish Lean and Obese Children and Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Chabanova, Elizaveta; Andersson, Ehm Astrid

    2015-01-01

    .2 (95%CI: [1.8; 10.2], p = 0.0009) when hepatic steatosis was present. Comparing the simultaneous presence of hepatic and muscular steatosis with no presence of steatosis, the OR of exhibiting dyslipidemia was 5.8 (95%CI: [2.0; 18.6], p = 0.002). No significant associations between muscle fat...... associated inversely to high density lipoprotein cholesterol. CONCLUSION: Hepatic steatosis is associated with dyslipidemia and liver and muscle fat depositions are linked to obesity-related metabolic dysfunctions, especially glycosylated hemoglobin, in children and adolescents, which suggest an increased...

  4. Skeletal muscle mass and body fat in relation to successful ageing of older adults: The multi-national MEDIS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Haro, Josep-Maria; Mariolis, Anargiros; Piscopo, Suzanne; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Anastasiou, Foteini; Zeimbekis, Akis; Tyrovola, Dimitra; Foscolou, Alexandra; Gotsis, Efthimios; Metallinos, George; Tur, Josep-Antoni; Matalas, Antonia; Lionis, Christos; Polychronopoulos, Evangelos; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes

    2016-01-01

    The determinants that promote successful ageing still remain unknown. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the role of skeletal muscle mass and body fat percentage (BF%), in the level of successful ageing. during 2005-2011, 2663 older (aged 65-100 years) from 21 Mediterranean islands and the rural Mani region (Peloponnesus) of Greece were voluntarily enrolled in the study. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM), skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) and BF% were calculated using population formulas. Dietary habits, energy intake, expenditure and energy balance were derived throughout standard procedures. A successful ageing index ranging from 0 to 10 was used. The mean ASM mass was 24±6.0kg, the SMI was 0.84±0.21 and the BF% was 44%. Females had lower SMI and higher BF% in comparison with males, respectively [(SMI: 0.66±0.09 vs. 1.03±0.11; BF%: 51% vs. 34%, (pageing, while changes in BF% [b-coefficient (95% CI): -0.04 (-0.05 to -0.03)] were inversely associated with successful ageing. Results from sensitivity analysis showed that the effects of variations on body composition were consistent, less pronounced in the positive energy balance group and more pronounced among the oldest old. Body composition changes seem to be associated with lower quality of life in the older adults, as measured through successful ageing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of high-intensity training on mitochondrial fat oxidation in skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen; Danielsen, J H; Søndergård, Stine Dam

    2015-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIT) is known to increase mitochondrial content in a similar way as endurance training [60-90% of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2peak )]. Whether HIT increases the mitochondria's ability to oxidize lipids is currently debated. We investigated the effect of HIT...... of HIT (three times per week at 298 ± 21 W). HIT significantly increased VO2peak from 2.9 ± 0.2 to 3.1 ± 0.2 L/min. No differences were seen in maximal fat oxidation in either skeletal muscle or adipose tissue. Km (app) for octanoyl carnitine or palmitoyl carnitine were similar after training in skeletal...... muscle and adipose tissue. Maximal OXPHOS capacity with complex I- and II-linked substrates was increased after training in skeletal muscle but not in adipose tissue. In conclusion, 6 weeks of HIT increased VO2peak . Mitochondrial content and mitochondrial OXPHOS capacity were increased in skeletal...

  6. Allosteric regulation of 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase activity of fat body and flight muscle from the bloodsucking bug Rhodnius prolixus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutemberg G. Alves

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase (phosphofructokinase; PFK activity from Rhodnius prolixus, a haematophagous insect which is usually a poor flyer, was measured and compared in two metabolically active tissues - flight muscle and fat body. The activity of this important regulatory glycolytic enzyme was much more pronounced in muscle (15.1 ± 1.4 U/mg than in fat body extracts (3.6±0.4 U/mg, although the latter presented higher levels of enzyme per protein content, as measured by western-blotting. Muscle extracts are more responsible than fat body to ATP and fructose 6-phosphate, both substrates of PFK. Allosteric regulation exerted by different effectors such as ADP, AMP and fructose 2,6-phosphate presented a singular pattern for each tissue. Optimal pH (8.0-8.5 and sensitivity to pH variation was very similar, and citrate was unable to inhibit PFK activity in both extracts. Our results suggest the existence of a particular PFK activity for each tissue, with regulatory patterns that are consistent with their physiological roles.A atividade da fosfofrutocinase (PFK de Rodnius prolixus, um inseto hematófago, o qual vôa somente pequenas distâncias, foi medida e comparada em dois tecidos metabolicamente ativos - músculo de asa e corpo gorduroso. A atividade desta importante enzima glicolítica regulatória foi muito mais pronunciada em músculo de asa (15,1 ±1,4 U/mg do que em extrato de corpo gorduroso (3,6 ±0,4 U/mg embora este último tenha apresentado níveis mais altos da enzima por quantidade de proteína, como medido por western-blotting. Extratos de músculo foram mais responsivos do que corpo gorduroso para ATP e frutose-6-fosfato, ambos substratos da PFK. A regulação alostérica exercida por diferentes efetores tais como ADP, AMP, frutose-2,6-bisfosfato apresentou um padrão singular para cada tecido. O pH ótimo (8,0-8,5 e a sensibilidade a variações de pH, foram muito similares e o citrato foi incapaz de inibir a atividade da PFK em

  7. Compositional analysis of muscle in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy using MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marden, Franklin A.; Siegel, Marilyn J.; Rubin, David A. [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology at Washington University Medical Center, St. Louis (United States); Barnes-Jewish Hospital, Department of Radiology, St. Louis (United States); Connolly, Anne M. [St. Louis Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, St. Louis (United States); Barnes-Jewish Hospital, Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, 660 S. Euclid, Box 8111, St. Louis (United States)

    2005-03-01

    Boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) present by age 5 years with weakness and, untreated, stop walking unaided by age 10 or 11 years. We used magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to study age-related changes in the composition and distribution of diseased muscles. Eleven boys (mean 7.1{+-}1.6 years) with DMD underwent clinical and MR examinations. Quantitative muscle strength and timed functional testing was performed. Thigh muscles were scanned at three levels (hip, mid-thigh, and knee) using T1-weighted spin echo and short-tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequences. Outcome measures included intramuscular fatty infiltration, intermuscle fat deposition, edema, and muscle size. Ten boys completed the study. Older boys demonstrated more prominent fatty infiltration of muscles. Fatty infiltration occurred in a characteristic pattern with the gluteus and adductor magnus muscles most commonly involved and the gracilis most commonly spared. Similarly, patchy increases in free water content suggested a pattern of intramuscular edema or inflammation. Atrophy occurred in muscles heavily infiltrated with fat, and true hypertrophy selectively occurred in those that were spared. While fibrofatty changes have been described in DMD, this study further defines differential involvement and additionally suggests widespread edema or inflammation. Improved imaging techniques to quantify the degree and distribution of these changes may provide a basis for exploring mechanisms of action of medications and perhaps another means for selecting treatment regimens and monitoring their effects. (orig.)

  8. Compositional analysis of muscle in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy using MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marden, Franklin A.; Siegel, Marilyn J.; Rubin, David A.; Connolly, Anne M.

    2005-01-01

    Boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) present by age 5 years with weakness and, untreated, stop walking unaided by age 10 or 11 years. We used magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to study age-related changes in the composition and distribution of diseased muscles. Eleven boys (mean 7.1±1.6 years) with DMD underwent clinical and MR examinations. Quantitative muscle strength and timed functional testing was performed. Thigh muscles were scanned at three levels (hip, mid-thigh, and knee) using T1-weighted spin echo and short-tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequences. Outcome measures included intramuscular fatty infiltration, intermuscle fat deposition, edema, and muscle size. Ten boys completed the study. Older boys demonstrated more prominent fatty infiltration of muscles. Fatty infiltration occurred in a characteristic pattern with the gluteus and adductor magnus muscles most commonly involved and the gracilis most commonly spared. Similarly, patchy increases in free water content suggested a pattern of intramuscular edema or inflammation. Atrophy occurred in muscles heavily infiltrated with fat, and true hypertrophy selectively occurred in those that were spared. While fibrofatty changes have been described in DMD, this study further defines differential involvement and additionally suggests widespread edema or inflammation. Improved imaging techniques to quantify the degree and distribution of these changes may provide a basis for exploring mechanisms of action of medications and perhaps another means for selecting treatment regimens and monitoring their effects. (orig.)

  9. Fatty acid induced changes in gene expression in cultured L6 rat muscle cells : An in vitro model on high dietary fat-induced insulin resistance in red gastrocnemius rat muscle in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Breivik, Børge

    2004-01-01

    ABSTRACT Type 2 diabetes is a serious cause of morbidity and mortality and the disease is reaching epidemic proportions in the developed world. A core defect in type 2 diabetes is insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Previous global gene expression experiments conducted at the Garvan Medical Research Institute has shown that 3 weeks high fat feeding induced increased expression of stress related genes in rat muscle. These stress-related genes could be involved in the devel...

  10. High-fat feeding inhibits exercise-induced increase in mitochondrial respiratory flux in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbro, Mette; Boushel, Robert Christopher; Hansen, Christina Neigaard

    2011-01-01

    ) and intramyocellular triacylglycerol content did not change with the intervention in either group. Indexes of mitochondrial density were similar across the groups and intervention. Mitochondrial respiratory rates, measured in permeabilized muscle fibers, showed a 31 ± 11 and 26 ± 9% exercise-induced increase (P

  11. Intrauterine growth retardation increases the susceptibility of pigs to high-fat diet-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingbo Liu

    Full Text Available It has been recognized that there is a relationship between prenatal growth restriction and the development of metabolic-related diseases in later life, a process involved in mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR increases the susceptibility of offspring to high-fat (HF diet-induced metabolic syndrome. Recent findings suggested that HF feeding decreased mitochondrial oxidative capacity and impaired mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle. Therefore, we hypothesized that the long-term consequences of IUGR on mitochondrial biogenesis and function make the offspring more susceptible to HF diet-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Normal birth weight (NBW, and IUGR pigs were allotted to control or HF diet in a completely randomized design, individually. After 4 weeks of feeding, growth performance and molecular pathways related to mitochondrial function were determined. The results showed that IUGR decreased growth performance and plasma insulin concentrations. In offspring fed a HF diet, IUGR was associated with enhanced plasma leptin levels, increased concentrations of triglyceride and malondialdehyde (MDA, and reduced glycogen and ATP contents in skeletal muscle. High fat diet-fed IUGR offspring exhibited decreased activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD. These alterations in metabolic traits of IUGR pigs were accompanied by impaired mitochondrial respiration function, reduced mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA contents, and down-regulated mRNA expression levels of genes responsible for mitochondrial biogenesis and function. In conclusion, our results suggest that IUGR make the offspring more susceptible to HF diet-induced mitochondrial dysfunction.

  12. Application of dynamic metabolomics to examine in vivo skeletal muscle glucose metabolism in the chronically high-fat fed mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalski, Greg M., E-mail: greg.kowalski@deakin.edu.au [Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition Research, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Burwood, Victoria 3125 (Australia); De Souza, David P. [Metabolomics Australia, Bio21 Institute of Molecular Science and Biotechnology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Burch, Micah L. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Department of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Hamley, Steven [Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition Research, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Burwood, Victoria 3125 (Australia); Kloehn, Joachim [Metabolomics Australia, Bio21 Institute of Molecular Science and Biotechnology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Selathurai, Ahrathy [Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition Research, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Burwood, Victoria 3125 (Australia); Tull, Dedreia; O' Callaghan, Sean; McConville, Malcolm J. [Metabolomics Australia, Bio21 Institute of Molecular Science and Biotechnology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Bruce, Clinton R. [Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition Research, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Burwood, Victoria 3125 (Australia)

    2015-06-19

    Rationale: Defects in muscle glucose metabolism are linked to type 2 diabetes. Mechanistic studies examining these defects rely on the use of high fat-fed rodent models and typically involve the determination of muscle glucose uptake under insulin-stimulated conditions. While insightful, they do not necessarily reflect the physiology of the postprandial state. In addition, most studies do not examine aspects of glucose metabolism beyond the uptake process. Here we present an approach to study rodent muscle glucose and intermediary metabolism under the dynamic and physiologically relevant setting of the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Methods and results: In vivo muscle glucose and intermediary metabolism was investigated following oral administration of [U-{sup 13}C] glucose. Quadriceps muscles were collected 15 and 60 min after glucose administration and metabolite flux profiling was determined by measuring {sup 13}C mass isotopomers in glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates via gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. While no dietary effects were noted in the glycolytic pathway, muscle from mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) exhibited a reduction in labelling in TCA intermediates. Interestingly, this appeared to be independent of alterations in flux through pyruvate dehydrogenase. In addition, our findings suggest that TCA cycle anaplerosis is negligible in muscle during an OGTT. Conclusions: Under the dynamic physiologically relevant conditions of the OGTT, skeletal muscle from HFD fed mice exhibits alterations in glucose metabolism at the level of the TCA cycle. - Highlights: • Dynamic metabolomics was used to investigate muscle glucose metabolism in vivo. • Mitochondrial TCA cycle metabolism is altered in muscle of HFD mice. • This defect was not pyruvate dehydrogenase mediated, as has been previously thought. • Mitochondrial TCA cycle anaplerosis in muscle is virtually absent during the OGTT.

  13. Application of dynamic metabolomics to examine in vivo skeletal muscle glucose metabolism in the chronically high-fat fed mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski, Greg M.; De Souza, David P.; Burch, Micah L.; Hamley, Steven; Kloehn, Joachim; Selathurai, Ahrathy; Tull, Dedreia; O'Callaghan, Sean; McConville, Malcolm J.; Bruce, Clinton R.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Defects in muscle glucose metabolism are linked to type 2 diabetes. Mechanistic studies examining these defects rely on the use of high fat-fed rodent models and typically involve the determination of muscle glucose uptake under insulin-stimulated conditions. While insightful, they do not necessarily reflect the physiology of the postprandial state. In addition, most studies do not examine aspects of glucose metabolism beyond the uptake process. Here we present an approach to study rodent muscle glucose and intermediary metabolism under the dynamic and physiologically relevant setting of the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Methods and results: In vivo muscle glucose and intermediary metabolism was investigated following oral administration of [U- 13 C] glucose. Quadriceps muscles were collected 15 and 60 min after glucose administration and metabolite flux profiling was determined by measuring 13 C mass isotopomers in glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates via gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. While no dietary effects were noted in the glycolytic pathway, muscle from mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) exhibited a reduction in labelling in TCA intermediates. Interestingly, this appeared to be independent of alterations in flux through pyruvate dehydrogenase. In addition, our findings suggest that TCA cycle anaplerosis is negligible in muscle during an OGTT. Conclusions: Under the dynamic physiologically relevant conditions of the OGTT, skeletal muscle from HFD fed mice exhibits alterations in glucose metabolism at the level of the TCA cycle. - Highlights: • Dynamic metabolomics was used to investigate muscle glucose metabolism in vivo. • Mitochondrial TCA cycle metabolism is altered in muscle of HFD mice. • This defect was not pyruvate dehydrogenase mediated, as has been previously thought. • Mitochondrial TCA cycle anaplerosis in muscle is virtually absent during the OGTT

  14. The role of fat mass and skeletal muscle mass in knee osteoarthritis is different for men and women: the NEO study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.W. de; Mutsert, R. de; Loef, M.; Cessie, S. le; Heijer, M. den; Bloem, J.L.; Reijnierse, M.; Rosendaal, F.R.; Kloppenburg, M.; Assendelft, W.J.J.; Smit, J.W.A.; et al.,

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate if the amount of fat mass (FM) or skeletal muscle mass (SMM) is more strongly associated with knee osteoarthritis (OA), in both men and women. METHODS: The Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) study is a population-based cohort aged 45-65 years, including 5313

  15. Genome-wide expression profiling in muscle and subcutaneous fat of lambs in response to the intake of concentrate supplemented with vitamin E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The objective of this study was to acquire a broader, more comprehensive picture of the transcriptional changes in the L. Thoracis muscle (LT) and subcutaneous fat (SF) of lambs supplemented with vitamin E. Furthermore, we aimed to identify novel genes involved in the metabolism of vitam...

  16. 2D-SPLASH spectroscopy to determine the fat/water ratio in the muscle of the rotator cuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koestler, H.; Kenn, W.; Huemmer, C.; Hahn, D.; Boehm, D.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: The degree of fatty infiltration of the rotator cuff is an important factor for the prognosis of an operative reconstruction after rotator cuff tear. The aim of this work was to develop a method using a clinical MR scanner that allows the quantification of the fat/water ratio with the necessary spatial resolution. Method: A SPLASH sequence consisting of 19 complex 2D-FLASH images was implemented on a clinical 1.5 T MR scanner. The echo time was gradually increased from 5.0 ms to 50.0 ms. A spatial in plane resolution of 1.17 mm, a spectral resolution of 0.33 ppm and a spectral width of 6.25 ppm were achieved in a total acquisition time of about 3 min. The quantitative evaluation of the spectra in arbitrarily shaped regions of interest (ROIs) was obtained using a home-built reconstruction program and the time domain fit program AMARES. Results: Phantom studies show a linear relation of the concentration determined by SPLASH spectroscopy (r=0.997). Because of the high spatial resolution and the possibility to evaluate arbitrarily shaped ROIs, the determination of the fat/water ratio in single muscles in the shoulder has been possible. Conclusions: By the use of the 2D-SPLASH sequence the degree of fatty infiltration in the rotator cuff can now be determined quantitatively for the first time. (orig.) [de

  17. The Effect of Exercise on the Skeletal Muscle Phospholipidome of Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Sam Lee

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effect of endurance training on skeletal muscle phospholipid molecular species from high-fat fed rats. Twelve female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet (78.1% energy. The rats were randomly divided into two groups, a sedentary control group and a trained group (125 min of treadmill running at 8 m/min, 4 days/wk for 4 weeks. Forty-eight hours after their last training bout phospholipids were extracted from the red and white vastus lateralis and analyzed by electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry. Exercise training was associated with significant alterations in the relative abundance of a number of phospholipid molecular species. These changes were more prominent in red vastus lateralis than white vastus lateralis. The largest observed change was an increase of ~30% in the abundance of 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl phosphatidylcholine ions in oxidative fibers. Reductions in the relative abundance of a number of phospholipids containing long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were also observed. These data suggest a possible reduction in phospholipid remodeling in the trained animals. This results in a decrease in the phospholipid n-3 to n-6 ratio that may in turn influence endurance capacity.

  18. Circulating levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6-relation to truncal fat mass and muscle mass in healthy elderly individuals and in patients with type-2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Maria; Bruunsgaard, Helle; Weis, Nina

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to test the hypothesis that an altered fat distribution in elderly healthy subjects and in patients with type-2 diabetes contributes to high circulating levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrotic factor (TNF)-alpha, which secondly is related to lower muscle...... mass. Twenty young controls, (20-35 yr), 20 healthy elderly subjects (65-80 yr) and 16 elderly patients with type 2 diabetes (65-80 yr) were included in a cross sectional study. Plasma levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 were measured after an overnight fast. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and total body...... potassium counting measured truncal fat, appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) and body cell mass (BCM), respectively. TNF-alpha, IL-6 and the relative truncal fat mass were higher in elderly compared with young controls. ASM was lower in diabetic men than in young controls and BCM was lower in elderly...

  19. Reproducibility, and age, body-weight and gender dependency of candidate skeletal muscle MRI outcome measures in healthy volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrow, Jasper M.; Reilly, Mary M.; Hanna, Michael G.; Sinclair, Christopher D.J.; Yousry, Tarek A.; Thornton, John S.; Fischmann, Arne

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can potentially meet the pressing need for objective, sensitive, reproducible outcome measures in neuromuscular disease trials. We tested, in healthy volunteers, the consistency, reliability and sensitivity to normal inter-subject variation of MRI methods targeted to lower limb muscle pathology to inform the design of practical but comprehensive MRI outcome measure protocols for use in imminent patient studies. Forty-seven healthy volunteers, age 21-81 years, were subject at 3T to three-point Dixon fat-fraction measurement, T 1 -relaxometry, T 2 -relaxometry and magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR) imaging at mid-thigh and mid-calf level bilaterally. Fifteen subjects underwent repeat imaging at 2 weeks. Mean between-muscle fat fraction and T 2 differences were small, but significant (p 2 correlated positively, and MTR negatively with subject age in both the thigh and calf, with similar significant correlations with weight at thigh level only (p < 0.001 to p < 0.05). Scan-rescan and inter-observer intra-class correlation coefficients ranged between 0.62-0.84 and 0.79-0.99 respectively. Quantitative lower-limb muscle MRI using readily implementable methods was sensitive enough to demonstrate inter-muscle differences (small in health), and correlations with subject age and weight. In combination with high reliability, this strongly supports the suitability of these methods to provide longitudinal outcome measures in neuromuscular disease treatment trials. (orig.)

  20. Morel-Lavallee effusions in the thigh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, J.A.; Fernandez, M.A.; Encinas, B.; Rico, M.

    1997-01-01

    Objective. To assess the radiological features of Morel-Lavallee effusion in the thigh. Design and patients. A restrospective study of clinical records and radiological studies was carried out on three patients with Morel-Lavallee effusion. Results and conclusions. Ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) were able to locate the effusion in the three patients. CT demonstrated a capsule around the lesion. A fluid-fluid level was visible with both techniques. Ultrasound and CT are good methods for assessing patients with Morel-Lavallee effusion of the thigh. CT can be used to distinguish patients requiring surgical treatment from those who could be treated by conservative measures. (orig.). With 4 figs

  1. Milk production and composition, and progeny performance in young ewes with high merit for rapid growth and muscle and fat accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales Nieto, C A; Ferguson, M B; Macleay, C A; Briegel, J R; Wood, D A; Martin, G B; Bencini, R; Thompson, A N

    2018-02-26

    In ewe lambs, acceleration of growth and accumulation of both muscle and fat leads to earlier sexual maturity and better reproductive performance. The next stage in the development of this theme is to test whether these aspects of growth in young ewes affect milk production in their first lactation and the growth of their first progeny. We studied 75 young Merino ewes that had known phenotypic values for depth of eye muscle (EMD) and fat (FAT), and known Australian Sheep Breeding Values for post-weaning weight (PWT) and depths of eye muscle (PEMD) and fat (PFAT). They lambed for the first time at 1 year of age. Their lambs were weighed weekly from birth to weaning at 10 weeks to determine live weight gain and weaning weight. Progeny birth weight was positively associated with live weight gain and weaning weight (P0.05). The PWT of the sire was positively associated with live weight gain (P0.05). The concentrations of fat, protein, lactose and total solids in the milk were not affected by the phenotype or genotype of the mothers or of the sires of the mothers, or by the sex of the progeny (P>0.05). We conclude that selection of young Merino ewes for better growth, and more rapid accumulation of muscle and fat, will lead to progeny that are heavier at birth, grow faster and are heavier at weaning. Moreover, milk production and composition do not seem to be affected by the genetic merit of the mother for post-weaning live weight or PEMD or PFAT. Therefore, Merino ewes can lamb at 1 year of age without affecting the production objectives of the Merino sheep industry.

  2. MRI assessment of the thigh musculature in dermatomyositis and healthy subjects using diffusion tensor imaging, intravoxel incoherent motion and dynamic DTI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmund, E E; Baete, S H; Luo, T; Patel, K; Wang, D; Rossi, I; Duarte, A; Bruno, M; Mossa, D; Femia, A; Ramachandran, S; Stoffel, D; Babb, J S; Franks, A; Bencardino, J

    2018-06-04

    Dermatomyositis (DM) is an idiopathic inflammatory myopathy involving severe debilitation in need of diagnostics. We evaluated the proximal lower extremity musculature with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) and dynamic DTI in DM patients and controls and compared with standard clinical workup.  METHODS: In this IRB-approved, HIPAA-compliant study with written informed consent, anatomical, Dixon fat/water and diffusion imaging were collected in bilateral thigh MRI of 22 controls and 27 DM patients in a 3T scanner. Compartments were scored on T1/T2 scales. Single voxel dynamic DTI metrics in quadriceps before and after 3-min leg exercise were measured. Spearman rank correlation and mixed model analysis of variance/covariance (ANOVA/ANCOVA) were used to correlate with T1 and T2 scores and to compare patients with controls. DM patients showed significantly lower pseudo-diffusion and volume in quadriceps than controls. All subjects showed significant correlation between T1 score and signal-weighted fat fraction; tissue diffusion and pseudo-diffusion varied significantly with T1 and T2 score in patients. Radial and mean diffusion exercise response in patients was significantly higher than controls. Static and dynamic diffusion imaging metrics show correlation with conventional imaging scores, reveal spatial heterogeneity, and provide means to differentiate dermatomyositis patients from controls. • Diffusion imaging shows regional differences between thigh muscles of dermatomyositis patients and controls. • Signal-weighted fat fraction and diffusion metrics correlate with T1/T2 scores of disease severity. • Dermatomyositis patients show significantly higher radial diffusion exercise response than controls.

  3. Gene expression of a truncated and the full-length growth hormone (GH) receptor in subcutaneous fat and skeletal muscle in GH-deficient adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Sidse; Kristensen, K; Rosenfalck, A M

    2001-01-01

    the relationship of circulating GHBP and body composition to GHR and GHRtr gene expression. Eleven adult GH-deficient patients were studied before and after 4 months of GH substitution therapy. Abdominal fat obtained by liposuction and femoral muscle biopsies were taken at baseline and after 4 months. Gene...... expression of GHR and GHRtr in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle was determined and expressed relative to the expression of beta-actin. Gene expression of GHR in abdominal sc adipose tissue was not altered, whereas the expression of GHRtr increased significantly. In skeletal muscle inverse changes were seen...... in the expression of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels for the two GH receptor forms: expression of GHR increased significantly, whereas mRNA levels for GHRtr decreased. As expected, body composition changed with reduction of body fat mass after 4 months of GH treatment. Levels of circulating GHBP decreased...

  4. Intramuscular degeneration process in Duchenne muscular dystrophy; Investigation by longitudinal MR imaging of the skeletal muscles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Takeshi; Matsumra, Kiichiro (Shimoshizu National Hospital, Yotsukaido, Chiba (Japan)); Hashimoto, Takahiro; Ikehira, Hiroo; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Tateno, Yukio

    1992-03-01

    Intramuscular degeneration process of Duchenne dystrophy skeletal muscles was investigated by longitudinal skeletal muscle imaging with high-field-strength NMR-CT of 1.5 Tesla. Thigh muscles in 10 cases ranging in age from 4 to 19 years were examined by T{sub 1}-weighted longitudinal images (TR=215{approx}505 ms, TE=19{approx}20 ms). The following results were obtained. Skeletal muscle degeneration was depicted as high signal intensity area reflecting its high fat contents. These high signal intensity areas had a longitudinally streaky appearance in parallel direction with myofibers. These findings were more prominent toward myotendon junction than muscle bellies. Skeletal muscle degeneration progressed rapidly between 7 to 10 years of age, and reached a plateau after that. (author).

  5. Long-term rates of mitochondrial protein synthesis are increased in mouse skeletal muscle with high-fat feeding regardless of insulin-sensitizing treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsom, Sean A; Miller, Benjamin F; Hamilton, Karyn L; Ehrlicher, Sarah E; Stierwalt, Harrison D; Robinson, Matthew M

    2017-11-01

    Skeletal muscle mitochondrial protein synthesis is regulated in part by insulin. The development of insulin resistance with diet-induced obesity may therefore contribute to impairments to protein synthesis and decreased mitochondrial respiration. Yet the impact of diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance on mitochondrial energetics is controversial, with reports varying from decreases to increases in mitochondrial respiration. We investigated the impact of changes in insulin sensitivity on long-term rates of mitochondrial protein synthesis as a mechanism for changes to mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle. Insulin resistance was induced in C57BL/6J mice using 4 wk of a high-fat compared with a low-fat diet. For 8 additional weeks, diets were enriched with pioglitazone to restore insulin sensitivity compared with nonenriched control low-fat or high-fat diets. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial protein synthesis was measured using deuterium oxide labeling during weeks 10-12 High-resolution respirometry was performed using palmitoyl-l-carnitine, glutamate+malate, and glutamate+malate+succinate as substrates for mitochondria isolated from quadriceps. Mitochondrial protein synthesis and palmitoyl- l-carnitine oxidation were increased in mice consuming a high-fat diet, regardless of differences in insulin sensitivity with pioglitazone treatment. There was no effect of diet or pioglitazone treatment on ADP-stimulated respiration or H 2 O 2 emission using glutamate+malate or glutamate+malate+succinate. The results demonstrate no impairments to mitochondrial protein synthesis or respiration following induction of insulin resistance. Instead, mitochondrial protein synthesis was increased with a high-fat diet and may contribute to remodeling of the mitochondria to increase lipid oxidation capacity. Mitochondrial adaptations with a high-fat diet appear driven by nutrient availability, not intrinsic defects that contribute to insulin resistance. Copyright © 2017 the

  6. Transcriptomic Analysis Identifies Candidate Genes Related to Intramuscular Fat Deposition and Fatty Acid Composition in the Breast Muscle of Squabs (Columba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manhong Ye

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that squab is consumed throughout the world because of its high nutritional value and appreciated sensory attributes, aspects related to its characterization, and in particular genetic issues, have rarely been studied. In this study, meat traits in terms of pH, water-holding capacity, intramuscular fat content, and fatty acid profile of the breast muscle of squabs from two meat pigeon breeds were determined. Breed-specific differences were detected in fat-related traits of intramuscular fat content and fatty acid composition. RNA-Sequencing was applied to compare the transcriptomes of muscle and liver tissues between squabs of two breeds to identify candidate genes associated with the differences in the capacity of fat deposition. A total of 27 differentially expressed genes assigned to pathways of lipid metabolism were identified, of which, six genes belonged to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling pathway along with four other genes. Our results confirmed in part previous reports in livestock and provided also a number of genes which had not been related to fat deposition so far. These genes can serve as a basis for further investigations to screen markers closely associated with intramuscular fat content and fatty acid composition in squabs. The data from this study were deposited in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI’s Sequence Read Archive under the accession numbers SRX1680021 and SRX1680022. This is the first transcriptome analysis of the muscle and liver tissue in Columba using next generation sequencing technology. Data provided here are of potential value to dissect functional genes influencing fat deposition in squabs.

  7. Upper Limb Evaluation in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: Fat-Water Quantification by MRI, Muscle Force and Function Define Endpoints for Clinical Trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Ricotti

    Full Text Available A number of promising experimental therapies for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD are emerging. Clinical trials currently rely on invasive biopsies or motivation-dependent functional tests to assess outcome. Quantitative muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI could offer a valuable alternative and permit inclusion of non-ambulant DMD subjects. The aims of our study were to explore the responsiveness of upper-limb MRI muscle-fat measurement as a non-invasive objective endpoint for clinical trials in non-ambulant DMD, and to investigate the relationship of these MRI measures to those of muscle force and function.15 non-ambulant DMD boys (mean age 13.3 y and 10 age-gender matched healthy controls (mean age 14.6 y were recruited. 3-Tesla MRI fat-water quantification was used to measure forearm muscle fat transformation in non-ambulant DMD boys compared with healthy controls. DMD boys were assessed at 4 time-points over 12 months, using 3-point Dixon MRI to measure muscle fat-fraction (f.f.. Images from ten forearm muscles were segmented and mean f.f. and cross-sectional area recorded. DMD subjects also underwent comprehensive upper limb function and force evaluation.Overall mean baseline forearm f.f. was higher in DMD than in healthy controls (p<0.001. A progressive f.f. increase was observed in DMD over 12 months, reaching significance from 6 months (p<0.001, n = 7, accompanied by a significant loss in pinch strength at 6 months (p<0.001, n = 9 and a loss of upper limb function and grip force observed over 12 months (p<0.001, n = 8.These results support the use of MRI muscle f.f. as a biomarker to monitor disease progression in the upper limb in non-ambulant DMD, with sensitivity adequate to detect group-level change over time intervals practical for use in clinical trials. Clinical validity is supported by the association of the progressive fat transformation of muscle with loss of muscle force and function.

  8. Effect of keto amino acids on asymmetric dimethyl arginine, muscle and fat tissue in chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Teplan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Levels of endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA are elevated in chronic kidney disease (CKD and may contribute to vascular complications. In this study we tested the hypothesis that elevated ADMA can be reduced in CKD patients by long-term administration of low-protein diet (LPD supplemented with keto amino acids (KA. In a long-term prospective double blind placebo controlled randomized trial, we evaluated a total of 120 CKD patients (62/58F aged 22-76 yrs with creatinine clearance 22-40mL/min/1.73m2 for a period of 36 months. All patients were on low-protein diet containing 0.6 protein/kg/IBW/day and 120-125/kJ/kg/IBW/day. LPD was randomly supplemented with KA at dosage of 100 mg/kg/IBW/day (61 patients, Group I while 59 patients (Group II received placebo. During the study period, glomerular filtration rate (GFR slightly decreased (Ccr from 34.2±11.6 to 29.9±9.2 mL/min and 33.5±11.6 to 22.2±10.4 mL/min in Group I and II, respectively; this however was more marked in Group II (p<0.01. Fat in muscle measured by MR spectroscopy (MRS, m.tibialis anterior significantly decreased in Group I and was linked to reduced volume of visceral fat measured by MRI (p<0.01. Reduction of fat in Group II was not significant. In Group I, there was a significant decrease in the plasma level of ADMA (from 2.4±0.4 to 1.2±0.3 μmol/L, p<0.01, but ADMA remained unchanged in Group II. A further remarkable finding was reduction in the plasma concentration of pentosidine (from 486±168 to 325±127 μg/L, p<0.01 and decrease of proteinuria (from 3.7±2.20 to 1.6±1.2 g/24hrs, p<0.01 in Group I. Plasma adiponectin (ADPN in Group I rose (p<0.01. Analysis of lipid spectrum revealed a mild yet significant decrease in total cholesterol and LPD-cholesterol (p<0.01, more pronounced in Group I. In Group I, there was a decrease in plasma triglycerides (from 3.8±1.5 down to 2.3±0.5 mmol/L, p<0.01, whereas glycated hemoglobin (HbAc1

  9. Muscle fibers inside a fat tumor: A non-specific imaging finding of benignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donato, M.; Vanel, D.; Alberghini, M.; Mercuri, M.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The differential diagnosis between benign and low-grade well-differentiated malignant lipomatous tumors might be very difficult for both the radiologist and the pathologist, although it has practical consequences. Among the criteria, muscular fibers detected inside the lesion are considered radiologically and histologically as a reliable sign of a benign intramuscular lipoma. New genetic criteria are now available. We report two cases of fat tumors containing muscular fibers both radiologically and histologically, but which are definitely malignant, considering genetic criteria. Material and methods: Two cases of soft tissue fat tumors, containing muscular fibers on imaging examinations as well as histologically, had an aggressive behaviour, suggesting malignancy. Genetic criteria were therefore used to confirm the clinical impression. Results: MDM2 and CDK4 confirmed the malignancy in the two cases. Conclusion: Intra lesional muscular fibers detected on imaging or histological examinations should not be considered as a completely reliable sign of a benign intramuscular lipoma. In case of atypical clinical behaviour, genetic criteria should be used to prove the aggressiveness of the tumor.

  10. Oxidative stability of chicken thigh meat after treatment of fennel and savory essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pavelková

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the effect of the fennel and savory essential oils on oxidative stability of chicken thigh muscles during chilled storage was investigated. In the experiment were used chickens of hybrid combination Cobb 500 after 42 days of the fattening period. The obtained fresh chicken thigh with skin from left half-carcass were divided into five groups (n = 5: C - control air-packaged group; A1 - vacuum-packaged experimental group; A2 - vacuum-packaged experimental group with EDTA solution 1.50% w/w; A3 - vacuum-packaged experimental group with fennel (Foeniculum vulgare essential oil at concentrations 0.2% v/w and A4 - vacuum-packaged experimental group with savory (Satureja hortensis essential oil at concentration 0.2% v/w. The essential oils were applicate on surface chicken thighs. The chicken thighs were packaged using a vacuum packaging machine and stored in refrigerate at                 4 ±0.5 °C. The value of thiobarbituric acid (TBA expressed as amount of malondialdehyde (MDA in 1 kg sample was measured during storage in 1st, 4th, 8th, 12th and 16th day. The treatments of chicken thighs with fennel and savory essential oils show statistically significant differences between all testing groups and control group, where higher average value of MDA measured in thigh muscle of broiler chickens was in samples of control group                 (0.359 mg.kg-1 compared to experimental groups A1 (0.129 mg.kg-1, A2 (0.091 mg.kg-1, A3 (0.084 mg.kg-1 and A4 (0.089 mg.kg-1 after 16-day of chilled storage. Experiment results show that the treatment of chicken thigh with fennel and savory essential oils had positive influence on the reduction of oxidative processes in thigh muscles during chilling storage and use of essential oil is one of the options increase shelf life of fresh chicken meat.

  11. [Effect of Jinlida on changes in expression of skeletal muscle lipid transport enzymes in fat-induced insulin resistance ApoE -/- mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xin; Zhang, Hui-xin; Zhang, Yan-fen; Cui, Wen-wen; Bi, Yao; He, Qi-long; Zhou, Sheng-shan

    2015-03-01

    To study the effect of Jinlida on changes in expression of skeletal muscle lipid transport enzymes in fat-induced insulin resistance ApoE -/- mice. Eight male C57BL/6J mice were selected in the normal group (NF), 40 male ApoE -/- mice were fed for 16 weeks, divided into the model group (HF), the rosiglitazone group ( LGLT), the Jinlida low-dose group (JLDL), the Jinlida medium-dose group (JLDM), the Jinlida high-dose group (JLDH) and then orally given drugs for 8 weeks. The organization free fatty acids, BCA protein concentration determination methods were used to determine the skeletal muscle FFA content. The Real-time fluorescent quantitative reverse transcription PCR ( RT-PCR) and Western blot method were adopted to determine mRNA and protein expressions of mice fatty acids transposition enzyme (FAT/CD36), carnitine palm acyltransferase 1 (CPT1), peroxide proliferators-activated receptor α( PPAR α). Jinlida could decrease fasting blood glucose (FBG), cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), free fatty acid (FFA) and fasting insulin (FIns) and raise insulin sensitive index (ISI) in mice to varying degrees. It could also up-regulate mRNA and protein expressions of CPT1 and PPARα, and down-regulate mRNA and protein levels of FAT/CD36. Jinlida can improve fat-induced insulin resistance ApoE -/- in mice by adjusting the changes in expression of skeletal muscle lipid transport enzymes.

  12. Selection for high muscle fat in rainbow trout induces potentially higher chylomicron synthesis and PUFA biosynthesis in the intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalam, Biju Sam; Panserat, Stephane; Aguirre, Peyo; Geurden, Inge; Fontagné-Dicharry, Stéphanie; Médale, Françoise

    2013-02-01

    Two lines of rainbow trout divergently selected for muscle fat content, fat line (F) and lean line (L) were used to investigate the effect of genetic selection on digestion, intestinal nutrient transport and fatty acid bioconversion, in relation to dietary starch intake. This study involved a digestibility trial for 2 weeks using Cr(2)O(3) as inert marker, followed by a feeding trial for 4 weeks. For the entire duration, juvenile trout from the two lines were fed diets with or without gelatinized starch. Blood, pyloric ceca, midgut and hindgut were sampled at 24 h after the last meal. Transcripts of the proteins involved in nutrient transport and fatty acid bioconversion were abundant in the proximal intestine. GLUT2 transcripts were slightly higher in the F line ceca than in the L line. Dietary starch intake did not enhance the transcription of intestinal glucose transporters, SGLT1 and GLUT2; but it was associated with the higher expression of ApoA1 and PepT1 in the midgut. Significantly, the F line exhibited higher intestinal mRNA levels of MTP, ApoA4, Elovl2, Elovl5 and D6D than the L line, linked to chylomicron assembly and fatty acid bioconversion. Apparent digestibility coefficients of protein, lipid and starch were high in both lines, but not significantly different between them. In conclusion, we found a higher potential of chylomicron synthesis and fatty acid bioconversion in the intestine of F line, but no adaptive transcriptional response of glucose transporters to dietary starch and no genotypic differences in nutrient digestibility. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Extranodal diffuse non hodgkin lymphoma in the thigh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bölke E

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma usually starts as a rapidly growing mass in an internal lymph node and can grow in other areas such as the bone or intestines. About 1/3 of these lymphomas are confined to one part of the body when they are localized. In the case of a 78-year-old man, an extensive tumour was located on the right thigh. Biopsies of the tumour revealed diffuse proliferation of large lymphoid cells which have totally affected the normal architecture of striated muscle. The patient received multimodality treatment including chemotherapy of the CHOP regimen and adjuvant radiotherapy. Despite this being a fast growing lymphoma, about 3 out of 4 people will have no signs of disease after initial treatment, and about half of all people with this lymphoma are cured with therapy.

  14. Impact of fasting on growth hormone signaling and action in muscle and fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, Louise; Dalman, Lisa; Norrelund, Helene

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT: Whether GH promotes IGF-I production or lipolysis depends on nutritional status, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of fasting on GH-mediated changes in substrate metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and signaling pathways. DESIGN: We conducted...... a randomized crossover study. SUBJECTS: Ten healthy men (age 24.3 +/- 0.6 yr, body mass index 23.1 +/- 0.4 kg/m(2)) participated. INTERVENTION: A GH bolus administered 1) postabsorptively and 2) in the fasting state (37.5 h). Skeletal muscle and adipose tissue biopsies were taken, and a hyperinsulinemic...... signaling protein 3 and IGF-I mRNA. RESULTS: Fasting was associated with reduced MCR of GH (P

  15. Do sarcomere length, collagen content, pH, intramuscular fat and desmin degradation explain variation in the tenderness of three ovine muscles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, Colin P; Geesink, Geert H; Collins, Damian; Hutton Oddy, V; Hopkins, David L

    2016-03-01

    The longissimus (n=118) (LL), semimembranosus (n=104) (SM) and biceps femoris (n=134) (BF) muscles were collected from lamb and sheep carcases and aged for 5days (LL and SM) and 14days (BF) to study the impact of muscle characteristics on tenderness as assessed by shear force (SF) and sensory evaluation. The impact of gender, animal age, collagen content, sarcomere length (SL), desmin degradation, ultimate pH and intramuscular fat (IMF) on tenderness was examined. The main factors which influenced SF of the LL were IMF, SL and desmin degradation, but for sensory tenderness, IMF, ultimate pH and gender were the main factors. The SF and sensory tenderness of the SM was best predicted by the degree of desmin degradation. For the BF soluble collagen and animal age both influenced SF. Different factors affect tenderness across muscles and not one prediction model applied across all muscles equally well. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Muscle performance, body fat, pain and function in the elderly with arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Wagner Teixeira; Rodrigues, Erika de Carvalho; Mainenti, Míriam Raquel Meira

    2014-01-01

    To correlate muscule performance, body composition, pain and joint function in elderly people with gonarthrosis. 21 elderly patients were submitted to bioelectrical impedance analysis, dynamometry associated with electromyographic (EMG) evaluation of isometric knee extension, in addition to pain assessment by the Numeric Pain Intensity Scale and function assessment, by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) Osteoarthritis (OA) questionnaire. Correlations were checked by the Pearson's correlation coefficient. The sample characteristics were mean age 67.36 ± 4.21 years old, body fat percentage 40.57±6.15%, total WOMAC score 43.27 ± 16.32%, and maximum strength 19.95 ± 6.99 kgF. Pain during movement showed a statistical association with WOMAC physical activity domain (r = 0.47) and its general score (r = 0.51); pain intensity at night presented association with WOMAC stiffness domain (r = 0.55), in addition to the negative correlation with the slope values of the Medium Frequency of the EMG signal (r = - 0.57). pain intensity is correlated to functional incapacity in elderly people with knee OA and to a greater expression of fatigue in EMG signal. Levels of Evidence III, Study of non consecutive patients.

  17. Transcriptome changes favoring intramuscular fat deposition in the longissimus muscle following castration of bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, J; Bong, J; Kim, G D; Joo, S T; Lee, H-J; Baik, M

    2013-10-01

    Castration increases intramuscular fat (IMF) deposition, improving beef quality in cattle. The present study was performed to determine the global transcriptome changes following castration of bulls and to identify genes associated with IMF deposition in the longissimus dorsi (LM) of Korean cattle. A customized bovine CombiMatrix oligonucleotide microarray was constructed, and transcriptome changes following castration were determined by microarray hybridization. Transcriptome comparison between bulls and steers indicated that 428 of 8,407 genes were differentially expressed in the LM by greater than two fold (P castration. Castration upregulated transcription of adipogenic perilipin 2 (PLIN2) and visfatin, lipogenic fatty acid synthase, fatty acid esterification 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 5, and many fatty acid oxidation-related genes. Many TCA cycle and OP genes were also transcriptionally upregulated. Correlation analysis indicated that the IMF content in the LM was highly correlated with mRNA levels of PLIN2 (r = 0.70, P castration shifts transcription of lipid metabolism genes, favoring IMF deposition by increasing adipogenesis, lipogenesis, and triglyceride synthesis. This study also indicated that castration increases transcription of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and subsequent energy production (TCA and OP genes). Our microarray analysis provided novel information that castration alters the transcriptome associated with lipid/energy metabolism, favoring IMF deposition in the LM.

  18. An analysis of postoperative thigh symptoms after minimally invasive transpsoas lumbar interbody fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummock, Matthew D; Vanni, Steven; Levi, Allan D; Yu, Yong; Wang, Michael Y

    2011-07-01

    The minimally invasive transpsoas interbody fusion technique requires dissection through the psoas muscle, which contains the nerves of the lumbosacral plexus posteriorly and genitofemoral nerve anteriorly. Retraction of the psoas is becoming recognized as a cause of transient postoperative thigh pain, numbness, paresthesias, and weakness. However, few reports have described the nature of thigh symptoms after this procedure. The authors performed a review of patients who underwent the transpsoas technique for lumbar spondylotic disease, disc degeneration, and spondylolisthesis treated at a single academic medical center. A review of patient charts, including the use of detailed patient-driven pain diagrams performed at equal preoperative and follow-up intervals, investigated the survival of postoperative thigh pain, numbness, paresthesias, and weakness of the iliopsoas and quadriceps muscles in the follow-up period on the ipsilateral side of the surgical approach. Over a 3.2-year period, 59 patients underwent transpsoas interbody fusion surgery. Of these, 62.7% had thigh symptoms postoperatively. New thigh symptoms at first follow-up visit included the following: burning, aching, stabbing, or other pain (39.0%); numbness (42.4%); paresthesias (11.9%); and weakness (23.7%). At 3 months postoperatively, these percentages decreased to 15.5%, 24.1%, 5.6%, and 11.3%, respectively. Within the patient sample, 44% underwent a 1-level, 41% a 2-level, and 15% a 3-level transpsoas operation. While not statistically significant, thigh pain, numbness, and weakness were most prevalent after L4-5 transpsoas interbody fusion at the first postoperative follow-up. The number of lumbar levels that were surgically treated had no clear association with thigh symptoms but did correlate directly with surgical time, intraoperative blood loss, and length of hospital stay. Transpsoas interbody fusion is associated with high rates of immediate postoperative thigh symptoms. While larger

  19. 38 CFR 4.73 - Schedule of ratings-muscle injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... by belt-over-pulley action at knee joint. Posterior thigh group, Hamstring complex of 2-joint muscles... postural support of body (6); acting with hamstrings in synchronizing hip and knee (1, 2). Anterior thigh...

  20. Effects of Lactobacillus feed supplementation on cholesterol, fat content and fatty acid composition of the liver, muscle and carcass of broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Renseigné , Non; Abdullah , Norhani; Jalaludin , Syed; C.V.L. Wong , Michael; Yin Wan Ho ,

    2006-01-01

    International audience; An experiment was conducted to study the effects of feed supplementation with a mixture of Lactobacillus cultures (LC) on cholesterol, fat and fatty acid composition in the liver, muscle and carcass of broiler chickens. One hundred and thirty-six, one-day-old male broiler chicks (Avian-43) were assigned randomly to two dietary treatments: (i) a basal diet (control), and (ii) a basal diet + 0.1% LC. The cholesterol contents of the carcass and liver but not the muscle, w...

  1. Aerobic Exercise Attenuates the Loss of Skeletal Muscle during Energy Restriction in Adults with Visceral Adiposity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiichi Yoshimura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effects of energy restriction with or without aerobic exercise on thigh muscle mass and quality in adults with visceral adiposity. Methods: 75 males and females were randomly assigned to the groups ‘diet only' (DO; n = 42 or ‘diet plus aerobic exercise' (D/Ex; n = 33 for 12 weeks. The target energy intake in both groups was 25 kcal/kg of ideal body weight. Subjects in the D/Ex group were instructed to exercise for ≥300 min/week at lactate threshold. Computed tomography was used to measure thigh muscle cross-sectional area (CSA, normal-density muscle area (NDMA, and visceral fat area. Results: Total body weight (DO: -6.6 ± 3.6%; D/Ex: -7.3 ± 4.6% and visceral fat (DO: -16.0 ± 13.8%; D/Ex: -23.1 ± 14.7% decreased significantly in both groups; however, the changes were not significantly different between the two groups. The decrease in muscle CSA was significantly greater in the DO group (-5.1 ± 4.5% compared with the D/Ex group (-2.5 ± 5.0%. NDMA decreased significantly in the DO (-4.9 ± 4.9% but not in the D/Ex group (-1.4 ± 5.0%. Conclusion: Aerobic exercise attenuated the loss of skeletal muscle during energy restriction in adults with visceral adiposity.

  2. Fat-free muscle mass in magnetic resonance imaging predicts acute-on-chronic liver failure and survival in decompensated cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Praktiknjo, Michael; Book, Marius; Luetkens, Julian

    2018-01-01

    of sarcopenia using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in decompensated cirrhotic patients with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS). METHODS: The total erector spinae muscle area and the intramuscular fat tissue area were measured and subtracted to calculate the fat-free muscle area (FFMA) in 116...... in a validation cohort of 45 patients. RESULTS: FFMA correlated with follistatin and TPMT and showed slightly better association with survival than TPMT. Gender-specific cut-off values for FFMA were determined for sarcopenia. Decompensation (ascites, overt hepatic encephalopathy) persisted after TIPS...... in the sarcopenia group but resolved in the non-sarcopenia group. Sarcopenic patients showed no clinical improvement after TIPS as well as higher mortality, mainly due to development of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). FFMA was an independent predictor of survival in these patients. CONCLUSION: This study...

  3. Recurrent, giant subcutaneous leiomyosarcoma of the thigh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Chuanping, MD

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of recurrent, massive subcutaneous leiomyosarcoma involving the left thigh in a 29-year-old male from Madagascar. The patient had earlier undergone local resection of subcutaneous leiomyosarcoma a half year before. After surgical intervention, local recurrence developed at this site and was rapidly growing. The patient was surgically treated with a 2-cm-wide margin local excision in our hospital. The patient has remained recurrence free at 1-year follow-up.

  4. Purulent myositis of the thigh as a presentation of perforated low rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, V; Steinke, J; Rajendran, N; Kumar, D

    2018-03-01

    Purulent myositis is an acute, intramuscular bacterial infection involving abscess formation most commonly affecting the quadriceps, hamstring and gluteal muscles. We present a case of extensive purulent myositis of the thigh and lower leg caused by bowel perforation below the peritoneal reflection secondary to rectal cancer. Cases of lower limb and perineal purulent myositis should raise suspicion of rectal perforation and should prompt investigations to exclude rectal malignancy.

  5. Movement anatomy of the gluteal region and thigh of the giant anteater Myrmecophaga tridactyla (Myrmecophagidae: Pilosa)

    OpenAIRE

    Priscilla Rosa Queiroz Ribeiro; André Luiz Quagliatto Santos; Lucas de Assis Ribeiro; Tharlianne Alici Martins de Souza; Daniela Cristina Silva Borges; Rogério Rodrigues de Souza; Saulo Gonçalves Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Locomotion reveals the displacement and behavior manner of the species in their daily needs. According to different needs of the several species, different locomotor patterns are adopted. The shapes and attachment points of muscles are important determinants of the movements performed and consequently, the locomotion and motion patterns of living beings. It was aimed to associate anatomical, kinesiology and biomechanics aspects of the gluteal region and thigh of the giant anteater t...

  6. Whole-body electromyostimulation as a means to impact muscle mass and abdominal body fat in lean, sedentary, older female adults: subanalysis of the TEST-III trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemmler W

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Wolfgang Kemmler, Simon von StengelInstitute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, GermanyBackground: The primary aim of this study was to determine the effect of 12 months of whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS exercise on appendicular muscle mass and abdominal fat mass in subjects specifically at risk for sarcopenia and abdominal obesity, but unable or unwilling to exercise conventionally.Methods: Forty-six lean, nonsportive (<60 minutes of exercise per week, elderly women (aged 75 ± 4 years with abdominal obesity according to International Diabetes Federation criteria were randomly assigned to either a WB-EMS group (n=23 which performed 18 minutes of intermittent, bipolar WB-EMS (85 Hz three sessions in 14 days or an "active" control group (n=23. Whole-body and regional body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to determine appendicular muscle mass, upper leg muscle mass, abdominal fat mass, and upper leg fat mass. Maximum strength of the leg extensors was determined isometrically by force plates.Results: After 12 months, significant intergroup differences were detected for the primary endpoints of appendicular muscle mass (0.5% ± 2.0% for the WB-EMS group versus −0.8% ± 2.0% for the control group, P=0.025 and abdominal fat mass (−1.2% ± 5.9% for the WB-EMS group versus 2.4% ± 5.8% for the control group, P=0.038. Further, upper leg lean muscle mass changed favorably in the WB-EMS group (0.5% ± 2.5% versus −0.9% ± 1.9%, in the control group, P=0.033, while effects for upper leg fat mass were borderline nonsignificant (−0.8% ± 3.5% for the WB-EMS group versus 1.0% ± 2.6% for the control group, P=0.050. With respect to functional parameters, the effects for leg extensor strength were again significant, with more favorable changes in the WB-EMS group (9.1% ± 11.2% versus 1.0% ± 8.1% in the control group, P=0.010.Conclusion: In summary, WB-EMS showed positive effects on the

  7. Expression profiles and associations of adiponectin and adiponectin receptors with intramuscular fat in Tibetan chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R; Lin, Y; Zhi, L; Liao, H; Zuo, L; Li, Z; Xu, Y

    2017-04-01

    1. Adiponectin and its receptors (ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2) are novel endocrine systems that act at various levels to modulate glucose and lipid metabolism. This study was designed to investigate the spatial expression of adiponectin, ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 genes in various tissues in Tibetan chicken. The temporal expression of adiponectin and its receptor mRNAs were also studied in adipose tissue, breast muscle and thigh muscle and the correlations of the levels of adiponectin, ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 mRNA with the contents of intramuscular fat in breast muscle and thigh muscle of Tibetan chicken were determined. 2. Quantitative real-time PCR detected chicken adiponectin, ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 mRNA transcripts in heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. 3. Adipose tissue contained the highest amount of adiponectin mRNA followed by the kidney and liver. The expression levels of ADIPOR1 mRNA were significantly higher in adipose tissue, lung and spleen, and adipose tissue exhibited significantly higher levels of ADIPOR2 mRNA followed by the spleen and lung compared with other tissues. 4. Temporal expression profiles of adiponectin, ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 mRNA showed gender differences in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle at certain ages. In adipose tissue, adiponectin mRNA was higher in 154-d-old females and ADIPOR1 mRNA was higher in 154-d-old males: Adiponectin and ADIPOR2 mRNA were higher, and ADIPOR1 mRNA was lower, in thigh muscle in female compared with male chickens. 5. The correlation data showed that, except for adiponectin mRNA, the levels of ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 mRNA in thigh muscle of males were significantly positively correlated with IMF (r = 0.206 for the ADIPOR1 gene and r = 0.676 for the ADIPOR2 gene). 6. Taken together, it was concluded that adiponectin and the ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 genes are ubiquitously expressed in various tissues of Tibetan chicken and the expression of the adiponectin system is gender-dependant at certain ages

  8. Movement anatomy of the gluteal region and thigh of the giant anteater Myrmecophaga tridactyla (Myrmecophagidae: Pilosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Rosa Queiroz Ribeiro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Locomotion reveals the displacement and behavior manner of the species in their daily needs. According to different needs of the several species, different locomotor patterns are adopted. The shapes and attachment points of muscles are important determinants of the movements performed and consequently, the locomotion and motion patterns of living beings. It was aimed to associate anatomical, kinesiology and biomechanics aspects of the gluteal region and thigh of the giant anteater to its moving characteristics and locomotor habits. It was used three specimens of Myrmecophaga tridactyla, settled in formaldehyde aqueous solution at 10% and subsequently, dissected using usual techniques in gross anatomy. The morphological characteristics of the gluteal region and thigh that influence the patterns of movement and locomotion of animals, were analyzed and discussed in light of literature. All muscles of the gluteal region and thigh of giant anteater show parallel arrangement of the muscular fibers, being flat or fusiform. These muscles are formed in the joint which the interpotent type biolever act. These morphological characteristics indicate a greater predominance of amplitude and movement speed at the expense of strength. On the other hand, features such as osteometric index and the observation of giant anteater motion indicate the opposite, what reflects this animal lack of expertise in locomotor habits and shows the need of future realization of more detailed studies in this subject.

  9. High-fat diet reduces local myostatin-1 paralog expression and alters skeletal muscle lipid content in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galt, Nicholas J.; Froehlich, Jacob Michael; Meyer, Ben M.; Barrows, Frederic T.; Biga, Peggy R.

    2014-01-01

    Muscle growth is an energetically demanding process that is reliant on intramuscular fatty acid depots in most fishes. The complex mechanisms regulating this growth and lipid metabolism are of great interest for human health and aquaculture applications. It is well established that the skeletal muscle chalone, myostatin, plays a role in lipid metabolism and adipogenesis in mammals; however, this function has not been fully assessed in fishes. We therefore examined the interaction between dietary lipid levels and myostatin expression in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Five-weeks of high-fat (HFD; 25% lipid) dietary intake increased white muscle lipid content, and decreased circulating glucose levels and hepatosomatic index when compared to low-fat diet (LFD; 10% lipid) intake. In addition HFD intake reduced myostatin-1a and -1b expression in white muscle and myostatin-1b expression in brain tissue. Characterization of the myostatin-1a, -1b, and -2a promoters revealed putative binding sites for a subset of transcription factors associated with lipid metabolism. Taken together, these data suggest that HFD may regulate myostatin expression through cis-regulatory elements sensitive to increased lipid intake. Further, these findings provide a framework for future investigations of mechanisms describing the relationships between myostatin and lipid metabolism in fish. PMID:24264425

  10. Metabolic effects of the iodothyronine functional analogue TRC150094 on the liver and skeletal muscle of high-fat diet fed overweight rats: an integrated proteomic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Elena; Glinni, Daniela; Cioffi, Federica; Moreno, Maria; Lombardi, Assunta; de Lange, Pieter; Senese, Rosalba; Ceccarelli, Michele; Salzano, Anna Maria; Scaloni, Andrea; Lanni, Antonia; Goglia, Fernando

    2012-07-06

    A novel functional iodothyronine analogue, TRC150094, which has a much lower potency toward thyroid hormone receptor (α1/β1) activation than triiodothyronine, has been shown to be effective at reducing adiposity in rats simultaneously receiving a high-fat diet (HFD). Here, by combining metabolic, functional and proteomic analysis, we studied how the hepatic and skeletal muscle phenotypes might respond to TRC150094 treatment in HFD-fed overweight rats. Drug treatment increased both the liver and skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacities without altering mitochondrial efficiency. Coherently, in terms of individual respiratory in-gel activity, blue-native analysis revealed an increased activity of complex V in the liver and of complexes II and V in tibialis muscle in TCR150094-treated animals. Subsequently, the identification of differentially expressed proteins and the analysis of their interrelations gave an integrated view of the phenotypic/metabolic adaptations occurring in the liver and muscle proteomes during drug treatment. TRC150094 significantly altered the expression of several proteins involved in key liver metabolic pathways, including amino acid and nitrogen metabolism, and fructose and mannose metabolism. The canonical pathways most strongly influenced by TRC150094 in tibialis muscle included glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, amino acid, fructose and mannose metabolism, and cell signaling. The phenotypic/metabolic influence of TRC150094 on the liver and skeletal muscle of HFD-fed overweight rats suggests the potential clinical application of this iodothyronine analogue in ameliorating metabolic risk parameters altered by diet regimens.

  11. Retroperitoneal Perforation of the Appendix Presenting as a Right Thigh Abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya J. Nanavati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A rare case of a retroperitoneal rupture of the appendix is being reported here. A 53-year-old male presented to us with a right sided thigh abscess. There were not any abdominal complaints at presentation. There was continuous discharge after incision and drainage from the thigh. Isolation, in culture, of an enteric bacterium from the pus prompted an evaluation of the gastrointestinal tract as a possible source. An MRI scan revealed fluid tracking from the right paracolic gutter over the psoas sheath and paraspinal muscle into the thigh. A CT scan revealed the perforation at the base of the appendix into the retroperitoneum. At laparotomy the above findings were confirmed. A segmental ileocaecal resection was done. The patient made an uneventful recovery. The absence of abdominal symptoms at presentation leads to delay in diagnosis in such cases. Nonresolving thigh and groin abscesses should lead to the evaluation of the gastrointestinal tract as origin. Diagnostic clues may also be provided by culture reports what as happened in this case.

  12. Quantitative Skeletal Muscle MRI: Part 1, Derived T2 Fat Map in Differentiation Between Boys With Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and Healthy Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Jennifer H; Kim, Hee Kyung; Merrow, Arnold C; Laor, Tal; Serai, Suraj; Horn, Paul S; Kim, Dong Hoon; Wong, Brenda L

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate derived T2 maps as an objective measure of muscular fat for discrimination between boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and healthy boys. Forty-two boys with DMD (mean age, 9.9 years) and 31 healthy boys (mean age, 11.4 years) were included in the study. Age, body mass index, and clinical function scale grade were evaluated. T1-weighted MR images and T2 maps with and without fat suppression were obtained. Fatty infiltration was graded 0-4 on T1-weighted images, and derived T2 fat values (difference between mean T2 values from T2 maps with and without fat suppression) of the gluteus maximus and vastus lateralis muscles were calculated. Group comparisons were performed. The upper limit of the 95% reference interval of T2 fat values from the control group was applied. There was no significant difference in age or body mass index between groups. All healthy boys and 19 boys (45.2%) with DMD had a normal clinical function scale grade. Grade 1 fatty infiltration was seen in 90.3% (gluteus maximus) and 71.0% (vastus lateralis) of healthy boys versus 33.3% (gluteus maximus) and 52.4% (vastus lateralis) of boys with DMD. T2 fat values of boys with DMD were significantly longer than in the control group (p < 0.001). Using a 95% reference interval for healthy boys for the gluteus maximus (28.3 milliseconds) allowed complete separation from boys with DMD (100% sensitivity, 100% specificity), whereas the values for the vastus lateralis (7.28 milliseconds) resulted in 83.3% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Measurement of muscular fat with T2 maps is accurate for differentiating boys with DMD from healthy boys.

  13. Giant Epidermoid Cyst of the Thigh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NH Mohamed Haflah

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Epidermoid cyst is a common benign cutaneous swelling frequently encountered in surgical practice. It usually presents as a painless lump frequently occurring in hairbearing areas of the body particularly the scalp, scrotum, neck, shoulder and back. Giant epidermoid cysts commonly occur in hairy areas such as the scalp. We present here the case of a rare occurrence of a giant epidermoid cyst in the less hairy area of the right upper thigh mimicking a soft tissue sarcoma. Steps are highlighted for the management of this unusual cyst.

  14. Psoas Muscle Cross-sectional Area as a Measure of Whole-body Lean Muscle Mass in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Glen R; Ikizler, Talat A; Chen, Xiaorui; Heilbrun, Marta E; Wei, Guo; Boucher, Robert; Beddhu, Srinivasan

    2016-07-01

    We investigate whether psoas or paraspinous muscle area measured on a single L4-L5 image is a useful measure of whole lean body mass (LBM) compared to dedicated midthigh magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Observational study. Outpatient dialysis units and a research clinic. One hundred five adult participants on maintenance hemodialysis. No control group was used. Psoas muscle area, paraspinous muscle area, and midthigh muscle area (MTMA) were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. LBM was measured by dual-energy absorptiometry scan. In separate multivariable linear regression models, psoas, paraspinous, and MTMA were associated with increase in LBM. In separate multivariate logistic regression models, C statistics for diagnosis of sarcopenia (defined as <25th percentile of LBM) were 0.69 for paraspinous muscle area, 0.81 for psoas muscle area, and 0.89 for MTMA. With sarcopenia defined as <10th percentile of LBM, the corresponding C statistics were 0.71, 0.92, and 0.94. We conclude that psoas muscle area provides a good measure of whole-body muscle mass, better than paraspinous muscle area but slightly inferior to midthigh measurement. Hence, in body composition studies a single axial MR image at the L4-L5 level can be used to provide information on both fat and muscle and may eliminate the need for time-consuming measurement of muscle area in the thigh. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Developmental patterns of fetal fat and corresponding signal on T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blondiaux, Eleonore; Chougar, Lydia; Ducou le Pointe, Hubert; Garel, Catherine; Gelot, Antoinette; Valence, Stephanie; Audureau, Etienne; Jouannic, Jean-Marie; Dhombres, Ferdinand

    2018-01-01

    Evaluation of subcutaneous fetal fat layer thickness on T1-weighted sequences can be used to predict birth weight. Little is known about normal MR signal patterns of subcutaneous tissue throughout pregnancy. To establish developmental patterns of subcutaneous fetal fat signal on T1-weighted sequences during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters. We retrospectively examined T1-weighted images of 110 fetal MRI scans. We measured signal intensity of subcutaneous fat on thighs, buttocks, trunk, nuchal region, chin and scalp. We then calculated the ratios of the obtained values with fetal muscle, amnios and maternal fat signal, and compared the results with those of immunohistochemical examination of adipose tissue extracted from the abdominal wall of fetuses as part of standard autopsy protocol. We included 60 MRI scans in fetuses without intra-uterine growth restriction or macrosomia of non-diabetic mothers (range 23-37 weeks of gestation). Fat T1 intensity of all anatomical regions was low in all fetuses before 26 weeks of gestation. It became more hyperintense with increasing gestational age, in the following order: chin and nuchal region, then buttocks, thighs and trunk, and eventually the scalp at 33 weeks of gestation. After 33 weeks of gestation, all fetal subcutaneous tissues demonstrated overall hyperintense signal. This progression followed the conversion at immunohistochemistry of fetal adipose tissue composition from predominant brown to white adipose cells in 19 fetuses (19-41 weeks of gestation). Between 26 weeks and 33 weeks of gestation, subcutaneous fetal fat signal changed in an orderly pattern from chin to buttocks and scalp. This may reflect the conversion from predominant brown to white adipose tissues in subcutaneous fetal fat. (orig.)

  16. Differential metabolic effects of constant moderate versus high intensity interval training in high-fat fed mice: possible role of muscle adiponectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Huenchullan, Sergio F; Maharjan, Babu Raja; Williams, Paul F; Tam, Charmaine S; Mclennan, Susan V; Twigg, Stephen M

    2018-02-01

    Exercise regimens may have differing effects in the presence of obesity. In addition to being fat derived, adiponectin has recently been described as a myokine that regulates insulin sensitivity, which may link to exercise-related metabolic benefits in obesity. Whether skeletal muscle adiponectin varies in different exercise modalities is unclear. This study investigated the comparative effects of 10 weeks of endurance constant-moderate intensity exercise (END) with high intensity interval training (HIIT), on metabolic outcomes, including muscle adiponectin in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. Ten-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) (45% FAT) or standard CHOW diet ab libitum and underwent one of three training regimes: (1) no exercise, (2) END, or (3) HIIT (8 bouts of 2.5 min with eight periods of rest of 2.5 min) for 10 weeks (3 × 40 min sessions/week). Chow-fed mice acted as controls. Compared with HFD alone, both training programs similarly protected against body weight gain (HFD = 45 ± 2; END = 37 ± 2; HIIT = 36 ± 2 g), preserved lean/fat tissue mass ratio (HFD = 0.64 ± 0.09; END = 0.34 ± 0.13; HIIT = 0.33 ± 0.13), and improved blood glucose excursion during an insulin tolerance test (HFD = 411 ± 54; END = 350 ± 57; HIIT = 320 ± 66 arbitrary units [AU]). Alterations in fasting glycemia, insulinemia, and AST/ALT ratios were prevented only by END. END, but not HIIT increased skeletal muscle adiponectin mRNA (14-fold; P HIIT induced a milder increase (2.4-fold). Compared with HFD, neither END nor HIIT altered circulating low (LMW) or high (HMW) molecular weight adiponectin forms. Furthermore, only END prevented the HFD downregulation of PGC1α (P < 0.05) mRNA levels downstream of muscle adiponectin. These data show that different training programs affect muscle adiponectin to differing degrees. Together these results suggest that END is a more effective regimen to prevent HFD

  17. Tendon sheath fibroma in the thigh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Vincent M; Ashana, Adedayo O; de la Cruz, Michael; Lackman, Richard D

    2012-04-01

    Tendon sheath fibromas are rare, benign soft tissue tumors that are predominantly found in the fingers, hands, and wrists of young adult men. This article describes a tendon sheath fibroma that developed in the thigh of a 70-year-old man, the only known tendon sheath fibroma to form in this location. Similar to tendon sheath fibromas that develop elsewhere, our patient's lesion presented as a painless, slow-growing soft tissue nodule. Physical examination revealed a firm, nontender mass with no other associated signs or symptoms. Although the imaging appearance of tendon sheath fibromas varies, our patient's lesion appeared dark on T1- and bright on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. It was well marginated and enhanced with contrast.Histologically, tendon sheath fibromas are composed of dense fibrocollagenous stromas with scattered spindle-shaped fibroblasts and narrow slit-like vascular spaces. Most tendon sheath fibromas can be successfully removed by marginal excision, although 24% of lesions recur. No lesions have metastasized. Our patient's tendon sheath fibroma was removed by marginal excision, and the patient remained disease free 35 months postoperatively. Despite its rarity, tendon sheath fibroma should be included in the differential diagnosis of a thigh mass on physical examination or imaging, especially if it is painless, nontender, benign appearing, and present in men. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Scrotal reconstruction with superomedial fasciocutaneous thigh flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL FRANCISCO MELLO

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to describe the use of a superomedial fasciocutaneous thigh flap for scrotal reconstruction in open areas secondary to the surgical treatment of perineal necrotizing fasciitis (Fournier’s gangrene. Methods: retrospective analysis of cases treated at the Plastic Surgery Service of Santa Casa de Misericórdia, São Paulo, from 2009 to 2015. Results: fifteen patients underwent scrotal reconstruction using the proposed flap. The mean age was 48.9 years (28 to 66. Skin loss estimates in the scrotal region ranged from 60 to 100%. Definitive reconstruction was performed on average 30.6 days (22 to 44 after the initial surgical treatment. The mean surgical time was 76 minutes (65 to 90 to obtain the flaps, bilateral in all cases. Flap size ranged from 10cm to 13cm in the longitudinal direction and 8cm to 10cm in the cross-sectional direction. The complication rate was 26.6% (four cases, related to the occurrence of segmental and partial dehiscence. Conclusion: the superomedial fasciocutaneous flap of thigh is a reliable and versatile option for the reconstruction of open areas in the scrotal region, showing adequate esthetic and functional results.

  19. The effect of calf neuromuscular electrical stimulation and intermittent pneumatic compression on thigh microcirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Shayan; Immins, Tikki; Wainwright, Thomas W

    2017-05-01

    This study compares the effectiveness of a neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) device and an intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) device on enhancing microcirculatory blood flow in the thigh of healthy individuals, when stimulation is carried out peripherally at the calf. Blood microcirculation of ten healthy individuals was recorded using laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) technique. A region of interest (ROI) was marked on each participant thigh. The mean flux within the ROI was calculated at four states: rest, NMES device with visible muscle actuation (VMA), NMES device with no visible muscle actuation (NVMA) and IPC device. Both NMES and IPC devices increased blood flow in the thigh when stimulation was carried out peripherally at the calf. The NMES device increased mean blood perfusion from baseline by 399.8% at the VMA state and 150.6% at the NVMA state, IPC device increased the mean blood perfusion by 117.3% from baseline. The NMES device at VMA state increased microcirculation by more than a factor of 3 in contrast to the IPC device. Even at the NVMA state, the NMES device increased blood flow by 23% more than the IPC device. Given the association between increased microcirculation and reduced oedema, NMES may be a more effective modality than IPC at reducing oedema, therefore further research is needed to explore this. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. T2-Weighted Dixon Turbo Spin Echo for Accelerated Simultaneous Grading of Whole-Body Skeletal Muscle Fat Infiltration and Edema in Patients With Neuromuscular Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaeger, Sarah; Klupp, Elisabeth; Weidlich, Dominik; Cervantes, Barbara; Foreman, Sarah C; Deschauer, Marcus; Schoser, Benedikt; Katemann, Christoph; Kooijman, Hendrik; Rummeny, Ernst J; Zimmer, Claus; Kirschke, Jan S; Karampinos, Dimitrios C

    2018-04-02

    The assessment of fatty infiltration and edema in the musculature of patients with neuromuscular diseases (NMDs) typically requires the separate performance of T1-weighted and fat-suppressed T2-weighted sequences. T2-weighted Dixon turbo spin echo (TSE) enables the generation of T2-weighted fat- and water-separated images, which can be used to assess both pathologies simultaneously. The present study examines the diagnostic performance of T2-weighted Dixon TSE compared with the standard sequences in 10 patients with NMDs and 10 healthy subjects. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging was performed including T1-weighted Dixon fast field echo, T2-weighted short-tau inversion recovery, and T2-weighted Dixon TSE. Fatty infiltration and intramuscular edema were rated by 2 radiologists using visual semiquantitative rating scales. To assess intermethod and interrater agreement, weighted Cohen's κ coefficients were calculated. The ratings of fatty infiltration showed high intermethod and high interrater agreement (T1-weighted Dixon fast field echo vs T2-weighted Dixon TSE fat image). The evaluation of edematous changes showed high intermethod and good interrater agreement (T2-weighted short-tau inversion recovery vs T2-weighted Dixon TSE water image). T2-weighted Dixon TSE imaging is an alternative for accelerated simultaneous grading of whole-body skeletal muscle fat infiltration and edema in patients with NMDs.

  1. Transgenic UCP1 in white fat protects against lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle of mice fed a high-fat diet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeleník, Tomáš; Jílková, Zuzana; Slámová, Kristýna; Rossmeisl, Martin; Kopecký, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 50, Suppl.1 (2007), S321-S321 ISSN 0012-186X. [Annual Meeting of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes /43./. 18.09.2007-21.09.2007, Amsterdam] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD303/03/H065 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : cpo1 * respiratory uncoupling * white fat * lipid metabolism Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition

  2. New Insight into Fat, Muscle and Bone Relationship in Women: Determining the Threshold at Which Body Fat Assumes Negative Relationship with Bone Mineral Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Although LM has strong positive relationship with BMD, FM above 33% in overweight/obese women is negatively related to BMD of most skeletal sites. Therefore, overweight/obesity after certain amount of FM, may not be a protective factor against osteoporosis in females. For clinical practice in women, it is important to maintain LM and keep FM accrual below ~30% body fat to maintain good skeletal health.

  3. Circulating levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6-relation to truncal fat mass and muscle mass in healthy elderly individuals and in patients with type-2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Maria; Bruunsgaard, Helle; Weis, Nina

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to test the hypothesis that an altered fat distribution in elderly healthy subjects and in patients with type-2 diabetes contributes to high circulating levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrotic factor (TNF)-alpha, which secondly is related to lower muscle...... mass. Twenty young controls, (20-35 yr), 20 healthy elderly subjects (65-80 yr) and 16 elderly patients with type 2 diabetes (65-80 yr) were included in a cross sectional study. Plasma levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 were measured after an overnight fast. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and total body...... to lower ASM and BCM in elderly men both in a univariate regression analysis and a multivariate regression analysis. In conclusion, high plasma levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 in elderly healthy people and in patients with type 2 diabetes are associated with increased truncal fat mass, suggesting...

  4. Intermuscular and perimuscular fat expansion in obesity correlates with skeletal muscle T cell and macrophage infiltration and insulin resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ilvira M.; Dai Perrard, Xiao-Yuan; Brunner, Gerd; Lui, Hua; Sparks, Lauren M.; Smith, Steven R.; Wang, Xukui; Shi, Zheng-Zheng; Lewis, Dorothy E.; Wu, Huaizhu; Ballantyne, Christie M.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives Limited numbers of studies demonstrated obesity-induced macrophage infiltration in skeletal muscle (SM), but dynamics of immune cell accumulation and contribution of T cells to SM insulin resistance are understudied. Subjects/Methods T cells and macrophage markers were examined in SM of obese humans by RT-PCR. Mice were fed high-fat diet (HFD) for 2–24 weeks, and time course of macrophage and T cell accumulation was assessed by flow cytometry and quantitative RT-PCR. Extramyocellular adipose tissue (EMAT) was quantified by high-resolution micro-CT, and correlation to T cell number in SM was examined. CD11a−/− mice and C57BL/6 mice were treated with CD11a-neutralizing antibody to determine the role of CD11a in T cell accumulation in SM. To investigate the involvement JAK/STAT, the major pathway for T helper I (TH1) cytokine IFNγ? in SM and adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance, mice were treated with a JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor, baricitinib. Results Macrophage and T cells markers were upregulated in SM of obese compared with lean humans. SM of obese mice had higher expression of inflammatory cytokines, with macrophages increasing by 2 weeks on HFD and T cells increasing by 8 weeks. The immune cells were localized in EMAT. Micro-CT revealed that EMAT expansion in obese mice correlated with T cell infiltration and insulin resistance. Deficiency or neutralization of CD11a reduced T cell accumulation in SM of obese mice. T cells polarized into a proinflammatory TH1 phenotype, with increased STAT1 phosphorylation in SM of obese mice. In vivo inhibition of JAK/STAT pathway with baricitinib reduced T cell numbers and activation markers in SM and adipose tissue and improved insulin resistance in obese mice. Conclusions Obesity-induced expansion of EMAT in SM was associated with accumulation and proinflammatory polarization of T cells, which may regulate SM metabolic functions through paracrine mechanisms. Obesity-associated SM

  5. Reproducibility, and age, body-weight and gender dependency of candidate skeletal muscle MRI outcome measures in healthy volunteers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrow, Jasper M.; Reilly, Mary M.; Hanna, Michael G. [UCL Institute of Neurology, Medical Research Council Centre for Neuromuscular Diseases, Department of Molecular Neuroscience, London (United Kingdom); Sinclair, Christopher D.J.; Yousry, Tarek A.; Thornton, John S. [UCL Institute of Neurology, Medical Research Council Centre for Neuromuscular Diseases, Department of Molecular Neuroscience, London (United Kingdom); UCL Institute of Neurology, Neuroradiological Academic Unit, Department of Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, London (United Kingdom); Fischmann, Arne [University of Basel Hospital, Department of Radiology, Division of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Basel (Switzerland)

    2014-07-15

    Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can potentially meet the pressing need for objective, sensitive, reproducible outcome measures in neuromuscular disease trials. We tested, in healthy volunteers, the consistency, reliability and sensitivity to normal inter-subject variation of MRI methods targeted to lower limb muscle pathology to inform the design of practical but comprehensive MRI outcome measure protocols for use in imminent patient studies. Forty-seven healthy volunteers, age 21-81 years, were subject at 3T to three-point Dixon fat-fraction measurement, T{sub 1}-relaxometry, T{sub 2}-relaxometry and magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR) imaging at mid-thigh and mid-calf level bilaterally. Fifteen subjects underwent repeat imaging at 2 weeks. Mean between-muscle fat fraction and T{sub 2} differences were small, but significant (p < 0.001). Fat fraction and T{sub 2} correlated positively, and MTR negatively with subject age in both the thigh and calf, with similar significant correlations with weight at thigh level only (p < 0.001 to p < 0.05). Scan-rescan and inter-observer intra-class correlation coefficients ranged between 0.62-0.84 and 0.79-0.99 respectively. Quantitative lower-limb muscle MRI using readily implementable methods was sensitive enough to demonstrate inter-muscle differences (small in health), and correlations with subject age and weight. In combination with high reliability, this strongly supports the suitability of these methods to provide longitudinal outcome measures in neuromuscular disease treatment trials. (orig.)

  6. Chinese medicine Jinlida (JLD) ameliorates high-fat-diet induced insulin resistance in rats by reducing lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Sha-Sha; Song, An; Liu, Yi-Xuan; Wang, Chao; Song, Guang-Yao; Li, Xiao-Ling; Zhu, Ya-Jun; Yu, Xian; Li, Ling; Liu, Chen-Xi; Kang, Jun-Cong; Ren, Lu-Ping

    2015-01-01

    The present paper reports the effects of Jinlida (JLD), a traditional Chinese medicine which has been given as a treatment for high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance. A randomized controlled experiment was conducted to provide evidence in support of the affects of JLD on insulin resistance induced by HFD. The affect of JLD on blood glucose, lipid, insulin, adiponectin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and total bilirubin (TBIL) in serum and lipid content in skeletal muscle was measured. Genes and proteins of the AMPK signaling pathway were analyzed by real time RT-PCR and Western blot. Adiponectin receptor 1 and 2 (ADIPOR1, ADIPOR2) and other genes involved in mitochondrial function and fat oxidation were analyzed by real time RT-PCR. Histological staining was also performed. JLD or pioglitazone administration ameliorated fasting plasma levels of glucose, insulin, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), ALT, AST and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) (P < 0.05). Treatment with JLD or pioglitazone significantly reverted muscle lipid content (P < 0.05). JLD (1.5 g/kg) significantly increased plasma adiponectin concentration by 60.17% and increased AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) phosphorylation in skeletal muscle (P < 0.05). JLD administration increased levels of ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 by 1.48 and 1.29 respectively. Levels of genes involved in mitochondrial function and fat oxidation were increased. This study provides the molecular mechanism by which JLD ameliorates HFD-induced insulin resistance in rats.

  7. Evaluation of [sup 99m]Tc-HM-PAO thigh accumulation in patients with cerebro-vascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishigaki, Hiroshi; Adachi, Itaru; Komori, Tsuyoshi; Tatsu, Yoshimitsu; Hisada, Youichi; Sueyoshi, Kouzou; Narabayashi, Isamu (Osaka Medical College, Takatsuki (Japan))

    1993-06-01

    Technetium-99m d,l-hexamethyl-propyleneamine oxime ([sup 99m]Tc-HM-PAO) cerebral SPECT and whole body scintigraphy (WBS) were performed in 5 patients without cerebro-vascular disease (CVD) (Group 1), 31 patients with CVD but not hemiparesis (Group 2) and 18 patients with CVD and hemiparesis (Group 3). Four ROIs were drawn manually around the whole body (WB), brain (Br), right and left thigh (Th). We calculated some ratios: the total counts in the brain over the total counts in the whole body (Br/WB), the total counts in the thigh over the total counts in the whole body (Th/WB) and the mean counts in the thigh over the mean counts in the brain (Th/Br).The Br/WB was 6.9[+-]1.8%, rt-Th/WB was 4.9[+-]2.1%, lt-Th/WB was 5.1[+-]1.3% and Th/Br was 0.46[+-]0.17 in group 1. Whole body scintigraphies in group 1 revealed clear and similar images between right and left thigh. The Br/WB was 6.7[+-]1.4%, Th/WB of paretic side was 4.6[+-]1.0%, Th/WB of non-paretic side was 5.8[+-]1.2% and Th/Br was 0.47[+-]0.18 in group 3. The Th/WB in non paretic side was significantly higher than that in paretic side (p<0.01). The thigh images in group 3 revealed clear differences between paretic and non-paretic thighes. In conclusion we could acquire the clear thigh images with [sup 99m]Tc-HM-PAO. It was possible that we evaluated not only cerebral perfusion but also muscle atrophy and/or perfusion in patients with CVD using [sup 99m]Tc-HM-PAO. (author).

  8. Measurement of attenuation coefficients for bone, muscle, fat and water at 140, 364 and 662keV γ-ray energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akar, A.; Baltas, H.; Cevik, U.; Korkmaz, F.; Okumusoglu, N.T.

    2006-01-01

    The half-value thicknesses, linear and mass attenuation coefficients of biological samples such as bone, muscle, fat and water have been measured at 140, 364 and 662keV γ-ray energies by using the ATOMLAB TM -930 medical spectrometer. The γ-rays were obtained from 99m Tc, 131 I and 137 Cs γ-ray point sources. Also theoretical calculations have been performed in order to obtain the half-value thicknesses and, mass and linear attenuation coefficients at photon energies 0.001keV-20MeV for bone, muscle and water samples. The calculated value and the experimental results of this work and the other results in literature are found to be in good agreement

  9. Effect of homeopathic preparations of Syzygium jambolanum and Cephalandra indica on gastrocnemius muscle of high fat and high fructose-induced type-2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampath, Sathish; Narasimhan, Akilavalli; Chinta, Raveendar; Nair, K R Janardanan; Khurana, Anil; Nayak, Debadatta; Kumar, Alok; Karundevi, Balasubramanian

    2013-07-01

    Homeopathy is a holistic method of treatment that uses microdoses of natural substances originating from plants, minerals, or animal parts. Syzygium jambolanum and Cephalandra indica are used in homeopathy for treatment of type-2 diabetes. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for such effects are not known. Homeopathic preparations of S. jambolanum and C. indica in mother tincture, 6c and 30c were used to examine the molecular mechanism of antidiabetic effects in the skeletal muscle of rats with high fat and fructose-induced type-2 diabetes mellitus. After 30 days treatment, fasting blood glucose, serum insulin and insulin signaling molecules in the skeletal muscle (gastrocnemius) were measured. Diabetic rats showed a significant decrease in serum insulin and lipid profile as well as low levels of insulin receptor (IR), v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog (Akt), p-Akt(ser473) and glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) protein expression (p Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Apocrine gland carcinoma on the right thigh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Renato Pais Costa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors report a case of cutaneous apocrine ductal carcinomaof the right thigh in a 78-year-old female. Histological examinationrevealed a solid, ductal and glandular tumor with a significantdesmoplastic reaction. The tumor cells showed high-grade cellularatypia, and occasional peritumoral inflammatory infiltration wasalso observed. There were no characteristics of extramammaryPaget´s Disease on the overlying skin. The neoplastic cells wereimmunohistochemically positive for S-100 protein, lysozyme andalpha-chymotrypsin, but negative for CEA, EMA, and HMB-45. On thebasis of these findings, the diagnosis of apocrine ductal carcinomawas confirmed. The patient then underwent wide resection of thetumor plus en-bloc radical inguinal lymphadenectomy. The localreconstruction was done by means of a tensor fascia lata flap, noadjuvant treatment was performed. To date, one year on, the patientremains healthy, there being no evidence of tumor recurrence.

  11. P6. Assessment of Muscles, Connective and Fat Tissue, Using ?CT Data: Feasibility Study for Meat Quality Control

    OpenAIRE

    Salmons, Stanley; Gargiulo, Paolo; Edmunds, Kyle; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Carraro, Ugo; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Franchi, Martino V; Reeves, Neil D; Maganaris, Costantinos; Smith, Ken; Atherton, Philip J; Narici, Marco V; Stephenson, Robert S; Jarvis, Jonathan C; Ortolan, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Central Core Disease (CCD; OMIM# 117000), one of the most common human congenital myopathies, is characterized by hypotonia and proximal muscle weakness with slow (or non progressive) clinical course. 1 Diagnosis of CCD is confirmed by histological examination of muscle biopsies showing amorphous central areas or cores (typically found in type I muscle fibers), lacking glycolytic/oxidative enzymes and mitochondria. Usually, orthopedic complications limit the ability of CCD adult patient to pe...

  12. Visceral obesity, fat mass/muscle mass ratio and atherogenic dyslipidemia: cross-sectional study. Riobamba, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Marcelo Nicolalde Cifuentes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The distribution and composition of fat mass is associated with different metabolic risks. The predominance of brown visceral fat is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD, such as: high triglycerides and apolipoprotein B, increased LDL cholesterol, ratio triglycerides/low HDL cholesterol elevated (atherogenic dyslipidemia indicator, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia and cardiovascular risk (CVR. Sarcopenia and obesity may act synergistically in functional and metabolic disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between visceral obesity, fat mass/muscular mass ratio and atherogenic dyslipidemia in adult individuals in order to determine the association pattern between these variables and set strategies for focused attention.Material and Methods: In a sample of 307 subjects of both sexes (21-71 years there was measured atherogenic dyslipidemia as the ratio of triglyceride/HDL cholesterol, visceral obesity measured by bio impedance as the relative score of visceral fat, and the ratio fat mass/lean mass.Results: A cluster analysis was performed to establish the structure of association between these variables with different risk groups. Three groups were identified: the first had visceral obesity with an average relative level of visceral fat of 13.6, the second group with an average of 8.9 and in the third group were placed individuals with the lowest visceral obesity score averaging 6.5. As for the fat mass/lean mas ratio the first two groups had a similar average of this index with a value of 1.56 and 1.69 respectively and the third group with the lowest average value of 1.3. Group 1 presented visceral obesity and impaired fat mass/lean mass ratio and had a high value of triglyceride/HDL ratio 4.1. Group 2 without visceral obesity and a deterioration in the relative fat mass/lean mass ratio had a triglyceride/HDL cholesterol of 3.6 and Group 3; not recorded visceral obesity or

  13. Multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) compared to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for estimation of fat-free mass in colorectal cancer patients treated with chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palle, Stine Skov; Tang Møllehave, Line; Kadkhoda, Zahra Taheri

    2016-01-01

    during the course of their treatments. Objective: To examine relationships between single cross-sectional thighs magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), skeletal muscle mass (SM) as reference and multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) fat free mass (FFM) in patients with colorectal cancer...... undergoing chemotherapy. Design: In an observational, prospective study we examine the relationships between single cross-sectional thighs MRI (T1-weighted (1.5 T) SM compared to FFM BIA (8-electrodes multi-frequency Tanita MC780MA)) and FFM skin-fold thickness (ST) (4-points (Harpenden, Skinfold Caliper......)) and SM equation for non-obese persons from Lee et al. 2000 (L2000) (based on age, height, weight, sex and race). FFM and SM (kg) were calculated based on either area (MRI) or weight. Results: 18 CRC patients (10 males and 8 females) with mean (SD) age 67 yr (6) were measured at baseline, and 13 were...

  14. Oxidative stability of cnicken thigh meat after treatment of abies alba essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pavelková

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the effect of the Abies alba essential oil in two different concentrations on oxidative stability of chicken thigh muscles during chilled storage was investigated. In the experiment were chickens of hybrid combination Cobb 500 after 42 days of the fattening period slaughtered.  All the broiler chickens were fed with the same feed mixtures and were kept under the same conditions. The feed mixtures were produced without any antibiotic preparations and coccidiostatics. After slaughtering was dissection obtained fresh chicken thigh with skin from left half-carcass which were divided into five groups (n = 5: C - control air-packaged group; A1 - vacuum-packaged experimental group; A2 - vacuum-packaged experimental group with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA solution 1.50% w/w; A3 - vacuum-packaged experimental group with Abies alba oil 0.10% v/w and A4 - vacuum-packaged experimental group with Abies alba oil 0.20% v/w. The Abies alba essential oil was applicate on ground chicken things and immediately after dipping, each sample was packaged using a vacuum packaging machine and storage in refrigerate at 4 ±0.5 °C. Thiobarbituric acid (TBA value expressed in number of malondialdehyde was measured in the process of first storage day of 1st, 4th, 8th, 12th and 16th day after slaughtering and expressed on the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA in 1 kg sample. The treatments of chicken things with Abies alba essential oil show statistically significant differences between all testing groups and control group, where higher average value of MDA measured in thigh muscle of broiler chickens was in samples of control group (0.4380 mg.kg-1 compared to experimental groups A1 (0.124 mg.kg-1, A2 (0.086 mg.kg-1, A3 (0.082 mg.kg-1 and A4 (0.077 mg.kg-1 after 16-day of chilled storage. Experiment results show that the treatment of chicken thigh with Abies alba essential oil positively influenced on the reduction of oxidative processes in thigh

  15. Denervation and high-fat diet reduce insulin signaling in T-tubules in skeletal muscle of living mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Hans P M; Ploug, Thorkil; Ai, Hua

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Insulin stimulates muscle glucose transport by translocation of GLUT4 to sarcolemma and T-tubules. Despite muscle glucose uptake playing a major role in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, the temporal and spatial changes in insulin signaling and GLUT4 translocation during these co...

  16. Finite element analysis to investigate variability of MR elastography in the human thigh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, L; Barnhill, E; Perrins, M; Kennedy, P; Conlisk, N; Brown, C; Hoskins, P R; Pankaj, P; Roberts, N

    2017-11-01

    To develop finite element analysis (FEA) of magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) in the human thigh and investigate inter-individual variability of measurement of muscle mechanical properties. Segmentation was performed on MRI datasets of the human thigh from 5 individuals and FEA models consisting of 12 muscles and surrounding tissue created. The same material properties were applied to each tissue type and a previously developed transient FEA method of simulating MRE using Abaqus was performed at 4 frequencies. Synthetic noise was applied to the simulated data at various levels before inversion was performed using the Elastography Software Pipeline. Maps of material properties were created and visually assessed to determine key features. The coefficient of variation (CoV) was used to assess the variability of measurements in each individual muscle and in the groups of muscles across the subjects. Mean measurements for the set of muscles were ranked in size order and compared with the expected ranking. At noise levels of 2% the CoV in measurements of |G * | ranged from 5.3 to 21.9% and from 7.1 to 36.1% for measurements of ϕ in the individual muscles. A positive correlation (R 2 value 0.80) was attained when the expected and measured |G * | ranking were compared, whilst a negative correlation (R 2 value 0.43) was found for ϕ. Created elastograms demonstrated good definition of muscle structure and were robust to noise. Variability of measurements across the 5 subjects was dramatically lower for |G * | than it was for ϕ. This large variability in ϕ measurements was attributed to artefacts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Double standards in body evaluation? The influence of identification with body stimuli on ratings of attractiveness, body fat, and muscle mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voges, Mona M; Giabbiconi, Claire-Marie; Schöne, Benjamin; Waldorf, Manuel; Hartmann, Andrea S; Vocks, Silja

    2017-10-20

    Although it is well documented that women evaluate their own body differently from other bodies, it remains unclear whether this discrepancy is based on double standards because of identity or on objective differences between these bodies. The aim of this study was therefore to test whether women apply double standards depending on a body's identity when evaluating the same bodies presented with different faces. Average-weight women (N = 104) rated body attractiveness, body fat, and muscle mass of thin, average-weight, overweight, athletic, and hypermuscular bodies with either another female's face or their own face. With their own face, subjects rated overweight bodies as more unattractive, higher in body fat and lower in muscle mass than with another female's face. However, for non-overweight bodies, body ratings did not differ depending on body identity. Based on the self-deprecating double standards for overweight bodies, a body-related identity bias might be considered in theoretical models of body image. Level of evidence Level V, descriptive study.

  18. dSir2 in the Adult Fat Body, but Not in Muscles, Regulates Life Span in a Diet-Dependent Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushal Kr. Banerjee

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sir2, an evolutionarily conserved NAD+-dependent deacetylase, has been implicated as a key factor in mediating organismal life span. However, recent contradictory findings have brought into question the role of Sir2 and its orthologs in regulating organismal longevity. In this study, we report that Drosophila Sir2 (dSir2 in the adult fat body regulates longevity in a diet-dependent manner. We used inducible Gal4 drivers to knock down and overexpress dSir2 in a tissue-specific manner. A diet-dependent life span phenotype of dSir2 perturbations (both knockdown and overexpression in the fat body, but not muscles, negates the effects of background genetic mutations. In addition to providing clarity to the field, our study contrasts the ability of dSir2 in two metabolic tissues to affect longevity. We also show that dSir2 knockdown abrogates fat-body dFOXO-dependent life span extension. This report highlights the importance of the interplay between genetic factors and dietary inputs in determining organismal life spans.

  19. Use of the Anterolateral Thigh and Vertical Rectus Abdominis Musculocutaneous Flaps as Utility Flaps in Reconstructing Large Groin Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Jonathan Aslim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundGroin dissections result in large wounds with exposed femoral vessels requiring soft tissue coverage, and the reconstructive options are diverse. In this study we reviewed our experience with the use of the pedicled anterolateral thigh and vertical rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flaps in the reconstruction of large groin wounds.MethodsGroin reconstructions performed over a period of 10 years were evaluated, with a mean follow up of two years. We included all cases with large or complex (involving perineum defects, which were reconstructed with the pedicled anterolateral thigh musculocutaneous or the vertical rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (VRAM flaps. Smaller wounds which were covered with skin grafts, locally based flaps and pedicled muscle flaps were excluded.ResultsTwenty-three reconstructions were performed for large or complex groin defects, utilising the anterolateral thigh (n=10 and the vertical rectus abdominis (n=13 pedicled musculocutaneous flaps. Femoral vein reconstruction with a prosthetic graft was required in one patient, and a combination flap (VRAM and gracilis muscle flap was performed in another. Satisfactory coverage was achieved in all cases without major complications. No free flaps were used in our series.ConclusionsThe anterolateral thigh and vertical rectus abdominis pedicled musculocutaneous flaps yielded consistent results with little morbidity in the reconstruction of large and complex groin defects. A combination of flaps can be used in cases requiring extensive cover.

  20. Normative values for volume and fat content of the hip abductor muscles and their dependence on side, age and gender in a healthy population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, Magda; Berger, Nicole; Manoliu, Andrei; Fischer, Michael A; Nanz, Daniel; Andreisek, Gustav; Ulbrich, Erika J

    2016-04-01

    To determine normative values for volume and fat content of the gluteus medius (GMed) and minimus (GMin) muscle in healthy volunteers and to evaluate their dependence on age, gender and leg dominance. The IRB approval was obtained for this study. 80 healthy volunteers (females, 40; males, 40; age range 20-62 years), divided into four age groups, were included. Fat- and water-signal-separated MR images of the pelvis were acquired on a 3.0 T MR with a 3-point mDIXON sequence. Normalized volume and fat-signal fraction (FSF) of the GMed (ViGMed, FSFGMed) and GMin (ViGMin, FSFGMin) muscles were determined. The overall mean volumes (normalized) and FSF ± SD: ViGMed 105.13 ± 16.30 cm(3); ViGMin 30.24 ± 5.15 cm(3); FSFGMed 8.13 ± 1.70 % and FSFGMin 9.89 ± 2.72 %. Comparing different age subgroups within each gender no significant differences were found concerning the volumes and FSFs (except FSFGMin in male subgroup aged 20-29 versus 50-62 years, P = 0.014). Comparing FSFs differences between the two genders, only in 20-29 years subgroup, FSFGMed (P =0.003) and FSFGMin (P =0.002) were greater in female. Volume differences between the two legs were not significant (P > 0.077); FSFGMed and FSFGMin (P =0.005 for both) were significantly lower in the dominant leg in female but not in male group (P = 0.454 for FSFGMed and P = 0.643 for FSFMin). No age dependency was evident for volume normative data for GMed and GMin and normative data for FSF values showed no age- or gender dependency.

  1. Influence of aging on isometric muscle strength, fat-free mass and electromyographic signal power of the upper and lower limbs in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Josária F.; Alvim, Felipe C.; Castro, Eliane A.; Doimo, Leonice A.; Silva, Marcus V.; Novo, José M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Aging is a multifactorial process that leads to changes in the quantity and quality of skeletal muscle and contributes to decreased levels of muscle strength. Objective This study sought to investigate whether the isometric muscle strength, fat-free mass (FFM) and power of the electromyographic (EMG) signal of the upper and lower limbs of women are similarly affected by aging. Method The sample consisted of 63 women, who were subdivided into three groups (young (YO) n=33, 24.7±3.5 years; middle age (MA) n=15, 58.6±4.2 years; and older adults (OA). n=15, 72.0±4.2 years). Isometric strength was recorded simultaneously with the capture of the electrical activity of the flexor muscles of the fingers and the vastus lateralis during handgrip and knee extension tests, respectively. FFM was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results The handgrip strength measurements were similar among groups (p=0.523), whereas the FFM of the upper limbs was lower in group OA compared to group YO (p=0.108). The RMSn values of the hand flexors were similar among groups (p=0.754). However, the strength of the knee extensors, the FFM of the lower limbs and the RMSn values of the vastus lateralis were lower in groups MA (p=0.014, p=0.006 and p=0.013, respectively) and OA (p=0.000, p=0.000 and pisometric muscle strength in MLG and electromyographic activity of the lower limbs are more pronounced with the aging process of the upper limb. PMID:24676705

  2. 78 FR 68906 - Agency Information Collection (Hip and Thigh Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... Thigh Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits... Control No. 2900-- NEW (Back (Hip and Thigh Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire)'' in any... Questionnaire''. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Hip and Thigh Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire...

  3. Prospective Evaluation of the Effect of Thigh Dissection for Removal of Transobturator Mid Urethral Slings on Refractory Thigh Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, A B; Tenggardjaja, C; Goldman, H B

    2016-10-01

    Transobturator slings have higher rates of de novo neurologic symptoms than retropubic slings, most commonly related to the thigh. Cases refractory to conservative management may require removal of the thigh portion of the sling. In this series we prospectively examine the effect of thigh dissection with mesh removal on refractory thigh pain. All thigh dissections for refractory neurologic symptoms after transobturator sling placement were followed prospectively from October 2012 to October 2015. Patients were assessed preoperatively, with a pain score using a visual analog scale, and postoperatively with a global response assessment. A total of 12 thigh dissections were performed from October 2012 to October 2015 in 8 patients. Mean (±SD) time from original mesh placement to presentation was 2.7 (±1.5) years. Average preoperative pain score was 7.9 (±1.7) out of 10, with pain in the thigh in all patients. Seven cases involved unilateral thigh dissection and 1 had concomitant bilateral thigh dissection. Five patients underwent concurrent transvaginal excision. On postoperative evaluation the average global response rating was 1.6, with 1 defined as very much better and 2 defined as much better. Of the 8 patients 3 went on to have the contralateral side done with an average global response rating of 1.3 (±0.6). One patient underwent further treatment for stress urinary incontinence with placement of a retropubic mid urethral sling. Our prospective series supports the use of thigh dissection in patients with refractory neurologic symptoms after transobturator sling placement. The procedure can be performed safely with positive outcomes for the patient. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. AJS1669, a novel small-molecule muscle glycogen synthase activator, improves glucose metabolism and reduces body fat mass in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Kazuhiro; Takeshita, Sen; Kawasaki, Noriko; Miyanaga, Wataru; Okamatsu, Yoriko; Dohi, Mizuki; Nakagawa, Tadakiyo

    2017-01-01

    Impaired glycogen synthesis and turnover are common in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. As glycogen synthase (GS) is a key enzyme involved in the synthetic process, it presents a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In the present study, we identified a novel, potent and orally available GS activator AJS1669 {sodium 2-[[5-[[4-(4,5-difluoro-2-methylsulfanyl-phenyl) phenoxy] methyl]furan-2-carbonyl]-(2-furylmethyl)amino] acetate}. In vitro, we performed a glycogen synthase 1 (GYS1) activation assay for screening GS activators and identified that the activity of AJS1669 was further potentiated in the presence of glucose-6-phosphate (G6P). In vivo, we used ob/ob mice to evaluate the novel anti-diabetic effects of AJS1669 by measuring basal blood glucose levels, glucose tolerance and body fat mass index. Repeated administration of AJS1669 over 4 weeks reduced blood glucose and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels in ob/ob mice. AJS1669 also improved glucose tolerance in a dose-dependent manner, and decreased body fat mass. The mRNA levels of genes involved in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis were elevated in skeletal muscle tissue following AJS1669 treatment. Hepatic tissue of treated mice also exhibited elevated expression of genes associated with fatty acid oxidation. In contrast to ob/ob mice, in C57Bl/6 mice AJS1669 administration did not alter body weight or reduce glucose levels. These results demonstrate that pharmacological agents that activate GYS1, the main GS subtype found in skeletal muscle, have potential for use as novel treatments for diabetes that improve glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle. PMID:28290602

  5. Fat utilization during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Watt, Peter W.; Richter, Erik

    2001-01-01

    1. This study was carried out to test the hypothesis that the greater fat oxidation observed during exercise after adaptation to a high-fat diet is due to an increased uptake of fat originating from the bloodstream. 2. Of 13 male untrained subjects, seven consumed a fat-rich diet (62 % fat, 21...... % carbohydrate) and six consumed a carbohydrate-rich diet (20 % fat, 65 % carbohydrate). After 7 weeks of training and diet, 60 min of bicycle exercise was performed at 68 +/- 1 % of maximum oxygen uptake. During exercise [1-(13)C]palmitate was infused, arterial and venous femoral blood samples were collected......, and blood flow was determined by the thermodilution technique. Muscle biopsy samples were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle before and after exercise. 3. During exercise, the respiratory exchange ratio was significantly lower in subjects consuming the fat-rich diet (0.86 +/- 0.01, mean +/- S.E.M.) than...

  6. Reduced efficiency, but increased fat oxidation, in mitochondria from human skeletal muscle after 24-h ultraendurance exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernström, Maria; Bakkman, Linda; Tonkonogi, Michail

    2007-01-01

    The hypothesis that ultraendurance exercise influences muscle mitochondrial function has been investigated. Athletes in ultraendurance performance performed running, kayaking, and cycling at 60% of their peak O(2) consumption for 24 h. Muscle biopsies were taken preexercise (Pre-Ex), postexercise...... exercise (+13%). The increased mitochondrial capacity for PC oxidation indicates plasticity in substrate oxidation at the mitochondrial level, which may be of advantage during prolonged exercise....

  7. THE RELATION OF FAT FREE MASS TO LUNG FUNCTION, MUSCLE STRENGTH AND EXERCISE PERFORMANCE IN PATIENTS WITH EMPHYSEMA

    OpenAIRE

    竹中, 英昭

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate changes of body composition in patients with pulmonary emphysema (PE) and their influence on physiological function. Body composition analysis by means of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) was performed in 36 patients with stable PE and 19 age-matched healthy controls. I compared fat free mass (FFM) and body fat (BF), as a percentage of ideal body weight (FFM/IBW, BF/IBW), between patients with PE and healthy controls. FFM/IBW and BF /IBW were...

  8. 78 FR 36304 - Proposed Information Collection (Hip and Thigh Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... and Thigh Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans... ``OMB Control No. 2900--NEW (Hip and Thigh Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire)'' in any...

  9. Electrical vs manual acupuncture stimulation in a rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome: different effects on muscle and fat tissue insulin signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Johansson

    Full Text Available In rats with dihydrotestosterone (DHT-induced polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, repeated low-frequency electrical stimulation of acupuncture needles restores whole-body insulin sensitivity measured by euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. We hypothesized that electrical stimulation causing muscle contractions and manual stimulation causing needle sensation have different effects on insulin sensitivity and related signaling pathways in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, with electrical stimulation being more effective in DHT-induced PCOS rats. From age 70 days, rats received manual or low-frequency electrical stimulation of needles in abdominal and hind limb muscle five times/wk for 4-5 wks; controls were handled but untreated rats. Low-frequency electrical stimulation modified gene expression (decreased Tbc1d1 in soleus, increased Nr4a3 in mesenteric fat and protein expression (increased pAS160/AS160, Nr4a3 and decreased GLUT4 by western blot and increased GLUT4 expression by immunohistochemistry in soleus muscle; glucose clearance during oral glucose tolerance tests was unaffected. Manual stimulation led to faster glucose clearance and modified mainly gene expression in mesenteric adipose tissue (increased Nr4a3, Mapk3/Erk, Adcy3, Gsk3b, but not protein expression to the same extent; however, Nr4a3 was reduced in soleus muscle. The novel finding is that electrical and manual muscle stimulation affect glucose homeostasis in DHT-induced PCOS rats through different mechanisms. Repeated electrical stimulation regulated key functional molecular pathways important for insulin sensitivity in soleus muscle and mesenteric adipose tissue to a larger extent than manual stimulation. Manual stimulation improved whole-body glucose tolerance, an effect not observed after electrical stimulation, but did not affect molecular signaling pathways to the same extent as electrical stimulation. Although more functional signaling pathways related to insulin sensitivity

  10. Bone anatomy of the pelvic girdle, the thigh and the leg of Myrmecophaga tridactyla (Myrmecophagidae: Pilosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas de Assis Ribeiro

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla is the largest anteater species in the world. It is an animal of terrestrial habits, however, it has some ability to climb tall trees and termite mounds. The hard skeletal structures are of crucial importance, since they join and protect the soft organs and help support the body, shape, and get involved in movement. The appendicular skeleton is an important part of the locomotor apparatus, whose anatomical information in wild species is scarce, making it difficult to interpret data on these bones. This paper aims to describe the pelvic girdle, the thigh, and the leg skeleton in the giant anteater. We used two specimens of Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus (1758, fixed in a 3.7% aqueous formaldehyde solution. At first, the limbs were disjointed and we removed the skin, viscera, and muscles associated to the bones of the pelvic girdle, the thigh, and the leg in the specimens. Then, they were macerated in boiling water, and, subsequently, placed in a hydrogen peroxide solution. Once clean and dry, the bones were identified and described. The pelvic girdle skeleton in the giant anteater consists of the hip bone, formed by the ilium, pubis, and ischium bones; the thigh consists of the femur bone, and the leg consists of the tibia and fibula bones. In the knee joint region there is the patella, a relatively small sesamoid bone, considering the large size of this animal. The giant anteater have osteological features of the pelvic girdle, the thigh, and the leg similar to those in domestic carnivores, however, some morphological differences are made evident, something which may reflect differences in locomotor patterns.

  11. Association analyses of porcine SERPINE1 reveal sex-specific effects on muscling, growth, fat accretion and meat quality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weisz, Filip; Bartenschlager, H.; Knoll, Aleš; Mileham, A.; Deeb, N.; Geldermann, H.; Čepica, Stanislav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 5 (2012), s. 614-619 ISSN 0268-9146 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/10/1216 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : association study * fat deposition * meat quality Subject RIV: GI - Animal Husbandry ; Breeding Impact factor: 2.584, year: 2012

  12. Thigh circumference and risk of heart disease and premature death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, Berit L; Frederiksen, Peder

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between thigh circumference and incident cardiovascular disease and coronary heart disease and total mortality. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study with Cox proportional hazards model and restricted cubic splines. SETTING: Random subset of adults...... in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 1436 men and 1380 women participating in the Danish MONICA project, examined in 1987-8 for height, weight, and thigh, hip, and waist circumference, and body composition by impedance. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: 10 year incidence of cardiovascular and coronary heart disease and 12.5 years...... of follow-up for total death. RESULTS: A small thigh circumference was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and coronary heart diseases and total mortality in both men and women. A threshold effect for thigh circumference was evident, with greatly increased risk of premature death below...

  13. Matrix factorization reveals aging-specific co-expression gene modules in the fat and muscle tissues in nonhuman primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongcui; Zhao, Weiling; Zhou, Xiaobo

    2016-10-01

    Accurate identification of coherent transcriptional modules (subnetworks) in adipose and muscle tissues is important for revealing the related mechanisms and co-regulated pathways involved in the development of aging-related diseases. Here, we proposed a systematically computational approach, called ICEGM, to Identify the Co-Expression Gene Modules through a novel mathematical framework of Higher-Order Generalized Singular Value Decomposition (HO-GSVD). ICEGM was applied on the adipose, and heart and skeletal muscle tissues in old and young female African green vervet monkeys. The genes associated with the development of inflammation, cardiovascular and skeletal disorder diseases, and cancer were revealed by the ICEGM. Meanwhile, genes in the ICEGM modules were also enriched in the adipocytes, smooth muscle cells, cardiac myocytes, and immune cells. Comprehensive disease annotation and canonical pathway analysis indicated that immune cells, adipocytes, cardiomyocytes, and smooth muscle cells played a synergistic role in cardiac and physical functions in the aged monkeys by regulation of the biological processes associated with metabolism, inflammation, and atherosclerosis. In conclusion, the ICEGM provides an efficiently systematic framework for decoding the co-expression gene modules in multiple tissues. Analysis of genes in the ICEGM module yielded important insights on the cooperative role of multiple tissues in the development of diseases.

  14. Interface pressure is affected by slippage of bandages at thigh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, K; Hirai, M; Koyama, A; Iwata, H; Ohashi, M; Ota, A

    2012-12-01

    Very little is known about how compression bandages lose interface pressure. We hypothesized that the loss of interface pressure is correlated with the slippage of the bandages, and studied the interface pressure and slippage of three bandages over 8 hours. Twenty-Seven legs from 27 healthy volunteers were bandaged with short stretch bandages (SS), cohesive short stretch bandages (CS), and long stretch bandages (LS). Pressure sensors were placed above the ankle (B1), below the knee (D), and mid thigh (F). Interface pressures in a sitting position were recorded at the beginning, and 4 and 8 hours later. In 17 legs, the pressure sensor sites were marked, and their heights were measured on standing upright. SS and CS lost interface pressure quickly, but LS maintained pressure better than SS and CS at all sites. There was no pressure difference between SS and CS at the lower leg. However, CS maintained pressure better than SS at the mid thigh (44.6% vs. 54.4% pressure loss at 8 hours, respectively. P=0.037). There was a tendency toward less slippage with CS than SS at the mid thigh. In CS and LS, there was a linear correlation between the slippage of bandages and the interface pressure at the mid thigh (P pressure may be affected by the slippage of bandages at the thigh, but not at the lower leg. Cohesive short stretch bandages may exert their beneficial impact at the thigh.

  15. Concentration of sulfur-containing amino acids at turkey broilers during and after muscle dystrophy, fed with deficient feed supplemented with oxidised fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Stoyanchev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The aim of the present study was to reproduce experimentally muscular dystrophy in 50 broiler turkeys, through early nutrition with a diet deficient in vitamin E, selenium and sulfur-containing amino acids, supplemented with oxidised fat and to study blood plasma sulfur containing amino acids (methionine rd and cysteine. The experiments were conducted with 1 day-old broiler turkeys. By the 3 day of life, they were divided into 40 experimental (II group and 10 control birds (I group; the latter were fed a standard compound feed, whereas the former group received a diet deficient in sulfur-containing amino acids methionine and cysteine (reduced up to 50%, vitamin E, and Se (from 0.2 mg/kg in standard feed to 0.01 mg/kg, further supplemented with oxidized fat containing peroxides and aldehydes with peroxide number of the food 8.0 meq O /kg. The clinical signs of experimental muscle dystrophy in broiler turkeys 2 th appeared first by the 25 day of feeding, when the mild clinical form (II A group and the severe clinical form (II B group werewas established. The results indicated clearly that in turkey broilers suffering from muscle dystrophy, the concentrations of sulfur-containing amino acids cysteine and methionine decreased. After the treatment of turkey broilers withmuscle dystrophy, and supplementation with non-deficient forage with Se, vitamin E, but also with sulfurcontaining amino acids cysteine ormethionine with Seled at a dosage 0.06mg/kg, the plasma levels of sulfur-containing amino acids cysteine andmethionine ® was normalized in the mild clinical form (II A group. The birds affected by the severe clinical form of disease (II B group, which were not treated with Seled and whose deficient feed was not corrected, could not recover and levels of sulfur-containing amino acids cysteine and methionine did not normalize.

  16. Usefulness of circuit training at home for improving bone mass and muscle mass while losing fat mass in undergraduate female students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahata, Yoko

    2018-05-09

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not circuit training at home affects the calcaneus quantitative ultrasound status as well as other indices of body composition among undergraduate female students. Forty-one adolescents were recruited (18.5 ± 0.6 years old). The stiffness index of the calcaneus, broadband ultrasound attenuation of the calcaneus, speed of sound of the calcaneus, and body frame index. This was a three-month intervention study, so the measurements were conducted at baseline, 2 months later, and 3 months later while the subjects underwent circuit training at home. The subjects were divided into two groups: namely, the exercising group and non-exercising group. In the exercising group, broadband ultrasound attenuation of the calcaneus was higher 2 months later (p = 0.033) as well as 3 months later (p = 0.036), and the speed of sound of the calcaneus was higher 3 months later (p = 0.018). In addition, the muscle mass was strongly positively correlated with the calcaneus QUS-SOS (p = 0.004), while the body fat percentage was a strongly negatively correlated with the calcaneus QUS-BUA (p = 0.043). In the non-exercising group, the stiffness index of the calcaneus was higher 2 months later (p = 0.002) as well as 3 months later (p = 0.002). Furthermore, the body percentage was strongly positively correlated with the calcaneus QUS-SI (p = 0.009). These findings suggest that the calcaneus quantitative ultrasound status and muscle mass while losing fat mass may be improved by means of a simple exercise regimen within a short period among undergraduate female students.

  17. The Effects of Diet on the Proportion of Intramuscular Fat in Human Muscle: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Ahmed

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThere is an increasing trend in the consumption of poor-quality diets worldwide, contributing to the increase of non-communicable diseases. Diet directly influences physiological composition and subsequently physical health. Studies have shown that dietary macronutrient and energy content can influence the proportion of intramuscular fat (IMF, which mediates various metabolic and endocrine dysfunction. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify evidence in the literature assessing the association between different dietary interventions on the proportion of IMF in humans.MethodsThree medical databases were investigated (Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane to identify studies assessing changes in IMF after dietary interventions. The primary outcome measure was the change in IMF proportions after a dietary intervention. The effects of high-fat, high-carbohydrate, low-calorie, and starvation diets were assessed qualitatively. A meta-analysis assessing the effect of high-fat diets was conducted. Follow-up sensitivity and subgroup analyses were also conducted.ResultsOne thousand eight hundred and sixty-six articles were identified for review. Of these articles, 13 were eligible for inclusion after a full screening. High-fat diets increased IMF proportions, standardized mean difference = 1.24 (95% confidence interval, 0.43–2.05 and a significant overall effect size (P = 0.003. Diets with an increased proportion of carbohydrates decreased IMF proportions; however, increasing caloric intake with carbohydrates increased IMF. Starvation diets increased IMF stores, and hypocaloric diets did not result in any IMF proportion changes.ConclusionThis systematic review suggests that high-fat diets and diets with caloric intake increased above the amount required to maintain BMI with carbohydrates, and short-term starvation diets are associated with increases in IMF content. Further studies are needed to assess the effects of macronutrient

  18. The contribution of fat component to gestational weight gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to estimate the role of adipose tissue in gestational weight gain (GWG and preferential fat deposition among normal-weight women. Subjects and methods: prospective cohort study of 84 pregnancies: maternal body mass index 18,5–24,9 kg/m2, singleton term pregnancy, nondiabetic women, somatically well. GWG and skinfold thickness were evaluated in the 1st, 2nd, 3d trimesters, on the 3d day after delivery. Results: fat mass gain in low GWG was similar to recommended GWG and in the high-GWG group was greater one. Women with recommended and low GWG returned to their initial fat level on the 3d day after delivery, in excessive weight gain fat significantly increased (р=0,025. Compared to initial recommended GWG resulted in triceps skinfold thicknesses loss (р=0,001, in abdominal skinfold gained nothing and in thighs skinfold thicknesses increasing (р=0,021. Inadequate GWG leads to fat loss in arms (р=0,017, fat of abdominal area and thighs return to initial level. In excessive GWG fat in the upper trunk and arms not changed, in the lower area (thighs significantly increased compared to initial level (р=0,001 or other groups (р=0,001. Conclusion: excessive GWG was associated with greater adipose tissue cumulation and its deposition preferentially over the thighs. Inadequate GWG was clearly linked to low fat-free mass gain.

  19. Increased body condition score through increased lean muscle, but not fat deposition, is associated with reduced reproductive response to oestrus induction in beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, A; Gonzalez-Padilla, E; Garcés-Yepez, P; Rosete-Fernández, J V; Calderón-Robles, R C; Whittier, W D; Keisler, D H; Gutierrez, C G

    2016-10-01

    Energy reserve, estimated as body condition score (BCS), is the major determinant of the re-initiation of ovarian activity in postpartum cows. Leptin, IGF-I and insulin are positively related to BCS and are putative mediators between BCS and reproductive function. However, when BCS and body composition dissociates, concentrations of these metabolic hormones are altered. We hypothesized that increasing lean muscle tissue, but not fat tissue, would diminish the reproductive response to oestrus induction treatments. Thirty lactating beef cows with BCS of 3.10±1.21 and 75.94±12 days postpartum were divided in two groups. Control cows (n=15) were supplemented with 10.20 kg of concentrate daily for 60 days. Treated cows (n=15) were supplemented equally, and received a β-adrenergic receptor agonist (β-AA; 0.15 mg/kg BW) to achieve accretion of lean tissue mass and not fat tissue mass. Twelve days after ending concentrate supplementation/β-AA treatment, cows received a progestin implant to induce oestrus. Cows displaying oestrus were inseminated during the following 60 days, and maintained with a fertile bull for a further 21 days. Cows in both groups gained weight during the supplementation period (Daily weight gain: Control=0.75 kg v. β-AA=0.89 kg). Cows treated with β-AA had a larger increase in BCS (i.e. change in BCS: control=1 point (score 4.13) v. β-AA=2 points (score 5.06; P0.05) did not differ between groups. However, the number of cows displaying oestrus (control 13/15 v. β-AA 8/15; P<0.05) and the percentage cycling (control 6/8 v. β-AA 3/10; P=0.07) after progestin treatment and the pregnancy percentage at the end of the breeding period (control 13/15 v. β-AA 8/15; P<0.05) were lower in β-AA than control cows. In summary, the increase BCS through muscle tissue accretion, but not through fat tissue accretion, resulted in a lower response to oestrus induction, lower percentage of cycling animals and lower pregnancy percentage after progestin treatment

  20. Accessory piriformis muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Develi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Piriformis muscle originates from facies pelvica of sacrum and inserts on the trochanter major. It is one of the lateral rotator muscles of the hip and a landmark point in the gluteal region since n. ischiadicus descends to the thigh by passing close to the muscle. This contiguity may be associated with the irritation of the nerve which is known as piriformis syndrome. A rare anatomic variation of the muscle which observed on 74 years old male cadaver is discussed in this case report. [Cukurova Med J 2017; 42(1.000: 182-183

  1. Ionizing Radiation Potentiates High Fat Diet-Induced Insulin Resistance and Reprograms Skeletal Muscle and Adipose Progenitor Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nylander, Vibe; Ingerslev, Lars R; Andersen, Emil

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation increases the risk of chronic metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes later in life. We hypothesized that irradiation reprograms the epigenome of metabolic progenitor cells, which could account for impaired metabolism after cancer treatment...... mice. Mice subjected to total body irradiation showed alterations in glucose metabolism and, when challenged with HFD, marked hyperinsulinemia. Insulin signaling was chronically disrupted in skeletal muscle and adipose progenitor cells collected from irradiated mice and differentiated in culture...

  2. Use of prediction equations to determine the accuracy of whole-body fat and fat-free mass and appendicular skeletal muscle mass measurements from a single abdominal image using computed tomography in advanced cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgour, Robert D; Cardiff, Katrina; Rosenthall, Leonard; Lucar, Enriqueta; Trutschnigg, Barbara; Vigano, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of body composition using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and single abdominal images from computed tomography (CT) in advanced cancer patients (ACP) have important diagnostic and prognostic value. The question arises as to whether CT scans can serve as surrogates for DXA in terms of whole-body fat-free mass (FFM), whole-body fat mass (FM), and appendicular skeletal muscle (ASM) mass. Predictive equations to estimate body composition for ACP from CT images have been proposed (Mourtzakis et al. 2008; Appl. Physiol. Nutr. Metabol. 33(5): 997-1006); however, these equations have yet to be validated in an independent cohort of ACP. Thus, this study evaluated the accuracy of these equations in estimating FFM, FM, and ASM mass using CT images at the level of the third lumbar vertebrae and compared these values with DXA measurements. FFM, FM, and ASM mass were estimated from the prediction equations proposed by Mourtzakis and colleagues (2008) using single abdominal CT images from 43 ACP and were compared with whole-body DXA scans using Spearman correlations and Bland-Altman analyses. Despite a moderate to high correlation between the actual (DXA) and predicted (CT) values for FM (rho = 0.93; p ≤ 0.001), FFM (rho = 0.78; p ≤ 0.001), and ASM mass (rho = 0.70; p ≤ 0.001), Bland-Altman analyses revealed large range-of-agreement differences between the 2 methods (29.39 kg for FFM, 15.47 kg for FM, and 3.99 kg for ASM mass). Based on the magnitude of these differences, we concluded that prediction equations using single abdominal CT images have poor accuracy, cannot be considered as surrogates for DXA, and may have limited clinical utility.

  3. Autologous fat transplantation for labia majora reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, P M; Herold, C; Rennekampff, H O

    2011-10-01

    A case of autologous fat transplantation for labia majora augmentation after ablative surgery is presented. The patient reported pain and deformity of the left labium majus after resection for Bowen's disease. The symptoms had not been solved by classic plastic surgical reconstructions including a pudendal thigh fasciocutaneous flap. Use of autologous fat transplantation facilitated an improved aesthetic result while preserving residual sensation to the external genitalia and improving symptoms of mucosal exposure and dryness.

  4. Restoration of muscle mitochondrial function and metabolic flexibility in type 2 diabetes by exercise training is paralleled by increased myocellular fat storage and improved insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meex, Ruth C R; Schrauwen-Hinderling, Vera B; Moonen-Kornips, Esther; Schaart, Gert; Mensink, Marco; Phielix, Esther; van de Weijer, Tineke; Sels, Jean-Pierre; Schrauwen, Patrick; Hesselink, Matthijs K C

    2010-03-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and fat accumulation in skeletal muscle (increased intramyocellular lipid [IMCL]) have been linked to development of type 2 diabetes. We examined whether exercise training could restore mitochondrial function and insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes. Eighteen male type 2 diabetic and 20 healthy male control subjects of comparable body weight, BMI, age, and VO2max participated in a 12-week combined progressive training program (three times per week and 45 min per session). In vivo mitochondrial function (assessed via magnetic resonance spectroscopy), insulin sensitivity (clamp), metabolic flexibility (indirect calorimetry), and IMCL content (histochemically) were measured before and after training. Mitochondrial function was lower in type 2 diabetic compared with control subjects (P = 0.03), improved by training in control subjects (28% increase; P = 0.02), and restored to control values in type 2 diabetic subjects (48% increase; P type 2 diabetic subjects (delta Rd 63% increase; P type 2 diabetic subjects was restored (delta respiratory exchange ratio 63% increase; P = 0.01) but was unchanged in control subjects (delta respiratory exchange ratio 7% increase; P = 0.22). Starting with comparable pretraining IMCL levels, training tended to increase IMCL content in type 2 diabetic subjects (27% increase; P = 0.10), especially in type 2 muscle fibers. Exercise training restored in vivo mitochondrial function in type 2 diabetic subjects. Insulin-mediated glucose disposal and metabolic flexibility improved in type 2 diabetic subjects in the face of near-significantly increased IMCL content. This indicates that increased capacity to store IMCL and restoration of improved mitochondrial function contribute to improved muscle insulin sensitivity.

  5. A High-Protein Diet Reduces Weight Gain, Decreases Food Intake, Decreases Liver Fat Deposition, and Improves Markers of Muscle Metabolism in Obese Zucker Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, William W; Dridi, Sami; Shouse, Stephanie A; Wu, Hexirui; Hawley, Aubree; Lee, Sun-Ok; Gu, Xuan; Baum, Jamie I

    2017-06-08

    A primary factor in controlling and preventing obesity is through dietary manipulation. Diets higher in protein have been shown to improve body composition and metabolic health during weight loss. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a high-protein diet versus a moderate-protein diet on muscle, liver and fat metabolism and glucose regulation using the obese Zucker rat. Twelve-week old, male, Zucker (fa/fa) and lean control (Fa/fa) rats were randomly assigned to either a high-protein (40% energy) or moderate-protein (20% energy) diet for 12 weeks, with a total of four groups: lean 20% protein (L20; n = 8), lean 40% protein (L40; n = 10), obese 20% protein (O20; n = 8), and obese 40% protein (O40; n = 10). At the end of 12 weeks, animals were fasted and euthanized. There was no difference in food intake between L20 and L40. O40 rats gained less weight and had lower food intake ( p diet rats, respectively. O40 had decreased skeletal muscle mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) phosphorylation and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) mRNA expression compared to O20 ( p protein kinase (AMPK), eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4EBP1), protein kinase B (Akt) or p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K) phosphorylation. The data suggest that high-protein diets have the potential to reduce weight gain and alter metabolism, possibly through regulation of an mTORC1-dependent pathway in skeletal muscle.

  6. Aerobic Exercise Attenuates the Loss of Skeletal Muscle during Energy Restriction in Adults with Visceral Adiposity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Eiichi; Kumahara, Hideaki; Tobina, Takuro; Matsuda, Takuro; Watabe, Kiwa; Matono, Sakiko; Ayabe, Makoto; Kiyonaga, Akira; Anzai, Keizo; Higaki, Yasuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of energy restriction with or without aerobic exercise on thigh muscle mass and quality in adults with visceral adiposity. Methods 75 males and females were randomly assigned to the groups ‘diet only’ (DO; n = 42) or ‘diet plus aerobic exercise’ (D/Ex; n = 33) for 12 weeks. The target energy intake in both groups was 25 kcal/kg of ideal body weight. Subjects in the D/Ex group were instructed to exercise for ≥300 min/week at lactate threshold. Computed tomography was used to measure thigh muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), normal-density muscle area (NDMA), and visceral fat area. Results Total body weight (DO: −6.6 ± 3.6%; D/Ex: −7.3 ± 4.6%) and visceral fat (DO: −16.0 ± 13.8%; D/Ex: −23.1 ± 14.7%) decreased significantly in both groups; however, the changes were not significantly different between the two groups. The decrease in muscle CSA was significantly greater in the DO group (-5.1 ± 4.5%) compared with the D/Ex group (-2.5 ± 5.0%). NDMA decreased significantly in the DO (-4.9 ± 4.9%) but not in the D/Ex group (-1.4 ± 5.0%). Conclusion Aerobic exercise attenuated the loss of skeletal muscle during energy restriction in adults with visceral adiposity. PMID:24457527

  7. EFFECT OF GENOTYPE, SEX AND KEEPING TECHNOLOGY ON THE CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS OF BREAST AND THIGH MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SZ. KONRÁD

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In the recent decades because of the alternative poultry meat production technologies (free range and organic farming, which are gaining ground in some of the European countries, only special slow growing breeds and hybrids can be used. The end products created by crossing the indigenous Yellow Hungarian hen with different meat type cocks were suitable for alternative keeping technology. The valuable meat parts of the pure bred Yellow Hungarian kept in free range for 84 days and the end product created with crossing (first group as well as the valuable meat parts of Ross 308 broilers fattened for 42 days in intensive keeping technology (second group were thoroughly examined in order to establish whether the genotype, sex and/or keeping technology has any kind of influence on different chemical parameters of the meat. There were no essential differences between the dry matter content of breast meat of the two different keeping technology groups (25.34 and 26.25%. However, dry matter content of thigh was 5.28 to 7.48 percentage points higher in the second group. Protein contents of breast and thigh meat were not affected by the keeping technology. Fat content of thigh meat was two and a half times higher than in the first group (6.03 and 13.73%. Thus, this study have revealed that only the ash content of breast meat affected from the keeping technology, as this parameter was higher in the first group than the second group (0.84 to 1.05 % vs 0.53 %.

  8. Muscle MRI and functional outcome measures in Becker muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barp, Andrea; Bello, Luca; Caumo, Luca; Campadello, Paola; Semplicini, Claudio; Lazzarotto, Annalisa; Sorarù, Gianni; Calore, Chiara; Rampado, Alessandro; Motta, Raffaella; Stramare, Roberto; Pegoraro, Elena

    2017-11-22

    Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) is a neuromuscular disorder allelic to Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), caused by in-frame mutations in the dystrophin gene, and characterized by a clinical progression that is both milder and more heterogeneous than DMD. Muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been proposed as biomarker of disease progression in dystrophinopathies. Correlation with clinically meaningful outcome measures such as North Star Ambulatory Assessment (NSAA) and 6 minute walk test (6MWT) is paramount for biomarker qualification. In this study, 51 molecularly confirmed BMD patients (aged 7-69 years) underwent muscle MRI and were evaluated with functional measures (NSAA and 6MWT) at the time of the MRI, and subsequently after one year. We confirmed a pattern of fatty substitution involving mainly the hip extensors and most thigh muscles. Severity of muscle fatty substitution was significantly correlated with specific DMD mutations: in particular, patients with an isolated deletion of exon 48, or deletions bordering exon 51, showed milder involvement. Fat infiltration scores correlated with baseline functional measures, and predicted changes after 1 year. We conclude that in BMD, skeletal muscle MRI not only strongly correlates with motor function, but also helps in predicting functional deterioration within a 12-month time frame.

  9. Test-retest reliability of myofascial trigger point detection in hip and thigh areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenfeld, E; Finestone, A S; Moran, U; Damri, E; Kalichman, L

    2017-10-01

    Myofascial trigger points (MTrP's) are a primary source of pain in patients with musculoskeletal disorders. Nevertheless, they are frequently underdiagnosed. Reliable MTrP palpation is the necessary for their diagnosis and treatment. The few studies that have looked for intra-tester reliability of MTrPs detection in upper body, provide preliminary evidence that MTrP palpation is reliable. Reliability tests for MTrP palpation on the lower limb have not yet been performed. To evaluate inter- and intra-tester reliability of MTrP recognition in hip and thigh muscles. Reliability study. 21 patients (15 males and 6 females, mean age 21.1 years) referred to the physical therapy clinic, 10 with knee or hip pain and 11 with pain in an upper limb, low back, shin or ankle. Two experienced physical therapists performed the examinations, blinded to the subjects' identity, medical condition and results of the previous MTrP evaluation. Each subject was evaluated four times, twice by each examiner in a random order. Dichotomous findings included a palpable taut band, tenderness, referred pain, and relevance of referred pain to patient's complaint. Based on these, diagnosis of latent MTrP's or active MTrP's was established. The evaluation was performed on both legs and included a total of 16 locations in the following muscles: rectus femoris (proximal), vastus medialis (middle and distal), vastus lateralis (middle and distal) and gluteus medius (anterior, posterior and distal). Inter- and intra-tester reliability (Cohen's kappa (κ)) values for single sites ranged from -0.25 to 0.77. Median intra-tester reliability was 0.45 and 0.46 for latent and active MTrP's, and median inter-tester reliability was 0.51 and 0.64 for latent and active MTrPs, respectively. The examination of the distal vastus medialis was most reliable for latent and active MTrP's (intra-tester k = 0.27-0.77, inter-tester k = 0.77 and intra-tester k = 0.53-0.72, inter-tester k = 0.72, correspondingly

  10. Adductor muscle pyo-myositis simulating appendicitis: CT and MR imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coumbaras, M.; Le Hir, P.; Jomaah, N.; Arrive, L.; Tubiana, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Pyo-myositis is a primary bacterial infection of skeletal muscle. This infection tends to occur in the large muscles of the lower extremity. Pyo-myositis of the proximal muscles of the thigh can simulate acute abdominal disease. Early diagnosis improves the outcome. Delayed diagnosis may lead to septicemia and shock. We report the CT and MRI findings in a patient with pyo-myositis of the proximal muscles of the thigh. (authors)

  11. A High-Protein Diet Reduces Weight Gain, Decreases Food Intake, Decreases Liver Fat Deposition, and Improves Markers of Muscle Metabolism in Obese Zucker Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William W. French

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A primary factor in controlling and preventing obesity is through dietary manipulation. Diets higher in protein have been shown to improve body composition and metabolic health during weight loss. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a high-protein diet versus a moderate-protein diet on muscle, liver and fat metabolism and glucose regulation using the obese Zucker rat. Twelve-week old, male, Zucker (fa/fa and lean control (Fa/fa rats were randomly assigned to either a high-protein (40% energy or moderate-protein (20% energy diet for 12 weeks, with a total of four groups: lean 20% protein (L20; n = 8, lean 40% protein (L40; n = 10, obese 20% protein (O20; n = 8, and obese 40% protein (O40; n = 10. At the end of 12 weeks, animals were fasted and euthanized. There was no difference in food intake between L20 and L40. O40 rats gained less weight and had lower food intake (p < 0.05 compared to O20. O40 rats had lower liver weight (p < 0.05 compared to O20. However, O40 rats had higher orexin (p < 0.05 levels compared to L20, L40 and O20. Rats in the L40 and O40 groups had less liver and muscle lipid deposition compared to L20 and L40 diet rats, respectively. O40 had decreased skeletal muscle mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1 phosphorylation and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ mRNA expression compared to O20 (p < 0.05, with no difference in 5′ AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4EBP1, protein kinase B (Akt or p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K phosphorylation. The data suggest that high-protein diets have the potential to reduce weight gain and alter metabolism, possibly through regulation of an mTORC1-dependent pathway in skeletal muscle.

  12. A low-fat yoghurt supplemented with a rooster comb extract on muscle joint function in adults with mild knee pain: a randomized, double blind, parallel, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solà, Rosa; Valls, Rosa-Maria; Martorell, Isabel; Giralt, Montserrat; Pedret, Anna; Taltavull, Núria; Romeu, Marta; Rodríguez, Àurea; Moriña, David; Lopez de Frutos, Victor; Montero, Manuel; Casajuana, Maria-Carmen; Pérez, Laura; Faba, Jenny; Bernal, Gloria; Astilleros, Anna; González, Roser; Puiggrós, Francesc; Arola, Lluís; Chetrit, Carlos; Martinez-Puig, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Preliminary results suggested that oral-administration of rooster comb extract (RCE) rich in hyaluronic acid (HA) was associated with improved muscle strength. Following these promising results, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of low-fat yoghurt supplemented with RCE rich in HA on muscle function in adults with mild knee pain; a symptom of early osteoarthritis. Participants (n = 40) received low-fat yoghurt (125 mL d(-1)) supplemented with 80 mg d(-1) of RCE and the placebo group (n = 40) consumed the same yoghurt without the RCE, in a randomized, controlled, double-blind, parallel trial over 12 weeks. Using an isokinetic dynamometer (Biodex System 4), RCE consumption, compared to control, increased the affected knee peak torque, total work and mean power at 180° s(-1), at least 11% in men (p < 0.05) with no differences in women. No dietary differences were noted. These results suggest that long-term consumption of low-fat yoghurt supplemented with RCE could be a dietary tool to improve muscle strength in men, associated with possible clinical significance. However, further studies are needed to elucidate reasons for these sex difference responses observed, and may provide further insight into muscle function.

  13. Fat and muscle mass in different groups of pre-pubertal and pubertal rural children. Cross-cultural comparisons between Sahelian (rural Senegal) and Amazonian (Beni River, Bolivia) children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benefice, Eric; Luna Monrroy, Selma J; Lopez Rodriguez, Ronald W; Ndiaye, Gnagna

    2011-07-01

    An increase in fat accretion is essential for triggering the puberty spurt. Hence, nutritional constraints may influence puberty timing. To measure changes in fat and muscle mass in children living in natural environments but with different nutritional exposures. Cross-comparisons of children from rural Senegal and lowland (Amazonian) Bolivia were carried out. Anthropometric measurements of stature, weight, four subcutaneous skin-folds (triceps, biceps, subscapular, supra-iliac) and arm circumference were made. Children were divided into two age groups (5-9.9-year-olds or 'pre pubescents' (n = 381) and 10-15-year-olds or 'pubescents' (n = 692)). Senegalese girls menstruated later than Bolivian girls and Senegalese boys also matured later than Bolivian boys. Bolivian children displayed more fat and muscle before puberty and during puberty than the Senegalese. They also had more fat deposited on the trunk. There were substantial differences in living conditions and nutritional patterns between both locations. In Senegal, nutritional stress is likely to appear early during in utero life and to persist throughout the growth period, including puberty. This leads to a deficit in fat accretion before and during puberty that is associated with a considerable delay in puberty occurrence. In Bolivia, such stress is far less severe. Variability in puberty should be analysed taking into account these differences.

  14. Proton Density Fat-Fraction of Rotator Cuff Muscles Is Associated With Isometric Strength 10 Years After Rotator Cuff Repair: A Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of the Shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karampinos, Dimitrios C; Holwein, Christian; Buchmann, Stefan; Baum, Thomas; Ruschke, Stefan; Gersing, Alexandra S; Sutter, Reto; Imhoff, Andreas B; Rummeny, Ernst J; Jungmann, Pia M

    2017-07-01

    Quantitative muscle fat-fraction magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques correlate with semiquantitative Goutallier scores with failure after rotator cuff (RC) repair. To investigate the relationship of proton density fat fraction (PDFF) of the RC muscles with semiquantitative MR scores, cartilage T2 relaxation times, and clinical isometric strength measurements in patients 10 years after unilateral RC repair. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Bilateral shoulder MR imaging was performed in 13 patients (11 male, 2 female; age, 72 ± 8 years) 10.9 ± 0.4 years after unilateral autologous periosteal flap augmented RC repair (total shoulders assessed, N = 26). Goutallier classification, muscle atrophy, RC tendon integrity, and cartilage defects were determined based on morphological MR sequences. A paracoronal 2D multi-slice multi-echo sequence was used for quantitative cartilage T2 mapping. A chemical shift-encoding-based water-fat separation technique (based on a 6-echo 3D spoiled gradient echo sequence) was used for quantification of the PDFF of RC muscles. Isometric shoulder abduction strength was measured clinically. Mean and SD, Pearson correlation, and partial Spearman correlation were calculated. There were 6 RC full-thickness retears in ipsilateral shoulders and 6 RC full-thickness tears in contralateral shoulders. Isometric shoulder abduction strength was not significantly different between ipsilateral and contralateral shoulders (50 ± 24 N vs 54 ± 24 N; P = .159). The mean PDFF of RC muscles was 11.7% ± 10.4% (ipsilateral, 14.2% ± 8.5%; contralateral, 9.2% ± 7.8%; P = .002). High supraspinatus PDFF correlated significantly with higher Goutallier scores ( R = 0.75, P isometric muscle strength ( R = -0.49, P = .011). This correlation remained significant after adjustment for muscle area measurements and tendon rupture ( R = -0.41, P = .048). More severe cartilage defects at the humerus were significantly associated with higher supraspinatus

  15. Maternal Plane of Nutrition during Late Gestation and Weaning Age Alter Angus × Simmental Offspring Longissimus Muscle Transcriptome and Intramuscular Fat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia J Moisá

    Full Text Available In model organisms both the nutrition of the mother and the young offspring could induce long-lasting transcriptional changes in tissues. In livestock, such changes could have important roles in determining nutrient use and meat quality. The main objective was to evaluate if plane of maternal nutrition during late-gestation and weaning age alter the offspring's Longissimus muscle (LM transcriptome, animal performance, and metabolic hormones. Whole-transcriptome microarray analysis was performed on LM samples of early (EW and normal weaned (NW Angus × Simmental calves born to grazing cows receiving no supplement [low plane of nutrition (LPN] or 2.3 kg high-grain mix/day [medium plane of nutrition (MPN] during the last 105 days of gestation. Biopsies of LM were harvested at 78 (EW, 187 (NW and 354 (before slaughter days of age. Despite greater feed intake in MPN offspring, blood insulin was greater in LPN offspring. Carcass intramuscular fat content was greater in EW offspring. Bioinformatics analysis of the transcriptome highlighted a modest overall response to maternal plane of nutrition, resulting in only 35 differentially expressed genes (DEG. However, weaning age and a high-grain diet (EW strongly impacted the transcriptome (DEG = 167, especially causing a lipogenic program activation. In addition, between 78 and 187 days of age, EW steers had an activation of the innate immune system due presumably to macrophage infiltration of intramuscular fat. Between 187 and 354 days of age (the "finishing" phase, NW steers had an activation of the lipogenic transcriptome machinery, while EW steers had a clear inhibition through the epigenetic control of histone acetylases. Results underscored the need to conduct further studies to understand better the functional outcome of transcriptome changes induced in the offspring by pre- and post-natal nutrition. Additional knowledge on molecular and functional outcomes would help produce more efficient beef

  16. Maternal Plane of Nutrition during Late Gestation and Weaning Age Alter Angus × Simmental Offspring Longissimus Muscle Transcriptome and Intramuscular Fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisá, Sonia J; Shike, Daniel W; Shoup, Lindsay; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L; Loor, Juan J

    2015-01-01

    In model organisms both the nutrition of the mother and the young offspring could induce long-lasting transcriptional changes in tissues. In livestock, such changes could have important roles in determining nutrient use and meat quality. The main objective was to evaluate if plane of maternal nutrition during late-gestation and weaning age alter the offspring's Longissimus muscle (LM) transcriptome, animal performance, and metabolic hormones. Whole-transcriptome microarray analysis was performed on LM samples of early (EW) and normal weaned (NW) Angus × Simmental calves born to grazing cows receiving no supplement [low plane of nutrition (LPN)] or 2.3 kg high-grain mix/day [medium plane of nutrition (MPN)] during the last 105 days of gestation. Biopsies of LM were harvested at 78 (EW), 187 (NW) and 354 (before slaughter) days of age. Despite greater feed intake in MPN offspring, blood insulin was greater in LPN offspring. Carcass intramuscular fat content was greater in EW offspring. Bioinformatics analysis of the transcriptome highlighted a modest overall response to maternal plane of nutrition, resulting in only 35 differentially expressed genes (DEG). However, weaning age and a high-grain diet (EW) strongly impacted the transcriptome (DEG = 167), especially causing a lipogenic program activation. In addition, between 78 and 187 days of age, EW steers had an activation of the innate immune system due presumably to macrophage infiltration of intramuscular fat. Between 187 and 354 days of age (the "finishing" phase), NW steers had an activation of the lipogenic transcriptome machinery, while EW steers had a clear inhibition through the epigenetic control of histone acetylases. Results underscored the need to conduct further studies to understand better the functional outcome of transcriptome changes induced in the offspring by pre- and post-natal nutrition. Additional knowledge on molecular and functional outcomes would help produce more efficient beef cattle.

  17. AMPK-α2 is involved in exercise training-induced adaptations in insulin-stimulated metabolism in skeletal muscle following high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Marcia J; Turcotte, Lorraine P

    2014-10-15

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been studied extensively and postulated to be a target for the treatment and/or prevention of metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance. Exercise training has been deemed a beneficial treatment for obesity and insulin resistance. Furthermore, exercise is a feasible method to combat high-fat diet (HFD)-induced alterations in insulin sensitivity. The purpose of this study was to determine whether AMPK-α2 activity is required to gain beneficial effects of exercise training with high-fat feeding. Wild-type (WT) and AMPK-α2 dominant-negative (DN) male mice were fed standard diet (SD), underwent voluntary wheel running (TR), fed HFD, or trained with HFD (TR + HFD). By week 6, TR, irrespective of genotype, decreased blood glucose and increased citrate synthase activity in both diet groups and decreased insulin levels in HFD groups. Hindlimb perfusions were performed, and, in WT mice with SD, TR increased insulin-mediated palmitate uptake (76.7%) and oxidation (>2-fold). These training-induced changes were not observed in the DN mice. With HFD, TR decreased palmitate oxidation (61-64%) in both WT and DN and increased palmitate uptake (112%) in the WT with no effects on palmitate uptake in the DN. With SD, TR increased ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 phosphorylation, regardless of genotype. With HFD, TR reduced JNK1/2 phosphorylation, regardless of genotype, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 expression in WT, and CD36 expression in both DN and WT. These data suggest that low AMPK-α2 signaling disrupts, in part, the exercise training-induced adaptations in insulin-stimulated metabolism in skeletal muscle following HFD. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  18. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF MUSCLE AFTER POLLEN APPLICATION IN NUTRITION OF BROILER CHICKENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimíra Kňazovická

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE Principle purpose of this study was to monitor the chemical composition of breast and thigh muscular part of chickens of hybrid combination Ross 308 and to verify the differences due to use of pollen extract in feed mixture at a dose of 400 and 800 mg.kg-1 during the feeding of 42 days. We did not find significant differences (P≥0.05 in followed chemical compounds of thigh muscle with the skin and subcutaneous fat between the groups with and without application of pollen extract: in contents of water (68.49-70.12 g.100g-1, protein (18.82-18.98 g.100g-1, fat (9.96-11.53 g.100g-1 and in energy value (692.20-752.36 kJ.100g-1. Significant differences (P≤0.05 were found only in protein content of breast muscle between the control group (23.96 g.100g-1 and experimental group I (23.28 g.100g-1. Values of water content (73.97-74.32 g.100g-1, fat content (1.07-1.40 g.100g-1 and energy (441.65-446.64 kJ.100g-1 in breast muscle between the evaluated groups were balanced (P≥0.05. The results show that pollen extract at the concentration used in feed mixture did not effect basic chemical composition of the most valuable parts of the chicken Ross 308 carcass and we can apply it in their nutrition. Application at a dose of 800 mg.kg-1 seems to be more positive.doi:10.5219/190

  19. Amino Acid Levels in Muscle Tissue of Six Wild Feathered Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Straková

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine and compare the levels of amino acids (AAs in breast and thigh muscles of six species of feathered game of the same age. The experiment involved the following species: wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo, guinea fowl (Numida meleagris, chukar partridge (Alectoris chucar, Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica, common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus and grey partridge (Perdix perdix. The highest content of AAs was found in the chukar partridge (breast: 815.7 ± 47.71 g/kg; thigh: 771.4 ± 107.0 g/kg, on a dry matter basis, the lowest levels of AAs were found in Japanese quail (breast: 734.2 ± 45.07 g/kg and grey partridge (thigh: 614.9 ± 49.66 g/kg. In all examined species, the level of histidine in breast muscles differed (P ≤ 0.01 from that in thigh muscles. In all investigated species, the levels of essential AAs in breast muscles were higher (P ≤ 0.01 than those in thigh muscles, whereas the levels of non-essential AAs in breast muscles were lower (P ≤ 0.01 than those in thigh muscles. Breast muscles are therefore more valuable than thigh muscles because of the content of essential AAs.

  20. Spontaneous Compartment Syndrome of the Thigh in the Absence of Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javedani, Parisa P; Ratnabalasuriar, Radhika; Grall, Kristi J H

    2016-07-01

    Compartment syndrome occurs when an increase in pressure results in vascular and functional impairment of the underlying nerve and muscles. Thigh compartment syndrome (TCS) is uncommon, but clinical suspicion warrants emergent surgical consultation and fasciotomy. We present a 42-year-old man evaluated for right lateral thigh pain, without a history of trauma, deep venous thrombosis (DVT), previous surgery, or intravenous drug use. He was febrile, tachycardic, with a mild leukocytosis, an elevated C-reactive protein level, and an elevated creatinine kinase level. Radiographs showed no abnormality and right lower extremity duplex ultrasound showed no DVT. A computed tomography scan of the right lower extremity was concerning for compartment syndrome. Surgical consultation was obtained, and the patient was taken to the operating room for fasciotomy. He was diagnosed with compartment syndrome intraoperatively. The patient was discharged on hospital day 10. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: TCS is exceedingly rare, especially in the absence of underlying traumatic and nontraumatic etiologies. The diagnosis is challenging because more elastic fascia with larger space in the thigh allows for accommodation of acute increases in pressure. Consequently, there may not be the expected acute rise in compartment pressures; increased compartment pressure may only be a late sign, when underlying neurovascular damage has already occurred. TCS is complicated by high morbidity and mortality. Emergent surgical consultation should be obtained when there is a high clinical suspicion for TCS, and limb-saving fasciotomy should not be delayed. This case shows the importance of a high level of suspicion for TCS in patients with no identifiable etiology and no historical risk factors for development of compartment syndrome, because TCS may not present with classic symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Muscle reflexes during gait elicited by electrical stimulation of the posterior cruciate ligament in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer-Rasmussen, T; Krogsgaard, M R; Jensen, D B

    2002-01-01

    over the vastus medialis, rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris caput longum, and semitendinosus muscles. The stimuli consisted of four pulses delivered at 200 Hz; the stimulus amplitude was two to three times the sensory threshold. The electrical stimulation of the PCL inhibited the ongoing......We investigated the influence of electrical stimulation of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) on the motoneuron pool of the thigh and calf muscle during gait. The study group comprised eight young men without any history of injury to the knee joints. Multistranded teflon-insulated stainless...... steel wires were inserted into the PCL guided by sonography and in four subjects also into the fat pad of the knee. The PCL was electrically stimulated during gait on a treadmill at heel strike and 100 ms after heel strike. Electromyographic signals were recorded with bipolar surface electrodes placed...

  2. Scaling and the frequency dependence of Nyquist plot maxima of the electrical impedance of the human thigh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Carl

    2017-11-30

    To define and elucidate the properties of reduced-variable Nyquist plots. Non-invasive measurements of the electrical impedance of the human thigh. A retrospective analysis of the electrical impedances of 154 normal subjects measured over the past decade shows that 'scaling' of the Nyquist plots for human thigh muscles is a property shared by healthy thigh musculature, irrespective of subject and the length of muscle segment. Here the term scaling signifies the near and sometimes 'perfect' coalescence of the separate X versus R plots into one 'reduced' Nyquist plot by the simple expedient of dividing R and X by X m , the value of X at the reactance maximum. To the extent allowed by noise levels one can say that there is one 'universal' reduced Nyquist plot for the thigh musculature of healthy subjects. There is one feature of the Nyquist curves which is not 'universal', however, namely the frequency f m at which the maximum in X is observed. That is found to vary from 10 to 100 kHz. depending on subject and segment length. Analysis shows, however, that the mean value of 1/f m is an accurately linear function of segment length, though there is a small subject-to-subject random element as well. Also, following the recovery of an otherwise healthy victim of ankle fracture demonstrates the clear superiority of measurements above about 800 kHz, where scaling is not observed, in contrast to measurements below about 400 kHz, where scaling is accurately obeyed. The ubiquity of 'scaling' casts new light on the interpretation of impedance results as they are used in electrical impedance myography and bioelectric impedance analysis.

  3. Influence of post hatch dietary supplementation of fat on performance, carcass cuts and biochemical profile in Ven Cobb broiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komal Prasad Rai

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present experiment was conducted to study the effect of post hatch dietary fat supplementation on performance of broiler chicken. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 day-old Ven Cobb broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups of 30 chicks in each (three replicates of 10 birds/treatment. The trial lasted for 35 days. The experimental design was a completely randomized design. Four types of diet were formulated for 1st week: T1, T2, T3 and T4 contained control diet with no added fat, 2.5, 5 and 7.5% fat, respectively. After 1st week post-hatch period chicks were fed ad libitum with the normal basal diet as per Bureau of Indian Standard recommendations till completion of the experiment (8-35 days. Results: Significantly higher (p<0.05 body weight and improved feed conversion ratio (FCR was recorded in birds fed 5% dietary fat at the end of the experiment whereas, feed intake was not significantly affected. Significantly (p<0.05 higher dressed weight was observed due to 5% fat supplementation than other groups whereas, it was not significant for other carcass cuts. No significant differences were observed in moisture, protein and lipid content of breast and thigh muscle of broiler due to supplemented fat whereas, 2.5% dietary fat significantly (p<0.05 increase the serum HI titer on day 28th. In biochemical profile, higher serum albumin (g/dl was recorded due to 5% fat supplementation whereas other biochemical components did not show any significance difference among treatments. Conclusion: It may be concluded that supplementation of fat in broilers diet improves the overall FCR, dressing percentage and gain more body weight.

  4. The effect of chosen food oils to supplementation of last fattening pigs period on fatty acids structure in pig muscle fat and the consumption preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Paradovský

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids profile in broilers feed, it is possible to influence their share in a desired structure, which can balance the n-6:n-3 ratio in food, according to the consumers needs. Flax seed to lactating goats can be used as nutritional supplement to reduce saturated fatty acids and increase polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk. A significant increase in CLA in milk was achieved by suplementation to  goats. In experiment last month of fattening group of pig in five groups of pig was fed with a basal diet, which incorporated various fats (canabis oil-2%, soybean oil-5%, linseed oil-5%, raps oil5%. The indicators (food intake, body weight gain, and the conversion were established during the experiment, and in the end, the content of essential fatty acids (linoleic and linolenic acids in pigs meat were determined. The data, analyzed and statistically interpreted. By the four experimental groups, there are, some variations of the determined fatty acids content in pectoral muscles as well as in breast skin.

  5. Case Report: A man on antiretroviral therapy with painful thighs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 54 year old man presented with increasing pain in both thighs for three months during a follow up visit at the antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinic of Queen Elizabeth. Central Hospital. He was first seen at the same clinic three years and eight months before the current presentation, when he started. ART with ...

  6. Liposarcoma of the thigh with mixed calcification and ossification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy R. Child, MD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Liposarcoma is one of the most common soft-tissue sarcomas. Calcification and ossification can occur in liposarcoma; however, the presence of both ossification and calcification is a very rare entity. We present a case of a partially calcified and ossified dedifferentiated liposarcoma of the thigh in a 76-year-old woman, which contained heterologous elements of chondrosarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma.

  7. Perforated appendicitis presenting as a thigh abscess: A lethal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Typical cases of acute appendicitis have excellent treatment outcomes, if managed appropriately.1 We discuss an unusual case of perforated retrocaecal appendicitis that presented as a right thigh abscess without prominent abdominal symptoms, which highlights the lethal nature of advanced appendicitis even when ...

  8. Skin injuries on the body and thigh of dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Carsten; Gröhn, Y.T.; Thysen, Iver

    1994-01-01

    An epidemiological study was conducted in 18 dairy herds with the objective to characterize those groups of cows where skin injuries to the body and thighs occurred most frequently. Data were analyzed with multivariable logistic regression. The epidemiologic patterns were different in first and l...

  9. acute compartment syndrome of the thigh without associated fracture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FRACTURE: A CASE REPORT. C.K. Lakati, FCS ... fracture leading to failure to appreciate the severity of the injury. ... complaining of pain on the lower part of his right thigh, just above .... reported good recovery after non-operative treatment.

  10. Echo intensity obtained from ultrasonography images reflecting muscle strength in elderly men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe Y

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Yuya Watanabe,1 Yosuke Yamada,1,2 Yoshihiro Fukumoto,3 Tatsuro Ishihara,4 Keiichi Yokoyama,1 Tsukasa Yoshida,1 Motoko Miyake,1 Emi Yamagata,5 Misaka Kimura1 1Laboratory of Sports and Health Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan; 2Research Fellow, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo, Japan; 3Faculty of Rehabilitation, Kobe Gakuin University, Kobe, Japan; 4Faculty of Health and Sports Science, Doshisha University, Kyoto, Japan; 5Laboratory of Gerontological Nursing, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan Background: It is well known that loss of muscle mass (quantitative change is a major change that occurs with aging. Qualitative changes in skeletal muscle, such as increased intramuscular fat, also occur as one ages. Enhanced echo intensity (EI on ultrasonography images of skeletal muscle is believed to reflect muscle quality. Recent studies evaluating the quality of skeletal muscle using computer-aided gray scale analysis showed that EI is associated with muscle strength independently of age or muscle size in middle-aged and elderly women. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether muscle quality based on EI is associated with muscle strength independently of muscle size for elderly men. Methods: A total of 184 elderly men (65–91 years living independently in Kyoto, Japan, participated in this study. The EI, muscle thickness (MT, and subcutaneous fat thickness (FT of the anterior compartment of the right thigh were determined by assessing ultrasonography images. The maximum isometric torque of knee extension at a knee angle of 90° was measured. Results: The EI showed a significant negative correlation with muscle strength (r = -0.333, P < 0.001. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that the MT and EI of the knee extensor muscle were independently associated with maximum isometric knee extension strength. Even when partial correlation analysis was performed with age

  11. Asymmetry of Muscle Strength in Elite Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drid, Patrik; Drapsin, Miodrag; Trivic, Tatjana; Lukac, Damir; Obadov, Slavko; Milosevic, Zoran

    2009-01-01

    "Study aim": To determine muscle strength variables in elite judoists and wrestlers since thigh muscle strength and bilaterally balanced flexor-to-extensor ratio minimise injury risk and are desirable for achieving sport successes. "Material and methods": Judoists, wrestlers and untrained subjects, 10 each, were subjected to isokinetic strength…

  12. THE INFLUENCE OF BEE POLLEN ON THE MEAT CHEMICAL COMPOSITION FOR BROILER´S ROSS 308 MUSCLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Čuboň

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective ofthe presentstudy was to evaluate the meat chemical composition of breast and thigh muscles for boiler Ross 308after additionthe bee pollenas nutritional supplement to feed mixturein a dose (500 mg.kg-1 and 1500 mg.kg-1 to experimental groups (E1, E2 respectively.The fattening duration was 42days.At the end of the experiment,the results showthat the water contentin experimentalgroups (E1,E2 was higher than control and there were no significant differences (P≤0. 05among the groups,the protein content was higher in the control group than experimental groups (E1,E2 and there were no significant differences(P≤0.05 among the groups.The breast and thigh fat contents in control (2.04%,13.20%washigherthan (E1group (1.61%,12.91% and (E2 group (1.94%,12.25% andthereweresignificant differences (P≥0.05 between control group and experimental (E1, E2 groupsand therewere no significant differences (P≤0.05 in thigh samples.The energy value was higher in the control group than experimental (E1, E2 and there were significant differences (P≥0.05 between control and experimental group(E1 in breast sample.

  13. Carcass characteristics, physical property and chemical composition of Naked-Neck and Thai indigenous chickens muscles reared under backyard production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songsang, A.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to obtain basic knowledge regarding carcass characteristics, physical property and chemical composition of the muscle meat of Naked-Neck and indigenous chickens reared underthe backyard production systems. Ninety heads each of Naked-Neck and indigenous chickens of both sexes at 1.3, 1.5 and 1.8 kg of live weight were used in the study. From this study, there were no significant differences (P>0.05 in the chilled carcass percentage between the two breeds and two sexes. The Naked-Neckchickens had lower breast (Pectoralis major, fillet (Pectoralis minor (P0.05 in drip loss and cooking loss values. The shear value of cooked breast and thigh muscles of Naked-Neck chickens was significantly lower (P0.05, redness (a* (P0.05 in moisture, protein, fat and ash contents. The Naked-Neck chicken contained higher (P0.05 between breeds in soluble collagen percentage of both types of muscles. For the fatty acid composition ofNaked-Neck and indigenous chickens, both breast and thigh muscles contained more saturated fatty acids than unsaturated fatty acids.

  14. Longitudinal 2-point dixon muscle magnetic resonance imaging in becker muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonati, Ulrike; Schmid, Maurice; Hafner, Patricia; Haas, Tanja; Bieri, Oliver; Gloor, Monika; Fischmann, Arne; Fischer, Dirk

    2015-06-01

    Quantitative MRI techniques detect disease progression in myopathies more sensitively than muscle function measures or conventional MRI. To date, only conventional MRI data using visual rating scales are available for measurement of disease progression in Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD). In 3 patients with BMD (mean age 36.8 years), the mean fat fraction (MFF) of the thigh muscles was assessed by MRI at baseline and at 1-year follow-up using a 2-point Dixon approach (2PD). The motor function measurement scale (MFM) was used for clinical assessment. The mean MFF of all muscles at baseline was 61.6% (SD 7.6). It increased by 3.7% to 65.3% (SD 4.7) at follow-up. The severity of muscle involvement varied between various muscle groups. As in other myopathies, 2PD can quantify fatty muscle degeneration in BMD and can detect disease progression in a small sample size and at relatively short imaging intervals. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The relationship between maternal body composition in early pregnancy and foetal mid-thigh soft-tissue thickness in the third trimester in a high-risk obstetric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglim, Breffini; Farah, Nadine; O'Connor, Clare; Daly, Niamh; Kennelly, Mairead M; Turner, Michael J

    2017-07-01

    Maternal obesity is an emerging challenge in contemporary obstetrics. To date there has been no study analysing the relationship between specific maternal body composition measurements and foetal soft-tissue measurements. The aim of this study was to determine whether measurement of maternal body composition at booking predicts foetal soft-tissue trajectories in the third trimester. We analysed the relationship between foetal thigh in the third trimester and both maternal BMI and body composition using the Tanita digital scales in the first trimester. Foetal subcutaneous thigh tissue measurements were obtained at intervals of 28, 32 and 36 weeks of gestation. A total of 160 women were identified. There was a direct correlation between MTST at 36 weeks and BMI (p = .002). There was a positive correlation between MTST at 36 weeks and leg fat mass (p = .13) and leg fat free mass (p = .013). There was a positive correlation between arm fat free mass and MTST at 36 weeks. We showed there is an association between maternal fat distribution and foetal subcutaneous thigh tissue measurements. MTST may be more useful in determining if a child is at risk of macrosomia. Impact statement Previous studies have suggested that maternal obesity programmes intrauterine foetal adiposity and growth. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship in a high-risk obstetric population between measurements of maternal body composition in early pregnancy and the assessment of foetal adiposity in the third trimester using serial ultrasound measurements of mid-thigh soft-tissue thickness. BMI is only a surrogate measurement of fat and does not measure fat distribution. Our study shows the distribution of both maternal fat and fat-free mass in early pregnancy may be positively associated with foetal soft-tissue measurements in the third trimester. Maternal arthropometric measurements other than BMI may help predict babies at risk of macrosomia and neonatal adiposity.

  16. Effect of GABA on oxidative stress in the skeletal muscles and plasma free amino acids in mice fed high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Z X; Xia, S F; Qiao, Y; Shi, Y H; Le, G W

    2015-06-01

    Increased levels of plasma free amino acids (pFAAs) can disturb the blood glucose levels in patients with obesity, diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome (MS) and are associated with enhanced protein oxidation. Oxidation of proteins, especially in the muscles, can promote protein degradation and elevate the levels of pFAAs. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a food additive, can reduce high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hyperglycaemia; however, the mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of GABA on protein oxidation and pFAAs changes. One hundred male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into five groups that were fed with control diet, HFD and HFD supplied with 0.2%, 0.12% and 0.06% GABA in drinking water for 20 weeks respectively. HFD feeding led to muscular oxidative stress, protein oxidation, pFAA disorders, hyperglycaemia and augmented plasma GABA levels. Treatment with GABA restored normally fasting blood glucose level and dose-dependently inhibited body weight gains, muscular oxidation and protein degradation. While medium and low doses of GABA mitigated HFD-induced pFAA disorders, the high dose of GABA deteriorated the pFAA disorders. Medium dose of GABA increased the levels of GABA, but high dose of GABA reduced the levels of plasma GABA and increased the activity of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase in the liver. Therefore, treatment with GABA mitigated HFD-induced hyperglycaemia probably by repairing HFD-induced muscular oxidative stress and pFAA disorders in mice. Our data also suggest that an optimal dose of GABA is crucial for the prevention of excess GABA-related decrease in the levels of pFAA and GABA as well as obesity. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Tissue oxygenation in brain, muscle, and fat in a rat model of sleep apnea: differential effect of obstructive apneas and intermittent hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almendros, Isaac; Farré, Ramon; Planas, Anna M; Torres, Marta; Bonsignore, Maria R; Navajas, Daniel; Montserrat, Josep M

    2011-08-01

    To test the hypotheses that the dynamic changes in brain oxygen partial pressure (PtO(2)) in response to obstructive apneas or to intermittent hypoxia differ from those in other organs and that the changes in brain PtO(2) in response to obstructive apneas is a source of oxidative stress. Prospective controlled animal study. University laboratory. 98 Sprague-Dawley rats. Cerebral cortex, skeletal muscle, or visceral fat tissues were exposed in anesthetized animals subjected to either obstructive apneas or intermittent hypoxia (apneic and hypoxic events of 15 s each and 60 events/h) for 1 h. Arterial oxygen saturation (SpO(2)) presented a stable pattern, with similar desaturations during both stimuli. The PtO(2) was measured by a microelectrode. During obstructive apneas, a fast increase in cerebral PtO(2) was observed (38.2 ± 3.4 vs. 54.8 ± 5.9 mm Hg) but not in the rest of tissues. This particular cerebral response was not found during intermittent hypoxia. The cerebral content of reduced glutathione was decreased after obstructive apneas (46.2% ± 15.2%) compared to controls (100.0% ± 14.7%), but not after intermittent hypoxia. This antioxidant consumption after obstructive apneas was accompanied by increased cerebral lipid peroxidation under this condition. No changes were observed for these markers in the other tissues. These results suggest that cerebral cortex could be protected in some way from hypoxic periods caused by obstructive apneas. The increased cerebral PtO(2) during obstructive apneas may, however, cause harmful effects (oxidative stress). The obstructive apnea model appears to be more adequate than the intermittent hypoxia model for studying brain changes associated with OSA.

  18. Evaluation of 99mTc-HM-PAO thigh accumulation in patients with cerebro-vascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishigaki, Hiroshi; Adachi, Itaru; Komori, Tsuyoshi; Tatsu, Yoshimitsu; Hisada, Youichi; Sueyoshi, Kouzou; Narabayashi, Isamu

    1993-01-01

    Technetium-99m d,l-hexamethyl-propyleneamine oxime ( 99m Tc-HM-PAO) cerebral SPECT and whole body scintigraphy (WBS) were performed in 5 patients without cerebro-vascular disease (CVD) (Group 1), 31 patients with CVD but not hemiparesis (Group 2) and 18 patients with CVD and hemiparesis (Group 3). Four ROIs were drawn manually around the whole body (WB), brain (Br), right and left thigh (Th). We calculated some ratios: the total counts in the brain over the total counts in the whole body (Br/WB), the total counts in the thigh over the total counts in the whole body (Th/WB) and the mean counts in the thigh over the mean counts in the brain (Th/Br). The Br/WB was 6.9±1.8%, rt-Th/WB was 4.9±2.1%, lt-Th/WB was 5.1±1.3% and Th/Br was 0.46±0.17 in group 1. Whole body scintigraphies in group 1 revealed clear and similar images between right and left thigh. The Br/WB was 6.7±1.4%, Th/WB of paretic side was 4.6±1.0%, Th/WB of non-paretic side was 5.8±1.2% and Th/Br was 0.47±0.18 in group 3. The Th/WB in non paretic side was significantly higher than that in paretic side (p 99m Tc-HM-PAO. It was possible that we evaluated not only cerebral perfusion but also muscle atrophy and/or perfusion in patients with CVD using 99m Tc-HM-PAO. (author)

  19. Effect of dietary fats with odd or even numbers of carbon atoms on metabolic response and muscle damage with exercise in Quarter Horse-type horses with type 1 polysaccharide storage myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgia, Lisa A; Valberg, Stephanie J; McCue, Molly E; Pagan, Joe D; Roe, Charles R

    2010-03-01

    To evaluate effects of fats with odd and even numbers of carbon atoms on muscle metabolism in exercising horses with polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM). 8 horses with PSSM (6 females and 2 males; mean +/- SD age, 6.3 +/- 3.9 years). Isocaloric diets (grain, triheptanoin, corn oil, and high-fat, low-starch [HFLS] feed) were fed for 3 weeks each; horses performed daily treadmill exercise. Grain was fed to establish an exercise target, and HFLS feed was fed as a negative control diet. Daily plasma samples were obtained. For each diet, a 15-minute exercise test was performed, and gluteus medius muscle specimens and blood samples were obtained before and after exercise. Feeding triheptanoin, compared with the corn oil diet, resulted in exercise intolerance; higher plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity and concentrations of C3:0- and C7:0-acylcarnitine and insulin; and lower concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and C16:0-, C18:1-, and C18:2-acylcarnitine, without changes in concentrations of plasma glucose or resting muscle substrates and metabolites. Feeding grain induced higher CK activity and insulin concentrations and lower NEFA concentrations than did corn oil or HFLS feed. Feeding grain induced higher glucose concentrations than did triheptanoin and corn oil. In muscle, feeding grain resulted in lower glucose-6-phosphate, higher citrate, and higher postexercise lactate concentrations than did the other diets. Triheptanoin had detrimental effects, reflecting decreased availability of NEFA, increased insulin stimulation of glycogen synthesis, and potential inhibition of lipid oxidation. Long-chain fats are the best dietetic for PSSM.

  20. Fat Attenuation at CT in Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Corey M.; Torriani, Martin; Murphy, Rachel; Harris, Tamara B.; Miller, Karen K.; Klibanski, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the composition, cross-sectional area (CSA), and hormonal correlates of different fat depots in women with anorexia nervosa (AN) and control subjects with normal weights to find out whether patients with AN have lower fat CSA but higher attenuation than did control subjects and whether these changes may be mediated by gonadal steroids, cortisol, and thyroid hormones. Materials and Methods This study was institutional review board approved and HIPAA compliant. Written informed consent was obtained. Forty premenopausal women with AN and 40 normal-weight women of comparable age (mean age ± standard deviation, 26 years ± 5) were studied. All individuals underwent computed tomography of the abdomen and thigh with a calibration phantom. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), thigh SAT, and thigh intermuscular adipose tissue CSA and attenuation were quantified. Serum estradiol, thyroid hormones, and urinary free cortisol levels were assessed. Variables were compared by using analysis of variance. Associations were examined by using linear regression analysis. Results Women with AN had higher fat attenuation than did control subjects (−100.1 to −46.7 HU vs −117.6 to −61.8 HU, P < .0001), despite lower fat CSA (2.0–62.8 cm2 vs 5.5–185.9 cm2, P < .0001). VAT attenuation but not CSA was inversely associated with lowest prior lifetime body mass index in AN (r = −0.71, P = .006). Serum estradiol levels were inversely associated with fat attenuation (r = −0.34 to −0.61, P = .03 to <.0001) and were positively associated with fat CSA of all compartments (r = 0.42–0.64, P = .007 to <.0001). Thyroxine levels and urinary free cortisol levels were positively associated with thigh SAT attenuation (r = 0.64 [P = .006] and r = 0.68 [P = .0004], respectively) and were inversely associated with abdominal SAT and VAT CSA (r = −0.44 to −0.58, P = .04 to .02). Conclusion Women with AN have differences in fat

  1. Expression of porcine myostatin prodomain genomic sequence leads to a decrease in muscle growth, but significant intramuscular fat accretion in transgenic pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myostatin, a member of TGF-beta superfamily, is a dominant inhibitor of skeletal muscle development and growth. Previously, skeletal muscle-specific over-expression of myostatin prodomain cDNA (5’-region 886 nucleotide) dramatically increased growth performance and muscle mass in transgenic mice. I...

  2. Slow movement resistance training using body weight improves muscle mass in the elderly: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuku, S; Kajioka, T; Sakakibara, H; Shimaoka, K

    2018-04-01

    To examine the effect of a 12-week slow movement resistance training using body weight as a load (SRT-BW) on muscle mass, strength, and fat distribution in healthy elderly people. Fifty-three men and 35 women aged 70 years old or older without experience in resistance training participated, and they were randomly assigned to a SRT-BW group or control group. The control group did not receive any intervention, but participants in this group underwent a repeat measurement 12 weeks later. The SRT-BW program consisted of 3 different exercises (squat, tabletop push-up, and sit-up), which were designed to stimulate anterior major muscles. Initially, these exercises were performed by 2 sets of 10 repetitions, and subsequently, the number of repetitions was increased progressively by 2 repetitions every 4 weeks. Participants were instructed to perform each eccentric and concentric phase of movement slowly (spending 4 seconds on each movement), covering the full range of motion. We evaluated muscle mass, strength, and fat distribution at baseline and after 12 weeks of training. Changes over 12 weeks were significantly greater in the SRT-BW group than in the control group, with a decrease in waist circumference, hip circumference, and abdominal preperitoneal and subcutaneous fat thickness, and an increase in thigh muscle thickness, knee extension strength, and hip flexion strength. In conclusion, relatively short-term SRT-BW was effective in improving muscle mass, strength, and fat distribution in healthy elderly people. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is produced by skeletal muscle cells in response to contraction and enhances fat oxidation via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthews, V B; Åström, Maj-Brit; Chan, M H S

    2009-01-01

    C12 skeletal muscle cells were electrically stimulated to mimic contraction. L6 myotubes and isolated rat extensor digitorum longus muscles were treated with BDNF and phosphorylation of the proteins AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) (Thr(172)) and acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase beta (ACCbeta) (Ser...... kinase (p44/42 Thr(202)/Tyr(204)) phosphorylation in these muscles. In addition, phosphorylation of ACCbeta was markedly elevated in the Bdnf electroporated muscles. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: These data identify BDNF as a contraction-inducible protein in skeletal muscle that is capable of enhancing...

  4. Adductor muscle pyo-myositis simulating appendicitis: CT and MR imaging findings; Pyomyosite des mulcles adducteurs mimant une appendicite aigue: aspects tomodensitometriques et IRM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coumbaras, M.; Le Hir, P.; Jomaah, N.; Arrive, L.; Tubiana, J.M. [Hopital Saint Antoine, 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-04-01

    Pyo-myositis is a primary bacterial infection of skeletal muscle. This infection tends to occur in the large muscles of the lower extremity. Pyo-myositis of the proximal muscles of the thigh can simulate acute abdominal disease. Early diagnosis improves the outcome. Delayed diagnosis may lead to septicemia and shock. We report the CT and MRI findings in a patient with pyo-myositis of the proximal muscles of the thigh. (authors)

  5. Deoxyribonucleic acid methylation and gene expression of PPARGC1A in human muscle is influenced by high-fat overfeeding in a birth-weight-dependent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Charlotte; Jacobsen, Stine; Nilsson, Emma

    2010-01-01

    Context: Low birth weight (LBW) and unhealthy diets are risk factors of metabolic disease including type 2 diabetes (T2D). Genetic, nongenetic, and epigenetic data propose a role of the key metabolic regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1alpha (PPARGC1A......) in the development of T2D. Objective: Our objective was to investigate gene expression and DNA methylation of PPARGC1A and coregulated oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) genes in LBW and normal birth weight (NBW) subjects during control and high-fat diets. Design, Subjects, and Main Outcome Measures: Twenty young...... healthy men with LBW and 26 matched NBW controls were studied after 5 d high-fat overfeeding (+50% calories) and after a control diet in a randomized manner. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps were performed and skeletal muscle biopsies excised. DNA methylation and gene expression were measured using...

  6. Comparative anatomy of the thigh nerves of Cebus libidinosus (Rylands et al., 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A.G.M.F. Aversi-Ferreira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-human primates have constituted an important group among animals subjected to various studies. Ethological, evolutionary and paleontological studies have revealed changes in anatomical structures linked to the evolution of primates, considered in studies on the comparative anatomy between Cebus libidinosus and other neotropical monkeys or those from the Old World, and the detailed knowledge on their anatomy may represent an important factor for their preservation and protection when the animals are brought to veterinary clinics after accidents or illnesses. In terms of veterinary importance, sometimes these animals arrive in the veterinary medical clinics after accidents, needing surgery or clinical treatment, but the little data available on anatomy has impaired the correct proceedings. The main justification for studies on C. libidinosus, is due to little information about the anatomy related to C. libidinosus in Brazilian and worldwide scientific literature. In this study, the distribution, enervation and path of the femoral and sciatic nerves of the pelvic limb (thigh of C. libidinosus were studied and these results were compared with literature on the anatomy of humans, chimpanzees and baboons. In general, the enervation model of the four primates is identical, but in specific terms, the differences in enervations indicate evolution convergence closer to the branch of baboons in the evolutionary tree, and these data corroborate other comparative studies in relation to the same primates to vessels, muscles and nerves. In conclusion, the nerve organization in the thigh of C. libidinosus is identical to baboon, chimpanzee and homo, but more similar to baboon. The specific differences found indicate an ancient phylogenic origin to C. libidinosus and baboons (data corroborated by other studies.

  7. Hydrogenated fat intake during pregnancy and lactation caused increase in TRAF-6 and reduced AdipoR1 in white adipose tissue, but not in muscle of 21 days old offspring rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oller do Nascimento Claudia M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although lipids transfer through placenta is very limited, modification in dietary fatty acids can lead to implications in fetal and postnatal development. Trans fatty acid (TFA intake during gestation and lactation have been reported to promote dyslipidemia and increase in pro- inflammatory adipokines in offspring. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the alterations on pro-inflammatory cytokines and dyslipidemia observed previously in 21-d-old offspring of rats fed a diet containing hydrogenated vegetable fat during gestation and lactation were related to alterations in TLR-4, TRAF-6 and adipo-R1 receptor in white adipose tissue and muscle. On the first day of gestation, rats were randomly divided into two groups: (C received a control diet, and (T received a diet enriched with hydrogenated vegetable fat, rich in trans fatty acids. The diets were maintained throughout gestation and lactation. Each mother was given eight male pups. On the 21st day of life the offspring were killed. Blood, soleus and extensor digital longus (EDL muscles, and retroperitoneal (RET white adipose tissue were collected. Results 21-d-old of T rats had higher serum triacylglycerols, cholesterol, and insulin. The Adipo R1 protein expression was lower in RET and higher in EDL of T group than C. TLR-4 protein content in all studied tissues were similar between groups, the same was verified in TRAF-6 protein expression in soleus and EDL. However, TRAF-6 protein expression in RET was higher in T than C. Conclusion These results demonstrated that maternal ingestion of hydrogenated vegetable fat rich in TFAs during gestation and lactation decrease in Adipo R1 protein expression and increase in TRAF-6 protein expression in retroperitoneal adipose tissue, but not in skeletal muscle, which could contributed for hyperinsulinemia and dyslipidemia observed in their 21-d-old offspring.

  8. Effects of muscle composition and architecture on specific strength in obese older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastelli, F; Capodaglio, P; Orgiu, S; Santovito, C; Caramenti, M; Cadioli, M; Falini, A; Rizzo, G; Lafortuna, C L

    2015-10-01

    What is the central question of this study? Do obesity-specific factors affect skeletal muscle performance in older individuals? What is the main finding and its importance? Older obese women have a larger quadriceps femoris size but develop lower tension per unit of skeletal muscle than their normal-weight counterparts. Muscle impairment and excess body mass are very common among older people. Given that the effect of obesity on strength production has scarcely been studied in older individuals, we analysed functional and structural characteristics of quadriceps femoris (QF) in obese (OB) and normal-weight (NW) older women with comparable habitual physical activity. In five OB (body mass index 36.8 ± 1.9 kg m(-2), age 72.4 ± 2.3 years) and six NW well-functioning older women (body mass index 24.3 ± 1.8 kg m(-2), age 72.7 ± 1.9 years), peak knee-extension torque (KET) was measured in isometric (90 deg knee flexion) and isokinetic conditions (240, 180, 120 and 60 deg s(-1)). Mid-thigh QF cross-sectional area (CSA) and muscle tissue fat content (MF%) were determined with magnetic resonance imaging (Dixon sequence). Muscle fascicle length and pennation angle (PA) were assessed with ultrasonography for each muscle belly of the QF (vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius, rectus femoris and vastus intermedius). Despite similar values of KET, CSA was 17.0% larger in OB than in NW women (P Muscle composition and architecture seem to be important determinants of KET/CSA in elderly women. In fact, owing to the effect of obesity overload, OB women have a larger QF size than NW women, but unfavourable muscle composition and architecture. The higher MF% and steeper PA observed in OB women are associated with reduced levels of muscle specific strength. © 2015 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  9. Isolated pediatric hemihyperplasia requiring surgical debulking of the thigh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D. Schultz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Isolated Hemihyperplasia (IHH is a rare disorder that results in the enlargement of a portion of a limb, a complete limb or an entire half of an individual's body. We describe an 11 year-old girl with isolated hemihyperplasia of her right upper and lower extremities, breast, and vulvar region. A mass consisting of asymmetric enlargement and fatty infiltration of the right adductor compartment was first noticed at approximately 4 years of life and progressed dramatically to severely affect her gait. We surgically debulked the thigh and resected the excess skin to restore symmetry. The patient did well postoperatively, achieved excellent cosmesis, and restoration of gait.

  10. Extraskeletal Osteosarcoma of the Thigh: An Autopsy Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihito Nagano

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of extraskeletal osteosarcoma (ESOS and autopsy findings. A 35-year-old man presented with an ossified tumor in the right thigh and lung metastasis. The lung tumors continued to develop despite multiagent chemotherapy and caused death within 8 months. Autopsy revealed many secondary lesions in the lungs, especially in the left lung. Histopathologically, the primary tumor and one of the secondary tumors showed proliferation of spindle-shaped tumor cells focally forming lace-like osteoid material. Therefore, we made a definite diagnosis of ESOS.

  11. Focal myositis of the thigh: unusual MR pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llauger, Jaume; Palmer, Jaume; San Roman, Luis; Bague, Silvia; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Doncel, Antonio

    2002-01-01

    Focal myositis is a commonly referenced, infrequently reported and poorly documented benign inflammatory pseudotumor which may be misdiagnosed clinically as a malignant tumor. We report the clinicopathologic features and magnetic resonance imaging findings in a case of focal myositis in the thigh of a 55-year-old woman. A different radiologic presentation of this disorder is described. The gross appearance of the lesion, previously undescribed, appears to be rather specific for such a pseudoneoplastic disorder, and correlates very well with the magnetic resonance imaging features. (orig.)

  12. Focal myositis of the thigh: unusual MR pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llauger, Jaume; Palmer, Jaume; San Roman, Luis [Department of Radiology, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Bague, Silvia; Matias-Guiu, Xavier [Department of Pathology, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Doncel, Antonio [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain)

    2002-05-01

    Focal myositis is a commonly referenced, infrequently reported and poorly documented benign inflammatory pseudotumor which may be misdiagnosed clinically as a malignant tumor. We report the clinicopathologic features and magnetic resonance imaging findings in a case of focal myositis in the thigh of a 55-year-old woman. A different radiologic presentation of this disorder is described. The gross appearance of the lesion, previously undescribed, appears to be rather specific for such a pseudoneoplastic disorder, and correlates very well with the magnetic resonance imaging features. (orig.)

  13. Effect of different exercise protocols on metabolic profiles and fatty acid metabolism in skeletal muscle in high-fat diet-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Youqing; Xu, Xiangfeng; Yue, Kai; Xu, Guodong

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of mild-intensity endurance, high-intensity interval, and concurrent exercise on preventing high-fat diet-induced obesity. Male rats were divided into five groups, control diet/sedentary group, high-fat diet/sedentary, high-fat diet/endurance exercise, high-fat diet/interval exercise (HI), and high-fat diet/concurrent exercise. All exercise groups were made to exercise for 10 weeks, with matched running distances. Body weight, fat content, blood metabolites, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), and adipocyte and liver lipid droplet size were assessed, and the expression of fatty acid metabolism-related genes was quantified. All exercise protocols reduced body weight, adiposity, serum triglycerides, and fasting glucose and also improved QUICKI to some extent. However, only HI prevented obesity and its associated pathologies completely. The expression of stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase-1 was elevated in all rats fed a high-fat diet whereas carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) expression was increased with exercise. Rev-erbα expression was elevated only in the HI group, which also had the highest level of CPT1 expression. The HI-induced increase in Rev-erbα and CPT1 expression was associated with the complete prevention of diet-induced obesity. Moreover, the increased caloric expenditure achieved with this protocol was preferential over other exercise regimens, and might be used to improve lipid metabolism. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  14. Effects of mechanical massage, manual lymphatic drainage and connective tissue manipulation techniques on fat mass in women with cellulite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrakci Tunay, V; Akbayrak, T; Bakar, Y; Kayihan, H; Ergun, N

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate and compare the effectiveness of three different noninvasive treatment techniques on fat mass and regional fat thickness of the patients with cellulites. Sixty subjects were randomized into three groups. Group 1 (n = 20) treated with mechanical massage (MM), group 2 (n = 20) treated with manual lymphatic drainage (MLD) and group 3 (n = 20) treated with connective tissue manipulation (CTM) techniques. Subjects were evaluated by using standardized photographs, body composition analyzer (TBF 300) (body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI), fat %, fat mass (FM), fat free mass (FFM), total body water (TBW)), circumference measurement from thigh, waist-hip ratio (WHR), fat thickness measurements from abdomen, suprailium and thigh regions with skin fold caliper. All groups had an improvement in thinning of the subcutaneous fat after the treatment (P techniques are effective in decreasing the regional fat values of the patients with cellulites.

  15. Acute and perinatal-programming effects of a fat-rich diet on rat muscle mitochondrial function and hepatic lipid accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellgren, Lars; Jensen, Runa I.; Waterstradt, Michelle S. G.

    2014-01-01

    respiratory control ratio with pyruvate, increased post weaning (p hepatic steatosis......Objective. Maternal high-fat intake during pregnancy may have long-term consequences in the offspring. Since this might relate to the capacity of mitochondrial metabolic adaptation and hepatic lipid metabolism, we investigated how maternal high-fat intake affected mitochondrial function and hepatic...... steatosis in the offspring. Design. Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a high-fat (20% w/w) or a control diet (chow, C) from 10 days before pregnancy and throughout lactation. At weaning the litters were split into two groups; one was continued on the maternal diet and the other was fed low-fat chow. Sample...

  16. Diffuse-type giant cell tumor of the subcutaneous thigh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanghvi, D.A.; Purandare, N.C.; Jambhekar, N.A.; Agarwal, A.; Agarwal, M.G.

    2007-01-01

    Diffuse-type giant cell tumor is an extra-articular form of pigmented villonodular synovitis. The localized form of this lesion (tenosynovial giant cell tumor) is frequent, representing the most common subset arising from the synovium of a joint, bursa or tendon sheath, with 85% of cases occurring in the fingers. The less frequent diffuse-type giant cell tumors are commonly located in the periarticular soft tissues, but on rare occasions these lesions can be purely intramuscular or subcutaneous We report the case of a 26-year-old female with diffuse-type giant cell tumor of the subcutaneous thigh, remote from a joint, bursa or tendon sheath. A review of the literature did not reveal any similar description of a diffuse-type giant cell tumor completely within the subcutaneous thigh, remote from a joint, bursa or tendon sheath. These lesions were initially regarded as inflammatory or reactive processes, but since the identification of clonal abnormalities in these patients, and in view of their capacity for autonomous growth, they are now widely considered to represent benign neoplasms. (orig.)

  17. Diabetic muscle infarction: radiologic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chason, D.P.; Fleckenstein, J.L.; Burns, D.K.; Rojas, G.

    1996-01-01

    Four patients with severe diabetes mellitus presenting with acute thigh pain, tenderness, and swelling were evaluated by imaging techniques and biopsy. Edema in the affected muscles was seen in two patients with MRI studies. Femoral artery calcification and mild muscle swelling was present in one patient who underwent CT. Decreased echogenicity was seen in the involved muscle in a patient studied with ultrasound. Serum enzymes were normal or mildly elevated in three patients (not reported in one). Biopsy demonstrated necrosis and regenerative change in all cases. MRI, although nonspecific, is the best imaging technique to suggest the diagnosis of DMI in the appropriate clinical setting, thereby obviating biopsy. (orig./MG)

  18. Measures of Functional Performance and Their Association With Hip and Thigh Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollock, Roger; Van Lunen, Bonnie L.; Ringleb, Stacie I.; Oñate, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Insufficient hip and thigh strength may increase an athlete's susceptibility to injury. However, screening for strength deficits using isometric and isokinetic instrumentation may not be practical in all clinical scenarios. Objective: To determine if functional performance tests are valid indicators of hip and thigh strength. Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Setting: Research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Sixty-two recreationally athletic men (n = 30, age = 21.07 years, height = 173.84 cm, mass = 81.47 kg) and women (n = 32, age = 21.03 years, height = 168.77 cm, mass = 68.22 kg) participants were recruited. Intervention(s): During session 1, we measured isometric peak force and rate of force development for 8 lower extremity muscle groups, followed by an isometric endurance test. During session 2, participants performed functional performance tests. Main Outcome Measure(s): Peak force, rate of force development, fatigue index, hop distance (or height), work (joules), and number of hops performed during the 30-second lateral-hop test were assessed. The r values were squared to calculate r 2. We used Pearson correlations to evaluate the associations between functional performance and strength. Results: In men, the strongest relationship was observed between triple-hop work and hip-adductor peak force (r2 = 50, P ≤ .001). Triple-hop work also was related to hip-adductor (r2 = 38, P ≤ .01) and hip-flexor (r2 = 37, P ≤ .01) rate of force development. For women, the strongest relationships were between single-legged vertical-jump work and knee-flexor peak force (r2 = 0.44, P ≤ .01) and single-legged vertical-jump height and knee-flexor peak force (r2 = 0.42, P ≤ .01). Single-legged vertical-jump height also was related to knee-flexor rate of force development (r2 = 0.49, P ≤ .001). The 30-second lateral-hop test did not account for a significant portion of the variance in strength endurance. Conclusions: Hop tests alone did not

  19. Intra-subject variability in muscle activity and co-contraction during jumps and landings in children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffalt, P C; Alkjaer, T; Simonsen, E B

    2017-01-01

    -subject variability in the muscle activity. Co-contraction was quantified for two thigh muscle pairs and one plantar flexor/dorsiflexor muscle pair and group differences were assessed (two-way ANOVA). No significant differences were observed in the less eccentric demanding CMJ while significantly higher muscle...

  20. Hygienic quality control of chicken (thighs) by means of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lescano, G.; Kairiyama, E.; Narvaiz, P.; Kaupert, N.L.

    1990-01-01

    High quality chicken thighs, packed in polystyrene trays covered with PVC films, were treated with ionizing energy provided by a semiindustrial 60 Co facility, with a dose of 2.5 kGy, at the temperature of melting ice. Control and irradiated samples were stored at 2 deg C ± 2 deg C and RH: 89 % ± 6 %. Microbiological, chemical and sensory evaluations were performed. This treatment improved significantly the hygienic quality of the product, and reduced in two log cycles the initial number of aerobic bacteria, which led to a 2.5 times extension of the commercialization period. A diminished water content was observed after irradiation. Decreasing values were also found in every sample as storage time went by; the irradiated sample, on day 23, had values 9 % lower than that of the control sample on day 2. Rancidity, measured as peroxide number, increased their values after irradiation, but in such extent that was not noticed organoleptically. It was never higher than 10 meg/kg of fat (specification of the Argentine Alimentary Codex for oils). The commercial quality of the irradiated samples was acceptable until day 22. (Author) [es

  1. Dissociation between fat-induced in vivo insulin resistance and proximal insulin signaling in skeletal muscle in men at risk for type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Heidi; Jensen, Christine B; Björnholm, Marie

    2004-01-01

    The effect of short- (2 h) and long-term (24 h) low-grade Intralipid infusion on whole-body insulin action, cellular glucose metabolism, and proximal components of the insulin signal transduction cascade was studied in seven obese male glucose intolerant first degree relatives of type 2 diabetic...... h Intralipid infusion (0.4 ml.kg(-1).min(-1)). Insulin-stimulated glucose disposal decreased approximately 25% after short- and long-term fat infusion in both IGT relatives and controls. Glucose oxidation decreased and lipid oxidation increased after both short- and long-term fat infusion in both...... groups. Insulin-stimulated glucose oxidation was higher after long-term as compared with short-term fat infusion in control subjects. Short- or long-term infusion did not affect the absolute values of basal or insulin-stimulated insulin receptor substrate-1 tyrosine phosphorylation, tyrosine...

  2. Giant pyogenic granuloma of the thigh: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nthumba Peter M

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Pyogenic granuloma or lobular capillary hemangioma remains an etiopathological enigma, with trauma, inflammatory and infectious agents being the commonest suspected causative agents. These lesions affect mucous membranes of the upper aero-digestive tract, and skin. HIV patients diagnosed with pyogenic granuloma present with multiple lesions, caused by Bartonella spp. Case presentation A 28-year-old woman presented with a solitary large tumor on a skin graft donor site on her left thigh. On excision and histological examination the tumor was found to be a lobular capillary hemangioma (pyogenic granuloma. Further investigation in search of a possible explanation for this unusual presentation revealed HIV infection as the underlying cause. Conclusion This report underscores the fact that the full spectrum of presentation of HIV infection is still unknown. Unusual or unexpected presentations should arouse suspicion of underlying immunosuppression, especially in HIV endemic areas.

  3. Composition and cross-sectional area of muscle fibre types in relation to daily gain and lean and fat content of carcass in Landrace and Yorkshire pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. RUUSUNEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The muscle fibre-type properties of longissimus were compared between Landrace and Yorkshire breeds and between the sexes in an attempt to shed light on the relationship of these histochemical parameters to animal growth and carcass composition. Muscle fibres were classified into three groups, type I, type IIA and type IIB, using the myosin ATPase method. At a given live weight, the cross-sectional area of type I fibres (CSA I was smaller (p

  4. Differences in regional muscle distribution in football players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nešić N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine whether there are differences in regional distribution of muscle mass between a dominant and a non-dominant side and between an injured and an uninjured side. The study involved 31 participant with the following characteristics: aged 22±5 years, body height (TV 184±13 cm, body weight (TM 80±13 kg, average body fat weight (BF 14,35 kg, body mass index (BMI 24,8±4, and average percentage of body fat 15,5% (PBF. Of the total number of participants, 16 players (TIM 1 are playing football in the Croatian Second Division and 15 players (TIM 2 are playing in the Second County League. Measurements of muscle mass were conducted in two ways - measurements with bioelectrical impedance (BIA and anthropometric measurements. The girth was measured at eight different places - left and right forearm and upper arm, left and right leg and thigh. Additionally, the skin folds were measured on each side of the body: the skin fold on posterior side of the upper arm (triceps, on lateral side of the forearm, on anterior side of the thigh and on medial side of the lower leg. Data on muscle mass of individual segments of the left and right sides of the body were obtained with GAIA 359 device. The results of the statistical test showed a statistically significant difference among all groups except the differences between the dominant and non-dominant hand in TIM-1. In TIM-2, the average value of difference in muscle mass for arms is 0,012 kg and for legs 0,268 kg, both values in favor of the dominant hand. In TIM-1, the average value of difference in muscle mass is 0,087 kg in favor of non-dominant leg; the reason could be in a greater number of injuries on the dominant side. When it comes to injuries, both teams have seven players who suffered different injuries, of that number all the injuries were on the dominant leg in the TIM-1, whereas only two injuries were on the dominant side in TIM-2. The difference between the

  5. Adipofascial Anterolateral Thigh Flap Safety: Applications and Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Agostini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundA thinned anterolateral thigh (ALT flap is often harvested to achieve optimal skin resurfacing. Several techniques have been described to thin an ALT flap including an adipocutaneous flap, an adipofascial flap and delayed debulking.MethodsBy systematically reviewing all of the available literature in English and French, the present manuscript attempts to identify the common surgical indications, complications and donor site morbidity of the adipofascial variant of the ALT flap. The studies were identified by performing a systematic search on Medline, Ovid, EMBASE, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Current Contents, PubMed, Google, and Google Scholar.ResultsThe study selection process was adapted from the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement, and 15 articles were identified using the study inclusion criteria. These articles were then reviewed for author name(s, year of publication, flap dimensions and thickness following defatting, perforator type, type of transfer, complications, thinning technique, number of cases with a particular area of application and donor site morbidity.ConclusionsThe adipofascial variant of the ALT flap provides tissue to fill large defects and improve pliability. Its strong and safe blood supply permits adequate immediate or delayed debulking without vascular complications. The presence of the deep fascia makes it possible to prevent sagging by suspending and fixing the flap for functional reconstructive purposes (e.g., the intraoral cavity. Donor site morbidity is minimal, and thigh deformities can be reduced through immediate direct closure or liposuction and direct closure. A safe blood supply was confirmed by the rate of secondary flap debulking.

  6. The Impact of Chocolate Goat's and Cow's Milk on Postresistance Exercise Endocrine Responses and Isometric Mid-Thigh Pull Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellar, David; LeBlanc, Nina R; Murphy, Kellie; Moody, Kaitlyn M; Buquet, Gina

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation examined the effects of chocolate cow's and goat's milk on endocrine responses and isometric mid-thigh pull performance post back squat exercise. Twelve college-aged males volunteered to participate and reported to the lab on four occasions. The first visit included anthropometric measurement, one-repetition back squat (1RM), and familiarization with the isometric mid-thigh pull assessment (IMTP). During the subsequent three visits, five sets of eight repetitions of the back squat exercise at 80% of 1RM were performed. For these trials, the participants performed an IMTP and gave a saliva sample prior to, immediately after, 1 hr and 2 hr post exercise. After exercise, a treatment of low-fat chocolate goat's milk (355 ml, 225 kcal), low-fat chocolate cow's milk (355 ml, 225 kcal), or control (water 355 ml, 0 kcal) was given in a counterbalanced order. Saliva samples were analyzed for testosterone, cortisol, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Cortisol and DHEA hormone were unaffected by exercise; however, testosterone values did increase significantly post exercise. For IMTP, there was a significant main effect for time (F = 8.41, p = .007) but no treatment or interactions effects. N changes were noted post supplementation for cortisol or DHEA, but testosterone was found to be significantly reduced in both diary treatments compared to control (F = 4.27, p = .022). Based upon these data, it appears that a single treatment of chocolate goat's or cow's milk results in similar endocrine alterations but both fail to enhance postexercise isometric strength following resistance exercise.

  7. Reconstruction of trochanteric pressure sores with pedicled anterolateral thigh myocutaneous flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chih-Hsin; Chen, Shih-Yi; Fu, Ju-Peng; Dai, Niann-Tzyy; Chen, Shao-Liang; Chen, Tim-Mo; Chen, Shyi-Gen

    2011-05-01

    To provide an alternative choice for covering trochanteric pressure sores, we report on a modified pedicle anterolateral thigh (ALT) myocutaneous flap based on the descending branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery. From August 2007 to January 2010, 20 consecutive patients (10 men and 10 women) underwent 21 pedicled ALT myocutaneous flaps for reconstruction of trochanteric pressure sores. The flap was designed and elevated, resembling the ALT perforator flap including part of the vastus lateralis muscle but without skeletonisation of the perforators. The mean age of patients was 79.4 years (range: 46-103). The mean follow-up period was 13.9 months (range: 3-32). The flaps were 8-21 cm long and 5-11 cm wide. All flaps healed without major complications. All donor sites were closed primarily without skin grafting and showed good aesthetic results. No recurrence was observed. This modified design of pedicled ALT myocutaneous flap without skeletonisation of perforators is a reliable and easily harvested flap for reconstruction of trochanteric pressure sores with limited morbidity. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Supporting the upper body with the hand on the thigh reduces back loading during lifting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingma, I.; Faber, G.S.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2016-01-01

    When picking objects from the floor, low back pain patients often tend to support the upper body by leaning with one hand on a thigh. While this strategy may reduce back load, this has not yet been assessed, probably due to the difficulty of measuring the forces between hand and thigh.Ten healthy

  9. Fat metabolism is regulated by altered gene expression oflipogenic enzymes and regulatory factors in liver and adiposetissue but not in semimembranosus muscle of pigs during thefattening period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duran-Montge, P; Theil, Peter Kappel; Lauridsen, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    It has been shown previously that lipid metabolism is regulated by fatty acids (FA) and that thyroid hormones are important regulators of energy metabolism. The effects of weight, dietary fat level and dietary FA profile on thyroid hormone levels and expression of lipogenic genes and tissue FA co...

  10. Noninvasive Sensor for Measuring Muscle Metabolism During Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soller, B. R.; Yang, Y.; Lee, S. M. C.; Soyemi, O. O.; Wilson, C.; Hagan, R. D.

    2007-01-01

    The measurement of oxygen uptake (VO2) and lactate threshold (LT) are utilized to assess changes in aerobic capacity and the efficacy of exercise countermeasures in astronauts. During extravehicular activity (EVA), real-time knowledge of VO2 and relative work intensity can be used to monitor crew activity levels and organize tasks to reduce the cumulative effects of fatigue. Currently VO2 and LT are determined with complicated measurement techniques that require sampling of expired ventilatory gases, which may not be accurate in enclosed, oxygen-rich environments such as the EVA suit. The UMMS team has developed a novel near infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) system which noninvasively, simultaneously and continuously measures muscle oxygen tension, oxygen saturation, pH (pHm), and hematocrit from a small sensor placed on the leg. This system is unique in that it allows accurate, absolute measurement of these parameters in the thigh muscle by correcting spectra for the interference from skin pigment and fat. These parameters can be used to estimate VO2 and LT. A preliminary evaluation of the system s capabilities was performed in the NASA JSC Exercise Physiology Lab.

  11. Contributions by the CAG-repeat Polymorphism of the Androgen Receptor Gene and Circulating Androgens to Muscle Size. Odense Androgen Study - A Population-based Study of 20-29 Year-old Danish Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Leo; Hagen, Claus; Wraae, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    -repeat number correlated inversely with thigh and axial muscle area and with lower and upper extremity lean body mass. Except for upper extremity lean body mass, these findings remained significant in multivariate analyses controlling for circulating androgens, physical activity, smoking, alcohol intake......-29 years, who matched the background population as regards body mass index, chronic disease, medication, physical activity, smoking, and sociodemographic parameters. Genotyping was performed in 767 men, whole body DXA in 783 men, and MRI in 406 consecutively included men. Main Outcome Measures: Six......, chronic disease, and age. The CAG-repeat number correlated positively with total body fat mass adjusted for weight, but not with the concentration of any of the circulating androgens. Total testosterone and dihydrotestosterone correlated positively with all outcomes of muscle size. The prevalence of low...

  12. Effect of dietary lipid, carnitine and exercise on lipid profile in rat blood, liver and muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanth, Jyothsna; Jeevaratnam, K

    2009-09-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the influence of physical exercise on effects of the daily intake of vegetarian diet of either vegetable hydrogenated fat (HF) or peanut oil (PO) with or without carnitine on the lipid profile. Eight groups of male Wistar rats were fed HF-diet (4 groups) or PO-diet (4 groups), with or without carnitine for 24 weeks. One group for each diet acted as sedentary control while the other groups were allowed swimming for 1 hr a day, 6 days/week, for 24 weeks. Plasma triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol, free fatty acids (FFA), liver and thigh muscle glycogen, total fat (TF), TG, TC and FFA were analyzed. HF-fed rats showed significantly increased plasma TC, VLDL+LDL-cholesterol and TG compared to PO-fed rats, wherein a lowered plasma TC, TG levels in all the groups with significantly increased liver cholesterol and decreased muscle cholesterol was observed. Physical exercise of moderate intensity reduced plasma TC and TG accompanied by significantly reduced tissue TG and cholesterol while FFA and glycogen increased in all the groups. The influence of exercise was less pronounced in carnitine supplemented rats since carnitine could significantly reduce TG in plasma and tissues of sedentary rats. Results from the present study showed that the intake of HF diet significantly increased the plasma and tissue lipid profile and MUFA-rich diet or carnitine supplementation and/or exercise may ameliorate the deleterious effects of HF.

  13. Examination by means of computer tomography of muscle development in merino and suffolk sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezőszentgyörgyi, D.; Lengyel, A.

    1998-01-01

    In the course of these investigations the authors subjected 192 Hungarian Merino and 43 Suffolk breed rams to comparison between the breeds, by means of the application of CT: this involved observations to monitor muscle development and fat deposition on the basis of 7 images taken either in the loin region or in the thigh of each animal. Further to this, data relating to distances measured between the vertebrae of the lumbar region were also processed.The findings obtained from this study indicate that Hungarian Merino rams show no substantial change in the cross-sectional area of the long and short loin muscle above 35 kg body weight, while in Suffolk rams this value continues to follow a linear increase up to 45 kg body weight. Statistically verifiable significant difference between the two stocks was demonstrated to exist. In the interest of estimating the weight of valuable meat parts distances between the vertebrae were also determined. Demonstrable difference in this respect between the two types was established on examination of the vertebrae of the short loin region. With regard to the body weight categories investigated in the study, fat deposition showed linear increase in the Merino rams and an increase more of an exponential nature in the Suffolk stock

  14. Combined Increases in Muscle-Strengthening Activity Frequency and Protein Intake Reveal Graded Relationship with Fat-Free Mass Percentage in U.S. Adults, NHANES (1999-2004).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurka, J M; Vezina, J; Brown, D D; Schumacher, J; Cullen, R W; Laurson, K R

    2015-01-01

    Age-related loss of muscle mass and related ailments are of concern due to associations with disabilities and morbidity as well as constituting a substantial healthcare burden. Muscle-strengthening activities and adequate protein ingestion are recommended for all-age adults in an effort to stave off age-related muscle atrophy. Muscle building abilities decline with age but most research focuses on muscle wasting in the elderly. To examine the independent and combined associations of protein intake (g∙kg-1∙day-1) and muscle-strengthening frequency (times∙week-1, MSF) on fat-free mass percentage (FFM%). This cross-sectional analysis of a population-based sample with data from the non-institutionalized persons in the United States participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (cycles 1999-2000, 2001-2002, 2003-2004) consisted of male (n=2,499) and female (n=2,373) participants 20-49 years of age for analyses. MSF was determined by self-report and protein intake was calculated from a 24-hour recall. Differences in FFM% from bioelectrical impedance analysis was estimated using multiple linear regression models controlling for education, race-ethnicity, standing height, and total Caloric intake. One unit increase in MSF or protein intake (β-coefficient, ±E) was associated with significantly more FFM% in males (0.6±0.1%; 3.5±0.4%) and females (0.4±0.1%; 5.9±0.4%). Independent of protein intake, males and females with MSF=0 had mean ±SE FFM% of 74.4±0.4 and 60.7±0.3, respectively, while mean ±SE FFM% of males and females who met the recommendation of ≥2 times per week were 77.9±0.5 and 63.0±0.4. Independent of MSF, males and females with protein intakes below the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of 0.8 g∙kg-1∙day-1 had mean ±SE FFM% of 74.0±0.6 and 58.2±0.6, respectively, while mean ±SE FFM% of those whose intakes exceeded the recommendation were 75.6±0.4 and 62.0±0.4. The subgroup with the highest mean ±SE FFM% (80

  15. Effect of Low Dose Radiation Upon Antioxidant Parameters in Skeletal Muscle of Chick Embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilic, M.; Pirsljin, J.; Beer Ljubic, B.; Miljanic, S.; Kraljevic, P.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper an attempt was made to determine the effect of irradiation of eggs with low dose ionizing radiation upon lipid peroxide (TBARS) level, glutathione (GSH) level, activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in skeletal muscle of chick embryo and newly hatched chicks. The eggs of a heavy breeding chickens were irradiated with a dose of 0.3 Gy gamma radiation (60Co source) on the 19th day of incubation. Along with the irradiated chick embryos, there was a control group of non-irradiated chick embryos. The antioxidant parameters were measured in breast muscle (m. pectoralis superficialis) and thigh muscle (m. biceps femoris) of chick embryos on 1, 3, 6, 24 and 72 h after egg irradiation. All parameters were determined spectrophotometrically. Lipid peroxidation, GSH level and CAT activity decreased in the breast and thigh muscle of chick embryos on the first hour after irradiation, while the activity of GSH-Px increased in the thigh muscle on the 1st hour after irradiation. CAT activity decreased in the breast muscle of chick embryos on the hour 24 after irradiation. The GSH level increased in the breast and thigh muscle of chick embryos on the hour 72 after irradiation while the activity of GSH-Px increased in the breast muscle. At the same time CAT activity decreased in breast muscle while lipid peroxidation decreased in thigh muscle. The obtained results showed that acute irradiation of chicken eggs on the 19th day of incubation with the dose of 0.3 Gy gamma radiation could be an oxidative stress in both types of muscles immediately after irradiation. However, at the one-day old chicks (72 hours after irradiation) this dose could have a stimulating effect upon GSH level in both breast and thigh muscle.(author)

  16. Computed tomographic findings of leg muscles in the hemiplegics due to cerebrovascular accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odajima, Natsu; Ishiai, Sumio; Kotera, Minoru; Furukawa, Tetsuo; Tsukagoshi, Hiroshi.

    1986-01-01

    The computed tomography (CT) scan was performed in 52 hemiplegics due to cerebrovascular accidents and 12 normal controls on the mid-portion of the thigh and the largest-diameter section of the calf. Muscle size and average CT density of the muscle were measured. The salient feature was hypertrophic gracilis muscle of the hemiplegic side. Other muscles were more atrophied with lower CT density compared with those of the contralateral side. The size of the quadriceps muscle was especially small. The ratio of the quadriceps to all the thigh muscles in cross section was significantly smaller in affected side of hemiplegics than that of normal controls. This was observed even in normal side of the hemiplegics but the ratios of adductor and flexor muscles of the thigh showed no difference. Hypertrophy of gracilis muscle with high CT density was observed only on hemiplegic side. Muscle atrophies were marked in non-ambulatory patients. The ratios of quadriceps and saltorius muscles of thigh in non-ambulatory patients were significantly smaller than those of ambulatory patients. It could not be detected that there is relationship of the sevirity of the muscle atrophy and parietal lobe dysfunction. This atrophy considered to be the result of disuse of the paralyzed leg and pyramidal tract dysfunction. (author)

  17. Ácido linoléico conjugado e perfil de ácidos graxos no músculo e na capa de gordura de novilhos bubalinos alimentados com diferentes fontes de lipídios Linoleic conjugated acid and fatty acids profile in the muscle and fat layer of water buffalo steers fed different fat sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.L. Oliveira

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o teor de ácido linoléico conjugado (CLA e o perfil de ácidos graxos no músculo e na capa de gordura de novilhos bubalinos alimentados com diferentes fontes de lipídios. Utilizaram-se 12 animais castrados, da raça Murrah, com peso vivo de 306±8kg, submetidos aos tratamentos sem lipídeo adicional, grão de soja e óleo de soja, confinados durante 84 dias. Após o abate a carcaça foi resfriada a 5ºC, durante 24 horas. Foi feita secção entre a nona e a 11ª costelas da meia carcaça direita, de onde se separou músculo e capa de gordura, analisadas as concentrações de CLA e de ácidos graxos, por cromatografia gasosa. O fornecimento de óleo de soja resultou em maior concentração de CLA no músculo e na capa de gordura, e a adição de óleo de soja menores concentrações de ácidos graxos saturados, principalmente os ácidos mirístico e palmítico. Os animais que receberam a dieta com grão de soja integral também apresentaram menor teor de CLA e redução nas concentrações de mirístico e palmítico. Esses efeitos foram observados somente na capa de gordura e em menor intensidade.The effect of different fat sources on fatty acid concentrations in the muscle and in the fat layer of water buffalo steers was studied. Twelve water buffalo steers weighting 306±8kg, fed without additional fat, soybean grain or soybean oil and confined during 84 days were used. The animals were slaughtered after 16-hours-fasting and the carcass was cooled at 5ºC, for 24 hours. A section was extracted between 9th and 11th ribs from the right half carcass and this section was separated in bone, muscle and fat layer. In the last two fractions, the fatty acids, including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, were quantified by gaseous chromatography. The soybean oil provided higher CLA concentrations in the steers muscle and fat layer. Moreover, the soybean oil inclusion promoted lower saturated fatty acids contents, mainly miristic and palmitic

  18. Chinese medicine Jinlida (JLD) ameliorates high-fat-diet induced insulin resistance in rats by reducing lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Zang, Sha-Sha; Song, An; Liu, Yi-Xuan; Wang, Chao; Song, Guang-Yao; Li, Xiao-Ling; Zhu, Ya-Jun; Yu, Xian; Li, Ling; Liu, Chen-Xi; Kang, Jun-Cong; Ren, Lu-Ping

    2015-01-01

    The present paper reports the effects of Jinlida (JLD), a traditional Chinese medicine which has been given as a treatment for high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance. A randomized controlled experiment was conducted to provide evidence in support of the affects of JLD on insulin resistance induced by HFD. The affect of JLD on blood glucose, lipid, insulin, adiponectin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and total bilirubin (TBIL) in serum and lipid conten...

  19. Fatty acid composition of minced meat, longissimus muscle and omental fat from Small East African goats finished on different levels of concentrate supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushi, D E; Thomassen, M S; Kifaro, G C; Eik, L O

    2010-10-01

    Effects of supplementing Small East African (SEA) goats with concentrate diets on fatty acids composition of minced meat, M. longissimus dorsi (LD) and omental fat were assessed using 23 animals (14.5 months old and 20.1 kg body weight). Goats were subjected to four levels of concentrate supplementation: ad libitum concentrate allowance (T100), 66% (T66), 33% (T33) and 0% (T0) of ad libitum concentrate allowance. All goats were slaughtered after 90 days of experimental period. Minced meat from concentrate-supplemented goats had higher (Pmeat from T00 and T66 goats had similar proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and n-6 PUFA that were higher (Pgoats whereas margaric and arachidonic acids were in higher (Pgoats. Overall, LD was associated with PUFA, omental fat with saturated fatty acids (SFA), minced meat with MUFA. It is concluded that finishing SEA goats on concentrate diets will increase the proportion of DFA in meat from them. In addition, the proportion of PUFA in meat from such goats will peak at concentrate supplementation equivalent to 66% of their ad libitum intake. Consumers should avoid high intake of internal fat due to their richness in SFA. Copyright (c) 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Short-term high fat-feeding results in morphological and metabolic adaptations in the skeletal muscle of C57BL/6J mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de J.; Mohren, R.; Berg, van den S.; Boekschoten, M.V.; Willems van Dijk, K.; Groot, de P.J.; Müller, M.R.; Mariman, E.; Smit, E.

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MS) is rapidly increasing all over the world. Consequently, there is an urgent need for more effective intervention strategies. Both animal and human studies indicate that lipid oversupply to skeletal muscle can result in insulin resistance which is one of

  1. Carnitine supplementation in high-fat diet-fed rats does not ameliorate lipid-induced skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessels, B.; van den Broek, N.M.A.; Ciapaite, J.; Houten, S.M.; Wanders, R.J.A.; Nicolay, K.; Prompers, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Muscle lipid overload and the associated accumulation of lipid intermediates play an important role in the development of insulin resistance. Carnitine insufficiency is a common feature of insulin-resistant states and might lead to incomplete fatty acid oxidation and impaired export of lipid

  2. Effects of high protein diets on fat-free mass and muscle protein synthesis following weight loss: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Context: The benefits of high protein diets for sparing lean body mass and sustaining skeletal muscle protein metabolism during short-term weight loss in normal-weight adults are not well described. Objective: Determine the effects of varying levels of dietary protein intake on body compos...

  3. An 8-Week High-Fat Diet Induces Obesity and Insulin Resistance with Small Changes in the Muscle Transcriptome of C57BL/6J Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de J.; Smit, E.; Mohren, R.; Boekschoten, M.V.; Groot, de P.J.; Berg, van den S.A.A.; Bijland, S.; Voshol, P.J.; Willems van Dijk, K.; Wit, de N.J.W.; Bunschoten, A.; Schaart, G.; Hulshof, M.F.M.; Mariman, E.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Skeletal muscle is responsible for most of the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and metabolism. Therefore, it plays an important role in the development of insulin resistance, one of the characteristics of the metabolic syndrome (MS). As the prevalence of the MS is increasing, there is

  4. (1)H-MRS measured ectopic fat in liver and muscle is associated with the metabolic syndrome in Danish girls but not in boys with overweight and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, A; Fonvig, Cilius E; Chabanova, E.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a complication to overweight and obesity, which can be observed already in childhood. Ectopic lipid accumulation in muscle and liver has been shown to associate with the development of insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Thus, the interaction between...

  5. Partial rupture of the quadriceps muscle in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydemir Gokhan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The quadriceps femoris muscle ruptures usually occur in the middle-aged population. We present a 4-year-old patient with partial rupture of the quadriceps femoris muscle. To our knowledge, this is the youngest patient reported with a quadriceps femoris muscle rupture. Case Presentation A 4-year-old girl admitted to our clinic with left knee pain and limitation in knee movements. Her father reported that she felt pain while jumping on sofa. There was no direct trauma to thigh or knee. We located a palpable soft tissue swelling at distal anterolateral side of thigh. The history revealed that 10 days ago the patient was treated for upper tract respiratory infection with intramuscular Clindamycin for 7 days. When we consulted the patient with her previous doctor and nurse, we learnt that multiple daily injections might be injected to same side of left thigh. MRI showed a partial tear of vastus lateralis muscle matching with the injection sites. The patient treated with long leg half-casting for three weeks. Clinical examination and knee flexion had good results with conservative treatment. Conclusions Multiple intramuscular injections may contribute to damage muscles and make prone to tears with muscle contractions. Doctors and nurses must be cautious to inject from different parts of both thighs.

  6. Use of the Anterolateral Thigh in Cranio-Orbitofacial Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Parkes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To detail the clinical outcomes of a series of patients having undergone free flap reconstruction of the orbit and periorbita and highlight the anterolateral thigh (ALT as a workhorse for addressing defects in this region. Methods. A review of 47 patients who underwent free flap reconstruction for orbital or periorbital defects between September 2006 and May 2011 was performed. Data reviewed included demographics, defect characteristics, free flap used, additional reconstructive techniques employed, length of stay, complications, and follow-up. The ALT subset of the case series was the focus of the data reviewed for this paper. Selected cases were described to highlight some of the advantages of employing the ALT for cranio-orbitofacial reconstruction. Results. 51 free flaps in 47 patients were reviewed. 38 cases required orbital exenteration. The ALT was used in 33 patients. Complications included 1 hematoma, 2 wound infections, 3 CSF leaks, and 3 flap failures. Conclusions. Free tissue transfer allows for the safe and effective reconstruction of complex defects of the orbit and periorbital structures. Reconstructive choice is dependent upon the extent of soft tissue loss, midfacial bone loss, and skullbase involvement. The ALT provides a versatile option to reconstruct the many cranio-orbitofacial defects encountered.

  7. [Clinical application of MRI histogram in evaluation of muscle fatty infiltration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y M; Du, J; Li, W Z; Wang, Z X; Zhang, W; Xiao, J X; Yuan, Y

    2016-10-18

    To describe a method based on analysis of the histogram of intensity values produced from the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for quantifying the degree of fatty infiltration. The study included 25 patients with dystrophinopathy. All the subjects underwent muscle MRI test at thigh level. The histogram M values of 250 muscles adjusted for subcutaneous fat, representing the degree of fatty infiltration, were compared with the expert visual reading using the modified Mercuri scale. There was a significant positive correlation between the histogram M values and the scores of visual reading (r=0.854, Phistogram M values was similar to that of visual reading and results in literature. The histogram M values had stronger correlations with the clinical data than the scores of visual reading as follows: the correlations with age (r=0.730, Phistogram M values analysis had better repeatability than visual reading with the interclass correlation coefficient was 0.998 (95% CI: 0.997-0.998, PHistogram M values analysis of MRI with the advantages of repeatability and objectivity can be used to evaluate the degree of muscle fatty infiltration.

  8. Fat heaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmasry, Amr Ahmed Abd Elmoneim; Katajainen, Jyrki

    This report is an electronic appendix to our paper \\Fat heaps without regular counters". In that paper we described a new variant of fat heaps that is conceptually simpler and easier to implement than the original version. We also compared the practical performance of this data structure...

  9. The response of gene expression associated with lipid metabolism, fat deposition and fatty acid profile in the longissimus dorsi muscle of Gannan yaks to different energy levels of diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Yang

    Full Text Available The energy available from the diet, which affects fat deposition in vivo, is a major factor in the expression of genes regulating fat deposition in the longissimus dorsi muscle. Providing high-energy diets to yaks might increase intramuscular fat deposition and fatty acid concentrations under a traditional grazing system in cold seasons. A total of fifteen adult castrated male yaks with an initial body weight 274.3 ± 3.14 kg were analyzed for intramuscular adipose deposition and fatty acid composition. The animals were divided into three groups and fed low-energy (LE: 5.5 MJ/kg, medium-energy (ME: 6.2 MJ/kg and high-energy (HE: 6.9 MJ/kg diets, respectively. All animals were fed ad libitum twice daily at 08:00-09:00 am and 17:00-18:00 pm and with free access to water for 74 days, including a 14-d period to adapt to the diets and the environment. Intramuscular fat (IMF content, fatty acid profile and mRNA levels of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis were determined. The energy levels of the diets significantly (P<0.05 affected the content of IMF, total SFA, total MUFA and total PUFA. C16:0, C18:0 and C18:1n9c account for a large proportion of total fatty acids. Relative expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACACA, fatty acid synthase (FASN, stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ and fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4 was greater in HE than in LE yaks (P<0.05. Moreover, ME yaks had higher (P<0.05 mRNA expression levels of PPARγ, ACACA, FASN, SCD and FABP4 than did the LE yaks. The results demonstrate that the higher energy level of the diets increased IMF deposition and fatty acid content as well as increased intramuscular lipogenic gene expression during the experimental period.

  10. Gluteal fat thickness in pelvic CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeong Mi; Jung, Se Young; Lee, Jae Mun; Park, Seog Hee; Kim, Choon Yul; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1986-01-01

    Many calcifications due to fat necrosis in the buttocks detected on the pelvis roentgenograms suggest that the majority of injections intended to be intramuscular actually are delivered into fat. We measured thickness of adult gluteal fat to decide whether the injection using needle of usual length is done into fat or muscle. We measured the vertical thickness of the subcutaneous fat at a point of 2-3cm above the femoral head cut slice with randomly collected 116 cases of adults in the department of Radiology, St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic Medical College. We found that 32% female cases might actually receive on intra adipose injection when a needle of maximum 3.8cm length is inserted into the buttock. If deposition into muscle is desirable, we need to choose needle whose length is appropriate for the site of injection and the patient's deposits of fat.

  11. Change in Intra-Abdominal Fat Predicts the Risk of Hypertension in Japanese Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Catherine A; Kahn, Steven E; Fujimoto, Wilfred Y; Hayashi, Tomoshige; Leonetti, Donna L; Boyko, Edward J

    2015-07-01

    In Japanese Americans, intra-abdominal fat area measured by computed tomography is positively associated with the prevalence and incidence of hypertension. Evidence in other populations suggests that other fat areas may be protective. We sought to determine whether a change in specific fat depots predicts the development of hypertension. We prospectively followed up 286 subjects (mean age, 49.5 years; 50.4% men) from the Japanese American Community Diabetes Study for 10 years. At baseline, subjects did not have hypertension (defined as blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg) and were not taking blood pressure or glucose-lowering medications. Mid-thigh subcutaneous fat area, abdominal subcutaneous fat area, and intra-abdominal fat area were directly measured by computed tomography at baseline and 5 years. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds of incident hypertension over 10 years in relation to a 5-year change in fat area. The relative odds of developing hypertension for a 5-year increase in intra-abdominal fat was 1.74 (95% confidence interval, 1.28-2.37), after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, baseline intra-abdominal fat, alcohol use, smoking status, and weekly exercise energy expenditure. This relationship remained significant when adjusted for baseline fasting insulin and 2-hour glucose levels or for diabetes mellitus and pre-diabetes mellitus classification. There were no significant associations between baseline and change in thigh or abdominal subcutaneous fat areas and incident hypertension. In conclusion, in this cohort of Japanese Americans, the risk of developing hypertension is related to the accumulation of intra-abdominal fat rather than the accrual of subcutaneous fat in either the thigh or the abdominal areas. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Differences in Physicochemical and Nutritional Properties of Breast and Thigh Meat from Crossbred Chickens, Commercial Broilers, and Spent Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulian Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the physicochemical and nutritional properties of breast and thigh meat from commercial Chinese crossbred chickens (817 Crossbred chicken, 817C, imported commercial broilers (Arbor Acres broiler, AAB, and commercial spent hens (Hyline Brown, HLB. The crossbred chickens, commercial broilers and spent hens were slaughtered at their typical market ages of 45 d, 40 d, and 560 d, respectively. The results revealed that several different characteristic features for the three breeds. The meat of the 817C was darker than that of the other two genotypes. The 817C were also characterized by higher protein, lower intramuscular fat, and better texture attributes (cooking loss, pressing loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force [WBSF] compared with AAB and HLB. The meat of the spent hens (i.e. HLB was higher in WBSF and total collagen content than meat of the crossbred chickens and imported broilers. Furthermore, correlation analysis and principal component analysis revealed that there was a clear relationship among physicochemical properties of chicken meats. With regard to nutritional properties, it was found that 817C and HLB exhibited higher contents of essential amino acids and essential/non-essential amino acid ratios. In addition, 817C were noted to have highest content of microelements whereas AAB have highest content of potassium. Besides, 817C birds had particularly higher proportions of desirable fatty acids, essential fatty acids, polyunsaturated/saturated and (18:0+18:1/16:0 ratios. The present study also revealed that there were significant differences on breast meat and thigh meat for the physicochemical and nutritional properties, regardless of chicken breeds. In conclusion, meat of crossbred chickens has some unique features and exhibited more advantages over commercial broilers and spent hens. Therefore, the current investigation would provide valuable information for the chicken meat product processing

  13. Differences in Physicochemical and Nutritional Properties of Breast and Thigh Meat from Crossbred Chickens, Commercial Broilers, and Spent Hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yulian; Qiao, Yan; Xiao, Yu; Chen, Haochun; Zhao, Liang; Huang, Ming; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the physicochemical and nutritional properties of breast and thigh meat from commercial Chinese crossbred chickens (817 Crossbred chicken, 817C), imported commercial broilers (Arbor Acres broiler, AAB), and commercial spent hens (Hyline Brown, HLB). The crossbred chickens, commercial broilers and spent hens were slaughtered at their typical market ages of 45 d, 40 d, and 560 d, respectively. The results revealed that several different characteristic features for the three breeds. The meat of the 817C was darker than that of the other two genotypes. The 817C were also characterized by higher protein, lower intramuscular fat, and better texture attributes (cooking loss, pressing loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force [WBSF]) compared with AAB and HLB. The meat of the spent hens (i.e. HLB) was higher in WBSF and total collagen content than meat of the crossbred chickens and imported broilers. Furthermore, correlation analysis and principal component analysis revealed that there was a clear relationship among physicochemical properties of chicken meats. With regard to nutritional properties, it was found that 817C and HLB exhibited higher contents of essential amino acids and essential/non-essential amino acid ratios. In addition, 817C were noted to have highest content of microelements whereas AAB have highest content of potassium. Besides, 817C birds had particularly higher proportions of desirable fatty acids, essential fatty acids, polyunsaturated/saturated and (18:0+18:1)/16:0 ratios. The present study also revealed that there were significant differences on breast meat and thigh meat for the physicochemical and nutritional properties, regardless of chicken breeds. In conclusion, meat of crossbred chickens has some unique features and exhibited more advantages over commercial broilers and spent hens. Therefore, the current investigation would provide valuable information for the chicken meat product processing, and

  14. Autologous Fat Transfer in a Patient with Lupus Erythematosus Profundus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimi Yoon

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lupus erythematosus profundus, a form of chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus, is a rare inflammatory disease involving in the lower dermis and subcutaneous tissues. It primarily affects the head, proximal upper arms, trunk, thighs, and presents as firm nodules, 1 to 3 cm in diameter. The overlying skin often becomes attached to the subcutaneous nodules and is drawn inward to produce deep, saucerized depressions. We present a rare case of lupus erythematosus profundus treated with autologous fat transfer.

  15. Thigh circumference and risk of heart disease and premature death: prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, Berit; Frederiksen, Peder

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between thigh circumference and incident cardiovascular disease and coronary heart disease and total mortality. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study with Cox proportional hazards model and restricted cubic splines. SETTING: Random subset of adults...... in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 1436 men and 1380 women participating in the Danish MONICA project, examined in 1987-8 for height, weight, and thigh, hip, and waist circumference, and body composition by impedance. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: 10 year incidence of cardiovascular and coronary heart disease and 12.5 years...... of follow-up for total death. RESULTS: A small thigh circumference was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and coronary heart diseases and total mortality in both men and women. A threshold effect for thigh circumference was evident, with greatly increased risk of premature death below...

  16. Concurrent emphysematous pyelonephritis and thigh necrotizing fasciitis after intramuscular administration of diclofenac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Shamekhi Amiri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Necrotizing fasciitis (NF is a rapidly progressive, life-threatening soft tissue infec-tion. NF may result from any injury to the skin or from hematogenous spread. However, con-current emphysematous pyelonephritis and necrotizing fasciitis of the left thigh has not been reported. We report a case of emphysematous pyelonephritis and necrotizing fasciitis of the left thigh after intramuscular administration of diclofenac that improved with aggressive management including broad-spectrum antibiotics, nephrectomy and surgical intervention.

  17. Evaluation of endogenous control genes for gene expression studies across multiple tissues and in the specific sets of fat- and muscle-type samples of the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Y R; Li, M Z; Zhang, K; Chen, L; Jiang, A A; Wang, J Y; Li, X W

    2011-08-01

    To normalize a set of quantitative real-time PCR (q-PCR) data, it is essential to determine an optimal number/set of housekeeping genes, as the abundance of housekeeping genes can vary across tissues or cells during different developmental stages, or even under certain environmental conditions. In this study, of the 20 commonly used endogenous control genes, 13, 18 and 17 genes exhibited credible stability in 56 different tissues, 10 types of adipose tissue and five types of muscle tissue, respectively. Our analysis clearly showed that three optimal housekeeping genes are adequate for an accurate normalization, which correlated well with the theoretical optimal number (r ≥ 0.94). In terms of economical and experimental feasibility, we recommend the use of the three most stable housekeeping genes for calculating the normalization factor. Based on our results, the three most stable housekeeping genes in all analysed samples (TOP2B, HSPCB and YWHAZ) are recommended for accurate normalization of q-PCR data. We also suggest that two different sets of housekeeping genes are appropriate for 10 types of adipose tissue (the HSPCB, ALDOA and GAPDH genes) and five types of muscle tissue (the TOP2B, HSPCB and YWHAZ genes), respectively. Our report will serve as a valuable reference for other studies aimed at measuring tissue-specific mRNA abundance in porcine samples. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Pathological changes associated with white striping in broiler breast muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttappan, V A; Shivaprasad, H L; Shaw, D P; Valentine, B A; Hargis, B M; Clark, F D; McKee, S R; Owens, C M

    2013-02-01

    White striping is a condition in broiler chickens characterized grossly by the occurrence of white striations, seen parallel to the direction of muscle fibers, on broiler breast fillets and thighs. Based on visual evaluation of the intensity of white striping, breast fillets can be categorized into normal (NORM), moderate (MOD), and severe (SEV) categories. This study was undertaken to evaluate the details of changes in histology as well as proximate composition occurring in the fillets with respect to the 3 degrees of white striping. In experiment 1, representative breast fillets for each degree of white striping (n = 20) were collected from 45-d-old broilers, approximately 2 h postmortem. From each fillet, 2 skeletal muscle samples were obtained and fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin. To identify and differentiate the histological changes, slides were prepared and stained using hematoxylin and eosin, Masson's Trichrome, and Oil Red O stains. In experiment 2, samples with 3 degrees of white striping were collected from 57-d-old birds for conducting proximate analysis. Major histopathological changes observed in the MOD and SEV samples consisted of loss of cross striations, variability in fiber size, floccular/vacuolar degeneration and lysis of fibers, mild mineralization, occasional regeneration (nuclear rowing and multinucleated cells), mononuclear cell infiltration, lipidosis, and interstitial inflammation and fibrosis. Microscopic lesions were visually scored for degeneration and necrosis, fibrosis, and lipidosis. The scale used to score the samples ranged from 0 (normal) to 3 (severe). There was an increase (P white striping increased from NORM to SEV. The results from the histopathological study were supported by the findings from proximate analysis confirming that the fat and protein contents of muscle increased (P white striping increased. In conclusion, the histopathological changes occurring in white striping indicate a degenerative myopathy that

  19. Crescimento de cordeiros abatidos com diferentes pesos: osso, músculo e gordura da carcaça e de seus cortes Growth of lambs slaughtered at different weights: bone, muscle and fat of the carcass and its cuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiane Furtado da Silva

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado no Setor de Ovinocultura do Departamento de Zootecnia da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, objetivando determinar as quantidades de osso, músculo e gordura da carcaça e o crescimento de osso e músculo da carcaça e dos diferentes cortes da mesma. Foram utilizados 22 cordeiros machos inteiros, filhos de carneiros Texel e ovelhas cruza (Texel x Ideal. Desses, quatro/oram abatidos no início do experimento (24 horas após o nascimento, e os restantes, ao desmame (45 dias de idade e aos 28 e 33kg. Os cordeiros foram confinados em baias individuais, com suas respectivas mães, até o desmame (45 dias de idade. A determinação do crescimento dos tecidos da carcaça e de seus cortes (quarto, paleta, costela, espinhaço e pescoço foi realizada através de equações alométricas, utilizando-se o logaritmo do peso de osso ou músculo, em função do logaritmo do peso de corpo vazio (PCV ou peso de carcaça fria (PCF. As quantidades de osso e músculo aumentaram (P0,05 com a elevação do peso de carcaça fria. A proporção de gordura aumentou do nascimento ao desmame (PThis experiment was developed at the Ovine Section of Animal Science Department, at Federal University of Santa Maria, Brazil- The purpose of this experiment was to determine the quantity of bone, muscle and fat of the carcass, and the growth ofbone and muscle of the carcass, and of the carcass cuts. Twenty-two intact mate lambs, sired by Texel males, from crossbreed Texel -Ideal dams were used. Four lambs were siaughtered at the beginning of the experiment (24 hours after birth and groups of six lambs were siaughtered at weaning and when reaching 28 and 33kg. The lambs were kept in individual stalls together with their respective mothers until weaning (45 days of age. To study the growth of the carcass tissues and carcass cuts (hindquarter, shoulder, rib, backbone, neck, regression equations of the log of weight of each tissue, as a function of the log of

  20. Increased uptake of technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate in muscles in the course of polymyositis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemir, Z.; Oleksa, R.; Czepczynski, R.; Sowinski, J.

    2005-01-01

    A case of a woman aged 46 years with signs of rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure is presented. Coxsackie serum test was positive. Increased uptake of Technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate ( 99mT c-MDP) by muscles of thighs and calves was observed. After 1 year no increased accumulation of radiotracer in the muscles was found

  1. [Relationship between muscle activity and kinematics of the lower extremity in slow motions of squats in humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorievin, V I; Horkovenko, A V; Vereshchaka, I V

    2013-01-01

    Squatting can be performed on ankle strategy when ankle joint is flexed more than a hip joint and on hip strategy when large changes occur at the hip joint. The relationships between changes ofjoint angles and electromyogram (EMG) of the leg muscles were studied in five healthy men during squatting that was performed at the ankle and hip strategies with a slow changes in the knee angle of 40 and 60 degrees. It is established that at ankle strategy the ankle muscles were activated ahead of joint angle changes and shifting the center of pressure (CT) on stabilographic platform, whereas activation of the thigh muscles began simultaneously with the change of the joint angles, showing the clear adaptation in successive trials and a linear relationships between the static EMG component and the angle changes of the ankle joint. In the case of hip strategy of squatting the thigh muscles were activated simultaneously with the change in the joint angles and the displacement of CT, whereas the ankle muscles were activated later than the thigh muscles, especially the muscle tibialis anterior, showing some adaptations in consecutive attempts. At the ankle strategy the EMG amplitude was greatest in thigh muscles, reproducing contour of changes in joint angles, whereas the ankle muscles were activated only slightly during changes of joint angles. In the case of hip strategy dominated the EMG amplitude of the muscle tibialis anterior, which was activated when driving down the trunk and fixation of the joint angles that was accompanied by a slight coactivation of the calf muscles with the step-like increase in the amplitude of the EMG of the thigh muscles. Choice of leg muscles to start the squatting on both strategies occurred without a definite pattern, which may indicate the existence of a wide range of options for muscle activity in a single strategy.

  2. The Expression of Can and Camk is Associated with Lipogenesis in the Muscle of Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Yang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntramuscular fat (IMF content in chickens significantly contributes to meat quality. The main objective of this study was to assess the expression of calcineurin (CaN and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK in lipogenesis in chicken muscle. Chickens were slaughtered and sampled at 4, 8, and 16 weeks of age. IMF content and the expression of CaN subunits and CaMK isoforms were measured in the thigh muscle tissue. The results showed that the IMF contents were greater at 16 weeks compared with those at 4 and 8 weeks (p<0.05. Transcription of fatty acid synthase (FAS and fatty acid translocase CD36 (FAT/CD36 mRNA significantly increased with age, from four to 16 weeks (p<0.05. The mRNA levels of CaNB and CaMK IV were significantly lower at 16 weeks than at four weeks (p<0.05, but CaMK II mRNA levels were significantly higher than at four weeks (p<0.05. In order to evaluate the role of CaMK and CaN in adipogenesis, SV cells were incubated in standard adipogenic medium for 24 h and treated with specific inhibitor of CaMK and CaN. The expressions of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein b (C/EBPb, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1,and peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor g (PPARγwere dramatically enhanced by the CsA, CaN inhibitor (p<0.05. KN93, CaMK II inhibitor, dramatically repressed the expression of those lipogenic gene (p<0.05. These results indicated that CaN and CaMK had different effects on adipogenesis in the muscle of chickens.

  3. Chronic exercise preserves lean muscle mass in masters athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroblewski, Andrew P; Amati, Francesca; Smiley, Mark A; Goodpaster, Bret; Wright, Vonda

    2011-09-01

    Aging is commonly associated with a loss of muscle mass and strength, resulting in falls, functional decline, and the subjective feeling of weakness. Exercise modulates the morbidities of muscle aging. Most studies, however, have examined muscle-loss changes in sedentary aging adults. This leaves the question of whether the changes that are commonly associated with muscle aging reflect the true physiology of muscle aging or whether they reflect disuse atrophy. This study evaluated whether high levels of chronic exercise prevents the loss of lean muscle mass and strength experienced in sedentary aging adults. A cross-section of 40 high-level recreational athletes ("masters athletes") who were aged 40 to 81 years and trained 4 to 5 times per week underwent tests of health/activity, body composition, quadriceps peak torque (PT), and magnetic resonance imaging of bilateral quadriceps. Mid-thigh muscle area, quadriceps area (QA), subcutaneous adipose tissue, and intramuscular adipose tissue were quantified in magnetic resonance imaging using medical image processing, analysis, and visualization software. One-way analysis of variance was used to examine age group differences. Relationships were evaluated using Spearman correlations. Mid-thigh muscle area (P = 0.31) and lean mass (P = 0.15) did not increase with age and were significantly related to retention of mid-thigh muscle area (P lean mass (P = 0.4) and PT. This study contradicts the common observation that muscle mass and strength decline as a function of aging alone. Instead, these declines may signal the effect of chronic disuse rather than muscle aging. Evaluation of masters athletes removes disuse as a confounding variable in the study of lower-extremity function and loss of lean muscle mass. This maintenance of muscle mass and strength may decrease or eliminate the falls, functional decline, and loss of independence that are commonly seen in aging adults.

  4. Muscles, exercise and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente K; Febbraio, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    During the past decade, skeletal muscle has been identified as a secretory organ. Accordingly, we have suggested that cytokines and other peptides that are produced, expressed and released by muscle fibres and exert either autocrine, paracrine or endocrine effects should be classified as myokines....... The finding that the muscle secretome consists of several hundred secreted peptides provides a conceptual basis and a whole new paradigm for understanding how muscles communicate with other organs, such as adipose tissue, liver, pancreas, bones and brain. However, some myokines exert their effects within...... the muscle itself. Thus, myostatin, LIF, IL-6 and IL-7 are involved in muscle hypertrophy and myogenesis, whereas BDNF and IL-6 are involved in AMPK-mediated fat oxidation. IL-6 also appears to have systemic effects on the liver, adipose tissue and the immune system, and mediates crosstalk between intestinal...

  5. Skeletal muscle glucose uptake during dynamic exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Kiens, Bente; Saltin, Bengt

    1988-01-01

    uptake was not compensated for by increased uptake of free fatty acids but was accompanied by decreases in plasma insulin and increases in plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine. During work with large muscle masses, arterial lactate increased to approximately 6 mM, and net leg lactate release reverted......To study the role of muscle mass in glucoregulation, six subjects worked with the knee extensors of one leg on a specially constructed cycle ergometer. The knee extensors of one leg worked either alone or in combination with the knee extensors of the other leg and/or with the arms. Substrate usage...... to net lactate uptake. Decreased glucose uptake could not be explained by decreased perfusion. It is concluded that thigh muscle glucose uptake is affected by the size of the total muscle mass engaged in exercise. The decrease in thigh glucose uptake, when arm cranking was added and O2 uptake...

  6. The animal fat paradox and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, E C; O'Neill, H A

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to address some of the paradoxical issues and perceptions regarding animal fats and the related effects on meat quality and consumer perceptions. Meat scientists have been studying carcass characteristics for many years and although the factors that influence the accumulation, distribution and composition of carcass fat in livestock have been extensively researched, the role, value and perceptions of animal fats in meat quality differ significantly in importance between producers, abattoirs, butchers, retailers and consumers. Fat and long-chain fatty acids, whether in adipose tissue or muscle, contribute to important aspects of meat quality and are central to the nutritional and sensory values of meat. In this review the nutritional value of fat, as well as the importance of fat in terms of carcass and meat quality will be highlighted. The 'quality' of meat depends greatly on the socio-demographic backgrounds of the consumer. The aim is to focus on the global importance of fat in the carcass to the producer, processor and consumer. There is currently no clear cut definition for fat quality because the acceptability and perceived quality of fat varies significantly in terms of quantity, colour, consistency and chemical composition in different species of livestock around the world. The association between animal fats and human health is critical and recommendations by health professionals range from excluding fats altogether to a moderate consumption of fats due to their essential role in the body. Recently the emphasis has shifted away from fat quantity to fat quality. Despite these recommendations and years of bad publicity in terms of the adverse affects of animal fats in human health, the livestock industry seems reluctant to shift its focus to fat quality rather than quantity. This approach may adversely affect future meat consumption by consumers who are becoming increasingly critical about the food they eat.

  7. Muscle area of knee O.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Nobuharu; Onozawa, Toshihiro; Shibata, Minoru; Yamasita, Izumi; Kitsunai, Isamu; Asano, Akira

    1983-01-01

    The cross sectional area of the thigh muscles were studied by means of C.T. scan. Twelve normal knees, twelve primary knee O.A. knees, and six R.A. knees were examined. The cross sectional area of the Quadriceps femoris decreased significantly in the patient of the knee O.A. although flexors did not decrease. We discussed the etiology of the knee O.A. from this result. (author)

  8. Pedicle Anterolateral Thigh Flap Reconstruction after Pelvic Tumor Resection: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M. Whitfield

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 47-year-old female with a locally advanced urologic malignancy previously managed with resection, diversion, and postoperative radiation therapy presented for management of her recurrent cancer that had eroded through the soft tissues of the left inner thigh and vulva. On all staging studies the tumor involved the left common femoral artery, and vein, both above and below the inguinal ligament. The difficulty with such tumors is the availability of tissue to reconstruct the defect. The patient had a history of deep venous thrombosis in the femoral venous system. A local flap was the most logical type of reconstruction. The patient had a right lower quadrant ureterostomy with a large parastomal hernia which further limited the local flap options. An anterolateral thigh flap from the opposite thigh was used to reconstruct the soft tissue deficit in this patient. This resurfaced the defect and provided coverage for the vascular reconstruction.

  9. Face resurfacing using a cervicothoracic skin flap prefabricated by lateral thigh fascial flap and tissue expander.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingfeng; Zan, Tao; Gu, Bin; Liu, Kai; Shen, Guoxiong; Xie, Yun; Weng, Rui

    2009-01-01

    Resurfacing of facial massive soft tissue defect is a formidable challenge because of the unique character of the region and the limitation of well-matched donor site. In this report, we introduce a technique for using the prefabricated cervicothoracic skin flap for facial resurfacing, in an attempt to meet the principle of flap selection in face reconstructive surgery for matching the color and texture, large dimension, and thinner thickness (MLT) of the recipient. Eleven patients with massive facial scars underwent resurfacing procedures with prefabricated cervicothoracic flaps. The vasculature of the lateral thigh fascial flap, including the descending branch of the lateral femoral circumflex vessels and the surrounding muscle fascia, was used as the vascular carrier, and the pedicles of the fascial flap were anastomosed to either the superior thyroid or facial vessels in flap prefabrication. A tissue expander was placed beneath the fascial flap to enlarge the size and reduce the thickness of the flap. The average size of the harvested fascia flap was 6.5 x 11.7 cm. After a mean interval of 21.5 weeks, the expanders were filled to a mean volume of 1,685 ml. The sizes of the prefabricated skin flaps ranged from 12 x 15 cm to 15 x 32 cm. The prefabricated skin flaps were then transferred to the recipient site as pedicled flaps for facial resurfacing. All facial soft tissue defects were successfully covered by the flaps. The donor sites were primarily closed and healed without complications. Although varied degrees of venous congestion were developed after flap transfers, the marginal necrosis only occurred in two cases. The results in follow-up showed most resurfaced faces restored natural contour and regained emotional expression. MLT is the principle for flap selection in resurfacing of the massive facial soft tissue defect. Our experience in this series of patients demonstrated that the prefabricated cervicothoracic skin flap could be a reliable alternative

  10. Semi-automated segmentation and quantification of adipose tissue in calf and thigh by MRI: a preliminary study in patients with monogenic metabolic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Attar, Salam A; Pollex, Rebecca L; Robinson, John F; Miskie, Brooke A; Walcarius, Rhonda; Rutt, Brian K; Hegele, Robert A

    2006-01-01

    With the growing prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome, reliable quantitative imaging methods for adipose tissue are required. Monogenic forms of the metabolic syndrome include Dunnigan-variety familial partial lipodystrophy subtypes 2 and 3 (FPLD2 and FPLD3), which are characterized by the loss of subcutaneous fat in the extremities. Through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of FPLD patients, we have developed a method of quantifying the core FPLD anthropometric phenotype, namely adipose tissue in the mid-calf and mid-thigh regions. Four female subjects, including an FPLD2 subject (LMNA R482Q), an FPLD3 subject (PPARG F388L), and two control subjects were selected for MRI and analysis. MRI scans of subjects were performed on a 1.5T GE MR Medical system, with 17 transaxial slices comprising a 51 mm section obtained in both the mid-calf and mid-thigh regions. Using ImageJ 1.34 n software, analysis of raw MR images involved the creation of a connectedness map of the subcutaneous adipose tissue contours within the lower limb segment from a user-defined seed point. Quantification of the adipose tissue was then obtained after thresholding the connected map and counting the voxels (volumetric pixels) present within the specified region. MR images revealed significant differences in the amounts of subcutaneous adipose tissue in lower limb segments of FPLD3 and FPLD2 subjects: respectively, mid-calf, 15.5% and 0%, and mid-thigh, 25.0% and 13.3%. In comparison, old and young healthy controls had values, respectively, of mid-calf, 32.5% and 26.2%, and mid-thigh, 52.2% and 36.1%. The FPLD2 patient had significantly reduced subcutaneous adipose tissue compared to FPLD3 patient. Thus, semi-automated quantification of adipose tissue of the lower extremity can detect differences between individuals of various lipodystrophy genotypes and represents a potentially useful tool for extended quantitative phenotypic analysis of other genetic metabolic disorders

  11. High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise and Fat Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen H. Boutcher

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of regular aerobic exercise on body fat is negligible; however, other forms of exercise may have a greater impact on body composition. For example, emerging research examining high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE indicates that it may be more effective at reducing subcutaneous and abdominal body fat than other types of exercise. The mechanisms underlying the fat reduction induced by HIIE, however, are undetermined. Regular HIIE has been shown to significantly increase both aerobic and anaerobic fitness. HIIE also significantly lowers insulin resistance and results in a number of skeletal muscle adaptations that result in enhanced skeletal muscle fat oxidation and improved glucose tolerance. This review summarizes the results of HIIE studies on fat loss, fitness, insulin resistance, and skeletal muscle. Possible mechanisms underlying HIIE-induced fat loss and implications for the use of HIIE in the treatment and prevention of obesity are also discussed.

  12. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been

  13. Long-term fat diet adaptation effects on performance, training capacity, and fat utilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2002-01-01

    It is well known that adaptation to a fat-rich carbohydrate-poor diet results in lower resting muscle glycogen content and a higher rate of fat oxidation during exercise when compared with a carbohydrate-rich diet. The net effect of such an adaptation could potentially be a sparing of muscle...... glycogen, and because muscle glycogen storage is coupled to endurance performance, it is possible that adaptation to a high-fat diet potentially could enhance endurance performance. Therefore, the first issue in this review is to critically evaluate the available evidence for a potential endurance...... performance enhancement after long-term fat-rich diet adaptation. Attainment of optimal performance is among other factors dependent also on the quality and quantity of the training performed. When exercise intensity is increased, there is an increased need for carbohydrates. On the other hand, consumption...

  14. Large volume liquid silicone injection in the upper thighs : a never ending story

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofer, SOP; Damen, A; Nicolai, JPA

    This report concerns a 26-year-old male-to-female transsexual who had received a large volume liquid silicone injection of unknown grade into her upper lateral thighs to gain female contour. She presented at our outpatient clinic 4 years after the silicone injection with complaints of pain and

  15. The Internal Pudendal Artery Perforator Thigh Flap: A New Freestyle Pedicle Flap for the Ischial Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro Hashimoto, MD

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: The perforator vessels of the internal pudendal artery are very close to the ischial tuberosity. Blood flow to the flap is reliable when careful debridement of the pressure sore is performed. The iPap thigh flap is a new option for soft-tissue defects in the ischial region, including ischial pressure sores.

  16. The appearance of angiolipomatosis after using laptop computer on the thighs: a relationship?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Caucanas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A 56-year-old patient developed angiolipomatosis of the anterior part of the thighs after repeated laptop contact localisation. Histological findings exhibit an unusual inflammatory infiltrate. We postulate that the computer could favour lipoma development by a physiopathological mechanism that remains to be clarified.

  17. Augmented reality and dynamic infrared thermography for perforator mapping in the anterolateral thigh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes, Ignacio Javier; Dagnino, Bruno Leonardo; Salisbury, María Carolina; Perez, María Eliana; Ortega, Claudia; Maldonado, Daniela

    2018-05-01

    Dynamic infrared thermography (DIRT) has been used for the preoperative mapping of cutaneous perforators. This technique has shown a positive correlation with intraoperative findings. Our aim was to evaluate the accuracy of perforator mapping with DIRT and augmented reality using a portable projector. For this purpose, three volunteers had both of their anterolateral thighs assessed for the presence and location of cutaneous perforators using DIRT. The obtained image of these "hotspots" was projected back onto the thigh and the presence of Doppler signals within a 10-cm diameter from the midpoint between the lateral patella and the anterior superior iliac spine was assessed using a handheld Doppler device. Hotspots were identified in all six anterolateral thighs and were successfully projected onto the skin. The median number of perforators identified within the area of interest was 5 (range, 3-8) and the median time needed to identify them was 3.5 minutes (range, 3.3-4.0 minutes). Every hotspot was correlated to a Doppler sound signal. In conclusion, augmented reality can be a reliable method for transferring the location of perforators identified by DIRT onto the thigh, facilitating its assessment and yielding a reliable map of potential perforators for flap raising.

  18. Thigh infection and subcutaneous emphysema: an emergency, review of literature and case discussion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Thakral, R

    2011-06-01

    Thigh infection associated with local emphysematous signs on presentation to the emergency room should alert the medical staff at once of potential complication associated with it. The infection may be associated with underlying bowel pathology and has a high mortality rate. Hence, emergency treatment should be instituted. We discuss a case with this uncommon presentation, treatment administered and relevant literature.

  19. 99mTc-sestamibi muscle scintigraphy to assess the response to neuromuscular electrical stimulation of normal quadriceps femoris muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pekindil, Y.; Sarikaya, A.; Birtane, M.; Pekindil, G.; Salan, A.

    2001-01-01

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is widely used for improving muscle strength by simultaneous contraction in the prevention of muscle atrophy. Although there exist many clinical methods for evaluating the therapeutic response of muscles, 99m Tc-sestamibi which is a skeletal muscle perfusion and metabolism agent has not previously been used for this purpose. The aim of our work was to ascertain whether 99m Tc-sestamibi muscle scintigraphy is useful in the monitoring of therapeutic response to NMES in healthy women. The study included 16 women aged between 21 and 45, with a mean age of 32.7±6.4. Both quadriceps femoris muscles (QFM) of each patient were studied. After randomization to remove the effect of the dominant side, one QFM of each patient was subjected to the NMES procedure for a period of 20 days. NMES was performed with an alternating biphasic rectangular current, from a computed electrical stimulator daily for 23 minutes. After measurement of skinfold thickness over the thigh, pre- and post-NMES girth measurements were assessed in centimeters. Sixty minutes after injections of 555 MBq 99m Tc-sestamibi, static images of the thigh were obtained for 5 minutes. The thigh-to-knee uptake ratio was calculated by semiquantitative analysis and normalized to body surface area (NUR=normalized uptake ratio). The difference between the pre and post NMES NUR values was significant (1.76±0.31 versus 2.25±0.38, p=0.0000). The percentage (%) increase in NUR values also well correlated with the % increase in thigh girth measurements (r=0.89, p=0.0000). These results indicated that 99m Tc-sestamibi muscle scintigraphy as a new tool may be useful in evaluating therapeutic response to NMES. (author)

  20. Possibility of Undifferentiated Human Thigh Adipose Stem Cells Differentiating into Functional Hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Hoon Lee

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThis study aimed to investigate the possibility of isolating mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs from human thigh adipose tissue and the ability of human thigh adipose stem cells (HTASCs to differentiate into hepatocytes.MethodsThe adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs were isolated from thigh adipose tissue. Growth factors, cytokines, and hormones were added to the collagen coated dishes to induce the undifferentiated HTASCs to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells. To confirm the experimental results, the expression of hepatocyte-specific markers on undifferentiated and differentiated HTASCs was analyzed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemical staining. Differentiation efficiency was evaluated using functional tests such as periodic acid schiff (PAS staining and detection of the albumin secretion level using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA.ResultsThe majority of the undifferentiated HTASCs were changed into a more polygonal shape showing tight interactions between the cells. The differentiated HTASCs up-regulated mRNA of hepatocyte markers. Immunocytochemical analysis showed that they were intensely stained with anti-albumin antibody compared with undifferentiated HTASCs. PAS staining showed that HTASCs submitted to the hepatocyte differentiation protocol were able to more specifically store glycogen than undifferentiated HTASCs, displaying a purple color in the cytoplasm of the differentiated HTASCs. ELISA analyses showed that differentiated HTASCs could secrete albumin, which is one of the hepatocyte markers.ConclusionsMSCs were islolated from human thigh adipose tissue differentiate to heapatocytes. The source of ADSCs is not only abundant abdominal adipose tissue, but also thigh adipose tissue for cell therapy in liver regeneration and tissue regeneration.

  1. The Effect of a Vegetarian vs Conventional Hypocaloric Diabetic Diet on Thigh Adipose Tissue Distribution in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahleova, Hana; Klementova, Marta; Herynek, Vit; Skoch, Antonin; Herynek, Stepan; Hill, Martin; Mari, Andrea; Pelikanova, Terezie

    2017-07-01

    The aim of our study was to compare the effects of a vegetarian and a conventional diet on thigh adipose tissue distribution in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Seventy-four subjects with T2D were randomly assigned to either follow a vegetarian diet (V, n = 37) or a control group who followed an isocaloric conventional anti-diabetic diet (C, n = 37). Both diets were calorie restricted (-500 kcal/day). To measure insulin sensitivity, the hyperinsulinemic (1 mU.kg -1 .min -1 ) isoglycemic clamp was conducted. β-Cell function was assessed using a mathematical model after a test meal. Magnetic resonance imaging of the thigh was performed. All subjects were examined at 0, 3, and 6 months. Statistical analyses were performed using repeated measures analysis of variance and a multivariate regression model. Greater reduction was observed in total leg area in V (-13.6 cm 2 [95% confidence interval [CI], -14.2 to -12.9] in V vs -9.9 cm 2 [95% CI, -10.6 to -9.2] in C; Gxt p diets (Gxt, p = 0.64). Subfascial fat was reduced only in response to a vegetarian diet (-0.82 [95% CI, -1.13 to -0.55] cm 2 in V vs -0.44 [95% CI, -0.78 to +0.02] cm 2 in C; Gxt, p = 0.04). The reduction in intramuscular fat tended to be greater in response to a vegetarian diet (-1.78 [95% CI, -2.26 to -1.27] cm 2 in V vs -0.57 [95% CI, -1.06 to -0.09] cm 2 in C; Gxt, p = 0.12). Changes in subcutaneous and subfascial fat correlated with changes in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose, and β-cell insulin sensitivity. After adjustment for changes in body mass index (BMI), correlations remained significant for changes in fasting plasma glucose and β-cell insulin sensitivity and with changes in triglycerides. Our data indicate the importance of both subcutaneous and subfascial fat in relationship to glucose and lipid metabolism. BMI , body mass index; C , control group; FPG , fasting plasma glucose; Gxt , interaction between group and time; HbA1c , glycated hemoglobin; MCR

  2. Hypoxia Aggravates Inactivity-Related Muscle Wasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadej Debevec

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Poor musculoskeletal state is commonly observed in numerous clinical populations such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and heart failure patients. It, however, remains unresolved whether systemic hypoxemia, typically associated with such clinical conditions, directly contributes to muscle deterioration. We aimed to experimentally elucidate the effects of systemic environmental hypoxia upon inactivity-related muscle wasting. For this purpose, fourteen healthy, male participants underwent three 21-day long interventions in a randomized, cross-over designed manner: (i bed rest in normoxia (NBR; PiO2 = 133.1 ± 0.3 mmHg, (ii bed rest in normobaric hypoxia (HBR; PiO2 = 90.0 ± 0.4 mmHg and ambulatory confinement in normobaric hypoxia (HAmb; PiO2 = 90.0 ± 0.4 mmHg. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography and vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were performed before and after the interventions to obtain thigh and calf muscle cross-sectional areas and muscle fiber phenotype changes, respectively. A significant reduction of thigh muscle size following NBR (-6.9%, SE 0.8%; P < 0.001 was further aggravated following HBR (-9.7%, SE 1.2%; P = 0.027. Bed rest-induced muscle wasting in the calf was, by contrast, not exacerbated by hypoxic conditions (P = 0.47. Reductions in both thigh (-2.7%, SE 1.1%, P = 0.017 and calf (-3.3%, SE 0.7%, P < 0.001 muscle size were noted following HAmb. A significant and comparable increase in type 2× fiber percentage of the vastus lateralis muscle was noted following both bed rest interventions (NBR = +3.1%, SE 2.6%, HBR = +3.9%, SE 2.7%, P < 0.05. Collectively, these data indicate that hypoxia can exacerbate inactivity-related muscle wasting in healthy active participants and moreover suggest that the combination of both, hypoxemia and lack of activity, as seen in COPD patients, might be particularly harmful for muscle tissue.

  3. Variability of femoral muscle attachments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, G N; Brand, D; Freitag, S; Lierse, W; Schneider, E

    1996-09-01

    Analytical and experimental models of the musculoskeletal system often assume single values rather than ranges for anatomical input parameters. The hypothesis of the present study was that anatomical variability significantly influences the results of biomechanical analyses, specifically regarding the moment arms of the various thigh muscles. Insertions and origins of muscles crossing or attaching to the femur were digitized in six specimens. Muscle volumes were measured; muscle attachment area and centroid location were computed. To demonstrate the influence of inter-individual anatomic variability on a mechanical modeling parameter, the corresponding range of muscle moment arms were calculated. Standard deviations, as a percentage of the mean, were about 70% for attachment area and 80% for muscle volume and attachment centroid location. The resulting moment arms of the m. gluteus maximus and m. rectus femoris were especially sensitive to anatomical variations (SD 65%). The results indicate that sensitivity to anatomical variations should be analyzed in any investigation simulating musculoskeletal interactions. To avoid misinterpretations, investigators should consider using several anatomical configurations rather than relying on a mean data set.

  4. Abdominal- versus thigh-based reconstruction of perineal defects in patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, John; Broyles, Justin M; Berli, Jens; Buretta, Kate; Shridharani, Sachin M; Rochlin, Danielle H; Efron, Jonathan E; Sacks, Justin M

    2014-06-01

    An abdominoperineal resection is an invasive procedure that leaves the patient with vast pelvic dead space. Traditionally, the vertical rectus abdominus myocutaneous flap is used to reconstruct these defects. Oftentimes, this flap cannot be used because of multiple ostomy placements or previous abdominal surgery. The anterolateral thigh flap can be used; however, the efficacy of this flap has been questioned. We report a single surgeon's experience with perineal reconstruction in patients with cancer with the use of either the vertical rectus abdominus myocutaneous flap or the anterolateral thigh flap to demonstrate acceptable outcomes with either repair modality. From 2010 to 2012, 19 consecutive patients with perineal defects secondary to cancer underwent flap reconstruction. A retrospective chart review of prospectively entered data was conducted to determine the frequency of short-term and long-term complications. This study was conducted at an academic, tertiary-care cancer center. Patients in the study were patients with cancer who were receiving perineal reconstruction. Interventions were surgical and included either abdomen- or thigh-based reconstruction. The main outcome measures included infection, flap failure, length of stay, and time to radiotherapy. Of the 19 patients included in our study, 10 underwent anterolateral thigh flaps and 9 underwent vertical rectus abdominus myocutaneous flaps for reconstruction. There were no significant differences in demographics between groups (p > 0.05). Surgical outcomes and complications demonstrated no significant differences in the rate of infection, hematoma, bleeding, or necrosis. The mean length of stay after reconstruction was 9.7 ± 3.4 days (± SD) in the anterolateral thigh flap group and 13.4 ± 7.7 days in the vertical rectus abdominus myocutaneous flap group (p > 0.05). The limitations of this study include a relatively small sample size and retrospective evaluation. This study suggests that the

  5. Muscle areas of lower limbs were determined by anthropometric and computed tomography in the adult of the masculine sex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Vieitez, Jorge Alberto; Alvarez Cuesta, Jose Alberto; Williams Wilson, Luis

    2000-01-01

    In a sample of 17 males (age 26 + - 5 years; weight 76.3 + - 7.1 kg and height 177.2 + - 3.9 cm) the differences, ratios and interchangeability among muscle areas (cm 2 ) of lower limbs (medial thigh and maximum leg) were determined by anthropometric (muscle area= [limb circumference (cm)- 0.31416 skinfold (mm)]2 /12.5664 and computed tomography. The anthropometric method overestimated muscle areas in both regions (thigh + 9.0 + - 12.8; p= 0.01 and leg: +8.5 + - 11.2; p=0.006). Relation between the two procedures was statistically significant (thigh r=0.9; p= 8.8 .10-7 and leg r=0.52; p=0.03). Both methods were interchangeable since neither the correlation coefficient (thigh r=0.42; leg r=0.38) nor the regression gradient (thigh b 0 .21 + - 0.12; leg b = -0.44 + - 0.28) between the differences (anthropometric ? TAC) and the averages (anthropometric + TAC/ 2) in both methods were statistically significant (p>0.05). It was concluded that the anthropometric method requires certain adjustments to be able to estimate more accurately the muscle areas of lower limbs

  6. Skeletal muscle injury induced by a pneumatic tourniquet: an enzyme- and immunohistochemical study in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedowitz, R A; Fridén, J; Thornell, L E

    1992-03-01

    The pathophysiology of skeletal muscle injury induced by compression beneath pneumatic tourniquets is poorly understood. Tourniquet hemostasis was induced in rabbit hindlimbs for 2 hr with a cuff inflation pressure of either 125 mm Hg (n = 5) or 350 mm Hg (n = 5). Skeletal muscle biopsies, taken 2 days later from tissue beneath and distal to the tourniquet, were frozen and analyzed using enzyme- and immunohistochemical techniques. In the 350 mm Hg tourniquet group, four of 10 thigh muscle samples demonstrated significant regional necrosis (mean 37.3% of the total cross-sectional area). Regional necrosis was not observed in thigh muscles of the 125 mm Hg tourniquet group or in any of the ischemic leg muscles. A topographic pattern of necrosis consistent with the arterial distribution of skeletal muscle suggested pathogenic events during the reperfusion period, such as granulocyte-mediated superoxide radical formation. Extremely large and rounded fibers (histochemically identified as Type IIB fibers) were observed in compressed thigh muscles, indicating differential fiber sensitivity to tourniquet compression and ischemia. The present study demonstrated significant skeletal muscle necrosis after a 2 hr tourniquet applied at a clinically relevant cuff inflation pressure. Recent studies of systemic changes associated with limb "ischemia" should be reassessed in consideration of the confounding effects of tissue compression induced beneath pneumatic tourniquets.

  7. Recovery of atrophic leg muscles in the hemiplegics due to cerebrovascular accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odajima, Natsu; Ishiai, Sumio; Okiyama, Ryouichi; Furukawa, Tetsuo; Tsukagoshi, Hiroshi.

    1988-01-01

    Thirty-five patients with hemiplegia due to cerebrovascular accidents were studied with regared to the muscle wastings before and after rehabilitation training. Hemiplegics were composed of 12 improved and 23 non-improved patients. The CT scan was carried out at the midportion of the thigh and largest-diameter section of the calf. Muscle size of each cross-sectional area was measured on CT image and the increase of size (ΔS) in each muscle after training was calculated. The ΔS of quadriceps femoris was correlated with that of whole cross-section of the thigh. The gracilis in non-affected side was not correlated with that of whole muscles. In both legs, there was an increase in leg muscle size after training. These changes were nost marked in the non-affected side of the improved patients. After training the difference between the two limbs remained unchanged. Recovery of muscle wasting in both legs was seen first in the quadriceps in thigh and flexors in calf. Gracilis was relatively unchanged in comparison with other muscles. Remarkable increase of muscle size in non-affected side was worthwhile to note. (author)

  8. Recovery of atrophic leg muscles in the hemiplegics due to cerebrovascular accidents. Computed tomographic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odajima, Natsu; Ishiai, Sumio; Okiyama, Ryouichi; Furukawa, Tetsuo; Tsukagoshi, Hiroshi.

    1988-02-01

    Thirty-five patients with hemiplegia due to cerebrovascular accidents were studied with regared to the muscle wastings before and after rehabilitation training. Hemiplegics were composed of 12 improved and 23 non-improved patients. The CT scan was carried out at the midportion of the thigh and largest-diameter section of the calf. Muscle size of each cross-sectional area was measured on CT image and the increase of size (..delta..S) in each muscle after training was calculated. The ..delta..S of quadriceps femoris was correlated with that of whole cross-section of the thigh. The gracilis in non-affected side was not correlated with that of whole muscles. In both legs, there was an increase in leg muscle size after training. These changes were nost marked in the non-affected side of the improved patients. After training the difference between the two limbs remained unchanged. Recovery of muscle wasting in both legs was seen first in the quadriceps in thigh and flexors in calf. Gracilis was relatively unchanged in comparison with other muscles. Remarkable increase of muscle size in non-affected side was worthwhile to note.

  9. Facts about trans fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trans fat is a type of dietary fat . Of all the fats, trans fat is the worst for your health. Too much ... from solid margarine to soft margarine. Ask what type of fats foods are cooked in when you eat out ...

  10. Body fat accumulation in zebrafish is induced by a diet rich in fat and reduced by supplementation with green tea extract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichi Meguro

    Full Text Available Fat-rich diets not only induce obesity in humans but also make animals obese. Therefore, animals that accumulate body fat in response to a high-fat diet (especially rodents are commonly used in obesity research. The effect of dietary fat on body fat accumulation is not fully understood in zebrafish, an excellent model of vertebrate lipid metabolism. Here, we explored the effects of dietary fat and green tea extract, which has anti-obesity properties, on body fat accumulation in zebrafish. Adult zebrafish were allocated to four diet groups and over 6 weeks were fed a high-fat diet containing basal diet plus two types of fat or a low-fat diet containing basal diet plus carbohydrate or protein. Another group of adult zebrafish was fed a high-fat diet with or without 5% green tea extract supplementation. Zebrafish fed the high-fat diets had nearly twice the body fat (visceral, subcutaneous, and total fat volume and body fat volume ratio (body fat volume/body weight of those fed low-fat diets. There were no differences in body fat accumulation between the two high-fat groups, nor were there any differences between the two low-fat groups. Adding green tea extract to the high-fat diet significantly suppressed body weight, body fat volume, and body fat volume ratio compared with the same diet lacking green tea extract. 3-Hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase and citrate synthase activity in the liver and skeletal muscle were significantly higher in fish fed the diet supplemented with green tea extract than in those fed the unsupplemented diet. Our results suggest that a diet rich in fat, instead of protein or carbohydrate, induced body fat accumulation in zebrafish with mechanisms that might be similar to those in mammals. Consequently, zebrafish might serve as a good animal model for research into obesity induced by high-fat diets.

  11. Free anterolateral thigh perforator flap for sacroiliac defect: First case report in pediatric population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro E. Ramirez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue defects of the sacroiliac area, usually can be covered by local flaps. However, for more complex defects, free flap transfers became necessary. We report a case of reconstruction with a free anterolateral thigh (ALT perforator flap for coverage of a sacroiliac bone exposure in a child. A six-years-old boy, suffered a car accident, resulting in pelvic and sacral fractures, as well as degloving injuries of the left thigh, buttocks, and trunk. The patient evolved with an unstable scar over the sacroiliac region with bone exposure. ALT free flap was performed. Left superior gluteal vessels were used as the recipient vessels. A stable coverage was achieved without complications. This is the first case reported of a free ALT perforator flap for sacroiliac coverage in the pediatric population. In cases of complex reconstruction in children, free perforator flap is a safe choice and should be considered in the algorithm of treatment.

  12. Contribution of the bone scintigraphy in unexplained pains of the thigh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oufroukhi, Y.; Ech Charraq, I.; Ben Rais, N.

    2006-01-01

    Mr. R.N. 32 year's old, high level sportsman, without particular pathological antecedents, consults for pains of the area above the knee of the left thigh, of mechanical pace being exacerbated with the effort. The clinical examination notes pains induced by the deep of the left thigh. The biological assessment, in particular blood cell formula and CRP were normal. The standard radiography of the femurs did not find an anomaly of the osseous structure. Because of the persistence of the pains, an osseous scintiscan was carried out and orientated towards pathology of soft tissues. The doppler and the TDM made it possible to pose the diagnosis of intra-tissues muscular hemangioma. The early times of the bone scintigraphy appears important in the approach diagnosis of many osseous disease of the sportsman. (author)

  13. Combined Gluteus and Pudendal Thigh Flap Reconstruction of Vaginal Defects following Robotic Abdominoperineal Resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasandra R. Dassoulas, MD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary:. Low-lying rectal cancers are being treated more frequently with robotic-assisted abdominoperineal resection, obviating the need for laparotomy and the ability to raise vertical rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flaps. For female patients, posterior vaginectomy often accompanies the resection. Combined pudendal thigh flaps as an extension of bilateral gluteus advancement flaps allow for posterior vaginal resurfacing with thin pliable fasciocutaneous flaps, which rest on the gluteal flap soft-tissue bulk that obliterates the pelvic dead space. For patients with advanced cancers who have had neoadjuvant chemoradiation, the pudendal skin paddle can be planned more laterally to bring in healthier medial thigh skin. The donor incisions lie within the gluteal cleft and crease and groin creases recapitulating normal perineal anatomy and aesthetics.

  14. Effects of thigh holster use on kinematics and kinetics of active duty police officers

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Louise B.; Tranberg, Roy; Ramstrand, Nerrolyn

    2016-01-01

    Background: Body armour, duty belts and belt mounted holsters are standard equipment used by the Swedish police and have been shown to affect performance of police specific tasks, to decrease mobility and to potentially influence back pain. This study aimed to investigate the effects on gait kinematics and kinetics associated with use of an alternate load carriage system incorporating a thigh holster. Methods: Kinematic, kinetic and temporospatial data were collected using three dimensional g...

  15. Use of mouse thigh as a radiobiological model of radiation-induced skin reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.J.; Hagkyriakou, H.; Martin, R.F.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The effects of radiation exposure on skin have been widely studied. One of the most useful and relatively easy methods for evaluating radiation-induced skin reactions is the mouse thigh model. This model is non-invasive and has the advantage of not requiring the use of anaesthetic. In the current adaptation of the mouse thigh model, female C3H/HeJ ARC mice (from the Animal Resource Centre, W.A.) were used. The mice were restrained in specially designed jigs where the right leg was held in place by a metal hook. Lead shielding ensured that only the right ventral thigh was exposed to the radiation beam. A 6MeV electron beam from a Varian 2100 Linac (20Gy / minute) was used, thus minimising the time for which the mice were restrained. Eight to twelve days after exposure to the radiation, the first skin reactions can be seen. These are scored according to a scale ranging from 0 (no visible reaction) to 3.5 (breakdown of the entire area with severe exudation). The skin reactions (erythema and moist desquamation) peak approximately 18-22 days after radiation exposure and may remain at peak for only 1-3 days. Therefore, the reactions need to be scored daily and this continues, generally until day 35, or until all moist desquamation has healed. The maximum score in a score versus time profile for each mouse in a group of 5-6 animals are averaged. Radiation-dose response data will be presented. Using the mouse thigh model, hair loss can also be measured (usually on about day 30-35) using a scale from 0-4, where 0 depicts no evident hair loss and 4 represents complete epilation. Leg contraction can also be measured as a late effect by comparison with the length of the unirradiated leg

  16. The superomedial thigh flap in scrotal reconstruction: Technical steps to improve cosmetic results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayat Allah Oufkir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The superomedial thigh flap is a reliable and easy method for scrotal reconstruction described in 1980 and infrequently reported in the literature since its description. We used it for four patients presenting scrotal defects after Fournier′s gangrene with some technical modifications to improve the esthetic results and to facilitate the closure of the donor area. We describe the technical steps and the results.

  17. Aging changes in the bones - muscles - joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the 40s in women. Lipofuscin (an age-related pigment) and fat are deposited in muscle tissue. The ... changes in body shape Aging changes in hormone production Aging changes in organs, tissues, and cells Aging ...