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Sample records for fat patterning study

  1. Identification of lifestyle patterns associated with obesity and fat mass in children: the Healthy Growth Study.

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    Moschonis, George; Kalliora, Andriana C; Costarelli, Vassiliki; Papandreou, Christopher; Koutoukidis, Dimitris; Lionis, Christos; Chrousos, George P; Manios, Yannis

    2014-03-01

    To investigate possible associations of lifestyle patterns with obesity and fat mass in children. Cross-sectional epidemiological study. Principal component analysis was used to identify lifestyle patterns. Primary schools from four regions in Greece. A total of 2073 schoolchildren (aged 9-13 years). Children in the fourth quartile of the lifestyle pattern combining higher dairy foods with more adequate breakfast consumption were 39·4%, 45·2% and 32·2% less likely to be overweight/obese and in the highest quartile of sum of skinfold thicknesses and fat mass, respectively, than children in the first quartile of this pattern. Similarly, children in the fourth quartile of a lifestyle pattern comprising consumption of high-fibre foods, such as fruits, vegetables and wholegrain products, were 27·4% less likely to be in the highest quartile of sum of skinfold thicknesses than children in the first lifestyle pattern quartile. Finally, children in the fourth quartile of a lifestyle pattern characterized by more time spent on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and more frequent meals were 38·0%, 26·3% and 29·5% less likely to be overweight, centrally obese and in the highest quartile of fat mass, respectively, than their peers in the first quartile of this lifestyle pattern (all P meals), which were all related with lower odds of obesity and/or increased fat mass levels. From a public health perspective, promotion of these patterns among children and their families should be considered as one of the components of any childhood obesity preventive initiative.

  2. Development and tracking of central patterns of subcutaneous fat of rural South African youth: Ellisras longitudinal study

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    Kemper Han CG

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals grow and accumulate central patterns of body fat into the diseases they will suffer from as older adults. The need to elicit the development and tracking of central patterns of body fat from younger age into adolescent remains to be explored. Method Skinfolds measurements were done according to the standard procedures in the Ellisras Longitudinal Growth and Health Study. In total, 2,225 children--550 preschool and 1,675 primary school--aged 3-10 years (birth cohorts 1993 to 1986 were enrolled at baseline in 1996 and followed through out the eight-year periodic surveys. In 2003, 1,771 children--489 preschool and 1,282 primary school--were still in the study. Results The development of triceps, biceps, suprailiac and suscapular skinfolds of Ellisras girls were significantly higher (p Conclusion The accumulation of central patterns of body fat of Ellisras children starts in childhood and adolescence spurt with Ellisras girls acquiring more than boys over time. High significant tracking of skinfold thickness while the skinfold ratios show low and insignificant tracking over time. The magnitude of central patterns of body fat accumulation over time requires further investigation to clarify their association with risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.

  3. Body Fat Patterning, Hepatic Fat and Pancreatic Volume of Non-Obese Asian Indians with Type 2 Diabetes in North India: A Case-Control Study.

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    Anoop Misra

    Full Text Available To evaluate body fat patterning and phenotype including hepatic fat and pancreatic volume of non-obese (BMI: < 25 kg/m2 Asian Indians with type 2 diabetes residing in North India.Non-obese patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 93 and non-obese, normo-glycemic subjects (n = 40 were recruited. BMI, waist & hip circumferences, skinfold thickness at 8 sites, body fat, lean mass and detailed abdominal fat evaluation [total abdominal fat, total subcutaneous fat (superficial, deep, anterior, and posterior, total intra-abdominal fat (intra-peritoneal, retroperitoneal], liver span, grades of fatty liver and pancreatic volume were compared.Waist circumference, subscapular skinfolds and total truncal fat (on DEXA were higher whereas calf, total peripheral skinfolds and total leg fat (on DEXA lower in patients. Specifically, the following volumes were higher in cases as compared to controls; total abdominal fat (19.4%, total intra-abdominal fat (49.7%, intra-peritoneal fat (47.7%, retroperitoneal fat (70.7%, pancreatic volume (26.6%, pancreatic volume index (21.3% and liver span (10.8%. In cases, significant positive correlations were observed for pancreatic volume with BMI, waist and hip circumferences, W-HR, subscapular, abdominal and total truncal skinfolds, truncal, total subcutaneous, total intra-abdominal, intra-peritoneal, retroperitoneal fat depots, liver span and fatty liver.In non-obese Asian Indians with type 2 diabetes, subcutaneous and intra-abdominal obesity, including fatty liver, and pancreatic volume were higher and peripheral subcutaneous adiposity was lower than BMI matched non-diabetic subjects. Importantly, increased pancreatic volume in patients was highly correlated with multiple measures of abdominal obesity and liver fat.

  4. Relationship between fat patterns, physical fitness and blood pressure of rural South African children: Ellisras Longitudinal Growth and Health Study.

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    Monyeki, K D; Kemper, H C G; Makgae, P J

    2008-05-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between blood pressure (BP), fat patterns and fitness parameters of Ellisras children aged 7-13 years. Furthermore, an assessment of body fat patterns was done to determine the subjects with the highest risk of overweight, hypertension and waist-to-hip ratio above the 90th percentile. Data were collected from 1,817 subjects (938 boys and 879 girls), aged 7-13 years, participating in the Ellisras Longitudinal Study. Anthropometric measurements were taken according to the standard procedure of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry. The EUROFIT test items were used to test the physical fitness of 1,192 subjects (634 boys and 558 girls). Obesity was defined using the international recommended cutoff points for body mass index (BMI) in children. Hypertension was defined as the occurrence of BP levels greater or equal to the 95th percentile of height- and sex-adjusted reference levels. The prevalence of hypertension ranged from 1 to 11.4% and that of overweight 0.6-4.6%. Waist girth, BMI, triceps and subscapular skinfold showed significant (P<0.001-0.05) correlation with other fat pattern parameters (r ranging from -0.157 to 0.978) compared with significant correlations (P<0.001-0.05) with BP (r ranging from -0.071 to 0.164). Children with waist girth greater than the 90th percentile are more likely to have multiple risk factors than the children with a waist girth that is less than or equal to the 90th percentile. Longitudinal studies should verify whether changes in waist girth and skinfolds will indicate changes in cardiovascular risk factors during growth.

  5. Associations of Bone Mineral Density with Lean Mass, Fat Mass, and Dietary Patterns in Postmenopausal Chinese Women: A 2-Year Prospective Study.

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    Yongjie Chen

    Full Text Available To assess factors associated with bone mineral density (BMD in postmenopausal women in a longitudinal study, and to examine the relative contribution of lean mass, fat mass, dietary patterns, and years since menopause to BMD.Two hundred and eighty-two postmenopausal women were randomly selected from Hongqi Community Health Center, in Harbin City, China. All participants were followed up from 2009 to 2011. Dietary data were collected using a Food Frequency Questionnaire. BMD of the left hip, the lumbar spine, and the total body, and the body composition were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and follow-up.Lean mass and fat mass were positively associated with BMD of the spine, hip, and the total body at both baseline and follow-up. The association between fat mass and BMD at the spine at baseline (P = 0.210 and at the spine (P = 0.116 and hip (P = 0.073 in the second year was not statistically significant when height was adjusted. Six dietary patterns were identified but only cereal grains-fruits pattern (P = 0.001 in the spine, P = 0.037 in hip and milk-root vegetables pattern (P = 0.010 in hip were associated with BMD of the spine and hip. The linear mixed model of follow-up data showed that lean mass, years since menopause, and age of menophania were the significant determinants of BMD of all sites. Moreover, lean mass was the best determinant of BMD (VIP = 1.936.Lean mass, years since menopause, age of menophania and dietary patterns are the important determinants of BMD of the spine, hip, and the total body. Lean mass is the best determinant of BMD.

  6. Interdiffusion assessment of nanoparticles in fat fractal patterns

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    Chen, Z W; Lai, J K L; Shek, C H; Chen, H D [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China)

    2004-10-07

    Nanoparticles of polycrystalline Ge have been grown in a freshly cleaved single crystal NaCl (100) substrate, starting from Au/Ge bilayer films prepared using the evaporation method during annealing. The experimental results indicate that fat fractal Ge patterns can be formed in Au/Ge bilayer films by annealing at 100 deg. C for 60 and 70 min. Here, we report in detail interdiffusion assessment of nanoparticles in fat fractal patterns. The scaling exponent (or fractal dimension) of polycrystalline Ge clusters in fat fractal patterns is larger than that of the conventional diffusion-limited aggregation. The formation of fractal patterns and the perplexing scaling behaviour may result from the random successive nucleation and growth mechanism.

  7. The social patterning of fat and lean mass in a contemporary cohort of children.

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    Ness, Andy R; Leary, Sam; Reilly, John; Wells, Jonathan; Tobias, Jon; Clark, Emma; Smith, George Davey

    2006-01-01

    Studies of the social patterning of obesity in children using body mass index have reported inconsistent results. We explored the association of social class with fat mass and lean mass in a contemporary cohort of children measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. We observed a clear social gradient of fat mass (with children of higher social class having a lower fat mass), but no gradient in lean mass or trunk fat mass. Our data show that inequalities in adiposity are present in primary school children and suggest that social inequalities in childhood obesity may have been underestimated in previous studies.

  8. Influence of Regular Exercise on Body Fat and Eating Patterns of Patients with Intermittent Claudication

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    Anthony Leicht

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the impact of regular supervised exercise on body fat, assessed via anthropometry, and eating patterns of peripheral arterial disease patients with intermittent claudication (IC. Body fat, eating patterns and walking ability were assessed in 11 healthy adults (Control and age- and mass-matched IC patients undertaking usual care (n = 10; IC-Con or supervised exercise (12-months; n = 10; IC-Ex. At entry, all groups exhibited similar body fat and eating patterns. Maximal walking ability was greatest for Control participants and similar for IC-Ex and IC-Con patients. Supervised exercise resulted in significantly greater improvements in maximal walking ability (IC-Ex 148%–170% vs. IC-Con 29%–52% and smaller increases in body fat (IC-Ex −2.1%–1.4% vs. IC-Con 8.4%–10%. IC-Con patients exhibited significantly greater increases in body fat compared with Control at follow-up (8.4%–10% vs. −0.6%–1.4%. Eating patterns were similar for all groups at follow-up. The current study demonstrated that regular, supervised exercise significantly improved maximal walking ability and minimised increase in body fat amongst IC patients without changes in eating patterns. The study supports the use of supervised exercise to minimize cardiovascular risk amongst IC patients. Further studies are needed to examine the additional value of other lifestyle interventions such as diet modification.

  9. Dietary patterns associated with anthropometric indicators of abdominal fat in adults

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    Ana Amélia Freitas Vilela

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify dietary patterns and assess their association with abdominal fat. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Central West Region of Brazil with a probabilistic sample of 208 adults of both sexes. Data on food intake was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire and factor analysis (principal components was conducted to identify dietary patterns. Waist circumference (WC and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR were used to assess abdominal fat. The association between dietary patterns and body fat distribution was examined using multiple linear regression analysis adjusted for confounders. Three dietary patterns were identified: Western, regional traditional, and prudent. A positive association was found between the Western pattern and WC (p = 0.04 and WHR (p = 0.001 and between the regional traditional pattern and WHR (p = 0.05 among women. A slight association was also found between the latter pattern and WC (p = 0.07 also among women. An association was found between the Western and regional traditional dietary patterns and a larger concentration of abdominal fat among women.

  10. Decreasing overweight and central fat patterning with Westernization among the Inuit in Greenland and Inuit migrants

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    Bjerregaard, P; Jørgensen, M E; Andersen, S

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse overweight, obesity and central fat patterning among the Inuit of Greenland and Inuit migrants in Denmark and their relation to Westernization. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, population-based epidemiological study. SUBJECTS: A total of 2046 adult Greenlanders (Inuit), 61% of those...... women. Adjusted for BMI, age and Inuit heritage waist circumference decreased with Westernization (among women), while hip circumference did not change. The differences were particularly pronounced for migrants compared with residents of Greenland. CONCLUSION: BMI and central fat patterning decrease...

  11. The role of prenatal exposures on body fat patterns at 7 years: Intrauterine programming or birthweight effects?

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    Santos, S; Severo, M; Gaillard, R; Santos, A C; Barros, H; Oliveira, A

    2016-11-01

    It remains unknown whether the effects of prenatal exposures on child's adiposity reflect entirely intrauterine programming. We aimed to assess the effects of maternal gestational weight gain, diabetes and smoking on the child's body fat patterns, disentangling the direct (through intrauterine programming) and indirect (through birthweight) effects. We included 4747 singleton 7-year-old children from the Generation XXI birth cohort (Porto, Portugal). At birth, maternal and newborn's characteristics were obtained. Anthropometrics were measured at age 7 years and body fat patterns were identified by principal component analysis. Path analysis was used to quantify direct, indirect and total effects of gestational weight gain, diabetes and smoking on body fat patterns. Pattern 1 was characterized by strong factor loadings with body mass index, fat mass index and waist-to-height ratio (fat quantity) and pattern 2 with waist-to-hip ratio, waist-to-thigh ratio, and waist-to-weight ratio (fat distribution). The positive total effect of maternal gestational weight gain and diabetes on the child's fat quantity was mainly through a direct pathway, responsible for 91.7% and 83.7% of total effects, respectively (β = 0.022; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.017, 0.027; β = 0.041; 95% CI: -0.011, 0.093). No effects on fat distribution were found. Maternal prenatal smoking had a positive direct effect on patterns 1 and 2, explaining 94.9% and 76.1% of total effects, respectively. The effects of maternal gestational weight gain, diabetes and smoking on a child's fat quantity seem to be mainly through intrauterine programming. Maternal smoking also showed a positive direct effect on child's fat distribution. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Exploring the Dietary Patterns of Young New Zealand Women and Associations with BMI and Body Fat

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    Jenna K. Schrijvers

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Examining dietary patterns provides an alternative approach to investigating dietary behaviors related to excess adiposity. The study aim was to investigate dietary patterns and body composition profiles of New Zealand European (NZE women, participating in the women’s EXPLORE (Examining the Predictors Linking Obesity Related Elements study. Post-menarche, pre-menopausal NZE women (16–45 years (n = 231 completed a validated 220-item, self-administrated, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI was calculated using measured height (cm and weight (kg; body fat percentage (BF% was measured using air displacement plethysmography (BodPod. Dietary patterns were identified using principal component factor analysis. Associations between dietary patterns, age, BMI and BF% were investigated. Four dietary patterns were identified: snacking; energy-dense meat; fruit and vegetable; healthy, which explained 6.9%, 6.8%, 5.6% and 4.8% of food intake variation, respectively. Age (p = 0.012 and BMI (p = 0.016 were positively associated with the “energy-dense meat” pattern. BF% (p = 0.016 was positively associated with the “energy-dense meat” pattern after adjusting for energy intake. The women following the identified dietary patterns had carbohydrate intakes below and saturated fat intakes above recommended guidelines. Dietary patterns in NZE women explain only some variations in body composition. Further research should examine other potential factors including physical activity and socioeconomic status.

  13. Exploring the Dietary Patterns of Young New Zealand Women and Associations with BMI and Body Fat.

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    Schrijvers, Jenna K; McNaughton, Sarah A; Beck, Kathryn L; Kruger, Rozanne

    2016-07-26

    Examining dietary patterns provides an alternative approach to investigating dietary behaviors related to excess adiposity. The study aim was to investigate dietary patterns and body composition profiles of New Zealand European (NZE) women, participating in the women's EXPLORE (Examining the Predictors Linking Obesity Related Elements) study. Post-menarche, pre-menopausal NZE women (16-45 years) (n = 231) completed a validated 220-item, self-administrated, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using measured height (cm) and weight (kg); body fat percentage (BF%) was measured using air displacement plethysmography (BodPod). Dietary patterns were identified using principal component factor analysis. Associations between dietary patterns, age, BMI and BF% were investigated. Four dietary patterns were identified: snacking; energy-dense meat; fruit and vegetable; healthy, which explained 6.9%, 6.8%, 5.6% and 4.8% of food intake variation, respectively. Age (p = 0.012) and BMI (p = 0.016) were positively associated with the "energy-dense meat" pattern. BF% (p = 0.016) was positively associated with the "energy-dense meat" pattern after adjusting for energy intake. The women following the identified dietary patterns had carbohydrate intakes below and saturated fat intakes above recommended guidelines. Dietary patterns in NZE women explain only some variations in body composition. Further research should examine other potential factors including physical activity and socioeconomic status.

  14. Discrimination of edible oils and fats by combination of multivariate pattern recognition and FT-IR spectroscopy: A comparative study between different modeling methods

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    Javidnia, Katayoun; Parish, Maryam; Karimi, Sadegh; Hemmateenejad, Bahram

    2013-03-01

    By using FT-IR spectroscopy, many researchers from different disciplines enrich the experimental complexity of their research for obtaining more precise information. Moreover chemometrics techniques have boosted the use of IR instruments. In the present study we aimed to emphasize on the power of FT-IR spectroscopy for discrimination between different oil samples (especially fat from vegetable oils). Also our data were used to compare the performance of different classification methods. FT-IR transmittance spectra of oil samples (Corn, Colona, Sunflower, Soya, Olive, and Butter) were measured in the wave-number interval of 450-4000 cm-1. Classification analysis was performed utilizing PLS-DA, interval PLS-DA, extended canonical variate analysis (ECVA) and interval ECVA methods. The effect of data preprocessing by extended multiplicative signal correction was investigated. Whilst all employed method could distinguish butter from vegetable oils, iECVA resulted in the best performances for calibration and external test set with 100% sensitivity and specificity.

  15. Bile duct emptying in response to fat: a validation study.

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    Hunt, D R; Scott, A J

    1990-11-01

    Fatty meal sonography has been suggested to assess patients with biliary pain after cholecystectomy, but the effects of gallbladder removal on biliary dynamics has not been studied prospectively. Before elective cholecystectomy, 25 patients had their common hepatic ducts' diameter measured by ultrasonography before and after a fat stimulus. In 23, tests were repeated 1 month, 1 year, and 5 years after surgery. In preoperative studies, 5 patients showed dilatation after fat and 2 of these had stones in the common bile duct. However, another 4 patients with stones or sludge in the duct did not show dilatation, so that the response to fat was a poor indicator of patients requiring common bile duct exploration. No patient had major symptoms after surgery. At 1 month and 12 months, the response to fat was variable with more than half of those tested showing no decrease in duct size. A more consistent pattern emerged at 5 years, when 14 of 18 patients tested showed a decrease in common hepatic duct after fat; 3 were unchanged and 1 increased by 1 mm. The response to fat was less consistent and more difficult to measure in the common bile duct, even 5 years after operation. It was concluded that not all patients with indications for exploration of the common bile duct on operative cholangiography show a dilatation response to fat on preoperative testing. Also, fatty meal sonography should be used with caution because the response to fat in asymptomatic patients soon after operation is unpredictable, with occasional patients showing dilation without apparent obstruction. Measurement of common hepatic duct is preferred to common bile duct and increases in diameter of 1 mm are probably not significant.

  16. Correlations between hematological, parasitological patterns and animal performance of sheep supplemented with protected fat

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    Vivian Alves Costa Afonso

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of populations of gastrointestinal parasites resistant to antihelmintics has led to seeks new alternatives its control. Stimulation of natural immunity by means of animal nutrition has shown promising results in controlling nematodes in sheep. The addition of protected fat sources, containing essential fatty acids, may be an alternative due to many effects, among them, regulation of immunity expression and regulation of the inflammatory response by immune effectors. The aim of this study was to estimate correlations between haematological and parasitological patterns, animal performance through weight and body condition, under the influence of protected fat in ewes. Fifty Santa Ines sheep, in the final third of pregnancy or postpartum, in paddocks of Panicum maximum, received, individually, 200 g per day of concentrate, isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets, with or without the addition of protected fat. In general, except for total leukocytes and eosinophils, almost all of Pearson correlation coefficients of other variables were significant. However, the protected fat, in the amount offered, had no antihelmintic effect.

  17. RELATIVE TOTAL BODY FAT AND SKINFOLD PATTERNING IN FILIPINO NATIONAL COMBAT SPORT ATHLETES

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    Luigi T. Bercades

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess relative total body fat and skinfold patterning in Filipino national karate and pencak silat athletes. Participants were members of the Philippine men's and women's national teams in karate (12 males, 5 females and pencak silat (17 males and 5 females. In addition to age, the following anthropometric measurements were taken: height, body mass, triceps, subscapular, supraspinale, umbilical, anterior thigh and medial calf skinfolds. Relative total body fat was expressed as sum of six skinfolds. Sum of skinfolds and each individual skinfold were also expressed relative to Phantom height. A two-way (Sport*Gender ANOVA was used to determine the differences between men and women in total body fat and skinfold patterning. A Bonferroni-adjusted alpha was employed for all analyses. The women had a higher proportional sum of skinfols (80.19 ± 25.31 mm vs. 51.77 ± 21.13 mm, p = 0. 001, eta2 = 0.275. The men had a lower proportional triceps skinfolds (-1.72 ± 0.71 versus - 0.35 ± 0.75, p < 0.001. Collapsed over gender, the karate athletes (-2.18 ± 0.66 had a lower proportional anterior thigh skinfold than their pencak silat colleagues (-1.71 ± 0.74, p = 0.001. Differences in competition requirements between sports may account for some of the disparity in anthropometric measurements

  18. CCK(1) receptor is essential for normal meal patterning in mice fed high fat diet.

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    Donovan, Michael J; Paulino, Gabriel; Raybould, Helen E

    2007-12-05

    Cholecystokinin (CCK), released by lipid in the intestine, initiates satiety by acting at cholecystokinin type 1 receptors (CCK(1)Rs) located on vagal afferent nerve terminals located in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract. In the present study, we determined the role of the CCK(1)R in the short term effects of a high fat diet on daily food intake and meal patterns using mice in which the CCK(1)R gene is deleted. CCK(1)R(-/-) and CCK(1)R(+/+) mice were fed isocaloric high fat (HF) or low fat (LF) diets ad libitum for 18 h each day and meal size, meal frequency, intermeal interval, and meal duration were determined. Daily food intake was unaltered by diet in the CCK(1)R(-/-) compared to CCK(1)R(+/+) mice. However, meal size was larger in the CCK(1)R(-/-) mice compared to CCK(1)R(+/+) mice when fed a HF diet, with a concomitant decrease in meal frequency. Meal duration was increased in mice fed HF diet regardless of phenotype. In addition, CCK(1)R(-/-) mice fed a HF diet had a 75% decrease in the time to 1st meal compared to CCK(1)R(+/+) mice following a 6 h fast. These data suggest that lack of the CCK(1)R results in diminished satiation, causing altered meal patterns including larger, less frequent meals when fed a high fat diet. These results suggest that the CCK(1)R is involved in regulating caloric intake on a meal to meal basis, but that other factors are responsible for regulation of daily food intake.

  19. Fatness

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    Hansen, Anne Katrine Kleberg

    In 1727, the English physician Thomas Short wrote: “I believe no Age did ever afford more instances of Corpulency than our own.” Even in the 18th century, fatness was addressed as an issue of special contemporary concern. This thesis probes concepts and perceptions of fatness in Western European...... Medicine c. 1700–1900. It has been written with particular attention to whether and how fatness has been regarded as a disease during that period in history. One purpose of the thesis is to investigate the immediate period before fatness allegedly became problematized. Another purpose has been to grasp...

  20. Fat discrimination: a phenotype with potential implications for studying fat intake behaviors and obesity.

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    Liang, Lisa C H; Sakimura, Johannah; May, Daniel; Breen, Cameron; Driggin, Elissa; Tepper, Beverly J; Chung, Wendy K; Keller, Kathleen L

    2012-01-18

    Variations in fat preference and intake across humans are poorly understood in part because of difficulties in studying this behavior. The objective of this study was to develop a simple procedure to assess fat discrimination, the ability to accurately perceive differences in the fat content of foods, and assess the associations between this phenotype and fat ingestive behaviors and adiposity. African-American adults (n=317) were tested for fat discrimination using 7 forced choice same/different tests with Italian salad dressings that ranged in fat-by-weight content from 5 to 55%. Performance on this procedure was determined by tallying the number of trials in which a participant correctly identified the pair of samples as "same" or "different" across all test pairs (ranging from 1 to 7). Individuals who received the lowest scores on this task (≤3 out of 7 correct) were classified as fat non-discriminators (n=33) and those who received the highest scores (7 out of 7 correct) were classified as fat discriminators (n=59). These 2 groups were compared for the primary outcome variables: reported food intake, preferences, and adiposity. After adjusting for BMI, sex, age, and dietary restraint and disinhibition, fat non-discriminators reported greater consumption of both added fats and reduced fat foods (pFat non-discriminators also had greater abdominal adiposity compared to fat discriminators (pfat discrimination test (rho=0.53; pfat discrimination may serve as clinical research tool to identify participants who are at risk for obesity and other chronic diseases due to increased fat intake. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Resting Energy Expenditure and Its Relationship With Patterns of Obesity and Visceral Fat Area in Chinese Adults

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    WEI-PING JIA; MING YANG; XIN-YU SHAO; YU-QIAN BAO; JUN-XI LU; KUN-SAN XIANG

    2005-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between resting energy expenditure (REE) and patterns of obesity/regional fat parameters in Chinese adults. Methods Body mass index (BMI), fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM) were assessed in 109 Chinese adults (52 men and 57 women), and their abdominal visceral adipose tissue area (VA) and subcutaneous fat area (SA) were measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements. REE was measured with indirect calorimetry and compared with normal and obese subjects. Multivariate analysis was used to study the factors related to REE. Results The resting energy expenditure per kilogram of body weight (REE/kg) was closely related with the area of abdominal visceral fat measured with MRI. REE/kg was significantly lower in overweight/obesity subjects than in normal-weighted subjects, and significantly lower in subjects with abdominal obesity (VA≥100 cm2) than in subjects with non-abdominal obesity (VA< 100 cm2, BMI≥25 kg/m2). In the stepwise regression analysis of REE/kg on regional fat parameters, VA in men and women and SA in women were independent factors reversely related to REE/kg. Conclusion REE/kg is associated with the visceral fat area and more prominent in men. REE/kg can be used as an index in the pathophysiology of intra-abdominal obesity.

  2. THE STUDY OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITION FOR ANIMAL FATS DURING STORAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Flavia Pop; Cornel Laslo

    2009-01-01

    In this article the chemical composition for 3 types of animal fats (pork fat, beef tallow and buffalo tallow), following the variation of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids proportion during freezing storage was studied. Determination of chemical composition of animal fats is important in establishing organoleptic and physico-chemical parameters, the variation of them in time, nature and proportion of fatty acids conferring specific characteristics to them. For pork fat was determined the...

  3. Impact of resistant starch on body fat patterning and central appetite regulation.

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    Po-Wah So

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adipose tissue patterning has a major influence on the risk of developing chronic disease. Environmental influences on both body fat patterning and appetite regulation are not fully understood. This study was performed to investigate the impact of resistant starch (RS on adipose tissue deposition and central regulation of appetite in mice. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Forty mice were randomised to a diet supplemented with either the high resistant starch (HRS, or the readily digestible starch (LRS. Using (1H magnetic resonance (MR methods, whole body adiposity, intrahepatocellular lipids (IHCL and intramyocellular lipids (IMCL were measured. Manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI was used to investigate neuronal activity in hypothalamic regions involved in appetite control when fed ad libitum. At the end of the interventional period, adipocytes were isolated from epididymal adipose tissue and fasting plasma collected for hormonal and adipokine measurement. Mice on the HRS and LRS diet had similar body weights although total body adiposity, subcutaneous and visceral fat, IHCL, plasma leptin, plasma adiponectin plasma insulin/glucose ratios was significantly greater in the latter group. Adipocytes isolated from the LRS group were significantly larger and had lower insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. MEMRI data obtained from the ventromedial and paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei suggests a satiating effect of the HRS diet despite a lower energy intake. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: Dietary RS significantly impacts on adipose tissue patterning, adipocyte morphology and metabolism, glucose and insulin metabolism, as well as affecting appetite regulation, supported by changes in neuronal activity in hypothalamic appetite regulation centres which are suggestive of satiation.

  4. Assessment of the fatty acid patterns in vegetable oils, fats and fat-rich foods commonly consumed in Egypt

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    Cantellops, Dennis

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Forty-one individual food samples were analyzed for their fatty acid contents by gas-liquid chromatography using capillary tubes. The samples belonged to 5 different food groups and included vegetable oils, butter & ghee, animal fats, dairy products, fishes, chicken & meats and other popular dishes. The results show that maize oil was lowest in its total saturated fatty acid content (11% and richest in linolenic acid. On the other hand, total saturated fatty acids made up 42-62 % of the total fatty acid patterns of the lamb and camel fat tallow, respectively. Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (C20-C22 with two to six double bonds were present only in fishes. Estimate of fat intake amounted to 36 grams per subject per day and the % contribution of the analyzed fats was presented. The ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids amounted to 0.96; which falls within the optimum dietary goals.Cuarenta y una muestras de alimentos individuales fueron analizadas por su contenido en ácidos grasos mediante cromatografía gas-líquido usando columnas capilares. Las muestras pertenecieron a 5 grupos diferentes, incluyendo aceites vegetales, mantequilla y «ghee», grasas animales, productos lácteos, pescados, pollo y carnes, y otros platos populares. Los resultados mostraron que el aceite de maíz fue el que tuvo el más bajo contenido en ácidos grasos saturados totales (11% y el más rico en ácido linolénico. Por otro lado, los ácidos grasos saturados totales alcanzaron el 42-62% de los ácidos grasos totales del sebo de cordero y camello respectivamente. Los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados de cadena larga (C20-C22 con dos a seis dobles enlaces estuvieron presentes solo en pescados. La estimación de la ingesta ascendió a 36 g por sujeto y día, y se presenta el porcentaje de contribución de las grasas analizadas. La relación de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados a saturados ascendió a 0.96; estando dentro del óptimo alimenticio.

  5. Detecting body fat-A weighty problem BMI versus subcutaneous fat patterns in athletes and non-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruschitz, Renate; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra J; Hamlin, Michael J; Moser, Maximilian; Ludvik, Bernhard; Schnedl, Wolfgang J; Tafeit, Erwin

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to describe the relationship between BMI and the subcutaneous adipose tissue topography within young athletes and non-athletic controls, to comparatively evaluate the diagnostic powers of subcutaneous adipose tissue thicknesses at different body sites, furthermore to explore appropriate cut-offs to discriminate between athletes and controls. Measurements were determined in 64 males and 42 females, who were subsequently separated into two even groups (athletes and non-athletes). The optical device LIPOMETER was applied at standardised body sites to measure the thickness of subcutaneous adipose tissue layers. To calculate the power of the different body sites and the BMI to discriminate between athletes and non-athletes, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed. In men, the neck (optimal cut-off value 2.3 mm) and trunk (optimal cut-off value 15.5 mm) provided the strongest discrimination power: with 90.6% (58 of 64) of the subjects being correctly classified into athletes or non-athletes. Discrimination power of the BMI values was 64.1% (41 of 64 were correctly classified). In women, the upper back (optimal cut-off value 3.3 mm) and arms (optimal cut-off value 15.9 mm) provided the strongest discrimination power with 88.1% (37 of 42 being correctly classified). When using BMI to discriminate between athletes and non-athletes only 52.4% (22 of 42) were correctly classified. These results suggest that compared to BMI levels, subcutaneous fat patterns are a more accurate way of discriminating between athletes and non-athletes. In particular the neck and the trunk compartment in men and the upper back and arms compartment in women, were the best sites to discriminate between young athletes and non-athletes on the basis of their fat patterns.

  6. l-Leucine Supplementation Worsens the Adiposity of Already Obese Rats by Promoting a Hypothalamic Pattern of Gene Expression that Favors Fat Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais T. Zampieri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Several studies showed that l-leucine supplementation reduces adiposity when provided before the onset of obesity. We studied rats that were exposed to a high-fat diet (HFD for 10 weeks before they started to receive l-leucine supplementation. Fat mass was increased in l-leucine-supplemented rats consuming the HFD. Accordingly, l-leucine produced a hypothalamic pattern of gene expression that favors fat accumulation. In conclusion, l-leucine supplementation worsened the adiposity of rats previously exposed to HFD possibly by central mechanisms.

  7. Commingling effect of gynoid and android fat patterns on cardiometabolic dysregulation in normal weight American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okosun, I S; Seale, J P; Lyn, R

    2015-05-18

    To determine the independent and commingling effect of android and gynoid percent fat (measured using Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry) on cardiometabolic dysregulation in normal weight American adults. The 2005-2006 data (n=1802) from the United States National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys (NHANES) were used in this study. Associations of android percent fat, gynoid percent fat and their joint occurrence with risks of cardiometabolic risk factors were estimated using prevalence odds ratios from logistic regression analyses. Android-gynoid percent fat ratio was more highly correlated with cardiometabolic dysregulation than android percent fat, gynoid percent fat or body mass index. Commingling of android and gynoid adiposities was associated with much greater odds of cardiometabolic risk factors than either android or gynoid adiposities. Commingling of android and gynoid adiposities was associated with 1.75 (95% confidence interval (CI)=1.42-2.93), 1.48 (95% CI=1.32-1.91), 1.61 (95% CI=1.50-1.89), 3.56 (95% CI=2.91-4.11) and 1.86 (95% CI=1.49-1.96) increased odds of elevated glucose, elevated blood pressure, elevated low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, elevated triglyceride and low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, respectively. Normal weight subjects who present with both android and gynoid adiposities should be advised of the associated health risks. Both android and gynoid fat accumulations should be considered in developing public health strategies for reducing cardiometabolic disease risk in normal weight subjects.

  8. Even Your Bones Can Get Fat, Mouse Study Suggests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... study: 14 lean mice raised on a "normal diet" and 14 obese mice raised on a high-fat diet. At 4 months of age, half of the ... and whys behind exercise's impact on bone fat composition remains murky. She said her current focus is ...

  9. Lipid droplet pattern and nondroplet-like structure in two fat mutants of Caenorhabditis elegans revealed by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yung-Hsiang; Chien, Cheng-Hao; Chen, Wei-Wen; Ma, Tian-Hsiang; Liu, Kuan-Yu; Chang, Yu-Sun; Chang, Ta-Chau; Lo, Szecheng J.

    2014-01-01

    Lipid is an important energy source and essential component for plasma and organelle membranes in all kinds of cells. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy is a label-free and nonlinear optical technique that can be used to monitor the lipid distribution in live organisms. Here, we utilize CARS microscopy to investigate the pattern of lipid droplets in two live Caenorhabditis elegans mutants (fat-2 and fat-3). The CARS images showed a striking decrease in the size, number, and content of lipid droplets in the fat-2 mutant but a slight difference in the fat-3 mutant as compared with the wild-type worm. Moreover, a nondroplet-like structure with enhanced CARS signal was detected for the first time in the uterus of fat-2 and fat-3 mutants. In addition, transgenic fat-2 mutant expressing a GFP fusion protein of vitellogenin-2 (a yolk lipoprotein) revealed that the enhanced CARS signal colocalized with the GFP signal, which suggests that the nondroplet-like structure is primarily due to the accumulation of yolk lipoproteins. Together, this study implies that CARS microscopy is a potential tool to study the distribution of yolk lipoproteins, in addition to lipid droplets, in live animals.

  10. High fat diet-induced obesity modifies the methylation pattern of leptin promoter in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milagro, F I; Campión, J; García-Díaz, D F; Goyenechea, E; Paternain, L; Martínez, J A

    2009-03-01

    Leptin is an adipokine involved in body weight and food intake regulation whose promoter region presents CpG islands that could be subject to dynamic methylation. This methylation process could be affected by environmental (e.g. diet) or endogenous (e.g., adipocyte differentiation, inflammation, hypoxia) factors, and could influence adipocyte leptin gene expression. The aim of this article was to study whether a high-energy diet may affect leptin gene promoter methylation in rats. A group of eleven male Wistar rats were assigned into two dietary groups, one fed on a control diet for 11 weeks and the other on a high-fat cafeteria diet. Rats fed a high-energy diet become overweight and hyperleptinemic as compared to the controls. DNA isolated from retroperitoneal adipocytes was treated with bisulfite and a distal portion of leptin promoter (from -694 to -372 bp) including 13 CpG sites was amplified by PCR and sequenced. The studied promoter portion was slightly more methylated in the cafeteria-fed animals, which was statistically significant (p < 0.05) for one of the CpG sites (located at the position -443). In obese rats, such methylation was associated to lower circulating leptin levels, suggesting that this position could be important in the regulation of leptin gene expression, probably by being a target sequence of different transcription factors. Our findings reveal, for the first time, that leptin methylation pattern can be influenced by diet-induced obesity, and suggest that epigenetic mechanisms could be involved in obesity by regulating the expression of important epiobesigenic genes.

  11. A combined high-sugar and high-saturated-fat dietary pattern is associated with more depressive symptoms in a multi-ethnic population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Esther; Stronks, Karien; Snijder, Marieke B.; Schene, Aart H.; Lok, Anja; Vries, de Jeanne H.; Visser, Marjolein; Brouwer, Ingeborg A.; Nicolaou, Mary

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To identify a high-sugar (HS) dietary pattern, a high-saturated-fat (HF) dietary pattern and a combined high-sugar and high-saturated-fat (HSHF) dietary pattern and to explore if these dietary patterns are associated with depressive symptoms. Design: We used data from the HELIUS (Healthy

  12. Cardiovascular Fat, Menopause, and Sex Hormones in Women: The SWAN Cardiovascular Fat Ancillary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khoudary, Samar R; Shields, Kelly J; Janssen, Imke; Hanley, Carrie; Budoff, Matthew J; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Powell, Lynda H; Matthews, Karen A

    2015-09-01

    Cardiovascular risk increases in women after menopause. Mounting evidence demonstrates a role of cardiovascular fat (CF) in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease, but no research has examined CF in relation to sex hormones or menopausal status in women. The objective was to determine the relationship between CF depots, menopausal status, and endogenous sex hormones. Cross-sectional and longitudinal study designs were used. The setting included the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Heart and Cardiovascular Fat Ancillary Study. A total of 456 women (mean age, 50.75 y); 62% premenopausal/early perimenopausal, and 38% late peri-/postmenopausal. Menopausal status, endogenous sex hormones measured simultaneously with CF volumes, and circulating estradiol available 4.80 years (median) before CF measures. Volumes of CF (epicardial adipose tissue [EAT], paracardial adipose tissue [PAT], total heart adipose tissue [TAT = EAT + PAT], and aortic perivascular adipose tissue [PVAT]). In final models, late peri-/postmenopausal women had 9.88% more EAT, 20.72% more PAT, and 11.69% more TAT volumes than pre-/early perimenopausal women (P fat compared with pre-/early perimenopausal women independent of age, obesity, and other covariates. Endogenous sex hormones are associated with CF. Perhaps CF plays a role in the higher risk of coronary heart disease reported in women after menopause.

  13. Controversies in fat perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Jaana M; Preissl, Hubert; Fritsche, Andreas; Frank, Sabine

    2015-12-01

    Nutritional fat is one of the most controversial topics in nutritional research, particularly against the background of obesity. Studies investigating fat taste perception have revealed several associations with sensory, genetic, and personal factors (e.g. BMI). However, neuronal activation patterns, which are known to be highly sensitive to different tastes as well as to BMI differences, have not yet been included in the scheme of fat taste perception. We will therefore provide a comprehensive survey of the sensory, genetic, and personal factors associated with fat taste perception and highlight the benefits of applying neuroimaging research. We will also give a critical overview of studies investigating sensory fat perception and the challenges resulting from multifaceted methodological approaches. In conclusion, we will discuss a multifactorial approach to fat perception to gain a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms that cause varying fat sensitivity which could be responsible for overeating. Such knowledge might be beneficial in new treatment strategies for obesity and overweight.

  14. Cardiovascular Fat, Menopause, and Sex Hormones in Women: The SWAN Cardiovascular Fat Ancillary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Kelly J.; Janssen, Imke; Hanley, Carrie; Budoff, Matthew J.; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Everson-Rose, Susan A.; Powell, Lynda H.; Matthews, Karen A.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Cardiovascular risk increases in women after menopause. Mounting evidence demonstrates a role of cardiovascular fat (CF) in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease, but no research has examined CF in relation to sex hormones or menopausal status in women. Objective: The objective was to determine the relationship between CF depots, menopausal status, and endogenous sex hormones. Design: Cross-sectional and longitudinal study designs were used. Setting: The setting included the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Heart and Cardiovascular Fat Ancillary Study. Participants: A total of 456 women (mean age, 50.75 y); 62% premenopausal/early perimenopausal, and 38% late peri-/postmenopausal. Intervention: Menopausal status, endogenous sex hormones measured simultaneously with CF volumes, and circulating estradiol available 4.80 years (median) before CF measures. Main Outcome Measures: Volumes of CF (epicardial adipose tissue [EAT], paracardial adipose tissue [PAT], total heart adipose tissue [TAT = EAT + PAT], and aortic perivascular adipose tissue [PVAT]). Results: In final models, late peri-/postmenopausal women had 9.88% more EAT, 20.72% more PAT, and 11.69% more TAT volumes than pre-/early perimenopausal women (P < .05). PVAT was not associated with menopausal status. In final models, lower estradiol concentrations were associated with greater volumes of PAT and TAT (P < .05). Women with the greatest reduction in estradiol since baseline had greater volumes of PAT compared to women with the least reduction (P = .02). Conclusions: Late peri-/postmenopausal women have greater volumes of heart fat compared with pre-/early perimenopausal women independent of age, obesity, and other covariates. Endogenous sex hormones are associated with CF. Perhaps CF plays a role in the higher risk of coronary heart disease reported in women after menopause. PMID:26176800

  15. Re-patterning of skeletal muscle energy metabolism by fat storage-inducing transmembrane protein 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Diego A; Koves, Timothy R; Gross, David A; Chadt, Alexandra; Al-Hasani, Hadi; Cline, Gary W; Schwartz, Gary J; Muoio, Deborah M; Silver, David L

    2011-12-09

    Triacylglyceride stored in cytosolic lipid droplets (LDs) constitutes a major energy reservoir in most eukaryotes. The regulated turnover of triacylglyceride in LDs provides fatty acids for mitochondrial β-oxidation and ATP generation in physiological states of high demand for energy. The mechanisms for the formation of LDs in conditions of energy excess are not entirely understood. Fat storage-inducing transmembrane protein 2 (FIT2/FITM2) is the anciently conserved member of the fat storage-inducing transmembrane family of proteins implicated to be important in the formation of LDs, but its role in energy metabolism has not been tested. Here, we report that expression of FIT2 in mouse skeletal muscle had profound effects on muscle energy metabolism. Mice with skeletal muscle-specific overexpression of FIT2 (CKF2) had significantly increased intramyocellular triacylglyceride and complete protection from high fat diet-induced weight gain due to increased energy expenditure. Mass spectrometry-based metabolite profiling suggested that CKF2 skeletal muscle had increased oxidation of branched chain amino acids but decreased oxidation of fatty acids. Glucose was primarily utilized in CKF2 muscle for synthesis of the glycerol backbone of triacylglyceride and not for glycogen production. CKF2 muscle was ATP-deficient and had activated AMP kinase. Together, these studies indicate that FIT2 expression in skeletal muscle plays an unexpected function in regulating muscle energy metabolism and indicates an important role for lipid droplet formation in this process.

  16. Characterization of cattle of a five-breed diallel: VI. Fat deposition patterns of serially slaughtered bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talamantes, M A; Long, C R; Smith, G C; Jenkins, T G; Ellis, W C; Cartwright, T C

    1986-05-01

    Dissection and chemical analysis data from 197 bulls of 15 breedtypes were used to examine the distribution of total fat (TOTFAT) among carcass fat (CFAT), viscera fat (VIF), kidney plus pelvic fat (KPF) and blood fat (BLF). The bulls were obtained from a five-breed diallel involving Angus, Brahman, Hereford, Holstein and Jersey; reciprocal crosses were pooled. One or two bulls of each breedtype were slaughtered at each of seven ages: 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 24 and 30 mo. An allometric equation was utilized to describe growth rate of each fat depot relative to either TOTFAT or carcass side weight (CSW). The pooled within-breedtype differential growth rates obtained from the allometric equation indicated that as TOTFAT or CSW increased, the proportion composed of CFAT and KPF increased (growth coefficients significantly greater than 1), whereas the proportion composed of VIF and BLF decreased (growth coefficients significantly less than 1). Holstein and Jersey tended to have more CFAT than Hereford, Angus and Brahman. Jersey had more KPF than other breeds. Crossbreds exhibited positive heterosis for CFAT and VIF, and negative heterosis for KPF. On a constant CSW basis, there were no significant breedtype differences in TOTFAT: nevertheless, differences in fat distribution among breedtypes persisted. There were different amounts of fat at the depots studied, but fat growth coefficients relative to TOTFAT tended to be homogeneous among breedtypes.

  17. Trends in dietary fat and high-fat food intakes from 1991 to 2008 in the Framingham Heart Study participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadiveloo, Maya; Scott, Marc; Quatromoni, Paula; Jacques, Paul; Parekh, Niyati

    2014-02-01

    Few longitudinal studies carried out in US adults have evaluated long-term dietary fat intakes and compared them with the national recommendations during the two-decade period when the prevalence of obesity and insulin resistance increased substantively. In the present study, we examined trends in the intakes of dietary fats and rich dietary sources of fats in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort over a 17-year period. The cohort was established in 1971-75 with follow-up examinations being conducted approximately every 4 years. Dietary data were collected using a semi-quantitative FFQ beginning in 1991 (exam 5). We included 2732 adults aged ≥ 25 years with complete dietary data in at least three examinations from 1991 to 2008. Descriptive statistics were generated using SAS version 9.3, and a repeated-measures model was used to examine trends in macronutrient and food intakes using R. Over the 17 years of follow-up, the percentage of energy derived from total fat and protein increased (27·3-29·8% of energy and 16·8-18·0% of energy, respectively) and that derived from carbohydrate decreased (51·0-46·8% of energy; P-trend fat subtypes were observed, except for that derived from trans-fats, which decreased over time (P-trend fat and less reduction in the percentage of energy derived from trans-fats (P interaction fat intake were similar across the BMI categories. The number of weekly servings of cheese, eggs, ice cream desserts, nuts, butter and sausages/processed meats increased, whereas the intake of milk, margarine, poultry, confectioneries, chips and breads decreased (P-trend fats increased over time, but it remained within the national recommendations of less than 35 % of total energy, on average.

  18. How Do Tracking and Changes in Dietary Pattern during Adolescence Relate to the Amount of Body Fat in Early Adulthood?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Celestino Schneider

    Full Text Available Few studies have addressed the influence of dietary patterns (DP during adolescence on the amount of body fat in early adulthood.To analyze the associations between DP tracking and changes in the period between 15 and 18 years of age and the percentage of body fat (%BF at age 18 years.We used data from 3,823 members of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil birth cohort. Body density was measured at age 18 years by air displacement plethysmograph (BOD POD and the %BF was calculated applying the Siri equation. Based on the estimates from the FFQ, we identified DP at ages 15 ("Varied", "Traditional", "Dieting" and "Processed meats" and 18 years ("Varied", "Traditional", "Dieting" and "Fish, fast food and alcohol". The DP tracking was defined as the individual's adherence to the same DP at both ages. Associations were tested using multiple linear regression models stratified by sex.The mean %BF was 25.0% (95% CI: 24.7 to 25.4, significantly greater for girls than boys (p<0.001. The adherence to any DP at age 15 years was not associated with the %BF at age 18 years. However, individuals who adhered to a "Dieting" DP at age 18 years showed greater %BF (1.30 and 1.91 percentage points in boys and girls, respectively in comparison with those who adhered to a "Varied" DP. Boys who presented tracking of a "Dieting" DP presented greater average %BF in comparison with others DP, as well as girls who changed from the "Traditional" or "Processed meats" DP to a "Dieting" DP.These results may support public health policies and strategies focused on improving dietary habits of adolescents and young adults and preventing accumulation of body fat, especially among the adolescents with restrictive dietary habits.

  19. Pericruciate fat pad of the knee: anatomy and pericruciate fat pad inflammation: cadaveric and clinical study emphasizing MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaf, Abdalla Youssef [Hospital do Coracao (HCor), Department of Radiology, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Hernandez Filho, Guinel [Santa Casa de Sao Paulo Hospital, Department of Radiology, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Dirim, Berna [Izmir Atatuerk Training and Research Hospital, Department of Radiology, Karsiyaka, izmir (Turkey); Wangwinyuvirat, Mani [Rajavithi Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bangkok (Thailand); Trudell, Debra; Resnick, Donald [University of California, San Diego, Department of Radiology, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, La Jolla, CA (United States); Haghigi, Parvitz [University of California, San Diego, Department of Pathology, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2012-12-15

    The pericruciate fat pad is located in the intercondylar fossa, intimate with the cruciate ligaments. With MR imaging, signal abnormality of the pericruciate fat pad has been observed in patients with posterior knee pain. The purpose of this study was to describe the anatomy of the pericruciate fat pad in cadaveric specimens and to document the clinical spectrum of pericruciate fat pad inflammation. Twelve cadaveric knees underwent MR imaging with T1 and T2 multiplanar images. Cadaveric sections were then prepared for macroscopic evaluation, with additional histologic analysis performed in four cases. MR images in seventeen patients (ten males, seven females; average age, 31.5 years; age range, 19-57 years) involved in intensive sporting activity and with posterior knee pain were reviewed. MR images in cadaveric specimens showed a fat pad that was located above and between the cruciate ligaments, near their attachment sites in the inner portion of the femoral condyles, within the intercondylar fossa. Fatty tissue covered by a thin layer of synovial membrane was confirmed at histology. Seventeen patients with posterior knee pain and without gross cartilage, meniscal, or ligamentous abnormalities all revealed an increased signal in this fat pad in fluid-sensitive fat-suppressed images, mainly in the sagittal and axial planes. In eight cases, enhancement of this fat pad was demonstrated following intravenous gadolinium administration. The pericruciate fat pad is a structure located in the intercondylar fossa, intimate with both the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments. Inflammatory changes in this fat pad may be found in patients, especially athletes with posterior knee pain. (orig.)

  20. Body fat, physical activity, and dietary patterns of adolescents in a mountainous region of Santa Catarina state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adair da Silva Lopes

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to analyze the body fat, physical activity, and dietary patterns of male adolescents in a mountainous region of Santa Catarina state, Brazil. The subjects were 1,024 adolescents, 10 to 17 years old, from public and private schools. The sample was selected by a three-stage cluster sampling method, where the laststage sampling units were entire classes. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was determined considering body fat level estimated using predictive equations. Physical activity and food intake were assessed using a questionnaire. Statistical analyses included: descriptive statistics, Chi-square test, and one-way ANOVA with Scheffé post hoc multiple comparisons. It was observed that 25.6% of the adolescents were overweight or obese and 29.4% were physically inactive. Regardingdietary patterns, subjects reported the following consumption levels of sugars and fats: soft drinks (36.9%, sweets (41.3%, and fries (29.1%. In general, there were no differences in activity patterns, diet, or body fatness between age groups (10-17years. Adolescents enrolled at private schools exhibited higher body fatness (p RESUMO O objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar a gordura corporal, o nível de atividade física e hábitos alimentares de adolescentes do Município de Lages, Região Serrana do Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil. A amostra, constituída de 1024 adolescentes do sexo masculino (10 a 17 anos, foi selecionada de forma aleatória simples quanto às escolas, conglomerada por sala de aula e estratifi cada por rede de ensino. A gordura corporal foi estimada por meio de equações preditivas do percentual de gordura. O nível de atividade física e os hábitos alimentares foram coletados por meio de umquestionário. Na análise dos dados, utilizou-se a estatística descritiva, teste do Qui-quadrado, análise de variância (ANOVA one-way e o teste de Scheffé (p0,05. Os escolares da rede particular

  1. The Danish fat tax - effects on consumption patterns and risk of ischaemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Malene; Pisinger, Charlotta; Toft, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects on consumption and risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) of the Danish fat tax, effective from October 2011 to January 2013. Methods: We used comprehensive retail outlet data on the sale of twelve foodstuff categories targeted by the fat tax. Data covered January...... sale of the included foodstuffs decreased by 0.9%. The fat tax was associated with marginal changes in population risk of IHD. One estimate suggests an increased population risk of IHD by 0.2% and the other estimate suggests that the risk of IHD decreased by 0.3%. Conclusions: The Danish fat tax had...... a marginal effect on population consumption of fat and risk of IHD. Fat taxes have to be carefully designed to prevent possible adverse effects from outweighing its beneficial effects on health outcomes. Policymakers must therefore be more ambitious in relation to food taxes, e.g. by implementing more...

  2. Developmental plasticity in fat patterning of Ache children in response to variation in interbirth intervals: a preliminary test of the roles of external environment and maternal reproductive strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jack; Hurtado, Ana Magdalena; Pearson, Osbjorn M; Hill, Kim R; Jones, Troy; Frey, M Anderson

    2009-01-01

    A firm link between small size at birth and later more centralized fat patterning has been established in previous research. Relationships between shortened interbirth intervals and small size at birth suggest that maternal energetic prioritization may be an important, but unexplored determinant of offspring fat patterning. Potential adaptive advantages to centralized fat storage (Baker et al., 2008: In: Trevathan W, McKenna J, Smith EO, editors. Evolutionary Medicine and Health: New Perspectives. New York: Oxford) suggest that relationships with interbirth intervals may reflect adaptive responses to variation in patterns of maternal reproductive effort. Kuzawa (2005: Am J Hum Biol 17:5-21; 2008: In: Trevathan W, McKenna J, Smith EO, editors. Evolutionary Medicine and Health: New Perspectives. New York: Oxford) has argued that maternal mediation of the energetic quality of the environment is a necessary component of developmental plasticity models invoking predictive adaptive responses (Gluckman and Hanson 2004: Trends Endocrinol Metab 15:183-187). This study tested the general hypothesis that shortened interbirth intervals would predict more centralized fat patterning in offspring. If long-term maternally mediated signals are important determinants of offspring responses, then we expected to observe a relationship between the average interbirth interval of mothers and offspring adiposity, with no relationship with the preceding interval. Such a finding would suggest that maternal, endogenous resource allocation decisions are related to offspring physiology in a manner consistent with Kuzawa's description. We observed exactly such a relationship among the Ache of Paraguay, suggesting that maternally mediated in utero signals of postnatal environments may be important determinants of later physiology. The implications of these findings are reviewed in light of life history and developmental plasticity theories and ourability to generalize the results to other

  3. Meal pattern alterations associated with intermittent fasting for weight loss are normalized after high-fat diet re-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotthardt, Juliet D; Bello, Nicholas T

    2017-03-03

    Alternate day, intermittent fasting (IMF) can be an effective weight loss strategy. However, the effects of IMF on eating behaviors are not well characterized. We investigated the acute and residual effects of IMF for weight loss on meal patterns in adult obese male C57BL/6 mice. After 8weeks of ad libitum high-fat diet to induce diet-induced obesity (DIO), mice were either continued on ad libitum high-fat diet (HFD) or placed on one of 5 diet strategies for weight loss: IMF of high-fat diet (IMF-HFD), pair-fed to IMF-HFD group (PF-HFD), ad libitum low-fat diet (LFD), IMF of low-fat diet (IMF-LFD), or pair-fed to IMF-LFD group (PF-LFD). After the 4-week diet period, all groups were refed the high-fat diet for 6weeks. By the end of the diet period, all 5 groups had lost weight compared with HFD group, but after 6weeks of HFD re-feeding all groups had similar body weights. On (Day 2) of the diet period, IMF-HFD had greater first meal size and faster eating rate compared with HFD. Also, first meal duration was greater in LFD and IMF-LFD compared with HFD. At the end of the diet period (Day 28), the intermittent fasting groups (IMF-HFD and IMF-LFD) had greater first meal sizes and faster first meal eating rate compared with their respective ad libitum fed groups on similar diets (HFD and LFD). Also, average meal duration was longer on Day 28 in the low-fat diet groups (LFD and IMF-LFD) compared with high-fat diet groups (HFD and IMF-HFD). After 6weeks of HFD re-feeding (Day 70), there were no differences in meal patterns in groups that had previously experienced intermittent fasting compared with ad libitum fed groups. These findings suggest that meal patterns are only transiently altered during alternate day intermittent fasting for weight loss in obese male mice.

  4. Consumption of dietary fat and meat and risk of ovarian cancer in the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilsing, A.M.J.; Weijenberg, M.P.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Schouten, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Evidence that links dietary factors to ovarian cancer is conflicting, but several epidemiologic studies suggested that consumption of dietary fat and meat may increase risk of ovarian cancer. Objective: We studied associations of intakes of total fat and sources and subtypes of fat, fres

  5. Consumption of dietary fat and meat and risk of ovarian cancer in the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilsing, A.M.J.; Weijenberg, M.P.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Schouten, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Evidence that links dietary factors to ovarian cancer is conflicting, but several epidemiologic studies suggested that consumption of dietary fat and meat may increase risk of ovarian cancer. Objective: We studied associations of intakes of total fat and sources and subtypes of fat, fres

  6. Consumption of dietary fat and meat and risk of ovarian cancer in the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilsing, A.M.J.; Weijenberg, M.P.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Schouten, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Evidence that links dietary factors to ovarian cancer is conflicting, but several epidemiologic studies suggested that consumption of dietary fat and meat may increase risk of ovarian cancer. Objective: We studied associations of intakes of total fat and sources and subtypes of fat,

  7. X-ray diffraction studies on single and mixed confectionery fats using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacMillan, S.C.; Roberts, K.J.; Wells, M.; Polgreen, M.; Smith, I. [Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, (United Kingdom). Department of Mechanical and Chemical Engineering, Centre for Molecular and Interface Engineering

    1999-12-01

    Full text: Understanding and refining the molecular-scale processes involved in the manufacture of structured materials such as long-chain hydrocarbon compounds is important in many commercial areas such as the petrochemical, biochemical, food, pharmaceutical and soap industries. In such processes crystallisation is an important separation, purification and preparation technique. Despite this our knowledge of the crystallisation process itself is surprisingly limited. In order to improve the crystallisation of confectionery fats, the crystallisation of it`s main component, cocoa butter fat, must be properly understood. Cocoa butter fat can exhibit up to 6 polymorphic forms of different crystallographic structures with melting points varying from 17.3 deg C to 36.3 deg C. During the production of chocolate it is essential to control the polymorphic form of fats present, in order to produce a final product with the correct physical and rheological properties. Both shear rate and temperature are thought to play a crucial role in this process. The most widely used method for studying polymorphism is X-ray diffraction. Typical X-ray diffraction patterns of fats exhibit two groups of diffraction lines corresponding to the long and short spacings. The long spacings correspond to the planes formed by the methyl end groups and are dependent on the chain length and the angle of tilt of the component fatty acids of the glyceride molecules. The short spacings refer to the cross sectional packing of the hydrocarbon chain and are independent of the chain length. The relationship between crystallisation rate, polymorphic form, shear and the fat composition has for the first time been quantified, which will enable more accurate control of the polymorhic form in chocolate production. This has been achieved by developing an improved in-situ cell for X-ray studies. The X-ray studies are necessary for the examination of on-line studies under well controlled conditions of temperature

  8. The administration of long-term high-fat diet in ovariectomized wistar rat (Study on Daily Food Intake, Lee Index, Abdominal Fat Mass and Leptin Serum Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dita Fitriani

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Serum leptin levels positively correlated with Lee index and abdominal fat mass, but negatively correlated with daily food intake. Administration of long-term high-fat diet in this study cannot induce leptin resistance.

  9. The Danish fat tax-Effects on consumption patterns and risk of ischaemic heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bødker, Malene; Pisinger, Charlotta; Toft, Ulla; Jørgensen, Torben

    2015-08-01

    To examine the effects on consumption and risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) of the Danish fat tax, effective from October 2011 to January 2013. We used comprehensive retail outlet data on the sale of twelve foodstuff categories targeted by the fat tax. Data covered January 2010 to July 2013. IHD risk was assessed by modelling first the effect of changes in intake of monounsaturated, polyunsaturated and saturated fat and dietary cholesterol on serum cholesterol and subsequently modelling the resulting changes in risk of IHD using two different methods. The total sale of the included foodstuffs decreased by 0.9%. The fat tax was associated with marginal changes in population risk of IHD. One estimate suggests an increased population risk of IHD by 0.2% and the other estimate suggests that the risk of IHD decreased by 0.3%. The Danish fat tax had a marginal effect on population consumption of fat and risk of IHD. Fat taxes have to be carefully designed to prevent possible adverse effects from outweighing its beneficial effects on health outcomes. Policymakers must therefore be more ambitious in relation to food taxes, e.g. by implementing more comprehensive tax-subsidy schemes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. High fat diet leads to changes in metabolite patterns in pig plasma, fecal, and urine samples detected by a ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem with high resolution mass spectrometry metabolomic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-targeted metabolite profiling can identify robust biological markers of dietary exposure that can lead to a better understanding of causal interactions between diet and health. In this study, pigs were used as an animal model to develop an efficient procedure to discover metabolites in biolog...

  11. Variation in the FGFR2 gene and the effect of a low-fat dietary pattern on invasive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Ross L; Huang, Ying; Hinds, David A; Peters, Ulrike; Cox, David R; Beilharz, Erica; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Rossouw, Jacques E; Caan, Bette; Ballinger, Dennis G

    2010-01-01

    The Women's Health Initiative dietary modification (DM) trial provided suggestive evidence of a benefit of a low-fat dietary pattern on breast cancer risk, with stronger evidence among women whose baseline diet was high in fat. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the FGFR2 gene relate strongly to breast cancer risk and could influence intervention effects. All 48,835 trial participants were postmenopausal and ages 50 to 79 years at enrollment (1993-1998). We interrogated eight SNPs in intron 2 of the FGFR2 gene for 1,676 women who developed breast cancer during trial follow-up (1993-2005). Case-only analyses were used to estimate odds ratios for the DM intervention in relation to SNP genotype. Odds ratios for the DM intervention did not vary significantly with the genotype for any of the eight FGFR2 SNPs (P > or = 0.18). However, odds ratios varied (P or =36.8%). This variation is most evident for SNP rs3750817, with odds ratios for the DM intervention at 0, 1, and 2 minor SNP alleles of 1.06 [95% confidence intervals (95% CI), 0.80-1.41], 0.53 (95% CI, 0.38-0.74), and 0.62 (95% CI, 0.33-1.15). The nominal significance level for this interaction is P = 0.005, and P = 0.03 following multiple testing adjustment, with most evidence deriving from hormone receptor-positive tumors. Invasive breast cancer odds ratios for a low-fat dietary pattern, among women whose usual diets are high in fat, seem to vary with SNP rs3750817 in the FGFR2 gene.

  12. General and abdominal fat outcomes in school-age children associated with infant breastfeeding patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durmus, B.u.; Heppe, D.H.M.; Gishti, O.; Manniesing, R.; Abrahamse-Berkeveld, M.; Beek, E.M. van der; Hofman, A.; Duijts, L.; Gaillard, R.; Jaddoe, V.W.

    2014-01-01

    Breastfeeding may have a protective effect on the development of obesity in later life. Not much is known about the effects of infant feeding on more-specific fat measures.We examined associations of breastfeeding duration and exclusiveness and age at the introduction of solid foods with general and

  13. General and abdominal fat outcomes in school-age children associated with infant breastfeeding patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durmus, B.u.; Heppe, D.H.M.; Gishti, O.; Manniesing, R.; Abrahamse-Berkeveld, M.; Beek, E.M. van der; Hofman, A.; Duijts, L.; Gaillard, R.; Jaddoe, V.W.

    2014-01-01

    Breastfeeding may have a protective effect on the development of obesity in later life. Not much is known about the effects of infant feeding on more-specific fat measures.We examined associations of breastfeeding duration and exclusiveness and age at the introduction of solid foods with general and

  14. Visceral obesity, fat mass/muscle mass ratio and atherogenic dyslipidemia: cross-sectional study. Riobamba, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Marcelo Nicolalde Cifuentes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The distribution and composition of fat mass is associated with different metabolic risks. The predominance of brown visceral fat is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD, such as: high triglycerides and apolipoprotein B, increased LDL cholesterol, ratio triglycerides/low HDL cholesterol elevated (atherogenic dyslipidemia indicator, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia and cardiovascular risk (CVR. Sarcopenia and obesity may act synergistically in functional and metabolic disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between visceral obesity, fat mass/muscular mass ratio and atherogenic dyslipidemia in adult individuals in order to determine the association pattern between these variables and set strategies for focused attention.Material and Methods: In a sample of 307 subjects of both sexes (21-71 years there was measured atherogenic dyslipidemia as the ratio of triglyceride/HDL cholesterol, visceral obesity measured by bio impedance as the relative score of visceral fat, and the ratio fat mass/lean mass.Results: A cluster analysis was performed to establish the structure of association between these variables with different risk groups. Three groups were identified: the first had visceral obesity with an average relative level of visceral fat of 13.6, the second group with an average of 8.9 and in the third group were placed individuals with the lowest visceral obesity score averaging 6.5. As for the fat mass/lean mas ratio the first two groups had a similar average of this index with a value of 1.56 and 1.69 respectively and the third group with the lowest average value of 1.3. Group 1 presented visceral obesity and impaired fat mass/lean mass ratio and had a high value of triglyceride/HDL ratio 4.1. Group 2 without visceral obesity and a deterioration in the relative fat mass/lean mass ratio had a triglyceride/HDL cholesterol of 3.6 and Group 3; not recorded visceral obesity or

  15. Observational study of body weight, body fat with segmental fat distribution, visceral fat and body mass index in type 2 diabetic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Sunil Dube; Shanti Viswanathan; Manjree Dube

    2016-01-01

    Background: There has been an increase in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases in the last decade. This prevalence has been steadily increasing and is expected to increase further in the coming decade. The change in our lifestyle plus a sedentary lifestyle has led to this .Various body composition monitoring methods help us evaluate obesity and its association with diabetes. In this study, we analysed the trend of body fat distribution in diabetics. Methods: A multifrequency body c...

  16. Influence of lipid type on water and fat mobility in fermented sausages studied by low-field NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklos, R; Mora-Gallego, H; Larsen, F H; Serra, X; Cheong, L-Z; Xu, X; Arnau, J; Lametsch, R

    2014-01-01

    The effects of diacylglycerols (DAG), pork back fat and sunflower oil on water and fat mobility in fermented sausages were studied with (1)H NMR relaxometry. The added fat affected the physicochemical parameters weight loss, water activity, moisture content and moisture content on a defatted-dry-matter basis of reduced-fat non-acid fermented sausages. The weight losses were the lowest in sausages prepared with DAG and sunflower oil, which resulted in higher water activity compared to sausages prepared with back fat. The relaxation times related to fat mobility differed between fat types and increased in the order: controlfatfat mobility were ascribed to differences in the fat distribution caused by deviations in the physicochemical properties of the fat types.

  17. Thermal diffusivity study of cheese fats by thermal lens detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez Pérez, J. L.; Rangel Vargas, E.; Gutiérrez Fuentes, R.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Bautista de León, H.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we used thermal lens spectrometry to determine the thermal diffusivity of cheese fats. We have used equal concentrations of cheese fats from oaxaca, chihuahua, gouda, manchego and mozzarella cheeses at 42°C temperature. The two lasers mismatched mode experimental configuration was used with a He-Ne laser, as a probe beam and an Ar+ laser as the excitation one. The characteristic time constant of the transient thermal lens was obtained by fitting the theoretical expression to the experimental data in order to obtain the thermal diffusivity of the cheese fat samples. This measured thermal property may contribute to a better understanding of the cheese fats quality, which is very important in food industry.

  18. High fat diet augments amphetamine sensitization in mice: Role of feeding pattern, obesity, and dopamine terminal changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordahl, Steve C; Locke, Jason L; Jones, Sara R

    2016-10-01

    High fat (HF) diet-induced obesity has been shown to augment behavioral responses to psychostimulants that target the dopamine system. The purpose of this study was to characterize dopamine terminal changes induced by a HF diet that correspond with enhanced locomotor sensitization to amphetamine. C57BL/6J mice had limited (2hr 3 d/week) or extended (24 h 7 d/week) access to a HF diet or standard chow for six weeks. Mice were then repeatedly exposed to amphetamine (AMPH), and their locomotor responses to an amphetamine challenge were measured. Fast scan cyclic voltammetry was used to identify changes in dopamine terminal function after AMPH exposure. Exposure to a HF diet reduced dopamine uptake and increased locomotor responses to acute, high-dose AMPH administration compared to chow fed mice. Microdialysis showed elevated extracellular dopamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) coincided with enhanced locomotion after acute AMPH in HF-fed mice. All mice exhibited locomotor sensitization to amphetamine, but both extended and limited access to a HF diet augmented this response. Neither HF-fed group showed the robust amphetamine sensitization-induced increases in dopamine release, reuptake, and amphetamine potency observed in chow fed animals. However, the potency of amphetamine as an uptake inhibitor was significantly elevated after sensitization in mice with extended (but not limited) access to HF. Conversely, after amphetamine sensitization, mice with limited (but not extended) access to HF displayed reduced autoreceptor sensitivity to the D2/D3 agonist quinpirole. Additionally, we observed reduced membrane dopamine transporter (DAT) levels after HF, and a shift in DAT localization to the cytosol was detected with limited access to HF. This study showed that different patterns of HF exposure produced distinct dopamine terminal adaptations to repeated AMPH, which differed from chow fed mice, and enhanced sensitization to AMPH. Locomotor sensitization in chow fed

  19. Insulin resistance as a predictor of gains in body fat, weight, and abdominal fat in nondiabetic women: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Larry A; Tucker, Jared M

    2012-07-01

    The purpose was to determine the relationship between insulin resistance (IR) and risk of gaining body fat percentage (BF%), body weight, and abdominal fat over 18 months. A prospective cohort study was conducted using a sample of 226 women. IR was assessed using fasting blood insulin and glucose levels to calculate homeostatic model assessment (HOMA). Participants were divided into High (4th quartile) Moderate (2nd and 3rd quartiles), and Low (1st quartile) HOMA categories. BF% was estimated using plethysmography (Bod Pod), weight was measured in a standard swimsuit, and abdominal fat was indexed using the average of two circumferences taken at the umbilicus. Participants wore accelerometers and completed weighed food logs for 7 consecutive days to control for the effect of physical activity (PA) and energy intake, respectively. On average, women in the High HOMA group decreased in BF% (-0.48 ± 3.60), whereas those in the Moderate (0.40 ± 3.66) and Low HOMA (1.17 ± 3.15) groups gained BF% (F = 5.4, P = 0.0211). Changes in body weight showed a similar dose-response relationship (F = 4.7, P = 0.0317). However, baseline IR was not predictive of changes in abdominal fat (F = 0.8, P = 0.3635). Controlling for several covariates had little effect on gains in BF% and weight, but adjusting for initial BF% and/or initial weight nullified changes in BF% and weight across the IR groups. In conclusion, women with High HOMA tend to gain significantly less BF% and weight than women with low or moderate HOMA. The decreased risk appears unrelated to several covariates, except initial BF% and weight levels, which seem to play key roles in the relationships.

  20. Types of dietary fat and breast cancer : a pooled analysis of cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith-Warner, S.A.; Spiegelman, D.; Adami, H.O.; Beeson, W.L.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Folsom, A.R.; Fraser, G.E.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Graham, S.; Kushi, L.H.; Miller, A.B.; Rohan, T.E.; Speizer, F.E.; Toniolo, P.; Willett, W.C.; Wolk, A.; Zelenuch-Jacquotte, A.; Hunter, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    Recently, there has been interest in whether intakes of specific types of fat are associated with breast cancer risk independently of other types of fat, but results have been inconsistent. We identified 8 prospective studies that met predefined criteria and analyzed their primary data using a stand

  1. The snacking rat as model of human obesity: effects of a free-choice high-fat high-sugar diet on meal patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    la Fleur, S E; Luijendijk, M C M; van der Zwaal, E M; Brans, M A D; Adan, R A H

    2014-05-01

    Rats subjected to a free-choice high-fat high-sugar (fcHFHS) diet persistently overeat, exhibit increased food-motivated behavior and become overtly obese. Conversely, several studies using a non-choice (nc) high-energy diet showed only an initial increase in food intake with unaltered or reduced food-motivated behavior. This raises the question of the importance of choice in the persistence of hyperphagia in rats on a fcHFHS diet. Meal patterns, food intake and body weight gain were studied in male Wistar rats on free-choice diets with fat and/or sugar and in rats on nc diets with fat and sugar (custom made with ingredients similar to the fcHFHS diet). Rats on a ncHFHS diet initially overconsumed, but reduced intake thereafter, whereas rats on a fcHFHS diet remained hyperphagic. Because half of the sugar intake in the fcHFHS group occurred during the inactive period, we next determined whether sugar intake during the light phase was a necessary requirement for hyperphagia, by restricting access to liquid sugar to either the light or dark period with unlimited access to fat and chow. Results showed that hyperphagia occurred irrespective of the timing of sugar intake. Meal pattern analysis revealed consumption of larger but fewer meals in the ncHFHS group, as well as the fcHF group. Interestingly, meal number was increased in all rats drinking liquid sugar (whether on a fcHFHS or a fcHS diet), whereas a compensatory decrease in meal size was only observed in the fcHS group, but not the fcHFHS group. We hereby show the importance of choice in the observation of fcHFHS diet-induced hyperphagia, which results in increases in meal number due to sugar drinking without any compensatory decrease in meal size. We thus provide a novel dietary model in rats that mimics important features of human overconsumption that have been ignored in rodent models of obesity.

  2. A study on change in the center frequency depending on the fat content and on change in the fat saturation image with the use of a self-manufactured phantom depending on the center frequency adjustment method in an MRI breast scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Bok; Dong, Kyung-Rae; Gho, Hee-Jin; Chung, Woon-Kwan; Joo, Kyu-Ji; Kim, Young-Jae

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the changes in the center frequency according to the fat content the using a self-manufactured phantom. In addition, the change in the fat saturation image according to when the center frequency was applied automatically or adjusted manually was analyzed to determine the importance of a manual adjustment of the center frequency. Distilled water and animal fat were solidified in a 10-ml syringe to manufacture nine phantoms for each condition (18 in total). A MR scanner at 1.5 Tesla was used to obtain a T1-weighted three dimensional fast low-angle shot (T1 3D FLASH) dynamic fat saturation image according to the spectral attenuated inversion recovery(SPAIR) method. The images obtained were classified into the following before analyzing the center frequencies for each image: Test A (image where fat was not saturated), Test B (image where fat was saturated in an automatic adjustment of the center frequency), and Test C (image where fat was saturated in a manual adjustment of the center frequency). The signal intensity (SI) values of water, fat and background were measured to calculate the signal to noise ratio (SNR) before examining the difference in the SNRs of water and fat (SNR difference = water SNR — fat SNR). The mean center frequency in Tests A, B and C was 63.631179 MHz when the fat content was 70% or lower. The mean center frequency for Tests A and B was 63.631002 MHz when the fat content was 80% or higher, which was 226 Hz lower than that for Test C (63.631228 MHz). The water SIs of Tests A, B and C with increasing fat content showed a pattern of change similar to that of the fat SIs of Tests A and C. On the other hand, the fat SI of Test B was similar to that of Test A when the fat content was 80%, which showed a large difference in change. The water SNRs of Tests A, B and C, and the fat SNR and SNR differences of Tests A and C showed similar changes according to the fat content. The difference between the fat SNR and the SNR of Test B

  3. An Entertainment-Education Study of Stereotypes and Prejudice against Fat Women: An Evaluation of "Fat Pig"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesser-Edelsburg, Anat; Endevelt, Ronit

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of "Fat Pig" on the attitudes of high school students towards fat women and investigate the perspective of dietitians as health professionals on the messages in "Fat Pig." Design: Performance analysis, pre-post analysis of students' responses to self-administrated pre-constructed…

  4. An Entertainment-Education Study of Stereotypes and Prejudice against Fat Women: An Evaluation of "Fat Pig"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesser-Edelsburg, Anat; Endevelt, Ronit

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of "Fat Pig" on the attitudes of high school students towards fat women and investigate the perspective of dietitians as health professionals on the messages in "Fat Pig." Design: Performance analysis, pre-post analysis of students' responses to self-administrated pre-constructed questionnaires, students' focus…

  5. Sucrose-sweetened beverages increase fat storage in the liver, muscle, and visceral fat depot: a 6-mo randomized intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maersk, Maria; Belza, Anita; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Hans; Ringgaard, Steffen; Chabanova, Elizaveta; Thomsen, Henrik; Pedersen, Steen B; Astrup, Arne; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2012-02-01

    The consumption of sucrose-sweetened soft drinks (SSSDs) has been associated with obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disorders in observational and short-term intervention studies. Too few long-term intervention studies in humans have examined the effects of soft drinks. We compared the effects of SSSDs with those of isocaloric milk and a noncaloric soft drink on changes in total fat mass and ectopic fat deposition (in liver and muscle tissue). Overweight subjects (n = 47) were randomly assigned to 4 different test drinks (1 L/d for 6 mo): SSSD (regular cola), isocaloric semiskim milk, aspartame-sweetened diet cola, and water. The amount of intrahepatic fat and intramyocellular fat was measured with (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Other endpoints were fat mass, fat distribution (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging), and metabolic risk factors. The relative changes between baseline and the end of 6-mo intervention were significantly higher in the regular cola group than in the 3 other groups for liver fat (132-143%, sex-adjusted mean; P muscle fat (117-221%; P fat (24-31%; P fat mass was not significantly different between the 4 beverage groups. Milk and diet cola reduced systolic blood pressure by 10-15% compared with regular cola (P increases ectopic fat accumulation and lipids compared with milk, diet cola, and water. Thus, daily intake of SSSDs is likely to enhance the risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00777647.

  6. Semiautomatic regional segmentation to measure orbital fat volumes in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. A validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comerci, M; Elefante, A; Strianese, D; Senese, R; Bonavolontà, P; Alfano, B; Bonavolontà, B; Brunetti, A

    2013-08-01

    This study was designed to validate a novel semi-automated segmentation method to measure regional intra-orbital fat tissue volume in Graves' ophthalmopathy. Twenty-four orbits from 12 patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy, 24 orbits from 12 controls, ten orbits from five MRI study simulations and two orbits from a digital model were used. Following manual region of interest definition of the orbital volumes performed by two operators with different levels of expertise, an automated procedure calculated intra-orbital fat tissue volumes (global and regional, with automated definition of four quadrants). In patients with Graves' disease, clinical activity score and degree of exophthalmos were measured and correlated with intra-orbital fat volumes. Operator performance was evaluated and statistical analysis of the measurements was performed. Accurate intra-orbital fat volume measurements were obtained with coefficients of variation below 5%. The mean operator difference in total fat volume measurements was 0.56%. Patients had significantly higher intra-orbital fat volumes than controls (p<0.001 using Student's t test). Fat volumes and clinical score were significantly correlated (p<0.001). The semi-automated method described here can provide accurate, reproducible intra-orbital fat measurements with low inter-operator variation and good correlation with clinical data.

  7. Cerebral fat embolism studied with MRI and SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdem, E. (Dept. of Neurology, Hacettepe Univ. School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey)); Namer, I.J. (Inst. of Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, Louis Pasteur Univ., Strasbourg (France)); Saribas, O. (Dept. of Neurology, Hacettepe Univ. School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey)); Aras, T. (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Hacettepe Univ. School of Medicine Ankara (Turkey)); Tan, E. (Dept. of Neurology, Hacettepe Univ. School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey)); Bekdik, C. (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Hacettepe Univ. School of Medicine Ankara (Turkey)); Zileli, T. (Dept. of Neurology, Hacettepe Univ. School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey))

    1993-03-01

    In a patient with fat embolism to the brain CT showed no abnormality. MRI performed after recovery from coma, when the patient had aphasia and quadriparesis, demonstrated multiple high signal abnormalities in the white matter on both T1- and T2-weighted images. HMPAO-SPECT showed left-sided hypoperfusion which resolved in parallel with clinical improvement 1 month later. (orig.)

  8. Early Diet and Later Cancer Risk: Prospective Associations of Dietary Patterns During Critical Periods of Childhood with the GH-IGF Axis, Insulin Resistance and Body Fatness in Younger Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Anke L B; Schulze, Matthias B; Kroke, Anja; Diethelm, Katharina; Joslowski, Gesa; Krupp, Danika; Wudy, Stefan; Buyken, Anette E

    2015-01-01

    Early life, adiposity rebound, and puberty represent critical growth periods when food choices could have long-term relevance for cancer risk. We aimed to relate dietary patterns during these periods to the growth hormone-insulin-like-growth-factor (GH-IGF) axis, insulin resistance, and body fatness in adulthood. Data from the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) Study participants with outcome data at 18-37 years, and ≥2 dietary records during early life (1-2 yr; n = 128), adiposity rebound (4-6 years, n = 179), or puberty (girls 9-14, boys 10-15 yr; n = 213) were used. Dietary patterns at these ages were derived by 1) reduced rank regression (RRR) to explain variation in adult IGF-I, IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), homoeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and fat-mass index; 2) principal component analysis (PCA). Regarding RRR, the patterns "cake/canned fruit/cheese & eggs" (early life), "sweets & dairy" (adiposity rebound) and "high-fat foods" (pubertal boys) were independently associated with higher adult HOMA-IR. Furthermore, the patterns "favorable carbohydrate sources" (early life), "snack & convenience foods" (adiposity rebound), and "traditional & convenience carbohydrates" (pubertal boys) were related to adult IGFBP-3 (P trend 0.1). In conclusion, dietary patterns during sensitive growth periods may be of long-term relevance for adult insulin resistance and IGFBP-3.

  9. A Study of VO2 Max and Body Fat Percentage in Female Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bute, Smita S; Deshmukh, P.R

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Aerobic capacity of athletes is an important element of success in sports achievements. It is generally considered the best indicator of cardio respiratory endurance and athletic fitness. Body fat percentage affects VO2 max and thus the cardiovascular status of the athletes. The present study was undertaken to assess the VO2 max and body fat percentage in athletes. The secondary objective of the study was to study the relationship between VO2 max and body fat percentage. Materials and Methods: Twenty five female athletes of age group 17-22years were selected for the study. VO2 max was determined by Queen’s college step test and body fat percentage by skin fold calipers. The VO2 max and body fat percentage were determined in non athletes of same age group for comparison. The statistical analysis was done by Student’s t-test and Pearson correlation test. Observation and Results: The mean VO2 max in athletic group was 39.62 ± 2.80 ml/kg/min. In non-athletic group, VO2 max was 23.54 ± 3.26 ml/kg/min. The mean body fat percentage in athletes was 24.11 ± 1.83% and in non-athletes it was 29.31 ± 3.86%.The difference in VO2 max and body fat percentage was statistically significant in our study. The VO2 max and body fat percentage in both the groups showed negative correlation by Pearson test but, was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The present study showed a statistically significant higher VO2 max in female athletes. The study showed a negative correlation between VO2 max and body fat percentage but was not statistically significant. PMID:25653935

  10. Fat saturation in dynamic breast MRI at 3 Tesla: is the Dixon technique superior to spectral fat saturation? A visual grading characteristics study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clauser, P. [University of Udine, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria ' ' S.Maria della Misericordia' ' , Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Udine (Italy); Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided interventions, Division of Molecular and Gender Imaging, Vienna (Austria); Pinker, K.; Helbich, T.H.; Kapetas, P.; Bernathova, M.; Baltzer, P.A.T. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided interventions, Division of Molecular and Gender Imaging, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-09-15

    To intra-individually compare the diagnostic image quality of Dixon and spectral fat suppression at 3 T. Fifty consecutive patients (mean age 55.1 years) undergoing 3 T breast MRI were recruited for this prospective study. The image protocol included pre-contrast and delayed post-contrast spectral and Dixon fat-suppressed T1w series. Two independent blinded readers compared spectral and Dixon fat-suppressed series by evaluating six ordinal (1 worst to 5 best) image quality criteria (image quality, delineation of anatomical structures, fat suppression in the breast and axilla, lesion delineation and internal enhancement). Breast density and size were assessed. Data analysis included Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and visual grading characteristics (VGC) analysis. Four examinations were excluded; 48 examinations in 46 patients were evaluated. In VGC analysis, the Dixon technique was superior regarding image quality criteria analysed (P < 0.01). Smaller breast size and lower breast density were significantly (P < 0.01) correlated with impaired spectral fat suppression quality. No such correlation was identified for the Dixon technique, which showed reconstruction-based water-fat mixups leading to insufficient image quality in 20.8 %. The Dixon technique outperformed spectral fat suppression in all evaluated criteria (P < 0.01). Non-diagnostic examinations can be avoided by fat and water image reconstruction. The superior image quality of the Dixon technique can improve breast MRI interpretation. (orig.)

  11. Nutrient patterns and risk of cataract: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Sedaghat

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess the relation between nutrient patterns and cataract risk. METHODS: This is a hospital-based case-control study with 97 cataract patients and 198 matched controls. Dietary consumption was collected through a valid food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. Nutrient patterns were detected by applying factor analysis. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratio (ORs and 95%CIs. RESULTS: We extracted 5 main nutrient patterns. Factor 1 included niacin, thiamin, carbohydrates, protein, zinc, vitamin B6 and sodium (sodium pattern. Factor 2 was characterized by oleic acid, monounsaturated fats, polyunsaturated fats, linoleic acid, trans fatty acid, linolenic acid, vitamin E and saturated fats (fatty acid pattern. The third factor represented high intake of vitamin B12, vitamin D, cholesterol and calcium (mixed pattern. The 4th pattern was high in intake of beta and alpha carotene, vitamin A and vitamin C (antioxidant pattern. Finally, the 5th pattern loaded heavily on docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA (omega-3 pattern. In crude and multivariate analysis, the sodium pattern was associated with increased risk of cataract (OR=1.97, 95%CI: 1.09-3.96. The fatty acid pattern elevated the risk of cataract (OR=1.94, 95%CI: 1.1-3.86. Antioxidant pattern was associated with a significant 79% reduced risk (2nd category compared with the 1st. Omega-3 pattern was significantly negatively associated with risk of cataract (P=0.04. CONCLUSION: These findings imply that nutrient patterns reflecting a combined consumption of nutrients might be important in the etiology of cataract. Additional studies with more efficient designs are warranted to confirm our findings.

  12. Expression patterns of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 1 versus gamma 2, and their association with intramuscular fat in goat tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Jiang, Jing; Wang, Linjie; Zhong, Tao; Chen, Bo; Zhan, Siyuan; Zhang, Hongping; Du, Lixin

    2013-10-10

    Intramuscular fat (IMF) shortage causes the lack of juiciness and tenderness of goat meat, while peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 1 (PPARγ1) and gamma 2 (PPARγ2) play key roles in lipid metabolism. Nevertheless, their expression patterns and the relationship with IMF have been poorly exposed. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), classical Soxhlet extraction, and in situ hybridization, we demonstrated that among 13 goat tissues, expression of PPARγ1 was dramatically higher than that of PPARγ2 except for lung. We further demonstrated the expression patterns of PPARγ1 and PPARγ2 and their negative association with intramuscular fat content in three goat muscles with kids growing. Meanwhile, PPARγ expression was located in the connective tissues. These results suggest that PPARγ1 is rather active for most tissues of goat, and closely related with the muscular fat metabolism during early postnatal life, but a more direct proof remains to be provided.

  13. Association of energy and fat intake with prostate carcinoma risk: Results from the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, A.G.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Dorant, E.; Brants, H.A.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The roles of energy and fat intake as risk factors for prostate carcinoma are still questionable. Therefore, these factors were evaluated in the Netherlands Cohort Study described in this article.

  14. Association of energy and fat intake with prostate carcinoma risk: Results from the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, A.G.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Dorant, E.; Brants, H.A.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The roles of energy and fat intake as risk factors for prostate carcinoma are still questionable. Therefore, these factors were evaluated in the Netherlands Cohort Study described in this article.

  15. To Study Correlation of Body Fat and Blood Lipids with Autonomic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To Study Correlation of Body Fat and Blood Lipids with Autonomic Nervous System ... Subjects and Methods: A total of 60 PM sedentary women without any gross ... Multiple regression analysis revealed LDL cholesterol as the only significant ...

  16. Saturated Fat as Compared With Unsaturated Fats and Sources of Carbohydrates in Relation to Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Adam M.; Ley, Sylvia H.; Wang, Dong D.; Chiuve, Stephanie E.; Sampson, Laura; Rexrode, Kathryn M.; Rimm, Eric B.; Willett, Walter C.; Hu, Frank B.

    2015-01-01

    Background The associations between dietary saturated fat and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) remain controversial, but few studies have compared saturated with unsaturated fats and sources of carbohydrates in relation to CHD risk. Objective This study sought to investigate associations of saturated fats as compared with unsaturated fats and different sources of carbohydrates in relation to CHD risk. Methods We followed 84,628 women (Nurses’ Health Study, 1980 to 2010), and 42,908 men (Health Professionals Follow-up Study, 1986 to 2010) who were free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at baseline. Diet was assessed by semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire every 4 years. Results During 24 to 30 years of follow-up, we documented 7,667 incident cases of CHD. Higher intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and carbohydrates from whole grains were significantly associated with lower risk of CHD (hazard ratios [HR] (95% confidence intervals [CI]) comparing the highest to the lowest quintile for PUFA: 0.80 [0.73 to 0.88], p trend saturated fats with equivalent energy intake from either PUFAs, monounsaturated fats (MUFAs), or carbohydrates from whole grains was associated with 25%, 15%, and 9% lower risk of CHD, respectively (PUFAs: 0.75 [0.67 to 0.84]; p saturated fat with carbohydrates from refined starches/added sugars was not significantly associated with CHD risk (p > 0.10). Conclusions Our findings indicate that unsaturated fats, especially PUFAs, and/or high-quality carbohydrates should replace dietary saturated fats to reduce CHD risk. PMID:26429077

  17. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate and postprandial fat oxidation in overweight / obese male volunteers - a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Boschmann, Michael; Thielecke, Frank; Rahn, Gabriele; Boehnke, Jana; Adams, Frauke; Birkenfeld, Andreas,; Jordan, Jens

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Drinking green tea is associated with many health benefits, including increased fat oxidation. We tested the hypothesis that Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the main green tea catechin, increases fat oxidation in obese men. Methods: Ten healthy overweight/obese males (BMI 31.3 ? 0.8 kg/m2) were studied in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover trial. Study supplements were low EGCG (300 mg), high EGCG (600 mg), caffeine (200 mg), EGCG/caf...

  18. Active commuting throughout adolescence and central fatness before adulthood: prospective birth cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Martinez-Gomez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Active commuting is a good opportunity to accumulate physical activity (PA across the lifespan that potentially might influence central body fat. We aimed to examine the prospective associations of active commuting at 11, 15 and 18 years of age with central body fat at 18 years. METHODS: Participants were part of a large birth cohort study in Pelotas, Brazil (n = 3,649 participants. Active commuting, leisure-time PA and income were self-reported at 11, 15 and 18 years. Waist circumference and trunk fat mass were collected at 18 years with the use of a 3-dimensional photonic scanner and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, respectively. RESULTS: Active commuting at 11 years was not prospectively associated with central body fat. However, we found that active commuting at 15 and 18 years were prospectively and cross-sectionally associated with central body fat variables, respectively, in boys but not in girls. Also, boys in the highest tertile of accumulated active commuting (i.e., average of active commuting at 11, 13 and 18 years were associated with -2.09 cm (95%CI: -3.24; -0.94 of waist circumference and -1.11 kg (95%CI: -1.74; -0.48 of trunk fat mass compared to boys in the lowest tertile. Analyses on changes in tertiles of active commuting from 11 and 15 years to 18 years with central body fat variables at 18 years showed that boys who remained consistently in the highest tertile or moved to a higher tertile had lower levels of central body fat compared to those consistently in the lowest tertile. CONCLUSIONS: Active commuting throughout adolescence in boys, especially during middle and late adolescence, is associated with lower levels in central fatness before adulthood.

  19. A prospective study of trans fat intake and risk of preeclampsia in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chavarro, J. E.; Halldorsson, T. I.; Leth, Torben;

    2011-01-01

    Association of intake of trans fatty acids in the 2nd trimester of pregnancy with risk of preeclampsia was studied by following 67 186 pregnancies of women participating in the Danish National Birth Cohort between 1998 and 2003. Diet was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire at gestation wk...... 25; preeclampsia diagnosis was obtained by linkage with the Danish National Patient Registry. 1804 cases of preeclampsia and 402 cases of severe preeclampsia were identified in the cohort. Intake of trans fats decreased during the study period as a consequence of reduction in industrial trans fat...... intake. Intake of trans fats in the 2nd trimester was unrelated to risk of preeclampsia or severe preeclampsia. Relative risk (95% confidence interval; P, trend) of preeclampsia and severe preeclampsia comparing top to bottom quintiles of trans fat intake were 0.95 (0.81; 1.11, 0.33) and 1.07 (0.78; 1...

  20. An electron microscopic study of the intestinal villus. II. The pathway of fat absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PALAY, S L; KARLIN, L J

    1959-05-25

    The intestinal pathway for absorbed fat was traced in thin sections of intestinal villi from rats fed corn oil by stomach tube after a fast of 24 to 40 hours. For electron microscopy the tissues were fixed in chilled buffered osmium tetroxide and embedded in methacrylate. For light microscopy, other specimens from the same animals were fixed in formal-calcium, mordanted in K(2)Cr(2)O(7), and embedded in gelatin. Frozen sections were stained with Sudan black B or Sudan IV. About 20 minutes after feeding, small fat droplets (65 mmicro maximal diameter) appear in the striated border between microvilli. At the same time fat particles are seen within pinocytotic vesicles in the immediately subjacent terminal web. In later specimens the fat droplets are generally larger (50 to 240 mmicro) and lie deeper in the apical cytoplasm. All intracellular fat droplets are loosely enveloped in a thin membrane, the outer surface of which is sometimes studded with the fine particulate component of the cytoplasm. This envelope, apparently derived from the cell surface by pinocytosis, has at this stage evidently become a part of the endoplasmic reticulum. Just above the nucleus numerous fat droplets lie clustered within the dilated cisternae of the Golgi complex. As absorption progresses fat droplets appear in the intercellular spaces of the epithelium, in the interstitial connective tissue spaces of the lamina propria, and in the lumen of the lacteals. All of these extracellular fat droplets are devoid of a membranous envelope. The picture of fat absorption as reconstructed from these studies involves a stream of fat droplets filtering through the striated border, entering the epithelial cell by pinocytosis at the bases of the intermicrovillous spaces, and coursing through the endoplasmic reticulum to be discharged at the sides of the epithelial cell into extracellular spaces. From the epithelial spaces, the droplets move into the lamina propria and thence into the lymph. If the lumen

  1. Contributions of lean mass and fat mass to bone mineral density: a study in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Thai Q

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relative contribution of lean and fat to the determination of bone mineral density (BMD in postmenopausal women is a contentious issue. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that lean mass is a better determinant of BMD than fat mass. Methods This cross-sectional study involved 210 postmenopausal women of Vietnamese background, aged between 50 and 85 years, who were randomly sampled from various districts in Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnam. Whole body scans, femoral neck, and lumbar spine BMD were measured by DXA (QDR 4500, Hologic Inc., Waltham, MA. Lean mass (LM and fat mass (FM were derived from the whole body scan. Furthermore, lean mass index (LMi and fat mass index (FMi were calculated as ratio of LM or FM to body height in metre squared (m2. Results In multiple linear regression analysis, both LM and FM were independent and significant predictors of BMD at the spine and femoral neck. Age, lean mass and fat mass collectively explained 33% variance of lumbar spine and 38% variance of femoral neck BMD. Replacing LM and FM by LMi and LMi did not alter the result. In both analyses, the influence of LM or LMi was greater than FM and FMi. Simulation analysis suggested that a study with 1000 individuals has a 78% chance of finding the significant effects of both LM and FM, and a 22% chance of finding LM alone significant, and zero chance of finding the effect of fat mass alone. Conclusions These data suggest that both lean mass and fat mass are important determinants of BMD. For a given body size -- measured either by lean mass or height --women with greater fat mass have greater BMD.

  2. The body fat-lowering effect of conjugated linoleic acid: a comparison between animal and human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, V; Fernández-Quintela, A; Churruca, I; Portillo, M P

    2006-06-01

    Different reasons which justify differences between rodents and humans in body fat reduction produced by conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) could be proposed. The doses used in humans are lower than those used in rodents. Human experiments have been performed with CLA isomer mixtures instead of isolated isomers. The variable dilution of t-10, c-12, the active isomer, among different preparations might explain the reduced responsiveness in humans. Diet composition may modulate CLA effects on body fat accumulation. As far as human studies are concerned, a specific dietary pattern has not been established. As a result differences among studies and also among subjects in the same study are likely. In rodents, the effects of CLA vary with genotype, suggesting that genetic predisposition to fat accumulation can play an important role in the effectiveness of CLA. Human volunteers with different body mass index have participated in the published studies and even in the same experiment. So, differences in lipid metabolism among subjects could help to explain the discrepancies observed in the literature. Age and maturity may also be crucial. Experiments using rodents have been conducted with growing animals and there is little evidence of CLA effectiveness in adult animals. By contrast, human studies have been performed with adults. Inhibition of lipogenesis in white adipose tissue is one of the mechanisms which have been proposed to explain the body-fat lowering effect of CLA, but lipogenesis in this tissue is very low in humans. Another mechanism suggested is increased fatty acid oxidation in the liver associated with peroxisome proliferation, but humans are relatively insensitive to this effect.

  3. Genetic Mouse Models: The Powerful Tools to Study Fat Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xingxing; Williams, Kevin W; Liu, Tiemin

    2017-01-01

    Obesity and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) are associated with a variety of comorbidities that contribute to mortality around the world. Although significant effort has been expended in understanding mechanisms that mitigate the consequences of this epidemic, the field has experienced limited success thus far. The potential ability of brown adipose tissue (BAT) to counteract obesity and metabolic disease in rodents (and potentially in humans) has been a topical realization. Recently, there is also another thermogenic fat cell called beige adipocytes, which are located among white adipocytes and share similar activated responses to cyclic AMP as classical BAT. In this chapter, we review contemporary molecular strategies to investigate the role of adipose tissue depots in metabolism. In particular, we will discuss the generation of adipose tissue-specific knockout and overexpression of target genes in various mouse models. We will also discuss how to use different Cre (cyclization recombination) mouse lines to investigate diverse types of adipocytes.

  4. Pericardial fat and myocardial perfusion in asymptomatic adults from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina E Brinkley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pericardial fat has adverse effects on the surrounding vasculature. Previous studies suggest that pericardial fat may contribute to myocardial ischemia in symptomatic individuals. However, it is unknown if pericardial fat has similar effects in asymptomatic individuals. METHODS: We determined the association between pericardial fat and myocardial blood flow (MBF in 214 adults with no prior history of cardiovascular disease from the Minnesota field center of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (43% female, 56% Caucasian, 44% Hispanic. Pericardial fat volume was measured by computed tomography. MBF was measured by MRI at rest and during adenosine-induced hyperemia. Myocardial perfusion reserve (PR was calculated as the ratio of hyperemic to resting MBF. RESULTS: Gender-stratified analyses revealed significant differences between men and women including less pericardial fat (71.9±31.3 vs. 105.2±57.5 cm(3, p<0.0001 and higher resting MBF (1.12±0.23 vs. 0.93±0.19 ml/min/g, p<0.0001, hyperemic MBF (3.49±0.76 vs. 2.65±0.72 ml/min/g, p<0.0001, and PR (3.19±0.78 vs. 2.93±0.89, p = 0.03 in women. Correlations between pericardial fat and clinical and hemodynamic variables were stronger in women. In women only (p = 0.01 for gender interaction higher pericardial fat was associated with higher resting MBF (p = 0.008. However, this association was attenuated after accounting for body mass index or rate-pressure product. There were no significant associations between pericardial fat and hyperemic MBF or PR after multivariate adjustment in either gender. In logistic regression analyses there was also no association between impaired coronary vasoreactivity, defined as having a PR <2.5, and pericardial fat in men (OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.82-1.70 or women (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.68-1.82. CONCLUSIONS: Our data fail to support an independent association between pericardial fat and myocardial perfusion in adults without symptomatic

  5. Effects of acupuncture therapy on abdominal fat and hepatic fat content in obese children: a magnetic resonance imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Peng, Yun; Liu, ZuXiang; Li, Shilian; Lv, Zhongli; Tian, LiFang; Zhu, Jie; Zhao, XuNa; Chen, Min

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) together with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) to study the influence of acupuncture therapy on abdominal fat and hepatic fat content in obese children. The design was a longitudinal, clinical intervention study of acupuncture therapy. SUBJECTS were 10 healthy, obese children (age: 11.4 ± 1.65 years, body-mass index [BMI]: 29.03 ± 4.81 kg/m(2)). Measurements included various anthropometric parameters, abdominal fat (assessed by MRI) and hepatic fat content (assessed by (1)H-MRS) at baseline and after 1 month of acupuncture therapy. One (1) month of acupuncture therapy significantly reduced the subjects' BMI by 3.5% (p = 0.005), abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume by 16.04% (p  0.05). There was a significant correlation between the level of abdominal fat (SAT, VAT) and anthropometric parameters (weight, BMI, waist circumferences, hip circumferences). There was no statistically significant correlation between IHTG and anthropometric parameters or abdominal fat content. The first direct experimental evidence is provided demonstrating that acupuncture therapy significantly reduces BMI and abdominal adipose tissue by reducing abdominal VAT content without significant changes in body weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, WHR, abdominal SAT, or IHTG content. Thus, the use of acupuncture therapy to selectively target a reduction in abdominal VAT content should become more important and more popular in the future.

  6. Asymptomatic Achilles tendon pathology is associated with a central fat distribution in men and a peripheral fat distribution in women: a cross sectional study of 298 individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bass Shona L

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adiposity is a modifiable factor that has been implicated in tendinopathy. As tendon pain reduces physical activity levels and can lead to weight gain, associations between tendon pathology and adiposity must be studied in individuals without tendon pain. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether fat distribution was associated with asymptomatic Achilles tendon pathology. Methods The Achilles tendons of 298 individuals were categorised as normal or pathological using diagnostic ultrasound. Fat distribution was determined using anthropometry (waist circumference, waist hip ratio [WHR] and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results Asymptomatic Achilles tendon pathology was more evident in men (13% than women (5% (p = 0.007. Men with tendon pathology were older (50.9 ± 10.4, 36.3 ± 11.3, p 83 cm had the greatest prevalence of tendon pathology (33%. Women with tendon pathology were older (47.4 ± 10.0, 36.0 ± 10.3, p = 0.008, had less total fat (17196 ± 3173 g, 21626 ± 7882 g, p = 0.009, trunk fat (7367 ± 1662 g, 10087 ± 4152 g, p = 0.003 and android fat (1117 ± 324 g, 1616 ± 811 g, p = 0.005. They had lower central/peripheral fat mass ratios (0.711 ± 0.321 g, 0.922 ± 0.194 g, p = 0.004 than women with normal tendons. Women with tendon pathology were more often menopausal (63%, 13%, p = 0.002. Conclusions Men with Achilles tendon pathology were older and had a central fat distribution. Women with tendon pathology were older and had a peripheral fat distribution. An interaction between age and waist circumference was observed among men.

  7. Fat intake and weight development from 9 to 16 years of age: the European youth heart study - a longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brixval, Carina Sjöberg; Andersen, Lars Bo; Heitmann, Berit

    2009-01-01

    intake and weight development among a cohort of children aged 9-10 years at baseline and 15-16 years at follow-up, and, further, at investigating whether parents' obesity is modifying the association. METHOD: Among 384 subjects aged 9 years, data on dietary intake, BMI z-score, physical activity...... fat intake and 6-year weight change among 9-year-old children. No interaction was seen between number of overweight parents on the relation between fat intake and subsequent weight change.......OBJECTIVE: The literature on associations between fat intake and weight development among both children and adults is inconsistent, even if it is generally assumed that a high dietary fat intake is a major determinant of obesity. The present study aimed at investigating the association between fat...

  8. Body fat and breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohan, Thomas E; Heo, Moonseong; Choi, Lydia; Datta, Mridul; Freudenheim, Jo L; Kamensky, Victor; Ochs-Balcom, Heather M; Qi, Lihong; Thomson, Cynthia A; Vitolins, Mara Z; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Kabat, Geoffrey C

    2013-01-01

    Associations between anthropometric indices of obesity and breast cancer risk may fail to capture the true relationship between excess body fat and risk. We used dual-energy-X-ray-absorptiometry- (DXA-) derived measures of body fat obtained in the Women's Health Initiative to examine the association between body fat and breast cancer risk; we compared these risk estimates with those for conventional anthropometric measurements. The study included 10,960 postmenopausal women aged 50-79 years at recruitment, with baseline DXA measurements and no history of breast cancer. During followup (median: 12.9 years), 503 incident breast cancer cases were diagnosed. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. All baseline DXA-derived body fat measures showed strong positive associations with breast cancer risk. The multivariable-adjusted HR for the uppermost quintile level (versus lowest) ranged from 1.53 (95% CI 1.14-2.07) for fat mass of the right leg to 2.05 (1.50-2.79) for fat mass of the trunk. Anthropometric indices (categorized by quintiles) of obesity (BMI (1.97, 1.45-2.68), waist circumference (1.97, 1.46-2.65), and waist : hip ratio (1.91, 1.41-2.58)) were all strongly, positively associated with risk and did not differ from DXA-derived measures in prediction of risk.

  9. Body Fat and Breast Cancer Risk in Postmenopausal Women: A Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Rohan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Associations between anthropometric indices of obesity and breast cancer risk may fail to capture the true relationship between excess body fat and risk. We used dual-energy-X-ray-absorptiometry- (DXA- derived measures of body fat obtained in the Women’s Health Initiative to examine the association between body fat and breast cancer risk; we compared these risk estimates with those for conventional anthropometric measurements. The study included 10,960 postmenopausal women aged 50–79 years at recruitment, with baseline DXA measurements and no history of breast cancer. During followup (median: 12.9 years, 503 incident breast cancer cases were diagnosed. Hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. All baseline DXA-derived body fat measures showed strong positive associations with breast cancer risk. The multivariable-adjusted HR for the uppermost quintile level (versus lowest ranged from 1.53 (95% CI 1.14–2.07 for fat mass of the right leg to 2.05 (1.50–2.79 for fat mass of the trunk. Anthropometric indices (categorized by quintiles of obesity (BMI (1.97, 1.45–2.68, waist circumference (1.97, 1.46–2.65, and waist : hip ratio (1.91, 1.41–2.58 were all strongly, positively associated with risk and did not differ from DXA-derived measures in prediction of risk.

  10. Family resemblance in fat intake, nutrition attitudes and beliefs : a study among three generations of women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stafleu, A.

    1994-01-01

    In this thesis nutrition attitudes, beliefs, and fat intake in three generations of women are described. The aim of the study was twofold: the development of methods, and to study family resemblance in food habits. Based on literature study and qualitative pilot studies a questionnaire on

  11. Family resemblance in fat intake, nutrition attitudes and beliefs: a study among three generations of women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stafleu, A.

    1994-01-01

    In this thesis nutrition attitudes, beliefs, and fat intake in three generations of women are described. The aim of the study was twofold: the development of methods, and to study family resemblance in food habits. Based on literature study and qualitative pilot studies a questionnaire on beliefs an

  12. Genetic association study of common mitochondrial variants on body fat mass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tie-Lin Yang

    Full Text Available Mitochondria play a central role in ATP production and energy metabolism. Previous studies suggest that common variants in mtDNA are associated with several common complex diseases, including obesity. To test the hypothesis that common mtDNA variants influence obesity-related phenotypes, including BMI and body fat mass, we genotyped a total of 445 mtSNPs across the whole mitochondrial genome in a large sample of 2,286 unrelated Caucasian subjects. 72 of these 445 mtSNPs passed quality control criteria, and were used for subsequent analyses. We also classified all subjects into nine common European haplogroups. Association analyses were conducted for both BMI and body fat mass with single mtSNPs and mtDNA haplogroups. Two mtSNPs, mt4823 and mt8873 were detected to be significantly associated with body fat mass, with adjusted P values of 4.94 × 10⁻³ and 4.58 × 10⁻², respectively. The minor alleles mt4823 C and mt8873 A were associated with reduced fat mass values and the effect size (β was estimated to be 3.52 and 3.18, respectively. These two mtSNPs also achieved nominally significant levels for association with BMI. For haplogroup analyses, we found that haplogroup X was strongly associated with both BMI (adjusted P = 8.31 × 10⁻³ and body fat mass (adjusted P = 5.67×10⁻⁴ Subjects classified as haplogroup X had lower BMI and fat mass values, with the β estimated to be 2.86 and 6.03, respectively. Our findings suggest that common variants in mitochondria might play a role in variations of body fat mass. Further molecular and functional studies will be needed to clarify the potential mechanism.

  13. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate and postprandial fat oxidation in overweight/obese male volunteers: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielecke, F; Rahn, G; Böhnke, J; Adams, F; Birkenfeld, A L; Jordan, J; Boschmann, M

    2010-07-01

    Drinking green tea is associated with many health benefits, including increased fat oxidation. We tested the hypothesis that epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the main green tea catechin, increases fat oxidation in obese men. Ten healthy overweight/obese males (body mass index 31.3+/-0.8 kg/m(2)) were studied in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover trial. Study supplements were low EGCG (300 mg), high EGCG (600 mg), caffeine (200 mg), EGCG/caffeine (300 mg/200 mg) or placebo and were taken orally for 3 days. At the third day of supplementation, O(2) consumption and CO(2) production was measured by indirect calorimetry to assess energy expenditure and fat oxidation over 4 h each after overnight fasting and after a standardized test meal. Energy expenditure was not affected by any supplementation, neither after overnight fasting nor after the test meal. During the first 2 h after overnight fasting, fat oxidation increased by 7.7 (not significant, NS), 15.2 (NS), 26.3 (PEGCG), for low EGCG, high EGCG, caffeine and EGCG/caffeine, respectively. During the first 2 h after the meal, the mean increase in fat oxidation was 33.3 (PEGCG, high EGCG, caffeine and EGCG/caffeine, respectively. Low EGCG increases postprandial fat oxidation in obese men and this to the same extent as 200 mg caffeine, whereas high EGCG does not exert this effect. Fasting fat oxidation is increased only by caffeine (with or without EGCG). There is no synergism of low EGCG and 200 mg caffeine. Energy expenditure is not affected by EGCG.

  14. Pattern Electrodes for Studying SOFC Electrochemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patel, H.C.; Biradar, N.; Venkataraman, V.; Aravind, P.V.

    2013-01-01

    Pattern anodes can be used to localize reactions and study individual processes like charge transfer, adsorption, diffusion etc. Ceria and Nickel (Ni) pattern anodes were fabricated with the same dimensions with Triple phase boundary (TPB) lengths of 0.2707 m/cm2. Electrochemical Impedance Spectrosc

  15. Smoking and body fatness measurements : A cross-sectional analysis in the EPIC-PANACEA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Travier, Noemie; Agudo, Antonio; May, Anne M.; Gonzalez, Carlos; Luan, Jian'an; Besson, Herve; Wareham, Nick J.; Slimani, Nadia; Rinaldi, Sabina; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Palli, Domenico; Agnoli, Claudia; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Rodriguez, Laudina; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Dorronsoro, Miren; Barricarte, Aurelio; Tormo, Maria-Jose; Norat, Teresa; Mouw, Traci; Key, Tim J.; Spencer, Elizabeth A.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Vrieling, Alina; Orfanos, Philippos; Naska, Ada; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Rohrmann, Sabina; Kaaks, Rudolf; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Boeing, Heiner; Hallmans, Goran; Johansson, Ingegerd; Manjer, Jonas; Lindkvist, Bjorn; Jakobsen, Mariane Uhre; Overvad, Kim; Tjonneland, Anne; Halkjaer, Jytte; Lund, Eiliv; Braaten, Toni; Odysseos, Andreani; Riboli, Elio; Peeters, Petra H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective. The present study investigates the cross-sectional relationship between tobacco smoking and body fatness. Methods. This cross-sectional study consisted of 469,543 men and women who participated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study between 1992 a

  16. Investigating Greek consumers' attitudes towards low-fat food products: a segmentation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krystallis, Athanasios; Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S; Kapirti, A

    2003-05-01

    The present study aims at gaining a first insight into Greek consumers' attitudes towards low-fat food products. Although Greece, and in particular Crete, have enjoyed a great popularity in terms of the Mediterranean diet, there has been an almost complete lack of low-fat-related surveys concerning the Greek food consumer. Using this as a research trigger, the current investigation evolves around the conflict between 'sensory appeal' and 'healthiness' of low-fat products, widely described in the international literature. Other crucial factors examined are consumers' awareness, occasional use and conscious purchase of, and willingness to pay for, food products with the 'low-fat' claim. Overall, the study has the objective to segment the Greek market in terms of users' perceptions of light products and to identify a number of well-described clusters with clear-cut socio-demographic and behavioural profile. Three clusters are identified, comprised of consumers with favourable attitudes towards low-fat foods and willing to pay premiums to purchase them.

  17. Effect of Resected Gastric Fundus Fat on Ghrelin Tissue Levels: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmuş, Ali; Durmuş, Ilgim; Abahuni, Melis; Karatepe, Oguzhan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Obesity is currently an important health problem that is rapidly increasing worldwide. In recent years, the number of obesity-related surgeries has increased. The most common type of obesity-related surgery is laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). The aim of this study was to compare the genetic expression of the hormone ghrelin in different parts of the stomach. Materials and Methods: Nineteen obese patients who underwent LSG were examined in this study. Fat tissue from two different parts of the stomach, the fundus and the upper part of the fundus, were analysed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The ribonucleic acid (RNA) isolation, complementary DNA (cDNA) and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR) techniques were applied. Additionally, a human ghrelin ELISA kit was used to measure ghrelin in obese patients. The ghrelin levels of fat tissue from the fundus and upper part of the fundus were statistically compared. Results: In all 19 patients, the average ghrelin level in the fundus was greater than 30. The average ghrelin level of the fat pad, which is located in the upper part of the fundus, was greater than 30 for 4 patients; the average level was approximately 5 in the remaining patients. A statistically significant difference in the ghrelin level was found between the fundus and the fundus fat tissue. Collection of fundus fat tissue is not routinely performed during LSG. However, ghrelin hormone elevation in this tissue may require collection of fundus tissue during surgery. Celsius.

  18. Late gestation undernutrtion can predispose for visceral adiposity by altering fat distribution patterns and increasing the preference for a high-fat diet in early postnatal life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette O; Kongsted, Anna Hauntoft; Thygesen, M P

    2013-01-01

    and three females) were slaughtered for further examination and the other half (females only) were transferred to a moderate sheep diet until slaughtered at 24 months of age (adulthood). Maternal undernutrition during late gestation reduced the birth weight of LOW offspring (P ... (LOW). From day 3 postpartum to 6 months (around puberty) of age, one twin lamb was fed a conventional (CONV) diet and the other a high-carbohydrate–high-fat (HCHF) diet, resulting in four groups of offspring: NORM-CONV; NORM-HCHF; LOW-CONV; LOW-HCHF. At 6 months of age, half of the lambs (all males......-term effects were increased adrenal size in male lambs and adult females (P LOW-HCHF female lambs had markedly higher...

  19. Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies evaluating the association of saturated fat with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siri-Tarino, Patty W; Sun, Qi; Hu, Frank B; Krauss, Ronald M

    2010-03-01

    A reduction in dietary saturated fat has generally been thought to improve cardiovascular health. The objective of this meta-analysis was to summarize the evidence related to the association of dietary saturated fat with risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and cardiovascular disease (CVD; CHD inclusive of stroke) in prospective epidemiologic studies. Twenty-one studies identified by searching MEDLINE and EMBASE databases and secondary referencing qualified for inclusion in this study. A random-effects model was used to derive composite relative risk estimates for CHD, stroke, and CVD. During 5-23 y of follow-up of 347,747 subjects, 11,006 developed CHD or stroke. Intake of saturated fat was not associated with an increased risk of CHD, stroke, or CVD. The pooled relative risk estimates that compared extreme quantiles of saturated fat intake were 1.07 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.19; P = 0.22) for CHD, 0.81 (95% CI: 0.62, 1.05; P = 0.11) for stroke, and 1.00 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.11; P = 0.95) for CVD. Consideration of age, sex, and study quality did not change the results. A meta-analysis of prospective epidemiologic studies showed that there is no significant evidence for concluding that dietary saturated fat is associated with an increased risk of CHD or CVD. More data are needed to elucidate whether CVD risks are likely to be influenced by the specific nutrients used to replace saturated fat.

  20. Study on Color and Antioxidant Properties of Rambutan Seed Fat as Cocoa Butter Alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luma Khairy. H

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the color (whiteness, L*, a*, b* and antioxidant properties (radical scavenging activity, total phenolic compound of rambutan seed fat (RSF and its mixture with cocoa butter (CB were investigated. Different proportions were applied in preparing the samples between (RSF and (CB. The results showed that significant differences among samples in the whiteness, (L* and (a* value, whereas (b* value had no significant differences. With regard antioxidant activity the results showed that total phenolic compound (TPC of cocoa butter was (47.37±0.02 mg GA/100 g fat, while the other mixtures between (RSF and (CB showed (40.49±0.01-11.12±0.02 mg GA/100 g fat. Radical scavenging activity (DPPH of cocoa butter valued (67.32±0.44 µmol trolox/100 g fat, similar to the mixture M1 (60.16±0.23. Based on the results the study recommended that mixture ratio up to 40% rambutan seed fat (RSF can benefit as a cocoa butter replacer whereas a higher ratio completely change original cocoa butter characteristics. Thus, there is the possibility of using the (RSF as replacer of (CB and could utilize by chocolate products.

  1. AHSG gene variation is not associated with regional body fat distribution--a magnetic resonance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müssig, K; Staiger, H; Machicao, F; Machann, J; Hennige, A M; Schick, F; Claussen, C D; Fritsche, A; Häring, H-U; Stefan, N

    2009-09-01

    Obesity-resistance in AHSG-knockout mice indicate an important role of alpha2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein/fetuin-A (AHSG) in the development of obesity. We studied whether genetic variation within AHSG affects whole-body adiposity and regional fat distribution in humans. We genotyped 321 subjects at increased risk for type 2 diabetes for five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) rs2248690, rs4831, rs2070635, rs4917, and rs1071592. Body fat distribution and ectopic hepatic and intramyocellular lipids were assessed by magnetic resonance techniques. AHSG levels were determined by immunoturbidimetry. The five chosen SNPs covered 100% of common genetic variation (minor allele frequency >/=0.05) within AHSG (r (2)>/=0.8). All SNPs were significantly associated with AHSG levels (pbody mass index (BMI). AHSG levels were associated with liver fat content (p=0.0160) and BMI (p=0.0247) after adjustment for gender and age. While rs2248690 was nominally associated with BMI in the dominant model (p=0.0432), none of the SNPs was associated with regional fat distribution. Common genetic variation within AHSG does not appear to influence regional body fat distribution, but may affect whole-body adiposity in humans.

  2. Detection of pulmonary fat embolism with dual-energy CT: an experimental study in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chun Xiang; Zhou, Chang Sheng; Zhao, Yan E; Schoepf, U Joseph; Mangold, Stefanie; Ball, B Devon; Han, Zong Hong; Qi, Li; Zhang, Long Jiang; Lu, Guang Ming

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the use of dual-energy CT imaging of the lung perfused blood volume (PBV) for the detection of pulmonary fat embolism (PFE). Dual-energy CT was performed in 24 rabbits before and 1 hour, 1 day, 4 days and 7 days after artificial induction of PFE via the right ear vein. CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) and lung PBV images were evaluated by two radiologists, who recorded the presence, number, and location of PFE on a per-lobe basis. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of CTPA and lung PBV for detecting PFE were calculated using histopathological evaluation as the reference standard. A total of 144 lung lobes in 24 rabbits were evaluated and 70 fat emboli were detected on histopathological analysis. The overall sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 25.4 %, 98.6 %, and 62.5 % for CTPA, and 82.6 %, 76.0 %, and 79.2 % for lung PBV. Higher sensitivity (p PFE earlier than CTPA (all p PFE as well as earlier detection compared with conventional CTPA in this animal model study. • Fat embolism occurs commonly in patients with traumatic bone injury. • Dual-energy CT improves diagnostic performance for pulmonary fat embolism detection. • Dual-energy CT can detect pulmonary fat embolism earlier than CTPA.

  3. Comparison of clinical semi-quantitative assessment of muscle fat infiltration with quantitative assessment using chemical shift-based water/fat separation in MR studies of the calf of post-menopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alizai, Hamza; Nardo, Lorenzo; Karampinos, Dimitrios C.; Joseph, Gabby B.; Yap, Samuel P.; Baum, Thomas; Krug, Roland; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M. [University of California, San Francisco, Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Research Group, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2012-07-15

    The goal of this study was to compare the semi-quantitative Goutallier classification for fat infiltration with quantitative fat-fraction derived from a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) chemical shift-based water/fat separation technique. Sixty-two women (age 61 {+-} 6 years), 27 of whom had diabetes, underwent MRI of the calf using a T1-weighted fast spin-echo sequence and a six-echo spoiled gradient-echo sequence at 3 T. Water/fat images and fat fraction maps were reconstructed using the IDEAL algorithm with T2* correction and a multi-peak model for the fat spectrum. Two radiologists scored fat infiltration on the T1-weighted images using the Goutallier classification in six muscle compartments. Spearman correlations between the Goutallier grades and the fat fraction were calculated; in addition, intra-observer and inter-observer agreement were calculated. A significant correlation between the clinical grading and the fat fraction values was found for all muscle compartments (P < 0.0001, R values ranging from 0.79 to 0.88). Goutallier grades 0-4 had a fat fraction ranging from 3.5 to 19%. Intra-observer and inter-observer agreement values of 0.83 and 0.81 were calculated for the semi-quantitative grading. Semi-quantitative grading of intramuscular fat and quantitative fat fraction were significantly correlated and both techniques had excellent reproducibility. However, the clinical grading was found to overestimate muscle fat. (orig.)

  4. Impaired Fat-induced Thermogenesis in Obese Subjects: The NUGENOB Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaak, E.E.; Hul, G.; Verdich, C.; Stich, V.; Martinez, J.A.; Petersen, M.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Patel, K.; Oppert, J.M.; Barbe, P.; Tourbro, S.; Polak, J.; Anderson, I.; Astrup, A.; Macdonald, I.; Langin, D.; Sorensen, T.; Saris, W.H.M.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To study energy expenditure before and 3 hours after a high-fat load in a large cohort of obese subjects (n=701) and a lean reference group (n = 113). Research Methods and Procedures: Subjects from seven European countries underwent a 1-day clinical study with a liquid test meal challeng

  5. Assessing Fat Mass of Adolescent Swimmers Using Anthropometric Equations: A DXA Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Berges, Gabriel; Gómez-Bruton, Alejandro; Matute-Llorente, Ángel; Julián-Almárcegui, Cristina; Gómez-Cabello, Alba; González-Agüero, Alejandro; Casajús, José A.; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to determine which of the published anthropometric equations is the most appropriate to estimate body-fat percentage (BF%) in adolescent swimmers. Method: Eighty-eight swimmers (45 boys, 43 girls) participated in this study. Following the recommendations of the International Society of the Advancement of…

  6. Study of Growth Potential of Listeria Monocytogenes in Low Fat Salami: An Innovative Italian Meat Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosciani-Cunico, Elena; Pavoni, Enrico; Bertasi, Barbara; Daminelli, Paolo; Finazzi, Guido; Losio, Marina N.; Varisco, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    In the last years, consequently to EC Regulation no. 1924/2006 on nutrition and health claims made on foods, some Italian food businnes operators (FBOs) leaders in the meat sector, invested in research to develop innovative products such as low fat salami, containing up to 30% less fat than the traditional one. For FBOs it is essential to demonstrate for each production process whether the substrate allows the growth of L. monocytogenes and whether L. monocytogenes could reach or exceed the limit of 100 cfu g–1 at the end of the shelf life, as stated by EC Regulation no. 2073/2005. In the present study, the growth potential of L. monocytogenes during the shelf life of low fat salami packed in modified atmosphere was evaluated. The results show that the product is unable to support the growth of pathogen, even if the storage temperature is between 8 and 12°C. PMID:27800321

  7. Study of growth potential of Listeria monocytogenes in low fat salami: an innovative Italian meat product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Dalzini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, consequently to EC Regulation no. 1924/2006 on nutrition and health claims made on foods, some Italian food businnes operators (FBOs leaders in the meat sector, invested in research to develop innovative products such as low fat salami, containing up to 30% less fat than the traditional one. For FBOs it is essential to demonstrate for each production process whether the substrate allows the growth of L. monocytogenes and whether L. monocytogenes could reach or exceed the limit of 100 cfu g–1 at the end of the shelf life, as stated by EC Regulation no. 2073/2005. In the present study, the growth potential of L. monocytogenes during the shelf life of low fat salami packed in modified atmosphere was evaluated. The results show that the product is unable to support the growth of pathogen, even if the storage temperature is between 8 and 12°C.

  8. Study of Growth Potential of Listeria Monocytogenes in Low Fat Salami: An Innovative Italian Meat Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalzini, Elena; Cosciani-Cunico, Elena; Pavoni, Enrico; Bertasi, Barbara; Daminelli, Paolo; Finazzi, Guido; Losio, Marina N; Varisco, Giorgio

    2014-01-21

    In the last years, consequently to EC Regulation no. 1924/2006 on nutrition and health claims made on foods, some Italian food businnes operators (FBOs) leaders in the meat sector, invested in research to develop innovative products such as low fat salami, containing up to 30% less fat than the traditional one. For FBOs it is essential to demonstrate for each production process whether the substrate allows the growth of L. monocytogenes and whether L. monocytogenes could reach or exceed the limit of 100 cfu g(-1) at the end of the shelf life, as stated by EC Regulation no. 2073/2005. In the present study, the growth potential of L. monocytogenes during the shelf life of low fat salami packed in modified atmosphere was evaluated. The results show that the product is unable to support the growth of pathogen, even if the storage temperature is between 8 and 12°C.

  9. Anatomical study of superficial fascia and localized fat deposits of abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The development of liposuction and abdominoplasty has renewed interest in the anatomy of the localized fat deposits (LFD areas of the abdomen. This study aims at ascertaining the gross anatomy of superficial fascia and the localized fat deposits of abdomen. Materials and Methods: Eight adult cadavers (four males and four females were dissected. Attachments, number of layers of fascia and colour, shape and maximum size of the fat lobules in loin, and upper and lower abdomen were noted. Thickness of deep membranous layer of superficial fascia of upper abdomen and lower abdomen were measured by metal casing electronic digital calipers, with resolution being 10 μm. The independent sample t-test, ANOVA for comparison and Pearson coefficient for correlation were used. Results: Superficial fascia of the abdomen was multilayered in the midline and number of layers reduced laterally. The shape, size, color, and arrangement of fat lobules were different in different locations. The thickness of the fascia of the lower abdomen in males (mean 528.336 ± SE38.48 was significantly (P < 0.041 more than that in females. (Mean 390.822 ± SE36.24. Pearson correlation between thickness of the membranous layer of the upper and lower abdomen revealed moderately positive correlation (r=0.718; P<0.045. Conclusions: The LFD in the central region of the abdomen corresponds to the area of multilayered fascia with smaller fat lobules. The relatively thinner supporting fascia of the lower abdomen in females may be responsible for excessive bulges of the lower abdomen. The fat lobule anatomy at different sites under study was different.

  10. Metabolomic study of a diagnostic model for the metabolites of stool fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choong Hwan; Kim, Jiyoung; Ahn, Su Young; Lee, Sun Young

    2013-01-25

    Metabolomics is a powerful tool for measuring low-molecular-weight metabolites in an organism at a specified time under specific environmental conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of metabolomics in identifying the metabolites in stool-fat-positive specimens, and to establish whether the results could be used to predict the long-term prognosis. Fecal specimens were collected from 52 subjects with bowel habit change. The subjects were accessed using Rome III questionnaires and Bristol stool scale form, and followed after three years. The feces samples were centrifuged and the resulting extracts reconstituted for liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. The datasets were autoscaled, log-transformed, and mean-centered in a column-wise fashion prior to principal-components analysis and partial least-squares-discrimination analysis modeling. Fecal samples from 10 of the 52 patients gave a positive stool-fat result of 30-100 mm; those of the remaining 42 contained neither fatty acids nor neutral fats. The peak intensities of lithocholic acid (p=0.001), lysophosphatidyl ethanolamine (lysoPE) 16:0 (p=0.015), and lysoPE 18:1/0:0 (p=0.014) were correlated with the size of the fatty acid. Subjects with positive stool-fat result showed higher score in Bristol stool scale form than those with negative stool-fat result at initial (p=0.040) and after three years (p=0.012). The metabolomic assay of stool fatty acid revealed mainly lysoPEs and lithocholic acid. The size of the fatty acid was correlated with higher concentrations of lysoPEs and lithocholic acid in stool-fat-test-positive specimens and related to loose stool even after three years of follow-up period.

  11. Fat and K-ras mutations in sporadic colorectal cancer in The Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, M.; Weijenberg, M.P.; Goeij, A.F.P.M. de; Schouten, L.J.; Koedijk, F.D.H.; Roemen, G.M.J.M.; Lentjes, M.H.F.M.; Bruïne, A.P. de; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2004-01-01

    Associations between dietary intake of various fats and specific K-ras mutations in colorectal cancer (CRC) were investigated within the framework of The Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer (NLCS). After 7.3 years of follow-up and with exclusion of the first 2.3 years, 448 colon and 160 rect

  12. Clinical Studies of Sweet Bee Venom to The Effect of Abdominal Fat Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim, Chung-San

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Sweet Bee Venom to the abdominal fat accumulation clinically. Methods The 20 healthy women volunteers who showed the notice of this study by the home page of Sangji University were treated with Sweet Bee Venom(SBV during twenty times. To investigate the effects of Sweet Bee Venom of the abdominal fat accumulation, abdominal CT, LFT, Thermography, BMI, Inbody 3.0 etc. were performed during clinical trials. And statistical analysis was carried out the data of 10 volunteers who performed all the schedule of this study. Results Following results were obtained from the clinical studies Sweet Bee Venom showed the effect of decreased the body weight, thickness of abdominal skin and fat layer, BMI, and increased abdominal heat, but they are not showed statistical significant. Conclusions These results suggest that treatment Sweet Bee Venom on the abdomen was effective to decrease fat tissue but for the treatment of obesity was performed with right diet program and exercise.

  13. Determination of some individual chlorobiphenyls in eel-fat with capillary gaschromatography: collaborative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuinstra, L.G.M.T.; Roos, A.H.; Werdmuller, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    A method for the determination of six individual chlorobiphenyls in eel-fat, based on saponification of the sample and determination with capillary gas chromatography, was studied collaboratively. Eleven laboratories submitted analytical results in duplo of six individual chlorbiphenyls on two sampl

  14. Hydrodeoxygenation of waste fat for diesel production: Study on model feed with Pt/alumina catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Ahmed, El Hadi; Christensen, Claus H.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrodeoxygenation of waste fats and oils is a viable method for producing renewable diesel oil. In this study a model feed consisting of oleic acid and tripalmitin in molar ratio 1:3 was hydrotreated at 325°C with 20bars H2 in a stirred batch autoclave with a 5wt% Pt/γ-Al2O3 catalyst, and samples...

  15. Abdominal fat mass is associated with adaptive immune activation: the CODAM study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thewissen, M.M.; Damoiseaux, J.G.; Duijvestijn, A.M.; Greevenbroek, M.M.; Kallen, van der C.J.H.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Blaak, E.E.; Schalkwijk, C.G.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Cohen Tervaert, J.W.; Ferreira, I.

    2011-01-01

    Abdominal fat-related activation of the innate immune system and insulin resistance (IR) are implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Recent data support an important role of the adaptive immune system as well. In this study, we investigate the association between waist circumferen

  16. Expression pattern of L-FABP gene in different tissues and its regulation of fat metabolism-related genes in duck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jun; Tian, Yong; Li, Jinjun; Shen, Junda; Tao, Zhengrong; Fu, Yan; Niu, Dong; Lu, Lizhi

    2013-01-01

    Liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) is a member of intracellular lipid-binding proteins responsible for the transportation of fatty acids. The expression pattern of duck L-FABP mRNA was examined in this study by quantitative RT-PCR. The results showed that duck L-FABP gene was expressed in many tissues, including heart, lung, kidney, muscle, ovary, brain, intestine, stomach and adipocyte tissues, and highly expressed in liver. Several lipid metabolism-related genes were selected to detect the regulation of L-FABP in duck. The expression of L-FABP and lipoprotein lipase was promoted by oleic acid. The L-FABP knockdown decreased the expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), fatty acid synthase and lipoprotein lipase by 61.1, 42.3 and 53.7 %, respectively (P L-FABP might function through the PPARα to regulate the fat metabolism-related gene expression and play important roles in lipid metabolism in duck hepatocytes.

  17. The effect of patient position during trauma surgery on fat embolism syndrome: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid A Syed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of supine versus lateral position on clinical signs of fat embolism during orthopedic trauma surgery. Dogs served as the current study model, which could be extended and/or serve as a basis for future in vivo studies on humans. It was hypothesized that there would be an effect of position on clinical signs of fat embolism syndrome in a dog model. Materials and Methods: 12 dogs were assigned to supine ( n = 6 and lateral ( n = 6 position groups. Airway pressures, heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac output, pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary artery wedge pressure, right atrial pressure, arterial and venous blood gases, white blood count, platelet count and neutrophil count were obtained. Dogs were then subjected to pulmonary contusion in three areas of one lung. Fat embolism was generated by reaming one femur and tibia, followed by pressurization of the canal. Results: No difference was found in any parameters measured between supine and lateral positions at any time (0.126 > P < 0.856. Conclusions: The position of trauma patients undergoing reamed intramedullary nailing did not alter the presentation of the features of the lung secondary to fat embolism.

  18. Patterns of subcutaneous fat deposition and the relationship between body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio: implications for models of physical attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Piers L; Toveé, Martin J; Bateson, Melissa

    2009-02-07

    Body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) are two widely used anthropometric indices of body shape argued to convey different information about health and fertility. Both indices have also been shown to affect attractiveness ratings of female bodies. However, BMI and WHR are naturally positively correlated, complicating studies designed to identify their relative importance in predicting health and attractiveness outcomes. We show that the correlation between BMI and WHR depends on the assumed model of subcutaneous fat deposition. An additive model, whereby fat is added to the waist and hips at a constant rate, predicts a correlation between BMI and WHR because with increasing fat, the difference between the waist and hips becomes smaller relative to total width. This model is supported by longitudinal and cross-sectional data. We parameterized the function relating WHR to BMI for white UK females of reproductive age, and used this function to statistically decompose body shape into two independent components. We show that judgements of the attractiveness of female bodies are well explained by the component of curvaceousness related to BMI but not by residual curvaceousness. Our findings resolve a long-standing dispute in the attractiveness literature by confirming that although WHR appears to be an important predictor of attractiveness, this is largely explained by the direct effect of total body fat on WHR, thus reinforcing the conclusion that total body fat is the primary determinant of female body shape attractiveness.

  19. Dietary patterns in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmett, Pauline M; Jones, Louise R; Northstone, Kate

    2015-10-01

    Publications from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children that used empirically derived dietary patterns were reviewed. The relationships of dietary patterns with socioeconomic background and childhood development were examined. Diet was assessed using food frequency questionnaires and food records. Three statistical methods were used: principal components analysis, cluster analysis, and reduced rank regression. Throughout childhood, children and parents have similar dietary patterns. The "health-conscious" and "traditional" patterns were associated with high intakes of fruits and/or vegetables and better nutrient profiles than the "processed" patterns. There was evidence of tracking in childhood diet, with the "health-conscious" patterns tracking most strongly, followed by the "processed" pattern. An "energy-dense, low-fiber, high-fat" dietary pattern was extracted using reduced rank regression; high scores on this pattern were associated with increasing adiposity. Maternal education was a strong determinant of pattern score or cluster membership; low educational attainment was associated with higher scores on processed, energy-dense patterns in both parents and children. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children has provided unique insights into the value of empirically derived dietary patterns and has demonstrated that they are a useful tool in nutritional epidemiology.

  20. Dietary intakes and food sources of fat and fatty acids in Guatemalan schoolchildren: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doak Colleen

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of healthy diets that contribute with adequate amounts of fat and fatty acids is needed for children. Among Guatemalan children, there is little information about fat intakes. Therefore, the present study sought to assess intakes of dietary fats and examine food sources of those fats in Guatemalan children. Methods The study subjects consisted of a convenience sample of 449 third- and fourth-grade schoolchildren (8-10 y, attending public or private schools in Quetzaltenango City, Guatemala. Dietary data was obtained by means of a single pictorial 24-h record. Results The percentages of total energy (%E from total fat, saturated fat (SFA and monounsaturated fat (MUFA reached 29%E for total fat and 10%E for each SFA and MUFA, without gender differences. %E from fats in high vs. low-socio economic status (SES children were significantly higher for boys, but not for girls, for total fat (p = 0.002 and SFA (p 97% of all groups consuming less than 1%E from this fats. Fried eggs, sweet rolls, whole milk and cheese were main sources of total fat and, SFA. Whole milk and sweet bread were important sources of n-3 FA for high- and low-SES boys and girls, respectively. Fried plantain was the main source of n-3 FA for girls in the high-SES group. Fried fish, seafood soup, and shrimp, consumed only by boys in low amounts, were sources of eicosapentaenoic (EPA and docosahexaenoic (DHA acids, which may explain the low intakes of these nutrients. Conclusions α-linolenic acid, EPA and DHA were the most limiting fatty acids in diets of Guatemalan schoolchildren, which could be partially explained by the low consumption of sources of these nutrients, particularly fish and seafood (for EPA and DHA. This population will benefit from a higher consumption of culturally acceptable foods that are rich in these limiting nutrients.

  1. A pooled analysis of 12 cohort studies of dietary fat, cholesterol and egg intake and ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genkinger, J.M.; Hunter, D.J.; Spiegelman, D.; Anderson, K.E.; Beeson, W.L.; Buring, J.E.; Colditz, G.A.; Fraser, G.E.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Hankinson, S.E.; Koenig, K.L.; Larsson, S.C.; Leitzmann, M.; McCullough, M.L.; Miller, A.B.; Rodriguez, C.; Rohan, T.E.; Ross, J.A.; Schatzkin, A.; Schouten, L.J.; Smit, E.; Willett, W.C.; Wolk, A.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A.; Zhang, S.M.; Smith-Warner, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    Fat and cholesterol are theorized to promote ovarian carcinogenesis by increasing circulating estrogen levels. Although case-control studies have reported positive associations between total and saturated fat intake and ovarian cancer risk, two cohort studies have observed null associations. Dietary

  2. Food Sources, Dietary Behavior, and the Saturated Fat Intake of Latino Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Charles E.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Studies dietary patterns that distinguish children with higher and lower mean daily percentages of calories from saturated fat using data from mothers of 205 Latino children aged 4-7 years in New York City. Substituting low-fat for whole milk appears a key strategy for lowering saturated fat intake. (SLD)

  3. Food Sources, Dietary Behavior, and the Saturated Fat Intake of Latino Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Charles E.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Studies dietary patterns that distinguish children with higher and lower mean daily percentages of calories from saturated fat using data from mothers of 205 Latino children aged 4-7 years in New York City. Substituting low-fat for whole milk appears a key strategy for lowering saturated fat intake. (SLD)

  4. Sugar Companies Shifted Focus to Fat as Heart Harm: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sugar increased, a trade group for the sugar industry -- the Sugar Research Foundation -- commissioned a research review by Harvard ... also served on scientific advisory boards for the sugar industry, the authors of the new study said. Besides ...

  5. Fitness and fatness in relation with attention capacity in European adolescents: The HELENA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadenas-Sanchez, Cristina; Vanhelst, Jeremy; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Castillo-Gualda, Ruth; Libuda, Lars; Labayen, Idoia; De Miguel-Etayo, Pilar; Marcos, Ascensión; Molnár, Eszter; Catena, Andrés; Moreno, Luis A; Sjöström, Michael; Gottrand, Frederic; Widhalm, Kurt; Ortega, Francisco B

    2017-04-01

    To examine the association of health-related physical fitness components and accurate measures of fatness with attention in European adolescents. Cross-sectional study. A sub-sample of 444 adolescents from the HELENA study (14.5±1.2years) from 6 different countries participated in this study. Adolescents underwent evaluations of fitness (20m shuttle run, handgrip strength, standing long jump and 4×10m shuttle run tests), fatness (body mass index, skinfold thicknesses, bioelectrical impedance, Bod Pod and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and attention (d2-test). Higher cardiorespiratory fitness was positively associated with better attention capacity (β=0.1, p=0.03). Body mass index and fat mass index measured by Bod Pod and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in a subset were negatively associated with attention (β=-0.11, p=0.02; β=-0.36, p=0.02; β=-0.34, p=0.03; respectively). All models were adjusted for age, sex, family-affluence scale and mother education. When these models were additionally adjusted for cardiorespiratory fitness when fatness was the main predictor and vice versa, the associations were somewhat attenuated and were no longer statistically significant. Muscular strength, speed-agility and body fatness markers measured by bioelectrical impedance and skinfolds were not associated with attention. The fit and non-overweight adolescents presented the highest values of attention capacity whilst their unfit and overweight peers showed the lowest values of attention (47.31±2.34 vs. 33.74±4.39; pattention, yet these associations are not independent. A combined effect was also observed, with fit and non-overweight adolescents showing the highest levels of attention and those unfit and overweight the lowest. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fecal excretion pattern of bile acids in rats fed high fat diets and neomycin in induced colon tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, S K; Broitman, S A

    1999-09-06

    Neomycin augments colon tumorigenesis in 1,2 - dimethylhydrazine treated rats fed polyunsaturated fat diet and decreases fecal cholic acid excretion, while it inhibits tumorigenesis with increased cholic acid and decreased deoxycholic acid excretions in rats fed high cholesterol diet. Participation of other fecal bile acids seems to be insignificant in relation to colon carcinogenesis.

  7. Body Mass Index, percent body fat, and regional body fat distribution in relation to leptin concentrations in healthy, non-smoking postmenopausal women in a feeding study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell William

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between BMI and leptin has been studied extensively in the past, but previous reports in postmenopausal women have not been conducted under carefully controlled dietary conditions of weight maintenance using precise measures of body fat distribution. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between serum leptin concentration and adiposity as estimated by BMI and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA measures (percent body fat, central and peripheral fat, and lean mass in postmenopausal women. Methods This study was conducted as a cross-sectional analysis within the control segment of a randomized, crossover trial in which postmenopausal women (n = 51 consumed 0 (control, 15 (one drink, and 30 (two drinks g alcohol (ethanol/d for 8 weeks as part of a controlled diet. BMIs were determined and DEXA scans were administered to the women during the 0 g alcohol treatment, and a blood sample was collected at baseline and week 8 of each study period for leptin analysis. Results and discussion In multivariate analysis, women who were overweight (BMI > 25 to ≤ 30 kg/m2 had a 2-fold increase, and obese women (BMI > 30 kg/m2 had more than a 3-fold increase in serum leptin concentrations compared to normal weight (BMI ≤25 kg/m2 women. When the models for the different measures of adiposity were assessed by multiple R2, models which included percent body fat explained the highest proportion (approximately 80% of the serum leptin variance. Conclusion Under carefully controlled dietary conditions, we confirm that higher levels of adiposity were associated with higher concentrations of serum leptin. It appears that percent body fat in postmenopausal women may be the best adiposity-related predictor of serum leptin.

  8. Impact of Gender on the Association of Epicardial Fat Thickness, Obesity, and Circadian Blood Pressure Pattern in Hypertensive Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Kyoung Shim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of gender on the association between epicardial fat thickness (EFT and circadian blood pressure (BP changes in patients with recently diagnosed essential hypertension (EH. A total of 441 patients with EH (male/female: 236/205, mean age: 50.7 ± 13.8 and 83 control patients underwent 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring and echocardiography. Obese EH patients had higher circadian BP profile with BP variability, wall thickness, and left ventricular mass than nonobese EH patients and controls (all p’s <0.05 without gender differences. EFT was higher in female than in male patients (7.0 ± 2.5 versus 5.9 ± 2.2 mm, p<0.001 and higher in the obese female EH group (7.5 ± 2.6 mm than in the control (6.4 ± 2.8 mm or nonobese EH group (6.7 ± 2.8 mm among women, whereas EFT did not vary among males (5.9 ± 1.9 versus 6.0 ± 2.7 versus 5.9 ± 2.4 mm, p=0.937. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the 24-hour mean BP variability was associated with SBP (p=0.018 and EFT (p=0.016 in female patients, but not in male patients. The relationships among circadian BP variability, obesity, and EFT were affected by gender in different manners. EFT may be a more valuable parameter in the evaluation of BP severity and obesity in women than in men.

  9. Differential Patterns and Determinants of Cardiac Autonomic Nerve Dysfunction during Endotoxemia and Oral Fat Load in Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Ziegler

    Full Text Available The autonomic nervous system (ANS plays an important role in regulating the metabolic homeostasis and controlling immune function. ANS alterations can be detected by reduced heart rate variability (HRV in conditions like diabetes and sepsis. We determined the effects of experimental conditions mimicking inflammation and hyperlipidemia on HRV and heart rate (HR in relation to the immune, metabolic, and hormonal responses resulting from these interventions. Sixteen lean healthy subjects received intravenous (i.v. low-dose endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS], i.v. fat, oral fat, and i.v. glycerol (control for 6 hours, during which immune, metabolic, hormonal, and five HRV parameters (pNN50, RMSSD, low-frequency (LF and high-frequency (HF power, and LF/HF ratio were monitored and energy metabolism and insulin sensitivity (M-value were assessed. LPS infusion induced an increase (AUC in HR and LF/HF ratio and decline in pNN50 and RMSSD, while oral fat resulted in elevated HR and a transient (hours 1-2 decrease in pNN50, RMSSD, and HF power. During LPS infusion, ΔIL-1ra levels and ΔIL-1ra and ΔIL-1ß gene expression correlated positively with ΔLF/HF ratio and inversely with ΔRMSSD. During oral fat intake, ΔGLP-1 tended to correlate positively with ΔHR and inversely with ΔpNN50 and ΔRMSSD. Following LPS infusion, lipid oxidation correlated positively with HR and inversely with pNN50 and RMSSD, whereas HRV was not related to M-value. In conclusion, suppression of vagal tone and sympathetic predominance during endotoxemia are linked to anti-inflammatory processes and lipid oxidation but not to insulin resistance, while weaker HRV changes in relation to the GLP-1 response are noted during oral fat load.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01054989.

  10. Differential Patterns and Determinants of Cardiac Autonomic Nerve Dysfunction during Endotoxemia and Oral Fat Load in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Dan; Strom, Alexander; Strassburger, Klaus; Nowotny, Bettina; Zahiragic, Lejla; Nowotny, Peter J.; Carstensen-Kirberg, Maren; Herder, Christian; Szendroedi, Julia; Roden, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) plays an important role in regulating the metabolic homeostasis and controlling immune function. ANS alterations can be detected by reduced heart rate variability (HRV) in conditions like diabetes and sepsis. We determined the effects of experimental conditions mimicking inflammation and hyperlipidemia on HRV and heart rate (HR) in relation to the immune, metabolic, and hormonal responses resulting from these interventions. Sixteen lean healthy subjects received intravenous (i.v.) low-dose endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]), i.v. fat, oral fat, and i.v. glycerol (control) for 6 hours, during which immune, metabolic, hormonal, and five HRV parameters (pNN50, RMSSD, low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) power, and LF/HF ratio) were monitored and energy metabolism and insulin sensitivity (M-value) were assessed. LPS infusion induced an increase (AUC) in HR and LF/HF ratio and decline in pNN50 and RMSSD, while oral fat resulted in elevated HR and a transient (hours 1-2) decrease in pNN50, RMSSD, and HF power. During LPS infusion, ΔIL-1ra levels and ΔIL-1ra and ΔIL-1ß gene expression correlated positively with ΔLF/HF ratio and inversely with ΔRMSSD. During oral fat intake, ΔGLP-1 tended to correlate positively with ΔHR and inversely with ΔpNN50 and ΔRMSSD. Following LPS infusion, lipid oxidation correlated positively with HR and inversely with pNN50 and RMSSD, whereas HRV was not related to M-value. In conclusion, suppression of vagal tone and sympathetic predominance during endotoxemia are linked to anti-inflammatory processes and lipid oxidation but not to insulin resistance, while weaker HRV changes in relation to the GLP-1 response are noted during oral fat load. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01054989 PMID:25893426

  11. Patterns and dynamics of neutral lipid fatty acids in ants - implications for ecological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosumek, Félix B; Brückner, Adrian; Blüthgen, Nico; Menzel, Florian; Heethoff, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Trophic interactions are a fundamental aspect of ecosystem functioning, but often difficult to observe directly. Several indirect techniques, such as fatty acid analysis, were developed to assess these interactions. Fatty acid profiles may indicate dietary differences, while individual fatty acids can be used as biomarkers. Ants are among the most important terrestrial animal groups, but little is known about their lipid metabolism, and no study so far used fatty acids to study their trophic ecology. We set up a feeding experiment with high- and low-fat food to elucidate patterns and dynamics of neutral lipid fatty acids (NLFAs) assimilation in ants. We asked whether dietary fatty acids are assimilated through direct trophic transfer, how diet influences NLFA total amounts and patterns over time, and whether these assimilation processes are similar across species and life stages. Ants fed with high-fat food quickly accumulated specific dietary fatty acids (C18:2n6, C18:3n3 and C18:3n6), compared to ants fed with low-fat food. Dietary fat content did not affect total body fat of workers or amounts of fatty acids extensively biosynthesized by animals (C16:0, C18:0, C18:1n9). Larval development had a strong effect on the composition and amounts of C16:0, C18:0 and C18:1n9. NLFA compositions reflected dietary differences, which became more pronounced over time. Assimilation of specific dietary NLFAs was similar regardless of species or life stage, but these factors affected dynamics of other NLFAs, composition and total fat. We showed that ants accumulated certain dietary fatty acids via direct trophic transfer. Fat content of the diet had no effect on lipids stored by ants, which were able to synthesize high amounts of NLFAs from a sugar-based diet. Nevertheless, dietary NLFAs had a strong effect on metabolic dynamics and profiles. Fatty acids are a useful tool to study trophic biology of ants, and could be applied in an ecological context, although factors that

  12. Patterns of food and nutrient intakes of Dutch adults according to intakes of total fat, saturated fatty acids, dietary fibre, and of fruit and vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Löwik, M.R.H.; Hulshof, K.F.A.M.; Brussaard, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    Dietary intake characteristics were studied among 3833 adults of the second Dutch National Food Consumption Survey held in 1992. The subjects were classified into three groups based on their intake of total fat (% energy), saturated fatty acids (% energy), dietary fibre (g/MJ), and fruit and vegetab

  13. Obesity-related polymorphisms and their associations with the ability to regulate fat oxidation in obese Europeans : the NUGENOB study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corpeleijn, Eva; Petersen, Liselotte; Holst, Claus; Saris, Wim H; Astrup, Arne; Langin, Dominique; MacDonald, Ian; Martinez, J Alfredo; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Polak, Jan; Pedersen, Oluf; Froguel, Philippe; Arner, Peter; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Blaak, Ellen E

    Both obesity and insulin resistance have been related to low fat oxidation rates, which may be genetically determined. The association between variation in fat oxidation rates among obese subjects and genotype was studied for 42 common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 26 candidate genes for

  14. Characterization of fat metabolism in the fatty liver caused by a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet: A study under equal energy conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosaka, Yuka; Shiroya, Yoko; Yamauchi, Hideki; Kitamura, Hiromi; Minato, Kumiko

    2017-05-20

    The pathology of fatty liver due to increased percentage of calories derived from fat without increased overall caloric intake is largely unclear. In this study, we aimed to characterize fat metabolism in rats with fatty liver resulting from consumption of a high-fat, low-carbohydrate (HFLC) diet without increased caloric intake. Four-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to the control (Con) and HFLC groups, and rats were fed the corresponding diets ad libitum. Significant decreases in food intake per gram body weight were observed in the HFLC group compared with that in the Con group. Thus, there were no significant differences in body weights or caloric intake per gram body weight between the two groups. Marked progressive fat accumulation was observed in the livers of rats in the HFLC group, accompanied by suppression of de novo lipogenesis (DNL)-related proteins in the liver and increased leptin concentrations in the blood. In addition, electron microscopic observations revealed that many lipid droplets had accumulated within the hepatocytes, and mitochondrial numbers were reduced in the hepatocytes of rats in the HFLC group. Our findings confirmed that consumption of the HFLC diet induced fatty liver, even without increased caloric intake. Furthermore, DNL was not likely to be a crucial factor inducing fatty liver with standard energy intake. Instead, ultrastructural abnormalities found in mitochondria, which may cause a decline in β-oxidation, could contribute to the development of fatty liver. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Twenty four year time trends in fats and cholesterol intake by adolescents. Warsaw Adolescents Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charzewska Jadwiga

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine time trends (1982–2006 in total fat intake and changes in fatty acid structure intake in adolescents from Warsaw in view of increasing prevalence of obesity. Data come from four successive surveys randomly selected samples of adolescents (aged 11–15 years old, from Warsaw region. In total 9747 pupils have been examined, with response rate varying from 55% to 87% depending on year. Surveys were done always in the spring season of the year. Food intake was assessed by using 24 hours recall method of consumption by the pupils all products, including enriched, dishes and beverages as well as diet supplements, in the last 24 hours preceding the examination. The content of energy and nutrients was calculated by means of own computer softwares (DIET 2 and 4, taking into account successive revisions of the tables of food composition and nutritional values, as well as current Polish DRI. A significant decreasing trend was found in intake of total fat, of saturated fatty acids (SFA and cholesterol. The percentage of energy from total fat, also decreased both in boys (to 35,1% and girls (to 33,7%, what failed to reach the desired level below 30% of energy from fat which is recommended. Also significant decrease of SFA consumption was not satisfactory enough to approach the values <10% of energy recommended as was from 13% to 15%. Decreasing trends in fat intake was not in accordance with the trend in obesity prevalence in the adolescents as average BMI is going up. To stabilize the health-oriented changes especially in the diets of adolescents, further activity is desired from professionals working with prevention of adolescents obesity.

  16. A comparative study of fatty acid profiles of fat in commercial Spanish suckling kids and lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Horcada

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid profiles are a major contributor to meat quality in small ruminants. Nevertheless, while fatty acid profiles from suckling lambs have been extensively studied they are virtually unknown in suckling kids. Fatty acid profiles of intramuscular and kidney knob fat depots of suckling kids were compared with fatty acid profiles of lambs with a quality label in the Spanish market. Forty suckling kids from Blanca Celtibérica (BC, Moncaína (Mo, Negra Serrana (NS and Murciano Granadina (MG breeds and 20 Churra male suckling lambs labelled with ‘Lechazo de Castilla y León’ Protected Geographic Indication were slaughtered at commercial live weights (12 kg. In both depots differences in the unsaturated fatty acid profile were observed between breeds. The most pronounced differences were observed between meat goat breeds (BC, Mo and NS and lambs, whilst a greater similarity in the fatty acid profile was observed between kids from dairy goat breeds (MG and lambs. The lowest polyunsaturated fatty acid content was observed in meat goat breeds (approximately 21 to 22% of total fatty acids detected in the intramuscular fat. No significant differences in atherogenic index and desirable fatty acid content (range 68 to 70% of total fatty acids detected were observed. However, a more favourable (lower than 8.07 n-6/n-3 ratio was observed in meat goat breeds. The use of fatty acid profiles from intramuscular and kidney knob fat could be proposed as a tool to differentiate goat kids and lambs. The fact that intramuscular fat from suckling kids and lambs shows appropriate lipid nutritional indices and their low carcass fatness indicate that moderate consumption of suckling kid and lamb meat may contribute to an overall balanced diet for humans.

  17. Regional Fat Distribution and Blood Pressure Level and Variability: The Dallas Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Yuichiro; Vongpatanasin, Wanpen; Ayers, Colby; Turer, Aslan; Chandra, Alvin; Carnethon, Mercedes R; Greenland, Philip; de Lemos, James A; Neeland, Ian J

    2016-09-01

    Our aim was to investigate the associations of regional fat distribution with home and office blood pressure (BP) levels and variability. Participants in the Dallas Heart Study, a multiethnic cohort, underwent 5 BP measurements on 3 occasions during 5 months (2 in home and 1 in office) and quantification of visceral adipose tissue, abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue, and liver fat by magnetic resonance imaging, and lower body subcutaneous fat by dual x-ray absorptiometry. The relation of regional adiposity with short-term (within-visit) and long-term (overall visits) mean BP and average real variability was assessed with multivariable linear regression. We have included 2595 participants with a mean age of 44 years (54% women; 48% black), and mean body mass index was 29 kg/m(2) Mean systolic BP/diastolic BP was 127/79 mm Hg and average real variability systolic BP was 9.8 mm Hg during 3 visits. In multivariable-adjusted models, higher amount of visceral adipose tissue was associated with higher short-term (both home and office) and long-term mean systolic BP (β[SE]: 1.9[0.5], 2.7[0.5], and 2.1[0.5], respectively; all Pfat was associated with lower short-term home and long-term mean BP (β[SE]: -0.30[0.13] and -0.24[0.1], respectively; both Pfat was associated with BP levels or variability. In conclusion, excess visceral fat was associated with persistently higher short- and long-term mean BP levels and with lower long-term BP variability, whereas lower body fat was associated with lower short- and long-term mean BP. Persistently elevated BP, coupled with lower variability, may partially explain increased risk for cardiac hypertrophy and failure related to visceral adiposity.

  18. Heritability and genome-wide association analysis of renal sinus fat accumulation in the Framingham Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foster Meredith C

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ectopic fat accumulation in the renal sinus is associated with chronic kidney disease and hypertension. The genetic contributions to renal sinus fat accumulation in humans have not been well characterized. Methods The present analysis consists of participants from the Framingham Offspring and Third Generation who underwent computed tomography; renal sinus fat and visceral adipose tissue (VAT were quantified. Renal sinus fat was natural log transformed and sex- and cohort-specific residuals were created, adjusted for (1 age, (2 age and body mass index (BMI, and (3 age and VAT. Residuals were pooled and used to calculate heritability using variance-components analysis in SOLAR. A genome-wide association study (GWAS for renal sinus fat was performed using an additive model with approximately 2.5 million imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Finally, we identified the associations of renal sinus fat in our GWAS results with validated SNPs for renal function (n = 16, BMI (n = 32, and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, n = 14, and applied a multi-SNP genetic risk score method to determine if the SNPs for each renal and obesity trait were in aggregate associated with renal sinus fat. Results The heritability of renal sinus fat was 39% (p Conclusions Renal sinus fat is a heritable trait, even after accounting for generalized and abdominal adiposity. This provides support for further research into the genetic determinants of renal sinus fat. While our study was underpowered to detect genome-wide significant loci, our candidate gene BMI risk score results suggest that variability in renal sinus fat may be associated with SNPs previously known to be associated with generalized adiposity.

  19. Effects of estradiol on food intake and meal patterns for diets that differ in flavor and fat content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butera, Peter C; Wojcik, Danielle M; Clough, Shannon J

    2010-01-12

    Apart from the well known inhibitory effects of estradiol on food intake, meal size, and body weight in female rats that have been documented over the past thirty years, a more recent report presents the opposite finding; that a large dose of estradiol can increase food intake and weight gain in gonadally intact female rats presented with a palatable diet. The purpose of the present experiment was to further examine this hypothesis by evaluating the ability of estradiol to influence feeding behavior in ovariectomized rats presented with diets that differ in flavor and fat content. Female rats were given a cyclic regimen of estradiol benzoate treatment (5.0 or 20.0 microg) or the oil vehicle and were presented with the standard chow diet or a diet with a higher fat content and chocolate flavor. Food intake, meal size, and meal number were monitored three days after the first injection of estradiol or oil. Compared to the chow diet, food intake increased when animals had access to the chocolate/fat diet during the vehicle treatment condition. Both doses of estradiol significantly decreased food intake, meal size, and body weight gain when animals were presented with either the standard chow diet or the chocolate/fat diet. These findings indicate that estradiol does not stimulate the intake of a palatable diet in ovariectomized rats, and suggest that previous results showing that estradiol enhanced eating and weight gain stemmed from a disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis when intact females received a large dose of exogenous estradiol.

  20. Significant Beneficial Association of High Dietary Selenium Intake with Reduced Body Fat in the CODING Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongbo; Gao, Xiang; Pedram, Pardis; Shahidi, Mariam; Du, Jianling; Yi, Yanqing; Gulliver, Wayne; Zhang, Hongwei; Sun, Guang

    2016-01-04

    Selenium (Se) is a trace element which plays an important role in adipocyte hypertrophy and adipogenesis. Some studies suggest that variations in serum Se may be associated with obesity. However, there are few studies examining the relationship between dietary Se and obesity, and findings are inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the association between dietary Se intake and a panel of obesity measurements with systematic control of major confounding factors. A total of 3214 subjects participated in the study. Dietary Se intake was determined from the Willett food frequency questionnaire. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Obese men and women had the lowest dietary Se intake, being 24% to 31% lower than corresponding normal weight men and women, classified by both BMI and body fat percentage. Moreover, subjects with the highest dietary Se intake had the lowest BMI, waist circumference, and trunk, android, gynoid and total body fat percentages, with a clear dose-dependent inverse relationship observed in both gender groups. Furthermore, significant negative associations discovered between dietary Se intake and obesity measurements were independent of age, total dietary calorie intake, physical activity, smoking, alcohol, medication, and menopausal status. Dietary Se intake alone may account for 9%-27% of the observed variations in body fat percentage. The findings from this study strongly suggest that high dietary Se intake is associated with a beneficial body composition profile.

  1. Glucose and lipid metabolism in insulin resistance : an experimental study in fat cells

    OpenAIRE

    Burén, Jonas

    2003-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is usually caused by a combination of pancreatic β-cell failure and insulin resistance in target tissues like liver, muscle and fat. Insulin resistance is characterised by an impaired effect of insulin to reduce hepatic glucose production and to promote glucose uptake in peripheral tissues. The focus of this study was to further elucidate cellular mechanisms for insulin resistance that may be of relevance for type 2 diabetes in humans. We used rat and human adipocytes as an es...

  2. Ethnic differences in body fat distribution among Asian pre-pubertal children: A cross-sectional multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koon Poh Bee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnic differences in body fat distribution contribute to ethnic differences in cardiovascular morbidities and diabetes. However few data are available on differences in fat distribution in Asian children from various backgrounds. Therefore, the current study aimed to explore ethnic differences in body fat distribution among Asian children from four countries. Methods A total of 758 children aged 8-10 y from China, Lebanon, Malaysia and Thailand were recruited using a non-random purposive sampling approach to enrol children encompassing a wide BMI range. Height, weight, waist circumference (WC, fat mass (FM, derived from total body water [TBW] estimation using the deuterium dilution technique and skinfold thickness (SFT at biceps, triceps, subscapular, supraspinale and medial calf were collected. Results After controlling for height and weight, Chinese and Thai children had a significantly higher WC than their Lebanese and Malay counterparts. Chinese and Thais tended to have higher trunk fat deposits than Lebanese and Malays reflected in trunk SFT, trunk/upper extremity ratio or supraspinale/upper extremity ratio after adjustment for age and total body fat. The subscapular/supraspinale skinfold ratio was lower in Chinese and Thais compared with Lebanese and Malays after correcting for trunk SFT. Conclusions Asian pre-pubertal children from different origins vary in body fat distribution. These results indicate the importance of population-specific WC cut-off points or other fat distribution indices to identify the population at risk of obesity-related health problems.

  3. Methane emission and community composition patterns of rumen bacteria and methanogens in Holstein dairy cows as affected by silage type and dietary fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten; Højberg, Ole; Canibe, Nuria

    ) to investigate effects of silages with different methanogenic potential (early grass, late grass, and maize) combined with a CH4-reducing feed additive (crushed rapeseed) on bacterial and methanogenic communities in the rumen. Bacterial and methanogenic community patterns were evaluated by T-RFLP analysis of 16S...... rRNA and methyl co-enzyme M reductase (mcrA) genes, respectively. Methanogen abundances were evaluated by qPCR using two mcrA-targeting primer sets. Silage type significantly affected CH4 emissions and rumen acetate:propionate ratios, being highest for late grass and lowest for maize. Dietary fat...... significantly reduced the gross energy lost as CH4 regardless of silage type. Silage type significantly affected the bacterial community composition pattern; the grass silages favored potential hemicellulose- and cellulose-degrading bacteria, while the maize silage mainly favored potentially starch...

  4. Association between intake of nutrients and food groups and liking for fat (The Nutrinet-Santé Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méjean, Caroline; Deglaire, Amélie; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Hercberg, Serge; Schlich, Pascal; Castetbon, Katia

    2014-07-01

    Apart from the established association between liking for fat and fat intake, little is known about the association between liking for fat and intake of specific nutrients or food groups. We investigated the association between dietary intake and liking for fat, fat-and-sweet and fat-and-salt. Liking scores were constructed using a validated preference questionnaire administered to 41,595 French adults participating in the Nutrinet-Santé study. Dietary data were collected using web-based 24 h records. Relationships between liking and dietary intake were assessed using linear regression adjusted for age and energy intake. Results are expressed in percentage difference of intake between individuals with low liking and those with high liking. Compared with participants with low liking for fat, individuals with a strong liking for fat had higher intakes of total energy (+10.1% in women (W); +8.4% in men (M)), fats (W: +7.3%; M: +10.0%), saturated fats (W: +10.8%; M+15.4%), meat (W: +13.0%; M: +12.6%), butter (W: +34.0%; M: +48.1%), sweetened cream desserts (W: +14.8%; M: +21.1%) and croissant-like pastries (W: +27.2%; M: +36.9). They also consumed lower quantities of omega-3 fatty acids (W: -6.2%;M: -6.0%), fiber (W: -16.4%; M: -18.9%), fruits (W: -28.8%; M: -29.5%), vegetables (W: -16.4%; M: -19.7%) and yogurt (W: -12.1%; M: -14.8%). Participants with high liking for fat-and-salt had higher intakes of total energy, sodium and alcoholic beverages and lower consumption of total and simple carbohydrates and fruit and vegetables than persons with high liking for fat-and-sweet. Our study contributes to the understanding of liking as a determinant of dietary intake. It highlighted that increased liking for fat, especially fat-and-salt liking, was associated with a lower intake of healthy foods, such as fruit and vegetables.

  5. Maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy, early growth and body fat distribution at school-age. The Generation R Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voerman, Ellis; Jaddoe, Vincent WV; Gishti, Olta; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H.; Gaillard, Romy

    2017-01-01

    Objective We examined the associations of maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy with offspring growth patterns, and body fat and insulin levels at school-age. Methods In a population-based birth cohort among 7,857 mothers and their children, we assessed maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy by questionnaires. Growth characteristics were measured from birth onwards. At 6 years, body fat and insulin levels were measured. Results Compared to children whose mothers consumed <2 units of caffeine per day during pregnancy (1 unit of caffeine is equivalent to 1 cup of coffee (90 mg caffeine)), those whose mothers consumed ≥6 units of caffeine per day tended to have a lower weight at birth, higher weight gain from birth to 6 years and higher body mass index from 6 months to 6 years. Both children whose mothers consumed 4-5.9 and ≥6 units of caffeine per day during pregnancy tended to have a higher childhood body mass index and total body fat mass. Only children whose mothers consumed ≥6 units of caffeine per day had a higher android/gynoid fat mass ratio. Conclusions Our results suggest that high levels of maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy are associated with adverse offspring growth patterns and childhood body fat distribution. PMID:27015969

  6. A Study on TBLT Reading Teaching Pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽娟

    2016-01-01

    Task-based language teaching (TBLT) has been a popular teaching pattern since national English curriculum is implemented, which transfers the basic concept of language application into realistic and meaningful class. This paper mainly studies the application of TBLT in English reading class, puts forward a TBLT model in English reading teaching and describes the operability and validity of the model as well as its merits and downsides.

  7. Validation study of the body adiposity index as a predictor of percent body fat in older individuals: findings from the BLSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hui; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Ferrucci, Luigi; Cooper, Jamie A

    2014-09-01

    A new body adiposity index (BAI = (hip circumference)/((height)(1.5)) - 18) has been developed and validated in adult populations. We aimed to assess the validity of BAI in an older population. We compared the concordance correlation coefficient between BAI, body mass index (BMI), and percent body fat (fat%; by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) in an older population (n = 954) participating in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. BAI was more strongly correlated with fat% than BMI (r of .7 vs .6 for BAI vs BMI and fat%, respectively, p BMI and fat%, respectively, p BMI was in better agreement with fat% (r of .6 vs .7 for BAI vs BMI and fat%, respectively, p BMI and fat%, respectively, p BMI may be a better index for older men. Finally, BAI is not accurate in people with extremely low or high body fat percentages.

  8. Association of total body and visceral fat mass with iron deficiency in preadolescents: the Healthy Growth Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschonis, George; Chrousos, George P; Lionis, Christos; Mougios, Vassilis; Manios, Yannis

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the associations of obesity, percentage body fat and visceral fat mass with body Fe status in a representative sample of 1493 schoolchildren aged 9-13 years. Anthropometric, body composition, biochemical, clinical (Tanner stage, age of menarche) and dietary intake data were collected. Fe deficiency (ID) was defined as transferrin saturation (TS) deficiency anaemia (IDA) as ID with Hb < 120 g/l. Obese boys and girls and those in the highest quartiles of percentage body fat mass had significantly higher levels of serum ferritin (P ≤ 0.05) compared to their normal-weight peers and those in the corresponding lowest quartiles. Similarly, obese boys and girls and those in the highest quartiles of percentage body fat and visceral fat mass had significantly lower levels of TS (P ≤ 0.05) compared to normal-weight children and those in the corresponding lowest quartiles. The prevalence of ID and IDA was significantly higher in boys and girls in the highest quartiles of percentage body fat than in peers in the lowest quartile. Higher quartiles of percentage body fat and visceral fat mass were the main significant predictors of ID in boys, after controlling for other important confounders, with OR of 2.48 (95 % CI, 1.26, 4.88) and 2.12 (95 % CI, 1.07, 4.19), respectively. Similar significant associations were observed for girls. In conclusion, percentage body fat and visceral fat mass were positively associated with ID in both sexes of preadolescents. These associations might be attributed to the chronic inflammation induced by excess adiposity.

  9. Breast reconstruction de novo by water-jet assisted autologous fat grafting – a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoppe, Delia Letizia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background: Autologous fat grafting has become a frequent, simple, reproducible and low-risk technique for revisional or partial breast reconstruction. The presented European multicenter study describes an optimized treatment and follow-up protocol for the de novo breast reconstruction after total mastectomy by lipotransfer alone.Methods: A retrospective European multicenter trial included 135 procedures on 28 (35 breasts postmastectomy patients (mean 52.4 years. All women were treated with the water-jet assisted fat grafting method (BEAULI™ combined with additional procedures (NAC reconstruction, contralateral mastoplasty and evaluated with at least 6 months follow-up (mean 2.6 years. Sonography or mammography, clinical examination, patient questionnaire (10-point Likert scale and digital photographs were carried out.Results: On average the patients received 4 to 6 procedures each with a single volume of 159 ml (±61 ml over 21 months (range 9 months to 2.5 years. In total 1,020 ml (±515 ml fat were grafted till a complete breast reconstruction was achieved. Irradiated patients needed a significantly higher volume than non-irradiated (p<0.041. Main treatment complications were liponecrosis (2.59%, infection (0.74% and granuloma (0.74%. Patient satisfaction was overall high to very high (96% and confirmed the good aesthetic results (68% and the natural softness, contour and shape of the reconstructed breast.Conclusions: A complete breast reconstruction with large volume fat grafting is alternatively possible to standard techniques in selected cases. It takes at least 4 to 6 lipotransfers in the course of 2 years. Patients with prior radiotherapy may require even up to 8 sessions over nearly 3 years of treatment.

  10. Reported food intake and distribution of body fat: a repeated cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stenlund Hans

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body mass, as well as distribution of body fat, are predictors of both diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In Northern Sweden, despite a marked increase in average body mass, prevalence of diabetes was stagnant and myocardial infarctions decreased. A more favourable distribution of body fat is a possible contributing factor. This study investigates the relative importance of individual food items for time trends in waist circumference (WC and hip circumference (HC on a population level. Methods Independent cross-sectional surveys conducted in 1986, 1990, 1994 and 1999 in the two northernmost counties of Sweden with a common population of 250000. Randomly selected age stratified samples, altogether 2982 men and 3087 women aged 25–64 years. Questionnaires were completed and anthropometric measurements taken. For each food item, associations between frequency of consumption and waist and hip circumferences were estimated. Partial regression coefficients for every level of reported intake were multiplied with differences in proportion of the population reporting the corresponding levels of intake in 1986 and 1999. The sum of these product terms for every food item was the respective estimated impact on mean circumference. Results Time trends in reported food consumption associated with the more favourable gynoid distribution of adipose tissue were increased use of vegetable oil, pasta and 1.5% fat milk. Trends associated with abdominal obesity were increased consumption of beer in men and higher intake of hamburgers and French fried potatoes in women. Conclusion Food trends as markers of time trends in body fat distribution have been identified. The method is a complement to conventional approaches to establish associations between food intake and disease risk on a population level.

  11. Limited fat absorption in the large intestine of mice. A morphological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snipes, R L

    1977-01-01

    A limited fat-absorbing ability of the epithelial cells in the cecum and colon of mice was demonstrated light- and electron-microscopically. After injection of predigested donor fat into ligated segments of the large intestine and after massive gastric intubation of fat, fat droplets, predominantly of extremely large diameter, were visible in the cecum and colon. Comparison with fat absorption in the proximal and distal small intestine was undertaken. The large intestine, similar to the distal small intestine, is capable of absorbing lipids; however, the subsequent processing of fat appears considerably less effcient than in the proximal segments of the small intestine.

  12. Fat Content Modulates Rapid Detection of Food: A Visual Search Study Using Fast Food and Japanese Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiko Sawada

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapid detection of food is crucial for the survival of organisms. However, previous visual search studies have reported discrepant results regarding the detection speeds for food vs. non-food items; some experiments showed faster detection of food than non-food, whereas others reported null findings concerning any speed advantage for the detection of food vs. non-food. Moreover, although some previous studies showed that fat content can affect visual attention for food, the effect of fat content on the detection of food remains unclear. To investigate these issues, we measured reaction times (RTs during a visual search task in which participants with normal weight detected high-fat food (i.e., fast food, low-fat food (i.e., Japanese diet, and non-food (i.e., kitchen utensils targets within crowds of non-food distractors (i.e., cars. Results showed that RTs for food targets were shorter than those for non-food targets. Moreover, the RTs for high-fat food were shorter than those for low-fat food. These results suggest that food is more rapidly detected than non-food within the environment and that a higher fat content in food facilitates rapid detection.

  13. I'm not just fat, I'm old: has the study of body image overlooked "old talk"?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Becker, Carolyn Black; Diedrichs, Phillippa C; Jankowski, Glen; Werchan, Chelsey

    2013-01-01

    .... "Fat talk," a well-studied form of body image talk in adolescents and university-aged women, has been implicated as contributing to body dissatisfaction and mediating the relationship between body...

  14. Regular Fat and Reduced Fat Dairy Products Show Similar Associations with Markers of Adolescent Cardiometabolic Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese A. O’Sullivan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduced fat dairy products are generally recommended for adults and children over the age of two years. However, emerging evidence suggests that dairy fat may not have detrimental health effects. We aimed to investigate prospective associations between consumption of regular versus reduced fat dairy products and cardiometabolic risk factors from early to late adolescence. In the West Australian Raine Study, dairy intake was assessed using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires in 860 adolescents at 14 and 17-year follow-ups; 582 of these also had blood biochemistry at both points. Using generalized estimating equations, we examined associations with cardiometabolic risk factors. Models incorporated reduced fat and regular fat dairy together (in serves/day and were adjusted for a range of factors including overall dietary pattern. In boys, there was a mean reduction in diastolic blood pressure of 0.66 mmHg (95% CI 0.23–1.09 per serve of reduced fat dairy and an independent, additional reduction of 0.47 mmHg (95% CI 0.04–0.90 per serve of regular fat dairy. Each additional serve of reduced fat dairy was associated with a 2% reduction in HDL-cholesterol (95% CI 0.97–0.995 and a 2% increase in total: HDL-cholesterol ratio (95% CI 1.002–1.03; these associations were not observed with regular fat products. In girls, there were no significant independent associations observed in fully adjusted models. Although regular fat dairy was associated with a slightly better cholesterol profile in boys, overall, intakes of both regular fat and reduced fat dairy products were associated with similar cardiometabolic associations in adolescents.

  15. Regular Fat and Reduced Fat Dairy Products Show Similar Associations with Markers of Adolescent Cardiometabolic Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Therese A; Bremner, Alexandra P; Mori, Trevor A; Beilin, Lawrence J; Wilson, Charlotte; Hafekost, Katherine; Ambrosini, Gina L; Huang, Rae Chi; Oddy, Wendy H

    2016-01-02

    Reduced fat dairy products are generally recommended for adults and children over the age of two years. However, emerging evidence suggests that dairy fat may not have detrimental health effects. We aimed to investigate prospective associations between consumption of regular versus reduced fat dairy products and cardiometabolic risk factors from early to late adolescence. In the West Australian Raine Study, dairy intake was assessed using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires in 860 adolescents at 14 and 17-year follow-ups; 582 of these also had blood biochemistry at both points. Using generalized estimating equations, we examined associations with cardiometabolic risk factors. Models incorporated reduced fat and regular fat dairy together (in serves/day) and were adjusted for a range of factors including overall dietary pattern. In boys, there was a mean reduction in diastolic blood pressure of 0.66 mmHg (95% CI 0.23-1.09) per serve of reduced fat dairy and an independent, additional reduction of 0.47 mmHg (95% CI 0.04-0.90) per serve of regular fat dairy. Each additional serve of reduced fat dairy was associated with a 2% reduction in HDL-cholesterol (95% CI 0.97-0.995) and a 2% increase in total: HDL-cholesterol ratio (95% CI 1.002-1.03); these associations were not observed with regular fat products. In girls, there were no significant independent associations observed in fully adjusted models. Although regular fat dairy was associated with a slightly better cholesterol profile in boys, overall, intakes of both regular fat and reduced fat dairy products were associated with similar cardiometabolic associations in adolescents.

  16. Prenatal exposure to environmental phenols and childhood fat mass in the Mount Sinai Children's Environmental Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Jessie P; Herring, Amy H; Wolff, Mary S; Calafat, Antonia M; Engel, Stephanie M

    2016-05-01

    Early life exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals may alter adipogenesis and energy balance leading to changes in obesity risk. Several studies have evaluated the association of prenatal bisphenol A exposure with childhood body size but only one study of male infants has examined other environmental phenols. Therefore, we assessed associations between prenatal exposure to environmental phenols and fat mass in a prospective birth cohort. We quantified four phenol biomarkers in third trimester maternal spot urine samples in a cohort of women enrolled in New York City between 1998 and 2002 and evaluated fat mass in their children using a Tanita scale between ages 4 and 9years (173 children with 351 total observations). We estimated associations of standard deviation differences in natural log creatinine-standardized phenol biomarker concentrations with percent fat mass using linear mixed effects regression models. We did not observe associations of bisphenol A or triclosan with childhood percent fat mass. In unadjusted models, maternal urinary concentrations of 2,5-dichlorophenol were associated with greater percent fat mass and benzophenone-3 was associated with lower percent fat mass among children. After adjustment, phenol biomarkers were not associated with percent fat mass. However, the association between benzophenone-3 and percent fat mass was modified by child's sex: benzophenone-3 concentrations were inversely associated with percent fat mass in girls (beta=-1.51, 95% CI=-3.06, 0.01) but not boys (beta=-0.20, 95% CI=-1.69, 1.26). Although we did not observe strong evidence that prenatal environmental phenols exposures influence the development of childhood adiposity, the potential antiadipogenic effect of benzophenone-3 in girls may warrant further investigation.

  17. Genome-wide association studies suggest sex-specific loci associated with abdominal and visceral fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Yun Ju; Pérusse, Louis; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Fornage, Myriam; Sidney, Steve; Sternfeld, Barbara; Rice, Treva; Terry, Gregg; Jacobs, David R.; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Curran, Joanne E; Carr, John Jeffrey; Blangero, John; Ghosh, Sujoy; Després, Jean-Pierre; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D.C.; Bouchard, Claude

    2015-01-01

    Background To identify loci associated with abdominal fat and replicate prior findings, we performed genome-wide association (GWA) studies of abdominal fat traits: subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), total adipose tissue (TAT) and visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue ratio (VSR). Subjects and Methods Sex-combined and sex-stratified analyses were performed on each trait with (TRAIT-BMI) or without (TRAIT) adjustment for BMI, and cohort-specific results were combined via a fixed effects meta-analysis. A total of 2,513 subjects of European descent were available for the discovery phase. For replication, 2,171 European Americans and 772 African Americans were available. Results A total of 52 SNPs encompassing 7 loci showed suggestive evidence of association (p < 1.0 × 10−6) with abdominal fat in the sex-combined analyses. The strongest evidence was found on chromosome 7p14.3 between a SNP near BBS9 gene and VAT (rs12374818; p= 1.10 × 10−7), an association that was replicated (p = 0.02). For the BMI-adjusted trait, the strongest evidence of association was found between a SNP near CYCSP30 and VAT-BMI (rs10506943; p= 2.42 × 10−7). Our sex-specific analyses identified one genome-wide significant (p < 5.0 × 10−8) locus for SAT in women with 11 SNPs encompassing the MLLT10, DNAJC1 and EBLN1 genes on chromosome 10p12.31 (p = 3.97 × 10−8 to 1.13 × 10−8). The THNSL2 gene previously associated with VAT in women was also replicated (p= 0.006). The six gene/loci showing the strongest evidence of association with VAT or VAT-BMI were interrogated for their functional links with obesity and inflammation using the Biograph knowledge-mining software. Genes showing the closest functional links with obesity and inflammation were ADCY8 and KCNK9, respectively. Conclusions Our results provide evidence for new loci influencing abdominal visceral (BBS9, ADCY8, KCNK9) and subcutaneous (MLLT10/DNAJC1/EBLN1) fat, and confirmed a locus (THNSL2

  18. Association between fat mass, lean mass, and bone loss: the Dubbo Osteoporosis Epidemiology Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S; Center, J R; Eisman, J A; Nguyen, T V

    2015-04-01

    Lower body fat mass is a risk factor for bone loss at lumbar spine in postmenopausal women, but not in men. Body lean mass and fat mass were not associated with femoral neck bone loss in either gender. Bone density and body mass are closely associated. Whole body lean mass (LM) and fat mass (FM) together account for approximately 95 % of body mass. Bone loss is associated with loss of body mass but which of the components of body mass (FM or LM) is related to bone loss is not well understood. Therefore, in this study, we sought to assess whether baseline FM or LM has predictive value for future relative rate of bone mineral density (BMD) changes (%/year). The present population-based cohort study was part of the ongoing Dubbo Osteoporosis Epidemiology Study (DOES). BMD, FM, and LM were measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (GE-LUNAR Corp, Madison, WI). BMD measurements were taken in approximately every 2 years between 2000 and 2010. We only included the participants with at least two BMD measurements at the femoral neck and lumbar spine. In total, 717 individuals (204 men and 513 women) aged 50 years or older were studied. Rate of bone loss at femoral neck and lumbar spine was faster in women than in men (all P loss at lumbar spine. This magnitude of association remained virtually unchanged after adjusting for LM and/or other covariates (P = 0.03). After adjusting for covariates, variation of FM accounted for ∼1.5 % total variation in lumbar spine bone loss. However, there was no significant association between FM and change in femoral neck BMD in either men or women. Lower FM was an independent but modest risk factor for greater bone loss at the lumbar spine in women but not in men. If further studies confirm our findings, FM can help predict lumbar spine bone loss in women.

  19. Fat utilization during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Watt, Peter W.; Richter, Erik

    2001-01-01

    1. This study was carried out to test the hypothesis that the greater fat oxidation observed during exercise after adaptation to a high-fat diet is due to an increased uptake of fat originating from the bloodstream. 2. Of 13 male untrained subjects, seven consumed a fat-rich diet (62 % fat, 21......, and blood flow was determined by the thermodilution technique. Muscle biopsy samples were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle before and after exercise. 3. During exercise, the respiratory exchange ratio was significantly lower in subjects consuming the fat-rich diet (0.86 +/- 0.01, mean +/- S.E.M.) than.......05). Muscle glycogen breakdown was significantly lower in the subjects taking the fat-rich diet than those taking the carbohydrate-rich diet (2.6 +/- 0.5 vs. 4.8 +/- 0.5 mmol (kg dry weight)(-1) min(-1), respectively; P

  20. Effect of dairy fat on plasma phytanic acid in healthy volunteers - a randomized controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Louise B.; Hellgren, Lars; Raff, Marianne;

    2011-01-01

    . DESIGN: In a double-blind, randomized, 4 wk, parallel intervention study 14 healthy young subjects were given 45 g milk fat/d from test butter and cheese with 0.24 wt% phytanic acid or a control diet with 0.13 wt% phytanic acid. Difference in phytanic acid was obtained by feeding roughage with low......BACKGROUND: Phytanic acid produced in ruminants from chlorophyll may have preventive effects on the metabolic syndrome, partly due to its reported RXR and PPAR- α agonist activity. Milk from cows fed increased levels of green plant material, contains increased phytanic acid concentrations...

  1. MRI findings, patterns of disease distribution, and muscle fat fraction calculation in five patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2 F disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaeta, Michele; Mileto, Achille; Minutoli, Fabio; Settineri, Nicola; Donato, Rocco; Ascenti, Giorgio; Blandino, Alfredo [Policlinico ' ' G. Martino' ' , Dipartimento di Scienze Radiologiche, Messina (Italy); Mazzeo, Anna; Di Leo, Rita [Policlinico ' ' G. Martino' ' , Dipartimento di Neuroscienze, Scienze Psichiatriche ed Anestesiologiche, Messina (Italy)

    2012-05-15

    To describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) pattern of muscle involvement and disease progression in five patients with late-onset Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease type 2 F, due to a previously unknown mutation. Five patients (three males, two females) underwent MRI of the lower limbs to define the pattern of muscle involvement and evaluate the muscle fat fraction (MFF) of residual thigh muscle with gradient-echo (GRE) dual-echo dual-flip angle technique. Evaluation of fatty infiltration both by visual inspection and MFF calculation was performed. A proximal-to-distal gradient of muscle involvement was depicted in male patients with extensive muscle wasting of lower legs, less severe impairment of distal thigh muscles, and sparing of proximal thigh muscles. A peculiar phenotype finding was that no or only slight muscle abnormalities could be found in the two female patients. We described the pattern of muscle involvement and disease progression in a family with CMT disease type 2 F. GRE dual-echo dual-flip angle MRI technique is a valuable technique to obtain a rapid quantification of MFF. (orig.)

  2. The balance of prickle/spiny-legs isoforms controls the amount of coupling between core and fat PCP systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, Matthias; Sagner, Andreas; Gruber, Franz Sebastian; Etournay, Raphael; Blasse, Corinna; Myers, Eugene; Eaton, Suzanne; Jülicher, Frank

    2014-09-22

    The conserved Fat and Core planar cell polarity (PCP) pathways work together to specify tissue-wide orientation of hairs and ridges in the Drosophila wing. Their components form intracellularly polarized complexes at adherens junctions that couple the polarity of adjacent cells and form global patterns. How Fat and Core PCP systems interact is not understood. Some studies suggest that Fat PCP directly orients patterns formed by Core PCP components. Others implicate oriented tissue remodeling in specifying Core PCP patterns. We use genetics, quantitative image analysis, and physical modeling to study Fat and Core PCP interactions during wing development. We show their patterns change during morphogenesis, undergoing phases of coupling and uncoupling that are regulated by antagonistic Core PCP protein isoforms Prickle and Spiny-legs. Evolving patterns of Core PCP are hysteretic: the early Core PCP pattern is modified by tissue flows and then by coupling to Fat PCP, producing sequential patterns that guide hairs and then ridges. Our data quantitatively account for altered hair and ridge polarity patterns in PCP mutants. Premature coupling between Fat and Core PCP explains altered polarity patterns in pk mutants. In other Core PCP mutants, hair polarity patterns are guided directly by Fat PCP. When both systems fail, hairs still align locally and obey signals associated with veins. Temporally regulated coupling between the Fat and Core PCP systems enables a single tissue to develop sequential polarity patterns that orient distinct morphological structures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A naturalistic study of fat talk and its behavioral and affective consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michelle D; Crowther, Janis H; Ciesla, Jeffrey A

    2014-09-01

    Fat talk is a style of verbal expression among young women involving negative self-statements, complaints about physical appearance, and weight management. This research used ecological momentary assessment to examine the impact of naturalistic fat talk experiences on body dissatisfaction, body checking, negative affect, and disordered eating behaviors. We examined trait self-objectification as a moderator. Sixty-five female college students completed a baseline questionnaire and responded to questions when randomly prompted by palm pilot devices for five days. Results indicated fat talk is common and associated with greater body dissatisfaction, body checking, negative affect, and disordered eating behaviors. Fat talk participation was associated with greater body checking than overhearing fat talk. Greater trait self-objectification was associated with greater body dissatisfaction and body checking following fat talk. These results suggest that fat talk negatively impacts the cognitions, affect, and behavior of young women and has increased negative effects for women higher in self-objectification.

  4. The Study of Oils Consumption Pattern and Its Related Factors in east Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Jafari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Inappropriate use of fat in diets is a significant risk factor that can cause cardiovascular diseases, morbidity, and mortality in the world. This study was designed to determine the fat consumption pattern in east Tehran habitants. Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional study 500 east Tehran habitants were evaluated. Data was collected by a questionnaire designed by the authors of the present study. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire was confirmed in a pilot study. The Data was analyzed with SPSS software. Results: The average of family members was 3.9±1.4. The highest amount ofoil consumed was that of solid candy oil, while The lowest was animal oil. For cooking, 36.8% and 31% of samples were using liquid oil and solid candy oil, respectively. For fraying 33.8%, 20%, 32.4% of samples were using liquid oil, solid candy oil and frying oil, respectively. a relationship was found between higher educational level and mothers working out of the house and higher consumption of liquid oil, fraying oil and olive oil (p<0.001. High age, housekeeper mothers and higher family span were associated with the higher consumption of solid oils, butter and ghee (p<0.02. Conclusion: This study revealed that the significant portion of daily oil consumption of Tehran habitants consist of solid oils. It seems to be necessary to organize proper training programs to increase social awareness about the hazards of solid saturated fats.

  5. Effects of BMI, fat mass, and lean mass on asthma in childhood: a Mendelian randomization study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Granell

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Observational studies have reported associations between body mass index (BMI and asthma, but confounding and reverse causality remain plausible explanations. We aim to investigate evidence for a causal effect of BMI on asthma using a Mendelian randomization approach.We used Mendelian randomization to investigate causal effects of BMI, fat mass, and lean mass on current asthma at age 7½ y in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC. A weighted allele score based on 32 independent BMI-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs was derived from external data, and associations with BMI, fat mass, lean mass, and asthma were estimated. We derived instrumental variable (IV estimates of causal risk ratios (RRs. 4,835 children had available data on BMI-associated SNPs, asthma, and BMI. The weighted allele score was strongly associated with BMI, fat mass, and lean mass (all p-values<0.001 and with childhood asthma (RR 2.56, 95% CI 1.38-4.76 per unit score, p = 0.003. The estimated causal RR for the effect of BMI on asthma was 1.55 (95% CI 1.16-2.07 per kg/m2, p = 0.003. This effect appeared stronger for non-atopic (1.90, 95% CI 1.19-3.03 than for atopic asthma (1.37, 95% CI 0.89-2.11 though there was little evidence of heterogeneity (p = 0.31. The estimated causal RRs for the effects of fat mass and lean mass on asthma were 1.41 (95% CI 1.11-1.79 per 0.5 kg and 2.25 (95% CI 1.23-4.11 per kg, respectively. The possibility of genetic pleiotropy could not be discounted completely; however, additional IV analyses using FTO variant rs1558902 and the other BMI-related SNPs separately provided similar causal effects with wider confidence intervals. Loss of follow-up was unlikely to bias the estimated effects.Higher BMI increases the risk of asthma in mid-childhood. Higher BMI may have contributed to the increase in asthma risk toward the end of the 20th century. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  6. Effects of BMI, fat mass, and lean mass on asthma in childhood: a Mendelian randomization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granell, Raquel; Henderson, A John; Evans, David M; Smith, George Davey; Ness, Andrew R; Lewis, Sarah; Palmer, Tom M; Sterne, Jonathan A C

    2014-07-01

    Observational studies have reported associations between body mass index (BMI) and asthma, but confounding and reverse causality remain plausible explanations. We aim to investigate evidence for a causal effect of BMI on asthma using a Mendelian randomization approach. We used Mendelian randomization to investigate causal effects of BMI, fat mass, and lean mass on current asthma at age 7½ y in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). A weighted allele score based on 32 independent BMI-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was derived from external data, and associations with BMI, fat mass, lean mass, and asthma were estimated. We derived instrumental variable (IV) estimates of causal risk ratios (RRs). 4,835 children had available data on BMI-associated SNPs, asthma, and BMI. The weighted allele score was strongly associated with BMI, fat mass, and lean mass (all p-values<0.001) and with childhood asthma (RR 2.56, 95% CI 1.38-4.76 per unit score, p = 0.003). The estimated causal RR for the effect of BMI on asthma was 1.55 (95% CI 1.16-2.07) per kg/m2, p = 0.003. This effect appeared stronger for non-atopic (1.90, 95% CI 1.19-3.03) than for atopic asthma (1.37, 95% CI 0.89-2.11) though there was little evidence of heterogeneity (p = 0.31). The estimated causal RRs for the effects of fat mass and lean mass on asthma were 1.41 (95% CI 1.11-1.79) per 0.5 kg and 2.25 (95% CI 1.23-4.11) per kg, respectively. The possibility of genetic pleiotropy could not be discounted completely; however, additional IV analyses using FTO variant rs1558902 and the other BMI-related SNPs separately provided similar causal effects with wider confidence intervals. Loss of follow-up was unlikely to bias the estimated effects. Higher BMI increases the risk of asthma in mid-childhood. Higher BMI may have contributed to the increase in asthma risk toward the end of the 20th century. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  7. The Use of P45 Plastination Technique to Study the Distribution of Preseptal and Preaponeurotic Fat Tissues in Asian Eyelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Pu; Yu, Shengbo; Qin, Hongzhi; Sui, Hongjin

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the anatomical features of preseptal and preaponeurotic fat tissues in the upper eyelids of individuals of Asian heritage. Specifically, we attempted to elucidate the role of these tissues in the formation of sunken upper eyelids and devise an easy and feasible approach to rectify this. Sixteen heads (32 facial halves) from fresh adult cadavers were processed using the P45 plastination techniques. The polymer resulted in transparent plastination, and the sagittal median section of the eyeballs was dissected. Gross anatomy results of 12 adult cadaveric heads (24 facial halves) were included as supplementary data. The orbital septum was observed on sagittal section slides prepared with P45 sheet plastination. Based on the amount of fat distribution, the upper eyelid was classified into three groups: preseptal fat predominant type, preaponeurotic fat predominant type, and orbital septum equilibrium type (relative distribution of 31.3, 12.5, and 56.3 % in plastinated slices, and 29.2, 16.7, and 54.2 % in gross anatomical studies). Major tissues on P45 sheet plastination slices in the supraorbital region were preseptal fat, preaponeurotic fat, frontalis muscle and frontalis muscle aponeurosis, and partial orbicularis oculi muscle. The muscle fibers of the frontalis muscle and orbicularis oculi were interconnected and extended backward to connect with the orbital septum through preseptal fat. In conclusion, the morphology and external appearance of the upper eyelids depend on the relative relationship between preseptal and preaponeurotic fat tissues. Mildly or moderately sunken upper eyelids can be corrected by modifying the soft tissue in the supraorbital margin.

  8. Visceral adiposity, not abdominal subcutaneous fat area, is associated with high blood pressure in Japanese men: the Ohtori study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Hideo; Hayashi, Tomoshige; Sato, Kyoko Kogawa; Harita, Nobuko; Maeda, Isseki; Nishizawa, Yoshiki; Endo, Ginji; Fujimoto, Wilfred Y; Boyko, Edward J; Hikita, Yonezo

    2011-05-01

    Visceral adiposity is considered to have a key role in cardiometabolic diseases. The purpose of this study is to investigate cross-sectionally the association between intra-abdominal fat area (IAFA) measured by computed tomography (CT) and high blood pressure independent of abdominal subcutaneous fat area (ASFA) and insulin resistance. Study participants included 624 Japanese men not taking oral hypoglycemic medications or insulin. Abdominal, thoracic and thigh fat areas were measured by CT. Total fat area (TFA) was calculated as the sum of abdominal, thoracic and thigh fat area. Total subcutaneous fat area (TSFA) was defined as TFA minus IAFA. Hypertension and high normal blood pressure were defined using the 1999 criteria of the World Health Organization. Multiple-adjusted odds ratios of hypertension for tertiles of IAFA were 2.64 (95% confidence interval, 1.35-5.16) for tertile 2, and 5.08 (2.48-10.39) for tertile 3, compared with tertile 1 after adjusting for age, fasting immunoreactive insulin, diabetes status, ASFA, alcohol consumption, regular physical exercise and smoking habit. IAFA remained significantly associated with hypertension even after adjustment for ASFA, TSFA, TFA, body mass index or waist circumference, and no other measure of regional or total adiposity was associated with the odds of hypertension in models, which included IAFA. Similar results were obtained for the association between IAFA and the prevalence of high normal blood pressure or hypertension. In conclusion, greater visceral adiposity was associated with a higher odds of high blood pressure in Japanese men.

  9. Effect of dairy fat on plasma phytanic acid in healthy volunteers - a randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drachmann Tue

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytanic acid produced in ruminants from chlorophyll may have preventive effects on the metabolic syndrome, partly due to its reported RXR and PPAR- α agonist activity. Milk from cows fed increased levels of green plant material, contains increased phytanic acid concentrations, but it is unknown to what extent minor increases in phytanic acid content in dairy fat leads to higher circulating levels of phytanic acid in plasma of the consumers. Objective To investigate if cow feeding regimes affects concentration of plasma phytanic acid and risk markers of the metabolic syndrome in human. Design In a double-blind, randomized, 4 wk, parallel intervention study 14 healthy young subjects were given 45 g milk fat/d from test butter and cheese with 0.24 wt% phytanic acid or a control diet with 0.13 wt% phytanic acid. Difference in phytanic acid was obtained by feeding roughage with low or high content of chlorophyll. Results There tended to be a difference in plasma phytanic acid (P = 0.0730 concentration after the dietary intervention. Plasma phytanic acid increased significantly within both groups with the highest increase in control group (24% compared to phytanic acid group (15%. There were no significant effects of phytanic acid on risk markers for the metabolic syndrome. Conclusions The results indicate that increased intake of dairy fat modify the plasma phytanic acid concentration, regardless of cows feeding regime and the minor difference in dietary phytanic acid. Whether the phytanic acid has potential to affects the risk markers of the metabolic syndrome in human still remain to be elucidated. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01343576

  10. Dietary patterns using the Food Guide Pyramid groups are associated with sociodemographic and lifestyle factors: the multiethnic cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Song-Yi; Murphy, Suzanne P; Wilkens, Lynne R; Yamamoto, Jennifer F; Sharma, Sangita; Hankin, Jean H; Henderson, Brian E; Kolonel, Laurence N

    2005-04-01

    Dietary patterns have been used to identify typical combinations of foods that may be associated with disease risks. We defined dietary patterns among 195,298 participants of the Multiethnic Cohort Study in Hawaii and Los Angeles in 1993-1996. Intakes of Food Guide Pyramid groups were calculated from a quantitative FFQ for subjects of 5 ethnic groups (African Americans, Hawaiians, Japanese Americans, Latinos, and whites). Three distinct dietary patterns, "Fat and Meat," "Vegetables," and "Fruit and Milk," were identified by exploratory factor analysis with a varimax rotation and validated by confirmatory factor analysis. Similar factor loadings were found for each of 10 ethnic-gender groups in stratified analyses. The odds ratios (OR) for being above the median scores for each factor were calculated. Age, gender, and ethnicity had relatively strong associations with dietary patterns whereas education showed only weak associations. BMI > or = 30 was strongly positively associated with the Fat and Meat pattern (OR = 2.14, 95% CI: 2.08-2.20, vs. BMI pattern (OR = 1.67, CI: 1.62-1.72, vs. nonsmokers) and inverse associations with the Vegetables (OR = 0.66, CI: 0.64-0.68) and Fruit and Milk patterns (OR = 0.53, CI: 0.52-0.55). Physical activity was positively associated with the Vegetables and Fruit and Milk patterns but not with the Fat and Meat pattern. These findings support the hypothesis that dietary patterns are influenced by interrelated sociocultural, demographic, and other lifestyle factors and may be useful in investigations of diet-disease relations.

  11. Patterns of power communication: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kali Prasad

    1958-07-01

    Full Text Available "Communication in one form or others is the basis of all social interaction. This paper deals with a particular aspect of communication namely, the effect of power and authority on the communication patterns that are set up between individuals. In such situation usually a power differential exists between the individuals as in the case of an employer and an employee, and this is responsible for setting up different attitudes in the mind of the people. The aim of the experiment described here is to study the reactions in individuals to expression of praise and hostility. The main finding is that those who are in power e.g. the employers are not so susceptible to praise as those who are subordinate to them. Also, a superior power person is less disturbed by hostile act of a subordinate than vice versa.

  12. Smoking and body fat mass in relation to bone mineral density and hip fracture: the Hordaland Health Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannike Øyen

    Full Text Available Lower bone mineral density (BMD in smokers may be attributable to lower body weight or fat mass, rather than to a direct effect of smoking. We analyzed the effects of smoking exposure, assessed by plasma cotinine, and body fat on BMD and the risk of subsequent hip fracture. In the community-based Hordaland Health Study (HUSK, 3003 participants 46-49 years and 2091 subjects 71-74 years were included. Cotinine was measured in plasma and information on health behaviors was obtained from self-administered questionnaires. BMD and total body soft tissue composition were measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Information on hip fracture was obtained from computerized records containing discharge diagnoses for hospitalizations between baseline examinations 1997-2000 through December 31st, 2009. In the whole cohort, moderate and heavy smokers had stronger positive associations between fat mass and BMD compared to never smokers (differences in regression coefficient (95% CI per % change in fat mass = 1.38 (0.24, 2.52 and 1.29 (0.17, 2.4, respectively. In moderate and heavy smokers there was a nonlinear association between BMD and fat mass with a stronger positive association at low compared to high levels of fat mass (Davies segmented test, p<0.001. In elderly women and men, heavy smokers had an increased risk of hip fracture compared to never smokers (hazard ratio = 3.31, 95% CI: 2.05, 5.35; p<0.001. In heavy smokers there was a tendency of a lower risk of hip fracture with higher percentage of fat mass. The deleterious effect of smoking on bone health is stronger in lean smokers than in smokers with high fat mass.

  13. Ectopic fat and adipokines in metabolically benign overweight/obese women: the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogorodnikova, Alexandra D; Khan, Unab I; McGinn, Aileen P; Zeb, Irfan; Budoff, Matthew J; Harman, S M; Miller, Virginia M; Brinton, Eliot A; Manson, JoAnn E; Hodis, Howard N; Merriam, George R; Cedars, Marcelle I; Taylor, Hugh S; Naftolin, Frederick; Lobo, Rogerio A; Santoro, Nanette; Wildman, Rachel P

    2013-08-01

    It is unclear why despite a comparable cardiometabolic risk profile, "metabolically benign" overweight/obese individuals show an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease compared to normal weight individuals. In cross-sectional analyses, we compared levels of ectopic fat (epicardial, pericardial, and hepatic fat) and adipokines (leptin, soluble leptin receptor, and high molecular weight [HMW] adiponectin) among metabolically benign (MBO) and at-risk overweight/obese (ARO), and metabolically benign normal weight (MBNW) women, screened for the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study. We defined "metabolically benign" with ≤ 1, and "at-risk" with ≥2 components of the metabolic syndrome. Compared to MBO women, ARO women had significantly elevated odds of being in the top tertile of epicardial fat (OR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.04-2.99), hepatic fat (OR: 1.90, 95% CI:1.12-3.24) and leptin (OR: 2.15, 95% CI: 1.23-3.76), and the bottom tertile of HMW-adiponectin (OR: 2.90, 95% CI: 1.62-5.19). Compared to MBNW women, MBO women had significantly higher odds of being in the top tertile of epicardial fat (OR: 5.17, 95% CI: 3.22-8.29), pericardial fat (OR: 9.27, 95% CI: 5.52-15.56) and hepatic fat (OR: 2.72, 95% CI: 1.77-4.19) and the bottom tertile of HMW adiponectin levels (OR: 2.51, 95% CI: 1.60-3.94). Levels of ectopic fat and the adverse adipokine profile increase on a continuum of BMI, suggesting that the metabolically benign phenotype may be a transient state. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  14. Prepregnancy low-carbohydrate dietary pattern and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bao, Wei; Bowers, Katherine; Tobias, Deirdre K

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low-carbohydrate diets (LCDs) have been vastly popular for weight loss. The association between a low-carbohydrate dietary pattern and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to prospectively examine the association of 3 prepregnancy low......-carbohydrate dietary patterns with risk of GDM. DESIGN: We included 21,411 singleton pregnancies in the Nurses' Health Study II. Prepregnancy LCD scores were calculated from validated food-frequency questionnaires, including an overall LCD score on the basis of intakes of carbohydrate, total protein, and total fat......, and it indicated closer adherence to a low-carbohydrate dietary pattern. RRs and 95% CIs were estimated by using generalized estimating equations with log-binomial models. RESULTS: We documented 867 incident GDM pregnancies during 10 y follow-up. Multivariable-adjusted RRs (95% CIs) of GDM for comparisons...

  15. A comparative study of fat storage quantitation in nematode Caenorhabditis elegans using label and label-free methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin Yen

    Full Text Available The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been employed as a model organism to study human obesity due to the conservation of the pathways that regulate energy metabolism. To assay for fat storage in C. elegans, a number of fat-soluble dyes have been employed including BODIPY, Nile Red, Oil Red O, and Sudan Black. However, dye-labeled assays produce results that often do not correlate with fat stores in C. elegans. An alternative label-free approach to analyze fat storage in C. elegans has recently been described with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS microscopy. Here, we compare the performance of CARS microscopy with standard dye-labeled techniques and biochemical quantification to analyze fat storage in wild type C. elegans and with genetic mutations in the insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway including the genes daf-2 (insulin/IGF-1 receptor, rict-1 (rictor and sgk-1 (serum glucocorticoid kinase. CARS imaging provides a direct measure of fat storage with unprecedented details including total fat stores as well as the size, number, and lipid-chain unsaturation of individual lipid droplets. In addition, CARS/TPEF imaging reveals a neutral lipid species that resides in both the hypodermis and the intestinal cells and an autofluorescent organelle that resides exclusively in the intestinal cells. Importantly, coherent addition of the CARS fields from the C-H abundant neutral lipid permits selective CARS imaging of the fat store, and further coupling of spontaneous Raman analysis provides unprecedented details including lipid-chain unsaturation of individual lipid droplets. We observe that although daf-2, rict-1, and sgk-1 mutants affect insulin/IGF-1 signaling, they exhibit vastly different phenotypes in terms of neutral lipid and autofluorescent species. We find that CARS imaging gives quantification similar to standard biochemical triglyceride quantification. Further, we independently confirm that feeding worms with vital dyes does not lead

  16. A comparative study of fat storage quantitation in nematode Caenorhabditis elegans using label and label-free methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Kelvin; Le, Thuc T; Bansal, Ankita; Narasimhan, Sri Devi; Cheng, Ji-Xin; Tissenbaum, Heidi A

    2010-09-16

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been employed as a model organism to study human obesity due to the conservation of the pathways that regulate energy metabolism. To assay for fat storage in C. elegans, a number of fat-soluble dyes have been employed including BODIPY, Nile Red, Oil Red O, and Sudan Black. However, dye-labeled assays produce results that often do not correlate with fat stores in C. elegans. An alternative label-free approach to analyze fat storage in C. elegans has recently been described with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy. Here, we compare the performance of CARS microscopy with standard dye-labeled techniques and biochemical quantification to analyze fat storage in wild type C. elegans and with genetic mutations in the insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway including the genes daf-2 (insulin/IGF-1 receptor), rict-1 (rictor) and sgk-1 (serum glucocorticoid kinase). CARS imaging provides a direct measure of fat storage with unprecedented details including total fat stores as well as the size, number, and lipid-chain unsaturation of individual lipid droplets. In addition, CARS/TPEF imaging reveals a neutral lipid species that resides in both the hypodermis and the intestinal cells and an autofluorescent organelle that resides exclusively in the intestinal cells. Importantly, coherent addition of the CARS fields from the C-H abundant neutral lipid permits selective CARS imaging of the fat store, and further coupling of spontaneous Raman analysis provides unprecedented details including lipid-chain unsaturation of individual lipid droplets. We observe that although daf-2, rict-1, and sgk-1 mutants affect insulin/IGF-1 signaling, they exhibit vastly different phenotypes in terms of neutral lipid and autofluorescent species. We find that CARS imaging gives quantification similar to standard biochemical triglyceride quantification. Further, we independently confirm that feeding worms with vital dyes does not lead to the staining

  17. The impact of study design on pattern estimation for single-trial multivariate pattern analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumford, Jeanette A; Davis, Tyler; Poldrack, Russell A

    2014-12-01

    A prerequisite for a pattern analysis using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data is estimating the patterns from time series data, which then are input into the pattern analysis. Here we focus on how the combination of study design (order and spacing of trials) with pattern estimator impacts the Type I error rate of the subsequent pattern analysis. When Type I errors are inflated, the results are no longer valid, so this work serves as a guide for designing and analyzing MVPA studies with controlled false positive rates. The MVPA strategies examined are pattern classification and similarity, utilizing single trial activation patterns from the same functional run. Primarily focusing on the Least Squares Single and Least Square All pattern estimators, we show that collinearities in the models, along with temporal autocorrelation, can cause false positive correlations between activation pattern estimates that adversely impact the false positive rates of pattern similarity and classification analyses. It may seem intuitive that increasing the interstimulus interval (ISI) would alleviate this issue, but remaining weak correlations between activation patterns persist and have a strong influence in pattern similarity analyses. Pattern similarity analyses using only activation patterns estimated from the same functional run of data are susceptible to inflated false positives unless trials are randomly ordered, with a different randomization for each subject. In other cases, where there is any structure to trial order, valid pattern similarity analysis results can only be obtained if similarity computations are restricted to pairs of activation patterns from independent runs. Likewise, for pattern classification, false positives are minimized when the testing and training sets in cross validation do not contain patterns estimated from the same run.

  18. Coconut fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasiri, W A L D; Dissanayake, A S

    2006-06-01

    In many areas of Sri Lanka the coconut tree and its products have for centuries been an integral part of life, and it has come to be called the "Tree of life". However, in the last few decades, the relationship between coconut fats and health has been the subject of much debate and misinformation. Coconut fats account for 80% of the fat intake among Sri Lankans. Around 92% of these fats are saturated fats. This has lead to the belief that coconut fats are 'bad for health', particularly in relation to ischaemic heart disease. Yet most of the saturated fats in coconut are medium chain fatty acids whose properties and metabolism are different to those of animal origin. Medium chain fatty acids do not undergo degradation and re-esterification processes and are directly used in the body to produce energy. They are not as 'bad for health' as saturated fats. There is the need to clarify issues relating to intake of coconut fats and health, more particularly for populations that still depend on coconut fats for much of their fat intake. This paper describes the metabolism of coconut fats and its potential benefits, and attempts to highlight its benefits to remove certain misconceptions regarding its use.

  19. Tracking of fatness during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood: a 7-year follow-up study in Madeira Island, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Duarte; Beunen, Gaston; Maia, José; Claessens, Albrecht; Thomis, Martine; Marques, António; Gouveia, Elvio; Lefevre, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Investigating tracking of fatness from childhood to adolescence, early adolescence to young adulthood and late adolescence to young adulthood. Participants from the Madeira Growth Study were followed during an average period of 7.2 years. Height, body mass, skin-folds and circumferences were measured, nine health- and performance-related tests were administered and the Baecke questionnaire was used to assess physical activity. Skeletal maturity was estimated using the TW3 method. The prevalence of overweight plus obesity ranged from 8.2-20.0% at baseline and from 20.4-40.0% at follow-up, in boys. Corresponding percentages for girls were 10.6-12.0% and 13.2-18.0%. Inter-age correlations for fatness indicators ranged from 0.43-0.77. BMI, waist circumference and sum of skin-folds at 8, 12 and 16-years old were the main predictors of these variables at 15, 19 and 23-years old, respectively. Strength, muscular endurance and aerobic fitness were negatively related to body fatness. Physical activity and maturation were independently associated with adolescent (15 years) and young adult (19 years) fatness. Over 7.2 years, tracking was moderate-to-high for fatness. Variance was explained by fatness indicators and to a small extent by physical fitness, physical activity and maturation.

  20. The Study on Correlation Analysis of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism of IGF2 Gene and Body Fatness Traits in Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhi-hui; LI Hui; WANG Qi-gui; ZHAO Jian-guo; WANG Yu-xiang

    2004-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor Ⅱ has profound effects on the growth and differentiation of animal embryo. Some researches indicated that it affects the fat metabolism of poultry.This study was designed to investigate the effect of IGF2 on chicken fatness traits.Broiler, Hyline Brown layer and three native breeds (Shiqiza, Beijing You, Baier) were used in this research. Body weight and body composition traits were measured in broiler line at the age of 7 weeks. Primers for exon2 in IGF2 were designed from database of chicken genomic sequence. Polymorphisms were detected by PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing.The total χ2 test results showed that there was a significant difference (P< 0.01) in the frequency of genotype among breeds. A C/G mutation at base position 139 was found among individuals in broiler line and the least square analysis showed that BB genotype birds had significant lower (P< 0.05) abdominal fat weight and percentage of abdominal fat than AA or AB genotype birds. From the results we can conclude putatively that IGF2 gene is the major gene affecting the fatness traits of chicken or it links with the major gene,and the mutation could be used as the molecular genetic marker to select the chicken for low abdominal fat.

  1. Detection of pulmonary fat embolism with dual-energy CT: an experimental study in rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Chun Xiang; Zhou, Chang Sheng; Zhao, Yan E.; Han, Zong Hong; Qi, Li; Zhang, Long Jiang; Lu, Guang Ming [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Schoepf, U.J. [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Mangold, Stefanie; Ball, B.D. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2017-04-15

    To evaluate the use of dual-energy CT imaging of the lung perfused blood volume (PBV) for the detection of pulmonary fat embolism (PFE). Dual-energy CT was performed in 24 rabbits before and 1 hour, 1 day, 4 days and 7 days after artificial induction of PFE via the right ear vein. CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) and lung PBV images were evaluated by two radiologists, who recorded the presence, number, and location of PFE on a per-lobe basis. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of CTPA and lung PBV for detecting PFE were calculated using histopathological evaluation as the reference standard. A total of 144 lung lobes in 24 rabbits were evaluated and 70 fat emboli were detected on histopathological analysis. The overall sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 25.4 %, 98.6 %, and 62.5 % for CTPA, and 82.6 %, 76.0 %, and 79.2 % for lung PBV. Higher sensitivity (p < 0.001) and accuracy (p < 0.01), but lower specificity (p < 0.001), were found for lung PBV compared with CTPA. Dual-energy CT can detect PFE earlier than CTPA (all p < 0.01). Dual-energy CT provided higher sensitivity and accuracy in the detection of PFE as well as earlier detection compared with conventional CTPA in this animal model study. (orig.)

  2. Application of cell co-culture system to study fat and muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandurangan, Muthuraman; Hwang, Inho

    2014-09-01

    Animal cell culture is a highly complex process, in which cells are grown under specific conditions. The growth and development of these cells is a highly unnatural process in vitro condition. Cells are removed from animal tissues and artificially cultured in various culture vessels. Vitamins, minerals, and serum growth factors are supplied to maintain cell viability. Obtaining result homogeneity of in vitro and in vivo experiments is rare, because their structure and function are different. Living tissues have highly ordered complex architecture and are three-dimensional (3D) in structure. The interaction between adjacent cell types is quite distinct from the in vitro cell culture, which is usually two-dimensional (2D). Co-culture systems are studied to analyze the interactions between the two different cell types. The muscle and fat co-culture system is useful in addressing several questions related to muscle modeling, muscle degeneration, apoptosis, and muscle regeneration. Co-culture of C2C12 and 3T3-L1 cells could be a useful diagnostic tool to understand the muscle and fat formation in animals. Even though, co-culture systems have certain limitations, they provide a more realistic 3D view and information than the individual cell culture system. It is suggested that co-culture systems are useful in evaluating the intercellular communication and composition of two different cell types.

  3. Advice for salt, sugar and fat intake habits among adults: a national-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suele Manjourany Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : A healthy diet is recognized as an important strategy for promoting health as an essential part of non-pharmacological therapy of various health problems. OBJECTIVE : To analyze the reported advice for the intake of salt, sugar and fat for the Brazilian adults living in urban areas. METHODOLOGY : National-based cross-sectional study with 12,402 adults interviewed in 100 Brazilian cities. RESULTS : The most prevalent advice was to low fat intake (38%, followed by the advice to low salt and sugar intake (36% and sugar (29%. The percentage of receiving different advice was similar and more common among women, older people, those with a partner, higher economic class, former smokers, active and in person with physician diagnoses of hypertension, diabetes and overweight. People with white skin color received more advice to eat healthy food, except for the orientation to low salt intake. CONCLUSION : The results show a low prevalence of advice, which configures a missed opportunity to prevent health problems. Although dietary counseling should not be understood only as the transmission of advice regarding some nutrients, it is important to develop actions in order to qualify services and health professionals, allowing the population to have access to qualified information about the benefits of having healthy lifestyles.

  4. Physical activity and fat mass gain in Mexican school-age children: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáuregui Alejandra

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In México, the prevalence of unhealthy weight increased from 24% at 6 y to 33% at 12 y of age, opening a window of opportunity to better understand the pathogenesis of obesity. The objective of this study was to explore the association between time spent on medium, vigorous physical activity (MVPA and concurrent gains in BMI, fat mass (FM and fat-free mass (FFM, alternately, in a cohort of Mexican children followed from kindergarten (baseline to 2nd grade elementary school (endline. Methods The MVPA (5-d accelerometry, BMI, FM and FFM (air displacement plethysmography were measured at baseline and endline. Associations between gains in BMI, FM and FFM and changes in MVPA were examined using lagged and dynamic regression models, controlling for energy intake and demographic variables. Results A total of 205 children were analyzed. Gender affected the effect of MVPA on FM gain. In girls, a high baseline MVPA predicted a lower FM gain (-0.96 kg, p=0.025 compared to low/medium MVPA. Increasing, decreasing or having a persistently high MVPA predicted a lower FM gain (range -1.6 to -1.03 kg, p Conclusion These results support a protective role of MVPA on FM gain in girls, suggesting that it may play a crucial role in the development of obesity. Further research on the gender effect of MVPA is warranted to better understand its role in the prevention and control of overweight and obesity.

  5. Studies on the effect of dietary protein and fat content upon DDT metabolism in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, M

    1982-07-01

    Rats were supplied with 25 kinds of food, which were divided into 5 classes of protein and 5 classes of fat content, to examine the effect of dietary protein and fat on the metabolism and retention of DDT in the liver. The results suggested that dietary protein and fat changed DDT and its metabolites concentration in liver. The concentration of DDT decreases according to the increase of dietary protein content. The concentration of DDT and its metabolites in liver increases when the dietary fat content increases. Polynomial and multiple regression analyses were carried out to confirm the effect of dietary protein and fat on DDT metabolism. The results suggest that the residual concentration of DDT and its metabolites (DDD and DDE) is a function of dietary protein and fat content, and can be represented in equation form. The estimation of the concentration of DDT and its metabolites from the equation agrees well with the measured concentration in liver.

  6. Selective activation of beta3-adrenoceptors by octopamine: comparative studies in mammalian fat cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpéné, C; Galitzky, J; Fontana, E; Atgié, C; Lafontan, M; Berlan, M

    1999-04-01

    Numerous synthetic agonists selectively stimulate beta3-adrenoceptors (ARs). The endogenous catecholamines, noradrenaline and adrenaline, however, stimulate all the beta-AR subtypes, and no selective physiological agonist for beta3-ARs has been described so far. The aim of this study was to investigate whether any naturally occurring amine can stimulate selectively beta3-ARs. Since activation of lipolysis is a well-known beta-adrenergic function, the efficacy and potency of various biogenic amines were compared with those of noradrenaline, isoprenaline, and beta3-AR agonists 4-(-{[2-hydroxy-(3-chlorophenyl)ethyl]-amino} propyl)phenoxyacetate (BRL 37,344) and (R,R)-5-(2-{[2-(3-chlorophenyl )-2-hydroxyethyl]-amino} propyl)-1,3-benzo-dioxole-2,2-dicarboxylate (CL 316,243) by testing their lipolytic action in white fat cells. Five mammalian species were studied: rat, hamster and dog, in which selective beta-AR agonists act as full lipolytic agents, and guinea-pigs and humans, in which beta3-AR agonists are less potent activators of lipolysis. Several biogenic amines were inefficient (e.g. dopamine, tyramine and beta-phenylethylamine) while others (synephrine, phenylethanolamine, epinine) were partially active in stimulating lipolysis in all species studied. Their actions were inhibited by all the beta-AR antagonists tested, including those selective for beta1- or beta2-ARs. Octopamine was the only amine fully stimulating lipolysis in rat, hamster and dog fat cells, while inefficient in guinea-pig or human fat cells, like the beta3-AR agonists. In rat white fat cells, beta-AR antagonists inhibited the lipolytic effect of octopamine with a relative order of potency very similar to that observed against CL 316,243. Competitive antagonism of octopamine effect resulted in the following apparent pA2 [-log(IC50), where IC50 is the antagonist concentration eliciting half-maximal inhibition] values: 7.77 (bupranolol), 6.48 [3-(2-ethyl-phenoxy)-1[(1 S)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphth-1

  7. Food, fat, family and friends: studies on the impact of the social environment on dietary intake.

    OpenAIRE

    Feunekes, G.I.J.

    1996-01-01

    The impact of the social environment on food and fat intake was investigated in several samples including family members, close friends, and meal time companions in the Netherlands. Firstly, a food frequency questionnaire to assess the intake of fat, fatty acids and cholesterol was developed. Biomarker-based validity (n = 99), relative validity against a dietary history (n = 191), and reproducibility (n = 93) were satisfactory for adults.Up to 40% of the variance in fat intake, expressed as %...

  8. The effects of high-fat diet on implant osseointegration: an experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In this study, we investigated whether a high-fat diet (HFD) affected the bone implant connection (BIC) in peri-implant bone. Materials and Methods Four male rabbits were used in this study. Dental implant surgery was introduced into each tibia, and four implants were integrated into each animal. In both the normal diet (ND) group (n=2) and HFD group (n=2), 8 implants were integrated, for a total of 16 integrated implants. The animals continued with their respective diets for 12 weeks post-surgery. Afterward, the rabbits were sacrificed, and the BIC was assessed histomorphometrically. Results Histologic and histomorphometric analyses demonstrated that BIC was not impaired in the HFD group compared to the ND group. Conclusion Within the limitations of this study, we found that HFD did not decrease the BIC in rabbit tibias. PMID:27595085

  9. Weight gain induced by an isocaloric pair-fed high fat diet: a nutriepigenetic study on FASN and NDUFB6 gene promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomba, Almudena; Martínez, J Alfredo; García-Díaz, Diego F; Paternain, Laura; Marti, Amelia; Campión, Javier; Milagro, Fermín I

    2010-01-01

    Experimental studies have demonstrated that dietary macronutrient distribution plays an important role in insulin regulation, a risk factor associated to obesity, diabetes and other metabolic disorders. To assess whether the macronutrient composition of the diet could be related to obesity onset by affecting the epigenetic regulation of gene expression, we investigated in rats the metabolic effects of two pair-fed isocaloric diets: control (rich in carbohydrates) and high fat diet (rich in fat; HFD). Compared to controls, HFD induced higher weight gain and adiposity and impaired glucose tolerance, which was accompanied by a slight increase in adiponectin levels and liver steatosis. Epididymal adipose tissue expression of the fatty acid synthase (FASN) gene and NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1β-subcomplex 6 (NDUFB6) were significantly reduced in HFD group. These variations in mRNA levels were accompanied by changes in the methylation patterns of several CpG islands located in the promoter region of these genes. However, no correlations were found between gene expression and the methylation status. These results suggest that high fat intake produces overweighted rats independently of total energy intake. These diets could also induce some epigenetic changes in the promoters of key genes that could influence gene expression and may be behind metabolic alterations.

  10. Factors that could influence the severity of post-traumatic lung fat embolism - a prospective histological study -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Slobodan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Each fracture of long or pelvic bones as well as large contusions of subcutaneous fat tissue cause releasing of fat globules that rapidly penetrate into circulation through the ruptured veins of the injured tissue, and reach the lung circulation [1,2]. During the first phase, fat emboli block the functional lung circulation by their mechanical effect in capillaries producing so called isolated post-traumatic lung fat embolism [3]. The surface layer of a fat embolus, which is practically in liquid state, behaves as a membrane of very high density, i.e., as it is under high pressure which obstruct the blood stream [4] that is finally stopped at the level of lung blood vessels with diameter of approximately 20 µ [5].This pathophysiological mechanism produces cor pulmonale acutum, with poor pathological findings [8]. Nowadays, the post-mortem diagnosis of lung fat embolism is based on microscopical examination of tissue specimens, usually prepared with special histological staining (Sudan III [9]. The grading of fat embolism according to Sevitt's criteria is generally accepted [10]. Taking of slices from apicoventral areas of the lungs has been recommended [11]. With longer outliving period, the total number of fat emboli in the lung circulation gradually decreases, due to their disintegration and resorption. It has been stated that fat globules completely disappear about 4-6 weeks after injury, and that they should not be searched for microscopically in this post-traumatic phase [11]. OBJECTIVES The aim of our work was to determine whether the age of injured, their gender, total severity of trauma, outliving period, and hypovole-mic shock that develops after injuring, may induce development of more severe forms of post-traumatic lung fat embolism. MATERIAL AND METHODS A prospective histological study was performed on the autopsy material of the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Belgrade. The analyzed sample consisted of individuals

  11. Seasonal patterns in metazoan parasite community of the "Fat Sleeper" Dormitator latifrons (Pisces: Eleotridae from Tres Palos Lagoon, Guerrero, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Violante-González

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Dormitator is among the most important fish genera in the Mexican Pacific coastal lagoon systems. In Tres Palos Lagoon, the Fat Sleeper Dormitator latifrons is one of the most significant species based on catch volume, although it is only consumed locally. Very little information exists on this species’ parasitofauna. Composition and temporal variation in the metazoan parasite community structure of Dormitator latifrons from Tres Palos Lagoon (99º47’ W, 16º48’ N, Guerrero, Mexico, were determined using seasonal samples taken between April 2000 and June 2002. Ten parasite species (55 817 individuals were recovered from 219 examined hosts. These species included eight helminths (Ascocotyle (Phagicola longa, Echinochasmus leopoldinae, Clinostomum complanatum, Pseudoacanthostomum panamense, Saccocoelioides lamothei, Parvitaenia cochlearii, Contracaecum sp. and Neoechinorhynchus golvani and two crustaceans (Argulus sp. and Ergasilus sp.. Five of the helminth species exhibited seasonal variation in their infection dynamics associated with environmental changes during the dry and rainy seasons. The variations in the infection dynamics generated changes in the community structure over time. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (3: 1419-1427. Epub 2008 September 30.Entre abril del 2000 y junio del 2002 se efectuó un estudio para determinar la composición y la variación temporal en la estructura de la comunidad de parásitos metazoarios del popoyote Dormitator latifrons en la laguna de Tres Palos, Guerrero, México, a partir de muestras temporales. Se recuperaron diez especies de parásitos (55 817 individuos de 219 hospederos examinados. Estas especies incluyeron ocho helmintos (Ascocotyle (Phagicola longa, Echinochasmus leopoldinae, Clinostomum complanatum, Pseudoacanthostomum panamense, Saccocoelioides lamothei, Parvitaenia cochlearii, Contracaecum sp. y Neoechinorhynchus golvani y dos crustáceos (Argulus sp. y Ergasilus sp.. Cinco de las especies de

  12. Associations of fat and muscle tissue with cognitive status in older adults: the AGES-Reykjavik Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spauwen, Peggy J J; Murphy, Rachel A; Jónsson, Pálmi V; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Garcia, Melissa E; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; van Boxtel, Martin P J; Lopez, Oscar L; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Harris, Tamara B; Launer, Lenore J

    2017-03-01

    studies on the association of dementia with specific body composition (BC) components are scarce. Our aim was to investigate associations of BC measures with different levels of cognitive function in late-life. we studied 5,169 participants (mean age 76 years, 42.9% men) in the AGES-Reykjavik Study of whom 485 (9.4%) were diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 307 (5.9%) with dementia. Visceral fat, abdominal and thigh subcutaneous fat, and thigh muscle were assessed by computed tomography. MCI and dementia were based on clinical assessment and a consensus meeting; those without MCI or dementia were categorised as normal. Multinomial regression models assessed the associations stratified by sex and in additional analyses by midlife body mass index (BMI). among women, there was a decreased likelihood of dementia per SD increase in abdominal subcutaneous fat (OR 0.72; 95% CI: 0.59-0.88), thigh subcutaneous fat (0.81; 0.67-0.98) and thigh muscle (0.63; 0.52-0.76), but not visceral fat, adjusting for demographics, vascular risk factors, stroke and depression. Inverse associations of fat with dementia were attenuated by weight change from midlife and were strongest in women with midlife BMI increase in thigh muscle was associated with a decreased likelihood of dementia (0.75; 0.61-0.92). BC was not associated with MCI in men or women. a higher amount of abdominal and thigh subcutaneous fat were associated with a lower likelihood of dementia in women only, while more thigh muscle was associated with a lower likelihood of dementia in men and women.

  13. Obesity induced by a pair-fed high fat sucrose diet: methylation and expression pattern of genes related to energy homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campión Javier

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The expression of some genes controlling energy homeostasis could be regulated by epigenetic mechanisms that may play a role in body weight regulation. Thus, it is known that various nutritional factors affect DNA methylation. In order to assess whether the macronutrient composition of the diet could be related to the epigenetic regulation of gene expression and with obesity development, we investigated the effects on methylation and expression patterns of two pair-fed isocaloric diets in rats: control (rich in starch and HFS (rich in fat and sucrose. Results The pair-fed HFS diet induced higher weight gain and adiposity as compared to the controls as well as liver triglyceride accumulation and oxidative stress. Feeding the HFS diet impaired glucose tolerance and serum triglycerides and cholesterol. Liver glucokinase expression, a key glycolytic gene, remained unaltered, as well as the mRNA values of fatty acid synthase and NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone 1 beta subcomplex, 6 (NDUFB6 in liver and visceral adipocytes, which regulate lipogenesis and mitochondrial oxidative metabolism, respectively. Liver expression of hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (HADHB, a key gene of β-oxidation pathway, was higher in the HFS-fed animals. However, the methylation status of CpG islands in HADHB and glucokinase genes remained unchanged after feeding the HFS diet. Conclusions These results confirm that the distribution and type of macronutrients (starch vs. sucrose, and percent of fat influence obesity onset and the associated metabolic complications. HFS diets produce obesity independently of total energy intake, although apparently no epigenetic (DNA methylation changes accompanied the modifications observed in gene expression.

  14. Obesity induced by a pair-fed high fat sucrose diet: methylation and expression pattern of genes related to energy homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The expression of some genes controlling energy homeostasis could be regulated by epigenetic mechanisms that may play a role in body weight regulation. Thus, it is known that various nutritional factors affect DNA methylation. In order to assess whether the macronutrient composition of the diet could be related to the epigenetic regulation of gene expression and with obesity development, we investigated the effects on methylation and expression patterns of two pair-fed isocaloric diets in rats: control (rich in starch) and HFS (rich in fat and sucrose). Results The pair-fed HFS diet induced higher weight gain and adiposity as compared to the controls as well as liver triglyceride accumulation and oxidative stress. Feeding the HFS diet impaired glucose tolerance and serum triglycerides and cholesterol. Liver glucokinase expression, a key glycolytic gene, remained unaltered, as well as the mRNA values of fatty acid synthase and NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 beta subcomplex, 6 (NDUFB6) in liver and visceral adipocytes, which regulate lipogenesis and mitochondrial oxidative metabolism, respectively. Liver expression of hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (HADHB), a key gene of β-oxidation pathway, was higher in the HFS-fed animals. However, the methylation status of CpG islands in HADHB and glucokinase genes remained unchanged after feeding the HFS diet. Conclusions These results confirm that the distribution and type of macronutrients (starch vs. sucrose, and percent of fat) influence obesity onset and the associated metabolic complications. HFS diets produce obesity independently of total energy intake, although apparently no epigenetic (DNA methylation) changes accompanied the modifications observed in gene expression. PMID:20534152

  15. A Comparative Study on Temporal Mobile Access Pattern Mining Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan Fahmy

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mobile users behavior patterns is one of the most critical issues that need to be explored in mobile agent systems. Recently the algorithms of discovering frequent mobile user’s behavior patterns have been studied extensively. Existing mining methods have proposed frequent mobile user's behavior patterns statistically based on requested services and location information. Therefore, other studies considered that the mobile user's dynamic behavior patterns are usually associated with temporal access patterns. In this paper, temporal mobile access pattern methods are studied and compared in terms of complexity and accuracy. The advantages and disadvantages of these methods will be summarized as well

  16. A minimally invasive technique for the detection and analysis of pulmonary fat embolism: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filograna, Laura; Bolliger, Stephan A; Kneubuehl, Beat; Jackowski, Christian; Hatch, Gary M; Thali, Michael J

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the feasibility of postmortem percutaneous needle biopsy (PNB) for obtaining pulmonary samples adequate for the study of pulmonary fat embolism (PFE). Samples of both lungs were obtained from 26 cadavers via two different methods: (i) PNB and (ii) the double-edged knife technique, the gold standard at our institute. After water storage and Sudan III staining, six forensic pathologists independently examined all samples for the presence and severity of PFE. The results were compared and analyzed in each case regarding the vitality of the PFE and its relationship to the cause of death. The results showed that PFE was almost identically diagnosed and graded on the samples obtained via both methods. The discrepancies between the two techniques did not affect the diagnoses of vitality or cause of death related to PFE. This study demonstrates the feasibility of the PNB sampling method for the diagnosis and interpretation of PFE in the postmortem setting.

  17. 脂肪测定仪测定香肠中脂肪含量的研究%Study on determination of fat in sausage by fat analyzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏永义; 尹军杰; 张莉

    2012-01-01

    采用脂肪测定仪测定香肠中脂肪的含量,结果表明,所测样品中脂肪的含量为8.2%,该方法简单、准确度高,适用于香肠中脂肪含量的测定。%In this paper, fat analyzer was used to determine the fat content of sausages, the result showed that the measured fat content in the sample was 8.25%, the method is simple, and of high accuracy for determination of fat content in sausage.

  18. Dietary fat and carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woutersen, R.A.; Appel, M.J.; Garderen-Hoetmer, A. van; Wijnands, M.V.W.

    1999-01-01

    Epidemiologic investigations have suggested a relationship between dietary fat intake and various types of cancer incidences. Furthermore, epidemiologic studies as well as studies with animal models have demonstrated that not only the amount but also the type of fat consumed is important. At present

  19. Commensal eating patterns: a community study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobal, Jeffery; Nelson, Mary K

    2003-10-01

    Commensality is eating with other people, and commensal eating patterns reflect the social relationships of individuals. This study examined usual meal partners in commensal units and frequency of eating with others in commensal circles among 663 adults responding to a mailed questionnaire in one community. Meal partner data revealed that most respondents ate alone at breakfast, alone or with co-workers at lunch, and with family members at dinner. Commensal frequency data revealed some eating at the homes of other family members, little eating at friends' homes, and almost no eating at neighbors' homes. Few demographic variations existed in commensal eating, except that unmarried individuals more often ate breakfast and dinner alone and more often ate with friends. These finding suggest that contemporary work-oriented society may lead people to eat alone during the day but share evening meals with family, and that people maintain commensal relationships primarily with family members rather than friends or neighbors. Peoples' social worlds appear to be focused on the nuclear family, and family members are also the people they usually eat with.

  20. Comparisons and Uncertainty in Fat and Adipose Tissue Estimation Techniques: The Northern Elephant Seal as a Case Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa K Schwarz

    Full Text Available Fat mass and body condition are important metrics in bioenergetics and physiological studies. They can also link foraging success with demographic rates, making them key components of models that predict population-level outcomes of environmental change. Therefore, it is important to incorporate uncertainty in physiological indicators if results will lead to species management decisions. Maternal fat mass in elephant seals (Mirounga spp can predict reproductive rate and pup survival, but no one has quantified or identified the sources of uncertainty for the two fat mass estimation techniques (labeled-water and truncated cones. The current cones method can provide estimates of proportion adipose tissue in adult females and proportion fat of juveniles in northern elephant seals (M. angustirostris comparable to labeled-water methods, but it does not work for all cases or species. We reviewed components and assumptions of the technique via measurements of seven early-molt and seven late-molt adult females. We show that seals are elliptical on land, rather than the assumed circular shape, and skin may account for a high proportion of what is often defined as blubber. Also, blubber extends past the neck-to-pelvis region, and comparisons of new and old ultrasound instrumentation indicate previous measurements of sculp thickness may be biased low. Accounting for such differences, and incorporating new measurements of blubber density and proportion of fat in blubber, we propose a modified cones method that can isolate blubber from non-blubber adipose tissue and separate fat into skin, blubber, and core compartments. Lastly, we found that adipose tissue and fat estimates using tritiated water may be biased high during the early molt. Both the tritiated water and modified cones methods had high, but reducible, uncertainty. The improved cones method for estimating body condition allows for more accurate quantification of the various tissue masses and may

  1. Impact of polyunsaturated and saturated fat overfeeding on the DNA-methylation pattern in human adipose tissue: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfilyev, Alexander; Dahlman, Ingrid; Gillberg, Linn; Rosqvist, Fredrik; Iggman, David; Volkov, Petr; Nilsson, Emma; Risérus, Ulf; Ling, Charlotte

    2017-04-01

    Background: Dietary fat composition can affect ectopic lipid accumulation and, thereby, insulin resistance. Diets that are high in saturated fatty acids (SFAs) or polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have different metabolic responses.Objective: We investigated whether the epigenome of human adipose tissue is affected differently by dietary fat composition and general overfeeding in a randomized trial.Design: We studied the effects of 7 wk of excessive SFA (n = 17) or PUFA (n = 14) intake (+750 kcal/d) on the DNA methylation of ∼450,000 sites in human subcutaneous adipose tissue. Both diets resulted in similar body weight increases. We also combined the data from the 2 groups to examine the overall effect of overfeeding on the DNA methylation in adipose tissue.Results: The DNA methylation of 4875 Cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites was affected differently between the 2 diets. Furthermore, both the SFA and PUFA diets increased the mean degree of DNA methylation in adipose tissue, particularly in promoter regions. However, although the mean methylation was changed in 1797 genes [e.g., alpha-ketoglutarate dependent dioxygenase (FTO), interleukin 6 (IL6), insulin receptor (INSR), neuronal growth regulator 1 (NEGR1), and proopiomelanocortin (POMC)] by PUFAs, only 125 genes [e.g., adiponectin, C1Q and collagen domain containing (ADIPOQ)] were changed by SFA overfeeding. In addition, the SFA diet significantly altered the expression of 28 transcripts [e.g., acyl-CoA oxidase 1 (ACOX1) and FAT atypical cadherin 1 (FAT1)], whereas the PUFA diet did not significantly affect gene expression. When the data from the 2 diet groups were combined, the mean methylation of 1444 genes, including fatty acid binding protein 1 (FABP1), fatty acid binding protein 2 (FABP2), melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R), MC3R, PPARG coactivator 1 α (PPARGC1A), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), was changed in adipose tissue by overfeeding. Moreover, the baseline DNA methylation of 12 CpG sites that

  2. A study of grout flow pattern analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. Y. [Savannah River National Lab., Aiken, SC (United States); Hyun, S. [Mercer Univ., Macon, GA (United States)

    2013-01-10

    A new disposal unit, designated as Salt Disposal Unit no. 6 (SDU6), is being designed for support of site accelerated closure goals and salt nuclear waste projections identified in the new Liquid Waste System plan. The unit is cylindrical disposal vault of 380 ft diameter and 43 ft in height, and it has about 30 million gallons of capacity. Primary objective was to develop the computational model and to perform the evaluations for the flow patterns of grout material in SDU6 as function of elevation of grout discharge port, and slurry rheology. A Bingham plastic model was basically used to represent the grout flow behavior. A two-phase modeling approach was taken to achieve the objective. This approach assumes that the air-grout interface determines the shape of the accumulation mound. The results of this study were used to develop the design guidelines for the discharge ports of the Saltstone feed materials in the SDU6 facility. The focusing areas of the modeling study are to estimate the domain size of the grout materials radially spread on the facility floor under the baseline modeling conditions, to perform the sensitivity analysis with respect to the baseline design and operating conditions such as elevation of discharge port, discharge pipe diameter, and grout properties, and to determine the changes in grout density as it is related to grout drop height. An axi-symmetric two-phase modeling method was used for computational efficiency. Based on the nominal design and operating conditions, a transient computational approach was taken to compute flow fields mainly driven by pumping inertia and natural gravity. Detailed solution methodology and analysis results are discussed here.

  3. A study of grout flow pattern analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. Y. [Savannah River National Lab., Aiken, SC (United States); Hyun, S. [Mercer Univ., Macon, GA (United States)

    2013-01-10

    A new disposal unit, designated as Salt Disposal Unit no. 6 (SDU6), is being designed for support of site accelerated closure goals and salt nuclear waste projections identified in the new Liquid Waste System plan. The unit is cylindrical disposal vault of 380 ft diameter and 43 ft in height, and it has about 30 million gallons of capacity. Primary objective was to develop the computational model and to perform the evaluations for the flow patterns of grout material in SDU6 as function of elevation of grout discharge port, and slurry rheology. A Bingham plastic model was basically used to represent the grout flow behavior. A two-phase modeling approach was taken to achieve the objective. This approach assumes that the air-grout interface determines the shape of the accumulation mound. The results of this study were used to develop the design guidelines for the discharge ports of the Saltstone feed materials in the SDU6 facility. The focusing areas of the modeling study are to estimate the domain size of the grout materials radially spread on the facility floor under the baseline modeling conditions, to perform the sensitivity analysis with respect to the baseline design and operating conditions such as elevation of discharge port, discharge pipe diameter, and grout properties, and to determine the changes in grout density as it is related to grout drop height. An axi-symmetric two-phase modeling method was used for computational efficiency. Based on the nominal design and operating conditions, a transient computational approach was taken to compute flow fields mainly driven by pumping inertia and natural gravity. Detailed solution methodology and analysis results are discussed here.

  4. Food, fat, family and friends : studies on the impact of the social environment on dietary intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feunekes, G.I.J.

    1996-01-01


    The impact of the social environment on food and fat intake was investigated in several samples including family members, close friends, and meal time companions in the Netherlands. Firstly, a food frequency questionnaire to assess the intake of fat, fatty acids and cholesterol was

  5. Field method to measure changes in percent body fat of young women: The TIGER Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Body mass index (BMI), waist (W) and hip (H) circumference (C) are commonly used to assess changes in body composition for field research. We developed a model to estimate changes in dual energy X-ray absorption (DXA) percent fat (% fat) from these variables with a diverse sample of young women fro...

  6. Food, fat, family and friends: studies on the impact of the social environment on dietary intake.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feunekes, G.I.J.

    1996-01-01

    The impact of the social environment on food and fat intake was investigated in several samples including family members, close friends, and meal time companions in the Netherlands. Firstly, a food frequency questionnaire to assess the intake of fat, fatty acids and cholesterol was developed. Biomar

  7. Trans fatty acids in dietary fats and oils from 14 European countries : the TRANSFAIR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aro, A.; Amelsvoort, J. van; Becker, W.; Erp-Baart, M.A. van; Kafatos, A.; Leth, T.; Poppel, G. van

    1998-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of dietary fats and oils from 14 European countries was analyzed with particular emphasis on isomerictransfatty acids. The proportion oftransfatty acids in typical soft margarines and low-fat spreads ranged between 0.1 and 17% of total fatty acids and that ofcis-unsaturate

  8. Trans fatty acids in dietary fats and oils from 14 European countries : the TRANSFAIR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aro, A.; Amelsvoort, J. van; Becker, W.; Erp-Baart, M.A. van; Kafatos, A.; Leth, T.; Poppel, G. van

    1998-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of dietary fats and oils from 14 European countries was analyzed with particular emphasis on isomerictransfatty acids. The proportion oftransfatty acids in typical soft margarines and low-fat spreads ranged between 0.1 and 17% of total fatty acids and that ofcis-unsaturate

  9. Fitness, Fatness, and Serum Cholesterol: An Epidemiological Study of an Entire Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoye, Henry J.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Research on relationships between serum cholesterol, heart rate, and exercise in age-and sex-specific groups suggests a positive relationship between fatness on the one hand and serum cholesterol and heart rate, but eliminating the effect of body fatness results in no relationship between heart rate and serum total cholesterol. (MB)

  10. Dietary patterns and odds of Type 2 diabetes in Beirut, Lebanon: a case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naja Farah

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Lebanon, Type 2 diabetes (T2D has a major public health impact through high disease prevalence, significant downstream pathophysiologic effects, and enormous financial liabilities. Diet is an important environmental factor in the development and prevention of T2D. Dietary patterns may exert greater effects on health than individual foods, nutrients, or food groups. The objective of this study is to examine the association between dietary patterns and the odds of T2D among Lebanese adults. Methods Fifty-eight recently diagnosed cases of T2D and 116 population-based age, sex, and place of residence matched control participants were interviewed. Data collection included a standard socio-demographic and lifestyle questionnaire. Dietary intake was evaluated by a semi-quantitative 97-item food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements including weight, height, waist circumference, and percent body fat were also obtained. Dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the associations of extracted patterns with T2D. Pearson correlations between these patterns and obesity markers, energy, and nutrient intakes were also examined. Results Four dietary patterns were identified: Refined Grains & Desserts, Traditional Lebanese, Fast Food and Meat & Alcohol. While scores of the “Refined Grains & Desserts” had the highest correlations with energy (r = 0.74 and carbohydrates (r = 0.22, those of the “Fast Food” had the highest correlation with fat intake (r = 0.34. After adjustment for socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics, scores of the Refined Grains & Desserts and Fast Food patterns were associated with higher odds of T2D (OR: 3.85, CI: 1.13-11.23 and OR: 2.80, CI: 1.14-5.59; respectively and scores of the Traditional Lebanese pattern were inversely associated with the odds of T2D (OR: 0.46, CI: 0.22-0.97. Conclusions The

  11. Dietary patterns and odds of Type 2 diabetes in Beirut, Lebanon: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naja, Farah; Hwalla, Nahla; Itani, Leila; Salem, Maya; Azar, Sami T; Zeidan, Maya Nabhani; Nasreddine, Lara

    2012-12-27

    In Lebanon, Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has a major public health impact through high disease prevalence, significant downstream pathophysiologic effects, and enormous financial liabilities. Diet is an important environmental factor in the development and prevention of T2D. Dietary patterns may exert greater effects on health than individual foods, nutrients, or food groups. The objective of this study is to examine the association between dietary patterns and the odds of T2D among Lebanese adults. Fifty-eight recently diagnosed cases of T2D and 116 population-based age, sex, and place of residence matched control participants were interviewed. Data collection included a standard socio-demographic and lifestyle questionnaire. Dietary intake was evaluated by a semi-quantitative 97-item food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements including weight, height, waist circumference, and percent body fat were also obtained. Dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the associations of extracted patterns with T2D. Pearson correlations between these patterns and obesity markers, energy, and nutrient intakes were also examined. Four dietary patterns were identified: Refined Grains & Desserts, Traditional Lebanese, Fast Food and Meat & Alcohol. While scores of the "Refined Grains & Desserts" had the highest correlations with energy (r = 0.74) and carbohydrates (r = 0.22), those of the "Fast Food" had the highest correlation with fat intake (r = 0.34). After adjustment for socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics, scores of the Refined Grains & Desserts and Fast Food patterns were associated with higher odds of T2D (OR: 3.85, CI: 1.13-11.23 and OR: 2.80, CI: 1.14-5.59; respectively) and scores of the Traditional Lebanese pattern were inversely associated with the odds of T2D (OR: 0.46, CI: 0.22-0.97). The findings of this study demonstrate direct associations of the Refined Grains

  12. Sedentary behaviors, physical activity behaviors, and body fat in 6-year-old children: the generation R study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijtzes, Anne I; Bouthoorn, Selma H; Jansen, Wilma; Franco, Oscar H; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent Wv; Raat, Hein

    2014-08-15

    Childhood overweight and obesity is a major public health concern. Knowledge on modifiable risk factors is needed to design effective intervention programs. This study aimed to assess associations of children's sedentary behaviors (television viewing and computer game use) and physical activity behaviors (sports participation, outdoor play, and active transport to/from school) with three indicators of body fat, i.e., percent fat mass, body mass index (BMI) standard deviation scores, and weight status (normal weight, overweight). Cross-sectional data from 5913 6-year-old ethnically diverse children were analyzed. Children's weight and height were objectively measured and converted to BMI. Weight status was defined according to age- and sex-specific cut-off points of the International Obesity Task Force. BMI standard deviation scores were created, based on Dutch reference growth curves. Fat mass was measured my dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Sedentary and physical activity behaviors were assessed by parent-reported questionnaires. Series of logistic and linear regression analyses were performed, controlling for confounders (i.e., socio-demographic factors, family lifestyle factors, and other sedentary behaviors and physical activity behaviors). Sports participation was inversely associated with fat mass (p physical activity behaviors. No other independent associations were observed. The results of this study indicate that sports participation is inversely associated with percent body fat among ethnically diverse 6-year-old children. More research in varied populations including objective measurements and longitudinal designs are needed to confirm these current results.

  13. A study on magnetic abrasive deburring of dual micro pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Dong Hyun; Kwak, Jae Seob [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Studies on dual micro pattern are not established because of difficulty of its fabrication and deburring technology. In this investigation, a dual micro pattern which consists of a net pattern and a lenticular pattern was fabricated on a cylindrical workpiece by turning process. Magnetic abrasive deburring (MAD) was proposed as a deburring process in this study. Burr height defined by difference of its height and theoretical pattern height was measured as about 1 μm. It is one of the non-traditional machining methods utilizing flexible tool which consists of ferrous particle and abrasive powder. Hence, the aim of this investigation is to remove generated burr on the dual micro pattern. Burr at the dual micro pattern was removed through MAD, and a prediction equation of machined pattern height was derived. A deburring condition was optimized and verified by experiments. As a result, it was confirmed that dual micro pattern which has high shape accuracy was fabricated using MAD.

  14. Efficacy Study of Metho-Chelated Organic Minerals preparation Feeding on Milk Production and Fat Percentage in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somkuwar A.P.1

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to compare the effect of feeding different mineral based formulation on dairy cow production performance, namely milk yield and fat percentage. The trial was conducted with dairy cows across various stages of lactation (Early, Mid and Late stage with 30 cows per stage. The experimental treatments included: Bestmin Gold (Metho-chelated organic minerals, given 30 gms per day, Inorganic mineral preparation (Inorg. Mineral, @ 50 gms/day/ cow and control. The study lasted from 0 to 40 days. Milk yield and fat percentage of cows were measured individually on Days 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 40. The Bestmin Gold treated group (Metho-chelated organic minerals improved the milk yield, net gain in milk and the milk fat percentage of animals across the various stages of lactation as compared to in control and inorganic mineral treated group of animals. [Veterinary World 2011; 4(1.000: 19-21

  15. Alcohol consumption and dietary patterns: the FinDrink study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy O Fawehinmi

    Full Text Available The aim of this population-based study was to investigate differences in dietary patterns in relation to the level of alcohol consumption among Finnish adults. This study was part of the FinDrink project, an epidemiologic study on alcohol use among Finnish population. It utilized data from the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. A total of 1720 subjects comprising of 816 men and 904 women aged 53-73 years were included in the study in 1998-2001. Food intake was collected via a 4-day food diary method. Self-reported alcohol consumption was assessed with quantity-frequency method based on the Nordic Alcohol Consumption Inventory. Weekly alcohol consumption was categorized into three groups: non-drinkers (<12 grams, moderate drinkers (12-167.9 grams for men, 12-83.9 grams for women and heavy drinkers (≥ 168 grams for men, ≥ 84 grams for women. Data were analyzed for men and women separately using multiple linear regression models, adjusted for age, occupational status, marital status, smoking, body mass index and leisure time physical activity. In women, moderate/heavy drinkers had lower fibre intake and moderate drinkers had higher vitamin D intake than non-drinkers. Male heavy drinkers had lower fibre, retinol, calcium and iron intake, and moderate/heavy drinkers had higher vitamin D intake than non-drinkers. Fish intake was higher among women moderate drinkers and men moderate/heavy drinkers than non-drinkers. In men, moderate drinkers had lower fruit intake and heavy drinkers had lower milk intake than non-drinkers. Moderate drinkers had higher energy intake from total fats and monosaturated fatty acids than non-drinkers. In contrast, energy intake from carbohydrates was lower among moderate/heavy drinkers than non-drinkers. In conclusion, especially male heavy drinkers had less favorable nutritional intake than moderate and non-drinkers. Further studies on the relationship between alcohol consumption and dietary habits are

  16. Study on the Technology of Fat Preservation in Goose%鹅脂保藏技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆华荣

    2015-01-01

    By the law of goose fat oxidation studies have shown that the goose fat that did not increase antioxidants was placed at 37℃for 16d, 20℃for 20 d then into the oxidation induction period. 0.01%of BHA, PG,TBHQ were added to the goose fat as the results of preservation experiment, the order of antioxidant:TBHQ>PG>BHA. 0.01%TBHQ+0.02%citric acid was added to the goose fat, the goose fat could be placed at 4℃for 13 months, the POV value was lower than the similar products of national standards limit value , preservation effect was good.%通过对鹅脂氧化变质规律的研究表明,未加抗氧化剂的鹅脂37℃放置16 d、20℃放置20 d即进入氧化诱导期。在鹅脂中分别添加0.01%的BHA、PG、TBHQ作保藏实验结果,抗氧化性大小依次为TBHQ>PG>BHA。将0.01%TBHQ+0.02%柠檬酸添加到鹅脂中,置4℃下放置13个月,其POV值低于同类产品国家标准的限定值,保质效果良好。

  17. The Body Fat-Cognition Relationship in Healthy Older Individuals: Does Gynoid vs Android Distribution Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, R; Pesce, C; De Vito, G; Boreham, C A G

    2017-01-01

    To examine the relationship between regional and whole body fat accumulation and core cognitive executive functions. Cross-sectional study. 78 healthy men and women aged between 65 and 75 years recruited through consumer's database. DXA measured percentage total body fat, android, gynoid distribution and android/gynoid ratio; inhibition and working memory updating through Random Number Generation test and cognitive flexibility by Trail Making test. First-order partial correlations between regional body fat and cognitive executive function were computed partialling out the effects of whole body fat. Moderation analysis was performed to verify the effect of gender on the body fat-cognition relationship. Results showed a differentiated pattern of fat-cognition relationship depending on fat localization and type of cognitive function. Statistically significant relationships were observed between working memory updating and: android fat (r = -0.232; p = 0.042), gynoid fat (r = 0.333; p = 0.003) and android/gynoid ratio (r = -0.272; p = 0.017). Separating genders, the only significant relationship was observed in females between working memory updating and gynoid fat (r = 0.280; p = 0.045). In spite of gender differences in both working memory updating and gynoid body fat levels, moderation analysis did not show an effect of gender on the relationship between gynoid fat and working memory updating. Results suggest a protective effect of gynoid body fat and a deleterious effect of android body fat. Although excessive body fat increases the risk of developing CDV, metabolic and cognitive problems, maintaining a certain proportion of gynoid fat may help prevent cognitive decline, particularly in older women. Guidelines for optimal body composition maintenance for the elderly should not target indiscriminate weight loss, but weight maintenance through body fat/lean mass control based on non-pharmacological tools such as physical exercise, known to have protective effects

  18. What Are Solid Fats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fatty acids. Most solid fats are high in saturated fats and/or trans fats and have less monounsaturated ... Animal products containing solid fats also contain cholesterol. Saturated fats and trans fats tend to raise "bad" (LDL) ...

  19. Facts about polyunsaturated fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... benefit your health. Polyunsaturated fat is different than saturated fat and trans fat. These unhealthy fats can increase ... of those fats are monounsaturated or polyunsaturated. Limit saturated fat (found in red meat, butter, cheese, and whole- ...

  20. Chicken lines divergent for low or high abdominal fat deposition: a relevant model to study the regulation of energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baéza, E; Le Bihan-Duval, E

    2013-06-01

    Divergent selection of chickens for low or high abdominal fat (AF) but similar BW at 63 days of age was undertaken in 1977. The selection programme was conducted over seven successive generations. The difference between lines was then maintained constant at about twice the AF in the fat line as in the lean line. The aims of the first studies on these divergent chicken lines were to describe the growth, body composition and reproductive performance in young and adult birds. The lines were then used to improve the understanding of the relationship between fatness and energy and protein metabolism in the liver, muscle and adipose tissues, as well as the regulation of such metabolism at hormonal, gene and hypothalamic levels. The effects on muscle energy metabolism in relation to meat quality parameters were also described. This paper reviews the main results obtained with these lines.

  1. A diet containing grape powder ameliorates the cognitive decline in aged rats with a long-term high-fructose-high-fat dietary pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Liang-Mao; Lin, Ching-I; Chen, Yue-Hwa; Liao, Hsiang; Lin, Shyh-Hsiang

    2016-08-01

    Research has suggested that the consumption of foods rich in polyphenols is beneficial to the cognitive functions of the elderly. We investigated the effects of grape consumption on spatial learning, memory performance and neurodegeneration-related protein expression in aged rats fed a high-fructose-high-fat (HFHF) diet. Six-week-old Wistar rats were fed an HFHF diet to 66 weeks of age to establish a model of an HFHF dietary pattern, before receiving intervention diets containing different amounts of grape powder for another 12 weeks in the second part of the experiment. Spatial learning, memory performance and cortical and hippocampal protein expression levels were assessed. After consuming the HFHF diet for a year, results showed that the rats fed a high grape powder-containing diet had significantly better spatial learning and memory performance, lower expression of β-amyloid and β-secretase and higher expression of α-secretase than the rats fed a low grape powder-containing diet. Therefore, long-term consumption of an HFHF diet caused a decline in cognitive functions and increased the risk factors for neurodegeneration, which could subsequently be ameliorated by the consumption of a polyphenol-rich diet.

  2. Pilot study of dermal and subcutaneous fat structures by MRI in individuals who differ in gender, BMI, and cellulite grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirrashed, F; Sharp, J C; Krause, V; Morgan, J; Tomanek, B

    2004-08-01

    Puckered, dimply skin on the thighs, hips, and buttocks is known as cellulite. The cause of cellulite is not known, although there are a number of different hypotheses. In this study, we use magnetic resonance (MR) micro-imaging to study cellulite skin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported MR study of cellulite. High-resolution in vivo MR images of the postlateral thigh skin of two male groups and four female groups were obtained. Subjects were grouped according to their body mass index (BMI) and cellulite grade. A qualitative assessment of how MRI can be used to differentiate skin tissue at different levels of cellulite grading was performed. We found that changes in skin architecture with cellulite can be visualized by in vivo MR micro-imaging. The skin fat layers beneath the dermis and down to the level of muscles are well visualized in the images. Also, the diffuse pattern of extrusion of underlying adipose tissue into dermis is clearly imaged, and was found to correlate with cellulite grading. We also show that other skin tissue parameters such as (a) the percentile of adipose vs. connective tissue in a given volume of hypodermis and (b) the percentile of hypodermic invaginations inside the dermis are correlated with cellulite grade. MR images can be interpreted to measure tissue parameters correlated with cellulite. Considering that we had only three subjects in each group, the achievements of this pilot study were highly satisfactory. We have shown that the in vivo micro-MR is a technique able to detect the effects of cellulite and gender. This study can be extended for further investigations of drugs and/or medical devices for cellulite treatment.

  3. Measurement of visceral fat: should we include retroperitoneal fat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Sheng Hung

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Whether retroperitoneal fat should be included in the measurement of visceral fat remains controversial. We compared the relationships of fat areas in peritoneal, retroperitoneal, and subcutaneous compartments to metabolic syndrome, adipokines, and incident hypertension and diabetes. METHODS: We enrolled 432 adult participants (153 men and 279 women in a community-based cohort study. Computed tomography at the umbilicus level was used to measure the fat areas. RESULTS: Retroperitoneal fat correlated significantly with metabolic syndrome (adjusted odds ratio (OR, 5.651, p<0.05 and the number of metabolic abnormalities (p<0.05. Retroperitoneal fat area was significantly associated with blood pressure, plasma glycemic indices, lipid profile, C-reactive protein, adiponectin (r =  -0.244, P<0.05, and leptin (r = 0.323, p<0.05, but not plasma renin or aldosterone concentrations. During the 2.94 ± 0.84 years of follow-up, 32 participants developed incident hypertension. Retroperitoneal fat area (hazard ration (HR 1.62, p = 0.003 and peritoneal fat area (HR 1.62, p = 0.009, but not subcutaneous fat area (p = 0.14 were associated with incident hypertension. Neither retroperitoneal fat area, peritoneal fat area, nor subcutaneous fat areas was associated with incident diabetes after adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: Retroperitoneal fat is similar to peritoneal fat, but differs from subcutaneous fat, in terms of its relationship with metabolic syndrome and incident hypertension. Retroperitoneal fat area should be included in the measurement of visceral fat for cardio-metabolic studies in human.

  4. Case Studies of Navigational Patterns in Constructive Hypertext.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horney, Mark A.

    1993-01-01

    Describes EntryWay, a hypertext authoring extension for HyperCard, and presents eight case studies that examined hypertext navigation patterns created by seven users of EntryWay. Five patterns of navigation are identified and explained, comparisons of navigation patterns are discussed, and implications for hypertext use are suggested. (17…

  5. Experimental Study on Spiral Patterns in Dielectric Barrier Discharge System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shu-Hua; DONG Li-Fang; LIU Fu-Cheng; LI Shu-Feng; LI Xue-Chen; WANG Hong-Fang

    2006-01-01

    Spiral patterns are obtained in a dielectric barrier discharge system with water electrodes. The dynamics of spiral formation and transition is investigated. Wavelength characteristic of spiral patterns is also studied. Correlation measurements indicate that the wavelength of spiral pattern increases with the increasing gas gap width and oscillates with the increasing drive frequency.

  6. Differences in visceral fat and fat bacterial colonization between ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. An in vivo and in vitro study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Zulian

    Full Text Available Crohn's disease (CD is notably characterized by the expansion of visceral fat with small adipocytes expressing a high proportion of anti-inflammatory genes. Conversely, visceral fat depots in ulcerative colitis (UC patients have never been characterized. Our study aims were a to compare adipocyte morphology and gene expression profile and bacterial translocation in omental (OM and mesenteric (MES adipose tissue of patients with UC and CD, and b to investigate the effect of bacterial infection on adipocyte proliferation in vitro. Specimens of OM and MES were collected from 11 UC and 11 CD patients, processed and examined by light microscopy. Gene expression profiles were evaluated in adipocytes isolated from visceral adipose tissue using microarray and RTqPCR validations. Bacteria within adipose tissue were immuno-detected by confocal scanning laser microscopy. Adipocytes were incubated with Enterococcus faecalis and cells counted after 24 h. Morphology and molecular profile of OM and MES revealed that UC adipose tissue is less inflamed than CD adipose tissue. Genes linked to inflammation, bacterial response, chemotaxis and angiogenesis were down-regulated in adipocytes from UC compared to CD, whereas genes related to metallothioneins, apoptosis pathways and growth factor binding were up-regulated. A dense perinuclear positivity for Enterococcus faecalis was detected in visceral adipocytes from CD, whereas positivity was weak in UC. In vitro bacterial infection was associated with a five-fold increase in the proliferation rate of OM preadipocytes. Compared to UC, visceral adipose tissue from CD is more inflamed and more colonized by intestinal bacteria, which increase adipocyte proliferation. The influence of bacteria stored within adipocytes on the clinical course of IBD warrants further investigations.

  7. Effect of a low fat versus a low carbohydrate weight loss dietary intervention on biomarkers of long term survival in breast cancer patients ('CHOICE': study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daeninck Elizabeth A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight loss in overweight or obese breast cancer patients is associated with an improved prognosis for long term survival. However, it is not clear whether the macronutrient composition of the chosen weight loss dietary plan imparts further prognostic benefit. A study protocol is presented for a dietary intervention to investigate the effects of weight loss dietary patterns that vary markedly in fat and carbohydrate contents on biomarkers of exposure to metabolic processes that may promote tumorigenesis and that are predictive of long term survival. The study will also determine how much weight must be lost for biomarkers to change in a favorable direction. Methods/Design Approximately 370 overweight or obese postmenopausal breast cancer survivors (body mass index: 25.0 to 34.9 kg/m2 will be accrued and assigned to one of two weight loss intervention programs or a non-intervention control group. The dietary intervention is implemented in a free living population to test the two extremes of popular weight loss dietary patterns: a high carbohydrate, low fat diet versus a low carbohydrate, high fat diet. The effects of these dietary patterns on biomarkers for glucose homeostasis, chronic inflammation, cellular oxidation, and steroid sex hormone metabolism will be measured. Participants will attend 3 screening and dietary education visits, and 7 monthly one-on-one dietary counseling and clinical data measurement visits in addition to 5 group visits in the intervention arms. Participants in the control arm will attend two clinical data measurement visits at baseline and 6 months. The primary outcome is high sensitivity C-reactive protein. Secondary outcomes include interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF, IGF binding protein-3, 8-isoprostane-F2-alpha, estrone, estradiol, progesterone, sex hormone binding globulin, adiponectin, and leptin. Discussion While clinical data indicate that excess weight

  8. Clinical study on the combined effect of capsaicin, green tea extract and essence of chicken on body fat content in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsi, Daniel; Nah, Agatha Khow Hui; Kiso, Yoshinobu; Moritani, Toshio; Ono, Hiroyuki

    2003-12-01

    This study was conducted to assess the body fat content of free-living healthy human subjects taking a health supplement containing 0.4 mg capsaicin, 625 mg green tea extract (125 mg catechins and 50 mg caffeine) and 800 mg essence of chicken (CGTE). Subjects were advised to maintain their regular dietary habits and routine physical activity throughout study duration. Their body fat content was measured before and throughout the trial duration using a hand-grip body fat monitor. After 2 wk of supplementation with CGTE, the mean body fat percentage of males and female subjects was significantly less than the initial value (p essence of chicken could translate to a positive clinical effect by reducing approximately 460 g of body fat, following 2 wk of supplementation and the application of this natural health supplement for excess fat regulation, should be considered.

  9. Association between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms over time: a 10-year follow-up study of the GAZEL cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnès Le Port

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Data on the association between dietary patterns and depression are scarce. The objective of this study was to examine the longitudinal association between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms assessed repeatedly over 10 years in the French occupational GAZEL cohort. METHODS: A total of 9,272 men and 3,132 women, aged 45-60 years in 1998, completed a 35-item Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ at baseline. Dietary patterns were derived by Principal Component Analysis. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D in 1999, 2002, 2005 and 2008. The main outcome measure was the repeated measures of CES-D. Longitudinal analyses were performed with logistic regression based on generalized estimating equations. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The highest quartile of low-fat, western, high snack and high fat-sweet diets in men and low-fat and high snack diets in women were associated with higher likelihood of depressive symptoms at the start of the follow-up compared to the lowest quartile (OR between 1.16 and 1.50. Conversely, the highest quartile of traditional diet (characterized by fish and fruit consumption was associated with a lower likelihood of depressive symptoms in women compared to the lowest quartile, with OR = 0.63 [95%CI, 0.50 to 0.80], as the healthy pattern (characterized by vegetables consumption with OR = 0.72 [95%CI, 0.63 to 0.83] and OR = 0.75 [95%CI, 0.61 to 0.93] in men and women, respectively. However, there was probably a reverse causality effect for the healthy pattern. CONCLUSION: This longitudinal study shows that several dietary patterns are associated with depressive symptoms and these associations track over time.

  10. Comparison of Fat7-bar and HYP fat links

    CERN Document Server

    Bilson-Thompson, S O

    2004-01-01

    We study various methods of constructing fat links based upon the HYP (by Hasenfratz & Knechtli) and Fat7-bar (by W. Lee) algorithms. We present the minimum plaquette distribution for these fat links. This enables us to determine which algorithm is most effective at reducing the spread of plaquette values.

  11. A piglet with surgically induced exocrine pancreatic insufficiency as an animal model of newborns to study fat digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharova, Kateryna; Pierzynowski, Stefan G; Grujic, Danica; Kirko, Siarhei; Szwiec, Katarzyna; Wang, Jing; Kovalenko, Tetiana; Osadchenko, Iryna; Ushakova, Galyna; Shmigel, Halyna; Fedkiv, Olexandr; Majda, Blanka; Prykhodko, Olena

    2014-12-28

    The maldigestion and malabsorption of fat in infants fed milk formula results due to the minimal production of pancreatic lipase. Thus, to investigate lipid digestion and absorption and mimic the situation in newborns, a young porcine exocrine pancreatic insufficient (EPI) model was adapted and validated in the present study. A total of thirteen EPI pigs, aged 8 weeks old, were randomised into three groups and fed either a milk-based formula or a milk-based formula supplemented with either bacterial or fungal lipase. Digestion and absorption of fat was directly correlated with the addition of lipases as demonstrated by a 30% increase in the coefficient of fat absorption. In comparison to the control group, a 40 and 25% reduction in total fat content and 26 and 45% reduction in n-3 and n-6 fatty acid (FA) content in the stool was observed for lipases 1 and 2, respectively. Improved fat absorption was reflected in the blood levels of lipid parameters. During the experiment, only a very slight gain in body weight was observed in EPI piglets, which can be explained by the absence of pancreatic protease and amylase in the gastrointestinal tract. This is similar to newborn babies that have reduced physiological function of exocrine pancreas. In conclusion, we postulate that the EPI pig model fed with infant formula mimics the growth and lipid digestion and absorption in human neonates and can be used to elucidate further importance of fat and FA in the development and growth of newborns, as well as for testing novel formula compositions.

  12. Gas-liquid chromatographic determination of milk fat and cocoa butter equivalents in milk chocolate: interlaboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchgraber, Manuela; Androni, Simona

    2007-01-01

    A collaborative trial was conducted to validate an analytical approach comprising method procedures for determination of milk fat and the detection and quantification of cocoa butter equivalents (CBEs) in milk chocolate. The whole approach is based on (1) comprehensive databases covering the triacylglycerol composition of a wide range of authentic milk fat, cocoa butter, and CBE samples and 947 gravimetrically prepared mixtures thereof; (2) the availability of a certified cocoa butter reference material for calibration; (3) an evaluation algorithm, which allows reliable quantitation of the milk fat content in chocolate; (4) a subsequent correction to take account of the triacylglycerols derived from milk fat; (5) mathematical expressions to detect the presence of CBEs in milk chocolate; and (6) a multivariate statistical formula to quantitate the amount of CBEs in milk chocolate. Twelve laboratories participated in the validation study. CBE admixtures were detected down to a level of 0.5 g CBE/100 g milk chocolate, without false-positive or -negative results. The applied quantitation model performed well at the statutory limit of 5% CBE addition to milk chocolate, with a prediction error of 0.7%, and HorRat values ranging from 0.8 to 1.5. The relative standard deviation for reproducibility (RSDR) values for quantitation of CBEs in analyses of chocolate fat solutions ranged from 2.2 to 3.8% and for analyses of real chocolate samples, from 4.1 to 4.7%, demonstrating that the whole approach, based solely on chocolate fat blends, is applicable to real milk chocolate samples.

  13. The role of fat and lean mass in bone loss in older men: findings from the CHAMP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleicher, Kerrin; Cumming, Robert G; Naganathan, Vasikaran; Travison, Thomas G; Sambrook, Philip N; Blyth, Fiona M; Handelsman, David J; Le Couteur, David G; Waite, Louise M; Creasey, Helen M; Seibel, Markus J

    2011-12-01

    Weight loss is associated with bone loss; however, it is unclear whether loss of fat or loss of lean body mass plays the key role in this relationship. The aim of this longitudinal analysis was to clarify the relationship between hip BMD, hip BMC and whole body BMC with changes in fat and lean tissue mass in older men. The Concord Health and Aging in Men Project (CHAMP) is a population-based study in Sydney, Australia, involving 1705 men aged 70-97 years. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the total hip, and bone mineral content (BMC) of the hip and whole body (WB), lean mass and fat mass were measured with Dual X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA). Multivariate linear regression models were used to assess relationships. Over 2.2 years of follow-up, 368(33%) men lost at least 2% of their body weight, which included a mean loss of 0.8 kg/year of lean body mass and 0.9 kg/year of fat body mass. Fat loss was strongly associated with BMD loss in men who lost weight. As a group, weight losers lost 1.0% of hip BMD annually compared to 0.2% in men who gained weight, with each kilo of fat loss associated with 0.6%/year hip BMD loss (ploss in weight losers, however, lean mass change was associated with BMD change in men who gained weight (0.3% hip BMD increase per kilo increase of lean mass pfat plays an important role in this relationship, which may reflect the additional metabolic function of adipose tissue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Parental Smoking During Pregnancy and Total and Abdominal Fat Distribution in School-age Children: the Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durmus, B.; Heppe, D.H.M.; Taal, H.R.; Manniesing, R.; Raat, H.; Hofman, A.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Gaillard, R.; Jaddoe, V.W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective:Fetal smoke exposure may influence growth and body composition later in life. We examined the associations of maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy with total and abdominal fat distribution in school-age children.Methods:We performed a population-based prospective cohort study amo

  15. Production of margarine fats by enzymatic interesterification with silica-granulated Thermomyces lanuginosa lipase in a large-scale study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Hong; Xu, Xuebing; Nilsson, Jörgen

    2001-01-01

    Interesterification of a blend of palm stearin and coconut oil (75:25, w/w), catalyzed by an immobilized Thermomyces lanuginosa lipase by silica granulation, Lipozyme TL IM, was studied for production of margarine fats in a 1- or 300-kg pilot-scale batch-stirred tank reactor. Parameters...

  16. Dietary intake of saturated fat by food source and incident cardiovascular disease: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveira Otto, de M.C.; Mozaffarian, D.; Kromhout, D.; Bertoni, A.G.; Sibley, C.T.; Jacobs, D.R.; Nettleton, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although dietary recommendations have focused on restricting saturated fat (SF) consumption to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, evidence from prospective studies has not supported a strong link between total SF intake and CVD events. An understanding of whether food sources of S

  17. Observational studies are compatible with an association between saturated and trans fats and cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hooper, Lee; Mann, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Context What is the relationship between saturated or trans fats in our food and cardiovascular risk? To find out we must examine the totality of interventional and observational evidence, and all appropriate outcomes. The World Health Organization Nutrition Guidance Advisory Group (WHO NUGAG) recently commissioned systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) which examined effects of modifying saturated or trans fat intakes on mortality or cardiovascular health1, 2 and controlle...

  18. Fat-1 transgenic cattle as a model to study the function of ω-3 fatty acids

    OpenAIRE

    Guo Tao; Liu Xin F; Ding Xiang B; Yang Fei F; Nie Yong W; An Yu J; Guo Hong

    2011-01-01

    Abstract ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been shown to play an important role in health. Enriched with ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids modulate expression of a number of genes with such broad functions as cell proliferation, growth and apoptosis and cell signaling and transduction, these effects, seem to regulate coronary artery disease, hypertension, atherosclerosis, psychiatric disorders and various cancer. In this context, fat-1 transgenic cattle was designed to convert ω-6 to ω-3 fat...

  19. STUDY ON THE BLOOD FAT REGULATION OF THE FUCOIDA-GALACTOSAN SULFATE (FGS) FROM LAMINARIA JAPONICA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    FGS was isolated and purified from laminaria japonica by enzymolysis, chromatography methods and so on. The high blood fat model was established by feeding mouse on high fat feedstuff Compared with control group, the concentration of HDL-C, the ratio of HDL-C/TC increased; while the concentration of TC, LDL-C and TG decreased in experimental groups. Conclusion: FGS was an effective serum hipid regulator and can be developed as medicine and heahh food.

  20. Flavor profiles of full-fat and reduced-fat cheese and cheese fat made from aged Cheddar with the fat removed using a novel process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carunchia Whetstine, M E; Drake, M A; Nelson, B K; Barbano, D M

    2006-02-01

    Many consumers are concerned with fat intake. However, many reduced-fat foods, including reduced-fat cheese, lack robust flavors. The objectives of this study were to characterize the flavors found in full-fat cheese, cheese fat, and reduced-fat cheese made from aged Cheddar using a novel process to remove the fat (Nelson and Barbano, 2004). Two full-fat, aged cheeses (9 and 39 mo) were selected, and the fat was removed using the novel fat removal process. Full-fat cheeses, shredded and reformed full-fat cheeses, corresponding reduced-fat cheeses, and cheese fats were then analyzed using descriptive sensory and instrumental analysis followed by consumer acceptance testing. Cheeses were extracted with diethyl ether followed by isolation of volatile material by high vacuum distillation. Volatile extracts were analyzed using gas chromatography/ olfactometry with aroma extract dilution analysis. Selected compounds were quantified. The 39-mo cheese was characterized by fruity and sulfur notes, and the 9-mo-old cheese was characterized by a spicy/brothy flavor. Reduced-fat cheeses had similar flavor profiles with no difference in most sensory attributes to corresponding full-fat cheeses. Sensory profiles of the cheese fats were characterized by low intensities of the prominent flavors found in the full-fat cheeses. Instrumental analysis revealed similar trends. Consistent with sensory analysis, there were lower concentrations and log(3) flavor dilution factors for most compounds in the cheese fats compared with both the reduced- and full-fat cheeses, regardless of compound polarity. Consumers found the intensity of flavor in the reduced-fat cheese to be equal to the full-fat cheeses. This study demonstrated that when fat was removed from aged full-fat Cheddar cheese, most of the flavor and flavor compounds remained in the cheese and were not removed with the fat.

  1. Sensory characteristics of meat and composition of carcass fat from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    subcutaneous fat composition and sensory characteristics. Keywords: sensory .... increased juiciness was associated with an increased carcass fat content. In the present study carcass fat .... Fat:Muscle ratio (%). Little. Medium. Abundant.

  2. Pancreatic size and fat content in diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis of imaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Tiago Severo; Rech, Tatiana Helena; Leitão, Cristiane Bauermann

    2017-01-01

    Imaging studies are expected to produce reliable information regarding the size and fat content of the pancreas. However, the available studies have produced inconclusive results. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of imaging studies assessing pancreas size and fat content in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Medline and Embase databases were performed. Studies evaluating pancreatic size (diameter, area or volume) and/or fat content by ultrasound, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging in patients with T1DM and/or T2DM as compared to healthy controls were selected. Seventeen studies including 3,403 subjects (284 T1DM patients, 1,139 T2DM patients, and 1,980 control subjects) were selected for meta-analyses. Pancreas diameter, area, volume, density, and fat percentage were evaluated. Pancreatic volume was reduced in T1DM and T2DM vs. controls (T1DM vs. controls: -38.72 cm3, 95%CI: -52.25 to -25.19, I2 = 70.2%, p for heterogeneity = 0.018; and T2DM vs. controls: -12.18 cm3, 95%CI: -19.1 to -5.25, I2 = 79.3%, p for heterogeneity = 0.001). Fat content was higher in T2DM vs. controls (+2.73%, 95%CI 0.55 to 4.91, I2 = 82.0%, p for heterogeneitycontent.

  3. Effect of Physical Activity on BMI and Percent Body Fat of Chinese Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Frank H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of regular physical activity on body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat of Chinese girls grouped by age and physical activity patterns. Measurements of skinfold, height, and weight, and BMI calculations, found differences in BMI and percent body fat between active and inactive girls. (SM)

  4. Effect of sucrose polyesters on crystallization rate of vegetable ghee: solid fat content study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Nasir, Mohammad

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Crystallization rate of partial hydrogenated blend of soybean oil and cottonseed oil used for making vegetable ghee (vanaspati was investigated, by solid fat content (SFC using pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (p-NMR. The effects of adding sucrose fatty acid esters or sucrose polyesters (SPE on the crystallization rate of the blend fat were studied. Sucrose tetrastearate DK ester F-10 (stearate 70% - palmitate 30% was added to the fat at different concentration, namely 0.5% and 1.0%. Blank sample and sample containing 0.5% and 1.0% DK ester F-10 / (DK F-10 were chosen to measure the change in SFC at constant temperature of 15ºC for a period of 25 hr. Five determinations of SFC were taken to the fat samples during the 25 hr i.e. 2,5,9,13 and 25th hr. SFC vs. time of crystallization of the three samples showed continuous increasing in SFC in all samples during the 25 hr, with sharp increasing at the first two hours. Samples containing 0.0% and 0.5% DK F-10, showed no significant difference in SFC during the first thirteen hours, while sample containing 1.0% DK F-10, showed higher SFC than the other two samples, through out the period. The amount of SFC for 1.0% DK F-10 sample at the 13th hour is equal to the SFC of the blank (0.0% sample at the 25th hour. Melting point of the same samples increased with the increasing DK F-10 concentration in the fat samples. The results of SFC make it sure that the addition of 1.0% DK F- 10 will shorten the time required for the crystallization of vegetable ghee while the addition of 0.5% will not have significant effect.Se ha investigado, mediante el contenido en grasa sólida (SFC por resonancia magnética nuclear pulsada (p-NMR, la velocidad de cristalización de mezcla de aceite de la soja y aceite de semilla del algodón parcialmente hidrogenada utilizada en la elaboración de ghee vegetal (vanaspati. Se han estudiado los efectos de añadir ésteres de sacarosa de ácidos grasos o poliésteres de

  5. PRELIMINARY STUDY REGARDING THE USE OF SOME Yarrowia lipolytica STRAINS FOR SOLID STATE HYDROLYSIS OF CRUDE COCONUT FAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGIANA PARFENE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Coconut fat could be an important source of bioactive compounds with a large applicability in industry. In this study it was realized the enzymatic hydrolysis of coconut fat with different yeast strains of Yarrowia lipolytica. The aim of this study was to optimize the hydrolysis conditions and determination of Yarrowia lipolytica specificity on coconut fat as substrate. The hydrolysis was performed by yeast strains cultivated on stationary solid state conditions on spirit blue agar medium supplemented with 3% coconut fat, at 25°C and 4°C, and at values of water activity of 0.98, 0.96 and 0.93. The substrate hydrolysis index was recorded every 24 hours, during of 240 hours of stationary cultivation. The most active lipolytic yeast was strain coded S5 which produce a high level of extracellular lipase with high coconut hydrolyze activity at 25°C and two water activities 0.98 and 0.96, in the shortest time (24 – 72 hours. In the presence of 3% NaCl in media, the strains coded S9, S5 and S4 were the most active from all tested strains at 25°C and 4°C. At low temperatures and in presence of 10.1% NaCl all tested yeasts had no lipolytic activity.

  6. Identification of genes related to intramuscular fat content of pig using genome-wide association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Sohyoung; Jung, Jaehoon; Park, Eungwoo; Kim, H B

    2017-06-27

    The aim of this study is to identify SNPs and genes related to pig IMF and estimate the heritability of IMF. Genome-wide association study (GWAS) on 704 inbred Berkshires was performed for intramuscular fat content (IMF). To consider the inbreeding among samples, associations of the SNPs with IMF were tested as random effects in a mixed linear model using the genetic relationship matrix by GEMMA. Significant genes were compared with reported pig IMF QTL regions and functional classification of the identified genes were also performed. Heritability of IMF was estimated by GCTA tool. Total 365 SNPs were found to be significant from a cutoff of p-value IMF QTL regions. BMPER, FOXO1, EDAR, RNF149, CD40, PTPN1, SOX9, MYC, MIF were related to mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway which regulates the differentiation to adipocytes. These genes and the genes mapped on QTLs could be the candidate genes affecting IMF. Heritability of IMF was estimated as 0.52, which was relatively high, suggesting that a considerable portion of the total variance of IMF is explained by the SNP information. Our results can contribute to breeding pig with better IMF and therefore, producing pork with better sensory qualities.

  7. Epicardial fat volume and aortic stiffness in healthy individuals. A quantitative cardiac magnetic resonance study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homsi, R.; Thomas, D.; Meier-Schroers, M.; Dabir, D.; Kuetting, D.; Luetkens, J.A.; Marx, C.; Schild, H.H. [Bonn University Hospital (Germany). Radiology; Gieseke, J. [Philips Healthcare, Hamburg (Germany); Sprinkart, A. [Bonn University Hospital (Germany). Radiology; Bochum Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Medical Engineering

    2016-09-15

    To determine epicardial fat volume (EFV) and aortic stiffness (assessed by aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV)) in healthy individuals, and to investigate the relationship of these parameters, and their association with body mass index (BMI) and age. 58 subjects (29 men, mean age 44.7 ± 13.9 years[y]) underwent a CMR exam at 1.5 Tesla. A 2 D velocity-encoded CMR scan was acquired to determine PWV. The EFV was measured based on a 3 D-mDixon sequence. Group comparisons were made between younger (age < 45y; n=30; mean age 33.4 ± 6.6y) and older (> 45y; n=28; 56.7 ± 8.4y) subjects and between subjects with a BMI < 25 kg/m{sup 2} (n=28; BMI 21.9 ± 2.5 kg/m{sup 2}) and a BMI > 25 kg/m{sup 2} (n=30; 28.7 ± 4.0 kg/m{sup 2}). Associations between the determined parameters were assessed by analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs). The mean values of PWV and EFV (normalized to body surface area) were 6.9 ±1.9 m/s and 44.2 ± 25.0 ml/m{sup 2}, respectively. The PWV and EFV were significantly higher in the older group (PWV=7.9 ± 2.0 m/s vs. 6.0 ± 1.2 m/s; EFV=54.7 ml/m{sup 2} vs. 34.5 ml/m{sup 2}; p < 0.01, each), with no significant differences in BMI or sex. In the overweighted group the EFV was significantly higher than in subjects with a BMI < 25kg/m{sup 2} (EFV=56.1 ± 27.1 ml/m{sup 2} vs. 31.5 ± 14.6 ml/m{sup 2}; p < 0.01) but without a significant difference in PWV. ANCOVA revealed a significant correlation between EFV and PWV, also after adjustment for age (p=0.025). An association was found between age and EFV as well as PWV. EFV and PWV were related to each other also after adjustment for age. The metabolic and pro-inflammatory activity found with increased epicardial fat volume may promote the development of atherosclerosis and aortic stiffness. CMR may be valuable for future studies investigating the relationship between EFV and PWV in patients with increased cardiovascular risk.

  8. A whey-protein supplement increases fat loss and spares lean muscle in obese subjects: a randomized human clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Loren S

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study evaluated a specialized whey fraction (Prolibra™, high in leucine, bioactive peptides and milk calcium for use as a dietary supplement to enhance weight loss. Methods This was a randomized, double-blind, parallel-arm, 12-week study. Caloric intake was reduced 500 calories per day. Subjects consumed Prolibra or an isocaloric ready-to-mix beverage 20 minutes before breakfast and 20 minutes before dinner. Body fat and lean muscle tissue were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. Body weight and anthropometric measurements were recorded every 4 weeks. Blood samples were taken at the beginning and end of the study. Statistical analyses were performed on all subjects that completed (completer analysis and all subjects that lost at least 2.25 kg of body weight (responder analysis. Within group significance was determined at P Results Both groups lost a significant amount of weight and the Prolibra group tended to lose more weight than the control group; however the amount of weight loss was not significantly different between groups after 12 weeks. Prolibra subjects lost significantly more body fat compared to control subjects for both the completer (2.81 vs. 1.62 kg P = 0.03 and responder (3.63 vs. 2.11 kg, P = 0.01 groups. Prolibra subjects lost significantly less lean muscle mass in the responder group (1.07 vs. 2.41 kg, P = 0.02. The ratio of fat to lean loss (kg fat lost/kg lean lost was much larger for Prolibra subjects for both completer (3.75 vs. 1.05 and responder (3.39 vs. 0.88 groups. Conclusion Subjects in both the control and treatment group lost a significant amount of weight with a 500 calorie reduced diet. Subjects taking Prolibra lost significantly more body fat and showed a greater preservation of lean muscle compared to subjects consuming the control beverage. Because subjects taking Prolibra lost 6.1% of their body fat mass, and because a 5% reduction of body fat mass has been shown to

  9. Mediastino-abdominal lipomatosis: deep accumulation of fat mimicking a respiratory disease and ascites. Clinical aspects and metabolic studies in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzi, G; Digito, M; Marin, R; Carraro, R; Baritussio, A; Manzato, E

    1984-01-01

    We report on clinical and metabolic studies of a newly delineated lipomatosis, characterised by an abnormal mediastinal and abdominal accumulation of fat, without obesity. The clinical features, which occurred in all the patients studied, are: Exertional dyspnoea due to a space-occupying mediastinal accumulation of fat, without evidence of cardiac or pulmonary disease. A pseudo-ascitic abdominal enlargement, due to intra- and retroperitoneal accumulation of fatty tissue. Insulin-independent diabetes mellitus. Type IV hyperlipidaemia and elevated levels of plasma uric acid were observed in four patients. Intra-abdominal lipomatous tissue, obtained during laparoscopy from four patients, demonstrated a reduced lipolytic response to beta-adrenergic stimulation. Thus, fat deposition in the abdominal and mediastinal areas could be causally related to defective lipid mobilization in lipomatocytes. Lipoprotein lipase activity in abdominal adipose tissue were normal in two patients (10.0 and 10.6 nmol/g/min) and markedly elevated in another two patients (37.3 and 49.9 nmol/g/min), as compared with controls (12.7 +/- 2.1 nmol/g/min). When expressed on per cell basis, LPL activity in lipomatous tissue was significantly higher than in control tissue (3.21 +/- 1.1 nmol/10(5) cell/min vs 0.92 +/- 0.16 nmol/10(5) cell/min). Lipoprotein fractionation did not demonstrate consistent modification of the serum lipoprotein pattern. HDL and HDL2 cholesterol values were reduced, even in patients with elevated LPL activity in adipose tissue.

  10. Intra-thoracic fat, cardiometabolic risk factors, and subclinical cardiovascular disease in healthy, recently menopausal women screened for the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gary; Wang, Dan; Zeb, Irfan; Budoff, Matthew J; Harman, S Mitchell; Miller, Virginia; Brinton, Eliot A; El Khoudary, Samar R; Manson, JoAnn E; Sowers, MaryFran R; Hodis, Howard N; Merriam, George R; Cedars, Marcelle I; Taylor, Hugh S; Naftolin, Frederick; Lobo, Rogerio A; Santoro, Nanette; Wildman, Rachel P

    2012-03-01

    To examine the correlations between intra-hepatic and intra-thoracic (total, epicardial, and pericardial) fat deposition with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and subclinical atherosclerosis burden in healthy, recently postmenopausal women. Women screened for the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (mean age 52.9 years) who underwent electron beam or multidetector computed tomography (CT) imaging for the quantification of intra-hepatic fat and thoracic adipose tissue, and coronary artery calcification (CAC) were included (n=650). Higher levels of intra-hepatic and thoracic fat were each associated with CVD risk markers. After adjustment for BMI, the associations for intra-hepatic fat with hs-CRP and insulin persisted (r=0.21 and 0.19, respectively; P<0.001), while those between thoracic fat indices and lipids persisted (r for total thoracic fat with HDL, LDL, and triglycerides=-0.16, 0.11, and 0.11, respectively, P<0.05). Total thoracic fat was associated with CAC after initial multivariable adjustment (odds ratio [OR] of 2nd, 3rd, and 4th vs. 1st quartile and [95% confidence intervals]: 0.8 [0.4-1.6], 1.5 [0.8-2.9], and 1.8 [1.0-3.4]; p for linear trend=0.017) and was only slightly attenuated after additional adjustment for BMI. Associations between total thoracic fat and CVD risk markers and CAC appeared due slightly more to associations with epicardial than pericardial fat. While hepatic fat is related to hs-CRP and insulin, cardiac fat is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis as demonstrated by CAC. Cardiac fat may represent a useful marker for increased CVD risk beyond the standard adiposity measures of BMI and WC. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of autologous fat grafting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goehde, Susanne C.; Kuehl, Hilmar; Ladd, Mark E. [University Hospital Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Essen (Germany)

    2005-12-01

    A 30-year-old female patient with isolated facial lipodystrophy underwent two sessions of fat injection. MR signals of injected fat at different injection ages were compared to native fat. Native T1 signal was smaller for transplant fat, probably due to a slightly lower fat content and/or fibrosis or due to higher perfusion. T2 signal of transplants was significantly higher than that of native fat. T1 post-contrast was also higher, and contrast uptake of transplanted fat increased slightly with transplant age, which could be explained by an increasing perfusion. This study demonstrates the differences and MR signal time changes of native and transplanted fat. (orig.)

  12. Mouse studies to shape clinical trials for mitochondrial diseases: high fat diet in Harlequin mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Schiff

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Therapeutic options in human mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS diseases have been poorly evaluated mostly because of the scarcity of cohorts and the inter-individual variability of disease progression. Thus, while a high fat diet (HFD is often recommended, data regarding efficacy are limited. Our objectives were 1 to determine our ability to evaluate therapeutic options in the Harlequin OXPHOS complex I (CI-deficient mice, in the context of a mitochondrial disease with human hallmarks and 2 to assess the effects of a HFD. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Before launching long and expensive animal studies, we showed that palmitate afforded long-term death-protection in 3 CI-mutant human fibroblasts cell lines. We next demonstrated that using the Harlequin mouse, it was possible to draw solid conclusions on the efficacy of a 5-month-HFD on neurodegenerative symptoms. Moreover, we could identify a group of highly responsive animals, echoing the high variability of the disease progression in Harlequin mice. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that a reduced number of patients with identical genetic disease should be sufficient to reach firm conclusions as far as the potential existence of responders and non responders is recognized. They also positively prefigure HFD-trials in OXPHOS-deficient patients.

  13. Novel equations to predict body fat percentage of Brazilian professional soccer players: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Novack

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed classical and developed novel mathematical models to predict body fat percentage (%BF in professional soccer players from the South Brazilian region using skinfold thicknesses measurement. Skinfolds of thirty one male professional soccer players (age of 21.48 ± 3.38 years, body mass of 79.05 ± 9.48 kg and height of 181.97 ± 8.11 cm were introduced into eight mathematical models from the literature for the prediction of %BF; these results were then compared to Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA. The classical equations were able to account from 65% to 79% of the variation of %BF in DXA. Statistical differences between most of the classical equations (seven of the eight classic equations and DXA were found, rendering their widespread use in this population useless. We developed three new equations for prediction of %BF with skinfolds from: axils, abdomen, thighs and calves. Theses equations accounted for 86.5% of the variation in %BF obtained with DXA.

  14. Impacts of dietary fat changes on pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huiyan; Jiang, Hongyi; Yang, Liping; Zhang, Ming

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine the impact of increasing polyunsaturated fatty acid intake on blood glucose, lipid metabolism, and pregnancy outcomes of pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Under constant total energy and protein intake, 84 pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus were randomly divided into the experimental and control groups, which were given oil-rich and conventional low-oil meals, respectively. After the dietary intervention, the intake and energy supply of fat and the three fatty acids were significantly higher in the experimental group than the control group (pchange in the control group. In both the intervention and the control group, fasting blood glucose, 2 h postprandial plasma glucose, and the insulin resistance index decreased significantly post-intervention (pchanges were consistent between groups. Pregnancy outcomes did not differ significantly between the two groups (p>0.05). An appropriate increase in polyunsaturated fatty acid intake benefits pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus as well as fetuses, as long as the diet therapy follows basic recommendations and total energy intake is strictly controlled.

  15. Composition and Microstructure of Commercial Full-Fat and Low-Fat Cheeses

    OpenAIRE

    Mistry, V. V.; Anderson, D. L.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the composition of commercial full-fat and low-fat cheeses and to evaluate their microstructure. Commercial cheeses evaluated included full-fat and low-fat Cheddar, Mozzarella , processed, and Swiss cheeses. Cheddar cheeses ranged from 8.2% fat and 5 1.1% moisture in the 75% low-fat product to 33.2% fat and 35.9% moisture in the full-fat cheese . Mozzarella cheeses ranged in fat from a low of 2. I% to a high of 24% with corresponding moisture content...

  16. FAT AND CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM IN HUMANS-A Study of Nutritional and Hormonal Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J

    1960-09-01

    As an index to the rate of fat utilization in human subjects, the recovery of all radioactive carbon dioxide in the expired air was measured for one hour following intravenous injection of palmitate-1-C(14). In the normal fasted subject, about 10 per cent of the injected dose was recovered, and the proportion was lowered to about 5 per cent by administration of glucose. With prolonged fasting, the recovery of radioactive carbon dioxide did not change, despite a rising concentration of fatty acids in the serum. This was interpreted as due to the development of a balance between increasing mobilization and oxidation and was thought to indicate increasing fatty acid oxidation. In chronic undernutrition and diabetes mellitus there was increased fatty acid oxidation due presumably to adaptation to a chronic increase in fat utilization for energy. Administration of human growth hormone did not increase fat oxidation but prevented the usual inhibition produced by glucose. This was interpreted to mean that growth hormone increases fat utilization only indirectly by inhibiting the usual preferential utilization of glucose over fat.

  17. Patterns Of Newspaper Collection Usage: A Case Study Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patterns Of Newspaper Collection Usage: A Case Study Of University Of Jos Library. ... The study covered 140 newspaper readers in University of Jos library. The survey method was used for the study. ... Article Metrics. Metrics Loading .

  18. Arterial and fat tissue inflammation are highly correlated: a prospective {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucerius, Jan [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, One Gustave L. Levy Place, P. O. Box 1234, New York, NY (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical Center, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), Maastricht (Netherlands); University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Mani, Venkatesh; Fayad, Zahi A. [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, One Gustave L. Levy Place, P. O. Box 1234, New York, NY (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Zena and Michael A. Weiner Cardiovascular Institute and Marie-Josee and Henry R. Kravis Cardiovascular Health Center, New York, NY (United States); Wong, Stephanie; Moncrieff, Colin; Izquierdo-Garcia, David [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, One Gustave L. Levy Place, P. O. Box 1234, New York, NY (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Machac, Josef [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Fuster, Valentin [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Zena and Michael A. Weiner Cardiovascular Institute and Marie-Josee and Henry R. Kravis Cardiovascular Health Center, New York, NY (United States); The Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares (CNIC), Madrid (Spain); Farkouh, Michael E. [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Zena and Michael A. Weiner Cardiovascular Institute and Marie-Josee and Henry R. Kravis Cardiovascular Health Center, New York, NY (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Cardiovascular Imaging Clinical Trials Unit, New York, NY (United States); Rudd, James H.F. [University of Cambridge, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-15

    There is evidence that the link between obesity and cardiovascular disease might relate to inflammation in both fat tissue and the arterial wall. {sup 18}F-FDG uptake on PET is a surrogate marker of vessel wall inflammation. The aim of the study was to measure FDG uptake in both regions using PET and identify links between adipose and arterial inflammation. Included in the study were 173 cardiovascular patients who were prospectively imaged with FDG PET/CT. Arterial FDG uptake was measured in the carotid arteries and ascending aorta. The same was done in fat tissue in the neck, the presternal region (both subcutaneous) and the pericardium. FDG uptake was quantified as average maximal target-to-background ratio ({sub mean}TBR{sub max}). Multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify significant associations between arterial and adipose tissue FDG uptake and clinical variables as given by the standardized correlation coefficient (β). FDG uptake values in all fat tissue regions were highly predictive of vascular FDG uptake in both the carotids (β 0.262, p < 0.0001, in the neck subcutaneous region) and aorta (β 0.22, p = 0.008, in the chest pericardial region; β 0.193, p = 0.019, in the chest subcutaneous region). Obesity was significantly associated with elevated FDG uptake in adipose tissue (β 0.470, p < 0.0001, in the neck subcutaneous region; β 0.619, p = 0.028, in the chest subcutaneous region; β 0.978, p = 0.035, in the chest pericardial region). FDG uptake in diverse fat tissue regions was significantly associated with arterial FDG uptake, a reasonable surrogate of inflammation. Increasing body weight significantly predicted the level of fatty inflammation. FDG PET therefore provides imaging evidence of an inflammatory link between fat tissue and the vasculature in patients with cardiovascular disease. (orig.)

  19. Relationships between fat deposition in the liver and skeletal muscle and insulin sensitivity in Japanese individuals: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiichi Yoshimura

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Eiichi Yoshimura1,2, Hideaki Kumahara3, Takuro Tobina4, Sakiko Matono1, Akira Kiyonaga4, Miyuki Kimura5, Hiroshi Tsukikawa6, Shinya Kono6, Takashi Etou5, Shin Irie5, Keizo Anzai7, Hiroaki Tanaka41Graduate School of Sports and Health Science, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka, Japan; 2Faculty of Medicine, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka, Japan; 3Faculty of Nutrition Sciences, Nakamura Gakuen University, Fukuoka, Japan; 4Faculty of Sports and Health Science, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka, Japan; 5Kyushu Clinical Pharmacology Research Clinic, Fukuoka, Japan; 6PS Clinic, Fukuoka, Japan; 7Saga University Hospital, Saga, JapanPurpose: To evaluate the relationships between insulin sensitivity (IS, body fat accumulation, and aerobic capacity in middle- to older-aged Japanese participants with visceral adiposity.Participants and methods: Aerobic capacity was measured during an incremental ramp exercise test. Computed tomography was used to measure visceral (VFA and subcutaneous (SFA fat area, the fat in liver-to-spleen ratio (L/S, and low-density skeletal muscle area (LDMA. IS was assessed using euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps.Results: A total of 11 males and 9 females, age 58 ± 9 years (mean ± standard deviation, body mass index 29 ± 4.1 kg/m2, and VFA 190 ± 53 cm2 participated in this study. In unadjusted models, VFA, LDMA, and L/S were significantly correlated with IS, which remained in adjusted models for LDMA and L/S, but not for VFA. In multiple stepwise regression analysis including sex, age, body fat, VFA, SFA, alcohol consumption, and aerobic capacity (oxygen uptake at the lactate threshold, L/S, and LDMA accounted for 70% of the total variance in IS. Percentage body fat and SFA, but not VFA, were significantly correlated with high molecular-weight adiponectin levels (r = 0.58, P < 0.01 and r = 0.54, P < 0.05, respectively. IS and L/S were significantly and negatively correlated with tumor necrosis factor-α (r = -0.67 and -0.63, respectively; both P

  20. Detection of impaired intestinal absorption of long-chain fatty acids : validation studies of a novel test in a rat model of fat malabsorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalivianakis, M; Minich, DM; Havinga, R; Kuipers, F; Stellaard, F; Vonk, RJ; Verkade, HJ

    2000-01-01

    Background: Classic fat balance studies detect fat malabsorption but do not discriminate between the potential causes of malabsorption, such as impaired intestinal lipolysis or reduced uptake of fatty acids. Objective: We aimed to validate a novel test for the specific, sensitive detection of impair

  1. Epicardial Fat is Associated with Duration of Antiretroviral Therapy and Coronary Atherosclerosis: The Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brener, Michael; Ketlogetswe, Kerunne; Budoff, Matthew; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Li, Xiuhong; Rezaeian, Panteha; Razipour, Aryabod; Palella, Frank J; Kingsley, Lawrence; Witt, Mallory D; George, Richard T; Post, Wendy S

    2014-01-01

    Objective Cytokines released by epicardial fat are implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. HIV infection and anti-retroviral therapy have been associated with changes in body fat distribution and coronary artery disease. We sought to determine if HIV infection is associated with greater epicardial fat and if epicardial fat is associated with subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. Design We studied 579 HIV-infected and 353 HIV-uninfected men age 40 to 70 years with non-contrast computed tomography (CT) to measure epicardial adipose tissue volume (EAT) and coronary artery calcium (CAC). Total plaque score (TPS), and plaque subtypes (non-calcified, calcified and mixed) were measured by coronary CT angiography in 706 men. Methods We evaluated the association between EAT and HIV serostatus, and the association of EAT with subclinical atherosclerosis, adjusting for age, race and serostatus and with additional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and tested for modifying effects of HIV serostatus. Results HIV-infected men had greater EAT than HIV-uninfected men (p=0.001). EAT was positively associated with duration of antiretroviral therapy (p=0.02), specifically AZT (p<0.05). EAT was associated with presence of any coronary artery plaque (p=0.006) and non-calcified plaque (p=0.001), adjusting for age, race, serostatus and CV risk factors. Among men with CAC, EAT was associated with CAC extent (p=0.006). HIV serostatus did not modify associations between EAT and either CAC extent or presence of plaque. Conclusions Greater epicardial fat volume in HIV-infected men and its association with coronary plaque and antiretroviral therapy duration suggest potential mechanisms that might lead to increased risk for cardiovascular disease in HIV. PMID:24809732

  2. Arnebia euchroma ointment can reduce abdominal fat thickness and abdominal circumference of overweight women: A randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Siavash

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is a worldwide health problem which is associated with a lot of complications. One of these comorbidities is the metabolic syndrome that is in correlation with abdominal fat thickness and waist circumference. Various methods were used to reduce abdominal fat thickness such as liposuction. A noninvasive method is the topical agent. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of Arnebia euchroma (AE ointment on the abdominal fat thickness. Materials and Methods: This study was a double-blind clinical trial which was done at the endocrinology clinic in Khorshid Hospital, Isfahan, Iran, in 2014. After explaining the procedure and obtaining informed consent, the candidates were randomly divided into the case and control groups. The participants of the case and control groups applied AE ointment or placebo for 6 weeks on their abdominal area. Body mass index, waist and buttock circumference, and abdominal fat thickness were measured in both case and control groups at their first visit and then at the next 2, 4, and 6 weeks. We used t-test for comparing parametric variables between groups, paired t-test for changes from baseline to final, and repeated measure ANOVA for changes at different steps. Results: Sixty female candidates participated in this study (thirty in each group. Ten patients left the study and fifty participants finished the trial. At the end of the study, participants had a significant weight loss (2.96 ± 1.6 kg, P < 0.001 that was slightly more in the case group (3.15 ± 1.5 kg vs. 2.75 ± 1.7, P = 0.375. Abdominal circumference also decreased significantly in the participants (11.3 ± 6.7 cm, P < 0.001, but the changes were more significant in the case group (13.9 vs. 6.5 cm, P = 0.004. Similarly, abdominal fat thickness decreased significantly in the participants (2.3 ± 1.1 cm, P < 0.001, although changes were not significantly different between two groups (2.53 vs. 2.04 cm, P = 0.139. Conclusion: Topical

  3. The Eat Smart Study: A randomised controlled trial of a reduced carbohydrate versus a low fat diet for weight loss in obese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truby Helen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the recognition of obesity in young people as a key health issue, there is limited evidence to inform health professionals regarding the most appropriate treatment options. The Eat Smart study aims to contribute to the knowledge base of effective dietary strategies for the clinical management of the obese adolescent and examine the cardiometablic effects of a reduced carbohydrate diet versus a low fat diet. Methods and design Eat Smart is a randomised controlled trial and aims to recruit 100 adolescents over a 2 1/2 year period. Families will be invited to participate following referral by their health professional who has recommended weight management. Participants will be overweight as defined by a body mass index (BMI greater than the 90th percentile, using CDC 2000 growth charts. An accredited 6-week psychological life skills program 'FRIENDS for Life', which is designed to provide behaviour change and coping skills will be undertaken prior to volunteers being randomised to group. The intervention arms include a structured reduced carbohydrate or a structured low fat dietary program based on an individualised energy prescription. The intervention will involve a series of dietetic appointments over 24 weeks. The control group will commence the dietary program of their choice after a 12 week period. Outcome measures will be assessed at baseline, week 12 and week 24. The primary outcome measure will be change in BMI z-score. A range of secondary outcome measures including body composition, lipid fractions, inflammatory markers, social and psychological measures will be measured. Discussion The chronic and difficult nature of treating the obese adolescent is increasingly recognised by clinicians and has highlighted the need for research aimed at providing effective intervention strategies, particularly for use in the tertiary setting. A structured reduced carbohydrate approach may provide a dietary pattern that some

  4. Interactions among the glucocorticoid receptor, lipoprotein lipase and adrenergic receptor genes and abdominal fat in the Québec Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukkola, O; Pérusse, L; Chagnon, Y C; Després, J P; Bouchard, C

    2001-09-01

    To investigate whether interactions between glucocorticoid receptor (GRL), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and adrenergic receptor (ADR) gene markers contribute to individual differences in indicators of adiposity and abdominal obesity, including visceral fat level. Cross-sectional study; 742 individuals from the phase 2 of the Québec Family Study cohort. Total body fat assessed by hydrodensitometry and the sum of six skinfolds. Abdominal fat areas measured by computed tomography and adjusted for age, sex and total fat mass in all analyses. GRL Bcl I, alpha 2A-ADR Dra I and beta 2-ADR Ban I markers were typed by Southern blot, and other markers by polymerase chain reaction technique. It is confirmed that the 4.5 kb allele of the GRL BclI polymorphism is associated with a higher amount of abdominal visceral fat (AVF) depot (P for trend<0.001) independent of the level of total body fat. Furthermore, the alpha 2-ADR Dra I variant is associated with lower cross-sectional areas of abdominal total (P=0.003) and subcutaneous (P=0.012) adipose tissue. Gene-gene interactions between GRL and alpha 2-ADR genes affecting overall adiposity (P=0.016) as well as between GRL and beta 2-ADR genes (P=0.049) having influence on total abdominal fat levels were observed. When the three genes were considered together in the same analysis, significant interactions having influence on overall adiposity (P=0.017), abdominal total (P=0.032) and visceral fat (P=0.002) were observed. About 1-2% of the total variation in total fatness and abdominal fat was explained by these gene-gene interactions. There is an association between the GRL BclI polymorphism and increased AVF levels independent of the level of total body fat. The alpha 2-ADR DraI variant is associated with a lower cross-sectional area of abdominal total fat. Numerous interactions between GRL and ADR markers on overall adiposity and total abdominal fat as well as between GRL, LPL and ADR genes on overall adiposity, abdominal total and

  5. Sensory acceptability of slow fermented sausages based on fat content and ripening time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Alicia; Navarro, José Luis; Salvador, Ana; Flores, Mónica

    2010-10-01

    Low fat dry fermented sausages were manufactured using controlled ripening conditions and a slow fermented process. The effect of fat content and ripening time on the chemical, colour, texture parameters and sensory acceptability was studied. The fat reduction in slow fermented sausages produced an increase in the pH decline during the first stage of the process that was favoured by the higher water content of the low fat sausages. Fat reduction did not affect the external appearance and there was an absence of defects but lower fat content resulted in lower sausage lightness. The sausage texture in low fat sausages caused an increase in chewiness and at longer ripening times, an increase in hardness. The sensory acceptability of the fermented sausages analyzed by internal preference mapping depended on the different preference patterns of consumers. A group of consumers preferred sausages with high and medium fat content and high ripening time. The second group of consumers preferred sausages with low ripening time regardless of fat content except for the appearance, for which these consumers preferred sausages of high ripening time. Finally, the limit to produce high acceptability low fat fermented sausages was 16% fat content in the raw mixture that is half the usual content of dry fermented sausages.

  6. Deregulation of the protocadherin gene FAT1 alters muscle shapes: implications for the pathogenesis of facioscapulohumeral dystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Caruso

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Generation of skeletal muscles with forms adapted to their function is essential for normal movement. Muscle shape is patterned by the coordinated polarity of collectively migrating myoblasts. Constitutive inactivation of the protocadherin gene Fat1 uncoupled individual myoblast polarity within chains, altering the shape of selective groups of muscles in the shoulder and face. These shape abnormalities were followed by early onset regionalised muscle defects in adult Fat1-deficient mice. Tissue-specific ablation of Fat1 driven by Pax3-cre reproduced muscle shape defects in limb but not face muscles, indicating a cell-autonomous contribution of Fat1 in migrating muscle precursors. Strikingly, the topography of muscle abnormalities caused by Fat1 loss-of-function resembles that of human patients with facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD. FAT1 lies near the critical locus involved in causing FSHD, and Fat1 mutant mice also show retinal vasculopathy, mimicking another symptom of FSHD, and showed abnormal inner ear patterning, predictive of deafness, reminiscent of another burden of FSHD. Muscle-specific reduction of FAT1 expression and promoter silencing was observed in foetal FSHD1 cases. CGH array-based studies identified deletion polymorphisms within a putative regulatory enhancer of FAT1, predictive of tissue-specific depletion of FAT1 expression, which preferentially segregate with FSHD. Our study identifies FAT1 as a critical determinant of muscle form, misregulation of which associates with FSHD.

  7. Storage stability study for margarines produced by enzymatically interesterified fats compared to the margarines by the conventional methods I. Physical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Hong; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2005-01-01

    of table margarines in a pilot plant. Storage stability studies were carried out at storage temperatures of 5 and 25 7C during 12 wk. Margarines from the enzymatically interesterified fats were compared to the margarines produced by conventional methods and to selected commercial products. The changes......In this study, margarine hardstocks were produced from two enzymatically interesterified fats at conversion degrees of 80 and 100%, a chemically randomized fat and a physically mixed fat, respectively. These four hardstocks blended with 50% of sunflower oil were mainly used for the production...... in the physical properties of margarines, including hardness, dropping point, crystal form, and sensory evaluation, were examined during storage. It was observed that margarine storage stability increased with increasing conversion degree. The color of margarines made from the enzymatically interesterified fats...

  8. Fast Food Pattern and Cardiometabolic Disorders: A Review of Current Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadoran, Zahra; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    There are growing concern globally regarding the alarming trend of fast food consumption and its related cardiometabolic outcomes including overweight and obesity. This study aimed to review the current evidences available in relation to adverse effects of fast food pattern on cardiometa-bolic risk factors. Relevant articles including epidemiological and clinical studies with appropriate design and good quality were obtained through searches of the Medline, PubMed, Scopus databases and Google scholar with related key words including "fast foods", "processed foods", "obesity", "overweight", "insulin resistance", "diabetes", "cardiovascular disease", "metabolic syndrome", "dyslipidemia" and "hypertension". Fast food consumption and out-of-home eating behavior is a main risk factor for lower diet quality, higher calorie and fat intake and lower micronutrients density of diet. Frequent consumption of fast foods was accompanied with overweight and abdominal fat gain, impaired insulin and glucose homeostasis, lipid and lipoprotein disorders, induction of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. Higher fast food consumption also increases the risk of developmental diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. This review provides further evidence warning us against the irreparable effects of fast food consumption on public health especially the increasing global burden of obesity and cardiovascu-lar diseases.

  9. Fast Food Pattern and Cardiometabolic Disorders: A Review of Current Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Bahadoran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are growing concern globally regarding the alarming trend of fast food consump­tion and its related cardiometabolic outcomes including overweight and obesity. This study aimed to review the current evidences available in relation to adverse effects of fast food pattern on cardiometa­bolic risk factors. Methods: Relevant articles including epidemiological and clinical studies with appropriate design and good quality were obtained through searches of the Medline, PubMed, Scopus databases and Google scholar with related key words including "fast foods", "processed foods", "obesity", "overweight", "insulin resistance", "diabetes", "cardiovascular disease", "metabolic syndrome", "dyslipidemia" and "hypertension". Results: Fast food consumption and out-of-home eating behavior is a main risk factor for lower diet quality, higher calorie and fat intake and lower micronutrients density of diet. Frequent consumption of fast foods was accompanied with overweight and abdominal fat gain, impaired insulin and glucose homeostasis, lipid and lipoprotein disorders, induction of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. Higher fast food consumption also increases the risk of developmental diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Conclusion: This review provides further evidence warning us against the irreparable effects of fast food consumption on public health especially the increasing global burden of obesity and cardiovascu­lar diseases.

  10. Obesity-related polymorphisms and their associations with the ability to regulate fat oxidation in obese Europeans: the NUGENOB study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corpeleijn, Eva; Petersen, Liselotte; Holst, Claus

    2010-01-01

    .01) was related to increased fat oxidation in the fasting state. The ability to increase fat oxidation after a high fat load was increased in subjects with -174 G>C IL6 (rs1800795) (P = 0.01). Effect sizes range from 1.1 to 3.1% differences in fat oxidation (expressed as % of EE). FTO rs9939609 was not related...

  11. A multicenter study of the influence of fat and lean mass on bone mineral content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hla, M M; Davis, J W; Ross, P D

    1996-01-01

    We examined the relative influence of fat and lean mass on bone mineral content (BMC) among 1600 early postmenopausal women aged 45-59 y from four geographical locations (Nottingham, United Kingdom; Portland, OR; Honolulu; and Copenhagen). Bone sites investigated included the major fracture sites...

  12. Generalized equations for estimating DXA percent fat of diverse young women and men: The Tiger Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popular generalized equations for estimating percent body fat (BF%) developed with cross-sectional data are biased when applied to racially/ethnically diverse populations. We developed accurate anthropometric models to estimate dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry BF% (DXA-BF%) that can be generalized t...

  13. Generation 1.5 Written Error Patterns: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolan, Stephen M.; Miller, Donald

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to contribute to existing research on Generation 1.5 students, the current study uses quantitative and qualitative methods to compare error patterns in a corpus of Generation 1.5, L1, and L2 community college student writing. This error analysis provides one important way to determine if error patterns in Generation 1.5 student…

  14. Optimizing a Workplace Learning Pattern: A Case Study from Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavin, Timothy John; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to contribute to current research on team learning patterns. It specifically addresses some negative perceptions of the job performance learning pattern. Design/methodology/approach: Over a period of three years, qualitative and quantitative data were gathered on pilot learning in the workplace. The instructional modes…

  15. Optimizing a Workplace Learning Pattern: A Case Study from Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavin, Timothy John; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to contribute to current research on team learning patterns. It specifically addresses some negative perceptions of the job performance learning pattern. Design/methodology/approach: Over a period of three years, qualitative and quantitative data were gathered on pilot learning in the workplace. The instructional modes…

  16. An Empirical Study on Students' Ability to Comprehend Design Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzigeorgiou, Alexander; Tsantalis, Nikolaos; Deligiannis, Ignatios

    2008-01-01

    Design patterns have become a widely acknowledged software engineering practice and therefore have been incorporated in the curricula of most computer science departments. This paper presents an observational study on students' ability to understand and apply design patterns. Within the context of a postgraduate software engineering course,…

  17. Production of margarine fats by enzymatic interesterification with silica-granulated Thermomyces lanuginosa lipase in a large-scale study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Hong; Xu, Xuebing; Nilsson, Jörgen

    2001-01-01

    Interesterification of a blend of palm stearin and coconut oil (75:25, w/w), catalyzed by an immobilized Thermomyces lanuginosa lipase by silica granulation, Lipozyme TL IM, was studied for production of margarine fats in a 1- or 300-kg pilot-scale batch-stirred tank reactor. Parameters and reusa......Interesterification of a blend of palm stearin and coconut oil (75:25, w/w), catalyzed by an immobilized Thermomyces lanuginosa lipase by silica granulation, Lipozyme TL IM, was studied for production of margarine fats in a 1- or 300-kg pilot-scale batch-stirred tank reactor. Parameters......, implying the potential nutritional benefits of the new technology....

  18. Dietary Patterns and Obesity among Chinese Adults: Results from a Household-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yan; Zhang, Ronghua; Xia, Shichang; Huang, Lichun; Meng, Jia; Fang, Yueqiang; Ding, Gangqiang

    2017-05-05

    The key dietary pattern other than dietary factors influencing obesity has been reported by several large epidemiological studies. This study was carried out between 2010 and 2012 including 1613 adult residents in Zhejiang Province. Dietary patterns were extracted by factor analysis based on 24-h dietary recall. Associations with dietary patterns and obesity were examined and adjusted for age and gender by logistic regression. Five dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis with their eigenvalues greater than 1: 'cereal, animal, and plant food', 'high protein food', 'plant food', 'poultry', and 'beverage'. After adjustment for age and gender, the 'cereal, animal, and plant food' and 'beverage' pattern was associated with obesity (OR = 2.924, 3.257; 95% CI = 1.147-7.463, 1.372-7.692). In conclusion, 'cereal, animal, and plant food' and 'beverage' dietary patterns may be associated with increased risk of obesity. 'Cereal, animal, and plant food' dietary patterns may be associated with increased risk of obesity resulting from increased total energy intake by increased protein and fat intake; while a 'beverage' dietary pattern may be associated with increased risk of obesity resulting from increased total energy intake by increased carbohydrate intake. The findings are valuable in targeting future nutrition education.

  19. Correlation study of intra-abdominal fat accumulation and ambulatory blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li ZHANG

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To explore the influence of intra-abdominal fat (IAF accumulation on ambulatory blood pressure (ABP. Methods  Four hundred and forty-eight hospitalized patients with cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, including 235 males and 213 females, aged 20-85 (55±12 years old, were enrolled in this study. The abdominal fatty thickness was measured with B-mode ultrasound. Simultaneously the patient received 24hABP monitoring. The patients were divided into excessive IAF group, normal group, and quintile subgroups according to the cut-off points (male 38.5mm, female 34.7mm for observing the difference in indexes of ambulatory blood pressure between different groups/subgroups. Results  The 24h mean systolic BP (24hMSBP, 24h mean BP (24hMBP, 24h mean diastolic BP (24hMDBP, daytime MSBP (dMSBP, daytime MBP (dMBP, daytime MDBP (dMDBP, nighttime MSBP (nMSBP, nighttime MBP (nMBP, night MDBP (nMDBP were significantly higher in the excessive IAF group than in the normal group (P < 0.05. However, the elevation of ABP was not a simple gradual linear elevation corresponding to a gradual increase in IAF thickness, but manifested an approximately U-shaped trend. Pearson correlation analysis showed IAF thickness was positively correlated with all the indexes of 24hABP, while partial correlation analysis after adjustment for age and sex showed IAF thickness was positively correlated with 24hSBP, 24hMBP, dMBP and nMBP. Conclusion  The relationship between IAF thickness and ABP presents a U-shaped curve, which may provide an enlightenment in controlling blood pressure by weight loss in clinical work.

  20. The effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate on thermogenesis and fat oxidation in obese men: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschmann, Michael; Thielecke, Frank

    2007-08-01

    The development of obesity is characterized by an increase in adipose tissue mass and by concomitant and profound changes in almost all organ functions leading to diseases such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease. Recent data from human studies indicate that the consumption of green tea and green tea extracts may help reduce body weight, mainly body fat, by increasing postprandial thermogenesis and fat oxidation. However, human studies investigating the metabolic effects of the most predominant tea catechin, EGCG, alone are absent. In a randomized double blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over pilot study, six overweight men were given 300 mg EGCG/d for 2d. Fasting and postprandial changes in energy expenditure (EE) and substrate oxidation were assessed. Resting EE did not differ significantly between EGCG and placebo treatments, although during the first postprandial monitoring phase, respiratory quotient (RQ) values were significantly lower with EGCG compared to the placebo. These findings suggest that EGCG alone has the potential to increase fat oxidation in men and may thereby contribute to the anti-obesity effects of green tea. However, more studies with a greater sample size and a broader range of age and BMI are needed to define the optimum dose.

  1. Effects of isoenergetic quantities of a low-starch muesli feed high in fat and fibre vs. oat grains on the glycemic and insulinemic responses and feed intake patterns in sport ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochnia, M; Schürer, C; Gottschalk, J; Einspanier, A; Hillegeist, D; Wensch-Dorendorf, M; Greef, J M; Glatter, M; Zeyner, A

    2017-06-01

    Aim of this study was to compare glycemic and insulinemic responses and feed intake patterns in sport ponies after feeding isoenergetic quantities of low-starch muesli feed high in fat and fibre (FF) or oat grains (OG). Six sport ponies were randomly assigned to one of these two treatment groups for 2 × 3 weeks according to a crossover-design. Ponies received two equal meals/day of either semi-crushed OG (1 g starch/kg bwt*meal(-1) ) or an isoenergetic quantity of FF. Hay was also given in two equal meals/day and provided the remaining metabolisable energy up to 1.3-fold maintenance level. On day 21, blood was sampled 1 h after each pony received 0.5 kg hay (0 min). Then, the concentrate was provided and blood sampled 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240 and 300 min thereafter. Plasma glucose and serum insulin were analysed, and the areas under the curve (AUC) was calculated 120 and 300 min postprandial (PP). Feed intake patterns were measured in 4 ponies/group via a modified halter. OG was ingested faster than FF (feed intake time; FITDM in min/kg DM: 8.8 ± 1.6 vs. 15.9 ± 1.62, p glucose tended to decline following the intake of FF, which might be beneficial for equines with reduced glucose tolerance. This, however, requires further investigation. In this study, the ponies consumed OG unexpectedly rapidly. The rate of feed intake was similar to the results previously reported in the literature for warmblood horses. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. A simplified study of trans-mitral Doppler patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas George

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trans-mitral Doppler produces complex patterns with a great deal of variability. There are several confusing numerical measures and indices to study these patterns. However trans-mitral Doppler produces readymade data visualization by pattern generation which could be interpreted by pattern analysis. By following a systematic approach we could create an order and use this tool to study cardiac function. Presentation of the hypothesis In this new approach we eliminate the variables and apply pattern recognition as the main criterion of study. Proper terminologies are also devised to avoid confusion. In this way we can get some meaningful information. Testing the hypothesis Trans-mitral Doppler should be seen as patterns rather than the amplitude. The hypothesis can be proven by logical deduction, extrapolation and elimination of variables. Trans-mitral flow is also analyzed vis-à-vis the Starling's Law applied to the left atrium. Implications of the hypothesis Trans-mitral Doppler patterns are not just useful for evaluating diastolic function. They are also useful to evaluate systolic function. By following this schema we could get useful diagnostic information and therapeutic options using simple pattern recognition with minimal measurements. This simplified but practical approach will be useful in day to day clinical practice and help in understanding cardiac function better. This will also standardize research and improve communication.

  3. Influence of dietary patterns on the risk of acute myocardial infarction in China population: the INTERHEART China study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Jin; LI Wei; WANG Yang; CHEN Tao; Koon Teo; LIU Li-sheng

    2013-01-01

    Background Some dietary patterns are risk factors for acute myocardial infarction (AMI).Chinese traditional food and habits vary from other cultures.The present study determined whether different dietary patterns were associated with AMI in Chinese people.Methods We conducted a case-control study.There were 1312 cases of first AMI and 2235 control subjects who did not have previous angina,diabetes mellitus,hypertension or stroke.Controls were matched to cases on age and gender.Diet was measured with a validated,19 item food frequency questionnaire.We identified three major dietary patterns using factor analysis:vitamin and microelement pattern (high intake of vegetables,fruits and tofu),carbohydrate pattern (high in grain),and fat and protein pattern (high in meat,fish,eggs and fried foods).Results After adjusting for all risk factors,the vitamin and microelement pattern was inversely associated with AMI risk (global P value,0.0001).Compared with the first quartile,the adjusted ORs of AMI were 0.81 (95% CI:0.66-1.00) for the second quartile,0.67 (95% CI:0.54-0.82) for the third,and 0.70 (95% CI:0.56-0.88) for the fourth.Several dietary frequencies (serves per week) including vegetables,fruits and tofu were closely associated with decrease of AMI risk.Carbohydrate pattern showed weak relationship with AMI.We observed a U-shaped association between frequencies of fat and protein pattern and AMI risk.Excessive fat intake increased the AMI risk.The adjusted OR of AMI associated with the higher level of green vegetables was 0.37 (95% CI:0.24-0.57) in women and 0.65 (95% CI:0.51-0.82) in men (P value for heterogeneity,0.0140).Conclusions Unhealthy dietary intake can increase the AMI risk.Improving intake of vegetables,fruits and tofu have the potential to partially prevent the rising epidemic of cardiovascular disease in China.

  4. Gait patterns in COPD: the Rotterdam Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahousse, Lies; Verlinden, Vincentius J A; van der Geest, Jos N; Joos, Guy F; Hofman, Albert; Stricker, Bruno H C; Brusselle, Guy G; Ikram, M Arfan

    2015-07-01

    Gait disturbances in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may lead to disability and falls. As studies assessing gait kinematics in COPD are sparse, we investigated associations of COPD with various gait domains and explored a potential link with falling. Gait was measured within the prospective, population-based Rotterdam Study (age ≥55 years) using an electronic walkway and summarised into seven gait domains: Rhythm, Variability, Phases, Pace, Tandem, Turning and Base of Support. Rhythm is a temporal gait aspect that includes cadence and reflects how quickly steps are taken. Persons with COPD (n=196) exhibited worse Rhythm (-0.21 SD, 95% CI -0.36- -0.06 SD) compared with persons with normal lung function (n=898), independent of age, sex, height, education, smoking or analgesic use, especially when dyspnoea and severe airflow limitation or frequent exacerbations (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease group D: -0.83 SD, 95% CI -1.25- -0.41 SD) were present. A lower forced expiratory volume in 1 s was associated with worse Rhythm and Pace, including lower cadence and gait velocity, respectively. Importantly, fallers with COPD had significantly worse Rhythm than nonfallers with COPD. This study demonstrates that persons with COPD exhibit worse Rhythm, especially fallers with COPD. The degree of Rhythm deterioration was associated with the degree of airflow limitation, symptoms and frequency of exacerbations.

  5. High-fat diet is associated with obesity-mediated insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction in Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Mary Helen; Watanabe, Richard M; Trigo, Enrique; Takayanagi, Miwa; Lawrence, Jean M; Buchanan, Thomas A; Xiang, Anny H

    2013-04-01

    Consumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods has contributed to the rising incidence of obesity and may underlie insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction. Macronutrient intake patterns were examined in relation to anthropometric and metabolic traits in participants of BetaGene, a family-based study of obesity, insulin resistance, and β-cell dysfunction in Mexican Americans. Dietary intake, body composition, insulin sensitivity (SI), and β-cell function [Disposition Index (DI)] were assessed by food-frequency questionnaires, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and intravenous glucose-tolerance tests, respectively. Patterns of macronutrient intake were identified by using a K-means model based on the proportion of total energy intake per day attributable to carbohydrate, fat, and protein and were tested for association with anthropometric and metabolic traits. Among 1150 subjects aged 18-65 y (73% female), tertiles of fat intake were associated with greater adiposity and lower SI, after adjustment for age, sex, and daily energy intake. Moreover, 3 distinct dietary patterns were identified: "high fat" (35% fat, 44% carbohydrate, 21% protein; n = 238), "moderate fat" (28% fat, 54% carbohydrate, 18% protein; n = 520), and "low fat" (20% fat, 65% carbohydrate, 15% protein; n = 392). Compared with the low-fat group, the high-fat group had higher age- and sex-adjusted mean body mass index, body fat percentage, and trunk fat and lower SI and DI. Further adjustment for daily energy intake by matching individuals across dietary pattern groups yielded similar results. None of the observed associations were altered after adjustment for physical activity; however, associations with SI and DI were attenuated after adjustment for adiposity. These findings suggest that high-fat diets may contribute to increased adiposity and concomitant insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction in Mexican Americans.

  6. Milk minerals modify the effect of fat intake on serum lipid profile: results from an animal and a human short-term study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Janne K; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Astrup, Arne

    2014-01-01

    Despite a high content of saturated fat, evidence from observational studies indicates that the consumption of dairy products may have a neutral effect or may be inversely associated with the risk of CVD. We aimed to examine whether milk minerals modify the effect of saturated fat on serum lipid...... profile. We present data from two studies. Study I had a randomised, blinded, parallel design (n 24 pigs) with a 10 d adaptation period during which a high-fat diet was fed to the pigs and a 14 d intervention period during which the same diet either enriched with milk minerals (MM group) or placebo...

  7. Body Image and Anti-Fat Attitudes: An Experimental Study Using a Haptic Virtual Reality Environment to Replicate Human Touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Line; Roy-Vaillancourt, Mélina; Chebbi, Brahim; Bouchard, Stéphane; Daoust, Michael; Dénommée, Jessica; Thorpe, Moriah

    2016-02-01

    It is well documented that anti-fat attitudes influence the interactions individuals have with overweight people. However, testing attitudes through self-report measures is challenging. In the present study, we explore the use of a haptic virtual reality environment to physically interact with overweight virtual human (VH). We verify the hypothesis that duration and strength of virtual touch vary according to the characteristics of VH in ways similar to those encountered from interaction with real people in anti-fat attitude studies. A group of 61 participants were randomly assigned to one of the experimental conditions involving giving a virtual hug to a female or a male VH of either normal or overweight. We found significant associations between body image satisfaction and anti-fat attitudes and sex differences on these measures. We also found a significant interaction effect of the sex of the participants, sex of the VH, and the body size of the VH. Female participants hugged longer the overweight female VH than overweight male VH. Male participants hugged longer the normal-weight VH than the overweight VH. We conclude that virtual touch is a promising method of measuring attitudes, emotion and social interactions.

  8. Sodium butyrate reduces insulin-resistance, fat accumulation and dyslipidemia in type-2 diabetic rat: A comparative study with metformin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sabbir; Jena, Gopabandhu

    2016-07-25

    Recent evidences highlighted that histone deacetylases (HDACs) can deacetylate the histone, various transcription factors and regulatory proteins, which directly or indirectly affect glucose metabolism. The present study aimed to evaluate the comparative effects of sodium butyrate (NaB) and metformin on the glucose homeostasis, insulin-resistance, fat accumulation and dyslipidemia in type-2 diabetic rat. Diabetes was developed in Sprague-Dawley rats by the combination of high-fat diet (HFD) and low dose streptozotocin (STZ, 35 mg/kg). NaB at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg twice daily as well as metformin (as a positive control) 150 mg/kg twice daily for 10 consecutive weeks were administered by i.p. and oral route, respectively. NaB treatment significantly reduced the plasma glucose, HbA1c, insulin-resistance, dyslipidemia and gluconeogenesis, which are comparable to metformin treatment. Further, NaB treatment ameliorated the micro- and macro-vesicular steatosis in liver and fat deposition in brown adipose tissue, white adipose tissue (adipocytes hypertrophy) as well as pancreatic beta-cell damage. In the present study, both NaB and metformin inhibited the diabetes-associated increased HDACs activity, thereby increased the acetylation of histone H3 in liver. The present findings demonstrated that NaB and metformin reduced insulin-resistance, dyslipidemia, fat accumulation and gluconeogenesis thereby improved the glucose homeostasis in rat. Thus, NaB might be a promising molecule for the prevention and treatment of type-2 diabetes and dyslipidemia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Hormone replacement therapy dissociates fat mass and bone mass, and tends to reduce weight gain in early postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled 5-year clinical trial of the Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L B; Vestergaard, P; Hermann, A P

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to study the influence of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on weight changes, body composition, and bone mass in early postmenopausal women in a partly randomized comprehensive cohort study design. A total of 2016 women ages 45-58 years from 3 months to 2 years past last...... of the weight gain was a decline in physical fitness. Women opting for HRT had a significantly lower body weight at inclusion than the other participants, but the results in the self-selected part of the study followed the pattern found in the randomized part. The change in fat mass was the strongest predictor...

  10. Graphical passwords: a qualitative study of password patterns

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vorster, J

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available focus on a quantitative analysis of graphical passwords. During this study users from commercial companies were asked to enter graphical passwords. These passwords were then analysed and patterns identified. Users were also asked what there password...

  11. Study on morbidity pattern among elderly in urban population of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    common health conditions affecting the elderly and evaluate the differences in the morbidity pattern between ... community based Cross sectional study was carried out at the field practice area of ... Economic status of the family was assessed.

  12. Food consumption pattern in urban households: The case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food consumption pattern in urban households: The case study of Uyo ... The problem highlighted include efforts toward equitable redistribution of income among all income earners. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  13. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern in Diabetic Foot Ulcer: A Pilot Study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern in Diabetic Foot Ulcer: A Pilot Study. ... of microbes that cause infections are helpful to determine proper antibiotic therapy. ... including extended spectrum beta lactamase producing strains of Proteus ...

  14. Degree of obesity influences the relationship of PAI-1 with body fat distribution and metabolic variables in African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Sunelle A; Pieters, Marlien; Nienaber-Rousseau, Cornelie; Kruger, Herculina S

    2016-10-01

    Although the relationship of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) with obesity has been well established, the relationship of PAI-1 with different body fat distribution patterns is less clear particularly in non-white ethnicities. We investigated the cross-sectional association of PAI-1act with body fat % and two different body fat distribution patterns, namely sarcopenic obesity (SO) and visceral (VAT) compared to subcutaneous (SCAT) abdominal obesity, in 246 healthy African women by creating sub-groups according to different body fat distribution patterns. The PAI-1act level of the SO group did not differ significantly from that of the excessive % body fat, non-sarcopenic group (p=0.8). The relationship of PAI-1act, with body fat %, insulin, triglycerides and appendicular skeletal mass (ASM) was influenced by body fat distribution patterns and degree of obesity. PAI-1act was higher (1.65 vs 0.16U/ml; p=0.001) in women with a proportionally higher abdominal VAT compared to higher abdominal SCAT compartment in the total study population, but not in the centrally obese sub-group (1.72 vs 0.83U/ml; p=0.5). Multiple regression models indicated that body fat % per se did not contribute significantly to PAI-1act variance in women with increased fat mass. Fat distribution patterns and degree of obesity influenced the association of PAI-1act with insulin, triglycerides, ASM and body fat % in African women. In centrally obese women, abdominal VAT no longer contributed more to plasma PAI-1act, than abdominal SCAT. Inflammation and endothelial dysfunction contributed more to PAI-1act variance in obese African women than did body fat % per se. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Case-Control Study of Dietary Pattern and Other Risk Factors for Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Naghizadeh Baghi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The rates of gastric cancer reported from Ardabil Province of Iran, are among thehighest in the world. The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors for gastric cancer inArdabil Province.Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 128 adults with mean age of 56.5 ± 12.8 yrold in Ardebil City, Iran in 2010 – 2011. Forty-two people with gastric cancer and 86 healthypeople were recruited. Participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Fastingblood samples were taken for measurement of IgG and IgA indices against Helicobacter pylori infection.Data were analyzed using the Chi-square and Independent sample t-test.Results: Diet and H. pylori infection indices had the significant relationship with gastric cancer(P<0.05. Among dietary patterns, drinking hot tea, low intake of fresh vegetables and fruits, andunsaturated fat were the most significant risk factors (P<0.05. In gastric cancer patients, the levelsof serum IgG and IgA as indicator of H. pylori infection were significantly (P<0.05 higherthan the healthy subjects (IgG 37.7 ± 29.3 vs. 16.9 ± 11.1 U/ml and IgA 50.5 ± 44.7 vs. 22.9 ±15.8 U/ml. No significant relationship was observed between tobacco smoking and alcohol consumptionwith gastric cancer.Conclusion: Dietary pattern especially drinking hot tea and low consumption of unsaturated fat,fresh vegetables, and fruits, as well as H. pylori infection were the most important risk factors ingastric cancer patients.

  16. Designing regional pattern for ecosystem restoration: A case study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guoqiang; MA Keming; FU Bojie; LIU Shiling

    2006-01-01

    Designing regional pattern is challenging for ecosystem restoration both in theory and in practice. The present study proposed a new approach to design regional pattern for ecosystem restoration with a case in the arid valley of Upper Minjiang River, SW China. The procedures are: (1) Determine the regional pattern of main environmental factors based on the relationships between the important environmental factors and the main geographical factors generated from DEM data. (2) Overlay the maps of the main environmental factors. (3) Generate a lookup table according to the species selection rule we proposed to link the candidate restoration species to the main environmental factors.(4) Determine the regional pattern of ecosystem restoration by positioning the restoration species in the map of environmental factors according to the lookup table. The regional restoration pattern designed in this way would be applicable not only to restoring a region, but also to predicting the future landscape change.

  17. The correlation study on arch type with physical fitness, body fat and heath-carter somatotype

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lei; Yin Shuai; Sui Yuelin; Liu Yuanyuan; Ding Wenfeng

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between the arch type and physical form, physical fit-ness, body fat and somatotype. Methods:Measure and type the arch of 382 male soldier in a certain army by foot-print ratio method; Routinely detect the results of height and weight, body fat, 100 and 5 000 meters running, standing jump;According to the international heath-carter method, ten indexes were measured and the somatotype were evaluated. Results:①382 samples, flatfoot 91, accounted for 23. 6%, the foot arch index 0. 60 + 0. 21;non-flatfoot 291 , 76 . 2%, arch index 1 . 14 +0 . 22 , t=22 . 83 , P=0 . 001;②Comparing the mean of the results of height, weight, BMI, body fat percentage,100 and 5 000 meters running, standing jump of the two groups( flatfoot and non-flatfoot) samples, t-text, P>0. 05; ③Assessed by the method of heath-carter shape, flatfoot group so-matotype mean is 2. 7 (0. 7) -4. 8 (1. 3) -2. 7 (0. 9), sam is 1. 5 (0. 9);non flatfoot group somatotype mean is 2. 3 (0. 7) -5. 0 (3. 1) -2. 4 (0. 9), sam is 1. 6 (1. 0);The distance of two groups`points in 3D space mean somatotypes is 0. 54; t-test of the two groups`somatotype mean, P>0. 05. Conclusions: Compared the flatfoot group with the control group, there is no significant difference in physical form, physical fitness, body fat and so-matotype. The increasingly high rate of flatfoot in healthy people is physical, but not flatfoot disease, and no need for surgery.

  18. METHANOLYSIS AND ETHANOLYSIS OF ANIMAL FATS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF ALCOHOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANUEL GARCÍA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel from animal fats with methanol and ethanol was produced in the presence of sodium methoxide and sodium ethoxide as catalysts. Two samples of pork fats and one natural beef tallow were directly transesterified with a good final product yield: 87.7, 86.7 and 86.3% for methanolysis, and 78.4, 82.6 and 82.7% for ethanolysis, respectively. Methyl ester content was also determined, being higher than 96.5 mass% for all the samples prepared. The presence of natural C17:0 in animal fats makes it necessary to correct the method pro¬posed in the standard EN 14103 (2003. Biodiesel density at 15 C of the samples was between 870 and 876 kg/m3, within the acceptance range of standard EN 14214, and the dynamic viscosity at 40 °C of the produced biodiesels was in the range of 4.5 to 5.16 mm2/s, also fulfilling requirements of EN 14214 standard. The iodine value is much lower than the superior limit established by EN 14214 standard but oxidation stability (OSI is lower than the required limit, 6 h, of the standard, which can be attributed to the lack of natural antioxidants in tallows.

  19. Routine clinical measures of adiposity as predictors of visceral fat in adolescence: a population-based magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Goodwin

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Visceral fat (VF increases cardiometabolic risk more than fat stored subcutaneously. Here, we investigated how well routine clinical measures of adiposity, namely body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (waist, predict VF and subcutaneous fat (SF in a large population-based sample of adolescents. As body-fat distribution differs between males and females, we performed these analyses separately in each sex. DESIGN AND METHODS: VF and SF were measured by magnetic resonance imaging in 1,002 adolescents (482 males, age 12-18 years. Relationships of BMI and waist with VF and SF were tested in multivariable analyses, which adjusted for potentially confounding effects of age and height. RESULTS: In both males and females, BMI and waist were highly correlated with VF and SF, and explained 55-76% of their total variance. When VF was adjusted for SF, however, BMI and waist explained, respectively, only 0% and 4% of VF variance in males, and 4% and 11% of VF variance in females. In contrast, when SF was adjusted for VF, BMI and waist explained, respectively, 36% and 21% of SF variance in males, and 48% and 23% of SF variance in females. These relationships were similar during early and late puberty. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: During adolescence, routine clinical measures of adiposity predict well SF but not VF. This holds for both sexes and throughout puberty. Further longitudinal studies are required to assess how well these measures predict changes of VF and SF over time. Given the clinical importance of VF, development of cost-effective imaging techniques and/or robust biomarkers of VF accumulation that would be suitable in everyday clinical practice is warranted.

  20. Infant milk fat droplet size and coating affect postprandial responses in healthy adult men: a proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, S; van de Heijning, B J M; Acton, D; Mensink, R P

    2017-09-01

    Fat droplets in human milk (HM) are larger and surrounded by a phospholipid membrane compared with infant milk formulas (IMF). Since the physical structure of fat droplets might affect digestion and postprandial metabolism, an IMF was developed more mimicking HM lipid structure than current IMF. A randomised, double-blind, crossover study was performed in 29 fasted healthy men (aged 18-25 years, BMI: 18-25 kg/m(2)) to compare 5-hour postprandial responses after consumption of an experimental IMF (Concept, Nuturis) with a current IMF (Control). Postprandial triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations tended to increase faster after intake of Concept IMF (P=0.054), but peaked 3 h after intakes at similar concentrations. ApoB48 increased steadily and peaked 3 h after consumption. Increases in plasma glucose concentrations were comparable, but peak concentrations were reached faster after consumption of Concept IMF (PIMF, causing a sharper decremental glucose rebound (PIMF. Satiety scores and changes in the satiety hormones ghrelin and peptide YY were comparable, while cholecystokinin responses were earlier and higher after consumption of Control IMF (PIMF with larger and phospholipid-coated fat droplets are more rapidly absorbed than those from the current IMF.

  1. Body fat in children and adolescents participating in organized sports: Descriptive epidemiological study of 6048 Latvian athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalnina, Liga; Sauka, Melita; Timpka, Toomas; Dahlström, Örjan; Nylander, Eva; Selga, Guntars; Ligere, Renate; Karklina, Helena; Priedite, Ilga S; Larins, Viesturs

    2015-08-01

    Pressure among young athletes to meet body composition goals may lead to poor nutrition and affect growth. To examine the proportion of body fat (%BF), measured by bioimpedance analysis, among Latvian children and adolescents participating in organized sports. Our study had a nationally representative sample of 6048 young athletes, aged 10-17 years. Their %BF was measured using a multifrequency, 8-pole, bioelectrical impedance leg-to-hand analyzer. About 19.2% (CI 14.4-20.0) of boys and 15.1% (CI 14.0-16.3) of girls had a %BF value below the recommended levels. The %BF in young female athletes participating in aesthetic sports was lower than among their peers participating in other sports. Young male athletes participating in aesthetic sports had lower %BF levels at 10 and 12 years of age, compared with participants in weight-class sports; and lower levels of %BF from age 10-14 years, compared with participants in non-weight-sensitive sports. Almost every fifth child and adolescent participating in organized sports displayed critically low body fat levels. Body fat needs to be assessed regularly in young athletes, to prevent negative consequences on health. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  2. Quantitative MRI for hepatic fat fraction and T2* measurement in pediatric patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Jie; Rigsby, Cynthia K.; Donaldson, James S. [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Fishbein, Mark H. [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Chicago, IL (United States); Zhang, Gang [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Biostatistics Research Core, Chicago, IL (United States); Schoeneman, Samantha E. [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children. The gold standard for diagnosis is liver biopsy. MRI is a non-invasive imaging method to provide quantitative measurement of hepatic fat content. The methodology is particularly appealing for the pediatric population because of its rapidity and radiation-free imaging techniques. To develop a multi-point Dixon MRI method with multi-interference models (multi-fat-peak modeling and bi-exponential T2* correction) for accurate hepatic fat fraction (FF) and T2* measurements in pediatric patients with NAFLD. A phantom study was first performed to validate the accuracy of the MRI fat fraction measurement by comparing it with the chemical fat composition of the ex-vivo pork liver-fat homogenate. The most accurate model determined from the phantom study was used for fat fraction and T2* measurements in 52 children and young adults referred from the pediatric hepatology clinic with suspected or identified NAFLD. Separate T2* values of water (T2*{sub W}) and fat (T2*{sub F}) components derived from the bi-exponential fitting were evaluated and plotted as a function of fat fraction. In ten patients undergoing liver biopsy, we compared histological analysis of liver fat fraction with MRI fat fraction. In the phantom study the 6-point Dixon with 5-fat-peak, bi-exponential T2* modeling demonstrated the best precision and accuracy in fat fraction measurements compared with other methods. This model was further calibrated with chemical fat fraction and applied in patients, where similar patterns were observed as in the phantom study that conventional 2-point and 3-point Dixon methods underestimated fat fraction compared to the calibrated 6-point 5-fat-peak bi-exponential model (P < 0.0001). With increasing fat fraction, T2*{sub W} (27.9 ± 3.5 ms) decreased, whereas T2*{sub F} (20.3 ± 5.5 ms) increased; and T2*{sub W} and T2*{sub F} became increasingly more similar when fat

  3. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Mazzoli, Arianna; Giacco, Antonia; Cancelliere, Rosa; di Fabio, Giovanni; Zarrelli, Armando; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2015-11-16

    High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease in oxidative capacity and an increase in oxidative stress in liver mitochondria. To investigate whether polyunsaturated fats could attenuate the above deleterious effects of high fat diets, energy balance and body composition were assessed after two weeks in rats fed isocaloric amounts of a high-fat diet (58.2% by energy) rich either in lard or safflower/linseed oil. Hepatic functionality, plasma parameters, and oxidative status were also measured. The results show that feeding on safflower/linseed oil diet attenuates the obesogenic effect of high fat diets and ameliorates the blood lipid profile. Conversely, hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial oxidative stress appear to be negatively affected by a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids.

  4. Nutrient patterns and asthenozoospermia: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslamian, G; Amirjannati, N; Rashidkhani, B; Sadeghi, M-R; Hekmatdoost, A

    2017-04-01

    The association of dietary nutrient patterns and sperm motility is not yet well elucidated, and previous studies have just focused on the isolated nutrients. This case-control study examined the association of nutrient patterns with asthenozoospermia among Iranian men. In total, 107 incident asthenozoospermic men and 235 age-matched controls were interviewed through the infertility clinics in Tehran, Iran, from January 2012 to November 2013. Semen quality data were analysed according to the fifth edition of WHO guideline. Nutrient patterns were identified using principal component analysis based on semiquantitative 168-item food frequency questionnaires. All nutrient intakes were energy-adjusted by the residual method. In principal component analysis, three dietary patterns emerged. The first pattern, which was high in vitamin E, vitamin D, vitamin C, zinc, folate, total fibre, selenium and polyunsaturated fatty acids, was significantly associated with lower risk of asthenozoospermia. After adjustment for potential confounders, participants in the highest tertile of the first pattern scores had 51% lower risk of asthenozoospermia compared with those in the lowest (p-trend: .004). Our findings suggest that adherence to the pattern comprising mainly of antioxidant nutrients may be inversely associated with asthenozoospermia.

  5. Spatial Tuning Studies of the Pattern Evoked Electroretinogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Dorothy Ann

    1987-09-01

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. The locus of origin of the pattern evoked electroretinogram, (PERG), has been the subject of considerable discussion. A novel approach was adopted in this study to further elaborate the nature of the PERG evoked by pattern onset/offset presentation. The PERG was found to be linearly related to stimulus contrast and in particular was linearly related to the temporal contrast of the retinal image, when elicited by patterns of low spatial frequency. At high spatial frequencies the retinal image contrast is significantly reduced because of optical degradation. This is described by the eye's modulation transfer function (MTF). The retinal contrasts of square wave grating and chequerboard patterns of increasing spatial frequency were found by filtering their Fourier transforms by the MTF. The filtered pattern harmonics were then resynthesised to constitute a profile of retinal image illuminance from which the temporal and spatial contrast of the image could be calculated. A space-averaged temporal contrast attenuation factor was applied to PERGs evoked by low spatial frequency patterns to predict the retinal illuminance response elicited by a finer pattern. The predicted response was subtracted from the recorded signal and the residual waveform was proposed to represent pattern specific activity. An additional correction for the attenuation of spatial contrast was applied to the extracted pattern specific response. Pattern specific responses are the predicted result of iso-contrast retinal pattern stimulation. The pattern specific responses demonstrate a striking bandpass spatial selectivity which peaks at higher spatial frequencies in the more central retina. The variation of spatial sensitivity with eccentricity corresponds closely with estimated ganglion receptive field centre separation and psychophysical data. The variation of retinal structure with eccentricity in the form of the volumes of the nuclear

  6. Time-restricted feeding on weekdays restricts weight gain: A study using rat models of high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Magnus Kringstad; Choi, Man Hung; Kulseng, Bård; Zhao, Chun-Mei; Chen, Duan

    2017-05-01

    A recent study reported that a special weekly scheduled time-restricted feeding regimen (TRF), i.e., no food consumption for 15h during the light (inactive) phase per day for 5 weekdays, attenuated the outcome of diverse nutritional challenges in response to high-fat diet in mice. In the present study, we wanted to further test whether this TRF could restrict body weight gain in both juvenile and adult animals when fed a high-fat diet. Fifty male Sprague-Dawley rats at ages from 5 to 27weeks were used. First, we found that freely fed rats with 60% fat diet gained weight significantly, which was associated with more calorie intake (particularly during light phase) than those fed standard food (7% fat). Secondly, we found that TRF restricted high-fat diet-induced weight gain in both groups of juvenile rats (5 and 13weeks of age) compared to freely fed rats with high-fat diet, despite the same levels of 24h-calorie intake during either weekdays or the weekend. Thirdly, we found that TRF did not restrict high-fat diet-induce weight gain in adult rats (27weeks of age). Thus, we suggest that this special TRF regimen could be further tested in humans (particularly young adults) for the purpose of obesity prevention. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Impaired intestinal fat absorption in chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drukker, A; Levy, E; Bronza, N; Stankiewicz, H; Goldstein, R

    1982-01-01

    We performed oral fat loading tests in 10 patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) on hemodialysis (5 children and 5 adults). Fat absorption was measured by hourly determination of serum triglycerides (TG), cholesterol (CHOL), and lipoproteins (LP) after oral administration of a 'milkshake' containing 50 g of fat of dairy origin. 10 age-matched healthy volunteers with normal fasting serum TG levels and 10 subjects with fasting hypertriglyceridemia served as controls. Mean fasting serum TG levels in CRF patients were elevated compared to normal controls (177.6 +/- 14.6 mg/dl, 2.0 +/- 17 mmol/l vs. 91.0 +/- 10.5 mg/dl, 1.03 +/- 12 mmol/l). 6 patients (4 adults, 2 children) had type IV LP patterns and 2 patients (both children) showed type IIb hyperlipidemia. In only 2 patients, 1 child and 1 adult were TG, CHOL and LP electrophoresis all normal. The oral fat loading test in all CRF patients showed delayed appearance of TG and chylomicrons (CHYL) in the bloodstream i.c. impaired or slow absorption of fat from the gut. In contrast to normal and hypertriglyceridemic controls, TG and CHYL levels in CRF did not decrease by 5 h after the oral fat load. This study demonstrates impaired intestinal fat absorption in children and adults with CRF.

  8. Chronologically scheduled snacking with high-protein products within the habitual diet in type-2 diabetes patients leads to a fat mass loss: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez J Alfredo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is the most relevant overnutrition disease worldwide and is associated to different metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes. Low glycemic load foods and diets and moderately high protein intake have been shown to reduce body weight and fat mass, exerting also beneficial effects on LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride concentrations, postprandial glucose curve and HDL-cholesterol levels. The present study aimed at studying the potential functionality of a series of low glycemic index products with moderately high protein content, as possible coadjuvants in the control of type-2 diabetes and weight management following a chronologically planned snacking offer (morning and afternoon. Methods The current trial followed a single group, sequential, longitudinal design, with two consecutive periods of 4 weeks each. A total of 17 volunteers participated in the study. The first period was a free living period, with volunteers' habitual ad libitum dietary pattern, while the second period was a free-living period with structured meal replacements at breakfast, morning snack and afternoon snack, which were exchanged by specific products with moderately high protein content and controlled low glycemic index, following a scheduled temporal consumption. Blood extractions were performed at the beginning and at the end of each period (free-living and intervention. Parameters analysed were: fasting glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin, total-, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, C - reactive protein and Homocysteine concentrations. Postprandial glucose and insulin were also measured. Anthropometrical parameters were monitored each 2 weeks during the whole study. Results A modest but significant (p = 0.002 reduction on body weight (1 kg was observed during the intervention period, mainly due to the fat mass loss (0.8 kg, p = 0.02. This weight reduction was observed without apparently associated changes in

  9. Theoretical Study of the Effect of Multi-Diameter Distribution on the Mie Scattering Characteristics of Milk Fat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinying Yin∗; Siqi Zhang; Hongyan Yang; Zhen Zhou

    2015-01-01

    To correct the light scattering property parameters of milk fat for improving the detection accuracy, the Mie⁃theory was used to establish a predictive model for light scattering properties of milk fat globule with multi⁃diameter distributions, by means of Monte Carlo approach to simulate actual multi⁃diameter size distribution of milk fat globule in milk fat solution. Scattering coefficient and absorption coefficient of multi⁃diameter distribution milk fat particles were calculated by simulating the particles size distribution in milk fat solution. And the light scattering properties of multi⁃diameter distribution was compared with that of volume mean diameter, Sauter mean diameter and numerical mean diameter in milk fat solution. Theoretical simulation results indicate that the scattering coefficient and absorption coefficient of milk fat particles are determined by the particle size distribution in milk fat solution. There is a distinct difference in scattering characteristics between the milk fat particles with multi⁃diameter distribution and that with mean diameters. Compared to that with multi⁃diameter distribution, the scattering coefficient of the milk fat particles with mean diameter has a maximum mean deviation of 9 042 m-1 . The particle size distribution is not completely determined by the mean diameters. The dependence of the light scattering properties on the particle size distribution should be considered into the model and simulation. Therefore, it is found that the particle size distribution in milk fat solution is an essential and critical factor to significantly improve the detection accuracy of milk fat content.

  10. Validity of self reported male balding patterns in epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leavy Justine E

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have investigated the association between male pattern baldness and disease such as prostate cancer and cardiovascular disease. Limitations in the lack of standardized instruments to measure male pattern baldness have resulted in researchers measuring balding patterns in a variety of ways. This paper examines the accuracy and reliability of assessment of balding patterns by both trained observers and men themselves, using the Hamilton-Norwood classification system. Methods An observational study was carried out in Western Australia with 105 male volunteers aged between 30 and 70 years. Participants completed a short questionnaire and selected a picture that best represented their balding pattern. Two trained data collectors also independently assessed the participant's balding pattern using the same system and the men's self assessment was compared with the trained observer's assessment. In a substudy, observers assessed the balding pattern in a photo of the man aged 35 years while the man independently rated his balding at that age. Results Observers were very reliable in their assessment of balding pattern (85% exact agreement, κ = 0.83. Compared to trained observers, men were moderately accurate in their self-assessment of their balding status (48–55% exact agreement, κ = 0.39–0.46. For the substudy the exact agreement between the men and the observers was 67% and the agreement within balding groups was 87%. Conclusions We recommend that male balding patterns be assessed by trained personnel using the Hamilton-Norwood classification system. Where the use of trained personnel is not feasible, men's self assessment both currently and retrospectively has been shown to be adequate.

  11. Validation Study of the Body Adiposity Index as a Predictor of Percent Body Fat in Older Individuals: Findings From the BLSA

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Hui; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Cooper, Jamie A.

    2013-01-01

    A new body adiposity index (BAI = (hip circumference)/((height)1.5) − 18) has been developed and validated in adult populations. We aimed to assess the validity of BAI in an older population. We compared the concordance correlation coefficient between BAI, body mass index (BMI), and percent body fat (fat%; by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) in an older population (n = 954) participating in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. BAI was more strongly correlated with fat% than BMI (r of ....

  12. Study of palatal rugae pattern in gender identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Balgi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to determine the gender differences in rugae pattern with regards to the length, number, and shape. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients (25 males, 25 females aged 30-50 years were randomly selected from the routine outpatient department at Sinhgad Dental College and Hospital. Maxillary impressions were made using alginate hydrocolloid and cast in dental stone. Palatal rugae pattern were then evaluated under the parameters such as length, number, and shape. Results: The association of rugae pattern (length, number, shape and the gender was analyzed using Chi-square test for qualitative variable and t-test for quantitative variable. The average length of the rugae was greater in males than in females. The average numbers of rugae were same in both males and females. Straight pattern was commonly seen in females than in males. Analysis showed significant difference with parameters like length and shape (straight pattern in both the males and females. Conclusion: As the analysis showed significant difference with the length and shape of rugae patterns in both males and females, rugoscopy, thereby could be an important tool for gender identification. The study will be continued with larger sample size to expand knowledge about gender differences in palatal rugae patterns.

  13. Facts about monounsaturated fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... room temperature, but start to harden when chilled. Saturated fats and trans fats are solid at room temperature. ... fats are monounsaturated or polyunsaturated. You should limit saturated fat to less than 10% of your daily calories. ...

  14. Dietary fats explained

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of fatty acid they contain. Types of Fat Saturated fats raise your LDL (bad) cholesterol level. High LDL ... avoid or limit foods that are high in saturated fats. Keep saturated fats to less than 6% of ...

  15. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TRACHEOBRONCHIAL PATTERN USING LUMINAL PLASTINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venketesh G Kamath

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The tracheobronchial pattern of human lungs is well known. An attempt was made to compare the pattern with that of sheep lung using luminal plastination of sheep lung. Several similarities were observed between the two patterns, due to which, the sheep lung serves as an ideal experimental model to study the effect of treatment in several human airway diseases. Objective: The first objective was to compare the two tracheobronchial patterns. Moreover the study also provided an opportunity to the authors to attempt a luminal plastination. The final objective is to highlight the various advantages of advances in luminal plastination in current medical education and research. Materials and methods: Silicon sealant was injected into the tracheobroncheal tree of sheep after thoroughly cleaning the lungs with saline. After the sealant solidified the surrounding lung tissue was destroyed by boiling. Thus a luminal cast was prepared. Result: The result was a splendid luminal cast of the sheep lung showing its tracheobronchial pattern. Conclusion: It was observed that the tracheobronchial division pattern showed significant similarities and a single variation. Therefore the sheep lung is an ideal experimental model and luminal plastination can be applied to comparative anatomical study to identify more such models.

  16. Brazilian dietary patterns and the dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet-relationship with metabolic syndrome and newly diagnosed diabetes in the ELSA-Brasil study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drehmer, Michele; Odegaard, Andrew O; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Duncan, Bruce B; Cardoso, Letícia de Oliveira; Matos, Sheila M Alvim; Molina, Maria Del Carmen B; Barreto, Sandhi M; Pereira, Mark A

    2017-01-01

    Studies evaluating dietary patterns, including the DASH diet, and their relationship with the metabolic syndrome and diabetes may help to understand the role of dairy products (low fat or full fat) in these conditions. Our aim is to identify dietary patterns in Brazilian adults and compare them with the (DASH) diet quality score in terms of their associations with metabolic syndrome and newly diagnosed diabetes in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health-the ELSA-Brasil study. The ELSA-Brasil is a multicenter cohort study comprising 15,105 civil servants, aged 35-74 years at baseline (2008-2010). Standardized interviews and exams were carried out, including an OGTT. We analyzed baseline data for 10,010 subjects. Dietary patterns were derived by principal component analysis. Multivariable logistic regression investigated associations of dietary patterns with metabolic syndrome and newly diagnosed diabetes and multivariable linear regression with components of metabolic syndrome. After controlling for potential confounders, we observed that greater adherence to the Common Brazilian meal pattern (white rice, beans, beer, processed and fresh meats), was associated with higher frequencies of newly diagnosed diabetes, metabolic syndrome and all of its components, except HDL-C. Participants with greater intake of a Common Brazilian fast foods/full fat dairy/milk based desserts pattern presented less newly diagnosed diabetes. An inverse association was also seen between the DASH Diet pattern and the metabolic syndrome, blood pressure and waist circumference. Diet, light foods and beverages/low fat dairy pattern was associated with more prevalence of both outcomes, and higher fasting glucose, HDL-C, waist circumference (among men) and lower blood pressure. Vegetables/fruit dietary pattern did not protect against metabolic syndrome and newly diagnosed diabetes but was associated with lower waist circumference. The inverse associations found for the dietary pattern

  17. A Study of Prospective Teachers' Consumption Patterns on Special Days

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saglam, Halil Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify prospective teachers' consumption patterns on special days. The sample was comprised of 29 prospective teachers (22 females and 7 males) who studied Primary School Teaching in the Faculty of Education at Sakarya University during the 2014-2015 Academic Year. The study was designed as a phenomenological…

  18. Genetic Architecture of Milk, Fat, Protein, Mastitis and Fertility Studied using NGS Data in Holstein Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahana, Goutam; Janss, Luc; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt;

    cattle using NGS variants. The analysis was done using a linear mixed model (LMM) and a Bayesian mixture model (BMM). The top 10 QTL identified by LMM analyses explained 22.61, 23.86, 10.88, 18.58 and 14.83% of the total genetic variance for these traits respectively. Trait-specific sets of 4,964 SNPs...... from NGS variants (most ‘associated’ SNP for each 0.5 Mbp bin) explained 81.0, 81.6, 85.0, 60.4 and 70.9% of total genetic variance for milk, fat, protein, mastitis and fertility indices when analyzed simultaneously by BMM...

  19. Total and subtypes of dietary fat intake and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PREDIMED) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Becerra-Tomás, Nerea; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Corella, Dolores; Schröder, Helmut; Estruch, Ramon; Ros, Emilio; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Lapetra, José; Basora, Josep; Martín-Calvo, Nerea; Portoles, Olga; Fitó, Montserrat; Hu, Frank B; Forga, Lluís; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2017-03-01

    Background: The associations between dietary fat and cardiovascular disease have been evaluated in several studies, but less is known about their influence on the risk of diabetes.Objective: We examined the associations between total fat, subtypes of dietary fat, and food sources rich in saturated fatty acids and the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D).Design: A prospective cohort analysis of 3349 individuals who were free of diabetes at baseline but were at high cardiovascular risk from the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) study was conducted. Detailed dietary information was assessed at baseline and yearly during the follow-up using a food frequency questionnaire. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate T2D HRs and 95% CIs according to baseline and yearly updated fat intake.Results: We documented 266 incident cases during 4.3 y of follow-up. Baseline saturated and animal fat intake was not associated with the risk of T2D. After multivariable adjustment, participants in the highest quartile of updated intake of saturated and animal fat had a higher risk of diabetes than the lowest quartile (HR: 2.19; 95% CI: 1.28, 3.73; and P-trend = 0.01 compared with HR: 2.00; 95% CI: 1.29, 3.09; and P-trend fat intake had an ∼2-fold higher risk of T2D than their counterparts in the lowest quartile. The consumption of 1 serving of butter and cheese was associated with a higher risk of diabetes, whereas whole-fat yogurt intake was associated with a lower risk.Conclusions: In a Mediterranean trial focused on dietary fat interventions, baseline intake of saturated and animal fat was not associated with T2D incidence, but the yearly updated intake of saturated and animal fat was associated with a higher risk of T2D. Cheese and butter intake was associated with a higher risk of T2D, whereas whole-fat yogurt intake was associated with a lower risk of T2D. This trial was registered at www.isrctn.com as ISRCTN35739639. © 2017 American Society

  20. The D299G/T399I Toll-like receptor 4 variant associates with body and liver fat: results from the TULIP and METSIM Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyrich, Peter; Staiger, Harald; Stančáková, Alena; Machicao, Fausto; Machann, Jürgen; Schick, Fritz; Stefan, Norbert; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Schäfer, Silke; Fritsche, Andreas; Häring, Hans-Ulrich

    2010-11-15

    Toll-like-receptor 4 (TLR) is discussed to provide a molecular link between obesity, inflammation and insulin resistance. Genetic studies with replications in non-diabetic individuals in regard to their fat distribution or insulin resistance according to their carrier status of a common toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) variant (TLR4(D299G/T399I)) are still lacking. We performed a cross-sectional analysis in individuals phenotyped for prediabetic traits as body fat composition (including magnetic resonance imaging), blood glucose levels and insulin resistance (oral glucose tolerance testing, euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp), according to TLR4 genotype determined by candidate SNP analyses (rs4986790). We analyzed N = 1482 non-diabetic individuals from the TÜF/TULIP cohort (South Germany, aged 39±13 y, BMI 28.5±7.9, mean±SD) and N = 5327 non-diabetic participants of the METSIM study (Finland, males aged 58±6 y, BMI 26.8±3.8) for replication purposes. German TLR4(D299G/T399I) carriers had a significantly increased body fat (XG in rs4986790: +6.98%, p = 0.03, dominant model, adjusted for age, gender) and decreased insulin sensitivity (XG: -15.3%, Matsuda model, p = 0.04; XG: -20.6%, p = 0.016, clamp; both dominant models adjusted for age, gender, body fat). In addition, both liver fat (AG: +49.7%; p = 0.002) and visceral adipose tissue (AG: +8.2%; p = 0.047, both adjusted for age, gender, body fat) were significantly increased in rs4986790 minor allele carriers, and the effect on liver fat remained significant also after additional adjustment for visceral fat (p = 0.014). The analysis in METSIM confirmed increased body fat content in association with the rare G allele in rs4986790 (AG: +1.26%, GG: +11.0%; p = 0.010, additive model, adjusted for age) and showed a non-significant trend towards decreased insulin sensitivity (AG: -0.99%, GG: -10.62%). TLR4(D299G/T399I) associates with increased total body fat, visceral fat, liver fat

  1. The D299G/T399I Toll-like receptor 4 variant associates with body and liver fat: results from the TULIP and METSIM Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Weyrich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Toll-like-receptor 4 (TLR is discussed to provide a molecular link between obesity, inflammation and insulin resistance. Genetic studies with replications in non-diabetic individuals in regard to their fat distribution or insulin resistance according to their carrier status of a common toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 variant (TLR4(D299G/T399I are still lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis in individuals phenotyped for prediabetic traits as body fat composition (including magnetic resonance imaging, blood glucose levels and insulin resistance (oral glucose tolerance testing, euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, according to TLR4 genotype determined by candidate SNP analyses (rs4986790. We analyzed N = 1482 non-diabetic individuals from the TÜF/TULIP cohort (South Germany, aged 39±13 y, BMI 28.5±7.9, mean±SD and N = 5327 non-diabetic participants of the METSIM study (Finland, males aged 58±6 y, BMI 26.8±3.8 for replication purposes. German TLR4(D299G/T399I carriers had a significantly increased body fat (XG in rs4986790: +6.98%, p = 0.03, dominant model, adjusted for age, gender and decreased insulin sensitivity (XG: -15.3%, Matsuda model, p = 0.04; XG: -20.6%, p = 0.016, clamp; both dominant models adjusted for age, gender, body fat. In addition, both liver fat (AG: +49.7%; p = 0.002 and visceral adipose tissue (AG: +8.2%; p = 0.047, both adjusted for age, gender, body fat were significantly increased in rs4986790 minor allele carriers, and the effect on liver fat remained significant also after additional adjustment for visceral fat (p = 0.014. The analysis in METSIM confirmed increased body fat content in association with the rare G allele in rs4986790 (AG: +1.26%, GG: +11.0%; p = 0.010, additive model, adjusted for age and showed a non-significant trend towards decreased insulin sensitivity (AG: -0.99%, GG: -10.62%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: TLR4(D299G

  2. Prepregnancy Dietary Patterns Are Associated with Blood Lipid Level Changes During Pregnancy: A Prospective Cohort Study in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshriqui, Ilana; Franco-Sena, Ana Beatriz; Farias, Dayana Rodrigues; Freitas-Vilela, Ana Amélia; Cunha, Diana Barbosa; Barros, Erica Guimarães; Emmett, Pauline M; Kac, Gilberto

    2017-07-01

    Physiologic adaptations lead to an increase in blood lipid levels during pregnancy, yet little is known about the influence of prepregnancy dietary patterns. To identify whether prepregnancy dietary patterns that explain the consumption of fiber, energy, and saturated fat are associated with blood lipid levels throughout pregnancy. Prospective cohort study, with data collection at gestational weeks 5 to 13, 20 to 26, and 30 to 36. A food frequency questionnaire was administered at baseline (gestational week 5 to 13). Women with singleton pregnancy (N=299) aged 20 to 40 years, without infectious/chronic disease (except obesity) were enrolled in the study. One hundred ninety-nine women were included in the final analysis. The study took place at a prenatal service of a public health care center in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, during the period from 2009 to 2012. Total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels, measured at all trimesters. Dietary patterns were derived by reduced rank regression. Fiber density, dietary energy density, and percent energy from saturated fat were response variables. Crude and adjusted longitudinal linear mixed-effects regression models were performed to account for confounders and mediators. Interaction terms between dietary pattern and gestational week were tested. Fast Food and Candies; Vegetables and Dairy; and Beans, Bread, and Fat patterns were derived. Our Fast Food and Candies pattern was positively associated with triglyceride level (β=4.961, 95% CI 0.945 to 8.977; P=0.015). In the HDL-C rate of change prediction, significant interactions were observed between both the Fast Food and Candies and Vegetables and Dairy patterns and gestational week (β=-.053, 95% CI -0.101 to -0.004; P=0.035 and β=.055, 95% CI -0.002 to 0.112; P=0.060, respectively). The Beans, Bread, and Fat pattern was not associated with blood lipid levels. Prepregnancy dietary patterns

  3. Fats and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with “good” unsaturated fats, limit foods high in saturated fat, and avoid “bad” trans fat. “Good” unsaturated fats — ... have been eliminated from many of these foods. Saturated fats , while not as harmful as trans fats, by ...

  4. Comparison of hydrogenated vegetable shortening and nutritionally complete high fat diet on limited access-binge behavior in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Jon F.; Melhorn, Susan J; Heiman, Justin U.; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Clegg, Deborah J.; Benoit, Stephen C.

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that intermittent exposure to hydrogenated vegetable shortening yields a binge/compensate pattern of feeding in rats. The present study was designed to assess whether rats would exhibit similar patterns of intake when given intermittent access to a nutritionally complete high-fat diet. Four groups of rats received varying exposure to either hydrogenated vegetable shortening or high-fat diet for 8 consecutive weeks. Animals were given daily and intermittent acce...

  5. Fat products

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandrov, Alexei

    2006-01-01

    The economics literature generally considers products as points in some characteristics space. Starting with Hotelling, this served as a convenient assumption, yet with more products being flexible or self-customizable to some degree it makes sense to think that products have positive measure. I develop a model where ?rms can o¤er interval long 'fat' products in the spatial model of differentiation. Contrary to the standard results pro?ts of the firms can decrease with increased differentiati...

  6. Fat Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, David B.; Ellefson, Wayne C.

    Lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates constitute the principal structural components of foods. Lipids are a group of substances that, in general, are soluble in ether, chloroform, or other organic solvents but are sparingly soluble in water. However, there exists no clear scientific definition of a lipid, primarily due to the water solubility of certain molecules that fall within one of the variable categories of food lipids (1). Some lipids, such as triacylglycerols, are very hydrophobic. Other lipids, such as di- and monoacylglycerols, have both hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties in their molecules and are soluble in relatively polar solvents (2). Short-chain fatty acids such as C1-C4 are completely miscible in water and insoluble in nonpolar solvents (1). The most widely accepted definition is based on solubility as previously stated. While most macromolecules are characterized by common structural features, the designation of "lipid" being defined by solubility characteristics is unique to lipids (2). Lipids comprise a broad group of substances that have some common properties and compositional similarities (3). Triacylglycerols are fats and oils that represent the most prevalent category of the group of compounds known as lipids. The terms lipids, fats, and oils are often used interchangeably. The term "lipid" commonly refers to the broad, total collection of food molecules that meet the definition previously stated. Fats generally refer to those lipids that are solid at room temperature and oils generally refer to those lipids that are liquid at room temperature. While there may not be an exact scientific definition, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a regulatory definition for nutrition labeling purposes. The FDA has defined total fat as the sum of fatty acids from C4 to C24, calculated as triglycerides. This definition provides a clear path for resolution of any nutrition labeling disputes.

  7. Long-Term Impacts of Foetal Malnutrition Followed by Early Postnatal Obesity on Fat Distribution Pattern and Metabolic Adaptability in Adult Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Khanal, Prabhat; Johnsen, Lærke; Axel, Anne Marie Dixen; Hansen, Pernille Willert; Kongsted, Anna Hauntoft; Lyckegaard, Nette Brinch; Nielsen, Mette Olaf

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate whether over- versus undernutrition in late foetal life combined with obesity development in early postnatal life have differential implications for fat distribution and metabolic adaptability in adulthood. Twin-pregnant ewes were fed NORM (100% of daily energy and protein requirements), LOW (50% of NORM) or HIGH (150%/110% of energy/protein requirements) diets during the last trimester. Postnatally, twin-lambs received obesogenic (HCHF) or moderate (CONV) diets until ...

  8. Behavioral and Neurochemical Studies in Stressed and Unstressed Rats Fed on Protein, Carbohydrate and Fat Rich Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Moin§, Saida Haider*, Saima Khaliq1, Saiqa Tabassum and Darakhshan J. Haleem

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Stress produces behavioral and neurochemical deficits. To study the relationship between adaptation to stress and macronutrient intake, the present study was designed to monitor the effects of different diets on feed intake, growth rate and serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT metabolism following exposure to restraint stress in rats. Rats were divided into four groups (n=12 as control, sugar, protein and fat rich diet fed rats. After 5 weeks of treatment animals of each group were divided into unrestrained and restrained animals (n=6. Rats of restrained group were given immobilization stress for 2 hours/day for 5 days. Food intake and growth rates of unrestrained and restrained rats were monitored daily. Rats were decapitated on 6th day to collect brain samples for neurochemical estimation. Results show that sugar diet fed rats produced adaptation to stress early as compared to normal diet fed rats. Food intake and growth rates of unrestrained and restrained rats were comparable on 3rd day in sugar diet fed rats and on 4th day in normal diet fed rats. Stress decreased food intake and growth rates of protein and fat treated rats. Repeated stress did not alter brain 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels of normal diet fed rats and sugar diet fed rats. Protein diet fed restrained rats showed elevated brain 5-HT levels. Fat diet fed restrained rats significantly decreased brain TRP and 5-HIAA levels. Finding suggested that carbohydrate diet might protect against stressful conditions. Study also showed that nutritional status could alter different behaviors in response to a stressful environment.

  9. Age at adiposity rebound is associated with fat mass in young adult males-the GOOD study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claes Ohlsson

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Age at adiposity rebound (AR is associated with obesity and Type 2 Diabetes in adults. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of age at AR in adult fat mass, fat distribution and pubertal timing for a Swedish cohort. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study. Detailed growth charts were retrieved for the men participating in the population-based GOOD (Gothenburg Osteoporosis and Obesity Determinants study (n=573. Body composition was analysed using dual X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography at 18-20 years of age. Age and BMI at AR were calculated using pediatric growth charts and AR was defined as the lowest BMI between 3 and 9 years of age. RESULTS: Subjects were divided into early (age at AR below 5.4 years of age, middle (age at AR 5.4 to 6.8 years of age and late (age at AR after 6.8 years of age age at AR tertiles. Subjects in the early age at AR tertile had higher young adult BMI (+8%, whole body fat mass (+34% and amount of subcutaneous adipose tissue (+61% than the subjects in the middle and late tertiles (p<0.01. The early age at AR tertile had an increased risk of obesity (Odds Ratio 4.1 [95% CI 1.2-13.9] compared with the middle and late tertiles. In addition, the early age at AR tertile had Peak Height Velocity (PHV 7 months earlier than the late tertile. CONCLUSIONS: Early age at AR was associated with young adult obesity as a consequence of a high amount of subcutaneous adipose tissue in men. In addition we made the novel observation that early age at AR was associated with an early puberty in men.

  10. Energy and macronutrient intake and dietary pattern among school children in Bahrain: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasheed Parveen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is increasing in Bahrain and there is lack of information on the energy and macronutrient intake of children. The objective of this research was to study the energy and macronutrient intake as well as food frequency pattern of Bahraini school children. Methods This is a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted on Bahraini school boys and girls aged 6-18 years from all the 11 populated regions of the country. Data on food intake consisted of a 24-hour dietary recall and was obtained by interviewing a sub-sample of the study population. Information was also obtained through a self-administered questionnaire for the entire sample on the weekly frequency of food items that were grouped into 7 categories based on similarity of nutrient profiles. Dietary analysis was performed using the Nutritionist 5 (First Data Bank Version 1.6 1998. Results While the average energy intake of students was close to the Estimated Average Requirements of the UK Reference standards, protein intake substantially exceeded the Reference Nutrient Intake values as did daily sugar consumption. Dietary fiber fell short of the Dietary Recommended Values (UK and 36%-50% students exceeded the Energy % limits for total fat, saturated fat and cholesterol. The Polyunsaturated: Saturated fat ratio remained at an unacceptable level of 0.6 for girls and boys. While sweets, snacks and regular soda drinks were popular, milk, fruits and vegetables were not commonly consumed. Conclusions High sugar consumption, low intake of dietary fiber and high energy % of saturated fat and dietary cholesterol by many Bahraini children, is likely to increase their risk of obesity and cardiovascular diseases in later life. Nutrition education programs in schools should emphasize the importance of healthy balanced diets for growth and health maintenance of children as well as dietary prevention of diseases.

  11. A high-fiber, low-fat diet improves periodontal disease markers in high-risk subjects: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Keiko; Ishikado, Atsushi; Morino, Katsutaro; Nishio, Yoshihiko; Ugi, Satoshi; Kajiwara, Sadae; Kurihara, Mika; Iwakawa, Hiromi; Nakao, Keiko; Uesaki, Syoko; Shigeta, Yasutami; Imanaka, Hiromichi; Yoshizaki, Takeshi; Sekine, Osamu; Makino, Taketoshi; Maegawa, Hiroshi; King, George L; Kashiwagi, Atsunori

    2014-06-01

    Periodontal disease is related to aging, smoking habits, diabetes mellitus, and systemic inflammation. However, there remains limited evidence about causality from intervention studies. An effective diet for prevention of periodontal disease has not been well established. The current study was an intervention study examining the effects of a high-fiber, low-fat diet on periodontal disease markers in high-risk subjects. Forty-seven volunteers were interviewed for recruitment into the study. Twenty-one volunteers with a body mass index of at least 25.0 kg/m(2) or with impaired glucose tolerance were enrolled in the study. After a 2- to 3-week run-in period, subjects were provided with a test meal consisting of high fiber and low fat (30 kcal/kg of ideal body weight) 3 times a day for 8 weeks and followed by a regular diet for 24 weeks. Four hundred twenty-five teeth from 17 subjects were analyzed. Periodontal disease markers assessed as probing depth (2.28 vs 2.21 vs 2.13 mm; P diet for 8 weeks effectively improved periodontal disease markers as well as metabolic profiles, at least in part, by effects other than the reduction of total energy intake.

  12. The impact of home, work, and church environments on fat intake over time among rural residents: a longitudinal observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Haardörfer, Regine; Alcantara, Iris; Addison, Ann; Glanz, Karen; Kegler, Michelle C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Dietary behaviors are influenced by many individual and environmental factors. This study explores how dietary fat intake in high-risk midlife adults living in the rural south is influenced by three behavior settings, i.e. in the home, at work, and at church. Methods Self-report data were collected from rural African American or Caucasian adults age 40–70 at three time points at baseline, 6, and 12 months post baseline. Multilevel analyses investigated the impact of determinants of...

  13. Study a compound orthorhombic lattice pattern in dielectric barrier discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Dong, Lifang; Gao, Xing; Liu, Weibo; Wei, Lingyan; Pan, Yuyang

    2016-12-01

    The compound orthorhombic lattice pattern which is composed of the bright spot and the dim spot is observed for the first time in a dielectric barrier discharge system. It is found that the dim spot is located at the gravity center of the surrounding three bright spots. The discharge bifurcates from a square lattice, hexagon pattern to compound orthorhombic lattice pattern and finally changes to an irregular pattern. The phase diagram of the pattern types as a function of the applied voltage and the argon concentration is given. The spatio-temporal dynamics of the pattern is studied by the time correlation measurement and the high speed video camera images. Results show that the dim spot is formed by both volume discharge and surface discharge induced by the bright spot. The differences of plasma parameters between the bright spots and the dim spots obtained by optical emission spectroscopy verify that the dim spot is formed by both volume discharge and surface discharge. To better understand the mechanism of firing of the dim spots for the same conditions as in the first phase diagram, the phase diagram of the mechanism of firing of the dim spots as a function of the gas pressure and the argon concentration is given. The simulation of the electric fields of wall charges accumulated by bright spots further verifies that the bright spot has an effect on the formation of dim spot.

  14. Mining Domain-Specific Design Patterns: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassiliki Gkantouna

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Domain-specific design patterns provide developers with proven solutions to common design problems that arise, particularly in a target application domain, facilitating them to produce quality designs in the domain contexts. However, research in this area is not mature and there are no techniques to support their detection. Towards this end, we propose a methodology which, when applied on a collection of websites in a specific domain, facilitates the automated identification of domain-specific design patterns. The methodology automatically extracts the conceptual models of the websites, which are subsequently analyzed in terms of all of the reusable design fragments used in them for supporting common domain functionalities. At the conceptual level, we consider these fragments as recurrent patterns consisting of a configuration of front-end interface components that interrelate each other and interact with end-users to support certain functionality. By performing a pattern-based analysis of the models, we locate the occurrences of all the recurrent patterns in the various website designs which are then evaluated towards their consistent use. The detected patterns can be used as building blocks in future designs, assisting developers to produce consistent and quality designs in the target domain. To support our case, we present a case study for the educational domain.

  15. Adolescent skinfold thickness is a better predictor of high body fatness in adults than is body mass index: the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooyens, Astrid C J; Koppes, Lando L J; Visscher, Tommy L S; Twisk, Jos W R; Kemper, Han C G; Schuit, A Jantine; van Mechelen, Willem; Seidell, Jacob C

    2007-06-01

    Body mass index (BMI) during adolescence is predictive of BMI at adult age. However, BMI cannot distinguish between lean and fat body mass. Skinfold thickness may be a better predictor of body fatness. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relations between BMI and skinfold thickness during adolescence and body fatness during adulthood. We included 168 men and 182 women from the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study, a prospective study that conducted 8 measurements of BMI and skinfold thickness between 1976 and 2000. BMI and skinfold thickness during adolescence were analyzed in relation to adult body fatness measured at a mean age of 37 y with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. None of the boys and 1.7% of the girls were overweight at baseline, whereas the prevalence of high body fatness during adulthood was 29% in men and 32% in women. At the ages of 12-16 y, skinfold thickness was more strongly associated with adult body fatness than was BMI. Age-specific relative risks for a high level of adult body fatness varied between 2.3 and 4.0 in boys and between 2.1 and 4.3 in girls in the highest versus the lowest tertile of the sum of 4 skinfold thicknesses. For the highest tertile of BMI, the relative risk varied between 0.8 and 2.1 in boys and between 1.3 and 1.8 in girls. Skinfold thickness during adolescence is a better predictor of high body fatness during adulthood than is BMI during adolescence.

  16. Mechanistic studies on activation of ubiquitin and di-ubiquitin-like protein, FAT10, by ubiquitin-like modifier activating enzyme 6, Uba6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, James M; Chen, Jesse J; Liao, Hua; Rollins, Neil; Yang, Xiaofeng; Xu, Qing; Ma, Jingya; Loke, Huay-Keng; Lingaraj, Trupti; Brownell, James E; Mallender, William D; Gould, Alexandra E; Amidon, Benjamin S; Dick, Lawrence R

    2012-05-01

    Uba6 is a homolog of the ubiquitin-activating enzyme, Uba1, and activates two ubiquitin-like proteins (UBLs), ubiquitin and FAT10. In this study, biochemical and biophysical experiments were performed to understand the mechanisms of how Uba6 recognizes two distinct UBLs and catalyzes their activation and transfer. Uba6 is shown to undergo a three-step activation process and form a ternary complex with both UBLs, similar to what has been observed for Uba1. The catalytic mechanism of Uba6 is further supported by inhibition studies using a mechanism-based E1 inhibitor, Compound 1, which forms covalent adducts with both ubiquitin and FAT10. In addition, pre-steady state kinetic analysis revealed that the rates of UBL-adenylate (step 1) and thioester (step 2) formation are similar between ubiquitin and FAT10. However, distinct kinetic behaviors were also observed for ubiquitin and FAT10. FAT10 binds Uba6 with much higher affinity than ubiquitin while demonstrating lower catalytic activity in both ATP-PP(i) exchange and E1-E2 transthiolation assays. Also, Compound 1 is less potent with FAT10 as the UBL compared with ubiquitin in ATP-PP(i) exchange assays, and both a slow rate of covalent adduct formation and weak adduct binding to Uba6 contribute to the diminished potency observed for FAT10. Together with expression level analysis in IM-9 cells, this study sheds light on the potential role of cytokine-induced FAT10 expression in regulating Uba6 pathways.

  17. Association of dietary fat intakes with risk of esophageal and gastric cancer in the NIH-AARP diet and health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Doherty, Mark G; Freedman, Neal D; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Schatzkin, Arthur; Murray, Liam J; Cantwell, Marie M; Abnet, Christian C

    2012-09-15

    The aim of our study was to investigate whether intakes of total fat and fat subtypes were associated with esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), gastric cardia or gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma. From 1995-1996, dietary intake data was reported by 494,978 participants of the NIH-AARP cohort. The 630 EAC, 215 ESCC, 454 gastric cardia and 501 gastric noncardia adenocarcinomas accrued to the cohort. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine the association between the dietary fat intakes, whilst adjusting for potential confounders. Although apparent associations were observed in energy-adjusted models, multivariate adjustment attenuated results to null [e.g., EAC energy adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.66 (1.27-2.18) p for trend gastric cancer risk; although a protective effect of polyunsaturated fat intake was seen for EAC in subjects with a normal BMI.

  18. THE GROWTH PATTERNS OF CARCASS TISSUES WITHIN WHOLESALE CUTS IN FATTENING STEER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Priyanto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was conducted on beef carcasses, aimed at identifying the growth patterns of wholesalecuts and their tissues in steer during fattening phase. This study involved 69 grass-fed steers with a liveweightrange of 300 to 600 kg. They had entered, or were progressing along, their fat deposition phase. Anallometric model (Huxley, 1932 was used to study the growth patterns of carcass tissues within wholesalecuts. In general, The growths of muscle and fat within wholesale cuts followed similar patterns. Somedifferences in growth patterns between muscle and fat were identified on the dorsal region. The growth impetusfor fat moved from the thoracic backwards to the lumbar region which was the reverse of the growth impetus formuscle. Differential growth patterns occurred between intermuscular (IM fat and subcutaneous (SC fat. WithIM fat, its growth movement was similar to that of total fat where there was a concentration of growth in thelumbar area and thin flank as side weight increased. With SC fat, there were growth movements from the ventralregion to the dorsal region of the carcass. Bone growth within wholesale cuts showed a less clear pattern.

  19. Early life body fatness and risk of colorectal cancer in US women and men – results from two large cohort studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuehong; Wu, Kana; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Ma, Jing; Colditz, Graham A.; Fuchs, Charles S.; Willett, Walter C.; Stampfer, Meir J.; Nimptsch, Katharina; Ogino, Shuji; Wei, Esther K.

    2015-01-01

    Background The association between body fatness before adulthood and later risk of colorectal cancer remains unclear. We hypothesized that, independent of adult body fatness, early life body fatness would be associated with a higher risk of developing colorectal cancer. Methods We assessed body fatness during childhood and adolescence using a validated 9-level somatotype and inquired body weight in young adulthood in the Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study. We used Cox proportional hazard regression modeling to estimate relative risks (RRs, 95% CIs) adjusting for adult body mass index (BMI) and other known colorectal cancer risk factors. Results We identified 2,100 incident colorectal cancer cases (1,292 in women and 808 in men) during 22 years of follow-up. Among women, the RR(95% CI) for childhood body fatness of level 5 or higher versus level 1 was 1.28(1.04-1.58, p-trend=0.08) and for adolescent body fatness, it was 1.27(1.01-1.60, p-trend = 0.23). The corresponding RRs for men were 1.04(0.82-1.31, p-trend=0.48) and 0.98(0.75-1.27, p-trend=0.20), respectively. Results were generally similar across anatomic subsites within the colorectum. Additionally, the RRs comparing BMI categories ≥ 27.5 to < 19 kg/m2 were 1.44(1.06-1.95, at age 18, p-trend=0.009) for women and 1.18(0.84-1.65, at age 21, p-trend=0.57) for men. Conclusion Increased body fatness in early life, independent of adult obesity, might be a risk factor for colorectal cancer in women, but we observed a weaker association in men. Impact Our findings support the growing evidence that early life body fatness affects the risk of colorectal cancer many decades later. PMID:25777804

  20. Histological study of subcutaneous fat at NIR laser treatment of the rat skin in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanina, I. Y.; Svenskaya, Yu. I.; Navolokin, N. A.; Matveeva, O. V.; Bucharskaya, A. B.; Maslyakova, G. N.; Gorin, D. A.; Sukhorukov, G. B.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2015-07-01

    The goal of this work is to quantify impact of in vivo photochemical treatment using indocyanine green (ICG) or encapsulated ICG and NIR laser irradiation through skin of rat with obesity by the follow up tissue sampling and histochemistry. After 1 hour elapsed since 1-min light exposure samples of rat skin with subcutaneous tissue of thickness of 1.5-2.5 mm were taken by surgery from rats within marked 4-zones of the skin site. For hematoxylin-eosin histological examination of excised tissue samples, fixation was carried out by 10%-formaldehyde solution. For ICG and encapsulated ICG subcutaneous injection and subsequent 1-min diode laser irradiation with power density of 8 W/cm2, different necrotic regions with lipolysis of subcutaneous fat were observed. The obtained data can be used for safe layer-by-layer laser treatment of obesity and cellulite.

  1. Methodological Aspects and Relevance of the Study of Vegetable Oil, Fat and Lipoprotein Oxidation Using Pancreatic Lipase and Arylesterase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meritxell Nus

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Fats and oils as major dietary components are involved in the development of chronic diseases. In this paper the physiological relevance and some methodological aspects related to the determination of two enzymes enrolled in metabolism of fat – pancreatic lipase and arylesterase – are discussed. Pancreatic lipase has been extensively used to study the triacylglycerol fatty acid composition and the in vitro digestion of oils and fats. The action of this enzyme may be coupled to analytical methods as GC, HPLC, HPSEC, TLC- -FID, etc. as a useful tool for understanding the composition and digestion of thermal oxidized oils. Pancreatic lipase hydrolysis occurs in the water/oil interface, and it presents a behaviour that seems to be Michaelian, in which the apparent Km and the apparent Vmax of the enzymatic process depend more on the type of oil tested than on the degree of alteration. The kinetic behaviour of pancreatic lipase towards thermally oxidized oils also depends on the presence of natural tensioactive compounds present in the oil and surfactants formed during the frying. Arylesterase is an HDL binding enzyme that inhibits LDL oxidation. Low serum concentration of this enzyme has been related to increased cardiovascular disease risk. In this paper the most widely used methods for the determination of arylesterase activity are commented on. The importance of intrinsic factors (e.g. substrates, cofactors participating in the enzyme reaction is also discussed. Moreover, several suggestions about further researches on the influence of extrinsic factors (e.g. diet, oxidative stress upon the enzyme activity are proposed.

  2. Hydrocracking of waste chicken fat as a cost effective feedstock for renewable fuel production: A kinetic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia A. Hanafi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, low cost waste chicken fat (WCF feedstock was used for fuel-like hydrocarbon production. The effects of varying reaction parameters on the hydrocracking of waste chicken fat using NiW/SiO2–Al2O3 catalyst were investigated. The reactions were carried out in a fixed bed down flow reactor at reaction temperatures of 400–450 °C, liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV of 1, 2, 4 h−1, H2/oil molar ratio of 450 v/v and hydrogen pressures of 6.0 MPa. The effects on hydrocracking conversion and distribution of products were investigated. The liquid product was analyzed using gas chromatography (GC to quantify n-alkanes. Hydrocracking conversion and organic liquid products (OLPs were evaluated by ASTM D-2887 distillation. The results showed that the catalytic hydrocracking of WCF generates fuels that have chemical and physical properties comparable to those specified for petroleum-based fuels. The amount of kerosene/diesel fractional product decreased with an increase in the temperature and a decrease in the LHSV; while gasoline like petroleum fuel increased. A considerable elimination of O2 from chicken waste fat molecules has been indicated by FTIR analysis. The oxygen removal pathway of WCF over NiW/SiO2–Al2O3 catalyst is primarily carried out by hydro-deoxygenation. The reaction was found to follow the second order mechanism, and the estimated activation energy Ea was 96 kJ mol−1. The exploited catalyst was employed in another run where the results showed the catalyst stability and can be used for several times.

  3. Macroscopic heterogeneity of liver fat: an MR-based study in type-2 diabetic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capitan, Violaine; Lefevre, Pierre-Henri; Favelier, Sylvain; Loffroy, Romaric; Krause, Denis [CHU (University Hospital), Department of Radiology, 14 rue Paul Gaffarel, BP 77908, Dijon (France); CHU (University Hospital), BP 77908, Dijon (France); Petit, Jean-Michel [CHU (University Hospital), Department of Endocrinology, Diabetology, and Metabolic Diseases, BP 77908, Dijon (France); CHU (University Hospital), BP 77908, Dijon (France); Aho, Serge [CHU (University Hospital), Department of Biostatistics and Medical Informatics, Dijon (France); CHU (University Hospital), BP 77908, Dijon (France); Hillon, Patrick [University of Burgundy, INSERM U866, BP 87900, Dijon (France); CHU (University Hospital), Department of Hepatology, BP 77908, Dijon (France); CHU (University Hospital), BP 77908, Dijon (France); Cercueil, Jean-Pierre; Guiu, Boris [CHU (University Hospital), Department of Radiology, 14 rue Paul Gaffarel, BP 77908, Dijon (France); University of Burgundy, INSERM U866, BP 87900, Dijon (France); CHU (University Hospital), BP 77908, Dijon (France)

    2012-10-15

    To assess the heterogeneity of liver fat deposition with MR of the liver in type-2 diabetic (T2D) patients. We enrolled 121 consecutive T2D patients. The reference standard was 3.0-T {sup 1}H-MR spectroscopy. Hepatic steatosis was defined as liver fat content (LFC) {>=}5.56 %. A triple-echo gradient-echo sequence corrected for T1 recovery and T2* decay was used to calculate LFC in left and right livers and hepatic segments. Analyses were performed using a linear mixed model. Fifty-nine (48.8 %) patients had liver steatosis, whereas 62 (51.2 %) did not. Steatosis was greater in the right than in the left liver (P < 0.0001) [mean difference: 1.32 % (range: 0.01-8.75 %)]. In seven patients (5.8 %), LFC was <5.56 % in one side of the liver, whereas it was {>=}5.56 % in the other. Steatosis of the left and right liver was heterogeneous at the segmental level in both non-steatotic (P < 0.001 and P < 0.0001 respectively) and steatotic (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0002 respectively) patients [mean maximum difference: 3.98 % (range: 0.74-19.32 %)]. In 23 patients (19 %), LFC was <5.56 % in one segment, whereas it was {>=}5.56 % in at least one other. Overall, the mean segmental/lobar variability of steatosis is low. However, segmental variability can sometimes lead to a misdiagnosis. (orig.)

  4. Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to cardiovascular risk factors in prepubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2012-01-01

    Aim:  We analysed whether total body fat (TBF), abdominal fat and body fat distribution are associated with higher composite risk factor scores for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in young children. Methods:  Cross-sectional study of 238 children aged 8-11 years. TBF and abdominal fat mass (AFM) wer......, separately, and used as composite risk factor score. Results:  Pearson correlations between ln BF%, ln AFM and AFM/TBF versus composite risk factor score for boys were r = 0.56, r = 0.59 and r = 0.48, all p ...

  5. Associations of fats and carbohydrate intake with cardiovascular disease and mortality in 18 countries from five continents (PURE): a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan, Mahshid; Mente, Andrew; Zhang, Xiaohe; Swaminathan, Sumathi; Li, Wei; Mohan, Viswanathan; Iqbal, Romaina; Kumar, Rajesh; Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss; Rosengren, Annika; Amma, Leela Itty; Avezum, Alvaro; Chifamba, Jephat; Diaz, Rafael; Khatib, Rasha; Lear, Scott; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Liu, Xiaoyun; Gupta, Rajeev; Mohammadifard, Noushin; Gao, Nan; Oguz, Aytekin; Ramli, Anis Safura; Seron, Pamela; Sun, Yi; Szuba, Andrzej; Tsolekile, Lungiswa; Wielgosz, Andreas; Yusuf, Rita; Hussein Yusufali, Afzal; Teo, Koon K; Rangarajan, Sumathy; Dagenais, Gilles; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I; Islam, Shofiqul; Anand, Sonia S; Yusuf, Salim

    2017-08-28

    The relationship between macronutrients and cardiovascular disease and mortality is controversial. Most available data are from European and North American populations where nutrition excess is more likely, so their applicability to other populations is unclear. The Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study is a large, epidemiological cohort study of individuals aged 35-70 years (enrolled between Jan 1, 2003, and March 31, 2013) in 18 countries with a median follow-up of 7·4 years (IQR 5·3-9·3). Dietary intake of 135 335 individuals was recorded using validated food frequency questionnaires. The primary outcomes were total mortality and major cardiovascular events (fatal cardiovascular disease, non-fatal myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure). Secondary outcomes were all myocardial infarctions, stroke, cardiovascular disease mortality, and non-cardiovascular disease mortality. Participants were categorised into quintiles of nutrient intake (carbohydrate, fats, and protein) based on percentage of energy provided by nutrients. We assessed the associations between consumption of carbohydrate, total fat, and each type of fat with cardiovascular disease and total mortality. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) using a multivariable Cox frailty model with random intercepts to account for centre clustering. During follow-up, we documented 5796 deaths and 4784 major cardiovascular disease events. Higher carbohydrate intake was associated with an increased risk of total mortality (highest [quintile 5] vs lowest quintile [quintile 1] category, HR 1·28 [95% CI 1·12-1·46], ptrend=0·0001) but not with the risk of cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular disease mortality. Intake of total fat and each type of fat was associated with lower risk of total mortality (quintile 5 vs quintile 1, total fat: HR 0·77 [95% CI 0·67-0·87], ptrendsaturated fat, HR 0·86 [0·76-0·99], ptrend=0·0088; monounsaturated fat: HR 0·81 [0·71-0·92], ptrendfat: HR 0·80

  6. A study on coping patterns of junior college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramya N

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the coping patterns followed by the junior college students. Further, an extensive effort was done to study the gender differences in coping patterns used by the students. This study was conducted in Christ College, Bangalore and on the first and second-year students of pre-university studying in either of the branches (Bachelor of Arts, Science, or Commerce. A total of 120 samples were collected from study population of junior college students using the random sampling method. The sample comprised, 40 students from each group of Arts, Science, and Commerce, including both of the sexes. The tools such as, socio-demographic data sheet and coping checklist, were used. The study findings revealed that majority of the students adopted emotion- and problem-focused coping strategies. Most of the female students adopted emotion-focused coping strategies, whereas the male students mostly used problem-focused coping strategies.

  7. Effect of reducing total fat intake on body weight: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials and cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Lee; Abdelhamid, Asmaa; Moore, Helen J; Douthwaite, Wayne; Skeaff, C Murray; Summerbell, Carolyn D

    2012-12-06

    To investigate the relation between total fat intake and body weight in adults and children. Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials and cohort studies. Medline, Embase, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to June 2010. Randomised controlled trials and cohort studies of adults or children that compared lower versus usual total fat intake and assessed the effects on measures of body fatness (body weight, body mass index, or waist circumference) after at least six months (randomised controlled trials) or one year (in cohorts). Randomised controlled trials with any intention to reduce weight in participants or confounded by additional medical or lifestyle interventions were excluded. Data were extracted and validity was assessed independently and in duplicate. Random effects meta-analyses, subgroups, sensitivity analyses, and metaregression were done. 33 randomised controlled trials (73,589 participants) and 10 cohort studies were included, all from developed countries. Meta-analysis of data from the trials suggested that diets lower in total fat were associated with lower relative body weight (by 1.6 kg, 95% confidence interval -2.0 to -1.2 kg, I(2)=75%, 57,735 participants). Lower weight gain in the low fat arm compared with the control arm was consistent across trials, but the size of the effect varied. Metaregression suggested that greater reduction in total fat intake and lower baseline fat intake were associated with greater relative weight loss, explaining most of the heterogeneity. The significant effect of a low fat diet on weight was not lost in sensitivity analyses (including removing trials that expended greater time and attention on low fat groups). Lower total fat intake also led to lower body mass index (-0.51 kg/m(2), 95% confidence interval -0.76 to -0.26, nine trials, I(2)=77%) and waist circumference (by 0.3 cm, 95% confidence interval -0.58 to -0.02, 15,671 women, one trial). There was no

  8. Dietary fat restriction increases fat taste sensitivity in people with obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, Lisa P.; Bolhuis, Dieuwerke P.; Susan J. Torres; Keast, Russell S. J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Individuals with obesity may be less sensitive to the taste of fat, and it is hypothesized that this is due to excess dietary fat intake. This study assessed the effect of a 6‐week low‐fat (LF) or portion control (PC) diet matched for weight loss on fat taste thresholds, fat perception, and preference in people with overweight/obesity. Methods Participants (n = 53) completed a randomized dietary intervention and consumed either a LF diet (25% fat) or PC diet (33% fat) for 6 weeks. F...

  9. Evaluation of jojoba oil as a low-energy fat. 1. A 4-week feeding study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschuren, P M

    1989-01-01

    The nutritional properties of jojoba oil (JO) were examined in a 4-wk feeding study of rats fed a diet with JO at dose levels of 2.2, 4.5 and 9%, supplemented with a conventional fat up to 18%. General health, survival and food intake were not adversely affected. Body-weight gains showed a dose-related decline, which amounted to 20% of the body weight in the high-dose group of both sexes. Clinical chemistry revealed significantly increased levels of various enzymes that were indicative of cell damage. Haematology showed a dose-related increase in white blood cells. On necropsy an apparent distension of the small intestine was found. Histopathological evaluation revealed marked intestinal changes characterized by massive vacuolization and lipid deposition in the enterocytes, accompanied by distension of the villi and an increased cell turnover of small intestinal cells. Faeces production and faeces lipid content were increased with increasing JO levels. The recovery of JO in the faeces also increased in a dose-related manner and was found to be correlated with the intestinal histopathological changes. The significant adverse clinical and histopathological effects observed in this study imply that JO cannot be considered as a promising alternative dietary fat with a low digestibility.

  10. Correlation of Visceral Fat Area with Metabolic Risk Factors in Romanian Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hâncu Anca

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between visceral fat area (VFA, estimated by bioimpedance, and cardiovascular risk factors independent of BMI and waist circumference in a cohort of Romanian patients. Material and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, in which were collected data from 751 patients ≥18 years of age from Cluj-Napoca. Anthropometric, biochemistry, body composition and medical history parameters were recorded from patients’ files. Results: Compared with the participants with VFA <100 cm2, those with VFA ≥100 cm2 had significantly worse levels of the laboratory parameters describing the glycemic metabolism, lipid metabolism and liver functions (p <0.05 for all. A higher percentage of participants with VFA ≥100 cm2 had diabetes, obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia and hypo-HDL cholesterolemia (p <0.05 for all. VFA was correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total and LDL-cholesterol levels, triglycerides, ALT, previous diagnosis of diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia and hypo-HDL cholesterolemia independent of BMI and waist circumference. Conclusions: Among this cohort of Romanian adults, an increasing level of visceral adiposity was correlated with worse lipid and glucose metabolism parameters as well as with increased levels of ALT, which probably reflects liver fat deposition.

  11. Long-Term Impacts of Foetal Malnutrition Followed by Early Postnatal Obesity on Fat Distribution Pattern and Metabolic Adaptability in Adult Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Prabhat; Johnsen, Lærke; Axel, Anne Marie Dixen; Hansen, Pernille Willert; Kongsted, Anna Hauntoft; Lyckegaard, Nette Brinch; Nielsen, Mette Olaf

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate whether over- versus undernutrition in late foetal life combined with obesity development in early postnatal life have differential implications for fat distribution and metabolic adaptability in adulthood. Twin-pregnant ewes were fed NORM (100% of daily energy and protein requirements), LOW (50% of NORM) or HIGH (150%/110% of energy/protein requirements) diets during the last trimester. Postnatally, twin-lambs received obesogenic (HCHF) or moderate (CONV) diets until 6 months of age, and a moderate (obesity correcting) diet thereafter. At 2½ years of age (adulthood), plasma metabolite profiles during fasting, glucose, insulin and propionate (in fed and fasted states) tolerance tests were examined. Organ weights were determined at autopsy. Early obesity development was associated with lack of expansion of perirenal, but not other adipose tissues from adolescence to adulthood, resulting in 10% unit increased proportion of mesenteric of intra-abdominal fat. Prenatal undernutrition had a similar but much less pronounced effect. Across tolerance tests, LOW-HCHF sheep had highest plasma levels of cholesterol, urea-nitrogen, creatinine, and lactate. Sex specific differences were observed, particularly with respect to fat deposition, but direction of responses to early nutrition impacts were similar. However, prenatal undernutrition induced greater metabolic alterations in adult females than males. Foetal undernutrition, but not overnutrition, predisposed for adult hypercholesterolaemia, hyperureaemia, hypercreatinaemia and hyperlactataemia, which became manifested only in combination with early obesity development. Perirenal expandability may play a special role in this context. Differential nutrition recommendations may be advisable for individuals with low versus high birth weights.

  12. Long-Term Impacts of Foetal Malnutrition Followed by Early Postnatal Obesity on Fat Distribution Pattern and Metabolic Adaptability in Adult Sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhat Khanal

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate whether over- versus undernutrition in late foetal life combined with obesity development in early postnatal life have differential implications for fat distribution and metabolic adaptability in adulthood. Twin-pregnant ewes were fed NORM (100% of daily energy and protein requirements, LOW (50% of NORM or HIGH (150%/110% of energy/protein requirements diets during the last trimester. Postnatally, twin-lambs received obesogenic (HCHF or moderate (CONV diets until 6 months of age, and a moderate (obesity correcting diet thereafter. At 2½ years of age (adulthood, plasma metabolite profiles during fasting, glucose, insulin and propionate (in fed and fasted states tolerance tests were examined. Organ weights were determined at autopsy. Early obesity development was associated with lack of expansion of perirenal, but not other adipose tissues from adolescence to adulthood, resulting in 10% unit increased proportion of mesenteric of intra-abdominal fat. Prenatal undernutrition had a similar but much less pronounced effect. Across tolerance tests, LOW-HCHF sheep had highest plasma levels of cholesterol, urea-nitrogen, creatinine, and lactate. Sex specific differences were observed, particularly with respect to fat deposition, but direction of responses to early nutrition impacts were similar. However, prenatal undernutrition induced greater metabolic alterations in adult females than males. Foetal undernutrition, but not overnutrition, predisposed for adult hypercholesterolaemia, hyperureaemia, hypercreatinaemia and hyperlactataemia, which became manifested only in combination with early obesity development. Perirenal expandability may play a special role in this context. Differential nutrition recommendations may be advisable for individuals with low versus high birth weights.

  13. Cerebellar infarct patterns : The SMART-Medea study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Cocker, Laurens J L; Geerlings, Mirjam I; Hartkamp, NS; Grool, Anne M; Mali, Willem P; Van der Graaf, Yolanda; Kloppenborg, Raoul P; Hendrikse, J; Doevendans, PAFM

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Previous studies on cerebellar infarcts have been largely restricted to acute infarcts in patients with clinical symptoms, and cerebellar infarcts have been evaluated with the almost exclusive use of transversal MR images. We aimed to document the occurrence and 3D-imaging patterns of

  14. Surface roughness measurement using dichromatic speckle pattern: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, H; Lit, J W

    1978-09-01

    Surface roughness is studied experimentally by making use of the statistical properties of dichromatic speckle patterns. The rms intensity difference between two speckle patterns produced by two argon laser lines are analyzed in the far field as functions of the object surface roughness and the difference in the two wavenumbers of the illuminating light. By applying previously derived formulas, the rms surface roughness is obtained from rms intensity differences. Glass and metal rough surfaces are used. Other than the scattering arrangement, the experimental setup has a simple spectrometric system and an electronic analyzing circuit.

  15. A study on the relationship between adiponectin, BDNF and leptin with abdominal fat thickness in male workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Kyung Sun; Choi, Yoon Jung [Center for Occupational Health Research, Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute, KOSHA, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    Adiponectin (AdipoN), brain-derived nerotrophic factor (BDNF) and leptin (LeP) are mainly secreted from adipose tissue and are known to be involved in regulation of the development of obese. However, there are not many studies on the association between abdominal fat and neuropeptides such as AdipoN, BDNF and LeP. The aim of this study was undertaken to investigate the association between abdominal fat thickness, neuropeptides and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. The participants in the study were 138 male employees without CVD. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute. Written informed consent for the participants in this study was obtained from all individuals. We obtained subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT) and visceral fat thickness (VFT) by using ultrasonography and neuropeptides levels were measured with ELISA kit according to the method suggested by kit manufacturer. The mean SFT and VFT were 1.58±0.51 and 4.52±1.44 cm. The mean concentrations of AdipoN, BDNF and LeP were 3.14±3.52 ng/ml, 24.11+8.52 pg/ml and 4.27±2.38 ng/ml, respectively. VFT were positively correlated with total cholesterol (r=0.217, p<0.05), LDL-cholesterol (r=0.271, p<0.01), triglyceride (r=0.233, p<0.05) and insulin (r=0.338, p<0.01), but was inversely correlated with HDL- cholesterol (r=-420, p<0.01). AdipoN levels were positively correlated with HDL-cholesterol (r=0.220, p<0.05) and were inversely correlated with total cholesterol (r=-0.196, p<0.05), LDL-cholesterol (r=-0.190, p<0.05), triglyceride (r=-0.199, p<0.05), SFT (r=-0.195, p<0.05) and VFT (r=-0.412, p<0.01). However, LeP levels showed a reverse trend to AdipoN. AdipoN level was significantly higher in non-obese participants (BMI<25 kg/m), but LeP concentration was significantly higher in obese participants (BMI>25 kg/m) than in non-obese. On multiple logistic regression analysis, obese were significantly associated with AdipoN (odds ratio=0

  16. Cerebellar infarct patterns: The SMART-Medea study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cocker, Laurens J L; Geerlings, Mirjam I; Hartkamp, Nolan S; Grool, Anne M; Mali, Willem P; Van der Graaf, Yolanda; Kloppenborg, Raoul P; Hendrikse, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies on cerebellar infarcts have been largely restricted to acute infarcts in patients with clinical symptoms, and cerebellar infarcts have been evaluated with the almost exclusive use of transversal MR images. We aimed to document the occurrence and 3D-imaging patterns of cerebellar infarcts presenting as an incidental finding on MRI. We analysed the 1.5 Tesla MRI, including 3D T1-weighted datasets, of 636 patients (mean age 62 ± 9 years, 81% male) from the SMART-Medea study. Cerebellar infarct analyses included an assessment of size, cavitation and gliosis, of grey and white matter involvement, and of infarct topography. One or more cerebellar infarcts (mean 1.97; range 1-11) were detected in 70 out of 636 patients (11%), with a total amount of 138 infarcts identified, 135 of which showed evidence of cavitation. The average mean axial diameter was 7 mm (range 2-54 mm), and 131 infarcts (95%) were smaller than 20 mm. Hundred-thirty-four infarcts (97%) involved the cortex, of which 12 in combination with subcortical white matter. No infarcts were restricted to subcortical branches of white matter. Small cortical infarcts involved the apex of a deep (pattern 1) or shallow fissure (pattern 2), or occurred alongside one (pattern 3) or opposite sides (pattern 4) of a fissure. Most (87%) cerebellar infarcts were situated in the posterior lobe. Small cerebellar infarcts proved to be much more common than larger infarcts, and preferentially involved the cortex. Small cortical infarcts predominantly involved the posterior lobes, showed sparing of subcortical white matter and occurred in characteristic topographic patterns.

  17. Dietary Fats and Cardiovascular Disease: A Presidential Advisory From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Frank M; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Wu, Jason H Y; Appel, Lawrence J; Creager, Mark A; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Miller, Michael; Rimm, Eric B; Rudel, Lawrence L; Robinson, Jennifer G; Stone, Neil J; Van Horn, Linda V

    2017-07-18

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading global cause of death, accounting for 17.3 million deaths per year. Preventive treatment that reduces CVD by even a small percentage can substantially reduce, nationally and globally, the number of people who develop CVD and the costs of caring for them. This American Heart Association presidential advisory on dietary fats and CVD reviews and discusses the scientific evidence, including the most recent studies, on the effects of dietary saturated fat intake and its replacement by other types of fats and carbohydrates on CVD. In summary, randomized controlled trials that lowered intake of dietary saturated fat and replaced it with polyunsaturated vegetable oil reduced CVD by ≈30%, similar to the reduction achieved by statin treatment. Prospective observational studies in many populations showed that lower intake of saturated fat coupled with higher intake of polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fat is associated with lower rates of CVD and of other major causes of death and all-cause mortality. In contrast, replacement of saturated fat with mostly refined carbohydrates and sugars is not associated with lower rates of CVD and did not reduce CVD in clinical trials. Replacement of saturated with unsaturated fats lowers low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, a cause of atherosclerosis, linking biological evidence with incidence of CVD in populations and in clinical trials. Taking into consideration the totality of the scientific evidence, satisfying rigorous criteria for causality, we conclude strongly that lowering intake of saturated fat and replacing it with unsaturated fats, especially polyunsaturated fats, will lower the incidence of CVD. This recommended shift from saturated to unsaturated fats should occur simultaneously in an overall healthful dietary pattern such as DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) or the Mediterranean diet as emphasized by the 2013 American Heart Association/American College of

  18. Regional fat distribution changes with aging in Caucasian, African-American and Asian women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Ai-jun; Dympna Gallagher; Richard N. Pierson Jr

    2007-01-01

    Background: A central pattern of fat distribution in postmenopausal women is regarded as a contributor to the increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease.Both ethnicity and occurrence of menopause appear to influence regional fat distribution.However the influence of ethnicity has been under-investigated.Objective: The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that centralized fat distribution is influenced by ethnic origin.Furthermore, we hypothesize that the menopause-related changes in central adiposity in Caucasian,African-American and Asian women occur at different rates.Method: Total and regional body fat ratios were measured by whole body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in a cross-sectional study using a general linear regression model.After adjustment for age, weight, height,and total body fat, the android and gynoid fat compartments, and the ratio of trunk/leg fat, were analyzed.Results: Four hundred and forty-four women (227 Caucasian (Ca), 128 African-American (AA) and 89 Asian (As)) aged 18-94 y were recruited.Race was significantly (P<0.0001) related to the dependent variables: android and gynoid fat, and ratio of trunk/leg adiposity, in all subjects, adjusted by age, weight, height and total body fat.The interaction of race * menopause was also found to be significant (P=0.028).In each group, regional and total body fat levels, and especially android adiposity, were higher in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women.Interestingly, the postmenopausal difference in android fat in Ca was found significant (P<0.05), whereas such differences had no impact in AA and As subjects (NS).Conclusions: The differences in fat mass and its distribution were racially dependent.The impact of menopause was only significant in Ca group.

  19. Dietary patterns in Brazilian patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a cross-sectional study

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    Silvia Marinho Ferolla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Recent evidence suggests that non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with diet. Our aim was to investigate the dietary patterns of a Brazilian population with this condition and compare them with the recommended diet. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 96 non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients before any dietetic counseling. All patients underwent abdominal ultrasound, biochemical tests, dietary evaluations, and anthropometric evaluations. Their food intake was assessed by a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire and 24-hour food recall. RESULTS: The median patient age was 53 years, and 77% of the individuals were women. Most (67.7% participants were obese, and a large waist circumference was observed in 80.2% subjects. Almost 70% of the participants had metabolic syndrome, and 62.3% presented evidence of either insulin resistance or overt diabetes. Most patients (51.5, 58.5, and 61.7%, respectively exceeded the recommendations for energy intake, as well as total and saturated fat. All patients consumed less than the amount of recommended monounsaturated fatty acids, and 52.1 and 76.6% of them consumed less polyunsaturated fatty acids and fiber, respectively, than recommended. In most patients, the calcium, sodium, potassium, pyridoxine, and vitamin C intake did not meet the recommendations, and in 10.5-15.5% of individuals, the tolerable upper limit intake for sodium was exceeded. The patients presented a significantly high intake of meats, fats, sugars, legumes (beans, and vegetables and a low consumption of cereals, fruits, and dairy products compared with the recommendations. CONCLUSIONS: Although patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease exhibited high energy and lipid consumption, most of them had inadequate intake of some micronutrients. The possible role of nutrient-deficient intake in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease warrants investigation.

  20. The influence of high fat diets with different ketogenic ratios on the hippocampal accumulation of creatine - FTIR microspectroscopy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoczen, A.; Setkowicz, Z.; Janeczko, K.; Sandt, Ch.; Borondics, F.; Chwiej, J.

    2017-09-01

    The main purpose of this study was the determination and comparison of anomalies in creatine (Cr) accumulation occurring within CA3 and DG areas of hippocampal formation as a result of two high-fat, carbohydrate-restricted ketogenic diets (KD) with different ketogenic ratio (KR). To reach this goal, Fourier transformed infrared microspectroscopy with synchrotron radiation source (SRFTIR microspectroscopy) was applied for chemical mapping of creatine absorption bands, occurring around 1304, 1398 and 2800 cm- 1. The samples were taken from three groups of experimental animals: control group (N) fed with standard laboratory diet, KD1 and KD2 groups fed with high-fat diets with KR 5:1 and 9:1 respectively. Additionally, the possible influence on the phosphocreatine (PhCr, the high energetic form of creatine) content was evaluated by comparative analysis of chemical maps obtained for creatine and for compounds containing phosphate groups which manifest in the spectra at the wavenumbers of around 1240 and 1080 cm- 1. Our results showed that KD2 strongly modifies the frequency of Cr inclusions in both analyzed hippocampal areas. Statistical analysis, performed with Mann-Whitney U test revealed increased accumulation of Cr within CA3 and DG areas of KD2 fed rats compared to both normal rats and KD1 experimental group. Moreover, KD2 diet may modify the frequency of PhCr deposits as well as the PhCr to Cr ratio.

  1. Acculturation and dietary patterns among residents of Surinamese origin in the Netherlands: the HELIUS dietary pattern study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturkenboom, Suzanne M; Dekker, Louise H; Lamkaddem, Majda; Schaap, Laura A; de Vries, Jeanne H M; Stronks, Karien; Nicolaou, Mary

    2016-03-01

    Insight into the role of acculturation in dietary patterns is important to inform the development of nutrition programmes that target ethnic minority groups. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate how the adherence to dietary patterns within an ethnic minority population in the Netherlands varies by acculturation level compared with the host population. Cross-sectional study using data of the HELIUS study. Dietary patterns were assessed with an ethnic-specific FFQ. Acculturation was operationalized using unidimensional proxies (residence duration, age at migration and generation status) as well as on the basis of the bidimensional perspective, defined by four distinct acculturation strategies: assimilation, integration, separation and marginalization. Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Participants of Dutch (n 1370) and Surinamese (n 1727) origin. Three dietary patterns were identified: (i) 'noodle/rice dishes and white meat' (traditional Surinamese pattern); (ii) 'red meat, snacks and sweets'; and (iii) 'vegetables, fruit and nuts'. Surinamese-origin respondents adhered more to the traditional Surinamese pattern than the other dietary patterns. Neither the unidimensional proxies nor the bidimensional acculturation strategies demonstrated consistent associations with dietary patterns. The lack of consistent association between acculturation and dietary patterns in the present study indicates that dietary patterns are quite robust. Understanding the continued adherence to traditional dietary patterns when developing dietary interventions in ethnic minority groups is warranted.

  2. Variation of body fat percentage with special reference to diet modification in patients with chronic kidney disease: A longitudinal study

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    Neha Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral adiposity causes hypertension, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. This study was conducted to evaluate whether a correlation exists between body fat percentage (BFP of chronic kidney disease (CKD patients and their dietary intake. In this hospital-based, quasi-experimental study, 135 incident cases of CKD were included, of whom 76 completed the study. The patients included were aged 18 years and above and had a body mass index (BMI between 18 and 25 kg/m [2] , had CKD of any etiology and serum creatinine of up to 5 mg/dL. Patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, active hepatitis B or C, malignancy, previous kidney transplantation, current participation in any trial, diabetes mellitus and those who were on dia-lysis were excluded. The study patients were put on a diet of 25-30 kcal/kg/day, with 60% of the calories coming from carbohydrates and 20% each from protein and fat. Assessment was made at baseline (BL and at 12 months (TM for anthropometric parameters, skin-fold thickness, nutri-tional parameters, serum albumin and dietary intake (3-day dietary record and clinical charac-teristics. No significant change was seen in BFP, waist circumference (WC and BMI at BS and at TM. There was significant improvement in serum albumin (P <0.05 and e-GFR (P <0.01 while CRP was elevated both at BL and TM. The dietary intake was within the prescribed limit, with significant improvement in energy intake between BS and TM (P <0.05. The intake of delta dietary protein and fat positively correlated with delta e-GFR (P <0.001. There was a significant association between change in BFP and change in BMI (P <0.005. During follow-up, there was no significant change in biochemical parameters and BFP as well as stage of CKD of the study patients. This study supports the fact that dietary counseling is an important part of treatment in patients with CKD.

  3. Thoracic costotransverse joint pain patterns: a study in normal volunteers

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    Wainner Robert S

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pain referral patterns of asymptomatic costotransverse joints have not been established. The objective of this study was to determine the pain referral patterns of asymptomatic costotransverse joints via provocative intra-articular injection. Methods Eight asymptomatic male volunteers received a combined total of 21 intra-articular costotransverse joint injections. Fluoroscopic imaging was used to identify and isolate each costotransverse joint and guide placement of a 25 gauge, 2.5 inch spinal needle into the costotransverse joint. Following contrast medium injection, the quality, intensity, and distribution of the resultant pain produced were recorded. Results Of the 21 costotransverse joint injections, 16 (76% were classified as being intra-articular via arthrograms taken at the time of injection, and 14 of these injections produced a pain sensation distinctly different from that of needle placement. Average pain produced was 3.3/10 on a 0–10 verbal pain scale. Pain was described generally as a deep, dull ache, and pressure sensation. Pain patterns were located superficial to the injected joint, with only the right T2 injections showing referred pain 2 segments cranially and caudally. No chest wall, upper extremity or pseudovisceral pains were reported. Conclusion This study provides preliminary data of the pain referral patterns of costotransverse joints. Further research is needed to compare these findings with those elicited from symptomatic subjects.

  4. Lower birth weight and increased body fat at school age in children prenatally exposed to modern pesticides: a prospective study

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    Grandjean Philippe

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endocrine disrupting chemicals have been hypothesized to play a role in the obesity epidemic. Long-term effects of prenatal exposure to non-persistent pesticides on body composition have so far not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to assess possible effects of prenatal exposure to currently used pesticides on children's growth, endocrine and reproductive function. Methods In a prospective study of 247 children born by women working in greenhouses in early pregnancy, 168 were categorized as prenatally exposed to pesticides. At three months (n = 203 and at 6 to11 years of age (n = 177 the children underwent a clinical examination and blood sampling for analysis of IGF-I, IGFBP3 and thyroid hormones. Body fat percentage at age 6 to11 years was calculated from skin fold measurements. Pesticide related associations were tested by linear multiple regression analysis, adjusting for relevant confounders. Results Compared to unexposed children birth weight and weight for gestational age were lower in the highly exposed children: -173 g (-322; -23, -4.8% (-9.0; -0.7 and medium exposed children: -139 g (-272; -6, -3.6% (-7.2; -0.0. Exposed (medium and highly together children had significantly larger increase in BMI Z-score (0.55 SD (95% CI: 0.1; 1.0 from birth to school age and highly exposed children had 15.8% (0.2; 34.6 larger skin folds and higher body fat percentage compared to unexposed. If prenatally exposed to both pesticides and maternal smoking (any amount, the sum of four skin folds was 46.9% (95% CI: 8.1; 99.5 and body fat percentage 29.1% (95% CI: 3.0; 61.4 higher. There were subtle associations between exposure and TSH Z-score -0.66(-1.287; -0.022 and IGF-I Z-score (girls: -0.62(-1.0; -0.22, boys: 0.38(-0.03; 0.79, but not IGFBP3. Conclusions Occupational exposure to currently used pesticides may have adverse effects in spite of the added protection offered to pregnant women. Maternal exposure to

  5. Dietary pattern and risk of hodgkin lymphoma in a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Mara M; Chang, Ellen T; Zhang, Yawei; Fung, Teresa T; Batista, Julie L; Ambinder, Richard F; Zheng, Tongzhang; Mueller, Nancy E; Birmann, Brenda M

    2015-09-01

    Classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) has few known modifiable risk factors, and the relationship between diet and cHL risk is unclear. We performed the first investigation of an association between dietary pattern and cHL risk in 435 cHL cases and 563 population-based controls from Massachusetts and Connecticut (1997-2000) who completed baseline diet questionnaires. We identified 4 major dietary patterns ("vegetable," "high meat," "fruit/low-fat dairy," "desserts/sweets") using principal components analysis. We computed multivariable odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for associations of dietary pattern score (quartiles) with younger-adult (age dietary patterns were not clearly associated with cHL. We report the first evidence for a role of dietary pattern in cHL etiology. Diets featuring high intake of meat or desserts and sweets may increase cHL risk.

  6. Dietary fat oxidation as a function of body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerterp, Klaas R; Smeets, Astrid; Lejeune, Manuela P; Wouters-Adriaens, Mirjam P E; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2008-01-01

    It is hypothesized that low dietary fat oxidation makes subjects prone to weight gain. The aim of the study was to determine dietary fat oxidation in normal, overweight, and obese subjects. The subjects were 38 women and 18 men with a mean (+/-SD) age of 30+/-12 y and a body mass index (in kg/m2) of 25+/-4 (range: 18-39). Dietary fat oxidation was measured with deuterated palmitic acid, given simultaneously with breakfast, while the subjects were fed under controlled conditions in a respiration chamber. Body composition was measured by hydrodensitometry and deuterium dilution. Dietary fat oxidation, measured over 12 h after breakfast, ranged from 4% to 28% with a mean (+/-SD) of 16+/-6%. Dietary fat oxidation was negatively related to percentage body fat, and lean subjects had the highest and obese subjects the lowest values (r=-0.65, P<0.001). The observed reduction in dietary fat oxidation in subjects with a higher percentage body fat may play a role in human obesity.

  7. Dietary Patterns of European Children and Their Parents in Association with Family Food Environment: Results from the I.Family Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebestreit, Antje; Intemann, Timm; Siani, Alfonso; De Henauw, Stefaan; Eiben, Gabriele; Kourides, Yiannis A.; Kovacs, Eva; Moreno, Luis A.; Veidebaum, Toomas; Krogh, Vittorio; Pala, Valeria; Bogl, Leonie H.; Hunsberger, Monica; Börnhorst, Claudia; Pigeot, Iris

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether an association exists between children’s and parental dietary patterns (DP), and whether the number of shared meals or soft drink availability during meals strengthens this association. In 2013/2014 the I.Family study cross-sectionally assessed the dietary intakes of families from eight European countries using 24-h dietary recalls. Usual energy and food intakes from six- to 16-year-old children and their parents were estimated based on the NCI Method. A total of 1662 child–mother and 789 child–father dyads were included; DP were derived using cluster analysis. We investigated the association between children’s and parental DP and whether the number of shared meals or soft drink availability moderated this association using mixed effects logistic regression models. Three DP comparable in children and parents were obtained: Sweet & Fat, Refined Cereals, and Animal Products. Children were more likely to be allocated to the Sweet & Fat DP when their fathers were allocated to the Sweet & Fat DP and when they shared at least one meal per day (OR 3.18; 95% CI 1.84; 5.47). Being allocated to the Sweet & Fat DP increased when the mother or the father was allocated to the Sweet & Fat DP and when soft drinks were available (OR 2.78; 95% CI 1.80; 4.28 or OR 4.26; 95% CI 2.16; 8.41, respectively). Availability of soft drinks and negative parental role modeling are important predictors of children’s dietary patterns. PMID:28208650

  8. Association of NOS3 Glu298Asp SNP with hypertension and possible effect modification of dietary fat intake in the ARIC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingah, Pascal L; Luu, Hung N; Volcik, Kelly A; Morrison, Alanna C; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2010-02-01

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase breaks down nitric oxide and has a key role in blood pressure regulation. Earlier studies have shown associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the NOS3 gene and hypertension. Studies also suggest that such associations may vary by dietary fat intake. We investigated associations between the NOS3 Glu298Asp SNP (rs1799983) and hypertension, as well as the interaction between NOS3 genotypes and dietary fat intake using data from baseline examination in white and African American participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Community (ARIC) study. Dietary fat intake was measured by a Food Frequency Questionnaire during the baseline examination in 15 792 individuals aged 45-64 years in ARIC study participants. Race-stratified unconditional logistic regression was performed to investigate the association between prevalent hypertension and NOS3 Glu298Asp genotypes. There was no significant interaction between dietary fat intake and NOS3 Glu298Asp genotype with regards to hypertension status in either African Americans or whites (P for interaction=0.3 and 0.4, respectively). We found a significant relationship between NOS3 Glu298Asp and triglycerides in African Americans. We did not find an association between the NOS3 Glu298Asp polymorphism and hypertension, and dietary fat intake did not interact with NOS3 genotypes to influence hypertension. We recommend further exploration of the relationship between NOS3 Glu298Asp and triglycerides in African Americans.

  9. Impact of triacylglycerol composition on shear-induced textural changes in highly saturated fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, Sandra B; Andersen, Morten D; Hammershøj, Marianne; Wiking, Lars

    2017-01-15

    This study demonstrates a strong interaction between triacylglycerol (TAG) composition and effects of shear rate on the microstructure and texture of fats. Cocoa butter alternatives with similar saturated fat content, but different major TAGs (PPO-, PSO-, SSO-, POP- and SOS-rich blends) were evaluated. Results show how shear can create a harder texture in fat blends based on symmetric monounsaturated TAGs (up to ∼200%), primarily due to reduction in crystal size, whereas shear has little effect on hardness of asymmetric monounsaturated TAGs. Such differences could not be ascribed to differences in the degree of supercooling, but was found to be a consequence of differences in the crystallisation behaviour of different TAGs. The fractal dimension was evaluated by dimensional detrended fluctuation analysis and Fourier transformation of microscopy images. However, the concept of fractal patterns was found to be insufficient to describe microstructural changes of fat blends with high solid fat content.

  10. Tracking of eating patterns and overweight - a follow-up study of Norwegian schoolchildren from middle childhood to early adolescence

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    Svendsen Martin V

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to describe eating patterns in early adolescence and to determine associations between eating patterns and overweight from middle childhood (4th grade, 9 to 10 years old to early adolescence (7th grade, 12 to 13 years old. Methods Children were recruited from primary schools in Telemark County, Norway. Dietary data were obtained by parental report using a food frequency questionnaire. Height and weight were objectively measured, and overweight was defined using international standard cut-off points. Complete data were obtained for 924 4th grade and 691 7th children, and 427 children provided complete data at both time points. Principal component analysis was applied to identify eating patterns. We used multiple logistic regression to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for being overweight. Results The same four distinct eating patterns were identified at both time points. Correlation coefficients for the factor scores of corresponding eating patterns at baseline and follow up ranged from 0.44 to 0.60. In the follow-up sample, 345 children (80% were still of normal weight, while 41 (10% remained overweight. Children with high "dieting" pattern scores and low "varied Norwegian" pattern scores in the 7th grade had an increased risk of being overweight. Children with stable or increased "varied Norwegian" pattern scores had a lower risk of remaining overweight over time than children with decreased scores for this pattern; adjusted OR: 0.4 (95% CI: 0.2, 0.8. This pattern included foods and meals close to current dietary guidelines, including vegetables, fruit and unrefined cereal products. We did not observe an increased risk of overweight in children with high "unhealthy" eating pattern scores, termed "snacking" or "junk/convenient" in either cross-sectional or longitudinal analyses. Conclusions Slight to moderate stability of eating patterns was observed. Children

  11. The Sex and Race Specific Relationship between Anthropometry and Body Fat Composition Determined from Computed Tomography: Evidence from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

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    Morgana Mongraw-Chaffin

    Full Text Available Few studies have investigated the relationship of anthropometric measurements with computed tomography (CT body fat composition, and even fewer determined if these relationships differ by sex and race.CT scans from 1,851 participants in the population based Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis were assessed for visceral and subcutaneous fat areas by semi-automated segmentation of body compartments. Regression models were used to investigate relationships for anthropometry with visceral and subcutaneous fat separately by sex and race/ethnicity.Participants were 50% female, 41% Caucasian, 13% Asian, 21% African American, and 25% Hispanic. For visceral fat, the positive relationship with weight (p = 0.028, waist circumference (p<0.001, waist to hip ratio (p<0.001, and waist to height ratio (p = 0.05 differed by sex, with a steeper slope for men. That is, across the range of these anthropometric measures the rise in visceral fat is faster for men than for women. Additionally, there were differences by race/ethnicity in the relationship with height (p<0.001, weight (p<0.001, waist circumference (p<0.001, hip circumference (p = 0.006, and waist to hip ratio (p = 0.001 with the Hispanic group having shallower slopes. For subcutaneous fat, interaction by sex was found for all anthropometric indices at p<0.05, but not for race/ethnicity.The relationship between anthropometry and underlying adiposity differs by sex and race/ethnicity. When anthropometry is used as a proxy for visceral fat in research, sex-specific models should be used.

  12. Pulmonary fat embolism--a prospective study within the forensic autopsy collective of the Republic of Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisard, Matthias X; Schweitzer, Wolf; Jackowski, Christian

    2013-01-01

    In the last century, studies established the origin of pulmonary fat embolism (PFE) and identified mechanical trauma as main source for PFE. This prospective study focused on determining a possible influence of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), in the context of an aging population, on the occurrence of PFE. Lung tissue samples from 256 bodies were examined using the twin-edged knife technique without preliminary fixation but after staining with Sudan III. PFE grading was determined according to Falzi and performed at a 10× magnification. For statistical analysis, bodies were grouped by age, gender, and putrefaction and categorized following whether they had experienced trauma, CPR, the combination of both, or no mechanical impact. There was a significant correlation of trauma, CPR, and the combination of both to PFE but no noticeable influence of gender or putrefaction. An age over 70 years promotes a PFE due to resuscitation. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. How subsurface patterns affect surface energy budget patterns: a sudanian case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, D.; Cohard, J.; Descloitres, M.; Vandervaere, J.; Braud, I.; Vauclin, M.

    2011-12-01

    Fractured bedrock areas are still challenging for hydrological modeling because of their complex underground property distributions. The heterogeneity in soil hydraulic properties, for example, can control the subsurface water fluxes and create surface soil moisture pattern which becomes preferential areas for runoff production or evapotranspiration. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of a bedrock topography, including outcropping, on subsurface water fluxes and the induced energy budget patterns at the surface. To deal with these ground water/surface water interactions, we run the Parflow-CLM distributed coupled land surface and groundwater model over the 12km2 Ara watershed (Northern Benin) for different bedrock configurations. The Ara catchment is submitted to a sudanian climate with 1200mm total rainfall per year. It is part of the AMMA-Catch project in which 3 meso sites have been documented along a south to north transect in West Africa. The geology of the Ara catchment is composed of metamorphic rocks. The main orientation of the geological structures (and of the gneiss foliation) is roughly north-south and the dip angle is 20° east. These structure create patterns in effective porosity distribution which is supposed to induce subsurface flow perpendicular to surface slope direction. Controlled Parflow-CLM simulation results are compared with energy budget data, including 3 net radiation measurements, eddy covariance station, scintillometric measurements to estimate evapotranspiration at different scales. The experimental device also include ground measurements like distributed surface soil moisture profile and piezometers. Parflow-CLM simulations are in good agreement with energy budget observations if observed Leaf Area Index time series are take into account. Then different hydraulic property distributions (effective porosity, hydraulic transmissivity, water retention curves) are evaluated through watershed dynamic differences.

  14. Study on Noncontact Pulmonary Function Test Using Pattern Light Projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Hirooki; Koshiji, Kohji

    The pulmonary function test by spirometer is generally conducted. The test subjects, especially children, women and older people, feel uncomfortable as the mouthpiece and nasal plug must be attached to the face of them. We have studied the nonrestraint pulmonary function test using the dot matrix pattern projection in order to decrease the burden to the examinee. In our proposed system, the pattern light projector illuminates the thorax with the dot matrix pattern light. And the CCD camera takes a series of images of the dot matrix pattern. The three dimensional shape of the thorax surface can be calculated by the distribution of light dots. And the respiratory waveform is calculated by the time-series change of the three dimensional shape. The respiratory waveform of our system was similar to one of spirometer. Therefore, we clarified that our proposed system can equivalently measure the respiration with spirometer. And we compared the volume change of the three dimensional shape calculated by our system with the expired tidal volume measured by the expiration gas analyzer. And we examined the relationship between the expired tidal volume and the volume change of the thorax surface.

  15. Habitual fat intake predicts memory function in younger women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Leigh eGibson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available High intakes of fat have been linked to greater cognitive decline in old age, but such associations may already occur in younger adults. We tested memory and learning in 38 women (25-45 years old, recruited for a larger observational study in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. These women varied in health status, though not significantly between cases (n=23 and controls (n=15. Performance on tests sensitive to medial temporal lobe function (CANTABeclipse, Cambridge Cognition Ltd., i.e. verbal memory, visuo-spatial learning and delayed pattern matching, were compared with intakes of macronutrients from 7-day diet diaries and physiological indices of metabolic syndrome. Partial correlations were adjusted for age, activity and verbal IQ (National Adult Reading Test. Greater intakes of saturated and trans fats, and higher saturated to unsaturated fat ratio (Sat:UFA, were associated with more errors on the visuo-spatial task and with poorer word recall and recognition. Unexpectedly, higher UFA intake predicted poorer performance on the word recall and recognition measures. Fasting insulin was positively correlated with poorer word recognition only, whereas higher blood total cholesterol was associated only with visuo-spatial learning errors. None of these variables predicted performance on a delayed pattern matching test. The significant nutrient-cognition relationships were tested for mediation by total energy intake: saturated and trans fat intakes, and Sat:UFA, remained significant predictors specifically of visuo-spatial learning errors, whereas total fat and UFA intakes now predicted only poorer word recall. Examination of associations separately for mono- (MUFA and polyunsaturated fats suggested that only MUFA intake was predictive of poorer word recall. Saturated and trans fats, and fasting insulin, may already be associated with cognitive deficits in younger women. The findings need extending but may have important implications for public

  16. A factorial study of fat and fibre changes and sodium restriction on blood pressure of human hypertensive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciarrone, S E; Rouse, I L; Rogers, P; Beilin, L J

    1990-03-01

    1. Diets used to reduce sodium intake often involve changes in fats and fibre which might themselves affect blood pressure and/or lipid metabolism. To evaluate the relative importance of these dietary changes for the management of hypertension we have studied the independent and additive effects of sodium restriction (less than 60 mmol/day) and a low fat (30% energy), high P/S ratio (1.0), high fibre (30-50 g/day) 'cholesterol lowering' diet. 2. Ninety-five hypertensives entered a four group parallel study with a factorial design. Following 5 weeks familiarization subjects [BP range 109/66-168/105 mmHg] were randomly assigned to either a 'low sodium, cholesterol lowering' diet or a 'low sodium, cholesterol maintaining' diet. Half the subjects in each group were then assigned to 100 mmol/day NaCl supplement and the remainder to placebo. These diets were continued for 8 weeks. Seventy-nine of the 91 hypertensives who completed the study were on antihypertensive therapy throughout. 3. Mean urinary sodium excretion decreased from 137 (54 mmol/day (n = 43) at baseline (B) to 52 (32) mmol/day (n = 45, P = 0.0001) during intervention (I) in the low sodium groups and remained unchanged in the groups which received slow sodium (B = 129 [46], n = 43; I = 134 [29], n = 42). Diet record and plasma fatty acid analysis confirmed that the dietary aims of the study were achieved. 4. Sodium restriction reduced supine and standing systolic BP by a mean (+/- s.e.m.) of 6 +/- 2 and 6 +/- 4 mmHg, respectively (P less than 0.005).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Effects of lorcaserin on fat and lean mass loss in obese and overweight patients without and with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the BLOSSOM and BLOOM-DM studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apovian, C; Palmer, K; Fain, R; Perdomo, C; Rubino, D

    2016-09-01

    Body composition was determined using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in a subset of patients without (BLOSSOM) and with (BLOOM-DM) type 2 diabetes who received diet and exercise counselling along with either lorcaserin 10 mg twice daily or placebo. DXA scans were performed on study day 1 (baseline), week 24 and week 52. Baseline demographics of the subpopulations (without diabetes, n = 189; with diabetes, n = 63) were similar between studies and representative of their study populations. At week 52, patients without diabetes on lorcaserin lost significantly more fat mass relative to those on placebo (-12.06% vs -5.93%; p = 0.008). In patients with diabetes, fat mass was also decreased with lorcaserin relative to placebo (-9.87% vs -1.65%; p fat mass was lost in the trunk region with lorcaserin compared with placebo (without diabetes: -3.31% vs -2.05%; with diabetes: -3.65% vs -0.36%). Weight loss with lorcaserin was associated with a greater degree of fat mass loss than lean mass loss, and most of the fat mass lost for patients without and with diabetes was from the central region of the body. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Molecular cloning, expression pattern analysis of porcine Rb1 gene and its regulatory roles during primary dedifferentiated fat cells adipogenic differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoming; Luo, Pei; Peng, Xuewu; Song, Tongxing; Zhou, Yuanfei; Wei, Hongkui; Peng, Jian; Jiang, Siwen

    2015-04-01

    Adipocytes are the main constituent of adipose tissue and are considered to be a corner stone in the homeostatic control of whole body metabolism. Recent reports evidenced that retinoblastoma 1 (Rb1) gene plays an important role in fat development and adipogenesis in mice. Here, we cloned the partial cDNA sequences of the porcine Rb1 gene which contains the complete coding sequences (CDS) of 2820bp encoding a protein of 939 amino acids. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that the CDS of porcine Rb1 was highly identical with those of cattle, human and mice. The porcine Rb1 has three typical conserved structural domains, including Rb-A pocket domain, CYCLIN domain and C-terminus domain, and the phylogenetic tree indicates a closer genetic relationship with cattle and human. Tissue distribution analysis showed that Rb1 expression appeared to be ubiquitously in various tissues, being higher in heart, liver, muscle, and stomach. Furthermore, significant downregulation of Rb1 was found at the initial stage of dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells adipogenic differentiation. With the knockdown of the Rb1 expression by siRNA, the number of DFAT cells recruited to white rather than brown adipogenesis was promoted, and mRNA levels of adipogenic markers, such as PPARγ, aP2, LPL and adiponectin and protein expression of PPARγ and adiponectin were increased after hormone stimulation. The underlying mechanisms may be that knockdown of Rb1 promotes the mitotic clonal expansion and PPARγ expression by derepressing the transcriptional activity of E2F so as to facilitate the first steps of adipogenesis. In summary, we cloned and characterized an important negative regulator in adipogenic commitment of porcine DFAT cells.

  19. Structural phase study in un-patterned and patterned PVDF semi-crystalline films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pramod, K., E-mail: rameshg.phy@pondiuni.edu.in; Gangineni, Ramesh Babu, E-mail: rameshg.phy@pondiuni.edu.in [Department of Physics, Pondicherry University, R. V. Nagar, Kalapet, Puducherry - 605014 (India)

    2014-04-24

    This work explores the structural phase studies of organic polymer- polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) thin films in semi-crystallized phase and nano-patterned PVDF thin films. The nanopatterns are transferred with the CD layer as a master using soft lithography technique. The semi-crystalline PVDF films were prepared by a still and hot (SH) method, using a homemade spin coater that has the proficiency of substrate heating by a halogen lamp. Using this set up, smooth PVDF thin films in semi-crystalline α-phase were prepared using 2-Butanone as solvent. XRD, AFM and confocal Raman microscope have been utilized to study the structural phase, crystallinity and quality of the films.

  20. Saturated fat (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturated fat can raise blood cholesterol and can put you at risk for heart disease and stroke. You ... or limit any foods that are high in saturated fat. Sources of saturated fat include whole-milk dairy ...

  1. Learning about Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... oils like soybean, corn, canola, and olive oil. Saturated fats: These fats are found in meat and other ... as butter, cheese, and all milk except skim. Saturated fats are also in palm and coconut oils, which ...

  2. LIPE C-60G influences the effects of physical activity on body fat and plasma lipid concentrations: the Quebec Family Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garenc Christophe

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A large body of evidence suggests that the environment plays an important role in the development of obesity. The hormone-sensitive lipase (encoded by the LIPE gene is an intracellular enzyme that mobilises fat stores in a hormone-stimulated manner. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of the LIPE C-60G polymorphism on body fat and plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentrations, and to test for its interaction with physical activity. The LIPE C-60G polymorphism was genotyped in 862 subjects from the Quebec Family Study. Body mass index (BMI, fat mass, percentage body fat, abdominal fat areas assessed by computed tomography, and detailed fasting plasma lipid and lipoprotein profiles were measured. Levels of physical activity were estimated using a three-day diary, and a moderate to strenuous physical activity score was retained for this study. The main effects of the LIPE C-60G polymorphism, physical activity and their interaction were determined by regression analyses separately in men and women using the MIXED model procedure. In men, we observed significant gene-physical activity interactions for BMI (p = 0.006, fat mass (p = 0.04, abdominal visceral fat area (p = 0.005 and plasma cholesterol (C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C ratio (p = 0.003. A high level of physical activity was associated with reduced adiposity and a lower plasma-C/HDL-C ratio, but only in non-carriers of the genetic variant (G-60 allele. In women, no evidence of a gene by physical activity interaction was observed, except for subcutaneous abdominal fat (p = 0.05. These results suggest that the associations between physical activity and body fat and plasma lipoprotein/lipid concentrations in men are dependent on the LIPE C-60G polymorphism, and highlight the importance of taking into account the role of gene-physical activity interactions in candidate gene studies of obesity and obesity-related traits.

  3. Pattern of Nutritional Intake among Obese Undergraduate in Faculty of Communication Studies Universitas Padjadjaran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilavenmalar Perianan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity has become the 5th leading cause of death worldwide in 2010. It is a combination of genetic susceptibility, increased availability of high energy food intake and decreased requirements for physical activity in modern society. The increase in calorie intake among obese people often leads to many chronic diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study was to observe calorie intake pattern among obese undergraduates. Methods: This study was conducted at Faculty of Communication Studies Universitas Padjadjaran, from September to November 2013. This cross-sectional study used anthropometric measurement based on Asian Body Mass cut-off points, which the screening was conducted on 512 undergraduate students, consisting of 103 undergraduates, overweight (50 and obese (53. From 53 undergraduates, 30 respondents were randomly selected. The respondents were then interviewed using 3x24 hours Food Recall questionnaire, conducted on two weekdays and one weekend to observe their pattern of nutritional intake. Total number of calories was categorized into few groups according to the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA 2012. Results: From the thirty obese undergraduates, both male (11 and female (9 consumed more excess protein in daily life. Consumption of carbohydrate and energy was significantly normal. Common consumption of food as daily basis contained more carbohydrate then protein, fats or energy. Conclusions: Prevalence of obesity is still high. Frequent meal and high intake of carbohydrates has become factors to nutritional imbalance of obese undergraduates. Types of food most widely consumed are white rice, fried chicken, tofu, tempe (asian food made from fermenting soybeans and sweetened tea.

  4. Dietary total fat and fatty acids intake, serum fatty acids and risk of breast cancer: A meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yi; Hou, Lin; Wang, Weijing

    2016-04-15

    Results from prospective cohort studies on the association between dietary total fat and fatty acids intake and risk of breast cancer remain controversial. Pertinent prospective cohort studies were identified by a search of Embase and PubMed from inception to September 2015. Study-specific relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals were pooled using a random-effect model. Between-study heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed, and sensitivity analysis was conducted. Twenty-four independent studies on dietary total fat and fatty acids intake and seven studies on serum fatty acids were included. The pooled RR of breast cancer for the highest vs. lowest category of dietary total fat intake was 1.10 (1.02-1.19); however, no association was observed in studies adjusting for traditional risk factors of breast cancer. No association was observed between animal fat, vegetable fat, saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), n-3 PUFA, n-6 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and arachidonic acid and risk of breast cancer. The pooled RRs of breast cancer for the highest vs. lowest category of serum SFA, MUFA, PUFA, n-3 PUFA and n-6 PUFA were 1.00 (0.78-1.28), 1.41 (0.99-2.03), 0.59 (0.27-1.30), 0.81 (0.60-1.10) and 0.84 (0.60-1.18), respectively. Results from this meta-analysis suggested that dietary total fat and fatty acids might be not associated with risk of breast cancer.

  5. Epigenetic patterns in successful weight loss maintainers: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yen-Tsung; Maccani, Jennifer Z J; Hawley, Nicola L; Wing, Rena R; Kelsey, Karl T; McCaffery, Jeanne M

    2015-05-01

    DNA methylation changes occur in animal models of calorie restriction, simulating human dieting, and in human subjects undergoing behavioral weight loss interventions. This suggests that obese (OB) individuals may possess unique epigenetic patterns that may vary with weight loss. Here, we examine whether methylation patterns in leukocytes differ in individuals who lost sufficient weight to go from OB to normal weight (NW; successful weight loss maintainers; SWLMs) vs currently OB or NW individuals. This study examined peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) methylation patterns in NW (n=16, current/lifetime BMI 18.5-24.9) and OB individuals (n=16, current body mass index (BMI)⩾30), and SWLM (n=16, current BMI 18.5-24.9, lifetime maximum BMI ⩾30, average weight loss 57.4 lbs) using an Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadArray. No leukocyte population-adjusted epigenome-wide analyses were significant; however, potentially differentially methylated loci across the groups were observed in ryanodine receptor-1 (RYR1; P=1.54E-6), myelin protein zero-like 3 (MPZL3; P=4.70E-6) and alpha 3c tubulin (TUBA3C; P=4.78E-6). In 32 obesity-related candidate genes, differential methylation patterns were found in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF; gene-wide P=0.00018). In RYR1, TUBA3C and BDNF, SWLM differed from OB but not NW. In this preliminary investigation, leukocyte SWLM DNA methylation patterns more closely resembled NW than OB individuals in three gene regions. These results suggest that PBMC methylation is associated with weight status.

  6. Body fat is associated with increased and lean mass with decreased knee cartilage loss in older adults: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, C; Stannus, O; Cicuttini, F; Antony, B; Jones, G

    2013-06-01

    To determine the associations between body composition at baseline and knee cartilage loss over 2.9 years in older adults. A total of 395 randomly selected subjects (mean 62 years, range 51-81, 50% female) were studied at baseline and 2.9 years later. T1-weighted fat-suppressed magnetic resonance imaging of the right knee was performed to determine knee cartilage volume and tibial bone area at baseline and follow-up. Height, weight and radiographic osteoarthritis were measured by standard protocols at baseline. Fat mass and lean mass were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline. Tibial cartilage volume decreased by 2.0-2.7% per annum. In multivariable analysis, annual change in medial cartilage volume was negatively and significantly associated with body mass index (β: -0.14% per kg m(-2), 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.25%, -0.02%), percentage total body fat (β: -0.19% per %, 95% CI: -0.30%, -0.07%) and percentage trunk fat (β: -0.10% per %, 95% CI: -0.19%, -0.02%), and positively associated with percentage lean mass (β: 0.20% per %, 95% CI: 0.08%, 0.32%). Change in lateral tibial cartilage volume was also significantly associated with percentage total body fat (β: -0.11% per %, 95% CI: -0.21%, -0.001%) and total lean mass (β: 0.13% per kg, 95% CI: 0.04%, 0.22%). These were independent of sex and age even though both were also significant predictors. Body fat adversely affects tibial cartilage loss over time, whereas lean mass is protective. Strategies aimed at reducing body fat but increasing lean mass may reduce knee cartilage loss in older people.

  7. A microfluidic device with groove patterns for studying cellular behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Bong Geun; Manbachi, Amir; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2007-01-01

    We describe a microfluidic device with microgrooved patterns for studying cellular behavior. This microfluidic platform consists of a top fluidic channel and a bottom microgrooved substrate. To fabricate the microgrooved channels, a top poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) mold containing the impression of the microfluidic channels was aligned and bonded to a microgrooved substrate. Using this device, mouse fibroblast cells were immobilized and patterned within microgrooved substrates (25, 50, 75, and 100 microm wide). To study apoptosis in a microfluidic device, media containing hydrogen peroxide, Annexin V, and propidium iodide was perfused into the fluidic channel for 2 hours. We found that cells exposed to the oxidative stress became apoptotic. These apoptotic cells were confirmed by Annexin V that bound to phosphatidylserine at the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane during the apoptosis process. Using this microfluidic device with microgrooved patterns, the apoptosis process was observed in real-time and analyzed by using an inverted microscope containing an incubation chamber (37 degrees C, 5% CO(2)). Therefore, this microfluidic device incorporated with microgrooved substrates could be useful for studying the cellular behavior and performing high-throughput drug screening.

  8. The FAt Spondyloarthritis Spine Score (FASSS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Juhl; Zhao, Zheng; Lambert, Robert Gw

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown that fat lesions follow resolution of inflammation in the spine of patients with axial spondyloarthritis (SpA). Fat lesions at vertebral corners have also been shown to predict development of new syndesmophytes. Therefore, scoring of fat lesions in the spine may constitute both...

  9. Is fat perception a thermal effect?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinz, J.F.; Huntjens, L.; Wijk, de R.A.; Engelen, L.; Polet, I.A.

    2007-01-01

    It has been generally assumed that fat is detected by its flavour and by its lubrication of the oral mucosa. A recent study reported a correlation of -.99 between perceived temperature of a product and its fat content. This was significantly higher than correlations of sensory scores for fat flavour

  10. Associations of trunk fat depots with insulin resistance, β cell function and glycaemia--a multiple technique study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganpule-Rao, Anjali; Joglekar, Charudatta; Patkar, Deepak; Chinchwadkar, Manoj; Bhat, Dattatreya; Lubree, Himangi; Rege, Sonali; Uradey, Bhagyashree; Yajnik, Chittaranjan; Yudkin, John

    2013-01-01

    Central (truncal) adiposity is associated strongly with insulin resistance and diabetes. There are very few reports comparing methods of trunk fat measurement in their ability to predict glycaemia and insulin resistance. We report a comparative analysis of different trunk fat measurements in predicting glycaemia and insulin resistance in middle aged Indian men. Trunk fat measurements were performed using anthropometry, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and computed tomography (CT) on 128 men. Additional measurements were taken to characterise insulin resistance (Matsuda index) and beta cell function (Insulinogenic Index), glycaemia (fasting and 120 min glucose concentrations). Using residual approach we compared the ability of different trunk fat measurement techniques to predict insulin resistance, beta cell function and glycaemia. There was a strong association between trunk fat measures from each technique with glycaemia and insulin resistance indices but not with the Insulinogenic Index. Insulin resistance and glycaemia, were best predicted using anthropometric measurements, notably by waist circumference and subscapular skinfold thickness. Neither MRI measures of trunk or visceral fat nor DXA trunk fat added significantly. CT liver density contributed to some extent to predict insulin resistance and 120 min glucose after anthropometric measurements. Our results suggest that, in Indian men, anthropometric measurements are good predictors of glycaemia and insulin resistance. Other complex measurements such as MRI, DXA and CT make only a small addition to the prediction. This finding supports the application of anthropometry for determining trunk fat in clinical and epidemiological settings.

  11. Fat Content Modulates Rapid Detection of Food: A Visual Search Study Using Fast Food and Japanese Diet

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reiko Sawada; Wataru Sato; Motomi Toichi; Tohru Fushiki

    2017-01-01

    .... To investigate these issues, we measured reaction times (RTs) during a visual search task in which participants with normal weight detected high-fat food (i.e., fast food), low-fat food (i.e., Japanese diet), and non-food (i.e., kitchen utensils...

  12. Body fat and skeletal muscle mass in relation to physical disability in very old men and women of the Framingham Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, M; Harris, T B; Langlois, J; Hannan, M T; Roubenoff, R; Felson, D T; Wilson, P W; Kiel, D P

    1998-05-01

    Low muscle mass has been assumed to be associated with disability, but no studies confirming this association have been published. High body weight and high body mass index, both rough indicators of body fatness, have been shown to increase the risk for disability; however, the specific role of body fatness has not been studied. The relations of skeletal muscle mass and percent body fat with self-reported physical disability were studied in 753 men and women aged 72 to 95 years. Cross-sectional data from biennial examination 22 (1992-1993) of the Framingham Heart Study were used. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Disability was scored as any versus none on a 9-item questionnaire. Total body and lower extremity muscle mass were not associated with disability in either men or women. However, a strong positive association between percent body fat and disability was observed. The odds ratio for disability in those in the highest tertile of body fatness was 2.69 (95% confidence interval 1.45-5.00) for women and 3.08 (1.22-7.81) for men compared to those in the lowest tertile. The increased risk could not be explained by age, education, physical activity, smoking, alcohol use, estrogen use (women only), muscle mass, and health status. Analyses restricting disability to mobility items gave similar results. In contrast to current assumptions, low skeletal muscle mass was not associated with self-reported physical disability. Persons with a high percent body fat had high levels of disability. Because it cannot be ruled out that persons with low skeletal muscle mass dropped out earlier in the study, prospective studies are needed to further assess the relationship between body composition and physical disability.

  13. [Adiposity and fat distribution in preschool children from low socioeconomic levels in Caracas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, B M; Vásquez, M; Landaeta-Jiménez, M; Rámirez, G; Ledezma, T

    1997-03-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that body fat distribution in adults is associated with chronical nontransmissible diseases, less is known during the growing years. The current study was undertaken to explore the relationship between level of fatness, fat patterning and some socioenvironmental variables in a group of 449 children aged 3 to 6, living in Caracas, who belong to the poorest Venezuelan socio-economic stratum. Data was analyzed taking nutritional status (weight-for-age), an index of socioeconomic conditions (ICSA), sex and age, as control variables. Using a multivariate analysis we derived first, two groups of households (G1 and G2) as determined by socioeconomic variables, to which principal component analysis was applied to elicited fatness and relative fat patterning through six skinfolds. First component identify level of adiposity, second extremity/trunk fatness, and third upper/lower pattern. Comparison of normal children with those of low weight-for-age showed differences in adiposity and in the upper/lower patterning as detected by the skinfolds involved in the differences: subscapular (-0.53) and supraspinale (0.32) in children with low weight-for-age; triceps (-0.46) and thigh (0.29) in those classified as normal. We found that gender, nutritional condition, environmental variables and age, were significant predictors of the differences in adiposity level; while age and households conditions, appear to be related to upper/lower patterning. The data equally suggests that body fat is more centrally distributed in boys with low weight-for-age. Since these patterns are indicators of risk in the ongoing years, we call tha attention about environmental circumstances.

  14. Rugae pattern determination in periodontitis patients: A descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Jindal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Forensic sciences, a well-established branch in the field of medicine and dentistry always aids in revealing person identity by various methods. Commonly used techniques are analysis of teeth, fingerprints, and DNA comparison, which allowing fast and secure identification processes. However, these techniques cannot always be applied, in some cases, it is necessary to apply different and less known techniques. Aim: The aim of the present study was to determine the uniqueness of palatal rugae pattern in Himachal ethnicity population and whether there is any relation between pattern of rugae in gingivitis, chronic periodontitis, and aggressive periodontitis. Settings and Design: The present study includes maxillary impressions cast in dental stone of patients attending and were divided into three groups of gingivitis, aggressive periodontitis, and chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: In our study, palatal rugae pattern were then evaluated on maxillary casts for the number and shape using calcorrugoscopy. Statistical Analysis: Comparison of means of number of rugae in three groups was done using independent sample t-test, and comparison of mean of different shapes was done employing analysis of variance. The level of significance was fixed at P< 0.05. Results: The most prevalent palatal rugae shape in aggressive periodontitis was found to be angle followed by Sinuous and in chronic and aggressive periodontitis was sinuous followed by line pattern. Conclusions: The differences in rugae shape between the three groups may be attributed to genetic factors, disease progression, and recent shared ancestry has probably rendered their differences to moderate levels.

  15. DNA adductomics to study the genotoxic effects of red meat consumption with and without added animal fat in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemeryck, Lieselot Y; Van Hecke, Thomas; Vossen, Els; De Smet, Stefaan; Vanhaecke, Lynn

    2017-09-01

    Digestion of red and processed meat has been linked to the formation of genotoxic N-nitroso compounds (NOCs) and lipid peroxidation products (LPOs) in the gut. In this study, rats were fed a meat based diet to compare the possible genotoxic effects of red vs. white meat, and the interfering role of dietary fat. To this purpose, liver, duodenum and colon DNA adductomes were analyzed with UHPLC-HRMS. The results demonstrate that the consumed meat type alters the DNA adductome; the levels of 22 different DNA adduct types significantly increased upon the consumption of beef (compared to chicken) and/or lard supplemented beef or chicken. Furthermore, the chemical constitution of the retrieved DNA adducts hint at a direct link with an increase in NOCs and LPOs upon red (and processed) meat digestion, supporting the current hypotheses on the causal link between red and processed meat consumption and the development of colorectal cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Biochemical Study of Oxidative Stress Markers in the Liver, Kidney and Heart of High Fat Diet Induced Obesity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noeman Saad A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity has become a leading global health problem owing to its strong association with a high incidence of diseases. Aim To induce rat obesity using high fat diet (HFD and to estimate oxidative stress markers in their liver, heart and kidney tissues in order to shed the light on the effect of obesity on these organs. Materials and methods Sixty white albino rats weighing 150-200 g were randomly divided into two equal groups; group I: received high fat diet for 16 weeks, and group II (control group: received only normal diet (rat chow for 16 weeks. Blood samples were taken for measurement of lipid profile, tissue samples from liver, heart and kidney were taken for determination of malondialdehyde (MDA, protein carbonyl (PCO, reduced glutathione (GSH levels, and the activities of glutathione S- transferase (GST glutathione peroxidase (GPx, catalase (CAT and paraoxonase1 (PON1 enzymes. Results Data showed that feeding HFD diet significantly increased final body weight and induced a state of dyslipideamia. Also our results showed a significant increase MDA and PCO levels in the hepatic, heart and renal tissues of obese rats, as well as a significant decrease in the activity of GST, GPx and PON 1 enzymes. On the other hand CAT enzyme activity showed significant decrease only in renal tissues of obese rats with non significant difference in hepatic and heart tissues. GSH levels showed significant decrease in both renal and hepatic tissues of obese animals and significant increase in their heart tissues. Correlation studies in obese animals showed a negative correlation between MDA and PCO tissue levels and the activities of GPx, GST and PON1 in all tissues and also with CAT enzyme activity in renal tissues. Also a negative correlation was detected between MDA & PCO tissues levels and GSH levels in both hepatic and renal tissues. While positive correlation was found between them and GSH levels in heart tissues. Conclusion High fat

  17. A priori and a posteriori dietary patterns at the age of 1 year and body composition at the age of 6 years: the Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voortman, Trudy; Leermakers, Elisabeth T M; Franco, Oscar H; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Moll, Henriette A; Hofman, Albert; van den Hooven, Edith H; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C

    2016-08-01

    Dietary patterns have been linked to obesity in adults, however, not much is known about this association in early childhood. We examined associations of different types of dietary patterns in 1-year-old children with body composition at school age in 2026 children participating in a population-based cohort study. Dietary intake at the age of 1 year was assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire. At the children's age of 6 years we measured their body composition with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and we calculated body mass index, fat mass index (FMI), and fat-free mass index (FFMI). Three dietary pattern approaches were used: (1) An a priori-defined diet quality score; (2) dietary patterns based on variation in food intake, derived from principal-component-analysis (PCA); and (3) dietary patterns based on variations in FMI and FFMI, derived with reduced-rank-regression (RRR). Both the a priori-defined diet score and a 'Health-conscious' PCA-pattern were characterized by a high intake of fruit, vegetables, grains, and vegetable oils, and, after adjustment for confounders, children with higher adherence to these patterns had a higher FFMI at 6 years [0.19 SD (95 % CI 0.08;0.30) per SD increase in diet score], but had no different FMI. One of the two RRR-patterns was also positively associated with FFMI and was characterized by intake of whole grains, pasta and rice, and vegetable oils. Our results suggest that different a priori- and a posteriori-derived health-conscious dietary patterns in early childhood are associated with a higher fat-free mass, but not with fat mass, in later childhood.

  18. The changing pattern of upper gastro-intestinal lesions in southern Saudi Arabia: An endoscopic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Humayed Sulieman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Dyspepsia is a common gastrointestinal disorder and is the most common indication for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGIE. In recent years, it has been observed in several centers that there is a change in the causes of dyspepsia as revealed by UGIE. Our main objectives were: (1 To study the pattern of upper gastrointestinal pathology in patients with dyspepsia undergoing upper endoscopy; (2 Compare that with the pattern seen 10-15 years earlier in different areas of KSA. Materials and Methods: Retrospective study of all UGI endoscopies performed at Aseer Central Hospital, Abha, Southern Saudi Arabia during the years 2005-2007 on patients above 13 years of age. Patients who underwent UGIE for reasons other than dyspepsia were excluded. The analysis was performed using the SPSS 14 statistical package. Results: A total of 1,607 patients underwent UGI endoscopy during the three-year study period (age range, 15-100. There were 907 males (56.4% and 700 female (43.6%. Normal findings were reported on 215 patients (14% and the majority had gastritis (676 = 42%, of whom 344 had gastritis with ulcer disease. Moreover, 242 patients (15% had gastro-esophageal reflux (GERD, with or without esophagitis or hiatus hernia. Also, a total of 243 patients had duodenal ulcer (DU (15% while only 12 had gastric ulcer (0.7%. Discussion and Conclusion: There is clear change in the frequency of UGIE lesions detected recently compared to a decade ago with an increasing prevalence of reflux esophagitis and hiatus hernia. This could be attributed to changes in lifestyle and dietary habits such as more consumption of fat and fast food, increased prevalence of obesity, and smoking. These problems should be addressed in order to minimize the serious complications of esophageal diseases.

  19. Nutrients, foods, dietary patterns and telomere length: Update of epidemiological studies and randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas-Simoes, Tania-Marisa; Ros, Emilio; Sala-Vila, Aleix

    2016-04-01

    Identifying simple strategies to prevent or delay age-associated pathologies is a major public health concern. Attrition of telomeres, chromatin structures that help maintain genome stability, leads to cell death or senescence. Thus telomere length is a reliable hallmark of biological aging and the risk of developing age-related chronic diseases through common oxidation and inflammation mechanisms. Variability in telomere shortening that is independent of chronological age suggests that it is a modifiable factor, which may be explained in part by lifestyle variables such as smoking, adiposity, physical exercise, and diet. Here we summarize data from published studies focused on nutrition (nutrients, foods, and dietary patterns) and telomere length. Research on the topic is incipient and most data comes from epidemiologic studies, often cross-sectional in design. Consistent with well-known evidence of benefit or harm for chronic age-related diseases, dietary antioxidants and consumption of antioxidant-rich, plant-derived foods help maintain telomere length. In contrast, total and saturated fat intake and consumption of refined flour cereals, meat and meat products, and sugar-sweetened beverages relate to shorter telomeres. Data on alcohol and dairy products is controversial. There is evidence that adherence to the Mediterranean diet is associated with longer telomeres. Randomized clinical trials are limited to seafood-derived long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, with promising results. To fill the many gaps in our knowledge of the aging process and confirm nutrition as a useful tool to counteract biological aging more research is warranted, particularly observational studies using repeated measurements of telomere length and randomized trials of foods and dietary patterns with sequential telomere analyses.

  20. Patterns of Sweet Taste Liking: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asao, Keiko; Miller, Jason; Arcori, Leann; Lumeng, Julie C.; Han-Markey, Theresa; Herman, William H.

    2015-01-01

    Two distinct patterns of sweet taste liking have been described: one showing a peak liking response in the mid-range of sucrose concentrations and the other showing a monotonic liking response at progressively higher sucrose concentrations. Classification of these patterns has been somewhat arbitrary. In this report, we analyzed patterns of sweet taste liking in a pilot study with 26 adults including 14 women and 12 men, 32.6 ± 14.5 years of age with body mass index 26.4 ± 5.1 kg/m2 (mean ± SD). Sweet taste liking was measured for 10 levels of sucrose solutions (0.035 M to 1.346 M). Participants rated their liking of each solution using a visual analog scale with 0 indicating strongly disliking and 100 strongly liking. The cluster analysis demonstrated two distinct groups: 13 liked relatively low sucrose concentrations and liked high sucrose concentrations less, and 13 liked high sucrose concentrations greatly. If we use the 0.598 M sucrose solution alone and a cutoff liking score of 50, we can distinguish the two clusters with high sensitivity (100%) and specificity (100%). If validated in additional studies, this simple tool may help us to better understand eating behaviors and the impact of sweet taste liking on nutrition-related disorders. PMID:26404363

  1. Patterns of Sweet Taste Liking: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Asao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Two distinct patterns of sweet taste liking have been described: one showing a peak liking response in the mid-range of sucrose concentrations and the other showing a monotonic liking response at progressively higher sucrose concentrations. Classification of these patterns has been somewhat arbitrary. In this report, we analyzed patterns of sweet taste liking in a pilot study with 26 adults including 14 women and 12 men, 32.6 ± 14.5 years of age with body mass index 26.4 ± 5.1 kg/m2 (mean ± SD. Sweet taste liking was measured for 10 levels of sucrose solutions (0.035 M to 1.346 M. Participants rated their liking of each solution using a visual analog scale with 0 indicating strongly disliking and 100 strongly liking. The cluster analysis demonstrated two distinct groups: 13 liked relatively low sucrose concentrations and liked high sucrose concentrations less, and 13 liked high sucrose concentrations greatly. If we use the 0.598 M sucrose solution alone and a cutoff liking score of 50, we can distinguish the two clusters with high sensitivity (100% and specificity (100%. If validated in additional studies, this simple tool may help us to better understand eating behaviors and the impact of sweet taste liking on nutrition-related disorders.

  2. a Multidisciplinary Analytical Framework for Studying Active Mobility Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, D.; Hermida, C.; Osorio, P.

    2016-06-01

    Intermediate cities are urged to change and adapt their mobility systems from a high energy-demanding motorized model to a sustainable low-motorized model. In order to accomplish such a model, city administrations need to better understand active mobility patterns and their links to socio-demographic and cultural aspects of the population. During the last decade, researchers have demonstrated the potential of geo-location technologies and mobile devices to gather massive amounts of data for mobility studies. However, the analysis and interpretation of this data has been carried out by specialized research groups with relatively narrow approaches from different disciplines. Consequently, broader questions remain less explored, mainly those relating to spatial behaviour of individuals and populations with their geographic environment and the motivations and perceptions shaping such behaviour. Understanding sustainable mobility and exploring new research paths require an interdisciplinary approach given the complex nature of mobility systems and their social, economic and environmental impacts. Here, we introduce the elements for a multidisciplinary analytical framework for studying active mobility patterns comprised of three components: a) Methodological, b) Behavioural, and c) Perceptual. We demonstrate the applicability of the framework by analysing mobility patterns of cyclists and pedestrians in an intermediate city integrating a range of techniques, including: GPS tracking, spatial analysis, auto-ethnography, and perceptual mapping. The results demonstrated the existence of non-evident spatial behaviours and how perceptual features affect mobility. This knowledge is useful for developing policies and practices for sustainable mobility planning.

  3. The Helical Oscillating Heat Pipe: Flow Pattern Behaviour Study

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    Y. Sriudom

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to study the effect of evaporator temperature, pitch distance, and working fluid on the internal flow pattern and the heat transfer characteristics of the helical oscillating heat pipe. A Pyrex tube with an inner diameter of 2.4 mm was used to study the flow pattern in the evaporator section. The pitch distance varied at 1, 1.5, and 2 cm. Water and R-123 were used as working fluid with a filling ratio of 80% by total volume. In the evaporator section, the water temperature varied at 60, 75, and 90°C to supply heat to the heat pipe. In the condenser section, air with a temperature of 25°C was used as heat sink. From the results, it was found that 4 internal flow patterns, bubble flow, slug flow, annular flow, and stratified wavy flow, were observed in the evaporator section for both working fluids. The heat transfer rate decreased when the pitch distance was increased from 1 to 2 cm. The maximum heat flux was 2,132.6 and 1,773.4 W/m2 for the working fluid of R-123 and water, respectively. Both occurred at a pitch distance of 1 cm and an evaporator temperature of 90°C.

  4. Marshall Islands: a study of diet and living patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naidu, J. R.; Greenhouse, N. A.; Knight, G.; Craighead, E. C.

    1980-07-01

    This study summarizes information on diet and living patterns for the Marshallese. The data was derived from literature, answers to questionnaires, personal observations while living with the Marshallese for periods extending from months to years, and from direct participation in their activities. The results reflect the complex interactions of many influences, such as, the gathering of local foods the receipt of food aid through programs, such as, school-lunch, typhoon-relief, food distributed to populations displaced as a result of nuclear testing, and in recent times the availability of cash for the purchase of imported foods. The results identify these influences and are therefore restricted to local food diets while recognizing that the living patterns are changing as local food gathering is replaced by other food supplies. The data will therefore provide the necessary information for input into models that will assess the radiological impacts attributable to the inhabitation of the Marshall Islands. It is recommended that this study should be continued for at least two to three years in order to more accurately identify trends in local food consumption and living patterns.

  5. Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to VO(2PEAK) in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2011-01-01

    -based level. Methods. Cross-sectional study of 225 children (128 boys and 97 girls) aged 8-11 years, recruited from a population-based cohort. Total lean body mass (LBM), total fat mass (TBF), and abdominal fat mass (AFM) were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Body fat was also calculated...... as a percentage of body mass (BF%) and body fat distribution as AFM/TBF. VO(2PEAK) was assessed by indirect calorimetry during maximal exercise test. Results. Significant relationships existed between body fat measurements and VO(2PEAK) in both boys and girls, with Pearson correlation coefficients for absolute...... values of VO(2PEAK) (0.22-0.36, Pmass (-0.38 - -0.70, P...

  6. Publication Patterns in Death Studies: 40 Years On.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neimeyer, Robert A; Vallerga, Michael

    2015-01-01

    As a living legacy to the founding editorship of Hannelore Wass, Death Studies has played a leading role in promoting scholarship in the field of thanatology for nearly 4 decades. In this article, the authors analyze publication patterns in the journal in the 25 years since Wass handed off the journal's editorial management to her successor, focusing on changing patterns of authorship, topical focus, and methodological emphasis of articles across this period. The results document the increasing feminization of the field, the impressive internationality of the research networks driving its development, and the substantial empirical foundation for major lines of research concerned with bereavement, death attitudes, and suicide. Placed against the backdrop of early trends in publication during Wass's overview, such findings suggest the maturation of research in this interdisciplinary specialty and validate her long-range anticipation of the field's prospects as this flagship journal moves toward its fifth decade of publication.

  7. Associations between dietary patterns and self-reported hypertension among Brazilian adults: a cross-sectional population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selem, Soraya Sant'Ana de Castro; Castro, Michelle Alessandra de; César, Chester Luiz Galvão; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2014-08-01

    Hypertension is a prevalent cardiovascular disease, the important modifiable risk factor of which is diet. The aim of this study was to derive dietary patterns and to test associations with self-reported hypertension and other characteristics, namely demographic, socioeconomic, and lifestyle factors. Data were obtained from the population-based cross-sectional study titled Health Survey of the City of São Paulo, with a random sample of residents of the city of São Paulo, Brazil, aged older than 20 years of both sexes (n=1,102). In 2008, a structured questionnaire with information about socioeconomic, anthropometric, lifestyle, and dietary factors was applied. Dietary intake was estimated by two 24-hour dietary recalls, adjusted by Multiple Source Method. Dietary patterns were obtained through exploratory principal component factor analysis. Poisson regression was used to assess relationships. Three dietary patterns were identified: prudent (fruits, vegetables, whole-grain bread, white cheeses, juices, reduced-fat milk/nonfat milk), traditional (rice, beans, bread/toast/crackers, butter/margarine, whole milk, coffee/teas, sugar), and modern (sodas, pastries/sandwiches/pizzas, yellow cheeses, pastas, sauces, alcoholic beverages, sweets, processed meats). Hypertension and demographic, socioeconomic, and lifestyle factors, as well as the presence of health insurance, were associated with adherence to one or more identified dietary patterns. These results suggest the existence of a target audience for planning and executing public policies of food and nutrition to prevent and control hypertension.

  8. Abnormal uterine bleeding: a study of menstrual patterns and histopathological patterns in perimenopausal females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahima Jain

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In gynecology out-patient department there is a large group of patients especially in perimenopausal age group who present with various menstrual disorders. These can be as such caused due to various etiologies, which need to be investigated as line of management is thereupon decided. This study is undertaken to know the various abnormal uterine bleeding in perimenopausal women, and their histopathological pattern. Methods: This study is done at PDU medical college hospital, Rajkot, Gujarat which is a tertiary care centre. A retrospective analysis of 268 cases clinically presenting with abnormal uterine bleeding is done. They are further posted for dilatation and curettage after thorough investigation to rule out other pathologies. The endometrial samplings from the D and C material are collected and sent for histopathological assessment. The data is recorded and further analysed. Women between 40-55 years age group are included in this study. Women with diagnosed pelvic pathology, endocrinal cause and bleeding tendencies are excluded from the study. Results: In our study almost all menstrual disorders are found, commonest being menorrhagia in 42.16%. Other patterns reported are metrorrhagia in 3.35%, oligomenorrhea in 14.80%, polymenorrhea and polymenorrhagia in 5.22% and 5.59% cases. Post-menopausal bleeding is found in one case. The histopathological diagnoses reported in this study are proliferative and secretory phase in 26.49% and 19.77% respectively. Other endometrial hyperplasias reported are Swiss cheese in 1.86%, simple cystic hyperplasia in 12.31%, complex hyperplasia with or without atypia in 7% and 4.10% respectively. Malignancy is found in 2 cases. Conclusions: From this study it is well established that endometrial sampling from D and C material still remains the gold standard in diagnosis of various endometrial pathologies in low resource set-up. Thereby the further line of management can also be decided for a

  9. STUDY OF PATHOGENESIS AND ITS SENSITIVITY PATTERN IN UTI

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    Rajendra Prasad Kathula

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Urinary tract infections are common causes of both community acquired and nosocomial infections in adult patients admitted in the hospitals. Urinary tract infections can be defined as the presence of pathogenic bacteria in significant colony count in the bladder of upper urinary tract with its associated consequences. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is a term used to designate urinary tract infections in the absence of symptoms with the growth of bacteria colonies often crossing 1,00,000/mL in a freshly voided midstream urine sample. Urethritis and cystitis are characterised by the inflammation of the urethra and bladder with symptoms of dysuria, frequency and lower pubic pain and it is associated with fever. Acute pyelonephritis is the bacterial infection of renal parenchyma and it is characterised by fever with rigors, flank pain, vomiting, costovertebral tenderness with or without symptoms of cystitis. It may be associated with pus formation. Prostatitis is quiet common and it involves infective inflammation of the prostate associated with dysuria, urgency, frequency and pain in the lower abdomen, perineum, or base of the penis. A sincere effort has been made towards this study on pathogenesis and its sensitivity pattern in UTI. METHODS One hundred cases who visited the Department of Surgery, Government Medical College, Nizamabad were used as the sample size of the study. The plethora of the signs and symptoms which were seen were noted and the mid catch of the urine was done and sent to the Department of Microbiology for the pathogens to be identified. The sensitivity pattern was also studied and reported. The study was done from October 2012 to November 2013. RESULT The most common pathogen was E. coli and the most sensitivity of the commonest pathogen (E. coli was found to be towards Nitrofurantoin. CONCLUSION In this study, the most common pathogens which causes the UTI and the sensitivity pattern has been reported. The study is

  10. Socio-economic status and ethnicity are independently associated with dietary patterns: the HELIUS-Dietary Patterns study

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    Louise H. Dekker

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Differences in dietary patterns between ethnic groups have often been observed. These differences may partially be a reflection of differences in socio-economic status (SES or may be the result of differences in the direction and strength of the association between SES and diet. Objective: We aimed to examine ethnic differences in dietary patterns and the role of socio-economic indicators on dietary patterns within a multi-ethnic population. Design: Cross-sectional multi-ethnic population-based study. Setting: Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Subjects: Principal component analysis was used to identify dietary patterns among Dutch (n=1,254, South Asian Surinamese (n=425, and African Surinamese (n=784 participants. Levels of education and occupation were used to indicate SES. Linear regression analysis was used to examine the association between ethnicity and dietary pattern scores first and then between socio-economic indicators and dietary patterns within and between ethnic groups. Results: ‘Noodle/rice dishes and white meat’, ‘red meat, snacks, and sweets’ and ‘vegetables, fruit and nuts’ patterns were identified. Compared to the Dutch origin participants, Surinamese more closely adhered to the ‘noodle/rice dishes and white meat’ pattern which was characterized by foods consumed in a ‘traditional Surinamese diet’. Closer adherence to the other two patterns was observed among Dutch compared to Surinamese origin participants. Ethnic differences in dietary patterns persisted within strata of education and occupation. Surinamese showed greater adherence to a ‘traditional’ pattern independent of SES. Among Dutch participants, a clear socio-economic gradient in all dietary patterns was observed. Such a gradient was only present among Surinamese dietary oatterns to the ‘vegetables, fruit and nuts’ pattern. Conclusions: We found a selective change in the adherence to dietary patterns among Surinamese origin

  11. Experiences with anaerobic treatment of fat-containing food waste liquids: two full scale studies with a novel anaerobic flotation reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frijters, C T M J; Jorna, T; Hesselink, G; Kruit, J; van Schaick, D; van der Arend, R

    2014-01-01

    Fat-containing food waste can be effectively treated in a new type of reactor, the so-called BIOPAQ-Anaerobic Flotation Reactor or BIOPAQ(®) anaerobic flotation reactor (AFR). In the reactor a flotation unit is integrated to retain the sludge. In this study results from two plants with a 430 and 511 m(3)-AFR, respectively, are presented. In one reactor, which is fed with water originating from different food liquid streams, over 99% of fat and oils were removed. Over 90% of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) was removed. When the last solids were removed from the effluent with a tilted plate settler, 98% COD removal was attained. The effluent concentrations of extractable hydrolysed and non-hydrolysed fats were less than 40 mg/l. Apparently the variations in the liquid streams deriving from the tank cleaning activities did not disturb the system. Only extremely high concentrations of fats could disturb the system, but the inhibition was reversible. In the reactor treating water from an ice-cream factory, which contained fats up to approximately 50% of influent COD, a COD removal efficiency of 90% was achieved. At volumetric loading rates varying from 1 to 8 kg COD/m(3)/d, biogas was produced at an average specific gas production of 0.69 m(3)/kg COD-removed.

  12. Nutrient patterns and their food sources in an International Study Setting: report from the EPIC study.

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    Aurelie Moskal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Compared to food patterns, nutrient patterns have been rarely used particularly at international level. We studied, in the context of a multi-center study with heterogeneous data, the methodological challenges regarding pattern analyses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified nutrient patterns from food frequency questionnaires (FFQ in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC Study and used 24-hour dietary recall (24-HDR data to validate and describe the nutrient patterns and their related food sources. Associations between lifestyle factors and the nutrient patterns were also examined. Principal component analysis (PCA was applied on 23 nutrients derived from country-specific FFQ combining data from all EPIC centers (N = 477,312. Harmonized 24-HDRs available for a representative sample of the EPIC populations (N = 34,436 provided accurate mean group estimates of nutrients and foods by quintiles of pattern scores, presented graphically. An overall PCA combining all data captured a good proportion of the variance explained in each EPIC center. Four nutrient patterns were identified explaining 67% of the total variance: Principle component (PC 1 was characterized by a high contribution of nutrients from plant food sources and a low contribution of nutrients from animal food sources; PC2 by a high contribution of micro-nutrients and proteins; PC3 was characterized by polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D; PC4 was characterized by calcium, proteins, riboflavin, and phosphorus. The nutrients with high loadings on a particular pattern as derived from country-specific FFQ also showed high deviations in their mean EPIC intakes by quintiles of pattern scores when estimated from 24-HDR. Center and energy intake explained most of the variability in pattern scores. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The use of 24-HDR enabled internal validation and facilitated the interpretation of the nutrient patterns derived

  13. Studies on the trans-fatty acids and the stability of the fats present in Indian bakery products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shariff, R.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fat is one of the most important ingredients in baked products which is highly susceptible to heat and moisture. Therefore, this study has been conducted to assess the thermoxidative changes occurring in the fat as well as the extent to which trans-fatty acids are present. Fats were extracted from products like rusk, white bread, sweet bun, dilkhush, pizza, plain cake, vegetable roll, gluco-biscuits and wafers. These fats and control shortening samples were taken for study. The totox value was found to be high (4.0-30.9 whereas the free fatty acid, peroxide and anisidine values were, 0.31-0.90%, 1.2-11.0 and 11.6-8.9 respectively. Since the products are baked at 180 to 200 °C polar components were determined to be between 3.3 to 5.3% showing a moderate hydrolysis and oxidative changes. Iodine value (51.0 to 73.3 and the Butyro-refractometer reading (42.2 to 55.8 showed moderate unsaturation and all the samples melted below 37 °C. Trans-fatty acid ranged from 35.5 to 46.2% as has also been confirmed by FT-IR. The products selected were considered safe but nutritionally inferior to products prepared with liquid shortenings.La grasa es uno de los ingredientes más importantes de los productos horneados altamente susceptible al calor y la humedad. Se han realizado estudios para evaluar los cambios termoxidativos ocurridos en las grasas y también la presencia de ácidos grasos trans. Las grasas se extrajeron de productos como galletas, pan blanco, pan dulce, Dilkhush, pizza, pastel, rollo vegetal, gluco-galletas y barquillos. Se utilizaron en este estudio las grasas extraidas de los mencionados productos, así como muestras control de shortening. Los valor encontrados de índice Totox fueron altos (4,0-30,9 en tanto que los porcentajes de ácidos grasos libres (%, índice de peróxido y anisidina fueron, 0,31-0,90, 1,2-11,0 y 11,6- 8,9, respectivamente. Puesto que los productos se hornean entre 180-200 °C se determinaron los componentes polares

  14. The study of the shape anisotropy in patterned permalloy films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Dong; Zhai Ya; Zhai Hong-Ru

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a systematic ferromagnetic resonance study shows that an in-plane magnetic anisotropy in the patterned micron octagon permalloy (Ni80Fe20) elements is mainly determined by the element geometry. The easy-axis is along the edge of the elements, and the hard-axis is along the diagonal. The shape anisotropy of the octagon elements is determined by square and equilateral octagon, and the theoretical calculation was studied on the shape anisotropy. The shape anisotropy of rectangular was calculated by using the same theory.

  15. Endogenous fat loss and true total tract digestibility of poultry fat in adult dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, F R; Trevizan, L; Saad, F M O B; Lisenko, K G; Reis, J S; Kessler, A M

    2017-07-01

    Fat plays an important role in the carnivore diet. It has high digestibility and high energy content and likely improves digestibility of the diet when present in greater amounts, suggesting that endogenous fat adversely affects the apparent digestibility of fat in low-fat diets. This study aimed to determine the endogenous fat loss (EFL) and true total tract digestibility (TTTD) of fat in dogs by using diets having different fat:carbohydrate ratios. Furthermore, the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of macronutrients and energy, food intake, fecal output, and stool quality were evaluated. Twelve adult Beagle dogs were stratified into three 10-d periods in a 6 × 3 balanced incomplete Latin square design. Dietary treatments included a low-fat basal diet (3.4% fat) supplemented with 6 poultry fat levels (1, 4, 10, 12, 16, or 20%). The dogs were individually housed in metabolic cages and fed to meet the maintenance energy requirements. The ME intake was similar across the diets, despite the clearly low palatability of the 1 and 4% fat diets. Dietary ATTD of DM, OM, fat, and GE were improved after fat inclusion ( fat increase ( > 0.05). The amount of fecal output decreased with increasing level of fat in the diet, but the fecal score was not affected. The stool quality was close to ideal (2.4-2.8) and no different among diets. The EFL was estimated using 2 regression methods and was expressed as 155 mg∙kg BW∙d or 7.9 g/kg of DMI. The TTTD of poultry fat was the same irrespective of the dietary fat level. Poultry fat was 99.3% digestible for the dogs. The relation between EFL and fat intake was higher for the lower-fat diets, explaining the ATTD of fat increase according to the dietary fat inclusion. In conclusion, dietary fat is well digested by dogs irrespective of the level included, close to 100%. The ATTD of fat in low-fat diets is underestimated because the endogenous content is proportionally greater than that in high-fat diets.

  16. Body Adiposity Index Performance in Estimating Body Fat Percentage in Colombian College Students: Findings from the FUPRECOL—Adults Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; González-Ruíz, Katherine; Vivas, Andrés; Triana-Reina, Héctor Reynaldo; Martínez-Torres, Javier; Prieto-Benavides, Daniel Humberto; Carrillo, Hugo Alejandro; Ramos-Sepúlveda, Jeison Alexander; Villa-González, Emilio; García-Hermoso, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Recently, a body adiposity index (BAI = (hip circumference)/((height)(1.5))−18) was developed and validated in adult populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of BAI in estimating percentage body fat (BF%) in a sample of Colombian collegiate young adults. The participants were comprised of 903 volunteers (52% females, mean age = 21.4 years ± 3.3). We used the Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient, linear regression, Bland–Altman’s agreement analysis, concordance correlation coefficient (ρc) and the coefficient of determination (R2) between BAI, and BF%; by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA)). The correlation between the two methods of estimating BF% was R2 = 0.384, p < 0.001. A paired-sample t-test showed a difference between the methods (BIA BF% = 16.2 ± 3.1, BAI BF% = 30.0 ± 5.4%; p < 0.001). For BIA, bias value was 6.0 ± 6.2 BF% (95% confidence interval (CI) = −6.0 to 18.2), indicating that the BAI method overestimated BF% relative to the reference method. Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient was poor (ρc = 0.014, 95% CI = −0.124 to 0.135; p = 0.414). In Colombian college students, there was poor agreement between BAI- and BIA-based estimates of BF%, and so BAI is not accurate in people with low or high body fat percentage levels. PMID:28106719

  17. Body Adiposity Index Performance in Estimating Body Fat Percentage in Colombian College Students: Findings from the FUPRECOL—Adults Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Ramírez-Vélez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a body adiposity index (BAI = (hip circumference/((height(1.5−18 was developed and validated in adult populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of BAI in estimating percentage body fat (BF% in a sample of Colombian collegiate young adults. The participants were comprised of 903 volunteers (52% females, mean age = 21.4 years ± 3.3. We used the Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient, linear regression, Bland–Altman’s agreement analysis, concordance correlation coefficient (ρc and the coefficient of determination (R2 between BAI, and BF%; by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA. The correlation between the two methods of estimating BF% was R2 = 0.384, p < 0.001. A paired-sample t-test showed a difference between the methods (BIA BF% = 16.2 ± 3.1, BAI BF% = 30.0 ± 5.4%; p < 0.001. For BIA, bias value was 6.0 ± 6.2 BF% (95% confidence interval (CI = −6.0 to 18.2, indicating that the BAI method overestimated BF% relative to the reference method. Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient was poor (ρc = 0.014, 95% CI = −0.124 to 0.135; p = 0.414. In Colombian college students, there was poor agreement between BAI- and BIA-based estimates of BF%, and so BAI is not accurate in people with low or high body fat percentage levels.

  18. Transgenic fat-1 mouse as a model to study the pathophysiology of cardiovascular, neurological and psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puskás László G

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs form an important constituent of all the cell membranes in the body. PUFAs such as arachidonic acid (AA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA form precursors to both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory compounds. Low-grade systemic inflammation occurs in clinical conditions such as insulin resistance, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, lupus, schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, and other dementias, cancer and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD that are also characterized by an alteration in the metabolism of essential fatty acids in the form of excess production of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids and possibly, decreased synthesis and release of anti-inflammatory lipoxins, resolvins, protectins and maresins. We propose that low-grade systemic inflammation observed in these clinical conditions is due to an imbalance in the metabolism of essential fatty acids that is more in favour of pro-inflammatory molecules. In this context, transgenic fat-1 mouse that is designed to convert n-6 to n-3 fatty acids could form an ideal model to study the altered metabolism of essential fatty acids in the above mentioned conditions. It is envisaged that low-grade systemic inflammatory conditions are much less likely in the fat-1 mouse and/or these diseases will run a relatively mild course. Identifying the anti-inflammatory compounds from n-3 fatty acids that suppress low-grade systemic inflammatory conditions and understanding their mechanism(s of action may lead to newer therapeutic strategies.

  19. Ct Anatomy of Buccal Fat Pad and its Role in Volumetric Alterations of Face

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guryanov, R. A.; Guryanov, A. S.

    2015-05-01

    The aim of our study is the revision of the anatomy of buccal fat pad and its role in a volumetric pattern of face. Bichat fat pad is a fatty anatomical structure with body and numerous process enclosed between the bony and muscular structures in temporal, pterygopalatine fossae and extents to the cheek area. Nevertheless, the opinion about its structure and role in forming of volume pattern of face sometimes could be controversial. The Bichat fat pad consists on predominately hormone insensitive fat tissue with underdeveloped stroma, this leads to the stability of the fat pad volume and lesser radiodensity in contrast to the subcutaneous fat. Moreover, the buccal fat pad is delimited from the subcutaneous fat of cheek area by the strong capsule. This feature allows us to use CT to divide the Bichat fat pad from the surrounding tissues. The thorough embryological data provide the distinction of Bichat fat pad from the subcutaneous fat of cheek area even at the stage of development. On the other hand, the border between the masticatory muscles and the processes of the fat pad is not evident and resembles cellular spaces in the other anatomical areas. To elicit the role of the buccal fat pad in volume pattern of face and its function we have performed the several experiments, analyzed the postoperative results after Bichat fat pad resection using surface scanner and CT data. At first, we have performed the gravity test: the patient's face photogrammetry scanning in horizontal and vertical position of head and it revealed the excess of volume in temporal area in horizontal position. To exclude mechanism of overflowing of the skin and subcutaneous fat over the zygomatic arch we have placed the markers on the skin surface at the different areas of face including the projection of ligaments and found out that the migration of soft tissue over the zygomatic arch is about 3-5 mm and almost the same in temporal area. However, the acquired result was unsatisfying because

  20. Distilling Design Patterns From Agile Curation Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, K. K.; Lenhardt, W. C.; Young, J. W.

    2016-12-01

    In previous work the authors have argued that there is a need to take a new look at the data management lifecycle. Our core argument is that the data management lifecycle needs to be in essence deconstructed and rebuilt. As part of this process we also argue that much can be gained from applying ideas, concepts, and principles from agile software development methods. To be sure we are not arguing for a rote application of these agile software approaches, however, given various trends related to data and technology, it is imperative to update our thinking about how to approach the data management lifecycle, recognize differing project scales, corresponding variations in structure, and alternative models for solving the problems of scientific data curation. In this paper we will describe what we term agile curation design patterns, borrowing the concept of design patterns from the software world and we will present some initial thoughts on agile curation design patterns as informed by a sample of data curation case studies solicited from participants in agile data curation meeting sessions conducted in 2015-16.

  1. An experimental study of pathologist's navigation patterns in virtual microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero Eduardo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In virtual microscopy, a sequential process of captures of microscopical fields, allows to construct a virtual slide which is visualized using a specialized software, called the virtual microscopy viewer. This tool allows useful exploration of images, composed of thousands of microscopical fields of view at different levels of magnification, emulating an actual microscopical examination. The aim of this study was to establish the main pathologist's navigation patterns when exploring virtual microscopy slides, using a graphical user interface, adapted to the pathologist's workflow. Four pathologists with a similar level of experience, graduated from the same pathology program, navigated six virtual slides. Different issues were evaluated, namely, the percentage of common visited image regions, the time spent at each and its coincidence level, that is to say, the region of interest location. In addition, navigation patterns were also assessed, i.e., mouse movement velocities and linearity of the diagnostic paths. Results suggest that regions of interest are determined by a complex combination of the visited area, the time spent at each visit and the coincidence level among pathologists. Additionally, linear trajectories and particular velocity patterns were found for the registered diagnostic paths.

  2. Dietary lipids: less fat or best fat?

    OpenAIRE

    Chardigny Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and overweight occurrence is growing around the word. This is often considered as a consequence of high fat diets, and some recommendations encourage ‘‘light’’ diets, including low fat intake. However, most trials with low fat intake do not demonstrate any benefit and could be worse than low carbohydrate diets. The key role of insulin could explain that eating fat do not make body fat. On the other hand, several unbalanced fatty acid intake are reported, i.e. saturated/mononunsaturate...

  3. Study on administration of 1,5-anhydro-D-fructose in C57BL/6J mice challenged with high-fat diet

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    Yu Shukun

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract 1,5-Anhydro-D-fructose (AF is a mono-saccharide directly formed from starch and glycogen by the action of α-1,4-glucan lyase (EC 4.2.2.13. Our previous study has indicated that AF increases glucose tolerance and insulin secretion in NMRI mice after administration through a gastric gavage in a single dose at 150 mg per mouse. In this study, we used high-fat feeding of C57BL/6J mice to examine the influence of long-term administration of AF on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in vivo and in vitro. We found that 8-weeks of high-fat feeding increased body weight, fasting blood glucose and insulin levels in C57BL/6J mice when compared to mice fed normal diet. Impaired glucose tolerance was also observed in mice receiving 8-weeks of high-fat diet. In contrast, AF (1.5 g/kg/day, administered through drinking water for 8-weeks, did not affect body weight or food and water intake in mice fed either the high-fat or normal diet. There was no difference in basal blood glucose or insulin levels between AF-treated and control group. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT showed that AF did not affect glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in mice. In in vitro studies with isolated islets, AF did not influence glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in mice receiving either high-fat or normal diet. We therefore conclude that when given through drinking water for 8 weeks at 1.5 g/kg/day, AF has no effect on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in C57BL/6J mice challenged with a high-fat diet.

  4. Study of lip print pattern in a Punjabi population

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    Simarpreet Virk Sandhu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lip prints are unique to each individual and can be used for personal identification. The lip prints show differences according to the race and the ethnic origins of a person. Aim: The objective of the study was to determine the predominant lip print type in a Punjabi population. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 106 students of our institution and comprised 56 males and 50 females in the age group of 18-25 years. The middle part of the lower lip was taken as study area. Analysis of lip print pattern was done according to Tsuchihashi Classification. Results: No two lip prints matched with each other. Type 1 pattern (vertical grooves that run across the entire lip was found to be predominant in both males (51.02% and females (43.47% and there was no statistically observed difference between males and females in individual lip print types. Conclusion: In our study, lip prints did not match with each other, hence lip prints are unique and further studies with larger samples are required to obtain statistical significance.

  5. Body mass, fat-free body mass, and prognosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease from a random population sample: findings from the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen; Prescott, Eva; Almdal, Thomas Peter

    2006-01-01

    Rationale: Low body mass index (BMI) is a marker of poor prognosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the general population the harmful effect of low BMI is due to the deleterious effects of a low fat free mass index (FFMI, fat free mass/weight(2)). Objectives: We explored...... distribution of low FFMI and its association with prognosis in a population based cohort of COPD patients. Methods: We used data on 1,898 COPD patients identified in a population-based epidemiological study in Copenhagen. Fat free mass was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Patients were followed...... the lowest FFMI 10(th) percentile of the general population. BMI and FFMI were significant predictors of mortality, independent of relevant covariates. Being in the lowest FFMI 10(th) percentile of the general population was associated with a hazard ratio of 1.5 (95% confidence interval 1.2-1.8) for overall...

  6. Pathogenesis of tropical sprue: A pilot study of antroduodenal manometry, duodenocaecal transit time & fat-induced ileal brake

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    Uday C Ghoshal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO due to ileal brake-induced hypomotility may cause tropical sprue (TS. We evaluated effect of infusion of fat or placebo in duodenum randomly in patients with TS and healthy controls on antroduodenal manometry (ADM and mediators of ileal brake, and duodenocaecal transit time (DCTT. Methods: ADM and DCTT (lactulose hydrogen breath test, HBT were evaluated with placebo and fat in eight controls and 13 patients with TS (diagnostic criteria: tests showing malabsorption of two unrelated substances, abnormal duodenal histology, absence of other causes, response to antibiotics and folate. Results: Patients with TS (6 had SIBO by glucose HBT were similar in age and gender with controls. After fat infusion, proximal gut motility index (MI was reduced compared to fasting state in TS, and DCTT was longer in TS than controls (200 min, 120-380 vs. 130, 70-160, P=0.001, though comparable after placebo (70 min, 30-140 vs. 60, 40-90. TS patients had higher PYY and neurotensin than controls after fat infusion. DCTT after fat infusion correlated with plasma level of PYY in TS but not in controls. Post-fat PYY and neurotensin levels were higher in TS with lower BMI (<16 kg/m [2] than those with higher BMI. Parameters of ileal brake (post-fat DCTT, PYY and neurotensin were higher in patients with than without SIBO. Interpretation & conclusions: Fat infusion reduced proximal gut MI, increased DCTT, PYY, and neurotensin among patients with TS. Malabsorbed fat might cause exaggerated ileal brake reducing gut motility, promoting SIBO and bacterial colonization and malabsorption in TS.

  7. Dietary Pattern and Risk of Multiple Sclerosis

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    Mahdi Aloosh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:It has been suggested that nutrition might play a role in the etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS. However,dietary patterns associated with MS risk are unknown. This study was conducted to compare the dietary patterns of patients with MS and healthy controls to find the relationship between dietary patterns and MS.Methods:Usual dietary intake of 75 women with relapsing/remitting MS (RRMS and 75 healthy controls were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire consisting of 168 food items. To define major dietary patterns, we used factor analysis. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between dietary patterns and risk of MS.Results:Traditional pattern (high in low-fat dairy products,red meat, vegetable oil, onion, whole grain, soy, refined grains, organ meats, coffee, and legumes was inversely related to the risk of MS [odds ratio (OR = 0.15; 95%confidence interval (CI: 0.03-0.18; P = 0.028]. A similar inverse relationship was noted between MS risk andlacto-vegetarian (high in nuts, fruits, French fries, coffee,sweets and desserts, vegetables, and high-fat dairy products and vegetarian (high in green leafy vegetables, hydrogenated fats, tomato, yellow vegetables, fruit juices, onion, and other vegetablespatterns (OR = 0.31; 95% CI: 0.12-0.82; P = 0.018 and OR = 0.42; 95% CI: 0.19-0.90; P = 0.026, respectively. In contrast, the prevalence of MS was higher in those who had high animal fat dietary pattern (high in animal fats,potato, meat products, sugars, and hydrogenated fats and low in whole grains (OR = 1.99; 95% CI: 1.63-2.94;P < 0.005.Conclusion:Our findings showed that the risk of RRMS can be affected by major dietary patterns.

  8. Dietary lipids: less fat or best fat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chardigny Jean-Michel

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and overweight occurrence is growing around the word. This is often considered as a consequence of high fat diets, and some recommendations encourage ‘‘light’’ diets, including low fat intake. However, most trials with low fat intake do not demonstrate any benefit and could be worse than low carbohydrate diets. The key role of insulin could explain that eating fat do not make body fat. On the other hand, several unbalanced fatty acid intake are reported, i.e. saturated/mononunsaturated fatty acids and w6/w3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Thus, fat intake could be improved in this respect. Moreover, the molecular and supramolecular structures of fat in food are new challenges to address in order to ameliorate the recommendations for healthy diets.

  9. Body mass index and measures of body fat for defining obesity and underweight: a cross-sectional, population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Pasco, Julie A; Kara L. Holloway; Amelia G. Dobbins; Kotowicz, Mark A; Lana J Williams; Brennan, Sharon L

    2014-01-01

    Background The body mass index (BMI) is commonly used as a surrogate marker for adiposity. However, the BMI indicates weight-for-height without considering differences in body composition and the contribution of body fat to overall body weight. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify sex-and-age-specific values for percentage body fat (%BF), measured using whole body dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), that correspond to BMI 18.5 kg/m2 (threshold for underweight), 25.0 kg/m2...

  10. An Epidemiological Study on Pattern and Incidence of Mandibular Fractures

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    Subodh S. Natu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mandible is the second most common facial fracture. There has been a significant increase in the number of cases in recent years with the advent of fast moving automobiles. Mandibular fractures constitute a substantial proportion of maxillofacial trauma cases in Lucknow. This study was undertaken to study mandibular fractures clinicoradiologically with an aim to calculate incidence and study pattern and the commonest site of fractures in population in and around Lucknow. Patient presenting with history of trauma at various centers of maxillofacial surgery in and around Lucknow were included in this study. Detailed case history was recorded followed by thorough clinical examination, and radiological interpretation was done for establishing the diagnosis and the data obtained was analyzed statistically. Out of 66 patients with mandibular fractures, highest percentage was found in 21–30 years of age with male predominance. Road traffic accidents were the most common cause of fracture with parasymphysis being commonest site. Commonest combination was parasymphysis with subcondyle. There was no gender bias in etiology with number of fracture sites. The incidence and causes of mandibular fracture reflect trauma patterns within the community and can provide a guide to the design of programs geared toward prevention and treatment.

  11. Inflammatory and Metabolic Alterations of Kager's Fat Pad in Chronic Achilles Tendinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingel, Jessica; Petersen, M Christine H; Fredberg, Ulrich; Kjær, Søren G; Quistorff, Bjørn; Langberg, Henning; Hansen, Jacob B

    2015-01-01

    Achilles tendinopathy is a painful inflammatory condition characterized by swelling, stiffness and reduced function of the Achilles tendon. Kager's fat pad is an adipose tissue located in the area anterior to the Achilles tendon. Observations reveal a close physical interplay between Kager's fat pad and its surrounding structures during movement of the ankle, suggesting that Kager's fat pad may stabilize and protect the mechanical function of the ankle joint. The aim of this study was to characterize whether Achilles tendinopathy was accompanied by changes in expression of inflammatory markers and metabolic enzymes in Kager's fat pad. A biopsy was taken from Kager's fat pad from 31 patients with chronic Achilles tendinopathy and from 13 healthy individuals. Gene expression was measured by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Focus was on genes related to inflammation and lipid metabolism. Expression of the majority of analyzed inflammatory marker genes was increased in patients with Achilles tendinopathy compared to that in healthy controls. Expression patterns of the patient group were consistent with reduced lipolysis and increased fatty acid β-oxidation. In the fat pad, the pain-signaling neuropeptide substance P was found to be present in one third of the subjects in the Achilles tendinopathy group but in none of the healthy controls. Gene expression changes in Achilles tendinopathy patient samples were consistent with Kager's fat pad being more inflamed than in the healthy control group. Additionally, the results indicate an altered lipid metabolism in Kager's fat pad of Achilles tendinopathy patients.

  12. CHEER National Study of Chronic Rhinosinusitis Practice Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapurin, Nikita; Pynnonen, Melissa A; Roberts, Rhonda; Schulz, Kristine; Shin, Jennifer J; Witsell, David L; Parham, Kourosh; Langman, Alan; Carpenter, David; Vambutas, Andrea; Nguyen-Huynh, Anh; Wolfley, Anne; Lee, Walter T

    2017-02-01

    Objectives (1) Describe national patterns of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) care across academic and community practices. (2) Determine the prevalence of comorbid disorders in CRS patients, including nasal polyposis, allergic rhinitis, asthma, and cystic fibrosis. (3) Identify demographic, clinical, and practice type factors associated with endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). Study Design Multisite cross-sectional study. Setting Otolaryngology's national research network CHEER (Creating Healthcare Excellence through Education and Research). Subjects and Methods A total of 17,828 adult patients with CRS were identified, of which 10,434 were seen at community practices (59%, n = 8 sites) and 7394 at academic practices (41%, n = 10 sites). Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between demographic, practice type, and clinical factors and the odds of a patient undergoing ESS. Results The average age was 50.4 years; 59.5% of patients were female; and 88.3% were Caucasian. The prevalence of comorbid diseases was as follows: allergic rhinitis (35.1%), nasal polyposis (13.3%), asthma (4.4%), and cystic fibrosis (0.2%). In addition, 24.8% of patients at academic centers underwent ESS, as compared with 12.3% at community sites. In multivariate analyses, nasal polyposis (odds ratio [OR], 4.28), cystic fibrosis (OR, 2.42), and academic site type (OR, 1.86) were associated with ESS ( P < .001), while adjusting for other factors. Conclusions We describe practice patterns of CRS care, as well as demographic and clinical factors associated with ESS. This is the first study of practice patterns in CRS utilizing the CHEER network and may be used to guide future research.

  13. Acculturation and dietary patterns among residents of Surinamese origin in the Netherlands: the HELIUS dietary pattern study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturkenboom, M.; Dekker, L.H.; Lamkaddem, M.; Schaap, L.A.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Stronks, K.; Nicolaou, M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Insight into the role of acculturation in dietary patterns is important to inform the development of nutrition programmes that target ethnic minority groups. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate how the adherence to dietary patterns within an ethnic minority population in the

  14. A study of anti-hyperlipidemia, hypolipedimic and anti-atherogenic activity of fruit of emblica officinalis (amla in high fat fed albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeevangi Santoshkumar, Manjunath S, Sakhare Pranavkumar M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available : Emblica Officinalis (Amla, belonging to the genus, Phyllanthus emblica is widely used for medicinal purpose. Its fruits have been used traditionally as a hypolipidemic. Objectives: The present study was aimed to evaluate hypolipedimic and anti-atherogenic activity of fruit of Emblica officinalis in high fat fed albino rats. Materials and Methods: For study of anti-hyperlipidemic, hypolipidemic, and anti-atherogenic activity. 5 groups of 6 animals in each received normal saline, E. Officinalis powder, high fat diet, High fat diet plus E. Officinalis powder both and Atorvastatin respectively for 8 weeks. Hyperlipidemia was induced by feeding animals with high fat diet per orally, consisting of coconut oil and vanaspati ghee, daily ad libitum. At the end of the study, blood samples of the animals were sent for the estimation of the lipid profile and effects of test drug studied by comparing levels of Total Cholesterol, Triglycerides, HDL, LDL, and Atherogenic index. The statistical significance between groups was analysed by using one way ANOVA, followed by Dunnet’s multiple comparison test. Results: Fruit of Amla showed significant anti-hyperlipidemic, hypolipidemic, and anti-atherogenic effect. All these effects may contribute to its anti-atherogenic activity. Conclusion: Present study revealed the antihyperlipidemic, hypolipidemic, and anti-atherogenic effect of Amla fruit powder and can be safely used in the treatment of mild to moderate cases of hyperlipidemia considering its easy availability, cost effectiveness, and other beneficial effects.

  15. Arterial vascularization patterns of the splenium: An anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahilogullari, G; Comert, A; Ozdemir, M; Brohi, R A; Ozgural, O; Esmer, A F; Egemen, N; Karahan, S T

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to provide detailed information about the arterial vascularization of the splenium of the corpus callosum (CC). The splenium is unique in that it is part of the largest commissural tract in the brain and a region in which pathologies are seen frequently. An exact description of the arterial vascularization of this part of the CC remains under debate. Thirty adult human brains (60 hemispheres) were obtained from routine autopsies. Cerebral arteries were separately cannulated and injected with colored latex. Then, the brains were fixed in formaldehyde, and dissections were performed using a surgical microscope. The diameter of the arterial branches supplying the splenium of the CC at their origin was investigated, and the vascularization patterns of these branches were observed. Vascular supply to the splenium was provided by the anterior pericallosal artery (40%) from the anterior circulation and by the posterior pericallosal artery (88%) and posterior accessory pericallosal artery (50%) from the posterior circulation. The vascularization pattern of the splenium differs in each hemisphere and is usually supplied by multiple branches. The arterial vascularization of the splenium of the CC was studied comprehensively considering the ongoing debate and the inadequacy of the studies on this issue currently available in the literature. This anatomical knowledge is essential during the treatment of pathologies in this region and especially for splenial arteriovenous malformations.

  16. Molecular interactions between green tea catechins and cheese fat studied by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidinejad, Ali; Birch, Edward J; Hindmarsh, Jason; Everett, David W

    2017-01-15

    Molecular integrations between green tea catechins and milk fat globules in a cheese matrix were investigated using solid-state magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Full-fat cheeses were manufactured containing free catechin or free green tea extract (GTE), and liposomal encapsulated catechin or liposomal encapsulated GTE. Molecular mobility of the carbon species in the cheeses was measured by a wide-line separation technique. The (1)H evolution frequency profile of the (13)C peak at 16ppm obtained for the control cheese and cheeses containing encapsulated polyphenols (catechin or GTE) were similar, however, the spectrum was narrower for cheeses containing free polyphenols. Differences in spectral width indicates changes in the molecular mobility of --CH3- or -C-C-PO4- species through hydrophobic and/or cation-π associations between green tea catechins and cheese fat components. However, the similar spectral profile suggests that encapsulation protects cheese fat from interaction with catechins.

  17. ENERGY-INTAKE AND PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY IN RELATION TO INDEXES OF BODY-FAT - THE NATIONAL-HEART,-LUNG,-AND-BLOOD-INSTITUTE GROWTH AND HEALTH STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OBARZANEK, E; SCHREIBER, GB; CRAWFORD, PB; GOLDMAN, [No Value; BARRIER, PM; FREDERICK, MM; LAKATOS, E

    The relationship between energy intake, physical activity, and body fat was investigated in the baseline visit of 2379 black and white girls aged 9-10 y enrolled in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study. Three-day food records, three-day physical activity diaries,

  18. Genome-wide association study of triglyceride response to a high-fat meal among participants of the NHLBI genetics of lipid lowering drugs and diet network (GOLDN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: The triglyceride (TG) response to a high-fat meal (postprandial lipemia, PPL) affects cardiovascular disease risk and is influenced by genes and environment. Genes involved in lipid metabolism have dominated genetic studies of PPL TG response. We sought to elucidate common genetic variant...

  19. ENERGY-INTAKE AND PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY IN RELATION TO INDEXES OF BODY-FAT - THE NATIONAL-HEART,-LUNG,-AND-BLOOD-INSTITUTE GROWTH AND HEALTH STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OBARZANEK, E; SCHREIBER, GB; CRAWFORD, PB; GOLDMAN, [No Value; BARRIER, PM; FREDERICK, MM; LAKATOS, E

    1994-01-01

    The relationship between energy intake, physical activity, and body fat was investigated in the baseline visit of 2379 black and white girls aged 9-10 y enrolled in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study. Three-day food records, three-day physical activity diaries, phy

  20. Fat mass is positively associated with bone mass in relatively thin adolescents: data from the Kitakata Kids Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouda, Katsuyasu; Fujita, Yuki; Sato, Yuho; Ohara, Kumiko; Nakamura, Harunobu; Uenishi, Kazuhiro; Iki, Masayuki

    2014-07-01

    Epidemiologic studies have found that higher body weight is associated with better bone health. Body weight consists of both fat mass (FM) and lean soft tissue mass (LSTM). Previous studies have examined the effects of FM levels during childhood on bone health, with conflicting results. In the present study, we investigated the independent contributions of FM to bone mass in Japanese adolescents. Subjects were 235 adolescents aged 15-18 years old in August 2010 and in August 2013 from the Kitakata Kids Health Study in Japan. We obtained cross-sectional data on body composition as well as bone mineral density (BMD). Body composition and BMD were measured using a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanner. We found moderate and positive relationships between FM index and LSTM index (males, r=0.69; females, r=0.44). To verify a potentially additive effect of FM on the variance of bone variables beyond LSTM, we assessed the association between FM index and bone variables after stratification by tertiles of the LSTM index. In the lowest tertile of the LSTM index, FM index was significantly (PLSTM index. These findings indicate that FM can influence how high bone mass is obtained among relatively thin adolescents, but not among those who are of normal weight or overweight.

  1. Pancreatic enzyme secretion during intravenous fat infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, G P; Stein, T A

    1987-01-01

    The nutritional support of patients with pancreatic and high gastrointestinal fistulas and severe pancreatitis frequently involves intravenous fat infusion. There are conflicting reports on the effect of intravenous fat on pancreatic exocrine secretion. In 10 dogs with chronic pancreatic fistulas, pancreatic juice was collected during secretin (n = 10) or secretin + cholecystokinin (n = 4) stimulation, with and without intravenous fat infusion (5 g/hr). The hormonal-stimulated secretion of lipase, amylase, trypsin, total protein, bicarbonate, and water was unchanged during fat infusion. This study supports the use of intravenous fat as a nutritional source when it is desirable to avoid stimulation of the pancreas.

  2. The trochanteric fat pad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Panettiere

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Technological developments based on the use of autologous white adipose tissue (WAT attracted attention to minor fat depots as possible sources of adipose tissue. In plastic surgery, the trochanteric fatty pad is one of the most used WAT depots for its location and organoleptic characteristics that make it particularly suitable for reconstructive procedures. Despite its wide use in clinic, the structure of this depot has never been studied in detail and it is not known if structural differences exist among trochanteric fat and other subcutaneous WAT depots. The present study was performed on trochanteric fat pad with the aim to clarify the morphology of its adipocytes, stroma and microcirculation, with particular reference to the stem niches. Histological and ultrastructural studies showed that the main peculiar feature of the trochanteric fat concerns its stromal component, which appears less dense than in the other subcutaneous WATs studied. The intra-parenchymal collagen stroma is poor and the extracellular compartment shows large spaces, filled with electron-light material, in which isolated collagen bundles are present. The adipocytes are wrapped in weak and easily detachable collagen baskets. These connective sheaths are very thin compared to the sheaths in other subcutaneous WAT depots. The capillaries are covered by large, long and thin elements surrounded by an external lamina; these perivascular cells are poor in organelles and mainly contain poly-ribosomes. In conclusion, when compared to other WAT deposits, the trochanteric fatty pad shows structural peculiarities in its stroma and microcirculation suggesting a high regenerative potential. Resistance, dissociability, microvascular weft and high regenerative potential make the trochanteric fatty pad a privileged source for harvesting in autologous WAT-based regenerative procedures.

  3. Dietary Patterns and Risk of Death and Progression to ESRD in Individuals With CKD: A Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Orlando M.; Muntner, Paul; Rizk, Dana V.; McClellan, William M.; Warnock, David G.; Newby, P.K.; Judd, Suzanne E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Nutrition is strongly linked with health outcomes in chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, few studies have examined relationships between dietary patterns and health outcomes in persons with CKD. Study Design Observational cohort study. Setting & Participants 3,972 participants with CKD (defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 or an albumin-creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g at baseline) from the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study, a prospective cohort study of 30,239 black and white adults at least 45 years of age. Predictors Five empirically derived dietary patterns identified via factor analysis: “Convenience” (Chinese and Mexican foods, pizza, other mixed dishes), “Plant-Based” (fruits, vegetables), “Sweets/Fats” (sugary foods), “Southern” (fried foods, organ meats, sweetened beverages), and “Alcohol/Salads” (alcohol, green-leafy vegetables, salad dressing). Outcomes All-cause mortality and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Results A total of 816 deaths and 141 ESRD events were observed over approximately 6 years of follow-up. There were no statistically significant associations of Convenience, Sweets/Fats or Alcohol/Salads pattern scores with all-cause mortality after multivariable adjustment. In Cox regression models adjusted for sociodemographic factors, energy intake, co-morbidities, and baseline kidney function, higher Plant-Based pattern scores (indicating greater consistency with the pattern) were associated with lower risk of mortality (HR comparing fourth to first quartile, 0.77; 95%CI, 0.61–0.97) whereas higher Southern pattern scores were associated with greater risk of mortality (HR comparing fourth to first quartile, 1.51; 95%CI, 1.19–1.92). There were no associations of dietary patterns with incident ESRD in multivariable-adjusted models. Limitations Missing dietary pattern data, potential residual confounding from lifestyle factors. Conclusions A

  4. Dietary fiber and saturated fat intake associations with cardiovascular disease differ by sex in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Cohort: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallström, Peter; Sonestedt, Emily; Hlebowicz, Joanna; Ericson, Ulrika; Drake, Isabel; Persson, Margaretha; Gullberg, Bo; Hedblad, Bo; Wirfält, Elisabet

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine associations between intake of macronutrients and dietary fiber and incident ischemic cardiovascular disease (iCVD) in men and women. We used data from 8,139 male and 12,535 female participants (aged 44-73 y) of the Swedish population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort. The participants were without history of CVD and diabetes mellitus, and had reported stable dietary habits in the study questionnaire. Diet was assessed by a validated modified diet history method, combining a 7-d registration of cooked meals and cold beverages, a 168-item food questionnaire (covering other foods and meal patterns), and a 1-hour diet interview. Sociodemographic and lifestyle data were collected by questionnaire. iCVD cases, which included coronary events (myocardial infarctions or deaths from chronic ischemic heart disease) and ischemic strokes, were ascertained via national and local registries. Nutrient-disease associations were examined by multivariate Cox regressions. During a mean follow-up of 13.5 years, we identified 1,089 male and 687 female iCVD cases. High fiber intakes were associated with lower incidence rates of iCVD in women and of ischemic stroke in men. In post-hoc analysis, we discovered statistically significant interactions between intake of fiber and saturated fat; these interactions also differed between men and women (p<0.001). In this well-defined population, a high fiber intake was associated with lower risk of iCVD, but there were no robust associations between other macronutrients and iCVD risk. Judging from this study, gender-specific nutrient analysis may be preferable in epidemiology.

  5. Dietary Patterns Derived Using Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis are Stable and Generalizable Across Race, Region, and Gender Subgroups in the REGARDS Study

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    Judd, Suzanne E.; Letter, Abraham J.; Shikany, James M.; Roth, David L.; Newby, P. K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Examining diet as a whole using dietary patterns as exposures is a complementary method to using single food or nutrients in studies of diet and disease, but the generalizability of intake patterns across race, region, and gender in the United States has not been established. Objective: To employ rigorous statistical analysis to empirically derive dietary patterns in a large bi-racial, geographically diverse population and examine whether results are stable across population subgroups. Design: The present analysis utilized data from 21,636 participants in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study who completed the Block 98 food frequency questionnaire. We employed exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analyses on 56 different food groups iteratively and examined differences by race, region, and sex to determine the optimal factor solution in our sample. Results: Five dietary patterns emerged: the “Convenience” pattern was characterized by mixed dishes; the “Plant-based” pattern by fruits, vegetables, and fish; the “Sweets/Fats” pattern by sweet snacks, desserts, and fats and oils; the “Southern” pattern by fried foods, organ meat, and sweetened beverages; and the “Alcohol/Salads” pattern by beer, wine, liquor, and salads. Differences were most pronounced in the Southern pattern with black participants, those residing in the Southeast, and participants not completing high school having the highest scores. Conclusion: Five meaningful dietary patterns emerged in the REGARDS study and showed strong congruence across race, sex, and region. Future research will examine associations between these patterns and health outcomes to better understand racial disparities in disease and inform prevention efforts. PMID:25988129

  6. Vegetarian dietary patterns and mortality in Adventist Health Study 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlich, Michael J; Singh, Pramil N; Sabaté, Joan; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Fan, Jing; Knutsen, Synnove; Beeson, W Lawrence; Fraser, Gary E

    2013-07-08

    Some evidence suggests vegetarian dietary patterns may be associated with reduced mortality, but the relationship is not well established. To evaluate the association between vegetarian dietary patterns and mortality. Prospective cohort study; mortality analysis by Cox proportional hazards regression, controlling for important demographic and lifestyle confounders. Adventist Health Study 2 (AHS-2), a large North American cohort. A total of 96,469 Seventh-day Adventist men and women recruited between 2002 and 2007, from which an analytic sample of 73,308 participants remained after exclusions. Diet was assessed at baseline by a quantitative food frequency questionnaire and categorized into 5 dietary patterns: nonvegetarian, semi-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, lacto-ovo-vegetarian, and vegan. The relationship between vegetarian dietary patterns and all-cause and cause-specific mortality; deaths through 2009 were identified from the National Death Index. There were 2570 deaths among 73,308 participants during a mean follow-up time of 5.79 years. The mortality rate was 6.05 (95% CI, 5.82-6.29) deaths per 1000 person-years. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for all-cause mortality in all vegetarians combined vs nonvegetarians was 0.88 (95% CI, 0.80-0.97). The adjusted HR for all-cause mortality in vegans was 0.85 (95% CI, 0.73-1.01); in lacto-ovo-vegetarians, 0.91 (95% CI, 0.82-1.00); in pesco-vegetarians, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.69-0.94); and in semi-vegetarians, 0.92 (95% CI, 0.75-1.13) compared with nonvegetarians. Significant associations with vegetarian diets were detected for cardiovascular mortality, noncardiovascular noncancer mortality, renal mortality, and endocrine mortality. Associations in men were larger and more often significant than were those in women. Vegetarian diets are associated with lower all-cause mortality and with some reductions in cause-specific mortality. Results appeared to be more robust in males. These favorable associations should be considered

  7. Vegetarian Dietary Patterns and Mortality in Adventist Health Study 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlich, Michael J.; Singh, Pramil N; Sabaté, Joan; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Fan, Jing; Knutsen, Synnove; Beeson, W. Lawrence; Fraser, Gary E.

    2014-01-01

    Importance Some evidence suggests vegetarian dietary patterns may be associated with reduced mortality, but the relationship is not well established. Objective To evaluate the association between vegetarian dietary patterns and mortality. Design Prospective cohort study; mortality analysis by Cox proportional hazards regression, controlling for important demographic and lifestyle confounders. Setting Adventist Health Study 2 (AHS-2), a large North American cohort. Participants A total of 96 469 Seventh-day Adventist men and women recruited between 2002 and 2007, from which an analytic sample of 73 308 participants remained after exclusions. Exposures Diet was assessed at baseline by a quantitative food frequency questionnaire and categorized into 5 dietary patterns: nonvegetarian, semi-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, lacto-ovo–vegetarian, and vegan. Main Outcome and Measure The relationship between vegetarian dietary patterns and all-cause and cause-specific mortality; deaths through 2009 were identified from the National Death Index. Results There were 2570 deaths among 73 308 participants during a mean follow-up time of 5.79 years. The mortality rate was 6.05 (95% CI, 5.82–6.29) deaths per 1000 person-years. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for all-cause mortality in all vegetarians combined vs non-vegetarians was 0.88 (95% CI, 0.80–0.97). The adjusted HR for all-cause mortality in vegans was 0.85 (95% CI, 0.73–1.01); in lacto-ovo–vegetarians, 0.91 (95% CI, 0.82–1.00); in pesco-vegetarians, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.69–0.94); and in semi-vegetarians, 0.92 (95% CI, 0.75–1.13) compared with nonvegetarians. Significant associations with vegetarian diets were detected for cardiovascular mortality, noncardiovascular noncancer mortality, renal mortality, and endocrine mortality. Associations in men were larger and more often significant than were those in women. Conclusions and Relevance Vegetarian diets are associated with lower all-cause mortality and with some

  8. CLINICO PATHOLOGICAL STUDY OF PATTERNS OF ANEMIA DURING PREGNANCY

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    Chamakuri

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Anemia is defined as haemoglobin level in the blood below the lower extreme of the normal range for the age and sex of the individual. According to WHO, in developing countries the prevalence of anemia among pregnant women averages 60%, ranging between 35 to 100% among different regions of the world. A hemoglobin concentration below 11.0g/dl or packed cell volume (PCV of less than 33.0% is regarded as anemia during pregnancy by the WHO. It occurs in 40 - 80% of the pregnant women. Iron and folic acid defici encies, malaria, intestinal parasitic infections and hemoglobinopathies are the principal causes of anemia in pregnancy. Predisposing factors include young age, grand multiparity, low socioeconomic status, illiteracy, ignorance and short intervals of pregn ancy. AIM AND OBJECTIVES: 1. To study various patterns of anemia in pregnant women having haemoglobin level < 11 gm%. 2. To determine the most common pattern of anemia in pregnancy based on red cell morphology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study is a prospe ctive study over a period of one year from September 2014 to August 2015 in the department of pathology, Andhra medical college, Visakhapatnam . The study was conducted on 120 pregnant women whose haemoglobin level is < 11 gm/dl. All the haemotological parameters & peripheral blood smear stained by Leishman’s stain were evaluated. Complete clinical & obstetric history was recorded. Socioeconomic status was also noted. RESULTS: Out of 120 cases of anemia, we found 47 patie nts (39.1% having dimorphic anemia, 36(30% – microcytic hypochromic anemia, 23(19.1% - normocytic hypochromic anemia, 11(9.16% - sickle cell anemia and 1(0.83% case of pancytopenia. Maximum cases were seen in the age group of 21 - 30 years. 52 cases (43. 3% were primigravida and remaining 68 cases (56.6% were gravida two to four. 20 cases (16.6% were diagnosed in the first trimester, 38 cases (31.6% in the second trimester & 62 cases (51.6s% in the

  9. Modified broken rice starch as fat substitute in sausages

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    Valéria Maria Limberger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The demand for low-fat beef products has led the food industry to use fat substitutes such as modified starch. About 14% of broken rice is generated during processing. Nevertheless, this by-product contains high levels of starch; being therefore, great raw material for fat substitution. This study evaluated the applicability of chemically and physically modified broken rice starch as fat substitute in sausages. Extruded and phosphorylated broken rice was used in low-fat sausage formulation. All low-fat sausages presented about 55% reduction in the fat content and around 28% reduction in the total caloric value. Fat replacement with phosphorylated and extruded broken rice starch increased the texture acceptability of low-fat sausages, when compared to low-fat sausages with no modified broken rice. Results suggest that modified broken rice can be used as fat substitute in sausage formulations, yielding lower caloric value products with acceptable sensory characteristics.

  10. Study of Equipment Presses of Cocoa Powder (Theobroma cacao,L to Produce Quality Fat Cocoa and Analysis of the Resulting

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    Omil Charmyn Chatib

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the performance of the press tool brands CARVER type Model 3912 Hydraulic Unit in producing cocoa fat and then analyzing the product. This research was conducted at the Laboratory of Food and Agricultural Products Processing and Chemistry Laboratory, Agricultural Products Biochemistry Faculty of Agricultural Technology, University of Andalas, Padang in April-June 2014. In this study, conducted observations such as pressure, temperature, and time presses ideal in the process. While the manufacturing unit made a tool to improve the performance of the instrument and the acquisition of fat that is carried out according to treatment pressure of 8.05 MPa at a temperature of 130 oC, 150 oC and 170 oC for each repetition. After that, analyzing the free fatty acids, iodine number, saponification number, and the moisture content of the product is done. Based on studies conducted by the information obtained from the data base in the presses, pressure 8.05 MPa and a temperature of 130 oC obtained average - average yield of 51.57% fat for 3 repetitions. This explains that the tool operates properly. As for test analysis, free fatty acids, iodine number, saponification number, and moisture content for each sample at all treatment is not obtained in accordance with the quality standards of Fat Cocoa determined by ISO 3748:2009.

  11. A Lebanese dietary pattern promotes better diet quality among older adults: findings from a national cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomaa, Lamis; Hwalla, Nahla; Itani, Leila; Chamieh, Marie Claire; Mehio-Sibai, Abla; Naja, Farah

    2016-04-19

    Proper nutrition is critical for healthy aging and maintaining functional independence. Limited research has been done on the assessment of dietary patterns of older adults and their association with diet quality indices. This study was conducted to identify, characterize, and evaluate the dietary patterns and diet quality of older adults in Lebanon, a middle-income country undergoing nutrition transition. A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted on a nationally representative sample of community-dwelling older adults aged >50 years (n = 525). Socio-demographic, anthropometric, and lifestyle variables were collected through interviews, and dietary intake was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Five commonly used diet quality indices (DQIs) were calculated, including the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), the alternate Mediterranean diet score (aMed), the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH) style diet score, and the Lebanese Mediterranean Diet index. Dietary patterns (DPs) were derived using exploratory factor analysis. Associations of identified DPs with energy, energy-adjusted nutrients, and DQIs were evaluated by Pearson's correlations. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine correlates of DPs. Three DPs were derived: Lebanese, Western, and High Protein/Alcohol patterns. The Lebanese pattern had highest correlations with fiber, folate, vitamin C, and all five DQIs. The Western was positively associated with energy and sodium and was inversely correlated with fiber, most vitamins, and a number of DQIs, namely AHEI, aMED, and DASH-style diet score. Highest correlations with intakes of proteins and fat were observed for the High Protein/Alcohol pattern. The Lebanese pattern was associated with female gender, education, nonsmoking and physical activity, whereas the Western pattern was associated with adverse health behaviors, including smoking, skipping breakfast, and physical inactivity

  12. Dietary Patterns and Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannasch, Franziska; Kröger, Janine; Schulze, Matthias B

    2017-06-01

    Background: Different methodologic approaches for constructing dietary patterns and differences in their composition limit conclusions on healthful patterns for diabetes prevention.Objective: We summarized evidence from prospective studies that examined associations of dietary patterns with type 2 diabetes by considering different methodologic approaches.Methods: The literature search (MEDLINE and Web of Science) identified prospective studies (cohorts or trials) that associated dietary patterns with diabetes incidence in nondiabetic and apparently healthy participants. We summarized evidence by meta-analyses and distinguished different methodologic approaches.Results: The search resulted in 48 articles comprising 16 cohorts. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet (RR for comparing extreme quantiles: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.82, 0.93), Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) (RR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.72, 0.92), and Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI) (RR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.69, 0.90) was associated with significant risk reductions of incident diabetes. Patterns from exploratory factor and principal component analyses characterized by red and processed meat, refined grains, high-fat dairy, eggs, and fried products ("mainly unhealthy") were positively associated with diabetes (RR: 1.44; 95% CI: 1.27, 1.62), whereas patterns characterized by vegetables, legumes, fruits, poultry, and fish ("mainly healthy") were inversely associated with diabetes (RR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.77, 0.91). Reduced rank regression (RRR) used diabetes-related biomarkers to identify patterns. These patterns were characterized by high intakes of refined grains, sugar-sweetened soft drinks, and processed meat and were all significantly associated with diabetes risk.Conclusions: Our meta-analysis suggests that diets according to the Mediterranean diet, DASH, and AHEI have a strong potential for preventing diabetes, although they differ in some particular components. Exploratory dietary patterns were grouped

  13. Saturated fat, carbohydrate, and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siri-Tarino, Patty W; Sun, Qi; Hu, Frank B; Krauss, Ronald M

    2010-03-01

    A focus of dietary recommendations for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention and treatment has been a reduction in saturated fat intake, primarily as a means of lowering LDL-cholesterol concentrations. However, the evidence that supports a reduction in saturated fat intake must be evaluated in the context of replacement by other macronutrients. Clinical trials that replaced saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat have generally shown a reduction in CVD events, although several studies showed no effects. An independent association of saturated fat intake with CVD risk has not been consistently shown in prospective epidemiologic studies, although some have provided evidence of an increased risk in young individuals and in women. Replacement of saturated fat by polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fat lowers both LDL and HDL cholesterol. However, replacement with a higher carbohydrate intake, particularly refined carbohydrate, can exacerbate the atherogenic dyslipidemia associated with insulin resistance and obesity that includes increased triglycerides, small LDL particles, and reduced HDL cholesterol. In summary, although substitution of dietary polyunsaturated fat for saturated fat has been shown to lower CVD risk, there are few epidemiologic or clinical trial data to support a benefit of replacing saturated fat with carbohydrate. Furthermore, particularly given the differential effects of dietary saturated fats and carbohydrates on concentrations of larger and smaller LDL particles, respectively, dietary efforts to improve the increasing burden of CVD risk associated with atherogenic dyslipidemia should primarily emphasize the limitation of refined carbohydrate intakes and a reduction in excess adiposity.

  14. Saturated fat, carbohydrate, and cardiovascular disease1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siri-Tarino, Patty W; Sun, Qi; Hu, Frank B; Krauss, Ronald M

    2010-01-01

    A focus of dietary recommendations for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention and treatment has been a reduction in saturated fat intake, primarily as a means of lowering LDL-cholesterol concentrations. However, the evidence that supports a reduction in saturated fat intake must be evaluated in the context of replacement by other macronutrients. Clinical trials that replaced saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat have generally shown a reduction in CVD events, although several studies showed no effects. An independent association of saturated fat intake with CVD risk has not been consistently shown in prospective epidemiologic studies, although some have provided evidence of an increased risk in young individuals and in women. Replacement of saturated fat by polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fat lowers both LDL and HDL cholesterol. However, replacement with a higher carbohydrate intake, particularly refined carbohydrate, can exacerbate the atherogenic dyslipidemia associated with insulin resistance and obesity that includes increased triglycerides, small LDL particles, and reduced HDL cholesterol. In summary, although substitution of dietary polyunsaturated fat for saturated fat has been shown to lower CVD risk, there are few epidemiologic or clinical trial data to support a benefit of replacing saturated fat with carbohydrate. Furthermore, particularly given the differential effects of dietary saturated fats and carbohydrates on concentrations of larger and smaller LDL particles, respectively, dietary efforts to improve the increasing burden of CVD risk associated with atherogenic dyslipidemia should primarily emphasize the limitation of refined carbohydrate intakes and a reduction in excess adiposity. PMID:20089734

  15. Dietary patterns in early childhood and child cognitive and psychomotor development: the Rhea mother-child cohort study in Crete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventakou, Vasiliki; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Sarri, Katerina; Koutra, Katerina; Kampouri, Mariza; Kyriklaki, Andriani; Vassilaki, Maria; Kogevinas, Manolis; Chatzi, Leda

    2016-04-01

    Early-life nutrition is critical for optimal brain development; however, few studies have evaluated the impact of diet as a whole in early childhood on neurological development with inconsistent results. The present analysis is a cross-sectional study nested within an ongoing prospective birth cohort, the Rhea study, and aims to examine the association of dietary patterns with cognitive and psychomotor development in 804 preschool (mean age 4·2 years) children. Parents completed a validated FFQ, and dietary patterns were identified using principal component analysis. Child cognitive and psychomotor development was assessed by the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (MSCA). Multivariable linear regression models were used to investigate the associations of dietary patterns with the MSCA scales. After adjustment for a large number of confounding factors, the 'Snacky' pattern (potatoes and other starchy roots, salty snacks, sugar products and eggs) was negatively associated with the scales of verbal ability (β=-1·31; 95 % CI -2·47, -0·16), general cognitive ability (β=-1·13; 95 % CI -2·25, -0·02) and cognitive functions of the posterior cortex (β=-1·20; 95 % CI -2·34, -0·07). Further adjustment for maternal intelligence, folic acid supplementation and alcohol use during pregnancy attenuated the observed associations, but effect estimates remained at the same direction. The 'Western' and the 'Mediterranean' patterns were not associated with child neurodevelopmental scales. The present findings suggest that poorer food choices at preschool age characterised by foods high in fat, salt and sugar are associated with reduced scores in verbal and cognitive ability.

  16. Pre-clinical evolutionary study of Clerodendrum phlomidis as an anti-obesity agent against high fat diet induced C57BL/6J mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vijay R Chidrawar; Krishnakant N Patel; Havagiray R Chitme; Shruti S Shiromwar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Anti-obesity activity of alcoholic and methanolic extracts of roots of Clerodendrumphlomidis was evaluated against high fat diet (HFD) induced obesity in C57BL/6J female mice. Methods: Obesity was induced by feeding high fat diet for 13 weeks to C57BL/6J female mice and one group was kept on normal chow diet in order to evaluate the effect of Clerodendrumphlomidis on food intake, body weight changes, digestive enzyme activity, lipid metabolism, theromogenesis, adiposities diameter and histology of fat pad. Results: Among these two extracts methanolic extract of Clerodendrum phlomidis (MECP) have shown strong anti-obesity effect compare to alcoholic extract of Clerodendrum phlomidis (AECP). LD50 value was found to be more than 2000 mg/kg. Conclusions: MECP have shown more promising effects than AECP may be because of its multiple mechanisms. Anti-obesity activity produced by MECP is because of inhibition of pancreatic lipase activity which delays the intestinal absorption of dietary fat. Inhibition of pancreatic lipase activity was confirmed by in-vitro studies. MECP also containsβ-sitosterol in abundant amount which was confirmed by HPTLC analysis. Moreover flavonoid content in the plant has anorexic property. By this study we concluded that MECP is beneficial for the suppression of obesity and associated complications like T2DM.

  17. A genome wide association study for backfat thickness in Italian Large White pigs highlights new regions affecting fat deposition including neuronal genes

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    Fontanesi Luca

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carcass fatness is an important trait in most pig breeding programs. Following market requests, breeding plans for fresh pork consumption are usually designed to reduce carcass fat content and increase lean meat deposition. However, the Italian pig industry is mainly devoted to the production of Protected Designation of Origin dry cured hams: pigs are slaughtered at around 160 kg of live weight and the breeding goal aims at maintaining fat coverage, measured as backfat thickness to avoid excessive desiccation of the hams. This objective has shaped the genetic pool of Italian heavy pig breeds for a few decades. In this study we applied a selective genotyping approach within a population of ~ 12,000 performance tested Italian Large White pigs. Within this population, we selectively genotyped 304 pigs with extreme and divergent backfat thickness estimated breeding value by the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip and performed a genome wide association study to identify loci associated to this trait. Results We identified 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms with P≤5.0E-07 and additional 119 ones with 5.0E-07 Conclusions Further investigations are needed to evaluate the effects of the identified single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with backfat thickness on other traits as a pre-requisite for practical applications in breeding programs. Reported results could improve our understanding of the biology of fat metabolism and deposition that could also be relevant for other mammalian species including humans, confirming the role of neuronal genes on obesity.

  18. Visceral Fat and Novel Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Disease in Patients with Addison's Disease; a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergthorsdottir, Ragnhildur; Ragnarsson, Oskar; Skrtic, Stanko; Glad, Camilla A M; Nilsson, Staffan; Ross, Ian Louis; Leonsson-Zachrisson, Maria; Johannsson, Gudmundur

    2017-09-13

    Patients with Addison's disease (AD) have increased cardiovascular mortality. To study visceral fat and conventional and exploratory cardiovascular risk factors in patients with AD. A cross-sectional, single-centre, case-control study. Seventy-six patients (51 women) with AD and 76 healthy controls, matched for gender, age, body mass index (BMI) and smoking habits. The primary outcome variable was visceral abdominal adipose tissue (VAT) measured using computed tomography. Secondary outcome variables were the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and 92 biomarkers of cardiovascular disease. The mean (± SD) age of patients and controls was 53 ± 14 years, BMI was 25 ± 4 kg/m2, and mean duration of AD was 17 ±12 years. The median (range) daily hydrocortisone dose was 30 mg (10-50 mg). The median (interquartile range) 24 hour urinary free cortisol excretion was increased in patients versus controls) [359 (193-601) vs, 175 (140-244) nmol; P1) and vasodilatory protective marker was decreased (FCdisease were adversely affected in patients with AD.

  19. Maternal fat intake during pregnancy and wheeze and eczema in Japanese infants: the Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Keiko; Okubo, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi; Arakawa, Masashi

    2013-11-01

    This cohort study examined the relationship between maternal intake of individual fatty acids, meat, and fish during pregnancy and the risk of wheeze and eczema in children aged 23-29 months because epidemiologic evidence on this topic is inconclusive. Subjects were 1354 Japanese mother-child pairs. Data on maternal intake during pregnancy were assessed with a validated diet history questionnaire. Data on symptoms of wheeze and eczema were based on criteria of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Significant inverse exposure-response relationships were obs