WorldWideScience

Sample records for fat pad-derived mesenchymal

  1. Characterisation of synovial fluid and infrapatellar fat pad derived mesenchymal stromal cells: The influence of tissue source and inflammatory stimulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, John; Wright, Karina; Roberts, Sally; Kuiper, Jan Herman; Mangham, Chas; Richardson, James; Mennan, Claire

    2016-01-01

    The infrapatellar fat pad (FP) and synovial fluid (SF) in the knee serve as reservoirs of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) with potential therapeutic benefit. We determined the influence of the donor on the phenotype of donor matched FP and SF derived MSCs and examined their immunogenic and immunomodulatory properties before and after stimulation with the pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). Both cell populations were positive for MSC markers CD73, CD90 and CD105, and displayed multipotency. FP-MSCs had a significantly faster proliferation rate than SF-MSCs. CD14 positivity was seen in both FP-MSCs and SF-MSCs, and was positively correlated to donor age but only for SF-MSCs. Neither cell population was positive for the co-stimulatory markers CD40, CD80 and CD86, but both demonstrated increased levels of human leukocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR) following IFN-γ stimulation. HLA-DR production was positively correlated with donor age for FP-MSCs but not SF-MSCs. The immunomodulatory molecule, HLA-G, was constitutively produced by both cell populations, unlike indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase which was only produced following IFN-γ stimulation. FP and SF are accessible cell sources which could be utilised in the treatment of cartilage injuries, either by transplantation following ex-vivo expansion or endogenous targeting and mobilisation of cells close to the site of injury. PMID:27073003

  2. Human Suprapatellar Fat Pad-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Induce Chondrogenesis and Cartilage Repair in a Model of Severe Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Muñoz-Criado

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cartilage degeneration is associated with degenerative bone and joint processes in severe osteoarthritis (OA. Spontaneous cartilage regeneration is extremely limited. Often the treatment consists of a partial or complete joint implant. Adipose-derived stem cell (ASC transplantation has been shown to restore degenerated cartilage; however, regenerative differences of ASC would depend on the source of adipose tissue. The infra- and suprapatellar fat pads surrounding the knee offer a potential autologous source of ASC for patients after complete joint substitution. When infrapatellar- and suprapatellar-derived stromal vascular fractions (SVF were compared, a significantly higher CD105 (+ population was found in the suprapatellar fat. In addition, the suprapatellar SVF exhibited increased numbers of colony formation units and a higher population doubling in culture compared to the infrapatellar fraction. Both the suprapatellar- and infrapatellar-derived ASC were differentiated in vitro into mature adipocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes. However, the suprapatellar-derived ASC showed higher osteogenic and chondrogenic efficiency. Suprapatellar-derived ASC transplantation in a severe OA mouse model significantly diminished the OA-associated knee inflammation and cartilage degenerative grade, significantly increasing the production of glycosaminoglycan and inducing endogenous chondrogenesis in comparison with the control group. Overall, suprapatellar-derived ASC offer a potential autologous regenerative treatment for patients with multiple degenerative OA.

  3. Chondrogenesis of infrapatellar fat pad derived adipose stem cells in 3D printed chitosan scaffold.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Ye

    Full Text Available Infrapatellar fat pad adipose stem cells (IPFP-ASCs have been shown to harbor chondrogenic potential. When combined with 3D polymeric structures, the stem cells provide a source of stem cells to engineer 3D tissues for cartilage repair. In this study, we have shown human IPFP-ASCs seeded onto 3D printed chitosan scaffolds can undergo chondrogenesis using TGFβ3 and BMP6. By week 4, a pearlescent, cartilage-like matrix had formed that penetrated the top layers of the chitosan scaffold forming a 'cap' on the scaffold. Chondrocytic morphology showed typical cells encased in extracellular matrix which stained positively with toluidine blue. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated positive staining for collagen type II and cartilage proteoglycans, as well as collagen type I. Real time PCR analysis showed up-regulation of collagen type II, aggrecan and SOX9 genes when IPFP-ASCs were stimulated by TGFβ3 and BMP6. Thus, IPFP-ASCs can successfully undergo chondrogenesis using TGFβ3 and BMP6 and the cartilage-like tissue that forms on the surface of 3D-printed chitosan scaffold may prove useful as an osteochondral graft.

  4. Obese gene expression at in vivo levels by fat pads derived from s.c. implanted 3T3-F442A preadipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, S; Loftus, T M; MacDougald, O A

    1997-01-01

    3T3-F442A preadipocytes implanted s.c. into athymic mice develop into fat pads that are indistinguishable from normal adipose tissue. Implanted preadipocytes harboring a beta-galactosidase transgene gave rise to fat pads in which almost all adipocytes expressed beta-galactosidase. This finding...... proved that the implanted 3T3-F442A preadipocytes, rather than endogenous preadipose cells, gave rise to the newly developed "adipose tissue." 3T3-F442A preadipocytes, when differentiated into adipocytes in cell culture, express the obese gene at an unexpectedly low level, i.e.,...

  5. The effects of dynamic compression on the development of cartilage grafts engineered using bone marrow and infrapatellar fat pad derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lu; Thorpe, Stephen D; Buckley, Conor T; Kelly, Daniel J

    2015-09-21

    Bioreactors that subject cell seeded scaffolds or hydrogels to biophysical stimulation have been used to improve the functionality of tissue engineered cartilage and to explore how such constructs might respond to the application of joint specific mechanical loading. Whether a particular cell type responds appropriately to physiological levels of biophysical stimulation could be considered a key determinant of its suitability for cartilage tissue engineering applications. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dynamic compression on chondrogenesis of stem cells isolated from different tissue sources. Porcine bone marrow (BM) and infrapatellar fat pad (FP) derived stem cells were encapsulated in agarose hydrogels and cultured in a chondrogenic medium in free swelling (FS) conditions for 21 d, after which samples were subjected to dynamic compression (DC) of 10% strain (1 Hz, 1 h d(-1)) for a further 21 d. Both BM derived stem cells (BMSCs) and FP derived stem cells (FPSCs) were capable of generating cartilaginous tissues with near native levels of sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) content, although the spatial development of the engineered grafts strongly depended on the stem cell source. The mechanical properties of cartilage grafts generated from both stem cell sources also approached that observed in skeletally immature animals. Depending on the stem cell source and the donor, the application of DC either enhanced or had no significant effect on the functional development of cartilaginous grafts engineered using either BMSCs or FPSCs. BMSC seeded constructs subjected to DC stained less intensely for collagen type I. Furthermore, histological and micro-computed tomography analysis showed mineral deposition within BMSC seeded constructs was suppressed by the application of DC. Therefore, while the application of DC in vitro may only lead to modest improvements in the mechanical functionality of cartilaginous grafts, it may play an important

  6. Importance of mesenchymal stem cells in autologous fat grafting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trojahn Kølle, Stig-Frederik; Oliveri, Roberto S; Glovinski, Peter Viktor

    2012-01-01

    . In the human studies, so-called cell assisted lipotransfer (CAL) increased the ASC concentration 2-5 times compared with non-manipulated fat grafts, which caused a questionable improvement in survival of fat grafts, compared with that of traditional lipofilling. In contrast, in two of the murine studies ASC....... The surgical and tissue handling techniques used in lipofilling are well proved, but the added effect of high-level enrichment with ex vivo expanded ASC still needs to be investigated properly in human lipofilling studies, combined with a thorough follow up and matched control groups. In conclusion, ASC...

  7. Safety Concern between Autologous Fat Graft, Mesenchymal Stem Cell and Osteosarcoma Recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrot, Pierre; Rousseau, Julie; Bouffaut, Anne-Laure; Rédini, Françoise; Cassagnau, Elisabeth; Deschaseaux, Frédéric; Heymann, Marie-Françoise; Heymann, Dominique; Duteille, Franck; Trichet, Valérie; Gouin, François

    2010-01-01

    Background Osteosarcoma is the most common malignant primary bone tumour in young adult treated by neo adjuvant chemotherapy, surgical tumor removal and adjuvant multidrug chemotherapy. For correction of soft tissue defect consecutive to surgery and/or tumor treatment, autologous fat graft has been proposed in plastic and reconstructive surgery. Principal Findings We report here a case of a late local recurrence of osteosarcoma which occurred 13 years after the initial pathology and 18 months after a lipofilling procedure. Because such recurrence was highly unexpected, we investigated the possible relationship of tumor growth with fat injections and with mesenchymal stem/stromal cell like cells which are largely found in fatty tissue. Results obtained in osteosarcoma pre-clinical models show that fat grafts or progenitor cells promoted tumor growth. Significance These observations and results raise the question of whether autologous fat grafting is a safe reconstructive procedure in a known post neoplasic context. PMID:20544017

  8. Chondrogenic Potency Analyses of Donor-Matched Chondrocytes and Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Bone Marrow, Infrapatellar Fat Pad, and Subcutaneous Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Garcia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI is a cell-based therapy that has been used clinically for over 20 years to treat cartilage injuries more efficiently in order to negate or delay the need for joint replacement surgery. In this time, very little has changed in the ACI procedure, but now many centres are considering or using alternative cell sources for cartilage repair, in particular mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. In this study, we have tested the chondrogenic potential of donor-matched MSCs derived from bone marrow (BM, infrapatellar fat pad (FP, and subcutaneous fat (SCF, compared to chondrocytes. We have confirmed that there is a chondrogenic potency hierarchy ranging across these cell types, with the most potent being chondrocytes, followed by FP-MSCs, BM-MSCs, and lastly SCF-MSCs. We have also examined gene expression and surface marker profiles in a predictive model to identify cells with enhanced chondrogenic potential. In doing so, we have shown that Sox-9, Alk-1, and Coll X expressions, as well as immunopositivity for CD49c and CD39, have predictive value for all of the cell types tested in indicating chondrogenic potency. The findings from this study have significant clinical implications for the refinement and development of novel cell-based cartilage repair strategies.

  9. Chondrogenic Potency Analyses of Donor-Matched Chondrocytes and Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Bone Marrow, Infrapatellar Fat Pad, and Subcutaneous Fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, John; McCarthy, Helen S.; Roberts, Sally; Richardson, James B.

    2016-01-01

    Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) is a cell-based therapy that has been used clinically for over 20 years to treat cartilage injuries more efficiently in order to negate or delay the need for joint replacement surgery. In this time, very little has changed in the ACI procedure, but now many centres are considering or using alternative cell sources for cartilage repair, in particular mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In this study, we have tested the chondrogenic potential of donor-matched MSCs derived from bone marrow (BM), infrapatellar fat pad (FP), and subcutaneous fat (SCF), compared to chondrocytes. We have confirmed that there is a chondrogenic potency hierarchy ranging across these cell types, with the most potent being chondrocytes, followed by FP-MSCs, BM-MSCs, and lastly SCF-MSCs. We have also examined gene expression and surface marker profiles in a predictive model to identify cells with enhanced chondrogenic potential. In doing so, we have shown that Sox-9, Alk-1, and Coll X expressions, as well as immunopositivity for CD49c and CD39, have predictive value for all of the cell types tested in indicating chondrogenic potency. The findings from this study have significant clinical implications for the refinement and development of novel cell-based cartilage repair strategies. PMID:27781068

  10. Aging alters bone-fat reciprocity by shifting in vivo mesenchymal precursor cell fate towards an adipogenic lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lakshman; Brennan, Tracy A; Russell, Elizabeth; Kim, Jung-Hoon; Chen, Qijun; Brad Johnson, F; Pignolo, Robert J

    2016-04-01

    Bone marrow derived mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs) play an important role in bone homeostasis. Age-related changes occur in bone resulting in a decrease in bone density and a relative increase in adipocity. Although in vitro studies suggest the existence of an age-related lineage switch between osteogenic and adipogenic fates, stem cell and microenvironmental contributions to this process have not been elucidated in vivo. In order to study the effects of MPC and microenvironmental aging on functional engraftment and lineage switching, transplantation studies were performed under non-myeloablative conditions in old recipients, with donor MPCs derived from young and old green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice. Robust engraftment by young MPCs or their progeny was observed in the marrow, bone-lining region and in the matrix of young recipients; however, significantly lower engraftment was seen at the same sites in old recipients transplanted with old MPCs. Differentiation of transplanted MPCs strongly favored adipogenesis over osteogenesis in old recipients irrespective of MPC donor age, suggesting that microenvironmental alterations that occur with in vivo aging are predominately responsible for MPC lineage switching. These data indicate that aging alters bone-fat reciprocity and differentiation of mesenchymal progenitors towards an adipogenic fate.

  11. Effects of expanded human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells on the viability of cryopreserved fat grafts in the nude mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Myung-Soon; Jung, Ji-Youl; Shin, Il-Seob; Choi, Eun-Wha; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Kang, Sung Keun; Ra, Jeong Chan

    2011-03-14

    Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AdMSCs) augment the ability to contribute to microvascular remodeling in vivo and to modulate vascular stability in fresh fat grafts. Although cryopreserved adipose tissue is frequently used for soft tissue augmentation, the viability of the fat graft is poor. The effects of culture-expanded human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAdMSCs) on the survival and quality of the cryopreserved fat graft were determined. hAdMSCs from the same donor were mixed with fat tissues cryopreserved at -70 °C for 8 weeks and injected subcutaneously into 6-week-old BALB/c-nu nude mice. Graft volume and weight were measured, and histology was evaluated 4 and 15 weeks post-transplantation. The hAdMSC-treated group showed significantly enhanced graft volume and weight. The histological evaluation demonstrated significantly better fat cell integrity compared with the vehicle-treated control 4 weeks post-transplantation. No significant difference in graft weight, volume, or histological parameters was found among the groups 15 weeks post-transplantation. The hAdMSCs enhanced the survival and quality of transplanted cryopreserved fat tissues. Cultured and expanded hAdMSCs have reconstructive capacity in cryopreserved fat grafting by increasing the number of stem cells.

  12. Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Bichat's Fat Pad: In Vitro Comparison with Adipose-Derived Stem Cells from Subcutaneous Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broccaioli, Eugenio; Niada, Stefania; Rasperini, Giulio; Ferreira, Lorena Maria; Arrigoni, Elena; Yenagi, Vijay; Brini, Anna Teresa

    2013-04-01

    Adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (ASCs) are progenitor cells used in bone tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Since Bichat's fat pad is easily accessible for dentists and maxillo-facial surgeons, we compared the features of ASCs from Bichat's fat pad (BFP-ASCs) with human ASCs from subcutaneous adipose tissue (SC-ASCs). BFP-ASCs isolated from a small amount of tissue were characterized for their stemness and multidifferentiative ability. They showed an important clonogenic ability and the typical mesenchymal stem cell immunophenotype. Moreover, when properly induced, osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation markers, such as alkaline phosphatase activity, collagen deposition and lipid vacuoles formation, were promptly observed. Growth of both BFP-ASCs and SC-ASCs in the presence of human serum and their adhesion to natural and synthetic scaffolds were also assessed. Both types of ASCs adapted rapidly to human autologous or heterologous sera, increasing their proliferation rate compared to standard culture condition, and all the cells adhered finely to bone, periodontal ligament, collagen membrane, and polyglycol acid filaments that are present in the oral cavity or are commonly used in oral surgery. At last, we showed that amelogenin seems to be an early osteoinductive factor for BFP-ASCs, but not SC-ASCs, in vitro. We conclude that Bichat's fat pad contains BFP-ASCs with stemness features that are able to differentiate and adhere to biological supports and synthetic materials. They are also able to proliferate in the presence of human serum. For all these reasons we propose BFP-ASCs for future therapies of periodontal defects and bone regeneration.

  13. A fat option for the pig: Hepatocytic differentiated mesenchymal stem cells for translational research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brückner, Sandra, E-mail: sandra.brueckner@medizin.uni-leipzig.de [University Hospital Leipzig, Department of Visceral, Transplantation, Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Liebigstraße 21, Leipzig D-04103 (Germany); Tautenhahn, Hans-Michael, E-mail: hans-michael.tautenhahn@medizin.uni-leipzig.de [University Hospital Leipzig, Department of Visceral, Transplantation, Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Liebigstraße 21, Leipzig D-04103 (Germany); TRM, Translational Centre for Regenerative Medicine, Philipp-Rosenthal-Str. 55, Leipzig D-04103 (Germany); Winkler, Sandra, E-mail: sandra.pelz@medizin.uni-leipzig.de [University Hospital Leipzig, Department of Visceral, Transplantation, Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Liebigstraße 21, Leipzig D-04103 (Germany); Stock, Peggy, E-mail: peggy.stock@medizin.uni-leipzig.de [University Hospital Leipzig, Department of Visceral, Transplantation, Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Liebigstraße 21, Leipzig D-04103 (Germany); Dollinger, Matthias, E-mail: matthias.dollinger@uniklinik-ulm.de [University Hospital Ulm, First Department of Medicine, Albert-Einstein-Allee 23, Ulm D-89081 (Germany); Christ, Bruno, E-mail: bruno.christ@medizin.uni-leipzig.de [University Hospital Leipzig, Department of Visceral, Transplantation, Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Liebigstraße 21, Leipzig D-04103 (Germany); TRM, Translational Centre for Regenerative Medicine, Philipp-Rosenthal-Str. 55, Leipzig D-04103 (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    Study background: Extended liver resection is the only curative treatment option of liver cancer. Yet, the residual liver may not accomplish the high metabolic and regenerative capacity needed, which frequently leads to acute liver failure. Because of their anti-inflammatory and -apoptotic as well as pro-proliferative features, mesenchymal stem cells differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells might provide functional and regenerative compensation. Clinical translation of basic research requires pre-clinical approval in large animals. Therefore, we characterized porcine mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) from adipose tissue and bone marrow and their hepatocyte differentiation potential for future assessment of functional liver support after surgical intervention in the pig model. Methods: Mesenchymal surface antigens and multi-lineage differentiation potential of porcine MSC isolated by collagenase digestion either from bone marrow or adipose tissue (subcutaneous/visceral) were assessed by flow cytometry. Morphology and functional properties (urea-, glycogen synthesis and cytochrome P450 activity) were determined during culture under differentiation conditions and compared with primary porcine hepatocytes. Results: MSC from porcine adipose tissue and from bone marrow express the typical mesenchymal markers CD44, CD29, CD90 and CD105 but not haematopoietic markers. MSC from both sources displayed differentiation into the osteogenic as well as adipogenic lineage. After hepatocyte differentiation, expression of CD105 decreased significantly and cells adopted the typical polygonal morphology of hepatocytes. Glycogen storage was comparable in adipose tissue- and bone marrow-derived cells. Urea synthesis was about 35% lower in visceral than in subcutaneous adipose tissue-derived MSC. Cytochrome P450 activity increased significantly during differentiation and was twice as high in hepatocyte-like cells generated from bone marrow as from adipose tissue. Conclusion: The hepatocyte

  14. Fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Katrine Kleberg

    In 1727, the English physician Thomas Short wrote: “I believe no Age did ever afford more instances of Corpulency than our own.” Even in the 18th century, fatness was addressed as an issue of special contemporary concern. This thesis probes concepts and perceptions of fatness in Western European...... Medicine c. 1700–1900. It has been written with particular attention to whether and how fatness has been regarded as a disease during that period in history. One purpose of the thesis is to investigate the immediate period before fatness allegedly became problematized. Another purpose has been to grasp...

  15. High Fat Diet-Induced Skeletal Muscle Wasting Is Decreased by Mesenchymal Stem Cells Administration: Implications on Oxidative Stress, Ubiquitin Proteasome Pathway Activation, and Myonuclear Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Abrigo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity can lead to skeletal muscle atrophy, a pathological condition characterized by the loss of strength and muscle mass. A feature of muscle atrophy is a decrease of myofibrillar proteins as a result of ubiquitin proteasome pathway overactivation, as evidenced by increased expression of the muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases atrogin-1 and MuRF-1. Additionally, other mechanisms are related to muscle wasting, including oxidative stress, myonuclear apoptosis, and autophagy. Stem cells are an emerging therapy in the treatment of chronic diseases such as high fat diet-induced obesity. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are a population of self-renewable and undifferentiated cells present in the bone marrow and other mesenchymal tissues of adult individuals. The present study is the first to analyze the effects of systemic MSC administration on high fat diet-induced skeletal muscle atrophy in the tibialis anterior of mice. Treatment with MSCs reduced losses of muscle strength and mass, decreases of fiber diameter and myosin heavy chain protein levels, and fiber type transitions. Underlying these antiatrophic effects, MSC administration also decreased ubiquitin proteasome pathway activation, oxidative stress, and myonuclear apoptosis. These results are the first to indicate that systemically administered MSCs could prevent muscle wasting associated with high fat diet-induced obesity and diabetes.

  16. High Fat Diet-Induced Skeletal Muscle Wasting Is Decreased by Mesenchymal Stem Cells Administration: Implications on Oxidative Stress, Ubiquitin Proteasome Pathway Activation, and Myonuclear Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrigo, Johanna; Rivera, Juan Carlos; Aravena, Javier; Cabrera, Daniel; Simon, Felipe; Ezquer, Fernando; Ezquer, Marcelo; Cabello-Verrugio, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Obesity can lead to skeletal muscle atrophy, a pathological condition characterized by the loss of strength and muscle mass. A feature of muscle atrophy is a decrease of myofibrillar proteins as a result of ubiquitin proteasome pathway overactivation, as evidenced by increased expression of the muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases atrogin-1 and MuRF-1. Additionally, other mechanisms are related to muscle wasting, including oxidative stress, myonuclear apoptosis, and autophagy. Stem cells are an emerging therapy in the treatment of chronic diseases such as high fat diet-induced obesity. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a population of self-renewable and undifferentiated cells present in the bone marrow and other mesenchymal tissues of adult individuals. The present study is the first to analyze the effects of systemic MSC administration on high fat diet-induced skeletal muscle atrophy in the tibialis anterior of mice. Treatment with MSCs reduced losses of muscle strength and mass, decreases of fiber diameter and myosin heavy chain protein levels, and fiber type transitions. Underlying these antiatrophic effects, MSC administration also decreased ubiquitin proteasome pathway activation, oxidative stress, and myonuclear apoptosis. These results are the first to indicate that systemically administered MSCs could prevent muscle wasting associated with high fat diet-induced obesity and diabetes.

  17. High Fat Diet-Induced Skeletal Muscle Wasting Is Decreased by Mesenchymal Stem Cells Administration: Implications on Oxidative Stress, Ubiquitin Proteasome Pathway Activation, and Myonuclear Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravena, Javier; Cabrera, Daniel; Simon, Felipe; Ezquer, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Obesity can lead to skeletal muscle atrophy, a pathological condition characterized by the loss of strength and muscle mass. A feature of muscle atrophy is a decrease of myofibrillar proteins as a result of ubiquitin proteasome pathway overactivation, as evidenced by increased expression of the muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases atrogin-1 and MuRF-1. Additionally, other mechanisms are related to muscle wasting, including oxidative stress, myonuclear apoptosis, and autophagy. Stem cells are an emerging therapy in the treatment of chronic diseases such as high fat diet-induced obesity. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a population of self-renewable and undifferentiated cells present in the bone marrow and other mesenchymal tissues of adult individuals. The present study is the first to analyze the effects of systemic MSC administration on high fat diet-induced skeletal muscle atrophy in the tibialis anterior of mice. Treatment with MSCs reduced losses of muscle strength and mass, decreases of fiber diameter and myosin heavy chain protein levels, and fiber type transitions. Underlying these antiatrophic effects, MSC administration also decreased ubiquitin proteasome pathway activation, oxidative stress, and myonuclear apoptosis. These results are the first to indicate that systemically administered MSCs could prevent muscle wasting associated with high fat diet-induced obesity and diabetes. PMID:27579157

  18. Mesenchymal progenitor cells derived from synovium and infrapatellar fat pad as a source for superficial zone cartilage tissue engineering: analysis of superficial zone protein/lubricin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Yang; Nakagawa, Toshiyuki; Reddi, A Hari

    2010-01-01

    Superficial zone protein (SZP) is a boundary lubricant of articular cartilage in joints. As SZP at the surface of articular cartilage plays an important role in the normal function of synovial joints, the localization of SZP-secreting cells at the surface of tissue-engineered cartilage is prerequisite. The aim of this study was to identify suitable progenitor cell sources for tissue engineering of superficial zone cartilage. We investigated whether mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs) from synovium and infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) have the potential for secretion of SZP after chondrogenic differentiation in an aggregate pellet culture system. SZP was immunolocalized in pellets from synovium-MPCs and IFP-MPCs. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis of SZP demonstrated that chondrogenically differentiated synovium-MPC and IFP-MPC pellets secreted SZP into media. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed significant upregulation of SZP mRNA in synovium-MPC and IFP-MPC pellets after chondrogenic differentiation. The synovium-MPCs demonstrated the higher colony-forming, proliferative, and chondrogenic potential, and exhibited greater SZP secretion after chondrogenic induction compared with IFP-MPCs. In conclusion, both synovium and IFP are promising cell sources for tissue engineering of superficial zone cartilage.

  19. Chondrogenesis of human infrapatellar fat pad stem cells on acellular dermal matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken eYe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acellular dermal matrix (ADM has been in clinical use for decades in numerous surgical applications. The ability for ADM to promote cellular repopulation and revascularisation, and tissue regeneration is well documented. Adipose stem cells have the ability to differentiate into mesenchymal tissue types, including bone and cartilage. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential interaction between ADM and adipose stem cells in vitro using TGFβ3 and BMP6.Human infrapatellar fat pad derived adipose stem cells (IPFP-ASC were cultured with ADM derived from rat dermis under chondrogenic (TGFβ3 and BMP6 in vitro for 2 and 4 weeks. Histology, qPCR and immunohistochemistry were performed to assess for markers of chondrogenesis (collagen Type II, SOX9 and proteoglycans. At 4 weeks, cell-scaffold constructs displayed cellular changes consistent with chondrogenesis, with evidence of stratification of cell layers and development of a hyaline-like cartilage layer superficially which stained positively for collagen Type II and proteoglycans. Significant cell-matrix interaction was seen between the cartilage layer and the ADM itself with seamless integration between each layer. Real time qPCR showed significantly increases of COL2A1, SOX9, and ACAN gene expression over 4 weeks when compared to control. COL1A2 gene expression remained unchanged over 4 weeks.We believe the principles which make ADM versatile and successful for tissue regeneration are application to cartilage regeneration. This study demonstrates in vitro the ability for IPFP-ASCs to undergo chondrogenesis, infiltrate and interact with ADM. These outcomes serve as a platform for in vivo modelling of ADM for cartilage repair.

  20. MicroRNA 21 regulates the proliferation of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells and high-fat diet-induced obesity alters microRNA 21 expression in white adipose tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Jeong; Hwang, Soo Hyun; Cho, Hyun Hwa; Shin, Keun Koo; Bae, Yong Chan; Jung, Jin Sup

    2012-01-01

    A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that govern human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASCs) differentiation could provide new insights into a number of diseases including obesity. Our previous study demonstrated that microRNA-21 (miR-21) controls the adipogenic differentiation of hASCs. In this study, we determined the expression of miR-21 in white adipose tissues in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity mouse model to examine the relationship between miR-21 and obesity and the effect of miR-21 on hASCs proliferation. Our study showed biphasic changes of miR-21 expression and a correlation between miR-21 level and adipocyte number in the epididymal fat of HFD mice. Over-expression of miR-21 decreased cell proliferation, whereas inhibiting miR-21 with 2'-O-methyl-antisense RNA increased it. Over-expression of miR-21 decreased both protein and mRNA levels of STAT3, whereas inhibiting miR-21 with 2'-O-methyl-antisense RNA increased these levels. The activity of a luciferase construct containing the miR-21 target site from the STAT3 3'UTR was lower in LV-miR21-infected hASCs than in LV-miLacZ infected cells. RNA interference-mediated down-regulation of STAT3 decreased cell proliferation without affecting adipogenic differentiation. These findings provide the evidence of the correlation between miR-21 level and adipocyte number in the white adipose tissue of HFD-induced obese mice, which provides new insights into the mechanisms of obesity.

  1. Farnesol Has an Anti-obesity Effect in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice and Induces the Development of Beige Adipocytes in Human Adipose Tissue Derived-Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Lin Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Brown adipocytes dissipate energy as heat and hence have an important therapeutic capacity for obesity. Development of brown-like adipocytes (also called beige is also another attractive target for obesity treatment. Here, we investigated the effect of farnesol, an isoprenoid, on adipogenesis in adipocytes and on the browning of white adipose tissue (WAT as well as on the weight gain of high-fat diet (HFD-induced obese mice. Farnesol inhibited adipogenesis and the related key regulators including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α through the up-regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase in 3T3-L1 murine adipocytes and human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs. Farnesol markedly increased the expression of uncoupling protein 1 and PPARγ coactivator 1 α in differentiated hAMSCs. In addition, farnesol limited the weight gain in HFD obese mice and induced the development of beige adipocytes in both inguinal and epididymal WAT. These results suggest that farnesol could be a potential therapeutic agent for obesity treatment.

  2. Playing with bone and fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Zvonic, Sanjin; Floyd, Z. Elisabeth

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between bone and fat formation within the bone marrow microenvironment is complex and remains an area of active investigation. Classical in vitro and in vivo studies strongly support an inverse relationship between the commitment of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells...

  3. 血小板衍生内皮细胞生长因子转染脂肪间充质干细胞促进移植脂肪血管化%Platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor transfection of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells promotes vascularization of fat grafts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伞光; 宋佳

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Platelet-derived endothelial cel growth factor (PD-ECGF) can promote revascularization in fat transplantation. OBJECTIVE: To explore the dual effects of PD-ECGF and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cels on the survival rate of fat grafts. METHODS:(1) Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cels were isolated from the inguinal subcutaneous fat of New Zealand white rabbits, and then cultured. Passage 3 adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cels were divided into experimental group (Lenti-PD-ECGF-EGFP transfected adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cels), control group (Lenti-EGFP transfected adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cels) and blank group (adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cels with no transfection). (2) Lenti-PD-ECGF-EGFP transfected adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cels were cultured in DMEM complete medium, and then mixed with fat tissues as group A; adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cels with no transfection were cultured in DMEM complete medium and then mixed with fat tissues as group B; DMEM complete medium with no cels served as group C. Then, the grafts in groups A, B, C were respectively injected subcutaneously into the upper left, lower left and upper right parts of the rabbits’ black. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:(1) In the experimental group, PD-ECGF mRNA and protein expressions were significantly higher than those in the control and blank groups (P < 0.05), and cel proliferation was also the fastest. (2) Graft weight and the number of capilaries were greater in group A than groups B and C. These findings indicate that PD-ECGF transfection of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cels not only can continuously express the PD-ECGF protein, but also can promote the proliferation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cels.%背景:血小板衍生内皮细胞生长因子在脂肪移植中可促进血运重建。目的:探索血小板衍生内皮细胞生长因子和脂肪间充质干细胞的双重促进脂肪移植成活率的作用。

  4. Coconut fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasiri, W A L D; Dissanayake, A S

    2006-06-01

    In many areas of Sri Lanka the coconut tree and its products have for centuries been an integral part of life, and it has come to be called the "Tree of life". However, in the last few decades, the relationship between coconut fats and health has been the subject of much debate and misinformation. Coconut fats account for 80% of the fat intake among Sri Lankans. Around 92% of these fats are saturated fats. This has lead to the belief that coconut fats are 'bad for health', particularly in relation to ischaemic heart disease. Yet most of the saturated fats in coconut are medium chain fatty acids whose properties and metabolism are different to those of animal origin. Medium chain fatty acids do not undergo degradation and re-esterification processes and are directly used in the body to produce energy. They are not as 'bad for health' as saturated fats. There is the need to clarify issues relating to intake of coconut fats and health, more particularly for populations that still depend on coconut fats for much of their fat intake. This paper describes the metabolism of coconut fats and its potential benefits, and attempts to highlight its benefits to remove certain misconceptions regarding its use.

  5. Human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells from the infrapatellar fat pad:isolation, culture and identification%人髌下脂肪垫来源脂肪间充质干细胞的分离、培养及鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉平; 刘涛; 王明明; 李明; 俞光荣

    2015-01-01

    背景:髌下脂肪垫在膝关节手术中经常要部分切除,其可以作为脂肪间充质干细胞的重要来源。目的:探讨自髌下脂肪垫中分离、培养脂肪间充质干细胞的策略及细胞分子表面标记情况。方法:髌下脂肪垫组织取自膝关节镜手术的患者,以Ⅰ型胶原酶消化消化脂肪组织获取干细胞,用10%低糖DMEM培养基培养,利用MTT法测定不同代细胞增殖情况并绘制生长曲线。检测第5代细胞表面CD29及CD44的表达。结果与结论:培养24 h后可见原代细胞贴壁,1周后细胞呈纺锤型并且增殖速度加快,传代后的细胞贴壁及增殖细胞速度加快。生长曲线示第2及第5代的细胞增殖能力明显较第8代能力强。所取细胞能够分化为骨细胞和脂肪细胞。流式细胞仪检测结果显示第5代脂肪间充质干细胞重96.8%表达CD29,97.6%表达CD44。提示自髌下脂肪垫分离及提取脂肪干细胞简单易行,所得细胞的纯度及增殖能力均符合组织工程种子细胞的基本条件。%BACKGROUND:Infrapatelar fat pad is often partialy resected in the knee surgery, which can be used as an important source of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cels. OBJECTIVE: To explore the strategies of isolation, culture, and identification of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cels from the infrapatelar fat pad and to detect the expression of cel surface markers of human adipose-derived stem cels. METHODS: Infrapatelar fat pad was obtained from patients undergoing knee arthroscopy surgery, and attached cels were obtained from adipose tissue by using colagenase I. Cels were cultured in 10% low-sugar DMEM. Stem cels proliferation was detected by means of MTT and then, cel growth curve was made. The obtained cels were induced and differentiated into adipocytes and osteocytes. Expressions of cel surface markers CD29 and CD44 were detected. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:A few of attached cels were observed after

  6. 兔延迟术后脂肪瓣内间充质干细胞增殖的实验研究%Proliferation of the mesenchymal stem cells in a delayed fat flap: an experimental study in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江素君; 何晓升; 倪有娣; 刘茂林; 刘苏杭; 钟晓春

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the possibility to enhance the proliferation of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) in a delayed fat flap in rabbits. Methods A delayed fat flap was formed in one side of inguinal region of a rabbit. 21 days after operation, the fat tissues at the delayed flaps and at the unoperated side were harvested and digested with 0.25% collageusse and sieved. The cell suspensions were centrifuged. The cells were obtained from tissue precipitate after centrifugation. The expression rates of the surface marker (CD29 CD44,CD14 and CD45) were measured by FCM and compared between the experimental and control groups. Results Expression rates of CD29 and CD44 were higher in the delayed fat flap (74.06% and 90.74%) than in the eontralateral fat tissue (62.88% and 77.54%, P < 0.05), while those of CD14 and CD45 were lower in the delayed fat flap (57.66% and 4.84%) than in the eontralateral fat tissue (72.10% and 75.82%, P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). Conclusions Tissue hypoxic isehemia such as fat tissue in a delayed fat flap can promote proliferation of ASCs. It indicates that tissue in the delayed flap may be transplanted with better survival rate. The ischemia pretreatement of fat tissue may become a new method for fat transplantion.%目的 探讨采用脂肪瓣延迟术等缺血缺氧的方法,促使脂肪来源的兔间充质干细胞(ASCs)增殖的可能性.方法 以兔为动物模型,在一侧腹股沟处形成脂肪瓣.21 d后取出瓣内脂肪组织及对侧正常脂肪组织,消化过筛离心,收集离心后沉淀物中的细胞,用流式细胞仪检测细胞的表面标记,计算细胞CD29、CD44、CD14和CD45的表达率并进行组间比较.结果 脂肪瓣延迟术后,瓣内细胞CD29和CD44的表达率增加,分别为74.06%和90.74%,未经处理的对侧脂肪组织分别为62.88%和77.54%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);瓣内细胞CD14和CD45的表达率减少,分别为57.66%和4.84%,未经处理的对侧脂肪组织分别为72.10%和75.82%,

  7. What Are Solid Fats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fatty acids. Most solid fats are high in saturated fats and/or trans fats and have less monounsaturated ... Animal products containing solid fats also contain cholesterol. Saturated fats and trans fats tend to raise "bad" (LDL) ...

  8. Facts about polyunsaturated fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... benefit your health. Polyunsaturated fat is different than saturated fat and trans fat. These unhealthy fats can increase ... of those fats are monounsaturated or polyunsaturated. Limit saturated fat (found in red meat, butter, cheese, and whole- ...

  9. Training human mesenchymal stromal cells for bone tissue engineering applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, J.

    2012-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) are an interesting source for cell therapies and tissue engineering applications, because these cells are able to differentiate into various target tissues, such as bone, cartilage, fat and endothelial cells. In addition, they secrete a wide array of growth fa

  10. Uterine mesenchymal tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil A Sangle

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Uterine mesenchymal tumors are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that can frequently be diagnostically challenging. Differentiation between the benign and malignant counterparts of mesenchymal tumors is significant due to differences in clinical outcome, and the role of the surgical pathologist in making this distinction (especially in the difficult cases cannot be underestimated. Although immunohistochemical stains are supportive toward establishing a final diagnosis, the morphologic features trump all the other ancillary techniques for this group of neoplasms. This review therefore emphasizes the key morphologic features required to diagnose and distinguish uterine mesenchymal tumors from their mimics, with a brief description of the relevant immunohistochemical features.

  11. TAZ: a beta-catenin-like molecule that regulates mesenchymal stem cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jeong-Ho; Yaffe, Michael B

    2006-01-01

    Regulating the switch between proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells is critical for the development of normal tissues, and the prevention of tumors. How mesenchymal stem cells exit from the cell cycle and differentiate into alternative cell fates such as bone, fat, and muscle, is incompletely understood. We recently discovered that a WW domain-containing molecule, TAZ, functions as a transcriptional modulator to stimulate bone development while simultaneous blocking the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into fat. These developmental effects occur through direct interaction between TAZ and the transcription factors Runx2 and PPARgamma, resulting in transcriptional enhancement and repression, respectively of selective programs of gene expression. We propose that TAZ, as well as a highly related molecule YAP, are functionally, though not structurally, similar to beta-catenin and integrate extracellular, membrane, and cytoskeletal-derived signals to influence mesenchymal stem cell fate.

  12. Induction of chondrogenesis and expression of superficial zone protein (SZP)/lubricin by mesenchymal progenitors in the infrapatellar fat pad of the knee joint treated with TGF-beta1 and BMP-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Yang; Nakagawa, Toshiyuki; Reddi, A Hari

    2008-11-01

    Superficial zone protein (SZP) is a key mediator of boundary lubrication of articular cartilage in joints. In this investigation, we made the unexpected discovery that SZP was expressed in infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) from bovine knee. Quantitative analysis of secreted proteins in the medium of the IFP stromal cells demonstrated a significant stimulation by TGF-beta1 and BMP-7. Real-time PCR analysis revealed the SZP expression was up-regulated by TGF-beta1 and BMP-7. Chondrogenically differentiated IFP progenitor cells were stimulated by TGF-beta1 and BMP-7 to synthesize and secrete SZP. SZP mRNA was significantly up-regulated by chondrogenic induction for 21 days. These findings indicate that the stimulation of SZP expression by TGF-beta and BMP-7 may lead to functional improvement of damaged intraarticular tissues and that IFP progenitor cells may be a potential useful source for inducing superficial zone of articular cartilage by tissue engineering for regeneration of damaged articular cartilage due to osteoarthritis.

  13. Facts about monounsaturated fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... room temperature, but start to harden when chilled. Saturated fats and trans fats are solid at room temperature. ... fats are monounsaturated or polyunsaturated. You should limit saturated fat to less than 10% of your daily calories. ...

  14. Dietary fats explained

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of fatty acid they contain. Types of Fat Saturated fats raise your LDL (bad) cholesterol level. High LDL ... avoid or limit foods that are high in saturated fats. Keep saturated fats to less than 6% of ...

  15. Fats and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with “good” unsaturated fats, limit foods high in saturated fat, and avoid “bad” trans fat. “Good” unsaturated fats — ... have been eliminated from many of these foods. Saturated fats , while not as harmful as trans fats, by ...

  16. Fat products

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandrov, Alexei

    2006-01-01

    The economics literature generally considers products as points in some characteristics space. Starting with Hotelling, this served as a convenient assumption, yet with more products being flexible or self-customizable to some degree it makes sense to think that products have positive measure. I develop a model where ?rms can o¤er interval long 'fat' products in the spatial model of differentiation. Contrary to the standard results pro?ts of the firms can decrease with increased differentiati...

  17. Fat Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, David B.; Ellefson, Wayne C.

    Lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates constitute the principal structural components of foods. Lipids are a group of substances that, in general, are soluble in ether, chloroform, or other organic solvents but are sparingly soluble in water. However, there exists no clear scientific definition of a lipid, primarily due to the water solubility of certain molecules that fall within one of the variable categories of food lipids (1). Some lipids, such as triacylglycerols, are very hydrophobic. Other lipids, such as di- and monoacylglycerols, have both hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties in their molecules and are soluble in relatively polar solvents (2). Short-chain fatty acids such as C1-C4 are completely miscible in water and insoluble in nonpolar solvents (1). The most widely accepted definition is based on solubility as previously stated. While most macromolecules are characterized by common structural features, the designation of "lipid" being defined by solubility characteristics is unique to lipids (2). Lipids comprise a broad group of substances that have some common properties and compositional similarities (3). Triacylglycerols are fats and oils that represent the most prevalent category of the group of compounds known as lipids. The terms lipids, fats, and oils are often used interchangeably. The term "lipid" commonly refers to the broad, total collection of food molecules that meet the definition previously stated. Fats generally refer to those lipids that are solid at room temperature and oils generally refer to those lipids that are liquid at room temperature. While there may not be an exact scientific definition, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a regulatory definition for nutrition labeling purposes. The FDA has defined total fat as the sum of fatty acids from C4 to C24, calculated as triglycerides. This definition provides a clear path for resolution of any nutrition labeling disputes.

  18. Data on isolating mesenchymal stromal cells from human adipose tissue using a collagenase-free method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassim Shebaby

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present dataset describes a detailed protocol to isolate mesenchymal cells from human fat without the use of collagenase. Human fat specimen, surgically cleaned from non-fat tissues (e.g., blood vessels and reduced into smaller fat pieces of around 1–3 mm size, is incubated in complete culture media for five to seven days. Then, cells started to spread out from the fat explants and to grow in cultures according to an exponential pattern. Our data showed that primary mesenchymal cells presenting heterogeneous morphology start to acquire more homogenous fibroblastic-like shape when cultured for longer duration or when subcultured into new flasks. Cell isolation efficiency as well as cell doubling time were also calculated throughout the culturing experimentations and illustrated in a separate figure thereafter. This paper contains data previously considered as an alternative protocol to isolate adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell published in “Proliferation and differentiation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs into osteoblastic lineage are passage dependent” [1].

  19. Human mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem; Kassem, Moustapha

    2008-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are a group of clonogenic cells present among the bone marrow stroma and capable of multilineage differentiation into mesoderm-type cells such as osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondrocytes. Due to their ease of isolation and their differentiation potential, MSC are being...... introduced into clinical medicine in variety of applications and through different ways of administration. Here, we discuss approaches for isolation, characterization and directing differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). An update of the current clinical use of the cells is also provided....

  20. [Progress in dedifferentiated fat cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Feifei; Yang, Zhi; Qian, Cheng

    2014-10-01

    When mature adipocytes are subjected to an in vitro dedifferentiation strategy referred to as ceiling culture, these mature adipocytes can revert to dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells. DFAT cells have many advantages compared with adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). For example, DFAT cells are homogeneous and could be obtained from donors regardless of their age. Furthermore, DFAT cells also have the same multi-lineage potentials and low immunogenicity as ASCs. As an excellent source of seed cells for tissue engineering and stem cell transplantation, DFAT cells have better prospects in the treatment of many clinical diseases, such as bone defects, neurological diseases, ischemic heart disease and kidney disease. It is necessary to make more intensive studies of DFAT cells. This article summarizes progresses in the immunological characteristics, differentiation ability and potential clinical applications of DFAT cells.

  1. Saturated fat (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturated fat can raise blood cholesterol and can put you at risk for heart disease and stroke. You ... or limit any foods that are high in saturated fat. Sources of saturated fat include whole-milk dairy ...

  2. Learning about Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... oils like soybean, corn, canola, and olive oil. Saturated fats: These fats are found in meat and other ... as butter, cheese, and all milk except skim. Saturated fats are also in palm and coconut oils, which ...

  3. The Origin of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Dictates Their Reparative Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naftali-Shani, Nili; Itzhaki-Alfia, Ayelet; Landa-Rouben, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) from adipose cardiac tissue have attracted considerable interest in regard to cell-based therapies. We aimed to test the hypothesis that hMSCs from the heart and epicardial fat would be better cells for infarct repair....

  4. Resident mesenchymal progenitors of articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Maria Elena; Yasuhara, Rika; Iwamoto, Masahiro; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi

    2014-10-01

    Articular cartilage has poor capacity of self-renewal and repair. Insufficient number and activity of resident mesenchymal (connective tissue) progenitors is likely one of the underlying reasons. Chondroprogenitors reside not only in the superficial zone of articular cartilage but also in other zones of articular cartilage and in the neighboring tissues, including perichondrium (groove of Ranvier), synovium and fat pad. These cells may respond to injury and contribute to articular cartilage healing. In addition, marrow stromal cells can migrate through subchondral bone when articular cartilage is damaged. We should develop drugs and methods that correctly stimulate resident progenitors for improvement of repair and inhibition of degenerative changes in articular cartilage. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Dietary lipids: less fat or best fat?

    OpenAIRE

    Chardigny Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and overweight occurrence is growing around the word. This is often considered as a consequence of high fat diets, and some recommendations encourage ‘‘light’’ diets, including low fat intake. However, most trials with low fat intake do not demonstrate any benefit and could be worse than low carbohydrate diets. The key role of insulin could explain that eating fat do not make body fat. On the other hand, several unbalanced fatty acid intake are reported, i.e. saturated/mononunsaturate...

  6. Dietary lipids: less fat or best fat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chardigny Jean-Michel

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and overweight occurrence is growing around the word. This is often considered as a consequence of high fat diets, and some recommendations encourage ‘‘light’’ diets, including low fat intake. However, most trials with low fat intake do not demonstrate any benefit and could be worse than low carbohydrate diets. The key role of insulin could explain that eating fat do not make body fat. On the other hand, several unbalanced fatty acid intake are reported, i.e. saturated/mononunsaturated fatty acids and w6/w3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Thus, fat intake could be improved in this respect. Moreover, the molecular and supramolecular structures of fat in food are new challenges to address in order to ameliorate the recommendations for healthy diets.

  7. Derivation of multipotent mesenchymal precursors from human embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human embryonic stem cells provide access to the earliest stages of human development and may serve as a source of specialized cells for regenerative medicine. Thus, it becomes crucial to develop protocols for the directed differentiation of embryonic stem cells into tissue-restricted precursors. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Here, we present culture conditions for the derivation of unlimited numbers of pure mesenchymal precursors from human embryonic stem cells and demonstrate multilineage differentiation into fat, cartilage, bone, and skeletal muscle cells. CONCLUSION: Our findings will help to elucidate the mechanism of mesoderm specification during embryonic stem cell differentiation and provide a platform to efficiently generate specialized human mesenchymal cell types for future clinical applications.

  8. Trans Fat Now Listed With Saturated Fat and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Trans Fat Now Listed With Saturated Fat and Cholesterol Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... I Do About Saturated Fat, Trans Fat, and Cholesterol? When comparing foods, look at the Nutrition Facts ...

  9. Fats and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fit Fats and Your Family en español Las grasas y su hijo As with carbohydrates in recent ... and increase the risk of heart disease. 3. Trans fats: Found in margarine (especially the sticks), commercial ...

  10. Dietary Fat and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Dietary Fat and Cholesterol Posted under Health Guides . Updated 7 March 2017. + ... saturated fat found in red meat. What is cholesterol? Cholesterol is a fatlike substance that’s found in ...

  11. Fat embolism syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob George; Reeba George; Dixit, R; Gupta, R C; Gupta, N.

    1997-01-01

    Fat embolism syndrome, an important contributor to the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome, has been associated with both traumatic and nontraumatic disorders. Fat embolization after long bone trauma is probably common as a subclinical event. Fat emboli can deform and pass through the lungs, resulting in systemic embolization, most commonly to the brain and kidneys. The diagnosis of fat embolism syndrome is based on the patient’s history, supported by clinical signs of pulmonar...

  12. Osteogenic Effects of Dedifferentiated Fat Cell Transplantation in Rabbit Models of Bone Defect and Ovariectomy-Induced Osteoporosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kikuta, Shinsuke; Tanaka, Nobuaki; Kazama, Tomohiko; Kazama, Minako; Kano, Koichiro; Ryu, Junnosuke; Tokuhashi, Yasuaki; Matsumoto, Taro

    2013-01-01

    We have previously reported that mature adipocyte-derived dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells have a high proliferative activity and the potential to differentiate into lineages of mesenchymal tissue similar to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In the present study, we examined the effects of autologous DFAT cell transplantation on bone regeneration in a rabbit bone defect model and an ovariectomy (OVX)-induced osteoporosis model. The formation of tissue-engineered bone (TEB) was obser...

  13. [Gastric mesenchymal tumours (GIST)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivach, Arrigo; Fezzi, Margherita; Sartori, Alberto; Belgrano, Manuel; Rimondini, Alessandra; Cuttin-Zernich, Roberto; Covab, Maria Assunta; Bonifacio, Daniela; Buri, Luigi; Pagani, Carlo; Zanconati, Fabrizio

    2008-01-01

    The incidence of gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) has increased in recent years. A number of authors have attempted to define the actual nature of these tumours. Immunohistochemistry highlighting the positivity of tyrosine-kinase (CD117/c-Kit) has revealed the difference between gastrointestinal stromal tumours and other mesenchymal tumours and, therefore, the possibility of medical rather than surgical therapy. We retrospectively reviewed 19 patients affected by primary gastric GIST, who underwent surgery in recent years with subsequent follow-up. Gastroscopy and gastrointestinal tract radiography were used not only to obtain the diagnosis but also to establish the size, density, contours, ulceration, regional lymphadenopathy, mesenteric infiltration and the presence of metastases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the roles of endoscopy and radiology in this pathology and the advantages and limitations of each individual technique.

  14. A Fat Higgs with a Fat Top

    CERN Document Server

    Delgado, A; Delgado, Antonio; Tait, Tim M.P.

    2005-01-01

    A new variant of the supersymmetric Fat Higgs model is presented in which the MSSM Higgses as well as the top quark are composite. The underlying theory is an s-confining SU(3) gauge theory with the MSSM gauge groups realized as gauged sub-groups of the chiral flavor symmetries. This motivates the large Yukawas necessary for the large top mass and SM-like Higgs of mass>>M_Z in a natural way as the residual of the strong dynamics responsible for the composites. This removes fine-tuning associated with these couplings present in the original Fat Higgs and New Fat Higgs models, respectively.

  15. Controversies in fat perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Jaana M; Preissl, Hubert; Fritsche, Andreas; Frank, Sabine

    2015-12-01

    Nutritional fat is one of the most controversial topics in nutritional research, particularly against the background of obesity. Studies investigating fat taste perception have revealed several associations with sensory, genetic, and personal factors (e.g. BMI). However, neuronal activation patterns, which are known to be highly sensitive to different tastes as well as to BMI differences, have not yet been included in the scheme of fat taste perception. We will therefore provide a comprehensive survey of the sensory, genetic, and personal factors associated with fat taste perception and highlight the benefits of applying neuroimaging research. We will also give a critical overview of studies investigating sensory fat perception and the challenges resulting from multifaceted methodological approaches. In conclusion, we will discuss a multifactorial approach to fat perception to gain a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms that cause varying fat sensitivity which could be responsible for overeating. Such knowledge might be beneficial in new treatment strategies for obesity and overweight.

  16. Fat utilization during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Watt, Peter W.; Richter, Erik

    2001-01-01

    1. This study was carried out to test the hypothesis that the greater fat oxidation observed during exercise after adaptation to a high-fat diet is due to an increased uptake of fat originating from the bloodstream. 2. Of 13 male untrained subjects, seven consumed a fat-rich diet (62 % fat, 21......, and blood flow was determined by the thermodilution technique. Muscle biopsy samples were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle before and after exercise. 3. During exercise, the respiratory exchange ratio was significantly lower in subjects consuming the fat-rich diet (0.86 +/- 0.01, mean +/- S.E.M.) than.......05). Muscle glycogen breakdown was significantly lower in the subjects taking the fat-rich diet than those taking the carbohydrate-rich diet (2.6 +/- 0.5 vs. 4.8 +/- 0.5 mmol (kg dry weight)(-1) min(-1), respectively; P

  17. Epigenetic remodeling of chromatin architecture: exploring tumor differentiation therapies in mesenchymal stem cells and sarcomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Sara; Mills, Joslyn; Matushansky, Igor

    2010-03-01

    Sarcomas are the mesenchymal-derived malignant tumors of connective tissues (e.g., fat, bone, and cartilage) presumed to arise from aberrant development or differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Appropriate control of stem cell maintenance versus differentiation allows for normal connective tissue development. Current theories suggest that loss of this control--through accumulation of genetic lesions in MSCs at various points in the differentiation process--leads to development of sarcomas, including undifferentiated, high grade sarcoma tumors. The initiation of stem cell differentiation is highly associated with alteration of gene expression, which depends on chromatin remodeling. Epigenetic chromatin modifying agents have been shown to induce cancer cell differentiation and are currently being used clinically to treat cancer. This review will focus on the importance of epigenetic chromatin remodeling in the context of mesenchymal stem cells, sarcoma tumorigenesis and differentiation therapy.

  18. Umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaofeng Yang; Yanxiang Wu; Xinping Liu; Yifeng Xu; Naiwu Lü; Yibin Zhang; Hongmei Wang; Xin Lü; Jiping Cui; Jinxu Zhou; Hong Shan

    2011-01-01

    Due to their relative abundance, stable biological properties and excellent reproductive activity,umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells have previously been utilized for the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, which is a muscular atrophy disease. Three patients who were clinically and pathologically diagnosed with Duchenne muscular dystrophy were transplanted with umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells by intravenous infusion, in combination with multi-point intramuscular injection. They were followed up for 12 months after cell transplantation. Results showed that clinical symptoms significantly improved, daily living activity and muscle strength were enhanced,the sero-enzyme, electromyogram, and MRI scans showed improvement, and dystrophin was expressed in the muscle cell membrane. Hematoxylin-eosin staining of a muscle biopsy revealed that muscle fibers were well arranged, fibrous degeneration was alleviated, and fat infiltration was improved. These pieces of evidence suggest that umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell transplantation can be considered as a new regimen for Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

  19. MicroRNAs as Regulators of Adipogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamam, Dana; Ali, Dalia; Kassem, Moustapha

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) constitute complex regulatory network, fine tuning the expression of a myriad of genes involved in different biological and physiological processes, including stem cell differentiation. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells present in the bone marrow stroma......, and the stroma of many other tissues, and can give rise to a number of mesoderm-type cells including adipocytes and osteoblasts, which form medullary fat and bone tissues, respectively. The role of bone marrow fat in bone mass homeostasis is an area of intensive investigation with the aim of developing novel...

  20. A Fat strange Repeller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申影; 何阅; 姜玉梅; 何大韧

    2004-01-01

    This article reports an observation on a fat strange repeller, which appears after a characteristic crisis observed in a kicked rotor subjected to a piecewise continuous force field. The discontinuity border in the definition range of the two-dimensional mapping, which describes the system, oscillates as the discrete time develops. At a threshold of a control parameter a fat chaotic attractor suddenly transfers to a fat transient set. The strange repeller, which appears after the crisis, is also a fat fractal. This is the reason why super-transience happens

  1. Epigallocatechin Gallate Inhibits Mouse Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation to Adipogenic Lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chani B

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG is a major component of green tea polyphenols having a potent anti-oxidant potential. Besides inhibiting the growth of many cancer cell types and inducing proliferation and differentiation in keratinocytes, it has been shown to promote reduction of body fat. The fact that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have ability to self-renew and differentiate into the cells of mesodermal lineages, such as fat and bone, it is, thus, possible that EGCG may directly be involved in affecting fat metabolism through its effect on mesenchymal stem cells. Hence, with this aim, the present study was designed to determine the effect of EGCG on mouse mesenchymal stem cells, C3H10T1/2 cells differentiation into adipocytes. To understand this process, the cells were incubated with varying concentrations of EGCG (1 µM, 5 µM, 10 µM, 50 µM in the presence and /or absence of adipogenic medium for 9 days. The results demonstrated that, EGCG inhibited the cells proliferation, migration and also prevented their differentiation to adipogenic lineage. These effects were analyzed through the inhibition of wound healing activity, reduction in Oil red O stained cells, together with decrease in the expression of Adipisin gene following EGCG treatment. These observations thus demonstrated anti-adipogenic effect of EGCG with a possibility of its role in the therapeutic intervention of obesity.

  2. Epigallocatechin Gallate Inhibits Mouse Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation to Adipogenic Lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chani, Baldeep; Puri, Veena; Chander Sobti, Ranbir; Puri, Sanjeev

    2016-01-01

    Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a major component of green tea polyphenols having a potent anti-oxidant potential. Besides inhibiting the growth of many cancer cell types and inducing proliferation and differentiation in keratinocytes, it has been shown to promote reduction of body fat. The fact that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have ability to self-renew and differentiate into the cells of mesodermal lineages, such as fat and bone, it is, thus, possible that EGCG may directly be involved in affecting fat metabolism through its effect on mesenchymal stem cells. Hence, with this aim, the present study was designed to determine the effect of EGCG on mouse mesenchymal stem cells, C3H10T1/2 cells differentiation into adipocytes. To understand this process, the cells were incubated with varying concentrations of EGCG (1 μM, 5 μM, 10 μM, 50 μM) in the presence and /or absence of adipogenic medium for 9 days. The results demonstrated that, EGCG inhibited the cells proliferation, migration and also prevented their differentiation to adipogenic lineage. These effects were analyzed through the inhibition of wound healing activity, reduction in Oil red O stained cells, together with decrease in the expression of Adipisin gene following EGCG treatment. These observations thus demonstrated anti-adipogenic effect of EGCG with a possibility of its role in the therapeutic intervention of obesity.

  3. Know Your Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... palm kernel oil (often called tropical oils) and cocoa butter. For people who need to lower their ... fat. Guidelines for Fats For adults who would benefit from lowering their LDL cholesterol, the American Heart ... This site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information: verify here.

  4. Learning about Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Learning About Fats KidsHealth > For Kids > Learning About Fats Print A A A What's in ... Kid's Guide to Eating Right MyPlate Food Guide Learning About Proteins Nutrition & Fitness Center Learning About Carbohydrates ...

  5. Fats and fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The absolute fat requirement of the human species is the amount of essential fatty acids needed to maintain optimal fatty acid composition of all tissues and normal eicosanoid synthesis. At most, this requirement is no more than about 5% of an adequate energy intake. However, fat accounts for appro...

  6. Dietary fat and carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woutersen, R.A.; Appel, M.J.; Garderen-Hoetmer, A. van; Wijnands, M.V.W.

    1999-01-01

    Epidemiologic investigations have suggested a relationship between dietary fat intake and various types of cancer incidences. Furthermore, epidemiologic studies as well as studies with animal models have demonstrated that not only the amount but also the type of fat consumed is important. At present

  7. Abdominal wall fat pad biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyloidosis - abdominal wall fat pad biopsy; Abdominal wall biopsy; Biopsy - abdominal wall fat pad ... method of taking an abdominal wall fat pad biopsy . The health care provider cleans the skin on ...

  8. What Are the Types of Fat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of fats are: • Monounsaturated fats • Polyunsaturated fats • Saturated fats • Trans fats Monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats are known ... your own salads instead of using commercial dressings. Saturated fats and trans fats are known as the “harmful ...

  9. Alternative fat sources to animal fat for pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Charlotte; Christensen, Thomas Bruun; Halekoh, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    The use of fats and oils in diets for pigs is of great importance due to their high energy value. As a consequence of the BSE-crisis in the European Union, the amount of animal fat available for animal feeds has been reduced, and alternative fat sources are of increasing importance. In this paper......% of either animal fat, palm oil mix, palm oil, vegetable oil mix, coconut oil, or rapeseed oil were tested in weaned and growing pigs. It was concluded that several vegetable fat sources (palm oil mix, palm oil, coconut oil, rapeseed oil) could be used as alternatives to animal fat in pig feed, whereas fat...

  10. How to Lose Fat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Maxwell; 钱俊

    2005-01-01

    Here is yet another article about losing body fat. The Interact is riddled with such articles, Some propose complex diets; others give worth while valuable advice and most are trying to sell something.

  11. Drink Water, Fight Fat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165714.html Drink Water, Fight Fat? When you have it in place ... HealthDay News) -- If you choose a glass of water instead of a beer or a sugar-sweetened ...

  12. [Spuriously unhealthy animal fats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichosz, Grazyna; Czeczot, Hanna

    2011-11-01

    Animal fats are generally considered as a source of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, identified with arteriosclerosis and its clinical complications (cardiovascular diseases with heart attack, stroke, cerebral claudication). The real reason of arteriosclerosis are inflammation states of blood vessel endothelium caused by oxidative stress, hiperhomocysteinemia, hipertrigliceridemia, presence of artificial trans isomers and excess of eicosanoids originated from poliunsaturated fatty acids n-6. Present status of science proves that both saturated fatty acids and cholesterol present in animal food can not cause inflammation state. Moreover, animal fats are source of antioxidants active both in food and in human organism. Due to high oxidative stability animal fats do not make threat to human health. Milk fat, though high content of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, possesses comprehensive pro-health activity--against arteriosclerosis and cancerogenesis.

  13. Facts about trans fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... biscuits, sweet rolls, and donuts Breads and crackers Frozen foods, such as frozen dinners, pizza, ice cream, frozen yogurt, milk shakes, and pudding Snack foods Fast food Solid fats, such as shortening and ...

  14. Facts about saturated fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at room temperature. Foods like butter, palm and coconut oils, cheese, and red meat have high amounts of ... pudding, cheese, whole milk) Solid fats such as coconut oil, palm, and palm kernel oils (found in packaged ...

  15. Dietary Fat Overload Reprograms Brown Fat Mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELE eLETTIERI BARBATO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic nutrient overload accelerates the onset of several aging-related diseases reducing life expectancy. Although the mechanisms by which overnutrition affects metabolic processes in many tissues are known, its role on BAT physiology is still unclear. Herein, we investigated the mitochondrial responses in BAT of female mice exposed to high fat diet (HFD at different steps of life. Although adult mice showed an unchanged mitochondrial amount, both respiration and OxPHOS subunits were strongly affected. Differently, offspring pups exposed to HFD during pregnancy and lactation displayed reduced mitochondrial mass but high oxidative efficiency that, however, resulted in increased bioenergetics state of BAT rather than augmented uncoupling respiration. Interestingly, the metabolic responses triggered by HFD were accompanied by changes in mitochondrial dynamics characterized by decreased content of the fragmentation marker Drp1 both in mothers and offspring pups. HFD-induced inactivation of the FoxO1 transcription factor seemed to be the up-stream modulator of Drp1 levels in brown fat cells. Furthermore, HFD offspring pups weaned with normal diet only partially reverted the mitochondrial dysfunctions caused by HFD. Finally these mice failed in activating the thermogenic program upon cold exposure. Collectively our findings suggest that maternal dietary fat overload irreversibly commits BAT unresponsiveness to physiological stimuli such as cool temperature and this dysfunction in the early stage of life might negatively modulates health and lifespan.

  16. Mesenchymal progenitor cells for the osteogenic lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Noriaki; Kronenberg, Henry M

    2015-09-01

    Mesenchymal progenitors of the osteogenic lineage provide the flexibility for bone to grow, maintain its function and homeostasis. Traditionally, colony-forming-unit fibroblasts (CFU-Fs) have been regarded as surrogates for mesenchymal progenitors; however, this definition cannot address the function of these progenitors in their native setting. Transgenic murine models including lineage-tracing technologies based on the cre-lox system have proven to be useful in delineating mesenchymal progenitors in their native environment. Although heterogeneity of cell populations of interest marked by a promoter-based approach complicates overall interpretation, an emerging complexity of mesenchymal progenitors has been revealed. Current literatures suggest two distinct types of bone progenitor cells; growth-associated mesenchymal progenitors contribute to explosive growth of bone in early life, whereas bone marrow mesenchymal progenitors contribute to the much slower remodeling process and response to injury that occurs mainly in adulthood. More detailed relationships of these progenitors need to be studied through further experimentation.

  17. Bone-Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Organ Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are prototypical adult stem cells with the capacity for self-renewal and differentiation with a broad tissue distribution. MSCs not only differentiate into types of cells of mesodermal lineage but also into endodermal and ectodermal lineages such as bone, fat, cartilage and cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, lung epithelial cells, hepatocytes, neurons, and pancreatic islets. MSCs have been identified as an adherent, fibroblast-like population and can be isolated from different adult tissues, including bone marrow (BM, umbilical cord, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue. MSCs secrete factors, including IL-6, M-CSF, IL-10, HGF, and PGE2, that promote tissue repair, stimulate proliferation and differentiation of endogenous tissue progenitors, and decrease inflammatory and immune reactions. In this paper, we focus on the role of BM-derived MSCs in organ repair.

  18. Human stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldahmash, Abdullah; Zaher, Walid; Al-Nbaheen, May

    2012-01-01

    Human stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells (hMSC) represent a group of non-hematopoietic stem cells present in the bone marrow stroma and the stroma of other organs including subcutaneous adipose tissue, placenta, and muscles. They exhibit the characteristics of somatic stem cells of self-renewal and......Human stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells (hMSC) represent a group of non-hematopoietic stem cells present in the bone marrow stroma and the stroma of other organs including subcutaneous adipose tissue, placenta, and muscles. They exhibit the characteristics of somatic stem cells of self...... of clinical applications, e.g., non-healing bone fractures and defects and also non-skeletal degenerative diseases like heart failure. Currently, the numbers of clinical trials that employ MSC are increasing. However, several biological and biotechnological challenges need to be overcome to benefit from...

  19. Implications of mesenchymal stem cells in regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariminekoo, Saber; Movassaghpour, Aliakbar; Rahimzadeh, Amirbahman; Talebi, Mehdi; Shamsasenjan, Karim; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl

    2016-05-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a population of multipotent progenitors which reside in bone marrow, fat, and some other tissues and can be isolated from various adult and fetal tissues. Self-renewal potential and multipotency are MSC's hallmarks. They have the capacity of proliferation and differentiation into a variety of cell lineages like osteoblasts, condrocytes, adipocytes, fibroblasts, cardiomyocytes. MSCs can be identified by expression of some surface molecules like CD73, CD90, CD105, and lack of hematopoietic specific markers including CD34, CD45, and HLA-DR. They are hopeful tools for regenerative medicine for repairing injured tissues. Many studies have focused on two significant features of MSC therapy: (I) systemically administered MSCs home to sites of ischemia or injury, and (II) MSCs can modulate T-cell-mediated immunological responses. MSCs express chemokine receptors and ligands involved in cells migration and homing process. MSCs induce immunomedulatory effects on the innate (dendritic cells, monocyte, natural killer cells, and neutrophils) and the adaptive immune system cells (T helper-1, cytotoxic T lymphocyte, and B lymphocyte) by secreting soluble factors like TGF-β, IL-10, IDO, PGE-2, sHLA-G5, or by cell-cell interaction. In this review, we discuss the main applications of mesenchymal stem in Regenerative Medicine and known mechanisms of homing and Immunomodulation of MSCs.

  20. Mesenchymal stem cells: key players in cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridge, Sarah M; Sullivan, Francis J; Glynn, Sharon A

    2017-02-01

    Tumour progression is dependent on the interaction between tumour cells and cells of the surrounding microenvironment. The tumour is a dynamic milieu consisting of various cell types such as endothelial cells, fibroblasts, cells of the immune system and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). MSCs are multipotent stromal cells that are known to reside in various areas such as the bone marrow, fat and dental pulp. MSCs have been found to migrate towards inflammatory sites and studies have shown that they also migrate towards and incorporate into the tumour. The key question is how they interact there. MSCs may interact with tumour cells through paracrine signalling. On the other hand, MSCs have the capacity to differentiate to various cell types such as osteocytes, chondrocytes and adipocytes and it is possible that MSCs differentiate at the site of the tumour. More recently it has been shown that cross-talk between tumour cells and MSCs has been shown to increase metastatic potential and promote epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. This review will focus on the role of MSCs in tumour development at various stages of progression from growth of the primary tumour to the establishment of distant metastasis.

  1. Quantum dot labeling of mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cascio Wayne E

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are multipotent cells with the potential to differentiate into bone, cartilage, fat and muscle cells and are being investigated for their utility in cell-based transplantation therapy. Yet, adequate methods to track transplanted MSCs in vivo are limited, precluding functional studies. Quantum Dots (QDs offer an alternative to organic dyes and fluorescent proteins to label and track cells in vitro and in vivo. These nanoparticles are resistant to chemical and metabolic degradation, demonstrating long term photostability. Here, we investigate the cytotoxic effects of in vitro QD labeling on MSC proliferation and differentiation and use as a cell label in a cardiomyocyte co-culture. Results A dose-response to QDs in rat bone marrow MSCs was assessed in Control (no-QDs, Low concentration (LC, 5 nmol/L and High concentration (HC, 20 nmol/L groups. QD yield and retention, MSC survival, proinflammatory cytokines, proliferation and DNA damage were evaluated in MSCs, 24 -120 hrs post QD labeling. In addition, functional integration of QD labeled MSCs in an in vitro cardiomyocyte co-culture was assessed. A dose-dependent effect was measured with increased yield in HC vs. LC labeled MSCs (93 ± 3% vs. 50% ± 15%, p 90% of QD labeled cells were viable in all groups, however, at 120 hrs increased apoptosis was measured in HC vs. Control MSCs (7.2% ± 2.7% vs. 0.5% ± 0.4%, p Conclusion Fluorescent QDs label MSC effectively in an in vitro co-culture model. QDs are easy to use, show a high yield and survival rate with minimal cytotoxic effects. Dose-dependent effects suggest limiting MSC QD exposure.

  2. ISOLATION AND INDUCTION OF DIFFERENTIATION OF SEINE ADIPOSE-DERIVED MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Yueying; YUAN Shuolong; ZHANG yue; XU liangwei; GUO Weiwei; ZHAO Lidong; ZHAI suoqiang; YANG Shiming

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To establish a method for high yield mesenchymal stem cells collection, as well as a culture method for iden-tifying mesenchymal stem cells from the swine adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADMSC). Methods Swine AD-MSCs were isolated from fat tissue with collagenase, followed by induction of differentiation to osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogrnic cells. The survival curve of the ADMSC at the 37ºC and 38ºC were measured using WST-1Cell Proliferation As-say Reagent. Result ADMSCs isolated with collagenase from swine neck fat tissue generated a stable uniform appearance af-ter the second generation. The passage period was five days. ADMSC could differentiate into osteogenic, adipogenic or chon-drogrnic cells under different culture conditions. The highest growth rate was achieved at 38ºC in this study. Conclusion Swine ADMSCs have the potential to differentiate into osteogenic, adipogenic or chondrogrnic cells, and they may be appropriate for transplantation for both research and clinical purpose.

  3. Alternative fat sources to animal fat for pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Lauridsen, Charlotte; Christensen, Thomas Bruun; Halekoh, Ulrich; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2007-01-01

    The use of fats and oils in diets for pigs is of great importance due to their high energy value. As a consequence of the BSE-crisis in the European Union, the amount of animal fat available for animal feeds has been reduced, and alternative fat sources are of increasing importance. In this paper, we review our main findings on the effects of diets with different fat sources on apparent fat digestibility in pigs. A method for quantitative measurement of fat extraction from feed and faeces has...

  4. Pancreatic mesenchyme regulates epithelial organogenesis throughout development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limor Landsman

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The developing pancreatic epithelium gives rise to all endocrine and exocrine cells of the mature organ. During organogenesis, the epithelial cells receive essential signals from the overlying mesenchyme. Previous studies, focusing on ex vivo tissue explants or complete knockout mice, have identified an important role for the mesenchyme in regulating the expansion of progenitor cells in the early pancreas epithelium. However, due to the lack of genetic tools directing expression specifically to the mesenchyme, the potential roles of this supporting tissue in vivo, especially in guiding later stages of pancreas organogenesis, have not been elucidated. We employed transgenic tools and fetal surgical techniques to ablate mesenchyme via Cre-mediated mesenchymal expression of Diphtheria Toxin (DT at the onset of pancreas formation, and at later developmental stages via in utero injection of DT into transgenic mice expressing the Diphtheria Toxin receptor (DTR in this tissue. Our results demonstrate that mesenchymal cells regulate pancreatic growth and branching at both early and late developmental stages by supporting proliferation of precursors and differentiated cells, respectively. Interestingly, while cell differentiation was not affected, the expansion of both the endocrine and exocrine compartments was equally impaired. To further elucidate signals required for mesenchymal cell function, we eliminated β-catenin signaling and determined that it is a critical pathway in regulating mesenchyme survival and growth. Our study presents the first in vivo evidence that the embryonic mesenchyme provides critical signals to the epithelium throughout pancreas organogenesis. The findings are novel and relevant as they indicate a critical role for the mesenchyme during late expansion of endocrine and exocrine compartments. In addition, our results provide a molecular mechanism for mesenchymal expansion and survival by identifying β-catenin signaling as an

  5. Isolation and differentiation potential of human mesenchymal stem cells from adipose tissue harvested by water jet-assisted liposuction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Juliane; Salamon, Achim; Herzmann, Nicole; Adam, Stefanie; Kleine, Hans-Dieter; Matthiesen, Inge; Ueberreiter, Klaus; Peters, Kirsten

    2015-11-01

    In recent years the therapeutic application of extracted adipose tissue for autologous fat grafting and the application of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (adMSC) isolated thereof has progressed. Water-jet assisted liposuction (WAL) is 1 procedure for harvesting adipose tissue and provides a favorable aesthetic outcome combined with high tissue protection. Tissue aspirated by WAL has been successfully applied in grafting procedures. The aims of this study were to confirm the tissue viability and to understand the abundance and mesenchymal differentiation capacity of stem cells within the tissue. We analyzed tissue integrity of WAL tissue particles via fluorescence microscopy. The adMSC content was determined by isolating the cells from the tissue. The mesenchymal differentiation capacity was confirmed with cytochemical staining methods. The stromal vascular fraction of WAL tissue showed high viability and contained an average of 2.6 × 105 CD34-positive cells per milliliter of tissue. Thus WAL tissue contains a high number of stem cells. Furthermore adMSC isolated from WAL tissue showed typical mesenchymal differentiation potential. WAL of adipose tissue is well suited for autologous fat grafting because it retains tissue viability. Furthermore it is a valid source for the subsequent isolation of adMSC with multipotent differentiation potential. 3 Therapeutic. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Dynamical fat link fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Kamleh, W; Williams, A G; Kamleh, Waseem; Leinweber, Derek B.; Williams, Anthony G.; 10.1016/j.nuclphysbps.2003.12.058

    2004-01-01

    The use of APE smearing or other blocking techniques in fermion actions can provide many advantages. There are many variants of these fat link actions in lattice QCD currently, such as FLIC fermions. Frequently, fat link actions make use of the APE blocking technique in combination with a projection of the blocked links back into the special unitary group. This reunitarisation is often performed using an iterative maximisation of a gauge invariant measure. This technique is not differentiable with respect to the gauge field and thus prevents the use of standard Hybrid Monte Carlo simulation algorithms. The use of an alternative projection technique circumvents this difficulty and allows the simulation of dynamical fat link fermions with standard HMC and its variants.

  7. Measurement of visceral fat: should we include retroperitoneal fat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Sheng Hung

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Whether retroperitoneal fat should be included in the measurement of visceral fat remains controversial. We compared the relationships of fat areas in peritoneal, retroperitoneal, and subcutaneous compartments to metabolic syndrome, adipokines, and incident hypertension and diabetes. METHODS: We enrolled 432 adult participants (153 men and 279 women in a community-based cohort study. Computed tomography at the umbilicus level was used to measure the fat areas. RESULTS: Retroperitoneal fat correlated significantly with metabolic syndrome (adjusted odds ratio (OR, 5.651, p<0.05 and the number of metabolic abnormalities (p<0.05. Retroperitoneal fat area was significantly associated with blood pressure, plasma glycemic indices, lipid profile, C-reactive protein, adiponectin (r =  -0.244, P<0.05, and leptin (r = 0.323, p<0.05, but not plasma renin or aldosterone concentrations. During the 2.94 ± 0.84 years of follow-up, 32 participants developed incident hypertension. Retroperitoneal fat area (hazard ration (HR 1.62, p = 0.003 and peritoneal fat area (HR 1.62, p = 0.009, but not subcutaneous fat area (p = 0.14 were associated with incident hypertension. Neither retroperitoneal fat area, peritoneal fat area, nor subcutaneous fat areas was associated with incident diabetes after adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: Retroperitoneal fat is similar to peritoneal fat, but differs from subcutaneous fat, in terms of its relationship with metabolic syndrome and incident hypertension. Retroperitoneal fat area should be included in the measurement of visceral fat for cardio-metabolic studies in human.

  8. Are mesenchymal stromal cells immune cells?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Hoogduijn (Martin)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractMesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are considered to be promising agents for the treatment of immunological disease. Although originally identified as precursor cells for mesenchymal lineages, in vitro studies have demonstrated that MSCs possess diverse immune regulatory capacities. Pre-cl

  9. Intracranial extra-skeletal mesenchymal chondrosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyaz, Nadeem; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2006-01-01

    Intracranial Mesenchymal Chondrosarcoma is a very rare and uncommon entity that affects young adults. We came across one such patient who presented with severe headache and intermittent nausea and vomiting. The clinical, radiological preoperative diagnosis was a meningioma, on histological examination it turned out to be mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of tentorial region in posterior fossa, uncommon site for this entity.

  10. Isolation, Culturing, Characterization and Aging of Adipose Tissue-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells: A Brief Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezzatollah Fathi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this review was to describe the current state-of-the-art regarding isolation, characterization and aging of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have recently received widespread attention because of their potential use in tissue-engineering applications. Various studies have indicated that MSCs with a fibroblast-like morphology migrate to the sites of injury and help to regenerate damaged tissue. Over the past few years, it has been recognized that fat is not only an energy supply, but also a rich source of multipotent stem cells that can be easily harvested, isolated and selected as compared with other tissues. ADSCs are particularly interesting because of their rapid proliferation and multidirectional differentiation potential.

  11. Comparison of Fat7-bar and HYP fat links

    CERN Document Server

    Bilson-Thompson, S O

    2004-01-01

    We study various methods of constructing fat links based upon the HYP (by Hasenfratz & Knechtli) and Fat7-bar (by W. Lee) algorithms. We present the minimum plaquette distribution for these fat links. This enables us to determine which algorithm is most effective at reducing the spread of plaquette values.

  12. That Fat Cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2012-01-01

    This activity began with a picture book, Nurit Karlin's "Fat Cat On a Mat" (HarperCollins; 1998). The author and her students started their project with a 5-inch circular template for the head of their cats. They reviewed shapes as they drew the head and then added the ears and nose, which were triangles. Details to the face were added when…

  13. Subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aydin, Dogu; Berg, Jais O

    2016-01-01

    We have described subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis, which is benign, usually asymptomatic and underreported. Images have only been published on two earlier occasions, in which the necrotic nodules appear "pearly" than the cloudy yellow surface in present case. The presented image may help f...... future surgeons to establish the diagnosis peroperatively....

  14. Fats for diabetics. (Letter).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katan, M.B.

    1994-01-01

    Opinion. Comments on the treatment of type 2 diabetes from the interaction between nature and nurture. Effective form of treatment for type 2 diabetes; Composition of the diet for diabetics; Identification of unsaturated fats in the diabetic diet; Risks faced by diabetic patients.

  15. Figuring Out Fat and Calories

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and down the soccer field. So what's the truth on fat and calories? What Are Fat and ... The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart. ...

  16. Cooking with Healthier Fats and Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use fats and oils, choose those with less saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol. Choose Less Often Choose More Often Percent of Saturated Fat Canola Oil Safflower Oil Sesame Oil Sunflower Oil ...

  17. Dlk1/FA1 Is a Novel Endocrine Regulator of Bone and Fat Mass and Its Serum Level Is Modulated By Growth Hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, B.M.; Ding, M.; Jensen, C.H.

    2007-01-01

    Fat and bone metabolism are two linked processes regulated by several hormonal factors. FA1 (fetal antigen 1) is the soluble form of dlk1 (delta like 1), which is a member of the Notch-Delta family. We have previously identified FA1 as a negative regulator of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell...

  18. The trochanteric fat pad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Panettiere

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Technological developments based on the use of autologous white adipose tissue (WAT attracted attention to minor fat depots as possible sources of adipose tissue. In plastic surgery, the trochanteric fatty pad is one of the most used WAT depots for its location and organoleptic characteristics that make it particularly suitable for reconstructive procedures. Despite its wide use in clinic, the structure of this depot has never been studied in detail and it is not known if structural differences exist among trochanteric fat and other subcutaneous WAT depots. The present study was performed on trochanteric fat pad with the aim to clarify the morphology of its adipocytes, stroma and microcirculation, with particular reference to the stem niches. Histological and ultrastructural studies showed that the main peculiar feature of the trochanteric fat concerns its stromal component, which appears less dense than in the other subcutaneous WATs studied. The intra-parenchymal collagen stroma is poor and the extracellular compartment shows large spaces, filled with electron-light material, in which isolated collagen bundles are present. The adipocytes are wrapped in weak and easily detachable collagen baskets. These connective sheaths are very thin compared to the sheaths in other subcutaneous WAT depots. The capillaries are covered by large, long and thin elements surrounded by an external lamina; these perivascular cells are poor in organelles and mainly contain poly-ribosomes. In conclusion, when compared to other WAT deposits, the trochanteric fatty pad shows structural peculiarities in its stroma and microcirculation suggesting a high regenerative potential. Resistance, dissociability, microvascular weft and high regenerative potential make the trochanteric fatty pad a privileged source for harvesting in autologous WAT-based regenerative procedures.

  19. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Mazzoli, Arianna; Giacco, Antonia; Cancelliere, Rosa; di Fabio, Giovanni; Zarrelli, Armando; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2015-11-16

    High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease in oxidative capacity and an increase in oxidative stress in liver mitochondria. To investigate whether polyunsaturated fats could attenuate the above deleterious effects of high fat diets, energy balance and body composition were assessed after two weeks in rats fed isocaloric amounts of a high-fat diet (58.2% by energy) rich either in lard or safflower/linseed oil. Hepatic functionality, plasma parameters, and oxidative status were also measured. The results show that feeding on safflower/linseed oil diet attenuates the obesogenic effect of high fat diets and ameliorates the blood lipid profile. Conversely, hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial oxidative stress appear to be negatively affected by a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids.

  20. Human fetal mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, Keelin; Chan, Jerry

    2006-09-01

    Stem cells have been isolated at all stages of development from the early developing embryo to the post-reproductive adult organism. However, the fetal environment is unique as it is the only time in ontogeny that there is migration of stem cells in large numbers into different organ compartments. While fetal neural and haemopoietic stem cells (HSC) have been well characterised, only recently have mesenchymal stem cells from the human fetus been isolated and evaluated. Our group have characterised in human fetal blood, liver and bone marrow a population of non-haemopoietic, non-endothelial cells with an immunophenotype similar to adult bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). These cells, human fetal mesenchymal stem cells (hfMSC), are true multipotent stem cells with greater self-renewal and differentiation capacity than their adult counterparts. They circulate in first trimester fetal blood and have been found to traffic into the maternal circulation, engrafting in bone marrow, where they remain microchimeric for decades after pregnancy. Though fetal microchimerism has been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease, the biological role of hfMSC microchimerism is unknown. Potential downstream applications of hfMSC include their use as a target cell for non-invasive pre-natal diagnosis from maternal blood, and for fetal cellular and gene therapy. Using hfMSC in fetal therapy offers the theoretical advantages of avoidance of immune rejection, increased engraftment, and treatment before disease pathology sets in. Aside from allogeneic hfMSC in utero transplantation, the use of autologous hfMSC has been brought a step forward with the development of early blood sampling techniques, efficient viral transduction and clonal expansion. Work is ongoing to determine hfMSC fate post-transplantation in murine models of genetic disease. In this review we will examine what is known about hfMSC biology, as well as discussing areas for future research. The

  1. Regulation of pulmonary inflammation by mesenchymal cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkhouri, Hatem; Poppinga, Wilfred Jelco; Tania, Navessa Padma; Ammit, Alaina; Schuliga, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary inflammation and tissue remodelling are common elements of chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and pulmonary hypertension (PH). In disease, pulmonary mesenchymal cells not only contribute to tissue

  2. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Reduce Murine Atherosclerosis Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frodermann, Vanessa; van Duijn, Janine; van Pel, Melissa; van Santbrink, Peter J.; Bot, Ilze; Kuiper, Johan; de Jager, Saskia C. A.

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have regenerative properties, but recently they were also found to have immunomodulatory capacities. We therefore investigated whether MSCs could reduce atherosclerosis, which is determined by dyslipidaemia and chronic inflammation. We adoptively transferred MSCs into l

  3. Effects of Capsaicin on Adipogenic Differentiation in Bovine Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Young Jeong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Capsaicin is a major constituent of hot chili peppers that influences lipid metabolism in animals. In this study, we explored the effects of capsaicin on adipogenic differentiation of bovine bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The BMSCs were treated with various concentrations of capsaicin (0, 0.1, 1, 5, and 10 μM for 2, 4, and 6 days. Capsaicin suppressed fat deposition significantly during adipogenic differentiation. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, cytosine-cytosine-adenosine-adenosine-thymidine/enhancer binding protein alpha, fatty acid binding protein 4, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase expression decreased after capsaicin treatment. We showed that the number of apoptotic cells increased in dose- and time-dependent manners. Furthermore, we found that capsaicin increased the expression levels of apoptotic genes, such as B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X protein and caspase 3. Overall, capsaicin inhibits fat deposition by triggering apoptosis.

  4. Role of Mesenchymal Stem Cells In Tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    stem cells ( BMDC ), which then acts in a paracrine fashion on the cancer cells to enhance their invasion [7]. Interestingly the group of Karnoub showed...AD_________________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-08-1-0523 TITLE: Role of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in...DATES COVERED 1 Aug 2008 – 31 Jul 2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Role of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Tumorigenesis 5b. GRANT

  5. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy for cutaneous radiation syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akita, Sadanori; Akino, Kozo; Hirano, Akiyoshi; Ohtsuru, Akira; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2010-06-01

    Systemic and local radiation injuries caused by nuclear power reactor accidents, therapeutic irradiation, or nuclear terrorism should be prevented or properly treated in order to improve wound management and save lives. Currently, regenerative surgical modalities should be attempted with temporal artificial dermis impregnated and sprayed with a local angiogenic factor such as basic fibroblast growth factor, and secondary reconstruction can be a candidate for demarcation and saving the donor morbidity. Human mesenchymal stem cells and adipose-derived stem cells, together with angiogenic and mitogenic factor of basic fibroblast growth factor and an artificial dermis, were applied over the excised irradiated skin defect and were tested for differentiation and local stimulation effects in the radiation-exposed wounds. The perforator flap and artificial dermal template with growth factor were successful for reconstruction in patients who were suffering from complex underlying disease. Patients were uneventfully treated with minimal morbidities. In the experiments, the hMSCs are strongly proliferative even after 20 Gy irradiation in vitro. In vivo, 4 Gy rat whole body irradiation demonstrated that sustained marrow stromal (mesenchymal stem) cells survived in the bone marrow. Immediate artificial dermis application impregnated with cells and the cytokine over the 20 Gy irradiated skin and soft tissues demonstrated the significantly improved fat angiogenesis, architected dermal reconstitution, and less inflammatory epidermal recovery. Detailed understanding of underlying diseases and rational reconstructive procedures brings about good outcomes for difficult irradiated wound healing. Adipose-derived stem cells are also implicated in the limited local injuries for short cell harvesting and processing time in the same subject.

  6. Mesenchymal stem cells in regenerative rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurkovic, Jasmin; Dolicanin, Zana; Mustafic, Fahrudin; Mujanovic, Rifat; Memic, Mensur; Grbovic, Vesna; Skevin, Aleksandra Jurisic; Nurkovic, Selmina

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] Regenerative medicine and rehabilitation contribute in many ways to a specific plan of care based on a patient's medical status. The intrinsic self-renewing, multipotent, regenerative, and immunosuppressive properties of mesenchymal stem cells offer great promise in the treatment of numerous autoimmune, degenerative, and graft-versus-host diseases, as well as tissue injuries. As such, mesenchymal stem cells represent a therapeutic fortune in regenerative medicine. The aim of this review is to discuss possibilities, limitations, and future clinical applications of mesenchymal stem cells. [Subjects and Methods] The authors have identified and discussed clinically and scientifically relevant articles from PubMed that have met the inclusion criteria. [Results] Direct treatment of muscle injuries, stroke, damaged peripheral nerves, and cartilage with mesenchymal stem cells has been demonstrated to be effective, with synergies seen between cellular and physical therapies. Over the past few years, several researchers, including us, have shown that there are certain limitations in the use of mesenchymal stem cells. Aging and spontaneous malignant transformation of mesenchymal stem cells significantly affect the functionality of these cells. [Conclusion] Definitive conclusions cannot be made by these studies because limited numbers of patients were included. Studies clarifying these results are expected in the near future.

  7. Adipose Mesenchymal Stem Cells Isolated after Manual or Water-jet-Assisted Liposuction Display Similar Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bony, Claire; Cren, Mailys; Domergue, Sophie; Toupet, Karine; Jorgensen, Christian; Noël, Danièle

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem or stromal cells (MSC) are under investigation in many clinical trials for their therapeutic potential in a variety of diseases, including autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. One of the main sources of MSCs is the adipose tissue, which is mainly obtained by manual liposuction using a cannula linked to a syringe. However, in the past years, a number of devices for fat liposuction intended for clinical use have been commercialized but few papers have compared these procedures in terms of stromal vascular fraction (SVF) or adipose mesenchymal stromal cells (ASC). The objective of the present study was to compare and qualify for clinical use the ASC obtained from fat isolated with the manual or the Bodyjet® water-jet-assisted procedure. Although the initial number of cells obtained after collagenase digestion was higher with the manual procedure, the percentage of dead cells, the number of colony forming unit-fibroblast and the phenotype of cells were identical in the SVF at isolation (day 0) and in the ASC populations at day 14. We also showed that the osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potentials of ASCs were identical between preparations while a slight but significant higher in vitro immunosuppressive effect was observed with ASCs isolated from fat removed with a cannula. The difference in the immunomodulatory effect between ASC populations was, however, not observed in vivo using the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) model. Our data, therefore, indicate that the procedure for fat liposuction does not impact the characteristics or the therapeutic function of ASCs. PMID:26834736

  8. The Supersymmetric Fat Higgs

    CERN Document Server

    Harnik, R

    2004-01-01

    Supersymmetric models have traditionally been assumed to be perturbative up to high scales due to the requirement of calculable unification. In this note I review the recently proposed `Fat Higgs' model which relaxes the requirement of perturbativity. In this framework, an NMSSM-like trilinear coupling becomes strong at some intermediate scale. The NMSSM Higgses are meson composites of an asymptotically-free gauge theory. This allows us to raise the mass of the Higgs, thus alleviating the MSSM of its fine tuning problem. Despite the strong coupling at an intermediate scale, the UV completion allows us to maintain gauge coupling unification.

  9. Milk fat triacyglycerols

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Milk fat (MF) triacylglycerol composition varies within a population of dairy cows. The variability of MF triacylglycerols and their structure was partially explained by the fatty acid (FA) composition of the MF, and by DGAT1 K232A polymorphism. The FA C16:0 and C18:1cis-9 play a major role in understanding the changes seen in triacylglycerol profile and structure because they are the most abundant FAs in MF and are negatively correlated. MFs with low ratio C16:0/C18:1cis-9 were decreased in ...

  10. Isolation and Characterization of Multipotent Mesenchymal Stem Cells Adhering to Adipocytes in Canine Bone Marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsing-Yi; Fujita, Naoki; Endo, Kentaro; Morita, Maresuke; Takeda, Tae; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Nishimura, Ryohei

    2017-03-15

    The ceiling culture method has been used to isolate mature adipocytes from adipose tissue that can be dedifferentiated into fibroblastic cells, also known as dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells that self-renew and are multipotent, with much higher homogeneity and colony-forming efficiency than those of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells. We cultured adipocytes from canine bone marrow using this technique, with the expectation of obtaining DFAT cells. However, contrary to our expectations, continuous monitoring of ceiling cultures by time-lapse microscopy revealed many small cells adhering to adipocytes that proliferated rapidly into cells with a fibroblastic morphology and without any dedifferentiation from adipocytes. We named these cells bone marrow peri-adipocyte cells (BM-PACs) and demonstrated the multipotent properties of BM-PACs compared to that of conventionally cultured canine bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs). BM-PACs showed significantly greater clonogenicity and proliferation ability than BMMSCs. An in vitro trilineage differentiation assay revealed that BM-PACs possess adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic capacities superior to those of BMMSCs. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the expression of CD73, which plays an important role in cell growth and differentiation, was significantly higher in BM-PACs than in BMMSCs. These results indicate that canine BM-PACs have stem cell characteristics that are superior to those of BMMSCs, and that these mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) appear to be a feasible source for cell-based therapies in dogs.

  11. Characterization of Myelomonocytoid Progenitor Cells with Mesenchymal Differentiation Potential Obtained by Outgrowth from Pancreas Explants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc-Estienne Roehrich

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Progenitor cells can be obtained by outgrowth from tissue explants during primary ex vivo tissue culture. We have isolated and characterized cells outgrown from neonatal mouse pancreatic explants. A relatively uniform population of cells showing a distinctive morphology emerged over time in culture. This population expressed monocyte/macrophage and hematopoietic markers (CD11b+ and CD45+, and some stromal-related markers (CD44+ and CD29+, but not mesenchymal stem cell (MSC-defining markers (CD90− and CD105− nor endothelial (CD31− or stem cell-associated markers (CD133− and stem cell antigen-1; Sca-1−. Cells could be maintained in culture as a plastic-adherent monolayer in culture medium (MesenCult MSC for more than 1 year. Cells spontaneously formed sphere clusters “pancreatospheres” which, however, were nonclonal. When cultured in appropriate media, cells differentiated into multiple mesenchymal lineages (fat, cartilage, and bone. Positive dithizone staining suggested that a subset of cells differentiated into insulin-producing cells. However, further studies are needed to characterize the endocrine potential of these cells. These findings indicate that a myelomonocytoid population from pancreatic explant outgrowths has mesenchymal differentiation potential. These results are in line with recent data onmonocyte-derivedmesenchymal progenitors (MOMPs.

  12. Use of rat mature adipocyte-derived dedifferentiated fat cells as a cell source for periodontal tissue regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Daisuke eAkita; Koichiro eKano; Yoko eSaito-Tamura; Takayuki eMashimo; Momoko eSato-Shionome; Niina eTsurumachi; Katsuyuki eYamanaka; Tadashi eKaneko; Taku eToriumi; Yoshinori eArai; Naoki eTsukimura; Taro eMatsumoto; Tomohiko eIshigami; Keitaro eIsokawa; Masaki eHonda

    2016-01-01

    Lipid-free fibroblast-like cells, known as dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells, can be generated from mature adipocytes with a large single lipid droplet. DFAT cells can re-establish their active proliferation ability and can transdifferentiate into various cell types under appropriate culture conditions. The first objective of this study was to compare the multilineage differentiation potential of DFAT cells with that of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) on mesenchymal stem cellsWe obtained DF...

  13. Adipose mesenchymal stem cells isolated after manual or water jet-assisted liposuction display similar properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire eBony

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem or stromal cells (MSC are under investigation in many clinical trials for their therapeutic potential in a variety of diseases, including autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. One of the main sources of MSCs is the adipose tissue, which is mainly obtained by manual liposuction using a cannula linked to a syringe. However, in the last years, a number of devices for fat liposuction intended for clinical use have been commercialized but few papers have compared these procedures in terms of stromal vascular fraction (SVF or adipose stromal cells (ASC. The objective of the present study was to compare and qualify for clinical use the adipose stromal cells (ASC obtained from fat isolated with the manual or the Bodyjet® waterjet-assisted procedure. Although the initial number of cells after collagenase digestion was higher with the manual procedure, both the percentage of dead cells, the number of CFU-F and the phenotype of cells were identical in the SVF at isolation and in the ASC populations at day 14. We also showed that the osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potentials of ASCs were identical between preparations while a slight but significant higher in vitro immunosuppressive effect was observed with ASCs isolated from fat removed with a cannula. The difference in the immunomodulatory effect between ASC populations was however not observed in vivo using the delayed-type hypersensitivity model. Our data therefore indicate that the procedure for fat liposuction does not impact the characteristics or the therapeutic function of ASCs.

  14. Dietary fat oxidation as a function of body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerterp, Klaas R; Smeets, Astrid; Lejeune, Manuela P; Wouters-Adriaens, Mirjam P E; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2008-01-01

    It is hypothesized that low dietary fat oxidation makes subjects prone to weight gain. The aim of the study was to determine dietary fat oxidation in normal, overweight, and obese subjects. The subjects were 38 women and 18 men with a mean (+/-SD) age of 30+/-12 y and a body mass index (in kg/m2) of 25+/-4 (range: 18-39). Dietary fat oxidation was measured with deuterated palmitic acid, given simultaneously with breakfast, while the subjects were fed under controlled conditions in a respiration chamber. Body composition was measured by hydrodensitometry and deuterium dilution. Dietary fat oxidation, measured over 12 h after breakfast, ranged from 4% to 28% with a mean (+/-SD) of 16+/-6%. Dietary fat oxidation was negatively related to percentage body fat, and lean subjects had the highest and obese subjects the lowest values (r=-0.65, P<0.001). The observed reduction in dietary fat oxidation in subjects with a higher percentage body fat may play a role in human obesity.

  15. Characteristics and multipotency of equine dedifferentiated fat cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Daiki; Yamasaki, Atsushi; Matsuzaki, Shouta; Sunaga, Takafumi; Fujiki, Makoto; Tokunaga, Satoshi; Misumi, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells have been shown to be multipotent, similar to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In this study, we aimed to establish and characterize equine DFAT cells. Equine adipocytes were ceiling cultured, and then dedifferentiated into DFAT cells by the seventh day of culture. The number of DFAT cells was increased to over 10 million by the fourth passage. Flow cytometry of DFAT cells showed that the cells were strongly positive for CD44, CD90, and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I; moderately positive for CD11a/18, CD105, and MHC class II; and negative for CD34 and CD45. Moreover, DFAT cells were positive for the expression of sex determining region Y-box 2 as a marker of multipotency. Finally, we found that DFAT cells could differentiate into osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic lineages under specific nutrient conditions. Thus, DFAT cells could have clinical applications in tissue regeneration, similar to MSCs derived from adipose tissue.

  16. Turning Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 (BMP2) on and off in Mesenchymal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Melissa B; Shah, Tapan A; Shaikh, Nadia N

    2015-10-01

    The concentration, location, and timing of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2, HGNC:1069, GeneID: 650) gene expression must be precisely regulated. Abnormal BMP2 levels cause congenital anomalies and diseases involving the mesenchymal cells that differentiate into muscle, fat, cartilage, and bone. The molecules and conditions that influence BMP2 synthesis are diverse. Understandably, complex mechanisms control Bmp2 gene expression. This review includes a compilation of agents and conditions that can induce Bmp2. The currently known trans-regulatory factors and cis-regulatory elements that modulate Bmp2 expression are summarized and discussed. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2, HGNC:1069, GeneID: 650) is a classical morphogen; a molecule that acts at a distance and whose concentration influences cell behavior. In mesenchymal cells, the concentration of BMP2 influences myogenesis, adipogenesis, chondrogenesis, and osteogenesis. Because the amount, timing, and location of BMP2 synthesis influence the allocation of cells to muscle, fat, cartilage, and bone, the mechanisms that regulate the Bmp2 gene are crucial. Key early mesodermal events that require precise Bmp2 regulation include heart specification and morphogenesis. Originally named for its osteoinductive properties, healing fractures requires BMP2. The human Bmp2 gene also has been linked to osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. In addition, all forms of pathological calcification in the vasculature and in cardiac valves involve the pro-osteogenic BMP2. The diverse tissues, mechanisms, and diseases influenced by BMP2 are too numerous to list here (see OMIM: 112261). However, in all BMP2-influenced pathologies, changes in the behavior and differentiation of pluripotent mesenchymal cells are a recurring theme. Consequently, much effort has been devoted to identifying the molecules and conditions that influence BMP2 synthesis and the complex mechanisms that control Bmp2 gene expression. This review begins with an

  17. Mature adipocyte-derived dedifferentiated fat cells exhibit multilineage potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Taro; Kano, Koichiro; Kondo, Daisuke; Fukuda, Noboru; Iribe, Yuji; Tanaka, Nobuaki; Matsubara, Yoshiyuki; Sakuma, Takahiro; Satomi, Aya; Otaki, Munenori; Ryu, Jyunnosuke; Mugishima, Hideo

    2008-04-01

    When mature adipocytes are subjected to an in vitro dedifferentiation strategy referred to as ceiling culture, these mature adipocytes can revert to a more primitive phenotype and gain cell proliferative ability. We refer to these cells as dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells. In the present study, we examined the multilineage differentiation potential of DFAT cells. DFAT cells obtained from adipose tissues of 18 donors exhibited a fibroblast-like morphology and sustained high proliferative activity. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that DFAT cells comprised a highly homogeneous cell population compared with that of adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (ASCs), although the cell-surface antigen profile of DFAT cells was very similar to that of ASCs. DFAT cells lost expression of mature adipocytes marker genes but retained or gained expression of mesenchymal lineage-committed marker genes such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), RUNX2, and SOX9. In vitro differentiation analysis revealed that DFAT cells could differentiate into adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteoblasts under appropriate culture conditions. DFAT cells also formed osteoid matrix when implanted subcutaneously into nude mice. In addition, clonally expanded porcine DFAT cells showed the ability to differentiate into multiple mesenchymal cell lineages. These results indicate that DFAT cells represent a type of multipotent progenitor cell. The accessibility and ease of culture of DFAT cells support their potential application for cell-based therapies.

  18. Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to cardiovascular risk factors in prepubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2012-01-01

    Aim:  We analysed whether total body fat (TBF), abdominal fat and body fat distribution are associated with higher composite risk factor scores for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in young children. Methods:  Cross-sectional study of 238 children aged 8-11 years. TBF and abdominal fat mass (AFM) wer......, separately, and used as composite risk factor score. Results:  Pearson correlations between ln BF%, ln AFM and AFM/TBF versus composite risk factor score for boys were r = 0.56, r = 0.59 and r = 0.48, all p ...

  19. A new method for obtaining mesenchymal stem cells in children with burn injury: Tibial bone marrow aspiration by using the C-arm guidance scopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Bozkurt

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of stem cell therapies is a trending topic in plastic surgery and fat tissue is the most commonly used stem cell source. Stem cell injection has become popular in the treatment of burn wound, especially in the late term scar modulation. However, insufficient amounts of fat tissue in the pediatric age group is a major limitation. The present study reports the utilization of tibial bone marrow aspiration as a source of mesenchymal stem cells in the pediatric age group with the simultaneous usage of x-ray examination to avoid epiphyseal damage. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2017; 6(1.000: 56-57

  20. Immunological characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia de Vasconcellos Machado

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although bone marrow is the main source, mesenchymal stem cells have already been isolated from various other tissues, such as the liver, pancreas, adipose tissue, peripheral blood and dental pulp. These plastic adherent cells are morphologically similar to fibroblasts and have a high proliferative potential. This special group of cells possesses two essential characteristics: self-renewal and differentiation, with appropriate stimuli, into various cell types. Mesenchymal stem cells are considered immunologically privileged, since they do not express costimulatory molecules, required for complete T cell activation, on their surface. Several studies have shown that these cells exert an immunosuppressive effect on cells from both innate and acquired immunity systems. Mesenchymal stem cells can regulate the immune response in vitro by inhibiting the maturation of dendritic cells, as well as by suppressing the proliferation and function of T and B lymphocytes and natural killer cells. These special properties of mesenchymal stem cells make them a promising strategy in the treatment of immune mediated disorders, such as graft-versus-host disease and autoimmune diseases, as well as in regenerative medicine. The understanding of immune regulation mechanisms of mesenchymal stem cells, and also those involved in the differentiation of these cells in various lineages is primordial for their successful and safe application in different areas of medicine.

  1. Oil and fat absorbing polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, H. E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for forming a solid network polymer having a minimal amount of crosslinking for use in absorbing fats and oils. The polymer remains solid at a swelling ratio in oil or fat of at least ten and provides an oil absorption greater than 900 weight percent.

  2. Primary malignant liver mesenchymal tumor: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Primary malignant liver mesenchymal tumor is a rare condition defined as a tumor with vascular, fibrous, adi-pose, and other mesenchymal tissue differentiation. We report a case of primary malignant liver mesenchymal tumor in a 51-year-old male with anemia, weight loss and hepatomegaly. Finally unconventional liver biopsy and histological manifestation led to the definitive diag-nosis.

  3. Flavor profiles of full-fat and reduced-fat cheese and cheese fat made from aged Cheddar with the fat removed using a novel process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carunchia Whetstine, M E; Drake, M A; Nelson, B K; Barbano, D M

    2006-02-01

    Many consumers are concerned with fat intake. However, many reduced-fat foods, including reduced-fat cheese, lack robust flavors. The objectives of this study were to characterize the flavors found in full-fat cheese, cheese fat, and reduced-fat cheese made from aged Cheddar using a novel process to remove the fat (Nelson and Barbano, 2004). Two full-fat, aged cheeses (9 and 39 mo) were selected, and the fat was removed using the novel fat removal process. Full-fat cheeses, shredded and reformed full-fat cheeses, corresponding reduced-fat cheeses, and cheese fats were then analyzed using descriptive sensory and instrumental analysis followed by consumer acceptance testing. Cheeses were extracted with diethyl ether followed by isolation of volatile material by high vacuum distillation. Volatile extracts were analyzed using gas chromatography/ olfactometry with aroma extract dilution analysis. Selected compounds were quantified. The 39-mo cheese was characterized by fruity and sulfur notes, and the 9-mo-old cheese was characterized by a spicy/brothy flavor. Reduced-fat cheeses had similar flavor profiles with no difference in most sensory attributes to corresponding full-fat cheeses. Sensory profiles of the cheese fats were characterized by low intensities of the prominent flavors found in the full-fat cheeses. Instrumental analysis revealed similar trends. Consistent with sensory analysis, there were lower concentrations and log(3) flavor dilution factors for most compounds in the cheese fats compared with both the reduced- and full-fat cheeses, regardless of compound polarity. Consumers found the intensity of flavor in the reduced-fat cheese to be equal to the full-fat cheeses. This study demonstrated that when fat was removed from aged full-fat Cheddar cheese, most of the flavor and flavor compounds remained in the cheese and were not removed with the fat.

  4. Protect Your Heart: Choose Healthy Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in some snacks, cookies, pies, and other foods) • saturated fat (found in whole milk products, fatty meats, dark ... and blood vessels: • Eat less foods high in saturated fat and trans fat. Instead eat foods with healthy ...

  5. Fat burners: nutrition supplements that increase fat metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeukendrup, A E; Randell, R

    2011-10-01

    The term 'fat burner' is used to describe nutrition supplements that are claimed to acutely increase fat metabolism or energy expenditure, impair fat absorption, increase weight loss, increase fat oxidation during exercise, or somehow cause long-term adaptations that promote fat metabolism. Often, these supplements contain a number of ingredients, each with its own proposed mechanism of action and it is often claimed that the combination of these substances will have additive effects. The list of supplements that are claimed to increase or improve fat metabolism is long; the most popular supplements include caffeine, carnitine, green tea, conjugated linoleic acid, forskolin, chromium, kelp and fucoxanthin. In this review the evidence for some of these supplements is briefly summarized. Based on the available literature, caffeine and green tea have data to back up its fat metabolism-enhancing properties. For many other supplements, although some show some promise, evidence is lacking. The list of supplements is industry-driven and is likely to grow at a rate that is not matched by a similar increase in scientific underpinning.

  6. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyuan Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and distant site metastasis is the main cause of death in breast cancer patients. There is increasing evidence supporting the role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT in tumor cell progression, invasion, and metastasis. During the process of EMT, epithelial cancer cells acquire molecular alternations that facilitate the loss of epithelial features and gain of mesenchymal phenotype. Such transformation promotes cancer cell migration and invasion. Moreover, emerging evidence suggests that EMT is associated with the increased enrichment of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs and these CSCs display mesenchymal characteristics that are resistant to chemotherapy and target therapy. However, the clinical relevance of EMT in human cancer is still under debate. This review will provide an overview of current evidence of EMT from studies using clinical human breast cancer tissues and its associated challenges.

  7. Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Tooth Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Peng; Ling Ye; Xue-dong Zhou

    2009-01-01

    Tooth loss compromises human oral health. Although several prosthetic methods, such as artificial denture and dental implants, are clinical therapies to tooth loss problems, they are thought to have safety and usage time issues. Recently, tooth tissue engineering has attracted more and more attention. Stem cell based tissue engineering is thought to be a promising way to replace the missing tooth. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells which can differentiate into a variety of cell types. The potential MSCs for tooth regeneration mainly include stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs), adult dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), stem cells from the apical part of the papilla (SCAPs), stem cells from the dental follicle (DFSCs), periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) and bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). This review outlines the recent progress in the mesenchymal stem cells used in tooth regeneration.

  8. Novel supplier of mesenchymal stem cell: subacromial bursa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhee, S-H; Jo, Y H; Kim, B Y; Nam, B M; Nemeno, J G; Lee, S; Yang, W; Lee, J I

    2013-10-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stromal elements that can differentiate into a variety of cell types. MSCs are good sources of therapeutic cells for degenerative diseases. For these reason, many researchers have focused on searching for other sources of MSCs. To obtain MSCs for clinical use requires surgery of the donor that therefore can induce donor morbidity, since the common sources at present are bone marrow and adipose tissues. In this study, we investigated the existence of MSCs in postoperative discarded tissues. Subacromial bursal tissues were obtained from the shoulders of 3 injured patients. The cells from the bursa tissues were isolated through treatment with collagenase. The isolated cells were then seeded and expanded by serial passaging under normal culture system. To evaluate MSC characteristics of the cells, their MSC markers were confirmed by mRNA and protein expression. Multipotent ability was assessed using differentiation media and immunohistochemistry. Cells from the bursa expressed MSCs markers-CD29, CD73, CD90, and PDGFRB (platelet-derived growth factor receptor-beta). Moreover, as to their multipotency, bursal cells differentiated into adipocytes (fat cells), osteocytes (bone cells), and chondrocytes (cartilage cells). In summary, we showed that MSCs could be generated from the subacromial bursa, which is medical waste after surgery.

  9. Equine Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Phenotype and Growth Characteristics, Gene Expression Profile and Differentiation Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faezeh Alipour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Because of the therapeutic application of stem cells (SCs, isolation and characterization of different types of SCs, especially mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, have gained considerable attention in recent studies. Adipose tissue is an abundant and accessible source of MSCs which can be used for tissue engineering and in particular for treatment of musculoskeletal disorders. This study was aimed to isolate and culture equine adipose-derived MSCs (AT-MSCs from little amounts of fat tissue samples and determine some of their biological characteristics. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study, only 3-5 grams of fat tissue were collected from three crossbred mares. Immediately, cells were isolated by mechanical means and enzymatic digestion and were cultured in optimized conditions until passage 3 (P3. The cells at P3 were evaluated for proliferative capacities, expression of specific markers, and osteogenic, chondrogenic and adipogenic differentiation potentials. Results: Results showed that the isolated cells were plastic adherent with a fibroblast-like phenotype. AT-MSCs exhibited expression of mesenchymal cluster of differentiation (CD markers (CD29, CD44 and CD90 and not major histocompatibility complex II (MHC-II and CD34 (hematopoietic marker. Cellular differentiation assays demonstrated the chondrogenic, adipogenic and osteogenic potential of the isolated cells. Conclusion: Taken together, our findings reveal that equine MSCs can be obtained easily from little amounts of fat tissue which can be used in the future for regenerative purposes in veterinary medicine.

  10. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition in malignant mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassina, Ambrogio; Cappellesso, Rocco; Guzzardo, Vincenza; Dalla Via, Lisa; Piccolo, Stefano; Ventura, Laura; Fassan, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition is a physiopathological process by which epithelial cells acquire mesenchymal shape and properties. Malignant mesothelioma is histologically characterized by the concomitant presence of epithelioid and sarcomatoid features, the latter being associated to worse prognosis, thus suggesting a role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in this dual phenotype. We studied 109 malignant mesotheliomas (58 epithelioid, 26 sarcomatoid, and 25 biphasic) by immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR analysis, and demonstrated a substantial switch from epithelial markers (E-cadherin, β-catenin, and cytokeratins 5/6) to mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin, vimentin, α-smooth muscle actin, Snail, Slug, Twist, ZEB1, ZEB2, S100A4, MMP2, and MMP9) through epithelioid to biphasic and sarcomatoid histotypes. In agreement with these findings, the ectopic expression of miR-205 (a repressor of ZEB1 and ZEB2 expression) in MeT-5A (mesothelial cell line), H2452 (an epithelioid malignant mesothelioma cell line) and MSTO-211H (a biphasic malignant mesothelioma cell line) not only induced a significant reduction of ZEB1 and ZEB2 and a consequent up-regulation of E-cadherin gene expression, but also inhibited migration and invasion. Moreover, miR-205 was significantly down-regulated in biphasic and sarcomatoid histotypes (qRT-PCR and in situ hybridization analyses). Collectively, our findings indicate that epithelial-mesenchymal transition has a significant part in the morphological features of malignant mesothelioma. In particular, miR-205 down-regulation correlated significantly with both a mesenchymal phenotype and a more aggressive behavior.

  11. Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to VO(2PEAK) in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2011-01-01

    -based level. Methods. Cross-sectional study of 225 children (128 boys and 97 girls) aged 8-11 years, recruited from a population-based cohort. Total lean body mass (LBM), total fat mass (TBF), and abdominal fat mass (AFM) were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Body fat was also calculated...... as a percentage of body mass (BF%) and body fat distribution as AFM/TBF. VO(2PEAK) was assessed by indirect calorimetry during maximal exercise test. Results. Significant relationships existed between body fat measurements and VO(2PEAK) in both boys and girls, with Pearson correlation coefficients for absolute...... values of VO(2PEAK) (0.22-0.36, Pmass (-0.38 - -0.70, P...

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of autologous fat grafting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goehde, Susanne C.; Kuehl, Hilmar; Ladd, Mark E. [University Hospital Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Essen (Germany)

    2005-12-01

    A 30-year-old female patient with isolated facial lipodystrophy underwent two sessions of fat injection. MR signals of injected fat at different injection ages were compared to native fat. Native T1 signal was smaller for transplant fat, probably due to a slightly lower fat content and/or fibrosis or due to higher perfusion. T2 signal of transplants was significantly higher than that of native fat. T1 post-contrast was also higher, and contrast uptake of transplanted fat increased slightly with transplant age, which could be explained by an increasing perfusion. This study demonstrates the differences and MR signal time changes of native and transplanted fat. (orig.)

  13. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Pancreatic Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Wirth

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic carcinoma is the fourth-leading cause of cancer death and is characterized by early invasion and metastasis. The developmental program of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT is of potential importance for this rapid tumor progression. During EMT, tumor cells lose their epithelial characteristics and gain properties of mesenchymal cells, such as enhanced motility and invasive features. This review will discuss recent findings pertinent to EMT in pancreatic carcinoma. Evidence for and molecular characteristics of EMT in pancreatic carcinoma will be outlined, as well as the connection of EMT to related topics, e.g., cancer stem cells and drug resistance.

  14. Determination of Fat Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Charles

    The term "lipid" refers to a group of compounds that are sparingly soluble in water, but show variable solubility in a number of organic solvents (e.g., ethyl ether, petroleum ether, acetone, ethanol, methanol, benzene). The lipid content of a food determined by extraction with one solvent may be quite different from the lipid content as determined with another solvent of different polarity. Fat content is determined often by solvent extraction methods (e.g., Soxhlet, Goldfish, Mojonnier), but it also can be determined by nonsolvent wet extraction methods (e.g., Babcock, Gerber), and by instrumental methods that rely on the physical and chemical properties of lipids (e.g., infrared, density, X-ray absorption). The method of choice depends on a variety of factors, including the nature of the sample (e.g., dry versus moist), the purpose of the analysis (e.g., official nutrition labeling or rapid quality control), and instrumentation available (e.g., Babcock uses simple glassware and equipment; infrared requires an expensive instrument).

  15. Small Buccal Fat Pad Cells Have High Osteogenic Differentiation Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurumachi, Niina; Akita, Daisuke; Kano, Koichiro; Matsumoto, Taro; Toriumi, Taku; Kazama, Tomohiko; Oki, Yoshinao; Tamura, Yoko; Tonogi, Morio; Isokawa, Keitaro; Shimizu, Noriyoshi; Honda, Masaki

    2016-03-01

    Dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells derived from mature adipocytes have mesenchymal stem cells' (MSCs) characteristics. Generally, mature adipocytes are 60-110 μm in diameter; however, association between adipocyte size and dedifferentiation efficiency is still unknown. This study, therefore, investigated the dedifferentiation efficiency of adipocytes based on cell diameter. Buccal fat pad was harvested from five human donors and dissociated by collagenase digestion. After exclusion of unwanted stromal cells by centrifugation, floating adipocytes were collected and their size distribution was analyzed. The floating adipocytes were then separated into two groups depending on cell size using 40- and 100-μm nylon mesh filters: cell diameters less than 40 μm (small adipocytes: S-adipocytes) and cell diameters of 40-100 μm (large adipocytes: L-adipocytes). Finally, we evaluated the efficiency of adipocyte dedifferentiation and then characterized the resultant DFAT cells. The S-adipocytes showed a higher capacity to dedifferentiate into DFAT cells (S-DFAT cells) compared to the L-adipocytes (L-DFAT cells). The S-DFAT cells also showed a relatively higher proportion of CD146-positive cells than L-DFAT cells, and exhibited more osteogenic differentiation ability based on the alkaline phosphatase activity and amount of calcium deposition. These results suggested that the S- and L-DFAT cells had distinct characteristics, and that the higher dedifferentiation potential of S-adipocytes compared to L-adipocytes gives the former group an advantage in yielding DFAT cells.

  16. Big, Fat World of Lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Science Home Page The Big, Fat World of Lipids By Emily Carlson Posted August 9, 2012 Cholesterol ... ways to diagnose and treat lipid-related conditions. Lipid Encyclopedia Just as genomics and proteomics spurred advances ...

  17. Inactivated Mesenchymal Stem Cells Maintain Immunomodulatory Capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luk, Franka; de Witte, Samantha F. H.; Korevaar, Sander S.; Roemeling, Marieke; Franquesa, Marcella; Strini, Tanja; van den Engel, Sandra; Gargesha, Madhusudhana; Roy, Debashish; Dor, Frank J. M. F.; Horwitz, Edwin M.; de Bruin, Ron W. F.; Betjes, Michiel G. H.; Baan, Carla C.; Hoogduijn, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are studied as a cell therapeutic agent for treatment of various immune diseases. However, therapy with living culture-expanded cells comes with safety concerns. Furthermore, development of effective MSC immunotherapy is hampered by lack of knowledge of the mechanisms of

  18. Cartilage Engineering from Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goepfert, C.; Slobodianski, A.; Schilling, A. F.; Adamietz, P.; Pörtner, R.

    Mesenchymal progenitor cells known as multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells or mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been isolated from various tissues. Since they are able to differentiate along the mesenchymal lineages of cartilage and bone, they are regarded as promising sources for the treatment of skeletal defects. Tissue regeneration in the adult organism and in vitro engineering of tissues is hypothesized to follow the principles of embryogenesis. The embryonic development of the skeleton has been studied extensively with respect to the regulatory mechanisms governing morphogenesis, differentiation, and tissue formation. Various concepts have been designed for engineering tissues in vitro based on these developmental principles, most of them involving regulatory molecules such as growth factors or cytokines known to be the key regulators in developmental processes. Growth factors most commonly used for in vitro cultivation of cartilage tissue belong to the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family, the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) super-family, and the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) family. In this chapter, in vivo actions of members of these growth factors described in the literature are compared with in vitro concepts of cartilage engineering making use of these growth factors.

  19. Mesenchymal stem cells in oral reconstructive surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, C; Sørensen, J A; Kassem, M

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated clinical outcomes following intraoperative use of adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in various oral reconstructive procedures. PubMed was searched without language restrictions from 2000 to 2011 using the search words stem cell, oral surgery, tissue engineering, sinus lift...

  20. Cell biology of fat storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Paul; Spiegelman, Bruce M

    2016-08-15

    The worldwide epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes has greatly increased interest in the biology and physiology of adipose tissues. Adipose (fat) cells are specialized for the storage of energy in the form of triglycerides, but research in the last few decades has shown that fat cells also play a critical role in sensing and responding to changes in systemic energy balance. White fat cells secrete important hormone-like molecules such as leptin, adiponectin, and adipsin to influence processes such as food intake, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion. Brown fat, on the other hand, dissipates chemical energy in the form of heat, thereby defending against hypothermia, obesity, and diabetes. It is now appreciated that there are two distinct types of thermogenic fat cells, termed brown and beige adipocytes. In addition to these distinct properties of fat cells, adipocytes exist within adipose tissue, where they are in dynamic communication with immune cells and closely influenced by innervation and blood supply. This review is intended to serve as an introduction to adipose cell biology and to familiarize the reader with how these cell types play a role in metabolic disease and, perhaps, as targets for therapeutic development.

  1. Corticosteroids for fat embolism after multiple fractures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Huai-sheng; ZHANG Qing-mei; WEN Jun-min; WEN Shun-kang; YI Jing; ZHOU Zhi-qiang; WU Sheng-nan

    2007-01-01

    @@ Fat embolism is a common complication of multiple fractures. Corticosteroids are usually prescribed in prophylactic and treatment of fat embolism. A case of fat embolism followed multiple fractures was hospitalized, and we searched best evidences about corticosteroids for fat embolism so as to provide best therapeutics for the patient.

  2. microRNAs as regulators of adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamam, Dana; Ali, Dalia; Kassem, Moustapha; Aldahmash, Abdullah; Alajez, Nehad M

    2015-02-15

    microRNAs (miRNAs) constitute complex regulatory network, fine tuning the expression of a myriad of genes involved in different biological and physiological processes, including stem cell differentiation. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells present in the bone marrow stroma, and the stroma of many other tissues, and can give rise to a number of mesoderm-type cells including adipocytes and osteoblasts, which form medullary fat and bone tissues, respectively. The role of bone marrow fat in bone mass homeostasis is an area of intensive investigation with the aim of developing novel approaches for enhancing osteoblastic bone formation through inhibition of bone marrow fat formation. A number of recent studies have reported several miRNAs that enhance or inhibit adipogenic differentiation of MSCs and with potential use in microRNA-based therapy to regulate adipogenesis in the context of treating bone diseases and metabolic disorders. The current review focuses on miRNAs and their role in regulating adipogenic differentiation of MSCs.

  3. Composition and Microstructure of Commercial Full-Fat and Low-Fat Cheeses

    OpenAIRE

    Mistry, V. V.; Anderson, D. L.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the composition of commercial full-fat and low-fat cheeses and to evaluate their microstructure. Commercial cheeses evaluated included full-fat and low-fat Cheddar, Mozzarella , processed, and Swiss cheeses. Cheddar cheeses ranged from 8.2% fat and 5 1.1% moisture in the 75% low-fat product to 33.2% fat and 35.9% moisture in the full-fat cheese . Mozzarella cheeses ranged in fat from a low of 2. I% to a high of 24% with corresponding moisture content...

  4. Selective augmentation of stem cell populations in structural fat grafts for maxillofacial surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Clauser

    Full Text Available Structural fat grafting utilizes the centrifugation of liposuction aspirates to create a graded density of adipose tissue. This study was performed to qualitatively investigate the effects of centrifugation on stem cells present in adipose tissue. Liposuction aspirates were obtained from healthy donors and either not centrifuged or centrifuged at 1,800 rpm for 3 minutes. The obtained fat volumes were divided into three layers and then analyzed. The results demonstrate that centrifugation induces a different distribution of stem cells in the three layers. The high-density layer displays the highest expression of mesenchymal stem cell and endothelial markers. The low-density layer exhibits an enrichment of multipotent stem cells. We conclude that appropriate centrifugation concentrates stem cells. This finding may influence the clinical practice of liposuction aspirate centrifugation and enhance graft uptake.

  5. Selective Augmentation of Stem Cell Populations in Structural Fat Grafts for Maxillofacial Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardin, Chiara; Tieghi, Riccardo; Galiè, Manlio; Elia, Giovanni; Piattelli, Adriano; Pinton, Paolo; Bressan, Eriberto; Zavan, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Structural fat grafting utilizes the centrifugation of liposuction aspirates to create a graded density of adipose tissue. This study was performed to qualitatively investigate the effects of centrifugation on stem cells present in adipose tissue. Liposuction aspirates were obtained from healthy donors and either not centrifuged or centrifuged at 1,800 rpm for 3 minutes. The obtained fat volumes were divided into three layers and then analyzed. The results demonstrate that centrifugation induces a different distribution of stem cells in the three layers. The high-density layer displays the highest expression of mesenchymal stem cell and endothelial markers. The low-density layer exhibits an enrichment of multipotent stem cells. We conclude that appropriate centrifugation concentrates stem cells. This finding may influence the clinical practice of liposuction aspirate centrifugation and enhance graft uptake. PMID:25375632

  6. Autologous Fat Injection for Augmented Mammoplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Eul Sik; Seo, Bo Kyoung; Yi, Ann; Cho, Kyu Ran [Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Autologous fat injection is one of the methods utilized for augmented mammoplasty methods. In this surgical procedure, the fat for transfer is obtained from the donor site of the patient's own body by liposuction and the fat is then injected into the breast. We report here cases of three patients who underwent autologous fat injection. Two of the patients had palpable masses that were present after surgery. The serial imaging findings and surgical method of autologous fat transfer are demonstrated

  7. Collagen-rich stroma in aggressive colon tumors induces mesenchymal gene expression and tumor cell invasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellinga, T T; den Uil, S; Rinkes, IHB; Marvin, D; Ponsioen, B; Alvarez-Varela, A; Fatrai, S; Scheele, C; Zwijnenburg, D A; Snippert, H; Vermeulen, L; Medema, J P; Stockmann, H B; Koster, J; Fijneman, R J A; de Rooij, J; Kranenburg, O

    2016-01-01

    Gene expression-based classification systems have identified an aggressive colon cancer subtype with mesenchymal features, possibly reflecting epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of tumor cells. However, stromal fibroblasts contribute extensively to the mesenchymal phenotype of aggressive col

  8. [Autologous fat grafting in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, C; Bertrand, B; Philandrianos, C; Degardin, N; Casanova, D

    2016-10-01

    Lipofilling or fat grafting transfer is defined as a technique of filling soft tissue by autologous fat grafting. The basic principle of lipofilling is based on a harvest of adipose tissue, followed by a reinjection after treatment. Lipofilling main objective is a volume defect filling, but also improving cutaneous trophicity. Lipofilling specificities among children is mainly based on these indications. Complications of autologous fat grafting among children are the same as those in adults: we distinguish short-term complications (intraoperative and perioperative) and the medium and long-term complications. The harvesting of fat tissue is the main limiting factor of the technique, due to low percentage of body fat of children. Indications of lipofilling among children may be specific or similar to those in adults. There are two types of indications: cosmetic, in which the aim of lipofilling is correcting a defect density, acquired (iatrogenic, post-traumatic scar) or malformation (otomandibular dysplasia, craniosynostosis, Parry Romberg syndrom, Poland syndrom, pectus excavatum…). The aim of functional indications is correcting a velar insufficiency or lagophthalmos. In the paediatric sector, lipofilling has become an alternative to the conventional techniques, by its reliability, safety, reproducibility, and good results.

  9. Epicardial fat: a new cardiovascular therapeutic target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacobellis, Gianluca

    2016-04-01

    Epicardial fat is the visceral fat depot of the heart. Given its rapid metabolism, organ fat specificity and simple objective measurability, epicardial fat can serve as target for pharmaceutical agents targeting the adipose tissue. Epicardial fat has shown to significantly respond to thiazolidinediones, glucagon like peptide 1 receptor agonists, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors and statins. Epicardial fat may represent a measurable risk factor and modifiable therapeutic target. Targeted pharmaceutical interventions may allow the epicardial fat to resume its physiological role. A drug-induced browning effect on epicardial fat suggests the development of pharmacological strategies to increase energy consumption. The potential of modulating the epicardial fat transcriptome with targeted pharmacological agents can open new avenues in the pharmacotherapy of cardio-metabolic diseases.

  10. Recent Advances and Future Direction in Lyophilisation and Desiccation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akalabya Bissoyi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs are a promising mammalian cell type as they can be used for the reconstruction of human tissues and organs. MSCs are shown to form bone, cartilage, fat, and muscle-like cells under specific cultivation conditions. Current technology of MSCs cryopreservation has significant disadvantages. Alternative technologies of mammalian cells preservation through lyophilisation or desiccation (air-drying are among the upcoming domains of investigation in the field of cryobiology. Different protectants and their combinations were studied in this context. Loading of the protectant in the live cell can be a challenging issue but recent studies have shown encouraging results. This paper deals with a review of the protectants, methods of their delivery, and physical boundary conditions adopted for the desiccation and lyophilisation of mammalian cells, including MSCs. A hybrid technique combining both methods is also proposed as a promising way of MSCs dry preservation.

  11. Mesenchymal change and drug resistance in neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naiditch, Jessica A; Jie, Chunfa; Lautz, Timothy B; Yu, Songtao; Clark, Sandra; Voronov, Dimitry; Chu, Fei; Madonna, Mary Beth

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic initiation has many phenotypic similarities to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, including loss of cell-cell adhesion, increased invasiveness, and increased cell mobility. We have previously demonstrated that drug resistance is associated with a metastatic phenotype in neuroblastoma (NB). The purpose of this project was to determine if the development of doxorubicin resistance is associated with characteristics of mesenchymal change in human NB cells. Total RNA was isolated from wild type (WT) and doxorubicin-resistant (DoxR) human NB cell lines (SK-N-SH and SK-N-BE(2)C) and analyzed using the Illumina Human HT-12 version 4 Expression BeadChip. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. Volcano plots and heat maps were generated. Genes of interest with a fold change in expression >1.5 and an adjusted P change via multiple pathways in the transition to a drug-resistant state. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mesenchymal stem cells targeting the GVHD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Liang; ZHAO Robert ChunHua

    2009-01-01

    Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) occurs after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant and is a reaction of donor immune cells against host tissues. About 35% -5% of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients will develop acute GVHD. It is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, particularly in patients who do not respond to primary therapy, which usually consists of glucocorticoids(steroids). Most of the available second-line and third-line treatments for sterold-refractory acute GVHD induce severe immunodeficiency, which is commonly accompanied by lethal infectious complications. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to mediate immunomodulatory effects. The recently elucidated immunosuppreseive potential of mesenchymal stem cells has set the stage for their clinical testing as cellular immunosuppressants, MSCs have been used in patients with steroid-refractory acute GVHD, and encouraging responses have been obtained in many studies. The utility of MSCs for the treatment of GVHD is becoming clear.

  13. Molecular mechanisms of epithelial–mesenchymal transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamouille, Samy; Xu, Jian; Derynck, Rik

    2014-01-01

    The transdifferentiation of epithelial cells into motile mesenchymal cells, a process known as epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), is integral in development, wound healing and stem cell behaviour, and contributes pathologically to fibrosis and cancer progression. This switch in cell differentiation and behaviour is mediated by key transcription factors, including SNAIL, zinc-finger E-box-binding (ZEB) and basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, the functions of which are finely regulated at the transcriptional, translational and post-translational levels. The reprogramming of gene expression during EMT, as well as non-transcriptional changes, are initiated and controlled by signalling pathways that respond to extracellular cues. Among these, transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) family signalling has a predominant role; however, the convergence of signalling pathways is essential for EMT. PMID:24556840

  14. Intracranial meningeal chondrosarcoma--probable mesenchymal type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, R A; Franklin, C I

    1984-08-01

    A 12 year old girl with episodes of left hemiparesis for 9 months was found to have a large, partly calcified brain tumour which at craniotomy presented on the parasagittal and medial surfaces of the right frontal lobe. No dural or falx attachment could be found and naked eye removal of the tumour was achieved. At a second craniotomy 10 weeks later there was recurrent tumour attached to the falx and involving the sagittal sinus. She died 5 months later. Pathologically, almost all this malignant intracranial neoplasm comprised differentiated cartilaginous tumour. Although only a very small amount of undifferentiated mesenchymal tissue was found in the surgical material available for histological study, it is suggested the tumour can be regarded as a predominantly mature mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of the meninges.

  15. [Chest wall mesenchymal hamartoma: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Olga Lucía; Valencia, María de la Luz; Gómez, Carolina; Pérez, María del Pilar; Sanín, Emilio; Vásquez, Luz Marina

    2010-01-01

    Chest wall mesenchymal hamartoma is an extremely rare benign tumor. Approximately 80 cases have been reported in the literature. Most tumors are manifested at birth with a painless palpable mass of the chest wall, usually unilateral. Respiratory symptoms result from extrinsic compression of the pulmonary parenchyma, and the severity of the symptoms will depend on the size and location of the lesion. Imaging features are characteristic, but definitive diagnosis is histological. Herein, a case is described of a four month old infant with diagnosis of chest wall mesenchymal hamartoma, manifested at birth. Different treatment options are described, including expectations from tumor management, the possibility of spontaneous regression, and the morbidity associated with the surgical option.

  16. [Orbital Adipose Tissue: Just a Fat Pad or Terra Incognita in Ophthalmology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzenok, S A; Afanasyeva, D S; Gushchina, M B

    2015-01-01

    Our understanding of the role of adipose tissue has been completely changed during the past decades. The knowledge of its contribution to endocrine and immune pathways opened the new insights on the pathogenesis and therapy of many diseases and new perspectives for the regenerative medicine. The further researches should be provided to study anatomy and functions of local fat depots in more details. Of the most interest is the orbital adipose tissue due to its origin from the neural crest. This review represents the current data about anatomy, structure, cell composition and biochemistry of orbital fat. The main attention is put to such cell types as adipocytes and adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells. The foreign authors' findings on such characteristics of stem cells from orbital adipose tissue as CD markers and differential capacity are reviewed. The found evidences of interaction between orbital adipose tissue, eyeball and associated structures allow us to hypothesize that this fat depot may contribute to various ocular pathology. In this paper, we outlined the possible directions for further investigation and clinical application of orbital fat and cells its composing in ophthalmology, reconstructive and plastic surgery and regenerative medicine.

  17. Peripheral nerve extract effects on mesenchymal cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Dietz, F. R.; Mukhopadhyay, B.; Becker, G.; Daniels, K.; Solursh, M

    1996-01-01

    Several common congenital limb disorders are characterized by normal tissue differentiation but abnormal somatic growth. These include: idiopathic clubfoot, idiopathic leg length discrepancy, hemi-atrophy and hemi-hypertrophy. Both clinical and research studies have suggested that peripheral nerves may be important in regulating somatic growth of limb tissues. To investigate the hypothesis that peripheral nerves convey trophic substances to mesenchymal tissues that are involved in the regulat...

  18. Mesenchymal stromal cells for traumatic brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Pischiutta,

    2014-01-01

    The multiple pathological cascades activated after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and their extended nature offer the possibility for therapeutic interventions possibly affecting multiple injury mechanisms simultaneously. Mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) therapy matches this need, being a bioreactor of a variety of molecules able to interact and modify the injured brain microenvironment. Compared to autologous MSCs, bank stored GMP-graded allogenic MSCs appear to be a realistic choice for TBI ...

  19. Topical Delivery of Mesenchymal Stem Cells “Secretomes” in Wound Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Julianto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Wound healing requires a coordinated interplay among cells, growth factors, and extracellular matrix proteins. Central to this process is the endogenous mesenchymal stem cell (MSC, which coordinates the repair response by recruiting other host cells and secreting growth factors and matrix proteins. MSCs are self-renewing multipotent stem cells that can differentiate into various lineages of mesenchymal origin such as bone, cartilage, tendon, and fat. In addition to multilineage differentiation capacity, MSCs regulate immune response and inflammation and possess powerful tissue protective and reparative mechanisms, making these cells attractive for treatment of different diseases. The beneficial effect of exogenous MSCs on wound healing was observed in a variety of animal models and in reported clinical cases. Specifically, they have been successfully used to treat chronic wounds and stimulate stalled healing processes. Recent studies revealed that human placental membranes are a rich source of MSCs for tissue regeneration and repair. This review provides a concise summary of current knowledge of biological properties of MSCs and describes the use of MSCs for wound healing. In particular, the scope of this review focuses on the role MSCs have in each phase of the wound-healing process, and clinical reports transplatation MSCs – secretomes in chronical ulcer.

  20. Weyl law for fat fractals

    CERN Document Server

    Spina, Maria E; Saraceno, Marcos

    2010-01-01

    It has been conjectured that for a class of piecewise linear maps the closure of the set of images of the discontinuity has the structure of a fat fractal, that is, a fractal with positive measure. An example of such maps is the sawtooth map in the elliptic regime. In this work we analyze this problem quantum mechanically in the semiclassical regime. We find that the fraction of states localized on the unstable set satisfies a modified fractal Weyl law, where the exponent is given by the exterior dimension of the fat fractal.

  1. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition in ovarian carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben eDavidson

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy, with the majority of patients dying within 5 years of diagnosis. This poor survival of patients diagnosed with this malignancy is attributed to diagnosis at advanced stage, when the tumor has metastasized, and to chemotherapy resistance, either primary or developing along tumor progression. However, ovarian carcinomas, constituting the vast majority of ovarian cancers, additionally have unique biology, one aspect of which is the ability to co-express epithelial and mesenchymal determinants. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT, a physiological process by which mesenchymal cells are formed and migrate to target organs during embryogenesis, is involved in cancer cell invasion and metastasis. However, these changes do not fully occur in ovarian carcinoma, and are even reversed in tumor cells present in malignant peritoneal and pleural effusions. This review summarizes current knowledge in this area, including the characteristics of EMT related to adhesion, transcriptional regulation and chemoresistance, and their clinical relevance, as well as the recently observed regulation of EMT by microRNA.

  2. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal and mesenchymal-to-epithelial transitions in the colon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ferenc Sipos; Orsolya Galamb

    2012-01-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal and mesenchymal-to-epithelial transitions are well established biological events which have an important role in not just normal tissue and organ development,but in the pathogenesis of diseases.Increasing evidence has established their presence in the human colon during colorectal carcinogenesis and cancer invasion,chronic inflammation-related fibrosis and in the course of mucosal healing.A large body of evidence supports the role for transforming growth factor-β and its downstream Smad signaling,the phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase/Akt/mTOR axis,the Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase/Snail/Slug and FOXC2 pathway,and Hedgehog signaling and microRNAs in the development of colorectal cancers via epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.C-met and Frizzled-7,among others,seem to be the principle effectors of mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition,hence have a role not just in mucosal regeneration but in the progression of colonic wall fibrosis.Here we discuss a role for these pathways in the initiation and development of the transition events.A better understanding of their induction and regulation may lead to the identification of pathways and factors that could be potent therapeutic targets.The inhibition of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition using mTOR kinase inhibitors targeting the ATP binding pocket and which inhibit both mTORC1 and mTORC2,RNA aptamers or peptide mimetics,such as a Wnt5A-mimetic,may all be useful in both cancer treatment and delaying fibrosis,while the induction of mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition in induced pluripotent stem cells may enhance epithelial healing in the case of severe mucosal damage.The preliminary results of the current studies are promising,but more clinical investigations are needed to develop new and safe therapeutic strategies for diseases of the colon.

  3. Severe fat embolism in perioperative abdominal liposuction and fat grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo de Lima e Souza

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Fat embolism syndrome may occur in patients suffering from multiple trauma (long bone fractures or plastic surgery (liposuction, compromising the circulatory, respiratory and/or central nervous systems. This report shows the evolution of severe fat embolism syndrome after liposuction and fat grafting. CASE REPORT: SSS, 42 years old, ASA 1, no risk factors for thrombosis, candidate for abdominal liposuction and breast implant prosthesis. Subjected to balanced general anesthesia with basic monitoring and controlled ventilation. After 45 min of procedure, there was a sudden and gradual decrease of capnometry, severe hypoxemia and hypotension. The patient was immediately monitored for MAP and central catheter, treated with vasopressors, inotropes, and crystalloid infusion, stabilizing her condition. Arterial blood sample showed pH = 7.21; PCO2 = 51 mmHg; PO2 = 52 mmHg; BE = -8; HCO3 = 18 mEq L-1, and lactate = 6.0 mmol L-1. Transthoracic echocardiogram showed PASP = 55 mmHg, hypocontractile VD and LVEF = 60%. Diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. After 24 h of intensive treatment, the patient developed anisocoria and coma (Glasgow coma scale = 3. A brain CT was performed which showed severe cerebral hemispheric ischemia with signs of fat emboli in right middle cerebral artery; transesophageal echocardiography showed a patent foramen ovale. Finally, after 72 h of evolution, the patient progressed to brain death. CONCLUSION: Fat embolism syndrome usually occurs in young people. Treatment is based mainly on the infusion of fluids and vasoactive drugs, mechanical ventilation, and triggering factor correction (early fixation of fractures or suspension of liposuction. The multiorgânico involvement indicates a worse prognosis.

  4. Determination of the milk fat content of fat mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaeser, H.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Methods for the determination of the milk fat content of fat mixtures are usually based on a butyric acid determination. This fatty acid is specific for milk fat. A conversion factor is used to calculate the milk fat content from the butyric acid content of the mixture. When applying this procedure, the natural variation of the butyric acid content of milk fat is not taken into consideration. Recently published data show that a considerable error may thus be introduced, making the interpretation of analytical results difficult. It is therefore proposed to envisage a control procedure which takes this aspect into consideration.Los métodos para la determinación del contenido de grasa de leche en mezclas de grasas se basan habitualmente en el análisis de ácido butiríco. Este ácido graso es específico de la grasa de la leche. Para el cálculo del contenido de grasa de leche a partir del contenido de ácido butírico de la mezcla se utiliza un factor de conversión. Cuando se aplica este procedimiento, no se tiene en cuenta la variación natural del contenido en ácido butírico de la grasa de leche. Datos publicados recientemente indican que si este factor no se tiene en cuenta se cometen importantes errores, haciendo difícil la interpretación de los resultados analíticos. Se propone, por tanto, un procedimiento de control que considere este aspecto.

  5. Dietary fat and cardiovascular disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lie T. Merijanti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dietary saturated fat (SF intake has been shown to increase low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol and therefore has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. This evidence coupled with inferences from epidemiologic studies and clinical trials, had led to longstanding public health recommendations for limiting SF intake as a means of preventing CVD. However the relationship between SF and CVD risk remains controversial, due at least in part to the intrinsic limitations of clinical studies that have evaluated this relationship. A recent meta analysis showed that current evidence does not clearly support cardiovascular guidelines that encourage high consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and low consumption of total SF. They found weak positive associations between circulating palmitic and stearic acids (found largely in palm oil and animal fats, respectively and CVD, whereas circulating margaric acid (a dairy fat significantly reduced the risk of CVD.(2,3 Saturated fat are not associated with all cause mortality, CVD, CHD, ischemic stroke or type 2 diabetes, but the evidence is heterogenous with methodological limitations.

  6. Biodiesel via hydrotreating of fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Ahmed, El Hadi; Christensen, Claus Hviid

    Biodiesel production via transesterification to fatty acid alkyl esters is rising rapidly worldwide due to the limited availability of fossil resources and the problems of global warming. Often, however, the use of 2nd-generation feedstock like animal waste fat and trap greases etc. is made...

  7. Double emulsions as fat replacers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppermann, Anika

    2017-01-01

    The use of double (w1/o/w2) emulsions, in which part of the oil is replaced by small water droplets, is a promising strategy to reduce oil content in food products. For successful applications, (1) significant levels of fat reduction (i.e. significant amounts of water inside the oil droplets) have

  8. Targeting fat to prevent diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Jaswinder K; Vidal-Puig, Antonio J

    2007-05-01

    An emerging view is that obesity causes metabolic problems when adipose tissue fails to meet the increased demands for fat storage. A study in this issue of Cell Metabolism (Waki et al., 2007) has identified harmine as a proadipogenic small molecule that promotes energy expenditure in white adipose tissue and delays the onset of obesity-associated diabetes.

  9. Hidden fat facilitates passive overconsumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, van M.; Graaf, de C.; Siebelink, E.; Kok, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    Food intake regulation may be disturbed when sensory signals from foods are disconnected from their metabolic properties. Consumption of high-fat, energy-dense foods may stimulate passive overconsumption, because these foods do not provide sensory signals in accordance with the actual nutrient

  10. Saturated fats: what dietary intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, J Bruce; Dillard, Cora J

    2004-09-01

    Public health recommendations for the US population in 1977 were to reduce fat intake to as low as 30% of calories to lower the incidence of coronary artery disease. These recommendations resulted in a compositional shift in food materials throughout the agricultural industry, and the fractional content of fats was replaced principally with carbohydrates. Subsequently, high-carbohydrate diets were recognized as contributing to the lipoprotein pattern that characterizes atherogenic dyslipidemia and hypertriacylglycerolemia. The rising incidences of metabolic syndrome and obesity are becoming common themes in the literature. Current recommendations are to keep saturated fatty acid, trans fatty acid, and cholesterol intakes as low as possible while consuming a nutritionally adequate diet. In the face of such recommendations, the agricultural industry is shifting food composition toward lower proportions of all saturated fatty acids. To date, no lower safe limit of specific saturated fatty acid intakes has been identified. This review summarizes research findings and observations on the disparate functions of saturated fatty acids and seeks to bring a more quantitative balance to the debate on dietary saturated fat. Whether a finite quantity of specific dietary saturated fatty acids actually benefits health is not yet known. Because agricultural practices to reduce saturated fat will require a prolonged and concerted effort, and because the world is moving toward more individualized dietary recommendations, should the steps to decrease saturated fatty acids to as low as agriculturally possible not wait until evidence clearly indicates which amounts and types of saturated fatty acids are optimal?

  11. FTO gene associated fatness in relation to body fat distribution and metabolic traits throughout a broad range of fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia I I; Holst, Claus; Zimmermann, Esther

    2008-01-01

    A common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of FTO (rs9939609, T/A) is associated with total body fatness. We investigated the association of this SNP with abdominal and peripheral fatness and obesity-related metabolic traits in middle-aged men through a broad range of fatness present already i...

  12. FTO gene associated fatness in relation to body fat distribution and metabolic traits throughout a broad range of fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia I I; Holst, Claus; Zimmermann, Esther;

    2008-01-01

    A common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of FTO (rs9939609, T/A) is associated with total body fatness. We investigated the association of this SNP with abdominal and peripheral fatness and obesity-related metabolic traits in middle-aged men through a broad range of fatness present already...

  13. Assessing Body Condition from Fat on Carcass

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — SOP guiding assessment of body condition based on carcass fat. Provides stepwise instructions and photos on how to assess body condition from carcass fat

  14. Weighing Posthumanism : Fatness and Contested Humanity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apostolidou, S.; Sturm, J.

    2016-01-01

    Our project on fatness begins by turning attention to the multiple cultural instances in which fatness has been intrinsically linked with notions such as self—neglect and poor self—management. In Foucauldian terms, we analyse the fat subject as a failed homo economicus, an individual who has failed

  15. Fat tissue, aging, and cellular senescence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tchkonia, T.; Morbeck, D.E.; Zglinicki, T. von; Deursen, J.M.A. van; Lustgarten, J.; Scrable, H.; Khosla, S.; Jensen, M.D.; Kirkland, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Fat tissue, frequently the largest organ in humans, is at the nexus of mechanisms involved in longevity and age-related metabolic dysfunction. Fat distribution and function change dramatically throughout life. Obesity is associated with accelerated onset of diseases common in old age, while fat abla

  16. The FAt Spondyloarthritis Spine Score (FASSS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Juhl; Zhao, Zheng; Lambert, Robert Gw

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown that fat lesions follow resolution of inflammation in the spine of patients with axial spondyloarthritis (SpA). Fat lesions at vertebral corners have also been shown to predict development of new syndesmophytes. Therefore, scoring of fat lesions in the spine may constitute both...

  17. Is fat perception a thermal effect?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinz, J.F.; Huntjens, L.; Wijk, de R.A.; Engelen, L.; Polet, I.A.

    2007-01-01

    It has been generally assumed that fat is detected by its flavour and by its lubrication of the oral mucosa. A recent study reported a correlation of -.99 between perceived temperature of a product and its fat content. This was significantly higher than correlations of sensory scores for fat flavour

  18. Response to consumer demand for reduced-fat foods; multi-functional fat replacers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The excessive dietary fat intake can result in health problems such as obesity and heart-related diseases, resulting in increased consumer demand for reduced fat foods. A number of food ingredients with fat-like functions have been developed as fat alternatives in the food industry. Especially, so...

  19. Dietary fat, fat subtypes and hepatocellular carcinoma in a large European cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte-Salles, Talita; Fedirko, Veronika; Stepien, Magdalena; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Bamia, Christina; Lagiou, Pagona; Laursen, Anne Sofie Dam; Hansen, Louise; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; His, Mathilde; Boeing, Heiner; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Valanou, Elissavet; Kritikou, Maria; Masala, Giovanna; Panico, Salvatore; Sieri, Sabina; Ricceri, Fulvio; Tumino, Rosario; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H. B.; Peeters, Petra H.; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Ardanaz, Eva; Bonet, Catalina; Chirlaque, Maria Dolores; Dorronsoro, Miren; Quirõs, J. Ramõn; Johansson, Ingegerd; Ohlsson, Bodil; Sjöberg, Klas; Wennberg, Maria; Khaw, Kay Tee; Travis, Ruth C.; Wareham, Nick; Ferrari, Pietro; Freisling, Heinz; Romieu, Isabelle; Cross, Amanda J.; Gunter, Marc; Lu, Yunxia; Jenab, Mazda

    2015-01-01

    The role of amount and type of dietary fat consumption in the etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is poorly understood, despite suggestive biological plausibility. The associations of total fat, fat subtypes and fat sources with HCC incidence were investigated in the European Prospective Inve

  20. Amnion-derived mesenchymal stromal cells show a mesenchymal-epithelial phenotype in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Julia; Lang, Ingrid; Siwetz, Monika; Fröhlich, Julia; Huppertz, Berthold

    2014-06-01

    The amnionic membrane is a rich source of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (hAMSC), which are readily available and show a potential use in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Before these cells can be applied clinically, careful characterization is necessary, especially as primary cells are known to change their phenotype in culture. We analyzed the mesenchymal phenotype of hAMSC at different stages after isolation using immunohistochemistry. Shortly after isolation (1 day), 92 % (± 7 %) of the hAMSC expressed the mesenchymal marker vimentin, 2 % (± 1 %) stained for the epithelial marker cytokeratin-7 and 5 % (± 4 %) co-expressed these markers. After 5 days, the double positive cells slightly increased to 7 % (± 3 %), while exclusive expression of cytokeratin-7 or vimentin remained unchanged (1 % ± 2 % and 92 % ± 1 %, respectively). After the first passage, all attached cells were vimentin-positive, while 54 % (± 9 %) co-expressed cytokeratin-7 and vimentin. Thus, we conclude that under culture, hAMSC adopt a hybrid mesenchymal-epithelial phenotype. It is also essential to perform microscopical examination during the first days after isolation to detect contaminations with human amnion-derived epithelial cells in cultures of hAMSC.

  1. Sensory characteristics of meat and composition of carcass fat from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    subcutaneous fat composition and sensory characteristics. Keywords: sensory .... increased juiciness was associated with an increased carcass fat content. In the present study carcass fat .... Fat:Muscle ratio (%). Little. Medium. Abundant.

  2. Dietary fat restriction increases fat taste sensitivity in people with obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, Lisa P.; Bolhuis, Dieuwerke P.; Susan J. Torres; Keast, Russell S. J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Individuals with obesity may be less sensitive to the taste of fat, and it is hypothesized that this is due to excess dietary fat intake. This study assessed the effect of a 6‐week low‐fat (LF) or portion control (PC) diet matched for weight loss on fat taste thresholds, fat perception, and preference in people with overweight/obesity. Methods Participants (n = 53) completed a randomized dietary intervention and consumed either a LF diet (25% fat) or PC diet (33% fat) for 6 weeks. F...

  3. Myogenic potential of chick limb bud mesenchyme in micromass culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, C W; Langille, R M; Teran, M A; Solursh, M

    1992-01-01

    The myogenic potential of chick limb mesenchyme from stages 18-25 was assessed by micromass culture under conditions conductive to myogenesis, and was measured as the proportion of differentiated (muscle myosin-positive) mononucleated cells detected. It was found that similar myogenic potentials existed in mesenchyme from whole limbs between stages 18 and 19, but this potential was halved by stage 20. At stage 21, proximal mesenchyme showed significantly more myogenesis than distal mesenchyme, but this difference was abolished by stage 22. Thereafter, myogenesis was increasingly restricted from the distal mesenchyme, whilst the potential in more proximal regions did not significantly increase after stage 23. When the ratio between total limb myoblasts which differentiated on days 1 and 4 of culture was analysed, it was found that two distinct peaks existed at stages 20 and 23. The significance of these ratio peaks is unclear, but may be related to different proliferative potentials of the pre-myoblasts at these stages.

  4. The secretome of mesenchymal stem cells: potential implications for neuroregeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Gesine; Anisimov, Sergey V

    2013-12-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells have shown regenerative properties in many tissues. This feature had originally been ascribed to their multipotency and thus their ability to differentiate into tissue-specific cells. However, many researchers consider the secretome of mesenchymal stem cells the most important player in the observed reparative effects of these cells. In this review, we specifically focus on the potential neuroregenerative effect of mesenchymal stem cells, summarize several possible mechanisms of neuroregeneration and list key factors mediating this effect. We illustrate examples of mesenchymal stem cell treatment in central nervous system disorders including stroke, neurodegenerative disorders (such as Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, multiple system atrophy and cerebellar ataxia) and inflammatory disease (such as multiple sclerosis). We specifically highlight studies where mesenchymal stem cells have entered clinical trials.

  5. Effect of rice fat mimics on texture and microstructure of low-fat yoghurt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Dan; KONG Baohua; LIU Huaiwei

    2007-01-01

    This paper made a research on a new kind of rice fat mimics, which was obtained from rice powder hydrolyzed by a -amylase. Through the comparison between the yoghurt added with diverse proportions of above mentioned rice fat mimics and the reduced-fat yoghurt without any fat mimics as well as full-fat ones, the effect of the rice fat mimics in different proportions was examined upon the composition, the microstructure, the texture and the sensory evaluation of reduced-fat yoghurt. The results showed that the yoghurts added with rice fat mimics exhibited similar organoleptic attribute, textual characteristics and acceptability compared to those of full-fat controls(P>0.05), but with lower fat content and looser microstructures.

  6. Tooth engineering: searching for dental mesenchymal cells sources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia eKeller

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The implantation of cultured re-associations between embryonic dental mesenchymal cells and epithelial cells from mouse molars at ED14 allowed making full teeth with crown, root, periodontal ligament fibers and bone. Although representing valuable tools to set up methodologies embryonic cells are not easily available. This work thus aimed to replace the embryonic cells by dental mesenchymal cell lines or cultured expanded embryonic cells, and to test their ability to mediate tooth development in vitro when re-associated with a competent dental epithelium. Histology, immunostaining and RT-PCR allowed getting complementary sets of results. Two different immortalized cell lines from ED18 dental mesenchyme failed in mediating tooth formation. The potentialities of embryonic dental mesenchymal cells decreased from ED14 to ED16 and were lost at ED18. This is likely related to a change in the mesenchymal cell phenotype and/or populations during development. Attempts to cultivate ED14 or ED16 embryonic dental mesenchymal cells prior to re-association led to the loss of their ability to support tooth development. This was accompanied by a down-regulation of Fgf3 transcription. Supplementation of the culture medium with FGF2 allowed restoring Fgf3 expression, but not the ability of mesenchymal cells to engage in tooth formation. Altogether, these observations suggest that a competent cell population exists in the dental mesenchyme at ED14, progressively decreases during development, and cannot as such be maintained in vitro. This study evidenced the need for specific conditions to maintain the ability of dental mesenchymal cells to initiate whole tooth formation, when re-associated with an odontogenic epithelium. Efforts to improve the culture conditions will have to be combined with attempts to characterize the competent cells within the dental mesenchyme.

  7. Higher lipid accumulation in broilers fed on saturated fats than in those fed on unsaturated fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, M; Flores, A; De Ayala, P P; Lopez-Bote, C J

    1999-03-01

    1. Two experiments were conducted to assess the effect of fat sources differing in degree of saturation on the performance of and fat deposition in broiler chickens fed on isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets. 2. There were no differences in initial body weight between sexes but female broilers had lower daily gains (Psaturation. Broilers fed on diets containing an animal fat blend or tallow had higher abdominal fat pad weight (Psaturation affects fat accumulation in broiler chickens.

  8. Effects of Dietary Fat and Saturated Fat Content on Liver Fat and Markers of Oxidative Stress in Overweight/Obese Men and Women under Weight-Stable Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Marina; Anize Delfino von Frankenberg; Seda Suvag; Callahan, Holly S.; Mario Kratz; Richards, Todd L.; Utzschneider, Kristina M

    2014-01-01

    Dietary fat and oxidative stress are hypothesized to contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and progression to steatohepatitis. To determine the effects of dietary fat content on hepatic triglyceride, body fat distribution and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, overweight/obese subjects with normal glucose tolerance consumed a control diet (CONT: 35% fat/12% saturated fat/47% carbohydrate) for ten days, followed by four weeks on a low fat (LFD (n = 10): 20% fat/8% saturate...

  9. Fat and Bone: An Odd Couple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Richard; Gilsanz, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we will first discuss the concept of bone strength and introduce how fat at different locations, including the bone marrow, directly or indirectly regulates bone turnover. We will then review the current literature supporting the mechanistic relationship between marrow fat and bone and our understanding of the relationship between body fat, body weight, and bone with emphasis on its hormonal regulation. Finally, we will briefly discuss the importance and challenges of accurately measuring the fat compartments using non-invasive methods. This review highlights the complex relationship between fat and bone and how these new concepts will impact our diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in the very near future. PMID:27014187

  10. Pancreatic enzyme secretion during intravenous fat infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, G P; Stein, T A

    1987-01-01

    The nutritional support of patients with pancreatic and high gastrointestinal fistulas and severe pancreatitis frequently involves intravenous fat infusion. There are conflicting reports on the effect of intravenous fat on pancreatic exocrine secretion. In 10 dogs with chronic pancreatic fistulas, pancreatic juice was collected during secretin (n = 10) or secretin + cholecystokinin (n = 4) stimulation, with and without intravenous fat infusion (5 g/hr). The hormonal-stimulated secretion of lipase, amylase, trypsin, total protein, bicarbonate, and water was unchanged during fat infusion. This study supports the use of intravenous fat as a nutritional source when it is desirable to avoid stimulation of the pancreas.

  11. Mesenchymal hamartoma: prenatal diagnosis by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Leysia [The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada); Seed, Mike [The Hospital for Sick Children, Division of Cardiology, Department of Paediatrics, Toronto (Canada); Howse, Erica; Ryan, Greg [University of Toronto, Fetal Medicine Unit, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Grosse-Wortmann, Lars [The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada); The Hospital for Sick Children, Division of Cardiology, Department of Paediatrics, Toronto (Canada)

    2011-06-15

    The clinical presentation of thoracic mesenchymal hamartomas varies from an asymptomatic chest wall mass to severe respiratory distress resulting from compression of the airways and lungs. We present the findings on fetal US and MRI of a histologically confirmed case. Following surgical resection, pathological examination corresponded to the cross-sectional imaging features with haemorrhagic, cystic and calcified components. An awareness of the characteristic imaging findings will allow accurate diagnosis of this condition, even prenatally, and thus facilitate appropriate perinatal management and surgical planning. (orig.)

  12. Bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation to treat diabetic nephropathy in tree shrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xing-Hua; Yang, Xiao-Yan; Yao, Xiang; Sun, Xiao-Mei; Zhu, Lu; Wang, Jin-Xiang; Pang, Rong-Qing; Cai, Xue-Min; Dai, Jie-Jie; Ruan, Guang-Ping

    2014-07-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a common microvascular complication of diabetes. We used a new DN model in tree shrews to validate the use of bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BM-MSC) transplantation to treat DN. The DN tree shrew model was established by a high-sugar and high-fat diet and four injections of streptozotocin. 4',6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole labelled BM-MSCs were injected into tree shrews. The DN tree shrew model was successfully established. Blood glucose was significantly increased ( p < 0.01) during the entire experiment. DN tree shrews showed dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and increased 24-h proteinuria. At 21 days after BM-MSC transplantation, glucose and levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol and 24-h urine volume were lower than in tree shrews with DN alone ( p < 0.01) but were still higher than control values ( p < 0.01). Levels of creatinine and urea nitrogen as well as 24-h proteinuria were lower for DN tree shrews with BM-MSCs transplantation than DN alone ( p < 0.05). High-sugar and high-fat diet combined with STZ injection can induce a tree shrew model of DN. BM-MSCs injection can home to damaged kidneys and pancreas, for reduced 24-h proteinuria and improved insulin resistance.

  13. Fat Triangulations and Differential Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Saucan, Emil

    2011-01-01

    We study the differential geometric consequences of our previous result on the existence of fat triangulations, in conjunction with a result of Cheeger, M\\"{u}ller and Schrader, regarding the convergence of Lipschitz-Killing curvatures of piecewise-flat approximations of smooth Riemannian manifolds. A further application to the existence of quasiconformal mappings between manifolds, as well as an extension of the triangulation result to the case of almost Riemannian manifolds, are also given. In addition, the notion of fatness of triangulations and its relation to metric curvature and to excess is explored. Moreover, applications of the main results, and in particular a purely metric approach to Regge calculus, are also investigated.

  14. Fat and Thin Fisher Zeroes

    CERN Document Server

    Janke, W; Stathakopoulos, M

    2002-01-01

    We show that it is possible to determine the locus of Fisher zeroes in the thermodynamic limit for the Ising model on planar (``fat'') phi4 random graphs and their dual quadrangulations by matching up the real part of the high- and low-temperature branches of the expression for the free energy. Similar methods work for the mean-field model on generic, ``thin'' graphs. Series expansions are very easy to obtain for such random graph Ising models.

  15. Safety of oils and fats

    OpenAIRE

    Superior Health Council (Belgium)

    2011-01-01

    Though there are nutritional advantages to consuming vegetable fat that is rich in poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA's), this can also entail health hazards that are linked to their potential oxidative deterioration.  This oxidative deterioration can be the outcome of numerous and varying causes. This publication examines these causes as well as the different kinds of oxidation products in the light of what is known about their toxicity for humans.  Though our knowledge in this field h...

  16. Safety of oils and fats

    OpenAIRE

    Superior Health Council (Belgium)

    2012-01-01

    Though there are nutritional advantages to consuming vegetable fat that is rich in poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA's), this can also entail health hazards that are linked to their potential oxidative deterioration.  This oxidative deterioration can be the outcome of numerous and varying causes. This publication examines these causes as well as the different kinds of oxidation products in the light of what is known about their toxicity for humans.  Though our knowledge in this field h...

  17. Saturated fat, carbohydrate, and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siri-Tarino, Patty W; Sun, Qi; Hu, Frank B; Krauss, Ronald M

    2010-03-01

    A focus of dietary recommendations for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention and treatment has been a reduction in saturated fat intake, primarily as a means of lowering LDL-cholesterol concentrations. However, the evidence that supports a reduction in saturated fat intake must be evaluated in the context of replacement by other macronutrients. Clinical trials that replaced saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat have generally shown a reduction in CVD events, although several studies showed no effects. An independent association of saturated fat intake with CVD risk has not been consistently shown in prospective epidemiologic studies, although some have provided evidence of an increased risk in young individuals and in women. Replacement of saturated fat by polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fat lowers both LDL and HDL cholesterol. However, replacement with a higher carbohydrate intake, particularly refined carbohydrate, can exacerbate the atherogenic dyslipidemia associated with insulin resistance and obesity that includes increased triglycerides, small LDL particles, and reduced HDL cholesterol. In summary, although substitution of dietary polyunsaturated fat for saturated fat has been shown to lower CVD risk, there are few epidemiologic or clinical trial data to support a benefit of replacing saturated fat with carbohydrate. Furthermore, particularly given the differential effects of dietary saturated fats and carbohydrates on concentrations of larger and smaller LDL particles, respectively, dietary efforts to improve the increasing burden of CVD risk associated with atherogenic dyslipidemia should primarily emphasize the limitation of refined carbohydrate intakes and a reduction in excess adiposity.

  18. Saturated fat, carbohydrate, and cardiovascular disease1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siri-Tarino, Patty W; Sun, Qi; Hu, Frank B; Krauss, Ronald M

    2010-01-01

    A focus of dietary recommendations for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention and treatment has been a reduction in saturated fat intake, primarily as a means of lowering LDL-cholesterol concentrations. However, the evidence that supports a reduction in saturated fat intake must be evaluated in the context of replacement by other macronutrients. Clinical trials that replaced saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat have generally shown a reduction in CVD events, although several studies showed no effects. An independent association of saturated fat intake with CVD risk has not been consistently shown in prospective epidemiologic studies, although some have provided evidence of an increased risk in young individuals and in women. Replacement of saturated fat by polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fat lowers both LDL and HDL cholesterol. However, replacement with a higher carbohydrate intake, particularly refined carbohydrate, can exacerbate the atherogenic dyslipidemia associated with insulin resistance and obesity that includes increased triglycerides, small LDL particles, and reduced HDL cholesterol. In summary, although substitution of dietary polyunsaturated fat for saturated fat has been shown to lower CVD risk, there are few epidemiologic or clinical trial data to support a benefit of replacing saturated fat with carbohydrate. Furthermore, particularly given the differential effects of dietary saturated fats and carbohydrates on concentrations of larger and smaller LDL particles, respectively, dietary efforts to improve the increasing burden of CVD risk associated with atherogenic dyslipidemia should primarily emphasize the limitation of refined carbohydrate intakes and a reduction in excess adiposity. PMID:20089734

  19. Deep fat of the face revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kwang Ho; Lee, Hak Seung; Katori, Yukio; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Jose Francisco; Murakami, Gen; Abe, Shin-Ichi

    2013-04-01

    The midfacial deep fatty tissue has been divided into the buccal and parapharyngeal fat pads although the former carries several extensions in adults. Using histological sections of 15 large human fetuses, we demonstrated that the parapharyngeal fat pad corresponds to the major content of the prestyloid compartment of the parapharyngeal space or, simply, the prestyloid fat. The buccal and prestyloid fatty tissues were separated by the medial and lateral pterygoid muscles. In these tissues, superficial parts, corresponding to the lower body and the masseteric extension of the adult buccal fat pad, were well encapsulated and showed the most advanced stage of histogenesis. As the sphenoid bone was not fully developed even in the largest specimens, the temporal, infratemporal, and pterygopalatine fossae joined to provide a large space for a single, large upper extension of the buccal fat pad. In the intermediate part of the extension course, the larger specimens carried a narrower part between the maxilla and the temporalis muscle. The single, upper extension appeared to divide into several extensions, as seen in adults. The periocular fat was clearly separated from the upper extension of the buccal fat pad by the sheet-like orbitalis muscle. A communication between the prestyloid fat and the buccal fat pad likely occurred through a potential space along the lingual nerve immediately superior to the deep part of the submandibular gland. At this site, therefore, the prestyloid fat may be injured or infected when the buccal fat pad is treated surgically.

  20. Low fat meat products - An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Naga Mallika

    Full Text Available Meat is an excellent source of valuable nutrients. Meat fat acts as a reservoir for flavor compounds and contributes to the texture of product. There are diverse possible strategies for developing low fat meat and meat products. Reducing the fat content in products leads to a firmer, rubbery, less juicy product with dark color and more cost. Other technological problems like reduction in particle binding, reduced cook yields, soft and mushy interiors, rubbery skin formation, excessive purge and shortened shelf life are also associated with reduction in fat levels. This paper describes Procedured of reducing fat content, Selection of additives, Protein, Carbohydrat and fat based fat replacer and Super critical fluid extraction. [Vet World 2009; 2(9.000: 364-366

  1. Endogenous fat loss and true total tract digestibility of poultry fat in adult dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, F R; Trevizan, L; Saad, F M O B; Lisenko, K G; Reis, J S; Kessler, A M

    2017-07-01

    Fat plays an important role in the carnivore diet. It has high digestibility and high energy content and likely improves digestibility of the diet when present in greater amounts, suggesting that endogenous fat adversely affects the apparent digestibility of fat in low-fat diets. This study aimed to determine the endogenous fat loss (EFL) and true total tract digestibility (TTTD) of fat in dogs by using diets having different fat:carbohydrate ratios. Furthermore, the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of macronutrients and energy, food intake, fecal output, and stool quality were evaluated. Twelve adult Beagle dogs were stratified into three 10-d periods in a 6 × 3 balanced incomplete Latin square design. Dietary treatments included a low-fat basal diet (3.4% fat) supplemented with 6 poultry fat levels (1, 4, 10, 12, 16, or 20%). The dogs were individually housed in metabolic cages and fed to meet the maintenance energy requirements. The ME intake was similar across the diets, despite the clearly low palatability of the 1 and 4% fat diets. Dietary ATTD of DM, OM, fat, and GE were improved after fat inclusion ( fat increase ( > 0.05). The amount of fecal output decreased with increasing level of fat in the diet, but the fecal score was not affected. The stool quality was close to ideal (2.4-2.8) and no different among diets. The EFL was estimated using 2 regression methods and was expressed as 155 mg∙kg BW∙d or 7.9 g/kg of DMI. The TTTD of poultry fat was the same irrespective of the dietary fat level. Poultry fat was 99.3% digestible for the dogs. The relation between EFL and fat intake was higher for the lower-fat diets, explaining the ATTD of fat increase according to the dietary fat inclusion. In conclusion, dietary fat is well digested by dogs irrespective of the level included, close to 100%. The ATTD of fat in low-fat diets is underestimated because the endogenous content is proportionally greater than that in high-fat diets.

  2. An Efficient Method to Obtain Dedifferentiated Fat Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Hiroaki; Kazama, Tomohiko; Hagikura, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Chii; Kazama, Minako; Nagaoka, Yuki; Matsumoto, Taro

    2016-07-15

    Tissue engineering and cell therapy hold great promise clinically. In this regard, multipotent cells, such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), may be used therapeutically, in the near future, to restore function to damaged organs. Nevertheless, several technical issues, including the highly invasive procedure of isolating MSCs and the inefficiency surrounding their amplification, currently hamper the potential clinical use of these therapeutic modalities. Herein, we introduce a highly efficient method for the generation of dedifferentiated fat cells (DFAT), MSC-like cells. Interestingly, DFAT cells can be differentiated into several cell types including adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic cells. Although other groups have previously presented various methods for generating DFAT cells from mature adipose tissue, our method allows us to produce DFAT cells more efficiently. In this regard, we demonstrate that DFAT culture medium (DCM), supplemented with 20% FBS, is more effective in generating DFAT cells than DMEM, supplemented with 20% FBS. Additionally, the DFAT cells produced by our cell culture method can be redifferentiated into several tissue types. As such, a very interesting and useful model for the study of tissue dedifferentiation is presented.

  3. Engineering zonal cartilaginous tissue by modulating oxygen levels and mechanical cues through the depth of infrapatellar fat pad stem cell laden hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lu; O'Reilly, Adam R; Thorpe, Stephen D; Buckley, Conor T; Kelly, Daniel J

    2016-05-03

    Engineering tissues with a structure and spatial composition mimicking those of native articular cartilage (AC) remains a challenge. This study examined if infrapatellar fat pad-derived stem cells (FPSCs) can be used to engineer cartilage grafts with a bulk composition and a spatial distribution of matrix similar to the native tissue. In an attempt to mimic the oxygen gradients and mechanical environment within AC, FPSC-laden hydrogels (either 2 mm or 4 mm in height) were confined to half of their thickness and/or subjected to dynamic compression (DC). Confining FPSC-laden hydrogels was predicted to accentuate the gradient in oxygen tension through the depth of the constructs (higher in the top and lower in the bottom), leading to enhanced glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and collagen synthesis in 2 mm high tissues. When subjected to DC alone, both GAG and collagen accumulation increased within 2 mm high unconfined constructs. Furthermore, the dynamic modulus of constructs increased from 0.96 MPa to 1.45 MPa following the application of DC. There was no synergistic benefit of coupling confinement and DC on overall levels of matrix accumulation; however in all constructs, irrespective of their height, the combination of these boundary conditions led to the development of engineered tissues that spatially best resembled native AC. The superficial region of these constructs mimicked that of native tissue, staining weakly for GAG, strongly for type II collagen, and in 4 mm high tissues more intensely for proteoglycan 4 (lubricin). This study demonstrated that FPSCs respond to joint-like environmental conditions by producing cartilage tissues mimicking native AC. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Mesenchymal stem cells targeting the GVHD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO; Robert; ChunHua

    2009-01-01

    Acute graft-versus-host disease(GVHD) occurs after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant and is a reaction of donor immune cells against host tissues.About 35%-50% of hematopoietic stem cell transplant(HSCT) recipients will develop acute GVHD.It is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality,particularly in patients who do not respond to primary therapy,which usually consists of glucocorticoids(steroids).Most of the available second-line and third-line treatments for steroid-refractory acute GVHD induce severe immunodeficiency,which is commonly accompanied by lethal infectious complications.Mesenchymal stem cells(MSCs) have been shown to mediate immunomodulatory effects.The recently elucidated immunosuppressive potential of mesenchymal stem cells has set the stage for their clinical testing as cellular immunosuppressants,MSCs have been used in patients with steroid-refractory acute GVHD,and encouraging responses have been obtained in many studies.The utility of MSCs for the treatment of GVHD is becoming clear.

  5. Mesenchymal stromal cell therapy in ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Y

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ye Zhang, Hong Deng, Chao Pan, Yang Hu, Qian Wu, Na Liu, Zhouping Tang Department of Neurology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Stroke is a clinical disease with high incidence, high disability rate, and high mortality. But effective and safe therapy for stroke remains limited. Adult mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs perform a variety of therapeutic functions. MSC delivery improves neurological outcomes in ischemic stroke models via neurorestorative and neuroprotective effects such as angiogenic effects, promoting endogenous proliferation, and reducing apoptosis and inflammation. MSC secretome also showed powerful therapeutic effects as a cell-based therapy in animal experiments. Several clinical trials on MSC implantation via different routes have now been completed in patients with stroke. Although challenges such as immunogenicity of allo-MSCs and large-scale production strategies need to be overcome, MSCs can be considered as a promising potential therapy for ischemic stroke. Keywords: mesenchymal stromal cell, stroke, therapy, transplantation, exosomes

  6. Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olcay Ergurhan Kiroglu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative diseases are almost incurable, debilitating, and they might be fatal, because of limited neurogenesis in nervous system, presence of inhibitory substances and inhibition of recovery due to development of glial scar. Despite many treatment strategies of neurodegenerative diseases no full cure has been achieved. The successful results for mesenchymal stem cells applications on muscles, heart and liver diseases and the application of these cells to the damaged area in particular, hypoxia, inflammation and apoptosis promise hope of using them for neurodegenerative diseases. Mesenchymal stem cells applications constitute a vascular and neuronal phenotype in Parkinsons disease, Huntingtons disease, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Alzheimers disease. Stem cells release bioactive agents that lead to suppression of local immune system, reduction of free radicals, increase in angiogenesis, inhibition of fibrosis, and apoptosis. In addition, tissue stem cells, increase neuronal healing, stimulate proliferation and differentiation. These findings show that stem cells might be a hope of a cure in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and intensive work on this issue should continue.

  7. Modeling sarcomagenesis using multipotent mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rene Rodriguez; Ruth Rubio; Pablo Menendez

    2012-01-01

    Because of their unique properties,multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent one of the most promising adult stem cells being used worldwide in a wide array of clinical applications.Overall,compelling evidence supports the long-term safety of ex vivo expanded human MSCs,which do not seem to transform spontaneously.However,experimental data reveal a link between MSCs and cancer,and MSCs have been reported to inhibit or promote tumor growth depending on yet undefined conditions.Interestingly,solid evidence based on transgenic mice and genetic intervention of MSCs has placed these cells as the most likely cell of origin for certain sarcomas.This research area is being increasingly explored to develop accurate MSC-based models of sarcomagenesis,which will be undoubtedly valuable in providing a better understanding about the etiology and pathogenesis of mesenchymal cancer,eventually leading to the development of more specific therapies directed against the sarcoma-initiating cell.Unfortunately,still little is known about the mechanisms underlying MSC transformation and further studies are required to develop bona fide sarcoma models based on human MSCs.Here,we comprehensively review the existing MSC-based models of sarcoma and discuss the most common mechanisms leading to tumoral transformation of MSCs and sarcomagenesis.

  8. Viability of mesenchymal stem cells during electrospinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zanatta

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering is a technique by which a live tissue can be re-constructed and one of its main goals is to associate cells with biomaterials. Electrospinning is a technique that facilitates the production of nanofibers and is commonly used to develop fibrous scaffolds to be used in tissue engineering. In the present study, a different approach for cell incorporation into fibrous scaffolds was tested. Mesenchymal stem cells were extracted from the wall of the umbilical cord and mononuclear cells from umbilical cord blood. Cells were re-suspended in a 10% polyvinyl alcohol solution and subjected to electrospinning for 30 min under a voltage of 21 kV. Cell viability was assessed before and after the procedure by exclusion of dead cells using trypan blue staining. Fiber diameter was observed by scanning electron microscopy and the presence of cells within the scaffolds was analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. After electrospinning, the viability of mesenchymal stem cells was reduced from 88 to 19.6% and the viability of mononuclear cells from 99 to 8.38%. The loss of viability was possibly due to the high viscosity of the polymer solution, which reduced the access to nutrients associated with electric and mechanical stress during electrospinning. These results suggest that the incorporation of cells during fiber formation by electrospinning is a viable process that needs more investigation in order to find ways to protect cells from damage.

  9. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in tumor microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yingying

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT plays crucial roles in the formation of the body plan and also in the tumor invasion process. In addition, EMT also causes disruption of cell-cell adherence, loss of apico-basal polarity, matrix remodeling, increased motility and invasiveness in promoting tumor metastasis. The tumor microenvironment plays an important role in facilitating cancer metastasis and may induce the occurrence of EMT in tumor cells. A large number of inflammatory cells infiltrating the tumor site, as well as hypoxia existing in a large area of tumor, in addition many stem cells present in tumor microenvironment, such as cancer stem cells (CSCs, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, all of these may be the inducers of EMT in tumor cells. The signaling pathways involved in EMT are various, including TGF-β, NF-κB, Wnt, Notch, and others. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge about the role of the tumor microenvironment in EMT and the related signaling pathways as well as the interaction between them.

  10. Placental Mesenchymal Dysplasia: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachna Agarwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. A rare case of histologically proven placental mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD with fetal omphalocele in a 22-year-old patient is reported. Material and Methods. Antenatal ultrasound of this patient showed hydropic placenta with a live fetus of 17 weeks period of gestation associated with omphalocele. Cordocentesis detected the diploid karyotype of the fetus. Patient, when prognosticated, choose to terminate the pregnancy in view of high incidence of fetal and placental anomalies. Subsequent histopathological examination of placenta established the diagnosis to be placental mesenchymal dysplasia. Conclusion. On clinical and ultrasonic grounds, suspicion of P.M.D. arises when hydropic placenta with a live fetus presents in second trimester of pregnancy. Cordocentesis can detect the diploid karyotype of the fetus in such cases. As this condition is prognostically better than triploid partial mole, continuation of pregnancy can sometimes be considered after through antenatal screening and patient counseling. However, a definite diagnosis of P.M.D. is made only on placental histology by absence of trophoblast hyperplasia and trophoblastic inclusions.

  11. A Case of Placental Mesenchymal Dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeki Taga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Placental mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD rarely complicates with pregnancy. A 30-year-old woman, gravida 3, para 3, presenting with placentomegaly, was referred to our department at 18 weeks of gestation. An ultrasonography revealed a normal fetus with a large multicystic placenta, measuring 125 × 42 × 80 mm. The border between the lesion and normal region was not clear. Color doppler revealed little blood flow in the lesion. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed normal fetus and a large multicystic placenta. Serum human chorionic gonadotropin level was 20124.97 U/L, which was normal at 20 weeks of gestation. Thus, placental mesenchymal dysplasia rather than hydatidiform mole with coexistent fetus was suspected. Then, routine checkup was continued. Because she had the history of Cesarean section, an elective Cesarean section was performed at 37 weeks of gestation, and 2520 g female infant with apgar score 8/9 was delivered. The baby was normal with no evidence of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Placenta of 20 × 16 × 2 cm, weighing 720 g, was bulky with grape like vesicles involving whole placenta. Microscopic examination revealed dilated villi and vessels with thick wall which was lacking trophoblast proliferation. Large hydropic stem villi with myxomatous struma and cistern formation were seen. PMD was histopathologically confirmed.

  12. Design and Implementation of Log Structured FAT and ExFAT File Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshava Munegowda

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The File Allocation Table (FAT file system is supported in multiple Operating Systems (OS. Hence, FAT file system is universal exchange format for files/directories used in Solid State Drives (SSD and Hard disk Drives (HDD. The Microsoft Corporation introduced the new file system called Extended FAT file system (ExFAT to support larger size storage devices. The ExFAT file system is optimized to use with SSDs. But, Both FAT and ExFAT are not power fail safe. This means that the uncontrolled power loss or abrupt storage device removable from the computer system, during file system update, causes corruption of file system meta data and hence it leads to loss of data in storage device. This paper implements the Logging and Committing features to FAT and ExFAT file systems and ensures that the file system meta data is consistent across the abrupt power loss or device removal from the computer system.

  13. Changes in fat contents of US snack foods in response to mandatory trans fat labelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, Debra; Hooker, Neal H; Lin, Chung-Tung Jordan

    2012-06-01

    Impact of mandatory trans fat labelling on US snack food introductions is examined. Using label information, lipid ingredients and fat profiles are compared pre- and post-labelling. Key products in the US snack food industry contribute significant amounts of artificial trans fat. Industry efforts to reformulate products to lower trans fat may alter the overall fat profile, in particular saturates. Composition data for more than 5000 chip and cookie products introduced for sale between 2001 (pre-labelling) and 2009 (post-labelling) were analysed. One-way ANOVA was used to test for significant changes in saturated fat content per serving and the ratio of saturated to total fat. The shares of chip and cookie introductions containing partially hydrogenated vegetable oil declined by 45 and 42 percentage points, respectively. In cookies, there was an increase of 0·49 (98 % CI 0·01, 0·98) g in the average saturated fat content per 30 g serving and an increase of 9 (98 % CI 3, 15) % in the average ratio of saturated to total fat. No statistically significant changes in fat content were observed in chips. This research suggests that, holding other factors constant, the policy has resulted in a decreased use of partially hydrogenated vegetable oil in chip products without a corresponding increase in saturated fat content, but led to significantly higher levels of saturated fat and ratio of saturated fat to total fat in cookie products.

  14. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia associated with hepatic and pulmonary hamartoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortoledo, Maria; Galindo, A; Ibarrola, C

    2010-01-01

    This report describes a 31-week stillborn female infant with placental mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD) in association with hepatic mesenchymal hamartoma (HMH) and pulmonary hamartoma. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia was initially misdiagnosed as a partial mole. However, histologically, no trophoblastic proliferation or inclusions were observed. Differential diagnosis of the hepatic mass with similar tumors is discussed. To our knowledge, this is the first case of lung hamartoma reported in a fetus and the first case related to PMD and HMH. A common anomalous development of the mesoderm, a reparative post-injury process and a genetic mechanism, have been proposed to explain their pathogenesis.

  15. Extraskeletal mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of the carotid space: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Sun; Hong, Hyun Sook; Kwak, Jeong Ja; Park, Ji Sang; Jeong, Sun Hye [Bucheon Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Chondrosarcoma is a commonly encountered malignant cartilaginous tumor. However, only 1% of chondrosarcomas arise in the extraskeletal region. The pathologic types of this tumor include mesenchymal, myxoid, and low grade. A mesenchymal chondrosarcoma is a rare, highly malignant cartilaginous tumor that is rarely encountered, and it shows similar imaging features to other malignant soft-tissue tumors. Here, we report a mesenchymal chondrosarcoma presenting as a palpable mass in the neck, arising in the carotid space, which is also known as the retrostyloid parapharyngeal space.

  16. [Mesenchymal hamartoma of the liver in an elderly man].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giunippero, Alejandro; Maya, Antonio M; Gallo, Antonio; Bazzana, María S; Cosentino, Valeria; Aulet, Francisco J

    2009-01-01

    The mesenchymal hamartoma of the liver is a non frequent benign tumor with a ductal plate malformation, consisting of myxoid mesenchymal tissue and abnormal bile ducts in different proportion. Usually it presents as multiple liver cyst formations without communication with the principal bile duct. They are frequent in children, being rare in adults. The first case was reported by Yamamura et al in 1976, and very few cases are reported in the bibliography. We present the case of an elder 87 year old male who presented a 20 cm mesenchymal hamartoma liver cyst.

  17. Fat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    受美食的诱感,阿肥难以抗拒享受各种食物.因此体重也变得越来越不乐观;同时.阿肥曾经暗恋过但已多年没见的旧同学提出聚会.于是在他的生活中就有了矛盾和冲突;嗜食和减肥!他虽然努力克制自己的食欲.但是食神的出现却使他备受美食的折磨。而最后的聚会结局更是令观众们大跌眼镜……

  18. Interrelation of saturated fat, trans fat, alcohol intake, and subclinical atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Anwar T; Kelemen, Linda E; de Koning, Lawrence; Lonn, Eva; Vuksan, Vlad; Jacobs, Ruby; Davis, Bonnie; Teo, Koon K; Yusuf, Salim; Anand, Sonia S

    2008-01-01

    Intake of saturated fat, trans fat, and alcohol alter cardiovascular disease risk, but their effect on subclinical atherosclerosis remains understudied. The objective was to examine and quantify the interrelation of saturated fat, trans fat, alcohol intake, and mean carotid artery intimal medial thickness (IMT). We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional study among 620 persons of Aboriginal, South Asian, Chinese, or European origin aged 35-75 y, who had lived in Canada for >or=5 y. Mean IMT was calculated from 6 well-defined segments of the right and left carotid arteries with standardized B-mode ultrasound, and saturated fat, trans fat, and alcohol intakes were measured with validated food-frequency questionnaires. For every 10-g/d increase in saturated fat intake, IMT was 0.03 mm higher (P=0.01) after multivariate adjustment. A 1-g/d higher intake of trans fat was associated with a 0.03-mm higher IMT (P=0.02) after multivariate adjustment. The ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fat (P:S) was inversely associated with IMT after multivariate adjustment (change in IMT: -0.06 mm; PSaturated and trans fat intakes were independently associated with IMT thickness (change in IMT: 0.03 mm; Pfat intakes were unrelated to IMT. The relation between saturated fat intake and IMT strengthened (beta=0.0066, Psaturated and trans fats are independently associated with increased subclinical atherosclerosis, and alcohol intake may attenuate the relation between saturated fat and subclinical atherosclerosis.

  19. Exterior dimension of fat fractals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebogi, C.; Mcdonald, S. W.; Ott, E.; Yorke, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Geometric scaling properties of fat fractal sets (fractals with finite volume) are discussed and characterized via the introduction of a new dimension-like quantity which is called the exterior dimension. In addition, it is shown that the exterior dimension is related to the 'uncertainty exponent' previously used in studies of fractal basin boundaries, and it is shown how this connection can be exploited to determine the exterior dimension. Three illustrative applications are described, two in nonlinear dynamics and one dealing with blood flow in the body. Possible relevance to porous materials and ballistic driven aggregation is also noted.

  20. Regular-fat dairy and human health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne; Bradley, Beth H Rice; Brenna, J Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In recent history, some dietary recommendations have treated dairy fat as an unnecessary source of calories and saturated fat in the human diet. These assumptions, however, have recently been brought into question by current research on regular fat dairy products and human health. In an effort...... dairy foods have on human health. The emerging scientific evidence indicates that the consumption of regular fat dairy foods is not associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and inversely associated with weight gain and the risk of obesity. Dairy foods, including regular-fat milk...... to disseminate, explore and discuss the state of the science on the relationship between regular fat dairy products and health, symposia were programmed by dairy industry organizations in Europe and North America at The Eurofed Lipids Congress (2014) in France, The Dairy Nutrition Annual Symposium (2014...

  1. Is fat taste ready for primetime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPatrizio, Nicholas V

    2014-09-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that gustation is important for the orosensory detection of dietary fats, and might contribute to preferences that humans, rodents, and possibly other mammals exhibit for fat-rich foods. In contrast to sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami, fat is not widely recognized as a primary taste quality. Recent investigations, however, provide a wealth of information that is helping to elucidate the specific molecular, cellular, and neural mechanisms required for fat detection in mammals. The latest evidence supporting a fat taste will be explored in this review, with a particular focus on recent studies that suggest a surprising role for gut-brain endocannabinoid signaling in controlling intake and preference for fats based on their proposed taste properties.

  2. DIETARY FAT AND SPORTS NUTRITION: A PRIMER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lonnie M. Lowery

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The general public's view of macronutrients has undergone sweeping changes in recent years. Dietary fats are a key example. Since the anti-fat health education initiatives of the 1980s and early 1990s, certain dietary fats have been increasingly recognized as actually beneficial to health. Athletes, like the mainstream populace, are now getting the message that wise dietary fat (triacylglycerol choices offer essential fatty acids, blood lipid management, maintained endocrine and immune function, inflammation control, metabolic effects and even potential body composition and performance benefits. Toward this end, many companies now sell specialty dietary fat supplements and recognized health authorities have begun recommending them to certain populations. This review will cover data regarding the physiology, dietary needs, food sources, and potential benefits and risks most relevant to athletes. Practical suggestions for incorporating healthy fats will be made. Both food-source and supplemental intakes will be addressed with interrelationships to health throughout.

  3. Ribonuclease-mediated control of body fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habacher, Cornelia; Guo, Yanwu; Venz, Richard

    2016-01-01

    . Using exon-intron split analysis, we find that REGE-1 promotes fat by degrading the mRNA encoding ETS-4, a fat-loss-promoting transcription factor. Because ETS-4, in turn, induces rege-1 transcription, REGE-1 and ETS-4 appear to form an auto-regulatory module. We propose that this type of fat regulation......Obesity is a global health issue, arousing interest in molecular mechanisms controlling fat. Transcriptional regulation of fat has received much attention, and key transcription factors involved in lipid metabolism, such as SBP-1/SREBP, LPD-2/C/EBP, and MDT-15, are conserved from nematodes...... to mammals. However, there is a growing awareness that lipid metabolism can also be controlled by post-transcriptional mechanisms. Here, we show that the Caenorhabditis elegans RNase, REGE-1, related to MCPIP1/Zc3h12a/Regnase-1, a key regulator of mammalian innate immunity, promotes accumulation of body fat...

  4. Determination of fat in vegetable foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, I; Merin, U; Popel, G; Bernstein, S

    1985-01-01

    The fat in vegetable foods--tree nuts, peanuts, sunflower seeds, avocado, and olives--can be determined volumetrically by acid digestion of the material and separation of the fat. The assay can be performed conveniently by using the equipment developed for fat determination of milk (Gerber method). The results agree well with those obtained by Soxhlet extraction. The advantages of using the Gerber method for vegetable foods are simplicity, speed, low operation cost, and elimination of the use of inflammable solvents.

  5. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been

  6. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been

  7. In vitro differentiation of human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    May H. Hasan

    2016-08-05

    Aug 5, 2016 ... hepatocyte-like cells were detected on day 21 and increased on day 28. Protein ... MSCs can be a promising source of cell therapy for intractable liver diseases. ..... blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells by DNA microarray.

  8. Labeling and Imaging Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells with the potential to differentiate into bone, cartilage, adipose and muscle cells. Adult derived MSCs are being actively investigated because of their potential to be utilized for therapeutic cell-based transplantation. Methods...

  9. The transcriptional coactivator TAZ regulates mesenchymal differentiation in malignant glioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhat, Krishna P. L.; Salazar, Katrina L.; Balasubramaniyan, Veerakumar; Wani, Khalida; Heathcock, Lindsey; Hollingsworth, Faith; James, Johanna D.; Gumin, Joy; Diefes, Kristin L.; Kim, Se Hoon; Turski, Alice; Azodi, Yasaman; Yang, Yuhui; Doucette, Tiffany; Colman, Howard; Sulman, Erik P.; Lang, Frederick F.; Rao, Ganesh; Copray, Sjef; Vaillant, Brian D.; Aldape, Kenneth D.

    2011-01-01

    Recent molecular classification of glioblastoma (GBM) has shown that patients with a mesenchymal (MES) gene expression signature exhibit poor overall survival and treatment resistance. Using regulatory network analysis of available expression microarray data sets of GBM, including The Cancer Genome

  10. The transcriptional coactivator TAZ regulates mesenchymal differentiation in malignant glioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhat, Krishna P. L.; Salazar, Katrina L.; Balasubramaniyan, Veerakumar; Wani, Khalida; Heathcock, Lindsey; Hollingsworth, Faith; James, Johanna D.; Gumin, Joy; Diefes, Kristin L.; Kim, Se Hoon; Turski, Alice; Azodi, Yasaman; Yang, Yuhui; Doucette, Tiffany; Colman, Howard; Sulman, Erik P.; Lang, Frederick F.; Rao, Ganesh; Copray, Sjef; Vaillant, Brian D.; Aldape, Kenneth D.

    2011-01-01

    Recent molecular classification of glioblastoma (GBM) has shown that patients with a mesenchymal (MES) gene expression signature exhibit poor overall survival and treatment resistance. Using regulatory network analysis of available expression microarray data sets of GBM, including The Cancer Genome

  11. Clustering and jamming in epithelial-mesenchymal co-cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa Castro, Marielena; Leggett, Susan E; Wong, Ian Y

    2016-10-12

    Collective behaviors emerge from coordinated cell-cell interactions during the morphogenesis of tissues and tumors. For instance, cells may display density-dependent phase transitions from a fluid-like "unjammed" phase to a solid-like "jammed" phase, while different cell types can "self-sort". Here, we comprehensively track single cell dynamics in mixtures of sheet-forming epithelial cells and dispersed mesenchymal cells. We find that proliferating epithelial cells nucleate multicellular clusters that coarsen at a critical density, arresting migration and strengthening spatial velocity correlations. The addition of mesenchymal cells can slow cluster formation and coarsening, resulting in more dispersed individual cells with weak spatial velocity correlations. These behaviors have analogies with a jamming-unjamming transition, where the control parameters are cell density and mesenchymal fraction. This complex interplay of proliferation, clustering and correlated migration may have physical implications for understanding epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in development and disease.

  12. Post-pancreatitis Fat Necrosis Mimicking Carcinomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joshua P; Arnoletti, J Pablo; Varadarajulu, Shyam; Morgan, Desiree E

    2008-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis can result in retroperitoneal fat necrosis, typically occurring in the peripancreatic region, with extension into the transverse mesocolon, omentum and mesenteric root. When evaluated with contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT), acute peripancreatic post necrotic collections typically become lower in attenuation over time, and often appear as homogeneous fluid collections. Saponification as a complication of fat necrosis in patients with acute pancreatitis is a well recognized clinical entity. While retroperitonal fat necrosis is commonly seen on CECT, saponification is not a prominent imaging feature. We present a case of acute pancreatitis complicated by extensive saponification of fat throughout the retroperitoneum and peritoneal lining, mimicking carcinomatosis.

  13. Mesenchymal stem cells: A new diagnostic tool?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are progenitor cellscapable of self-renewal that can differentiate inmultiple tissues and, under specific and standardized culture conditions, expand in vitro with little phenotypicalterations. In recent years, preclinical andclinical studies have focused on MSC analysis andunderstanding the potential use of these cells as atherapy in a wide range of pathologies, and manyapplications have been tested. Clinical trials usingMSCs have been performed (e.g. , for cardiac events,stroke, multiple sclerosis, blood diseases, auto-immunedisorders, ischemia, and articular cartilage and bonepathologies), and for many genetic diseases, thesecells are considered an important resource. Consideringof the biology of MSCs, these cells may also be usefultools for understanding the physiopathology of differentdiseases, and they can be used to develop specificbiomarkers for a broad range of diseases. In thiseditorial, we discuss the literature related to the use ofMSCs for diagnostic applications and we suggest newtechnologies to improve their employment.

  14. Cryopreservation and revival of mesenchymal stromal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haack-Sørensen, Mandana; Kastrup, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Over the past few years, the pace of preclinical stem cell research is astonishing and adult stem cells have become the subject of intense research. Due to the presence of promising supporting preclinical data, human clinical trials for stem cell regenerative treatment of various diseases have been...... initiated. As there has been a precedent for the use of bone marrow stem cells in the treatment of hematological malignancies and ischemic heart diseases through randomized clinical safety and efficacy trials, the development of new therapies based on culture-expanded human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs......) opens up new possibilities for cell therapy. To facilitate these applications, cryopreservation and long-term storage of MSCs becomes an absolute necessity. As a result, optimization of this cryopreservation protocol is absolutely critical. The major challenge during cellular cryopreservation...

  15. Cryopreservation and revival of mesenchymal stromal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haack-Sørensen, Mandana; Kastrup, Jens

    2011-01-01

    ) opens up new possibilities for cell therapy. To facilitate these applications, cryopreservation and long-term storage of MSCs becomes an absolute necessity. As a result, optimization of this cryopreservation protocol is absolutely critical. The major challenge during cellular cryopreservation...... initiated. As there has been a precedent for the use of bone marrow stem cells in the treatment of hematological malignancies and ischemic heart diseases through randomized clinical safety and efficacy trials, the development of new therapies based on culture-expanded human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs......Over the past few years, the pace of preclinical stem cell research is astonishing and adult stem cells have become the subject of intense research. Due to the presence of promising supporting preclinical data, human clinical trials for stem cell regenerative treatment of various diseases have been...

  16. Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Angels or Demons?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca S. Y. Wong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have been used in cell-based therapy in various disease conditions such as graft-versus-host and heart diseases, osteogenesis imperfecta, and spinal cord injuries, and the results have been encouraging. However, as MSC therapy gains popularity among practitioners and researchers, there have been reports on the adverse effects of MSCs especially in the context of tumour modulation and malignant transformation. These cells have been found to enhance tumour growth and metastasis in some studies and have been related to anticancer-drug resistance in other instances. In addition, various studies have also reported spontaneous malignant transformation of MSCs. The mechanism of the modulatory behaviour and the tumorigenic potential of MSCs, warrant urgent exploration, and the use of MSCs in patients with cancer awaits further evaluation. However, if MSCs truly play a role in tumour modulation, they can also be potential targets of cancer treatment.

  17. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Manage Endogenous Tissue Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2016-08-01

    angiogenesis, and stimulate mitosis and differentiation of tissue, intrinsic reparative or stem cells. These referred a trophic effects, different from the direct differentiation of MSCs into repair tissue. Thus, MSC suggested as a multidrug delivery vehicles in response of injury. In this regard, the trophic effects of MSCs may have profound clinical use. SUMMARY: Managing the body’s natural repair and regeneration capacities is the new frontier for modern medicine and the basis for the science of cell therapies. Study of MSCs become one avenue that being pursued to explore the endogenous tissue regeneration management, so that people have a great expectation to solve many severe diseases. KEYWORDS: mesenchymal stromal/stem cell, paracrine or autocrine activities, trophic mediator, inflammation, wound healing

  18. Optimizing mesenchymal stem cell-based therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Joseph; Kean, Thomas; Young, Randell; Dennis, James E; Caplan, Arnold I

    2009-10-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapeutics are showing significant benefit in multiple clinical trials conducted by both academic and commercial organizations, but obstacles remain for their large-scale commercial implementation. Recent studies have attempted to optimize MSC-based therapeutics by either enhancing their potency or increasing their delivery to target tissues. Overexpression of trophic factors or in vitro exposure to potency-enhancing factors are two approaches that are demonstrating success in preclinical animal models. Delivery enhancement strategies involving tissue-specific cytokine pathways or binding sites are also showing promise. Each of these strategies has its own set of distinct advantages and disadvantages when viewed with a mindset of ultimate commercialization and clinical utility.

  19. Hypoxia, Oxidative Stress and Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaus Netzer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic disturbances in white adipose tissue in obese individuals contribute to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Impaired insulin action in adipocytes is associated with elevated lipolysis and increased free fatty acids leading to ectopic fat deposition in liver and skeletal muscle. Chronic adipose tissue hypoxia has been suggested to be part of pathomechanisms causing dysfunction of adipocytes. Hypoxia can provoke oxidative stress in human and animal adipocytes and reduce the production of beneficial adipokines, such as adiponectin. However, time-dose responses to hypoxia relativize the effects of hypoxic stress. Long-term exposure of fat cells to hypoxia can lead to the production of beneficial substances such as leptin. Knowledge of time-dose responses of hypoxia on white adipose tissue and the time course of generation of oxidative stress in adipocytes is still scarce. This paper reviews the potential links between adipose tissue hypoxia, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and low-grade inflammation caused by adipocyte hypertrophy, macrophage infiltration and production of inflammatory mediators.

  20. Peripheral nerve extract effects on mesenchymal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, F R; Mukhopadhyay, B; Becker, G; Daniels, K; Solursh, M

    1996-01-01

    Several common congenital limb disorders are characterized by normal tissue differentiation but abnormal somatic growth. These include: idiopathic clubfoot, idiopathic leg length discrepancy, hemi-atrophy and hemi-hypertrophy. Both clinical and research studies have suggested that peripheral nerves may be important in regulating somatic growth of limb tissues. To investigate the hypothesis that peripheral nerves convey trophic substances to mesenchymal tissues that are involved in the regulation of growth, we developed an in vitro assay to assess the effect of fractions of peripheral nerve on myoblast and chondroblast growth and differentiation in a mammalian (rat) system. Whole rat sciatic nerve extract was fractionated by ammonium sulfate precipitation and by affinity chromatography. Concavalin A chromatography resolved whole nerve extract into a glycoprotein and a non-glycoprotein fraction. Serial ammonium sulfate precipitation yielded three pellet fractions designated as 35%, 70%, and 100% pellets; corresponding to ammonium sulfate concentrations of 0 to 35%, 35 to 70%, and 70 to 100% saturation, respectively. Dialyzed solutions of these pellets as well as the fractions from Concavalin A chromatography were assayed for biological activity in micromass cultures of rat limb bud mesenchyme, which allowed assessment of both myoblast and chondroblast stimulation. Stimulation of protein synthesis and myoblast proliferation (as measured by MF20 staining) occurred with both 70% and 100% ammonium sulfate fractions. Stimulation of chondroblasts (as measured by the number of alcian blue staining nodules) occurred with the 35% and 100% fractions. The glycoprotein fraction from the affinity chromatography stimulated protein synthesis and myoblast proliferation and inhibited chondroblast development. Stimulation of chondroblasts was seen with the non-glycoprotein fraction. No effect on protein synthesis, myoblast proliferation or chondroblast proliferation was found in

  1. Protons Sensitize Epithelial Cells to Mesenchymal Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minli; Hada, Megumi; Saha, Janapriya; Sridharan, Deepa M.; Pluth, Janice M.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2012-01-01

    Proton radiotherapy has gained more favor among oncologists as a treatment option for localized and deep-seated tumors. In addition, protons are a major constituent of the space radiation astronauts receive during space flights. The potential for these exposures to lead to, or enhance cancer risk has not been well studied. Our objective is to study the biological effects of low energy protons on epithelial cells and its propensity to enhance transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1)-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process occurring during tumor progression and critical for invasion and metastasis. Non-transformed mink lung epithelial cells (Mv1Lu) and hTERT- immortalized human esophageal epithelial cells (EPC) were used in this study. EMT was identified by alterations in cell morphology, EMT-related gene expression changes determined using real-time PCR, and EMT changes in specific cellular markers detected by immunostaining and western blotting. Although TGFβ1 treatment alone is able to induce EMT in both Mv1Lu and EPC cells, low energy protons (5 MeV) at doses as low as 0.1 Gy can enhance TGFβ1 induced EMT. Protons alone can also induce a mild induction of EMT. SD208, a potent TGFβ Receptor 1 (TGFβR1) kinase inhibitor, can efficiently block TGFβ1/Smad signaling and attenuate EMT induction. We suggest a model for EMT after proton irradiation in normal and cancerous tissue based on our results that showed that low and high doses of protons can sensitize normal human epithelial cells to mesenchymal transition, more prominently in the presence of TGFβ1, but also in the absence of TGFβ1. PMID:22844446

  2. Protons sensitize epithelial cells to mesenchymal transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minli Wang

    Full Text Available Proton radiotherapy has gained more favor among oncologists as a treatment option for localized and deep-seated tumors. In addition, protons are a major constituent of the space radiation astronauts receive during space flights. The potential for these exposures to lead to, or enhance cancer risk has not been well studied. Our objective is to study the biological effects of low energy protons on epithelial cells and its propensity to enhance transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT, a process occurring during tumor progression and critical for invasion and metastasis. Non-transformed mink lung epithelial cells (Mv1Lu and hTERT- immortalized human esophageal epithelial cells (EPC were used in this study. EMT was identified by alterations in cell morphology, EMT-related gene expression changes determined using real-time PCR, and EMT changes in specific cellular markers detected by immunostaining and western blotting. Although TGFβ1 treatment alone is able to induce EMT in both Mv1Lu and EPC cells, low energy protons (5 MeV at doses as low as 0.1 Gy can enhance TGFβ1 induced EMT. Protons alone can also induce a mild induction of EMT. SD208, a potent TGFβ Receptor 1 (TGFβR1 kinase inhibitor, can efficiently block TGFβ1/Smad signaling and attenuate EMT induction. We suggest a model for EMT after proton irradiation in normal and cancerous tissue based on our results that showed that low and high doses of protons can sensitize normal human epithelial cells to mesenchymal transition, more prominently in the presence of TGFβ1, but also in the absence of TGFβ1.

  3. Therapeutic Evaluation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Chronic Gut Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-11-1-0666 TITLE: Therapeutic Evaluation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Chronic Gut Inflammation PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...4Aug2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0666 Therapeutic Evaluation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Chronic Gut Inflammation 5b...in a well-characterized mouse model of chronic colonic inflammation . Hypothesis: We propose that ex vivo-generated MSCs suppress chronic gut

  4. Isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from equine umbilical cord blood

    OpenAIRE

    Thomsen Preben D; Heerkens Tammy; Koch Thomas G; Betts Dean H

    2007-01-01

    Background: There are no published studies on stem cells from equine cord blood although commercial storage of equine cord blood for future autologous stem cell transplantations is available. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been isolated from fresh umbilical cord blood of humans collected non-invasively at the time of birth and from sheep cord blood collected invasively by a surgical intrauterine approach. Mesenchymal stem cells isolation percentage from frozen-thawed human cord blood is lo...

  5. Colonization of collagen scaffolds by adipocytes derived from mesenchymal stem cells of the common marmoset monkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernemann, Inga, E-mail: bernemann@imp.uni-hannover.de [Institute for Multiphase Processes, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Hannover (Germany); Mueller, Thomas; Blasczyk, Rainer [Institute for Transfusion Medicine, Hannover Medical School, Hannover (Germany); Glasmacher, Birgit; Hofmann, Nicola [Institute for Multiphase Processes, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Hannover (Germany)

    2011-07-29

    Highlights: {yields} Marmoset bone marrow-derived MSCs differentiate in suspension into adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages. {yields} Marmoset MSCs integrate in collagen type I scaffolds and differentiate excellently into adipogenic cells. {yields} Common marmoset monkey is a suitable model for soft tissue engineering in human regenerative medicine. -- Abstract: In regenerative medicine, human cell replacement therapy offers great potential, especially by cell types differentiated from immunologically and ethically unproblematic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In terms of an appropriate carrier material, collagen scaffolds with homogeneous pore size of 65 {mu}m were optimal for cell seeding and cultivating. However, before clinical application and transplantation of MSC-derived cells in scaffolds, the safety and efficiency, but also possible interference in differentiation due to the material must be preclinically tested. The common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) is a preferable non-human primate animal model for this aim due to its genetic and physiological similarities to the human. Marmoset bone marrow-derived MSCs were successfully isolated, cultured and differentiated in suspension into adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages by defined factors. The differentiation capability could be determined by FACS. Specific marker genes for all three cell types could be detected by RT-PCR. Furthermore, MSCs seeded on collagen I scaffolds differentiated in adipogenic lineage showed after 28 days of differentiation high cell viability and homogenous distribution on the material which was validated by calcein AM and EthD staining. As proof of adipogenic cells, the intracellular lipid vesicles in the cells were stained with Oil Red O. The generation of fat vacuoles was visibly extensive distinguishable and furthermore determined on the molecular level by expression of specific marker genes. The results of the study proved both the differential

  6. Regulation of mesenchymal stromal cells differentiation by a blue laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushibiki, Toshihiro; Awazu, Kunio

    2007-07-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells, which are present in adult bone marrow, that can replicate as undifferentiated cells and that have the potential to differentiate to lineages of mesenchymal tissues, including bone, cartilage, fat, tendon, and muscle. Their rapid and selective differentiation should provide the potential of new therapeutic approaches for the restoration of damaged or diseased tissue. However, several fundamental questions must be answered before it will be feasible to usefully predict and control MSCs responses to exogenous cytokines or genes. In particular, a better understanding of how specific factor may alter the fate of differentiation of MSCs is needed. In recent reports, circadian clock protein controls osteogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Here we show that a stimulation of a blue-violet laser irradiation regulates the differentiation of mouse MSCs to osteoblasts by change of the localization of a circadian rhythm protein, mouse Cryptochrome 1 (mCRY1). We found that a blue laser irradiation accelerated osteogenesis of MSCs. After laser irradiation, mCRY1 protein was translocated from cytoplasm to nucleus and mCRY1 mRNA level was downregulated thereafter. These results indicate that mCRY1, a blue-violet-light receptor and a master regulator of circadian rhythm, plays important roles in the regulation of the differentiation of MSCs. Since the differentiation of MSCs was easily regulated only by a laser irradiation, the potential of new therapeutic approaches for the restoration of damaged or diseased tissue is anticipated. Furthermore, our results obtained in this study may prove an excellent opportunity to gain insights into cross-talk between circadian rhythms and bone formation.

  7. Characteristics of human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells and their tropism to human ovarian cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liru Li

    Full Text Available The mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs derived from amniotic fluid (AF have become an attractive stem cells source for cell-based therapy because they can be harvested at low cost and avoid ethical disputes. In human research, stem cells derived from AF gradually became a hot research direction for disease treatment, specifically for their plasticity, their reduced immunogenicity and their tumor tropism regardless of the tumor size, location and source. Our work aimed to obtain and characterize human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (AFMSCs and detect their ovarian cancer tropsim in nude mice model. Ten milliliters of twenty independent amniotic fluid samples were collected from 16-20 week pregnant women who underwent amniocentesis for fetal genetic determination in routine prenatal diagnosis in the first affiliated hospital of Harbin medical university. We successfully isolated the AFMSCs from thirteen of twenty amniotic fluid samples. AFMSCs presented a fibroblastic-like morphology during the culture. Flow cytometry analyses showed that the cells were positive for specific stem cell markers CD73,CD90, CD105, CD166 and HLA-ABC (MHC class I, but negative for CD 45,CD40, CD34, CD14 and HLA-DR (MHC class II. RT-PCR results showed that the AFMSCs expressed stem cell marker OCT4. AFMSCs could differentiate into bone cells, fat cells and chondrocytes under certain conditions. AFMSCs had the high motility to migrate to ovarian cancer site but didn't have the tumorigenicity. This study enhances the possibility of AFMSCs as drug carrier in human cell-based therapy. Meanwhile, the research emphasis in the future can also put in targeting therapy of ovarian cancer.

  8. Fecal Fat Analyses in Chronic Pancreatitis Importance of Fat Ingestion before Stool Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engjom, Trond; Jurmy, Palwasha; Tjora, Erling; Gilja, Odd Helge; Dimcevski, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Objective Quantitative determination of fecal fat still is the gold standard for measuring malabsorption. We evaluated the importance of standardized food intake before and under the collection of feces. Material and Methods In a project, evaluating patients with suspected chronic pancreatitis (CP) and healthy volunteers (HC), stools were collected for 72 hours coupled to registration of nutritional intake over five consecutive days. Patient groups were created by a modified Layer score, which includes imaging findings, clinical parameters and pancreas function testing. Results We found 12 patients with CP, 11 patients without CP and 13 healthy individuals in our database. Median fecal fat in CP patients was 12 g/day, in non-CP patients 5 g/day and in healthy controls 5 g/day. Median fat absorption coefficient was 81% in those with chronic pancreatitis, 92% in those without CP and 92% in healthy controls. Corresponding median fat intake was 65 g/day, 68 g/day and 81 g/day in the respective groups. Spearman Rank Order Correlation between fecal fat (g/d) and fat absorption coefficient in all study subjects (n = 36) was good (-0.88 (p<0.001)). When we stratified groups according to fat intake, correlation between fecal fat and fat absorption was also good (-0.86 to -0.95). Conclusion In the diagnoses of fat malabsorption, calculating the ratio of fat absorption did not give additional information compared to fecal fat. PMID:28095460

  9. Detecting Fat Content of Food from a Distance: Olfactory-Based Fat Discrimination in Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesveldt, S.; Lundstrom, J.N.

    2014-01-01

    The desire to consume high volumes of fat is thought to originate from an evolutionary pressure to hoard calories, and fat is among the few energy sources that we can store over a longer time period. From an ecological perspective, however, it would be beneficial to detect fat from a distance, befor

  10. Body fat and fat distribution by anthropometry and the response to high-fat cholesterol-containing diet in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, D S; Sharma, R C; Chin, H P; Jiao, Q; Kramsch, D M

    1993-02-01

    Considerable variability exists among individuals in the response of plasma cholesterol to changes in dietary fat and cholesterol, and obesity is one variable reported to affect this response. This study was performed to determine the relationship between body fat and changes in plasma cholesterol in cynomolgus monkeys fed a high-fat cholesterol-containing diet for 12 months. The animals gained significant body weight (body mass index increased from 30.5 +/- 0.5 to 35.7 +/- 2.8 kg/m2) and skinfold parameters of body fat increased as well. Total cholesterol increased from 109 +/- 4 to 390 +/- 25 mg/dl (P < 0.001), and there were also significant increases in LDL- and HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride. While there was very little relationship between body fat and plasma lipids before the diet, after 12 months, there were significant negative correlations between total and LDL-cholesterol and anthropometric measures of body fat (r ranged from -0.37 to -0.55, P < 0.01). The correlations were not affected when the effects of baseline body mass index and serum cholesterol and total food intake were controlled by partial correlation analysis. In this sample of animals, the acquisition of greater body fat appeared to protect against rises in cholesterol in response to consumption of a high-fat cholesterol-containing diet.

  11. Treatment of breast cancer-related lymphedema with adipose-derived regenerative cells and fat grafts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toyserkani, Navid Mohamadpour; Jensen, Charlotte Harken; Andersen, Ditte Caroline

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) is a debilitating late complication with a lack of treatment opportunities. Recent studies have suggested that mesenchymal stromal cells can alleviate lymphedema. Herein, we report the results from the first human pilot study with freshly isolated adipose......-derived regenerative cells (ADRC) for treating lymphedema with 6 months follow-up. Ten BCRL patients were included. ADRC was injected directly into the axillary region, which was combined with a scar-releasing fat graft procedure. Primary endpoints were change in arm volume. Secondary endpoints were change in patient...... tolerated and only minor transient adverse events related to liposuction were noted. In this pilot study, a single injection of ADRC improved lymphedema based on patient-reported outcome measures, and there were no serious adverse events in the 6 months follow-up period. In addition, half of the patients...

  12. Correlation between serum lipoproteins and abdominal fat pad in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-08-30

    Aug 30, 2010 ... There are several reports on the various effects of fat ... body fat accumulation in poultry (Tuncer et al., 1987;. Kirkpinar et al., 1999; .... that fish oil can affect abdominal fat pad deposition, ..... Effect of dietary fat on tissue fat and ...

  13. Stem cell attraction via SDF-1α expressing fat tissue grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwingenberger, Stefan; Yao, Zhenyu; Jacobi, Angela; Vater, Corina; Valladares, Roberto D; Li, Chenguang; Nich, Christophe; Rao, Allison J; Christman, Jane E; Antonios, Joseph K; Gibon, Emmanuel; Schambach, Axel; Mätzig, Tobias; Günther, Klaus-Peter; Goodman, Stuart B; Stiehler, Maik

    2013-07-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cell (MSCs) are key cellular components for site-specific tissue regeneration. The chemokine stromal derived factor 1 alpha (SDF-1α) is known to attract stem cells via the C-X-C chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4) receptor. The aim of the study was to develop a model for stem cell attraction using SDF-1α overexpressing fat tissue grafts. Murine MSCs were lentiviral transduced to express the genes for enhanced green fluorescent protein, firefly luciferace, and human CXCR4 (hCXCR4). Murine fat tissue was adenoviral transduced to express SDF-1α and red fluorescent protein transgenes. MSCs were cultured on transwells with SDF-1α containing supernatants from transduced fat tissue. The numbers of migrated MSCs in four groups (with hCXCR4 positive (+) or hCXCR4 negative (-) MSCs with or without SDF-1α containing supernatant) were investigated. After 36 h of culture, 9025 ± 925 cells migrated through the membrane of the transwells in group 1 (CXCR4+/SDF-1α+), 4817 ± 940 cells in group 2 (CXCR4-/SDF-1α+), 2050 ± 766 cells in group 3 (CXCR4+/SDF-1α-), and 2108 ± 426 cells in group 4 (CXCR4-/SDF-1α-). Both, the presence of SDF-1α and the expression of hCXCR4 significantly increased the migration rates (p attracted by medium from SDF-1α expressing fat tissue in vitro. Thus, SDF-1α activated tissue grafts may be a strategy to enhance site-specific musculoskeletal tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Hedonic and homeostatic overlap following fat ingestion

    OpenAIRE

    Begg, Denovan P.; Woods, Stephen C.

    2013-01-01

    Ingestion of fatty foods increases dopamine release in the substantianigra producing a positive hedonic state. Tellez et al. (2013) demonstrate that an intestinal signal generated by fat consumption, oleoylethanolamide, stimulates central dopamine activity, thus regulating the reward value of fat and establishing a link between caloric-homeostatic and hedonic-homeostatic controllers.

  15. On Learning to Teach Fat Feminism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boling, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    As a feminist theorist who frequently teaches theorizing that starts from embodied experience, the author has begun to incorporate fat feminism into her teaching. As a neophyte and a relatively thin woman, she has been self-conscious about broaching issues related to fat bodies in her teaching, even though they clearly raise important issues about…

  16. On Learning to Teach Fat Feminism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boling, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    As a feminist theorist who frequently teaches theorizing that starts from embodied experience, the author has begun to incorporate fat feminism into her teaching. As a neophyte and a relatively thin woman, she has been self-conscious about broaching issues related to fat bodies in her teaching, even though they clearly raise important issues about…

  17. Bioelectrical impedance analysis of bovine milk fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, E. A.; Bertemes-Filho, P.

    2012-12-01

    Three samples of 250ml at home temperature of 20°C were obtained from whole, low fat and fat free bovine UHT milk. They were analysed by measuring both impedance spectra and dc conductivity in order to establish the relationship between samples related to fat content. An impedance measuring system was developed, which is based on digital oscilloscope, a current source and a FPGA. Data was measured by the oscilloscope in the frequency 1 kHz to 100 kHz. It was showed that there is approximately 7.9% difference in the conductivity between whole and low fat milk whereas 15.9% between low fat and free fat one. The change of fatness in the milk can be significantly sensed by both impedance spectra measurements and dc conductivity. This result might be useful for detecting fat content of milk in a very simple way and also may help the development of sensors for measuring milk quality, as for example the detection of mastitis.

  18. Plaster body wrap: effects on abdominal fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Moreira, Juliana; Melo, Ana Sofia Carneiro Pinto de; Noites, Andreia; Couto, Miriam Faria; Melo, Cristina Argel de; Adubeiro, Nuno Carvalho Freire de Almeida

    2013-12-01

    Abdominal fat is associated with metabolic disorders, leading to cardiovascular risk factors and numerous diseases. This study aimed to analyze the effect of plaster body wrap in combination with aerobic exercise on abdominal fat. Nineteen female volunteers were randomly divided into intervention group (IG; n = 10) performing aerobic exercise with plaster body wrap, and control group (CG; n = 9) performing only exercise. Subcutaneous and visceral fat were measured using ultrasound; subcutaneous fat was also estimated on analysis of skinfolds and abdominal perimeters. At the end of the 10-sessions protocol, the IG demonstrated a significant decrease (p ≤ 0.05) in subcutaneous fat at the left anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) level and in iliac crest perimeter measurements. A large intervention effect size strength (0.80) was found in subcutaneous fat below the navel and a moderate effect size strength on the vertical abdominal skinfold (0.62) and the perimeter of the most prominent abdominal point (0.57). Comparing the initial and final data of each group, the IG showed a significant decrease in numerous variables including visceral and subcutaneous fat above and below the navel measured by ultrasound (p ≤ 0.05). Plaster body wrap in combination with aerobic exercise seems to be effective for abdominal fat reduction.

  19. Coming out as Fat: Rethinking Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saguy, Abigail C.; Ward, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the surprising case of women who "come out as fat" to test and refine theories about social change, social mobilization, stigma, and stigma resistance. First, supporting theories about "social movement spillover," we find that overlapping memberships in queer and fat activist groups, as well as networks between these groups,…

  20. Omega-3 fats: Good for your heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are a type of polyunsaturated fat . We need these fats to build brain cells and for other important functions. Omega-3s help keep your heart healthy and protected against stroke. They also help improve your heart health ...

  1. Large deformation behavior of fat crystal networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloek, W.; Vliet, van T.; Walstra, P.

    2005-01-01

    Compression and wire-cutting experiments on dispersions of fully hydrogenated palm oil in sunflower oil with varying fraction solid fat were carried out to establish which parameters are important for the large deformation behavior of fat crystal networks. Compression experiments showed that the app

  2. Pork fat hydrolysed by Staphylococcus xylosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, B. B.; Stahnke, Louise Heller; Zeuthen, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Staphylococcus xylosus is used as a starter culture in the production of fermented sausages. Its ability to hydrolyse pork fat was investigated. Within 15 days of incubation an interaction of bacterial growth, lipase production and lipase activity in a pork fat containing medium caused liberation...

  3. Genetic variation in bovine milk fat composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoop, W.M.

    2009-01-01

    In her thesis, Stoop shows that there is considerable genetic variation in milk fat composition, which opens opportunities to improve milk fat composition by selective breeding. Short and medium chain fatty acids had high heritabilities, whereas variation due to herd (mainly feed effects) was modera

  4. Vitamin D3 in Fat Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    The literature describing vitamin D content of fat tissue is extremely limited. We conducted a pilot study that measured the concentrations of vitamin D3 in the fat tissue and serum of obese adults. These measurements were performed using a new liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS) metho...

  5. Pork fat hydrolysed by Staphylococcus xylosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, B. B.; Stahnke, Louise Heller; Zeuthen, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Staphylococcus xylosus is used as a starter culture in the production of fermented sausages. Its ability to hydrolyse pork fat was investigated. Within 15 days of incubation an interaction of bacterial growth, lipase production and lipase activity in a pork fat containing medium caused liberation...

  6. 21 CFR 582.4521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4521 Section 582.4521 Food and... Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming... oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  7. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy ameliorates diabetic nephropathy via the paracrine effect of renal trophic factors including exosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaishi, Kanna; Mizue, Yuka; Chikenji, Takako; Otani, Miho; Nakano, Masako; Konari, Naoto; Fujimiya, Mineko

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have contributed to the improvement of diabetic nephropathy (DN); however, the actual mediator of this effect and its role has not been characterized thoroughly. We investigated the effects of MSC therapy on DN, focusing on the paracrine effect of renal trophic factors, including exosomes secreted by MSCs. MSCs and MSC-conditioned medium (MSC-CM) as renal trophic factors were administered in parallel to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced type 2 diabetic mice and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced insulin-deficient diabetic mice. Both therapies showed approximately equivalent curative effects, as each inhibited the exacerbation of albuminuria. They also suppressed the excessive infiltration of BMDCs into the kidney by regulating the expression of the adhesion molecule ICAM-1. Proinflammatory cytokine expression (e.g., TNF-α) and fibrosis in tubular interstitium were inhibited. TGF-β1 expression was down-regulated and tight junction protein expression (e.g., ZO-1) was maintained, which sequentially suppressed the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of tubular epithelial cells (TECs). Exosomes purified from MSC-CM exerted an anti-apoptotic effect and protected tight junction structure in TECs. The increase of glomerular mesangium substrate was inhibited in HFD-diabetic mice. MSC therapy is a promising tool to prevent DN via the paracrine effect of renal trophic factors including exosomes due to its multifactorial action. PMID:27721418

  8. TNF-alpha is required for the attraction of mesenchymal precursors to white adipose tissue in Ob/ob mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz G Gálvez

    Full Text Available Most adult tissues harbour a stem cell subpopulation (Mesenchymal Precursors or MPs that represent a small proportion of the total cell number and have the potential to differentiate into several cell types within the mesenchymal lineage. In adipose tissue, adipocytes account for two-thirds of the total cell number. The remaining cells include blood and endothelial cells, along with adipocyte precursors (adipose MPs. Obesity is defined as an excess of body fat that frequently results in a significant impairment of health. The ob/ob mice bear a mutation in the ob gene that causes a deficiency in the hormone leptin and hence obesity. Here, we present evidence that ob/ob mice have a dramatic decrease in the resident MP pool of several tissues, including squeletal muscle, heart, lung and adipose tissue. Moreover, we show that that there is a migration of MP cells from distant organs, as well as homing of these cells to the adipose tissue mass of the ob/ob mice. We call this process adipotaxis. Once in the adipose tissue, migrant MPs undergoe adipose differentiation, giving rise to new differentiated adipocytes within the adipose mass. Finally, we provide evidence that adipotaxis is largely explained by the production of high levels of Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-alpha within the ob/ob adipose tissue. The therapeutic implications for human obesity as well as for regenerative medicine are further discussed in this paper.

  9. Proteomic validation of multifunctional molecules in mesenchymal stem cells derived from human bone marrow, umbilical cord blood and peripheral blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jumi Kim

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are one of the most attractive therapeutic resources in clinical application owing to their multipotent capability, which means that cells can differentiate into various mesenchymal tissues such as bone, cartilage, fat, tendon, muscle and marrow stroma. Depending on the cellular source, MSCs exhibit different application potentials according to their different in vivo functions, despite similar phenotypic and cytological characteristics. To understand the different molecular conditions that govern the different application or differentiation potential of each MSC according to cellular source, we generated a proteome reference map of MSCs obtained from bone marrow (BM, umbilical cord blood (CB and peripheral blood (PB. We identified approximately 30 differentially regulated (or expressed proteins. Most up-regulated proteins show a cytoskeletal and antioxidant or detoxification role according to their functional involvement. Additionally, these proteins are involved in the increase of cell viability, engraftment and migration in pathological conditions in vivo. In summary, we examined differentially expressed key regulatory factors of MSCs obtained from several cellular sources, demonstrated their differentially expressed proteome profiles and discussed their functional role in specific pathological conditions. With respect to the field of cell therapy, it may be particularly crucial to determine the most suitable cell sources according to target disease.

  10. A Fat Gluino in Disguise

    CERN Document Server

    Reuter, J

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate how a sizeable width-to-mass ratio for a gluino, as is for example realized in GMSB scenarios, could affect the discovery potential of gluinos at the LHC. More importantly, the influence of the gluino being "fat" on the standard mass and spin determination methods at the LHC are investigated. For this purpose, we focus on gluino production at the LHC, where we do not factorize the first step in the gluino decay cascade, but treat the following decay cascades step in factorization, including full spin correlations. The effects of sizeable width-to-mass ratios from a few up to 15-20 per cent on the endpoint of several mass determination methods as well as on means for discrimination between BSM spin paradigms like SUSY and UED are studied.

  11. A fat gluino in disguise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuter, Juergen; Wiesler, Daniel [DESY Theory Group, Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    In this paper, we investigate how a sizeable width-to-mass ratio for a gluino, as is for example realized in GMSB scenarios, could affect the discovery potential of gluinos at the LHC. More importantly, the influence of the gluino being ''fat'' on the standard mass and spin determination methods at the LHC are investigated. For this purpose, we focus on gluino production at the LHC, where we do not factorize the first step in the gluino decay cascade, but treat the following decay cascade steps in factorization, including full spin correlations. The effects of sizeable width-to-mass ratios from a few up to 15-20 per cent on the endpoint of several mass determination methods as well as on means for discrimination between BSM spin paradigms like SUSY and UED are studied. (orig.)

  12. A fat gluino in disguise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuter, J.; Wiesler, D.

    2012-12-15

    In this paper, we investigate how a sizeable width-to-mass ratio for a gluino, as is for example realized in GMSB scenarios, could affect the discovery potential of gluinos at the LHC. More importantly, the influence of the gluino being ''fat'' on the standard mass and spin determination methods at the LHC are investigated. For this purpose, we focus on gluino production at the LHC, where we do not factorize the first step in the gluino decay cascade, but treat the following decay cascades step in factorization, including full spin correlations. The effects of sizeable width-to-mass ratios from a few up to 15-20 per cent on the endpoint of several mass determination methods as well as on means for discrimination between BSM spin paradigms like SUSY and UED are studied.

  13. Fat ful′fill′ment: A review of autologous fat grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjot Marwah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For more than a century, clinicians have attempted to utilise fat for the treatment of tissue deficiencies and contour abnormalities. Autologous fat transplantation for soft-tissue augmentation has become increasingly popular in recent years. The popularity of tumescent liposuction has brought renewed interest and accessibility of fat for transplantation. Newer techniques and approaches to augmentation have provided more predictable and reproducible results. Fat augmentation has become an effective, safe and reliable method for restoring volume and correcting the atrophy that accompanies senescence. In this review, the authors have described their approach to fat transplantation.

  14. Fat metabolism in formerly obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranneries, C; Bülow, J; Buemann, B

    1998-01-01

    An impaired fat oxidation has been implicated to play a role in the etiology of obesity, but it is unclear to what extent impaired fat mobilization from adipose tissue or oxidation of fat is responsible. The present study aimed to examine fat mobilization from adipose tissue and whole body fat...... oxidation stimulated by exercise in seven formerly obese women (FO) and eight matched controls (C). Lipolysis in the periumbilical subcutaneous adipose tissue, whole body energy expenditure (EE), and substrate oxidation rates were measured before, during, and after a 60-min bicycle exercise bout of moderate...... intensity. Lipolysis was assessed by glycerol release using microdialysis and blood flow measurement by 133Xe clearance technique. The FO women had lower resting EE than C (3.77 +/- 1.01 vs. 4.88 +/- 0.74 kJ/min, P tissue glycerol release was twice as high...

  15. The danish tax on saturated fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Smed, Sinne

    Denmark introduced a new tax on saturated fat in food products with effect from October 2011. The objective of this paper is to make an effect assessment of this tax for some of the product categories most significantly affected by the new tax, namely fats such as butter, butter-blends, margarine...... on saturated fat in food products has had some effects on the market for the considered products, in that the level of consumption of fats dropped by 10 – 20%. Furthermore, the analysis points at shifts in demand from high-price supermarkets towards low-price discount stores – a shift that seems to have been...... – and broaden – the analysis at a later stage, when data are available for a longer period after the introduction of the fat tax....

  16. Quantification of milk fat in chocolate fats by triacylglycerol analysis using gas-liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchgraber, Manuela; Androni, Simona; Anklam, Elke

    2007-05-02

    The development and in-house testing of a method for the quantification of milk fat in chocolate fats is described. A database consisting of the triacylglycerol profiles of 310 genuine milk fat samples from 21 European countries and 947 mixtures thereof with chocolate fats was created under a strict quality control scheme using 26 triacylglycerol reference standards for calibration purposes. Out of the individual triacylglycerol fractions obtained, 1-palmitoyl-2-stearoyl-3-butyroyl-glycerol (PSB) was selected as suitable marker compound for the determination of the proportion of milk fat in chocolate fats. By using PSB values from the standardized database, a calibration function using simple linear regression analysis was calculated to be used for future estimations of the milk fat content. A comparison with the widely used butyric acid method, which is currently used to determine the milk fat content in nonmilk fat mixtures, showed that both methods were equivalent in terms of accuracy. The advantage of the presented approach is that for further applications, i.e., determination of foreign fats in chocolate fats, just a single analysis is necessary, whereas for the same purpose, the C4 method requires two different analytical methods.

  17. Abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise training: fat burning or hydrocarbon source redistribution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chia-Hua; Harris, M Brennan

    2016-07-01

    Fat burning, defined by fatty acid oxidation into carbon dioxide, is the most described hypothesis to explain the actual abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise training. This hypothesis is strengthened by evidence of increased whole-body lipolysis during exercise. As a result, aerobic training is widely recommended for obesity management. This intuition raises several paradoxes: first, both aerobic and resistance exercise training do not actually elevate 24 h fat oxidation, according to data from chamber-based indirect calorimetry. Second, anaerobic high-intensity intermittent training produces greater abdominal fat reduction than continuous aerobic training at similar amounts of energy expenditure. Third, significant body fat reduction in athletes occurs when oxygen supply decreases to inhibit fat burning during altitude-induced hypoxia exposure at the same training volume. Lack of oxygen increases post-meal blood distribution to human skeletal muscle, suggesting that shifting the postprandial hydrocarbons towards skeletal muscle away from adipose tissue might be more important than fat burning in decreasing abdominal fat. Creating a negative energy balance in fat cells due to competition of skeletal muscle for circulating hydrocarbon sources may be a better model to explain the abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise than the fat-burning model.

  18. Dietary fat, cooking fat, and breast cancer risk in a multiethnic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; John, Esther M; Horn-Ross, Pamela L; Ingles, Sue Ann

    2008-01-01

    Our objective was to examine the association between dietary fat intake, cooking fat usage, and breast cancer risk in a population-based, multiethnic, case-control study conducted in the San Francisco Bay area. Intake of total fat and types of fat were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire among 1,703 breast cancer cases diagnosed between 1995 and 1999 and 2,045 controls. In addition, preferred use of fat for cooking was assessed. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). High fat intake was associated with increased risk of breast cancer (highest vs. lowest quartile, adjusted OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.10-1.65, P(trend) < 0.01). A positive association was found for oleic acid (OR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.14-2.10, P(trend) < 0.01) but not for linoleic acid or saturated fat. Risk was increased for women cooking with hydrogenated fats (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.20-2.10) or vegetable/corn oil (rich in linoleic acid; OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.06-1.58) compared to women using olive/canola oil (rich in oleic acid). Our results suggest that a low-fat diet may play a role in breast cancer prevention. We speculate that monounsaturated trans fats may have driven the discrepant associations between types of fat and breast cancer.

  19. Fat Attenuation at CT in Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Corey M; Torriani, Martin; Murphy, Rachel; Harris, Tamara B; Miller, Karen K; Klibanski, Anne; Bredella, Miriam A

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the composition, cross-sectional area (CSA), and hormonal correlates of different fat depots in women with anorexia nervosa (AN) and control subjects with normal weights to find out whether patients with AN have lower fat CSA but higher attenuation than did control subjects and whether these changes may be mediated by gonadal steroids, cortisol, and thyroid hormones. This study was institutional review board approved and HIPAA compliant. Written informed consent was obtained. Forty premenopausal women with AN and 40 normal-weight women of comparable age (mean age ± standard deviation, 26 years ± 5) were studied. All individuals underwent computed tomography of the abdomen and thigh with a calibration phantom. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), thigh SAT, and thigh intermuscular adipose tissue CSA and attenuation were quantified. Serum estradiol, thyroid hormones, and urinary free cortisol levels were assessed. Variables were compared by using analysis of variance. Associations were examined by using linear regression analysis. Women with AN had higher fat attenuation than did control subjects (-100.1 to -46.7 HU vs -117.6 to -61.8 HU, P fat CSA (2.0-62.8 cm(2) vs 5.5-185.9 cm(2), P fat attenuation (r = -0.34 to -0.61, P = .03 to fat CSA of all compartments (r = 0.42-0.64, P = .007 to fat composition, with higher fat attenuation than that of control subjects, as well as low fat mass. VAT attenuation but not CSA is inversely associated with lowest prior lifetime body mass index, suggesting that fat attenuation may serve as a biomarker of prior and current disease status in AN.

  20. Belly Fat in Men: Why Weight Loss Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as fish and low-fat dairy products. Limit saturated fat, found in meat and high-fat dairy products, ... 61:262. Carlsson AC, et al. Prediction of cardiovascular disease by abdominal obesity measures is dependent on ...

  1. Snail levels control the migration mechanism of mesenchymal tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgiovine, Cristina; Chiesa, Giulio; Chiodi, Ilaria; Frapolli, Roberta; Bonezzi, Katiuscia; Taraboletti, Giulia; D'Incalci, Maurizio; Mondello, Chiara

    2016-07-01

    Cancer cells use two major types of movement: Mesenchymal, which is typical of cells of mesenchymal origin and depends on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity, and amoeboid, which is characteristic of cells with a rounded shape and relies on the activity of Rho-associated kinase (ROCK). The present authors previously demonstrated that, during neoplastic transformation, telomerase-immortalized human fibroblasts (cen3tel cells) acquired a ROCK-dependent/MMP independent mechanism of invasion, mediated by the downregulation of the ROCK cellular inhibitor Round (Rnd)3/RhoE. In the present study, cen3tel transformation was also demonstrated to be paralleled by downregulation of Snail, a major determinant of the mesenchymal movement. To test whether Snail levels could determine the type of movement adopted by mesenchymal tumor cells, Snail was ectopically expressed in tumorigenic cells. It was observed that ectopic Snail did not increase the levels of typical mesenchymal markers, but induced cells to adopt an MMP-dependent mechanism of invasion. In cells expressing ectopic Snail, invasion became sensitive to the MMP inhibitor Ro 28-2653 and insensitive to the ROCK inhibitor Y27632, suggesting that, once induced by Snail, the mesenchymal movement prevails over the amoeboid one. Snail-expressing cells had a more aggressive behavior in vivo, and exhibited increased tumor growth rate and metastatic ability. These results confirm the high plasticity of cancer cells, which can adopt different types of movement in response to changes in the expression of specific genes. Furthermore, the present findings indicate that Rnd3 and Snail are possible regulators of the type of invasion mechanism adopted by mesenchymal tumor cells.

  2. Fat discrimination: a phenotype with potential implications for studying fat intake behaviors and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lisa C H; Sakimura, Johannah; May, Daniel; Breen, Cameron; Driggin, Elissa; Tepper, Beverly J; Chung, Wendy K; Keller, Kathleen L

    2012-01-18

    Variations in fat preference and intake across humans are poorly understood in part because of difficulties in studying this behavior. The objective of this study was to develop a simple procedure to assess fat discrimination, the ability to accurately perceive differences in the fat content of foods, and assess the associations between this phenotype and fat ingestive behaviors and adiposity. African-American adults (n=317) were tested for fat discrimination using 7 forced choice same/different tests with Italian salad dressings that ranged in fat-by-weight content from 5 to 55%. Performance on this procedure was determined by tallying the number of trials in which a participant correctly identified the pair of samples as "same" or "different" across all test pairs (ranging from 1 to 7). Individuals who received the lowest scores on this task (≤3 out of 7 correct) were classified as fat non-discriminators (n=33) and those who received the highest scores (7 out of 7 correct) were classified as fat discriminators (n=59). These 2 groups were compared for the primary outcome variables: reported food intake, preferences, and adiposity. After adjusting for BMI, sex, age, and dietary restraint and disinhibition, fat non-discriminators reported greater consumption of both added fats and reduced fat foods (pFat non-discriminators also had greater abdominal adiposity compared to fat discriminators (pfat discrimination test (rho=0.53; pfat discrimination may serve as clinical research tool to identify participants who are at risk for obesity and other chronic diseases due to increased fat intake. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Age-related rump fat, fat percent, body fat mass, leptin, androgens and semen parameters ofArab stallions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AmalMAboEl-Maaty; GamalA ElSisy; MonaHShaker; OmimaH Ezzo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives:To study the effect of age and body fat on leptin levels and semen parameters of Arab horse.Methods:Fifteen fertileArab stallions of different ages belonging toPoliceAcademy were divided into three equal groups according to their age.Old horses are those of >18 yeas (18-27),Mid-age horses≥13 to18 years(13-18),Young horses are those of <12 years(7-11). Semen was evaluated three times for each stallion.Blood and seminal plasma were assayed for measuring leptin, testosterone and estradiol.Subcutaneous rump fat thickness was measured using ultrasound for estimating body fat percent and fat mass percent.Results:All body fat parameters were significantly high inYoung stallions and decreased with increasing age.As age increased, testosterone levels increases but leptin levels decreased.Age was inversely correlated with fat%, fat mass and leptin.All fat parameters had direct correlation with leptin in semen and serum but an inverse one with serum testosterone.Serum leptin directly correlated with sperm cell concentration inMid- age stallions and inversely correlated with percent of live sperm in Old stallions.Semen leptin correlated directly with both percent of live sperm and percent of abnormal sperm inOld stallions.Conclusion:This study proved that aging in stallions is related to a drop in fertility, a decrease in body fat and in turn leptin.Arab stallions of age7 to18 years could be used in the breeding efficiently.

  4. The influence of local environment on the organization of mesenchyme cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, M; Solursh, M

    1979-01-01

    Limb, somite, and neural crest mesenchyme from quail embryos were implanted orthotopically and heterotopically into chick hosts to ascertain the relative importance of the local environment on mesenchyme migration. It was found that mesenchyme behavior is strongly influenced by the environment. Normally non-migratory, limb mesenchyme is capable of spreading like sclerotome when placed in the somite region. A somite placed in the limb acquires an appearance typical of limb mesenchyme. Neural crest placed in the limb migrates only along the co-implanted neural tube or axons growing out from it. The orthotopic transplantations showed that quail mesenchyme behaves normally in chick embryos. Furthermore, it was observed in the orthotopic transplants that there was no intermingling of quail and chick cells even at the edge of the graft. This result indicates that cells within mesenchyme are normally not locomotory; rather, the mesenchyme "migrates" by spreading and expansion of the tissue as a unit in response to local influences.

  5. Body Fat, Abdominal Fat, and Body Fat Distribution Is Related to Left Atrial Diameter in Young Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Thorsson, Ola; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2012-01-01

    ). Body fat was also calculated as a percentage of body mass (BF%). Body fat distribution (AFM/TBF) was calculated. Echocardiography was performed with two-dimensional guided M-mode. LA diameter was measured and left ventricular mass (LVM) was calculated. Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood......In adults, the size of the left atria (LA) has important prognostic information. In obese adults, adolescents and children enlargement of LA have been observed. This has not been investigated on a population-based level in young children. We therefore assessed if total body fat mass (TBF...... pressure were measured and maturity assessed according to Tanner. There were significant (P

  6. Application of dedifferentiated fat cells for periodontal tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Atsunori; Sato, Soh

    2014-01-01

    Periodontal diseases result from inflammation by bacterial infection in plaques, leading to tooth loss. However, regenerative approaches with periodontal tissue regeneration by guided tissue regeneration and enamel matrix derivative are not yet well established. Tissue regeneration requires three factors: cells, scaffold, and growth factors. Dedifferentiated fat cells (DFATs) are pluripotent with the same differentiation capacities as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Access to MSCs is limited, whereas donor cells for DFATs are abundant in adipose tissues and can be non-invasively obtained. Therefore, we tested DFATs as a new source for periodontal tissue regeneration in an experimental periodontal tissue loss model in rats by transplanting DFATs on an atelocollagen scaffold using DFATs isolated from Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP). GFP-DFAT cells were transplanted on the palatal side of the upper left first molar in SD rats and detected by H&E staining, GFP, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression. DFAT differentiation was also evaluated in three-dimensional cultures. GFP positive cells were detected in the regenerated tissue by the DFATs/scaffold mixture at 4 weeks after transplantation, and PCNA-positive cells were significantly increased in the periodontal ligament along the new bone in the DFATs/scaffold group more than in the scaffold-only group, suggesting that DFATs differentiate in the same manner as MSCs and regenerate in the defective areas. Consistent with previous reports, DFATs differentiation was slower than that with stem cells. The present study demonstrates that DFATs are pluripotent and an effective new source of cells for periodontal tissue regeneration.

  7. Production of fats and oils by microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Osamu

    1987-10-20

    This paper describes the production of fats and oils by microorganisms. Various fat-productive bacteria have been found to produce the fats and oils by microorganisms which are roughly classified into enzyme and filiform fungus. The cells do not proliferate under the conditions adequate for producing the cells with the high content of lipid. A cell with high content of fat belonging to Mortierella filamentas fungi has been recently obtained at high density in the high concentration culture medium. The productivity of the fat similar to cocoa butter seems to be also high. A lot of microorganisms producing various functional fatty acids have been found. The microorganismic production methods of esters of longer-chain dicarboxylic acids and alcohols than C/sub 11/ hardly produced in nature form n-alkane also have been recently developed. Squalene has been able to produce by a cell from the other raw materials than the shark oil. Various sterols exist in microorganisms. The high-productivity manufacturing method of the fats containing gamma-linoleic acid by Mortierella filiform fungi has been developed and commercialized as the first production process of the fat by the microorganism. (5 figs, 7 tabs, 128 refs

  8. In vivo fluorescence imaging reveals the promotion of mammary tumorigenesis by mesenchymal stromal cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chih Ke

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs are multipotent adult stem cells which are recruited to the tumor microenvironment (TME and influence tumor progression through multiple mechanisms. In this study, we examined the effects of MSCs on the tunmorigenic capacity of 4T1 murine mammary cancer cells. It was found that MSC-conditioned medium increased the proliferation, migration, and efficiency of mammosphere formation of 4T1 cells in vitro. When co-injected with MSCs into the mouse mammary fat pad, 4T1 cells showed enhanced tumor growth and generated increased spontaneous lung metastasis. Using in vivo fluorescence color-coded imaging, the interaction between GFP-expressing MSCs and RFP-expressing 4T1 cells was monitored. As few as five 4T1 cells could give rise to tumor formation when co-injected with MSCs into the mouse mammary fat pad, but no tumor was formed when five or ten 4T1 cells were implanted alone. The elevation of tumorigenic potential was further supported by gene expression analysis, which showed that when 4T1 cells were in contact with MSCs, several oncogenes, cancer markers, and tumor promoters were upregulated. Moreover, in vivo longitudinal fluorescence imaging of tumorigenesis revealed that MSCs created a vascularized environment which enhances the ability of 4T1 cells to colonize and proliferate. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the promotion of mammary cancer progression by MSCs was achieved through the generation of a cancer-enhancing microenvironment to increase tumorigenic potential. These findings also suggest the potential risk of enhancing tumor progression in clinical cell therapy using MSCs. Attention has to be paid to patients with high risk of breast cancer when considering cell therapy with MSCs.

  9. Collagen cross-linking by adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells and scar-derived mesenchymal cells: Are mesenchymal stromal cells involved in scar formation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaerdt, van den A.J.; Veen, van der A.G.; Zuijlen, van P.P.; Reijnen, L.; Verkerk, M.; Bank, R.A.; Middelkoop, E.; Ulrich, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, different fibroblast-like (mesenchymal) cell populations that might be involved in wound healing were characterized and their involvement in scar formation was studied by determining collagen synthesis and processing. Depending on the physical and mechanical properties of the tissues,

  10. Collagen cross-linking by adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells and scar-derived mesenchymal cells : Are mesenchymal stromal cells involved in scar formation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bogaerdt, Antoon J.; van der Veen, Vincent C.; van Zuijlen, Paul P. M.; Reijnen, Linda; Verkerk, Michelle; Bank, Ruud A.; Middelkoop, Esther; Ulrich, Magda M. W.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, different fibroblast-like (mesenchymal) cell populations that might be involved in wound healing were characterized and their involvement in scar formation was studied by determining collagen synthesis and processing. Depending on the physical and mechanical properties of the tissues,

  11. Gut Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Messina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs, first found in bone marrow (BM, are the structural architects of all organs, participating in most biological functions. MSCs possess tissue-specific signatures that allow their discrimination according to their origin and location. Among their multiple functions, MSCs closely interact with immune cells, orchestrating their activity to maintain overall homeostasis. The phenotype of tissue MSCs residing in the bowel overlaps with myofibroblasts, lining the bottom walls of intestinal crypts (pericryptal or interspersed within intestinal submucosa (intercryptal. In Crohn’s disease, intestinal MSCs are tightly stacked in a chronic inflammatory milieu, which causes their enforced expression of Class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC. The absence of Class II MHC is a hallmark for immune-modulator and tolerogenic properties of normal MSCs and, vice versa, the expression of HLA-DR is peculiar to antigen presenting cells, that is, immune-activator cells. Interferon gamma (IFNγ is responsible for induction of Class II MHC expression on intestinal MSCs. The reversal of myofibroblasts/MSCs from an immune-modulator to an activator phenotype in Crohn’s disease results in the formation of a fibrotic tube subverting the intestinal structure. Epithelial metaplastic areas in this context can progress to dysplasia and cancer.

  12. Mesenchymal stem cells: characteristics and clinical applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Bobis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are bone marrow populating cells, different from hematopoietic stem cells, which possess an extensive proliferative potential and ability to differentiate into various cell types, including: osteocytes, adipocytes, chondrocytes, myocytes, cardiomyocytes and neurons. MSCs play a key role in the maintenance of bone marrow homeostasis and regulate the maturation of both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. The cells are characterized by the expression of numerous surface antigens, but none of them appears to be exclusively expressed on MSCs. Apart from bone marrow, MSCs are located in other tissues, like: adipose tissue, peripheral blood, cord blood, liver and fetal tissues. MSCs have been shown to be powerful tools in gene therapies, and can be effectively transduced with viral vectors containing a therapeutic gene, as well as with cDNA for specific proteins, expression of which is desired in a patient. Due to such characteristics, the number of clinical trials based on the use of MSCs increase. These cells have been successfully employed in graft versus host disease (GvHD treatment, heart regeneration after infarct, cartilage and bone repair, skin wounds healing, neuronal regeneration and many others. Of special importance is their use in the treatment of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI, which appeared to be the only reasonable therapeutic strategy. MSCs seem to represent a future powerful tool in regenerative medicine, therefore they are particularly important in medical research.

  13. Gut Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Valeria; Buccione, Carla; Marotta, Giulia; Ziccheddu, Giovanna; Signore, Michele; Mattia, Gianfranco; Puglisi, Rossella; Sacchetti, Benedetto; Biancone, Livia

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), first found in bone marrow (BM), are the structural architects of all organs, participating in most biological functions. MSCs possess tissue-specific signatures that allow their discrimination according to their origin and location. Among their multiple functions, MSCs closely interact with immune cells, orchestrating their activity to maintain overall homeostasis. The phenotype of tissue MSCs residing in the bowel overlaps with myofibroblasts, lining the bottom walls of intestinal crypts (pericryptal) or interspersed within intestinal submucosa (intercryptal). In Crohn's disease, intestinal MSCs are tightly stacked in a chronic inflammatory milieu, which causes their enforced expression of Class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC). The absence of Class II MHC is a hallmark for immune-modulator and tolerogenic properties of normal MSCs and, vice versa, the expression of HLA-DR is peculiar to antigen presenting cells, that is, immune-activator cells. Interferon gamma (IFNγ) is responsible for induction of Class II MHC expression on intestinal MSCs. The reversal of myofibroblasts/MSCs from an immune-modulator to an activator phenotype in Crohn's disease results in the formation of a fibrotic tube subverting the intestinal structure. Epithelial metaplastic areas in this context can progress to dysplasia and cancer. PMID:28337224

  14. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells and Viral Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maytawan Thanunchai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSCs are a subset of nonhematopoietic adult stem cells, readily isolated from various tissues and easily culture-expanded ex vivo. Intensive studies of the immune modulation and tissue regeneration over the past few years have demonstrated the great potential of MSCs for the prevention and treatment of steroid-resistant acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD, immune-related disorders, and viral diseases. In immunocompromised individuals, the immunomodulatory activities of MSCs have raised safety concerns regarding the greater risk of primary viral infection and viral reactivation, which is a major cause of mortality after allogeneic transplantation. Moreover, high susceptibilities of MSCs to viral infections in vitro could reflect the destructive outcomes that might impair the clinical efficacy of MSCs infusion. However, the interplay between MSCs and virus is like a double-edge sword, and it also provides beneficial effects such as allowing the proliferation and function of antiviral specific effector cells instead of suppressing them, serving as an ideal tool for study of viral pathogenesis, and protecting hosts against viral challenge by using the antimicrobial activity. Here, we therefore review favorable and unfavorable consequences of MSCs and virus interaction with the highlight of safety and efficacy for applying MSCs as cell therapy.

  15. Mesenchymal stem cells: from experiment to clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto William R

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is currently much interest in adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs and their ability to differentiate into other cell types, and to partake in the anatomy and physiology of remote organs. It is now clear these cells may be purified from several organs in the body besides bone marrow. MSCs take part in wound healing by contributing to myofibroblast and possibly fibroblast populations, and may be involved in epithelial tissue regeneration in certain organs, although this remains more controversial. In this review, we examine the ability of MSCs to modulate liver, kidney, heart and intestinal repair, and we update their opposing qualities of being less immunogenic and therefore tolerated in a transplant situation, yet being able to contribute to xenograft models of human tumour formation in other contexts. However, such observations have not been replicated in the clinic. Recent studies showing the clinical safety of MSC in several pathologies are discussed. The possible opposing powers of MSC need careful understanding and control if their clinical potential is to be realised with long-term safety for patients.

  16. Transcriptional networks in epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo Venkov

    Full Text Available Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT changes polarized epithelial cells into migratory phenotypes associated with loss of cell-cell adhesion molecules and cytoskeletal rearrangements. This form of plasticity is seen in mesodermal development, fibroblast formation, and cancer metastasis.Here we identify prominent transcriptional networks active during three time points of this transitional process, as epithelial cells become fibroblasts. DNA microarray in cultured epithelia undergoing EMT, validated in vivo, were used to detect various patterns of gene expression. In particular, the promoter sequences of differentially expressed genes and their transcription factors were analyzed to identify potential binding sites and partners. The four most frequent cis-regulatory elements (CREs in up-regulated genes were SRY, FTS-1, Evi-1, and GC-Box, and RNA inhibition of the four transcription factors, Atf2, Klf10, Sox11, and SP1, most frequently binding these CREs, establish their importance in the initiation and propagation of EMT. Oligonucleotides that block the most frequent CREs restrain EMT at early and intermediate stages through apoptosis of the cells.Our results identify new transcriptional interactions with high frequency CREs that modulate the stability of cellular plasticity, and may serve as targets for modulating these transitional states in fibroblasts.

  17. Exosomes Derived from Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The functional mechanisms of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have become a research focus in recent years. Accumulating evidence supports the notion that MSCs act in a paracrine manner. Therefore, the biological factors in conditioned medium, including exosomes and soluble factors, derived from MSC cultures are being explored extensively. The results from most investigations show that MSC-conditioned medium or its components mediate some biological functions of MSCs. Several studies have reported that MSC-derived exosomes have functions similar to those of MSCs, such as repairing tissue damage, suppressing inflammatory responses, and modulating the immune system. However, the mechanisms are still not fully understood and the results remain controversial. Compared with cells, exosomes are more stable and reservable, have no risk of aneuploidy, a lower possibility of immune rejection following in vivo allogeneic administration, and may provide an alternative therapy for various diseases. In this review, we summarize the properties and biological functions of MSC-derived exosomes and discuss the related mechanisms.

  18. Contribution of mesenchymal proliferation in tooth root morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, W-J; Choi, M-A; Yamamoto, H; Lee, S; Lee, Y; Jung, J-K; Jin, M-U; An, C-H; Jung, H-S; Suh, J-Y; Shin, H-I; Kim, J-Y

    2014-01-01

    In mouse tooth development, the roots of the first lower molar develop after crown formation to form 2 cylindrical roots by post-natal day 5. This study compared the morphogenesis and cellular events of the mesial-root-forming (MRF) and bifurcation-forming (BF) regions, located in the mesial and center of the first lower molar, to better define the developmental mechanisms involved in multi-rooted tooth formation. We found that the mesenchyme in the MRF showed relatively higher proliferation than the bifurcation region. This suggested that spatially regulated mesenchymal proliferation is required for creating cylindrical root structure. The mechanism may involve the mesenchyme forming a physical barrier to epithelial invagination of Hertwig's epithelial root sheath. To test these ideas, we cultured roots in the presence of pharmacological inhibitors of microtubule and actin polymerization, nocodazole and cytochalasin-D. Cytochalasin D also inhibits proliferation in epithelium and mesenchyme. Both drugs resulted in altered morphological changes in the tooth root structures. In particular, the nocodazole- and cytochalasin-D-treated specimens showed a loss of root diameter and formation of a single-root, respectively. Immunolocalization and three-dimensional reconstruction results confirmed these mesenchymal cellular events, with higher proliferation in MRF in multi-rooted tooth formation.

  19. Application of fats in some food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Vallerio Rios

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fats and oils are very important raw materials and functional ingredients for several food products such as confectionery, bakery, ice creams, emulsions, and sauces, shortenings, margarines, and other specially tailored products. Formulated products are made with just about every part of chemistry, but they are not simple chemicals. In general, they consist of several, and often many, components. Each of these components has a purpose. Most formulated products have a micro- or nano-structure that is important for their function, but obtaining this structure is often the big challenge. Due to a rise in overweight or obesity, health concerns have increased. This fact has led to the need to the develop products with low fat content, which have become a market trend. In addition, the development of new products using fat substitutes can be a good option for companies that are always trying to reduce costs or substitute trans fat or saturated fat. However, the successful development of these products is still a challenge because fat plays multiple roles in determining the desirable physicochemical and sensory attributes, and because the consumers who want or need to replace these ingredients, seek products with similar characteristics to those of the original product. Important attributes such as smooth, creamy and rich texture; milky and creamy appearance; desirable flavor; and satiating effects are influenced by the droplets of fat, and these characteristics are paramount to the consumer and consequently crucial to the success of the product in the market. Therefore, it is important to identify commercially viable strategies that are capable of removing or reducing fat content of food products without altering their sensory and nutritional characteristics. This paper intended to provide an overview about the role of fat in different food systems such as chocolate, ice cream, bakery products like biscuits, breads, and cakes considering the major

  20. Antecedents and consequences of expectations related to fat-free and regular-fat foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuorila, H; Cardello, A V; Lesher, L L

    1994-12-01

    Hedonic and sensory expectations related to fat-free and regular-fat pound cake, crackers and American cheese were studied with 97 subjects divided into three subgroups, each testing one type of product. Four study phases were separated by 1-month intervals: (1) a questionnaire on demographics, dietary practices and consumption of the test products, (2) intensity ratings of sensory attributes and ratings of liking of unlabeled fat-free and regular-fat samples, (3) ratings of expected attribute intensities and liking in response to product labels of "fat-free" and "regular", and subsequent ratings of these samples and (4) phase 3 repeated with opposite (incorrect) labels. Fat-free products were expected to be less liked than their regular counterparts; however, only cheese was less liked in actual taste tests. Expected liking was best predicted by familiarity with the product and, in the case of fat-free products, by the extent to which a person substituted low-fat for high-fat foods. Actual liking was best predicted by the effect of labeling and by expectations. The expected intensities of sensory attributes were uniformly higher in regular than in fat-free products. Both sensory and hedonic ratings of labeled samples changed in the direction of expectations, as compared to baseline values, supporting an assimilation model of the effect of disconfirmed expectations on sensory perception and consumer acceptance.

  1. Not all fats are created equal: adipose vs. ectopic fat, implication in cardiometabolic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaggini, Melania; Saponaro, Chiara; Gastaldelli, Amalia

    2015-04-01

    Adipose tissue is a recognized endocrine organ that acts not only as a fuel storage but also is able to secrete adipokines that can modulate inflammation. Most of the fat is composed of white adipocytes (WAT), although also brown/beige adipocytes (BAT/BeAT) have been found in humans. BAT is located close to the neck but also among WAT in the epicardial fat and perivascular fat. Adipocyte hypertrophy and infiltration of macrophages impair adipose tissue metabolism determining "adiposopathy" (i.e., sick fat) and increasing the risk to develop metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of this review was to search and discuss the available literature on the impact of different types of fat and fat distribution on cardiometabolic risk. Visceral fat, but also ectopic fat, either in liver, muscle and heart, can increase the risk to develop insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Results recently published showed that BAT could have an impact on cardiometabolic risk, not only because it is implicated in energy metabolism but also because it can modulate glucose and lipid metabolism. Therapeutical interventions that can increase energy expenditure, successfully change fat distribution and reduce ectopic fat, also through BAT activation, were discussed.

  2. Epithelioid peritoneal mesothelioma: a hybrid phenotype within a mesenchymal-epithelial/epithelial-mesenchymal transition framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzi, Fabio; Brich, Silvia; Dagrada, Gian Paolo; Negri, Tiziana; Conca, Elena; Cortelazzi, Barbara; Belfiore, Antonino; Perrone, Federica; Gualeni, Ambra Vittoria; Gloghini, Annunziata; Cabras, Antonello; Brenca, Monica; Maestro, Roberta; Zaffaroni, Nadia; Casali, Paolo; Bertulli, Rossella; Deraco, Marcello; Pilotti, Silvana

    2016-11-15

    The aim of this study was to reconsider the biological characteristics of epithelioid malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (E-MpM) in the light of new concepts about epithelial mesenchymal transition and mesenchymal epithelial reverse transition (EMT/MErT) and the role of epigenetic reprogramming in this context. To this end we profiled surgical specimens and derived cells cultures by a number of complementary approaches i.e. immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, in situ hybridization, biochemistry, pluripotent stem cell arrays, treatments with cytokines, growth factors and specific inhibitors.The analyses of the surgical specimens showed that i) EZH2 is expressed throughout the spectrum of MpM, ii) that E-MpM (including the high-grade undifferentiated form) are characterised by c-MYC and miRNA 17-5p expression, and iii) that progression to sarcomatoid MpM is dictated by EMT regulators. They also showed that E-MpM expressed c-MET and are enriched in E- and P-cadherins- and VEGFR2-expressing CSCs, thus strongly supporting a role for MErT reprogramming in endowing E-MpM tumour cells with stemness and plasticity, and hence with a drug resistant phenotype. The cell culture-based experiments confirmed the stemness traits and plasticity of E-MpM, and support the view that EZH2 is a druggable target in this tumor.

  3. Expression of mouse dchs1, fjx1, and fat-j suggests conservation of the planar cell polarity pathway identified in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Rebecca; Schrauth, Sabrina; Gessler, Manfred

    2005-11-01

    The dachsous (ds), fat (ft), and four-jointed (fj) genes have been identified in Drosophila as part of a signaling pathway that regulates planar cell polarity (PCP). A homologous PCP signaling pathway has also been identified in vertebrates, but nothing is known thus far about the conservation of Ds/Ft/Fj signaling. Here we analyzed and compared for the first time the expression patterns of all ds, ft and fj homologs in the mouse. During embryogenesis, expression analysis was performed by RNA in situ hybridization and in adult organs by real time PCR. As in Drosophila, we detected a complementary expression of fjx1 and dchs1 in organs like kidney, lung, and intestine. The ubiquitous expression of ft in several tissues in Drosophila appears to be split into an epithelial expression of fat1/fat3 and a mesenchymal expression of fat-j. These data are compatible with a conservation and sub-functionalization of the Drosophila Ds, Fj, and Fat signaling in higher vertebrates.

  4. File list: Oth.Oth.50.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Oth.50.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells mm9 TFs and others Others Mesenchymal stem ...cells SRX228677,SRX228679,SRX228676,SRX228678 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Oth.50.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells.bed ...

  5. File list: Unc.Oth.10.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Oth.10.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells hg19 Unclassified Others Mesenchymal stem c...ells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Oth.10.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells.bed ...

  6. File list: Unc.Oth.50.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Oth.50.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells mm9 Unclassified Others Mesenchymal stem ce...lls http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Oth.50.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells.bed ...

  7. File list: DNS.Oth.10.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Oth.10.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells mm9 DNase-seq Others Mesenchymal stem cells... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Oth.10.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells.bed ...

  8. File list: His.Oth.05.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Oth.05.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells mm9 Histone Others Mesenchymal stem cells S...,SRX318103,SRX228666,SRX228665 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Oth.05.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells.bed ...

  9. File list: Unc.Oth.05.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Oth.05.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells hg19 Unclassified Others Mesenchymal stem c...ells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Oth.05.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells.bed ...

  10. File list: ALL.Oth.05.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Oth.05.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells mm9 All antigens Others Mesenchymal stem ce...X228662,SRX228660,SRX228665,SRX228678,SRX228661 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Oth.05.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells.bed ...

  11. File list: Oth.Oth.10.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Oth.10.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells mm9 TFs and others Others Mesenchymal stem ...cells SRX228677,SRX228676,SRX228679,SRX228678 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Oth.10.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells.bed ...

  12. File list: ALL.Oth.20.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Oth.20.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells hg19 All antigens Others Mesenchymal stem c...ttp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Oth.20.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells.bed ...

  13. File list: ALL.Oth.10.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Oth.10.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells hg19 All antigens Others Mesenchymal stem c...ttp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Oth.10.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells.bed ...

  14. File list: His.Oth.50.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Oth.50.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells hg19 Histone Others Mesenchymal stem cells ...76722,SRX376723,SRX1027442 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Oth.50.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells.bed ...

  15. File list: His.Oth.50.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Oth.50.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells mm9 Histone Others Mesenchymal stem cells S...,SRX228669,SRX228666,SRX228664 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Oth.50.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells.bed ...

  16. File list: Oth.Oth.50.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Oth.50.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells hg19 TFs and others Others Mesenchymal stem...X1027439,SRX1027441,SRX1027449,SRX1027452,SRX1027451,SRX1027440 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Oth.50.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells.bed ...

  17. File list: Unc.Oth.10.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Oth.10.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells mm9 Unclassified Others Mesenchymal stem ce...lls http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Oth.10.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells.bed ...

  18. File list: His.Oth.20.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Oth.20.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells hg19 Histone Others Mesenchymal stem cells ...027442,SRX376722,SRX376723 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Oth.20.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells.bed ...

  19. File list: Unc.Oth.05.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Oth.05.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells mm9 Unclassified Others Mesenchymal stem ce...lls http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Oth.05.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells.bed ...

  20. File list: Unc.Oth.50.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Oth.50.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells hg19 Unclassified Others Mesenchymal stem c...ells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Oth.50.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells.bed ...

  1. File list: Pol.Oth.20.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Oth.20.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells hg19 RNA polymerase Others Mesenchymal stem... cells SRX1027436,SRX1027435,SRX1027434,SRX1027433 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Oth.20.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells.bed ...

  2. File list: DNS.Oth.10.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Oth.10.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells hg19 DNase-seq Others Mesenchymal stem cell...s SRX201258,SRX201267 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Oth.10.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells.bed ...

  3. File list: DNS.Oth.20.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Oth.20.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells hg19 DNase-seq Others Mesenchymal stem cell...s SRX201267,SRX201258 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Oth.20.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells.bed ...

  4. File list: DNS.Oth.05.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Oth.05.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells mm9 DNase-seq Others Mesenchymal stem cells... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Oth.05.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells.bed ...

  5. File list: DNS.Oth.50.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Oth.50.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells hg19 DNase-seq Others Mesenchymal stem cell...s SRX201267,SRX201258 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Oth.50.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells.bed ...

  6. File list: Pol.Oth.50.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Oth.50.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells hg19 RNA polymerase Others Mesenchymal stem... cells SRX1027436,SRX1027435,SRX1027434,SRX1027433 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Oth.50.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells.bed ...

  7. File list: ALL.Oth.50.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Oth.50.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells hg19 All antigens Others Mesenchymal stem c...ttp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Oth.50.AllAg.Mesenchymal_stem_cells.bed ...

  8. Glial origin of mesenchymal stem cells in a tooth model system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaukua, Nina; Shahidi, Maryam Khatibi; Konstantinidou, Chrysoula; Dyachuk, Vyacheslav; Kaucka, Marketa; Furlan, Alessandro; An, Zhengwen; Wang, Longlong; Hultman, Isabell; Ahrlund-Richter, Lars; Blom, Hans; Brismar, Hjalmar; Lopes, Natalia Assaife; Pachnis, Vassilis; Suter, Ueli; Clevers, Hans; Thesleff, Irma; Sharpe, Paul; Ernfors, Patrik; Fried, Kaj; Adameyko, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells occupy niches in stromal tissues where they provide sources of cells for specialized mesenchymal derivatives during growth and repair. The origins of mesenchymal stem cells have been the subject of considerable discussion, and current consensus holds that perivascular cells fo

  9. Investigation of Hydrodeoxygenation of Oils and Fats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Riisager, Anders; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    The use of renewable biofuels in the transport sector represents an important step towards a sustainable society. Biodiesel is currently produced by the transesterification of fats and oils with methanol, but another viable method could be reaction of the feedstock with H2 to produce long......-chain alkanes. This would allow direct integration of biofuel production in existing refineries and allow use of feedstock with high amounts of free fatty acids (abattoir wastes, used fats, greases, etc.) [1], or even tall oils from the Kraft process [2]. The reaction network from oils and fats in H2 atmosphere...

  10. Fat embolism syndrome and pulmonary microvascular cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castella, X; Vallés, J; Cabezuelo, M A; Fernandez, R; Artigas, A

    1992-06-01

    Pulmonary microvascular cytology consists of analysis of capillary blood sampled while a Swan-Ganz catheter is in the wedge position. This technique has proved to be useful in the diagnosis of lymphangitic spread of carcinoma in the lungs and there are case reports of their use in amniotic fluid embolism. Its usefulness in diagnosing fat embolism syndrome has been shown only rarely. We report a new case in which pulmonary microvascular cytologic study allowed a definite diagnosis of fat embolism syndrome. We suggest obtaining routinely samples of capillary blood when a pulmonary catheter is in place and fat embolism is suspected on a clinical basis.

  11. Low-fat diets for acquired hypercholesterolaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Neil A; Marshall, Belinda J; Daley, Maxine; Boulos, Elie; Windus, Janelle; Baker, Nadine; Kwok, Nigel

    2011-02-16

    Hypercholesterolaemia, characterised by raised blood cholesterol levels, is not a disease itself but a metabolic derangement that often contributes to many diseases, notably cardiovascular disease. In most cases, elevated cholesterol levels are associated with high-fat diet, especially saturated fat, coupled with an inactive lifestyle. Less commonly, raised cholesterol may be related to an inherited disorder, familial hypercholesterolaemia. This systematic review is only concerned with acquired hypercholesterolaemia. To assess the effects of low-fat diets for acquired hypercholesterolaemia and to investigate the incidence of adverse effects from low-fat dietary interventions. We planned to compare the relative effectiveness of low-fat diets with calorie-restricted diets for acquired hypercholesterolaemia. We also wanted to look into the relative effectiveness of low-fat diets and pharmacological interventions for acquired hypercholesterolaemia. Studies were obtained from computerised searches of The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE and databases of ongoing trials. Date of last search was February 2010. Otherwise healthy adults (equal to or greater than 18 years) with acquired (not familial) hypercholesterolaemia. We defined hypercholesterolaemia as either total cholesterol greater than 5.2 mmol/L, LDL-cholesterol greater than 3.0 mmol/L, HDL-cholesterol less than 1.0 mmol/L or a combination thereof, although investigators' definitions were also accepted. We wanted to include any low-fat dietary intervention, like low-fat and low-saturated fat diets, intended to lower serum total and LDL-cholesterol or to raise HDL-cholesterol. A low-fat diet was considered as a fat calorie intake less than 20% of the total calories. The minimum duration of the intervention had to be six months. We excluded studies in unhealthy people. Two authors were planned to independently assess risk of bias and extract data. No study met our inclusion criteria. Well designed, adequately

  12. Age–related rump fat, fat percent, body fat mass, leptin, androgens and semen parameters of Arab stallions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal M. Abo El-Maaty

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: This study proved that aging in stallions is related to a drop in fertility, a decrease in body fat and in turn leptin. Arab stallions of age 7 to 18 years could be used in the breeding efficiently.

  13. Modified broken rice starch as fat substitute in sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Maria Limberger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The demand for low-fat beef products has led the food industry to use fat substitutes such as modified starch. About 14% of broken rice is generated during processing. Nevertheless, this by-product contains high levels of starch; being therefore, great raw material for fat substitution. This study evaluated the applicability of chemically and physically modified broken rice starch as fat substitute in sausages. Extruded and phosphorylated broken rice was used in low-fat sausage formulation. All low-fat sausages presented about 55% reduction in the fat content and around 28% reduction in the total caloric value. Fat replacement with phosphorylated and extruded broken rice starch increased the texture acceptability of low-fat sausages, when compared to low-fat sausages with no modified broken rice. Results suggest that modified broken rice can be used as fat substitute in sausage formulations, yielding lower caloric value products with acceptable sensory characteristics.

  14. Monounsaturated fats and immune function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Yaqoob

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Animal studies suggest that olive oil is capable of modulating functions of cells of the immune system in a manner similar to, albeit weaker than, fish oils. There is some evidence that the effects of olive oil on immune function in animal studies are due to oleic acid rather than to trace elements or antioxidants. Importantly, several studies have demonstrated effects of oleic acid-containing diets on in vivo immune responses. In contrast, consumption of a monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA-rich diet by humans does not appear to bring about a general suppression of immune cell functions. The effects of this diet in humans are limited to decreasing aspects of adhesion of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, although there are trends towards decreases in natural killer cell activity and proliferation. The lack of a clear effect of MUFA in humans may be attributable to the higher level of monounsaturated fat used in the animal studies, although it is ultimately of importance to examine the effects of intakes which are in no way extreme. The effects of MUFA on adhesion molecules are potentially important, since these molecules appear to have a role in the pathology of a number of diseases involving the immune system. This area clearly deserves further exploration

  15. Effects of dietary fat and saturated fat content on liver fat and markers of oxidative stress in overweight/obese men and women under weight-stable conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marina, Anna; von Frankenberg, Anize Delfino; Suvag, Seda; Callahan, Holly S; Kratz, Mario; Richards, Todd L; Utzschneider, Kristina M

    2014-10-28

    Dietary fat and oxidative stress are hypothesized to contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and progression to steatohepatitis. To determine the effects of dietary fat content on hepatic triglyceride, body fat distribution and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, overweight/obese subjects with normal glucose tolerance consumed a control diet (CONT: 35% fat/12% saturated fat/47% carbohydrate) for ten days, followed by four weeks on a low fat (LFD (n = 10): 20% fat/8% saturated fat/62% carbohydrate) or high fat diet (HFD (n = 10): 55% fat/25% saturated fat/27% carbohydrate). Hepatic triglyceride content was quantified by MRS and abdominal fat distribution by MRI. Fasting biomarkers of inflammation (plasma hsCRP, IL-6, IL-12, TNFα, IFN-γ) and oxidative stress (urinary F2-α isoprostanes) were measured. Body weight remained stable. Compared to the CONT, hepatic triglyceride decreased on the LFD (mean (95% CI): change -2.13% (-3.74%, -0.52%)), but did not change on the HFD and there was no significant difference between the LFD and HFD. Intra-abdominal fat did not change significantly on either diet, but subcutaneous abdominal fat increased on the HFD. There were no significant changes in fasting metabolic markers, inflammatory markers and urinary F2-α isoprostanes. We conclude that in otherwise healthy overweight/obese adults under weight-neutral conditions, a diet low in fat and saturated fat has modest effects to decrease liver fat and may be beneficial. On the other hand, a diet very high in fat and saturated fat had no effect on hepatic triglyceride or markers of metabolism, inflammation and oxidative stress.

  16. Fat lowers fat: purified phospholipids as emerging therapies for dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2013-04-01

    Dyslipidemia is a major coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factor. In spite of the proven efficacy of statin drugs in reducing CHD burden, there is still much room for the discovery of novel therapeutic agents to address the considerable residual cardiovascular risk that remains after treatment with currently available medications. In particular, there is an urgent demand for drugs capable of boosting the concentration and/or function of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I), thereby promoting reverse cholesterol transport. Phospholipids are naturally occurring fats that play indispensible role in human health via their structural, energy storage, signal transduction and metabolic functions. Supplementation with either purified or mixed preparations of bioactive phospholipids has been reported to ameliorate a range of nutritional and cardiovascular disorders. Moreover, several lines of evidence have supported the efficacy of dietary phospholipids in reducing serum and hepatic contents of cholesterol and triglycerides, while increasing HDL-C and apo A-I levels. These beneficial effects of phospholipids could be attributed to their ability in reducing intestinal cholesterol absorption, enhancing biliary cholesterol excretion and modulating the expression and activity of transcriptional factors and enzymes that are involved in lipoprotein metabolism. Given their extreme safety and biocompatibility, dietary supplementation with phospholipid preparations, in particular phosphatidylinositol, appears as a novel and effective strategy that could be used as an alternative or adjunctive therapy to the current medications. The present review outlines the in-vitro, in-vivo and clinical findings on the anti-dyslipidemic effects of three most abundant phospholipids in the human body and diet namely phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol.

  17. Nitric oxide controls fat deposition in dystrophic skeletal muscle by regulating fibro-adipogenic precursor differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordani, Nicoletta; Pisa, Viviana; Pozzi, Laura; Sciorati, Clara; Clementi, Emilio

    2014-04-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an hereditary disease characterized by loss of muscle fibers and their progressive substitution by fat and fibrous tissue. Mesenchymal fibro-adipogenic progenitors (FAPs) expressing the platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα) are an important source of fibrosis and adipogenesis in dystrophic skeletal muscle. Among the therapies suggested for dystrophy are those based on nitric oxide (NO) donating drugs, the administration of which slows disease progression. NO has been shown to act by enhancing the regenerative potential of the diseased muscle. Whether it acts also by inhibiting fibrosis and adipogenesis was not known. Here, we show in vitro that NO regulates FAP fate through inhibition of their differentiation into adipocytes. In mdx mice, an animal model of DMD, treatment with the NO donating drug molsidomine reduced the number of PDGFRα(+) cells as well as the deposition of both skeletal muscle fat and connective tissues. Inhibition of adipogenesis was due to NO-induced increased expression of miR-27b leading to downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gamma (Pparγ1) expression in a pathway independent of cGMP generation. These findings reveal an additional effect of NO in dystrophic muscle that conceivably synergizes with its known effects on regeneration improvement and explain why NO-based therapies appear effective in the treatment of muscular dystrophy.

  18. Recurrent malignant variant of phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor with oncogenic osteomalacia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogose, A.; Hotta, Tetsuo; Hatano, Hiroshi; Endo, Naoto [Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, Niigata University School of Medicine, Asahimachi, Niigata (Japan); Emura, Iwao; Umezu, Hajime [Dept. of Pathology, Niigata University School of Medicine, Niigata (Japan); Inoue, Yoshiya [Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, Seirei Hamamatsu General Hospital, Hamamatsu (Japan)

    2001-02-01

    Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor is a rare neoplasm which causes osteomalacia or rickets. The tumor typically follows a benign clinical course. Even in the rare malignant cases, local recurrence and distant metastasis are uncommon. We report on an example of a malignant phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor which recurred several times over 16 years concurrently causing hypophosphatemia, bone pain, and osteomalacia. Following each surgery, symptoms and hypophosphatemia improved. The patient died of disease 17 years after the first surgery. Histologically, the initial tumor was composed of small spindle cells with clusters of giant cells, prominent blood vessels, poorly formed cartilaginous areas, and crystalline material. Cytological atypia was minimal. Following multiple recurrences, the tumor demonstrated areas of high-grade sarcoma exhibiting marked pleomorphism, numerous mitotic figures, and p53 overexpression. This case illustrates the potential lethality of incompletely removed phosphaturic mesenchymal tumors. (orig.)

  19. Mesenchymal stem cells: cell biology and potential use in therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassem, Moustapha; Kristiansen, Malthe; Abdallah, Basem M

    2004-01-01

    are currently available for isolation of the mesenchymal stem cells based on their physical and immunological characteristics. Because of the ease of their isolation and their extensive differentiation potential, mesenchymal stem cells are among the first stem cell types to be introduced in the clinic. Recent...... studies have demonstrated that the life span of mesenchymal stem cells in vitro can be extended by increasing the levels of telomerase expression in the cells and thus allowing culture of large number of cells needed for therapy. In addition, it has been shown that it is possible to culture the cells...... for generalized diseases, local implantation for local tissue defects, as a vehicle for genes in gene therapy protocols or to generate transplantable tissues and organs in tissue engineering protocols. The results of these initial trials are very encouraging and several clinical trials are under way to study...

  20. Mechanical induction of transitions into mesenchymal and amoeboid states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liphardt, Jan

    One of the fundamental mysteries of biology lies in the ability of cells to convert from one phenotype to another in response to external control inputs. We have been studying the Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), which allows organized assemblies of epithelial cells to scatter into lone mesenchymal cells. EMT is critical for normal development and wound healing, and may be important for cancer metastasis. I'll present recent data on disorganizing mammary epithelial structures. We have used CRISPR to insert fluorescent tags directly into eight EMT-related genes (such as E-cadherin and Vimentin), which allows us to monitor the dynamics of the transition in real time, subject only to delays imposed by fluorophore folding/maturation times. With this information, we can begin to order events in time (temporal resolution 30 minutes), starting with external signal inputs and proceeding through a secession of intracellular changes of gene expression on the path to the mesenchymal state.

  1. Isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from equine umbilical cord blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Thomas Gadegaard; Heerkens, Tammy; Thomsen, Preben Dybdahl

    2007-01-01

    Background: There are no published studies on stem cells from equine cord blood although commercial storage of equine cord blood for future autologous stem cell transplantations is available. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been isolated from fresh umbilical cord blood of humans collected non......-invasively at the time of birth and from sheep cord blood collected invasively by a surgical intrauterine approach. Mesenchymal stem cells isolation percentage from frozen-thawed human cord blood is low and the future isolation percentage of MSCs from cryopreserved equine cord blood is therefore expectedly low......, for the first time, the isolation of mesenchymal-like stem cells from fresh equine cord blood and their differentiation into osteocytes, chondrocytes and adipocytes. This novel isolation of equine cord blood MSCs and their preliminary in vitro differentiation positions the horse as the ideal pre-clinical animal...

  2. Mesenchymal hamartoma of the chest wall in an infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayadi-Kaddour, A; Mlika, M; Chaabouni, S; Kilani, T; El Mezni, F

    2007-12-01

    Mesenchymal hamartoma of the chest wall is a very rare, benign tumour with distinct clinical, radiological and histopathologic characteristics. The lesion develops during foetal life, and is present at or shortly after birth with an extrapleural mass arising from the rib cage with or without respiratory distress and marked rib deformity. Several imaging techniques have been used for diagnosis, but a definitive diagnosis is established only by histopathological examination. Such lesions are composed of a varying admixture of hyaline cartilage that has features resembling growth plate cartilage, along with fascicles of spindle cells, woven bone and hemorrhagic cysts. Accurate diagnosis of mesenchymal hamartoma is important since many chest wall masses in children are malignant. We report a case of mesenchymal hamartoma of the left posterior chest wall surgically resected in an infant who was found to have a palpable mass at birth. Two years after surgery, the patient is alive and well, with no evidence of recurrence.

  3. An improved protocol for isolation and culture of mesenchymal stem cells from mouse bone marrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs from bone marrow are main cell source for tissue repair and engineering, and vehicles of cell-based gene therapy. Unlike other species, mouse bone marrow derived MSCs (BM-MSCs are difficult to harvest and grow due to the low MSCs yield. We report here a standardised, reliable, and easy-to-perform protocol for isolation and culture of mouse BM-MSCs. There are five main features of this protocol. (1 After flushing bone marrow out of the marrow cavity, we cultured the cells with fat mass without filtering and washing them. Our method is simply keeping the MSCs in their initial niche with minimal disturbance. (2 Our culture medium is not supplemented with any additional growth factor. (3 Our method does not need to separate cells using flow cytometry or immunomagnetic sorting techniques. (4 Our method has been carefully tested in several mouse strains and the results are reproducible. (5 We have optimised this protocol, and list detailed potential problems and trouble-shooting tricks. Using our protocol, the isolated mouse BM-MSCs were strongly positive for CD44 and CD90, negative CD45 and CD31, and exhibited tri-lineage differentiation potentials. Compared with the commonly used protocol, our protocol had higher success rate of establishing the mouse BM-MSCs in culture. Our protocol may be a simple, reliable, and alternative method for culturing MSCs from mouse bone marrow tissues.

  4. Assessing Adipogenic Potential of Mesenchymal Stem Cells: A Rapid Three-Dimensional Culture Screening Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean F. Welter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have the potential to differentiate into a number of phenotypes, including adipocytes. Adipogenic differentiation has traditionally been performed in monolayer culture, and, while the expression of a fat-cell phenotype can be achieved, this culture method is labor and material intensive and results in only small numbers of fragile adherent cells, which are not very useful for further applications. Aggregate culture is a cell-culture technique in which cells are induced to form three-dimensional aggregates; this method has previously been used successfully, among others, to induce and study chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs. We have previously published an adaptation of the chondrogenic aggregate culture method to a 96-well plate format. Based on the success of this method, we have used the same format for the preparation of three-dimensional adipogenic cultures. The MSCs differentiate rapidly, the aggregates can be handled and processed for histologic and biochemical assays with ease, and the format offers significant savings in supplies and labor. As a differentiation assay, this method can distinguish between degrees of senescence and appears suitable for testing medium or drug formulations in a high-volume, high-throughput fashion.

  5. Adiponectin Isoforms and Leptin Impact on Rheumatoid Adipose Mesenchymal Stem Cells Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Skalska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adiponectin and leptin have recently emerged as potential risk factors in rheumatoid arthritis (RA pathogenesis. In this study we evaluated the effects of adiponectin and leptin on immunomodulatory function of adipose mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs derived from infrapatellar fat pad of RA patients. ASCs were stimulated with leptin, low molecular weight (LMW and high/middle molecular weight (HMW/MMW adiponectin isoforms. The secretory activity of ASCs and their effect on rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts (RA-FLS and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from healthy donors have been analysed. RA-ASCs secreted spontaneously TGFβ, IL-6, IL-1Ra, PGE2, IL-8, and VEGF. Secretion of all these factors was considerably upregulated by HMW/MMW adiponectin, but not by LMW adiponectin and leptin. Stimulation with HMW/MMW adiponectin partially abolished proproliferative effect of ASC-derived soluble factors on RA-FLS but did not affect IL-6 secretion in FLS cultures. ASCs pretreated with HMW/MMW adiponectin maintained their anti-inflammatory function towards PBMCs, which was manifested by moderate PBMCs proliferation inhibition and IL-10 secretion induction. We have proved that HMW/MMW adiponectin stimulates secretory potential of rheumatoid ASCs but does not exert strong impact on ASCs function towards RA-FLS and PBMCs.

  6. Mechanisms Underlying the Osteo- and Adipo-Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs are considered a promising cell source for regenerative medicine, because they have the potential to differentiate into a variety of lineages among which the mesoderm-derived lineages such adipo- or osteogenesis are investigated best. Human MSCs can be harvested in reasonable to large amounts from several parts of the patient’s body and due to this possible autologous origin, allorecognition can be avoided. In addition, even in allogenic origin-derived donor cells, hMSCs generate a local immunosuppressive microenvironment, causing only a weak immune reaction. There is an increasing need for bone replacement in patients from all ages, due to a variety of reasons such as a new recreational behavior in young adults or age-related diseases. Adipogenic differentiation is another interesting lineage, because fat tissue is considered to be a major factor triggering atherosclerosis that ultimately leads to cardiovascular diseases, the main cause of death in industrialized countries. However, understanding the differentiation process in detail is obligatory to achieve a tight control of the process for future clinical applications to avoid undesired side effects. In this review, the current findings for adipo- and osteo-differentiation are summarized together with a brief statement on first clinical trials.

  7. Isolation and characterization of mesenchymal stem cells from caprine umbilical cord tissue matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kuldeep; Agarwal, Pranjali; Das, Kinsuk; Mili, Bhabesh; Madhusoodan, A P; Kumar, Ajay; Bag, Sadhan

    2016-12-01

    Cord tissue fills the umbilical cord around the blood vessels and contains types of stem cells (mesenchymal stem cells or MSCs) that are not generally found in cord blood. MSCs are the stem cells that give rise to many of the "support tissues" in the body, including bone, cartilage, fat and muscle. Umbilical Cord Tissue cells (UCTs) possessing the capacity to differentiate into various cell types such as osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes have been previously isolated from different species including human, canine, murine, avian species etc. The present study documents the existence of similar multipotential stem cells in caprine UCTs having similar growth and morphological characteristics. The cells were isolated from caprine umbilical cord and cultivated in DMEM (low glucose) supplemented with 15% FBS, L-glutamine and antibiotics. Primary culture achieved confluence in 5-7days having spindle shaped morphology. The cells were morphologically homogeneous, showed robust proliferation ability with a population doubled time of 92.07h as well as normal karyotype. In vitro self-renewal capacity was demonstrated by colony-forming unit assay (CFU). The cells expressed MSC specific markers and showed multi-differentiation capability into adipogenic and osteogeneic. The results indicated that caprine UCTs (cUCTs) were isolated and characterized from umbilical cord tissue which can be used for tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mesenchymal stem cell-based gene therapy: A promising therapeutic strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadian, Mozhdeh; Abasi, Elham; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl

    2016-08-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stromal cells that exist in bone marrow, fat, and so many other tissues, and can differentiate into a variety of cell types including osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes, as well as myocytes and neurons. Moreover, they have great capacity for self-renewal while maintaining their multipotency. Their capacity for proliferation and differentiation, in addition to their immunomodulatory activity, makes them very promising candidates for cell-based regenerative medicine. Moreover, MSCs have the ability of mobilization to the site of damage; therefore, they can automatically migrate to the site of injury via their chemokine receptors following intravenous transplantation. In this respect, they can be applied for MSC-based gene therapy. In this new therapeutic method, genes of interest are introduced into MSCs via viral and non-viral-based methods that lead to transgene expression in them. Although stem cell-based gene therapy is a relatively new strategy, it lights a new hope for the treatment of a variety of genetic disorders. In the near future, MSCs can be of use in a vast number of clinical applications, because of their uncomplicated isolation, culture, and genetic manipulation. However, full consideration is still crucial before they are utilized for clinical trials, because the number of studies that signify the advantageous effects of MSC-based gene therapy are still limited.

  9. Mesenchymal stem cells, neural lineage potential, heparan sulfate proteoglycans and the matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okolicsanyi, Rachel K; Griffiths, Lyn R; Haupt, Larisa M

    2014-04-01

    Along with the tri-lineage of bone, cartilage and fat, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) retain neural lineage potential. Multiple factors have been described that influence lineage fate of hMSCs including the extracellular microenvironment or niche. The niche includes the extracellular matrix (ECM) providing structural composition, as well as other associated proteins and growth factors, which collectively influence hMSC stemness and lineage specification. As such, lineage specific differentiation of MSCs is mediated through interactions including cell-cell and cell-matrix, as well as through specific signalling pathways triggering downstream events. Proteoglycans (PGs) are ubiquitous within this microenvironment and can be localised to the cell surface or embedded within the ECM. In addition, the heparan sulfate (HS) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) families of PGs interact directly with a number of growth factors, signalling pathways and ECM components including FGFs, Wnts and fibronectin. With evidence supporting a role for HSPGs and CSPGs in the specification of hMSCs down the osteogenic, chondrogenic and adipogenic lineages, along with the localisation of PGs in development and regeneration, it is conceivable that these important proteins may also play a role in the differentiation of hMSCs toward the neuronal lineage. Here we summarise the current literature and highlight the potential for HSPG directed neural lineage fate specification in hMSCs, which may provide a new model for brain damage repair.

  10. Long-term fat diet adaptation effects on performance, training capacity, and fat utilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2002-01-01

    It is well known that adaptation to a fat-rich carbohydrate-poor diet results in lower resting muscle glycogen content and a higher rate of fat oxidation during exercise when compared with a carbohydrate-rich diet. The net effect of such an adaptation could potentially be a sparing of muscle...... performance enhancement after long-term fat-rich diet adaptation. Attainment of optimal performance is among other factors dependent also on the quality and quantity of the training performed. When exercise intensity is increased, there is an increased need for carbohydrates. On the other hand, consumption...... of a fat-rich diet decreases the storage of glycogen in both muscle and liver. Therefore, training intensity may be compromised in individuals while consuming a fat-rich diet. During submaximal exercise, fat for oxidation in muscle is recruited from plasma fatty acids, plasma triacylglycerol, and muscle...

  11. Size determinations of colloidal fat emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuntsche, Judith; Klaus, Katrin; Steiniger, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Size and size distributions of colloidal dispersions are of crucial importance for their performance and safety. In the present study, commercially available fat emulsions (Lipofundin N, Lipofundin MCT and Lipidem) were analyzed by photon correlation spectroscopy, laser diffraction with adequate...

  12. Saturated fat, carbohydrate, and cardiovascular disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Siri-Tarino, Patty W; Sun, Qi; Hu, Frank B; Krauss, Ronald M

    2010-01-01

    A focus of dietary recommendations for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention and treatment has been a reduction in saturated fat intake, primarily as a means of lowering LDL-cholesterol concentrations...

  13. Healthy Dietary Fats Help Beat High Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. "Saturated fat increases LDL -- bad cholesterol -- which is a major cause of artery-clogging plaque and cardiovascular disease," he said. In clinical trials, reducing use ...

  14. The stability of recombined milk fat globules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melsen, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    The stability of the fat globules in recombined milk products against creaming, flocculation, clustering, partial coalescence and real coalescence, with the emphasis on partial coalescence, was studied. (partial) Coalescence was characterized by determining changes in globule size

  15. Percentage Energy from Fat Screener: Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    A short assessment instrument to estimate an individual's usual intake of percentage energy from fat. The foods asked about on the instrument were selected because they were the most important predictors of variability in percentage energy.

  16. The danish tax on saturated fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Smed, Sinne

    on saturated fat in food products has had some effects on the market for the considered products, in that the level of consumption of fats dropped by 10 – 20%. Furthermore, the analysis points at shifts in demand from high-price supermarkets towards low-price discount stores – a shift that seems to have been......Denmark introduced a new tax on saturated fat in food products with effect from October 2011. The objective of this paper is to make an effect assessment of this tax for some of the product categories most significantly affected by the new tax, namely fats such as butter, butter-blends, margarine...... and oils. This assessment was done by conducting an econometric analysis on weekly food purchase data from a large household panel dataset (GfK ConsumerTracking Scandinavia), spanning the period from January 2009 until December 2011.The econometric analysis suggest that the introduction of the tax...

  17. The stability of recombined milk fat globules.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melsen, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    The stability of the fat globules in recombined milk products against creaming, flocculation, clustering, partial coalescence and real coalescence, with the emphasis on partial coalescence, was studied. (partial) Coalescence was characterized by determining changes in globule size distribution and f

  18. Oil diffusivity through fat crystal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Nicole L; Rousseau, Dérick

    2015-07-21

    Oil migration in chocolate and chocolate-based confections leads to undesirable visual and textural changes. Establishing ways to slow this unavoidable process would increase shelf life and reduce consumer rejection. Diffusion is most often credited as the main pathway by which oil migration occurs. Here, we use fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) to explore the diffusion coefficients of vegetable and mineral oil through fat crystal networks at different solid fat contents (SFC). Differences in compatibility between the fat and oil lead to unique primary crystal clusters, yet those variations do not affect diffusion at low SFCs. Trends deviate at higher SFCs, which we ascribe to the influence of the differing crystal cluster structures. We relate our results to the strong and weak-link rheological regimes of fat crystal networks. Finally, we connect the results to relationships developed for polymer gel systems.

  19. The Danish tax on saturated fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild; Holm, Lotte; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Health promoters have repeatedly proposed using economic policy tools, taxes and subsidies, as a means of changing consumer behaviour. As the first country in the world, Denmark introduced a tax on saturated fat in 2011. It was repealed in 2012. In this paper, we present...... on saturated fat had been suggested by two expert committees and was introduced with a majority in parliament, as a part of a larger economic reform package. Many actors, including representatives from the food industry and nutrition researchers, opposed the tax both before and after its introduction, claiming......, research was published showing that consumption of saturated fat had declined in Denmark. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis indicates that the Danish tax on fat was introduced mainly to increase public revenue. As the tax had no strong proponents and many influential adversaries, it was repealed. New research...

  20. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Levels of Human Spinal Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Liam; Vangsness, C Thomas

    2017-09-06

    .: Systematic Review. .: The aim of this study was to investigate, quantify, compare and compile the various mesenchymal stem cell tissue sources within human spinal tissues to act as a compendium for clinical and research application. .: Recent years have seen a dramatic increase in academic and clinical understanding of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Previously limited to cells isolated from bone marrow, the past decade has illicited the characterization and isolation of human MSCs from adipose, bone marrow, synovium, muscle, periosteum, peripheral blood, umbilical cord, placenta and numerous other tissues. As researchers explore practical applications of cells in these tissues, the absolute levels of MSCs in specific spinal tissue will be critical to guide future research. .: The PubMED, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases were searched for articles relating to the harvest, characterization, isolation and quantification of human mesenchymal stem cells from spinal tissues. Selected articles were examined for relevant data, categorized according to type of spinal tissue, and when possible, standardized to facilitate comparisons between sites. .: Human mesenchymal stem cell levels varied widely between spinal tissues. Yields for Intervertebral disc demonstrated roughly 5% of viable cells to be positive for MSC surface markers. Cartilage endplate cells yielded 18,500- 61,875 cells/ 0.8 mm thick sample of cartilage end plate. Ligamentum flavum yielded 250,000- 500,000 cells per gram of tissue. Annulus fibrosus FACS treatment found 29% of cells positive for MSC marker Stro-1. Nucleus pulposus yielded mean tissue samples of 40,584-234,137 MSCs/gram of tissue. .: Numerous tissues within and surrounding the spine represent a consistent and reliable source for the harvest and isolation of human mesenchymal stem cells. Among the tissues of the spine, the annulus fibrosus and ligamentum flavum each offer considerable levels of mesenchymal stem cells, and may

  1. A role for mesenchyme dynamics in mouse lung branching morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Blanc

    Full Text Available Mammalian airways are highly ramified tree-like structures that develop by the repetitive branching of the lung epithelium into the surrounding mesenchyme through reciprocal interactions. Based on a morphometric analysis of the epithelial tree, it has been recently proposed that the complete branching scheme is specified early in each lineage by a programme using elementary patterning routines at specific sites and times in the developing lung. However, the coupled dynamics of both the epithelium and mesenchyme have been overlooked in this process. Using a qualitative and quantitative in vivo morphometric analysis of the E11.25 to E13.5 mouse whole right cranial lobe structure, we show that beyond the first generations, the branching stereotypy relaxes and both spatial and temporal variations are common. The branching pattern and branching rate are sensitive to the dynamic changes of the mesoderm shape that is in turn mainly dependent upon the volume and shape of the surrounding intrathoracic organs. Spatial and temporal variations of the tree architecture are related to local and subtle modifications of the mesoderm growth. Remarkably, buds never meet after suffering branching variations and continue to homogenously fill the opening spaces in the mesenchyme. Moreover despite inter-specimen variations, the growth of the epithelial tree and the mesenchyme remains highly correlated over time at the whole lobe level, implying a long-range regulation of the lung lobe morphogenesis. Together, these findings indicate that the lung epithelial tree is likely to adapt in real time to fill the available space in the mesenchyme, rather than being rigidly specified and predefined by a global programme. Our results strongly support the idea that a comprehensive understanding of lung branching mechanisms cannot be inferred from the branching pattern or behavior alone. Rather it needs to be elaborated upon with the reconsideration of mesenchyme

  2. Description and comparison of Fat7-bar and HYP fat links

    CERN Document Server

    Bilson-Thompson, S O; Bilson-Thompson, Sundance O.; Lee, Weonjong

    2004-01-01

    We study various methods of constructing fat links based upon the HYP (by Hasenfratz & Knechtli) and Fat7-bar (by W. Lee) algorithms. We present the minimum plaquette distribution for these fat links. This enables us to determine which algorithm is most effective at reducing the spread of plaquette values - a strong indicator of improved statistics for spectrum and static potential measurements, among other quantities.

  3. Regular Fat and Reduced Fat Dairy Products Show Similar Associations with Markers of Adolescent Cardiometabolic Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese A. O’Sullivan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduced fat dairy products are generally recommended for adults and children over the age of two years. However, emerging evidence suggests that dairy fat may not have detrimental health effects. We aimed to investigate prospective associations between consumption of regular versus reduced fat dairy products and cardiometabolic risk factors from early to late adolescence. In the West Australian Raine Study, dairy intake was assessed using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires in 860 adolescents at 14 and 17-year follow-ups; 582 of these also had blood biochemistry at both points. Using generalized estimating equations, we examined associations with cardiometabolic risk factors. Models incorporated reduced fat and regular fat dairy together (in serves/day and were adjusted for a range of factors including overall dietary pattern. In boys, there was a mean reduction in diastolic blood pressure of 0.66 mmHg (95% CI 0.23–1.09 per serve of reduced fat dairy and an independent, additional reduction of 0.47 mmHg (95% CI 0.04–0.90 per serve of regular fat dairy. Each additional serve of reduced fat dairy was associated with a 2% reduction in HDL-cholesterol (95% CI 0.97–0.995 and a 2% increase in total: HDL-cholesterol ratio (95% CI 1.002–1.03; these associations were not observed with regular fat products. In girls, there were no significant independent associations observed in fully adjusted models. Although regular fat dairy was associated with a slightly better cholesterol profile in boys, overall, intakes of both regular fat and reduced fat dairy products were associated with similar cardiometabolic associations in adolescents.

  4. Regular Fat and Reduced Fat Dairy Products Show Similar Associations with Markers of Adolescent Cardiometabolic Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Therese A; Bremner, Alexandra P; Mori, Trevor A; Beilin, Lawrence J; Wilson, Charlotte; Hafekost, Katherine; Ambrosini, Gina L; Huang, Rae Chi; Oddy, Wendy H

    2016-01-02

    Reduced fat dairy products are generally recommended for adults and children over the age of two years. However, emerging evidence suggests that dairy fat may not have detrimental health effects. We aimed to investigate prospective associations between consumption of regular versus reduced fat dairy products and cardiometabolic risk factors from early to late adolescence. In the West Australian Raine Study, dairy intake was assessed using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires in 860 adolescents at 14 and 17-year follow-ups; 582 of these also had blood biochemistry at both points. Using generalized estimating equations, we examined associations with cardiometabolic risk factors. Models incorporated reduced fat and regular fat dairy together (in serves/day) and were adjusted for a range of factors including overall dietary pattern. In boys, there was a mean reduction in diastolic blood pressure of 0.66 mmHg (95% CI 0.23-1.09) per serve of reduced fat dairy and an independent, additional reduction of 0.47 mmHg (95% CI 0.04-0.90) per serve of regular fat dairy. Each additional serve of reduced fat dairy was associated with a 2% reduction in HDL-cholesterol (95% CI 0.97-0.995) and a 2% increase in total: HDL-cholesterol ratio (95% CI 1.002-1.03); these associations were not observed with regular fat products. In girls, there were no significant independent associations observed in fully adjusted models. Although regular fat dairy was associated with a slightly better cholesterol profile in boys, overall, intakes of both regular fat and reduced fat dairy products were associated with similar cardiometabolic associations in adolescents.

  5. Sonographic Prediction of Body Fat Volume (Subcutaneous and Visceral Fat in Cardiovascular Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Soleymanzadeh

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inappropriate body composition represents impaired energy and nutrient intake and can be a risk factor for many diseases, especially for cardiovascular disease. Different methods have been suggested for the estimation of body fat volume and its distribution. However, they may be either expensive or hazardous for some groups of patients. Sonography is a very accessible technique, which may be used for the evaluation of visceral and subcutaneous fat volume. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sonographic prediction of body fat and its distribution in subcutaneous and visceral compartments.Methods: During a three-month period, we conducted sonographic evaluations for visceral and subcutaneous fat in 106 patients who were admitted to our hospital. The subcutaneous fat was measured at the para-umbilical region and visceral fat was measured in the right para-renal space. The results were compared with the data obtained from the body mass index(BMI and bioelectric impedance analysis.Results: The mean age of the patients was 58.8 years, and the mean BMI was26.48 ± 0.33. The mean values of fat percent and fat mass obtained by the electric-method were 31.07 ± 0.81% and 22.12 ± 0.68 kg, respectively. The respective mean values of subcutaneous and visceral fat obtained by sonography were 20.50±0.56 mm and 24.14 ± 0.58 mm. The correlationbetween BMI and subcutaneous fat was 0.85 (p value < 0.0001 and the correlation between BMI and visceral fat was0.46(p value < 0.0001.Conclusion: Sonography is a reliable and available method for the estimation of body fat and its distribution in cardiovascularpatients, in subcutaneous and visceral compartments.

  6. Emergence of anxiety-like behaviours in depressive-like Cpe(fat/fat) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguiz, Ramona M; Wilkins, John J; Creson, Thomas K; Biswas, Reeta; Berezniuk, Iryna; Fricker, Arun D; Fricker, Lloyd D; Wetsel, William C

    2013-08-01

    Cpe(fat/fat) mice have a point mutation in carboxypeptidase E (Cpe), an exopeptidase that removes C-terminal basic amino acids from intermediates to produce bioactive peptides. The mutation renders the enzyme inactive and unstable. The absence of Cpe activity in these mutants leads to abnormal processing of many peptides, with elevated levels of intermediates and greatly reduced levels of the mature peptides. Cpe(fat/fat) mice develop obesity, diabetes and infertility in adulthood. We examined whether anxiety- and/or depressive-like behaviours are also present. Anxiety-like responses are not evident in young Cpe(fat/fat) mice (∼60 d), but appear in older animals (>90 d). These behaviours are reversed by acute treatment with diazepam or fluoxetine. In contrast, increased immobilities in forced swim and tail suspension are evident in all age groups examined. These behaviours are reversed by acute administration of reboxetine. In comparison acute treatments with fluoxetine or bupropion are ineffective; however, immobility times are normalized with 2 wk treatment. These data demonstrate that Cpe(fat/fat) mice display depressive-like responses aged ∼60 d, whereas anxiety-like behaviours emerge ∼1 month later. In tail suspension, the reboxetine findings show that noradrenergic actions of antidepressants are intact in Cpe(fat/fat) mice. The ability of acute fluoxetine treatment to rescue anxiety-like while leaving depressive-like responses unaffected suggests that serotonin mechanisms underlying these behaviours are different. Since depressive-like responses in the Cpe(fat/fat) mice are rescued by 2 wk, but not acute, treatment with fluoxetine or bupropion, these mice may serve as a useful model that resembles human depression.

  7. Oil and fat in broiler nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NC Baião

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The terms "fat" and "oil" refer to triglycerides of several profiles of fatty acids. Fatty acids that are not bound to other organic components as glycerol are the so-called free fatty acids. Lipids constitute the main energetic source for animals and they have the highest caloric value among all the nutrients. Linoleic acid is the only fatty acid whose dietetic requirement has been demonstrated. Besides supplying energy, the addition of fat to animal diets improves the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, decreases pulverulence, increases diet palatability, and the efficiency of utilization of the consumed energy. Furthermore, it reduces the rate of food passage through the gastrointestinal tract, which allows a better absorption of all nutrients present in the diet. The energetic value of oils and fats depend on the following: the length of the carbonic chain, the number of double bonds, the presence or absence of ester bonds (triglycerides or free fatty acids, the specific arrangements of the saturated and unsaturated fatty acids on the glycerol backbone, the composition of the free fatty acid, the composition of the diet, the quantity and the type of the triglycerides supplemented in the diet, the intestinal flora, the sex and the age of the birds. In birds, body fat composition is similar to the composition of the fat from the diet. The apparent digestibility of unsaturated fats is high in the first days of life of birds, whereas apparent digestibility of saturated fats is low. The quantity of oils or fats is assessed by the following methods: titration, moisture, impurities, unsaponifiable, saponification value, percentage of fat, percentage of free fatty acids/acidity and the profile of fatty acids. The methods initial peroxide value, active oxygen method, osi, iodine value, and analysis of the thiobarbituric acid (TBARS are specific to evaluate the oxidative stability. Considering diets with the same nutritive values, birds fed with

  8. FATS: Feature Analysis for Time Series

    CERN Document Server

    Nun, Isadora; Sim, Brandon; Zhu, Ming; Dave, Rahul; Castro, Nicolas; Pichara, Karim

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present the FATS (Feature Analysis for Time Series) library. FATS is a Python library which facilitates and standardizes feature extraction for time series data. In particular, we focus on one application: feature extraction for astronomical light curve data, although the library is generalizable for other uses. We detail the methods and features implemented for light curve analysis, and present examples for its usage.

  9. Dietary Fats and Oils in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Seema; Misra, Anoop; Sharma, Meenu

    2016-08-11

    Background India is undergoing rapid nutrition transition concurrent with increase in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). From a healthy traditional home-cooked high-fiber, low-fat, low-calorie diet, there is a shift towards increasing consumption of packaged, ready-to-eat foods which are calorie-dense and contain refined carbohydrates, high fat, salt and sugar and less fiber. Although fats and oils have been an integral part of our diets, there is a change in the pattern of consumption, in terms of both quality and quantity. Methods A literature search using the terms "fats, oil consumption in India, effects of vegetable oils, obesity and T2DM in Indians" in the medical search database PubMed (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD, USA) from 1966 to June 2016. A manual search of the relevant quoted references was also carried out from the retrieved articles. Data have also been taken from nutritional surveys in India and worldwide, websites and published documents of the World Health Organization (WHO), the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), National Sample Survey organization (NSSO) and websites of industries related to oil production. Conclusion Increasing use of saturated fat, low intake of n-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids and increase in trans-fatty acids, along with increasing intake of dietary sugars has been noted in India. Most importantly, traditional false beliefs and unawareness about health effects of oils continues to be prevalent. Aggressive public health awareness programs coupled with governmental action and guidelines tailored for Indian population are required, to promote less consumption of fats and oils, use of healthy oils and fats, decreased intake of saturated fats and TFAs, and increase intake of n-3 PUFAs and mono unsaturated fatty acids.

  10. Role of CEACAM1, ECM, and Mesenchymal Stem Cells in an Orthotopic Model of Human Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar Samineni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule-1 (CEACAM1 is a morphogen in an in vitro model for lumen formation and plays a similar role in breast epithelial cells implanted in humanized mammary fat pads in NOD-SCID mice. Although extra cellular matrix alone is sufficient to stimulate lumen formation in CEACAM1 transfected MCF-7 cells grown in 3D culture, there is an additional requirement for stromal or mesenchymal cells (MSCs for these cells to form xenografts with glandular structures in an orthotopic site. We demonstrate that optimal in vitro conditions include both Matrigel and MSCs and that the inclusion of collagen I inhibits xenograft differentiation. Additionally, there is no need to remove the nascent murine mammary gland. The previously observed difference in gland development between the long and short cytoplasmic domain isoforms of CEACAM1 is no longer observed in pregnant NOD/SCID mice suggesting that stimulation of the mammary fat pad by pregnancy critically affects xenograft differentiation.

  11. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Improve Healing of Diabetic Foot Ulcer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chenglin

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), an ideal cell source for regenerative therapy with no ethical issues, play an important role in diabetic foot ulcer (DFU). Growing evidence has demonstrated that MSCs transplantation can accelerate wound closure, ameliorate clinical parameters, and avoid amputation. In this review, we clarify the mechanism of preclinical studies, as well as safety and efficacy of clinical trials in the treatment of DFU. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), compared with MSCs derived from other tissues, may be a suitable cell type that can provide easy, effective, and cost-efficient transplantation to treat DFU and protect patients from amputation. PMID:28386568

  12. Mesenchymal hamartoma of the chest wall: prenatal sonographic manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wie, Jeong ha; Kim, Ju Yeon; Kwon, Ji Young; Ko, Hyun Sun; Shin, Jong Chul; Park, In Yang

    2013-06-01

    Mesenchymal hamartoma of the chest wall is a rare, benign lesion that arises from one or more ribs, almost exclusively found in infants. Some cases that developed in the fetal period have been reported, but accurate diagnosis was usually possible only after birth, except in a few cases in which fetal magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography were performed. We present a case of a congenital mesenchymal hamartoma of the chest wall. Although the diagnosis was not confirmed until birth, the prenatal sonographic examination showed strongly suggestive findings. We review the published reports on this condition, and suggest the prenatal sonographic features. Prenatal sonography is valuable in the differential diagnosis of chest mass.

  13. Nanoscale Mechanical Stimulation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Nikukar

    2014-05-01

    We observed significant responses after 1 and 2-week stimulations in cell number, cell shapes and phenotypical markers. Microarray was performed for all groups. Cell count showed normal cell growth with stimulation. However, cell surface area, cell perimeter, and arboration after 1-week stimulation showed significant increases. Immunofluorescent studies have showed significant increase in osteocalcin production after stimulation. Conclusions: Nanoscale mechanical vibration showed significant changes in human mesenchymal stem cell behaviours. Cell morphology changed to become more polygonal and increased expression of the osteoblast markers were noted. These findings with gene regulation changes suggesting nanoscale mechanostimulation has stimulated osteoblastogenesis.  Keywords:  Mesenchymal, Nanoscale, Stem Cells.

  14. Fat oxidation over a range of exercise intensities: fitness versus fatness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croci, Ilaria; Hickman, Ingrid J; Wood, Rachel E; Borrani, Fabio; Macdonald, Graeme A; Byrne, Nuala M

    2014-12-01

    Maximal fat oxidation (MFO), as well as the exercise intensity at which it occurs (Fatmax), have been reported as lower in sedentary overweight individuals but have not been studied in trained overweight individuals. The aim of this study was to compare Fatmax and MFO in lean and overweight recreationally trained males matched for cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and to study the relationships between these variables, anthropometric characteristics, and CRF. Twelve recreationally trained overweight (high fatness (HiFat) group, 30.0% ± 5.3% body fat) and 12 lean males (low fatness (LoFat), 17.2% ± 5.7% body fat) matched for CRF (maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O2max) 39.0 ± 5.5 vs. 41.4 ± 7.6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), p = 0.31) and age (p = 0.93) performed a graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer. V̇O2max and fat and carbohydrate oxidation rates were determined using indirect calorimetry; Fatmax and MFO were determined with a mathematical model (SIN); and % body fat was assessed by air displacement plethysmography. MFO (0.38 ± 0.19 vs. 0.42 ± 0.16 g·min(-1), p = 0.58), Fatmax (46.7% ± 8.6% vs. 45.4% ± 7.2% V̇O2max, p = 0.71), and fat oxidation rates over a wide range of exercise intensities were not significantly different (p > 0.05) between HiFat and LoFat groups. In the overall cohort (n = 24), MFO and Fatmax were correlated with V̇O2max (r = 0.46, p = 0.02; r = 0.61, p = 0.002) but not with % body fat or body mass index (p > 0.05). Fat oxidation during exercise was similar in recreationally trained overweight and lean males matched for CRF. Consistently, substrate oxidation rates during exercise were not related to adiposity (% body fat) but were related to CRF. The benefits of high CRF independent of body weight and % body fat should be further highlighted in the management of obesity.

  15. Food Supplement Reduces Fat, Improves Flavor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Diversified Services Corporation, seeking to develop a new nutritional fat replacement and flavor enhancement product, took advantage of the NASA Glenn Garrett Morgan Commercialization Initiative (GMCI) for technology acquisition and development and introductions to potential customers and strategic partners. Having developed and commercialized the product, named Nurtigras, the company is now marketing it through its subsidiary, H.F. Food Technologies Inc. The Nutrigras fat substitute is available in liquid, gel, or dry form and can be easily customized to the specific needs of the food manufacturer. It is primarily intended for use as a partial replacement for animal fat in beef patties and other normally high-fat meat products, and can also be used in soups, sauces, bakery items, and desserts. In addition to the nutritional benefits, the fat replacement costs less than the food it replaces, and as such can help manufacturers reduce material costs. In precooked products, Nutrigras can increase moisture content and thereby increase product yield. The company has been able to repay the help provided by NASA by contributing to the Space Agency's astronaut diet-the Nutrigras fat substitute can be used as a flavor enhancer and shelf-life extender for food on the ISS.

  16. Challenges of utilizing healthy fats in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Samantha A; McClements, David Julian; Decker, Eric A

    2015-05-01

    Over the past few decades, the Dietary Guidelines for Americans has consistently recommended that consumers decrease consumption of saturated fatty acids due to the correlation of saturated fatty acid intake with coronary artery disease. This recommendation has not been easy to achieve because saturated fatty acids play an important role in the quality, shelf life, and acceptability of foods. This is because solid fats are critical to producing desirable textures (e.g., creaminess, lubrication, and melt-away properties) and are important in the structure of foods such as frozen desserts, baked goods, and confectionary products. In addition, replacement of saturated fats with unsaturated fats is limited by their susceptibility to oxidative rancidity, which decreases product shelf life, causes destruction of vitamins, and forms potentially toxic compounds. This article will discuss the fundamental chemical and physical properties in fats and how these properties affect food texture, structure, flavor, and susceptibility to degradation. The current sources of solid fats will be reviewed and potential replacements for solid fats will be discussed.

  17. Dietary fat and risk of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Aleyamma

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is one of the major public health problems among women worldwide. A number of epidemiological studies have been carried out to find the role of dietary fat and the risk of breast cancer. The main objective of the present communication is to summarize the evidence from various case-control and cohort studies on the consumption of fat and its subtypes and their effect on the development of breast cancer. Methods A Pubmed search for literature on the consumption of dietary fat and risk of breast cancer published from January 1990 through December 2003 was carried out. Results Increased consumption of total fat and saturated fat were found to be positively associated with the development of breast cancer. Even though an equivocal association was observed for the consumption of total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and the risk of breast cancer, there exists an inverse association in the case of oleic acid, the most abundant MUFA. A moderate inverse association between consumption of n-3 fatty acids and breast cancer risk and a moderate positive association between n-6 fatty acids and breast cancer risk were observed. Conclusion Even though all epidemiological studies do not provide a strong positive association between the consumption of certain types of dietary fat and breast cancer risk, at least a moderate association does seem to exist and this has a number of implications in view of the fact that breast cancer is an increasing public health concern.

  18. FAT1 mutations cause a glomerulotubular nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Heon Yung; Sadowski, Carolin E.; Aggarwal, Pardeep K.; Porath, Jonathan D.; Yakulov, Toma A.; Schueler, Markus; Lovric, Svjetlana; Ashraf, Shazia; Braun, Daniela A.; Halbritter, Jan; Fang, Humphrey; Airik, Rannar; Vega-Warner, Virginia; Cho, Kyeong Jee; Chan, Timothy A.; Morris, Luc G. T.; ffrench-Constant, Charles; Allen, Nicholas; McNeill, Helen; Büscher, Rainer; Kyrieleis, Henriette; Wallot, Michael; Gaspert, Ariana; Kistler, Thomas; Milford, David V.; Saleem, Moin A.; Keng, Wee Teik; Alexander, Stephen I.; Valentini, Rudolph P.; Licht, Christoph; Teh, Jun C.; Bogdanovic, Radovan; Koziell, Ania; Bierzynska, Agnieszka; Soliman, Neveen A.; Otto, Edgar A.; Lifton, Richard P.; Holzman, Lawrence B.; Sibinga, Nicholas E. S.; Walz, Gerd; Tufro, Alda; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm

    2016-01-01

    Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) causes 15% of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Here we show that recessive mutations in FAT1 cause a distinct renal disease entity in four families with a combination of SRNS, tubular ectasia, haematuria and facultative neurological involvement. Loss of FAT1 results in decreased cell adhesion and migration in fibroblasts and podocytes and the decreased migration is partially reversed by a RAC1/CDC42 activator. Podocyte-specific deletion of Fat1 in mice induces abnormal glomerular filtration barrier development, leading to podocyte foot process effacement. Knockdown of Fat1 in renal tubular cells reduces migration, decreases active RAC1 and CDC42, and induces defects in lumen formation. Knockdown of fat1 in zebrafish causes pronephric cysts, which is partially rescued by RAC1/CDC42 activators, confirming a role of the two small GTPases in the pathogenesis. These findings provide new insights into the pathogenesis of SRNS and tubulopathy, linking FAT1 and RAC1/CDC42 to podocyte and tubular cell function. PMID:26905694

  19. Fat intake and injury in female runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leddy John J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our purpose was to determine the relationship between energy intake, energy availability, dietary fat and lower extremity injury in adult female runners. We hypothesized that runners who develop overuse running-related injuries have lower energy intakes, lower energy availability and lower fat intake compared to non-injured runners. Methods Eighty-six female subjects, running a minimum of 20 miles/week, completed a food frequency questionnaire and informed us about injury incidence over the next year. Results Injured runners had significantly lower intakes of total fat (63 ± 20 vs. 80 ± 50 g/d and percentage of kilocalories from fat (27 ± 5 vs. 30 ± 8 % compared with non-injured runners. A logistic regression analysis found that fat intake was the best dietary predictor, correctly identifying 64% of future injuries. Lower energy intake and lower energy availability approached, but did not reach, a significant association with overuse injury in this study. Conclusion Fat intake is likely associated with injury risk in female runners. By documenting these associations, better strategies can be developed to reduce running injuries in women.

  20. Novel nuances of human brown fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheele, Camilla; Larsen, Therese Juhlin; Nielsen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    There is a current debate in the literature on whether human fat derived from the supraclavicular region should be classified as brown, or as the white fat-derived less potent, brite/beige. This commentary addresses whether the existing classification defined in mice is sufficient to describe the......, the classification of adipocyte subtypes defined in mice may need reconsideration when applying to humans.......There is a current debate in the literature on whether human fat derived from the supraclavicular region should be classified as brown, or as the white fat-derived less potent, brite/beige. This commentary addresses whether the existing classification defined in mice is sufficient to describe...... the types of thermogenic adipocytes in humans. We recently published a contradictory mRNA expression signature of human supraclavicular fat defined by an upregulation of the brite marker TBX1 along with the classical brown markers ZIC1 and LHX8, as well as genes indicating brown fat activity including UCP1...

  1. Trans fat consumption and aggression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice A Golomb

    , biological gradient, temporality, and biological plausibility add weight to the prospect of a causal connection. Our results may have relevance to public policy determinations regarding dietary trans fats. Clinicaltrials.gov # NCT00330980.

  2. 9 CFR 319.701 - Mixed fat shortening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mixed fat shortening. 319.701 Section... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Fats, Oils, Shortenings § 319.701 Mixed fat shortening. Shortening prepared with a mixture of meat fats and vegetable oils...

  3. Use of genetically modified muscle and fat grafts to repair defects in bone and cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CH Evans

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We report a novel technology for the rapid healing of large osseous and chondral defects, based upon the genetic modification of autologous skeletal muscle and fat grafts. These tissues were selected because they not only possess mesenchymal progenitor cells and scaffolding properties, but also can be biopsied, genetically modified and returned to the patient in a single operative session. First generation adenovirus vector carrying cDNA encoding human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (Ad.BMP-2 was used for gene transfer to biopsies of muscle and fat. To assess bone healing, the genetically modified (“gene activated” tissues were implanted into 5mm-long critical size, mid-diaphyseal, stabilized defects in the femora of Fischer rats. Unlike control defects, those receiving gene-activated muscle underwent rapid healing, with evidence of radiologic bridging as early as 10 days after implantation and restoration of full mechanical strength by 8 weeks. Histologic analysis suggests that the grafts rapidly differentiated into cartilage, followed by efficient endochondral ossification. Fluorescence in situ hybridization detection of Y-chromosomes following the transfer of male donor muscle into female rats demonstrated that at least some of the osteoblasts of the healed bone were derived from donor muscle. Gene activated fat also healed critical sized defects, but less quickly than muscle and with more variability. Anti-adenovirus antibodies were not detected. Pilot studies in a rabbit osteochondral defect model demonstrated the promise of this technology for healing cartilage defects. Further development of these methods should provide ways to heal bone and cartilage more expeditiously, and at lower cost, than is presently possible.

  4. Caspases and p38 MAPK regulate endothelial cell adhesiveness for mesenchymal stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A Potapova

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells natively circulating or delivered into the blood stream home to sites of injury. The mechanism of mesenchymal stem cell homing to sites of injury is poorly understood. We have shown that the development of apoptosis in endothelial cells stimulates endothelial cell adhesiveness for mesenchymal stem cells. Adhesion of mesenchymal stem cells to apoptotic endothelial cells depends on the activation of endothelial caspases and p38 MAPK. Activation of p38 MAPK in endothelial cells has a primary effect while the activation of caspases potentiates the mesenchymal stem cell adhesion. Overall, our study of the mesenchymal stem cell interaction with endothelial cells indicates that mesenchymal stem cells recognize and specifically adhere to distressed/apoptotic endothelial cells.

  5. Physical interactions between cupuassu and cocoa fats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gioielli, L. A.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum, Sterculiaceae is an Amazonian native fruit and nowadays is cultivated only in Amazonian region. The seeds that come to about 16% of the dry weight can be used to derive a cocoa butter like product and the content of fat in the seeds is about 60% dry weight. In general, these fats are similar to those of cocoa, although they show difference in some physical properties. The objective of this study was to analyse some physical and crystallization properties of the cupuassu fat, cocoa butter and some mixtures between the two fats. The analyses performed were: dropping point, solid fat content, hardness index and Jensen cooling curve. The results suggested some advantages of the use of cupuassu fat, as lower crystallization time and smoothness than cocoa butter. The mixtures showed compatibility, cocoa butter showed bigger solid fat content at room temperature than cupuassu fat and the mixtures. Cupuassu fat had a lower dropping point than cocoa butter. The possible use of cupuassu fat and the mixtures could be in fillings and cold weather chocolate productsCupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum, Sterculiaceae es una fruta nativa amazónica que hoy día sólo se cultiva en esta región. Las semillas con un 16%, aproximadamente, del peso seco, tienen, aproximadamente, el 60% de grasa y pueden usarse como sustituto de manteca de cacao. En general, estas grasas son similares a las del cacao, aunque muestran diferencias en algunas de sus propiedades físicas. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar algunas propiedades físicas y de cristalización de la grasa de cupuassu, de la manteca de cacao y de mezclas de las dos grasas. Los análisis realizados fueron: punto de goteo, contenido en grasa sólida, índice de dureza y la curva de enfriamiento de Jensen. El tiempo de cristalización inferior y la mayor suavidad que muestra la grasa de cupuassu frente a la manteca de cacao, sugieren algunas ventajas del uso de la misma

  6. Replacement of dietary saturated fat with trans fat reduces serum paraoxonase activity in healthy men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, de N.M.; Schouten, E.G.; Scheek, L.M.; Tol, van A.; Katan, M.B.

    2002-01-01

    A high intake of saturated fat and of trans isomers of unsaturated fat is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Recently, we found that replacement of saturated fat by trans fat in a dietary controlled study with 32 men and women decreased serum high-density lipoprotein

  7. 21 CFR 582.4505 - Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Emulsifying Agents § 582.4505 Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids. (a) Product. Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible...

  8. FAT: The Good, the Bad and the Trans Fat Truth and How it Applies to People with Special Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Lee Shelly

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with the good and bad things about body fats as well as the truth behind trans fat. Fat has some important roles in the body. It allows for efficient energy storage and is also important for proper growth and development and maintenance of good health. In this article, the author discusses various categories of food fats and…

  9. Replacement of dietary saturated fat with trans fat reduces serum paraoxonase activity in healthy men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, de N.M.; Schouten, E.G.; Scheek, L.M.; Tol, van A.; Katan, M.B.

    2002-01-01

    A high intake of saturated fat and of trans isomers of unsaturated fat is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Recently, we found that replacement of saturated fat by trans fat in a dietary controlled study with 32 men and women decreased serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cho

  10. Seasonal change in body fat of the Hyrax Procavia capensis (Pallas, 1766 using a body fat ranking index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.J. Fourie

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the body fat content of the hyrax Procavia capensis were used as an indicator of physiological condition. Body fat rankings for the different sexes showed seasonal variations related to physiologically stressful periods (rutting, gestation and lactation. The subjective body fat rankings were correlated significantly with total body fat.

  11. FTO gene associated fatness in relation to body fat distribution and metabolic traits throughout a broad range of fatness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia I I Kring

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP of FTO (rs9939609, T/A is associated with total body fatness. We investigated the association of this SNP with abdominal and peripheral fatness and obesity-related metabolic traits in middle-aged men through a broad range of fatness present already in adolescence. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Obese young Danish men (n = 753, BMI > or = 31.0 kg/m(2 and a randomly selected group (n = 879 from the same population were examined in three surveys (mean age 35, 46 and 49 years, respectively. The traits included anthropometrics, body composition, oral glucose tolerance test, blood lipids, blood pressure, fibrinogen and aspartate aminotransferase. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the age-adjusted association between the phenotypes and the odds ratios for the FTO rs9939609 (TT and TA genotype versus the AA genotype, for anthropometrics and body composition estimated per unit z-score. BMI was strongly associated with the AA genotype in all three surveys: OR = 1.17, p = 1.1*10(-6, OR = 1.20, p = 1.7*10(-7, OR = 1.17, p = 3.4*10(-3, respectively. Fat body mass index was also associated with the AA genotype (OR = 1.21, p = 4.6*10(-7 and OR = 1.21, p = 1.0*10(-3. Increased abdominal fatness was associated with the AA genotype when measured as waist circumference (OR = 1.21, p = 2.2*10(-6 and OR = 1.19, p = 5.9*10(-3, sagittal abdominal diameter (OR = 1.17, p = 1.3*10(-4 and OR = 1.18, p = 0.011 and intra-abdominal adipose tissue (OR = 1.21, p = 0.005. Increased peripheral fatness measured as hip circumference (OR = 1.19, p = 1.3*10(-5 and OR = 1.18, p = 0.004 and lower body fat mass (OR = 1.26, p = 0.002 was associated with the AA genotype. The AA genotype was significantly associated with decreased Stumvoll insulin sensitivity index (OR = 0.93, p = 0.02 and with decreased non-fasting plasma HDL-cholesterol (OR = 0.57, p = 0.037, but not with any other of the metabolic traits. However

  12. Effect of cheese as a fat replacer in fermented sausage

    OpenAIRE

    ERCOŞKUN, Hüdayi

    2012-01-01

    The effects of beef fat substitution with kashar cheese were studied in traditional Turkish fermented sausage; sucuk. Six sucuk formulations were prepared by replacing 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% of beef fat was substituted with kashar cheese. The fat substitution of fat with kashar cheese decreased fat content and increased protein content of the product that affected the chemical, physical and sensorial characteristics of products. Saturated fatty acid content increased and unsaturated, mono-...

  13. Autologous Fat Grafting for Whole Breast Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin H. L. Howes, MBBS

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: This is the first reported case of a patient who had a single-stage large-volume breast reconstruction with autologous fat grafting, following rotation flap approach (RoFA mastectomy. The purpose of this case study was to evaluate the viability of reconstruction of the breast by autologous fat grafting alone, in the context of RoFA mastectomy. The hypothesis was that there would be minimal interval loss of autologous fat on the whole breast reconstruction side. Right RoFA mastectomy was used for resection of an invasive primary breast cancer and resulted in the right breast skin envelope. Eleven months later, the patient underwent grafting of 400 ml of autologous fat into the skin envelope and underlying pectoralis major muscle. Outcome was assessed by using a validated 3D laser scan technique for quantitative breast volume measurement. Other outcome measures included the BREAST-Q questionnaire and 2D clinical photography. At 12-month follow-up, the patient was observed to have maintenance of volume of the reconstructed breast. Her BREAST-Q scores were markedly improved compared with before fat grafting, and there was observable improvement in shape, contour, and symmetry on 2D clinical photography. The 2 new techniques, RoFA mastectomy and large-volume single-stage autologous fat grafting, were used in combination to achieve a satisfactory postmastectomy breast reconstruction. Novel tools for measurement of outcome were the 3D whole-body laser scanner and BREAST-Q questionnaire. This case demonstrates the potential for the use of fat grafting for reconstruction. Outcomes in a larger patient populations are needed to confirm these findings.

  14. Effects of milk fat, cocoa butter, or selected fat replacers on flavor volatiles of chocolate ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, W M; Marshall, R T; Grün, I U; Ellersieck, M R

    2001-01-01

    Selected volatile compounds of chocolate ice creams containing 0.6, 4.0, 6.0, or 9.0% milk fat or containing 2.5% milk fat, cocoa butter, or one of three fat replacers (Simplesse, Dairy Lo, or Oatrim) were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using headspace solid-phase microextraction. The headspace concentration of most of the selected volatile compounds increased with decreasing milk fat concentration. Fat replacers generally increased the concentration of volatiles found in the headspace compared with milk fat or cocoa butter. Few differences in flavor volatiles were found between the ice cream containing milk fat and the ice cream containing cocoa butter. Among the selected volatiles, the concentration of 2,5-dimethyl-3(2-methyl propyl) pyrazine was the most highly correlated (negatively) with the concentration of milk fat, and it best discriminated among ice creams containing milk fat, cocoa butter, or one of the fat replacers.

  15. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation Attenuates Brain Injury After Neonatal Stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Velthoven, Cindy T. J.; Sheldon, R. Ann; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Derugin, Nikita; Vexler, Zinaida S.; Willemen, Hanneke L. D. M.; Maas, Mirjam; Heijnen, Cobi J.; Ferriero, Donna M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose-Brain injury caused by stroke is a frequent cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality with limited therapeutic options. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been shown to improve outcome after neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury mainly by secretion of growth factors stimulati

  16. Invited review: mesenchymal progenitor cells in intramuscular connective tissue development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Z G; Zhang, L P; Fu, X; Yang, Q Y; Zhu, M J; Dodson, M V; Du, M

    2016-01-01

    The abundance and cross-linking of intramuscular connective tissue contributes to the background toughness of meat, and is thus undesirable. Connective tissue is mainly synthesized by intramuscular fibroblasts. Myocytes, adipocytes and fibroblasts are derived from a common pool of progenitor cells during the early embryonic development. It appears that multipotent mesenchymal stem cells first diverge into either myogenic or non-myogenic lineages; non-myogenic mesenchymal progenitors then develop into the stromal-vascular fraction of skeletal muscle wherein adipocytes, fibroblasts and derived mesenchymal progenitors reside. Because non-myogenic mesenchymal progenitors mainly undergo adipogenic or fibrogenic differentiation during muscle development, strengthening progenitor proliferation enhances the potential for both intramuscular adipogenesis and fibrogenesis, leading to the elevation of both marbling and connective tissue content in the resulting meat product. Furthermore, given the bipotent developmental potential of progenitor cells, enhancing their conversion to adipogenesis reduces fibrogenesis, which likely results in the overall improvement of marbling (more intramuscular adipocytes) and tenderness (less connective tissue) of meat. Fibrogenesis is mainly regulated by the transforming growth factor (TGF) β signaling pathway and its regulatory cascade. In addition, extracellular matrix, a part of the intramuscular connective tissue, provides a niche environment for regulating myogenic differentiation of satellite cells and muscle growth. Despite rapid progress, many questions remain in the role of extracellular matrix on muscle development, and factors determining the early differentiation of myogenic, adipogenic and fibrogenic cells, which warrant further studies.

  17. Current view of mesenchymal stem cells biology (brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maslova O. A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Although mesenchymal stem cells (MSC are in a focus of attention, some aspects of their biology are still unclear. This paper is a review of current research on MSC biology. The use of MSC in regenerative medicine is also briefly discussed.

  18. Transition of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells to endothelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Crisan (Mihaela)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractMesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are heterogeneous. A fraction of these cells constitute multipotent cells that can self-renew and mainly give rise to mesodermal lineage cells such as adipocytes, osteocytes and chondrocytes. The ability of MSCs to differentiate into endothelial cell

  19. Human mesenchymal stromal cells : biological characterization and clinical application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernardo, Maria Ester

    2010-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the characterization of the biological and functional properties of human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), isolated from different tissue sources. The differentiation capacity of MSCs from fetal and adult tissues has been tested and compared. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) has be

  20. Amniocar as a proliferative medium for mesenchymal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Chestkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To develop the Amniocar nutrient medium that contains fetal calf serum (FCS and growth factors cocktail for mass cultivation of human fibroblasts. To study proliferative activity of the medium on cultures of HUVEC cells of mesenchymal origin and mesenchymal stromal cells, as well as on cell culture of human amniotic fluid.Materials and methods. Determination of the rate of accumulation of the cellular mass and cell morphology in the course of cultivation of cells of various histogenesis in the Amniocar medium and nutrient medium that contains 10 % of FCS.Results. It has been demonstrated that the Amniocar medium is prevalent as compared to the standard DMEM medium with 10 % of FCS by 2 to 5 times for cultivation of skin fibroblasts, HUVEC, and mesenchymal stem cells. The Amniocar medium increased the quantity of endothelial cells that enter mitosis and maintained the culture of HUVEC cells with prolonged passaging in vitro. Clonal cultivation of human amniotic fluid cells in the Amniocar medium secured development of colonies of both fibroblast and epithelial type.Conclusions. Proliferative Amniocar medium is efficient for mass cultivation of various cells of mesenchymal origin and can be used for diagnostic purposes in medical genetics, oncology, etc.

  1. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy in Parkinson's disease animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugliandolo, A; Bramanti, P; Mazzon, E

    Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, and as a consequence, by decreased dopamine levels in the striatum. Currently available therapies are not able to stop or reverse the progression of the disease. A novel therapeutic approach is based on cell therapy with stem cells, in order to replace degenerated neurons. Among stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells seemed the most promising thanks to their capacities to differentiate toward dopaminergic neurons and to release neurotrophic factors. Indeed, mesenchymal stem cells are able to produce different molecules with immunomodulatory, neuroprotective, angiogenic, chemotactic effects and that stimulate differentiation of resident stem cells. Mesenchymal stem cells were isolated for the first time from bone marrow, but can be collected also from adipose tissue, umbilical cord and other tissues. In this review, we focused our attention on mesenchymal stem cells derived from different sources and their application in Parkinson's disease animal models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Application of Nanoscaffolds in Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Ghoraishizadeh, Saman; Ghorishizadeh, Afsoon; Ghoraishizadeh, Peyman; Daneshvar,Nasibeh; Boroojerdi, Mohadese Hashem

    2014-01-01

    Regenerative medicine is an alternative solution for organ transplantation. Stem cells and nanoscaffolds are two essential components in regenerative medicine. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are considered as primary adult stem cells with high proliferation capacity, wide differentiation potential, and immunosuppression properties which make them unique for regenerative medicine and cell therapy. Scaffolds are engineered nanofibers that provide suitable microenvironment for cell signalling whi...

  3. Synthetic vulnerabilities of mesenchymal subpopulations in pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Giannicola; Carugo, Alessandro; Tepper, James; Robinson, Frederick Scott; Li, Liren; Svelto, Maria; Nezi, Luigi; Corti, Denise; Minelli, Rosalba; Pettazzoni, Piergiorgio; Gutschner, Tony; Wu, Chia-Chin; Seth, Sahil; Akdemir, Kadir Caner; Leo, Elisabetta; Amin, Samirkumar; Molin, Marco Dal; Ying, Haoqiang; Kwong, Lawrence N; Colla, Simona; Takahashi, Koichi; Ghosh, Papia; Giuliani, Virginia; Muller, Florian; Dey, Prasenjit; Jiang, Shan; Garvey, Jill; Liu, Chang-Gong; Zhang, Jianhua; Heffernan, Timothy P; Toniatti, Carlo; Fleming, Jason B; Goggins, Michael G; Wood, Laura D; Sgambato, Alessandro; Agaimy, Abbas; Maitra, Anirban; Roberts, Charles W M; Wang, Huamin; Viale, Andrea; DePinho, Ronald A; Draetta, Giulio F; Chin, Lynda

    2017-02-16

    Malignant neoplasms evolve in response to changes in oncogenic signalling. Cancer cell plasticity in response to evolutionary pressures is fundamental to tumour progression and the development of therapeutic resistance. Here we determine the molecular and cellular mechanisms of cancer cell plasticity in a conditional oncogenic Kras mouse model of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), a malignancy that displays considerable phenotypic diversity and morphological heterogeneity. In this model, stochastic extinction of oncogenic Kras signalling and emergence of Kras-independent escaper populations (cells that acquire oncogenic properties) are associated with de-differentiation and aggressive biological behaviour. Transcriptomic and functional analyses of Kras-independent escapers reveal the presence of Smarcb1-Myc-network-driven mesenchymal reprogramming and independence from MAPK signalling. A somatic mosaic model of PDAC, which allows time-restricted perturbation of cell fate, shows that depletion of Smarcb1 activates the Myc network, driving an anabolic switch that increases protein metabolism and adaptive activation of endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-induced survival pathways. Increased protein turnover renders mesenchymal sub-populations highly susceptible to pharmacological and genetic perturbation of the cellular proteostatic machinery and the IRE1-α-MKK4 arm of the endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-response pathway. Specifically, combination regimens that impair the unfolded protein responses block the emergence of aggressive mesenchymal subpopulations in mouse and patient-derived PDAC models. These molecular and biological insights inform a potential therapeutic strategy for targeting aggressive mesenchymal features of PDAC.

  4. Adult Stromal (Skeletal, Mesenchymal) Stem Cells: Advances Towards Clinical Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kermani, Abbas Jafari; Harkness, Linda; Zaher, Walid;

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC) are non-hematopoietic adult stromal cells that reside in a perivascular niche in close association with pericytes and endothelial cells and possess self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation capacity. The origin, unique properties, and therapeutic benefits of MSC ...

  5. Cytoskeletal Reorganization Drives Mesenchymal Condensation and Regulates Downstream Molecular Signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poulomi Ray

    Full Text Available Skeletal condensation occurs when specified mesenchyme cells self-organize over several days to form a distinctive cartilage template. Here, we determine how and when specified mesenchyme cells integrate mechanical and molecular information from their environment, forming cartilage condensations in the pharyngeal arches of chick embryos. By disrupting cytoskeletal reorganization, we demonstrate that dynamic cell shape changes drive condensation and modulate the response of the condensing cells to Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF, Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP and Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGF-β signaling pathways. Rho Kinase (ROCK-driven actomyosin contractions and Myosin II-generated differential cell cortex tension regulate these cell shape changes. Disruption of the condensation process inhibits the differentiation of the mesenchyme cells into chondrocytes, demonstrating that condensation regulates the fate of the mesenchyme cells. We also find that dorsal and ventral condensations undergo distinct cell shape changes. BMP signaling is instructive for dorsal condensation-specific cell shape changes. Moreover, condensations exhibit ventral characteristics in the absence of BMP signaling, suggesting that in the pharyngeal arches ventral morphology is the ground pattern. Overall, this study characterizes the interplay between cytoskeletal dynamics and molecular signaling in a self-organizing system during tissue morphogenesis.

  6. Aggressive fibromatosis (desmoid tumor) is derived from mesenchymal progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Colleen; Amini-Nik, Saeid; Nik-Amini, Saied; Nadesan, Puviindran; Stanford, William L; Alman, Benjamin A

    2010-10-01

    The cellular origins from which most tumors arise are poorly defined, especially in mesenchymal neoplasms. Aggressive fibromatosis, also known as desmoid tumor, is a locally invasive soft tissue tumor that has mesenchymal characteristics. We found that aggressive fibromatosis tumors express genes and cell surface markers characteristic of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). In mice that are genetically predisposed to develop aggressive fibromatosis tumors (Apc(wt/1638N)), we found that the number of tumors formed was proportional to the number of MSCs present. Sca-1(-/-) mice, which develop fewer MSCs, were crossed with Apc(wt/1638N) mice. Doubly mutant mice deficient in Sca-1 developed substantially fewer aggressive fibromatosis tumors than wild-type (WT) littermates, but Sca-1 deficiency had no effect on the formation of epithelial-derived intestinal polyps. MSCs isolated from Apc(wt/1638N) mice (or mice expressing a stabilized form of β-catenin) induced aberrant cellular growth reminiscent of aggressive fibromatosis tumors after engraftment to immunocompromised mice, but WT cells and mature fibroblasts from the same animals did not. Taken together, our findings indicate that aggressive fibromatosis is derived from MSCs, and that β-catenin supports tumorigenesis by maintaining mesenchymal progenitor cells in a less differentiated state. Protecting this progenitor cell population might prevent tumor formation in patients harboring a germline APC mutation, where fibromatosis is currently the leading cause of mortality. © 2010 AACR.

  7. Human bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassem, Moustapha; Abdallah, Basem M

    2008-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are a group of cells present in bone-marrow stroma and the stroma of various organs with the capacity for mesoderm-like cell differentiation into, for example, osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes. MSC are being introduced in the clinic for the treatment...

  8. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition is associated with rapamycin resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Ashley M.; Akcakanat, Argun; Adkins, Farrell; Evans, Kurt; Chen, Huiqin; Wei, Caimiao; Milton, Denai R.; Li, Yisheng; Do, Kim-Anh; Janku, Filip; Meric-Bernstam, Funda

    2015-01-01

    Rapamycin analogues have antitumor efficacy in several tumor types, however few patients demonstrate tumor regression. Thus, there is a pressing need for markers of intrinsic response/resistance and rational combination therapies. We hypothesized that epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) confers rapamycin resistance. We found that the epithelial marker E-cadherin protein is higher in rapamycin sensitive (RS) cells and mesenchymal breast cancer cell lines selected by transcriptional EMT signatures are less sensitive to rapamycin. MCF7 cells, transfected with constitutively active mutant Snail, had increased rapamycin resistance (RR) compared to cells transfected with wild-type Snail. Conversely, we transfected two RR mesenchymal cell lines—ACHN and MDA-MB-231—with miR-200b/c or ZEB1 siRNA to promote mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition. This induced E-cadherin expression in both cell lines, and ACHN demonstrated a significant increase in RS. Treatment of ACHN and MDA-MB-231 with trametinib modulated EMT in ACHN cells in vitro. Treatment of MDA-MB-231 and ACHN xenografts with trametinib in combination with rapamycin resulted in significant growth inhibition in both but without an apparent effect on EMT. Future studies are needed to determine whether EMT status is predictive of sensitivity to rapalogs and to determine whether combination therapy with EMT modulating agents can enhance antitumor effects of PI3K/mTOR inhibitors. PMID:25944619

  9. Growth and metabolism of mesenchymal stem cells cultivated on microcarriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schop, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells, MSCs, are a great potential source for clinical applications in the field of tissue regeneration. Although MSCs can be isolated from several tissues of the human body, e.g. the bone marrow, the tissues does not contain clinically relevant amounts of MSCs for cell therapeutic

  10. Targeted Eradication of Prostate Cancer Mediated by Engineered Mesenchymal Stem

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    mesenchymal tissues , such as bone, cartilage, adipose and connective tissues . Early studies demonstrated that mouse marrow stroma cell line...CBFV) using transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD), together with additional indices including salivary cortisol and subjective state. Two studies at...detrimental side effects to the patients. Even though the exact mechanism of preferential prostate cancer bone metastasis has not yet been well

  11. Autologous mesenchymal stem cells transplantation in adriamycin-induced cardiomyopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing; LI Geng-shan; LI Guo-cao; ZHOU Qing; LI Wen-qiang; XU Hong-xin

    2005-01-01

    @@ Recent studies have suggested benefits of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation for the regeneration of cardiac tissue and function improvement of regionally infracted myocardium, but its effects on global heart failure is still little known. This study suggested the capacity of MSCs to transdifferentiate to cardiac cells in a nonischemic cardiomyopathic setting, and the effect of the cells on heart function.

  12. Endogenous collagen influences differentiation of human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandes, H.; Mentink, A.; Bank, R.; Stoop, R.; Blitterswijk, C. van; Boer, J. de

    2010-01-01

    Human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) are multipotent cells that, in the presence of appropriate stimuli, can differentiate into different lineages such as the osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic lineages. In the presence of ascorbic acid, MSCs secrete an extracellular matrix main

  13. Effects of EdU labeling on mesenchymal stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ning, Hongxiu; Albersen, Maarten; Lin, Guiting; Lue, Tom F.; Lin, Ching-Shwun

    2013-01-01

    Thymidine analog 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (EdU) has recently been used for tracking mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In the present study, we tested whether EdU was cytotoxic and whether it interfered with differentiation, cytokine secretion and migration of MSCs.

  14. RELATION OF FAT AND NON-FAT BODY COMPOSITION IN WOMEN WITH X-LEG DEFORMITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla Elezi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Influence of x-leg deformity in relation to fat and non-fat body composition in women was the goal of the paper. In this regards, the research included 41 female students with x-leg deformity and 41 female students without the deformity, while the total number of participants of the research was 82 aged from 18 to 19 years. 6 anthropometric variables have been used; one form measuring the body volme, three variables regarding the dimension of the sub skin fat tissue, one variable for measurement of non-fat body composition and one variable for measurement of fat body mass. Anthropometric measurements were carried out according to International Biological Program (IBP. Data collected demonstrates that x-leg deformity in women have significant influence on relation of fat and non-fat body composition. This relation is manifested as a result of decreased capacity of muscle endurance of leg muscles as main parts responsible for the physical activities, then consumption of calories and insufficient burning of fat as result of decreased capacity of movement.

  15. Inhomogeneous distribution of fat enhances the perception of fat-related sensory attributes in gelled foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosca, A.C.; Rocha, J.L.; Sala, G.; Velde, van de F.; Stieger, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of the spatial distribution of fat on the perception of fat-related sensory attributes using a model system that consisted of layered agar/gelatin gels containing oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion droplets dispersed in the gel matrix. Four layers of gel varying in the

  16. Sensory and instrumental characterization of low-fat and non-fat cream cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janhoj, T.; Frost, M.B.; Prinz, J.; Ipsen, R.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored relationships between physical/chemical and sensory properties using a set of 20 low-fat and non-fat cream cheeses. High correlations were found between several descriptors; hand resistance (i.e., tactile firmness) was best predicted by squeezing flow viscometry (r = 0.90) and fo

  17. Fat oxidation before and after a high fat load in the obese insulin-resistant state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaak, E.E.; Hul, G.; Verdich, C.; Stich, V.; Martinez, A.; Petersen, M.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Patel, K.; Oppert, J.M.; Barbe, P.; Toubro, S.; Anderson, I.; Polak, J.; Astrup, A.; Macdonald, I.A.; Holst, C.; Sørensen, T.I.; Saris, W.H.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Obesity may be associated with a lowered use of fat as a fuel, which may contribute to the enlarged adipose tissue stores. Aim: The aim of the present study was to study fatty acid use in the fasting state and in response to a high fat load in a large cohort of obese subjects (n = 701) a

  18. Detecting fat content of food from a distance: olfactory-based fat discrimination in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesveldt, Sanne; Lundström, Johan N

    2014-01-01

    The desire to consume high volumes of fat is thought to originate from an evolutionary pressure to hoard calories, and fat is among the few energy sources that we can store over a longer time period. From an ecological perspective, however, it would be beneficial to detect fat from a distance, before ingesting it. Previous results indicate that humans detect high concentrations of fatty acids by their odor. More important though, would be the ability to detect fat content in real food products. In a series of three sequential experiments, using study populations from different cultures, we demonstrated that individuals are able to reliably detect fat content of food via odors alone. Over all three experiments, results clearly demonstrated that humans were able to detect minute differences between milk samples with varying grades of fat, even when embedded within a milk odor. Moreover, we found no relation between this performance and either BMI or dairy consumption, thereby suggesting that this is not a learned ability or dependent on nutritional traits. We argue that our findings that humans can detect the fat content of food via odors may open up new and innovative future paths towards a general reduction in our fat intake, and future studies should focus on determining the components in milk responsible for this effect.

  19. Fat watch: A nationwide campaign in the Netherlands to reduce fat intake-process evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelie, J.; Feen van der, Lille, J.C.J.F. de; Riedstra, M.; Hardeman, W.; Wedel, M.; Brug, J.; Pruyn, J.F.A.; Löwik, M.R.H.

    1998-01-01

    Fat Watch was a four-year campaign carried out in cooperation with retailers and industry, aiming at a reduction of fat consumption by 10% among the Dutch population. Mass media and supermarkets were the main conveyers of the message. Supermarkets participated well in the first (53%) and in the thir

  20. PPARy activity in subcutaneous abdominal fat tissue and fat mass gain during short-term overfeeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosen, A.M.C.P.; Bakker, A.H.F.; Zorenc, A.H.G.; Kersten, A.H.; Schrauwen, P.; Westerterp, K.R.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: As the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) plays a central role in fat mass regulation, we investigated whether initial subcutaneous PPAR activity is related to fat mass generation during overfeeding. Subjects: Fourteen healthy female subjects (age 254 years, BMI 22.12.3

  1. Fat oxidation before and after a high fat load in the obese insulin-resistant state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaak, E.E.; Hul, G.; Verdich, C.; Stich, V.; Martinez, A.; Petersen, M.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Patel, K.; Oppert, J.M.; Barbe, P.; Toubro, S.; Anderson, I.; Polak, J.; Astrup, A.; Macdonald, I.A.; Holst, C.; Sørensen, T.I.; Saris, W.H.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Obesity may be associated with a lowered use of fat as a fuel, which may contribute to the enlarged adipose tissue stores. Aim: The aim of the present study was to study fatty acid use in the fasting state and in response to a high fat load in a large cohort of obese subjects (n = 701)

  2. Traffic-light labels could reduce population intakes of calories, total fat, saturated fat, and sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrich, Teri E.; Qi, Ying; Lou, Wendy Y.; L’Abbe, Mary R.

    2017-01-01

    Traffic-light labelling has been proposed as a public health intervention to improve the dietary intakes of consumers. OBJECTIVES: to model the potential impact of avoiding foods with red traffic lights on the label on the energy, total fat, saturated fat, sodium, and sugars intakes of Canadian adults. METHODS: Canadian adults aged 19 and older (n = 19,915) who responded to the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS), Cycle 2.2. The nutrient levels in foods consumed by Canadians in CCHS were profiled using the United Kingdom’s criteria for traffic light labelling. Whenever possible, foods assigned a red traffic light for one or more of the profiled nutrients were replaced with a similar food currently sold in Canada, with nutrient levels not assigned any red traffic lights. Average intakes of calories, total fat, saturated fat, sodium, and sugars under the traffic light scenario were compared with actual intakes of calories and these nutrients (baseline) reported in CCHS. RESULTS: Under the traffic light scenario, Canadian’s intake of energy, total fat, saturated fat, and sodium were significantly reduced compared to baseline; sugars intakes were not significantly reduced. Calorie intake was reduced by 5%, total fat 13%, saturated fat 14%, and sodium 6%. CONCLUSION: Governments and policy makers should consider the adoption of traffic light labelling as a population level intervention to improve dietary intakes and chronic disease risk. PMID:28182630

  3. Authentication of feeding fats: Classification of animal fats, fish oils and recycled cooking oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruth, van S.M.; Rozijn, M.; Koot, A.H.; Perez-Garcia, R.; Kamp, van der H.J.; Codony, R.

    2010-01-01

    Classification of fats and oils involves the recognition of one/several markers typical of the product. The ideal marker(s) should be specific to the fat or oil. Not many chemical markers fulfill these criteria. Authenticity assessment is a difficult task, which in most cases requires the

  4. Selection against abdominal fat percentage may increase intramuscular fat content in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, L; Zhang, H; Dong, J Q; Wang, Z P; Zhang, X Y; Wang, S Z; Cao, Z P; Li, Y M; Li, H

    2016-10-01

    Excessive abdominal fat content (AFC) has negative impacts on feed efficiency and carcass quality. Unlike AFC, intramuscular fat content (IMFC) could be a favourable trait, which has a positive impact on meat quality. To meet consumers' needs, a long-term goal of broiler breeders is to decrease AFC and improve the IMFC simultaneously. The current study was designed to investigate the relationship between AFC and IMFC and to compare IMFC, including the pectoral major muscle fat content (PIMFC) and intramuscular fat content of leg muscle (LIMFC), between two broiler lines divergently selected for abdominal fat percentage over 17 generations. The results showed that there was a significant difference in PIMFC and LIMFC between the two lines in all five generation populations used. The birds in the lean line had significantly lower AFC but higher PIMFC and LIMFC than the birds in the fat line. We also detected differences in the liver fat content (LFC) between the two lines and the results showed that birds in the fat line had significant higher LFC than birds in the lean line. Our results indicated that a desirable broiler line with higher IMFC but lower AFC could be obtained by genetic selection.

  5. INCREASED FAT INTAKE MAY STABILIZED CKD PROGRESSION IN LOW-FAT INTAKE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Yu Chang

    2012-06-01

    Inadequate calories intake will induce excessive protein catabolism, which can cause accumulation of uremic toxins and acceleration of renal failure. Increasing fats intake is an easy way to achieve adequate calories acquirement and may stabilize the progression of CKD especially in low-fat intake patients.

  6. Autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Chronic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashu Bhasin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cell transplantation is a ‘hype and hope’ in the current scenario. It is in the early stage of development with promises to restore function in chronic diseases. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC transplantation in stroke patients has shown significant improvement by reducing clinical and functional deficits. They are feasible and multipotent and have homing characteristics. This study evaluates the safety, feasibility and efficacy of autologous MSC transplantation in patients with chronic stroke using clinical scores and functional imaging (blood oxygen level-dependent and diffusion tensor imaging techniques. Methods: Twelve chronic stroke patients were recruited; inclusion criteria were stroke lasting 3 months to 1 year, motor strength of hand muscles of at least 2, and NIHSS of 4–15, and patients had to be conscious and able to comprehend. Fugl Meyer (FM, modified Barthel index (mBI, MRC, Ashworth tone grade scale scores and functional imaging scans were assessed at baseline, and after 8 and 24 weeks. Bone marrow was aspirated under aseptic conditions and expansion of MSC took 3 weeks with animal serum-free media (Stem Pro SFM. Six patients were administered a mean of 50–60 × 106 cells i.v. followed by 8 weeks of physiotherapy. Six patients served as controls. This was a non-randomized experimental controlled trial. Results: Clinical and radiological scanning was normal for the stem cell group patients. There was no mortality or cell-related adverse reaction. The laboratory tests on days 1, 3, 5 and 7 were also normal in the MSC group till the last follow-up. The FM and mBI showed a modest increase in the stem cell group compared to controls. There was an increased number of cluster activation of Brodmann areas BA 4 and BA 6 after stem cell infusion compared to controls, indicating neural plasticity. Conclusion: MSC therapy aiming to restore function in stroke is safe and feasible. Further randomized controlled trials are needed

  7. Cell surface engineering of mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Debanjan; Zhao, Weian; Gupta, Ashish; Loh, Wei Li; Karnik, Rohit; Karp, Jeffrey M

    2011-01-01

    By leveraging the capacity to promote regeneration, stem cell therapies offer enormous hope for solving some of the most tragic illnesses, diseases, and tissue defects world-wide. However, a significant barrier to the effective implementation of cell therapies is the inability to target a large quantity of viable cells with high efficiency to tissues of interest. Systemic infusion is desired as it minimizes the invasiveness of cell therapy, and maximizes practical aspects of repeated doses. However, cell types such as mesenchymal stem cells exhibit a poor homing capability or lose their capacity to home following culture expansion (i.e. FASEB J 21:3197-3207, 2007; Circulation 108:863-868, 2003; Stroke: A Journal of Cerebral Circulation 32:1005-1011; Blood 104:3581-3587, 2004). To address this challenge, we have developed a simple platform technology to chemically attach cell adhesion molecules to the cell surface to improve the homing efficiency to specific tissues. This chemical approach involves a stepwise process including (1) treatment of cells with sulfonated biotinyl-N-hydroxy-succinimide to introduce biotin groups on the cell surface, (2) addition of streptavidin that binds to the biotin on the cell surface and presents unoccupied binding sites, and (3) attachment of biotinylated targeting ligands that promote adhesive interactions with vascular endothelium. Specifically, in our model system, a biotinylated cell rolling ligand, sialyl Lewisx (SLeX), found on the surface of leukocytes (i.e., the active site of the P-selectin glycoprotein ligand (PSGL-1)), is conjugated on MSC surface. The SLeX engineered MSCs exhibit a rolling response on a P-selectin coated substrate under shear stress conditions. This indicates that this approach can be used to potentially target P-selectin expressing endothelium in the more marrow or at sites of inflammation. Importantly, the surface modification has no adverse impact on MSCs' native phenotype including their multilineage

  8. A rapid sonication based method for preparation of stromal vascular fraction and mesenchymal stem cells from fat tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amir Amirkhani

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: The current protocol based on the sonication-mediated cavitation is a rapid, safe and cost-effective method, which is proposed for isolation of SVF and of course ADSCs cultures in a large scale for the clinical trials or therapeutic purposes.

  9. Calorie for calorie, dietary fat restriction results in more body fat loss than carbohydrate restriction in people with obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Kevin D; Bemis, Thomas; Brychta, Robert; Chen, Kong Y.; Courville, Amber; Crayner, Emma J.; Goodwin, Stephanie; Guo, Juen; Howard, Lilian; Knuth, Nicolas D.; Miller, Bernard V.; Prado, Carla M.; Siervo, Mario; Skarulis, Monica C.; Walter, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Dietary carbohydrate restriction has been purported to cause endocrine adaptations that promote body fat loss more than dietary fat restriction. We selectively restricted dietary carbohydrate versus fat for 6 days following a 5 day baseline diet in 19 adults with obesity confined to a metabolic ward where they exercised daily. Subjects received both isocaloric diets in random order during each of two inpatient stays. Body fat loss was calculated as the difference between daily fat intake and ...

  10. Fat body, fat pad and adipose tissues in invertebrates and vertebrates: the nexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeez, Odunayo Ibraheem; Meintjes, Roy; Chamunorwa, Joseph Panashe

    2014-04-23

    The fat body in invertebrates was shown to participate in energy storage and homeostasis, apart from its other roles in immune mediation and protein synthesis to mention a few. Thus, sharing similar characteristics with the liver and adipose tissues in vertebrates. However, vertebrate adipose tissue or fat has been incriminated in the pathophysiology of metabolic disorders due to its role in production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This has not been reported in the insect fat body. The link between the fat body and adipose tissue was examined in this review with the aim of determining the principal factors responsible for resistance to inflammation in the insect fat body. This could be the missing link in the prevention of metabolic disorders in vertebrates, occasioned by obesity.

  11. Weighing Posthumanism: Fatness and Contested Humanity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Apostolidou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Our project on fatness begins by turning attention to the multiple cultural instances in which fatness has been intrinsically linked with notions such as self—neglect and poor self—management. In Foucauldian terms, we analyse the fat subject as a failed homo economicus, an individual who has failed to be an “entrepreneur of himself, being for himself his own capital, being for himself his own producer, being for himself the source of [his] earnings” (Foucault, 2008, p. 226. From this perspective, we analyse instances of collective hatred towards fat subjects as direct results of the biopolitical triplet of responsibility, rationality, and morality. Morality is our bridge into the field of posthumanism, in which, as we demonstrate, these biopolitical imperatives also apply, reinforced by the field’s fascination with prosthetics and enhancement. Where, by biopolitical standards, fat subjects have failed to manage themselves, posthuman subjects find themselves guilty of not responsibly, rationally, and morally manipulating themselves to optimal productivity. Using criticism that disability studies scholars like Sarah S. Jain and Vivian Sobchack have voiced about posthumanism, we demonstrate the ways in which, within posthumanism, all subjects can be found as lacking when compared to their potential, enhanced post­human version.

  12. Differential effect of gender on hepatic fat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilsanz, Vicente [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, USC, Keck School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, MS 81, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, USC, Keck School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Chung, Sandra A. [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, USC, Keck School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, MS 81, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Kaplowitz, Neil [USC, Keck School of Medicine, USC Research Center for Liver Disease, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2011-09-15

    There are discrepant data on whether men or women have a higher risk for hepatic steatosis. To examine the influence of gender on hepatic adiposity in teenagers and young adults. We measured subcutaneous abdominal fat (SAF), intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and hepatic tissue density (a surrogate measure of hepatic fat) using CT in 505 healthy teenagers and young adults (254 males, 251 females; ages 15-22.9 years). Overall, compared to men, women had higher values of SAF (P < 0.0001) but similar measures of IAF and liver tissue density (P = 0.09 and 0.92, respectively). However, when compared to overweight/obese men, overweight/obese women had strikingly similar IAF values (P = 0.85) but lower hepatic fat (P = 0.009). Multiple regression analyses indicated that, after adjusting for age and SAF, IAF independently predicted hepatic density in males (P < 0.0001) but not in females (P = 0.36). Hepatic fat increased with body mass in males from lean to overweight and obese (P < 0.0001) but not in females (P > 0.05). When compared to overweight and obese young women, overweight and obese young men are at greater risk for hepatic steatosis, independent of IAF. (orig.)

  13. Influence of Fat Content on Chocolate Rheology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriele, D.; Migliori, M.; Baldino, N.; de Cindio, B.

    2008-07-01

    Molten chocolate is a suspension having properties strongly affected by particle characteristics including not only the dispersed particles but also the fat crystals formed during chocolate cooling and solidification. Even though chocolate rheology is extensively studied, mainly viscosity at high temperature was determined and no information on amount and type of fat crystals can be detected in these conditions. However chocolate texture and stability is strongly affected by the presence of specific crystals. In this work a different approach, based on creep test, was proposed to characterize chocolate samples at typical process temperatures (approximately 30 °C). The analysis of compliance, as time function, at short times enable to evaluate a material "elasticity" related to the solid-like behavior of the material and given by the differential area between the Newtonian and the experimental compliance. Moreover a specific time dependent elasticity was defined as the ratio between the differential area, in a time range, and total area. Chocolate samples having a different fat content were prepared and they were conditioned directly on rheometer plate by applying two different controlled cooling rate; therefore creep were performed by applying a low stress to ensure material linear behavior. Experimental data were analyzed by the proposed method and specific elasticity was related to single crystal properties. It was found that fat crystal amount and properties depend in different way on fat content and cooling rate; moreover creep proved to be able to detect even small differences among tested samples.

  14. Weighing Posthumanism: Fatness and Contested Humanity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Apostolidou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Our project on fatness begins by turning attention to the multiple cultural instances in which fatness has been intrinsically linked with notions such as self—neglect and poor self—management. In Foucauldian terms, we analyse the fat subject as a failed homo economicus, an individual who has failed to be an “entrepreneur of himself, being for himself his own capital, being for himself his own producer, being for himself the source of [his] earnings” (Foucault, 2008, p. 226. From this perspective, we analyse instances of collective hatred towards fat subjects as direct results of the biopolitical triplet of responsibility, rationality, and morality. Morality is our bridge into the field of posthumanism, in which, as we demonstrate, these biopolitical imperatives also apply, reinforced by the field’s fascination with prosthetics and enhancement. Where, by biopolitical standards, fat subjects have failed to manage themselves, posthuman subjects find themselves guilty of not responsibly, rationally, and morally manipulating themselves to optimal productivity. Using criticism that disability studies scholars like Sarah S. Jain and Vivian Sobchack have voiced about posthumanism, we demonstrate the ways in which, within posthumanism, all subjects can be found as lacking when compared to their potential, enhanced post­human version.

  15. Stability of the hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, Mohit Kumar; Mooney, Steven M.; Celiktas, Muge; Hanash, Samir M.; Mani, Sendurai A.; Pienta, Kenneth J.; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Levine, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) and its reverse – Mesenchymal to Epithelial Transition (MET) – are hallmarks of cellular plasticity during embryonic development and cancer metastasis. During EMT, epithelial cells lose cell-cell adhesion and gain migratory and invasive traits either partially or completely, leading to a hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal (hybrid E/M) or a mesenchymal phenotype respectively. Mesenchymal cells move individually, but hybrid E/M cells migrate collectively as observed during gastrulation, wound healing, and the formation of tumor clusters detected as Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs). Typically, the hybrid E/M phenotype has largely been tacitly assumed to be transient and ‘metastable’. Here, we identify certain ‘phenotypic stability factors’ (PSFs) such as GRHL2 that couple to the core EMT decision-making circuit (miR-200/ZEB) and stabilize hybrid E/M phenotype. Further, we show that H1975 lung cancer cells can display a stable hybrid E/M phenotype and migrate collectively, a behavior that is impaired by knockdown of GRHL2 and another previously identified PSF - OVOL. In addition, our computational model predicts that GRHL2 can also associate hybrid E/M phenotype with high tumor-initiating potential, a prediction strengthened by the observation that the higher levels of these PSFs may be predictive of poor patient outcome. Finally, based on these specific examples, we deduce certain network motifs that can stabilize the hybrid E/M phenotype. Our results suggest that partial EMT, i.e. a hybrid E/M phenotype, need not be ‘metastable’, and strengthen the emerging notion that partial EMT, but not necessarily a complete EMT, is associated with aggressive tumor progression. PMID:27008704

  16. Quantitative Assessment of Fat Infiltration in the Rotator Cuff Muscles using water-fat MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardo, Lorenzo; Karampinos, Dimitrios C.; Lansdown, Drew A.; Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Lee, Sonia; Maroldi, Roberto; Ma, C. Benjamin; Link, Thomas M.; Krug, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate a chemical shift-based fat quantification technique in the rotator cuff muscles in comparison with the semi-quantitative Goutallier fat infiltration classification (GC) and to assess their relationship with clinical parameters. Materials and Methods The shoulders of 57 patients were imaged using a 3T MR scanner. The rotator cuff muscles were assessed for fat infiltration using GC by two radiologists and an orthopedic surgeon. Sequences included oblique-sagittal T1-, T2- and proton density-weighted fast spin echo, and six-echo gradient echo. The iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least-squares estimation (IDEAL) was used to measure fat fraction. Pain and range of motion of the shoulder were recorded. Results Fat fraction values were significantly correlated with GC grades (p0.9) showing consistent increase with GC grades (grade=0, 0%–5.59%; grade=1, 1.1%–9.70%; grade=2, 6.44%–14.86%; grade=3, 15.25%–17.77%; grade=4, 19.85%–29.63%). A significant correlation between fat infiltration of the subscapularis muscle quantified with IDEAL versus a) deficit in internal rotation (Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient=0.39, 95% CI 0.13–0.60, pquantitative fat infiltration measures of the supraspinatus muscle were significantly correlated with a deficit in abduction (Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient=0.45, 95% CI 0.20–0.60, p<0.01). Conclusion We concluded that an accurate and highly reproducible fat quantification in the rotator cuff muscles using water-fat MRI techniques is possible and significantly correlates with shoulder pain and range of motion. PMID:24115490

  17. Fat Taste Sensitivity Is Associated with Short-Term and Habitual Fat Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Costanzo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests individuals less sensitive to fat taste (high fat taste thresholds (FTT may be overweight or obese and consume greater amounts of dietary fat than more sensitive individuals. The aims of this study were to assess associations between FTT, anthropometric measurements, fat intake, and liking of fatty foods. FTT was assessed in 69 Australian females (mean age 41.3 (15.6 (SD years and mean body mass index 26.3 (5.7 kg/m2 by a 3-alternate forced choice methodology and transformed to an ordinal scale (FT rank. Food liking was assessed by hedonic ratings of high-fat and reduced-fat foods, and a 24-h food recall and food frequency questionnaire was completed. Linear mixed regression models were fitted. FT rank was associated with dietary % energy from fat ( β ^ = 0.110 [95% CI: 0.003, 0.216], % energy from carbohydrate ( β ^ = −0.112 [−0.188, −0.035], and frequency of consumption of foods per day from food groups: high-fat dairy ( β ^ = 1.091 [0.106, 2.242], meat & meat alternatives ( β ^ = 0.669 [0.168, 1.170], and grain & cereals ( β ^ = 0.771 [0.212, 1.329] (adjusted for energy and age. There were no associations between FT rank and anthropometric measurements or hedonic ratings. Therefore, fat taste sensitivity appears to be associated with short-term fat intake, but not body size in this group of females.

  18. Quantitative assessment of fat infiltration in the rotator cuff muscles using water-fat MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardo, Lorenzo; Karampinos, Dimitrios C; Lansdown, Drew A; Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Lee, Sonia; Maroldi, Roberto; Ma, C Benjamin; Link, Thomas M; Krug, Roland

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate a chemical shift-based fat quantification technique in the rotator cuff muscles in comparison with the semiquantitative Goutallier fat infiltration classification (GC) and to assess their relationship with clinical parameters. The shoulders of 57 patients were imaged using a 3T MR scanner. The rotator cuff muscles were assessed for fat infiltration using GC by two radiologists and an orthopedic surgeon. Sequences included oblique-sagittal T1-, T2-, and proton density-weighted fast spin echo, and six-echo gradient echo. The iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least-squares estimation (IDEAL) was used to measure fat fraction. Pain and range of motion of the shoulder were recorded. Fat fraction values were significantly correlated with GC grades (P 0.9) showing consistent increase with GC grades (grade = 0, 0%-5.59%; grade = 1, 1.1%-9.70%; grade = 2, 6.44%-14.86%; grade = 3, 15.25%-17.77%; grade = 4, 19.85%-29.63%). A significant correlation between fat infiltration of the subscapularis muscle quantified with IDEAL versus 1) deficit in internal rotation (Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient [SRC] = 0.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.13-0.60, P fat infiltration measures of the supraspinatus muscle were significantly correlated with a deficit in abduction (SRC coefficient = 0.45, 95% CI 0.20-0.60, P fat quantification in the rotator cuff muscles using water-fat magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques is possible and significantly correlates with shoulder pain and range of motion. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Transfer of dietary zinc and fat to milk--evaluation of milk fat quality, milk fat precursors, and mastitis indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiking, L; Larsen, T; Sehested, J

    2008-04-01

    The present study demonstrated that the zinc concentration in bovine milk and blood plasma is significantly affected by the intake of saturated fat supplements. Sixteen Holstein cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design with 4 periods of 12 d, and 4 dietary treatments were conducted. A total mixed ration based on corn silage, grass-clover silages, and pelleted sugar beet pulp was used on all treatments. A high de novo milk fat diet was formulated by adding rapeseed meal and molasses in the total mixed ration [39 mg of Zn/kg of dry matter (DM)], and a low de novo diet by adding saturated fat, fat-rich rapeseed cake, and corn (34 mg of Zn/kg of DM). Dietary Zn levels were increased by addition of ZnO to 83 and 80 mg of Zn/kg of DM. Treatments did not affect daily DM intake, or yield of energy-corrected milk, milk fat, or milk protein. The high de novo diet significantly increased milk fat percentage and milk content of fatty acids with chain length from C6 to C16, and decreased content of C18 and C18:1. Treatments did not influence milk free fatty acids at 4 degrees C at 0 or 28 h after milking. The average diameter of milk fat globules was significantly greater in milk from cows offered low de novo diets. Furthermore, the low de novo diet significantly increased the concentration of nonesterified fatty acids and d-beta-hydroxybutyrate in blood plasma, the latter was also increased in milk. Treatments did not affect the enzyme activity of lactate dehydrogenase and N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase in milk or the activity of isocitrate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase in blood plasma. The low de novo diet significantly increased plasma Zn and milk Zn content, whereas dietary Zn level did not in itself influence these parameters. This indicates that the transfer of fat from diet to milk might facilitate transfer of Zn from diet to milk.

  20. Replacing foods high in saturated fat by low-saturated fat alternatives: a computer simulation of the potential effects on reduction of saturated fat consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schickenberg, B.; Assema, P.; Brug, J.; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J.; Ocke, M.C.; Vries, de N.

    2009-01-01

    10 en%) increased from 23.3 % to 86.0 %. We conclude that the replacement of relatively few important high-saturated fat products by available lower-saturated fat alternatives can significantly reduce saturated fat intake and increase the proportion of individuals complying with recommended intake

  1. Conditional mesenchymal disruption of pkd1 results in osteopenia and polycystic kidney disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Qiu

    Full Text Available Conditional deletion of Pkd1 in osteoblasts using either Osteocalcin(Oc-Cre or Dmp1-Cre results in defective osteoblast-mediated postnatal bone formation and osteopenia. Pkd1 is also expressed in undifferentiated mesenchyme that gives rise to the osteoblast lineage. To examine the effects of Pkd1 on prenatal osteoblast development, we crossed Pkd1(flox/flox and Col1a1(3.6-Cre mice, which has been used to achieve selective inactivation of Pkd1 earlier in the osteoblast lineage. Control Pkd1(flox/flox and Pkd1(flox/+, heterozygous Col1a1(3.6-Cre;Pkd1(flox/+ and Pkd1(flox/null, and homozygous Col1a1(3.6-Cre;Pkd1(flox/flox and Col1a1(3.6-Cre;Pkd1(flox/null mice were analyzed at ages ranging from E14.5 to 8-weeks-old. Newborn Col1a1(3.6-Cre;Pkd1(flox/null mice exhibited defective skeletogenesis in association with a greater reduction in Pkd1 expression in bone. Conditional Col1a1(3.6-Cre;Pkd1(flox/+ and Col1a1(3.6-Cre;Pkd1(flox/flox mice displayed a gene dose-dependent decrease in bone formation and increase in marrow fat at 6 weeks of age. Bone marrow stromal cell and primary osteoblast cultures from homozygous Col1a1(3.6-Cre;Pkd1(flox/flox mice showed increased proliferation, impaired osteoblast development and enhanced adipogenesis ex vivo. Unexpectedly, we found evidence for Col1a1(3.6-Cre mediated deletion of Pkd1 in extraskeletal tissues in Col1a1(3.6-Cre;Pkd1(flox/flox mice. Deletion of Pkd1 in mesenchymal precursors resulted in pancreatic and renal, but not hepatic, cyst formation. The non-lethality of Col1a1(3.6-Cre;Pkd1(flox/flox mice establishes a new model to study abnormalities in bone development and cyst formation in pancreas and kidney caused by Pkd1 gene inactivation.

  2. Hypothalamic Leptin Gene Therapy Reduces Bone Marrow Adiposity in ob/ob Mice Fed Regular and High-Fat Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenmaier, Laurence B.; Philbrick, Kenneth A.; Branscum, Adam J.; Kalra, Satya P.; Turner, Russell T.; Iwaniec, Urszula T.

    2016-01-01

    Low bone mass is often associated with elevated bone marrow adiposity. Since osteoblasts and adipocytes are derived from the same mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) progenitor, adipocyte formation may increase at the expense of osteoblast formation. Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone known to regulate energy and bone metabolism. Leptin deficiency and high-fat diet-induced obesity are associated with increased marrow adipose tissue (MAT) and reduced bone formation. Short-duration studies suggest that leptin treatment reduces MAT and increases bone formation in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice fed a regular diet. Here, we determined the long-duration impact of increased hypothalamic leptin on marrow adipocytes and osteoblasts in ob/ob mice following recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) gene therapy. Eight- to 10-week-old male ob/ob mice were randomized into four groups: (1) untreated, (2) rAAV-Lep, (3) rAAV-green fluorescent protein (rAAV-GFP), or (4) pair-fed to rAAV-Lep. For vector administration, mice were injected intracerebroventricularly with either rAAV-leptin gene therapy (rAAV-Lep) or rAAV-GFP (9 × 107 particles) and maintained for 30 weeks. In a second study, the impact of increased hypothalamic leptin levels on MAT was determined in mice fed high-fat diets; ob/ob mice were randomized into two groups and treated with either rAAV-Lep or rAAV-GFP. At 7 weeks post-vector administration, half the mice in each group were switched to a high-fat diet for 8 weeks. Wild-type (WT) controls included age-matched mice fed regular or high-fat diet. High-fat diet resulted in a threefold increase in MAT in WT mice, whereas MAT was increased by leptin deficiency up to 50-fold. Hypothalamic leptin gene therapy increased osteoblast perimeter and osteoclast perimeter with minor change in cancellous bone architecture. The gene therapy decreased MAT levels in ob/ob mice fed regular or high-fat diet to values similar to WT mice fed regular diet. These findings suggest

  3. Salt Promotes Passive Overconsumption of Dietary Fat in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolhuis, Dieuwerke P; Costanzo, Andrew; Newman, Lisa P; Keast, Russell Sj

    2016-04-01

    Excess fat consumption has been linked to the development of obesity. Fat and salt are a common and appetitive combination in food; however, the effect of either on food intake is unclear. Fat taste sensitivity has been negatively associated with dietary fat intake, but how fat taste sensitivity influences the intake of fat within a meal has, to our knowledge, not yet been investigated. Our objectives were, first, to investigate the effects of both fat and salt on ad libitum food intake and, second, to investigate the effects of fat taste sensitivity on satiation responses to fat and whether this was affected by salt. Forty-eight healthy adults [16 men and 32 women, aged 18-54 y, body mass index (kg/m(2)): 17.8-34.4] were recruited and their fat taste sensitivity was measured by determination of the detection threshold of oleic acid (18:1n-6). In a randomized 2 × 2 crossover design, participants attended 4 lunchtime sessions after a standardized breakfast. Meals consisted of elbow macaroni (56%) with sauce (44%); sauces were manipulated to be1) low-fat (0.02% fat, wt:wt)/low-salt (0.06% NaCl, wt:wt),2) low-fat/high-salt (0.5% NaCl, wt:wt),3) high-fat (34% fat, wt:/wt)/low-salt, or4) high-fat/high-salt. Ad libitum intake (primary outcome) and eating rate, pleasantness, and subjective ratings of hunger and fullness (secondary outcomes) were measured. Salt increased food and energy intakes by 11%, independent of fat concentration (P= 0.022). There was no effect of fat on food intake (P= 0.6), but high-fat meals increased energy intake by 60% (Pintake of high-fat meals but only in the presence of low salt (fat taste × salt interaction on delta intake of high-fat - low-fat meals;P= 0.012). The results suggest that salt promotes passive overconsumption of energy in adults and that salt may override fat-mediated satiation in individuals who are sensitive to the taste of fat. This trial was registered at the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (www

  4. Long noncoding RNAs related to the odontogenic potential of dental mesenchymal cells in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yunfei; Jia, Lingfei

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the lncRNAs that are associated with the odontogenic potential in mouse dental mesenchymal cells. The odontogenic potential of dental mesenchymal cells was found to be lost in the course of in vitro culture, so the lncRNA profiles were subsequently compared between freshly-isolated and cultured dental mesenchymal cells using RNA-sequencing. A co-expression analysis of differentially expressed lncRNAs and coding RNAs was performed to understand their potential functions. The expression of several selected lncRNAs was also examined in developing tooth germs. Compared with cultured dental mesenchymal cells, 108 lncRNAs were upregulated and 36 lncRNAs were downregulated in freshly-isolated dental mesenchymal cells. Coding genes correlated with the lncRNAs were mainly associated with DNA and protein metabolic processes and cytoskeletal anchorage. Meg3, Malat1, Xist, and Dlx1as were significantly downregulated in cultured dental mesenchymal cells but were upregulated in odontogenic dental mesenchymal tissues. Moreover, the levels of Dlx1as were negatively correlated with that of Dlx1 in dental mesenchymal cells and dental mesenchymal tissues. The lncRNA profiles of dental mesenchymal cells are significantly changed during culturing, and the dysregulation of lncRNAs is associated with the loss of odontogenic potential. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. The Danish tax on saturated fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Smed, Sinne

    2013-01-01

    Denmark introduced a new tax on saturated fat in food products with effect from October 2011. The objective of this paper is to make an effect assessment of this tax for some of the product categories most significantly affected by the new tax, namely fats such as butter, butter-blends, margarine...... and oils. This assessment is done by conducting an econometric analysis on weekly food purchase data from a large household panel dataset (GfK Consumer Tracking Scandinavia), spanning the period from January 2008 until July 2012.The econometric analysis suggest that the introduction of the tax on saturated...... and fats, a shift that seems to have been utilized by discount chains to raise the prices of butter and margarine by more than the pure tax increase. Due to the relatively short data period with the tax being active, interpretation of these findings from a long-run perspective should be done...

  6. Postoperative hypoxemia due to fat embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Bhalla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the reported incidence of fat embolism syndrome (FES is low (approximately 1%, it is likely that microscopic fat emboli are showered during manipulation of long bone fractures. Even though there continues to be debate regarding the etiology and proposed mechanism responsible for FES, significant systemic manifestations may occur. Treatment is generally symptomatic based on the clinical presentations. We report a 10-year-old girl who developed hypoxemia following treatment of a displaced Salter-Harris type II fracture of the distal tibia. The subsequent evaluation and hospital course pointed to fat embolism as the most likely etiology for the hypoxemia. We discuss the etiology for FES, review the proposed pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for its clinical manifestations, present currently accepted diagnostic criteria, and discuss its treatment.

  7. Angiogenic properties of adult human thymus fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Julián; Montiel, Mercedes; Jiménez, Eugenio; Valenzuela, Miguel; Valderrama, José Francisco; Castillo, Rafael; González, Sergio; El Bekay, Rajaa

    2009-11-01

    The endogenous proangiogenic properties of adipose tissue are well recognized. Although the adult human thymus has long been known to degenerate into fat tissue, it has never been considered as a potential source of angiogenic factors. We have investigated the expression of diverse angiogenic factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor A and B, angiopoietin 1, and tyrosine-protein kinase receptor-2 (an angiopoietin receptor), and then analyzed their physiological role on endothelial cell migration and proliferation, two relevant events in angiogenesis. The detection of the gene and protein expression of the various proteins has been performed by immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. We show, for the first time, that adult thymus fat produces a variety of angiogenic factors and induces the proliferation and migration of human umbilical cord endothelial cells. Based on these findings, we suggest that this fat has a potential angiogenic function that might affect thymic function and ongoing adipogenesis within the thymus.

  8. Do Fat Supplements Increase Physical Performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Di Felice

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Fish oil and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA belong to a popular class of food supplements known as “fat supplements”, which are claimed to reduce muscle glycogen breakdown, reduce body mass, as well as reduce muscle damage and inflammatory responses. Sport athletes consume fish oil and CLA mainly to increase lean body mass and reduce body fat. Recent evidence indicates that this kind of supplementation may have other side-effects and a new role has been identified in steroidogenensis. Preliminary findings demonstrate that fish oil and CLA may induce a physiological increase in testosterone synthesis. The aim of this review is to describe the effects of fish oil and CLA on physical performance (endurance and resistance exercise, and highlight the new results on the effects on testosterone biosynthesis. In view of these new data, we can hypothesize that fat supplements may improve the anabolic effect of exercise.

  9. Do fat supplements increase physical performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaluso, Filippo; Barone, Rosario; Catanese, Patrizia; Carini, Francesco; Rizzuto, Luigi; Farina, Felicia; Di Felice, Valentina

    2013-02-07

    Fish oil and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) belong to a popular class of food supplements known as "fat supplements", which are claimed to reduce muscle glycogen breakdown, reduce body mass, as well as reduce muscle damage and inflammatory responses. Sport athletes consume fish oil and CLA mainly to increase lean body mass and reduce body fat. Recent evidence indicates that this kind of supplementation may have other side-effects and a new role has been identified in steroidogenensis. Preliminary findings demonstrate that fish oil and CLA may induce a physiological increase in testosterone synthesis. The aim of this review is to describe the effects of fish oil and CLA on physical performance (endurance and resistance exercise), and highlight the new results on the effects on testosterone biosynthesis. In view of these new data, we can hypothesize that fat supplements may improve the anabolic effect of exercise.

  10. Why does starvation make bones fat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Maureen J

    2011-01-01

    Body fat, or adipose tissue, is a crucial energetic buffer against starvation in humans and other mammals, and reserves of white adipose tissue (WAT) rise and fall in parallel with food intake. Much less is known about the function of bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT), which are fat cells found in bone marrow. BMAT mass actually increases during starvation, even as other fat depots are being mobilized for energy. This review considers several possible reasons for this poorly understood phenomenon. Is BMAT a passive filler that occupies spaces left by dying bone cells, a pathological consequence of suppressed bone formation, or potentially an adaptation for surviving starvation? These possibilities are evaluated in terms of the effects of starvation on the body, particularly the skeleton, and the mechanisms involved in storing and metabolizing BMAT during negative energy balance.

  11. Obesity Resistance and Enhanced Insulin Sensitivity in Ahnak-/- Mice Fed a High Fat Diet Are Related to Impaired Adipogenesis and Increased Energy Expenditure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yo Na; Shin, Sun Mee; Roh, Kyung Jin; Lee, Seo Hyun; Sohn, Mira; Cho, Soo Young; Lee, Sang Hyuk; Ko, Chang-Yong; Kim, Han-Sung; Choi, Cheol Soo; Bae, Yun Soo; Seong, Je Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Objective Recent evidence has suggested that AHNAK expression is altered in obesity, although its role in adipose tissue development remains unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the molecular mechanism by which Ahnak influences adipogenesis and glucose homeostasis. Design We investigated the in vitro role of AHNAK in adipogenesis using adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) and C3H10T1/2 cells. AHNAK-KO male mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD; 60% calories from fat) and examined for glucose and insulin tolerances, for body fat compositions, and by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamping. Energy expenditures were assessed using metabolic cages and by measuring the expression levels of genes involved in thermogenesis in white or brown adipose tissues. Results Adipogenesis in ADSCs was impaired in AHNAK-KO mice. The loss of AHNAK led to decreased BMP4/SMAD1 signaling, resulting in the downregulation of key regulators of adipocyte differentiation (Pinsulin sensitivity (P<0.001), and increased energy expenditure (P<0.05), without undergoing alterations in food intake and physical activity. Conclusion AHNAK plays a crucial role in body fat accumulation by regulating adipose tissue development via interaction with the SMAD1 protein and can be involved in metabolic homeostasis. PMID:26466345

  12. Obesity Resistance and Enhanced Insulin Sensitivity in Ahnak-/- Mice Fed a High Fat Diet Are Related to Impaired Adipogenesis and Increased Energy Expenditure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hoon Shin

    Full Text Available Recent evidence has suggested that AHNAK expression is altered in obesity, although its role in adipose tissue development remains unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the molecular mechanism by which Ahnak influences adipogenesis and glucose homeostasis.We investigated the in vitro role of AHNAK in adipogenesis using adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs and C3H10T1/2 cells. AHNAK-KO male mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD; 60% calories from fat and examined for glucose and insulin tolerances, for body fat compositions, and by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamping. Energy expenditures were assessed using metabolic cages and by measuring the expression levels of genes involved in thermogenesis in white or brown adipose tissues.Adipogenesis in ADSCs was impaired in AHNAK-KO mice. The loss of AHNAK led to decreased BMP4/SMAD1 signaling, resulting in the downregulation of key regulators of adipocyte differentiation (P<0.05. AHNAK directly interacted with SMAD1 on the Pparγ2 promoter. Concomitantly, HFD-fed AHNAK-KO mice displayed reduced hepatosteatosis and improved metabolic profiles, including improved glucose tolerance (P<0.001, enhanced insulin sensitivity (P<0.001, and increased energy expenditure (P<0.05, without undergoing alterations in food intake and physical activity.AHNAK plays a crucial role in body fat accumulation by regulating adipose tissue development via interaction with the SMAD1 protein and can be involved in metabolic homeostasis.

  13. Priming of endothelial colony-forming cells in a mesenchymal niche improves engraftment and vasculogenic potential by initiating mesenchymal transition orchestrated by NOTCH signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee, Abbas; Patel, Jatin; Wong, Ho Yi; Donovan, Prudence; Hutmacher, Dietmar W; Fisk, Nicholas M; Khosrotehrani, Kiarash

    2017-02-01

    The prospect of using endothelial progenitors is currently hampered by their low engraftment upon transplantation. We report that mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs), independent of source and age, improve the engraftment of endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs). MSC coculture altered ECFC appearance to an elongated mesenchymal morphology with reduced proliferation. ECFC primed via MSC contact had reduced self-renewal potential, but improved capacity to form tube structures in vitro and engraftment in vivo Primed ECFCs displayed major differences in transcriptome compared to ECFCs never exposed to MSCs, affecting genes involved in the cell cycle, up-regulating of genes influencing mesenchymal transition, adhesion, extracellular matrix. Inhibition of NOTCH signaling, a potential upstream regulator of mesenchymal transition, in large part modulated this gene expression pattern and functionally reversed the mesenchymal morphology of ECFCs. The collective results showed that primed ECFCs survive better and undergo a mesenchymal transition that is dependent on NOTCH signaling, resulting in significantly increased vasculogenic potential.-Shafiee, A., Patel, J., Wong, H. Y., Donovan, P., Hutmacher, D. W., Fisk, N. M., Khosrotehrani, K. Priming of endothelial colony-forming cells in a mesenchymal niche improves engraftment and vasculogenic potential by initiating mesenchymal transition orchestrated by NOTCH signaling.

  14. Being Fat and Friendly is Not Enough

    CERN Document Server

    Har-Peled, Sariel

    2009-01-01

    We show that there is no $(1+\\eps)$-approximation algorithm for the problem of covering points in the plane by minimum number of fat triangles of similar size (with the minimum angle of the triangles being close to 45 degrees). Here, the available triangles are prespecified in advance. Since a constant factor approximation algorithm is known for this problem \\cite{cv-iaags-07}, this settles the approximability of this problem. We also investigate some related problems, including cover by friendly fat shapes, and independent set of triangles in three dimensions.

  15. Novel fat-link fermion actions

    CERN Document Server

    Zanotti, J M; Bonnet, F D R; Coddington, P D; Leinweber, D B; Williams, A G; Zhang, J B; Melnitchouk, W; Lee, F X

    2002-01-01

    The hadron mass spectrum is calculated in lattice QCD using a novel fat-link clover fermion action in which only the irrelevant operators of the fermion action are constructed using smeared links. The simulations are performed on a 16^3 X 32 lattice with a lattice spacing of a=0.125 fm. We compare actions with n=4 and 12 smearing sweeps with a smearing fraction of 0.7. The n=4 Fat Link Irrelevant Clover (FLIC) action provides scaling which is superior to mean-field improvement, and offers advantages over nonperturbative O(a) improvement.

  16. Cerebral Fat Embolism: A diagnostic challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Babita; Kaur, Manpreet; D’souza, Nita; Dey, Chandan Kumar; Shende, Seema; Kumar, Atin; Gamangatti, Shivanand

    2011-01-01

    Fat embolism syndrome (FES) is a rare but a serious clinical catastrophe occurring after traumatic injury to long bones. Cerebral involvement in the absence of pulmonary or dermatological manifestation on initial presentation may delay the diagnosis of cerebral fat embolism (CFE). We discuss a case series of CFE which posed a challenge in diagnosis. The clinical presentations of these patients did not satisfy the commonly used clinical criteria for aiding the diagnosis of FES. Early MRI brain (DWI and T2 weighted sequences) in patients with neurological symptoms after trauma even in the absence of pulmonary and dermatological findings should be the goal. PMID:21957425

  17. Understanding hydrodeoxygenation of oils and fats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Riisager, Anders; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2009-01-01

    Production of diesel fuels from renewable feedstock is increasing. One auspicious route could be by hydrodeoxygenating waste fats and oils to result long-chain alkanes, a process well suited for existing fuel infrastructure. This was studied over metal oxide-supported platinum-group metals...... in a batch reactor. Oleic acid and tripalmitin in n-tetradecane as a solvent and n-dodecane as internal standard was added to an autoclave and mixed with catalyst and charged with 0-50 bar hydrogen at 250-375°C. This model feed closely resembles waste fats and allows relating the products directly...

  18. Cerebral fat embolism: A diagnostic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babita Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fat embolism syndrome (FES is a rare but a serious clinical catastrophe occurring after traumatic injury to long bones. Cerebral involvement in the absence of pulmonary or dermatological manifestation on initial presentation may delay the diagnosis of cerebral fat embolism (CFE. We discuss a case series of CFE which posed a challenge in diagnosis. The clinical presentations of these patients did not satisfy the commonly used clinical criteria for aiding the diagnosis of FES. Early MRI brain (DWI and T2 weighted sequences in patients with neurological symptoms after trauma even in the absence of pulmonary and dermatological findings should be the goal.

  19. Bardoxolone Methyl Prevents Mesenteric Fat Deposition and Inflammation in High-Fat Diet Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi H. L. Dinh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenteric fat belongs to visceral fat. An increased deposition of mesenteric fat contributes to obesity associated complications such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. We have investigated the therapeutic effects of bardoxolone methyl (BARD on mesenteric adipose tissue of mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD. Male C57BL/6J mice were administered oral BARD during HFD feeding (HFD/BARD, only fed a high-fat diet (HFD, or fed low-fat diet (LFD for 21 weeks. Histology and immunohistochemistry were used to analyse mesenteric morphology and macrophages, while Western blot was used to assess the expression of inflammatory, oxidative stress, and energy expenditure proteins. Supplementation of drinking water with BARD prevented mesenteric fat deposition, as determined by a reduction in large adipocytes. BARD prevented inflammation as there were fewer inflammatory macrophages and reduced proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1 beta and tumour necrosis factor alpha. BARD reduced the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK and Akt, suggesting an antioxidative stress effect. BARD upregulates energy expenditure proteins, judged by the increased activity of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α, and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2 proteins. Overall, BARD induces preventive effect in HFD mice through regulation of mesenteric adipose tissue.

  20. Determination of Milk Fat Adulteration with Vegetable Oils and Animal Fats by Gas Chromatographic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Man; Kim, Ha-Jung; Park, Jung-Min

    2015-09-01

    This study assessed the potential application of gas chromatography (GC) in detecting milk fat (MF) adulteration with vegetable oils and animal fats and of characterizing samples by fat source. One hundred percent pure MF was adulterated with different vegetable oils and animal fats at various concentrations (0%, 10%, 30%, 50%, 70%, and 90%). GC was used to obtain the fatty acid (FA) profiles, triacylglycerol (TG) contents, and cholesterol contents. The pure MF and the adulterated MF samples were discriminated based on the total concentrations of saturated FAs and on the 2 major FAs (oleic acid [C18:1n9c] and linoleic acid [C18:2n6c], TGs [C52 and C54], and cholesterol contents using statistical analysis to compared difference. These bio-markers enabled the detection of as low as 10% adulteration of non-MF into 100% pure MF. The study demonstrated the high potential of GC to rapidly detect MF adulteration with vegetable and animal fats, and discriminate among commercial butter and milk products according to the fat source. These data can be potentially useful in detecting foreign fats in these butter products. Furthermore, it is important to consider that several individual samples should be analyzed before coming to a conclusion about MF authenticity.

  1. Bardoxolone Methyl Prevents Mesenteric Fat Deposition and Inflammation in High-Fat Diet Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Chi H. L.; Szabo, Alexander; Yu, Yinghua; Camer, Danielle; Wang, Hongqin; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Mesenteric fat belongs to visceral fat. An increased deposition of mesenteric fat contributes to obesity associated complications such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. We have investigated the therapeutic effects of bardoxolone methyl (BARD) on mesenteric adipose tissue of mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Male C57BL/6J mice were administered oral BARD during HFD feeding (HFD/BARD), only fed a high-fat diet (HFD), or fed low-fat diet (LFD) for 21 weeks. Histology and immunohistochemistry were used to analyse mesenteric morphology and macrophages, while Western blot was used to assess the expression of inflammatory, oxidative stress, and energy expenditure proteins. Supplementation of drinking water with BARD prevented mesenteric fat deposition, as determined by a reduction in large adipocytes. BARD prevented inflammation as there were fewer inflammatory macrophages and reduced proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1 beta and tumour necrosis factor alpha). BARD reduced the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt, suggesting an antioxidative stress effect. BARD upregulates energy expenditure proteins, judged by the increased activity of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) proteins. Overall, BARD induces preventive effect in HFD mice through regulation of mesenteric adipose tissue. PMID:26618193

  2. Relationships between rodent white adipose fat pads and human white adipose fat depots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella E. Chusyd

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review was to compare and contrast the physiological and metabolic profiles of rodent white adipose fat pads with white adipose fat depots in humans. Human fat distribution and its metabolic consequences have received extensive attention, but much of what has been tested in translational research has relied heavily on rodents. Unfortunately, the validity of using rodent fat pads as a model of human adiposity has received less attention. There is a surprisingly lack of studies demonstrating an analogous relationship between rodent and human adiposity on obesity-related comorbidities. Therefore, we aimed to compare known similarities and disparities in terms of white adipose tissue development and distribution, sexual dimorphism, weight loss, adipokine secretion, and aging. While the literature supports the notion that many similarities exist between rodents and humans, notable differences emerge related to fat deposition and function of white adipose tissue. Thus, further research is warranted to more carefully define the strengths and limitations of rodent white adipose tissue as a model for humans, with a particular emphasis on comparable fat depots, such as mesenteric fat.

  3. Fat burning during exercise: can ergogenics change the balance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, J A

    1998-09-01

    Endurance athletes and dieters are eager to burn more fat during exercise; athletes hope to conserve carbohydrate stores, while dieters wish to decrease fat stores. This article briefly reviews the role of fat as an energy source for physical activity, discusses how exercise intensity and duration affect fat and carbohydrate metabolism, and assesses the nutrition strategies athletes are most likely to use in attempts to promote fat burning during exercise: caffeine ingestion, L-carnitine supplements, medium-chain triglyceride supplements, and high-fat diets. Of this group, caffeine ingestion is the only strategy scientifically proven to enhance athletic performance.

  4. Adulteration of Argentinean milk fats with animal fats: Detection by fatty acids analysis and multivariate regression techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebechi, S R; Vélez, M A; Vaira, S; Perotti, M C

    2016-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to test the accuracy of the fatty acid ratios established by the Argentinean Legislation to detect adulterations of milk fat with animal fats and to propose a regression model suitable to evaluate these adulterations. For this purpose, 70 milk fat, 10 tallow and 7 lard fat samples were collected and analyzed by gas chromatography. Data was utilized to simulate arithmetically adulterated milk fat samples at 0%, 2%, 5%, 10% and 15%, for both animal fats. The fatty acids ratios failed to distinguish adulterated milk fats containing less than 15% of tallow or lard. For each adulterant, Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) was applied, and a model was chosen and validated. For that, calibration and validation matrices were constructed employing genuine and adulterated milk fat samples. The models were able to detect adulterations of milk fat at levels greater than 10% for tallow and 5% for lard. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of colostral fat level on fat deposition and plasma metabolites in the newborn pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Dividich, J; Esnault, T; Lynch, B; Hoo-Paris, R; Castex, C; Peiniau, J

    1991-06-01

    The effects of colostral fat level on fat deposition and plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, and free fatty acids (FFA) were determined in 28 newborn pigs during the first postnatal day. Soon after birth, pigs were allotted to four treatments groups. Group 1 was killed at birth. The remaining pigs were fed intragastrically sow colostrum that contained high (10.2%; HFC), normal (4.8%; NFC) or low (1.0%; LFC) levels of total fat at the rate of 15 to 18 g/kg birth weight at 65- to 70-min intervals. A total of 21 feedings was provided and pigs were killed 1 h after the last feeding. Body fat deposition increased linearly (P less than .01) with the amount of ingested fat by .32 (+/- .04) g per 1-g increase in fat intake. Fatty acid composition of the pigs changed toward that of the colostrum with increased fat in colostrum. More liver glycogen was lost (P less than .01) in pigs given LFC. Plasma concentrations of glucose and insulin were similar in pigs fed HFC and NFC. After the 11th feeding (14 h postnatal), LFC resulted in lower plasma glucose concentrations (P less than .05) than HFC or NFC. Plasma insulin concentrations also were lower in pigs fed LFC. Plasma FFA concentrations remained unchanged in pigs fed LFC but increased with both fat content in colostrum (P less than .05) and time (P less than .05) in the other two groups. Colostral fat plays a major role in the supply of energy and in glucose homeostasis in the neonatal pig.

  6. Correlation of fatty liver and abdominal fat distribution using a simple fat computed tomography protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seonah Jang; Chang Hee Lee; Kyung Mook Choi; Jongmee Lee; Jae Woong Choi; Kyeong Ah Kim; Cheol Min Park

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the relationship between hepatic fat infiltration and abdominal fat volume by using computed tomography (CT). METHODS: Three hundred and six patients who visited our obesity clinic between November 2007 and April 2008 underwent fat protocol CT scans. The age range of the patients was 19 to 79 years and the mean age was 49 years. The male to female ratio was 116:190. Liver and spleen attenuation measurements were taken with three regions of interests (ROIs) from the liver and two ROIs from the spleen. Hepatic attenuation indices (HAIs) were measured as follows: (1) hepatic parenchymal attenuation (CTLP); (2) liver to spleen attenuation ratio (LS ratio); and (3) difference between hepatic and splenic attenuation (LSdif). Abdominal fat volume was measured using a 3 mm slice CT scan starting at the level of the umbilicus and was automatically calculated by a workstation. Abdominal fat was classified into total fat (TF), visceral fat (VF), and subcutaneous fat (SF). We used a bivariate correlation method to assess the relationship between the three HAIs and TF, VF, and SF. RESULTS: There were significant negative correlations between CTLP, LS ratio, and LSdif with TF, VF, and SF, respectively. The CTLP showed a strong negative correlation with TF and VF (r = -0.415 and -0.434, respectively, P < 0.001). The correlation between CTLP and SF was less significant (r = -0.313, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Fatty infiltration of the liver was correlated with amount of abdominal fat and VF was more strongly associated with fatty liver than SF.

  7. Identification and functional analysis of a potential key lncRNA involved in fat loss of cancer cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huiquan; Zhou, Ting; Wang, Bangyan; Li, Lu; Ye, Dawei; Yu, Shiying

    2017-08-07

    Cancer cachexia is a devastating, multifactorial, and irreversible syndrome characterized by skeletal muscle reduction with or without fat loss. Although much attention has been focused on muscle wasting, fat loss may occur earlier and accelerate muscle wasting in cachexia. The cause of 20% of cancer related death makes it urgent to discover molecular mechanisms behind cancer cachexia. Here we applied weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) to identify cachexia related gene modules using differentially expressed 3289 genes and 59 long non-coding RNAs based on microarray data of cachectic and non-cachectic subcutaneous adipose tissue. Subsequently, 16 independent modules were acquired and GSAASeqSP Toolset confirmed that black module was significantly associated with fat loss in cancer cachexia. Top 50 hub-genes in black module contained only one lncRNA, VLDLR antisense RNA 1 (VLDLR-AS1). We then explored the function of black module from the view of VLDLR-AS1-connected genes in the network. GO enrichment and KEGG pathways analysis revealed LDLR-AS1-connected genes were involved in Wnt signaling pathway, small GTPase mediated signal transduction, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and so on. Through construction of competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) regulation network, we showed that VLDLR-AS1 may function with hsa-miR-600 to regulate gene GOLGA3, DUSP14, and UCHL1, or interact with hsa-miR-1224-3p to modulate the expression of gene GOLGA3, ZNF219, RNF141, and CALU. After literature validation, we predicted that VLDLR-AS1 most likely interacted with miR-600 to regulate UCH-L1 through Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. However, further experiments are still required to validate mechanisms of VLDLR-AS1 in fat reduction of cancer cachexia. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Metformin preconditioned adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells is a better option for the reversal of diabetes upon transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shree, Nitya; Bhonde, Ramesh R

    2016-12-01

    Metformin is used worldwide as an insulin sensitizer. Adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells have shown promising results in the reducing hyperglycemia. We examined whether preconditioning of adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) with metformin could have a better therapeutic value for the reversal of type 2 diabetes. We compared the effect of metformin, ASCs and metformin preconditioned ASCs (MetASCs) in high fat diet induced C57BL/6 mice by injecting the cells intramuscularly only once where as metformin was given at a concentration of 300mg per kg body weight orally daily. Fasting glucose was measured every week for 4 weeks. At the end of the study insulin, triglycerides, IL6 and oxidised LDL were evaluated from the serum. Gene expression studies were performed for muscle (GLUT4) and liver tissues (IL6 and PAI1).There was a remarkable decrease in hyperglycemia within two weeks of injection by MetASCs as compared to metformin and ASCs alone. A significant decrement of hyperinsulinemia, triglyceridemia, serum IL6 and oxidised LDL were observed at the end of the study. Gene expression studies for muscle tissue revealed the drastic upregulation of GLUT4 gene levels in the MetASCs group indicating enhanced glucose uptake in muscle. Liver tissue analysed for the genes involved in inflammation viz. IL6 and PAI1 showed significant downregulation in the MetASCs group as compared to the other groups. This is a first report demonstrating the synergistic effect of metformin preconditioning of ASCs leading to reversal of hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and triglyceridemia.

  9. Transcriptional networks in single perivascular cells sorted from human adipose tissue reveal a hierarchy of mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, W Reef; Moldovan, Nicanor I; Moldovan, Leni; Livak, Kenneth J; Datta; Goswami, Chirayu; Corselli, Mirko; Traktuev, Dmitry O; Murray, Iain R; Péault, Bruno; March, Keith

    2017-02-24

    Adipose tissue is a rich source of multipotent mesenchymal stem-like cells, located in the perivascular niche. Based on their surface markers, these have been assigned to two main categories: CD34+CD31-CD45-CD146- cells (adventitial stromal/stem cells, ASCs), and CD146+CD31-CD34-CD45- cells (pericytes, PCs). These populations display heterogeneity of unknown significance. We hypothesized that aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity, a functional marker of primitivity, could help to better define ASC and PC subclasses. To this end, the stromal vascular fraction from a human lipoaspirate was simultaneously stained with fluorescent antibodies to CD31, CD45, CD34, and CD146 antigens and the ALDH substrate Aldefluor®, then sorted by FACS. Individual ASCs (n=67) and PCs (n=73) selected from the extremities of the ALDH-staining spectrum were transcriptionally profiled by Fluidigm single-cell quantitative PCR for a predefined set (n=429) of marker genes. To these single-cell data, we applied differential expression and principal component and clustering analysis, as well as an original gene co-expression network reconstruction algorithm. Despite the stochasticity at the single-cell level, covariation gene expression analysis yielded multiple network connectivity parameters suggesting that these perivascular progenitor cell subclasses possess the following order of maturity: i) ALDH(br) ASC (most primitive); ii) ALDH(dim) ASC; iii) ALDH(br) PC; iv) ALDH(dim) PC (least primitive). This order was independently supported by specific combinations of class-specific expressed genes and further confirmed by the analysis of associated signaling pathways. In conclusion, single-cell transcriptional analysis of four populations isolated from fat by surface markers and enzyme activity suggests a developmental hierarchy among perivascular mesenchymal stem cells supported by markers and co-expression networks. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. TWIST1 promotes invasion through mesenchymal change in human glioblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakimoto Hiroaki

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor cell invasion into adjacent normal brain is a mesenchymal feature of GBM and a major factor contributing to their dismal outcomes. Therefore, better understandings of mechanisms that promote mesenchymal change in GBM are of great clinical importance to address invasion. We previously showed that the bHLH transcription factor TWIST1 which orchestrates carcinoma metastasis through an epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT is upregulated in GBM and promotes invasion of the SF767 GBM cell line in vitro. Results To further define TWIST1 functions in GBM we tested the impact of TWIST1 over-expression on invasion in vivo and its impact on gene expression. We found that TWIST1 significantly increased SNB19 and T98G cell line invasion in orthotopic xenotransplants and increased expression of genes in functional categories associated with adhesion, extracellular matrix proteins, cell motility and locomotion, cell migration and actin cytoskeleton organization. Consistent with this TWIST1 reduced cell aggregation, promoted actin cytoskeletal re-organization and enhanced migration and adhesion to fibronectin substrates. Individual genes upregulated by TWIST1 known to promote EMT and/or GBM invasion included SNAI2, MMP2, HGF, FAP and FN1. Distinct from carcinoma EMT, TWIST1 did not generate an E- to N-cadherin "switch" in GBM cell lines. The clinical relevance of putative TWIST target genes SNAI2 and fibroblast activation protein alpha (FAP identified in vitro was confirmed by their highly correlated expression with TWIST1 in 39 human tumors. The potential therapeutic importance of inhibiting TWIST1 was also shown through a decrease in cell invasion in vitro and growth of GBM stem cells. Conclusions Together these studies demonstrated that TWIST1 enhances GBM invasion in concert with mesenchymal change not involving the canonical cadherin switch of carcinoma EMT. Given the recent recognition that mesenchymal change in GBMs is

  11. Separation of mouse embryonic facial ectoderm and mesenchyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Williams, Trevor

    2013-04-12

    Orofacial clefts are the most frequent craniofacial defects, which affect 1.5 in 1,000 newborns worldwide. Orofacial clefting is caused by abnormal facial development. In human and mouse, initial growth and patterning of the face relies on several small buds of tissue, the facial prominences. The face is derived from six main prominences: paired frontal nasal processes (FNP), maxillary prominences (MxP) and mandibular prominences (MdP). These prominences consist of swellings of mesenchyme that are encased in an overlying epithelium. Studies in multiple species have shown that signaling crosstalk between facial ectoderm and mesenchyme is critical for shaping the face. Yet, mechanistic details concerning the genes involved in these signaling relays are lacking. One way to gain a comprehensive understanding of gene expression, transcription factor binding, and chromatin marks associated with the developing facial ectoderm and mesenchyme is to isolate and characterize the separated tissue compartments. Here we present a method for separating facial ectoderm and mesenchyme at embryonic day (E) 10.5, a critical developmental stage in mouse facial formation that precedes fusion of the prominences. Our method is adapted from the approach we have previously used for dissecting facial prominences. In this earlier study we had employed inbred C57BL/6 mice as this strain has become a standard for genetics, genomics and facial morphology. Here, though, due to the more limited quantities of tissue available, we have utilized the outbred CD-1 strain that is cheaper to purchase, more robust for husbandry, and tending to produce more embryos (12-18) per litter than any inbred mouse strain. Following embryo isolation, neutral protease Dispase II was used to treat the whole embryo. Then, the facial prominences were dissected out, and the facial ectoderm was separated from the mesenchyme. This method keeps both the facial ectoderm and mesenchyme intact. The samples obtained using this

  12. Effect of ingestion of fat on ileostomy effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, S E; Read, N W

    1990-04-01

    Infusion of fat into the ileum slows small bowel transit and increases absorption of a carbohydrate meal. Paired studies were undertaken to investigate the effect of adding fat to the diet on gastrointestinal transit and absorption in eight people with terminal ileostomies. Each subject ate a daily diet that contained either low or high levels of fat but equivalent amounts of carbohydrate, protein, and fibre. Solid and liquid markers were added to the food to measure transit times. The ileostomy outputs after the meals were analysed for protein, fat, carbohydrate, polyethylene glycol, and the delivery of solid markers. All subjects produced more ileal effluent while taking the high fat diet compared with the low fat diet. Fat and protein outputs were significantly higher on the high fat days, but a greater proportion of the fat was absorbed during the high fat diet compared with the low fat diet. The output of carbohydrate on the two diets was not significantly different. The incorporation of fat in the diet produced no significant differences in the transit times of the first marker, but a slight prolongation of the transit time of the second marker. Increasing the fat content of the diet did not slow small bowel transit or increase nutrient absorption. The increase in protein and water output could be explained by an increased secretion of pancreatic enzymes.

  13. Fat Replacement of Paraspinal Muscles with Aging in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlqvist, Julia R; Vissing, Christoffer R; Hedermann, Gitte; Thomsen, Carsten; Vissing, John

    2017-03-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the age-related changes in fatty replacement and cross-sectional area (CSA) of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar paraspinal muscles versus leg muscles in healthy adults and to test for association between muscle fat fraction and lifestyle factors. Fifty-three healthy adults (24-76 yr) were included. Dixon magnetic resonance imaging technique was used to determine CSA and to quantify the fat fraction of paraspinal and leg muscles. Muscle CSA and fat fractions were tested for association with age and muscle strength. The fat fractions were also tested for association with sex, body mass index (BMI), physical activity, and lower back pain. Both paraspinal and leg fat fractions correlated directly with age (P fat fraction was higher in paraspinal than leg muscles. The age-related increase in fat fraction was higher in paraspinal muscles than leg muscles (P muscles did not correlate with age. Knee extension strength correlated with fat fraction (P muscle strength of hip muscles, thigh muscles, and anterior calf muscles correlated with CSA (P fat fraction (P fat fraction (P fat fraction and physical activity or lower back pain. The paraspinal muscles were more susceptible to age-related changes than leg muscles. Further, men had significantly lower fat fractions in lumbar paraspinal muscles, and BMI was positively associated with thigh, but not paraspinal, fat fraction.

  14. Common variants near MC4R in relation to body fat, body fat distribution, metabolic traits and energy expenditure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia Inez Iqbal; Holst, C; Toubro, Søren

    2010-01-01

    Common variants near melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) have been related to fatness and type 2 diabetes. We examined the associations of rs17782313 and rs17700633 in relation to body fat, body fat distribution, metabolic traits, weight development and energy expenditure.......Common variants near melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) have been related to fatness and type 2 diabetes. We examined the associations of rs17782313 and rs17700633 in relation to body fat, body fat distribution, metabolic traits, weight development and energy expenditure....

  15. Autologous fat grafting: use of closed syringe microcannula system for enhanced autologous structural grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander RW

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Robert W Alexander,1 David Harrell2 1Department of Surgery, School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 2Harvest-Terumo Inc, Plymouth, MA, USA Objectives: Provide background for use of acquiring autologous adipose tissue as a tissue graft and source of adult progenitor cells for use in cosmetic plastic surgery. Discuss the background and mechanisms of action of closed syringe vacuum lipoaspiration, with emphasis on accessing adipose-derived mesenchymal/stromal cells and the stromal vascular fraction (SVF for use in aesthetic, structural reconstruction and regenerative applications. Explain a proven protocol for acquiring high-quality autologous fat grafts (AFG with use of disposable, microcannula systems. Design: Explain the components and advantage of use of the patented super luer-lock and microcannulas system for use with the closed-syringe system. A sequential explanation of equipment selection for minimally traumatic lipoaspiration in small volumes is presented, including use of blunt injection cannulas to reduce risk of embolism. Results: Thousands of AFG have proven safe and efficacious for lipoaspiration techniques for large and small structural fat grafting procedures. The importance and advantages of gentle harvesting of the adipose tissue complex has become very clear in the past 5 years. The closed-syringe system offers a minimally invasive, gentle system with which to mobilize subdermal fat tissues in a suspension form. Resulting total nuclear counting of undifferentiated cells of the adipose-derived -SVF suggests that the yield achieved is better than use of always-on, constant mechanical pump applied vacuum systems. Conclusion: Use of a closed-syringe lipoaspiration system featuring disposable microcannulas offers a safe and effective means of harvesting small volumes of nonmanipulated adipose tissues and its accompanying progenitor cells within the SVF. Closed syringes and microcannulas are

  16. Confinement and fat-center-vortices model

    CERN Document Server

    Deldar, S

    2004-01-01

    In this paper I review shortly potentials obtained for SU(2), SU(3) and SU(4) static sources from fat-center-vortices model. Results confirm the confinement of quarks in all three gauge groups. Proportionality of string tensions with flux tube counting is better than Casimir scaling especially for SU(4).

  17. Schmidt game and fat cantor sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng

    2016-06-01

    We study a class of Cantor sets in [0, 1]. We show that the complement of the Cantor set is winning for Schmidt game if and only if the Cantor set is not "fat". This provides some open dense sets of full Lebesgue measure that are not winning for Schmidt game.

  18. Potential of Microbubbles as Fat Replacer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rovers, T.A.M.; Sala, Guido; Linden, Van der Erik; Meinders, M.B.J.

    2016-01-01

    The potential of microbubbles as fat replacers and texture modifiers was assessed by comparison of the rheological and tribological properties of model food systems that contained (1) microbubbles, (2) emulsion droplets or (3) no added colloidal structures. We used (a) liquids with thickener, (b)

  19. Refactoring Fat Interfaces Using a Genetic Algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romano, D.; Raemaekers, S.; Pinzger, M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the violation of the Interface Segregation Principle (ISP) is critical for maintaining and evolving software systems. Fat interfaces (i.e., interfaces violating the ISP) change more frequently and degrade the quality of the components coupled to them. According to the

  20. Ectopic fat depositions in obesity and diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, Jacqueline Thérèse

    2012-01-01

    The studies described in this thesis explored the effects of nutritional, exercise and pharmacological interventions on ectopic triglyceride accumulation in obese patients and/or patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Ectopic fat is defined as triglyceride (TG) storage in tissues,

  1. GPR119 as a fat sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S; Rosenkilde, Mette M; Holst, Jens Juul

    2012-01-01

    acting through, for example, GPR40, but is also probably mediated in large part through the luminal formation of 2-monoacylglycerol acting on the 'fat sensor' GPR119. In the pancreas GPR119 may also be stimulated by 2-monoacylglycerol generated from local turnover of pancreatic triacylglycerol. Knowledge...

  2. Hydrotreatment of Oils and Fats for Biodiesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Riisager, Anders; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    The use of renewable biofuels in the transport sector represents an important step towards a sustainable society. Biodiesel is currently produced by the transesterification of fats and oils with methanol, but another viable method could be reaction of the feedstock with H2 to produce long...

  3. Refactoring Fat Interfaces Using a Genetic Algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romano, D.; Raemaekers, S.; Pinzger, M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the violation of the Interface Segregation Principle (ISP) is critical for maintaining and evolving software systems. Fat interfaces (i.e., interfaces violating the ISP) change more frequently and degrade the quality of the components coupled to them. According to the

  4. High fat intake and equine lipid metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geelen, Suzanne Nicole Jeanne

    2001-01-01

    This thesis deals with the influence of fat feeding on lipid metabolism in horses. Highfat diets have attained considerable interest as a potential tool to improve performance.Many factors affect performance so that large numbers of horses are needed to unequivocally determine the effect of diet on

  5. Comparison of computed tomography fat segmentation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obesity and rising BMI is a feature of life in the Western ... for the metabolic syndrome2 or insulin resistance, and hence ... Intra-abdominal fat is an important factor in determining the metabolic syndrome/insulin resistance, and thus the risk of ...

  6. Regular-fat dairy and human health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne; Bradley, Beth H Rice; Brenna, J Thomas;

    2016-01-01

    to disseminate, explore and discuss the state of the science on the relationship between regular fat dairy products and health, symposia were programmed by dairy industry organizations in Europe and North America at The Eurofed Lipids Congress (2014) in France, The Dairy Nutrition Annual Symposium (2014...

  7. Method for Obtaining Committed Adult Mesenchymal Precursors from Skin and Lung Tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Aurora Bernal; María Fernández; Pérez, Laura M.; Nuria San Martín; Gálvez, Beatriz G.

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: The present study reports an easy and efficient method for obtaining adult mesenchymal precursors from different adult mouse tissues. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We describe the isolation and expansion of mesenchymal precursors from skin and lung by a non-enzymatic method. Skin and lung mesenchymal precursors isolated by a modified explant technique were characterized in vitro by defined morphology and by a specific gene expression profile and surface markers. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Our re...

  8. Bilateral mesenchymal hamartoma of the chest wall in an infant boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong; Kelly, David; Siegal, Gene P

    2012-12-01

    Mesenchymal chest wall hamartoma is an extremely rare tumor striking neonates and infants. Histologically, the tumor is composed of islands of hyaline cartilage intermixed with mesenchymal-like stroma and hemorrhagic cysts. We present a case of a congenital bilateral mesenchymal chest wall hamartoma (MCWH) in an infant boy. This extremely rare benign entity may be misdiagnosed as malignant tumor and shares features with another tumor of childhood-fibrocartilagenous mesenchymoma of bone.

  9. Rheological properties of cupuassu and cocoa fats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gioielli, L. A.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa butter is an important ingredient in chocolate formulation as it dictates the main properties (texture, sensation in the mouth, and gloss. In the food industry, the texture of fat-containing products strongly depends on the macroscopic properties of the fat network formed within the finished product. Cupuassu ( Theobroma grandiflorum , Sterculiaceae is an Amazonian native fruit and the seeds can be used to derive a cocoa butter like product. In general, these fats are similar to those of cocoa, although they are different in some physical properties. The objective of this study was to analyze several properties of the cupuassu fat and cocoa butter (crystal formation at 25 ° C, rheological properties, and fatty acid composition and mixtures between the two fats (rheological properties, in order to understand the behavior of these fats for their use in chocolate products. Fat flow was described using common rheological models ( Newton , Power Law, Casson and Bingham plastic.La manteca de cacao es un ingrediente muy importante en la formulación de chocolates y es responsable de la mayor parte de sus propiedades (textura, palatibilidad y brillo. En la industria de alimentos, la textura de productos que contienen grasa depende enormemente de las propiedades macroscópicas de la red cristalina de la grasa en el producto final. El cupuaçu es una fruta nativa de la región amazónica y sus semillas pueden ser usadas para obtener una grasa semejante a la manteca de cacao. En general, esta grasa es similar a la manteca de cacao, pero difiere en algunas de sus propiedades fisicas . El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar algunas propiedades de la grasa de cupuaçu y de la manteca de cacao (formación de cristales a 25 °C, propiedades reológicas y composición en ácidos grasos y de algunas mezclas entre las dos grasas (propiedades reológicas, a fin de conocer el comportamiento de estas grasas para ser usadas en productos de la industria

  10. The effect of fat replacers on batter and cake properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psimouli, Vassiliki; Oreopoulou, Vassiliki

    2013-10-01

    Fat was replaced at 35% to 100% in cakes by maltodextrin (dextrose equivalent = 3), inulin (high performance and granulated), oligofructose, citrus pectin, and microparticulated protein. Fat replacement by 35% did not induce significant differences in general. Above 65% fat replacement resulted in statistically significant (P < 0.05) decreased viscosity (except for pectin) that was followed by statistically significant decrease in air incorporation and broader bubble size distribution. The starch gelatinization temperature showed a statistically significant increase when fat was replaced by fructose oligosaccharides. The cakes presented statistically significant increase of hardness, elasticity, and decrease of volume development as fat replacement increased above 65%. Also cakes with increased fat replacement received lower scores on taste and flavor, whereas at total fat replacement they were evaluated as not acceptable. Nevertheless, at 65% fat replacement, the samples presented acceptable textural, physical, and sensorial attributes. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Nutritional factors affecting abdominal fat deposition in poultry: a review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fouad, A M; El-Senousey, H K

    2014-01-01

    ... exhibit excessive fat accumulation in the abdomen area. However, dietary composition and feeding strategies may offer practical and efficient solutions for reducing body fat deposition in modern poultry strains...

  12. Reduced Fat Food Emulsions: Physicochemical, Sensory, and Biological Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Cheryl; Smith, Gordon; Degner, Brian; McClements, David Julian

    2016-01-01

    Fat plays multiple important roles in imparting desirable sensory attributes to emulsion-based food products, such as sauces, dressings, soups, beverages, and desserts. However, there is concern that over consumption of fats leads to increased incidences of chronic diseases, such as obesity, coronary heart disease, and diabetes. Consequently, there is a need to develop reduced fat products with desirable sensory profiles that match those of their full-fat counterparts. The successful design of high quality reduced-fat products requires an understanding of the many roles that fat plays in determining the sensory attributes of food emulsions, and of appropriate strategies to replace some or all of these attributes. This paper reviews our current understanding of the influence of fat on the physicochemical and physiological attributes of food emulsions, and highlights some of the main approaches that can be used to create high quality emulsion-based food products with reduced fat contents.

  13. Even High-Fat Mediterranean Diet Good for You: Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159958.html Even High-Fat Mediterranean Diet Good for You: Review Still protected ... July 19, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Even a high-fat Mediterranean diet may protect against breast cancer, diabetes ...

  14. Diffusion and Perfusion: The Keys to Fat Grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger K. Khouri, Jr, BS

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: These models confirm that initial fat grafting survival is limited by oxygen diffusion. Preoperative expansion increases oxygen diffusion capacity allowing for additional graft retention. These models provide a scientific framework for testing the current fat grafting theories.

  15. Genetic backgrounds determine brown remodeling of white fat in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Ferrannini

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: Rodent genetic background determines the brown remodeling of different white fat depots. This study provides new insights into the role of genetic variation in fat remodeling in susceptibility to metabolic diseases.

  16. Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Wharton's Jelly and Amniotic Fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joerger-Messerli, Marianne S; Marx, Caterina; Oppliger, Byron; Mueller, Martin; Surbek, Daniel V; Schoeberlein, Andreina

    2016-02-01

    The discovery of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in perinatal sources, such as the amniotic fluid (AF) and the umbilical connective tissue, the so-called Wharton's jelly (WJ), has transformed them into promising stem cell grafts for the application in regenerative medicine. The advantages of AF-MSCs and WJ-MSCs over adult MSCs, such as bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), include their minimally invasive isolation procedure, their more primitive cell character without being tumourigenic, their low immunogenicity and their potential autologous application in congenital disorders and when cryopreserved in adulthood. This chapter gives an overview of the biology of AF-MSCs and WJ-MSCs, and their regenerative potential based on the results of recent preclinical and clinical studies. In the end, open questions concerning the use of WJ-MSCs and AF-MSCs in regenerative medicine will be emphasized.

  17. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition in prostate cancer: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanari, Micaela; Rossetti, Sabrina; Cavaliere, Carla; D'Aniello, Carmine; Malzone, Maria Gabriella; Vanacore, Daniela; Di Franco, Rossella; La Mantia, Elvira; Iovane, Gelsomina; Piscitelli, Raffaele; Muscariello, Raffaele; Berretta, Massimiliano; Perdonà, Sisto; Muto, Paolo; Botti, Gerardo; Bianchi, Attilio Antonio Montano; Veneziani, Bianca Maria; Facchini, Gaetano

    2017-05-23

    Prostate cancer is a main urological disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Radical prostatectomy and radiotherapy are potentially curative for localized prostate cancer, while androgen deprivation therapy is the initial systemic therapy for metastatic prostate disease. However, despite temporary response, most patients relapse and evolve into castration resistant cancer.Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a complex gradual process that occurs during embryonic development and/or tumor progression. During this process, cells lose their epithelial characteristics and acquire mesenchymal features. Increasing evidences indicate that EMT promotes prostate cancer metastatic progression and it is closely correlated with increased stemness and drug resistance.In this review, we discuss the main molecular events that directly or indirectly govern the EMT program in prostate cancer, in order to better define the role and the mechanisms underlying this process in prostate cancer progression and therapeutic resistance.

  18. Low Reactive Level Laser Therapy for Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiro Kushibiki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Low reactive level laser therapy (LLLT is mainly focused on the activation of intracellular or extracellular chromophore and the initiation of cellular signaling by using low power lasers. Over the past forty years, it was realized that the laser therapy had the potential to improve wound healing and reduce pain and inflammation. In recent years, the term LLLT has become widely recognized in the field of regenerative medicine. In this review, we will describe the mechanisms of action of LLLT at a cellular level and introduce the application to mesenchymal stem cells and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs therapies. Finally, our recent research results that LLLT enhanced the MSCs differentiation to osteoblast will also be described.

  19. The Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Factor SNAIL Paradoxically Enhances Reprogramming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juli J. Unternaehrer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Reprogramming of fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs entails a mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET. While attempting to dissect the mechanism of MET during reprogramming, we observed that knockdown (KD of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT factor SNAI1 (SNAIL paradoxically reduced, while overexpression enhanced, reprogramming efficiency in human cells and in mouse cells, depending on strain. We observed nuclear localization of SNAI1 at an early stage of fibroblast reprogramming and using mouse fibroblasts expressing a knockin SNAI1-YFP reporter found cells expressing SNAI1 reprogrammed at higher efficiency. We further demonstrated that SNAI1 binds the let-7 promoter, which may play a role in reduced expression of let-7 microRNAs, enforced expression of which, early in the reprogramming process, compromises efficiency. Our data reveal an unexpected role for the EMT factor SNAI1 in reprogramming somatic cells to pluripotency.

  20. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition: Understanding the basic concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Babu Ghanta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT is described as a rapid and reversible process of change of cell phenotype seen during embryonic development, organ fibrosis, and tumor progression. EMT was first described by Gary Greenberg and Elizabeth Hay in 1982. During EMT the epithelial cells alter their cell polarity, reorganize their cytoskeleton thus become isolated and motile. Depending upon the biological context in which they occur, EMT is divided into three types namely EMT type I, II, III. The article describes the process of EMT implicated in the oral cavity as in palate and root development (type I EMT, gingival fibromatosis and oral sub-mucous fibrosis (type II EMT, and oral squamous cell carcinoma (type III EMT. The reverse process of EMT is called as mesenchymal-epithelial transition seen in association with kidney formation.