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Sample records for fat mass ratio

  1. Visceral obesity, fat mass/muscle mass ratio and atherogenic dyslipidemia: cross-sectional study. Riobamba, Ecuador

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    Tomas Marcelo Nicolalde Cifuentes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The distribution and composition of fat mass is associated with different metabolic risks. The predominance of brown visceral fat is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD, such as: high triglycerides and apolipoprotein B, increased LDL cholesterol, ratio triglycerides/low HDL cholesterol elevated (atherogenic dyslipidemia indicator, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia and cardiovascular risk (CVR. Sarcopenia and obesity may act synergistically in functional and metabolic disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between visceral obesity, fat mass/muscular mass ratio and atherogenic dyslipidemia in adult individuals in order to determine the association pattern between these variables and set strategies for focused attention.Material and Methods: In a sample of 307 subjects of both sexes (21-71 years there was measured atherogenic dyslipidemia as the ratio of triglyceride/HDL cholesterol, visceral obesity measured by bio impedance as the relative score of visceral fat, and the ratio fat mass/lean mass.Results: A cluster analysis was performed to establish the structure of association between these variables with different risk groups. Three groups were identified: the first had visceral obesity with an average relative level of visceral fat of 13.6, the second group with an average of 8.9 and in the third group were placed individuals with the lowest visceral obesity score averaging 6.5. As for the fat mass/lean mas ratio the first two groups had a similar average of this index with a value of 1.56 and 1.69 respectively and the third group with the lowest average value of 1.3. Group 1 presented visceral obesity and impaired fat mass/lean mass ratio and had a high value of triglyceride/HDL ratio 4.1. Group 2 without visceral obesity and a deterioration in the relative fat mass/lean mass ratio had a triglyceride/HDL cholesterol of 3.6 and Group 3; not recorded visceral obesity or

  2. Skeletal muscle mass to visceral fat area ratio is an important determinant affecting hepatic conditions of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

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    Shida, Takashi; Akiyama, Kentaro; Oh, Sechang; Sawai, Akemi; Isobe, Tomonori; Okamoto, Yoshikazu; Ishige, Kazunori; Mizokami, Yuji; Yamagata, Kenji; Onizawa, Kojiro; Tanaka, Hironori; Iijima, Hiroko; Shoda, Junichi

    2017-08-08

    Not only obesity but also sarcopenia is associated with NAFLD. The influence of altered body composition on the pathophysiology of NAFLD has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study is to determine whether skeletal muscle mass to visceral fat area ratio (SV ratio) affects NAFLD pathophysiology. A total of 472 subjects were enrolled. The association between SV ratio and NAFLD pathophysiological factors was assessed in a cross-sectional nature by stratification analysis. When the SV ratio was stratified by quartiles (Q 1-Q 4), the SV ratio showed a negative relationship with the degree of body mass index, HOMA-IR, and liver stiffness (Q 1, 8.9 ± 7.5 kPa, mean ± standard deviation; Q 2, 7.5 ± 6.2; Q 3, 5.8 ± 3.7; Q 4, 5.0 ± 1.9) and steatosis (Q 1, 282 ± 57 dB/m; Q 2, 278 ± 58; Q 3, 253 ± 57; Q 4, 200 ± 42) measured by transient elastography. Levels of leptin and biochemical markers of liver cell damage, liver fibrosis, inflammation and oxidative stress, and hepatocyte apoptosis were significantly higher in subjects in Q 1 than in those in Q 2, Q 3, or Q 4. Moreover, fat contents in femoral muscles were significantly higher in subjects in Q 1 and the change was associated with weakened muscle strength. In logistic regression analysis, NAFLD subjects with the decreased SV ratio were likely to have an increased risk of moderate-to-severe steatosis and that of advanced fibrosis. Decreased muscle mass coupled with increased visceral fat mass is closely associated with an increased risk for exacerbating NAFLD pathophysiology.

  3. Patterns of subcutaneous fat deposition and the relationship between body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio: implications for models of physical attractiveness.

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    Cornelissen, Piers L; Toveé, Martin J; Bateson, Melissa

    2009-02-07

    Body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) are two widely used anthropometric indices of body shape argued to convey different information about health and fertility. Both indices have also been shown to affect attractiveness ratings of female bodies. However, BMI and WHR are naturally positively correlated, complicating studies designed to identify their relative importance in predicting health and attractiveness outcomes. We show that the correlation between BMI and WHR depends on the assumed model of subcutaneous fat deposition. An additive model, whereby fat is added to the waist and hips at a constant rate, predicts a correlation between BMI and WHR because with increasing fat, the difference between the waist and hips becomes smaller relative to total width. This model is supported by longitudinal and cross-sectional data. We parameterized the function relating WHR to BMI for white UK females of reproductive age, and used this function to statistically decompose body shape into two independent components. We show that judgements of the attractiveness of female bodies are well explained by the component of curvaceousness related to BMI but not by residual curvaceousness. Our findings resolve a long-standing dispute in the attractiveness literature by confirming that although WHR appears to be an important predictor of attractiveness, this is largely explained by the direct effect of total body fat on WHR, thus reinforcing the conclusion that total body fat is the primary determinant of female body shape attractiveness.

  4. Sleep duration is associated with body fat and muscle mass and waist-to-height ratio beyond conventional obesity parameters in Korean adolescent boys.

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    Nam, Ga Eun; Han, Kyungdo; Kim, Do Hoon; Lee, Jee Hyun; Seo, Won Hee

    2017-08-01

    While evidence has supported a strong association between sleep duration and obesity globally, results from studies of children and adolescents have been conflicting, and information about a sex-specific association has been limited. This study aimed to investigate the association of sleep duration with various parameters of obesity among South Korean adolescents. This population-based, cross-sectional study analysed the data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) 2009 and 2010. Data of 990 adolescents were analysed. Sleep duration was based on a self-reported questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), body fat percentage (BFP) and skeletal muscle index (SMI, appendicular skeletal muscle mass as a percentage of body weight) were assessed as parameters of obesity. Mean sleep duration in boys was associated inversely with BMI, WC, WHtR and BFP and positively with SMI. Proportions of the highest quartile of BMI, WC, WHtR and BFP and the lowest quartile of SMI increased significantly with increased sleep duration only in boys. Also, in boys, decreased sleep duration was associated significantly with the increased risk of the highest quartile of BMI, WC, WHtR and BFP and the lowest quartile of SMI, even after adjusting for confounding factors. However, in girls, there was no significant association between sleep duration and obesity parameters except WC. Periodic assessment of sleep duration in relation to body fat or muscle mass in male adolescents may be considered, especially in those who are at risk for obesity or related disorders. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  5. Waist-to-height ratio, waist circumference and BMI as indicators of percentage fat mass and cardiometabolic risk factors in children aged 3-7 years

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    Sijtsma, Anna; Bocca, Gianni; L'abée, Carianne; Liem, Eryn T; Sauer, Pieter J J; Corpeleijn, Eva

    Objective: To assess whether waist-to-height-ratio (WHtR) is a better estimate of body fat percentage (BF %) and a better indicator of cardiometabolic risk factors than BMI or waist circumference (WC) in young children. Methods: WHtR, WC and BMI were measured by trained staff according to

  6. The relationship of high sensitivity C-reactive protein to percent body fat mass, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, and waist circumference in a Taiwanese population

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    Lin Wen-Yuan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP is an easily measured inflammatory biomarker. This study compared the association of percent body fat mass (%FM, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR with hs-CRP in a Taiwanese population. Methods A total of 1669 subjects aged 40-88 years were recruited in 2004 in a metropolitan city in Taiwan. The relationships between obesity indicators and a high level of hs-CRP were examined using multivariate logistic regression analysis. The upper quartile of the hs-CRP distributions was defined as the high category group. The areas under the curve (AUCs of the receiver operating characteristic curves were calculated for all obesity indicators to compare their relative ability to correctly classify subjects with a high level of hs-CRP. Results After multivariate adjustment, the odds ratio for %FM was the only significant indicator that was associated with a high level of hs-CRP in men (1.55, 95% CI: 1.07-2.25. All indicators were associated with a high level of hs-CRP in women. In men, the AUCs for %FM were significantly higher than those for BMI, WHR, and WC, when demographic and lifestyle behaviors were considered (p Conclusions Our study demonstrates that %FM is the only obesity indicator that is strongly associated with a high level of hs-CRP after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, lifestyle behaviors and components of metabolic syndrome in both genders in a Taiwanese population aged forty years and over. In men, %FM had the greatest ability to classify subjects with a high level of hs-CRP when only demographic and lifestyle behaviors were considered. Our study finding has important implications for the screening of obesity in community settings.

  7. Binary mass ratios: system mass not primary mass

    CERN Document Server

    Goodwin, Simon P

    2012-01-01

    Binary properties are usually expressed (for good observational reasons) as a function of primary mass. It has been found that the distribution of companion masses -- the mass ratio distribution -- is different for different primary masses. We argue that system mass is the more fundamental physical parameter to use. We show that if system masses are drawn from a log-normal mass function, then the different observed mass ratio distributions as a function of primary mass, from M-dwarfs to A-stars, are all consistent with a universal, flat, system mass ratio distribution. We also show that the brown dwarf mass ratio distribution is not drawn from the same flat distribution, suggesting that the process which decides upon mass ratios is very different in brown dwarfs and stars.

  8. Contributions of lean mass and fat mass to bone mineral density: a study in postmenopausal women

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    Lai Thai Q

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relative contribution of lean and fat to the determination of bone mineral density (BMD in postmenopausal women is a contentious issue. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that lean mass is a better determinant of BMD than fat mass. Methods This cross-sectional study involved 210 postmenopausal women of Vietnamese background, aged between 50 and 85 years, who were randomly sampled from various districts in Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnam. Whole body scans, femoral neck, and lumbar spine BMD were measured by DXA (QDR 4500, Hologic Inc., Waltham, MA. Lean mass (LM and fat mass (FM were derived from the whole body scan. Furthermore, lean mass index (LMi and fat mass index (FMi were calculated as ratio of LM or FM to body height in metre squared (m2. Results In multiple linear regression analysis, both LM and FM were independent and significant predictors of BMD at the spine and femoral neck. Age, lean mass and fat mass collectively explained 33% variance of lumbar spine and 38% variance of femoral neck BMD. Replacing LM and FM by LMi and LMi did not alter the result. In both analyses, the influence of LM or LMi was greater than FM and FMi. Simulation analysis suggested that a study with 1000 individuals has a 78% chance of finding the significant effects of both LM and FM, and a 22% chance of finding LM alone significant, and zero chance of finding the effect of fat mass alone. Conclusions These data suggest that both lean mass and fat mass are important determinants of BMD. For a given body size -- measured either by lean mass or height --women with greater fat mass have greater BMD.

  9. Body fat and fat-free mass and all-cause mortality

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    Bigaard, Janne; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Tjønneland, Anne

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the association between BMI and all-cause mortality could be disentangled into opposite effects of body fat and fat-free mass (FFM). RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: All-cause mortality was studied in the Danish follow-up study "Diet, Cancer and Health" with 27...... fat mass divided by height squared), FFM index (FFM divided by height squared), and mortality. All analyses were adjusted for smoking habits. RESULTS: Men and women showed similar associations. J-shaped associations were found between body fat mass index and mortality adjusted for FFM and smoking....... The mortality rate ratios in the upper part of body fat mass were 1.12 per kg/m2 (95% confidence interval: 1.07, 1.18) in men and 1.06 per kg/m2 (95% confidence interval: 1.02, 1.10) in women. Reversed J-shaped associations were found between FFM index and mortality with a tendency to level off for high values...

  10. Grado de acuerdo entre los índices adiposo-musculares obtenidos a partir de medidas antropométricas del brazo, pliegues cutáneos e impedancia bioeléctrica Interchangeability of the fat-to-fat-free mass ratios obtained by arm anthropometric measures, skinfold thickness and bioelectrical impedance

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    V. Martín Moreno

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: La masa grasa, la masa libre de grasa y la relación entre ambas, el índice adiposo-muscular, son parámetros útiles para valorar clínicamente al paciente. El objetivo de este estudio es medir el grado de acuerdo entre los índices adiposo-musculares corporales (IAMC obtenidos mediante los pliegues cutáneos con la ecuación de Siri para cuatro pliegues (IAMC Siri y para el pliegue del tríceps (IAMCtríceps; por bioimpedanciometría (IAMC Omron; y mediante las áreas adiposa y muscular del brazo (IAM, valorando su intercambiabilidad. Intervenciones: Estudio descriptivo transversal. Se valoró mediante antropometría e impedancia bioeléctrica (Omron BF 300® a 145 personas, analizándose la concordancia entre métodos mediante el coeficiente de correlación intraclase (CCI y el método de Bland-Altman. El método de referencia fue IAMC Siri. Resultados: El CCI entre IAMC Siri e IAMCtríceps fue de 0,9304 (0,9035; 0,9498, entre IAMC Siri e IAMC Omron de 0,9114 (0,8771; 0,9361 y entre IAMC Siri e IAM de 0,7726 (0,6846; 0,8361. Con el método de Bland-Altman IAMC Siri e IAMCtríceps (- 0,171; 0,117 presentan el intervalo de concordancia más estrecho, seguido de IAMC Siri - IAMC Omron (- 0,186; 0,178. Los límites del intervalo entre IAM e IAMC Siri (- 0,2; 0,42, IAMCtríceps (- 0,26; 0,42 o IAMC Omron (- 0,292; 0,504 superaron el punto de corte (- 0,2; 0,2. Conclusiones: IAMCtríceps e IAMC Omron son intercambiables entre sí y con IAMC Siri, pero IAM no es intercambiable con IAMC Siri, IAMCtríceps o IAMC Omron, resultado que sugiere que el IAM puede no reflejar adecuadamente la composición corporal. IAMCtríceps e IAMC Omron son alternativas válidas a IAMC Siri en la valoración del índice adiposo-muscular.Background: Body fat, fat free mass and the relationship between both, the fat-to-fat-free mass ratio are useful parameters in the nutritional evaluation of the patient. The aim of this study is to evaluate the degree of

  11. Fat mass measured by DXA varies with scan velocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Black, Eva; Petersen, Liselotte; Kreutzer, Martin

    2002-01-01

    To study the influence of scan velocities of DXA on the measured size of fat mass, lean body mass, bone mineral content and density, and total body weight.......To study the influence of scan velocities of DXA on the measured size of fat mass, lean body mass, bone mineral content and density, and total body weight....

  12. Fat-containing soft-tissue masses in children

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    Sheybani, Elizabeth F. [University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Eutsler, Eric P. [Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Navarro, Oscar M. [University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2016-12-15

    The diagnosis of soft-tissue masses in children can be difficult because of the frequently nonspecific clinical and imaging characteristics of these lesions. However key findings on imaging can aid in diagnosis. The identification of macroscopic fat within a soft-tissue mass narrows the differential diagnosis considerably and suggests a high likelihood of a benign etiology in children. Fat can be difficult to detect with sonography because of the variable appearance of fat using this modality. Fat is easier to recognize using MRI, particularly with the aid of fat-suppression techniques. Although a large portion of fat-containing masses in children are adipocytic tumors, a variety of other tumors and mass-like conditions that contain fat should be considered by the radiologist confronted with a fat-containing mass in a child. In this article we review the sonographic and MRI findings in the most relevant fat-containing soft-tissue masses in the pediatric age group, including adipocytic tumors (lipoma, angiolipoma, lipomatosis, lipoblastoma, lipomatosis of nerve, and liposarcoma); fibroblastic/myofibroblastic tumors (fibrous hamartoma of infancy and lipofibromatosis); vascular anomalies (involuting hemangioma, intramuscular capillary hemangioma, phosphate and tensin homologue (PTEN) hamartoma of soft tissue, fibro-adipose vascular anomaly), and other miscellaneous entities, such as fat necrosis and epigastric hernia. (orig.)

  13. Fat-containing soft-tissue masses in children.

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    Sheybani, Elizabeth F; Eutsler, Eric P; Navarro, Oscar M

    2016-12-01

    The diagnosis of soft-tissue masses in children can be difficult because of the frequently nonspecific clinical and imaging characteristics of these lesions. However key findings on imaging can aid in diagnosis. The identification of macroscopic fat within a soft-tissue mass narrows the differential diagnosis considerably and suggests a high likelihood of a benign etiology in children. Fat can be difficult to detect with sonography because of the variable appearance of fat using this modality. Fat is easier to recognize using MRI, particularly with the aid of fat-suppression techniques. Although a large portion of fat-containing masses in children are adipocytic tumors, a variety of other tumors and mass-like conditions that contain fat should be considered by the radiologist confronted with a fat-containing mass in a child. In this article we review the sonographic and MRI findings in the most relevant fat-containing soft-tissue masses in the pediatric age group, including adipocytic tumors (lipoma, angiolipoma, lipomatosis, lipoblastoma, lipomatosis of nerve, and liposarcoma); fibroblastic/myofibroblastic tumors (fibrous hamartoma of infancy and lipofibromatosis); vascular anomalies (involuting hemangioma, intramuscular capillary hemangioma, phosphate and tensin homologue (PTEN) hamartoma of soft tissue, fibro-adipose vascular anomaly), and other miscellaneous entities, such as fat necrosis and epigastric hernia.

  14. Ratio method of measuring W boson mass

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    Guo, Feng [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2010-08-01

    This dissertation describes an alternative method of measuring the W boson mass in DØ experiment. Instead of extracting MW from the fitting of W → ev fast Monte Carlo simulations to W → ev data as in the standard method, we make the direct fit of transverse mass between W → ev data and Z → ee data. One of the two electrons from Z boson is treated as a neutrino in the calculation of transverse mass. In ratio method, the best fitted scale factor corresponds to the ratio of W and Z boson mass (MW/MZ). Given the precisely measured Z boson mass, W mass is directly fitted from W → ev and Z → ee data. This dissertation demonstrates that ratio method is a plausible method of measuring the W boson mass. With the 1 fb-1 DØ Run IIa dataset, ratio method gives MW = 80435 ± 43(stat) ± 26(sys) MeV.

  15. COPD, Body Mass, Fat Free Body Mass and prognosis in Patients from a Random Population Sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen; Prescott, E; Almdal, Thomas Peter;

    2006-01-01

    RATIONALE: Low body mass index (BMI) is a marker of poor prognosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the general population, the harmful effect of low BMI is due to the deleterious effects of a low fat-free mass index (FFMI; fat-free mass/weight(2)). OBJECTIVES: We explored...... distribution of low FFMI and its association with prognosis in a population-based cohort of patients with COPD. METHODS: We used data on 1,898 patients with COPD identified in a population-based epidemiologic study in Copenhagen. FFM was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Patients were followed...... 10th percentile of the general population. BMI and FFMI were significant predictors of mortality, independent of relevant covariates. Being in the lowest 10th percentile of the general population for FFMI was associated with a hazard ratio of 1.5 (95% confidence interval, 1.2-1.8) for overall...

  16. PPARy activity in subcutaneous abdominal fat tissue and fat mass gain during short-term overfeeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosen, A.M.C.P.; Bakker, A.H.F.; Zorenc, A.H.G.; Kersten, A.H.; Schrauwen, P.; Westerterp, K.R.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: As the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) plays a central role in fat mass regulation, we investigated whether initial subcutaneous PPAR activity is related to fat mass generation during overfeeding. Subjects: Fourteen healthy female subjects (age 254 years, BMI 22.12.3

  17. Maternal plasma n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations during pregnancy and subcutaneous fat mass in infancy

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    Jelena Vidakovic, Aleksandra; Santos, Susana; Williams, Michelle A.; Duijts, Liesbeth; Hofman, Albert; Demmelmair, Hans; Koletzko, Berthold; Jaddoe, Vincent WV; Gaillard, Romy

    2017-01-01

    Objective We examined the associations of maternal plasma n-3 and n-6 PUFA concentrations during pregnancy with infant subcutaneous fat. Methods In a population-based prospective cohort study among 904 mothers and their infants, we measured maternal plasma n-3 and n-6 PUFA concentrations at mid-pregnancy. Body mass index, total subcutaneous fat and central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio were calculated at 1.5, 6 and 24 months. Results Maternal n-3 PUFA levels were not consistently associated with infant body mass index or total subcutaneous fat. Higher maternal total n-3 PUFA levels, and specifically eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), were associated with higher central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio at 1.5 months, whereas higher maternal total n-3 PUFA levels were associated with lower central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio at 6 months (all p-values<0.05). These associations were not present at 24 months. Maternal n-6 PUFA levels were not consistently associated with infant subcutaneous fat. A higher n-6/n-3 ratio was associated with lower central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio at 1.5 months only (p-value<0.05). Conclusions Maternal n-3 PUFA levels during pregnancy may have transient effects on infant subcutaneous fat. Further studies are needed to assess the effects of maternal PUFA concentrations on fat mass development during early infancy. PMID:27356181

  18. The Correlation between the Triglyceride to High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio and Computed Tomography-Measured Visceral Fat and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Local Adult Male Subjects.

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    Park, Hye-Rin; Shin, Sae-Ron; Han, A Lum; Jeong, Yong Joon

    2015-11-01

    We studied the association between the triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and computed tomography-measured visceral fat as well as cardiovascular risk factors among Korean male adults. We measured triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, body mass, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, visceral fat, and subcutaneous fat among 372 Korean men. The visceral fat and subcutaneous fat areas were measured by computed tomography using a single computed tomography slice at the L4-5 lumbar level. We analyzed the association between the triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and visceral fat as well as cardiovascular risk factors. A positive correlation was found between the triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and variables such as body mass index, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c, visceral fat, and the visceral-subcutaneous fat ratio. However, there was no significant correlation between the triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and subcutaneous fat or blood pressure. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed significant associations between a triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio ≥3 and diabetes, a body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2), a waist circumference ≥90 cm, and a visceral fat area ≥100 cm(2). The triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio was not significantly associated with hypertension. There were significant associations between the triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and body mass, waist circumference, diabetes, and visceral fat among a clinical sample of Korean men. In the clinical setting, the triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio may be a simple and useful indicator for visceral obesity and cardiovascular disease.

  19. Glucose tolerance in obese pregnant women determines newborn fat mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Emma Malchau; Renault, Kristina Martha; Nørgaard, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    .002) after adjusting for gestational weight gain, maternal age, education, smoking, pre-pregnancy degree of obesity, parity, and birth length. Total (p = 0.012) and abdominal (p = 0.039) fat masses correlated with 2-h plasma glucose levels after adjusting for gestational weight gain, maternal age, education......, smoking, pre-pregnancy degree of obesity, parity, gestational age, and newborn sex. There was no association between total (p = 0.88) and abdominal (p = 0.61) fat-free masses and 2-h plasma glucose. CONCLUSION: At 27-30 weeks of gestation, 2-h plasma glucose levels are related to total and abdominal......INTRODUCTION: Offspring of obese women have both short- and long-term increased morbidities. We investigated the relationship between maternal 2-h plasma glucose level determined by oral glucose tolerance test, degree of obesity, gestational weight gain and total fat, abdominal fat, and fat...

  20. Effects of BMI, fat mass, and lean mass on asthma in childhood: a Mendelian randomization study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Granell

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Observational studies have reported associations between body mass index (BMI and asthma, but confounding and reverse causality remain plausible explanations. We aim to investigate evidence for a causal effect of BMI on asthma using a Mendelian randomization approach.We used Mendelian randomization to investigate causal effects of BMI, fat mass, and lean mass on current asthma at age 7½ y in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC. A weighted allele score based on 32 independent BMI-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs was derived from external data, and associations with BMI, fat mass, lean mass, and asthma were estimated. We derived instrumental variable (IV estimates of causal risk ratios (RRs. 4,835 children had available data on BMI-associated SNPs, asthma, and BMI. The weighted allele score was strongly associated with BMI, fat mass, and lean mass (all p-values<0.001 and with childhood asthma (RR 2.56, 95% CI 1.38-4.76 per unit score, p = 0.003. The estimated causal RR for the effect of BMI on asthma was 1.55 (95% CI 1.16-2.07 per kg/m2, p = 0.003. This effect appeared stronger for non-atopic (1.90, 95% CI 1.19-3.03 than for atopic asthma (1.37, 95% CI 0.89-2.11 though there was little evidence of heterogeneity (p = 0.31. The estimated causal RRs for the effects of fat mass and lean mass on asthma were 1.41 (95% CI 1.11-1.79 per 0.5 kg and 2.25 (95% CI 1.23-4.11 per kg, respectively. The possibility of genetic pleiotropy could not be discounted completely; however, additional IV analyses using FTO variant rs1558902 and the other BMI-related SNPs separately provided similar causal effects with wider confidence intervals. Loss of follow-up was unlikely to bias the estimated effects.Higher BMI increases the risk of asthma in mid-childhood. Higher BMI may have contributed to the increase in asthma risk toward the end of the 20th century. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  1. Effects of BMI, fat mass, and lean mass on asthma in childhood: a Mendelian randomization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granell, Raquel; Henderson, A John; Evans, David M; Smith, George Davey; Ness, Andrew R; Lewis, Sarah; Palmer, Tom M; Sterne, Jonathan A C

    2014-07-01

    Observational studies have reported associations between body mass index (BMI) and asthma, but confounding and reverse causality remain plausible explanations. We aim to investigate evidence for a causal effect of BMI on asthma using a Mendelian randomization approach. We used Mendelian randomization to investigate causal effects of BMI, fat mass, and lean mass on current asthma at age 7½ y in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). A weighted allele score based on 32 independent BMI-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was derived from external data, and associations with BMI, fat mass, lean mass, and asthma were estimated. We derived instrumental variable (IV) estimates of causal risk ratios (RRs). 4,835 children had available data on BMI-associated SNPs, asthma, and BMI. The weighted allele score was strongly associated with BMI, fat mass, and lean mass (all p-values<0.001) and with childhood asthma (RR 2.56, 95% CI 1.38-4.76 per unit score, p = 0.003). The estimated causal RR for the effect of BMI on asthma was 1.55 (95% CI 1.16-2.07) per kg/m2, p = 0.003. This effect appeared stronger for non-atopic (1.90, 95% CI 1.19-3.03) than for atopic asthma (1.37, 95% CI 0.89-2.11) though there was little evidence of heterogeneity (p = 0.31). The estimated causal RRs for the effects of fat mass and lean mass on asthma were 1.41 (95% CI 1.11-1.79) per 0.5 kg and 2.25 (95% CI 1.23-4.11) per kg, respectively. The possibility of genetic pleiotropy could not be discounted completely; however, additional IV analyses using FTO variant rs1558902 and the other BMI-related SNPs separately provided similar causal effects with wider confidence intervals. Loss of follow-up was unlikely to bias the estimated effects. Higher BMI increases the risk of asthma in mid-childhood. Higher BMI may have contributed to the increase in asthma risk toward the end of the 20th century. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  2. Astrophysics of extreme mass ratio inspiral sources

    CERN Document Server

    Hopman, C

    2007-01-01

    Compact remnants on orbits with peri-apses close to the Schwarzschild radius of a massive black hole (MBH) lose orbital energy by emitting gravitational waves (GWs) and spiral in. Scattering with other stars allows successful inspiral of such extreme mass ratio inspiral sources (EMRIs) only within small distances, a < few \\times 0.01 pc from the MBH. The event rate of EMRIs is therefore dominated by the stellar dynamics and content in the inner few \\times 0.01 pc. I discuss the relevant dynamical aspects and resulting estimated event rates of EMRIs. Subjects considered include the loss-cone treatment of inspiral sources; mass segregation; resonant relaxation; and alternative routes to EMRI formation such as tidal binary disruptions, stellar formation in disks and tidal capture of massive main sequence stars. The EMRI event rate is estimated to be of order few \\times 10^2/Gyr per MBH, giving excellent prospects for observation by LISA.

  3. Isotope ratio analysis by Orbitrap mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiler, J. M.; Chimiak, L. M.; Dallas, B.; Griep-Raming, J.; Juchelka, D.; Makarov, A.; Schwieters, J. B.

    2016-12-01

    Several technologies are being developed to examine the intramolecular isotopic structures of molecules (i.e., site-specific and multiple substitution), but various limitations in sample size and type or (for IRMS) resolution have so far prevented the creation of a truly general technique. We will discuss the initial findings of a technique based on Fourier transform mass spectrometry, using the Thermo Scientific Q Exactive GC — an instrument that contains an Orbitrap mass analyzer. Fourier transform mass spectrometry is marked by exceptionally high mass resolutions (the Orbitrap reaches M/∆M in the range 250,000-1M in the mass range of greatest interest, 50-200 amu). This allows for resolution of a large range of nearly isobaric interferences for isotopologues of volatile and semi-volatile compounds (i.e., involving isotopes of H, C, N, O and S). It also provides potential to solve very challenging mass resolution problems for isotopic analysis of other, heavier elements. Both internal and external experimental reproducibilities of isotope ratio analyses using the Orbitrap typically conform to shot-noise limits down to levels of 0.2 ‰ (1SE), and routinely in the range 0.5-1.0 ‰, with similar accuracy when standardized to concurrently run reference materials. Such measurements can be made without modifications to the ion optics of the Q Exactive GC, but do require specially designed sample introduction devices to permit sample/standard comparison and long integration times. The sensitivity of the Q Exactive GC permits analysis of sub-nanomolar samples and quantification of multiply-substituted species. The site-specific capability of this instrument arises from the fact that mass spectra of molecular analytes commonly contain diverse fragment ion species, each of which samples a specific sub-set of molecular sites. We will present applications of this technique to the biological and abiological chemistry of amino acids, forensic identification of

  4. Age-related rump fat, fat percent, body fat mass, leptin, androgens and semen parameters ofArab stallions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AmalMAboEl-Maaty; GamalA ElSisy; MonaHShaker; OmimaH Ezzo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives:To study the effect of age and body fat on leptin levels and semen parameters of Arab horse.Methods:Fifteen fertileArab stallions of different ages belonging toPoliceAcademy were divided into three equal groups according to their age.Old horses are those of >18 yeas (18-27),Mid-age horses≥13 to18 years(13-18),Young horses are those of <12 years(7-11). Semen was evaluated three times for each stallion.Blood and seminal plasma were assayed for measuring leptin, testosterone and estradiol.Subcutaneous rump fat thickness was measured using ultrasound for estimating body fat percent and fat mass percent.Results:All body fat parameters were significantly high inYoung stallions and decreased with increasing age.As age increased, testosterone levels increases but leptin levels decreased.Age was inversely correlated with fat%, fat mass and leptin.All fat parameters had direct correlation with leptin in semen and serum but an inverse one with serum testosterone.Serum leptin directly correlated with sperm cell concentration inMid- age stallions and inversely correlated with percent of live sperm in Old stallions.Semen leptin correlated directly with both percent of live sperm and percent of abnormal sperm inOld stallions.Conclusion:This study proved that aging in stallions is related to a drop in fertility, a decrease in body fat and in turn leptin.Arab stallions of age7 to18 years could be used in the breeding efficiently.

  5. Computed tomography of deep fat masses in multiple symmetrical lipomatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enzi, G.; Biondetti, P.R.; Fiore, D.; Mazzoleni, F.

    1982-07-01

    Deep fat masses were evaluated by computed tomography (CT) in 15 patients with multiple symmetrical lipomatosis. In 4 patients, peritracheal accumulations of fat were observed. In 3 of them, tracheal compression by lipomatous tissue was demonstrated: 2 were asymptomatic and the third severe respiratory insufficiency secondary to blockage of the air was by the vocal cords as the result of recurrent nerve palsy. In 6 patients, lipomatous tissue occupied the potential space between the spina scapulae and the trapezius, supraspinatus, and infraspinatus muscles. In 2, calcification of lipomatous masses was observed. There was no relationship between extension of subcutaneous fat and accumulation at deep sites. CT facilitates early detection of peritracheal lipomatous tissue and is helpful in follow-up when deep fat accumulation is responsible for space-occupying lesions requiring surgery.

  6. Association of lower limb muscle mass and energy expenditure with visceral fat mass in healthy men

    OpenAIRE

    Yagi, S.; Kadota, M; Aihara, K; Nishikawa, K.; Hara, T.; Ise, T.; Ueda, Y; Iwase, T; Akaike, M; Shimabukuro, M; Katoh, S.; Sata, M

    2014-01-01

    Background A high-calorie diet and physical inactivity, an imbalance between caloric intake and energy consumption, are major causes of metabolic syndrome (MetS), which manifests as accumulation of visceral fat and insulin resistance. However, the lifestyle-related factors associated with visceral fat mass in healthy men are not fully understood. Methods We evaluated visceral fat area (VFA), skeletal muscle mass, caloric intake, and energy expenditure in 67 healthy male participants (mean age...

  7. Resistin levels are related to fat mass, but not to body mass index in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Lorena; Riestra, Pía; Navarro, Pilar; Gavela-Pérez, Teresa; Soriano-Guillén, Leandro; Garcés, Carmen

    2013-11-01

    The relationship of resistin levels with obesity remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine resistin levels in prepubertal children and adolescents and evaluate their association with anthropometric parameters and body composition. The study population included 420 randomly selected 6-8-year-old children and 712 children aged 12-16 years. Anthropometric data were measured and body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip and waist-to-height ratios were calculated. Body composition was assessed using an impedance body composition analyzer. Serum resistin levels were determined using a multiplexed bead immunoassay. Resistin levels were not significantly different between sexes. No significant differences in serum resistin concentrations were found between obese, overweight, and normal weight children at any age, and no significant correlations were observed between resistin concentrations and weight or BMI. However, resistin levels showed a significant positive correlation with fat mass in 12-16-year-old children, particularly in girls. In addition to describing serum resistin levels in prepubertal children and adolescents, our study suggests that resistin is related to body fat rather than to BMI in adolescents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Association between fat mass index and fat-free mass index values and cardiovascular risk in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Morais de Oliveira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To describe the association between fat mass index and fat-free mass index values and factors associated with cardiovascular risk in adolescents in the city of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais. Methods: Cross-sectional study was with 403 adolescents aged 10–14 years, from public and private schools. Anthropometric, clinical, and biochemical measurements were obtained, as well as self-reported time spent performing physical exercises, sedentary activities and sexual maturation stage. Results: Regarding the nutritional status, 66.5% of the adolescents had normal weight, 19.9% were overweight and 10.2% were obese. For both genders, the fat mass index was higher in adolescents who had high serum triglycerides, body mass index and waist circumference. Conclusions: Adolescents who had anthropometric, clinical and biochemical characteristics considered to be at risk for the development of cardiovascular disease had higher values of fat mass index. Different methodologies for the assessment of body composition make health promotion and disease prevention more effective.

  9. (S)fermion Masses in Fat Brane Scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Haba, N; Haba, Naoyuki; Maru, Nobuhito

    2002-01-01

    We discuss the fermion mass hierarchy and the flavor mixings in the fat brane scenario of a five dimensional SUSY theory. Assuming that the matter fields lives in the bulk, their zero mode wave functions are Gaussians, and Higgs fields are localized on the brane, we find simple various types of the matter configurations generating the mass matrices consistent with experimental data. Sfermion mass spectrum is also discussed using the matter configurations found above. Which type of squark mass spectra (the degeneracy, the decoupling and the alignment) is realized depends on the relative locations of SUSY breaking brane and the brane where Higgs fields are localized.

  10. Fat to muscle ratio measurements with dual energy x-ray absorbtiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, A. [Shenzhen College of International Education, 1st HuangGang Park St., Shenzhen, GuangDong (China); Luo, J. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University at Buffalo, 332 Bonner Hall, Buffalo, NY 14260-1920 (United States); Wang, A. [Department of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Broadbent, C. [School of Engineering, Columbia University, 1130 Amsterdam Av., New York, NY 10027 (United States); Zhong, J. [Department of English, Dartmouth College, 6032 Sanborn House, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Dilmanian, F.A. [Departments of Radiation Oncology, Neurology, and Radiology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Zafonte, F.; Zhong, Z. [National Synchrotron Light Source II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Bldg. 743, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2015-07-11

    Accurate measurement of the fat-to-muscle ratio in animal model is important for obesity research. An efficient way to measure the fat to muscle ratio in animal model using dual-energy absorptiometry is presented in this paper. A radioactive source exciting x-ray fluorescence from a target material is used to provide the two x-ray energies needed. The x-rays, after transmitting through the sample, are measured with an energy-sensitive Ge detector. Phantoms and specimens were measured. The results showed that the method was sensitive to the fat to muscle ratios with good linearity. A standard deviation of a few percent in the fat to muscle ratio could be observed with the x-ray dose of 0.001 mGy.

  11. Fat to Muscle Ratio Measurements with Dual Energy X Ray Absorbtiometry

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, A; Broadbent, C; Zhong, J; Dilmanian, A; Zafonte, F; Zhong, Z

    2014-01-01

    Accurate measurement of the fat-to-muscle ratio in animal model is important for obesity research. An efficient way to measure the fat to muscle ratio in animal model using dual-energy absorptiometry is presented in this paper. A radioactive source exciting x-ray fluorescence from a target material is used to provide the two x-ray energies needed. The x-rays, after transmitting through the sample, are measured with an energy-sensitive Ge detector. Phantoms and specimens were measured. The results showed that the method was sensitive to the fat to muscle ratios with good linearity. A standard deviation of a few percent in the fat to muscle ratio could be observed with the x-ray dose of 0.001 mGy.

  12. Allometric relationship between changes of visceral fat and total fat mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgreen, C E; Hall, K D

    2008-05-01

    To elucidate the mathematical relationship between changes of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and total body fat mass (FM) during weight loss. We hypothesized that changes of VAT mass are allometrically related to changes of FM, regardless of the type of weight-loss intervention, as defined by the differential equation dVAT/dFM=k x VAT/FM, where k is a dimensionless constant. We performed a systematic search of the published literature for studies that included measurements of VAT changes via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) imaging along with measurements of FM changes by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, hydrodensitometry, air-displacement plethysmography or whole-body MRI or CT imaging. We then examined whether or not the data could be explained by the allometric model. We found 37 published studies satisfying our search criteria, representing 1407 men and women of various ethnicities, degrees of adiposity and weight-loss interventions. The hypothesized allometric equation relating changes of VAT and FM accurately modeled the data for both men and women and for all methods of weight loss studied. The best-fit value for the dimensionless constant was k=1.3+/-0.1 and the resulting model had an R(2)=0.73. This is the first report to reveal an allometric relationship between changes of VAT and FM that holds for both genders as well as a wide variety of weight-loss interventions including bariatric surgery, caloric restriction with or without exercise and exercise alone. We conclude that changes of VAT are primarily determined by FM changes as well as the initial VAT to FM ratio.

  13. Hadron Masses From Novel Fat-Link Fermion Actions

    CERN Document Server

    Zanotti, J M; Bonnet, F D R; Coddington, P D; Lee, F X; Leinweber, D B; Melnitchouk, W; Williams, A G; Zhang, J B

    2002-01-01

    The hadron mass spectrum is calculated in lattice QCD using a novel fat-link clover fermion action in which only the irrelevant operators in the fermion action are constructed using smeared links. The simulations are performed on a 16^3 x 32 lattice with a lattice spacing of a=0.125 fm. We compare actions with n=4 and 12 smearing sweeps with a smearing fraction of 0.7. The n=4 Fat-Link Irrelevant Clover (FLIC) action provides scaling which is superior to mean-field improvement, and offers advantages over nonperturbative 0(a) improvement, including a reduced exceptional configuration problem.

  14. Dietary protein and urinary nitrogen in relation to 6-year changes in fat mass and fat-free mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Zøllner; Gottliebsen, K; Ängquist, L

    2015-01-01

    protein intake and subsequent changes in fat mass (FM) and FFM in longitudinal, observational data.Design:A health examination, including measures of FM and FFM by bioelectrical impedance at baseline and follow-up six years later, was conducted. Diet history interviews (DHI) were performed, and 24-hour...

  15. Associations of Fat Mass and Fat-Free Mass with Physical Fitness in 4-Year-Old Children: Results from the MINISTOP Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Pontus; Cadenas-Sanchez, Cristina; Leppänen, Marja H.; Delisle Nyström, Christine; Ortega, Francisco B.; Pomeroy, Jeremy; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; Löf, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Physical fitness is a powerful marker of health in youth. Studies in adolescents and adults suggest that higher fat mass is related to worse physical fitness. However, there is limited knowledge whether fat mass and fat-free mass are associated with physical fitness already in preschoolers. Baseline data from the MINISTOP (Mobile-based INtervention Intended to STop Obesity in Preschoolers) trial was utilized for this cross-sectional analysis. Body composition was assessed using air-displacement plethysmography. Fat mass index [fat mass (kg)/height2 (m)] and fat-free mass index [fat-free mass (kg)/height2 (m)] were used to provide height-adjusted measures of body composition. Physical fitness was measured using the PREFIT (FITness testing in PREschool children) battery, which assesses cardiorespiratory fitness, upper-body and lower-body muscular strength as well as motor fitness. In total, this study included 303 children (168 boys and 135 girls), who were on average 4.48 ± 0.15 years old. Higher fat mass index was associated with worse cardiorespiratory fitness (standardized β = −0.17, p = 0.002), lower-body muscular strength (β = −0.17, p = 0.003) and motor fitness (β = −0.21, p < 0.001) in regression analyses adjusted for age, sex and mutually adjusted for fat-mass index and fat-free mass index. Conversely, higher fat-free mass index was associated with better cardiorespiratory fitness (β = 0.18, p = 0.002), upper-body muscular strength (β = 0.39, p < 0.001), lower-body muscular strength (β = 0.22, p < 0.001) and motor fitness (β = 0.17, p = 0.004). Thus, fat mass and fat-free mass in preschoolers appear to have joint but opposite associations with physical fitness, an important marker for current and future health. PMID:27483320

  16. Relation of fat-mass and obesity-associated gene polymorphism to fat mass content and body mass index in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrzak, Beata; Wisniewska, Alicja; Majcher, Anna; Tysarowski, Andrzej; Demkow, Urszula

    2013-01-01

    Fat mass content, fat distribution, and fat-mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene have been reported among a broad spectrum of genetic variation connected with body weight. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the T/A rs9939609 polymorphism of the FTO gene may influence obesity and metabolic indices in children. A 160 children were examined (136 obese and 24 non-obese). The anthropometric measurements and calculations included: height, weight, waist and hip circumference, sum of the thickness of 3 and 10 skin folds, % of fat content, % FAT- BIA , % LBM-BIA. BMI, SDS of BMI, WHR, and WHtR. Fasting plasma total cholesterol (TC), HDL and LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and HOMA-IR were analyzed and the blood pressure were measured. The rs9939609 polymorphism of FTO gene was genotyped by allele-specific real-time polymerase chain- reaction (RT-PCR). We found that the mean concentrations of TC, TG, LDLC, and HOMA-IR were significantly higher, and HDL was lower in the obese than in non-obese children. The presence of TT, but not AA alleles, related to the percentage of fat content, BMI, and z-score of BMI. None of the other anthropometric indices did differ between the children with gene polymorphism and wild homozygous. In conclusion, rs9939609 polymorphism in the fat-mass and obesity-associated gene is associated with BMI and the percent of fat content in children.

  17. Relationship between body fat mass and bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holecki, Michał; Wiecek, Andrzej

    2010-09-01

    The protective effect of obesity on bone tissue has not been unequivocally demonstrated. On one hand, it is known that obese people have a lower risk of osteoporotic fractures compared with normal-weight individuals. On the other hand, obese patients are characterized by disorders of calcium-phosphate homeostasis and bone metabolism. Moreover, it is not known whether it is fat or lean body mass that determines the development of bone mass. It can be assumed that adipose tissue exerts independent effects on bone remodeling by releasing a number of biologically active substances. Moreover, it seems that the main mechanism of action of these substances is closely related to the type and location of adipose tissue in the body. The present article describes the relationship between fat and bones, including the effect of body weight on bone tissue, the local mechanisms of osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation, and the hormonal activity of adipose tissue.

  18. Statistical modeling and MAP estimation for body fat quantification with MRI ratio imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wilbur C. K.; Johnson, David H.; Wilson, David L.

    2008-03-01

    We are developing small animal imaging techniques to characterize the kinetics of lipid accumulation/reduction of fat depots in response to genetic/dietary factors associated with obesity and metabolic syndromes. Recently, we developed an MR ratio imaging technique that approximately yields lipid/{lipid + water}. In this work, we develop a statistical model for the ratio distribution that explicitly includes a partial volume (PV) fraction of fat and a mixture of a Rician and multiple Gaussians. Monte Carlo hypothesis testing showed that our model was valid over a wide range of coefficient of variation of the denominator distribution (c.v.: 0-0:20) and correlation coefficient among the numerator and denominator (ρ 0-0.95), which cover the typical values that we found in MRI data sets (c.v.: 0:027-0:063, ρ: 0:50-0:75). Then a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate for the fat percentage per voxel is proposed. Using a digital phantom with many PV voxels, we found that ratio values were not linearly related to PV fat content and that our method accurately described the histogram. In addition, the new method estimated the ground truth within +1.6% vs. +43% for an approach using an uncorrected ratio image, when we simply threshold the ratio image. On the six genetically obese rat data sets, the MAP estimate gave total fat volumes of 279 +/- 45mL, values 21% smaller than those from the uncorrected ratio images, principally due to the non-linear PV effect. We conclude that our algorithm can increase the accuracy of fat volume quantification even in regions having many PV voxels, e.g. ectopic fat depots.

  19. The effect of dietary carbohydrate:fat ratio on energy intake by adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Stratum, P; Lussenburg, R N; van Wezel, L A; Vergroesen, A J; Cremer, H D

    1978-02-01

    The effect of the dietary carbohydrate:fat (C:F) ratio on the spontaneous energy intake by healthy adults was investigated by comparing a high-carbohydrate diet (fat 24%, carbohydrate 58%, protein 18% of energy) and a high-fat diet (fat 47%, carbohydrate 35%, protein 18% of energy) in a 2 X 2 week cross-over design. Subjects were 22 healthy nuns in a Trappist convent with very regular activities. The diets consisted of combinations of liquid formula (75%) and standardized snacks (25%). The difference in C:F ratio was concealed: energy density, taste and appearance were similar. Energy consumption was recorded continuously. The mean daily energy intakes remained constant: 8276 kJ (1978 kcal). The difference in mean daily energy intake between diets was 73 kJ +/- 180 (SEM). Small changes in body weight were observed, but these are argued not to indicate definitive effects. It is concluded that changing the C:F ratio within commonly occurring ranges does not influence the spontaneous energy intake of healthy adults. The composition of the dietary fat was kept constant. Under practical conditions a change in the C:F ratio will also induce a change in the fatty acid composition of the diet, which might affect the energy intake regulation. Other experiments are required to see whether the C:F ratio can affect body composition or other physiological parameters in the long run.

  20. Which index best correlates with body fat mass: BAI, BMI, waist or WHR?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchanek, Pavel; Kralova Lesna, Ivana; Mengerova, Olga; Mrazkova, Jolana; Lanska, Vera; Stavek, Petr

    2012-01-01

    The body mass index (BMI) has been the most commonly applied clinical measure to characterise body composition in individuals. However, the BMI has been criticised as being an inaccurate measure of body fatness. Recently, a new index reflecting body composition, the Body Adiposity Index (BAI) was proposed. The BAI was calculated using the equation BAI=((hip circumference)/ ((height)1.5) - 18). The aim of this study was to compare estimates of body fat content, i.e., body adiposity index (BAI), BMI, waist-hip ratio (WHR) and waist and hip circumferences, with respect to their ability to predict the percentage of body fat (PBF). To select an optimal surrogate for adiposity, we examined the correlation between body adiposity percentage as measured by BIA and several variables, including BAI, BMI and WHR. Correlations ranged from a high of 0.78 for BMI, 0.67 for BAI and 0.66 for waist circumference to a low value of 0.39 for the WHR index. The correlation between PBF and BAI (R=0.67, R2=0.45, pBMI (R=0.78, R2=0.60, pindex is not a universally valid index that could be used in the place of the BMI index in a Caucasian population; indeed, it would not accurately reflect body fat mass and thus could lead to an increased risk of obesity. Further, WHR index is not a suitable for an estimation of body fat.

  1. Waist circumference adjusted for body mass index and intra-abdominal fat mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Angquist, Lars; Kotronen, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The association between waist circumference (WC) and mortality is particularly strong and direct when adjusted for body mass index (BMI). One conceivable explanation for this association is that WC adjusted for BMI is a better predictor of the presumably most harmful intra-abdominal fat mass (IAFM...

  2. Correlation between Abdominal Fat Amount and Fatty Liver, using Liver to Kidney Echo Ratio on Ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yanhg Shin; Lee, Chang Hee; Choi, Kyung Mook; Lee, Jong Mee; Choi, Jae Woong; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Park, Cheol Min [Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    It has been generally recognized that fatty liver can often be seen in the obese population. This study was conducted in order to evaluate the association between fatty liver and abdominal fat volume. A total of 105 patients who visited our obesity clinic in the recent three years underwent fat CT scans and abdominal US. Attenuation difference between liver and spleen on CT was considered as a reference standard for the diagnosis of fatty liver. On US, the echogenicity of the liver parenchyma was measured in three different regions of interest (ROI) close to the adjacent right kidney in the same slice, avoiding vessels, bile duct, and calcification. Similar measurements were performed in the right renal cortex. The mean values were calculated automatically on the histogram of the ROI using the PACS program. The hepatorenal echogenicity ratio (HER; mean hepatic echogenicity/ mean renal echogenicity) was then calculated. Abdominal fat volume was measured using a 3 mm slice CT scan at the L4/5 level and was calculated automatically using a workstation. Abdominal fat was classified according to total fat (TF), visceral fat (VF), and subcutaneous fat (SF). We used Pearson's bivariate correlation method for assessment of the correlation between HER and TF, VF, and SF, respectively. Significant correlation was observed between HER and abdominal fat (TF, VF, and SF). HER showed significant correlation with VF and TF (r = 0.491 and 0.402, respectively; p = 0.000). The correlation between HER and SF (r = 0.255, p = 0.009) was less significant than for VF or TF. Fat measurement (HER) by hepatic ultrasound correlated well with the amount of abdominal fat. In particular, the VF was found to show a stronger association with fatty liver than SF.

  3. No Change of Body Mass, Fat Mass, and Skeletal Muscle Mass in Ultraendurance Swimmers after 12 Hours of Swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Kaul, Rene; Kohler, Gotz

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated whether ultraendurance swimmers suffer a change of body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, total body water, and specific gravity of urine during a 12-hr swim in 12 male Caucasian ultraswimmers. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance of urine samples before and after the race was performed to detect alanine, lactate, and…

  4. The social patterning of fat and lean mass in a contemporary cohort of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Andy R; Leary, Sam; Reilly, John; Wells, Jonathan; Tobias, Jon; Clark, Emma; Smith, George Davey

    2006-01-01

    Studies of the social patterning of obesity in children using body mass index have reported inconsistent results. We explored the association of social class with fat mass and lean mass in a contemporary cohort of children measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. We observed a clear social gradient of fat mass (with children of higher social class having a lower fat mass), but no gradient in lean mass or trunk fat mass. Our data show that inequalities in adiposity are present in primary school children and suggest that social inequalities in childhood obesity may have been underestimated in previous studies.

  5. Medium-Chain Triglyceride Activated Brown Adipose Tissue and Induced Reduction of Fat Mass in C57BL/6J Mice Fed High-fat Diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong; XUE Chang Yong; XU Qing; LIU Ying Hua; ZHANG Xin Sheng; WANG Jin; YU Xiao Ming; ZHANG Rong Xin; XUE Chao; YANG Xue Yan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) stimulated by medium-chain triglyceride (MCT). Methods 30 Male C57BL/6J obese mice induced by fed high fat diet (HFD) were divided into 2 groups, and fed another HFD with 2% MCT or long-chain triglyceride (LCT) respectively for 12 weeks. Body weight, blood biochemical variables, interscapular brown fat tissue (IBAT) mass, expressions of mRNA and protein of beta 3-adrenergic receptors (β3-AR), uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1), hormone sensitive lipase (HSL), protein kinase A (PKA), and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) in IBAT were measured. Results Significant decrease in body weight and body fat mass was observed in MCT group as compared with LCT group (P<0.05) after 12 weeks. Greater increases in IBAT mass was observed in MCT group than in LCT group (P<0.05). Blood TG, TC, LDL-C in MCT group were decreased significantly, meanwhile blood HDL-C, ratio of HDL-C/LDL-C and norepinephrine were increased markedly. Expressions of mRNA and protein ofβ3-AR, UCP1, PKA, HSL, ATGL in BAT were greater in MCT group than in LCT group (P<0.05). Conclusion Our results suggest that MCT stimulated the activation of BAT, possible via norepinephrine pathway, which might partially contribute to reduction of the body fat mass in obese mice fed high fat diet.

  6. Fat and Lean Masses in Youths with Down Syndrome: Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Aguero, Alejandro; Ara, Ignacio; Moreno, Luis A.; Vicente-Rodriguez, German; Casajus, Jose A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed at comparing fat and lean masses between children and adolescents with and without Down syndrome (DS) and evaluating the presence of sexual dimorphism. Total and regional fat and lean masses were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and the percentage of body fat (%BF) by air-displacement plethysmography (ADP)…

  7. Bone mineral content has stronger association with lean mass than fat mass among Indian urban adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman K Marwaha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are conflicting reports on the relationship of lean mass (LM and fat mass (FM with bone mineral content (BMC. Given the high prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency in India, we planned the study to evaluate the relationship between LM and FM with BMC in Indian children and adolescents. The objective of the study was to evaluate the relationship of BMC with LM and FM. Materials and Methods: Total and regional BMC, LM, and FM using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and pubertal staging were assessed in 1403 children and adolescents (boys [B]: 826; girls [G]: 577. BMC index, BMC/LM and BMC/FM ratio, were calculated. Results: The age ranged from 5 to 18 years, with a mean age of 13.2 ± 2.7 years. BMC adjusted for height (BMC index and BMC/height ratio was comparable in both genders. There was no difference in total BMC between genders in the prepubertal group but were higher in more advanced stages of pubertal maturation. The correlation of total as well as regional BMC was stronger for LM (B: Total BMC - 0.880, trunk - 0.715, leg - 0.894, arm - 0.891; G: Total BMC - 0.827, leg - 0.846, arm - 0.815 (all value indicate r2 , P < 0.0001 for all when compared with FM (B: Total BMC - 0.776, trunk - 0.676, leg - 0.772, arm - 0.728; G: Total BMC - 0.781, leg - 0.741, arm - 0.689; all P < 0.0001 except at trunk BMC (LM - 0.682 vs. FM - 0.721; all P < 0.0001, even after controlling for age, height, pubertal stage, and biochemical parameters. Conclusions: BMC had a stronger positive correlation with LM than FM.

  8. The Period-Ratio and Mass-Ratio Correlation in Extra-Solar Multiple Planetary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Ing-Guey; Hung, Wen-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Employing the data from orbital periods and masses of extra-solar planets in 166 multiple planetary systems, the period-ratio and mass-ratio of adjacent planet pairs are studied. The correlation between the period-ratio and mass-ratio is confirmed and found to have a correlation coefficient of 0.5303 with a 99% confidence interval (0.3807, 0.6528). A comparison with the distribution of synthetic samples from a Monte Carlo simulation reveals the imprint of planet-planet interactions on the formation of adjacent planet pairs in multiple planetary systems.

  9. Smoking and body fat mass in relation to bone mineral density and hip fracture: the Hordaland Health Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannike Øyen

    Full Text Available Lower bone mineral density (BMD in smokers may be attributable to lower body weight or fat mass, rather than to a direct effect of smoking. We analyzed the effects of smoking exposure, assessed by plasma cotinine, and body fat on BMD and the risk of subsequent hip fracture. In the community-based Hordaland Health Study (HUSK, 3003 participants 46-49 years and 2091 subjects 71-74 years were included. Cotinine was measured in plasma and information on health behaviors was obtained from self-administered questionnaires. BMD and total body soft tissue composition were measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Information on hip fracture was obtained from computerized records containing discharge diagnoses for hospitalizations between baseline examinations 1997-2000 through December 31st, 2009. In the whole cohort, moderate and heavy smokers had stronger positive associations between fat mass and BMD compared to never smokers (differences in regression coefficient (95% CI per % change in fat mass = 1.38 (0.24, 2.52 and 1.29 (0.17, 2.4, respectively. In moderate and heavy smokers there was a nonlinear association between BMD and fat mass with a stronger positive association at low compared to high levels of fat mass (Davies segmented test, p<0.001. In elderly women and men, heavy smokers had an increased risk of hip fracture compared to never smokers (hazard ratio = 3.31, 95% CI: 2.05, 5.35; p<0.001. In heavy smokers there was a tendency of a lower risk of hip fracture with higher percentage of fat mass. The deleterious effect of smoking on bone health is stronger in lean smokers than in smokers with high fat mass.

  10. Allometric relationship between changes of visceral fat and total fat mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallgreen, C. E.; Hall, K. D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate the mathematical relationship between changes of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and total body fat mass (FM) during weight loss. Design: We hypothesized that changes of VAT mass are allometrically related to changes of FM, regardless of the type of weight-loss intervention...... 1407 men and women of various ethnicities, degrees of adiposity and weight-loss interventions. The hypothesized allometric equation relating changes of VAT and FM accurately modeled the data for both men and women and for all methods of weight loss studied. The best-fit value for the dimensionless...... constant was k=1.3±0.1 and the resulting model had an R 2=0.73. Conclusion: This is the first report to reveal an allometric relationship between changes of VAT and FM that holds for both genders as well as a wide variety of weight-loss interventions including bariatric surgery, caloric restriction...

  11. Do Dynamic Fat and Fat-Free Mass Changes follow Theoretical Driven Rules in Athletes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Analiza M; Matias, Catarina N; Santos, Diana A; Rocha, Paulo M; Minderico, Cláudia S; Thomas, Diana; Heymsfield, Steven B; Sardinha, Luís B

    2017-10-01

    Maximizing fat mass (FM) loss while preserving or increasing fat-free mass (FFM) is a central goal for athletic performance but the composition of body weight (BW) changes over time with training are largely unknown. We aimed to analyze FM and FFM contributions to BW changes and to test if these contributions follow established rules and predictions over one athletic season. Seventy athletes (42 men; handball, volleyball, basketball, triathlon, and swimming) were evaluated from the beginning to the competitive stage of the season and were empirically divided into those who lost (n = 20) or gained >1.5% BW (n = 50). FM and FFM were evaluated with a four-compartment model. Energy densities (ED) of 1.0 kcal·g for FFM and 9.5 kcal·g for FM were used to calculate ED/per kilogram BW change. Athletes that lost >1.5% BW decreased FM by 1.7 ± 1.6 kg (P 1.5% BW increased FFM by 2.3 ± 2.1 kg (P rules and predictions used for lean or overweight/obese nonathletic populations.

  12. Hypovitaminosis D and fat mass in healthy older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronese, N; Trevisan, C; Carraro, S; Sarti, S; Zanforlini, B M; De Rui, M; Coin, A; Manzato, E; Sergi, G

    2016-09-01

    Prospective studies have suggested that hypovitaminosis D can predict the onset of obesity, but they relied mainly on body mass index, which could be scarcely reliable in older people. We investigated whether baseline hypovitaminosis D could predict higher fat mass (FM) levels using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in a sample of 116 fit and healthy older subjects. Although no significant differences in FM estimates emerged between subjects with and without hypovitaminosis D at the baseline, abdominal FM was found significantly higher in the former group (with hypovitaminosis D at the baseline) than in the latter after 3 years of follow-up. Adjusted logistic regression analysis confirmed these findings: hypovitaminosis D coincided with an approximately sixfold higher risk of subjects having higher abdominal FM levels at the follow-up. In conclusion, hypovitaminosis D predicts higher abdominal FM levels in the elderly.

  13. Galaxy mergers with various mass ratios: properties of remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Bournaud, F; Combes, F

    2005-01-01

    We study galaxy mergers with various mass ratios using N-body simulations, with an emphasis on the unequal-mass mergers in the relatively unexplored range of mass-ratios 4:1-10:1. Our recent work (Bournaud et al. 2004) shows that the above range of mass ratio results in hybrid systems with spiral-like luminosity profiles but with elliptical-like kinematics, as observed in the data analysis for a sample of mergers by Jog & Chitre (2002). In this paper, we study the merger-remnants for mass ratios from 1:1 to 10:1 while systematically covering the parameter space. We obtain the morphological and kinematical properties of the remnants, and also discuss the robustness and the visibility of disks in the merger remnants with a random line-of-sight. We show that the mass ratios 1:1-3:1 give rise to elliptical remnants whereas the mass ratios 4.5:1-10:1 produce the hybrid systems with mixed properties. We find that the transition between disk-like and elliptical remnants occurs between a narrow mass-range of 4.5:...

  14. Waist to hip ratio and trunk to extremity fat (DXA are better surrogates for IMCL and for visceral fat respectively than for subcutaneous fat in adolescent girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Melissa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased visceral adipose tissue (VAT and intramyocellular lipids (IMCL are associated with increased metabolic risk. Clinical and DXA body composition measures that are associated with VAT are generally even more strongly associated with subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT reflecting general adiposity, and thus are not specific for VAT. Measures more strongly associated with VAT than SAT (thus more specific for VAT, and predictors of IMCL have not been reported. Subjects/Methods We studied 30 girls 12-18 years; 15 obese, 15 normal-weight. The following were assessed: (1 anthropometric measures: waist circumference at the umbilicus and iliac crest (WC-UC and WC-IC, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR, (2 DXA measures: total fat, percent body fat (PBF, percent trunk fat (PTF, trunk-to-extremity fat ratio (TEFR, (3 MRI and 1H-MRS: VAT and SAT (L4-L5, soleus-IMCL. Results Group as a whole: WC, trunk fat and PBF were more strongly associated with SAT than VAT; none were specific for VAT. In contrast, PTF and TEFR were more significantly associated with VAT (r = 0.83 and 0.81 respectively, p Subgroup analysis: In obese girls, WHR and WHtR were more strongly correlated with VAT (r = 0.62 and 0.82, p = 0.04 and 0.001 than SAT (r = 0.41 and 0.73, p not significant and 0.007, and for DXA measures, PTF and TEFR were more significantly associated with VAT (r = 0.70 and 0.72, p = 0.007 and 0.006 than SAT (r = 0.52 and 0.53, p = 0.07 and 0.06. In controls, PTF and TEFR were more strongly correlated with VAT (r = 0.79, p = 0.0004 for both than SAT (r = 0.71 and 0.72, p = 0.003 for both. WHR was associated with IMCL in obese girls (r = 0.78, p = 0.008, but not controls. Conclusion Overall, WHR (anthropometry, and PTF and TEFR (DXA are good surrogates for IMCL and for visceral fat respectively in adolescent girls.

  15. Effect of race and resistance training status on the density of fat-free mass and percent fat estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard-Stafford, M L; Collins, M A; Modlesky, C M; Snow, T K; Rosskopf, L B

    2001-09-01

    The impact of race and resistance training status on the assumed density of the fat-free mass (D(FFM)) and estimates of body fatness via hydrodensitometry (%Fat(D)) vs. a four-component model (density, water, mineral; %Fat(D,W,M)) were determined in 45 men: white controls (W; n = 15), black controls (B; n = 15), and resistance-trained blacks (B-RT; n = 15). Body density by hydrostatic weighing, body water by deuterium dilution, and bone mineral by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were used to estimate %Fat(D,W,M). D(FFM) was not different between B and W (or 1.1 g/ml); however, D(FFM) in B-RT was significantly lower (1.091 +/- 0.012 g/ml; P < 0.05). Therefore, %Fat(D) using the Siri equation was not different from %Fat(D,W,M) in W (17.5 +/- 5.0 vs. 18.3 +/- 5.4%) or B (14.9 +/- 5.6 vs. 15.7 +/- 5.7%) but significantly overestimated %Fat(D,W,M) in B-RT (14.0 +/- 5.9 vs. 10.4 +/- 6.0%; P < 0.05). The use of a race-specific equation (assuming D(FFM) = 1.113 g/ml) did not improve the agreement between %Fat(D) and %Fat(D,W,M), resulting in a significantly greater mean (+/-SD) discrepancy for B (1.7 +/- 1.8% fat) and B-RT (6.2 +/- 4.3% fat). Thus race per se does not affect D(FFM) or estimates of %Fat(D); however, B-RT have a D(FFM) lower than 1.1 g/ml, leading to an overestimation of %Fat(D).

  16. Body mass, fat-free body mass, and prognosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease from a random population sample: findings from the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen; Prescott, Eva; Almdal, Thomas Peter

    2006-01-01

    Rationale: Low body mass index (BMI) is a marker of poor prognosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the general population the harmful effect of low BMI is due to the deleterious effects of a low fat free mass index (FFMI, fat free mass/weight(2)). Objectives: We explored...... distribution of low FFMI and its association with prognosis in a population based cohort of COPD patients. Methods: We used data on 1,898 COPD patients identified in a population-based epidemiological study in Copenhagen. Fat free mass was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Patients were followed...... the lowest FFMI 10(th) percentile of the general population. BMI and FFMI were significant predictors of mortality, independent of relevant covariates. Being in the lowest FFMI 10(th) percentile of the general population was associated with a hazard ratio of 1.5 (95% confidence interval 1.2-1.8) for overall...

  17. Visceral fat is more important than peripheral fat for endometrial thickness and bone mass in healthy postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming, Lise; Ravn, Pernille; Christiansen, Claus

    2003-01-01

    as double-layer thickness. Body composition was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, which divides the body into fat mass, lean mass, and bone mass, both for the total body and regional body compartments. An abdominal region was inserted manually. Statistics were Pearson correlations and analysis...

  18. Objectively measured physical activity and fat mass in a large cohort of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Andy R; Leary, Sam D; Mattocks, Calum; Blair, Steven N; Reilly, John J; Wells, Jonathan; Ingle, Sue; Tilling, Kate; Smith, George Davey; Riddoch, Chris

    2007-03-01

    Previous studies have been unable to characterise the association between physical activity and obesity, possibly because most relied on inaccurate measures of physical activity and obesity. We carried out a cross sectional analysis on 5,500 12-year-old children enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Total physical activity and minutes of moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were measured using the Actigraph accelerometer. Fat mass and obesity (defined as the top decile of fat mass) were measured using the Lunar Prodigy dual x-ray emission absorptiometry scanner. We found strong negative associations between MVPA and fat mass that were unaltered after adjustment for total physical activity. We found a strong negative dose-response association between MVPA and obesity. The odds ratio for obesity in adjusted models between top and the bottom quintiles of minutes of MVPA was 0.03 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.01-0.13, p-value for trend <0.0001) in boys and 0.36 (95% CI 0.17-0.74, p-value for trend = 0.006) in girls. We demonstrated a strong graded inverse association between physical activity and obesity that was stronger in boys. Our data suggest that higher intensity physical activity may be more important than total activity.

  19. Objectively measured physical activity and fat mass in a large cohort of children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy R Ness

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have been unable to characterise the association between physical activity and obesity, possibly because most relied on inaccurate measures of physical activity and obesity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We carried out a cross sectional analysis on 5,500 12-year-old children enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Total physical activity and minutes of moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA were measured using the Actigraph accelerometer. Fat mass and obesity (defined as the top decile of fat mass were measured using the Lunar Prodigy dual x-ray emission absorptiometry scanner. We found strong negative associations between MVPA and fat mass that were unaltered after adjustment for total physical activity. We found a strong negative dose-response association between MVPA and obesity. The odds ratio for obesity in adjusted models between top and the bottom quintiles of minutes of MVPA was 0.03 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.01-0.13, p-value for trend <0.0001 in boys and 0.36 (95% CI 0.17-0.74, p-value for trend = 0.006 in girls. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated a strong graded inverse association between physical activity and obesity that was stronger in boys. Our data suggest that higher intensity physical activity may be more important than total activity.

  20. On the binding ratio of α-cyclodextrin to dietary fat in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen KLC

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available KL Catherine Jen,1,2 George Grunberger,3 Joseph D Artiss2,4 1Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA; 2ArtJen Complexus Inc, Windsor, ON, Canada; 3The Grunberger Diabetes Institute, Bloomfield Hills, MI, USA; 4Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA Abstract: α-Cyclodextrin (α-CD, a soluble dietary fiber, has been shown to bind and eliminate nine times of its own weight in dietary fat. Studies with different animal models have reported that α-CD preferentially binds saturated fatty acids, reducing saturated and trans fatty acid levels in blood. A clinical trial demonstrated that α-CD prevented weight gain in obese diabetic patients. The present study was designed to examine whether α-CD also shows a preference in binding saturated fatty acids in humans and to confirm the 1:9 binding ratio in humans. Sixty-six obese diabetic patients were recruited at the beginning of this 3-month, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study. Patients were randomly assigned to the Active or Placebo group. Blood samples and 3-day dietary records were collected at baseline and at the end of months 1, 2, and 3. A bottle of 180 tablets of active or placebo tablets was dispensed to each participant at the beginning of each month. Dietary records were analyzed using The Food Processor software. It was observed that α-CD has a higher affinity towards saturated fats than to unsaturated fats. Participants with higher intakes of total and saturated fat lost more weight than those with lower intakes (P < 0.05 and < 0.01, respectively. These data support the earlier observation in both in vitro and animal studies that α-CD binds with dietary fat in a 1:9 ratio and further demonstrate the efficacy of α-CD in binding to and eliminating dietary fat, especially saturated fats. α-CD may play a significant role in reducing blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels as well as stopping

  1. Diet Rich in Saturated Fat Decreases the Ratio of Thromboxane/prostacyclin in Healthy Men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUO LI; RAYMUNDO HABITO; GEORGE ANGELOS; ANDREW J. SINCLAIR; MADELEINE J. BALL

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of dietary saturated fat (SFA) from animal sources on the urine excretion 11-dehydro thromboxane B2 (TXB2) and 6-keto prostaglandin F 1α (PGF 1α) in 27 healthy free-living male subjects aged 30 to 55 years. Methods It was a randomized crossover design. Each volunteer was randomly assigned to one of the two diets (high fat and low fat) for a period of 4 weeks, after which each subject resumed his usual diet for 2 weeks as a ‘wash-out period',before being assigned to the other diet for an additional 4 weeks. Results Serum proportion of 20:4n-6 was 5% lower in the high fat (6.2% of total fatty acid) than in the low fat diet (6.5% of total fatty acid), which was associated with a significantly decreased ratio of the urinary excretion 11-dehydro TXB2 to 6-keto PGF 1α (P<0.05). However, there was no significant fall in the absolute urinary excretion of 11-dehydro TXB2. Conclusions Diet rich in SFA from animal sources may influence TXA2 formation via effect on tissue proportion of 20:4n-6.

  2. Association between fat mass, lean mass, and bone loss: the Dubbo Osteoporosis Epidemiology Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S; Center, J R; Eisman, J A; Nguyen, T V

    2015-04-01

    Lower body fat mass is a risk factor for bone loss at lumbar spine in postmenopausal women, but not in men. Body lean mass and fat mass were not associated with femoral neck bone loss in either gender. Bone density and body mass are closely associated. Whole body lean mass (LM) and fat mass (FM) together account for approximately 95 % of body mass. Bone loss is associated with loss of body mass but which of the components of body mass (FM or LM) is related to bone loss is not well understood. Therefore, in this study, we sought to assess whether baseline FM or LM has predictive value for future relative rate of bone mineral density (BMD) changes (%/year). The present population-based cohort study was part of the ongoing Dubbo Osteoporosis Epidemiology Study (DOES). BMD, FM, and LM were measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (GE-LUNAR Corp, Madison, WI). BMD measurements were taken in approximately every 2 years between 2000 and 2010. We only included the participants with at least two BMD measurements at the femoral neck and lumbar spine. In total, 717 individuals (204 men and 513 women) aged 50 years or older were studied. Rate of bone loss at femoral neck and lumbar spine was faster in women than in men (all P loss at lumbar spine. This magnitude of association remained virtually unchanged after adjusting for LM and/or other covariates (P = 0.03). After adjusting for covariates, variation of FM accounted for ∼1.5 % total variation in lumbar spine bone loss. However, there was no significant association between FM and change in femoral neck BMD in either men or women. Lower FM was an independent but modest risk factor for greater bone loss at the lumbar spine in women but not in men. If further studies confirm our findings, FM can help predict lumbar spine bone loss in women.

  3. The Relation between Visceral and Subcutaneous Fat to Bone Mass among Egyptian Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar A. El-Masry

    2014-12-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Visceral and subcutaneous fat had significant positive association with bone mass in children; males and females respectively. On the contrary such association disappeared during adolescence.

  4. The Mass-to-Light Ratios of Galactic Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Kruijssen, J M Diederik

    2009-01-01

    The observed mass-to-light (M/L) ratios of globular clusters (GCs) are on average ~20% lower than expected from Simple Stellar Population (SSP) models, which only account for the effects of stellar evolution. We study the M/L ratio evolution of a sample of 24 Galactic GCs using parameterised cluster models. The dynamical evolution of GCs is included by accounting for their dissolution and by using a detailed description of the evolution of the stellar mass function. The ejection of low-mass stars leads to a decrease of M/L, which is found to explain the discrepancy between the observations and SSP models.

  5. Mass-to-light ratios of nearby groups of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Materne, J

    1980-01-01

    The application of a probability density function gives the possibility of determining groups of galaxies and membership probabilities of the galaxies in a reliable unbiased way. For the five nearest groups so defined, the mean mass-to-light ratio was derived using the concept of negative energy. These groups have a mass-to- light ratio of 16 M/sub (.)//L/sub (.)/. The probability function gives also the possibility of deriving masses of groups in a direct and independent way. (22 refs).

  6. The utility of fat mass index vs. body mass index and percentage of body fat in the screening of metabolic syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Pengju; Ma, Fang; Lou, Huiping; Liu, Yanping

    2013-01-01

    ...). Although body mass index (BMI) is the most frequently used method to assess overweightness and obesity, this method has been criticized because BMI does not always reflect true body fatness, which may be better evaluated...

  7. Relation of Body's Lean Mass, Fat Mass, and Body Mass Index With Submaximal Systolic Blood Pressure in Young Adult Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Vivek K; Drenowatz, Clemens; Hand, Gregory A; Lavie, Carl J; Sui, Xuemei; Demello, Madison; Blair, Steven N

    2016-02-01

    We examined the association of body composition and body mass index (BMI) with submaximal systolic blood pressure (SSBP) among young adult men. The analysis included 211 men with BMI between 20 and 35 kg/m(2). Total lean mass and fat mass were measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry and lean mass percentage was calculated from the total lean mass. Fat mass index (FMI) and BMI were calculated using height and weight (total fat mass and total weight, respectively) measurements. SSBP was measured at each stage of a graded exercise test. Quintiles of lean mass percentage, FMI, and BMI were created with quintile 1 the lowest and quintile 5 the highest lean mass percentage, FMI, and BMI. Compared with men in lean mass percentage quintile 1, those in quintiles 2, 3, and 4 had significantly lower SSBP, whereas there was no significant difference in SSBP between quintile 1 and 5 at 6, 8, and 10 minutes. Compared with men in FMI quintile 5, those in quintiles 2, 3, and 4 had significantly lower SSBP, whereas there was no significant difference in SSBP between quintile 1 and 5. SSBP among men in lean mass percentage quintile 5 and FMI quintile 1 were still less than lean mass percentage quintile 1 and FMI quintile 5, respectively. There were no significant differences in SSBP across BMI quintiles 1 to 4 but a significantly higher SSBP in quintile 5 compared with quintiles 1 to 4. In conclusion, there was a J-curve pattern between SSBP and components of body composition, whereas, a linear relation between SSBP and BMI.

  8. Stearic acid-rich interesterified fat and trans-rich fat raise the LDL/HDL ratio and plasma glucose relative to palm olein in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karupaiah Tilakavati

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary trans-rich and interesterified fats were compared to an unmodified saturated fat for their relative impact on blood lipids and plasma glucose. Each fat had melting characteristics, plasticity and solids fat content suitable for use as hardstock in margarine and other solid fat formulations. Methods Thirty human volunteers were fed complete, whole food diets during 4 wk periods, where total fat (~31% daily energy, >70% from the test fats and fatty acid composition were tightly controlled. A crossover design was used with 3 randomly-assigned diet rotations and repeated-measures analysis. One test fat rotation was based on palm olein (POL and provided 12.0 percent of energy (%en as palmitic acid (16:0; a second contained trans-rich partially hydrogenated soybean oil (PHSO and provided 3.2 %en as trans fatty acids plus 6.5 %en as 16:0, while the third used an interesterified fat (IE and provided 12.5 %en as stearic acid (18:0. After 4 wk the plasma lipoproteins, fatty acid profile, as well as fasting glucose and insulin were assessed. In addition, after 2 wk into each period an 8 h postprandial challenge was initiated in a subset of 19 subjects who consumed a meal containing 53 g of test fat. Results After 4 wk, both PHSO and IE fats significantly elevated both the LDL/HDL ratio and fasting blood glucose, the latter almost 20% in the IE group relative to POL. Fasting 4 wk insulin was 10% lower after PHSO (p > 0.05 and 22% lower after IE (p Conclusion Both PHSO and IE fats altered the metabolism of lipoproteins and glucose relative to an unmodified saturated fat when fed to humans under identical circumstances.

  9. High fat diet prevents over-crowding induced decrease of sex ratio in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhukar Shivajirao Dama

    Full Text Available Adaptive theory predicts that mothers would be advantaged by adjusting the sex ratio of their offspring in relation to their offspring's future reproductive success. In the present study, we tested the effect of housing mice under crowded condition on the sex ratio and whether the fat content of the diet has any influence on the outcome of pregnancies. Three-week-old mice were placed on the control diet (NFD for 3 weeks. Thereafter the mice were allotted randomly to two groups of 7 cages each with 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 mice in every cage to create increasing crowding gradient and fed either NFD or high fat diet (HFD. After 4 weeks, dams were bred and outcomes of pregnancy were analyzed. The average dam body weight (DBW at conception, litter size (LS and SR were significantly higher in HFD fed dams. Further, male biased litters declined with increasing crowding in NFD group but not in HFD. The LS and SR in NFD declined significantly with increasing crowding, whereas only LS was reduced in HFD group. We conclude that female mice housed under overcrowding conditions shift offspring SR in favor of daughters in consistent with the TW hypothesis and high fat diet reduces this influence of overcrowding.

  10. Effect of fat mass and lean mass on bone mineral density in postmenopausal and perimenopausal Thai women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namwongprom S

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sirianong Namwongprom,1 Sattaya Rojanasthien,2 Ampica Mangklabruks,3 Supasil Soontrapa,4 Chanpen Wongboontan,5 Boonsong Ongphiphadhanakul61Clinical Epidemiology Program and Department of Radiology, 2Department of Orthopaedics, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 4Department of Orthopaedics, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 5Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 6Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, ThailandBackground: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between fat mass, lean mass, and bone mineral density (BMD in postmenopausal and perimenopausal Thai women.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1579 healthy Thai women aged 40–90 years. Total body, lumbar spine, total femur, and femoral neck BMD and body composition were measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry. To evaluate the associations between fat mass and lean mass and various measures of BMD, multivariable linear regression models were used to estimate the regression coefficients for fat mass and lean mass, first in separate equations and then with both fat mass and lean mass in the same equation.Results: Among the study population, 1448 subjects (91.7% were postmenopausal and 131 (8.3% were perimenopausal. In postmenopausal women, after controlling for age, height, and duration of menopause, both fat mass and lean mass were positively correlated with BMD when they were analyzed independently of each other. When included in the same equation, both fat mass and lean mass continued to show a positive effect, but lean mass had a significantly greater impact on BMD than fat mass at all regions except for total body. Lean mass but not fat mass had a positive effect on BMD at all skeletal sites except the lumbar spine, after controlling for age and height in perimenopausal

  11. Binary Formation Mechanisms: Constraints from the Companion Mass Ratio Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Reggiani, Maddalena M

    2011-01-01

    We present a statistical comparison of the mass ratio distribution of companions, as observed in different multiplicity surveys, to the most recent estimate of the single object mass function (Bochanski et al. 2010). The main goal of our analysis is to test whether or not the observed companion mass ratio distribution (CMRD) as a function of primary star mass and star formation environment is consistent with having been drawn from the field star IMF. We consider samples of companions for M dwarfs, solar type and intermediate mass stars, both in the field as well as clusters or associations, and compare them with populations of binaries generated by random pairing from the assumed IMF for a fixed primary mass. With regard to the field we can reject the hypothesis that the CMRD was drawn from the IMF for different primary mass ranges: the observed CMRDs show a larger number of equal-mass systems than predicted by the IMF. This is in agreement with fragmentation theories of binary formation. For the open cluster...

  12. Physical exercise is associated with better fat mass distribution and lower insulin resistance in spinal cord injured individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Oliveira, Giselle Louise C.; Figueiredo, Flávia A.; Passos, Magna Cottini Fonseca; Chain, Amina; Bezerra, Flávia F.; Koury, Josely Correa

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to compare total and regional body composition and their relationship with glucose homeostasis in physically active and non-active individuals with cervical spinal cord injury (c-SCI). Methods Individuals with lesion level between C5–C7 were divided into two groups: physically active (PA; n = 14; who practiced physical exercise for at least 3 months, three times per week or more, minimum of 150 minutes/week): and non-physically active (N-PA n = 8). Total fat mass (t-FM) and regional fat mass (r-FM) were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Fasting plasma insulin (FPI) was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results PA group present lower (P < 0.01) total fat mass (t-FM), % and kg, regional fat mass (r-FM), % and kg, FPI levels and HOMA index, while they had higher (P < 0.001) total free fat mass (t-FFM), %, and regional free fat mass (r-FFM), %, compared to the N-PA group. In the N-PA group, FPI and HOMA index were negatively (P < 0.05) correlated with FFM% (r = −0.71, −0.69, respectively) and positively correlated to trunk-FM (r = 0.71, 0.69, respectively) and trunk-FM:t-FM (kg) ratio (r = 0.83, 0.79, respectively). Conclusion Physical exercise is associated with lower t-FM, r-FM, and insulin resistance, which could contribute to the decrease of the risk of cardiovascular and metabolic conditions in individuals with c-SCI. PMID:24090139

  13. Research Update on Extreme-Mass-Ratio Inspirals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro-Seoane, Pau; Gair, Jonathan R.; Pound, Adam; Hughes, Scott A.; Sopuerta, Carlos F.

    2015-05-01

    The inspirals of stellar-mass mass compact objects into massive black holes in the centres of galaxies are one of the most important sources of gravitational radiation for space- based detectors like LISA or eLISA. These extreme-mass-ratio inspirals (EMRIs) will enable an ambitious research program with implications for astrophysics, cosmology, and fundamental physics. This article is a summary of the talks delivered at the plenary session on EMRIs at the 10th International LISA Symposium. It contains research updates on the following topics: astrophysics of EMRIs; EMRI science potential; and EMRI modeling.

  14. Which Anthropometric Measure Best Correlates with Neonatal Fat Mass at Birth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Gal, Moran; Landau-Helman, Yeela; Biderman, Lihi; Nir, Romy; Maayan-Metzger, Ayala

    2016-07-01

    Objective Body composition provides additional information than weight alone. There is currently no accepted anthropometric measure of adiposity in infants, yet weight and length data allow calculations of a wide array of indices. The study objective was to identify the anthropometric index which best correlates with neonatal adiposity, by examining the associations between neonatal fat mass and several anthropometric indices of newborn infants. Study Design The sum of skinfolds (SSF), birth weight, and birth length were measured in 94 healthy infants (58% males) born at term to healthy mothers. Several anthropometric indices were calculated, and their relationship with SSF was assessed using linear regression adjusting for gestational age and sex. Results SSF at birth was significantly higher in females compared with males (20.7 ± 3.3 vs. 18.8 ± 4.1 mm, p = 0.019). Birth weight, birth weight-for-gestational-age percentile, birth weight percentile, and weight/length ratio had the highest associations with SSF, yet R (2) values were very low, ranging from 16 to 18%. Body mass index (BMI), BMI percentile, ponderal index, and the symmetry index had even lower associations. Conclusion No anthropometric measure can confidently assess fat mass in infants at birth, in accordance with previous research. When body composition data are needed, they should be directly measured.

  15. The administration of long-term high-fat diet in ovariectomized wistar rat (Study on Daily Food Intake, Lee Index, Abdominal Fat Mass and Leptin Serum Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dita Fitriani

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Serum leptin levels positively correlated with Lee index and abdominal fat mass, but negatively correlated with daily food intake. Administration of long-term high-fat diet in this study cannot induce leptin resistance.

  16. High fat diet promotes achievement of peak bone mass in young rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malvi, Parmanand; Piprode, Vikrant; Chaube, Balkrishna; Pote, Satish T. [National Centre for Cell Science, Savitribai Phule Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India); Mittal, Monika; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya [Division of Endocrinology and Center for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI), CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Jankipuram Extension, Sitapur Road, Lucknow 226 031 (India); Wani, Mohan R. [National Centre for Cell Science, Savitribai Phule Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India); Bhat, Manoj Kumar, E-mail: manojkbhat@nccs.res.in [National Centre for Cell Science, Savitribai Phule Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • High fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass at younger age. • Shifting from high fat to normal diet normalizes obese parameters. • Bone parameters are sustained even after withdrawal of high fat diet. - Abstract: The relationship between obesity and bone is complex. Epidemiological studies demonstrate positive as well as negative correlation between obesity and bone health. In the present study, we investigated the impact of high fat diet-induced obesity on peak bone mass. After 9 months of feeding young rats with high fat diet, we observed obesity phenotype in rats with increased body weight, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol. There were significant increases in serum total alkaline phosphatase, bone mineral density and bone mineral content. By micro-computed tomography (μ-CT), we observed a trend of better trabecular bones with respect to their microarchitecture and geometry. This indicated that high fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass and microstructure at younger age. We subsequently shifted rats from high fat diet to normal diet for 6 months and evaluated bone/obesity parameters. It was observed that after shifting rats from high fat diet to normal diet, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol were significantly decreased. Interestingly, the gain in bone mineral density, bone mineral content and trabecular bone parameters by HFD was retained even after body weight and obesity were normalized. These results suggest that fat rich diet during growth could accelerate achievement of peak bone mass that is sustainable even after withdrawal of high fat diet.

  17. A method to deconvolve mass ratio distribution from binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Cure, Michel; Christen, Alejandra; Cassetti, Julia; Boffin, Henri M J

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the evolution of stars in binary systems as well as to constrain the formation of binary stars, it is important to know the binary mass-ratio distribution. However, in most cases, i.e. for single-lined spectroscopic binaries, the mass ratio cannot be measured directly but only derived as the convolution of a function that depends on the mass ratio and the unknown inclination angle of the orbit on the plane of the sky. We extend our previous method to deconvolve this inverse problem (Cure et al. 2014), i.e., we obtain as an integral the cumulative distribution function (CDF) for the mass ratio distribution. After a suitable transformation of variables it turns out that this problem is the same as the one for rotational velocities $v \\sin i$, allowing a close analytic formulation for the CDF. We then apply our method to two real datasets: a sample of Am stars binary systems, and a sample of massive spectroscopic binaries in the Cyg OB2 Association.} {We are able to reproduce the previous re...

  18. Cross contamination in dual inlet isotope ratio mass spectrometers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, H.A.J.; Neubert, R.E.M.; Visser, G.H.

    2000-01-01

    Since the early days of geochemical isotope ratio mass spectrometry there has always been the problem of cross contamination, i.e. the contamination of the sample gas with traces of reference gas land vice versa) in a dual inlet system and the analyzer itself. This was attributable to valve leakages

  19. The Mass-Ratio Distribution of Visual Binary Stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogeveen, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    The selection effects that govern the observations of Visual Binary Stars are in- vestigated, in order to obtain a realistic statistical distribution of the mass-ratio q = Msec=Mprim. To this end a numerical simulation programme has been developed, which `generates' binary stars and `looks' at

  20. Effects of 4 weight-loss diets differing in fat, protein, and carbohydrate on fat mass, lean mass, visceral adipose tissue, and hepatic fat: results from the POUNDS LOST trial123

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Russell J; Carey, Vincent J; Hall, Kevin D; LeBoff, Meryl S; Loria, Catherine M; Laranjo, Nancy M; Sacks, Frank M; Smith, Steven R

    2012-01-01

    Background: Weight loss reduces body fat and lean mass, but whether these changes are influenced by macronutrient composition of the diet is unclear. Objective: We determined whether energy-reduced diets that emphasize fat, protein, or carbohydrate differentially reduce total, visceral, or hepatic fat or preserve lean mass. Design: In a subset of participants in a randomized trial of 4 weight-loss diets, body fat and lean mass (n = 424; by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and abdominal and hepatic fat (n = 165; by using computed tomography) were measured after 6 mo and 2 y. Changes from baseline were compared between assigned amounts of protein (25% compared with 15%) and fat (40% compared with 20%) and across 4 carbohydrate amounts (35% through 65%). Results: At 6 mo, participants lost a mean (±SEM) of 4.2 ± 0.3 kg (12.4%) fat and 2.1 ± 0.3 kg (3.5%) lean mass (both P fat (P ≥ 0.34), or 65% and 35% carbohydrate (P ≥ 0.27). Participants lost 2.3 ± 0.2 kg (13.8%) abdominal fat: 1.5 ± 0.2 kg (13.6%) subcutaneous fat and 0.9 ± 0.1 kg (16.1%) visceral fat (all P fat than did men relative to total-body fat loss. Participants regained ∼40% of these losses by 2 y, with no differences between diets (P ≥ 0.23). Weight loss reduced hepatic fat, but there were no differences between groups (P ≥ 0.28). Dietary goals were not fully met; self-reported contrasts were closer to 2% protein, 8% fat, and 14% carbohydrate at 6 mo and 1%, 7%, and 10%, respectively, at 2 y. Conclusion: Participants lost more fat than lean mass after consumption of all diets, with no differences in changes in body composition, abdominal fat, or hepatic fat between assigned macronutrient amounts. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00072995. PMID:22258266

  1. Effects of 4 weight-loss diets differing in fat, protein, and carbohydrate on fat mass, lean mass, visceral adipose tissue, and hepatic fat: results from the POUNDS LOST trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Russell J; Bray, George A; Carey, Vincent J; Hall, Kevin D; LeBoff, Meryl S; Loria, Catherine M; Laranjo, Nancy M; Sacks, Frank M; Smith, Steven R

    2012-03-01

    Weight loss reduces body fat and lean mass, but whether these changes are influenced by macronutrient composition of the diet is unclear. We determined whether energy-reduced diets that emphasize fat, protein, or carbohydrate differentially reduce total, visceral, or hepatic fat or preserve lean mass. In a subset of participants in a randomized trial of 4 weight-loss diets, body fat and lean mass (n = 424; by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and abdominal and hepatic fat (n = 165; by using computed tomography) were measured after 6 mo and 2 y. Changes from baseline were compared between assigned amounts of protein (25% compared with 15%) and fat (40% compared with 20%) and across 4 carbohydrate amounts (35% through 65%). At 6 mo, participants lost a mean (±SEM) of 4.2 ± 0.3 kg (12.4%) fat and 2.1 ± 0.3 kg (3.5%) lean mass (both P fat (P ≥ 0.34), or 65% and 35% carbohydrate (P ≥ 0.27). Participants lost 2.3 ± 0.2 kg (13.8%) abdominal fat: 1.5 ± 0.2 kg (13.6%) subcutaneous fat and 0.9 ± 0.1 kg (16.1%) visceral fat (all P fat than did men relative to total-body fat loss. Participants regained ~40% of these losses by 2 y, with no differences between diets (P ≥ 0.23). Weight loss reduced hepatic fat, but there were no differences between groups (P ≥ 0.28). Dietary goals were not fully met; self-reported contrasts were closer to 2% protein, 8% fat, and 14% carbohydrate at 6 mo and 1%, 7%, and 10%, respectively, at 2 y. Participants lost more fat than lean mass after consumption of all diets, with no differences in changes in body composition, abdominal fat, or hepatic fat between assigned macronutrient amounts. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00072995.

  2. Effects of ratio of milk fat to soy bean oil and whipping time on qualities of milk ice cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrit Thaiudom

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Qualities of ice cream are based on air cells, ice crystals and fat particles, which are the important parts to build up a good structure of ice cream. Ice cream whipping time also affects the ice cream qualities.This study focused on effects of ratio of milk fat to soy bean oil, whipping time, and their interaction on ice cream mix viscosity, overrun, air cell size, fat destabilization, hardness, melting rate, and shape retention ofice cream. Ice creams with ratio of milk fat to soy bean oil at 100:0, 50:50, 0:100 and whipping time at 15 and 20 min were produced and determined for their qualities. The results showed that ratio of milk fat to soybean oil affected all qualities of ice cream, while duration of whipping time influenced the overrun and air cell size. The interaction of ratio of milk fat to soy bean oil and whipping time affected only overrun. Ice creammix with ratio of milk fat to soy bean oil 100:0 showed the highest apparent viscosity and hardness and the biggest air cell size. Whipping time of ice cream for 20 min showed a bigger size of air cells than the whippingtime for 15 min (p < 0.05. These results can be applied to the manufacture of modified ice cream.

  3. Age–related rump fat, fat percent, body fat mass, leptin, androgens and semen parameters of Arab stallions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal M. Abo El-Maaty

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: This study proved that aging in stallions is related to a drop in fertility, a decrease in body fat and in turn leptin. Arab stallions of age 7 to 18 years could be used in the breeding efficiently.

  4. Influence of age, menopause status, body mass index and physical activity on body composition and body fat distribution in midlife women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Dai-min; Yu Qi; Zhang Ying; Chen Feng-ling

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of age,menopause status,body mass index (BMI) and physical activity on body composition and body fat distribution in Chinese midlife women.Methods: The healthy women who underwent anniversary health checkup in Peking Union Medical College Hospital were recruited cross-sectionally.The level of physical activity was determined via International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short in Chinese Version.The body composition and fat distribution were measured by dualenergy X-ray absorptiometry.Results: A total of 162 women with average age 52 years (40-62 years) were recruited.Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to test the relationship between age,menopause status,BMI and physical activity and parameters of body composition and body fat distribution.The total fat tissue percentage was positively associated with BMI (standardized partial regression coefficient: b=0.70),menopause status (b=0.19,grading variables 1,2,3 were assigned to represent for reproductive group,menopausal transition group and postmenopausal group,respectively),and negatively associated with physical activity energy expenditure (b=-0.17) with model determination coefficient 0.55.Total body fat-free-tissue mass was positively associated with BMI (b =0.61),negatively associated with menopause status (b =-0.14) with model determination coefficient 0.39.The ratio of trunk fat-tissue mass/total body fat-tissue mass (Tr/T) was positively associated with BMI (b=0.32) and menopause status (b= 0.30) with model determination coefficient 0.20.After adjusted the effects of BMI,menopause status and physical activity,age was not significantly related with total fat tissue percentage,body fat-free-tissue mass,nor ratio of (Tr/T).Conclusion: Menopause impacts body composition and body fat distribution independently.During the process of female reproductive aging,body fat tissue mass and centrally distributed fat tissue mass increase,while body fatfree

  5. [Measurements of location of body fat distribution: an assessment of colinearity with body mass, adiposity and stature in female adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Patrícia Feliciano; Serrano, Hiara Miguel Stanciola; Carvalho, Gisele Queiroz; Ribeiro, Sônia Machado Rocha; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2015-01-01

    To verify the correlation between body fat location measurements with the body mass index (BMI), percentage of body fat (%BF) and stature, according to the nutritional status in female adolescents. A controlled cross sectional study was carried out with 113 adolescents (G1: 38 eutrophic, but with high body fat level, G2: 40 eutrophic and G3: 35 overweight) from public schools in Viçosa-MG, Brazil. The following measures have been assessed: weight, stature, waist circumference (WC), umbilical circumference (UC), hip circumference (HC), thigh circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-stature ratio (WSR), waist-to-thigh ratio (WTR), conicity index (CI), sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), coronal diameter (CD), central skinfolds (CS) and peripheral (PS). The %BF was assessed by tetrapolar electric bioimpedance. The increase of central fat, represented by WC, UC, WSR, SAD, CD and CS, and the increase of peripheral fat indicated by HC and thigh were proportional to the increase of BMI and %BF. WC and especially the UC showed the strongest correlations with adiposity. Weak correlation between WHR, WTR, CI and CS/PS with adiposity were observed. The stature showed correlation with almost all the fat location measures, being regular or weak with waist. The results indicate colinearity between body mass and total adiposity with central and peripheral adipose tissue. We recommend the use of UC for assessing nutritional status of adolescents, because it showed the highest ability to predict adiposity in each group, and also presented regular or weak correlation with stature. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Visceral fat mass determination in rodent: validation of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and anthropometric techniques in fat and lean rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courteix Daniel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because abdominal obesity is predisposed to various metabolic disorders, it is of major importance to assess and track the changes with time of this specific fat mass. The main issue for clinicians or researchers is to use techniques for assessing abdominal fat deposition and its accumulation or changes over time, without sacrificing of experimental subjects. In the rat, techniques to investigate in-vivo visceral fat mass are lacking. The purpose of the study was to validate indirect Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry technique and abdominal circumference measurement as tools to predict visceral adipose tissue in rats. Forty-three Wistar male rats from different body weight, fat mass and ages were included in the study. Visceral fat mass was assessed by weighing the total perirenal and peri-epididymal adipose tissues after dissection. Statistical methods were used to discriminate the best region of interest allowing the in-vivo measure of Central Fat Mass by DXA. Abdominal circumference was measured at the same time as the DXA scan. Results A region of interest including Central Fat Mass from the whole body DXA scan (extending from L2 to L5 vertebrae, correlated strongly with ex-vivo Fat Mass (r = 0.94, p ex-vivo Fat Mass (r = 0.82, p ex-vivo Fat Mass but disappeared for the lean group between abdominal circumference and ex-vivo Fat Mass. Conclusions This study validates the Central Fat Mass determined by DXA as a non-sacrificial technique to assess visceral fat for in-vivo investigations in rats. The abdominal circumference measure appears useful in studying overweight or obese rats. These two techniques could be convenient tools in follow-up and longitudinal studies.

  7. TNF inhibitors increase fat mass in inflammatory rheumatic disease: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marouen, Sarah; Barnetche, Thomas; Combe, Bernard; Morel, Jacques; Daïen, Claire I

    2017-01-01

    To assess body composition of patients with inflammatory rheumatic disease and the effect of TNF inhibitors on it. This was systematic review with meta-analysis of studies consulted on PubMed, Cochrane Library and EMBASE and assessing body composition in patients with rheumatoid arthritis or spondyloarthritis. We compared i) patients with healthy controls and ii) body components before and after TNF inhibitors. Among the 703 articles reviewed, 19 met the inclusion criteria. In patients with rheumatoid arthritis, a significant increase in fat mass (+1.85 kg, p=0.02), adiposity (+3.53%, pincrease in fat mass (+0.69 kg, p=0.03) and a significant decrease in lean mass (-3.74 kg, p=0.03) were observed. Nine studies assessed impact of TNF inhibitors on body composition, with an increase of fat mass in the short and long term in all studies. Data on lean mass were controversial. Two studies found an increase in visceral or android mass under TNF inhibitors. Patients with inflammatory rheumatic disease have a significant decrease in lean mass and increase in fat mass. The use of TNF inhibitors is associated with a further increase in fat mass including android fat, which could potentially have cardiovascular consequences.

  8. Swimming exercise increases serum irisin level and reduces body fat mass in high-fat-diet fed Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yun; Li, Hongwei; Shen, Shi-Wei; Shen, Zhen-Hai; Xu, Ming; Yang, Cheng-Jian; Li, Feng; Feng, Yin-Bo; Yun, Jing-Ting; Wang, Ling; Qi, Hua-Jin

    2016-05-13

    It has been shown that irisin levels are reduced in skeletal muscle and plasma of obese rats; however, the effect of exercise training on irisin level remains controversial. We aim to evaluate the association of swimming exercise with serum irisin level and other obesity-associated parameters. Forty healthy male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups: a normal diet and sedentary group (ND group), normal diet and exercise group (NDE group), high-fat diet and sedentary group (HFD group), and high-fat diet and exercise group (HFDE group. After 8 consecutive weeks of swimming exercise, fat mass and serum irisin level was determined. Higher serum irisin levels were detected in the HFDE group (1.15 ± 0.28 μg/L) and NDE group (1.76 ± 0.17 μg/L) than in the HFD group (0.84 ± 0.23 μg/L) or the ND group (1.24 ± 0.29 μg/L), respectively (HFDE group vs. HFD group, P Swimming exercise decreases body fat mass in high-fat-fed Wistar rats, which may be attributable to elevated irisin levels induced by swimming exercise.

  9. Comparison of variations between percentage of body fat, body mass index and daily physical activity among young Japanese and Thai female students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morinaka Tomoko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In our series of investigations concerning the causes of seasonal change in fat accumulation in young university students, we could not find any contribution of seasonal variation in the ratio of carbohydrate and fat metabolism to that of body fat percentage in Japanese and Thai participants. After our previous study, we examined the effect of daily physical activity on body fat percentage to look for the major causes of seasonal change in fat accumulation in young university students. Findings In this study, we measured participants’ (young Japanese and Thai university students daily physical activity by a uniaxial accelerometer in addition to the measurements of body fat percentage and body mass index by a bioelectrical impedance meter. We found that there was significant and moderate negative correlation between body fat percentage and daily step counts among Japanese but not Thai participants. We observed significant, moderate and positive correlations between the percentage of body fat and body mass index among Japanese and Thai participants. Conclusions Daily physical activity plays an important role in the seasonal variation of body fat percentage of Japanese female students. Our present study also confirmed the importance of daily physical activity for controlling body mass index and for the prevention of obesity.

  10. Comparison of regional fat mass measurement by whole body DXA scans and anthropometric measures to predict insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Petersen, Maria Houborg; Ravn, Pernille; Hermann, Anne Pernille; Andersen, Marianne

    2016-11-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by obesity and insulin resistance. Measures of regional obesity may be used to predict insulin resistance. In the present study we compared fat distribution in patients with PCOS vs. controls and established the best measure of fat mass to predict insulin resistance in patients with PCOS. The study was cross-sectional in an academic tertiary-care medical center with 167 premenopausal women with PCOS and 110 controls matched for ethnicity, BMI and age. Total and regional fat and lean body mass were assessed by whole body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans. Anthropometric measures (BMI, waist) and fasting metabolic analyses [insulin, glucose, lipids, Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR), lipid accumulation product, and visceral adiposity index] were determined. Trial registration numbers: NCT00451568, NCT00145340. Women with PCOS had higher central fat mass (waist, waist-hip ratio, and upper/lower fat ratio) compared with controls. In bivariate associations, the strongest associations were found between HOMA-IR and the fat mass measures trunk fat (r = 0.59), waist (r = 0.57) and BMI (r = 0.56), all p resistance was gained by whole body DXA scan. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  11. Lean mass appears to be more strongly associated with bone health than fat mass in urban black South African women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sotunde, O.F.; Kruger, H.S.; Wright, H.H.; Havemann-Nel, L.; Kruger, Ina; Wentzel-Viljoen, E.; Kruger, A.; Tieland, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the association between body composition (fat mass, lean mass and body mass index, BMI) and bone health (bone mineral density, BMD and fracture risk) in urban black South African women. Design: A cross sectional study examining associations between body composition, dietary

  12. The plasma leptin concentration is closely associated with the body fat mass in nondiabetic uremic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Nielsen, P K; Olgaard, K

    1999-01-01

    Plasma leptin is associated with the body mass index and, more precisely, with the body fat mass. Plasma leptin has been found to be elevated in uremic patients. This study aimed at investigating the plasma leptin concentration and associations between plasma leptin, body fat mass, and glomerular...... filtration rate in nondiabetic predialysis uremic patients and in nondiabetic patients on chronic hemodialysis. Plasma leptin, body fat mass, and creatinine clearance were measured in 22 predialysis uremic patients, 18 hemodialysis patients, and 24 healthy control subjects. The logarithmically transformed...... plasma leptin concentration was closely associated with the body fat mass in all groups (r = 0.93, r = 0.83, and r = 0.72, respectively; p

  13. Bone Marrow Fat Changes After Gastric Bypass Surgery Are Associated With Loss of Bone Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tiffany Y; Schwartz, Ann V; Li, Xiaojuan; Xu, Kaipin; Black, Dennis M; Petrenko, Dimitry M; Stewart, Lygia; Rogers, Stanley J; Posselt, Andrew M; Carter, Jonathan T; Shoback, Dolores M; Schafer, Anne L

    2017-08-09

    Bone marrow fat is a unique fat depot that may regulate bone metabolism. Marrow fat is increased in states of low bone mass, severe underweight, and diabetes. However, longitudinal effects of weight loss and improved glucose homeostasis on marrow fat are unclear, as is the relationship between marrow fat and bone mineral density (BMD) changes. We hypothesized that after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery, marrow fat changes are associated with BMD loss. We enrolled 30 obese women, stratified by diabetes status. Before and 6 months after RYGB, we measured BMD by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and vertebral marrow fat content by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. At baseline, those with higher marrow fat had lower BMD. Postoperatively, total body fat declined dramatically in all participants. Effects of RYGB on marrow fat differed by diabetes status (p = 0.03). Nondiabetic women showed no significant mean change in marrow fat (+1.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.8% to +5.4%, p = 0.29), although those who lost more total body fat were more likely to have marrow fat increases (r = -0.70, p = 0.01). In contrast, diabetic women demonstrated a mean marrow fat change of -6.5% (95% CI -13.1% to 0%, p = 0.05). Overall, those with greater improvements in hemoglobin A1c had decreases in marrow fat (r = 0.50, p = 0.01). Increases in IGF-1, a potential mediator of the marrow fat-bone relationship, were associated with marrow fat declines (r = -0.40, p = 0.05). Spinal volumetric BMD decreased by 6.4% ± 5.9% (p fat and BMD changes were negatively associated, such that those with marrow fat increases had more BMD loss at both spine (r = -0.58, p loss may influence marrow fat behavior, and marrow fat may be a determinant of bone metabolism. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  14. MASS CHANGES IN MIGRATING BIRDS - THE EVIDENCE FOR FAT AND PROTEIN STORAGE REEXAMINED

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PIERSMA, T

    1993-01-01

    The fact that one cannot kill a bird twice makes it very difficult to determine the relative contributions of fat and non-fat components to increases in body mass before migratory flights in individual birds. Knowing the relative contributions of these components is of obvious energetic interest sin

  15. MASS CHANGES IN MIGRATING BIRDS - THE EVIDENCE FOR FAT AND PROTEIN STORAGE REEXAMINED

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PIERSMA, T

    The fact that one cannot kill a bird twice makes it very difficult to determine the relative contributions of fat and non-fat components to increases in body mass before migratory flights in individual birds. Knowing the relative contributions of these components is of obvious energetic interest

  16. Oxygen isotopic ratios in intermediate-mass red giants

    CERN Document Server

    Lebzelter, Thomas; Hinkle, Kenneth; Nowotny, Walter; Aringer, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Context. The abundances of the three main isotopes of oxygen are altered in the course of the CNO-cycle. When the first dredge-up mixes the burning products to the surface, the nucleosynthesis processes can be probed by measuring oxygen isotopic ratios. Aims. By measuring 16O/17O and 16O/18O in red giants of known mass we compare the isotope ratios with predictions from stellar and galactic evolution modelling. Methods. Oxygen isotopic ratios were derived from the K-band spectra of six red giants. The sample red giants are open cluster members with known masses of between 1.8 and 4.5 Msun . The abundance determination employs synthetic spectra calculated with the COMARCS code. The effect of uncertainties in the nuclear reaction rates, the mixing length, and of a change in the initial abundance of the oxygen isotopes was determined by a set of nucleosynthesis and mixing models using the FUNS code. Results. The observed 16O/17O ratios are in good agreement with the model results, even if the measured values do ...

  17. Effect of increasing the protein-to-fat ratio and reducing fat content on the chemical and physical properties of processed cheese product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinee, T P; O'Callaghan, D J

    2013-01-01

    Scientific studies indicate that the intake of dietary fat and saturated fats in the modern Western diet is excessive and contributes adversely to health, lifestyle, and longevity. In response, manufacturers of cheese and processed cheese products (PCP) are pursuing the development of products with reduced fat contents. The present study investigated the effect of altering the fat level (13.8, 18.2, 22.7, 27.9, and 32.5 g/100g) in PCP on their chemical and physical properties. The PCP were formulated in triplicate to different fat levels using Cheddar cheese, skim milk cheese, anhydrous milk fat, emulsifying salt (ES), NaCl, and water. The formulations were designed to give fixed moisture (~53 g/100g) and ES:protein ratio (0.105). The resultant PCP, and their water-soluble extracts (WSE), prepared from a macerated blend of PCP and water at a weight ratio of 1:2, were analyzed at 4d. Reducing the fat content significantly increased the firmness of the unheated PCP and reduced the flowability and maximum loss tangent (fluidity) of the melted PCP. These changes coincided with increases in the levels of total protein, water-soluble protein, water-insoluble protein, and water-soluble Ca, and a decrease in the molar ratio of water-soluble Ca to soluble P. However, both water-soluble Ca and water-soluble protein decreased when expressed as percentages of total protein and total Ca, respectively, in the PCP. The high level of protein was a major factor contributing to the deterioration in physical properties as the fat content of PCP was reduced. Diluting the protein content or reducing the potential of the protein to aggregate, and thereby form structures that contribute to rigidity, may provide a means for improving quality of reduced-fat PCP by using natural cheese with lower intact casein content and lower calcium:casein ratio, for example, or by decreasing the ratio of sodium phosphate to sodium citrate-based ES.

  18. The Effect of Substrat Ratio Fish Oil and Milk Fat on Synthesis of Structured Lipid by Enzimatic Transesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edy Subroto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Structured lipid with saturated fatty acid (SFA at outer position and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA at sn-2 position has good dietary and stabilized characteristics. In this research structured lipids was synthesized by enzymatic transesterification between fish oil and milk fat. The reaction was catalyzed by lipase from Candida antartica that has randomized specificity to inter esterification. The factor substrat ratio of fish oil and milk fat were studied. Reaction operated at 40 oC for 4 hours, and the enzim concentration was 10 % by substrat. Composition of fatty acid, regiospecificity position of fatty acid, and glyceride profile were determinate. The results showed that the substrat ratio of fish oil: milk fat affect the composition of structured lipid. The more of milk fat added showed that composition saturated fatty acids on structured lipid was increased but the unsaturated fatty acids wasdecreased. The regiospecificity of structured lipid showed that saturated fatty acid has tendency at outer position and unsaturatedfatty acid at sn-2 position and optimum at ratio fish oil: milk fat was 1 : 3 (w/w. In the ratio fish-oil: milk fat 1:3 produced structured lipids in which the sn-2 incorporated by unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic, EPA, and DHA was 22.9; 3.3, and 2.2% respectively. While in position sn-1, 3 incorporated mostly medium chain and saturated fatty acids such as capric, lauric, myristic, palmitic, and stearic acid 5.0; 7.0; 16.6; 31.7, and 9.9 % respectively. The ratio substrate did not affect the profil of glyceride on structured lipid. Triglyceride tend to decreased, and the diglyceride and monogliceride was increased with an increase of milk fat on substrate but not significantly. Structured lipid showed the characteristic like milk fat but high nutrition because rich of PUFA at sn-2 position, so this product may can applied on milk fortification.

  19. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation improves exercise tolerance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with better preserved fat-free mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Maris Nápolis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation increases exercise tolerance in patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients. However, it is conceivable that its benefits are more prominent in patients with better-preserved peripheral muscle function and structure. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of high-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation in COPD patients with better-preserved peripheral muscle function. Design: Prospective and cross-over study. METHODS: Thirty COPD patients were randomly assigned to either home-based, high-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation or sham stimulation for six weeks. The training intensity was adjusted according to each subject's tolerance. Fat-free mass, isometric strength, six-minute walking distance and time to exercise intolerance (Tlim were assessed. RESULTS: Thirteen (46.4% patients responded to high-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation; that is, they had a post/pre Δ Tlim >10% after stimulation (unimproved after sham stimulation. Responders had a higher baseline fat-free mass and six-minute walking distance than their seventeen (53.6% non-responding counterparts. Responders trained at higher stimulation intensities; their mean amplitude of stimulation during training was significantly related to their fat-free mass (r = 0.65; p<0.01. Logistic regression revealed that fat-free mass was the single independent predictor of Tlim improvement (odds ratio [95% CI] = 1.15 [1.04-1.26]; p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that high-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation improved the exercise capacity of COPD patients with better-preserved fat-free mass because they tolerated higher training stimulus levels. These data suggest that early training with high-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation before tissue wasting begins might enhance exercise tolerance in patients with less advanced COPD.

  20. The serum LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio is influenced more favorably by exchanging saturated with unsaturated fat than by reducing saturated fat in the diet of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Hanne; Lindman, Anja S; Brantsaeter, Anne Lise; Pedersen, Jan I

    2003-01-01

    We compared the effects of a high fat diet [38.4% of energy (E%) from fat; HSAFA diet, polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid (P/S) ratio = 0.14], a low fat diet (19.7 E% from fat; LSAFA diet, P/S = 0.17), both based on coconut oil, and a diet with a high content of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA; 38.2 E% from fat; HUFA diet, P/S = 1.9) on serum lipoproteins. The 25 women studied consumed each diet for 3-wk periods in a crossover design. The two high fat diets were identical except for the quality of the test fat. The LSAFA diet was identical to the HSAFA diet except that half the fat was replaced by carbohydrates. Serum total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and apoB concentrations did not differ between the HSAFA and the LSAFA diet periods. Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and apoB were lower when women consumed the HUFA diet than when they consumed the other two diets. HDL cholesterol and apoA-I were 15 and 11%, respectively, higher when women consumed the HSAFA diet than when they consumed the LSAFA diet; HDL cholesterol and apoA-I were lower when women consumed the HUFA diet than when they consumed the HSAFA diet, but not the LSAFA diet. The LDL cholesterol/HDL cholesterol and apoB/apoA-I ratios were higher when women consumed the LSAFA diet than when they consumed the HSAFA diet. The LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio was higher when women consumed either the LSAFA or the HSAFA diet than when they consumed the HUFA diet, whereas apoB/apoA-I was higher when women consumed the LSAFA diet than when they consumed the HUFA diet. Triacylglycerol and VLDL cholesterol were higher when women consumed the LSAFA diet than when they consumed either the HSAFA or the HUFA diet. We conclude that, to influence the LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio, changing the proportions of dietary fatty acids may be more important than restricting the percentage of total or saturated fat energy, at least when derived mainly from lauric and myristic acids, both of which increase HDL cholesterol.

  1. PERCENT FAT MASS AND BODY MASS INDEX AS CARDIORESPIRATORY FITNESS PREDICTORS IN YOUNG ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Dewi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe present study aimed to analyze the association between body fatness measures, i.e. body mass index (BMI and percent fat mass (% FM with cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF in young adults. Seventy five undergraduate students aged 19-21 years were included in this cross sectional study. Body composition was assessed by tetra polar Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis method, and CRF was determined as VO2 max level by conducting Balke test and flexibility by sit-and-reach test. Regression tests were performed to assess the associations between the body fatness measures and CRF. The mean (SD % FM and BMI were 25.6 (8.3 % and 22.4 (4.2 kg/m2, respectively. Both BMI and % FM were inversely associated with VO2 max and flexibility. The associations of % FM with each CRF measure were stronger (% FM-VO2 max: R2=0.45, p<0.0001; % FM-flexibility: R2=0.16, p<0.0001 than those of BMI (BMI-VO2 max: R2= 0.12, p=0.002; BMI-flexibility: R2=0.07, p<0.0001. Including gender as a variable predictor greatly improved almost all associations. We suggest that %FM is a better predictor for VO2max than BMI. Further studies are needed to elucidate the relationships of body fatness measures adjusted for potential confounding factors with CRF measures other than VO2 max.Keywords: body mass index, cardiorespiratory fitness, percent fat massABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan hubungan antara persentase lemak tubuh (PLT dan indeks massa tubuh (IMT dengan kebugaran kardiorespiratorik (KKR pada dewasa muda. Penelitian menggunakan desain potong lintang dengan melibatkan 75 orang mahasiswa usia 19-21 tahun. PLT ditentukan dengan metode tetra polar Bioelectrical Impedance dan KKR ditentukan dengan VO2max berdasarkan uji Balke dan fleksibilitas dengan uji sit-and-reach. Hubungan antara PLT dan IMT dengan KKR dianalisis dengan uji regresi. Rata-rata (standar deviasi dari PLT dan IMT berturut-turut adalah 25,6 (8,3% dan 22,4 (4,2 kg/m2. Baik PLT maupun IMT berbanding

  2. Evaluation of obesity by body mass index,waist-hip-ratio and percentage body fat in adolescent%体质量指数、腰臀比、体脂百分率评价青少年肥胖的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李斌; 郭均涛; 王宏; 曹型厚; 张亚妮; 华隆超

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the sensitivity of body mass index (BMI),waist-hip ratio (WHR)and percentage body fat (PBF)in the evaluation of the obese adolescents population,and find a more sensitive evaluation method.Methods In this study,2 045 adolescents were recruited in the city of Chongqing by using multiple-stage random cluster sampling,and they were identified as overweight or obesity on the base of BMI,WHR and PBF.Results There was significant difference among the detection rate of the three methods (PBMI(0.918)>WHR (0.694). Conclusion The sensitivity of PBF and BMI was higher.Although the WHR sensitivity was lower,WHR is a good predictor asso-ciated for chronic diseases,which suggests that the development of appropriate adolescent WHR standard is necessary.%目的:比较体质量指数(BMI)、腰臀比(WHR)、体脂百分率(PBF)评价青少年人群肥胖的灵敏度,得出较为灵敏的评价方法。方法采用多阶段随机整群抽样,对重庆2045名青少年进行相关指标的测定,并采用 BMI、WHR、PBF评价青少年是否超体质量、肥胖。结果3种方法的检出率相差较大,其中PBF的检出率最高(12.9%),其次为BMI(7.2%)、WHR(6.0%),且差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);一致性检验发现,3种方法两两之间一致性较差,其中 Kappa(BMI与 WHR)=0.199,Kappa (BMI与PBF)=0.441,Kappa(WHR与 PBF)=0.187;采用综合评价作为金标准,分别与3种方法进行受试者工作特征曲线(ROC曲线)分析发现曲线下面积:PBF(0.954)>BMI(0.918)>WHR(0.694)。结论 PBF和 BMI评价青少年肥胖的灵敏度较高,WHR灵敏度虽然较低,但对相关慢性疾病有很好的预测作用。

  3. Fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Katrine Kleberg

    In 1727, the English physician Thomas Short wrote: “I believe no Age did ever afford more instances of Corpulency than our own.” Even in the 18th century, fatness was addressed as an issue of special contemporary concern. This thesis probes concepts and perceptions of fatness in Western European...... Medicine c. 1700–1900. It has been written with particular attention to whether and how fatness has been regarded as a disease during that period in history. One purpose of the thesis is to investigate the immediate period before fatness allegedly became problematized. Another purpose has been to grasp...

  4. Fat mass loss predicts gain in physical function with intentional weight loss in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavers, Kristen M; Miller, Michael E; Rejeski, W Jack; Nicklas, Barbara J; Krichevsky, Stephen B; Kritchevsky, Stephen B

    2013-01-01

    Clinical recommendation of weight loss (WL) in older adults remains controversial, partially due to concerns regarding lean mass loss and potential loss of physical function. The purpose of this study is to determine the independent associations between changes in fat and lean mass and changes in physical function in older, overweight, and obese adults undergoing intentional WL. Data from three randomized-controlled trials of intentional WL in older adults with similar functional outcomes (short physical performance battery and Pepper assessment tool for disability) were combined. Analyses of covariance models were used to investigate relationships between changes in weight, fat, and lean mass (acquired using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) and changes in physical function. Overall loss of body weight was -7.8 ± 6.1 kg (-5.6 ± 4.1 kg and -2.7 ± 2.4 kg of fat and lean mass, respectively). In all studies combined, after adjustment for age, sex, and height, overall WL was associated with significant improvements in self-reported mobility disability (p fat and lean mass as independent variables found only the change in fat mass to significantly predict change in mobility disability (β[fat] = 0.04; p fat] = -0.01; p loss of body weight, following intentional WL, is associated with significant improvement in self-reported mobility disability and walking speed in overweight and obese older adults. Importantly, fat mass loss was found to be a more significant predictor of change in physical function than lean mass loss.

  5. Association between Interleukin-15 and Obesity: Interleukin-15 as a Potential Regulator of Fat Mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Rinnov; Hojman, Pernille; Erikstrup, Christian

    2008-01-01

    regulate adipose tissue mass. Design: The relation between skeletal muscle IL-15 mRNA expression, plasma IL-15, and adipose tissue mass was studied in 199 humans divided into four groups on the basis of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, using a DNA electrotransfer model, we assessed the effect...... of IL-15 overexpression in skeletal muscle of mice. Results: In humans, multiple regression analysis showed a negative association between plasma IL-15 and total fat mass (P fat mass (P fat mass (P type 2 diabetes. Negative associations were......Objective: IL-15 decreases lipid deposition in preadipocytes and decreases the mass of white adipose tissue in rats, indicating that IL-15 may take part in regulating this tissue. IL-15 is expressed in human skeletal muscle and skeletal muscle may be a source of plasma IL-15 and in this way...

  6. Role of heart rate in the relation between regional body fat and subendocardial viability ratio in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Joaquin U; Hadri, Omar

    2016-09-01

    Subendocardial viability ratio (SEVR) is a measure of left ventricular function, specifically; it is an index of myocardial perfusion relative to left ventricular workload. Women have lower SEVR than men, partly due to a faster resting heart rate that reduces diastolic time (i.e., time for myocardial perfusion). It is unclear if body fat relates to SEVR, thus the purpose of this study was to examine the relation between body fat and SEVR in women. Twenty-eight middle-aged (31-45 years) and 31 older (60-80 years) women were examined. Radial artery applanation tonometry was used to calculate SEVR from a synthesized central aortic pressure wave. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to assess body composition including fat in the trunk, legs, android and gynoid regions. Body fat was not related (P>.05) with SEVR in older women. In middle-aged women, all measures of regional fat were correlated with heart rate (range, r=.49-.59, P≤.01) and SEVR (range, r=.43-.53, P≤.01). Android-to-gynoid ratio was identified as the strongest predictor (r(2) =-.26, Pfat. Middle-aged women with lower android-to-gynoid fat ratio had higher SEVR (1.96±0.33 vs 1.66±0.20, P=.009) than women with higher fat ratio, even after adjusting for age, height, daily physical activity, and aortic mean pressure (P=.02). Adjusting for heart rate or diastolic time abolished the difference in SEVR between groups (1.80±0.09 vs 1.82±0.09, P=.56). These results suggest that middle-aged women with a greater distribution of fat in the abdomen have poorer left ventricular function that is dependent on the negative influence of heart rate on diastolic time.

  7. Flavor Ratios and Mass Hierarchy at Neutrino Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Fu, Lingjun

    2014-01-01

    The observation of high-energy extraterrestrial neutrinos at IceCube represents the beginning of the era of neutrino astronomy. In this paper, we study the cosmic neutrino flavor ratios against the Dirac CP-violating phase at neutrino telescopes, taking into account of the charged-current and neutral-current interactions at the detectors. We then demonstrate how to probe mass hierarchy at neutrino telescopes by the precise measurements of the cosmic neutrino flavor ratios. We show that the sensitivity of our scheme is independent of the undetermined values of the Dirac CP-violating phase. We also explore the possible effects of active-sterile mixing, neutrino decay and pseudo-Dirac nature of neutrinos.

  8. Proton-Electron Mass Ratio: A Geometric Inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva P. R.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose that the inertial masses of the proto n and of the electron can be associated to volumes of the unit cells of hyper-cubic latti ces constructed in the momen- tum space. The sizes of the edges of these cells are given by th e Planck’s momentum in the case of the electron, and by a modified Planck’s momentu m in the case of the proton. We introduce a “conservation of information princi ple” in order to obtain the wave function which leads to this modified momentum. This mod ification is attributed to the curvature of the space-time, and in doing this, the con cept of the entropy of a black hole has been considered. The obtained proton-electr on mass ratio reproduces various results of the literature, and compares well with th e experimental findings.

  9. Synthetic stellar mass-to-light ratios for stellar populations

    CERN Document Server

    Maraston, C

    1998-01-01

    Evolutionary synthesis models for stellar populations of various ages and chemical compositions are constructed with the approach described in Maraston (1998), in which the Fuel Consumption Theorem is used to evaluate the energetics of Post Main Sequence stars. We present here the synthetic `stellar' mass-to-light ratios (M*/L) in the U,B,V,R,I,J,H,K photometric bands, as functions of age and chemical composition, for single burst populations. Taking into account the contribution by stellar dead remnants, the computed M*/L ratios can be directly compared to those measured in early-type galaxies. The dependence of M*/L ratios on the IMF slope is also explored. The most interesting result is that the M*/L_B ratio of a 15 Gyr stellar population is found to increase by nearly a factor of three, when the chemical composition rises from [Fe/H] \\sim -0.5 to [Fe/H] \\sim +0.3. This impacts on the interpretation of the tilt of the Fundamental Plane of cluster ellipticals in the B band.

  10. Gravitational waves and mass ejecta from binary neutron star mergers: Effect of the mass-ratio

    CERN Document Server

    Dietrich, Tim; Tichy, Wolfgang; Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Bruegmann, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    We present new (3+1)D numerical relativity simulations of the binary neutron star (BNS) merger and postmerger phase. We focus on a previously inaccessible region of the binary parameter space spanning the binary's mass-ratio $q\\sim1.00-1.75$ for different total masses and equations of state, and up to $q\\sim2$ for a stiff BNS system. We study the mass-ratio effect on the gravitational waves (GWs) and on the possible electromagnetic emission associated to dynamical mass ejecta. We compute waveforms, spectra, and spectrograms of the GW strain including all the multipoles up to $l=4$. The mass-ratio has a specific imprint on the GW multipoles in the late-inspiral-merger signal, and it affects qualitatively the spectra of the merger remnant. The multipole effect is also studied by considering the dependency of the GW spectrograms on the source's sky location. Unequal mass BNSs produce more ejecta than equal mass systems with ejecta masses and kinetic energies depending almost linearly on $q$. We estimate luminosi...

  11. Gravitational waves and mass ejecta from binary neutron star mergers: Effect of the mass ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Tim; Ujevic, Maximiliano; Tichy, Wolfgang; Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Brügmann, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    We present new (3 +1 )D numerical relativity simulations of the binary neutron star (BNS) merger and postmerger phase. We focus on a previously inaccessible region of the binary parameter space spanning the binary's mass ratio q ˜1.00 - 1.75 for different total masses and equations of state, and up to q ˜2 for a stiff BNS system. We study the mass ratio effect on the gravitational waves (GWs) and on the possible electromagnetic (EM) emission associated with dynamical mass ejecta. We compute waveforms, spectra, and spectrograms of the GW strain including all the multipoles up to l =4 . The mass ratio has a specific imprint on the GW multipoles in the late-inspiral-merger signal, and it affects qualitatively the spectra of the merger remnant. The multipole effect is also studied by considering the dependency of the GW spectrograms on the source's sky location. Unequal mass BNSs produce more ejecta than equal mass systems with ejecta masses and kinetic energies depending almost linearly on q . We estimate luminosity peaks and light curves of macronova events associated with the mergers using a simple approach. For q ˜2 the luminosity peak is delayed for several days and can be up to 4 times larger than for the q =1 cases. The macronova emission associated with the q ˜2 BNS is more persistent in time and could be observed for weeks instead of a few days (q =1 ) in the near infrared. Finally, we estimate the flux of possible radio flares produced by the interaction of relativistic outflows with the surrounding medium. Also in this case a large q can significantly enhance the emission and delay the peak luminosity. Overall, our results indicate that the BNS merger with a large mass ratio has EM signatures distinct from the equal mass case and more similar to black hole-neutron star binaries.

  12. Deep, Low Mass Ratio Overcontact Binaries. II. IK Persei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, L.-Y.; Qian, S.-B.; Soonthornthum, B.; Yang, Y.-G.

    2005-06-01

    BV photometric light curves of the eclipsing binary IK Per were obtained during three nights in 2002 December. The photometric elements were computed using the Wilson-Devinney code. The results reveal that IK Per is an A-type overcontact binary system with a low mass ratio of q=0.17 and a large degree of overcontact of 60%. The asymmetry of the light curves (i.e., the O'Connell effect) is explained by spot models. The observed long-term orbital period decrease [dP/dt=-(2.5+/-0.09)×10-7 days yr-1] is probably influenced by the presence of a third body in the system. The low mass ratio, high degree of overcontact, and secular orbital decrease all indicate that the situation of IK Per resembles those of FG Hya, GR Vir, and AW UMa. Because of the decrease of their orbital periods, the shrinking of the inner and outer critical Roche lobes will lead the common envelopes to overlap more, and finally the systems will evolve into single rapid-rotation stars.

  13. Influence of lean body-mass index versus that of fat mass index on blood pressure of gujarati school going adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Vivek; Sinah, S K

    2014-01-01

    There are so many studies associating blood pressure in children and adolescents with body fatness i.e. stating that high body fat is associated with high blood pressure in children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to determine that which portion of the body mass index, fat or fat free mass index is more influencing the blood pressure in Gujarati Indian adolescents. 733 schoolchildren of 10-18 years of both genders were chosen for this study. The body fat percentage and blood pressure were measured and on the basis of body mass and fat mass, fat free mass index and various other indices were calculated. The association of fat mass index and fat free mass index with blood pressure was computed using correlations. The relationship of BMI with mean blood pressure of boys (R = .326) was more strong than that in girls (R = .149). The blood pressure was having more strong positive correlation with lean body mass index than that with fat mass index in all subjects (R = 0.230 versus R = 0.184), boys (R = 0.285 versus R = 0.242), & girls (R = 0.179 versus R = -0.081). Fat free mass index has more strong association with blood pressure than fat mass index in the adolescent population irrespective of gender. However as far as prevention of hypertension is concerned, reducing body fat (rather than only body weight) may remain an important measure to prevent hypertension as body fat mass is reducible while lean body mass may not be reducible and, in long term, obesity itself can lead to hypertension by various mechanisms.

  14. Effect of two different protein/fat ratios of the diet on meagre (Argyrosomus regius traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Moniello

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two diets with different protein/fat ratios (P/F (diet A: P/F 2.26; diet B: P/F 3.36 on the chemical composition, fatty acid profile and some somatic indexes of meagre (Argyrosomus regius. The trial was carried out on two groups of meagre raised in two different sea cages during 15 months. At the end of the production cycle biometric measures as well as chemical-nutritional analysis of the fillets were conducted on 25 fishes per group. Diet A, with a lower P/F, furnished animals with higher percentages of mesenteric fat (0.48 vs 0.41%; P<0.01 and of fillet yield (51.21 vs 48.12; P<0.01. Moreover, the fillets obtained with the diet A showed higher percentage of fat (3.60 vs 2.41%; P< 0.01, lower moisture (74.10 vs 75.42%; P<0.01, lower losses of water under pressure (16.73 vs 20.20%; P<0.01 and after 48 h of refrigeration (3.08 vs 4.23%; P<0.01. The fatty acids profile of fillets was affected by the diet. Diet A resulted in a higher level of saturated fatty acids (26.44 vs 23.17% of total lipid; P<0.01 and a lower percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (31.56 vs 36.08%; P<0.01 in the fillet, mainly due to the lower content of linoleic acid (13.63 vs 19.77%; P<0.01. The atherogenic (AI and thrombogenic (TI indexes, which resulted very low in the fish of Group B (AI=0.48 vs 0.60, P<0.01; TI=0.33 vs 0.37, P<0.01, together with the low lipid content of meat in both groups, confirmed the very high nutritional quality of meagre fillets.

  15. Body mass, fat-free body mass, and prognosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease from a random population sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen; Prescott, Eva; Almdal, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Low body mass index (BMI) is a marker of poor prognosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the general population, the harmful effect of low BMI is due to the deleterious effects of a low fat-free mass index (FFMI; fat-free mass/weight(2)).......Low body mass index (BMI) is a marker of poor prognosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the general population, the harmful effect of low BMI is due to the deleterious effects of a low fat-free mass index (FFMI; fat-free mass/weight(2))....

  16. The Capra Research Program for Modelling Extreme Mass Ratio Inspirals

    CERN Document Server

    Thornburg, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Suppose a small compact object (black hole or neutron star) of mass $m$ orbits a large black hole of mass $M \\gg m$. This system emits gravitational waves (GWs) that have a radiation-reaction effect on the particle's motion. EMRIs (extreme--mass-ratio inspirals) of this type will be important GW sources for LISA; LISA's data analysis will require highly accurate EMRI GW templates. In this article I outline the "Capra" research program to try to model EMRIs and calculate their GWs \\textit{ab initio}, assuming only that $m \\ll M$ and that the Einstein equations hold. Here we treat the EMRI spacetime as a perturbation of the large black hole's "background" (Schwarzschild or Kerr) spacetime and use the methods of black-hole perturbation theory, expanding in the small parameter $m/M$. The small body's motion can be described either as the result of a radiation-reaction "self-force" acting in the background spacetime or as geodesic motion in a perturbed spacetime. Several different lines of reasoning lead to the (s...

  17. The global mass - to - light ratio of SLACS lenses

    CERN Document Server

    Cardone, V F; Molinaro, R; Salzano, V

    2009-01-01

    The dark matter content of early,- type galaxies (ETGs) is a hotly debated topic with contrasting results arguing in favour or against the presence of significant dark mass within the effective radius and the change with luminosity and mass. In order to address this question, we investigate here the global mass - to - light ratio $\\Upsilon(r) = M(r)/L(r)$ of a sample of 21 lenses observed within the Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) survey. We follow the usual approach of modeling the galaxy as a two component systems, but we use a phenomenological ansatz for $\\Upsilon(r)$, proposed by some of us in Tortora et al. (2007), able to smoothly interpolate between constant $M/L$ models and a wide class of dark matter haloes. The resulting galaxy model is then fitted to the data on the Einstein radius and velocity dispersion. Our phenomenological model turns out to be in well agreement with the data suggesting the presence of massive dark matter haloes in order to explain the lensing and dynamics properties of the SLACS lenses...

  18. Genetic association study of common mitochondrial variants on body fat mass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tie-Lin Yang

    Full Text Available Mitochondria play a central role in ATP production and energy metabolism. Previous studies suggest that common variants in mtDNA are associated with several common complex diseases, including obesity. To test the hypothesis that common mtDNA variants influence obesity-related phenotypes, including BMI and body fat mass, we genotyped a total of 445 mtSNPs across the whole mitochondrial genome in a large sample of 2,286 unrelated Caucasian subjects. 72 of these 445 mtSNPs passed quality control criteria, and were used for subsequent analyses. We also classified all subjects into nine common European haplogroups. Association analyses were conducted for both BMI and body fat mass with single mtSNPs and mtDNA haplogroups. Two mtSNPs, mt4823 and mt8873 were detected to be significantly associated with body fat mass, with adjusted P values of 4.94 × 10⁻³ and 4.58 × 10⁻², respectively. The minor alleles mt4823 C and mt8873 A were associated with reduced fat mass values and the effect size (β was estimated to be 3.52 and 3.18, respectively. These two mtSNPs also achieved nominally significant levels for association with BMI. For haplogroup analyses, we found that haplogroup X was strongly associated with both BMI (adjusted P = 8.31 × 10⁻³ and body fat mass (adjusted P = 5.67×10⁻⁴ Subjects classified as haplogroup X had lower BMI and fat mass values, with the β estimated to be 2.86 and 6.03, respectively. Our findings suggest that common variants in mitochondria might play a role in variations of body fat mass. Further molecular and functional studies will be needed to clarify the potential mechanism.

  19. N-body modeling of globular clusters: Masses, mass-to-light ratios and intermediate-mass black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgardt, H.

    2016-10-01

    We have determined the masses and mass-to-light ratios of 50 Galactic globular clusters by comparing their velocity dispersion and surface brightness profiles against a large grid of 900 N-body simulations of star clusters of varying initial concentration, size and central black hole mass fraction. Our models follow the evolution of the clusters under the combined effects of stellar evolution and two-body relaxation allowing us to take the effects of mass segregation and energy equipartition between stars self-consistently into account. For a subset of 16 well observed clusters we also derive their kinematic distances. We find an average mass-to-light ratio of Galactic globular clusters of =1.98 ± 0.03, which agrees very well with the expected M/L ratio if the initial mass function (IMF) of the clusters was a standard Kroupa or Chabrier mass function. We do not find evidence for a decrease of the average mass-to-light ratio with metallicity. The surface brightness and velocity dispersion profiles of most globular clusters are incompatible with the presence of intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) with more than a few thousand M⊙ in them. The only clear exception is ω Cen, where the velocity dispersion profile provides strong evidence for the presence of a ˜40,000 M⊙ IMBH in the centre of the cluster.

  20. N -body modelling of globular clusters: masses, mass-to-light ratios and intermediate-mass black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgardt, H.

    2017-01-01

    We have determined the masses and mass-to-light ratios of 50 Galactic globular clusters by comparing their velocity dispersion and surface brightness profiles against a large grid of 900 N-body simulations of star clusters of varying initial concentration, size and central black hole mass fraction. Our models follow the evolution of the clusters under the combined effects of stellar evolution and two-body relaxation allowing us to take the effects of mass segregation and energy equipartition between stars self-consistently into account. For a subset of 16 well-observed clusters, we also derive their kinematic distances. We find an average mass-to-light ratio of Galactic globular clusters of =1.98 ± 0.03, which agrees very well with the expected M/L ratio if the initial mass function (IMF) of the clusters was a standard Kroupa or Chabrier mass function. We do not find evidence for a decrease in the average mass-to-light ratio with metallicity. The surface brightness and velocity dispersion profiles of most globular clusters are incompatible with the presence of intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) with more than a few thousand M⊙ in them. The only clear exception is ω Cen, where the velocity dispersion profile provides strong evidence for the presence of a ˜40 000 M⊙ IMBH in the centre of the cluster.

  1. N-body modeling of globular clusters: Masses, mass-to-light ratios and intermediate-mass black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Baumgardt, Holger

    2016-01-01

    We have determined the masses and mass-to-light ratios of 50 Galactic globular clusters by comparing their velocity dispersion and surface brightness profiles against a large grid of 900 N-body simulations of star clusters of varying initial concentration, size and central black hole mass fraction. Our models follow the evolution of the clusters under the combined effects of stellar evolution and two-body relaxation allowing us to take the effects of mass segregation and energy equipartition between stars self-consistently into account. For a subset of 16 well observed clusters we also derive their kinematic distances. We find an average mass-to-light ratio of Galactic globular clusters of $=1.98 \\pm 0.03$, which agrees very well with the expected M/L ratio if the initial mass function of the clusters was a standard Kroupa or Chabrier mass function. We do not find evidence for a decrease of the average mass-to-light ratio with metallicity. The surface brightness and velocity dispersion profiles of most globul...

  2. Oral fat perception is related with body mass index, preference and consumption of high-fat foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ruiz, Nina R; López-Díaz, José A; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Jiménez-Castro, Jorge A; Angulo, Ofelia

    2014-04-22

    Oral sensory perception may play an important role in food preferences, driving food intake and energy balance. Fat perceived in oral cavity has been associated with satiety and homeostatic signals. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that fat oral-intensity perception may be associated with BMI, food preferences and consumption of fat-rich foods. The ability to perceive linoleic acid at different concentrations by intensity scaling was measured in young adults (n=121), characterized by anthropometric measurements such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and total body fat (TBF) percentage. Additionally, dietary habits were recorded online during 35days using a questionnaire designed according to the 24-hour recall and the food diary methods. Finally, food preferences were evaluated online using a nine-point hedonic scale. Taste sensitivity (intensity scaling with suprathreshold concentrations) was estimated with different linoleic acid concentrations using a linear scale of 150mm labeled at the ends. Four groups were established after the ratings for oral-intensity perception of linoleic acid: quartile high ratings (QH), quartile medium-high ratings (QMH), quartile medium-low ratings (QML) and quartile low ratings (QL). Participants with high-intensity ratings for linoleic acid (QH) had lower BMI (p=0.04) and waist circumference (WC) (p=0.03) values than participants in the QL group. High-fat foods (foods with more than 20% of energy from lipids such as fast foods and Mexican street foods) were less preferred by participants with high-intensity ratings for linoleic acid (QH) than by participants with medium- (QMH, QML) and low-(QL) intensity ratings (pfoods like fast foods (p=0.04) and Mexican street foods (p=0.03) than subjects with medium- (QMH, QML) and low-(QL) intensity ratings. Overall, these data suggest that the participant's intensity ratings for oral perception of linoleic acid were inversely correlated with BMI, WC

  3. Fat-Free Body Mass but not Fat Mass is Associated with Reduced Gray Matter Volume of Cortical Brain Regions Implicated in Autonomic and Homeostatic Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weise, Christopher M; Thiyyagura, Pradeep; Reiman, Eric M; Chen, Kewei; Krakoff, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Obesity has been associated with alterations of both functional and structural aspects of the human central nervous system. In obese individuals both fat mass (FM; primarily consisting of adipose tissue) and fat-free mass (FFM; all non-adipose tissues) are increased and it remains unknown whether these compartments have separate effects on human brain morphology. We used voxel-based morphometry to investigate the relationships between measures of body composition and regional gray matter volume (GMV) in 76 healthy adults with a wide range of adiposity (24F/52M; age 32.1±8.8y; percentage of body fat [PFAT%] 25.5±10.9%; BMI 29.8±8.9). Faf-free mass index (FFMI kg*m-2) showed negative associations in bilateral temporal regions, the bilateral medial and caudolateral OFC, and the left insula. Fat mass index (FMI kg*m-2) showed similar, but less extensive negative associations within temporal cortical regions and the left caudolateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). In addition, negative associations were seen for FMI with GMV of the cerebellum. Associations of FFMI with temporal and medial orbitofrontal GMV appeared to be independent of adiposity. No associations were seen between measures of adiposity (i.e. FM and PFAT) and GMV when adjusted for FFM. The majority of regions that we find associated with FFM have been implicated in the regulation of eating behavior and show extensive projections to central autonomic and homeostatic core structures. These data indicate that not adipose tissue or relative adiposity itself, but obesity related increases in absolute tissue mass and particularly FFM may have a more predominant effect on the human brain. This might be explained by the high metabolic demand of FFM and related increases in total energy needs. PMID:22974975

  4. Fat-Free Mass Changes During Ketogenic Diets and the Potential Role of Resistance Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinsley, Grant M; Willoughby, Darryn S

    2016-02-01

    Low-carbohydrate and very-low-carbohydrate diets are often used as weight-loss strategies by exercising individuals and athletes. Very-low-carbohydrate diets can lead to a state of ketosis, in which the concentration of blood ketones (acetoacetate, 3-β-hydroxybutyrate, and acetone) increases as a result of increased fatty acid breakdown and activity of ketogenic enzymes. A potential concern of these ketogenic diets, as with other weight-loss diets, is the potential loss of fat-free mass (e.g., skeletal muscle). On examination of the literature, the majority of studies report decreases in fat-free mass in individuals following a ketogenic diet. However, some confounding factors exist, such as the use of aggressive weight-loss diets and potential concerns with fat-free mass measurement. A limited number of studies have examined combining resistance training with ketogenic diets, and further research is needed to determine whether resistance training can effectively slow or stop the loss of fat-free mass typically seen in individuals following a ketogenic diet. Mechanisms underlying the effects of a ketogenic diet on fat-free mass and the results of implementing exercise interventions in combination with this diet should also be examined.

  5. Isotope Ratio Monitoring Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (IRM-GCMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, K. H.; Ricci, S. A.; Studley, A.; Hayes, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    On Earth, the C-13 content of organic compounds is depleted by roughly 13 to 23 permil from atmospheric carbon dioxide. This difference is largely due to isotope effects associated with the fixation of inorganic carbon by photosynthetic organisms. If life once existed on Mars, then it is reasonable to expect to observe a similar fractionation. Although the strongly oxidizing conditions on the surface of Mars make preservation of ancient organic material unlikely, carbon-isotope evidence for the existence of life on Mars may still be preserved. Carbon depleted in C-13 could be preserved either in organic compounds within buried sediments, or in carbonate minerals produced by the oxidation of organic material. A technique is introduced for rapid and precise measurement of the C-13 contents of individual organic compounds. A gas chromatograph is coupled to an isotope-ratio mass spectrometer through a combustion interface, enabling on-line isotopic analysis of isolated compounds. The isotope ratios are determined by integration of ion currents over the course of each chromatographic peak. Software incorporates automatic peak determination, corrections for background, and deconvolution of overlapped peaks. Overall performance of the instrument was evaluated by the analysis of a mixture of high purity n-alkanes of know isotopic composition. Isotopic values measured via IRM-GCMS averaged withing 0.55 permil of their conventionally measured values.

  6. Augmented kludge waveforms for detecting extreme-mass-ratio inspirals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Alvin J. K.; Moore, Christopher J.; Gair, Jonathan R.

    2017-08-01

    The extreme-mass-ratio inspirals (EMRIs) of stellar-mass compact objects into massive black holes are an important class of source for the future space-based gravitational-wave detector LISA. Detecting signals from EMRIs will require waveform models that are both accurate and computationally efficient. In this paper, we present the latest implementation of an augmented analytic kludge (AAK) model, publicly available at https://github.com/alvincjk/EMRI_Kludge_Suite as part of an EMRI waveform software suite. This version of the AAK model has improved accuracy compared to its predecessors, with two-month waveform overlaps against a more accurate fiducial model exceeding 0.97 for a generic range of sources; it also generates waveforms 5-15 times faster than the fiducial model. The AAK model is well suited for scoping out data analysis issues in the upcoming round of mock LISA data challenges. A simple analytic argument shows that it might even be viable for detecting EMRIs with LISA through a semicoherent template bank method, while the use of the original analytic kludge in the same approach will result in around 90% fewer detections.

  7. The low mass ratio contact binary system V728 Herculis

    CERN Document Server

    Erkan, Naci

    2015-01-01

    We present the orbital period study and the photometric analys of the contact binary system V728 Her. Our orbital period analysis shows that the period of the system increases (dP/dt=1.92x10^-7dyr^-1) and the mass transfer rate from the less massive component to more massive one is 2.51x10^-8M_suny^-1. In addition, an advanced sinusoidal variation in period can be attributed to the light-time effect by a tertiary component or the Applegate mechanism triggered by the secondary component. The simultaneous multicolor BVR light and radial velocity curves solution indicates that the physical parameters of the system are M1=1.8M_sun, M2=0.28M_sun, R1=1.87R_sun, R2=0.82R_sun, L1=5.9L_sun, and L2=1.2L_sun. We discuss the evolutionary status and conclude that V728 Her is a deep (f=81%), low mass ratio (q=0.16) contact binary system.

  8. Resonantly enhanced kicks from equatorial small mass-ratio inspirals

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Meent, Maarten

    2014-08-01

    We calculate the kick generated by an eccentric black hole binary inspiral as it evolves through a resonant orbital configuration where the precession of the system temporarily halts. As a result, the effects of the asymmetric emission of gravitational waves build up coherently over a large number of orbits. Our results are calculated using black hole perturbation theory in the limit where the ratio of the masses of the orbiting objects ɛ =m/M is small. The resulting kick velocity scales as ɛ3/2, much faster than the ɛ2 scaling of the kick generated by the final merger. For the most extreme case of a very eccentric (e˜1) inspiral around a maximally spinning black hole, we find kicks close to 30 000 ɛ3/2 km /s, enough to dislodge an intermediate-mass black hole from its host globular cluster. In reality, such extreme inspirals should be very rare. Nonetheless, the astrophysical impact of kicks in less extreme inspirals could be astrophysically significant.

  9. Stellar mass-to-light ratio gradients in galaxies: correlations with mass

    CERN Document Server

    Tortora, C; Romanowsky, A J; Jetzer, Ph; Cardone, V F; Capaccioli, M

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the stellar mass-to-light ratio (M/L) gradients in a large sample of local galaxies taken from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, spanning a wide range of stellar masses and morphological types. As suggested by the well known relationship between M/L ratios and colors, we show that M/L gradients are strongly correlated with colour gradients, which we trace to the effects of age variations. Stellar M/L gradients generally follow patterns of variation with stellar mass and galaxy type that were previous found for colour and metallicty gradients. In late-type galaxies M/L gradients are negative, steepening with increasing mass. In early-type galaxies M/L gradients are shallower while presenting a two-fold trend: they decrease with mass up to a characteristic mass of \\M* \\sim 10^10.3 M_sun and increase at larger masses. We compare our findings with other analyses and discuss some implications for galaxy formation and for dark matter estimates.

  10. Extreme mass ratio inspiral rates: dependence on the massive black hole mass

    CERN Document Server

    Hopman, Clovis

    2009-01-01

    We study the rate at which stars spiral into a massive black hole (MBH) due to the emission of gravitational waves (GWs), as a function of the mass M of the MBH. In the context of our model, it is shown analytically that the rate approximately depends on the MBH mass as M^{-1/4}. Numerical simulations confirm this result, and show that for all MBH masses, the event rate is highest for stellar black holes, followed by white dwarfs, and lowest for neutron stars. The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is expected to see hundreds of these extreme mass ratio inspirals per year. Since the event rate derived here formally diverges as M->0, the model presented here cannot hold for MBHs of masses that are too low, and we discuss what the limitations of the model are.

  11. Dietary energy density affects fat mass in early adolescence and is not modified by FTO variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Johnson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dietary energy density (DED does not have a simple linear relationship to fat mass in children, which suggests that some children are more susceptible than others to the effects of DED. Children with the FTO (rs9939609 variant that increases the risk of obesity may have a higher susceptibility to the effects of DED because their internal appetite control system is compromised. We tested the relationship between DED and fat mass in early adolescence and its interaction with FTO variants. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We carried out a prospective analysis on 2,275 children enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC. Diet was assessed at age 10 y using 3-day diet diaries. DED (kJ/g was calculated excluding drinks. Children were genotyped for the FTO (rs9939609 variant. Fat mass was estimated at age 13 y using the Lunar Prodigy Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry scanner. There was no evidence of interaction between DED at age 10 y and the high risk A allele of the FTO gene in relation to fat mass at age 13 y (beta = 0.005, p = 0.51, suggesting that the FTO gene has no effect on the relation between DED at 10 y and fat mass at 13 y. When DED at 10 y and the A allele of FTO were in the same model they were independently related to fat mass at 13 y. Each A allele of FTO was associated with 0.35+/-0.13 kg more fat mass at 13 y and each 1 kJ/g DED at 10 y was associated with 0.16+/-0.06 kg more fat mass at age 13 y, after controlling for misreporting of energy intake, gender, puberty, overweight status at 10 y, maternal education, TV watching, and physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals the multi-factorial origin of obesity and indicates that although FTO may put some children at greater risk of obesity, encouraging a low dietary energy density may be an effective strategy to help all children avoid excessive fat gain.

  12. Dietary energy density affects fat mass in early adolescence and is not modified by FTO variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Laura; van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H M; Emmett, Pauline M; Rogers, Imogen S; Ness, Andy R; Hattersley, Andrew T; Timpson, Nicholas J; Smith, George Davey; Jebb, Susan A

    2009-01-01

    Dietary energy density (DED) does not have a simple linear relationship to fat mass in children, which suggests that some children are more susceptible than others to the effects of DED. Children with the FTO (rs9939609) variant that increases the risk of obesity may have a higher susceptibility to the effects of DED because their internal appetite control system is compromised. We tested the relationship between DED and fat mass in early adolescence and its interaction with FTO variants. We carried out a prospective analysis on 2,275 children enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Diet was assessed at age 10 y using 3-day diet diaries. DED (kJ/g) was calculated excluding drinks. Children were genotyped for the FTO (rs9939609) variant. Fat mass was estimated at age 13 y using the Lunar Prodigy Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry scanner. There was no evidence of interaction between DED at age 10 y and the high risk A allele of the FTO gene in relation to fat mass at age 13 y (beta = 0.005, p = 0.51), suggesting that the FTO gene has no effect on the relation between DED at 10 y and fat mass at 13 y. When DED at 10 y and the A allele of FTO were in the same model they were independently related to fat mass at 13 y. Each A allele of FTO was associated with 0.35+/-0.13 kg more fat mass at 13 y and each 1 kJ/g DED at 10 y was associated with 0.16+/-0.06 kg more fat mass at age 13 y, after controlling for misreporting of energy intake, gender, puberty, overweight status at 10 y, maternal education, TV watching, and physical activity. This study reveals the multi-factorial origin of obesity and indicates that although FTO may put some children at greater risk of obesity, encouraging a low dietary energy density may be an effective strategy to help all children avoid excessive fat gain.

  13. Increased fat mass and high incidence of overweight despite low body mass index in patients with Spinal Muscular Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproule, Douglas M.; Montes, Jacqueline; Montgomery, Megan; Battista, Vanessa; Koenigsberger, Dorcas; Shen, Wei; Punyanitya, Mark; De Vivo, Darryl C.; Kaufmann, Petra

    2009-01-01

    Body composition is sparsely described in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Body (BMI, mass/height in m2), fat-free (FFMI, lean mass/height in m2) and fat (FMI, fat mass/height in m2) mass indexes were estimated in 25 children (ages 5–18) with SMA (2 type I, 13 type II, 10 type III) using dual-energy radiograph absorptiometry and anthropometric data referenced to gender and age-matched healthy children (NHANES III, New York Pediatric Rosetta Body Project). BMI was ≥ 50th percentile in 11 (44%) and ≥ 85th in 5 (20%). FFMI was reduced (p<0.005) and FMI was increased (P<0.005) in the overall study cohort. FMI was ≥ 50th, ≥ 85th and 95th percentiles in 19 (76%), 10 (40%) and 5 (20%) subjects, respectively. Using a receiver operator characteristic curve, BMI above 75th, 50th and 3rd percentiles maximized sensitivity and specificity for FMI ≥ 95th, ≥ 85th and ≥ 50th percentiles, respectively. Children with SMA have reduced lean and increased fat mass compared to healthy children. Obesity is a potentially important modifiable source of morbidity in SMA. PMID:19427208

  14. Galaxy Mergers and Dark Matter Halo Mergers in LCDM: Mass, Redshift, and Mass-Ratio Dependence

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, Kyle R; Barton, Elizabeth J; Wechsler, Risa H

    2008-01-01

    We employ a high-resolution LCDM N-body simulation to present merger rate predictions for dark matter halos and investigate how common merger-related observables for galaxies--such as close pair counts, starburst counts, and the morphologically disturbed fraction--likely scale with luminosity, stellar mass, merger mass ratio, and redshift from z=0 to z=4. We provide a simple 'universal' fitting formula that describes our derived merger rates for dark matter halos a function of dark halo mass, merger mass ratio, and redshift, and go on to predict galaxy merger rates using number density-matching to associate halos with galaxies. For example, we find that the instantaneous merger rate of m/M>0.3 mass ratio events into typical L > f L* galaxies follows the simple relation dN/dt=0.03(1+f)(1+z)^2.1 Gyr^-1. Despite the rapid increase in merger rate with redshift, only a small fraction of >0.4 L* high-redshift galaxies (~3% at z=2) should have experienced a major merger (m/M >0.3) in the very recent past (t0.3) in t...

  15. Pre-menarcheal physical activity predicts post-menarcheal lean mass and core strength, but not fat mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, M A; Dowthwaite, J N; Rosenbaum, P F; Roedel, G G; Brocker, A A; Scerpella, T A

    2015-12-01

    Youth exercise is associated with improved body composition, but details regarding timing and persistence are limited. We examined pre- and circum-menarcheal organized physical activity exposure (PA) as a factor in development of early post-menarcheal lean mass, fat mass and muscle strength. Participants in a longitudinal study of musculoskeletal growth using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were included based on: 1) Whole body DXA scans: 0.5-1.5 years pre-menarche, 0.5-1.5 years post-menarche; 2) PA records for ⋝6 months preceding the first DXA (prePA) and for the inter-DXA interval (circumPA). Dominant arm grip strength and sit-ups tests coincided with DXA scans; PA, height and maturity were recorded semi-annually. Regressions correlated PA with lean mass/fat mass/strength, accounting for maturity, body size, and baseline values. Seventy girls [baseline: 11.8 yrs (sd 1.0), follow-up: 13.9 years (sd 1.0)] demonstrated circum-menarcheal gains of 25-29% for lean and fat mass and 33% for grip strength. PREPA correlated with pre- and post-menarcheal lean mass, sit-ups and pre-menarcheal fat mass (pstrength. CIRCUMPA correlated with only post-menarcheal sub-head lean mass (p=0.03). Lean mass and core strength at 1-year post-menarche were more strongly predicted by pre-menarcheal organized PA than by recent circum-menarcheal PA.

  16. Increased lean mass with reduced fat mass in an elite female cyclist returning to competition: case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haakonssen, Eric C; Martin, David T; Burke, Louise M; Jenkins, David G

    2013-11-01

    Body composition in a female road cyclist was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (5 occasions) and anthropometry (10 occasions) at the start of the season (Dec to Mar), during a period of chronic fatigue associated with poor weight management (Jun to Aug), and in the following months of recovery and retraining (Aug to Nov). Dietary manipulation involved a modest reduction in energy availability to 30-40 kcal · kg fat-free mass(-1) · d(-1) and an increased intake of high-quality protein, particularly after training (20 g). Through the retraining period, total body mass decreased (-2.82 kg), lean mass increased (+0.88 kg), and fat mass decreased (-3.47 kg). Hemoglobin mass increased by 58.7 g (8.4%). Maximal aerobic- and anaerobic-power outputs were returned to within 2% of preseason values. The presented case shows that through a subtle energy restriction associated with increased protein intake and sufficient energy intake during training, fat mass can be reduced with simultaneous increases in lean mass, performance gains, and improved health.

  17. Contribution of Myostatin gene polymorphisms to normal variation in lean mass, fat mass and peak BMD in Chinese male offspring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua YUE; Miao LI; Yu-juan LIU; Song-hua WU; Zhen-lin ZHANG; Jin-wei HE; Hao ZHANG; Chun WANG; Wei-wei HU; Jie-mei GU; Yao-hua KE; Wen-zhen FU; Yun-qiu HU

    2012-01-01

    Myostatin gene is a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family that negatively regulates skeletal muscle growth.Genetic polymorphisms in Myostatin were found to be associated with the peak bone mineral density (BMD) in Chinese women.The purpose of this study was to investigate whether Myostatin played a role in the normal variation in peak BMD,lean mass (LM),and fat mass (FM) of Chinese men.Methods:Four hundred male-offspring nuclear families of Chinese Han ethnic group were recruited.Anthropometric measurements,includingthe peak BMD,body LM and FM were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA).The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) studied were tag-SNPs selected by sequencing.Both rs2293284 and +2278G>A were genotyped using TaqMan assay,and rs3791783 was genotyped with PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis.The associations of the SNPs with anthropometfic variations were analyzed using the quantitative transmission disequilibrium test (QTDT).Results:Using QTDT to detect within-family associations,neither single SNP nor haplotype was found to be associated with peak BMD at any bone site.However,rs3791783 was found to be significantly associated with fat mass of the trunk (P<0.001).Moreover,for within-family associations,haplotypes AGG,AAA,and TGG were found to be significantly associated with the trunk fat mass (all P<0.001).Conclusion:Our results suggest that genetic variation within Myostatin may play a role in regulating the variation in fat mass in Chinese males.Additionally,the Myostatin gene may be a candidate that determines body fat mass in Chinese men.

  18. Smoking during pregnancy and offspring fat and lean mass in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Sam D; Smith, George Davey; Rogers, Imogen S; Reilly, John J; Wells, Jonathan C K; Ness, Andy R

    2006-12-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy has been shown to be associated with obesity in the offspring, but findings have been based mainly on BMI, which is derived from height and weight. This study examined the association between maternal and partner smoking during pregnancy and offspring total fat, truncal fat, and lean mass in childhood. Analysis was based on 5689 white singletons born in 1991-1992 and enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, with maternal smoking data recorded for at least one trimester in pregnancy and their own body composition assessed by DXA at mean age 9.9 years. Smoking at any time during pregnancy was associated with higher offspring BMI [0.18 (95% confidence interval, 0.12 to 0.25) standard deviation units] and total fat mass [0.17 (95% confidence interval, 0.12 to 0.23) standard deviation units], after adjustment for age, sex, height, and height squared for total fat mass. These associations were not attenuated by adjustment for the confounding factors that were measured. Maternal smoking was also associated with lean mass and, to a lesser extent, truncal fat mass. Associations with partner's smoking were in the same direction but weaker than those of the mother's for all outcomes. Maternal smoking at any time during pregnancy is associated with higher offspring total fat mass at mean age 9.9 years. However, as the associations with partner smoking were only a little weaker than those with maternal smoking, confounding by social factors rather than a direct effect of maternal smoking is a possible explanation.

  19. A protective lipidomic biosignature associated with a balanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio in fat-1 transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Astarita

    Full Text Available A balanced omega-6/omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA ratio has been linked to health benefits and the prevention of many chronic diseases. Current dietary intervention studies with different sources of omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3 lack appropriate control diets and carry many other confounding factors derived from genetic and environmental variability. In our study, we used the fat-1 transgenic mouse model as a proxy for long-term omega-3 supplementation to determine, in a well-controlled manner, the molecular phenotype associated with a balanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio. The fat-1 mouse can convert omega-6 to omega-3 PUFAs, which protect against a wide variety of diseases including chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer. Both wild-type (WT and fat-1 mice were subjected to an identical diet containing 10% corn oil, which has a high omega-6 content similar to that of the Western diet, for a six-month duration. We used a multi-platform lipidomic approach to compare the plasma lipidome between fat-1 and WT mice. In fat-1 mice, an unbiased profiling showed a significant increase in the levels of unesterified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, EPA-containing cholesteryl ester, and omega-3 lysophosphospholipids. The increase in omega-3 lipids is accompanied by a significant reduction in omega-6 unesterified docosapentaenoic acid (omega-6 DPA and DPA-containing cholesteryl ester as well as omega-6 phospholipids and triacylglycerides. Targeted lipidomics profiling highlighted a remarkable increase in EPA-derived diols and epoxides formed via the cytochrome P450 (CYP450 pathway in the plasma of fat-1 mice compared with WT mice. Integration of the results of untargeted and targeted analyses has identified a lipidomic biosignature that may underlie the healthful phenotype associated with a balanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio, and can potentially be used as a circulating biomarker for monitoring the health status and the efficacy of omega-3 intervention in humans.

  20. Application of body mass index adjusted for fat mass (BMIfat obtained by bioelectrical impedance in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mírele Savegnago Mialich

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Body mass index (BMI has been one of the methods most frequently used for diagnose obesity, but it isn't consider body composition. Objective: This study intends to apply one new adiposity index, the BMI adjusted for fat mass (BMIfat developed by Mialich, et al. (2011, in a adult Brazilian sample. Methods: A cross-sectional study with 501 individuals of both genders (366 women, 135 men aged 17 to 38 years and mean age was 20.4 ± 2.8 years, mean weight 63.0 ± 13.5 kg, mean height 166.9 ± 9.0 cm, and BMI 22.4 ± 3.4 kg/m². Results and discussion: High and satisfactory R2 values were obtained, i.e., 91.1%, 91.9% and 88.8% for the sample as a whole and for men and women, respectively. Considering this BMIfat were developed new ranges, as follows: 1.35 to 1.65 (nutritional risk for malnutrition, > 1.65 and ≤ 2.0 (normal weight and > 2.0 (obesity. The BMIfat had a more accurate capacity of detecting obese individuals (0.980. 0.993, 0.974 considering the sample as a whole and women and men, respectively, compared to the traditional BMI (0.932, 0.956, 0.95. Were also defined new cut-off points for the traditional BMI for the classification of obesity, i.e.: 25.24 kg/m² and 28.38 kg/m² for men and women, respectively. Conclusion: The BMIfat was applied for the present population and can be adopted in clinical practice. Further studies are needed to determine its application to different ethnic groups and to compare this index to others previously described in the scientific literature.

  1. Effects of Exercise Training on Fat Loss and Lean Mass Gain in Mexican-American and Korean Premenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shenghui; Park, Kyung-Shin; McCormick, Joseph B

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effect of exercise training on body composition change in women. Nineteen Mexican-American and 18 Korean premenopausal overweight/obese women were randomized into one of the following groups: control, low-intensity training group (LI), and high-intensity training group (HI). Subjects completed 12 weeks of training at 50-56% maximal oxygen consumption (LI) or 65-70% maximal oxygen consumption (HI). Body composition components were measured at baseline and after training using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for Mexican-Americans, while whole-body composition was measured by the direct segmental multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis and abdominal fat was measured by single-slice computed tomography for Koreans. Data were analyzed using mixed-model repeated measures independent of age, ethnicity, and body mass index (BMI). Exercise training showed a significant effect on BMI, fat percentage, fat mass, lean mass, and visceral adipose tissue area. HI significantly decreased fat mass and fat percentage but increased lean mass (all P fat mass, fat percentage, and visceral adipose tissue area but increased lean mass (all P fat percentage, fat mass, and visceral adipose tissue area but had no effect on increasing lean mass for Mexican-American and Korean premenopausal overweight/obese women.

  2. Nutritional Strategies for the Preservation of Fat Free Mass at High Altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacie L. Wing-Gaia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to extreme altitude presents many physiological challenges. In addition to impaired physical and cognitive function, energy imbalance invariably occurs resulting in weight loss and body composition changes. Weight loss, and in particular, loss of fat free mass, combined with the inherent risks associated with extreme environments presents potential performance, safety, and health risks for those working, recreating, or conducting military operations at extreme altitude. In this review, contributors to muscle wasting at altitude are highlighted with special emphasis on protein turnover. The article will conclude with nutritional strategies that may potentially attenuate loss of fat free mass during high altitude exposure.

  3. Does running with or without changes in diet reduce fat mass in novice runners?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus O.; Videbæk, Solvej; Hansen, Mette

    2016-01-01

    an average of 5 km or more per week and those running shorter distances. RESULTS: Runners who took up running to lose weight and ran over 5 km per week in average over a one-year period combined with a diet change reduced fat mass by -5.58 kg (95% CI: -8.69; -2.46; P.... CONCLUSIONS: An average running distance of more than 5 km per week in runners who took up running to lose weight combined with a targeted diet change seems effective in reducing fat mass over a one-year period among novice runners. Still, randomized controlled trials are needed to better document the effects...

  4. Fat/carbohydrate ratio but not energy density determines snack food intake and activates brain reward areas

    OpenAIRE

    Hoch, Tobias; Kreitz, Silke; Gaffling, Simone; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The snack food potato chips induces food intake in ad libitum fed rats, which is associated with modulation of the brain reward system and other circuits. Here, we show that food intake in satiated rats is triggered by an optimal fat/carbohydrate ratio. Like potato chips, an isocaloric fat/carbohydrate mixture influenced whole brain activity pattern of rats, affecting circuits related e.g. to reward/addiction, but the number of modulated areas and the extent of modulation was lower compared t...

  5. Fat/carbohydrate ratio but not energy density determines snack food intake and activates brain reward areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Tobias; Kreitz, Silke; Gaffling, Simone; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas

    2015-05-14

    The snack food potato chips induces food intake in ad libitum fed rats, which is associated with modulation of the brain reward system and other circuits. Here, we show that food intake in satiated rats is triggered by an optimal fat/carbohydrate ratio. Like potato chips, an isocaloric fat/carbohydrate mixture influenced whole brain activity pattern of rats, affecting circuits related e.g. to reward/addiction, but the number of modulated areas and the extent of modulation was lower compared to the snack food itself.

  6. Relationship between body fat mass and free fatty acid kinetics in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittendorfer, Bettina; Magkos, Faidon; Fabbrini, Elisa; Mohammed, B Selma; Klein, Samuel

    2009-10-01

    An increased release of free fatty acids (FFAs) into plasma likely contributes to the metabolic complications associated with obesity. However, the relationship between body fat and FFA metabolism is unclear because of conflicting results from different studies. The goal of our study was to determine the inter-relationships between body fat, sex, and plasma FFA kinetics. We determined FFA rate of appearance (Ra) in plasma, by using stable isotopically labeled tracer techniques, during basal conditions in 106 lean, overweight, and obese, nondiabetic subjects (43 men and 63 women who had 7.0-56.0% body fat). Correlation analyses demonstrated: (i) no differences between men and women in the relationship between fat mass (FM) and total FFA Ra (micromol/min); (ii) total FFA Ra increased linearly with increasing FM (r=0.652, Pfashion with increasing FM (r=-0.806; Pmen; and (v) abdominal fat itself was not an important determinant of total FFA Ra. We conclude that total body fat, not regional fat distribution or sex, is an important modulator of the rate of FFA release into plasma. Although increased adiposity is associated with a decrease in fatty acid release in relationship to FM, this downregulation is unable to completely compensate for the increase in FM, so total FFA Ra and FFA Ra with respect to FFM are greater in women than in men and in obese than in lean subjects.

  7. Body mass index and percent body fat: a meta analysis among different ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deurenberg, P; Yap, M; van Staveren, W A

    1998-12-01

    To study the relationship between percent body fat and body mass index (BMI) in different ethnic groups and to evaluate the validity of the BMI cut-off points for obesity. Meta analysis of literature data. Populations of American Blacks, Caucasians, Chinese, Ethiopians, Indonesians, Polynesians and Thais. Mean values of BMI, percent body fat, gender and age were adapted from original papers. The relationship between percent body fat and BMI differs in the ethnic groups studied. For the same level of body fat, age and gender, American Blacks have a 1.3 kg/m2 and Polynesians a 4.5 kg/m2 lower BMI compared to Caucasians. By contrast, in Chinese, Ethiopians, Indonesians and Thais BMIs are 1.9, 4.6, 3.2 and 2.9 kg/m2 lower compared to Caucasians, respectively. Slight differences in the relationship between percent body fat and BMI of American Caucasians and European Caucasians were also found. The differences found in the body fat/BMI relationship in different ethnic groups could be due to differences in energy balance as well as to differences in body build. The results show that the relationship between percent body fat and BMI is different among different ethnic groups. This should have public health implications for the definitions of BMI cut-off points for obesity, which would need to be population-specific.

  8. Exploration of Extreme Mass Ratio Inspirals with a Tree Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael

    Extreme mass ratio inspirals (EMRIs), in which a stellar-mass object spirals into a supermassive black hole, are critical gravitational wave sources for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) because of their potential as precise probes of strong gravity. They are although thought to contribute to the flares observed in a few active galactic nuclei that have been attributed to tidal disruption of stars. There are, however, large uncertainties about the rates and properties of EMRIs. The reason is that their galactic nuclear environments contain millions of stars around a central massive object, and their paths must be integrated with great precision to include properly effects such as secular resonances, which accumulate over many orbits. Progress is being made on all fronts, but current numerical options are either profoundly computationally intensive (direct N-body integrators, which in addition do not currently have the needed long-term accuracy) or require special symmetry or other simplifications that may compromise the realism of the results (Monte Carlo and Fokker-Planck codes). We propose to undertake extensive simulations of EMRIs using tree codes that we have adapted to the problem. Tree codes are much faster than direct N-body simulations, yet they are powerful and flexible enough to include nonideal physics such as triaxiality, arbitrary mass spectra, post-Newtonian corrections, and secular evolutionary effects such as resonant relaxation and Kozai oscillations to the equations of motion. We propose to extend our codes to include these effects and to allow separate tracking of special ? that will represent binaries, thus allowing us to follow their interactions and evolution. In our development we will compare our results for a few tens of thousands of particles with a state of the art direct N-body integrator, to evaluate the accuracy of our code and discern systematic effects. This will allow detailed yet fast examinations of large-N systems

  9. Body mass index: a true indicator of body fat in obese gravidas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, Mark F; Huston-Presley, Larraine; Amini, Saeid B; Catalano, Patrick M

    2007-10-01

    To determine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat in overweight/obese pregnant women (BMI >25) before and during pregnancy. Thirteen overweight women were evaluated longitudinally (prospective cohort study design) before conception, in early gestation (12-22 weeks) and in late gestation (31-36 weeks). BMI was calculated as weight (kg)/height (m)2, and percent body fat was estimated using hydrodensitometry with correction for residual lung volume. The correlation between BMI and percent body fat before conception was r2 = 0.86 (p = 0.001). Furthermore, the correlation remained strong in early pregnancy, r2 = 0.84 (p = 0.001), but was less strong yet significant, r2 = 0.54 (p = 0.004), in late gestation. In overweight women, the correlation between BMI and percent body fat remained significant during pregnancy. However, the correlation weakened as the pregnancy advanced.

  10. Secular trends in the fat and fat-free components of body mass index in children aged 8–18 years born 1958–1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William; Chumlea, Wm. Cameron; Czerwinski, Stefan A.; Demerath, Ellen W.

    2014-01-01

    Background It is unknown whether the secular trend in childhood BMI reflects increases in fat-free mass as well as fat mass. Methods This study decomposed BMI trends in 488 participants in the Fels Longitudinal Study born between 1958–1995 and aged 8–17.99 years into their fat and fat-free components. Generalized estimating equations estimated birth year cohort (1958–1970–1971–1983–1984–1995) effects on 2208 observations of BMI, fat mass index (FMI = fat mass (kg)/height (m)2) and fat-free mass index (FFMI = fat-free mass (kg)/height (m)2). Results BMI in boys increased across cohorts, with those born between 1984–1995 being 2 kg/m2 larger than those born between 1958–1970 (p = 0.001) and increases in FMI were highly significant (p-values < 0.001). FFMI did not differ by cohort. In girls, there was a significant advantage in BMI (1.2 kg/m2) and FFMI (0.8 kg/m2) of the 1984–1995 cohort compared to the 1971–1983 cohort (p-values < 0.05). Conclusions Because the long term trend in childhood BMI in boys appears to be driven by an increase in total body adiposity, evidence is provided to support current knowledge on the predicted deleterious long-term consequences of the childhood obesity epidemic in boys. Research is needed to confirm whether recent changes in BMI in girls are due to increases in fat-free mass resulting from changes in behaviour and lifestyle not yet manifest in boys. PMID:23013058

  11. Association of Fat Mass and Obesity-associated Gene Variant with Lifestyle Factors and Body Fat in Indian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarthy, Lavanya S; Phadke, Nikhil; Chiplonkar, Shashi; Khadilkar, Anuradha; Khatod, Kavita; Ekbote, Veena; Shah, Surabhi; Khadilkar, Vaman

    2017-01-01

    Common intronic variants of the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene have been associated with obesity-related traits in humans. (1) The aim of this study is to study the distribution of FTO gene variants across different body mass index (BMI) categories and (2) to explore the association between FTO gene variants and lifestyle factors in obese and normal weight Indian children. Fifty-six children (26 boys, mean age 10.3 ± 2.2 years) were studied. Height, weight, and waist and hip circumference were measured. Physical activity (questionnaire) and food intake (food frequency questionnaire) were assessed. Body fat percentage (%BF) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. FTO allelic variants at rs9939609 site were detected by SYBR Green Amplification Refractory Mutation System real-time polymerase chain reaction using allele-specific primers. Generalized linear model was used to investigate the simultaneous influence of genetic and lifestyle factors on %BF. Mean height, weight, and BMI of normal and obese children were 130.6 ± 7.1 versus 143.2 ± 15.6, 24.0 ± 5.2 versus 53.1 ± 15.8, and 13.9 ± 2.1 versus 25.3 ± 3.2, respectively. The frequency of AA allele was 57% among obese children and 35% in normal weight children. Children with the AA allele who were obese had least physical activity, whereas children with AT allele and obesity had the highest intake of calories when compared to children who had AT allele and were normal. %BF was positively associated with AA alleles and junk food intake and negatively with healthy food intake and moderate physical activity. Healthy lifestyle with high physical activity and diet low in calories and fat may help in modifying the risk imposed by FTO variants in children.

  12. Association of fat mass and obesity-associated gene variant with lifestyle factors and body fat in Indian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavanya S Parthasarthy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Common intronic variants of the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO gene have been associated with obesity-related traits in humans. Aims: (1 The aim of this study is to study the distribution of FTO gene variants across different body mass index (BMI categories and (2 to explore the association between FTO gene variants and lifestyle factors in obese and normal weight Indian children. Subjects and Methods: Fifty-six children (26 boys, mean age 10.3 ± 2.2 years were studied. Height, weight, and waist and hip circumference were measured. Physical activity (questionnaire and food intake (food frequency questionnaire were assessed. Body fat percentage (%BF was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. FTO allelic variants at rs9939609 site were detected by SYBR Green Amplification Refractory Mutation System real-time polymerase chain reaction using allele-specific primers. Generalized linear model was used to investigate the simultaneous influence of genetic and lifestyle factors on %BF. Results: Mean height, weight, and BMI of normal and obese children were 130.6 ± 7.1 versus 143.2 ± 15.6, 24.0 ± 5.2 versus 53.1 ± 15.8, and 13.9 ± 2.1 versus 25.3 ± 3.2, respectively. The frequency of AA allele was 57% among obese children and 35% in normal weight children. Children with the AA allele who were obese had least physical activity, whereas children with AT allele and obesity had the highest intake of calories when compared to children who had AT allele and were normal. %BF was positively associated with AA alleles and junk food intake and negatively with healthy food intake and moderate physical activity. Conclusions: Healthy lifestyle with high physical activity and diet low in calories and fat may help in modifying the risk imposed by FTO variants in children.

  13. Associations of size at birth and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measures of lean and fat mass at 9 to 10 y of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Imogen S; Ness, Andy R; Steer, Colin D; Wells, Jonathan C K; Emmett, Pauline M; Reilly, John R; Tobias, Jon; Smith, George Davey

    2006-10-01

    Birth weight has been positively associated with risk of overweight in later life. However, little information exists on how weight and length at birth are associated with subsequent lean and total body fat. We investigated the association between weight and length at birth and body composition and fat distribution in childhood. Body composition was measured by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 9-10-y-old subjects (n = 3006 boys and 3080 girls). Weight and length at birth were measured or taken from hospital records. Birth weight was positively associated with both lean body mass (LBM) and total body fat at 9-10 y of age in both sexes. LBM rose by 320 g per 1-SD increase in birth weight (P < 0.001), and total body fat rose by 2.5% (P = 0.001), but birth weight was unassociated with the fat-to-lean mass ratio (FLR). Ponderal index (PI) at birth (ie, weight/length3) was positively associated with LBM, total body fat, and the FLR in both sexes; the FLR increased by 2.7% in boys (P = 0.021) and by 5.0% in girls per 1-SD increase in PI (P < 0.001). Weight and length at birth did not predict central adiposity; although trunk fat had a strong positive association with PI at birth, this association disappeared after adjustment for total body fat. Higher PI at birth is associated with both higher fat and lean mass in childhood but also with an increase in the FLR. PI at birth is a better predictor of subsequent adiposity than is birth weight.

  14. Efficacy of orlistat 60 mg on weight loss and body fat mass in US Army soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tracey J; Crombie, Aaron; Sanders, Leslee Funderburk; Sigrist, Lori D; Bathalon, Gaston P; McGraw, Susan; Young, Andrew J

    2012-04-01

    A higher body mass index is associated with exercise-related injuries and increased risk for musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders, which are relevant to military personnel. Studies show the efficacy of orlistat 60 mg for promoting weight and body fat loss in civilians; however, its efficacy among predominantly young, male soldiers is unknown. This study's objective was to examine the effect of a 6-month, standard education-based weight-management program with and without orlistat 60 mg on changes in weight and body fat in overweight soldiers. Data were collected for this randomized, controlled trial from March 2008 to November 2010 at Fort Bragg, NC. Participants were enrolled in an education-based weight management program (n=435; 75% men) and were randomized to placebo or orlistat 60 mg, three capsules daily with meals. All participants were recommended to maintain a reduced-energy, low-fat diet. Among study completers (14% retention rate; placebo n=22, orlistat n=35) members of both groups lost significant weight from baseline (placebo -3.0±5.2 kg; orlistat -3.2±4.7 kg; Porlistat group lost fat mass (-2.5±3.9 kg; Porlistat group lost more fat mass vs the placebo group (-1.3±2.9 kg vs ?0.6±1.8 kg, respectively; POrlistat 60 mg may be an effective adjunct to an education-based weight management program in a mostly young, male soldier population.

  15. Aliskiren Reduces Hepatic steatosis and Epididymal Fat Mass and Increases Skeletal Muscle Insulin Sensitivity in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Kuei-Chuan; Hsieh, Yun-Cheng; Yang, Ying-Ying; Chan, Che-Chang; Huang, Yi-Hsiang; Lin, Han-Chieh

    2016-01-01

    .... Aliskiren reduced systemic insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, epididymal fat mass and increased gastrocnemius muscle glucose transporter type 4 levels with lower tissue angiotensin II levels in the HFD-fed mice...

  16. Fat source and dietary forage-to-concentrate ratio influences milk fatty-acid composition in lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazirigohar, M; Dehghan-Banadaky, M; Rezayazdi, K; Krizsan, S J; Nejati-Javaremi, A; Shingfield, K J

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of the potential benefits to human health there is an increased interest in producing milk containing lower-saturated fatty acid (SFA) and higher unsaturated fatty acid (FA) concentrations, including cis-9 18:1 and cis-9, trans-11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows were used in two experiments according to a completely randomized block design, with 21-day periods to examine the effects of incremental replacement of prilled palm fat (PALM) with sunflower oil (SFO) in high-concentrate diets containing 30 g/kg dry matter (DM) of supplemental fat (Experiment 1) or increases in the forage-to-concentrate (F : C) ratio from 39 : 61 to 48 : 52 of diets containing 30 g/kg DM of SFO (Experiment 2) on milk production, digestibility and milk FA composition. Replacing PALM with SFO had no effect on DM intake, but tended to increase organic matter digestibility, yields of milk, protein and lactose, and decreased linearly milk fat content. Substituting SFO for PALM decreased linearly milk fat 8:0 to 16:0 and cis-9 16:1, and increased linearly 18:0, cis-9 18:1, trans-18:1 (��4 to 16), 18:2 and CLA concentrations. Increases in the F : C ratio of diets containing SFO had no effect on intake, yields of milk, milk protein or milk lactose, lowered milk protein content in a quadratic manner, and increased linearly NDF digestion and milk fat secretion. Replacing concentrates with forages in diets containing SFO increased milk fat 4:0 to 10:0 concentrations in a linear or quadratic manner, decreased linearly cis-9 16:1, trans-6 to -10 18:1, 18:2n-6, trans-7, cis-9 CLA, trans-9, cis-11 CLA and trans-10, cis-12 CLA, without altering milk fat 14:0 to 16:0, trans-11 18:1, cis-9, trans-11 CLA or 18:3n-3 concentrations. In conclusion, replacing prilled palm fat on with SFO in high-concentrate diets had no adverse effects on intake or milk production, other than decreasing milk fat content, but lowered milk fat medium-chain SFA and increased

  17. Relationship between body fat and body mass index: differences between Indonesians and Dutch Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurrici, S; Hartriyanti, Y; Hautvast, J G; Deurenberg, P

    1998-11-01

    To study the relationship between percent body fat and body mass index (BMI) in two different ethnic groups (Indonesians and Caucasians) in order to evaluate the validity of the BMI cut-off points for obesity. Cross-sectional study. Not specially selected populations living in southern Sumatra (Palembang, Indonesia) and Caucasian Dutch living in Wageningen. Body weight, body height, body fat by deuterium oxide dilution and skinfold thickness. Body fat could be well predicted by body mass index (BMI) and sex in the Indonesians and by BMI, sex and age in the Dutch with a prediction error of 3.6 and 3.3% for the two populations respectively. Although the body mass index in the Indonesian group was about 2 kg/m2 lower compared to the Dutch, the amount of body fat was 3% points higher. Because of small differences between the groups in age, weight and height the differences in body fat were corrected for this (ANOVA). Indonesians having the same weight, height, age and sex have generally 4.8% points more body fat compared to Dutch. Indonesians having the same % BF, age and sex have generally a 2.9 kg/m2 lower BMI compared to the Dutch. The results show that the relationship between % BF and BMI is different between Indonesians and Dutch Caucasians. If obesity is regarded as an excess of body fat and not as an excess of weight (increased BMI), the cut-off points for obesity in Indonesia based on the BMI should be 27 kg/m2 instead of 30 kg/m2.

  18. Increased body fat mass and tissue lipotoxicity associated with ovariectomy or high-fat diet differentially affects bone and skeletal muscle metabolism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliaferri, Camille; Salles, Jérôme; Landrier, Jean-François; Giraudet, Christophe; Patrac, Véronique; Lebecque, Patrice; Davicco, Marie-Jeanne; Chanet, Audrey; Pouyet, Corinne; Dhaussy, Amélie; Huertas, Alain; Boirie, Yves; Wittrant, Yohann; Coxam, Véronique; Walrand, Stéphane

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the musculoskeletal effects induced by ovariectomy-related fat mass deposition against the musculoskeletal effects caused by a high-fat diet. A group of adult female rats was ovariectomized and fed a control diet. Two additional groups were sham-operated and fed a control or a high-fat diet for 19 weeks. Distal femur and serum bone parameters were measured to assess bone metabolism. Muscle protein metabolism, mitochondrial markers and triglyceride content were evaluated in tibialis anterior. Triglyceride content was evaluated in liver. Circulating inflammatory and metabolic markers were determined. The high-fat diet and ovariectomy led to similar increases in fat mass (+36.6-56.7%; p muscle tissues and inflammatory markers. Consumption of the high-fat diet led to decreased bone formation (-38.4%; p muscle mitochondrial metabolism, muscle lipotoxicity and a 20.9% increase in tibialis anterior protein synthesis rate (p increased +72.7% (p increased +76.4% (p muscle protein synthesis rate (p fat diet and ovariectomy triggered similar gains in fat mass but had different impacts on bone and muscle metabolism. The ovariectomy-induced mechanisms affecting the musculoskeletal system are mainly caused by estrogen depletion, which surpasses the potential-independent effect of adiposity.

  19. Lifestyle-induced decrease in fat mass improves adiponectin secretion in obese adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Karen R; Navaneethan, Sankar D; Solomon, Thomas;

    2014-01-01

    with either a low-glycemic index diet (∼40 U) plus exercise (LoGIX) or a high-glycemic index diet (∼80 U) diet plus exercise (HiGIX) on plasma leptin and adiponectin (total and high molecular weight [HMW]) in 27 older obese adults (age = 65 ± 0.5 yr, body mass index = 34.5 ± 0.7 kg·m). METHODS: Insulin...... = 0.003) after the 12-wk intervention. Total body fat was reduced after both interventions. Visceral fat mass was inversely correlated with HMW adiponectin, whereas subcutaneous fat correlated with leptin. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that exercise training, independent of dietary glycemic index...

  20. Mass spectrometric methods prove the use of beeswax and ruminant fat in late Roman cooking pots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimpe, K; Jacobs, P A; Waelkens, M

    2002-08-30

    Lipid extracts of sherds of archaeological late Roman cooking pots were analysed using high temperature-gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer and liquid chromatography with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometer detection (LC-APCI-MS). With these advanced techniques the use of beeswax was shown through identification of the constituting alkanes, mono and diesters. The detection of high amounts of saturated triacylglycerols (TAGs) further indicated that animal fat was processed in these pots. Part of the animal fat was characterised as originating from ruminants due to the presence of trans-fatty acids. The distribution of saturated TAGs and the higher concentration of stearic acid compared to palmitic acid in the transesterified lipid extract indicated that this was sheep fat. The results illustrate how complex mixtures can be unravelled and original contents of ancient ceramic vessels can be determined using specialised analytical equipment.

  1. Bisphenol A is related to circulating levels of adiponectin, leptin and ghrelin, but not to fat mass or fat distribution in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönn, Monika; Lind, Lars; Örberg, Jan; Kullberg, Joel; Söderberg, Stefan; Larsson, Anders; Johansson, Lars; Ahlström, Håkan; Lind, P Monica

    2014-10-01

    Since bisphenol A (BPA) has been shown to induce obesity in experimental studies, we explored the associations between BPA and fat mass, fat distribution and circulating levels of adiponectin, leptin and ghrelin in humans. In the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS), fat mass and fat distribution were determined in 70-year-old men and women (n=890) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (n=287). Serum levels of BPA were analyzed using isotope liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometer (API4000LC-MS/MS). Hormone levels were analyzed with radioimmunoassays (RIA) or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Imaging was performed approximately two years following collection of other data. Serum concentrations of BPA were not related to adipose tissue measurements by DXA or MRI. BPA associated positively with adiponectin and leptin, but negatively with ghrelin, following adjustments for sex, height, fat mass, lean mass, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, energy intake, and educational levels (p<0.001, p=0.009, p<0.001, respectively). The relationship between BPA and ghrelin was stronger in women than in men. Although no relationships between BPA levels and measures of fat mass were seen, BPA associated strongly with the adipokines adiponectin and leptin and with the gut-hormone ghrelin suggesting that BPA may interfere with hormonal control of hunger and satiety. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Body mass index as discriminator of the lean mass deficit and excess body fat in institutionalized elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Maria Helena; Bolina, Alisson F; Luiz, Raíssa B; de Oliveira, Karoline F; Virtuoso, Jair S; Rodrigues, Rosalina A P; Silva, Larissa C; da Cunha, Daniel F; De Mattia, Ana Lúcia; Barichello, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the discriminating criterion for body mass index (BMI) in the prediction of low fat free mass and high body fat percentage according to sex among older people. Observational analytical study with cross-sectional design was used for this study. All institutionalized older people from the city of Uberaba (Minas Gerais, Brazil) who fit within the inclusion and exclusion criteria were approached. Sixty-five institutionalized older people were evaluated after signing a Free and Informed Consent Form. Descriptive and inferential statistical procedures were employed for the analysis, using Student's t-test and multiple linear regression. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to determine the BMI (kg/m(2)) cut-off points. The study complied with all the ethical norms for research involving human beings. In comparing the anthropometric measurements obtained via bioimpedance, elder male had higher mean height and body water volume than females. However, women had higher mean triceps skinfold and fat free mass than men. The BMI cut-off points, as discriminators of low fat free mass percentage and high body fat percentage in women, were ≤22.4 kg/m(2) and >26.6 kg/m(2), respectively; while for men they were ≤19.2 kg/m(2) and >23.8 kg/m(2). The results of this study indicate the need for multicenter studies aimed at suggesting BMI cut-off points for institutionalized older people, taking into account specific sex characteristics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Individual variability in cardiovascular disease risk factor responses to low-fat and low-saturated-fat diets in men: body mass index, adiposity, and insulin resistance predict changes in LDL cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, Michael; Champagne, Catherine M; Tulley, Richard T; Rood, Jennifer C; Most, Marlene M

    2005-11-01

    Although reductions in total and saturated fat consumption are recommended to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, individual variability in plasma lipid responses exists. Our aim was to determine the effect of adiposity and insulin resistance on the lipoprotein response to diets lower in total and saturated fat than the average American diet (AAD). A randomized, double-blind, 3-period crossover controlled feeding design was used to examine the effects on plasma lipids of 3 diets that differed in total fat: the AAD [designed to contain 38% fat and 14% saturated fatty acids (SFAs)], the Step I diet (30% fat with 9% SFAs), and the Step II diet (25% fat with 6% SFAs). The diets were fed for 6 wk each to 86 free-living, healthy men aged 22-64 y at levels designed to maintain weight. Compared with the AAD, the Step I and Step II diets lowered LDL cholesterol by 6.8% and 11.7%, lowered HDL cholesterol by 7.5% and 11.2%, and raised triacylglycerols by 14.3% and 16.2%, respectively. The Step II diet response showed significant positive correlations between changes in both LDL cholesterol and the ratio of total to HDL cholesterol and baseline percentage body fat, body mass index, and insulin. These associations were largely due to smaller reductions in LDL cholesterol with increasing percentage body fat, body mass index, or insulin concentrations. Subdivision of the study population showed that the participants in the upper one-half of fasting insulin concentrations averaged only 57% of the reduction in LDL cholesterol with the Step II diet of the participants in the lower half. Persons who are insulin resistant respond less favorably to Step II diets than do those who are insulin sensitive.

  4. Comparison of gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry for carbon stable-isotope analysis of carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerdijk-Poortvliet, T.C.W.; Schierbeek, H.; Houtekamer, M.; van Engeland, T.; Derrien, D.; Stal, L.J.; Boschker, H.T.S.

    2015-01-01

    We compared gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS) and liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LC/IRMS) for the measurement of d13C values in carbohydrates. Contrary to GC/IRMS, no derivatisation is needed for LC/IRMS analysis of carbohydrates. Hence, although

  5. The Close Companion Mass-Ratio Distribution of Intermediate-Mass Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Gullikson, Kevin; Dodson-Robinson, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Binary stars and higher-order multiple systems are an ubiquitous outcome of star formation, especially as the system mass increases. The companion mass-ratio distribution is a unique probe into the conditions of the collapsing cloud core and circumstellar disk(s) of the binary fragments. Inside $a \\sim 1000$ AU the disks from the two forming stars can interact, and additionally companions can form directly through disk fragmentation. We should therefore expect the mass-ratio distribution of close companions ($a \\lesssim 100$ AU) to differ from that of wide companions. This prediction is difficult to test using traditional methods, especially with intermediate-mass primary stars, for a variety of observational reasons. We present the results of a survey searching for companions to A- and B-type stars using the direct spectral detection method, which is sensitive to late-type companions within $\\sim 1"$ of the primary and which has no inner working angle. We estimate the temperatures and surface gravity of most...

  6. Experimental limit on the ratio of the gravitational mass to the inertial mass of antihydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajans, Joel; Wurtele, Jonathan; Charman, Andrew; Zhmoginov, Andrey

    2012-10-01

    Physicists have long wondered if the gravitational interactions between matter and antimatter might be different from those between matter and itself. While there are many indirect indications that no such differences exist, i.e., that the weak equivalence principle holds, there have been no direct, free-fall style, experimental tests of gravity on antimatter. By searching for a propensity for antihydrogen atoms to fall downward when released from the ALPHA antihydrogen trap, we have determined that we can reject ratios of the gravitational mass to the inertial mass of antihydrogen greater than about 100 at a statistical significance level of 5%. A similar search places somewhat lower limits on a negative gravitational mass, i.e., on antigravity.

  7. LISA extreme-mass-ratio inspiral events as probes of the black hole mass function

    CERN Document Server

    Gair, Jonathan R; Volonteri, Marta

    2010-01-01

    One of the sources of gravitational waves for the proposed space-based gravitational wave detector, the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), are the inspirals of compact objects into supermassive black holes in the centres of galaxies - extreme-mass-ratio inspirals (EMRIs). Using LISA observations, we will be able to measure the parameters of each EMRI system detected to very high precision. However, the statistics of the set of EMRI events observed by LISA will be more important in constraining astrophysical models than extremely precise measurements for individual systems. The black holes to which LISA is most sensitive are in a mass range that is difficult to probe using other techniques, so LISA provides an almost unique window onto these objects. In this paper we explore, using Bayesian techniques, the constraints that LISA EMRI observations can place on the mass function of black holes at low redshift. We describe a general framework for approaching inference of this type --- using multiple observ...

  8. Central Body Fat Distribution Associates with Unfavorable Renal Hemodynamics Independent of Body Mass Index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakernaak, Arjan J.; Zelle, Dorien M.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Navis, Gerjan

    2013-01-01

    Central distribution of body fat is associated with a higher risk of renal disease, but whether it is the distribution pattern or the overall excess weight that underlies this association is not well understood. Here, we studied the association between waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), which reflects centra

  9. Brain and high metabolic rate organ mass: contributions to resting energy expenditure beyond fat-free mass1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Fahad; He, Qing; Davidson, Lance E; Thornton, John C; Albu, Jeanine; Boxt, Lawrence; Krasnow, Norman; Elia, Marinos; Kang, Patrick; Heshka, Stanley

    2010-01-01

    Background: The degree to which interindividual variation in the mass of select high metabolic rate organs (HMROs) mediates variability in resting energy expenditure (REE) is unknown. Objective: The objective was to investigate how much REE variability is explained by differences in HMRO mass in adults and whether age, sex, and race independently predict REE after adjustment for HMRO. Design: A cross-sectional evaluation of 55 women [30 African Americans aged 48.7 ± 22.2 y (mean ± SD) and 25 whites aged 46.4 ± 17.7 y] and 32 men (8 African Americans aged 34.3 ± 18.2 y and 24 whites aged 51.3 ± 20.6 y) was conducted. Liver, kidney, spleen, heart, and brain masses were measured by magnetic resonance imaging, and fat and fat-free mass (FFM) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. REE was measured by indirect calorimetry. Results: REE estimated from age (P = 0.001), race (P = 0.006), sex (P = 0.31), fat (P = 0.001), and FFM (P brain (P = 0.006) to the model increased the explained variance to 75% and rendered the contributions of age, sex, and race statistically nonsignificant, whereas fat and FFM continued to make significant contributions (both P brain to the model rendered the intercept (69 kcal · kg−1 · d−1) consistent with zero, which indicated zero REE for zero body mass. Conclusions: Relatively small interindividual variation in HMRO mass significantly affects REE and reduces the role of age, race, and sex in explaining REE. Decreases in REE with increasing age may be partly related to age-associated changes in the relative size of FFM components. PMID:20164308

  10. Does running with or without changes in diet reduce fat mass in novice runners?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus O.; Videbæk, Solvej; Hansen, Mette;

    2016-01-01

    week and those running less. RESULTS: Among those taking up running to lose weight, running >5 kilometers per week in average over 1--year combined with a positive change in diet reduced the fat mass of --5.58 kilogram [--8.69;--2.46], p 5 kilometers per week...

  11. A multicenter study of the influence of fat and lean mass on bone mineral content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hla, M M; Davis, J W; Ross, P D

    1996-01-01

    We examined the relative influence of fat and lean mass on bone mineral content (BMC) among 1600 early postmenopausal women aged 45-59 y from four geographical locations (Nottingham, United Kingdom; Portland, OR; Honolulu; and Copenhagen). Bone sites investigated included the major fracture sites...

  12. An anthropometric model to estimate neonatal fat mass using air displacement plethysmography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deierlein Andrea L

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current validated neonatal body composition methods are limited/impractical for use outside of a clinical setting because they are labor intensive, time consuming, and require expensive equipment. The purpose of this study was to develop an anthropometric model to estimate neonatal fat mass (kg using an air displacement plethysmography (PEA POD® Infant Body Composition System as the criterion. Methods A total of 128 healthy term infants, 60 females and 68 males, from a multiethnic cohort were included in the analyses. Gender, race/ethnicity, gestational age, age (in days, anthropometric measurements of weight, length, abdominal circumference, skin-fold thicknesses (triceps, biceps, sub scapular, and thigh, and body composition by PEA POD® were collected within 1-3 days of birth. Backward stepwise linear regression was used to determine the model that best predicted neonatal fat mass. Results The statistical model that best predicted neonatal fat mass (kg was: -0.012 -0.064*gender + 0.024*day of measurement post-delivery -0.150*weight (kg + 0.055*weight (kg2 + 0.046*ethnicity + 0.020*sum of three skin-fold thicknesses (triceps, sub scapular, and thigh; R2 = 0.81, MSE = 0.08 kg. Conclusions Our anthropometric model explained 81% of the variance in neonatal fat mass. Future studies with a greater variety of neonatal anthropometric measurements may provide equations that explain more of the variance.

  13. Right ventricular lipomatous mass and biventricular multifocal fat in a young woman: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Bo Rahm; Park, Jae Hyeong; Ahn, Kye Taek; Kim, Song Soo; Jeong, Jin Ok; Choi, Si Wan; Jin, Seon Ah; Lee, Jae Hwan [Chungnam National University Hospital, Chungnam National University School of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Cardiac lipoma is a rare neoplasm of encapsulated mature adult adipose tissue. It is usually asymptomatic, but it may be related to hemodynamic obstruction depending on its location. We report a typical case of right ventricular lipomatous mass and multifocal fat infiltration of both ventricles, which were detected incidentally in a young woman.

  14. Percent body fat is a better predictor of cardiovascular risk factors than body mass index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Qiang; Dong, Sheng-Yong; Sun, Xiao-Nan; Xie, Jing; Cui, Yi [International Medical Center, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2012-04-20

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the predictive values of percent body fat (PBF) and body mass index (BMI) for cardiovascular risk factors, especially when PBF and BMI are conflicting. BMI was calculated by the standard formula and PBF was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. A total of 3859 ambulatory adult Han Chinese subjects (2173 males and 1686 females, age range: 18-85 years) without a history of cardiovascular diseases were recruited from February to September 2009. Based on BMI and PBF, they were classified into group 1 (normal BMI and PBF, N = 1961), group 2 (normal BMI, but abnormal PBF, N = 381), group 3 (abnormal BMI, but normal PBF, N = 681), and group 4 (abnormal BMI and PBF, N = 836). When age, gender, lifestyle, and family history of obesity were adjusted, PBF, but not BMI, was correlated with blood glucose and lipid levels. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for cardiovascular risk factors in groups 2 and 4 were 1.88 (1.45-2.45) and 2.06 (1.26-3.35) times those in group 1, respectively, but remained unchanged in group 3 (OR = 1.32, 95%CI = 0.92-1.89). Logistic regression models also demonstrated that PBF, rather than BMI, was independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors. In conclusion, PBF, and not BMI, is independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors, indicating that PBF is a better predictor.

  15. Comparison of Different Measures of Fat Mass and Their Association with Serum Cystatin C Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boon Wee Teo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cystatin C (CysC is a glomerular filtration rate (GFR marker affected by GFR and obesity. Because percentage body fat (%BF distribution is affected by ethnicity, different measures of %BF may improve CysC prediction. This study aims to create multivariate models that predict serum CysC and determine which %BF metric gives the best prediction. Methods. Serum CysC was measured by nephelometric assay. We estimated %BF by considering weight, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, triceps skin fold, bioimpedance, and Deurenberg and Yap %BF equations. A base multivariate model for CysC was created with a %BF metric added in turn. The best model is considered by comparing P values, R2, Akaike information criterion (AIC, and Bayesian information criterion (BIC. Results. There were 335 participants. Mean serum CysC and creatinine were 1.27 mg/L and 1.44 mg/dL, respectively. Variables for the base model were age, gender, ethnicity, creatinine, serum urea, c-reactive protein, log GFR, and serum albumin. %BF had a positive correlation with CysC. The best model for predicting CysC included bioimpedance-derived %BF (P=0.0011, with the highest R2 (0.917 and the lowest AIC and BIC (−371, −323. Conclusion. Obesity is associated with CysC, and the best predictive model for CysC includes bioimpedance-derived %BF.

  16. Body fat and skeletal muscle mass in relation to physical disability in very old men and women of the Framingham Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, M; Harris, T B; Langlois, J; Hannan, M T; Roubenoff, R; Felson, D T; Wilson, P W; Kiel, D P

    1998-05-01

    Low muscle mass has been assumed to be associated with disability, but no studies confirming this association have been published. High body weight and high body mass index, both rough indicators of body fatness, have been shown to increase the risk for disability; however, the specific role of body fatness has not been studied. The relations of skeletal muscle mass and percent body fat with self-reported physical disability were studied in 753 men and women aged 72 to 95 years. Cross-sectional data from biennial examination 22 (1992-1993) of the Framingham Heart Study were used. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Disability was scored as any versus none on a 9-item questionnaire. Total body and lower extremity muscle mass were not associated with disability in either men or women. However, a strong positive association between percent body fat and disability was observed. The odds ratio for disability in those in the highest tertile of body fatness was 2.69 (95% confidence interval 1.45-5.00) for women and 3.08 (1.22-7.81) for men compared to those in the lowest tertile. The increased risk could not be explained by age, education, physical activity, smoking, alcohol use, estrogen use (women only), muscle mass, and health status. Analyses restricting disability to mobility items gave similar results. In contrast to current assumptions, low skeletal muscle mass was not associated with self-reported physical disability. Persons with a high percent body fat had high levels of disability. Because it cannot be ruled out that persons with low skeletal muscle mass dropped out earlier in the study, prospective studies are needed to further assess the relationship between body composition and physical disability.

  17. Galaxy Mergers and Dark Matter Halo Mergers in LCDM: Mass, Redshift, and Mass-Ratio Dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Kyle R.; Bullock, James S.; Barton, Elizabeth J.; /UC, Irvine; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

    2009-08-03

    We employ a high-resolution LCDM N-body simulation to present merger rate predictions for dark matter halos and investigate how common merger-related observables for galaxies - such as close pair counts, starburst counts, and the morphologically disturbed fraction - likely scale with luminosity, stellar mass, merger mass ratio, and redshift from z = 0 to z = 4. We provide a simple 'universal' fitting formula that describes our derived merger rates for dark matter halos a function of dark halo mass, merger mass ratio, and redshift, and go on to predict galaxy merger rates using number density-matching to associate halos with galaxies. For example, we find that the instantaneous merger rate of m/M > 0.3 mass ratio events into typical L {approx}> fL{sub *} galaxies follows the simple relation dN/dt {approx_equal} 0.03(1+f)Gyr{sup -1} (1+z){sup 2.1}. Despite the rapid increase in merger rate with redshift, only a small fraction of > 0.4L{sub *} high-redshift galaxies ({approx} 3% at z = 2) should have experienced a major merger (m/M > 0.3) in the very recent past (t < 100 Myr). This suggests that short-lived, merger-induced bursts of star formation should not contribute significantly to the global star formation rate at early times, in agreement with observational indications. In contrast, a fairly high fraction ({approx} 20%) of those z = 2 galaxies should have experienced a morphologically transformative merger within a virial dynamical time. We compare our results to observational merger rate estimates from both morphological indicators and pair-fraction based determinations between z = 0-2 and show that they are consistent with our predictions. However, we emphasize that great care must be made in these comparisons because the predicted observables depend very sensitively on galaxy luminosity, redshift, overall mass ratio, and uncertain relaxation timescales for merger remnants. We show that the majority of bright galaxies at z = 3 should have undergone a

  18. Percentage of Body Fat and Fat Mass Index as a Screening Tool for Metabolic Syndrome Prediction in Colombian University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Ramírez-Vélez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available High body fat is related to metabolic syndrome (MetS in all ethnic groups. Based on the International Diabetes Federation (IDF definition of MetS, the aim of this study was to explore thresholds of body fat percentage (BF% and fat mass index (FMI for the prediction of MetS among Colombian University students. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1687 volunteers (63.4% women, mean age = 20.6 years. Weight, waist circumference, serum lipids indices, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose were measured. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA and FMI was calculated. MetS was defined as including more than or equal to three of the metabolic abnormalities according to the IDF definition. Receiver operating curve (ROC analysis was used to determine optimal cut-off points for BF% and FMI in relation to the area under the curve (AUC, sensitivity, and specificity in both sexes. The overall prevalence of MetS was found to be 7.7%, higher in men than women (11.1% vs. 5.3%; p < 0.001. BF% and FMI were positively correlated to MetS components (p < 0.05. ROC analysis indicated that BF% and FMI can be used with moderate accuracy to identify MetS in university-aged students. BF% and FMI thresholds of 25.55% and 6.97 kg/m2 in men, and 38.95% and 11.86 kg/m2 in women, were found to be indicative of high MetS risk. Based on the IDF criteria, both indexes’ thresholds seem to be good tools to identify university students with unfavorable metabolic profiles.

  19. Daily leptin blunts marrow fat but does not impact bone mass in calorie-restricted mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, M J; Brooks, D J; Conlon, C; Vliet, M van; Louis, L; Rosen, C J; Bouxsein, M L

    2016-06-01

    Starvation induces low bone mass and high bone marrow adiposity in humans, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The adipokine leptin falls in starvation, suggesting that hypoleptinemia may be a link between negative energy balance, bone marrow fat accumulation, and impaired skeletal acquisition. In that case, treating mice with leptin during caloric restriction (CR) should reduce marrow adipose tissue (MAT) and improve bone mass. To test this hypothesis, female C57Bl/6J mice were fed a 30% CR or normal (N) diet from 5 to 10 weeks of age, with daily injections of vehicle (VEH), 1mg/kg leptin (LEP1), or 2mg/kg leptin (LEP2) (N=6-8/group). Outcomes included body mass, body fat percentage, and whole-body bone mineral density (BMD) via peripheral dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, cortical and trabecular microarchitecture via microcomputed tomography (μCT), and MAT volume via μCT of osmium tetroxide-stained bones. Overall, CR mice had lower body mass, body fat percentage, BMD, and cortical bone area fraction, but more connected trabeculae, vs N mice (Pleptin treatment blunted MAT formation in CR mice by 50% vs VEH (Pleptin doses). CR LEP2 mice weighed less vs CR VEH mice at 9-10 weeks of age (Pleptin treatment did not affect body fat percentage, BMD, or bone microarchitecture within either diet. These data demonstrate that once daily leptin bolus during CR inhibits bone marrow adipose expansion without affecting bone mass acquisition, suggesting that leptin has distinct effects on starvation-induced bone marrow fat formation and skeletal acquisition. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  20. Changes of aerobic capacity, fat ratio and flexibility in older TCC practitioners: a five-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ching; Chen, Ssu-Yuan; Lai, Jin-Shin

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the 5-year changes of aerobic capacity, fat ratio and flexibility in older Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) practitioners and sedentary controls. Sixty-nine community-dwelling elderly individuals (mean age: 68.6 +/- 6.3 years) completed this study. The TCC group (18 M; 17 F) had been practicing TCC regularly for 6.3 +/- 3.7 years at baseline and continued training in the study interval. The control group (16 M; 18 F) did not participate in any regular exercise program. A graded bicycle exercise testing was conducted at the baseline and at 5-year to evaluate the age-related decline in aerobic capacity. Triceps and subscapular skinfolds, and thoracolumbar flexibility were also measured. At baseline, the TCC group displayed higher peak oxygen uptake $({\\dot{\\rm V}}{\\rm O}_{2{\\rm peak}})$ and thoraolumbar flexibility, and lower fat ratio than the control group. At the 5-year follow-up, the TCC group displayed a smaller decrease in $\\dot{\\rm V}{\\rm O}_{2{\\rm peak}}$ than the sedentary group. The annual decrease of $\\dot{\\rm V}{\\rm O}_{2{\\rm peak}}$ in TCC men and women was 0.32 and 0.22 ml . kg(-1) . min(-1), respectively. In the control group, the annual decrease of $\\dot{\\rm V}{\\rm O}_{2{\\rm peak}}$ was 0.50 and 0.36 ml . kg(-1) . min(-1) in men and women, respectively. The TCC group also showed a smaller increase of body fat ratio, and a less decrease of flexibility than the control group. In conclusion, long-term practice of TCC attenuates the age-related decline of aerobic capacity, and it also reduces the increase of body fat ratio in older individuals. TCC may be prescribed as a conditioning exercise for the elderly to maintain their health fitness.

  1. Model Persamaan Massa Karbon Akar Pohon dan Root-Shoot Ratio Massa Karbon (Equation Models of Tree Root Carbon Mass and Root-Shoot Carbon Mass Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias .

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The case study was conducted in the area of Acacia mangium plantation at BKPH Parung Panjang, KPH Bogor. The objective of the study was to formulate equation models of tree root carbon mass and root to shoot carbon mass ratio of the plantation. It was found that carbon content in the parts of tree biomass (stems, branches, twigs, leaves, and roots was different, in which the highest and the lowest carbon content was in the main stem of the tree and in the leaves, respectively. The main stem and leaves of tree accounted for 70% of tree biomass. The root-shoot ratio of root biomass to tree biomass above the ground and the root-shoot ratio of root biomass to main stem biomass was 0.1443 and 0.25771, respectively, in which 75% of tree carbon mass was in the main stem and roots of tree. It was also found that the root-shoot ratio of root carbon mass to tree carbon mass above the ground and the root-shoot ratio of root carbon mass to tree main stem carbon mass was 0.1442 and 0.2034, respectively. All allometric equation models of tree root carbon mass of A. mangium have a high goodness-of-fit as indicated by its high adjusted R2.Keywords: Acacia mangium, allometric, root-shoot ratio, biomass, carbon mass

  2. IDENTIFICATION OF THE MASS DISTRIBUTIONS OF THE MILK FAT PHASE USING UNIVERSAL PEARSON DISTRIBUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Khvostov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider the problem of approximating the experimental values of the coefficient of attenuation of ultrasonic oscillations and the mass distribution of the fat globules in the milk and milk products. The analysis of experimental data in terms of the choice of the method of approximation was done. A approximating dependence is based on the solution of Pearson differential equations. The advantages of the proposed method for the type of approximation of the experimental data obtained. An algorithm for constructing a mathematical model describing the relaxation spectrum and mass distribution of the fat globules in the milk and milk products was implemented. As a result, a family of Pearson approximation curves of the experimental data shows the ability to qualitatively correctly describe the change in the distribution of the fat phase in the process of homogenization. It estimates the error of approximating dependence, which amounted to 18 %. It is shown that during of the process of homogenization of dairy products changes shape of the curve describing the distribution of the fat globules, in view of the fact that there is a local extremum, caused by the presence of the non-homogenized fat globules. The accuracy of the selected mathematical model is significantly reduced. At the same time, it loses its physical meaning and its parameters. To address the identified deviations in the proposed mass distribution of fat globules as a function with two modes. It is proved that the complexity of the model is not only doubles the number of its parameters, but also complicates the interpretation of measurement results in a control system, and makes it difficult to analyze the obtained parameters of approximation by decision-maker. As a result of approximation of experimental data suggested to use statistical moments of the distribution for problem decision.

  3. Myostatin inhibition in muscle, but not adipose tissue, decreases fat mass and improves insulin sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingqing Guo

    Full Text Available Myostatin (Mstn is a secreted growth factor expressed in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue that negatively regulates skeletal muscle mass. Mstn(-/- mice have a dramatic increase in muscle mass, reduction in fat mass, and resistance to diet-induced and genetic obesity. To determine how Mstn deletion causes reduced adiposity and resistance to obesity, we analyzed substrate utilization and insulin sensitivity in Mstn(-/- mice fed a standard chow. Despite reduced lipid oxidation in skeletal muscle, Mstn(-/- mice had no change in the rate of whole body lipid oxidation. In contrast, Mstn(-/- mice had increased glucose utilization and insulin sensitivity as measured by indirect calorimetry, glucose and insulin tolerance tests, and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. To determine whether these metabolic effects were due primarily to the loss of myostatin signaling in muscle or adipose tissue, we compared two transgenic mouse lines carrying a dominant negative activin IIB receptor expressed specifically in adipocytes or skeletal muscle. We found that inhibition of myostatin signaling in adipose tissue had no effect on body composition, weight gain, or glucose and insulin tolerance in mice fed a standard diet or a high-fat diet. In contrast, inhibition of myostatin signaling in skeletal muscle, like Mstn deletion, resulted in increased lean mass, decreased fat mass, improved glucose metabolism on standard and high-fat diets, and resistance to diet-induced obesity. Our results demonstrate that Mstn(-/- mice have an increase in insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake, and that the reduction in adipose tissue mass in Mstn(-/- mice is an indirect result of metabolic changes in skeletal muscle. These data suggest that increasing muscle mass by administration of myostatin antagonists may be a promising therapeutic target for treating patients with obesity or diabetes.

  4. Long-term dynamics of high mass ratio multiples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gongjie

    This thesis presents a series of studies on the dynamics of high mass ratio multiples, with applications to planetary systems orbiting stars and stellar systems orbiting supermassive black holes (SMBHs). Almost two thousand exoplanetary systems have recently been discovered, and their configurations gave rise to new puzzles to planetary formation theories. We studied the dynamics of planetary systems aiming to understand how the configuration of planetary system is sculptured and to probe the origin of planetary systems. First, we discussed hierarchical three-body dynamics, which can be applied to planets that are orbiting a star while perturbed by a planet or a star that is farther away. The perturbation from the farther object can flip the planetary orbits and produce counter orbiting hot Jupiters, which cannot be formed in the classical planetary formation theory. In addition, we have studied the scatter encounter of planetary systems in clusters, which produce eccentric and inclined planets. Moreover, we investigated the obliquity variation of planets, which can be applied to exoplanetary systems. The obliquity variation is important to the habitability of the exoplanets. The long term dynamics is also important to stellar systems orbiting SMBHs. SMBHs are common in the center of galaxies and lead to rich dynamical interactions with nearby stars. At the same time, dynamical features of the nearby stars reveal important properties of the SMBHs. The aforementioned hierarchical three-body dynamics can be applied to stars near SMBH binaries, which are natural consequences of galaxy mergers. We found that the distribution of stars surrounding one of the SMBHs results in a shape of torus due to the perturbation from the other SMBH, and the dynamical interactions contribute to an enhancement of tidal disruption rates, which can help identify the SMBH binaries. In addition, we investigated the heating of stars near SMBHs, where the heating of stars due to gravitational

  5. Erdheim-Chester disease with perirenal masses containing macroscopic fat tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byeon, Jong Hyun; Kim, Kyung Ah; Hwang, Seong Su; Park, Soo Youn; Kim, Hyun A [Dept. of Radiology, St. Vincent' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Erdheim-Chester disease is a rare non-Langerhans-cell histiocytosis involving multiple organs. On histological evaluation, lipid-laden histiocyte aggregates in Erdheim-Chester disease is detected, but fat tissue in affected organs is not noted grossly on computed tomography. A 40-year-old man presented with bilateral perirenal masses containing fat tissue. He was diagnosed as perirenal involvement of Erdheim-Chester disease. This report describes a case of Erdheim-Chester disease with perirenal involvement that demonstrates unusual features.

  6. How to Estimate Fat Mass in Overweight and Obese Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Maria Donini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing and represents a primary health concern. Body composition evaluation is rarely performed in overweight/obese subjects, and the diagnosis is almost always achieved just considering body mass index (BMI. In fact, whereas BMI can be considered an important tool in epidemiological surveys, different papers stated the limitations of the use of BMI in single individuals. Aim. To assess the determinants of body composition in overweight and obese subjects. Methods. In 103 overweight or obese subjects (74 women, aged 41.5 ± 10 years, and 29 men, aged 43.8 ± 8 years, a multidimensional evaluation was performed including the assessment of body composition using Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA, anthropometry, bioimpedance analysis (BIA, and biochemical parameters (total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol, free fatty acids and glycerol, glucose, insulin, C-reactive protein, plasma acylated and unacylated ghrelin, adiponectin, and leptin serum levels. Results. BMI does not represent the main predictor of FM estimated by DXA; FM from BIA and hip circumference showed a better association with FM from DXA. Moreover, models omitting BMI explained a greater part of variance. These data are confirmed by the predictive value analysis where BMI showed a performance similar to a “coin flip.”

  7. Bilateral leg extension power and fat-free mass in young oarsmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshiga, Chie C; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2003-11-01

    We evaluated the impact of bilateral leg extension power and fat-free mass on 2000 m rowing ergometer performance in 332 young oarsmen (age 21+/-2 years, height 1.76+/-0.05 m, body mass 62+/-6 kg; mean+/-s). The 2000 m rowing performance time was correlated with height (1.62-1.93 m; R2=0.23, Pleg extension power (1202-3302 W; R2=0.38, Pleg extension power as regressor variables. Fat-free mass explained 58% of the variability in rowing performance and the inclusion of bilateral leg extension power improved the power of prediction by 5%. The results suggest that rowing involves almost every muscle in the body and that bilateral leg extension power is very important during this activity.

  8. The end of the fat dodo? A new mass estimate for Raphus cucullatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angst, Delphine; Buffetaut, Eric; Abourachid, Anick

    2011-03-01

    A new mass estimate for the dodo ( Raphus cucullatus), based on the lengths of the femur, tibiotarsus and tarsometatarsus, is attempted. The obtained mean mass is 10.2 kg, which is less than previous estimates based on other methods, which ranged from 10.6 to 21.1 kg, and much lower than the 50 lbs reported by a seventeenth-century eyewitness. The new estimated mass, which is similar to that of a large wild turkey, seems more realistic than previous ones and supports the hypothesis that contemporary illustrations of extremely fat dodos were either exaggerations, or based on overfed specimens. Pictures of "fat" dodos may also have been based on individuals exhibiting a display behaviour with puffed out feathers.

  9. BODY FAT TOPOGRAPHY AND WAIST HIP RATIO IN FEMALE HANDBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Anand Asia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The WHR was significantly lower in sport group as compared to control group. Body fat (% did not differ significantly in the two groups. The FFM (kg was significantly greater in the sports group. Findings of the above study could be utilized for the selection and recruitment of athletes and development of training programmes.

  10. The Capra Research Program for Modelling Extreme Mass Ratio Inspirals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornburg, Jonathan

    2011-02-01

    Suppose a small compact object (black hole or neutron star) of mass m orbits a large black hole of mass M ≫ m. This system emits gravitational waves (GWs) that have a radiation-reaction effect on the particle's motion. EMRIs (extreme-mass-ratio inspirals) of this type will be important GW sources for LISA. To fully analyze these GWs, and to detect weaker sources also present in the LISA data stream, will require highly accurate EMRI GW templates. In this article I outline the ``Capra'' research program to try to model EMRIs and calculate their GWs ab initio, assuming only that m ≪ M and that the Einstein equations hold. Because m ≪ M the timescale for the particle's orbit to shrink is too long for a practical direct numerical integration of the Einstein equations, and because this orbit may be deep in the large black hole's strong-field region, a post-Newtonian approximation would be inaccurate. Instead, we treat the EMRI spacetime as a perturbation of the large black hole's ``background'' (Schwarzschild or Kerr) spacetime and use the methods of black-hole perturbation theory, expanding in the small parameter m/M. The particle's motion can be described either as the result of a radiation-reaction ``self-force'' acting in the background spacetime or as geodesic motion in a perturbed spacetime. Several different lines of reasoning lead to the (same) basic O(m/M) ``MiSaTaQuWa'' equations of motion for the particle. In particular, the MiSaTaQuWa equations can be derived by modelling the particle as either a point particle or a small Schwarzschild black hole. The latter is conceptually elegant, but the former is technically much simpler and (surprisingly for a nonlinear field theory such as general relativity) still yields correct results. Modelling the small body as a point particle, its own field is singular along the particle worldline, so it's difficult to formulate a meaningful ``perturbation'' theory or equations of motion there. Detweiler and Whiting found

  11. Stellar dynamics and extreme-mass ratio inspirals

    CERN Document Server

    Amaro-Seoane, Pau

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays it is well-established that in the centre of the Milky Way a massive black hole (MBH) with a mass of about four million solar masses is lurking. While there is an emerging consensus about the origin and growth of supermassive black holes (with masses larger than a billion solar masses), MBHs with smaller masses such as the one in our galactic centre remain an understudied enigma. The key to understanding these holes, how some of them grow by orders of magnitude in mass is to understand the dynamics of the stars in the galactic neighborhood. Stars and the central MBH chiefly interact through the gradual inspiral of the stars into the MBH due to the emission of gravitational radiation. Also stars produce gases which will be subsequently accreted by the MBH by collisions and disruptions brought about by the strong central tidal field. Such processes can contribute significantly to the mass of the MBH and progress in understanding them requires theoretical work in preparation for future gravitational rad...

  12. Analysis of isomeric ratios for medium-mass nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danagulyan, A. S.; Hovhannisyan, G. H.; Bakhshiyan, T. M.; Kerobyan, I. A.

    2016-09-01

    Values of the isomeric ratios for product nuclei originating from simple charge-exchange reactions were analyzed. The cross sections for the formation of product nuclei in ground and isomeric states were calculated with the aid of the TALYS 1.4 and EMPIRE 3.2 codes. The calculated values of the isomeric ratios were compared with their experimental counterparts taken from the EXFOR database. For the 86,87Y, 94,95,96,99Tc, and 44Sc nuclei, the experimental values of the isomeric ratios exceed the respective calculated values. The nuclei in question feature weak deformations and have high-spin yrast lines and rotational bands. The possible reason behind the discrepancy between theoretical and experimental isomeric ratios is that the decay of yrast states leads with a high probability to the formation of isomeric states of detected product nuclei.

  13. Fat Mass Centile Charts for Brazilian Children and Adolescents and the Identification of the Roles of Socioeconomic Status and Physical Fitness on Fat Mass Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonete Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents fat mass centile charts for Brazilian youth and investigates the roles of socioeconomic status and physical fitness (PF on fat mass (FM development. Two northeast Brazilian samples were used: a cross-sectional sample of 3659 (1921 girls aged 8 to 16 years and a mixed-longitudinal series of cohorts (8–10, 10–12, 12–14, 14–16 years with 250 boys and 250 girls. A measure of somatic maturity was used as a marker of biological maturation; PF comprised agility, explosive and static strength, and aerobic capacity. Socioeconomic status was based on school attended; public or private. Slaughter’s anthropometric equations were used to estimate FM. Percentile charts was constructed using the LMS method. HLM (Hierarchical Linear Model 7 software modeled FM changes, identifying inter-individual differences and their covariates. Girls and boys had different FM percentile values at each age; FM increased nonlinearly in both girls and boys. Higher PF levels reduced FM changes across time in both sexes. Sex-specific non-linear FM references were provided representing important tools for nutritionists, pediatriciann and educators. Physical fitness levels were found to act as a protective factor in FM increases. As such, we emphasize PF importance as a putative health marker and highlight the need for its systematic development across the school years.

  14. Mass and fat infiltration of intercostal muscles measured by CT histogram analysis and their correlations with COPD severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mi Jung; Cho, Jae Min; Jeon, Kyung Nyeo; Bae, Kyung Soo; Kim, Ho Cheol; Choi, Dae Seob; Na, Jae Boem; Choi, Ho Cheol; Choi, Hye Young; Kim, Ji Eun; Shin, Hwa Seon

    2014-06-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by progressive respiratory function impairment and respiratory muscle dysfunction. We hypothesized that the mass and fat infiltration of respiratory muscles correlates with COPD severity and emphysema extent. Ninety-eight male patients with COPD underwent chest computed tomography (CT) and spirometry. The mass and fat infiltrations of intercostal and latissimus muscles were quantified as the cross-sectional area (CSA) and attenuation of these muscles using CT histogram analysis. Intercostal index and latissimus index were defined as intercostal CSAs and latissimus CSAs divided by body mass index. The emphysema extent was measured as the ratio of the emphysematous lung volume to the total lung volume using a density-mask technique. Pearson correlation analyses were performed to evaluate the relationships between these parameters. Multiple regression analysis was performed using forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) as the dependent parameter and the clinical and CT data as the independent parameters. FEV1 was significantly correlated with intercostal index (r = 0.57), latissimus index (r = 0.34), intercostal attenuation (r = 0.62), and latissimus attenuation (r = 0.38). Emphysema extent was significantly correlated with intercostal index (r = -0.36) and intercostal attenuation (r = -0.50). Multiple regression analysis showed that FEV1 was predicted by intercostal attenuation (B = 0.40), intercostal CSA (B = 0.23), emphysema extent (B = -0.23), and age (B = -0.21, R(2) = 0.64, P increase in intercostal fat are associated with worsening of COPD severity. Copyright © 2014 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of casein to whey protein ratios on the protein interactions and coagulation properties of low-fat yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, L L; Wang, X L; Tian, Q; Mao, X Y

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of casein (CN) to whey protein (WP) ratios (4:1, 3:1, 2:1, and 1:1) on gelation properties and microstructure of low-fat yogurt made with reconstituted skim milk with or without addition of whey protein concentrate. The rheological properties (storage modulus, G'; yield stress; and yield strain) of the obtained low-fat yogurt were greatly enhanced, the fermentation period was shortened, and the microstructure became more compact with smaller pores as the CN:WP ratio decreased. When CN:WP was 2:1 or 1:1, the obtained yogurt coagulum showed higher G' and greater yield stress, with more compact crosslinking and smaller pores. In addition, the more of skim milk powder was replaced by whey protein concentrate, the more disulfide bonds were formed and the greater the occurrence of hydrophobic interactions during heat treatment, which can improve the rheological properties and microstructure of low-fat yogurt.

  16. Regional placement of bone mineral mass, fat mass, and lean soft tissue mass in young adult rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, W; Evans, W D; Cobner, D M; Eston, R G

    The purpose of the present study was to ascertain whether differences existed in the regional placement of bone mineral mass (BMM), fat mass (FM) and lean soft tissue mass (LSTM) between playing units in Rugby Union Football and between players and control subjects. Thirty young adult rugby players and 21 controls participated in the study. Players were assigned to groups as either forwards (n = 15) or backs (n = 15). Control subjects were matched (n = 15) to rugby players using the mean BMI of forwards and backs. BMM, FM and LSTM were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The digital image of each subject was partitioned into regional anatomical segments comprising the head, right and left arms, trunk, and right and left legs. Measurements were summed for the arms and legs respectively. One-way ANOVA was used to differentiate between- and within-groups; Tukey's post-hoc test was applied to identify pairwise differences. The alpha level was set throughout at p = 0.01. Principal components analysis was utilized to contrast the regional segments of each tissue in each of the groups. Forwards exhibited larger absolute (kg) amounts of BMM, FM and LSTM than backs or controls. In relative terms (%) there were no significant differences in BMM(%) between forwards, backs and controls in the arms and legs, but differences did occur between backs and controls at the trunk (2.9 vs. 2.5%). Backs had a significantly larger LSTM(%) than forwards at the arms (84.4 vs. 76.5%), legs (80.0 vs. 71.9%) and trunk (89.2 vs. 79.0%), whereas forwards had a greater FM(%) than backs at the arms (18.7 vs. 10.6%), legs (23.1 vs. 14.7%), and trunk (18.4 vs. 8.0%). The distribution of BMM showed a lower body-upper body contrast in forwards, a trunk-extremity contrast in backs and an arm-lower body contrast in controls. FM exhibited a trunk-extremity contrast in all three groups, while LSTM displayed an arm-lower body contrast in all three groups. It is concluded that there are

  17. Comparison of the effectiveness of body mass index and body fat percentage in defining body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonasegaran, Arvin Raj; Nabila, Fatin Nabila; Shuhada, Nurul Shuhada

    2012-06-01

    Body mass index (BMI) has limited diagnostic performance due to its inability to discriminate between fat and lean mass. This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of body fat percentage (BFP) against BMI in defining body composition. A cross-sectional study was conducted on students aged 17-30 years in Melaka, Malaysia. Basic anthropometric measurements were acquired using a manual weighing scale, measuring tape and a fixed stadiometer. BFP was calculated using the United States Navy formula. Data was tabulated and analysed using Epi Info and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software. Pearson's correlation coefficient and Kappa values were used. A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Out of the 490 subjects recruited, 43% of males and 24.6% of females were found to be overweight, while 14.3% of males and 7.8% of females were obese, when calculated using BMI. However, 8.9% of males and 22.8% of females were considered obese based on the BFP. BFP plays a more important role in distinguishing between healthy and obese individuals, as it has a greater ability to differentiate between lean mass and fat mass compared to BMI.

  18. Mass-to-Light-Ratios of the galaxy clusters and groups observed with Suzaku

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, T.; Matsushita, K.; Sato, K.; Abe, Y.; Akamatsu, H.; Fujita, Y.; Kanno, Y.; Simionescu, A.; Tamura, T.; Werner, N.

    2016-06-01

    We analyzed 15 nearby (z band luminosities of galaxies and calculated the ratio of the cumulative gas mass and Fe mass in the ICM to the K-band luminosity (gas-mass-to-light ratio and iron-mass-to-light ratio, respectively). The Coma, Perseus, and medium systems have relatively flat radial profiles of the metal abundances at 0.3 solar within 0.5-1 r_{500}, and ˜ 0.2 solar beyond r_{500}. The gas-mass-to-light-ratios and iron-mass-to-light-ratios ratios increase with radius out to r_{500} and become flatter beyond the radius. The weighted average of the iron-mass-to-light ratios of the clusters at 1.6 r_{500} agrees with the expectation with the Salpeter initial-mass-function of stars, and we do not need a top-heavy slope. In contrast, groups and poor clusters have lower gas-mass-to-light ratios and lower iron-mass-to-light ratios than that of rich systems, with the higher entropy excess. Above these results, we discuss an early metal enrichment in galaxy clusters and groups.

  19. Critical ratios for structural analysis of triacylglycerols using mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent developments have finally allowed fragment behaviors using APCI-MS to be elucidated after twenty years of literature reports. Critical Ratios have been defined that correspond to various aspects of triacylglycerol (TAG) analysis, from overall degree of unsaturation to localization of fatty ac...

  20. Prenatal exposure to environmental phenols and childhood fat mass in the Mount Sinai Children's Environmental Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Jessie P; Herring, Amy H; Wolff, Mary S; Calafat, Antonia M; Engel, Stephanie M

    2016-05-01

    Early life exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals may alter adipogenesis and energy balance leading to changes in obesity risk. Several studies have evaluated the association of prenatal bisphenol A exposure with childhood body size but only one study of male infants has examined other environmental phenols. Therefore, we assessed associations between prenatal exposure to environmental phenols and fat mass in a prospective birth cohort. We quantified four phenol biomarkers in third trimester maternal spot urine samples in a cohort of women enrolled in New York City between 1998 and 2002 and evaluated fat mass in their children using a Tanita scale between ages 4 and 9years (173 children with 351 total observations). We estimated associations of standard deviation differences in natural log creatinine-standardized phenol biomarker concentrations with percent fat mass using linear mixed effects regression models. We did not observe associations of bisphenol A or triclosan with childhood percent fat mass. In unadjusted models, maternal urinary concentrations of 2,5-dichlorophenol were associated with greater percent fat mass and benzophenone-3 was associated with lower percent fat mass among children. After adjustment, phenol biomarkers were not associated with percent fat mass. However, the association between benzophenone-3 and percent fat mass was modified by child's sex: benzophenone-3 concentrations were inversely associated with percent fat mass in girls (beta=-1.51, 95% CI=-3.06, 0.01) but not boys (beta=-0.20, 95% CI=-1.69, 1.26). Although we did not observe strong evidence that prenatal environmental phenols exposures influence the development of childhood adiposity, the potential antiadipogenic effect of benzophenone-3 in girls may warrant further investigation.

  1. Identification of lifestyle patterns associated with obesity and fat mass in children: the Healthy Growth Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschonis, George; Kalliora, Andriana C; Costarelli, Vassiliki; Papandreou, Christopher; Koutoukidis, Dimitris; Lionis, Christos; Chrousos, George P; Manios, Yannis

    2014-03-01

    To investigate possible associations of lifestyle patterns with obesity and fat mass in children. Cross-sectional epidemiological study. Principal component analysis was used to identify lifestyle patterns. Primary schools from four regions in Greece. A total of 2073 schoolchildren (aged 9-13 years). Children in the fourth quartile of the lifestyle pattern combining higher dairy foods with more adequate breakfast consumption were 39·4%, 45·2% and 32·2% less likely to be overweight/obese and in the highest quartile of sum of skinfold thicknesses and fat mass, respectively, than children in the first quartile of this pattern. Similarly, children in the fourth quartile of a lifestyle pattern comprising consumption of high-fibre foods, such as fruits, vegetables and wholegrain products, were 27·4% less likely to be in the highest quartile of sum of skinfold thicknesses than children in the first lifestyle pattern quartile. Finally, children in the fourth quartile of a lifestyle pattern characterized by more time spent on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and more frequent meals were 38·0%, 26·3% and 29·5% less likely to be overweight, centrally obese and in the highest quartile of fat mass, respectively, than their peers in the first quartile of this lifestyle pattern (all P meals), which were all related with lower odds of obesity and/or increased fat mass levels. From a public health perspective, promotion of these patterns among children and their families should be considered as one of the components of any childhood obesity preventive initiative.

  2. ANP system activity predicts variability of fat mass reduction and insulin sensitivity during weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brachs, Maria; Wiegand, Susanna; Leupelt, Verena; Ernert, Andrea; Kintscher, Ulrich; Jumpertz von Schwarzenberg, Reiner; Decker, Anne-Marie; Bobbert, Thomas; Hübner, Norbert; Chen, Wei; Krude, Heiko; Spranger, Joachim; Mai, Knut

    2016-06-01

    In weight loss trials, a considerable inter-individual variability in reduction of fat mass and changes of insulin resistance is observed, even under standardized study conditions. The underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Given the metabolic properties of the atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) system, we hypothesized that ANP signaling might be involved in this phenomenon by changes of ANP secretion or receptor balance. Therefore, we investigated the impact of systemic, adipose and myocellular ANP system on metabolic and anthropometric improvements during weight loss. We comprehensively investigated 143 subjects (31 male, 112 female) before and after a 3 month-standardized weight loss program. The time course of BMI, fat mass, insulin sensitivity, circulating mid-regional proANP (MR-proANP) levels as well as adipose and myocellular natriuretic receptor A (NPR-A) and C (NPR-C) mRNA expression were investigated. BMI decreased by -12.6±3.7%. This was accompanied by a remarkable decrease of adipose NPR-C expression (1005.0±488.4 vs. 556.7±465.6; ploss induced changes in NPR-C (ΔNPR-C) was linked to relative reduction of total fat mass (ΔFM) (r=0.281; ploss induced ΔNPR-C independently explained 22.7% of ΔFM. In addition, ΔMR-proANP was independently associated with improvement of insulin sensitivity (standardized ß=0.246, ploss induced fat mass reduction. Our comprehensive human data support that peripheral ANP signalling is involved in control of adipose tissue plasticity and function during weight loss. (Funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (KFO281/2), the Berlin Institute of Health (BIH) and the German Centre for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK/BMBF); ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT00850629). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Female waist-to-hip ratio, body mass index and sexual attractiveness in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.J. DIXSON, Baoguo LI, A.F. DIXSON

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Men and women at Northwest University (n = 751, Xi’an, China were asked to judge the attractiveness of photographs of female patients who had undergone micrograft surgery to reduce their waist-to-hip ratios (WHR. Micrograft surgery involves harvesting adipose tissue from the waist and reshaping the buttocks to produce a low WHR and an ‘hourglass’ female figure. This gynoid distribution of female body fat has been shown to correlate with measures of fertility and health. Significantly larger numbers of subjects, of both sexes, chose post-operative photographs, with lower WHRs, as more attractive than pre-operative photographs of the same women. Some patients had gained, and some had lost weight, post-operatively, with resultant changes in body mass index (BMI. However, these changes in BMI were not related to judgments of attractiveness. These results show that the hourglass female figure is rated as attractive in China, and that WHR, rather than BMI, plays a crucial role in such attractiveness judgments [Current Zoology 56 (2: 175–181, 2010].

  4. Multi-collector Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer -- Operational Performance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appelhans, Anthony D; Olson, John E; Watrous, Matthew G; Ward, Michael B.; Dahl, David A.

    2010-12-01

    This report describes the operational testing of a new magnetic sector mass spectrometer that utilizes seven full-sized discrete dynode electron multipliers operating simultaneously. The instrument includes a newly developed ion dispersion lens that enables the mass dispersed individual isotope beams to be separated sufficiently to allow a full-sized discrete dynode pulse counting multiplier to be used to measure each isotope beam. The performance of the instrument was measured using SRM 996 (244Pu spike) at loadings of 2.4 and 12 fg on resin beads and with SRM 4350B Columbia River Sediment samples. The measured limit of detection (3s) for 240Pu was 3.4 attograms for SRM 996. The limit of quantitation (LOQ), defined as 10 s, was 11.2 attograms. The measured concentration of 239Pu in the CRS standard was 152 ± 6 fg/g.

  5. [Effects of the body fat mass and blood sugar and plasma resistin to slim exercise prescription for overweight and obesity students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Youping; Zhang, Jing; Jiang, Shuangshuang; Sun, Jun; Zheng, Chenfei; Wang, Ke; Qian, Jingjing; Nie, Liuwang

    2013-07-01

    To explore the influences of slim exercise prescription on body fat mass, blood sugar and plasma resistin for overweight and obesity students. Subjects were 9 males and 13 females for simple overweight and obesity students of freshman and junior. The function capacity (FC) were defined after examine of body shape, physical function and exercise capacity. The slim goals and exercise projects were determined according to different objects. The exercise intensity was 60%-70% of FC and 13-15 levels of RPE. Exercise with each time was 60 min, exercise frequency was 5 times perweek, energy metabolism was 500-600 kcal at a time. The relative indexes were detected after 8 weeks. Implementing programmes of slim exercise prescription for 8 weeks, before and after the experiment in the males and females group. The weight, BMI, percentage of body fat (FAT%), waist and hip circumference ratio (WHR), body surface area (BS), fat indexes, the density of body for overweight and obesity the male and female students were significantly decreased (P exercise prescription was safe and sure, and could improve weight, BMI, FAT%, FM, WHR, BS, fat indexes, the density of body, blood sugar, plasma resistin in obesity without the diet control.

  6. Body fat measurements in elite adolescent volleyball players: correlation between skinfold thickness, bioelectrical impedance analysis, air-displacement plethysmography, and body mass index percentiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portal, Shawn; Rabinowitz, Jonathan; Adler-Portal, Dana; Burstein, Ruty Pilz; Lahav, Yair; Meckel, Yoav; Nemet, Dan; Eliakim, Alon

    2010-04-01

    Determination of body composition is an essential parameter in training athletes because low fat-muscle ratio might improve physical performance in many types of sports. Since training is often conducted in the field, it is important to determine whether simple field measurements of body composition assessment correlate with laboratory measurements. Examine the correlation of body fat content as measured using skinfold thicknesses (SF), air-displacement plethysmography (BOD POD), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and body mass index (BMI) age and gender adjusted percentiles. Body mass as measured by SF, BOD POD, BIA, and BMI percentiles were examined in 29 elite, national team level, male and female volleyball players (age range 13 to 18) at the beginning of the training season. Body fat percent measured by SF, BIA and BOD POD were highly positively correlated (r > 0.83). Measurements of body fat by SF, BIA and BOD POD were weakly correlated with BMI percentiles (r < 0.45). Results suggest that BMI percentile is not a good measure for body fat in adolescent elite male and female volleyball players. SF and measurements of body composition by BIA and BOD POD are essentially interchangeable.

  7. Circulating levels of persistent organic pollutants associate in divergent ways to fat mass measured by DXA in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönn, Monika; Lind, Lars; van Bavel, Bert; Salihovic, Samira; Michaëlsson, Karl; Lind, Pia Monica

    2011-10-01

    Environmental contaminants have recently been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity. To explore relations between persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and fat mass independently of body stature, using a cross-sectional design. In the Prospective Study of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS), fat mass was determined in 70-year-old subjects (n=890) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The plasma levels of 21 POPs (including 16 PCB congeners, 3 OC pesticides, 1 BDE47, and 1 dioxin) were measured by high resolution chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). Lipid-standardized plasma concentrations of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD), the PCBs 74, 99, 105 and 118, and the pesticides HCB, TNK, and DDE were all positively related to fat mass (p=0.03-0.0001). Subjects in the fifth quintile for PCB 105 showed a mean fat mass that was 4.8 kg more than subjects in the first quintile. On the other hand, the PCBs 156, 157, 169, 170, 180, 189, 194, 206, and 209 were negatively related to fat mass (p=0.0001). For PCB 194, subjects in the fifth quintile showed a mean fat mass that was 10.8 kg less than subjects in the first quintile. Following adjustment for smoking, physical activity, education level, height, lean mass, and gender, these results remained significant (p=0.01-0.0001) except for the PCBs 74 and 99. For some PCBs, the associations vs. fat mass were more pronounced in women than in men. Plasma concentrations of some pesticides are positively related to fat mass, while divergent associations are seen for the PCBs. These results implicate a complex role of POPs in obesity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. On the Black Hole - Bulge Mass Ratios in Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    We present estimated ratios of the central black hole mass to the bulgemass (Mbh/Mbulge) for 15 Narrow Line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s). It is found thatNLS1s apparently have lower mass ratios: the average mass ratio is about 1 × 10-4with a spread of 2, which is one order of magnitude lower than for Broad Line AGNsand quiescent galaxies. This lower value, as compared to that established essentiallyfor all other types of galaxies, can be accounted for by an underestimation of theblack hole masses and an overestimation of the bulge masses in the NLS1s.

  9. Age at adiposity rebound is associated with fat mass in young adult males-the GOOD study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claes Ohlsson

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Age at adiposity rebound (AR is associated with obesity and Type 2 Diabetes in adults. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of age at AR in adult fat mass, fat distribution and pubertal timing for a Swedish cohort. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study. Detailed growth charts were retrieved for the men participating in the population-based GOOD (Gothenburg Osteoporosis and Obesity Determinants study (n=573. Body composition was analysed using dual X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography at 18-20 years of age. Age and BMI at AR were calculated using pediatric growth charts and AR was defined as the lowest BMI between 3 and 9 years of age. RESULTS: Subjects were divided into early (age at AR below 5.4 years of age, middle (age at AR 5.4 to 6.8 years of age and late (age at AR after 6.8 years of age age at AR tertiles. Subjects in the early age at AR tertile had higher young adult BMI (+8%, whole body fat mass (+34% and amount of subcutaneous adipose tissue (+61% than the subjects in the middle and late tertiles (p<0.01. The early age at AR tertile had an increased risk of obesity (Odds Ratio 4.1 [95% CI 1.2-13.9] compared with the middle and late tertiles. In addition, the early age at AR tertile had Peak Height Velocity (PHV 7 months earlier than the late tertile. CONCLUSIONS: Early age at AR was associated with young adult obesity as a consequence of a high amount of subcutaneous adipose tissue in men. In addition we made the novel observation that early age at AR was associated with an early puberty in men.

  10. The role of body mass index, insulin, and adiponectin in the relation between fat distribution and bone mineral density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C. Zillikens (Carola); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); J.P.T.M. van Leeuwen (Hans); A.L. Berends (Anne); P. Henneman (Peter); J.A.P. Willems van Dijk (Ko); B.A. Oostra (Ben); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractDespite the positive association between body mass index (BMI) and bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC), the role of fat distribution in BMD/BMC remains unclear. We examined relationships between BMD/BMC and various measurements of fat distribution and studied the role of BMI, in

  11. Relationship Between Triglyceride Tolerance, Body Mass Index, and Fat Depots in Hospitalized Patients Receiving Parenteral Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazee, Erin N; Nystrom, Erin M; McMahon, M Molly; Williamson, Eric E; Miles, John M

    2015-11-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia has been associated with adverse outcomes in patients receiving intravenous fat emulsions (IVFEs), but little is known about its prevalence and causes. The study investigated whether a relationship exists between body mass index (BMI) and triglyceride tolerance in parenterally fed patients. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 287 adults receiving parenteral nutrition to determine whether patients with very low BMI (VLBMI, triglyceride concentration during IVFE was significantly lower in VLBMI patients at 107 mg/dL compared with 124 mg/dL in non-VLBMI patients (P = .016), despite higher lipid infusion rates in the VLBMI group. There was a significant association between triglycerides and BMI in the aggregate cohort (R = 0.2375, P triglyceride concentrations correlated with visceral fat but not subcutaneous abdominal fat. In summary, patients with VLBMI have lower triglyceride concentrations during IVFEs than do other individuals, but there is considerable variability in triglycerides and body fat in this group. Caution should be employed with the use of IVFEs, especially in HBMI patients. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  12. Metabolic Slowing with Massive Weight Loss despite Preservation of Fat-Free Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsen, Darcy L.; Knuth, Nicolas D.; Huizenga, Robert; Rood, Jennifer C.; Ravussin, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Context: An important goal during weight loss is to maximize fat loss while preserving metabolically active fat-free mass (FFM). Massive weight loss typically results in substantial loss of FFM potentially slowing metabolic rate. Objective: Our objective was to determine whether a weight loss program consisting of diet restriction and vigorous exercise helped to preserve FFM and maintain resting metabolic rate (RMR). Participants and Intervention: We measured body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, RMR by indirect calorimetry, and total energy expenditure by doubly labeled water at baseline (n = 16), wk 6 (n = 11), and wk 30 (n = 16). Results: At baseline, participants were severely obese (×± sd; body mass index 49.4 ± 9.4 kg/m2) with 49 ± 5% body fat. At wk 30, more than one third of initial body weight was lost (−38 ± 9%) and consisted of 17 ± 8% from FFM and 83 ± 8% from fat. RMR declined out of proportion to the decrease in body mass, demonstrating a substantial metabolic adaptation (−244 ± 231 and −504 ± 171 kcal/d at wk 6 and 30, respectively, P < 0.01). Energy expenditure attributed to physical activity increased by 10.2 ± 5.1 kcal/kg·d at wk 6 and 6.0 ± 4.1 kcal/kg·d at wk 30 (P < 0.001 vs. zero). Conclusions: Despite relative preservation of FFM, exercise did not prevent dramatic slowing of resting metabolism out of proportion to weight loss. This metabolic adaptation may persist during weight maintenance and predispose to weight regain unless high levels of physical activity or caloric restriction are maintained. PMID:22535969

  13. Adipose tissue (P)RR regulates insulin sensitivity, fat mass and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamansurova, Zulaykho; Tan, Paul; Ahmed, Basma; Pepin, Emilie; Seda, Ondrej; Lavoie, Julie L

    2016-10-01

    We previously demonstrated that the handle-region peptide, a prorenin/renin receptor [(P)RR] blocker, reduces body weight and fat mass and may improve insulin sensitivity in high-fat fed mice. We hypothesized that knocking out the adipose tissue (P)RR gene would prevent weight gain and insulin resistance. An adipose tissue-specific (P)RR knockout (KO) mouse was created by Cre-loxP technology using AP2-Cre recombinase mice. Because the (P)RR gene is located on the X chromosome, hemizygous males were complete KO and had a more pronounced phenotype on a normal diet (ND) diet compared to heterozygous KO females. Therefore, we challenged the female mice with a high-fat diet (HFD) to uncover certain phenotypes. Mice were maintained on either diet for 9 weeks. KO mice had lower body weights compared to wild-types (WT). Only hemizygous male KO mice presented with lower total fat mass, higher total lean mass as well as smaller adipocytes compared to WT mice. Although food intake was similar between genotypes, locomotor activity during the active period was increased in both male and female KO mice. Interestingly, only male KO mice had increased O2 consumption and CO2 production during the entire 24-hour period, suggesting an increased basal metabolic rate. Although glycemia during a glucose tolerance test was similar, KO males as well as HFD-fed females had lower plasma insulin and C-peptide levels compared to WT mice, suggesting improved insulin sensitivity. Remarkably, all KO animals exhibited higher circulating adiponectin levels, suggesting that this phenotype can occur even in the absence of a significant reduction in adipose tissue weight, as observed in females and, thus, may be a specific effect related to the (P)RR. (P)RR may be an important therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity and its associated complications such as type 2 diabetes.

  14. Obesity-prone high-fat-fed rats reduce caloric intake and adiposity and gain more fat-free mass when allowed to self-select protein from carbohydrate:fat intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzout-Marniche, Dalila; Chalvon-Demersay, Tristan; Pimentel, Grégory; Chaumontet, Catherine; Nadkarni, Nachiket A; Piedcoq, Julien; Fromentin, Gilles; Tomé, Daniel; Gaudichon, Claire; Even, Patrick C

    2016-06-01

    We tested the hypothesis that, for rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD), a prioritization of maintaining protein intake may increase energy consumption and hence result in obesity, particularly for individuals prone to obesity ("fat sensitive," FS, vs. "fat resistant," FR). Male Wistar rats (n = 80) first received 3 wk of HFD (protein 15%, fat 42%, carbohydrate 42%), under which they were characterized as being FS (n = 18) or FR (n = 20) based on body weight gain. They then continued on the same HFD but in which protein (100%) was available separately from the carbohydrate:fat (50:50%) mixture. Under this second regimen, all rats maintained their previous protein intake, whereas intake of fat and carbohydrate was reduced by 50%. This increased protein intake to 26% and decreased fat intake to 37%. Adiposity gain was prevented in both FR and FS rats, and gain in fat-free mass was increased only in FS rats. At the end of the study, the rats were killed 2 h after ingestion of a protein meal, and their tissues and organs were collected for analysis of body composition and measurement of mRNA levels in the liver, adipose tissue, arcuate nucleus, and nucleus accumbens. FS rats had a higher expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in lipogenesis in the liver and white adipose tissue. These results show that FS rats strongly reduced food intake and adiposity gain through macronutrient selection, despite maintenance of a relatively high-fat intake and overexpression of genes favoring lipogenesis.

  15. Reduction in energy expenditure during weight loss is higher than predicted based on fat free mass and fat mass in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Haaf, Twan; Verreijen, Amely M; Memelink, Robert G; Tieland, Michael; Weijs, Peter J M

    2016-12-23

    The aim of this study was to describe a decrease in resting energy expenditure during weight loss that is larger than expected based on changes in body composition, called adaptive thermogenesis (AT), in overweight and obese older adults. Multiple studies were combined to assess AT in younger and older subjects. Body composition and resting energy expenditure (REE) were measured before and after weight loss. Baseline values were used to predict fat free mass and fat mass adjusted REE after weight loss. AT was defined as the difference between predicted and measured REE after weight loss. The median age of 55 y was used as a cutoff to compare older with younger subjects. The relation between AT and age was investigated using linear regression analysis. In this study 254 (M = 88, F = 166) overweight and obese subjects were included (BMI: 31.7 ± 4.4 kg/m(2), age: 51 ± 14 y). The AT was only significant for older subjects (64 ± 185 kcal/d, 95% CI [32, 96]), but not for younger subjects (19 ± 152 kcal/d, 95% CI [-9, 46]). The size of the AT was significantly higher for older compared to younger adults (β = 47, p = 0.048), independent of gender and type and duration of the weight loss program. We conclude that adaptive thermogenesis is present only in older subjects, which might have implications for weight management in older adults. A reduced energy intake is advised to counteract the adaptive thermogenesis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Estimated lean mass and fat mass differentially affect femoral bone density and strength index but are not FRAX independent risk factors for fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, William D; Orwoll, Eric S; Nielson, Carrie M; Morin, Suzanne N; Majumdar, Sumit R; Johansson, Helena; Odén, Anders; McCloskey, Eugene V; Kanis, John A

    2014-11-01

    Although increasing body weight has been regarded as protective against osteoporosis and fractures, there is accumulating evidence that fat mass adversely affects skeletal health compared with lean mass. We examined skeletal health as a function of estimated total body lean and fat mass in 40,050 women and 3600 men age ≥50 years at the time of baseline dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) testing from a clinical registry from Manitoba, Canada. Femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD), strength index (SI), cross-sectional area (CSA), and cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI) were derived from DXA. Multivariable models showed that increasing lean mass was associated with near-linear increases in femoral BMD, CSA, and CSMI in both women and men, whereas increasing fat mass showed a small initial increase in these measurements followed by a plateau. In contrast, femoral SI was relatively unaffected by increasing lean mass but was associated with a continuous linear decline with increasing fat mass, which should predict higher fracture risk. During mean 5-year follow-up, incident major osteoporosis fractures and hip fractures were observed in 2505 women and 180 men (626 and 45 hip fractures, respectively). After adjustment for fracture risk assessment tool (FRAX) scores (with or without BMD), we found no evidence that lean mass, fat mass, or femoral SI affected prediction of major osteoporosis fractures or hip fractures. Findings were similar in men and women, without significant interactions with sex or obesity. In conclusion, skeletal adaptation to increasing lean mass was positively associated with BMD but had no effect on femoral SI, whereas increasing fat mass had no effect on BMD but adversely affected femoral SI. Greater fat mass was not independently associated with a greater risk of fractures over 5-year follow-up. FRAX robustly predicts fractures and was not affected by variations in body composition.

  17. The effect of leptin, caffeine/ephedrine, and their combination upon visceral fat mass and weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ann G; Smith, Steven R; Fujioka, Ken; Greenway, Frank L

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the effects of combination caffeine/ephedrine and leptin A-200 on visceral fat mass and weight loss over 24 weeks. In this randomized, double-blind, parallel-arm trial, 90 obese subjects received one of the three treatments for 24 weeks: 200 mg caffeine/20 mg ephedrine t.i.d. (CE), leptin A-200 (recombinant methionyl human Fc-leptin, 20 mg q.d.) (L), or combination leptin A-200 and caffeine/ephedrine (LCE). Outcomes included change in weight, visceral fat mass by computed tomography, lean mass and fat mass by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Groups treated with CE and LCE lost significant amounts of weight (-5.9 ± 1.2% and -6.5 ± 1.1%, P fat mass (-9.6 ± 2.4% and -12.4 ± 2.3%, P fat mass (-11.0 ± 3.3%, P loss agent and produces significant reductions in fat mass. Leptin A-200 was not effective in producing weight loss and did not have any significant additive or synergistic actions when combined with CE. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  18. Lower hepatic iron storage associated with obesity in mice can be restored by decreasing body fat mass through feeding a low-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hak; Wu, Dayong; Smith, Donald; Meydani, Simin Nikbin; Han, Sung Nim

    2016-09-01

    High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity has been reported to result in low hepatic iron storage. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that these obesity-related changes in hepatic iron status could be reversed by decreasing adiposity by feeding a low-fat diet. Five-week-old C57BL/6 mice were assigned to 3 groups: the LL group was fed a control diet for 31 weeks, the HH group was fed a HFD for 31 weeks, and the HL group was fed the HFD for 15 weeks and then switched to the control diet for 16 weeks. The fat mass of the HL group decreased by 3.2 g from the 14th to the 30th weeks. Fat mass was significantly different among the groups (11.4, 15.8, and 37.5 g in the LL, HH, and HL groups, respectively; Pfat mass through feeding a lower-fat diet to HFD-induced obese mice restores liver iron storage.

  19. Addressing the strong CP problem with quark mass ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Cruz, J.L.; Saldana-Salazar, U.J. [Benemerita Univ. Autonoma de Puebla (Mexico). Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas; Hollik, W.G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    The strong CP problem is one of many puzzles in the theoretical description of elementary particles physics that still lacks an explanation. Solutions to that problem usually comprise new symmetries or fields or both. The main problem seems to be how to achieve small CP in the strong interactions despite large CP violation in weak interactions. Observation of CP violation is exclusively through the Higgs-Yukawa interactions. In this letter, we show that with minimal assumptions on the structure of mass (Yukawa) matrices the strong CP problem does not exist in the Standard Model and no extension to solve this is needed. However, to solve the flavor puzzle, models based on minimal SU(3) flavor groups leading to the proposed flavor matrices are favored.

  20. Addressing the strong CP problem with quark mass ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Díaz-Cruz, J L; Saldaña-Salazar, U J

    2016-01-01

    The strong CP problem is one of many puzzles in the theoretical description of elementary particles physics that still lacks an explanation. Solutions to that problem usually comprise new symmetries or fields or both. The main problem seems to be how to achieve small CP in the strong interactions despite large CP violation in weak interactions. Observation of CP violation is exclusively through the Higgs--Yukawa interactions. In this letter, we show that with minimal assumptions on the structure of mass (Yukawa) matrices the strong CP problem does not exist in the Standard Model and no extension to solve this is needed. However, to solve the flavor puzzle, models based on minimal SU(3) flavor groups leading to the proposed flavor matrices are favored.

  1. Association of total body and visceral fat mass with iron deficiency in preadolescents: the Healthy Growth Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschonis, George; Chrousos, George P; Lionis, Christos; Mougios, Vassilis; Manios, Yannis

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the associations of obesity, percentage body fat and visceral fat mass with body Fe status in a representative sample of 1493 schoolchildren aged 9-13 years. Anthropometric, body composition, biochemical, clinical (Tanner stage, age of menarche) and dietary intake data were collected. Fe deficiency (ID) was defined as transferrin saturation (TS) deficiency anaemia (IDA) as ID with Hb < 120 g/l. Obese boys and girls and those in the highest quartiles of percentage body fat mass had significantly higher levels of serum ferritin (P ≤ 0.05) compared to their normal-weight peers and those in the corresponding lowest quartiles. Similarly, obese boys and girls and those in the highest quartiles of percentage body fat and visceral fat mass had significantly lower levels of TS (P ≤ 0.05) compared to normal-weight children and those in the corresponding lowest quartiles. The prevalence of ID and IDA was significantly higher in boys and girls in the highest quartiles of percentage body fat than in peers in the lowest quartile. Higher quartiles of percentage body fat and visceral fat mass were the main significant predictors of ID in boys, after controlling for other important confounders, with OR of 2.48 (95 % CI, 1.26, 4.88) and 2.12 (95 % CI, 1.07, 4.19), respectively. Similar significant associations were observed for girls. In conclusion, percentage body fat and visceral fat mass were positively associated with ID in both sexes of preadolescents. These associations might be attributed to the chronic inflammation induced by excess adiposity.

  2. Peripheral oxytocin treatment ameliorates obesity by reducing food intake and visceral fat mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maejima, Yuko; Iwasaki, Yusaku; Yamahara, Yui; Kodaira, Misato; Sedbazar, Udval; Yada, Toshihiko

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that oxytocin (Oxt) is implicated in energy metabolism. We aimed to explore acute and sub-chronic effects of peripheral Oxt treatment via different routes on food intake and energy balance. Intraperitoneal (ip) injection of Oxt concentration-dependently decreased food intake in mice. Ip Oxt injection induced c-Fos expression in the hypothalamus and brain stem including arcuate nucleus (ARC), paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). Subcutaneous (sc) injection of Oxt suppressed food intake in normal and high fat diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. Daily sc injection of Oxt for 17 days in DIO mice reduced food intake for 6 days and body weight for the entire treatment period and additional 9 days after terminating Oxt. Oxt infusion by sc implanted osmotic minipumps for 13 days in DIO mice reduced food intake, body weight, and visceral fat mass and adipocyte size. Oxt infusion also decreased respiratory quotient specifically in light phase, ameliorated fatty liver and glucose intolerance, without affecting normal blood pressure in DIO mice. These results demonstrate that peripheral Oxt treatment reduces food intake and visceral fat mass, and ameliorates obesity, fatty liver and glucose intolerance. Peripheral Oxt treatment provides a new therapeutic avenue for treating obesity and hyperphagia.

  3. The influence of body composition, fat distribution, and sustained weight loss on left ventricular mass and geometry in obesity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kardassis, Dimitris; Bech-Hanssen, Odd; Schönander, Marie; Sjöström, Lars; Karason, Kristjan

    2012-01-01

    .... In a case-control study, we examined how body composition and fat distribution relate to left ventricular structure and examine how sustained weight loss affects left ventricular mass and geometry...

  4. THE IMPORTANCE OF MONITORING CHANGES IN MILK FAT TO MILK PROTEIN RATIO IN HOLSTEIN COWS DURING LACTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír ČEJNA

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Milk samples of 24 pure-bred Holstein cows were taken during lactation and changes in milk fat to milk protein ratio and quality of rennet gel were evaluated. The cows were either fi rst (n=12 or second (n=12 calvers, in the same phase of lactation. The individual milk samples were taken on average on the day 25, 45, 73, 101, 133, 166, 199, 224, 253 and 280 of lactation and the following mean values of the F/P ratio were found: 1.91; 1.45; 1.38; 1.28; 1.22; 1.14; 1.26; 1.21; 1.09; 1.18. High values in the fi rst phase suggest a great energy defi ciency. The quality of rennet gel was also worst in the fi rst phase of lactation.

  5. The influence of high fat diets with different ketogenic ratios on the hippocampal accumulation of creatine - FTIR microspectroscopy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoczen, A.; Setkowicz, Z.; Janeczko, K.; Sandt, Ch.; Borondics, F.; Chwiej, J.

    2017-09-01

    The main purpose of this study was the determination and comparison of anomalies in creatine (Cr) accumulation occurring within CA3 and DG areas of hippocampal formation as a result of two high-fat, carbohydrate-restricted ketogenic diets (KD) with different ketogenic ratio (KR). To reach this goal, Fourier transformed infrared microspectroscopy with synchrotron radiation source (SRFTIR microspectroscopy) was applied for chemical mapping of creatine absorption bands, occurring around 1304, 1398 and 2800 cm- 1. The samples were taken from three groups of experimental animals: control group (N) fed with standard laboratory diet, KD1 and KD2 groups fed with high-fat diets with KR 5:1 and 9:1 respectively. Additionally, the possible influence on the phosphocreatine (PhCr, the high energetic form of creatine) content was evaluated by comparative analysis of chemical maps obtained for creatine and for compounds containing phosphate groups which manifest in the spectra at the wavenumbers of around 1240 and 1080 cm- 1. Our results showed that KD2 strongly modifies the frequency of Cr inclusions in both analyzed hippocampal areas. Statistical analysis, performed with Mann-Whitney U test revealed increased accumulation of Cr within CA3 and DG areas of KD2 fed rats compared to both normal rats and KD1 experimental group. Moreover, KD2 diet may modify the frequency of PhCr deposits as well as the PhCr to Cr ratio.

  6. Mammary gland density predicts the cancer inhibitory activity of the N-3 to N-6 ratio of dietary fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zongjian; Jiang, Weiqin; McGinley, John N; Prokopczyk, Bogden; Richie, John P; El Bayoumy, Karam; Manni, Andrea; Thompson, Henry J

    2011-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of a broad range of dietary ratios of n-3:n-6 fatty acids on mammary gland density and mammary cancer risk. Cancer was induced in female rats by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea. Purified diet that provided 30% of dietary kilocalories from fat was formulated to contain ratios of n-3:n-6 fatty acids from 25:1 to 1:25. Mammary gland density was determined by digital analysis, fatty acids by gas chromatography/flame ionization detection, and other plasma analytes via ELISA. Mammary gland density was reduced dose dependently at n-3:n-6 ratios from 1:1 to 25:1 (r = -0.477, P = 0.038), with a 20.3% decrease of mammary gland density between n-3:n-6 of 1:1 versus 25:1, P effect of the n-3:n-6 ratio on plasma leptin (decreased, P = 0.005) and adiponectin (increased, P tissue function was modulated. However, neither cytokine was predictive of mammary gland density. Plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) decreased with increasing dietary n-3:n-6 ratio (P = 0.004) and was predictive of the changes in mammary gland density (r = 0.362, P effects in the presence or absence of hormonal regulation of carcinogenesis, and (iii) signaling pathways regulated by IGF-I are potential targets for further mechanistic investigation.

  7. Normative data of body fat mass and its distribution as assessed by DXA in Indian adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwaha, Raman K; Tandon, Nikhil; Garg, M K; Narang, Archna; Mehan, Neena; Bhadra, Kuntal

    2014-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) assessment of body fat mass is precise and highly correlated with under water weighing. In view of ethnic differences, we undertook this study to prepare normative data for body fat mass in apparently healthy adult Indians and correlate it with body mass index (BMI). This cross-sectional population-based study included 2347 subjects (male: 924; female: 1423) aged >20 yr who participated in a general health examination. They were evaluated for anthropometry and body fat mass by DXA. All subjects were categorized as overweight and obese based on standard BMI criteria. Mean age and BMI were 49.1 ± 18.2yr and 25.0 ± 4.7kg/m(2), respectively. Mean percent total and regional fat (trunk, arm, and leg) reached maximum in the age group of 30-40yr in males and 50-60yr in females. Females had significantly higher total and regional fat mass compared with males. Fat mass was positively correlated with age (r = 0.224; p BMI (r = 0.668; p body fat mass (PTBFM) of 25% in males and 30% in females corresponds to BMI of 22.0kg/m(2) with sensitivity of >80% and specificity of >70% in receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Body fat mass in Indians is higher than that in Western populations for a given age and BMI. PTBFM of 25% in males and 30% in females corresponds to BMI of 22kg/m(2) in Indians.

  8. Exercise associated hormonal signals as powerful determinants of an effective fat mass loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajer, B; Vlcek, M; Galusova, A; Imrich, R; Penesova, A

    2015-07-01

    Obesity management for achieving an effective weight loss includes dietary modification and exercise [resistance (strength), endurance (cardiovascular) or intervals training (high-intensity intermittent exercise)]. Regular exercise acutely increases fat oxidation, which induces loss of fat mass and increases energy expenditure. Moreover, it has a positive effect on the physical (improved insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, etc.) and mental health (mood, cognition, memory, sleep, etc.). Endocrine responses to muscle actions are affected by many factors, including the exercise muscle groups (lower and upper body), load/volume, time-under tension, and rest-period intervals between sets, training status, gender, and age. The aim of this review is to summarize, evaluate, and clarify the literature data focusing on the endocrine responses to different types of exercise, including the frequency, intensity, and type of movement with regard to the fat loss strategies. Many studies have investigated anabolic [growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), testosterone] and gluco- and appetite- regulatory (insulin, cortisol, ghrelin) hormone responses and adaptations of skeletal muscles to exercise. Muscle tissue is a critical endocrine organ, playing important role in the regulation of several physiological and metabolic events. Moreover, we are also describing the response of some other substances to exercise, such as myokines [irisin, apelin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), myostatin, and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21)]. It is proposed that reducing intra-abdominal fat mass and increasing cardiorespiratory fitness through improving nutritional quality, reducing sedentary behavior, and increase the participation in physical activity/exercise, might be associated with clinical benefits, sometimes even in the absence of weight loss.

  9. Invited review article: Recent developments in isotope-ratio mass spectrometry for geochemistry and cosmochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Trevor R

    2013-01-01

    Mass spectrometry is fundamental to measurements of isotope ratios for applications in isotope geochemistry, geochronology, and cosmochemistry. Magnetic-sector mass spectrometers are most common because these provide the best precision in isotope ratio measurements. Where the highest precision is desired, chemical separation followed by mass spectrometric analysis is carried out with gas (noble gas and stable isotope mass spectrometry), liquid (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry), or solid (thermal ionization mass spectrometry) samples. Developments in in situ analysis, including ion microprobes and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, have opened up issues concerning homogeneity according to domain size, and allow ever smaller amounts of material to be analyzed. While mass spectrometry is built solidly on developments in the 20th century, there are new technologies that will push the limits in terms of precision, accuracy, and sample efficiency. Developments of new instruments based on time-of-flight mass spectrometers could open up the ultimate levels of sensitivity per sample atom.

  10. Pancreatic Fat Is Associated With Metabolic Syndrome and Visceral Fat but Not Beta-Cell Function or Body Mass Index in Pediatric Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staaf, Johan; Labmayr, Viktor; Paulmichl, Katharina; Manell, Hannes; Cen, Jing; Ciba, Iris; Dahlbom, Marie; Roomp, Kirsten; Anderwald, Christian-Heinz; Meissnitzer, Matthias; Schneider, Reinhard; Forslund, Anders; Widhalm, Kurt; Bergquist, Jonas; Ahlström, Håkan; Bergsten, Peter; Weghuber, Daniel; Kullberg, Joel

    2017-01-01

    Objective Adolescents with obesity have increased risk of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Pancreatic fat has been related to these conditions; however, little is known about associations in pediatric obesity. The present study was designed to explore these associations further. Methods We examined 116 subjects, 90 with obesity. Anthropometry, MetS, blood samples, and oral glucose tolerance tests were assessed using standard techniques. Pancreatic fat fraction (PFF) and other fat depots were quantified using magnetic resonance imaging. Results The PFF was elevated in subjects with obesity. No association between PFF and body mass index-standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) was found in the obesity subcohort. Pancreatic fat fraction correlated to Insulin Secretion Sensitivity Index-2 and Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance in simple regression; however, when using adjusted regression and correcting for BMI-SDS and other fat compartments, PFF correlated only to visceral adipose tissue and fasting glucose. Highest levels of PFF were found in subjects with obesity and MetS. Conclusions In adolescents with obesity, PFF is elevated and associated to MetS, fasting glucose, and visceral adipose tissue but not to beta-cell function, glucose tolerance, or BMI-SDS. This study demonstrates that conclusions regarding PFF and its associations depend on the body mass features of the cohort. PMID:27941426

  11. Continuous fat oxidation in acetyl–CoA carboxylase 2 knockout mice increases total energy expenditure, reduces fat mass, and improves insulin sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Cheol Soo; Savage, David B.; Abu-Elheiga, Lutfi; Liu, Zhen-Xiang; Kim, Sheene; Kulkarni, Ameya; Distefano, Alberto; Hwang, Yu-Jin; Reznick, Richard M.; Codella, Roberto; Zhang, Dongyan; Cline, Gary W.; Wakil, Salih J.; Shulman, Gerald I.

    2007-01-01

    Acetyl–CoA carboxylase 2 (ACC)2 is a key regulator of mitochondrial fat oxidation. To examine the impact of ACC2 deletion on whole-body energy metabolism, we measured changes in substrate oxidation and total energy expenditure in Acc2−/− and WT control mice fed either regular or high-fat diets. To determine insulin action in vivo, we also measured whole-body insulin-stimulated liver and muscle glucose metabolism during a hyperinsulinemic–euglycemic clamp in Acc2−/− and WT control mice fed a high-fat diet. Contrary to previous studies that have suggested that increased fat oxidation might result in lower glucose oxidation, both fat and carbohydrate oxidation were simultaneously increased in Acc2−/− mice. This increase in both fat and carbohydrate oxidation resulted in an increase in total energy expenditure, reductions in fat and lean body mass and prevention from diet-induced obesity. Furthermore, Acc2−/− mice were protected from fat-induced peripheral and hepatic insulin resistance. These improvements in insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism were associated with reduced diacylglycerol content in muscle and liver, decreased PKCθ activity in muscle and PKCε activity in liver, and increased insulin-stimulated Akt2 activity in these tissues. Taken together with previous work demonstrating that Acc2−/− mice have a normal lifespan, these data suggest that Acc2 inhibition is a viable therapeutic option for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:17923673

  12. Fat mass index performs best in monitoring management of obesity in prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-da-Silva, Luís; Dias, Mónica Pitta-Grós; Dionísio, Elisabete; Virella, Daniel; Alves, Marta; Diamantino, Catarina; Alonso, Anabela; Cordeiro-Ferreira, Gonçalo

    2016-01-01

    An early and accurate recognition of success in treating obesity may increase the compliance of obese children and their families to intervention programs. This observational, prospective study aimed to evaluate the ability and the time to detect a significant reduction of adiposity estimated by body mass index (BMI), percentage of fat mass (%FM), and fat mass index (FMI) during weight management in prepubertal obese children. In a cohort of 60 prepubertal obese children aged 3-9 years included in an outpatient weight management program, BMI, %FM, and FMI were monitored monthly; the last two measurements were assessed using air displacement plethysmography. The outcome measures were the reduction of >5% of each indicator and the time to achieve it. The rate of detection of the outcome was 33.3% (95% CI: 25.9-41.6) using BMI, significantly lower (pBMI. The agreement between the outcome detected by FMI and by %FM was high (kappa 0.701), but very low between the success detected by BMI and either FMI (kappa 0.231) or %FM (kappa 0.125). FMI achieved the best combination of ability and swiftness to identify reduction of adiposity during monitoring of weight management in prepubertal obese children. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Microlensing discovery of a tight, low-mass-ratio planetary-mass object around an old field brown dwarf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, C.; Jung, Y. K. [Department of Physics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 371-763 (Korea, Republic of); Udalski, A.; Szymański, M. K.; Kubiak, M.; Pietrzyński, G.; Soszyński, I.; Skowron, J.; Kozłowski, S.; Poleski, R.; Ulaczyk, K.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Pietrukowicz, P. [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland); Sumi, T. [Department of Earth and Space Science, Osaka University, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Gaudi, B. S.; Gould, A. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Bennett, D. P. [University of Notre Dame, Department of Physics, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556-5670 (United States); Tsapras, Y. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740B Cortona Dr, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Abe, F. [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Bond, I. A. [Institute of Information and Mathematical Sciences, Massey University, Private Bag 102-904, North Shore Mail Centre, Auckland (New Zealand); Collaboration: OGLE Collaboration; MOA Collaboration; μFUN Collaboration; RoboNet Collaboration; and others

    2013-11-20

    Observations of accretion disks around young brown dwarfs (BDs) have led to the speculation that they may form planetary systems similar to normal stars. While there have been several detections of planetary-mass objects around BDs (2MASS 1207-3932 and 2MASS 0441-2301), these companions have relatively large mass ratios and projected separations, suggesting that they formed in a manner analogous to stellar binaries. We present the discovery of a planetary-mass object orbiting a field BD via gravitational microlensing, OGLE-2012-BLG-0358Lb. The system is a low secondary/primary mass ratio (0.080 ± 0.001), relatively tightly separated (∼0.87 AU) binary composed of a planetary-mass object with 1.9 ± 0.2 Jupiter masses orbiting a BD with a mass 0.022 M {sub ☉}. The relatively small mass ratio and separation suggest that the companion may have formed in a protoplanetary disk around the BD host in a manner analogous to planets.

  14. Mass transfer kinetics during deep fat frying of wheat starch and gluten based snacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobukola, O. P.; Bouchon, P.

    2014-06-01

    Mass transfer (moisture loss and oil uptake) kinetics during deep fat frying of wheat starch and gluten based snacks was investigated. Both followed a modified first order reaction. Activation energies, z-value, and highest values of D and k for moisture loss and oil uptake were 28.608 kJ/mol, 129.88 °C, 490 and 0.0080 s-1; and 60.398 kJ/mol, 61.79 °C, 1,354.71 and 0.0052 s-1, respectively.

  15. Body Mass Index and Body Fat Status of Men Involved in Sports, Exercise, and Sedentary Activites

    OpenAIRE

    Wan Nudri, Wan Daud; Wan Abdul Manan, Wan Muda; Mohamed Rusli, Abdullah

    2009-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out in Kota Bharu on three groups of men with ages ranging from 18 to 44 years. The study groups included 83 athletes representing various types of sports and levels of participation (athlete group), 80 active men who exercised a minimum of 30 minutes per day at least 3 times per week (exercise group), and 80 inactive men (sedentary group). The objectives of the study were to compare the body mass indices (BMIs) and body fat statuses among the three groups ...

  16. Maximal exercise in obese patients with COPD: the role of fat free mass

    OpenAIRE

    Aiello, Marina; Teopompi, Elisabetta; Tzani, Panagiota; Ramponi, Sara; Gioia, Maria Rosaria; Marangio, Emilio; Chetta, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Background Obese patients (OB) with COPD may better tolerate exercise as compared to normal weight (NW) COPD patients, even if the reason for this is not yet fully understood. We investigated the interactions between obesity, lung hyperinflation, fat-free mass (FFM) and exercise capacity in COPD. Methods Forty-four patients (16 females; age 65 ± 8 yrs) were assessed by resting lung function and body composition and exercised on a cycle-ergometer to exhaustion. Results Twenty-two OB and 22 NW ...

  17. Body mass index has a curvilinear relationship with the percentage of body fat among children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Bruno

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body Mass Index (BMI, which is defined as the ratio between weight (in kg and height (in m2, is often used in clinical practice as well as in large scale epidemiological studies to classify subjects as underweight, normal weight, overweight or obese. Although BMI does not directly measure the percentage of Body Fat (BF%, it is widely applied because it is strongly related with BF%, it is easy to measure and it is an important predictor of mortality. Among children, age and sex-specific reference values of BMI, known as percentiles, are used. However, it is not clear how strong the relationship between BMI and BF% is among children and whether the association is linear. We performed a cross-sectional study aiming at evaluating the strength and shape of the relationship between BMI and BF% among school-aged children aged 6-12 years. Findings The study was conducted on a sample of 361 football-playing male children aged 6 to 12 years in Rome, Italy. Age, weight, height and skinfold thickness were collected. BF% was estimated using 4 skinfold equations whereas BMI was converted into BMI-for-age z-score. The relationship between these variables was examined using linear regression analyses. Mean BMI was 18.2 (± 2.8, whereas BF% was influenced by the skinfold equation used, with mean values ranging from 15.6% to 23.0%. A curvilinear relationship between BMI-for-age zscore and BF % was found, with the regression line being convex. The association between BMI-for-age zscore and BF% was stronger among overweight/obese children than among normal/underweight children. This curvilinear pattern was evident in all 4 skinfold equations used. Conclusions The association between BMI-for-age zscore and BF% is not linear among male children aged 6-12 years and it is stronger among overweight and obese subjects than among normal and underweight subjects. In this age group, BMI is a valid index of adiposity only among overweight and obese

  18. A Skinfold Model to Predict Fat-Free Mass in Female Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Evelyn R; Fornetti, Willa C; Jallo, Jennifer J; Pivarnik, James M

    2004-09-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite widespread use of skinfolds to estimate body fatness, few prediction models have been validated on female athletes. Most skinfold models have been validated with hydrodensitometry, which does not account for the variability in bone density that may exist among female athletes. Our purpose was to develop a skinfold model that predicts fat-free mass (FFM) in female collegiate athletes. DESIGN AND SETTING: A skinfold model was developed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) as the criterion method. Four skinfold measures (abdominal, suprailiac, thigh, triceps), height, and weight were entered into a regression model. The best model was developed and validated by calculating the predicted error sum of squares statistic. SUBJECTS: Study participants included 101 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I female athletes (age = 20.3 +/- 1.4 years, height = 166.7 +/- 7.8 cm, mass = 63.1 +/- 8.1 kg) from several sports. MEASUREMENTS: Each participant's FFM was measured via DEXA. Skinfold thicknesses were measured and entered into the regression model. RESULTS: The final regression model included mass and abdominal and thigh skinfolds: FFM = 8.51 + (0.809 x mass) - (0.178 x abdominal skinfold) - (0.225 x thigh skinfold). The model showed excellent predictive ability (R = 0.98, standard error of the estimate = 1.1 kg). Pairwise comparisons indicated that prediction error showed no overprediction or underprediction bias. CONCLUSIONS: In female collegiate athletes, FFM can be predicted accurately from body mass and abdominal and thigh skinfolds. This model is practical and can be used in most athletic settings.

  19. Intake of carbohydrates during pregnancy in obese women is associated with fat mass in the newborn offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Kristina M; Carlsen, Emma M; Nørgaard, Kirsten; Nilas, Lisbeth; Pryds, Ole; Secher, Niels J; Cortes, Dina; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I

    2015-12-01

    Transmission of obesity across generations is of concern. Offspring of obese women have short- and long-term increased morbidities. A high intake of carbohydrate during pregnancy combined with impaired glucose tolerance is postulated to result in high birth weight, which is linked to subsequent metabolic disease. The objective was to examine the association between carbohydrate intake in obese pregnant women and their offspring's body composition. Secondary analyses were performed in an observational setting of 222 pregnant women with a pregestational BMI (in kg/m(2)) ≥30 participating in a randomized controlled trial. Diet was assessed at gestational weeks 11-14 and 36-37 by using a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Body composition in the offspring was assessed at birth by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Relative fat mass (%) was the primary outcome. Absolute measures (total fat, abdominal fat, and lean body mass) were secondary outcomes. Mean ± SD weight and absolute and relative fat mass in the offspring at birth were 3769 ± 542 g, 436 ± 214 g, and 11% ± 4%, respectively. Maternal intake of digestible carbohydrates was associated with the offspring's relative fat mass in late (P-trend = 0.006) but not early (P-trend = 0.15) pregnancy. A comparison of mothers in the highest (median: 238 g/d) compared with the lowest (median: 188 g/d) quartile of digestible carbohydrate intake showed a mean adjusted higher value in the offspring's relative fat mass of 2.1% (95% CI: 0.6%, 3.7%), which corresponded in absolute terms to a 103-g (95% CI: 27, 179-g) higher fat mass. Abdominal fat mass was also higher. In a strata of women with well-controlled glucose (2-h glucose values ≤6.6 mmol/L), no association between carbohydrate intake and offspring fat mass was observed, but the associations became significant and increased in strength with higher intolerance (strata with 2-h glucose values between 6.7-7.7 and ≥7.8 mmol/L). In obese women, even those

  20. Combined high dose vitamin C and E increases oxidative stress and visceral fat mass in rats treated by depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Sri Wahyuni

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: DMPA treatment induces oxidative stress in visceral fat. Combined high dose vitamin C and E increases oxidative stress and visceral fat mass in rats treated by depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate.

  1. Fat mass is positively associated with bone mass in relatively thin adolescents: data from the Kitakata Kids Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouda, Katsuyasu; Fujita, Yuki; Sato, Yuho; Ohara, Kumiko; Nakamura, Harunobu; Uenishi, Kazuhiro; Iki, Masayuki

    2014-07-01

    Epidemiologic studies have found that higher body weight is associated with better bone health. Body weight consists of both fat mass (FM) and lean soft tissue mass (LSTM). Previous studies have examined the effects of FM levels during childhood on bone health, with conflicting results. In the present study, we investigated the independent contributions of FM to bone mass in Japanese adolescents. Subjects were 235 adolescents aged 15-18 years old in August 2010 and in August 2013 from the Kitakata Kids Health Study in Japan. We obtained cross-sectional data on body composition as well as bone mineral density (BMD). Body composition and BMD were measured using a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanner. We found moderate and positive relationships between FM index and LSTM index (males, r=0.69; females, r=0.44). To verify a potentially additive effect of FM on the variance of bone variables beyond LSTM, we assessed the association between FM index and bone variables after stratification by tertiles of the LSTM index. In the lowest tertile of the LSTM index, FM index was significantly (PLSTM index. These findings indicate that FM can influence how high bone mass is obtained among relatively thin adolescents, but not among those who are of normal weight or overweight.

  2. Body mass index and distribution of body fat can influence sensory detection and pain sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashani, O A; Astita, R; Sharp, D; Johnson, M I

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of body fat percentage and its distribution on sensory detection and pain sensitivity responses to experimentally induced noxious stimuli in otherwise pain-free individuals. Seventy-two participants were divided into three equal groups according to their body mass index (BMI: normal, overweight and obese). Percentage body fat was estimated using a four-site skinfold method. Measurements of cold pressor pain threshold, tolerance and intensity; contact thermal sensory detection and heat pain threshold and tolerance (TSA-II - NeuroSensory Analyzer, Medoc); and blunt pressure pain threshold (algometer, Somedic SenseLab AB) were taken at the waist and thenar eminence. Mean ± SD pressure pain threshold of the obese group (620.72 ± 423.81 kPa) was significantly lower than normal (1154.70 ± 847.18 kPa) and overweight (1285.14 ± 998.89 kPa) groups. Repeated measures ANOVA found significant effects for site for cold detection threshold (F1,68  = 8.3, p = 0.005) and warm detection threshold (F1,68  = 38.69, p = 0.001) with waist having lower sensory detection thresholds than thenar eminence. For heat pain threshold, there were significant effects for site (F1,68  = 4.868, p = 0.031) which was lower for waist compared with thenar eminence (mean difference = 0.89 °C). Obese individuals were more sensitive than non-obese individuals to pressure pain but not to thermal pain. Body sites may vary in their response to different types and intensities of stimuli. The inconsistency of findings within and between research studies should catalyse further research in this field. This study provided evidence that body mass index and distribution of body fat can influence sensory detection and pain sensitivity. Obese individuals were more sensitive than normal range body mass index individuals to pressure pain but not to thermal pain. Pain response varied according to subcutaneous body fat at different body

  3. Identification of adipokine clusters related to parameters of fat mass, insulin sensitivity and inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesine Flehmig

    Full Text Available In obesity, elevated fat mass and ectopic fat accumulation are associated with changes in adipokine secretion, which may link obesity to inflammation and the development of insulin resistance. However, relationships among individual adipokines and between adipokines and parameters of obesity, glucose metabolism or inflammation are largely unknown. Serum concentrations of 20 adipokines were measured in 141 Caucasian obese men (n = 67 and women (n = 74 with a wide range of body weight, glycemia and insulin sensitivity. Unbiased, distance-based hierarchical cluster analyses were performed to recognize patterns among adipokines and their relationship with parameters of obesity, glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity and inflammation. We identified two major adipokine clusters related to either (1 body fat mass and inflammation (leptin, ANGPTL3, DLL1, chemerin, Nampt, resistin or insulin sensitivity/hyperglycemia, and lipid metabolism (vaspin, clusterin, glypican 4, progranulin, ANGPTL6, GPX3, RBP4, DLK1, SFRP5, BMP7, adiponectin, CTRP3 and 5, omentin. In addition, we found distinct adipokine clusters in subgroups of patients with or without type 2 diabetes (T2D. Logistic regression analyses revealed ANGPTL6, DLK1, Nampt and progranulin as strongest adipokine correlates of T2D in obese individuals. The panel of 20 adipokines predicted T2D compared to a combination of HbA1c, HOMA-IR and fasting plasma glucose with lower sensitivity (78% versus 91% and specificity (76% versus 94%. Therefore, adipokine patterns may currently not be clinically useful for the diagnosis of metabolic diseases. Whether adipokine patterns are relevant for the predictive assessment of intervention outcomes needs to be further investigated.

  4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis and skinfold thickness sum in assessing body fat mass of renal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Natália Cristina Lima; Sala, Priscila Campos; Horie, Lilian Mika; Dias, Maria Carolina Gonçalves; Torrinhas, Raquel Susana Matos de Miranda; Romão, João Egídio; Cecconello, Ivan; Waitzberg, Dan Linetzky

    2012-07-01

    In chronic renal failure patients under hemodialysis (HD) treatment, the availability of simple, safe, and effective tools to assess body composition enables evaluation of body composition accurately, in spite of changes in body fluids that occur in dialysis therapy, thus contributing to planning and monitoring of nutritional treatment. We evaluated the performance of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and the skinfold thickness sum (SKF) to assess fat mass (FM) in chronic renal failure patients before (BHD) and after (AHD) HD, using air displacement plethysmography (ADP) as the standard method. This single-center cross-sectional trial involved comparing the FM of 60 HD patients estimated BHD and AHD by BIA (multifrequential; 29 women, 31 men) and by SKF with those estimated by the reference method, ADP. Body fat-free mass (FFM) was also obtained by subtracting the total body fat from the individual total weight. Mean estimated FM (kg [%]) observed by ADP BHD was 17.95 ± 0.99 kg (30.11% ± 1.30%), with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 16.00 to 19.90 (27.56 to 32.66); mean estimated FM observed AHD was 17.92 ± 1.11 kg (30.04% ± 1.40%), with a 95% CI of 15.74 to 20.10 (27.28 to 32.79). Neither study period showed a difference in FM and FFM (for both kg and %) estimates by the SKF method when compared with ADP; however, the BIA underestimated the FM and overestimated the FFM (for both kg and %) when compared with ADP. The SKF, but not the BIA, method showed results similar to ADP and can be considered adequate for FM evaluation in HD patients. Copyright © 2012 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Accurate modeling of intermediate-mass-ratio inspirals: exploring the form of the self-force in the intermediate-mass-ratio regime

    CERN Document Server

    Huerta, E A; Brown, Duncan A

    2012-01-01

    The LIGO detector is undergoing a major upgrade that will increase its sensitivity by a factor of 10, and extend its bandwidth from 40 Hz to 10 Hz on the lower frequency end, while also allowing for high-frequency operation due to its tunability. This advanced LIGO (aLIGO) detector will extend the mass range at which compact mass binaries may be detected by a factor of four or more at a fixed signal-to-noise ratio [1]. The inspirals of stellar-mass compact objects into intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) of 50-350 solar masses will lie in the frequency band of aLIGO [2]. GW searches for these type of events will provide conclusive evidence for the existence of IMBHs and explore the dynamics of cluster environments. To realize this science we need to develop waveform templates that accurately capture the dynamical evolution of these type of events before aLIGO begins observations. Implementing gravitational self-force (SF) corrections in templates for compact binaries with mass-ratios 1:10-1:1000 will be ess...

  6. Physical activity and fat mass gain in Mexican school-age children: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáuregui Alejandra

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In México, the prevalence of unhealthy weight increased from 24% at 6 y to 33% at 12 y of age, opening a window of opportunity to better understand the pathogenesis of obesity. The objective of this study was to explore the association between time spent on medium, vigorous physical activity (MVPA and concurrent gains in BMI, fat mass (FM and fat-free mass (FFM, alternately, in a cohort of Mexican children followed from kindergarten (baseline to 2nd grade elementary school (endline. Methods The MVPA (5-d accelerometry, BMI, FM and FFM (air displacement plethysmography were measured at baseline and endline. Associations between gains in BMI, FM and FFM and changes in MVPA were examined using lagged and dynamic regression models, controlling for energy intake and demographic variables. Results A total of 205 children were analyzed. Gender affected the effect of MVPA on FM gain. In girls, a high baseline MVPA predicted a lower FM gain (-0.96 kg, p=0.025 compared to low/medium MVPA. Increasing, decreasing or having a persistently high MVPA predicted a lower FM gain (range -1.6 to -1.03 kg, p Conclusion These results support a protective role of MVPA on FM gain in girls, suggesting that it may play a crucial role in the development of obesity. Further research on the gender effect of MVPA is warranted to better understand its role in the prevention and control of overweight and obesity.

  7. Do floating orbits in extreme mass ratio binary black holes exist?

    CERN Document Server

    Kapadia, Shasvath J; Glampedakis, Kostas

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the possibility of floating or non-decaying orbits for extreme mass ratio binary black holes. In the adiabatic approximation, valid in the extreme mass ratio case, if the orbital flux lost due to gravitational radiation reaction is compensated for by the orbital flux gained from the spins of the black holes via superradiant scattering (or, equivalently, tidal acceleration) the orbital decay would be stalled, causing the binary to "float". We show that this flux balance is not, in practice, possible for extreme mass ratio binary black holes with circular equatorial orbits; furthermore, adding eccentricity and inclination to the orbits will not significantly change this null result, thus ruling out the possibility of floating orbits for extreme mass ratio binary black holes. We also argue that binaries consisting of material bodies dense and massive enough to generate gravitational waves detectable by any kind of gravitational wave detector are also unlikely to float. Using a multipolar anal...

  8. Circulating levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6-relation to truncal fat mass and muscle mass in healthy elderly individuals and in patients with type-2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Maria; Bruunsgaard, Helle; Hendel, Helle W

    2003-01-01

    mass. Twenty young controls, (20-35 yr), 20 healthy elderly subjects (65-80 yr) and 16 elderly patients with type 2 diabetes (65-80 yr) were included in a cross sectional study. Plasma levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 were measured after an overnight fast. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and total body......The purpose of the current study was to test the hypothesis that an altered fat distribution in elderly healthy subjects and in patients with type-2 diabetes contributes to high circulating levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrotic factor (TNF)-alpha, which secondly is related to lower muscle...... potassium counting measured truncal fat, appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) and body cell mass (BCM), respectively. TNF-alpha, IL-6 and the relative truncal fat mass were higher in elderly compared with young controls. ASM was lower in diabetic men than in young controls and BCM was lower in elderly...

  9. Circulating levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6-relation to truncal fat mass and muscle mass in healthy elderly individuals and in patients with type-2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Maria; Bruunsgaard, Helle; Weis, Nina

    2003-01-01

    mass. Twenty young controls, (20-35 yr), 20 healthy elderly subjects (65-80 yr) and 16 elderly patients with type 2 diabetes (65-80 yr) were included in a cross sectional study. Plasma levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 were measured after an overnight fast. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and total body......The purpose of the current study was to test the hypothesis that an altered fat distribution in elderly healthy subjects and in patients with type-2 diabetes contributes to high circulating levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrotic factor (TNF)-alpha, which secondly is related to lower muscle...... potassium counting measured truncal fat, appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) and body cell mass (BCM), respectively. TNF-alpha, IL-6 and the relative truncal fat mass were higher in elderly compared with young controls. ASM was lower in diabetic men than in young controls and BCM was lower in elderly...

  10. The role of fat and lean mass in bone loss in older men: findings from the CHAMP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleicher, Kerrin; Cumming, Robert G; Naganathan, Vasikaran; Travison, Thomas G; Sambrook, Philip N; Blyth, Fiona M; Handelsman, David J; Le Couteur, David G; Waite, Louise M; Creasey, Helen M; Seibel, Markus J

    2011-12-01

    Weight loss is associated with bone loss; however, it is unclear whether loss of fat or loss of lean body mass plays the key role in this relationship. The aim of this longitudinal analysis was to clarify the relationship between hip BMD, hip BMC and whole body BMC with changes in fat and lean tissue mass in older men. The Concord Health and Aging in Men Project (CHAMP) is a population-based study in Sydney, Australia, involving 1705 men aged 70-97 years. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the total hip, and bone mineral content (BMC) of the hip and whole body (WB), lean mass and fat mass were measured with Dual X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA). Multivariate linear regression models were used to assess relationships. Over 2.2 years of follow-up, 368(33%) men lost at least 2% of their body weight, which included a mean loss of 0.8 kg/year of lean body mass and 0.9 kg/year of fat body mass. Fat loss was strongly associated with BMD loss in men who lost weight. As a group, weight losers lost 1.0% of hip BMD annually compared to 0.2% in men who gained weight, with each kilo of fat loss associated with 0.6%/year hip BMD loss (ploss in weight losers, however, lean mass change was associated with BMD change in men who gained weight (0.3% hip BMD increase per kilo increase of lean mass pfat plays an important role in this relationship, which may reflect the additional metabolic function of adipose tissue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Aliskiren Reduces Hepatic steatosis and Epididymal Fat Mass and Increases Skeletal Muscle Insulin Sensitivity in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kuei-Chuan; Hsieh, Yun-Cheng; Yang, Ying-Ying; Chan, Che-Chang; Huang, Yi-Hsiang; Lin, Han-Chieh

    2016-01-06

    Aliskiren has been found to reduce chronic injury and steatosis in the liver of methionine-choline-deficient (MCD) diet-fed mice. This study investigated whether aliskiren has an anti-steatotic effect in HFD-fed mice, which are more relevant to human patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease than MCD mice. Mice fed with 4-week normal chow or HFD randomly received aliskiren (50 mg/kg/day) or vehicle via osmotic minipumps for further 4 weeks. Aliskiren reduced systemic insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, epididymal fat mass and increased gastrocnemius muscle glucose transporter type 4 levels with lower tissue angiotensin II levels in the HFD-fed mice. In addition, aliskiren lowered nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and its down-signaling molecules and increased cytochrome P450 4A14 and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1a) in liver. In epididymal fat, aliskiren inhibited expressions of lipogenic genes, leading to decrease in fat mass, body weight, and serum levels of leptin and free fatty acid. Notably, in the gastrocnemius muscle, aliskiren increased phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 and Akt. Based on these beneficial effects on liver, peripheral fat and skeletal muscle, aliskiren is a promising therapeutic agent for patients with NAFLD.

  12. INVESTIGATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP OF THE STATISTICAL MOMENTS OF THE FAT PHASE MASS DISTRIBUTION AND RELAXATION SPECTRA OF DAIRY PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    V. E. Merzlikin

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with the search for optimal parameter estimation of the parameters of the process of homogenization of dairy products. Provides a theoretical basis for relationship of the relaxation time of the fat globules and attenuation coefficient of ultrasonic oscillations in dairy products. Suggested from the measured acoustic properties of milk to make the calculations of the mass distribution of fat globules. Studies on the proof of this hypothesis. Morphological analysis procedure ...

  13. X-ray dual energy spectral parameter optimization for bone Calcium/Phosphorus mass ratio estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiropoulou, P. I.; Fountos, G. P.; Martini, N. D.; Koukou, V. N.; Michail, C. M.; Valais, I. G.; Kandarakis, I. S.; Nikiforidis, G. C.

    2015-09-01

    Calcium (Ca) and Phosphorus (P) bone mass ratio has been identified as an important, yet underutilized, risk factor in osteoporosis diagnosis. The purpose of this simulation study is to investigate the use of effective or mean mass attenuation coefficient in Ca/P mass ratio estimation with the use of a dual-energy method. The investigation was based on the minimization of the accuracy of Ca/P ratio, with respect to the Coefficient of Variation of the ratio. Different set-ups were examined, based on the K-edge filtering technique and single X-ray exposure. The modified X-ray output was attenuated by various Ca/P mass ratios resulting in nine calibration points, while keeping constant the total bone thickness. The simulated data were obtained considering a photon counting energy discriminating detector. The standard deviation of the residuals was used to compare and evaluate the accuracy between the different dual energy set-ups. The optimum mass attenuation coefficient for the Ca/P mass ratio estimation was the effective coefficient in all the examined set-ups. The variation of the residuals between the different set-ups was not significant.

  14. Ratios of the molecular species of triacylglycerols in lesquerella (Physaria fendleri) oil estimated by mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ratios of regioisomers of 72 molecular species of triacylglycerols (TAG) in lesquerella oil were estimated using the electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of the lithium adducts of TAG in the HPLC fractions of lesquerella oil. The ratios of ion signal intensities (or relative abundances) of ...

  15. Heterologous expression of C. elegans fat-1 decreases the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio and inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Lei, E-mail: anleim@yahoo.com.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Pang, Yun-Wei, E-mail: yunweipang@126.com [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Gao, Hong-Mei, E-mail: Gaohongmei_123@yahoo.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Research Unit for Animal Life Sciences, Animal Resource Science Center, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Ibaraki-Iwama 319-0206 (Japan); Tao, Li, E-mail: Eunice8023@yahoo.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); College of Animal Science and Technology, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, Jilin 130118 (China); Miao, Kai, E-mail: miaokai7@163.com [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Wu, Zhong-Hong, E-mail: wuzhh@cau.edu.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); and others

    2012-11-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of C. elegans fat-1 reduces the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio in 3T3-L1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer fat-1 inhibits the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer fat-1 reduces lipid deposition in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The lower n-6/n-3 ratio induces apoptosis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. -- Abstract: In general, a diet enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) inhibits the development of obesity and decreases adipose tissue. The specific impacts of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs on adipogenesis, however, have not been definitively determined. Traditional in vivo and in vitro supplementation studies have yielded inconsistent or even contradictory results, which likely reflect insufficiently controlled experimental systems. Caenorhabditiselegans fat-1 gene encodes an n-3 fatty acid desaturase, and its heterologous expression represents an effective method both for altering the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio and for evaluating the biological effects of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs. We sought to determine whether a reduced n-6/n-3 ratio could influence adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Lentivirus-mediated introduction of the fat-1 gene into 3T3-L1 preadipocytes significantly reduced the n-6/n-3 ratio and inhibited preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. In mature adipocytes, fat-1 expression reduced lipid deposition, as measured by Oil Red O staining, and induced apoptosis. Our results indicate that a reduced n-6/n-3 ratio inhibits adipogenesis through several mechanisms and that n-3 PUFAs more effectively inhibit adipogenesis (but not lipogenesis) than do n-6 PUFAs.

  16. Discovery of Seven Companions to Intermediate Mass Stars with Extreme Mass Ratios in the Scorpius-Centaurus Association

    CERN Document Server

    Hinkley, Sasha; Ireland, Michael J; Cheetham, Anthony; Carpenter, John M; Tuthill, Peter; Lacour, Sylvestre; Evans, Thomas M; Haubois, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    We report the detection of seven low mass companions to intermediate-mass stars (SpT B/A/F; $M$$\\approx$1.5-4.5 solar masses) in the Scorpius-Centaurus Association using nonredundant aperture masking interferometry. Our newly detected objects have contrasts $\\Delta L'$$\\approx$4-6, corresponding to masses as low as $\\sim$20 Jupiter masses and mass ratios of $q$$\\approx$0.01-0.08, depending on the assumed age of the target stars. With projected separations $\\rho$$\\approx$10-30 AU, our aperture masking detections sample an orbital region previously unprobed by conventional adaptive optics imaging of intermediate mass Scorpius-Centaurus stars covering much larger orbital radii ($\\approx$30-3000 AU). At such orbital separations, these objects resemble higher mass versions of the directly imaged planetary mass companions to the 10-30 Myr, intermediate-mass stars HR 8799, $\\beta$ Pictoris, and HD95086. These newly discovered companions span the brown dwarf desert, and their masses and orbital radii provide a new co...

  17. QCD Isospin Breaking in Meson Masses, Decay Constants and Quark Mass Ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Amorós, G; Talavera, P

    2001-01-01

    The procedure to calculate masses and matrix-elements in the presence of mixing of the basis states is explained in detail. We then apply this procedure to the two-loop calculation in Chiral Perturbation Theory of pseudoscalar masses and decay constants including quark mass isospin breaking. These results are used to update our analysis of $K_{\\ell4}$ done previously and obtain a value of $m_u/m_d$ in addition to values for the low-energy-constants $L_i^r$.

  18. Distinctive genes determine different intramuscular fat and muscle fiber ratios of the longissimus dorsi muscles in Jinhua and landrace pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Wu

    Full Text Available Meat quality is determined by properties such as carcass color, tenderness and drip loss. These properties are closely associated with meat composition, which includes the types of muscle fiber and content of intramuscular fat (IMF. Muscle fibers are the main contributors to meat mass, while IMF not only contributes to the sensory properties but also to the plethora of physical, chemical and technological properties of meat. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that determine meat composition in different pig breeds. In this report we show that Jinhua pigs, a Chinese breed, contains much higher levels of IMF than do Landrace pigs, a Danish breed. We analyzed global gene expression profiles in the longissimus dorsi muscles in Jinhua and Landrace breeds at the ages of 30, 90 and 150 days. Cross-comparison analysis revealed that genes that regulate fatty acid biosynthesis (e.g., fatty acid synthase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase are expressed at higher levels in Jinhua pigs whereas those that regulate myogenesis (e.g., myogenic factor 6 and forkhead box O1 are expressed at higher levels in Landrace pigs. Among those genes which are highly expressed in Jinhua pigs at 90 days (d90, we identified a novel gene porcine FLJ36031 (pFLJ, which functions as a positive regulator of fat deposition in cultured intramuscular adipocytes. In summary, our data showed that the up-regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis regulatory genes such as pFLJ and myogenesis inhibitory genes such as myostatin in the longissimus dorsi muscles of Jinhua pigs could explain why this local breed produces meat with high levels of IMF.

  19. Distinctive genes determine different intramuscular fat and muscle fiber ratios of the longissimus dorsi muscles in Jinhua and landrace pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting; Zhang, Zhenhai; Yuan, Zhangqin; Lo, Li Jan; Chen, Jun; Wang, Yizhen; Peng, Jinrong

    2013-01-01

    Meat quality is determined by properties such as carcass color, tenderness and drip loss. These properties are closely associated with meat composition, which includes the types of muscle fiber and content of intramuscular fat (IMF). Muscle fibers are the main contributors to meat mass, while IMF not only contributes to the sensory properties but also to the plethora of physical, chemical and technological properties of meat. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that determine meat composition in different pig breeds. In this report we show that Jinhua pigs, a Chinese breed, contains much higher levels of IMF than do Landrace pigs, a Danish breed. We analyzed global gene expression profiles in the longissimus dorsi muscles in Jinhua and Landrace breeds at the ages of 30, 90 and 150 days. Cross-comparison analysis revealed that genes that regulate fatty acid biosynthesis (e.g., fatty acid synthase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase) are expressed at higher levels in Jinhua pigs whereas those that regulate myogenesis (e.g., myogenic factor 6 and forkhead box O1) are expressed at higher levels in Landrace pigs. Among those genes which are highly expressed in Jinhua pigs at 90 days (d90), we identified a novel gene porcine FLJ36031 (pFLJ), which functions as a positive regulator of fat deposition in cultured intramuscular adipocytes. In summary, our data showed that the up-regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis regulatory genes such as pFLJ and myogenesis inhibitory genes such as myostatin in the longissimus dorsi muscles of Jinhua pigs could explain why this local breed produces meat with high levels of IMF.

  20. Measuring adiposity in patients: the utility of body mass index (BMI, percent body fat, and leptin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirav R Shah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is a serious disease that is associated with an increased risk of diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, stroke, and cancer, among other diseases. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC estimates a 20% obesity rate in the 50 states, with 12 states having rates of over 30%. Currently, the body mass index (BMI is most commonly used to determine adiposity. However, BMI presents as an inaccurate obesity classification method that underestimates the epidemic and contributes to failed treatment. In this study, we examine the effectiveness of precise biomarkers and duel-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA to help diagnose and treat obesity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional study of adults with BMI, DXA, fasting leptin and insulin results were measured from 1998-2009. Of the participants, 63% were females, 37% were males, 75% white, with a mean age = 51.4 (SD = 14.2. Mean BMI was 27.3 (SD = 5.9 and mean percent body fat was 31.3% (SD = 9.3. BMI characterized 26% of the subjects as obese, while DXA indicated that 64% of them were obese. 39% of the subjects were classified as non-obese by BMI, but were found to be obese by DXA. BMI misclassified 25% men and 48% women. Meanwhile, a strong relationship was demonstrated between increased leptin and increased body fat. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate the prevalence of false-negative BMIs, increased misclassifications in women of advancing age, and the reliability of gender-specific revised BMI cutoffs. BMI underestimates obesity prevalence, especially in women with high leptin levels (>30 ng/mL. Clinicians can use leptin-revised levels to enhance the accuracy of BMI estimates of percentage body fat when DXA is unavailable.

  1. Lower lean mass and higher percent fat mass in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffa, R; Mereu, E; Putzu, P; Mereu, R M; Marini, E

    2014-10-01

    In this study we analyzed body composition in relation to cognitive and functional status, in a cross-sectional sample of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Seventy individuals (27 men, 78.1±6.5years; 43 women, 80.4±5.6years) with mild-moderate stages of AD (clinical dementia ratings 1 and 2) were selected from the Alzheimer Center, SS. Trinità Hospital, ASL 8 of Cagliari (Italy). Cognitive and psycho-functional status was evaluated using mini-mental state examination (MMSE), activities of daily living (ADL) scale, and geriatric depression scale (GDS). Mini-nutritional assessment (MNA) was applied. Anthropometric measurements were taken and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Body composition was assessed by means of specific bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA), using the references for the elderly. In comparison with the reference group, patients with AD showed similar BMI and MNA, but peculiar bioelectrical characteristics: lower phase angles and longer vectors (pnutritional status.

  2. 24-weeks Pilates-aerobic and educative training to improve body fat mass in elderly Serbian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz-Montero PJ

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pedro Jesús Ruiz-Montero,1 Alfonso Castillo-Rodriguez,2 Milena Mikalacki,3 Čokorilo Nebojsa,3 Darinka Korovljev31Department of Physical Education and Sport, Faculty of Physical Activity and Sport, University of Granada, Granada, Spain; 2Faculty of Sport, University of Pablo de Olavide, Seville, Spain; 3Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad, SerbiaBackground: The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in anthropometric measurements using an aerobic and Pilates exercise program which lasted 24 weeks.Method: This was a clinical intervention study of 303 women over the age of 60 living in Novi Sad, Serbia. Changes in body mass index and skinfold thickness were estimated through height, weight, and anthropometric measurements. The program comprised Pilates exercises for upper- and lower-body strength, agility, and aerobic capacity.Results: Fat mass (FM improved significantly (pre-test, 32.89%, 8.65; post-test, 28.25%, 6.58; P<0.01. Bone diameters and muscle perimeters showed no significant changes pre- and post-test (P>0.05, but there was a higher correlation between FM (% and waist–hip ratio (rho, 0.80; P<0.01.Conclusion: A mixed program of aerobics and Pilates, controls and improves baseline muscle mass and decreases FM values, without causing deterioration during practice and follow-up exercises.Keywords: lean body mass, anthropometric measures, educative programA Letter to the Editor has been received and published for this article.

  3. Predicting total fat mass from skinfold thicknesses in Japanese prepubertal children: a cross-sectional and longitudinal validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midorikawa, Taishi; Ohta, Megumi; Hikihara, Yuki; Torii, Suguru; Bemben, Michael G; Sakamoto, Shizuo

    2011-01-01

    The present study was performed to develop regression based prediction equations for fat mass from skinfold thickness in Japanese children, and to investigate the cross-sectional and longitudinal validity of these equations. A total of 127 healthy Japanese prepubertal children aged 6-12 years were randomly separated into two groups: the model development group (54 boys and 44 girls) and the cross-sectional validation group (18 boys and 11 girls). Fat mass was initially determined by using DXA (Hologic Delphi A-QDR whole-body scanner) to provide reference data. Then, fat thickness was measured at triceps and subscapular using an Eiken-type skinfold calipers. Multiple anthropometric and DXA measures were obtained one year later for 28 of the original 127 subjects (longitudinal validation group: 14 boys and 14 girls). Strong significant correlations were observed between total fat mass by DXA measurement and the skinfold thickness × height measures by caliper in the model development group of boys and girls (R2=0.91-0.92, pSkinfold-derived prediction equations underestimate for obese children but are generally useful for estimating total fat mass in field research.

  4. The relationship between fat mass, eating behaviour and obesity-related psychological traits in overweight and obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Barry V; Bullmore, Edward T; Miller, Sam; McHugh, Simon; Simons, David; Dodds, Chris M; Koch, Annelize; Napolitano, Antonella; Nathan, Pradeep J

    2012-12-01

    Behavioural and psychological factors related to eating have been associated with obesity, although their relationship to anthropometric measures, more specifically fat mass, has not been fully examined. This study examined the relationship between fat mass (n=98; 75M, 23 F) and behavioural measures of eating and obesity related psychological traits (n=337; 226M, 111 F) in overweight and obese individuals (Mean BMI 30.5±4.0; BMI range 25-46kg/m(2)). Two sets of principal component analyses (PCA) were performed: one on validated questionnaires of eating behaviour and psychological traits and a second on fat mass and body weight related anthropometric measures (BMI, weight) and the aforementioned questionnaire measures. From the initial PCA (n=337), the primary principal component, P1 (R(2) value of 0.33), represented a latent variable associated with overeating or binge eating behaviour. In a second PCA (questionnaire measures augmented by anthropometric variables, n=98), a single component was identified, P1(+) (R(2) of 0.28), similar to that identified as P1 in the previous analysis and this component was highly correlated with fat mass (ρ=0.68). These findings suggest that levels of body fat and eating behaviour (namely, binging or overeating) are strongly related and, at least in a subgroup of individuals, obesity may be driven by behavioural factors associated with eating in combination with pre-existing environmental and genetic factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The typical mass ratio and typical final spin in supermassive black hole mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Gergely, László Á

    2012-01-01

    We prove that merging supermassive black holes (SMBHs) typically have neither equal masses, nor is their mass ratio too extreme. The majority of such mergers fall into the mass ratio range of 1:30 to 1:3, implying a spin flip during the inspiral. We also present a simple expression for the final spin $\\chi_{f}$ of the emerging SMBH, as function of the mass ratio, initial spin magnitudes, and orientation of the spins with respect to the orbital plane and each other. This formula approximates well more cumbersome expressions obtained from the fit with numerical simulations. By integrating over all equally likely orientations for precessing mergers we determine a lower approximant to the final spin distribution as function of the mass ratio alone. By folding this with the derived mass ratio dependent merger rate we derive a lower bound to the typical final spin value after mergers. We repeat the procedure deriving an upper bound for the typical spin in the case when the spins are aligned to the orbital angular m...

  6. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of fat mass and obesity-associated gene in rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Jinyi; Jing, Wenqian; Jiang, Yunliang

    2013-12-01

    Fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene codes for a nuclear protein of the AlkB related nonhaem iron and 2-oxoglutaratedependent oxygenase superfamily, and is involved in animal fat deposition and human obesity. In this work, the molecular characterization and expression features of rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) FTO cDNA were analysed. The rabbit FTO cDNA with a size of 2158 bp was cloned, including 1515 bp of the open reading frame that encoded a basic protein of 504 amino acids. Homologous comparison indicated that the rabbit FTO shared 36.36-91.88% identity with those from other species and phylogenetic analysis showed that the rabbit FTO is closely related to human, but more distantly related to zebrafish. The New Zealand rabbit FTO mRNA was detected in all tissues examined, with the highest levels found in the spleen and the lowest found in the kidney. However, no significant differences were seen in cerebellum, corpora quadrigemina, medulla oblongata and cerebral cortex of commercial adult rabbits. Moreover, mRNA levels of FTO in liver tissues were significantly increased in lactating New Zealand rabbits compared with 70-day-old, 90-day-old and gestating rabbits (P rabbits than in 70-day-old rabbits (P rabbits were not significantly different (P > 0.05).

  7. Caucasian children's fat mass: routine anthropometry v. air-displacement plethysmography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Nathalie; Huybrechts, Inge; Bammann, Karin; Lissner, Lauren; Moreno, Luis; Peeters, Maarten; Sioen, Isabelle; Vanaelst, Barbara; Vyncke, Krishna; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2013-04-28

    The present paper will use fat mass percentage (FM%) obtained via BOD POD® air-displacement plethysmography (FMADP%) to examine the relative validity of (1) anthropometric measurements/indices and (2) of FM% assessed with equations (FMeq%) based on skinfold thickness and bioelectrical impedance (BIA). In 480 Belgian children (aged 5-11 years) weight, height, skinfold thickness (triceps and subscapular), body circumferences (mid-upper arm, waist and hip), foot-to-foot BIA (Tanita®) and FMADP% were measured. Anthropometric measurements and calculated indices were compared with FMADP%. Next, published equations were used to calculate FMeq% using impedance (equations of Tanita®, Tyrrell, Shaefer and Deurenberg) or skinfold thickness (equations of Slaughter, Goran, Dezenberg and Deurenberg). Both indices and equations performed better in girls than in boys. For both sexes, the sum of skinfold thicknesses resulted in the highest correlation with FMADP%, followed by triceps skinfold, arm fat area and subscapular skinfold. In general, comparing FMeq% with FMADP% indicated mostly an age and sex effect, and an increasing underestimation but less dispersion with increasing FM%. The Tanita® impedance equation and the Deurenberg skinfold equation performed the best, although none of the used equations were interchangeable with FMADP%. In conclusion, the sum of triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness is recommended as marker of FM% in the absence of specialised technologies. Nevertheless, the higher workload, cost and survey management of an immobile device like the BOD POD® remains justified.

  8. The Stellar Masses of Disk Galaxies and the Calibration of Color-Mass to Light Ratio Relations

    CERN Document Server

    McGaugh, Stacy

    2013-01-01

    We present new Spitzer 3.6 micron observations of a sample of disk galaxies spanning over 10 magnitudes in luminosity and ranging in gas fraction from ~10% to over 90%. We use these data to test population synthesis prescriptions for computing stellar mass. Many commonly employed models fail to provide self-consistent stellar masses in the sense that the stellar mass estimated from the optical luminosity typically exceeds that estimated from the near-infrared (NIR) luminosity. This problem is present in models both with and without TP-AGB stars, but is more severe in the former. Self-consistency can be achieved if NIR mass-to-light ratios are approximately constant with a mean value near 0.5 Msun/Lsun at 3.6 microns. We use the Baryonic Tully-Fisher relation calibrated by gas rich galaxies to provide an independent estimate of the color-mass to light ratio relation. This approach also suggests that the typical 3.6 micron mass-to-light ratio is 0.5 (0.65 in the K band) for rotationally supported galaxies. Thes...

  9. Cardiometabolic Risk Assessments by Body Mass Index z-Score or Waist-to-Height Ratio in a Multiethnic Sample of Sixth-Graders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry S. Kahn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Convention defines pediatric adiposity by the body mass index z-score (BMIz referenced to normative growth charts. Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR does not depend on sex-and-age references. In the HEALTHY Study enrollment sample, we compared BMIz with WHtR for ability to identify adverse cardiometabolic risk. Among 5,482 sixth-grade students from 42 middle schools, we estimated explanatory variations (R2 and standardized beta coefficients of BMIz or WHtR for cardiometabolic risk factors: insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, lipids, blood pressures, and glucose. For each risk outcome variable, we prepared adjusted regression models for four subpopulations stratified by sex and high versus lower fatness. For HOMA-IR, R2 attributed to BMIz or WHtR was 19%–28% among high-fatness and 8%–13% among lower-fatness students. R2 for lipid variables was 4%–9% among high-fatness and 2%–7% among lower-fatness students. In the lower-fatness subpopulations, the standardized coefficients for total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol and triglycerides tended to be weaker for BMIz (0.13–0.20 than for WHtR (0.17–0.28. Among high-fatness students, BMIz and WHtR correlated with blood pressures for Hispanics and whites, but not black boys (systolic or girls (systolic and diastolic. In 11-12 year olds, assessments by WHtR can provide cardiometabolic risk estimates similar to conventional BMIz without requiring reference to a normative growth chart.

  10. The prediction of lean body mass and fat mass from arm anthropometry at diagnosis in children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Colin; Halton, Jacqueline; Walker, Scott; Young, Andrea; Barr, Ronald D

    2013-10-01

    Maintenance of adequate nutrition is important in the care of children with cancer. In clinical practice, determination of nutritional status can be accomplished with measurement of body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). However, DXA is seldom available in low-income countries where most children with cancer live. This study sought to provide predictive equations for lean body mass and fat mass, measured by DXA, on the basis of simple arm anthropometry providing measures of mid-upper arm circumference and triceps skin-fold thickness in a population (N=99) of children diagnosed with cancer. Such equations were derived successfully with the inclusion of absolute body weight, the body weight Z-score, and the predicted whole-body bone mineral content on the basis of age and sex. Attempted validation in a small sample (N=7) of children who completed therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia revealed disparities reflective of the prevalence of obesity in such survivors. Further validation must be undertaken in large samples of children with a variety of malignant diseases to assess the robustness of the equations predictive of body composition.

  11. Lean Mass and Fat Mass as Mediators of the Relationship Between Physical Activity and Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Jing; Chen, Yongjie; Wang, Yupeng; Su, Shaofei; Wang, Xinyu; Xie, Biao; Zhang, Qiuju; Liu, Meina

    2017-05-01

    The relationship between physical activity (PA) and bone health is well known, but the role of lean mass (LM) and fat mass (FM) in this relationship remains uncertain. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the mediating effect of LM and FM on the relationship between PA and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women. This cross-sectional study involved 282 postmenopausal women aged between 50 and 65 year, who were randomly selected from Hongqi community of Harbin City in China. PA was measured using an International PA Questionnaire. Body composition, BMD of the lumbar spine, hip, and total body were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Mediation analysis was performed to investigate the mediating effect of LM and FM on the relationship between PA and BMD. In partial correlation analysis, PA, LM, and FM were positively related to BMD. Positive correlation was found between PA and LM. There were significant differences in BMD between different categories of PA, but the differences disappeared after adjusting for LM. Mediation analysis showed that LM and FM played a mediating role in the relationship between PA and BMD. LM appeared to mediate the effect of BMD in the spine, hip, and total body by 26.91%, 19.55% and 47.98%, respectively; and FM was 22.23%, 27.97%, and 33.02%, respectively. LM and FM affected the relationship between PA and BMD as mediator. Postmenopausal women with high LM and FM had more BMD.

  12. Fat-free mass mediates the association between birth weight and aerobic fitness in youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridgway, C L; Andresen, Brage Storstein; Anderssen, S

    2011-01-01

    test. Physical activity was collected in a subset (n = 1 505) using a hip-worn accelerometer and defined as total activity counts/wear time, all children with >600 minutes/day for ≥3 days of wear were included. Results. Lower birth weight was associated with lower aerobic fitness, after adjusting.......7). Birth weight was also significantly associated with fat-free mass (ß = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.1, 1.8, p physical activity did not alter the findings. Conclusion. Birth weight...... for sex, age group, country, sexual maturity and socio-economic status (ß = 5.4; 95% CI: 3.5, 7.3 W per 1 kg increase in birth weight, p

  13. Determination of Mass Transfer Parameters During Deep Fat Frying of Rice Crackers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Taghi Hamed MOSAVIAN; Vahid Mohammadpour KARIZAKI

    2012-01-01

    The accuracy of the knowledge of mass transfer parameters (effective moisture diffusivity,mass transfer Biot number and mass transfer coefficient) in the case of frying food,is essential and important for designing,modeling and process optimization.This study is undertaken to develop an approach for determining mass transfer parameters during frying of spherical rice cracker in sunflower oil at 150,170 and 190 ℃.These parameters were evaluated from the plots of dimensionless concentration ratios against time of frying.Effective moisture diffusivity,mass transfer Biot number and mass transfer coefficient ranged between 1.24×10-8 to 2.36×10-8 m2/s,1.96 to 2.34 and 5.51×10-6 to 9.70×10-6 m/s,respectively.Effective moisture diffusivity and mass transfer coefficient were found to increase with an increasing frying temperature,whereas mass transfer Biot number decreased.An Arrhenius-type relationship was found between effective diffusivity coefficient and frying temperature.

  14. Estimating the aggregate/intraaggregate mass ratio of a shrinking soil

    CERN Document Server

    Chertkov, V Y

    2014-01-01

    A recently introduced parameter, the ratio of an aggregate solid mass to a solid mass of an intraaggregate matrix (K ratio) is connected with the mean thickness of a deformable, but non-shrinking surface layer of aggregates and is a fundamental property of aggregated soils that essentially influences their shrinkage. The objective of this work is to suggest and validate an approach to estimating the K ratio at any soil clay content through characteristics of soil texture and structure. We derive an equation that reflects the interrelation between the K ratio and soil texture and structure. The K ratio can be estimated as the solution of the equation and is determined by the mean size of soil solids and the maximum size of soil aggregates in the oven-dried state, independently of a measured shrinkage curve. To validate the approach we use available data for eight soils.

  15. The 'Fat Mass and Obesity Related' (FTO) gene: Mechanisms of Impact on Obesity and Energy Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speakman, John R

    2015-03-01

    A cluster of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the first intron of the fat mass and obesity related (FTO) gene were the first common variants discovered to be associated with body mass index and body fatness. This review summarises what has been later discovered about the biology of FTO drawing together information from both human and animal studies. Subsequent work showed that the 'at risk' alleles of these SNPs are associated with greater food intake and increased hunger/lowered satiety, but are not associated with altered resting energy expenditure or low physical activity in humans. FTO is an FE (II) and 2-oxoglutarate dependent DNA/RNA methylase. Contrasting the impact of the SNPs on energy balance in humans, knocking out or reducing activity of the Fto gene in the mouse resulted in lowered adiposity, elevated energy expenditure with no impact on food intake (but the impact on expenditure is disputed). In contrast, overexpression of the gene in mice led to elevated food intake and adiposity, with no impact on expenditure. In rodents, the Fto gene is widely expressed in the brain including hypothalamic nuclei linked to food intake regulation. Since its activity is 2-oxoglutarate dependent it could potentially act as a sensor of citrate acid cycle flux, but this function has been dismissed, and instead it has been suggested to be much more likely to act as an amino acid sensor, linking circulating AAs to the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1. This may be fundamental to its role in development but the link to obesity is less clear. It has been recently suggested that although the obesity related SNPs reside in the first intron of FTO, they may not only impact FTO but mediate their obesity effects via nearby genes (notably RPGRIP1L and IRX3).

  16. B-physics from the ratio method with Wilson twisted mass fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Carrasco, N; Frezzotti, R; Gimenez, V; Lubicz, G Herdoiza V; Martinelli, G; Michael, C; Palao, D; Rossi, G C; Sanfilippo, F; Shindler, A; Simula, S; Tarantino, C

    2012-01-01

    We present a precise lattice QCD determination of the b-quark mass, of the B and Bs decay constants and first preliminary results for the B-mesons bag parameter. Simulations are performed with Nf = 2 Wilson twisted mass fermions at four values of the lattice spacing and the results are extrapolated to the continuum limit. Our calculation benefits from the use of improved interpolating operators for the B-mesons and employs the so-called ratio method. The latter allows a controlled interpolation at the b-quark mass between the relativistic data around and above the charm quark mass and the exactly known static limit.

  17. A transition in circumbinary accretion discs at a binary mass ratio of 1:25

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orazio, Daniel J.; Haiman, Zoltán; Duffell, Paul; MacFadyen, Andrew; Farris, Brian

    2016-07-01

    We study circumbinary accretion discs in the framework of the restricted three-body problem (R3Bp) and via numerically solving the height-integrated equations of viscous hydrodynamics. Varying the mass ratio of the binary, we find a pronounced change in the behaviour of the disc near mass ratio q ≡ Ms/Mp ˜ 0.04. For mass ratios above q = 0.04, solutions for the hydrodynamic flow transition from steady, to strongly fluctuating; a narrow annular gap in the surface density around the secondary's orbit changes to a hollow central cavity; and a spatial symmetry is lost, resulting in a lopsided disc. This phase transition is coincident with the mass ratio above which stable orbits do not exist around the L4 and L5 equilibrium points of the R3Bp. Using the DISCO code, we find that for thin discs, for which a gap or cavity can remain open, the mass ratio of the transition is relatively insensitive to disc viscosity and pressure. The q = 0.04 transition has relevance for the evolution of massive black hole binary+disc systems at the centres of galactic nuclei, as well as for young stellar binaries and possibly planets around brown dwarfs.

  18. A transition in circumbinary accretion discs at a binary mass ratio of 1:25

    CERN Document Server

    D'Orazio, Daniel J; Duffell, Paul; MacFadyen, Andrew I; Farris, Brian D

    2015-01-01

    We study circumbinary accretion discs in the framework of the restricted three-body problem (R3Bp) and via numerically solving the height-integrated equations of viscous hydrodynamics. Varying the mass ratio of the binary, we find a pronounced change in the behaviour of the disc near mass ratio $q \\equiv M_s/M_p \\sim 0.04$. For mass ratios above $q=0.04$, solutions for the hydrodynamic flow transition from steady, to strongly-fluctuating; a narrow annular gap in the surface density around the secondary's orbit changes to a hollow central cavity; and a spatial symmetry is lost, resulting in a lopsided disc. This phase transition is coincident with the mass ratio above which stable orbits do not exist around the L4 and L5 equilibrium points of the R3B problem. Using the DISCO code, we find that for thin discs, for which a gap or cavity can remain open, the mass ratio of the transition is relatively insensitive to disc viscosity and pressure. The $q=0.04$ transition has relevance for the evolution of massive bla...

  19. The relationship of abdominal fat mass assessed by helical or conventional computed tomography to serum leptin concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Junji; Sasaki, Takeyoshi; Watanabe, Mitsuyo

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, we focused on the relationship of intra-abdominal visceral fat (VF) or subcutaneous fat (SF) mass to serum leptin levels, and also on the relationship of leptin to serum lipid and lipoprotein concentration. Subjects with obesity (26 men, 26 women) were recruited for this study. We obtained helical CT scans with a tube current of 150 mA, voltage of 120 kV and 2:1 pitch (table speed in relation to slice thickness), starting at the upper edge of the liver and continuing to the pelvis. The intra-abdominal visceral fat (VF) volume was measured by drawing a line within the muscle wall surrounding the abdominal cavity. The abdominal SF volume was calculated by subtracting the VF volume from the total abdominal fat volume. By comparison, the abdominal VF and SF areas were determined at the umbilical level by the established slice-by-slice CT scanning technique. We found: 1) abdominal SF mass, either as volume or area, was a more important determinant of serum leptin than was VF mass; 2) among TC, TG, HDL-C and LDL-C, only TG had a positive correlation to serum leptin levels in men, whereas in women no lipid parameters had any relationship with leptin; and 3) VF mass had a positive correlation to serum TC and TG in men, whereas SF did not. The present study provides considerable evidence on the relationship between abdominal fat mass and serum leptin, and shows that the relationships between serum leptin and serum lipids and lipoproteins are not straightforward. We also suggest that fat area measured by conventional CT is a better indicator than its corresponding volume assessed by helical CT, based on the present results showing its closer association to serum lipids.

  20. Modelling lactation curve for milk fat to protein ratio in Iranian buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) using non-linear mixed models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossein-Zadeh, Navid Ghavi

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare seven non-linear mathematical models (Brody, Wood, Dhanoa, Sikka, Nelder, Rook and Dijkstra) to examine their efficiency in describing the lactation curves for milk fat to protein ratio (FPR) in Iranian buffaloes. Data were 43 818 test-day records for FPR from the first three lactations of Iranian buffaloes which were collected on 523 dairy herds in the period from 1996 to 2012 by the Animal Breeding Center of Iran. Each model was fitted to monthly FPR records of buffaloes using the non-linear mixed model procedure (PROC NLMIXED) in SAS and the parameters were estimated. The models were tested for goodness of fit using Akaike's information criterion (AIC), Bayesian information criterion (BIC) and log maximum likelihood (-2 Log L). The Nelder and Sikka mixed models provided the best fit of lactation curve for FPR in the first and second lactations of Iranian buffaloes, respectively. However, Wood, Dhanoa and Sikka mixed models provided the best fit of lactation curve for FPR in the third parity buffaloes. Evaluation of first, second and third lactation features showed that all models, except for Dijkstra model in the third lactation, under-predicted test time at which daily FPR was minimum. On the other hand, minimum FPR was over-predicted by all equations. Evaluation of the different models used in this study indicated that non-linear mixed models were sufficient for fitting test-day FPR records of Iranian buffaloes.

  1. Obesity is underestimated using body mass index and waist-hip ratio in long-term adult survivors of childhood cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Blijdorp

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Obesity, represented by high body mass index (BMI, is a major complication after treatment for childhood cancer. However, it has been shown that high total fat percentage and low lean body mass are more reliable predictors of cardiovascular morbidity. In this study longitudinal changes of BMI and body composition, as well as the value of BMI and waist-hip ratio representing obesity, were evaluated in adult childhood cancer survivors. METHODS: Data from 410 survivors who had visited the late effects clinic twice were analyzed. Median follow-up time was 16 years (interquartile range 11-21 and time between visits was 3.2 years (2.9-3.6. BMI was measured and body composition was assessed by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, Lunar Prodigy; available twice in 182 survivors. Data were compared with healthy Dutch references and calculated as standard deviation scores (SDS. BMI, waist-hip ratio and total fat percentage were evaluated cross-sectionally in 422 survivors, in who at least one DXA scan was assessed. RESULTS: BMI was significantly higher in women, without significant change over time. In men BMI changed significantly with time (ΔSDS = 0.19, P<0.001. Percentage fat was significantly higher than references in all survivors, with the highest SDS after cranial radiotherapy (CRT (mean SDS 1.73 in men, 1.48 in women, P<0.001. Only in men, increase in total fat percentage was significantly higher than references (ΔSDS = 0.22, P<0.001. Using total fat percentage as the gold standard, 65% of female and 42% of male survivors were misclassified as non-obese using BMI. Misclassification of obesity using waist-hip ratio was 40% in women and 24% in men. CONCLUSIONS: Sixteen years after treatment for childhood cancer, the increase in BMI and total fat percentage was significantly greater than expected, especially after CRT. This is important as we could show that obesity was grossly underestimated using BMI and waist-hip ratio.

  2. Revised Mass-to-Light Ratios For Nearby Galaxy Groups and Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Shan, Yutong; Courteau, Stephane

    2014-01-01

    We present a detailed investigation of the cluster stellar mass-to-light (M*/L) ratio and cumulative stellar masses, derived on a galaxy-by-galaxy basis, for 12 massive (M500 ~ 10^14 - 10^15 Msun), nearby clusters with available optical imaging data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10 and X-ray data from the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Our method involves a statistical cluster membership using both photometric and spectroscopic redshifts when available to maximize completeness whilst minimizing contamination effects. We show that different methods of estimating the stellar mass-to-light ratio from observed photometry result in systematic discrepancies in the total stellar masses and average mass-to-light ratios of cluster galaxies. Nonetheless, all conversion methodologies point to a lack of correlation between M*/Li and total cluster mass, even though low-mass groups contain relatively more blue galaxies. We also find no statistically significant correlation between M*/Li and the fraction of blu...

  3. Meta-analysis identifies 13 new loci associated with waist-hip ratio and reveals sexual dimorphism in the genetic basis of fat distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M. Heid (Iris); A.U. Jackson (Anne); J.C. Randall (Joshua); T.W. Winkler (Thomas); L. Qi (Lu); V. Ssteinthorsdottir (Valgerdur); G. Tthorleifsson (Ggudmar); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); E.K. Sspeliotes (Eelizabeth); R. Mägi (Reedik); T. Workalemahu (Tsegaselassie); C.C. White (Charles); N. Bouatia-Naji (Nabila); T.B. Harris (Tamara); S.I. Berndt (Sonja); E. Ingelsson (Erik); C.J. Willer (Cristen); J. Luan; S. Vedantam (Sailaja); T. Eesko (Tõnu); T.O. Kilpeläinen (Tuomas); Z. Kutalik (Zoltán); S. Li (Shengxu); K.L. Monda (Keri); A.L. Dixon (Anna); C. Holmes (Christopher); R.C. Kaplan (Robert); L. Liang (Liming); J. Min (Josine); M.F. Moffatt (Miriam); C. Molony (Cliona); G. Nicholson (Ggeorge); E.E. Sschadt (Eeric); K.T. Zondervan (Krina); M.F. Feitosa (Mary Furlan); T. Ferreira (Teresa); H.L. Allen; R.J. Weyant (Robert); E. Wheeler (Eleanor); A.R. Wood (Andrew); K. Eestrada (Karol); M.E. Goddard (Michael); G. Lettre (Guillaume); M. Mangino (Massimo); D.R. Nyholt (Dale); S. Purcell (Shaun); A.V. Ssmith; P.M. Visscher (Peter); J. Yang (Joanna); S.A. McCcarroll (Ssteven); J. Nemesh (James); B.F. Voight (Benjamin); D. Absher (Devin); N. Amin (Najaf); T. Aspelund (Thor); L. Coin (Lachlan); N.L. Glazer (Nicole); C. Hayward (Caroline); N. Heard-Ccosta (Nancy); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); A. Johansson (Åsa); T. Johnson (Toby); M. Kaakinen (Marika); K. Kapur (Karen); S. Ketkar (Shamika); J.W. Knowles (Joshua); P. Kraft (Peter); A. Kraja (Aldi); C. Lamina (Claudia); M.F. Leitzmann (Michael); B. McKknight (Barbara); A.D. Morris (Andrew); K. Oong (Ken); J.R.B. Perry (John); M.J. Peters (Marjolein); O. Polasek (Ozren); I. Prokopenko (Inga); N.W. Rayner (Nigel William); S. Ripatti (Samuli); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); N.R. Robertson (Neil); S. Sanna (Serena); U. Sovio (Ulla); I. Surakka (Ida); A. Teumer (Alexander); S. van Wingerden (Sophie); V. Vitart (Veronique); J.H. Zhao; C. Cavalcanti-Proença (Christine); P.S. Chines (Peter); E. Fisher (Eeva); J.R. Kulzer (Jennifer); C. Lecoeur (Cécile); N. Narisu (Narisu); C. Sandholt (Camilla); L.J. Scott (Laura); K. Silander (Kaisa); K. Stark (Klaus); M.L. Tammesoo; T.M. Teslovich (Tanya); N. Timpson (Nicholas); R.P. Welch (Ryan); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); M.N. Cooper (Matthew); J.O. Jansson; J. Kettunen (Johannes); R. Wlawrence (Robert); N. Pellikka (Niina); M. Perola (Markus); L. Vandenput (Liesbeth); H. Alavere (Helene); P. Almgren (Peter); L.D. Atwood (Larry); A.J. Bennett (Amanda); R. Biffar (Reiner); L.L. Bonnycastle (Lori); S.R. Bornstein (Stefan); T.A. Buchanan (Thomas); H. Campbell (Harry); I.N.M. Day (Ian); M. Dei (Mariano); M. Dörr (Marcus); P. Eelliott (Paul); M.R. Eerdos (Micheal); J.G. Eeriksson (Johan); N.B. Freimer (Nelson); M. Fu (Mao); S. Gaget (Stefan); E.J.C. Geus (Eco); A.P. Gjesing (Anette); H. Grallert (Harald); J. Gräßler (Jürgen); C.J. Groves (Christopher); C. Guiducci (Candace); A.L. Hartikainen; N. Hassanali (Neelam); A.S. Havulinna (Aki); K.H. Herzig; A.A. Hicks (Andrew); J. Hui (Jennie); W. Igl (Wilmar); P. Jousilahti (Pekka); A. Jula (Antti); E. Kajantie (Eero); L. Kinnunen (Leena); I. Kolcic (Ivana); S. Koskinen (Seppo); P. Kovacs (Peter); H.K. Kroemer (Heyo); V. Krzelj (Vjekoslav); J. Kuusisto (Johanna); K. Kvaløy (Kirsti); J. Laitinen (Jaana); O. Lantieri (Olivier); G.M. Lathrop (Mark); M.L. Lokki; R.N. Luben (Robert); B. Ludwig (Barbara); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); A. McCcarthy (Anne); M.A. Morken (Mario); M. Nelis (Mari); M.J. Neville (Matthew); G. Paré (Guillaume); A.N. Parker (Alex); J. Peden (John); I. Pichler (Irene); K.H. Pietilainen (Kirsi Hannele); C.P. Platou (Carl); A. Pouta (Anneli); M. Ridderstråle (Martin); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); J. Saramies (Jouko); J. Sinisalo (Juha); J.H. Smit (Jan); R.J. Strawbridge (Rona); H.M. Stringham (Heather); A.J. Swift (Amy); M. Teder-Llaving (Maris); B. Thomson (Brian); G. Usala; J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); G.J. van Ommen (Gert); V. Vatin (Vincent); C.B. Volpato; H. Wallaschofski (Henri); G.B. Walters (Bragi); E. Widen (Elisabeth); S.H. Wild (Sarah); G.A.H.M. Willemsen (Gonneke); D.R. Witte (Deniel); L. Zgaga (Lina); P. Zitting (Paavo); J.P. Beilby (John); A. James (Alan); M. Kähönen (Mika); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); M.S. Nieminen (Markku); C. Ohlsson (Claes); C. Palmer (Cameron); O. Raitakari (Olli); P.M. Ridker (Paul); M. Stumvoll (Michael); A. Tönjes (Anke); J. Viikari (Jorma); B. Balkau (Beverley); Y. Ben-Shlomo; R.N. Bergman (Richard); H. Boeing (Heiner); A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); S. Eebrahim (Shah); P. Froguel (Philippe); T. Hansen (Torben); C. Hengstenberg (Christian); K. Hveem (Kristian); B. Isomaa (Bo); T. Jørgensen (Torben); F. Karpe (Fredrik); K-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); M. Laakso (Markku); D.A. Lawlor (Debbie); M. Marre (Michel); T. Meitinger (Thomas); A. Metspalu (Andres); K. Midthjell (Kristian); O. Pedersen (Oluf); V. Salomaa (Veikko); P.E.H. Schwarz (Peter); T. Tuomi (Tiinamaija); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); T.T. Valle (Timo); N.J. Wareham (Nick); A.M. Arnold (Alice); J.S. Beckmann (Jacques); S.M. Bergmann (Sven); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); M. Caulfield (Mark); F.S. Collins (Francis); G. Eeiriksdottir (Gudny); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); U. Gyllensten (Ulf); A. Hamsten (Anders); A.T. Hattersley (Andrew); A. Hofman (Albert); F.B. Hu (Frank); T. Illig (Thomas); C. Iribarren (Carlos); M.R. Järvelin; W.H.L. Kao (Wen); J. Kaprio (Jaakko); L.J. Launer (Lenore); P. Munroe (Patricia); B.A. Oostra (Ben); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); P.P. Pramstaller (Peter Paul); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); T. Quertermous (Thomas); A. Rissanen (Aila); I. Rudan (Igor); A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); N. Soranzo (Nicole); T.D. Spector (Timothy); A.C. Syvanen; M. Uda (Manuela); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); H. Völzke (Henry); P. Vollenweider (Peter); J.F. Wilson (James); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); A.F. Wright (Alan); G.R. Abecasis (Gonçalo); M. Boehnke (Michael); I.B. Borecki (Ingrid); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); L. Groop (Leif); T. Haritunians (Talin); D.J. Hunter (David); K.E. North (Kari); J.R. O'Cconnell (Jeffrey); L. Peltonen (Leena Johanna); D. Schlessinger; D.P. Strachan (David); J.N. Hirschhorn (Joel); T.L. Assimes (Themistocles); H.E. Wichmann (Heinz Erich); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); K. Stefansson (Kari); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); I. Barroso (Inês); C.S. Fox (Caroline); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); C.M. Lindgren (Cecilia); R.M. Watanabe (Richard); M.N. Weedon (Michael)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWaist-hip ratio (WHR) is a measure of body fat distribution and a predictor of metabolic consequences independent of overall adiposity. WHR is heritable, but few genetic variants influencing this trait have been identified. We conducted a meta-analysis of 32 genome-wide association studi

  4. Influence of fat/carbohydrate ratio on progression of fatty liver disease and on development of osteopenia in male rats fed alcohol via total enteral nutrition (TEN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol abuse is associated with the development of fatty liver disease and also with significant bone loss in both genders. In this study, we examined ethanol (EtOH)-induced pathology in response to diets with differing fat/carbohydrate ratios. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed intragastrically wit...

  5. Meta-analysis identifies 13 new loci associated with waist-hip ratio and reveals sexual dimorphism in the genetic basis of fat distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heid, Iris M.; Jackson, Anne U.; Randall, Joshua C.; Winkler, Thomas W.; Qi, Lu; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Zillikens, M. Carola; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; Maegi, Reedik; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; White, Charles C.; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Harris, Tamara B.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Ingelsson, Erik; Willer, Cristen J.; Weedon, Michael N.; Luan, Jianan; Vedantam, Sailaja; Esko, Tonu; Kilpelaeinen, Tuomas O.; Kutalik, Zoltan; Li, Shengxu; Monda, Keri L.; Dixon, Anna L.; Holmes, Christopher C.; Kaplan, Lee M.; Liang, Liming; Min, Josine L.; Moffatt, Miriam F.; Molony, Cliona; Nicholson, George; Schadt, Eric E.; Zondervan, Krina T.; Feitosa, Mary F.; Ferreira, Teresa; Allen, Hana Lango; Weyant, Robert J.; Wheeler, Eleanor; Wood, Andrew R.; Estrada, Karol; Goddard, Michael E.; Lettre, Guillaume; Mangino, Massimo; Nyholt, Dale R.; Purcell, Shaun; Smith, Albert Vernon; Visscher, Peter M.; Yang, Jian; McCarroll, Steven A.; Nemesh, James; Voight, Benjamin F.; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Aspelund, Thor; Coin, Lachlan; Glazer, Nicole L.; Hayward, Caroline; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Johansson, Asa; Johnson, Toby; Kaakinen, Marika; Kapur, Karen; Ketkar, Shamika; Knowles, Joshua W.; Kraft, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T.; Lamina, Claudia; Leitzmann, Michael F.; McKnight, Barbara; Morris, Andrew P.; Ong, Ken K.; Perry, John R. B.; Peters, Marjolein J.; Polasek, Ozren; Prokopenko, Inga; Rayner, Nigel W.; Ripatti, Samuli; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Robertson, Neil R.; Sanna, Serena; Sovio, Ulla; Surakka, Ida; Teumer, Alexander; van Wingerden, Sophie; Vitart, Veronique; Zhao, Jing Hua; Cavalcanti-Proenca, Christine; Chines, Peter S.; Fisher, Eva; Kulzer, Jennifer R.; Lecoeur, Cecile; Narisu, Narisu; Sandholt, Camilla; Scott, Laura J.; Silander, Kaisa; Stark, Klaus; Tammesoo, Mari-Liis; Teslovich, Tanya M.; Timpson, Nicholas John; Watanabe, Richard M.; Welch, Ryan; Chasman, Daniel I.; Cooper, Matthew N.; Jansson, John-Olov; Kettunen, Johannes; Lawrence, Robert W.; Pellikka, Niina; Perola, Markus; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Alavere, Helene; Almgren, Peter; Atwood, Larry D.; Bennett, Amanda J.; Biffar, Reiner; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Buchanan, Thomas A.; Campbell, Harry; Day, Ian N. M.; Dei, Mariano; Doerr, Marcus; Elliott, Paul; Erdos, Michael R.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Freimer, Nelson B.; Fu, Mao; Gaget, Stefan; Geus, Eco J. C.; Gjesing, Anette P.; Grallert, Harald; Graessler, Juergen; Groves, Christopher J.; Guiducci, Candace; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hassanali, Neelam; Havulinna, Aki S.; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Hicks, Andrew A.; Hui, Jennie; Igl, Wilmar; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti; Kajantie, Eero; Kinnunen, Leena; Kolcic, Ivana; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Kroemer, Heyo K.; Krzelj, Vjekoslav; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kvaloy, Kirsti; Laitinen, Jaana; Lantieri, Olivier; Lathrop, G. Mark; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Luben, Robert N.; Ludwig, Barbara; McArdle, Wendy L.; McCarthy, Anne; Morken, Mario A.; Nelis, Mari; Neville, Matt J.; Pare, Guillaume; Parker, Alex N.; Peden, John F.; Pichler, Irene; Pietilainen, Kirsi H.; Platou, Carl G. P.; Pouta, Anneli; Ridderstrale, Martin; Samani, Nilesh J.; Saramies, Jouko; Sinisalo, Juha; Smit, Jan H.; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Stringham, Heather M.; Swift, Amy J.; Teder-Laving, Maris; Thomson, Brian; Usala, Gianluca; van Meurs, Joyce B. J.; van Ommen, Gert-Jan; Vatin, Vincent; Volpato, Claudia B.; Wallaschofski, Henri; Walters, G. Bragi; Widen, Elisabeth; Wild, Sarah H.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Witte, Daniel R.; Zgaga, Lina; Zitting, Paavo; Beilby, John P.; James, Alan L.; Kahonen, Mika; Lehtimaki, Terho; Nieminen, Markku S.; Ohlsson, Claes; Palmer, Lyle J.; Raitakari, Olli; Ridker, Paul M.; Stumvoll, Michael; Toenjes, Anke; Viikari, Jorma; Balkau, Beverley; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Bergman, Richard N.; Boeing, Heiner; Smith, George Davey; Ebrahim, Shah; Froguel, Philippe; Hansen, Torben; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hveem, Kristian; Isomaa, Bo; Jorgensen, Torben; Karpe, Fredrik; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Laakso, Markku; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Marre, Michel; Meitinger, Thomas; Metspalu, Andres; Midthjell, Kristian; Pedersen, Oluf; Salomaa, Veikko; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Valle, Timo T.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Arnold, Alice M.; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Bergmann, Sven; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Collins, Francis S.; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Hofman, Albert; Hu, Frank B.; Illig, Thomas; Iribarren, Carlos; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kao, W. H. Linda; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2010-01-01

    Waist-hip ratio (WHR) is a measure of body fat distribution and a predictor of metabolic consequences independent of overall adiposity. WHR is heritable, but few genetic variants influencing this trait have been identified. We conducted a meta-analysis of 32 genome-wide association studies for WHR a

  6. Meta-analysis identifies 13 new loci associated with waist-hip ratio and reveals sexual dimorphism in the genetic basis of fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heid, Iris M; Jackson, Anne U; Randall, Joshua C

    2010-01-01

    Waist-hip ratio (WHR) is a measure of body fat distribution and a predictor of metabolic consequences independent of overall adiposity. WHR is heritable, but few genetic variants influencing this trait have been identified. We conducted a meta-analysis of 32 genome-wide association studies for WH...

  7. Body Mass Index, percent body fat, and regional body fat distribution in relation to leptin concentrations in healthy, non-smoking postmenopausal women in a feeding study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell William

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between BMI and leptin has been studied extensively in the past, but previous reports in postmenopausal women have not been conducted under carefully controlled dietary conditions of weight maintenance using precise measures of body fat distribution. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between serum leptin concentration and adiposity as estimated by BMI and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA measures (percent body fat, central and peripheral fat, and lean mass in postmenopausal women. Methods This study was conducted as a cross-sectional analysis within the control segment of a randomized, crossover trial in which postmenopausal women (n = 51 consumed 0 (control, 15 (one drink, and 30 (two drinks g alcohol (ethanol/d for 8 weeks as part of a controlled diet. BMIs were determined and DEXA scans were administered to the women during the 0 g alcohol treatment, and a blood sample was collected at baseline and week 8 of each study period for leptin analysis. Results and discussion In multivariate analysis, women who were overweight (BMI > 25 to ≤ 30 kg/m2 had a 2-fold increase, and obese women (BMI > 30 kg/m2 had more than a 3-fold increase in serum leptin concentrations compared to normal weight (BMI ≤25 kg/m2 women. When the models for the different measures of adiposity were assessed by multiple R2, models which included percent body fat explained the highest proportion (approximately 80% of the serum leptin variance. Conclusion Under carefully controlled dietary conditions, we confirm that higher levels of adiposity were associated with higher concentrations of serum leptin. It appears that percent body fat in postmenopausal women may be the best adiposity-related predictor of serum leptin.

  8. Orientation of X Lines in Asymmetric Magnetic Reconnection-Mass Ratio Dependency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi-Hsin; Hesse, M.; Kuznetsova, M.

    2015-01-01

    Using fully kinetic simulations, we study the X line orientation of magnetic reconnection in an asymmetric configuration. A spatially localized perturbation is employed to induce a single X line, which has sufficient freedom to choose its orientation in three-dimensional systems. The effect of ion to electron mass ratio is investigated, and the X line appears to bisect the magnetic shear angle across the current sheet in the large mass ratio limit. The orientation can generally be deduced by scanning through the corresponding 2-D simulations to find the reconnection plane that maximizes the peak reconnection electric field. The deviation from the bisection angle in the lower mass ratio limit is consistent with the orientation shift of the most unstable linear tearing mode in an electron-scale current sheet.

  9. Effects of Ion-to-Electron Mass Ratio on Electron Dynamics in Collisionless Magnetic Reconnection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Jun; LU Quan-Ming

    2007-01-01

    A 21/2-dimensional electromagnetic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation code is used to investigate electron behaviour in collisionless magnetic reconnection. The results show that the ion/electron mass ratio (mi/me) almost has no impact on the reconnection rate, however it can significantly affect electron behaviour in the diffusion region. For the case with larger mass ratio, the width of electron current sheet becomes smaller and the outflow region along the separatrix is smaller, hence the peak of the electron outflow speed is essentially larger. Density cavities and the parallel electric field E// along the separatrix can be found in the case with larger mass ratio, which may have significant influences on the acceleration and heating of the electrons near the X point.

  10. Observational study of body weight, body fat with segmental fat distribution, visceral fat and body mass index in type 2 diabetic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Sunil Dube; Shanti Viswanathan; Manjree Dube

    2016-01-01

    Background: There has been an increase in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases in the last decade. This prevalence has been steadily increasing and is expected to increase further in the coming decade. The change in our lifestyle plus a sedentary lifestyle has led to this .Various body composition monitoring methods help us evaluate obesity and its association with diabetes. In this study, we analysed the trend of body fat distribution in diabetics. Methods: A multifrequency body c...

  11. The lowest mass ratio planetary microlens: OGLE 2016-BLG-1195Lb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, I. A.; Bennett, D. P.; Sumi, T.; Udalski, A.; Suzuki, D.; Rattenbury, N. J.; Bozza, V.; Koshimoto, N.; Abe, F.; Asakura, Y.; Barry, R. K.; Bhattacharya, A.; Donachie, M.; Evans, P.; Fukui, A.; Hirao, Y.; Itow, Y.; Li, M. C. A.; Ling, C. H.; Masuda, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Muraki, Y.; Nagakane, M.; Ohnishi, K.; Ranc, C.; Saito, To.; Sharan, A.; Sullivan, D. J.; Tristram, P. J.; Yamada, T.; Yamada, T.; Yonehara, A.; Skowron, J.; Szymański, M. K.; Poleski, R.; Mróz, P.; Soszyński, I.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Kozłowski, S.; Ulaczyk, K.; Pawlak, M.

    2017-08-01

    We report discovery of the lowest mass ratio exoplanet to be found by the microlensing method in the light curve of the event OGLE 2016-BLG-1195. This planet revealed itself as a small deviation from a microlensing single lens profile from an examination of the survey data. The duration of the planetary signal is ˜2.5 h. The measured ratio of the planet mass to its host star is q = 4.2 ± 0.7 × 10-5. We further estimate that the lens system is likely to comprise a cold ˜3 Earth mass planet in an ˜2 au wide orbit around a 0.2 Solar mass star at an overall distance of 7.1 kpc.

  12. Effect of physical training on fat-free mass in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emtner, Margareta; Hallin, Runa; Arnardottir, Ragnheiður Harpa; Janson, Christer

    2015-03-01

    Weight loss and depletion of fat-free mass are common problems in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and are related to muscular weakness and exercise intolerance. Physical training of COPD patients has good effect on exercise tolerance and quality of life. The aim of this study was to examine factors that affect change in fat-free mass after physical training, in patients with COPD. Patients were examined before and after a 4-month exercise period. Weight and height were measured, and bioelectrical impedance was performed. Fat-free mass (FFM) was calculated, by a three-compartment model, and fat-free mass index (FFMI) was calculated as FFM kg/m(2) and body mass index (BMI) as kg/m(2). A symptom-limited ramp ergometer test and 12-minute walk test (12MWT) were performed. Dyspnoea score of daily activities was determined by Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire (CRDQ). Blood was taken for analyses of C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen. Patients with a BMI nutritional support during the training period. A total of 27 patients completed the training (64 years, FEV1 31% of predicted). Patients with low FFMI gained 1.2 kg, whereas those with normal FFMI lost 0.7 kg (p = 0.04). In multivariate analyses high age (p = 0.03), low FEV1 (p = 0.02), and a high level of dyspnoea (p = 0.01) at baseline were found to be negative predictors for increase in FFM. Difficulties in increasing the fat-free mass in COPD patients by physical training seem to be associated with dyspnoea in daily life and impaired lung function (FEV1).

  13. An evaluation of protein/fat ratio in first DHI test milk for prediction of subsequent displaced abomasum in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geishauser, T D; Leslie, K E; Duffield, T F; Edge, V L

    1998-04-01

    First DHI test milk that was sampled prior to displaced abomasum (DA) diagnosis was used to evaluate milk protein/fat ratio (PFR) for prediction of subsequent DA in dairy cows. Odds ratio, sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratio were determined. Twenty-seven DA cases were matched to 3 controls per case by herd and calving date. Milk was tested at a median of 19 d after calving, which was 8 d prior to the median time of DA diagnosis. Adjusted for parity and days in milk, a protein/fat ratio 0.72. Using the cut off value of 0.72, the sensitivity of PFR for DA was 80% and the specificity was 68%. A receiver operating characteristics curve indicated that the minimum sum of false negative and false positive results was at a PFR cut off value of 0.72. The likelihood ratio indicated that protein/fat ratios DHI test milk may predict subsequent DA in dairy cows.

  14. The effect of galaxy mass ratio on merger--driven starbursts

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, T J; Somerville, Rachel S; Primack, Joel R; Dekel, Avishai

    2007-01-01

    We employ numerical simulations of galaxy mergers to explore the effect of galaxy mass ratio on merger--driven starbursts. Our numerical simulations include radiative cooling of gas, star formation, and stellar feedback to follow the interaction and merger of four disk galaxies. The galaxy models span a factor of 23 in total mass and are designed to be representative of typical galaxies in the local Universe. We find that the merger--driven star formation is a strong function of merger mass ratio, with very little, if any, induced star formation for large mass ratio mergers. We define a burst efficiency that is useful to characterize the merger--driven star formation and test that it is insensitive to uncertainties in the feedback parameterization. In accord with previous work we find that the burst efficiency depends on the structure of the primary galaxy. In particular, the presence of a massive stellar bulge stabilizes the disk and suppresses merger--driven star formation for large mass ratio mergers. Dire...

  15. Sex-Specific Control of Fat Mass and Counterregulation by Hypothalamic Glucokinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbusch, Laura K M; Picard, Alexandre; Bonnet, Marion S; Basco, Davide; Labouèbe, Gwenaël; Thorens, Bernard

    2016-10-01

    Glucokinase (Gck) is a critical regulator of glucose-induced insulin secretion by pancreatic β-cells. It has been suggested to also play an important role in glucose signaling in neurons of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN), a brain nucleus involved in the control of glucose homeostasis and feeding. To test the role of Gck in VMN glucose sensing and physiological regulation, we studied mice with genetic inactivation of the Gck gene in Sf1 neurons of the VMN (Sf1Gck(-/-) mice). Compared with control littermates, Sf1Gck(-/-) mice displayed increased white fat mass and adipocyte size, reduced lean mass, impaired hypoglycemia-induced glucagon secretion, and a lack of parasympathetic and sympathetic nerve activation by neuroglucopenia. However, these phenotypes were observed only in female mice. To determine whether Gck was required for glucose sensing by Sf1 neurons, we performed whole-cell patch clamp analysis of brain slices from control and Sf1Gck(-/-) mice. Absence of Gck expression did not prevent the glucose responsiveness of glucose-excited or glucose-inhibited Sf1 neurons in either sex. Thus Gck in the VMN plays a sex-specific role in the glucose-dependent control of autonomic nervous activity; this is, however, unrelated to the control of the firing activity of classical glucose-responsive neurons.

  16. Common variants near MC4R are associated with fat mass, weight and risk of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Ruth J F; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Li, Shengxu; Wheeler, Eleanor; Zhao, Jing Hua; Prokopenko, Inga; Inouye, Michael; Freathy, Rachel M; Attwood, Antony P; Beckmann, Jacques S; Berndt, Sonja I; Jacobs, Kevin B; Chanock, Stephen J; Hayes, Richard B; Bergmann, Sven; Bennett, Amanda J; Bingham, Sheila A; Bochud, Murielle; Brown, Morris; Cauchi, Stéphane; Connell, John M; Cooper, Cyrus; Smith, George Davey; Day, Ian; Dina, Christian; De, Subhajyoti; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T; Doney, Alex S F; Elliott, Katherine S; Elliott, Paul; Evans, David M; Sadaf Farooqi, I; Froguel, Philippe; Ghori, Jilur; Groves, Christopher J; Gwilliam, Rhian; Hadley, David; Hall, Alistair S; Hattersley, Andrew T; Hebebrand, Johannes; Heid, Iris M; Lamina, Claudia; Gieger, Christian; Illig, Thomas; Meitinger, Thomas; Wichmann, H-Erich; Herrera, Blanca; Hinney, Anke; Hunt, Sarah E; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Johnson, Toby; Jolley, Jennifer D M; Karpe, Fredrik; Keniry, Andrew; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Luben, Robert N; Mangino, Massimo; Marchini, Jonathan; McArdle, Wendy L; McGinnis, Ralph; Meyre, David; Munroe, Patricia B; Morris, Andrew D; Ness, Andrew R; Neville, Matthew J; Nica, Alexandra C; Ong, Ken K; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Owen, Katharine R; Palmer, Colin N A; Papadakis, Konstantinos; Potter, Simon; Pouta, Anneli; Qi, Lu; Randall, Joshua C; Rayner, Nigel W; Ring, Susan M; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Scherag, André; Sims, Matthew A; Song, Kijoung; Soranzo, Nicole; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Syddall, Holly E; Teichmann, Sarah A; Timpson, Nicholas J; Tobias, Jonathan H; Uda, Manuela; Vogel, Carla I Ganz; Wallace, Chris; Waterworth, Dawn M; Weedon, Michael N; Willer, Cristen J; Wraight; Yuan, Xin; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Strachan, David P; Ouwehand, Willem H; Caulfield, Mark J; Samani, Nilesh J; Frayling, Timothy M; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Mooser, Vincent; Deloukas, Panos; McCarthy, Mark I; Wareham, Nicholas J; Barroso, Inês; Jacobs, Kevin B; Chanock, Stephen J; Hayes, Richard B; Lamina, Claudia; Gieger, Christian; Illig, Thomas; Meitinger, Thomas; Wichmann, H-Erich; Kraft, Peter; Hankinson, Susan E; Hunter, David J; Hu, Frank B; Lyon, Helen N; Voight, Benjamin F; Ridderstrale, Martin; Groop, Leif; Scheet, Paul; Sanna, Serena; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Albai, Giuseppe; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Schlessinger, David; Jackson, Anne U; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Collins, Francis S; Boehnke, Michael; Mohlke, Karen L

    2008-06-01

    To identify common variants influencing body mass index (BMI), we analyzed genome-wide association data from 16,876 individuals of European descent. After previously reported variants in FTO, the strongest association signal (rs17782313, P = 2.9 x 10(-6)) mapped 188 kb downstream of MC4R (melanocortin-4 receptor), mutations of which are the leading cause of monogenic severe childhood-onset obesity. We confirmed the BMI association in 60,352 adults (per-allele effect = 0.05 Z-score units; P = 2.8 x 10(-15)) and 5,988 children aged 7-11 (0.13 Z-score units; P = 1.5 x 10(-8)). In case-control analyses (n = 10,583), the odds for severe childhood obesity reached 1.30 (P = 8.0 x 10(-11)). Furthermore, we observed overtransmission of the risk allele to obese offspring in 660 families (P (pedigree disequilibrium test average; PDT-avg) = 2.4 x 10(-4)). The SNP location and patterns of phenotypic associations are consistent with effects mediated through altered MC4R function. Our findings establish that common variants near MC4R influence fat mass, weight and obesity risk at the population level and reinforce the need for large-scale data integration to identify variants influencing continuous biomedical traits.

  17. Common variants near MC4R are associated with fat mass, weight and risk of obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Ruth J F; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Li, Shengxu; Wheeler, Eleanor; Zhao, Jing Hua; Prokopenko, Inga; Inouye, Michael; Freathy, Rachel M; Attwood, Antony P; Beckmann, Jacques S; Berndt, Sonja I; Bergmann, Sven; Bennett, Amanda J; Bingham, Sheila A; Bochud, Murielle; Brown, Morris; Cauchi, Stéphane; Connell, John M; Cooper, Cyrus; Smith, George Davey; Day, Ian; Dina, Christian; De, Subhajyoti; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T; Doney, Alex S F; Elliott, Katherine S; Elliott, Paul; Evans, David M; Farooqi, I Sadaf; Froguel, Philippe; Ghori, Jilur; Groves, Christopher J; Gwilliam, Rhian; Hadley, David; Hall, Alistair S; Hattersley, Andrew T; Hebebrand, Johannes; Heid, Iris M; Herrera, Blanca; Hinney, Anke; Hunt, Sarah E; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Johnson, Toby; Jolley, Jennifer D M; Karpe, Fredrik; Keniry, Andrew; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Luben, Robert N; Mangino, Massimo; Marchini, Jonathan; McArdle, Wendy L; McGinnis, Ralph; Meyre, David; Munroe, Patricia B; Morris, Andrew D; Ness, Andrew R; Neville, Matthew J; Nica, Alexandra C; Ong, Ken K; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Owen, Katharine R; Palmer, Colin N A; Papadakis, Konstantinos; Potter, Simon; Pouta, Anneli; Qi, Lu; Randall, Joshua C; Rayner, Nigel W; Ring, Susan M; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Scherag, André; Sims, Matthew A; Song, Kijoung; Soranzo, Nicole; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Syddall, Holly E; Teichmann, Sarah A; Timpson, Nicholas J; Tobias, Jonathan H; Uda, Manuela; Vogel, Carla I Ganz; Wallace, Chris; Waterworth, Dawn M; Weedon, Michael N; Willer, Cristen J; Wraight, Vicki L; Yuan, Xin; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Strachan, David P; Ouwehand, Willem H; Caulfield, Mark J; Samani, Nilesh J; Frayling, Timothy M; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Mooser, Vincent; Deloukas, Panos; McCarthy, Mark I; Wareham, Nicholas J; Barroso, Inês; Jacobs, Kevin B; Chanock, Stephen J; Hayes, Richard B; Lamina, Claudia; Gieger, Christian; Illig, Thomas; Meitinger, Thomas; Wichmann, H-Erich; Kraft, Peter; Hankinson, Susan E; Hunter, David J; Hu, Frank B; Lyon, Helen N; Voight, Benjamin F; Ridderstrale, Martin; Groop, Leif; Scheet, Paul; Sanna, Serena; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Albai, Giuseppe; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Schlessinger, David; Jackson, Anne U; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Collins, Francis S; Boehnke, Michael; Mohlke, Karen L

    2009-01-01

    To identify common variants influencing body mass index (BMI), we analyzed genome-wide association data from 16,876 individuals of European descent. After previously reported variants in FTO, the strongest association signal (rs17782313, P = 2.9 × 10−6) mapped 188 kb downstream of MC4R (melanocortin-4 receptor), mutations of which are the leading cause of monogenic severe childhood-onset obesity. We confirmed the BMI association in 60,352 adults (per-allele effect = 0.05 Z-score units; P = 2.8 × 10−15) and 5,988 children aged 7–11 (0.13 Z-score units; P = 1.5 × 10−8). In case-control analyses (n = 10,583), the odds for severe childhood obesity reached 1.30 (P = 8.0 × 10−11). Furthermore, we observed overtransmission of the risk allele to obese offspring in 660 families (P (pedigree disequilibrium test average; PDT-avg) = 2.4 × 10−4). The SNP location and patterns of phenotypic associations are consistent with effects mediated through altered MC4R function. Our findings establish that common variants near MC4R influence fat mass, weight and obesity risk at the population level and reinforce the need for large-scale data integration to identify variants influencing continuous biomedical traits. PMID:18454148

  18. The Demethylase Activity of FTO (Fat Mass and Obesity Associated Protein Is Required for Preadipocyte Differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meizi Zhang

    Full Text Available FTO (fat mass and obesity associated gene was genetically identified to be associated with body mass index (BMI, presumably through functional regulation of energy homeostasis. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which FTO functions remain largely unknown. Using 3T3-L1 preadipocyte as a model to study the role of FTO in adipogenesis, we demonstrated that FTO is functionally required for 3T3-L1 differentiation. FTO knock-down with siRNA inhibited preadipocyte differentiation, whereas ectopic over-expression of FTO enhanced the process. The demethylase activity of FTO is required for differentiation. Level of N6-methyladenosine (m6A is decreased in cells over-expressing FTO. In contrast, overexpression of R96Q, a FTO missense mutant lack of demethylase activity, had no effect on cellular m6A level and impeded differentiation. Treatment with Rosiglitazone, a PPARγ agonist, could overcome the differentiation inhibition imposed by R96Q mutant, suggesting the effect of FTO is mediated through PPARγ.

  19. Muscle mass, muscle strength, and muscle fat infiltration as predictors of incident mobility limitations in well-functioning older persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.; Goodpaster, B.H.; Kritchevsky, S.B.; Newman, A.B.; Nevitt, M.C.; Rubin, S.M.; Simonsick, E.M.; Harris, T.B.

    2005-01-01

    .05). Among men and women, associations were similar for blacks and whites. CONCLUSION: Lower muscle mass (smaller cross-sectional thigh muscle area), greater fat infiltration into the muscle, and lower knee extensor muscle strength are associated with increased risk of mobility loss in older men

  20. The paradox of low body mass index and high body fat percentage among Chinese, Malays and Indians in Singapore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg-Yap, M.; Schmidt, G.; Staveren, van W.A.; Deurenberg, P.

    2000-01-01

    To study the relationship between body fat percentage and body mass index (BMI) in three different ethnic groups in Singapore (Chinese, Malays and Indians) in order to evaluate the validity of the BMI cut-off points for obesity. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS: Two-hundred and ninety-one sub

  1. Obesity classification in military personnel: A comparison of body fat, waist circumference, and body mass index measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate obesity classifications from body fat percentage (BF%), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). A total of 451 overweight/obese active duty military personnel completed all three assessments. Most were obese (men, 81%; women, 98%) using National...

  2. Muscle mass, muscle strength, and muscle fat infiltration as predictors of incident mobility limitations in well-functioning older persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.; Goodpaster, B.H.; Kritchevsky, S.B.; Newman, A.B.; Nevitt, M.C.; Rubin, S.M.; Simonsick, E.M.; Harris, T.B.

    2005-01-01

    .05). Among men and women, associations were similar for blacks and whites. CONCLUSION: Lower muscle mass (smaller cross-sectional thigh muscle area), greater fat infiltration into the muscle, and lower knee extensor muscle strength are associated with increased risk of mobility loss in older men an

  3. Obesity induced by high dietary fat leads to increased bone resorption marker, TRAP, and decreased bone mass in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity, which is growing in prevalence, is a risk factor for such chronic health disorders as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. However, it is thought to be a protective factor for osteoporosis and bone fractures in humans. Accumulating data in humans suggest that fat mass has a negative effect...

  4. The validity of predicted body fat percent from body mass index and from impedance in samples of five European populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg, P.; Andreoli, A.; Borg, P.; Kukkonen-Harjula, K.; Lorenzo, de A.; Marken Lichtenbelt, van W.; Testolin, G.; Vigano, R.; Vollaard, N.

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To test and compare the validity of a body mass index (BMI)-based prediction equation and an impedance-based prediction equation for body fat percentage among various European population groups. Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Settings: The study was performed in five differ

  5. The Relationship between Physical Activity Level, Body Mass Index, and Body Fat Percentages in Urban and Rural Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Özlem

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the physical activity levels, physical activity types, Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) values of elementary school students living in rural and urban. Body height (BH), body weight (BW), BF% and BMI data were measured. Physical activity questionnaire was conducted to determine the…

  6. Asians are different from Caucasians and from each other in their body mass index/body fat per cent relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg, P.; Deurenberg-Yap, M.; Guricci, S.

    2002-01-01

    The objective was to study the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and body fat per cent (BF%) in different population groups of Asians. The study design was a literature overview with special attention to recent Asian data. Specific information is provided on Indonesians (Malays and Chinese

  7. Association Between MCT1 A1470T Polymorphism and Fat-Free Mass in Well-Trained Young Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massidda, Myosotis; Eynon, Nir; Bachis, Valeria; Corrias, Laura; Culigioni, Claudia; Cugia, Paolo; Scorcu, Marco; Calò, Carla M

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the MCT1 A1470T polymorphism and fat-free mass in young Italian elite soccer players. Participants were 128 Italian male soccer players. Fat-free mass was estimated for each of the soccer player using age- and gender-specific formulas with plicometry. Genotyping for the MCT1 A1470T polymorphism was performed using polymerase chain reaction. The MCT1 A1470T genotypes were in agreement with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium distribution. The percentage of fat-free mass was significantly higher in soccer players with the TT genotype and in the T-allele-dominant model group (TT + AT) compared with the soccer players with the AA genotype. The MCT1 T allele is associated with the percentage of fat-free mass in young elite male soccer players. Elucidating the genetic basis of body composition in athletes could potentially be used as an additional tool for strength and conditioning professionals in planning and adjusting training. However, these results are preliminary and need to be replicated in more cohorts.

  8. The Relationship between Physical Activity Level, Body Mass Index, and Body Fat Percentages in Urban and Rural Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Özlem

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the physical activity levels, physical activity types, Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) values of elementary school students living in rural and urban. Body height (BH), body weight (BW), BF% and BMI data were measured. Physical activity questionnaire was conducted to determine the…

  9. Asians are different from Caucasians and from each other in their body mass index/body fat per cent relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg, P.; Deurenberg-Yap, M.; Guricci, S.

    2002-01-01

    The objective was to study the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and body fat per cent (BF%) in different population groups of Asians. The study design was a literature overview with special attention to recent Asian data. Specific information is provided on Indonesians (Malays and Chinese

  10. Assessment of relation between neutrophil lympocyte, platelet lympocyte ratios and epicardial fat thickness in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyraz, Ismail; Onur Caglar, Sabri; Erdem, Fatma; Yazici, Mehmet; Yazici, Selma; Koc, Bunyamin; Gunduz, Ramazan; Karakoyun, Ahmet

    2016-02-01

    To investigate whether there is a relation between neutrophillymphocyte (N/L) and platelet- lymphocyte (P/L) ratios and epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) thickness in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Thirty patients diagnosed with ankylosing spondylitis and 25 healthy people (controls) were included in the study. Age, gender, body mass index (BMI), height, hemogram, sedimentation, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, platelet/lymphocyte ratio, CRP, hepatic and renal function tests, lipid profile of the all patients were recorded. Data related to duration of the disease, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI) values of the cases in the patient group were obtained. A cardiologist measured EAT thickness by ECHO in both patient and control groups. In the patient group, mean BASDAI and BASFI scores were 2.48±2.21 and 1.5±2.07, respectively. Age, gender, BMI values did not show statistically significant difference between the patient and the control groups. N/L and P/L ratios did not change significantly in the patient group having higher EAT, BASFI values and taking anti-TNF compared to the control group. In patients with AS, EAT measurements, which are related to inflammatory response increase, can be used for monitoring of the risk of development of cardiac disease. We could not find the relation between EAT and N/L, P/L ratios in terms of evaluation of inflammatory response. Copyright© by the Medical Assotiation of Zenica-Doboj Canton.

  11. Potassium per kilogram fat-free mass and total body potassium: predictions from sex, age, and anthropometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Ingrid; Lindroos, Anna Karin; Peltonen, Markku; Sjöström, Lars

    2003-02-01

    Total body potassium (TBK) is located mainly intracellularly and constitutes an index of fat-free mass (FFM). The aim was to examine whether TBK and the TBK-to-FFM ratio (TBK/FFM) can be estimated from sex, age, weight, and height. A primary study group (164 males, 205 females) and a validation group (161 and 206), aged 37-61 yr, were randomly selected from the general population. TBK was determined by whole body counting, and FFM was obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA; FFM(DEXA)). The primary study group was used to construct sex-specific equations predicting TBK and TBK/FFM from age, weight, and height. The equations were used to estimate TBK and TBK/FFM in the validation group. The estimates were compared with measured values. TBK in different age ranges was predicted, with errors ranging from 5.0 to 6.8%; errors for TBK/FFM ranged from 2.7 to 4.8%, respectively. By adding FFM(DEXA) as a fourth predictor, the error of the TBK prediction decreased by approximately two percentage units. In conclusion, TBK and TBK/FFM can be meaningfully estimated from sex, age, weight, and height.

  12. Association between rs9930506 polymorphism of the fat mass & obesity-associated (FTO) gene & onset of obesity in Polish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzosek, Malgorzata; Zakrzewska, Anna; Ruczko, Lech; Jabłonowska-Lietz, Beata; Nowicka, Grażyna

    2016-03-01

    The fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene is known to be associated with obesity. However, no data are available on the relation between FTO rs9930506 polymorphism and obesity in Polish population. The aim of this study was to evaluate an association between rs9930506 variants of the FTO gene and obesity in Polish adults. The study group consisted of 442 adults, aged 33.9 ±12.7 yr, with mean BMI 27.2 ± 5.4 kg/m2. The following variables were determined for each subject: fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides. Real-time PCR was used to detect the A/G alleles of the rs9939506 polymorphism in the FTO gene. An association between the rs9930506 polymorphism and obesity was determined using codominant, dominant, and recessive models. The odds ratio (OR) was calculated to determine the risk of obesity associated with this polymorphism. It was observed that the presence of FTO rs9939506 G allele was associated with increased risk for obesity and this association was found significant in both recessive (OR = 1.72, P = 0.014) and co-dominant (OR = 1.36, P = 0.031) models of inheritance. The FTO rs9939506 GG homozygotes had a significantly higher BMI than those with other genotypes. This study shows that FTO rs9939506 GG genotype is related to higher BMI and is associated with obesity in Polish adults.

  13. The Relationship of Fat Distribution and Insulin Resistance with Lumbar Spine Bone Mass in Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J A de Paula

    Full Text Available Bone marrow harbors a significant amount of body adipose tissue (BMAT. While BMAT might be a source of energy for bone modeling and remodeling, its increment can also represent impairment of osteoblast differentiation. The relationship between BMAT, bone mass and insulin sensitivity is only partially understood and seems to depend on the circumstances. The present study was designed to assess the association of BMAT with bone mineral density in the lumbar spine as well as with visceral adipose tissue, intrahepatic lipids, HOMA-IR, and serum levels of insulin and glucose. This cross-sectional clinical investigation included 31 non-diabetic women, but 11 had a pre-diabetes status. Dual X-ray energy absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral density and magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess fat deposition in BMAT, visceral adipose tissue and liver. Our results suggest that in non-diabetic, there is an inverse relationship between bone mineral density in lumbar spine and BMAT and a trend persists after adjustment for weight, age, BMI and height. While there is a positive association between visceral adipose tissue and intrahepatic lipids with serum insulin levels, there is no association between BMAT and serum levels of insulin. Conversely, a positive relationship was observed between BMAT and serum glucose levels, whereas this association was not observed with other fat deposits. These relationships did not apply after adjustment for body weight, BMI, height and age. The present study shows that in a group of predominantly non-obese women the association between insulin resistance and BMAT is not an early event, as occurs with visceral adipose tissue and intrahepatic lipids. On the other hand, BMAT has a negative relationship with bone mineral density. Taken together, the results support the view that bone has a complex and non-linear relationship with energy metabolism.

  14. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of fat mass and obesity-associated gene in rabbit

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jinyi Xing; Wenqian Jing; Yunliang Jiang

    2013-12-01

    Fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene codes for a nuclear protein of the AlkB related nonhaem iron and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent oxygenase superfamily, and is involved in animal fat deposition and human obesity. In this work, the molecular characterization and expression features of rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) FTO cDNA were analysed. The rabbit FTO cDNA with a size of 2158 bp was cloned, including 1515 bp of the open reading frame that encoded a basic protein of 504 amino acids. Homologous comparison indicated that the rabbit FTO shared 36.36–91.88% identity with those from other species and phylogenetic analysis showed that the rabbit FTO is closely related to human, but more distantly related to zebrafish. The New Zealand rabbit FTO mRNA was detected in all tissues examined, with the highest levels found in the spleen and the lowest found in the kidney. However, no significant differences were seen in cerebellum, corpora quadrigemina, medulla oblongata and cerebral cortex of commercial adult rabbits. Moreover, mRNA levels of FTO in liver tissues were significantly increased in lactating New Zealand rabbits compared with 70-day-old, 90-day-old and gestating rabbits $(P \\lt 0.05)$. In contrast, FTO mRNA levels were significantly lower in longissimus dorsi muscle of 90-day-old New Zealand rabbits than in 70-day-old rabbits $(P \\lt 0.05)$. However, the expression levels of FTO in mammary gland and ovary of gestating and lactating rabbits were not significantly different $(P \\gt 0.05)$.

  15. The Relationship of Fat Distribution and Insulin Resistance with Lumbar Spine Bone Mass in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Francisco J A; de Araújo, Iana M; Carvalho, Adriana L; Elias, Jorge; Salmon, Carlos E G; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello H

    2015-01-01

    Bone marrow harbors a significant amount of body adipose tissue (BMAT). While BMAT might be a source of energy for bone modeling and remodeling, its increment can also represent impairment of osteoblast differentiation. The relationship between BMAT, bone mass and insulin sensitivity is only partially understood and seems to depend on the circumstances. The present study was designed to assess the association of BMAT with bone mineral density in the lumbar spine as well as with visceral adipose tissue, intrahepatic lipids, HOMA-IR, and serum levels of insulin and glucose. This cross-sectional clinical investigation included 31 non-diabetic women, but 11 had a pre-diabetes status. Dual X-ray energy absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral density and magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess fat deposition in BMAT, visceral adipose tissue and liver. Our results suggest that in non-diabetic, there is an inverse relationship between bone mineral density in lumbar spine and BMAT and a trend persists after adjustment for weight, age, BMI and height. While there is a positive association between visceral adipose tissue and intrahepatic lipids with serum insulin levels, there is no association between BMAT and serum levels of insulin. Conversely, a positive relationship was observed between BMAT and serum glucose levels, whereas this association was not observed with other fat deposits. These relationships did not apply after adjustment for body weight, BMI, height and age. The present study shows that in a group of predominantly non-obese women the association between insulin resistance and BMAT is not an early event, as occurs with visceral adipose tissue and intrahepatic lipids. On the other hand, BMAT has a negative relationship with bone mineral density. Taken together, the results support the view that bone has a complex and non-linear relationship with energy metabolism.

  16. Dissolution is the solution: on the reduced mass-to-light ratios of Galactic globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Kruijssen, J M Diederik

    2009-01-01

    The observed dynamical mass-to-light (M/L) ratios of globular clusters (GCs) are systematically lower than those expected from `canonical' simple stellar population models, which do not account for the preferential loss of low-mass stars due to energy equipartition. It was recently shown that low-mass star depletion can qualitatively explain the M/L discrepancy. To verify whether it is indeed the driving mechanism, we derive dissolution timescales and use these to predict the M/L_V ratios of the 24 Galactic GCs for which orbital parameters and dynamical M/L_V are known. We also predict the slopes of their low-mass stellar mass functions (MFs). We use the SPACE cluster models, which include dynamical dissolution, low-mass star depletion, stellar evolution, stellar remnants and various metallicities. The predicted M/L_V are in 1 sigma agreement with the observations for 12 out of 24 GCs. The discrepancy for the other GCs probably arises because our predictions give global M/L ratios, while the observations repr...

  17. Distribution of fat, non-osseous lean and bone mineral mass in international Rugby Union and Rugby Sevens players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, D G; Pyne, D B; Anson, J M; Dziedzic, C E; Slater, G J

    2014-06-01

    Differences in the body composition of international Rugby Union and Rugby Sevens players, and between players of different positions are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in the quantity and regional distribution of fat, non-osseous lean and bone mineral mass between playing units in Rugby Union and Rugby Sevens. Male Rugby Union (n=21 forwards, 17 backs) and Rugby Sevens (n=11 forwards, 16 backs) players from the Australian national squads were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The digital image of each player was partitioned into anatomical regions including the arms, legs, trunk, and android and gynoid regions. Compared with backs, forwards in each squad were heavier and exhibited higher absolute regional fat (Union 43-67%; ±~17%, range of % differences; ±~95% confidence limits (CL); Sevens 20-26%; ±~29%), non-osseous lean (Union 14-22%; ±~5.8%; Sevens 6.9-8.4%; ±~6.6%) and bone mineral (Union 12-26%; ±~7.2%; Sevens 5.0-11%; ±~7.2%) mass. When tissue mass was expressed relative to regional mass, differences between Rugby Sevens forwards and backs were mostly unclear. Rugby Union forwards had higher relative fat mass (1.7-4.7%; ±~1.9%, range of differences; ±~95% CL) and lower relative non-osseous lean mass (-4.2 to -1.8%; ±~1.8%) than backs in all body regions. Competing in Rugby Union or Rugby Sevens characterized the distribution of fat and non-osseous lean mass to a greater extent than a player's positional group, whereas the distribution of bone mineral mass was associated more with a player's position. Differences in the quantity and distribution of tissues appear to be related to positional roles and specific demands of competition in Rugby Union and Rugby Sevens.

  18. Body mass index, general fatness, lipid profile and bone mineral density in young women and men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopiczko Anna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The bone tissue is metabolically active. Throughout the entire life, it undergoes changes in the form of bone resorption processes which are successive, with the participation of the resorbing cells and bone formation processes. The aim of the study was to evaluate mineral density and bone mass tissue and the lipid profile, BMI, total body fat in young females and males. The study involved 100 people (50 females and 50 males studying in Warsaw at the age of 23,2 ± 4,0 years. The densitometry method of the forearm was used for the assessment of bone mineral density (BMD and bone mass (BMC. The method of bioelectrical impedance was used for the assessment of body components. Basic body dimensions and indicators were assessed using anthropometric measurements. Body height, body mass and the needs for the densitometry study of the forearm were measured. The total cholesterol concentration was determined in the blood serum using diagnostic kits, as well as high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C and triglycerides. The concentration of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C was calculated. While in men the occurrence of a significant, positive correlation was stated between the concentration of the HDL cholesterol fraction and the mineral density and T-score index in the ultra-distal point, the analysis of the compounds of mineral density (BMD, bone mass (BMC of the forearm, T-score index with somatic features in women showed a significant, positive relation between the body weight and the bone mass mineral density and T-score indicator in the proximal point. Also, a significant weak, positive correlation was observed between the BMI, the mineral density and T-score indicator in the proximal point. In men, the occurrence of significant, positive correlations was stated between the body weight and BMC, BMD, T-score indicator in the proximal point of the forearm bone and ultra-distal point. Similar relations were observed between the BMI, mineral density, T

  19. Effects of gender, age, and body mass index on fat contents and apparent diffusion coefficients in healthy parotid glands: an MRI evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Hing-Chiu [National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, Taipei (China); Duke University Medical Center, Brain Imaging and Analysis Center, Durham, NC (United States); GE Healthcare, Applied Science Laboratory, Taipei (China); Juan, Chun-Jung; Hsu, Hsian-He [National Defense Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China); Tri-Service General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China); Chiu, Hui-Chu [Tatung University, Graduate Institute of Design Science, Taipei (China); Cheng, Cheng-Chieh; Chiu, Su-Chin [National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, Taipei (China); Liu, Yi-Jui [Feng Chia University, Department of Automatic Control Engineering, Taichung (China); Chung, Hsiao-Wen [National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, Taipei (China); Tri-Service General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University, MD.624, Department of Electrical Engineering, Taipei (China)

    2014-09-15

    To establish standard apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and the fat content as a function of age, gender and body mass index (BMI) in healthy parotid glands, and to address the influences of fat suppression on ADC measurements. A total of 100 healthy adults (gender and age evenly distributed) were prospectively recruited, with parotid fat content measured from gradient-echo images with fat-water separated using iterative decomposition with echo asymmetry and least squares (IDEAL). The ADCs were estimated using both fat-saturated and non-fat-saturated diffusion-weighted imaging via a periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction (PROPELLER) technique. Parotid fat content was larger in men than in women by about 10 percentage points (P < 0.005), and positively associated with BMI and age for both genders (mostly with P < 0.001). ADCs estimated with non-fat-saturated PROPELLER were significantly lower in men than in women (P < 0.005), but showed no gender difference if measured using fat-saturated PROPELLER (P = 0.840). The negative association between parotid ADC and age/BMI/fat (P < 0.001) showed greater regression slopes in non-fat-saturated PROPELLER than in fat-saturated data. Parotid fat content in healthy adults correlates positively with both age and BMI; the correlation with age is gender-dependent. Parotid ADC measurements are strongly influenced by fat saturation. (orig.)

  20. Clinical review: Regulation of food intake, energy balance, and body fat mass: implications for the pathogenesis and treatment of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyenet, Stephan J; Schwartz, Michael W

    2012-03-01

    Obesity has emerged as one of the leading medical challenges of the 21st century. The resistance of this disorder to effective, long-term treatment can be traced to the fact that body fat stores are subject to homeostatic regulation in obese individuals, just as in lean individuals. Because the growing obesity epidemic is linked to a substantial increase in daily energy intake, a key priority is to delineate how mechanisms governing food intake and body fat content are altered in an obesogenic environment. We considered all relevant published research and cited references that represented the highest quality evidence available. Where space permitted, primary references were cited. The increase of energy intake that has fueled the U.S. obesity epidemic is linked to greater availability of highly rewarding/palatable and energy-dense food. Obesity occurs in genetically susceptible individuals and involves the biological defense of an elevated body fat mass, which may result in part from interactions between brain reward and homeostatic circuits. Inflammatory signaling, accumulation of lipid metabolites, or other mechanisms that impair hypothalamic neurons may also contribute to the development of obesity and offer a plausible mechanism to explain the biological defense of elevated body fat mass. Despite steady research progress, mechanisms underlying the resistance to fat loss once obesity is established remain incompletely understood. Breakthroughs in this area may be required for the development of effective new obesity prevention and treatment strategies.

  1. Regulation of Food Intake, Energy Balance, and Body Fat Mass: Implications for the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyenet, Stephan J.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Obesity has emerged as one of the leading medical challenges of the 21st century. The resistance of this disorder to effective, long-term treatment can be traced to the fact that body fat stores are subject to homeostatic regulation in obese individuals, just as in lean individuals. Because the growing obesity epidemic is linked to a substantial increase in daily energy intake, a key priority is to delineate how mechanisms governing food intake and body fat content are altered in an obesogenic environment. Evidence Acquisition: We considered all relevant published research and cited references that represented the highest quality evidence available. Where space permitted, primary references were cited. Evidence Synthesis: The increase of energy intake that has fueled the U.S. obesity epidemic is linked to greater availability of highly rewarding/palatable and energy-dense food. Obesity occurs in genetically susceptible individuals and involves the biological defense of an elevated body fat mass, which may result in part from interactions between brain reward and homeostatic circuits. Inflammatory signaling, accumulation of lipid metabolites, or other mechanisms that impair hypothalamic neurons may also contribute to the development of obesity and offer a plausible mechanism to explain the biological defense of elevated body fat mass. Conclusions: Despite steady research progress, mechanisms underlying the resistance to fat loss once obesity is established remain incompletely understood. Breakthroughs in this area may be required for the development of effective new obesity prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:22238401

  2. INVESTIGATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP OF THE STATISTICAL MOMENTS OF THE FAT PHASE MASS DISTRIBUTION AND RELAXATION SPECTRA OF DAIRY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Merzlikin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the search for optimal parameter estimation of the parameters of the process of homogenization of dairy products. Provides a theoretical basis for relationship of the relaxation time of the fat globules and attenuation coefficient of ultrasonic oscillations in dairy products. Suggested from the measured acoustic properties of milk to make the calculations of the mass distribution of fat globules. Studies on the proof of this hypothesis. Morphological analysis procedure carried out for homogenized milk samples at different pressures, as well as homogenized. As a result of research obtained distribution histogram of fat globules in dependence on the homogenization pressure. Also performed acoustic studies to obtain the frequency characteristics of loss modulus as a function of homogenization pressure. For further research the choice of method for approximating dependences is obtained using statistical moments of distributions. The parameters for the approximation of the distribution of fat globules and loss modulus versus pressure homogenization were obtained. Was carried out to test the hypothesis on the relationship parameters of approximation of the distribution of the fat globules and loss modulus as a function of pressure homogenization. Correlation analysis showed a clear dependence of the first and second statistical moment distributions of the pressure homogenization. The obtain ed dependence is consistent with the physical meaning of the first two moments of a statistical distribution. Correlation analysis was carried out according to the statistical moments of the distribution of the fat globules from moments of loss modulus. It is concluded that the possibility of ultrasonic testing the degree of homogenization and mass distribution of the fat globules of milk products.

  3. RUNNING 338 KILOMETRES WITHIN FIVE DAYS HAS NO EFFECT ON BODY MASS AND BODY FAT BUT REDUCES SKELETAL MUSCLE MASS - THE ISARRUN 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beat Knechtle

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the change of body composition in ultra- endurance runners during a multi-stage ultra-endurance run, the Isarrun 2006 in Bavaria, Germany, where athletes had to run 338 km within 5 days. Body mass, skin fold thicknesses and circumferences of extremities were measured in 21 well-experienced extreme endurance male runners (mean ± SD, 41.5 ± 6.9 years, 72.6 ± 6.4 kg, 178 ± 5 cm, BMI 23.0 ± 2.0 kg/m2, who finished mainly within the first half of the ranking, in order to calculate skeletal muscle mass and body fat mass to prove changes after the race. Body mass and calculated fat mass did not change significantly (p>0.05, but, calculated skeletal muscle mass decreased significantly (p<0.05 by 0.63 ± 0.79 kg by the end of the race. The most apparent decline (p<0.01 of the calculated skeletal muscle mass was during the first stage, and no changes were observed during the last 4 stages. We conclude, that a multi- stage ultra-endurance run over 338 km within 5 days leads to no changes of body mass or body fat mass, but a statistically significant decrease of skeletal muscle mass of 0.63 ± 0.79 kg by the end of the race in well-trained and well-experienced ultra-endurance runners. The change of skeletal muscle mass has to be evaluated in further studies at ultra-endurance races with suitable methods to detect changes in hydration status and water metabolism

  4. Effect of stocking density and protein/fat ratio of the diet on growth of Dover sole (Solea solea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nizza

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available 250 soles (30g initial weight were randomly placed in 12 experimental tanks at the Discizia’s aquaculture marine station. They were reared at 2 different stocking densities (2.3 and 1.3kg/m2 corresponding to 40% and 25% of the bottom surface area covered by fish and fed on 2 diets with different protein/fat ratio (50% and 54% crude protein and 21% and 18% total lipid, respectively for diets A and B with triplicate tanks per treatment. The trial lasted 120 days. Fish stocked at the lower density resulted in significantly higher weight gain than fish reared at 2.3 kg/m2 (29.0±7.3 g vs 20.3±8.0g; P<0.01 with a specific growth rate (SGR of 0.54±0.09 and 0.42±0.13, respectively. Feed conversion rate (FCR was improved at the lower density (1.8 vs 2.4, P<0.01. The chemical composition of the test diets significantly affected the growth performance of sole. Diet B led to a higher final weight (59.7 vs 50.8g; P<0.01 and better feed utilisation (FCR: 1.8 vs 2.4, P<0.01. These results confirm the necessity to ensure an adequate space for the growing sole and suggest the need for high protein diets to meet sole’s requirements.

  5. Importance of Android/Gynoid Fat Ratio in Predicting Metabolic and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Normal Weight as well as Overweight and Obese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regier, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that android or truncal obesity is associated with a risk for metabolic and cardiovascular disease, yet there is evidence that gynoid fat distribution may be protective. However, these studies have focused on adults and obese children. The purpose of our study was to determine if the android/gynoid fat ratio is positively correlated with insulin resistance, HOMA2-IR, and dislipidemia in a child sample of varying body sizes. In 7–13-year-old children with BMI percentiles ranging from 0.1 to 99.6, the android/gynoid ratio was closely associated with insulin resistance and combined LDL + VLDL-cholesterol. When separated by sex, it became clear that these relationships were stronger in boys than in girls. Subjects were stratified into BMI percentile based tertiles. For boys, the android/gynoid ratio was significantly related to insulin resistance regardless of BMI tertile with and LDL + VLDL in tertiles 1 and 3. For girls, only LDL + VLDL showed any significance with android/gynoid ratio and only in tertile 2. We conclude that the android/gynoid fat ratio is closely associated with insulin resistance and LDL + VLDL-, “bad,” cholesterol in normal weight boys and may provide a measurement of metabolic and cardiovascular disease risk in that population. PMID:25302115

  6. Importance of android/gynoid fat ratio in predicting metabolic and cardiovascular disease risk in normal weight as well as overweight and obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsell, Lennie; Regier, Michael; Walton, Cheryl; Cottrell, Lesley

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that android or truncal obesity is associated with a risk for metabolic and cardiovascular disease, yet there is evidence that gynoid fat distribution may be protective. However, these studies have focused on adults and obese children. The purpose of our study was to determine if the android/gynoid fat ratio is positively correlated with insulin resistance, HOMA2-IR, and dislipidemia in a child sample of varying body sizes. In 7-13-year-old children with BMI percentiles ranging from 0.1 to 99.6, the android/gynoid ratio was closely associated with insulin resistance and combined LDL + VLDL-cholesterol. When separated by sex, it became clear that these relationships were stronger in boys than in girls. Subjects were stratified into BMI percentile based tertiles. For boys, the android/gynoid ratio was significantly related to insulin resistance regardless of BMI tertile with and LDL + VLDL in tertiles 1 and 3. For girls, only LDL + VLDL showed any significance with android/gynoid ratio and only in tertile 2. We conclude that the android/gynoid fat ratio is closely associated with insulin resistance and LDL + VLDL-, "bad," cholesterol in normal weight boys and may provide a measurement of metabolic and cardiovascular disease risk in that population.

  7. Body fat mass and the proportion of very large adipocytes in pregnant women are associated with gestational insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, H; Wetterling, L; Bosaeus, M; Odén, B; Odén, A; Jennische, E; Edén, S; Holmäng, A; Lönn, M

    2016-04-01

    Pregnancy is accompanied by fat gain and insulin resistance. Changes in adipose tissue morphology and function during pregnancy and factors contributing to gestational insulin resistance are incompletely known. We sought to characterize adipose tissue in trimesters 1 and 3 (T1/T3) in normal weight (NW) and obese pregnant women, and identify adipose tissue-related factors associated with gestational insulin resistance. Twenty-two NW and 11 obese women were recruited early in pregnancy for the Pregnancy Obesity Nutrition and Child Health study. Examinations and sampling of blood and abdominal adipose tissue were performed longitudinally in T1/T3 to determine fat mass (air-displacement plethysmography); insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, HOMA-IR); size, number and lipolytic activity of adipocytes; and adipokine release and density of immune cells and blood vessels in adipose tissue. Fat mass and HOMA-IR increased similarly between T1 and T3 in the groups; all remained normoglycemic. Adipocyte size increased in NW women. Adipocyte number was not influenced, but proportions of small and large adipocytes changed oppositely in the groups. Lipolytic activity and circulating adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein increased in both groups. Adiponectin release was reduced in NW women. Fat mass and the proportion of very large adipocytes were most strongly associated with T3 HOMA-IR by multivariable linear regression (R(2)=0.751, Pchange comprehensively. NW women accumulated fat in existing adipocytes, accompanied by reduced adiponectin release. In comparison with the NW group, obese women had signs of adipocyte recruitment and maintained adiponectin levels. Body fat and large adipocytes may contribute significantly to gestational insulin resistance.

  8. On the electron to proton mass ratio and the proton structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinhammer, Ole L.

    2013-01-01

    We derive an expression for the electron to nucleon mass ratio from a reinterpreted lattice gauge theory Hamiltonian to describe interior baryon dynamics. We use the classical electron radius as our fundamental length scale. Based on expansions on trigonometric Slater determinants for a neutral s...... and d valence quarks of the proton....

  9. Keck telescope constraint on cosmological variation of the proton-to-electron mass ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malec, A.L.; Buning, R.; Murphy, M.T.; Milutinovic, N.; Ellison, S.L.; Prochaska, J.X.; Kaper, L.; Tumlinson, J.; Carswell, R.F.; Ubachs, W.

    2010-01-01

    Molecular transitions recently discovered at redshift z(abs) = 2.059 towards the bright background quasar J2123-0050 are analysed to limit cosmological variation in the proton-to-electron mass ratio, mu equivalent to m(p)/m(e). Observed with the Keck telescope, the optical echelle spectrum has the h

  10. Waist-to-Height Ratio and Body Mass Index as Indicators of Cardiovascular Risk in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, Daniel J.; Caputo, Jennifer L.; Tseh, Wayland

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this investigation was to determine if waist-to-height ratio (WHTR) or body mass index (BMI) is the better indicator of cardiovascular disease risk in children and adolescents of varying ages. Methods: Data from children and adolescents (N?=?2300) who were part of the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination…

  11. Single Colour Diagnostics of the Mass-to-light Ratio: Predictions from Galaxy Formation Models

    CERN Document Server

    Wilkins, Stephen M; Baugh, Carlton M; Lacey, Cedric G; Zuntz, Joe

    2013-01-01

    Accurate galaxy stellar masses are crucial to better understand the physical mechanisms driving the galaxy formation process. We use synthetic star formation and metal enrichment histories predicted by the {\\sc galform} galaxy formation model to investigate the precision with which various colours $(m_{a}-m_{b})$ can alone be used as diagnostics of the stellar mass-to-light ratio. As an example, we find that, at $z=0$, the {\\em intrinsic} (B$_{f435w}-$V$_{f606w}$) colour can be used to determine the intrinsic rest-frame $V$-band stellar mass-to-light ratio ($\\log_{10}\\Gamma_{V}=\\log_{10}[(M/M_{\\odot})/(L_{V}/L_{V\\odot})]$) with a precision of $\\sigma_{lg\\Gamma}\\simeq 0.06$ when the initial mass function and redshift are known beforehand. While the presence of dust, assuming a universal attenuation curve, can have a systematic effect on the inferred mass-to-light ratio using a single-colour relation, this is typically small as it is often possible to choose a colour for which the dust reddening vector is appro...

  12. Obesity Index That Better Predict Metabolic Syndrome: Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, Waist Hip Ratio, or Waist Height Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulbari Bener

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim was to compare body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist hip ratio (WHR, and waist height ratio (WHtR to identify the best predictor of metabolic syndrome (MetS among Qatari adult population. Methods. A cross-sectional survey from April 2011 to December 2012. Data was collected from 1552 participants followed by blood sampling. MetS was defined according to Third Adult Treatment Panel (ATPIII and International Diabetes Federation (IDF. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve analysis was performed. Results. Among men, WC followed by WHR and WHtR yielded the highest area under the curve (AUC (0.78; 95% CI 0.74–0.82 and 0.75; 95% CI 0.71–0.79, resp.. Among women, WC followed by WHtR yielded the highest AUC (0.81; 95% CI 0.78–0.85 & 0.79; 95% CI 0.76–0.83, resp.. Among men, WC at a cut-off 99.5 cm resulted in the highest Youden index with sensitivity 81.6% and 63.9% specificity. Among women, WC at a cut-off 91 cm resulted in the highest Youden index with the corresponding sensitivity and specificity of 86.5% and 64.7%, respectively. BMI had the lowest sensitivity and specificity in both genders. Conclusion. WC at cut-off 99.5 cm in men and 91 cm in women was the best predictor of MetS in Qatar.

  13. Mid-Infrared Selected Quasars I: Virial Black Hole Mass and Eddington Ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, Y Sophia; Bergeron, Jacqueline; Fazio, Giovanni G; Huang, Jia-Sheng; Wilkes, Belinda J; Willmer, Christopher N A; Omont, Alain; Papovich, Casey

    2014-01-01

    We provide a catalog of 391 mid-infrared-selected (MIR, 24$\\mu$m) broad-emission-line (BEL, type 1) quasars in the 22 deg$^2$ SWIRE Lockman Hole field. This quasar sample is selected in the MIR from Spitzer MIPS with $S_{\\rm 24} > 400\\mu$Jy, jointly with an optical magnitude limit of r (AB) $ 19.1$. We then investigate the continuum luminosity and line profiles of these MIR quasars, and estimate their virial black hole masses and the Eddington ratios. The SMBH mass shows evidence of downsizing, though the Eddington ratios remain constant at $1 < z < 4$. Compared to point sources in the same redshift range, extended sources at $z < 1$ show systematically lower Eddington ratios. The catalog and spectra are publicly available online.

  14. Prediction of fat-free mass and percentage of body fat in neonates using bioelectrical impedance analysis and anthropometric measures: validation against the PEA POD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingwood, Barbara E; Storm van Leeuwen, Anne-Martine; Carberry, Angela E; Fitzgerald, Erin C; Callaway, Leonie K; Colditz, Paul B; Ward, Leigh C

    2012-05-01

    Accurate assessment of neonatal body composition is essential to studies investigating neonatal nutrition or developmental origins of obesity. Bioelectrical impedance analysis or bioimpedance analysis is inexpensive, non-invasive and portable, and is widely used in adults for the assessment of body composition. There are currently no prediction algorithms using bioimpedance analysis in neonates that have been directly validated against measurements of fat-free mass (FFM). The aim of the study was to evaluate the use of bioimpedance analysis for the estimation of FFM and percentage of body fat over the first 4 months of life in healthy infants born at term, and to compare these with estimations based on anthropometric measurements (weight and length) and with skinfolds. The present study was an observational study in seventy-seven infants. Body fat content of infants was assessed at birth, 6 weeks, 3 and 4·5 months of age by air displacement plethysmography, using the PEA POD body composition system. Bioimpedance analysis was performed at the same time and the data were used to develop and test prediction equations for FFM. The combination of weight+sex+length predicted FFM, with a bias of < 100 g and limits of agreement of 6-13 %. Before 3 months of age, bioimpedance analysis did not improve the prediction of FFM or body fat. At 3 and 4·5 months, the inclusion of impedance in prediction algorithms resulted in small improvements in prediction of FFM, reducing the bias to < 50 g and limits of agreement to < 9 %. Skinfold measurements performed poorly at all ages.

  15. Fat mass and obesity-associated gene rs11642015 polymorphism is significantly associated with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes subsequent to adjustment for body mass index

    Science.gov (United States)

    HAN, LIYUAN; TANG, LINLIN; WANG, CHANGYI; CHEN, ZHONGWEI; ZHANG, TAO; CHEN, SIHAN; LIU, SHENGYUAN; PENG, XIAOLIN; MAI, YIFENG; DUAN, SHIWEI

    2014-01-01

    The association of the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) rs11642015 polymorphism with prediabetes, type 2 diabetes and obesity in certain populations has not been previously reported. A population-based study was conducted that included 490 type 2 diabetic, 471 prediabetic and 575 normal subjects. The main outcomes of the study were prediabetes, type 2 diabetes and obesity. Binary logistic regression was performed to estimate the association of FTO rs11642015 with the risk of prediabetes, type 2 diabetes and obesity following adjustment for the corresponding confounders. A meta-analysis was also conducted to evaluate the association between FTO rs11642015 and obesity. FTO rs11642015 was significantly associated with prediabetes in the whole sample under the additive model [odds ratio (OR), 1.50; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.17–1.93; P=0.002], particularly in females. The polymorphism remained consistently significant following adjustment for age and body mass index (BMI), showing an increased prediabetes risk with an additive effect (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.19–2.01; P=0.001). In addition, a significant association was found for rs11642015 with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes under the dominant model. However, under the stringent Bonferroni’s correction there was no evidence of positive associations for FTO rs11642015 with obesity in the whole sample, females or males. Findings of the meta-analysis showed that FTO rs11642015 was not predisposed to obesity. In conclusion, the T allele of FTO rs11642015 is positively associated with an increased risk of prediabetes, even after adjustment for age and BMI, particularly in females. Subjects carrying the CT + TT genotype are predisposed to prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, results of the population-based study and follow-up meta-analysis suggested that FTO rs11642015 is not significantly associated with susceptibility to obesity. PMID:25054011

  16. Spectrum of Fat-containing Soft-Tissue Masses at MR Imaging: The Common, the Uncommon, the Characteristic, and the Sometimes Confusing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pushpender; Potti, Tommy A; Wuertzer, Scott D; Lenchik, Leon; Pacholke, David A

    2016-01-01

    Fat-containing tumors are the most common soft-tissue tumors encountered clinically. The vast majority of fat-containing soft-tissue masses are benign. Lipomas are the most common benign fat-containing masses and demonstrate a characteristic appearance at magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Less common benign soft-tissue masses include lipoblastoma, angiolipoma, spindle cell lipoma/pleomorphic lipoma, myolipoma, chondroid lipoma, lipomatosis of nerve, lipomatosis, hibernoma, and fat necrosis. Well-differentiated liposarcomas (WDLPSs)/atypical lipomatous tumors (ALTs) are locally aggressive soft-tissue masses that do not metastasize. Biologically more aggressive liposarcomas include myxoid, pleomorphic, and dedifferentiated liposarcomas. At MR imaging, lipomas typically resemble subcutaneous fat but may contain a few thin septa. The presence of thick, irregular, enhancing septa and nonfatty soft-tissue mass components suggests liposarcoma rather than lipoma. However, benign lipomatous lesions and WDLPS/ALT often have overlapping MR imaging findings. Distinguishing WDLPS/ALT from a benign lipomatous lesion or from fat necrosis at imaging can be challenging and often requires histologic evaluation. We present the spectrum of fat-containing masses, using the World Health Organization classification of adipocytic tumors, with an emphasis on commonly encountered lesions, characteristic MR imaging findings associated with specific tumors, and overlapping MR imaging findings of certain tumors that may require histologic sampling. We also briefly discuss the role of molecular markers in proper characterization and classification of fat-containing soft-tissue masses. (©)RSNA, 2016.

  17. Weight Loss Programs May Have Beneficial or Adverse Effects on Fat Mass and Insulin Sensitivity in Overweight and Obese Black Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Benjamin; Miller, Bernard V; Zalos, Gloria; Courville, Amber B; Sumner, Anne E; Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M; Walter, Mary F; Waclawiw, Myron A; Cannon, Richard O

    2014-01-01

    Weight loss interventions have produced little change in insulin sensitivity in black women, but mean data may obscure metabolic benefit to some and adverse effects for others. Accordingly, we analyzed insulin sensitivity relative to fat mass change following a weight loss program. Fifty-four black women (BMI range 25.9 to 54.7 kg/m(2)) completed the 6-month program that included nutrition information and worksite exercise facilities. Fat mass was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and insulin sensitivity index (SI) was calculated from an insulin-modified intravenous glucose tolerance test using the minimal model. Baseline SI (range 0.74 to 7.58 l/mU(-1)•min(-1)) was inversely associated with fat mass (r = -0.516, p fat mass (baseline 40.8 ± 12.4 to 39.4 ± 12.6 kg [mean ± SD], P fat mass. SI for the group was unchanged (baseline 3.3 ± 1.7 to 3.2 ± 1.6, P = 0.67). However, the tertile with greatest fat mass loss (-3.6 kg, range -10.7 to -1.7 kg) improved insulin sensitivity (SI +0.3 ± 1.2), whereas the tertile with net fat mass gain (+0.9 kg, range -0.1 to +3.8 kg) had reduced insulin sensitivity (SI -0.7 ± 1.3) from baseline values (P loss program who lose fat mass may have improved insulin sensitivity, but fat mass gain with diminished sensitivity is common. Additional support for participants who fail to achieve fat mass loss early in an intervention may be required for success.

  18. Accuracy of Plantar Electrodes Compared with Hand and Foot Electrodes in Fat-free-mass Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Y. Jaffrin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the measurement of fat-free mass (FFM by bioimpedance using foot-to-foot impedancemeters (FFI with plantar electrodes measuring the foot-to-foot resistance R34 and hand-to-foot medical impedancemeters. FFM measurements were compared with corresponding data using Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Equations giving FFM were established using linear multiple regression on DXA data in a first group of 170 subjects. For validation, these equations were used on a second group of 86 subjects, and FFM were compared with DXA data; no significant difference was observed. The same protocol was repeated, but using electrodes on the right hand and foot in standing position to measure the hand to-foot resistance R13. Mean differences with DXA were higher for R13 than for R34. Effect of electrode size and feet position on resistance was also investigated. R34 decreased when electrode area increased or if feet were moved forward. It decreased if feet were moved backward. A proper configuration of contact electrodes can improve measurement accuracy and reproducibility of FFI.

  19. Validity of Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis to Estimation Fat-Free Mass in the Army Cadets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel D. Langer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA is a fast, practical, non-invasive, and frequently used method for fat-free mass (FFM estimation. The aims of this study were to validate predictive equations of BIA to FFM estimation in Army cadets and to develop and validate a specific BIA equation for this population. Methods: A total of 396 males, Brazilian Army cadets, aged 17–24 years were included. The study used eight published predictive BIA equations, a specific equation in FFM estimation, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA as a reference method. Student’s t-test (for paired sample, linear regression analysis, and Bland–Altman method were used to test the validity of the BIA equations. Results: Predictive BIA equations showed significant differences in FFM compared to DXA (p < 0.05 and large limits of agreement by Bland–Altman. Predictive BIA equations explained 68% to 88% of FFM variance. Specific BIA equations showed no significant differences in FFM, compared to DXA values. Conclusion: Published BIA predictive equations showed poor accuracy in this sample. The specific BIA equations, developed in this study, demonstrated validity for this sample, although should be used with caution in samples with a large range of FFM.

  20. Body mass index versus percentage body fat in Chinese, African-American and Caucasian postmenopausal women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Ai-jun; He Qing; Lin Shou-qing; Tian Jun-ping; Stan He-shka; Jack Wang; Steven Heymsfield; Richard N. Pierson; Dympna Gallagher

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate in postmenopausal women whether the relationship between percentage body fat (PBF) and body mass index (BMI) differs between Asians living in Beijing (BA) and African-Americans (AA), and Caucasians (Ca) living in New York City.Methods: Healthy postmenopausal women (231 BA; 113 AA, 95 Ca), aged 50-80 years, were studied. Weight, height and PBF by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were measured. The relationship between PBF and BMI was assessed by multiple regression analysis. Results: Race, reciprocal of BMI (1/BMI) and the interaction between race and 1/BMI were all significantly (P<0.05) related to PBF in this sample. The slope of the line relating 1/BMI to PBF was different for BA compared to AA (P=0.01) and Ca (P=0.003) while the slopes for AA and Ca were not different (P>0.05). At lower levels of BMI, Asians tended to have higher PBF comparable to AA and Ca, while at BMI >30 BA tended to have less PBF than the other groups. Conclusion: The relation between PBF and BMI in BA postmenopausal women differs from that of AA and Ca women in this sample.

  1. Brief communication: Body mass index, body adiposity index, and percent body fat in Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dapeng; Li, Yonglan; Zheng, Lianbin; Yu, Keli

    2013-10-01

    Human obesity is a growing epidemic throughout the world. Body mass index (BMI) is commonly used as a good indicator of obesity. Body adiposity index (BAI = hip circumference (cm)/stature (m)(1.5) - 18), as a new surrogate measure, has been proposed recently as an alternative to BMI. This study, for the first time, compares BMI and BAI for predicting percent body fat (PBF; estimated from skinfolds) in a sample of 302 Buryat adults (148 men and 154 women) living in China. The BMI and BAI were strongly correlated with PBF in both men and women. The correlation coefficient between BMI and PBF was higher than that between BAI and PBF for both sexes. For the linear regression analysis, BMI better predicted PBF in both men and women; the variation around the regression lines for each sex was greater for BAI comparisons. For the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the area under the ROC curve for BMI was higher than that for BAI for each sex, which suggests that the discriminatory capacity of the BMI is higher than the one of BAI. Taken together, we conclude that BMI is a more reliable indicator of PBF derived from skinfold thickness in adult Buryats. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Selected CNR1 polymorphisms and hyperandrogenemia as well as fat mass and fat distribution in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jędrzejuk, Diana; Laczmański, Lukasz; Kuliczkowska, Justyna; Lenarcik, Agnieszka; Trzmiel-Bira, Anna; Hirnle, Lidia; Dorobisz, Urszula; Milewicz, Andrzej; Lwow, Felicja; Urbanovych, A; Słoka, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system is postulated to play an important role in the etiology of obesity, insulin resistance, fat distribution and metabolic disorders. Insulin resistance associated with abdominal obesity plays a leading role in the etiology of hyperandrogenism and other clinical features of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). A total of 174 women 16-38 years old, diagnosed with PCOS according to the Rotterdam criteria are recruited. Control group consisted of 125 healthy women 18-45 years old. Medical history, physical examination, anthropometric parameters and metabolic parameters were carried out. Six CNR1 gene polymorphisms were diagnosed. We observed a significantly three times higher risk of GG genotype in the polymorphism rs12720071 in women with PCOS versus the control group (p = 0.0344, OR = 3.01). A similar, significant 8-fold higher risk (p = 0.0176, OR = 8.81) was demonstrated for genotype CC polymorphism rs806368 associated with PCOS. We observed a 3.6-fold increased risk of hyperandrogenemia (free androgen index - FAI > 7) in patients with GG genotype in the rs12720071 polymorphism and AA genotype in the polymorphism rs1049353 (OR = 2.7). Our study may indicate a role of the endocannabinoid system in the occurrence of a specific hyperandrogenemia phenotype of PCOS.

  3. ASAS J083241+2332.4: A NEW EXTREME LOW MASS RATIO OVERCONTACT BINARY SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sriram, K.; Malu, S.; Vivekananda Rao, P. [Department of Astronomy, Osmania University, Hyderabad 500007 (India); Choi, C. S., E-mail: astrosriram@yahoo.co.in [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 34055 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    We present the R- and V-band CCD photometry and Hα line studies of an overcontact binary ASAS J083241+2332.4. The light curves exhibit totality along with a trace of the O’Connell effect. The photometric solution indicates that this system falls into the category of extreme low-mass ratio overcontact binaries with a mass ratio, q ∼ 0.06. Although a trace of the O’ Connell effect is observed, constancy of the Hα line along various phases suggest that a relatively higher magnetic activity is needed for it to show a prominent fill-in effect. The study of O–C variations reveals that the period of the binary shows a secular increase at the rate of dP/dt ∼ 0.0765 s years{sup −1}, which is superimposed by a low, but significant, sinusoidal modulation with a period of ∼8.25 years. Assuming that the sinusoidal variation is due to the presence of a third body, orbital elements have been derived. There exist three other similar systems, SX Crv, V857 Her, and E53, which have extremely low mass ratios and we conclude that ASAS J083241+2332.4 resembles SX Crv in many respects. Theoretical studies indicate that at a critical mass ratio range, q{sub critical} = 0.07–0.09, overcontact binaries should merge and form a fast rotating star, but it has been suggested that q{sub critical} can continue to fall up to 0.05 depending on the primary's mass and structure. Moreover, the obtained fill-out factors (50%–70%) indicate that mass loss is considerable and hydrodynamical simulations advocate that mass loss from L{sub 2} is mandatory for a successful merging process. Comprehensively, the results indicate that ASAS J083241+2332.4 is at a stage of merger. The pivotal role played by the subtle nature of the derived mass ratio in forming a rapidly rotating star has been discussed.

  4. Associations of Bone Mineral Density with Lean Mass, Fat Mass, and Dietary Patterns in Postmenopausal Chinese Women: A 2-Year Prospective Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjie Chen

    Full Text Available To assess factors associated with bone mineral density (BMD in postmenopausal women in a longitudinal study, and to examine the relative contribution of lean mass, fat mass, dietary patterns, and years since menopause to BMD.Two hundred and eighty-two postmenopausal women were randomly selected from Hongqi Community Health Center, in Harbin City, China. All participants were followed up from 2009 to 2011. Dietary data were collected using a Food Frequency Questionnaire. BMD of the left hip, the lumbar spine, and the total body, and the body composition were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and follow-up.Lean mass and fat mass were positively associated with BMD of the spine, hip, and the total body at both baseline and follow-up. The association between fat mass and BMD at the spine at baseline (P = 0.210 and at the spine (P = 0.116 and hip (P = 0.073 in the second year was not statistically significant when height was adjusted. Six dietary patterns were identified but only cereal grains-fruits pattern (P = 0.001 in the spine, P = 0.037 in hip and milk-root vegetables pattern (P = 0.010 in hip were associated with BMD of the spine and hip. The linear mixed model of follow-up data showed that lean mass, years since menopause, and age of menophania were the significant determinants of BMD of all sites. Moreover, lean mass was the best determinant of BMD (VIP = 1.936.Lean mass, years since menopause, age of menophania and dietary patterns are the important determinants of BMD of the spine, hip, and the total body. Lean mass is the best determinant of BMD.

  5. Partial inhibition of adipose tissue lipolysis improves glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity without alteration of fat mass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Girousse

    Full Text Available When energy is needed, white adipose tissue (WAT provides fatty acids (FAs for use in peripheral tissues via stimulation of fat cell lipolysis. FAs have been postulated to play a critical role in the development of obesity-induced insulin resistance, a major risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, whether and how chronic inhibition of fat mobilization from WAT modulates insulin sensitivity remains elusive. Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL participates in the breakdown of WAT triacylglycerol into FAs. HSL haploinsufficiency and treatment with a HSL inhibitor resulted in improvement of insulin tolerance without impact on body weight, fat mass, and WAT inflammation in high-fat-diet-fed mice. In vivo palmitate turnover analysis revealed that blunted lipolytic capacity is associated with diminution in FA uptake and storage in peripheral tissues of obese HSL haploinsufficient mice. The reduction in FA turnover was accompanied by an improvement of glucose metabolism with a shift in respiratory quotient, increase of glucose uptake in WAT and skeletal muscle, and enhancement of de novo lipogenesis and insulin signalling in liver. In human adipocytes, HSL gene silencing led to improved insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, resulting in increased de novo lipogenesis and activation of cognate gene expression. In clinical studies, WAT lipolytic rate was positively and negatively correlated with indexes of insulin resistance and WAT de novo lipogenesis gene expression, respectively. In obese individuals, chronic inhibition of lipolysis resulted in induction of WAT de novo lipogenesis gene expression. Thus, reduction in WAT lipolysis reshapes FA fluxes without increase of fat mass and improves glucose metabolism through cell-autonomous induction of fat cell de novo lipogenesis, which contributes to improved insulin sensitivity.

  6. Partial Inhibition of Adipose Tissue Lipolysis Improves Glucose Metabolism and Insulin Sensitivity Without Alteration of Fat Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girousse, Amandine; Tavernier, Geneviève; Valle, Carine; Moro, Cedric; Mejhert, Niklas; Dinel, Anne-Laure; Houssier, Marianne; Roussel, Balbine; Besse-Patin, Aurèle; Combes, Marion; Mir, Lucile; Monbrun, Laurent; Bézaire, Véronic; Prunet-Marcassus, Bénédicte; Waget, Aurélie; Vila, Isabelle; Caspar-Bauguil, Sylvie; Louche, Katie; Marques, Marie-Adeline; Mairal, Aline; Renoud, Marie-Laure; Galitzky, Jean; Holm, Cecilia; Mouisel, Etienne; Thalamas, Claire; Viguerie, Nathalie; Sulpice, Thierry; Burcelin, Rémy; Arner, Peter; Langin, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    When energy is needed, white adipose tissue (WAT) provides fatty acids (FAs) for use in peripheral tissues via stimulation of fat cell lipolysis. FAs have been postulated to play a critical role in the development of obesity-induced insulin resistance, a major risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, whether and how chronic inhibition of fat mobilization from WAT modulates insulin sensitivity remains elusive. Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) participates in the breakdown of WAT triacylglycerol into FAs. HSL haploinsufficiency and treatment with a HSL inhibitor resulted in improvement of insulin tolerance without impact on body weight, fat mass, and WAT inflammation in high-fat-diet–fed mice. In vivo palmitate turnover analysis revealed that blunted lipolytic capacity is associated with diminution in FA uptake and storage in peripheral tissues of obese HSL haploinsufficient mice. The reduction in FA turnover was accompanied by an improvement of glucose metabolism with a shift in respiratory quotient, increase of glucose uptake in WAT and skeletal muscle, and enhancement of de novo lipogenesis and insulin signalling in liver. In human adipocytes, HSL gene silencing led to improved insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, resulting in increased de novo lipogenesis and activation of cognate gene expression. In clinical studies, WAT lipolytic rate was positively and negatively correlated with indexes of insulin resistance and WAT de novo lipogenesis gene expression, respectively. In obese individuals, chronic inhibition of lipolysis resulted in induction of WAT de novo lipogenesis gene expression. Thus, reduction in WAT lipolysis reshapes FA fluxes without increase of fat mass and improves glucose metabolism through cell-autonomous induction of fat cell de novo lipogenesis, which contributes to improved insulin sensitivity. PMID:23431266

  7. Indices of vascular stiffness and wave reflection in relation to body mass index or body fat in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wykretowicz, Andrzej; Adamska, Karolina; Guzik, Przemyslaw; Krauze, Tomasz; Wysocki, Henryk

    2007-10-01

    1. Obesity appears to influence vascular stiffness, an important cardiovascular risk factor. An accurate picture of arterial stiffness may be obtained when a combination of various techniques is used. 2. The purpose of the present study was to assess whether the body mass index (BMI) and body fat content obtained by bioimpedance were of equal value in estimating the influence of body fatness on various indices of vascular stiffness and wave reflection. 3. A total of 175 healthy subjects was studied. Anthropometric measurements and total body bio-impedance analysis were performed to assess fat mass as a proportion of total body composition. Arterial stiffness and wave reflection were assessed using digital volume pulse analysis and tonometric measurement of the wave reflection indices and central haemodynamics. 4. Significant differences in the stiffness index (SI(DVP); P < 0.0001), peripheral augmentation index (pAI(x); P < 0.0001), central augmentation index (cAI(x); P < 0.0001), peripheral pulse pressure (pPP; P = 0.026) and central pulse pressure (cPP; P < 0.0001) were found when the population examined was divided accordingly to tertile of body fat content. However, subdividing various indices of arterial stiffness according to the tertile of BMI did not reveal any significant differences between groups, except for pPP and cPP. 5. Body fat content was significantly correlated with SI(DVP), pAI(x), cAI(x), pPP and cPP. The BMI correlated weakly with SI(DVP), pPP and cPP. 6. In conclusion, the BMI is not very useful in predicting changes in arterial stiffness and wave reflection due to obesity. However, stiffness and wave reflection indices derived from digital volume pulse analysis, the characteristics of radial and aortic pressure waveforms and peripheral and aortic pulse pressure are all related to body fat content, as estimated by bioimpedance.

  8. Partial inhibition of adipose tissue lipolysis improves glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity without alteration of fat mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girousse, Amandine; Tavernier, Geneviève; Valle, Carine; Moro, Cedric; Mejhert, Niklas; Dinel, Anne-Laure; Houssier, Marianne; Roussel, Balbine; Besse-Patin, Aurèle; Combes, Marion; Mir, Lucile; Monbrun, Laurent; Bézaire, Véronic; Prunet-Marcassus, Bénédicte; Waget, Aurélie; Vila, Isabelle; Caspar-Bauguil, Sylvie; Louche, Katie; Marques, Marie-Adeline; Mairal, Aline; Renoud, Marie-Laure; Galitzky, Jean; Holm, Cecilia; Mouisel, Etienne; Thalamas, Claire; Viguerie, Nathalie; Sulpice, Thierry; Burcelin, Rémy; Arner, Peter; Langin, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    When energy is needed, white adipose tissue (WAT) provides fatty acids (FAs) for use in peripheral tissues via stimulation of fat cell lipolysis. FAs have been postulated to play a critical role in the development of obesity-induced insulin resistance, a major risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, whether and how chronic inhibition of fat mobilization from WAT modulates insulin sensitivity remains elusive. Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) participates in the breakdown of WAT triacylglycerol into FAs. HSL haploinsufficiency and treatment with a HSL inhibitor resulted in improvement of insulin tolerance without impact on body weight, fat mass, and WAT inflammation in high-fat-diet-fed mice. In vivo palmitate turnover analysis revealed that blunted lipolytic capacity is associated with diminution in FA uptake and storage in peripheral tissues of obese HSL haploinsufficient mice. The reduction in FA turnover was accompanied by an improvement of glucose metabolism with a shift in respiratory quotient, increase of glucose uptake in WAT and skeletal muscle, and enhancement of de novo lipogenesis and insulin signalling in liver. In human adipocytes, HSL gene silencing led to improved insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, resulting in increased de novo lipogenesis and activation of cognate gene expression. In clinical studies, WAT lipolytic rate was positively and negatively correlated with indexes of insulin resistance and WAT de novo lipogenesis gene expression, respectively. In obese individuals, chronic inhibition of lipolysis resulted in induction of WAT de novo lipogenesis gene expression. Thus, reduction in WAT lipolysis reshapes FA fluxes without increase of fat mass and improves glucose metabolism through cell-autonomous induction of fat cell de novo lipogenesis, which contributes to improved insulin sensitivity.

  9. Development and Deployment of Retrofit PolarisQ Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer for Isotope Ratio Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Cyril V. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Whitten, William B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This report describes Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s (ORNL) FY15 progress in support of National Nuclear Security Administration’s (NNSA) Portable Mass Spectrometer project. A retrofit PolarisQ ion trap mass spectrometer (RPMS) has been assembled from components of two PolarisQ ion trap mass spectrometers used in previous isotope ratio programs. The retrofit mass spectrometer includes a custom Hastelloy vacuum chamber which is about ¼ the size of the standard aluminum vacuum chamber and reduces the instrument weight from the original by nine pounds. In addition, the new vacuum chamber can be independently heated to reduce impurities such as water, which reacts with UF6 to produce HF in the vacuum chamber. The analyzer and all components requiring service are mounted on the chamber lid, facilitating quick and easy replacement of consumable components such as the filament and electron multiplier.

  10. Validating skinfold thickness as a proxy to estimate total body fat in wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica) using the mass of dissected adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittus, Wolfgang P J; Gunathilake, K A Sunil

    2015-06-01

    Skinfold thickness (SFT) has been used often in non-human primates and humans as a proxy to estimate fatness (% body fat). We intended to validate the relation between SFT (in recently deceased specimens) and the mass of adipose tissue as determined from dissection of fresh carcasses of wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica). In adult male and female toque macaques body composition is normally 2% adipose tissue. Calipers for measuring SFT were suitable for measuring only some subcutaneous deposits of adipose tissue but were not suitable for measuring large fat deposits within the body cavity or minor intermuscular ones. The anatomical distribution of 13 different adipose deposits, in different body regions (subcutaneous, intra-abdominal and intermuscular) and their proportional size differences, were consistent in this species (as in other primates), though varying in total mass among individuals. These consistent allometric relationships were fundamental for estimating fatness of different body regions based on SFT. The best fit statistically significant correlations and regressions with the known masses of dissectible adipose tissue were evident between the SFT means of the seven sites measured, as well as with a single point on the abdomen anterior to the umbilicus. SFT related to total fat mass and intra-abdominal fat mass in curvilinear regressions and to subcutaneous fat mass in a linear relationship. To adjust for differences in body size among individuals, and to circumvent intangible variations in total body mass allocated, for example to the gastro-intestinal contents, dissected fat mass was estimated per unit body size (length of crown-rump)(3). SFT had greater coefficients of correlation and regressions with this Fat Mass Index (g/dm(3)) than with Percent Body Fat. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Mass ratio determination from Halpha lines in Black-Hole X-ray transients

    CERN Document Server

    Casares, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    We find that the mass ratio q in quiescent black hole (BH) X-ray transients is tightly correlated with the ratio of the double peak separation (DP) to the full-width-half maximum (FWHM) of the Halpha emission line, log q = -6.88 -23.2 log (DP/FWHM). The correlation is explained through the efficient truncation of the outer disc radius by the 3:1 resonance with the companion star. This is the dominant tidal interaction for extreme mass ratios q=M2/M1<~0.25, the realm of BH (and some neutron star) X-ray transients. Mass ratios can thus be estimated with a typical uncertainty of ~32%, provided that the Halpha profile used to measure DP/FWHM is an orbital phase average. We apply the DP/FWHM-q relation to the three faint BH transients XTE J1650-500, XTE J1859+226 and Swift J1357-0933 and predict q=0.026 (+0.038-0.007), 0.049 (+0.023-0.012) and 0.040 (+0.003-0.005), respectively. This new relation, together with the FWHM-K2 correlation presented in Paper I (casares 2015) allows the extraction of fundamental para...

  12. Associations among eating regulation and body mass index, weight, and body fat in college students: the moderating role of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gropper, Sareen S; Arsiwalla, Dilbur D; Lord, Denali C; Huggins, Kevin W; Simmons, Karla P; Ulrich, Pamela V

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated associations between eating regulation behaviors and body mass index (BMI), weight, and percent body fat in male and female students over the first two years of college. Subjects included 328 college students (215 females and 113 males). Height and weight (via standard techniques), body composition (via bioelectrical impedance analysis), and eating regulation behaviors (using the Regulation of Eating Behavior Scale) were conducted two to three times during both the freshman and sophomore years. Significant associations between eating regulation and BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were shown mostly in females. In females, higher BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat at the end of the second year of college were found in those with low levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and high levels of amotivation, while lower BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were associated with high levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and low levels of amotivation. The findings that specific eating behaviors in females during the first two years of college influence BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat may be useful for inclusion in university programs focused on college student health to help decrease the risk of obesity and disordered eating/eating disorders in female college students.

  13. Thallium-201 uptake ratio correlated with myocardial mass ratio in chronically hypertrophied rat hearts induced by preferential pressure or volume overload

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniguchi, Masashi [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-10-01

    Hemodynamic measurements, left to right myocardial ventricular mass ratio and myocardial thallium-201 ({sup 201}Tl) uptake ratio were measured in 6 normal and the following 30 experimental rats (each group, n=6). Right ventricular (RV) pressure overload (PO) was induced by administration of monocrotaline. RV volume overload (VO) was induced by suturing a pulmonary valve to the pulmonary artery. Biventricular (BV) VO was induced by creation of an aortocaval fistula. Left ventricular (LV) PO was induced by constriction of the ascending aorta and LVVO was induced by destruction of the aortic valves. RV mass to body weight (BW) was significantly increased in RPVO, RVVO and BVVO models compared with the control. LV mass to BW was significantly increased in LVPO, LVVO models. RV peak systolic pressure (PSP) was significantly increased in RVPO, BVVO and LVVO models, and LVPSP was significantly increased in LVPO, BVVO and LVVO models. LV/RV mass ratio was significantly decreased in RVPO, RVVO and BVVO models, and was significantly increased in LVPO and LVVO models. LV/RV myocardial {sup 201}Tl uptake ratio was significantly decreased in RVPO and RVVO models, and was significantly increased in LVPO and LVVO models. Linear regression analysis showed an excellent correlation between LV/RV myocardial {sup 201}Tl uptake ratio and LV/RV mass ratio. Although the presence of significant correlation between LV/RV pressure ratio and LV/RV myocardial {sup 201}Tl uptake ratio was confirmed in PO models, rather poor correlation was observed in VO models. Our results suggest that LV/RV myocardial mass ratio as well as LV/RV pressure ratio can be evaluated by LV/RV myocardial {sup 201}Tl uptake ratio in chronic overload models. (S.Y.).

  14. Changes in ponderal index and body mass index across childhood and their associations with fat mass and cardiovascular risk factors at age 15.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura D Howe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about whether associations between childhood adiposity and later adverse cardiovascular health outcomes are driven by tracking of overweight from childhood to adulthood and/or by vascular and metabolic changes from childhood overweight that persist into adulthood. Our objective is to characterise associations between trajectories of adiposity across childhood and a wide range of cardiovascular risk factors measured in adolescence, and explore the extent to which these are mediated by fat mass at age 15. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, we estimated individual trajectories of ponderal index (PI from 0-2 years and BMI from 2-10 years using random-effects linear spline models (N = 4601. We explored associations between PI/BMI trajectories and DXA-determined total-body fat-mass and cardiovascular risk factors at 15 years (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting LDL- and HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein, glucose, insulin with and without adjustment for confounders. Changes in PI/BMI during all periods of infancy and childhood were associated with greater DXA-determined fat-mass at age 15. BMI changes in childhood, but not PI changes from 0-2 years, were associated with most cardiovascular risk factors in adolescence; associations tended to be strongest for BMI changes in later childhood (ages 8.5-10, and were largely mediated by fat mass at age 15. CONCLUSION: Changes in PI/BMI from 0-10 years were associated with greater fat-mass at age 15. Greater increases in BMI from age 8.5-10 years are most strongly associated with cardiovascular risk factors at age 15, with much of these associations mediated by fat-mass at this age. We found little evidence supporting previous reports that rapid PI changes in infancy are associated with future cardiovascular risk. This study suggests that associations between early overweight and subsequent

  15. Changes in ponderal index and body mass index across childhood and their associations with fat mass and cardiovascular risk factors at age 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Laura D; Tilling, Kate; Benfield, Li; Logue, Jennifer; Sattar, Naveed; Ness, Andy R; Smith, George Davey; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2010-12-08

    Little is known about whether associations between childhood adiposity and later adverse cardiovascular health outcomes are driven by tracking of overweight from childhood to adulthood and/or by vascular and metabolic changes from childhood overweight that persist into adulthood. Our objective is to characterise associations between trajectories of adiposity across childhood and a wide range of cardiovascular risk factors measured in adolescence, and explore the extent to which these are mediated by fat mass at age 15. Using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, we estimated individual trajectories of ponderal index (PI) from 0-2 years and BMI from 2-10 years using random-effects linear spline models (N = 4601). We explored associations between PI/BMI trajectories and DXA-determined total-body fat-mass and cardiovascular risk factors at 15 years (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting LDL- and HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein, glucose, insulin) with and without adjustment for confounders. Changes in PI/BMI during all periods of infancy and childhood were associated with greater DXA-determined fat-mass at age 15. BMI changes in childhood, but not PI changes from 0-2 years, were associated with most cardiovascular risk factors in adolescence; associations tended to be strongest for BMI changes in later childhood (ages 8.5-10), and were largely mediated by fat mass at age 15. Changes in PI/BMI from 0-10 years were associated with greater fat-mass at age 15. Greater increases in BMI from age 8.5-10 years are most strongly associated with cardiovascular risk factors at age 15, with much of these associations mediated by fat-mass at this age. We found little evidence supporting previous reports that rapid PI changes in infancy are associated with future cardiovascular risk. This study suggests that associations between early overweight and subsequent adverse cardiovascular health are largely due to overweight

  16. Isotope ratio analysis of individual sub-micrometer plutonium particles with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esaka, Fumitaka; Magara, Masaaki; Suzuki, Daisuke; Miyamoto, Yutaka; Lee, Chi-Gyu; Kimura, Takaumi

    2010-12-15

    Information on plutonium isotope ratios in individual particles is of great importance for nuclear safeguards, nuclear forensics and so on. Although secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is successfully utilized for the analysis of individual uranium particles, the isobaric interference of americium-241 to plutonium-241 makes difficult to obtain accurate isotope ratios in individual plutonium particles. In the present work, an analytical technique by a combination of chemical separation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is developed and applied to isotope ratio analysis of individual sub-micrometer plutonium particles. The ICP-MS results for individual plutonium particles prepared from a standard reference material (NBL SRM-947) indicate that the use of a desolvation system for sample introduction improves the precision of isotope ratios. In addition, the accuracy of the (241)Pu/(239)Pu isotope ratio is much improved, owing to the chemical separation of plutonium and americium. In conclusion, the performance of the proposed ICP-MS technique is sufficient for the analysis of individual plutonium particles.

  17. The common rs9939609 variant of the fat mass and obesity-associated gene is associated with obesity risk in children and adolescents of Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindpaintner Klaus

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous genome-wide association studies for type 2 diabetes susceptibility genes have confirmed that a common variant, rs9939609, in the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO gene region is associated with body mass index (BMI in European children and adults. A significant association of the same risk allele has been described in Asian adult populations, but the results are conflicting. In addition, no replication studies have been conducted in children and adolescents of Asian ancestry. Methods A population-based survey was carried out among 3503 children and adolescents (6-18 years of age in Beijing, China, including 1229 obese and 2274 non-obese subjects. We investigated the association of rs9939609 with BMI and the risk of obesity. In addition, we tested the association of rs9939609 with weight, height, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, fat mass percentage, birth weight, blood pressure and related metabolic traits. Results We found significant associations of rs9939609 variant with weight, BMI, BMI standard deviation score (BMI-SDS, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, and fat mass percentage in children and adolescents (p for trend = 3.29 × 10-5, 1.39 × 10-6, 3.76 × 10-6, 2.26 × 10-5, 1.94 × 10-5, and 9.75 × 10-5, respectively. No significant associations were detected with height, birth weight, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and related metabolic traits such as total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and fasting plasma glucose (all p > 0.05. Each additional copy of the rs9939609 A allele was associated with a BMI increase of 0.79 [95% Confidence interval (CI 0.47 to 1.10] kg/m2, equivalent to 0.25 (95%CI 0.14 to 0.35 BMI-SDS units. This rs9939609 variant is significantly associated with the risk of obesity under an additive model [Odds ratio (OR = 1.29, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.50] after adjusting for age and gender. Moreover, an interaction between the FTO rs9939609

  18. Relationships between serum omentin-1, body fat mass and bone mineral density in healthy Chinese male adults in Changsha area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X P; Zeng, S; Wang, M; Wu, X P; Liao, E Y

    2014-10-01

    The present study is firstly designed to identify the relationship between serum omentin-1 concentration, body fat mass and bone mineral density in healthy Chinese male adults in Changsha city. A total of 219 (20-80 years old) healthy subjects were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Serum omentin-1, adiponectin, leptin, resistin and bone turn over biochemical markers were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Bone mineral density (BMD) and fat body composition were determined using dual-energy-X-ray absorptiometry. Serum omentin-1 levels in the overweight subjects were significantly lower than those of the subjects with normal weight (p fat body mass (FBM, r = -0.430), fat % (r = -0.408), trunk fat (-0.431). However, after controlling for age, BMI and FBM, no significant correlation was noticed between omentin-1 and BMD at different skeletal sites. Pearson's correlation coefficients and partial correlation coefficients after adjustment showed no significant correlations between omentin-1 and bone turn over biochemical markers, including bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and bone cross-linked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen. Multiple line stepwise regression analysis revealed that FBM, WHR, adiponectin were important variables affecting omentin-1. Moreover, lean tissue mass was the most important factor affecting BMD and explained 10.5-14.7 % of the variance. Omentin-1, leptin and resistin were not the predictors of BMD. Serum omentin-1 was negatively correlated with FBM and BMI in healthy Chinese male adults, It was not significantly correlated with bone turnover biochemical markers. Omentin-1 may exert ambiguous effects on BMD, which maybe caused by the complex interactions among adipokines, hormonal activity, and body composition and bone metabolism.

  19. The relationship of fasting hyperglycemia to changes in fat and muscle mass after exercise training in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalamanchi, Swaytha V; Stewart, Kerry J; Ji, Nan; Golden, Sherita H; Dobs, Adrian; Becker, Diane M; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Kral, Brian G; Kalyani, Rita R

    2016-12-01

    Exercise training (ET) has been variably associated with body composition changes among persons with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The degree to which these changes are related to hyperglycemia remains unclear. Our objective was to investigate the relationship of baseline fasting glucose (FG) to the magnitude of muscle gains and fat loss after ET in individuals with T2DM. Participants were enrolled in the SHAPE-2 trial, a six month supervised aerobic and resistance training intervention (three days/week), at Johns Hopkins. This was a post hoc single arm intervention study of participants who completed the exercise intervention (n=50). Participants were aged 40-65years and had T2DM that was not treated with insulin. Body composition was assessed by DEXA. After 6months of ET, total fat mass decreased (-2.1±3.1kg) and total lean body mass (LBM) increased (0.5±2.0kg) overall, but there was variability among individual participants. There was an increase in % total LBM (1.4±1.9%) and decrease in % total body fat mass (-1.5±2.0%) after ET. Interestingly, each standard deviation (SD) increase in baseline FG (mean=135.5mg/dl; SD=39.0mg/dl) was related to a significant increase in % total LBM (0.54±0.26%, p=0.048) and decrease in % total body fat (-0.57±0.27%, p=0.04) after ET among individual participants. Our data demonstrate that muscle gains and fat loss after ET are positively related to baseline hyperglycemia. Further studies are needed to characterize differences in metabolic response following ET among persons with diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Observing extreme-mass-ratio inspirals with eLISA/NGO

    CERN Document Server

    Gair, Jonathan R

    2012-01-01

    The extreme-mass-ratio inspirals (EMRIs) of stellar mass compact objects into massive black holes in the centres of galaxies are an important source of low-frequency gravitational waves for space-based detectors. We discuss the prospects for detecting these sources with the evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (eLISA), recently proposed as an ESA mission candidate under the name NGO. We show that NGO could observe a few tens of EMRIs over its two year mission lifetime at redshifts z < 0.5 and describe how the event rate changes under possible alternative specifications of the eLISA design.

  1. Comparison of gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry for carbon stable-isotope analysis of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moerdijk-Poortvliet, Tanja C W; Schierbeek, Henk; Houtekamer, Marco; van Engeland, Tom; Derrien, Delphine; Stal, Lucas J; Boschker, Henricus T S

    2015-07-15

    We compared gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS) and liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LC/IRMS) for the measurement of δ(13)C values in carbohydrates. Contrary to GC/IRMS, no derivatisation is needed for LC/IRMS analysis of carbohydrates. Hence, although LC/IRMS is expected to be more accurate and precise, no direct comparison has been reported. GC/IRMS with the aldonitrile penta-acetate (ANPA) derivatisation method was compared with LC/IRMS without derivatisation. A large number of glucose standards and a variety of natural samples were analysed for five neutral carbohydrates at natural abundance as well as at (13)C-enriched levels. Gas chromatography/chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (GC/CIMS) was applied to check for incomplete derivatisation of the carbohydrate, which would impair the accuracy of the GC/IRMS method. The LC/IRMS technique provided excellent precision (±0.08‰ and ±3.1‰ at natural abundance and enrichment levels, respectively) for the glucose standards and this technique proved to be superior to GC/IRMS (±0.62‰ and ±19.8‰ at natural abundance and enrichment levels, respectively). For GC/IRMS measurements the derivatisation correction and the conversion of carbohydrates into CO2 had a considerable effect on the measured δ(13)C values. However, we did not find any significant differences in the accuracy of the two techniques over the full range of natural δ(13)C abundances and (13)C-labelled glucose. The difference in the performance of GC/IRMS and LC/IRMS diminished when the δ(13)C values were measured in natural samples, because the chromatographic performance and background correction became critical factors, particularly for LC/IRMS. The derivatisation of carbohydrates for the GC/IRMS method was complete. Although both LC/IRMS and GC/IRMS are reliable techniques for compound-specific stable carbon isotope analysis of carbohydrates (provided that derivatisation is complete and the

  2. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry as a tool for source inference in forensic science: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Natacha; Siegwolf, Rolf T W; Esseiva, Pierre; Doyle, Sean; Zollinger, Kurt; Delémont, Olivier

    2015-06-01

    Isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) has been used in numerous fields of forensic science in a source inference perspective. This review compiles the studies published on the application of isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) to the traditional fields of forensic science so far. It completes the review of Benson et al. [1] and synthesises the extent of knowledge already gathered in the following fields: illicit drugs, flammable liquids, human provenancing, microtraces, explosives and other specific materials (packaging tapes, safety matches, plastics, etc.). For each field, a discussion assesses the state of science and highlights the relevance of the information in a forensic context. Through the different discussions which mark out the review, the potential and limitations of IRMS, as well as the needs and challenges of future studies are emphasized. The paper elicits the various dimensions of the source which can be obtained from the isotope information and demonstrates the transversal nature of IRMS as a tool for source inference.

  3. Charge-to-mass-ratio-dependent ion heating during magnetic reconnection in the MST RFP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S. T. A.; Almagri, A. F.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Nornberg, M. D.; Sarff, J. S.; Terry, P. W. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Craig, D. [Wheaton College, Wheaton, Illinois 60187 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Temperature evolution during magnetic reconnection has been spectroscopically measured for various ion species in a toroidal magnetized plasma. Measurements are made predominantly in the direction parallel to the equilibrium magnetic field. It is found that the increase in parallel ion temperature during magnetic reconnection events increases with the charge-to-mass ratio of the ion species. This trend can be understood if the heating mechanism is anisotropic, favoring heating in the perpendicular degree of freedom, with collisional relaxation of multiple ion species. The charge-to-mass ratio trend for the parallel temperature derives from collisional isotropization. This result emphasizes that collisional isotropization and energy transfer must be carefully modeled when analyzing ion heating measurements and comparing to theoretical predictions.

  4. Background NO/x/ mixing ratios in air masses over the North Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helas, G.; Warneck, P.

    1981-08-01

    Measurements of nitrogen oxide concentrations in clean air masses over the North Atlantic Ocean are reported. The measurements were performed on the west coast of Ireland using the NO-O3 chemiluminescence technique with NO2 reduced to NO by chemical converters. The average NO2 mixing ratio for a three-week period is found to be 101 + or 87 pptv, with significantly lower values in pure marine air masses. A diurnal variation is also observed in the marine air, with nighttime values of 37 + or - 6 pptv and average values of 87 + or - 47 pptv. Under such conditions, the NO mixing ratio was immeasurably small, while the excess NO(x), i.e. other nitrogen oxides, is also found to be higher during the day compared to nighttime values of about 70 pptv.

  5. Assessment of Non-Traditional Isotopic Ratios by Mass Spectrometry for Analysis of Nuclear Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Assessment of Non-traditional Isotopic Ratios by Mass Spectrometry for Analysis of Nuclear Activities Distribution Statement A. Approved for pubic...12. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...Fahrenheit ( o F) [T( o F) + 459.67]/1.8 kelvin (K) Radiation curie (Ci) [ activity of radionuclides] 3.7 × 10 10 per second (s –1 ) [becquerel (Bq

  6. Comparison of gravimetry and hydrolysis/derivatization/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for quantitative analysis of fat from standard reference infant formula powder using supercritical fluid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf-Khorassani, M; Ude, M; Doane-Weideman, T; Tomczak, J; Taylor, L T

    2002-03-27

    This paper describes a comparative study of the gravimetric versus hydrolysis/derivatization/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination of fat in infant formula. Fat was extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide modified with a small amount of ethanol, the extract was weighed, and the total fat was determined gravimetrically. Subsequently, another sample of the supercritical fluid fat extract was hydrolyzed to yield free fatty acids, which were converted to their methyl ester derivatives (FAMEs). Quantification was performed by GC-MS. NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM-1846) was used to validate both fat determination methods. Results showed that the gravimetric average percent fat was 26.86%, whereas the GC-MS method yielded 24.64%. Some peaks were detected in the ion chromatogram from the GC-MS that were identified as nonfatty acids such as aldehydes, which may account for the higher percentage fat measured as weight of extract rather than measured as FAMEs expressed as triglycerides.

  7. MONDian predictions for Newtonian mass-to-light ratios for ultrafaint dSphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, R. A. M.; Hernandez, X.

    2017-09-01

    Under Newtonian gravity, total masses for dSph galaxies will scale as MT ∝ Reσ2, with Re the effective radius and σ their velocity dispersion. When both of the above quantities are available, the resulting masses are compared to observed stellar luminosities to derive Newtonian mass-to-light ratios (M/L), given a physically motivated proportionality constant in the above expression. For local dSphs and the growing sample of ultrafaint such systems, the above results in the largest (M/L) of any galactic systems known, with values in the hundreds and even thousands being common. The standard interpretation is for a dominant presence of an as yet undetected dark matter component. If, however, reality is closer to a MONDian theory at the extremely low accelerations relevant to such systems, σ will scale with stellar mass M_{*}^{1/4}. This yields an expression for the mass-to-light ratio that will be obtained under Newtonian assumptions of (M/L)N = 120Re(ϒ*/L)1/2. Here, we compare (M/L)N values from this expression to Newtonian inferences for this ratios for the actual (Re, σ, L) observed values for a sample of recently observed ultrafaint dSphs, obtaining good agreement. Then, for systems where no σ values have been reported, we give predictions for the (M/L)N values, which under a MONDian scheme are expected once kinematical observations become available. For the recently studied Dragonfly 44 and Crater II systems, reported (M/L)N values are also in good agreement with MONDian expectations.

  8. The stellar mass to light ratio in the isolated spiral NGC 4414

    CERN Document Server

    Vallejo, O; Baudry, A

    2002-01-01

    We present high resolution CO(1-0) interferometric observations and deep HST B-V-I images of the flocculent isolated Sc type spiral NGC 4414. The goal is to determine the stellar mass-to-light (M/L) ratio in a galactic disk. The stars are seen without a dust screen, the central gas mass is very low (undetected), and we show that the dark matter is negligible in the central regions. We have developed an axisymmetric analytical gravitational potential model to account for the central light (mass) profile, the dynamics of the molecular gas in the highly obscured molecular ring, and the stellar light profile outside the highly obscured region. The contribution of dark matter is constrained by the extremely extended HI rotation curve and is small, possibly negligible, at distances less than 5 -- 7 kpc from the center. Furthermore, the M/L ratios we derive are low, about 1.5 in I band and 0.5 in K' band. The B and V band M/L ratios vary greatly due to absorption by dust, reaching 4 in the molecular ring and decreas...

  9. Accuracy of delta 18O isotope ratio measurements on the same sample by continuous-flow isotope-ratio mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The doubly labeled water method is considered the reference method to measure energy expenditure. Conventional mass spectrometry requires a separate aliquot of the same sample to be prepared and analyzed separately. With continuous-flow isotope-ratio mass spectrometry, the same sample could be analy...

  10. Recent developments in the use of isotope ratio mass spectrometry in sports drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Thomas; Emery, Caroline; Saugy, Martial

    2011-08-01

    According to the annual report of the World Anti-Doping Agency, steroids are the most frequently detected class of doping agents. Detecting the misuse of endogenously occurring steroids, i.e. steroids such as testosterone that are produced naturally by humans, is one of the most challenging issues in doping control analysis. The established thresholds for urinary concentrations or concentration ratios such as the testosterone/epitestosterone quotient are sometimes inconclusive owing to the large biological variation in these parameters.For more than 15 years, doping control laboratories focused on the carbon isotope ratios of endogenous steroids to distinguish between naturally elevated steroid profile parameters and illicit administration of steroids. A variety of different methods has been developed throughout the last decade and the number of different steroids under investigation by isotope ratio mass spectrometry has recently grown considerably. Besides norandrosterone, boldenone was found to occur endogenously in rare cases and the misuse of corticosteroids or epitestosterone can now be detected with the aid of carbon isotope ratios as well. In addition, steroids excreted as sulfoconjugates were investigated, and the first results regarding hydrogen isotope ratios recently became available.All of these will be presented in detail within this review together with some considerations on validation issues and on identification of parameters influencing steroidal isotope ratios in urine.

  11. Relationship between Body Mass Index and Percent Body Fat in Vietnamese: Implications for the Diagnosis of Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Ho-Pham, Lan T; Lai, Thai Q.; Nguyen, Mai T. T.; Nguyen, Tuan V

    2015-01-01

    Background The burden of obesity in Vietnam has not been well defined because there is a lack of reference data for percent body fat (PBF) in Asians. This study sought to define the relationship between PBF and body mass index (BMI) in the Vietnamese population. Methods The study was designed as a comparative cross-sectional investigation that involved 1217 individuals of Vietnamese background (862 women) aged 20 years and older (average age 47 yr) who were randomly selected from the general ...

  12. Cross-correlation Weak Lensing of SDSS Galaxy Clusters III: Mass-to-light Ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Sheldon, Erin S; Masjedi, Morad; McKay, Timothy A; Blanton, Michael R; Scranton, Ryan; Wechsler, Risa H; Koester, Ben P; Hansen, Sarah M; Frieman, Joshua A; Annis, James

    2007-01-01

    We present measurements of the excess mass-to-light ratio (M/L) measured around MaxBCG galaxy clusters observed in the SDSS. Using cross-correlation weak lensing, we measure the excess mass density profile above the universal mean \\Delta \\rho(r) = \\rho(r) - \\bar{\\rho} for clusters in bins of richness and optical luminosity. We also measure the excess ^{0.25}i-band luminosity density \\Delta l(r) = l(r) - \\bar{l}. For both mass and light, we de-project the profiles to produce 3D mass and light profiles over scales from 25 kpc/h to 22 Mpc/h. From these profiles we calculate the cumulative excess mass \\Delta M(r) and excess light \\Delta L(r) as a function of separation from the BCG. On small scales, where \\rho(r) >> \\bar{\\rho}, the integrated M/L profile may be interpreted as the cluster M/L. We find the (\\Delta M/\\Delta L)_{200}, the M/L within r_{200}, scales with cluster mass as a power law with index 0.33+/-0.02. On large scales, where \\rho(r) . We find /b^2_{ml} = 362+/-54 h measured in the ^{0.25}i-bandpass...

  13. Fat-Free Mass Index for Evaluating the Nutritional Status and Disease Severity in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuwen; Zhou, Luqian; Li, Yun; Guo, Songwen; Li, Xiuxia; Zheng, Jingjing; Zhu, Zhe; Chen, Yitai; Huang, Yuxia; Chen, Rui; Chen, Xin

    2016-05-01

    Despite the high prevalence of weight loss in subjects with COPD, the 2011 COPD management guidelines do not include an index measuring nutritional status. Fat-free mass index (FFMI) can accurately determine the nutritional status of subjects and may be closely correlated with COPD severity. We aimed to determine the nutritional status evaluated by FFMI according to the 2011 Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) levels in stable subjects with COPD and the association between nutritional status and respiratory symptoms, exercise capacity, and respiratory muscle function. We included 235 stable subjects with COPD in this cross-sectional study. All of the subjects were divided into the 2011 GOLD Groups A, B, C, and D. FFMI (measured by bioelectrical impedance), spirometry (FEV1, percent-of-predicted FEV1, and FEV1/FVC), respiratory muscle function (peak inspiratory and peak expiratory pressures), exercise capacity (6-min walk distance), and dyspnea severity (Modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale) were measured and compared between the GOLD groups. Malnutrition was identified in 48.5% of subjects and most prevalent in Group D (Group A: 41%, Group B: 41%, Group C: 31%, and Group D: 62%). FFMI was significantly lower in Group D (P pulmonary function, 6-min walk distance, peak inspiratory pressure, and worsened dyspnea. FFMI was significantly lower in the emphysema-dominant phenotype and mixed phenotype compared with the normal phenotype and airway-dominant phenotype. A stepwise multiple linear regression analysis identified peak inspiratory pressures and older age as independent predictors of FFMI. Malnutrition is highly prevalent in all COPD groups, particularly in Group D subjects, who warrant special attention for nutritional intervention and pulmonary rehabilitation. FFMI significantly correlated with exercise capacity, dyspnea, respiratory muscle function, and pulmonary function and may be a useful predictor of COPD severity

  14. Negative regulation of hepatic fat mass and obesity associated (Fto) gene expression by insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Tooru M; Lew, Pei San; Luo, Yanming; Leckstrom, Arnold

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the role of glucose and insulin in the regulation of hepatic fat mass and obesity associated (Fto) gene expression and the role of hepatic Fto in the regulation of gluconeogenic gene expression. To determine the effect of hyperglycemia on hepatic Fto expression, levels of Fto mRNA in liver were compared between normoglycemic/normoinsulinemic, hypereglycemic/hyperinsulinemic, and hyperglycemic/hypoinsulinemic mice. To determine the direct effect of insulin on Fto expression, levels of Fto, glucose-6-phosphatase (G6pase), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pepck) mRNA levels were compared between control and insulin-treated mouse liver tissues cultured ex vivo and immortalized mouse hepatocytes AML12. To determine the role of Fto in the regulation of gluconeogenic gene expression, we examined the effect of enhanced Fto expression on G6pase and Pepck mRNA levels in AML12 cells. Fto mRNA levels were significantly reduced in hyperglycemic/hyperinsulinemic mice compared to normoglycemic/normoinsulinemic mice, while they were indistinguishable between hyperglycemic/hypoinsulinemic mice and normoglycemic/normoinsulinemic mice. Insulin treatment reduced Fto, G6pase, and Pepck mRNA levels compared to control vehicle treatment in both ex vivo cultured mouse liver tissues and AML12 cells. Enhanced Fto expression significantly increased G6pase and Pepck mRNA level in AML12 cells. Our findings support the hypothesis that hepatic Fto participates in the maintenance of glucose homeostasis possibly by mediating the inhibitory effect of glucose and insulin on gluconeogenic gene expression in liver. It is further suggested that impairments in nutritional and hormonal regulation of hepatic Fto expression may lead to impairments in glycemic control in diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Mg/Si Mineralogical Ratio of Low-Mass Planet Hosts. Correction for the NLTE Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adibekyan, V.; Gonçalves da Silva, H. M.; Sousa, S. G.; Santos, N. C.; Delgado Mena, E.; Hakobyan, A. A.

    2017-09-01

    Mg/Si and Fe/Si ratios are important parameters that control the composition of rocky planets. In this work we applied non-LTE correction to the Mg and Si abundances of stars with and without planets to confirm/reject our previous findings that [Mg/Si] atmospheric abundance is systematically higher for Super-Earth/Neptune-mass planet hosts than stars without planets. Our results show that the small differences of stellar parameters observed in these two groups of stars are not responsible for the already reported difference in the [Mg/Si] ratio. Thus, the high [Mg/Si] ratio of Neptunian hosts is probably related to the formation efficiency of these planets in such environments.

  16. Deep, Low Mass Ratio Overcontact Binary Systems. XIV. A Statistical Analysis of 46 Sample Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuan-Gui; Qian, Sheng-Bang

    2015-09-01

    A sample of 46 deep, low mass ratio (DLMR) overcontact binaries (i.e., q≤slant 0.25 and f≥slant 50%) is statistically analyzed in this paper. It is found that five relations possibly exist among some physical parameters. The primary components are little-evolved main sequence stars that lie between the zero-age main sequence line and the terminal-age main sequence (TAMS) line. Meanwhile, the secondary components may be evolved stars above the TAMS line. The super-luminosities and large radii may result from energy transfer, which causes their volumes to expand. The equations of M-L and M-R for the components are also determined. The relation of P-Mtotal implies that mass may escape from the central system when the orbital period decreases. The minimum mass ratio may preliminarily be {q}{min}=0.044(+/- 0.007) from the relations of q-f and q-Jspin/Jorb. With mass and angular momentum loss, the orbital period decreases, which finally causes this kind of DLMR overcontact binary to merge into a rapid-rotating single star.

  17. The local stellar luminosity function and mass-to-light ratio in the NIR

    CERN Document Server

    Just, A; Jahreiss, H; Flynn, C; Dettbarn, C; Rybizki, J

    2015-01-01

    A new sample of stars, representative of the solar neighbourhood luminosity function, is constructed from the Hipparcos catalogue and the Fifth Catalogue of Nearby Stars. We have cross-matched to sources in the 2MASS catalogue so that for all stars individually determined Near Infrared photometry (NIR) is available on a homogeneous system (typically K_s). The spatial completeness of the sample has been carefully determined by statistical methods, and the NIR luminosity function of the stars has been derived by direct star counts. We find a local volume luminosity of 0.121 +/- 0.004 L_K_sun/(pc**3), corresponding to a volumetric mass-to-light ratio of M/L_K = 0.31 +/- 0.02 M_sun/L_K_sun, where giants contribute 80 per cent to the light but less than 2 per cent to the stellar mass. We derive the surface brightness of the solar cylinder with the help of a vertical disc model. We find a surface brightness of 99 L_K_sun/(pc**2) with an uncertainty of approximately 10 %. This corresponds to a mass-to-light ratio fo...

  18. Prospects for detection of gravitational waves from intermediate-mass-ratio inspirals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Duncan A; Brink, Jeandrew; Fang, Hua; Gair, Jonathan R; Li, Chao; Lovelace, Geoffrey; Mandel, Ilya; Thorne, Kip S

    2007-11-16

    We explore prospects for detecting gravitational waves from stellar-mass compact objects spiraling into intermediate mass black holes (BHs) M approximately 50M to 350M) with ground-based observatories. We estimate a rate for such intermediate-mass-ratio inspirals of Advanced LIGO. We show that if the central body is not a BH but its metric is stationary, axisymmetric, reflection symmetric and asymptotically flat, then the waves will likely be triperiodic, as for a BH. We suggest that the evolutions of the waves' three fundamental frequencies and of the complex amplitudes of their spectral components encode (in principle) details of the central body's metric, the energy and angular momentum exchange between the central body and the orbit, and the time-evolving orbital elements. We estimate that advanced ground-based detectors can constrain central body deviations from a BH with interesting accuracy.

  19. Association of Oral Fat Sensitivity with Body Mass Index, Taste Preference, and Eating Habits in Healthy Japanese Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Masanobu; Hong, Guang; Matsuyama, Yusuke; Wang, Weiqi; Izumi, Satoshi; Izumi, Masayuki; Toda, Takashi; Kudo, Tada-Aki

    2016-01-01

    Oral fat sensitivity (OFS, the ability to detect fat) may be related to overeating-induced obesity. However, it is largely unknown whether OFS affects taste preference and eating habits. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate (1) the association between body mass index (BMI) and OFS and (2) the relationship of OFS with four types of taste preference (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter) and eating habits using serial concentrations of oleic acid (OA) homogenized in non-fat milk and a self-reported questionnaire. Participants were 25 healthy Japanese individuals (mean age: 27.0 ± 5.6 years), among whom the OA detection threshold was significantly associated with BMI. Participants were divided into two subgroups based on oral sensitivity to 2.8 mM OA: hypersensitive (able to detect 2.8 mM OA, n = 16) and hyposensitive (unable to detect 2.8 mM OA, n = 9). The degree of sweet taste preference of the hypersensitive group was significantly higher than that of the hyposensitive group. Furthermore, there was significantly higher degree of preference for high-fat sweet foods than low-fat sweet foods in the hypersensitive group. There was also a significant inverse correlation between the OA detection threshold and the degree of both spare eating and postprandial satiety. Thus, OFS is associated not only with BMI, but also with the preference for high-fat sweet foods and eating habits. The present study provides novel insights that measuring OFS may be useful for assessing the risk of obesity associated with overeating in countries, including Japan, where BMI is increasing in the population.

  20. Fasting gall bladder volume and lithogenicity in relation to glucose tolerance, total and intra-abdominal fat masses in obese non-diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, H W; Højgaard, L; Andersen, T

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether total body fat mass or fat distribution and associated metabolic disturbances in glucose and lipid metabolism influence the well known gallstone pathogenetic factors in obese subjects in order to explain why some obese subjects develop gallstones and some do not....... DESIGN: Cross sectional study of gallstone pathogenetic factors, body composition, fat distribution, glucose and lipid metabolism. SUBJECTS: 57 healthy overweight subjects (aged 26-64y, body mass index (BMI) 30-45 kg/m2). MEASUREMENTS: Total and intra-abdominal fat masses were measured by dual X...... with a specific radioimmunoassay. Insulin sensitivity was measured by the Minimal Model and glucose tolerance by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Serum lipid concentrations were measured by standard methods. RESULTS: The gallbladder volume in the fasting state increased with increasing intra-abdominal fat...

  1. Do knee osteoarthritis and fat-free mass interact in their impact on health-related quality of life in men? Results from a population-based cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, A Willemien; de Mutsert, Renée; Bloem, Johannes L; Reijnierse, Monique; Kazato, Hanako; le Cessie, Saskia; den Heijer, Martin; Rosendaal, Frits R; Kloppenburg, Margreet

    2015-07-01

    To investigate whether obesity and other risk factors interact with knee osteoarthritis (OA) in its adverse impact on health-related quality of life (HRQOL). In 1,262 participants of the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity Study, a population-based cohort (age 45-65 years, 53% women, and median body mass index [BMI] 27 kg/m(2) ), knee OA was defined following modified American College of Rheumatology criteria. BMI and fat-free mass (as proxy for muscle mass) were assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis, and comorbidities by self-report. HRQOL was assessed using the Short Form 36 physical component summary (PCS) score. Linear regression analyses were performed to examine associations between knee OA and PCS score, adjusting for age and sex and stratified for BMI, fat-free mass, and comorbidities. Knee OA (prevalence 16%) was associated with a 7.2-points lower PCS score (95% confidence interval -9.5, -4.8). PCS score was also negatively associated with obesity and comorbidities; however, no interaction with knee OA was seen. Low fat-free mass was associated with a lower PCS score and interacted with knee OA in men. Interaction between concurring OA and low fat-free mass attributed to 64% of the decrease in PCS score, as compared with men without OA and with high fat-free mass. Knee OA was associated with a lower HRQOL, as were its risk factors, obesity, comorbidities, and low fat-free mass. In men, fat-free mass interacted with knee OA, leading to an additional decrease of HRQOL in the case of concurrence. Especially in the former, improvement of fat-free mass may improve HRQOL in knee OA patients. © 2015, American College of Rheumatology.

  2. The Opposite Associations of Lycopene and Body Fat Mass with HumoralImmunity in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Possible Role in Atherogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirang R. Neyestani

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the possible effects of lycopene at physiological dosage and body fat mass on the humoral immune response in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM.A total of 35 patients with Typ2 diabetes mellitus from both sexes aged 54±9 yrs from the Iranian Diabetes Society were introduced into a double blind placebo controlled clinical trial conducted for 2 months. After a 2-week lycopene free diet washout period, patients were allocated to either lycopene supplementation group (10mg/d (n=16 or placebo age- and sex matched group (n=19 for 8 weeks.Patients were instructed to keep their diets and physical activities as unchanged as possible.Lycopene supplements increased serum lycopene levels (pand nutrients did not change in either groups, the ratio of total antioxidant capacity tomalondialdehyde increased significantly in the lycopene group (p=0.007. There was an inversecorrelation between serum levels of lycopene and those of IgG (r= -0.338, p=0.008. On the contrary, changes of serum levels of lycopene directly correlated with those of IgM (r=0.466, p=0.005. Interestingly, changes of the amount of fat mass correlated directly with those of serum IgG (r=0.415, p=0.044 but inversely with of serum IgM (r= -0.469, p=0.021.While truncal fat might promote adaptive humoral immunity, lycopene probably by inhibitingMDA-LDL formation might attenuate T cell dependent adaptive (pro-atherogenic humoral immune response. These findings may have preventive implications in long term diabetic complications, notably atherogenesis.

  3. First four-color photometric investigation of extreme mass-ratio contact binary AS coronae borealis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liang; Qian, Shengbang; Zhu, Liying; Liao, Wenping; He, Jiajia; Liu, Nianping

    2017-02-01

    The first high-precision BVRI light curves of the eclipsing binary AS CrB were presented and were analyzed by the 2015 version of the W-D code. It is found that AS CrB is an extreme mass-ratio, deep contact binary with a fill-out factor of f = 59.6 ± 2.5 % and a mass ratio of q = 0.172 ± 0.008 . Based on the photometric solution and the Dartmouth isochrones model, the masses, radii, and luminosities of the components are estimated as follows: M1 = 1.25 ± 0.15M⊙ , M2 = 0.21 ± 0.06M⊙ , R1 = 1.40 ± 0.07R⊙ , R2 = 0.67 ± 0.04R⊙ , L1 = 3.2 ± 0.2L⊙ , and L2 = 0.72 ± 0.04L⊙ , with an estimated distance 459 ± 42 pc. These uncertainties mainly come from the errors of the color used to estimate the temperature of the primary star. By investigating all of the available times of light minima, it is found that the Observed-Calculated [(O - C) ] curve shows a long-term period increase, with a rate of dP / dt = +(3.46 ± 0.01) ×10-7 day/year. As an extreme mass-ratio contact binary, AS CrB may merge into a single star, such as an FK Com-type star or a blue straggler, because of the orbital instability.

  4. A high intake of saturated fatty acids strengthens the association between the fat mass and obesity-associated gene and BMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evidence that physical activity (PA) modulates the association between the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) and BMI is emerging; however, information about dietary factors modulating this association is scarce. We investigated whether fat and carbohydrate intake modified the association of...

  5. An ultratriathlon leads to a decrease of body fat and skeletal muscle mass--the Triple Iron Triathlon Austria 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Beat, Knechtle; Duff, Brida; Brida, Duff; Amtmann, Gerhard; Gerhard, Amtmann; Kohler, Götz; Götz, Kohler

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effects on body composition in triathletes at the Triple Iron Triathlon Austria in 2006, where athletes had to perform 11.6 km swimming, 540 km cycling, and 126.6 km running within 58 h. In 16 male triathletes, body mass (BM), skinfold thicknesses, and circumferences of extremities were measured before and after the competition in order to calculate body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (%BF), fat mass (FM), and skeletal muscle mass (SM). Body mass, BMI, %BF, FM, and SM decreased statistically significantly (p 0.05, r(2)= 0.00) nor with the decrease of SM (p> 0.05, r(2)= 0.06). There is no association between total race time and the loss of BM (r(2) = 0.06), %BF (r(2) = 0.10), and SM (r2 = 0.11). No significant correlation (p > 0.05, r(2)= 0.43) was found between the initial SM and loss of SM.

  6. Bovine serum albumin as the dominant form of dietary protein reduces subcutaneous fat mass, plasma leptin and plasma corticosterone in high fat-fed C57/BL6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Bettina L; Korpela, Riitta; Speakman, John R; Cryan, John F; Cotter, Paul D; Nilaweera, Kanishka N

    2015-08-28

    Increasing evidence suggests that the source of dietary protein can have an impact on weight gain and fat mass during high-fat feeding in both humans and rodents. The present study examined whether dietary bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the dominant source of protein alters energy balance and adiposity associated with high-fat feeding. C57/BL6J mice were given a diet with 10 % of energy from fat and 20 % of energy from casein or a diet with 45 % of energy from fat and either 20 % of energy from casein (HFD) or BSA (HFD+BSA) for 13 weeks. The HFD+BSA diet did not significantly alter daily energy expenditure, locomotor activity and RER, but did increase cumulative energy intake and percentage of lean mass while reducing feed efficiency and percentage of fat mass when compared with the HFD (Psubcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), the HFD+BSA diet increased the mRNA levels of PPARα (PPARA), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b (CPT1b) and uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3), but reduced the mRNA level of leptin when compared with the HFD (P< 0·05). The SAT mRNA levels of PPARA, CPT1b and UCP3 were negatively correlated (P< 0·05) with SAT mass, which was reduced in HFD+BSA mice compared with HFD controls (P< 0·01). No differences in epididymal fat mass existed between the groups. The HFD+BSA diet normalised plasma leptin and corticosterone levels compared with the HFD (P< 0·05). While differences in leptin levels were associated with the percentage of fat mass (P< 0·01), changes in corticosterone concentrations were independent of the percentage of fat mass (P< 0·05). The data suggest that the HFD+BSA diet influences plasma leptin levels via SAT mass reduction where mRNA levels of genes linked to β-oxidation were increased, whereas differences in plasma corticosterone levels were not related to fat mass reduction.

  7. Uncertainties of the masses of black holes and Eddington ratios in AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Collin, S

    2006-01-01

    Black hole masses in Active Galactic Nuclei have been determined in 35 objects through reverberation mapping of the emission line region. I mention some uncertainties of the method, such as the ``scale factor'' relating the Virial Product to the mass, which depends on the unknown structure and dynamics of the Broad Line Region. When the black hole masses are estimated indirectly using the empirical size-luminosity relation deduced from this method, the uncertainties can be larger, especially when the relation is extrapolated to high and low masses and/or luminosities. In particular they lead to Eddington ratios of the order of unity in samples of Narrow Line Seyfert 1. As the optical-UV luminosity is provided by the accretion disk, the accretion rates can be determined and are found to be much larger than the Eddington rates. So, accretion must be performed at a super-critical rate through a slim disk, resulting in rapid growth of the black holes. The alternative is that the mass determination is wrong at thi...

  8. Observational Mass-to-Light Ratio of Galaxy Systems from Poor Groups to Rich Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Girardi, M; Mezzetti, M; Giuricin, G; Limboz, F

    2002-01-01

    We study the mass-to-light ratio of galaxy systems from poor groups to rich clusters, and present for the first time a large database for useful comparisons with theoretical predictions. We extend a previous work, where B_j band luminosities and optical virial masses were analyzed for a sample of 89 clusters. Here we also consider a sample of 52 more clusters, 36 poor clusters, 7 rich groups, and two catalogs, of about 500 groups each, recently identified in the Nearby Optical Galaxy sample by using two different algorithms. We obtain the blue luminosity and virial mass for all systems considered. We devote a large effort to establishing the homogeneity of the resulting values, as well as to considering comparable physical regions, i.e. those included within the virial radius. By analyzing a fiducial, combined sample of 294 systems we find that the mass increases faster than the luminosity: the linear fit gives M\\propto L_B^{1.34 \\pm 0.03}, with a tendency for a steeper increase in the low--mass range. In agr...

  9. Gas-to-Dust mass ratios in local galaxies over a 2 dex metallicity range

    CERN Document Server

    Rémy-Ruyer, A; Galliano, F; Galametz, M; Takeuchi, T T; Asano, R S; Zhukovska, S; Lebouteiller, V; Cormier, D; Jones, A; Bocchio, M; Baes, M; Bendo, G J; Boquien, M; Boselli, A; DeLooze, I; Doublier-Pritchard, V; Hughes, T; Karczewski, O Ł; Spinoglio, L

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the behaviour of the gas-to-dust mass ratio (G/D) of local Universe galaxies over a large metallicity range. We combine three samples: the Dwarf Galaxy Survey, the KINGFISH survey and a subsample from Galametz et al. (2011) totalling 126 galaxies, covering a 2 dex metallicity range, with 30% of the sample with 12+log(O/H) < 8.0. The dust masses are homogeneously determined with a semi-empirical dust model, including submm constraints. The atomic and molecular gas masses are compiled from the literature. Two XCO are used to estimate molecular gas masses: the Galactic XCO, and a XCO depending on the metallicity (as Z^{-2}). Correlations with morphological types, stellar masses, star formation rates and specific star formation rates are discussed. The trend between G/D and metallicity is empirically modelled using power-laws (slope of -1 and free) and a broken power-law. We compare the evolution of the G/D with predictions from chemical evolution models. We find that out of the five tested...

  10. The contrasting effects of ad libitum and restricted feeding of a diet very high in saturated fats on sex ratio and metabolic hormones in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexenko, Andrei P; Mao, Jiude; Ellersieck, Mark R; Davis, Angela M; Whyte, Jeffrey J; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S; Roberts, R Michael

    2007-10-01

    Skewing of the sex ratio towards males occurs among pups born to mice fed a very high saturated fat (VHF) diet. In the present study, we tested whether the fat content of the VHF diet rather than the number of calories consumed is responsible for this effect. Eight-week-old NIH Swiss mice were placed on the VHF diet either ad libitum (VHF) or in a restricted manner (VHF-R). The VHF-R mice gained weight at a similar rate to controls fed a standard chow diet. Mice were bred at 15 wk and subsequently at 26 wk and 35 wk of age. Overall, the VHF, VHF-R, and control groups delivered 244, 242, and 274 pups, respectively, with male proportions of 0.60, 0.43, and 0.48, respectively. The pup sex ratios of the VHF group (favoring males) and VHF-R group (favoring females) each differed from 0.5 (P fat consumed. Since males fed the VHF diet had neither more Y-sperm nor sired more sons than daughters, the dietary effects are manifested exclusively through the female.

  11. N-Body Dynamics of Intermediate Mass-ratio Inspirals in Star Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haster, Carl-Johan; Antonini, Fabio; Kalogera, Vicky; Mandel, Ilya

    2016-12-01

    The intermediate mass-ratio inspiral of a stellar compact remnant into an intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) can produce a gravitational wave (GW) signal that is potentially detectable by current ground-based GW detectors (e.g., Advanced LIGO) as well as by planned space-based interferometers (e.g., eLISA). Here, we present results from a direct integration of the post-Newtonian N-body equations of motion describing stellar clusters containing an IMBH and a population of stellar-mass black holes (BHs) and solar-mass stars. We take particular care to simulate the dynamics closest to the IMBH, including post-Newtonian effects up to an order of 2.5. Our simulations show that the IMBH readily forms a binary with a BH companion. This binary is gradually hardened by transient three-body or four-body encounters, leading to frequent substitutions of the BH companion, while the binary’s eccentricity experiences large-amplitude oscillations due to the Lidov-Kozai resonance. We also demonstrate suppression of these resonances by the relativistic precession of the binary orbit. We find an intermediate mass-ratio inspiral in 1 of the 12 cluster models we evolved for ˜100 Myr. This cluster hosts a 100{M}⊙ IMBH embedded in a population of 32 10{M}⊙ BH and 32,000 1{M}⊙ stars. At the end of the simulation, after ˜100 Myr of evolution, the IMBH merges with a BH companion. The IMBH-BH binary inspiral starts in the eLISA frequency window (≳ 1 {mHz}) when the binary reaches an eccentricity 1-e≃ {10}-3. After ≃ {10}5 yr the binary moves into the LIGO frequency band with a negligible eccentricity. We comment on the implications for GW searches, with a possible detection within the next decade.

  12. Back-casting sociality in extinct species: new perspectives using mass death assemblages and sex ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, J; Dulamtseren, S; Cain, S; Enkkhbileg, D; Lichtman, P; Namshir, Z; Wingard, G; Reading, R

    2001-01-22

    Despite 150 years of interest in the ecology of dinosaurs, mammoths, proto-hominids and other extinct vertebrates, a general framework to recreate patterns of sociality has been elusive. Based on our recent discovery of a contemporary heterospecific mass death assemblage in the Gobi Desert (Mongolia), we fit predictions about gender-specific associations and group living in extant ungulates to extinct ones. We relied on comparative data on sex-ratio variation and body-size dimorphism, basing analyses on 38 additional mass mortality sites from Asia, Africa, Europe and North America that span 50 million years. Both extant and extinct species died in aggregations with biased adult sex ratios, but the skew (from 1:1) was greater for extinct dimorphic taxa, suggesting that sociality in these extinct species can be predicted from spatial and demographic traits of extant ones. However, extinct rhinos, horses and zebras were inconsistent with predictions about adult sex ratios, which underscores the inherent difficulty in backcasting historic patterns to some monomorphic taxa. These findings shed light not only on the sociality of extinct species but provide a sound, although limited, footing for interpretation of modern death assemblages within the context of the emerging science of taphonomy and palaeobehaviour.

  13. Stellar mass-to-light ratios from galaxy spectra: how accurate can they be?

    CERN Document Server

    Gallazzi, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Stellar masses play a crucial role in the exploration of galaxy properties and the evolution of the galaxy population. In this paper, we explore the minimum possible uncertainties in stellar mass-to-light (M/L) ratios from the assumed star formation history (SFH) and metallicity distribution, with the goals of providing a minimum set of requirements for observational studies. We use a large Monte Carlo library of SFHs to study as a function of galaxy spectral type and signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) the statistical uncertainties of M/L values using either absorption-line data or broad band colors. The accuracy of M/L estimates can be significantly improved by using metal-sensitive indices in combination with age-sensitive indices, in particular for galaxies with intermediate-age or young stellar populations. While M/L accuracy clearly depends on the spectral S/N ratio, there is no significant gain in improving the S/N much above 50/pix and limiting uncertainties of 0.03 dex are reached. Assuming that dust is accu...

  14. The gas-to-dust mass ratio of Centaurus A as seen by Herschel

    CERN Document Server

    Parkin, T J; Foyle, K; Baes, M; Bendo, G J; Boselli, A; Boquien, M; Cooray, A; Cormier, D; Davies, J I; Eales, S A; Galametz, M; Gomez, H L; Lebouteiller, V; Madden, S; Mentuch, E; Page, M J; Pohlen, M; Remy, A; Roussel, H; Sauvage, M; Smith, M W L; Spinoglio, L

    2012-01-01

    We present photometry of the nearby galaxy NGC 5128 (Centaurus A) observed with the PACS and SPIRE instruments on board the Herschel Space Observatory, at 70, 160, 250, 350 and 500 {\\mu}m, as well as new CO J = 3-2 observations taken with the HARP-B instrument on the JCMT. Using a single component modified blackbody, we model the dust spectral energy distribution within the disk of the galaxy using all five Herschel wavebands, and find dust temperatures of ~30 K towards the centre of the disk and a smoothly decreasing trend to ~20 K with increasing radius. We find a total dust mass of (1.59 \\pm 0.05) \\times 10^7 M\\odot, and a total gas mass of (2.7 \\pm 0.2) \\times 10^9 M\\odot. The average gas-to-dust mass ratio is 103 \\pm 8 but we find an interesting increase in this ratio to approximately 275 toward the centre of Cen A. We discuss several possible physical processes that may be causing this effect, including dust sputtering, jet entrainment and systematic variables such as the XCO factor. Dust sputtering by ...

  15. Ethnic differences in the relationship between body mass index and percentage body fat among Asian children from different backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ailing; Byrne, Nuala M; Kagawa, Masaharu; Ma, Guansheng; Poh, Bee Koon; Ismail, Mohammad Noor; Kijboonchoo, Kallaya; Nasreddine, Lara; Trinidad, Trinidad Palad; Hills, Andrew P

    2011-11-01

    Overweight and obesity in Asian children are increasing at an alarming rate; therefore a better understanding of the relationship between BMI and percentage body fat (%BF) in this population is important. A total of 1039 children aged 8-10 years, encompassing a wide BMI range, were recruited from China, Lebanon, Malaysia, The Philippines and Thailand. Body composition was determined using the 2H dilution technique to quantify total body water and subsequently fat mass, fat-free mass and %BF. Ethnic differences in the BMI-%BF relationship were found; for example, %BF in Filipino boys was approximately 2 % lower than in their Thai and Malay counterparts. In contrast, Thai girls had approximately 2.0 % higher %BF values than in their Chinese, Lebanese, Filipino and Malay counterparts at a given BMI. However, the ethnic difference in the BMI-%BF relationship varied by BMI. Compared with Caucasian children of the same age, Asian children had 3-6 units lower BMI at a given %BF. Approximately one-third of the obese Asian children (%BF above 25 % for boys and above 30 % for girls) in the study were not identified using the WHO classification and more than half using the International Obesity Task Force classification. Use of the Chinese classification increased the sensitivity. Results confirmed the necessity to consider ethnic differences in body composition when developing BMI cut-points and other obesity criteria in Asian children.

  16. BINARY CEPHEIDS: SEPARATIONS AND MASS RATIOS IN 5 M {sub ☉} BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Nancy Remage; Karovska, Margarita; Tingle, Evan [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, MS 4, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bond, Howard E. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Schaefer, Gail H. [The CHARA Array, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 3965, Atlanta, GA 30302-3965 (United States); Mason, Brian D., E-mail: nevans@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: heb11@psu.edu, E-mail: schaefer@chara-array.org [US Naval Observatory, 3450 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20392-5420 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Deriving the distribution of binary parameters for a particular class of stars over the full range of orbital separations usually requires the combination of results from many different observing techniques (radial velocities, interferometry, astrometry, photometry, direct imaging), each with selection biases. However, Cepheids—cool, evolved stars of ∼5 M {sub ☉}—are a special case because ultraviolet (UV) spectra will immediately reveal any companion star hotter than early type A, regardless of the orbital separation. We have used International Ultraviolet Explorer UV spectra of a complete sample of all 76 Cepheids brighter than V = 8 to create a list of all 18 Cepheids with companions more massive than 2.0 M {sub ☉}. Orbital periods of many of these binaries are available from radial-velocity studies, or can be estimated for longer-period systems from detected velocity variability. In an imaging survey with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3, we resolved three of the companions (those of η Aql, S Nor, and V659 Cen), allowing us to make estimates of the periods out to the long-period end of the distribution. Combining these separations with orbital data in the literature, we derive an unbiased distribution of binary separations, orbital periods, and mass ratios. The distribution of orbital periods shows that the 5 M {sub ☉} binaries have systematically shorter periods than do 1 M {sub ☉} stars. Our data also suggest that the distribution of mass ratios depends on both binary separation and system multiplicity. The distribution of mass ratios as a function of orbital separation, however, does not depend on whether a system is a binary or a triple.

  17. Analytical Validation of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry for Pharmaceutical Development: the Measurement of Carbon-14 Isotope Ratio.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keck, B D; Ognibene, T; Vogel, J S

    2010-02-05

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is an isotope based measurement technology that utilizes carbon-14 labeled compounds in the pharmaceutical development process to measure compounds at very low concentrations, empowers microdosing as an investigational tool, and extends the utility of {sup 14}C labeled compounds to dramatically lower levels. It is a form of isotope ratio mass spectrometry that can provide either measurements of total compound equivalents or, when coupled to separation technology such as chromatography, quantitation of specific compounds. The properties of AMS as a measurement technique are investigated here, and the parameters of method validation are shown. AMS, independent of any separation technique to which it may be coupled, is shown to be accurate, linear, precise, and robust. As the sensitivity and universality of AMS is constantly being explored and expanded, this work underpins many areas of pharmaceutical development including drug metabolism as well as absorption, distribution and excretion of pharmaceutical compounds as a fundamental step in drug development. The validation parameters for pharmaceutical analyses were examined for the accelerator mass spectrometry measurement of {sup 14}C/C ratio, independent of chemical separation procedures. The isotope ratio measurement was specific (owing to the {sup 14}C label), stable across samples storage conditions for at least one year, linear over 4 orders of magnitude with an analytical range from one tenth Modern to at least 2000 Modern (instrument specific). Further, accuracy was excellent between 1 and 3 percent while precision expressed as coefficient of variation is between 1 and 6% determined primarily by radiocarbon content and the time spent analyzing a sample. Sensitivity, expressed as LOD and LLOQ was 1 and 10 attomoles of carbon-14 (which can be expressed as compound equivalents) and for a typical small molecule labeled at 10% incorporated with {sup 14}C corresponds to 30 fg

  18. Effects of Ions Charge-Mass Ratio on Energy and Energy Spread of Accelerated Ions in Laser Driven Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SANG Hai-Bo; DENG Shi-Qiang; XIE Bai-Song

    2013-01-01

    Effects of ions charge-mass ratio on energy and energy spread of accelerated ions in laser driven plasma are investigated in detail by proposing a simple double-layer model for a foil target driven by an ultrastrong laser.The radiation pressure acceleration mechanism plays an important role on the studied problem.For the ions near the plasma mirror,i.e.electrons layer,the dependence of ions energy on their charge-mass ratio is derived theoretically.It is found that the larger the charge-mass ratio is,the higher the accelerated ions energy gets.For those ions far away from the layer,the dependence of energy and energy spread on ions charge-mass ratio are also obtained by numerical performance.It exhibits that,as ions charge-mass ratio increases,not only the accelerated ions energy but also the energy spread will become large.

  19. Emerging Techniques in Vegetable Oil Analysis Using Stable Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, S. D.; Rhodes, C.

    2002-07-01

    As the practice of vegetable oil adulteration becomes more sophisticated, the possibility to subvert detection using established techniques such as capillary gas chromatography is increasing. One of the most powerful techniques to be used in food authenticity studies is stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (SIRMS) which utilises differences in the natural abundance of the stable isotopes of the light bio elements hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon, oxygen and sulfur to detect food fraud. SIRMS has found application in the authentication of a wide range of foodstuffs, including fruit juices, wines, spirits, honey and to detect the adulteration of flavour compounds with synthetic analogues. This papers reviews the current state-of-the-art for the authentication of vegetable oils using SIRMS and highlights emergent techniques such as compound-an position specific-isotope mass spectrometry. These latter developments offer the potential to provide more rapid and improved detection of the economic adulteration of vegetable oils. (Author) 38 refs.

  20. Background NO/sub x/ mixing ratios in air masses over the North Atlantic ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helas, G.; Warneck, P.

    1981-08-20

    A chemiluminescence analyzer was used to measure NO/sub x/ mixing ratios at the west coast of Ireland. Two measurement modes allowed the determination of NO and NO/sub x/ = NO+NO/sub 2/. In a third mode using a molybdenum converter, higher signals were observed than was in the second mode indicating that nitrogen compounds other than NO+NO/sub 2/ are registered. They are denoted 'excess NO/sub x/'. The average NO/sub 2/ mixing ratio for a week period was 101 +- 87 pptv. In pure marine air masses identified by means of trajectory calculations, the NO/sub 2/ mixing ratios were lower and exhibited in addition a diurnal variation with nighttime values of 37 +- 6 pptv and average values of 87 +- 47 pptv. Possible origins of the diurnal variation are discussed. For such conditions, the NO mixing ratio generally was unmeasurably small, certainly less than 10 pptv. The excess NO/sub x/ is also higher during the day compared with nighttime values of about 70 pptv. Further studies are required to identify the compounds involved.

  1. Effect of fat free mass on serum and plasma BDNF concentrations during exercise and recovery in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilder, M; Ramsbottom, R; Currie, J; Sheridan, B; Nevill, A M

    2014-02-07

    Exercise results in release of brain derived neurotrophic factor into the circulation; however, little is known about the changes in serum and plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor concentrations and factors influencing brain derived neurotrophic factor during exercise and recovery. Serum (n=23) and plasma (n=10) brain derived neurotrophic factor concentrations were measured in healthy young men at rest, during steady-rate and after exercise to determine the maximum aerobic power. A two-way analysis of variance was used to investigate brain derived neurotrophic factor levels in blood during exercise and recovery, with one between-subject factor (a median split on: age, height, body mass, fat free mass, body mass index and aerobic fitness), and one within-subject factor (time). Serum brain derived neurotrophic factor concentrations increased in response to exercise and declined rapidly in recovery. Plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor had a greater proportional increase relative to exhaustive exercise compared with serum brain derived neurotrophic factor and was slower to return to near baseline values. There was a significant group-by-time interaction indicating a greater release and faster recovery for serum brain derived neurotrophic factor in high- compared with low-fat free mass individuals.

  2. Intermediate-mass-ratio black-hole binaries: numerical relativity meets perturbation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lousto, Carlos O; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Zlochower, Yosef; Campanelli, Manuela

    2010-05-28

    We study black-hole binaries in the intermediate-mass-ratio regime 0.01≲q≲0.1 with a new technique that makes use of nonlinear numerical trajectories and efficient perturbative evolutions to compute waveforms at large radii for the leading and nonleading (ℓ, m) modes. As a proof-of-concept, we compute waveforms for q=1/10. We discuss applications of these techniques for LIGO and VIRGO data analysis and the possibility that our technique can be extended to produce accurate waveform templates from a modest number of fully nonlinear numerical simulations.

  3. Optimization of structural parameters for spatial flexible redundant manipulators with maximum ratio of load to mass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xu-ping; YU Yue-qing

    2005-01-01

    Optimization of structural parameters aimed at improving the load carrying capacity of spatial flexible redundant manipulators is presented in this paper. In order to increase the ratio of load to mass of robots, the cross-sectional parameters and constructional parameters are optimized respectively. The cross-sectional and configurational parameters are optimized simultaneously. The numerical simulation of a 4R spatial manipulator is performed. The results show that the load capacity of robots has been greatly improved through the optimization strategies proposed in this paper.

  4. Mass-to-light ratios in early-type galaxies and the dark matter content

    CERN Document Server

    Capaccioli, M; Arnaboldi, M

    2002-01-01

    The distribution of the radial trends of the mass-to-light ratios (M/L) within an assorted sample of early-type galaxies is discussed. Three classes of galaxies are identified according to their M/L gradients. Two such classes are characterized by the presence or by the absence of a radial gradient of the dark-matter (DM) distribution. A third class contains objects which are likely undergoing interaction; they exhibit steep M/L gradients which are possibly the result of a wrong assumption on their equilibrium conditions. Finally, a possible correlation between DM content and morphological types is briefly discussed.

  5. Perturbative effects of spinning black holes in the extreme mass-ratio limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Hiroyuki; Campanelli, Manuela; Lousto, Carlos O; Zlochower, Yosef, E-mail: nakano@astro.rit.edu, E-mail: manuela@astro.rit.edu, E-mail: lousto@astro.rit.edu, E-mail: yosef@astro.rit.edu [Center for Computational Relativity and Gravitation, School of Mathematical Sciences, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States)

    2011-07-07

    Recently, we proposed an enhancement of the Regge-Wheeler-Zerilli formalism for first-order perturbations about a Schwarzschild background that includes first-order corrections due to the background black-hole spin in the black-hole perturbation approach. Using this formalism, we analytically investigate gravitational wave emission and linear momentum flux from a head-on collision of two spinning black holes in the extreme mass-ratio limit. The result derived in the lowest slow-motion and weak-field approximations here is consistent with the post-Newtonian calculation.

  6. High sensitivity to mass-ratio variation in deep molecular potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Hanneke, D; Lane, D A

    2016-01-01

    Molecular vibrational transitions are prime candidates for model-independent searches for variation of the proton-to-electron mass ratio. Searches for present-day variation achieve highest sensitivity with deep molecular potentials. We identify several high-sensitivity transitions in the deeply bound ${\\rm O}_2^+$ molecular ion. These transitions are electric-dipole forbidden and thus have narrow linewidths. The most sensitive transitions take advantage of an accidental degeneracy between vibrational states in different electronic potentials. We suggest experimentally feasible routes to a measurement with uncertainty exceeding current limits on present-day variation in $m_p/m_e$.

  7. High sensitivity to variation in the proton-to-electron mass ratio in O2+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanneke, D.; Carollo, R. A.; Lane, D. A.

    2016-11-01

    Molecular vibrational transitions are prime candidates for model-independent searches for variation of the proton-to-electron mass ratio. Searches for present-day variation achieve the highest sensitivity with deep molecular potentials. We identify several high-sensitivity transitions in the deeply bound O2+ molecular ion. These transitions are electric-dipole forbidden and have narrow linewidths. The most sensitive transitions take advantage of an accidental degeneracy between vibrational states in different electronic potentials. We suggest experimentally feasible routes to a measurement with uncertainty below current limits on present-day variation in mp/me .

  8. Lipidomic and spatio-temporal imaging of fat by mass spectrometry in mice duodenum during lipid digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyer, Alexandre; Cantiello, Michela; Bertrand-Michel, Justine; Roques, Véronique; Nauze, Michel; Bézirard, Valérie; Collet, Xavier; Touboul, David; Brunelle, Alain; Coméra, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal absorption of dietary fat is a complex process mediated by enterocytes leading to lipid assembly and secretion of circulating lipoproteins as chylomicrons, vLDL and intestinal HDL (iHDL). Understanding lipid digestion is of importance knowing the correlation between excessive fat absorption and atherosclerosis. By using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), we illustrated a spatio-temporal localization of fat in mice duodenum, at different times of digestion after a lipid gavage, for the first time. Fatty acids progressively increased in enterocytes as well as taurocholic acid, secreted by bile and engaged in the entero-hepatic re-absorption cycle. Cytosolic lipid droplets (CLD) from enterocytes were originally purified separating chylomicron-like, intermediate droplets and smaller HDL-like. A lipidomic quantification revealed their contents in triglycerides, free and esterified cholesterol, phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin and ceramides but also in free fatty acids, mono- and di-acylglycerols. An acyl-transferase activity was identified and the enzyme monoacylglycerol acyl transferase 2 (MGAT2) was immunodetected in all CLD. The largest droplets was also shown to contain the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP), the acyl-coenzyme A-cholesterol acyltransferases (ACAT) 1 and 2, hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). This highlights the fact that during the digestion of fats, enterocyte CLD contain some enzymes involved in the different stages of the metabolism of diet fatty acids and cholesterol, in anticipation of the crucial work of endoplasmic reticulum in the process. The data further underlines the dual role of chylomicrons and iHDL in fat digestion which should help to efficiently complement lipid-lowering therapy.

  9. Evaluation of magnetization transfer ratio in ascites and pelvic cystic masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Susumu [Nippon Medical School, Inba, Chiba (Japan). Chiba-Hokuso Hospital; Kato, Tomoyasu; Yamashita, Takashi [and others

    1997-12-01

    To investigate the feasibility of magnetization transfer contrast (MTC) in characterization of pelvic cystic masses and ascites, in vitro studies were performed. Cystic fluids were taken from operative specimens of ten ovarian cystic masses (five mucinous cystadenomas, one cystadenocarcinoma, two serous cystadenocarcinomas, two clear cell carcinomas) and three non-ovarian pelvic cysts (one paraovarian cyst, one pseudomyxoma peritonei, one pelvic abscess). Samples of ascitic flied were drawn by peritoneal puncture in twenty patients (thirteen with peritonitis carcinomatosa, five with liver dysfunction, two with renal dysfunction). Total protein content in ascitic fluids was measured. Magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) was calculated by the signal intensities under the gradient echo sequence with and without the application of off-resonance pulses. The relative signal intensities (RSI) relative to water in T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} weighted images were obtained using spin echo sequence. There was no correlation between histological type of pelvic mass and MTR and RSI. Good correlation (R{sup 2}=0.761) was obtained between MTR and protein content in ascitic fluids, whereas no correlation was noted between RSI and protein content in ascitic fluids. These results suggest that MTC is not useful in the characterization of pelvic masses but is applicable in the differentiation between exudative ascites and transudative ascites. (author)

  10. A cosmological view of extreme mass-ratio inspirals in nuclear star clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Mapelli, M; Vecchio, A; Graham, Alister W; Gualandris, A

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that many galaxies host both a nuclear star cluster (NC) and a super-massive black hole (SMBH). Their coexistence is particularly prevalent in spheroids with stellar mass 10^8-10^10 solar masses. We study the possibility that a stellar-mass black hole (BH) hosted by a NC inspirals and merges with the central SMBH. Due to the high stellar density in NCs, extreme mass-ratio inspirals (EMRIs) of BHs onto SMBHs in NCs may be important sources of gravitational waves (GWs). We consider sensitivity curves for three different space-based GW laser interferometric mission concepts: the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), the New Gravitational wave Observatory (NGO) and the DECi-hertz Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory (DECIGO). We predict that, under the most optimistic assumptions, LISA and DECIGO will detect up to thousands of EMRIs in NCs per year, while NGO will observe up to tens of EMRIs per year. We explore how a number of factors may affect the predicted rates. In ...

  11. Kicking massive black holes off clusters: Intermediate-mass ratio inspirals

    CERN Document Server

    Konstantinidis, Symeon; Kokkotas, Kostas D

    2011-01-01

    Contrary to supermassive and stellar-mass black holes (SBHs), the existence of intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) with masses ranging between 100 and 10,000 Msun has not yet been confirmed. The main problem in the detection is that the innermost stellar kinematics of globular clusters (GCs), the natural loci to IMBHs, are very difficult to resolve. However, if IMBHs reside in the center of GCs, a possibility is that they interact dynamically with their enviroment. A binary formed with the IMBH and a compact object of the GC would naturally lead to a prominent source of gravitational radiation, detectable with future observatories. We run for the first time direct-summation integrations of GCs with an IMBH including the dynamical evolution of the IMBH with the stellar system and relativistic effects, such as energy loss in gravitational waves (GWs) and periapsis shift, and gravitational recoil. We find in one of our models an intermediate-mass ratio inspiral (IMRI), which leads to a merger with a recoiling ...

  12. $N-$body dynamics of Intermediate mass-ratio inspirals in globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Haster, Carl-Johan; Kalogera, Vicky; Mandel, Ilya

    2016-01-01

    The intermediate mass-ratio inspiral of a stellar compact remnant into an intermediate mass black hole (IMBH) can produce a gravitational wave (GW) signal that is potentially detectable by current ground-based GW detectors (e.g., Advanced LIGO) as well as by planned space-based interferometers (e.g., eLISA). Here, we present results from a direct integration of the post-Newtonian $N$-body equations of motion describing stellar clusters containing an IMBH and a population of stellar-mass black holes (BHs) and solar mass stars. We take particular care to simulate the dynamics closest to the IMBH, including post-Newtonian effects up to order $2.5$. Our simulations show that the IMBH readily forms a binary with a BH companion. This binary is gradually hardened by transient 3-body or 4-body encounters, leading to frequent substitutions of the BH companion, while the binary's eccentricity experiences large amplitude oscillations due to the Lidov-Kozai resonance. We also demonstrate suppression of these resonances b...

  13. Sensitivity of inertial particle response on turbulent duct flows to mass loading ratio and Reynolds number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafane, Laura; Banko, Andrew; Elkins, Chris; Eaton, John

    2016-11-01

    The momentum coupled dynamics of particles and turbulence are experimentally investigated in a vertical fully developed turbulent square duct flow of air laden with Nickel particles. Significant preferential concentration is present for the Stokes numbers investigated, which vary from 3 to 30 based on the Kolmogorov time scale. Higher order measures of preferential concentration, such as the sizes and shapes of clusters and voids, are analyzed for increasing mass loading ratios. The mass loadings chosen span the one-way and two-way coupled regimes, while the volume loading is kept low. The effect of Stokes number and mass loading is also evaluated for particle velocity statistics and compared to the unladen gas statistics. Planar laser scattering is used to record instantaneous particle images in the center of the duct. Preferential concentration statistics are computed from box counting and Voronoi tessellation algorithms. PIV and PTV techniques are used to calculate particle velocity statistics. The analysis is extended to the near wall region in the logarithmic layer for the case of low mass loading. These results are compared to those from the duct center to assess the effects of strong carrier phase inhomogeneity on the particle distributions. This Material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0002373-1.

  14. A New Class of Nascent Eclipsing Binaries with Extreme Mass Ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Moe, Maxwell

    2014-01-01

    Early B-type main-sequence (MS) stars (M$_1$ = 5-16 M$_{\\odot}$) with closely orbiting low-mass stellar companions (q = M$_2$/M$_1$ < 0.25) can evolve to produce Type Ia supernovae, low-mass X-ray binaries, and millisecond pulsars. However, the formation mechanism and intrinsic frequency of such close extreme mass-ratio binaries have been debated, especially considering none have hitherto been detected. Utilizing observations of the Large Magellanic Cloud galaxy conducted by the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment, we have discovered a new class of eclipsing binaries in which a luminous B-type MS star irradiates a closely orbiting low-mass pre-MS companion that has not yet fully formed. The primordial pre-MS companions have large radii and discernibly reflect much of the light they intercept from the B-type MS primaries ($\\Delta$I$_{\\rm refl}$ = 0.02-0.14 mag). For the 18 definitive MS + pre-MS eclipsing binaries in our sample with good model fits to the observed light curves, we measure short orbital...

  15. Polymorphisms in the endocannabinoid receptor 1 in relation to fat mass distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Frost; Nielsen, T L; Wraae, K

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Both animal and human studies have associated the endocannabinoid system with obesity and markers of metabolic dysfunction. Blockade of the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) caused weight loss and reduction in waist size in both obese and type II diabetics. Recent studies on common variants...... of the CB1 receptor gene (CNR1) and the link to obesity have been conflicting. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether selected common variants of the CNR1 are associated with measures of obesity and fat distribution. DESIGN AND METHODS: The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs806381, rs......10485179 and rs1049353 were genotyped, and body fat and fat distribution were assessed by the use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging in a population-based study comprising of 783 Danish men, aged 20-29 years. RESULTS: The rs806381 polymorphism was significantly associated...

  16. Intake of carbohydrates during pregnancy in obese women is associated with fat mass in the newborn offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renault, Kristina M; Carlsen, Emma M; Nørgaard, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transmission of obesity across generations is of concern. Offspring of obese women have short- and long-term increased morbidities. A high intake of carbohydrate during pregnancy combined with impaired glucose tolerance is postulated to result in high birth weight, which is linked...... to subsequent metabolic disease. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine the association between carbohydrate intake in obese pregnant women and their offspring's body composition. DESIGN: Secondary analyses were performed in an observational setting of 222 pregnant women with a pregestational BMI (in kg/m(2...... with the offspring's relative fat mass in late (P-trend = 0.006) but not early (P-trend = 0.15) pregnancy. A comparison of mothers in the highest (median: 238 g/d) compared with the lowest (median: 188 g/d) quartile of digestible carbohydrate intake showed a mean adjusted higher value in the offspring's relative fat...

  17. Deep, Low Mass Ratio Overcontact Binary Systems. XI. V1191 Cygni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, L. Y.; Qian, S. B.; Soonthornthum, B.; He, J. J.; Liu, L.

    2011-10-01

    Complete CCD photometric light curves in BV(RI) c bands obtained on one night in 2009 for the short-period close-binary system V1191 Cygni are presented. A new photometric analysis with the 2003 version of the Wilson-Van Hamme code shows that V1191 Cyg is a W-type overcontact binary system and suggests that it has a high degree of overcontact (f = 68.6%) with very low mass ratio, implying that it is at the late stage of overcontact evolution. The absolute parameters of V1191 Cyg are derived using spectroscopic and photometric solutions. Combining new determined times of light minimum with others published in the literature, the period change of the binary star is investigated. A periodic variation, with a period of 26.7 years and an amplitude of 0.023 days, was discovered to be superimposed on a long-term period increase (dP/dt = +4.5(± 0.1) × 10-7 days yr-1). The cyclic period oscillation may be caused by the magnetic activity cycles of either of the components or the light-time effect due to the presence of a third body with a mass of m 3 = 0.77 M sun and an orbital radius of a 3 = 7.6 AU, when this body is coplanar to the orbit of the eclipsing pair. The secular orbital period increase can be interpreted as a mass transfer from the less massive component to the more massive one. With the period increases, V1191 Cyg will evolve from its present low mass ratio, high filled overcontact state to a rapidly rotating single star when its orbital angular momentum is less than three times the total spin angular momentum. V1191 Cyg is too blue for its orbital period and it is an unusual W-type overcontact system with such a low mass ratio and high fill-out overcontact configuration, which is worth monitoring continuously in the future.

  18. Direct isotope ratio analysis of individual uranium-plutonium mixed particles with various U/Pu ratios by thermal ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Daisuke; Esaka, Fumitaka; Miyamoto, Yutaka; Magara, Masaaki

    2015-02-01

    Uranium and plutonium isotope ratios in individual uranium-plutonium (U-Pu) mixed particles with various U/Pu atomic ratios were analyzed without prior chemical separation by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). Prior to measurement, micron-sized particles with U/Pu ratios of 1, 5, 10, 18, and 70 were produced from uranium and plutonium certified reference materials. In the TIMS analysis, the peaks of americium, plutonium, and uranium ion signals were successfully separated by continuously increasing the evaporation filament current. Consequently, the uranium and plutonium isotope ratios, except the (238)Pu/(239)Pu ratio, were successfully determined for the particles at all U/Pu ratios. This indicates that TIMS direct analysis allows for the measurement of individual U-Pu mixed particles without prior chemical separation.

  19. Development and application of liquid chromatography coupled to isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lijun

    2014-02-19

    Stable isotope analysis has found widespread applications in various disciplines such as archaeology, geochemistry, biology, food authenticity, and forensic science. Coupling chromatography to isotope ratio mass spectrometry for compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) is a trend, as it provides several advantages over bulk isotope analysis, e.g., relatively simple sample preparation, the ability to measure individual compounds in a complex mixture in one run, and the reduced sample size required for precise isotope analysis. Gas chromatography coupled to isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS) has been well-established for compound-specific isotope analysis of volatile organic compounds within the last two decades. However, an interface combining liquid chromatography with isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LC/IRMS) was not commercially available until 2004. The current design of the interface requires using a carbon-free eluent in chromatographic separation. This requirement limits the application of the most frequently used reversed-phase liquid chromatography in CSIA, because the elution strength of water at room temperature is too low to serve as mobile phase in reversed-phase separations. In order to increase the elution strength of water, we propose using high temperature water for chromatographic elution. The polarity of water decreases with an increase of temperature, yielding increased elution strength in reversed-phase columns. Therefore, high temperature water can be used as eluent instead of organic solvent for combining reversed-phase liquid chromatography with isotope ratio mass spectrometry (RPLC/IRMS). Additionally, temperature gradients can replace organic solvent gradients to increase chromatographic resolution. This is very important for LC/IRMS analysis, as precise isotope analysis requires baseline separation of analytes. In this thesis, high-temperature reversed-phase liquid chromatography was coupled to, and for the first time carefully

  20. Effect of High Intensity Interval and Continuous Swimming Training on Body Mass Adiposity Level and Serum Parameters in High-Fat Diet Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme L. da Rocha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of interval and continuous training on the body mass gain and adiposity levels of rats fed a high-fat diet. Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups, standard diet and high-fat diet, and received their respective diets for a period of four weeks without exercise stimuli. After this period, the animals were randomly divided into six groups (n=8: control standard diet (CS, control high-fat diet (CH, continuous training standard diet (CTS, continuous training high-fat diet (CTH, interval training standard diet (ITS, and interval training high-fat diet (ITH. The interval and continuous training consisted of a swimming exercise performed over eight weeks. CH rats had greater body mass gain, sum of adipose tissues mass, and lower serum high density lipoprotein values than CS. The trained groups showed lower values of feed intake, caloric intake, body mass gain, and adiposity levels compared with the CH group. No significant differences were observed between the trained groups (CTS versus ITS and CTH versus ITH on body mass gains and adiposity levels. In conclusion, both training methodologies were shown to be effective in controlling body mass gain and adiposity levels in high-fat diet fed rats.

  1. Long-Term Changes of Subcutaneous Fat Mass in HIV-Infected Children on Antiretroviral Therapy: A Retrospective Analysis of Longitudinal Data from Two Pediatric HIV-Cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Cohen

    Full Text Available Longitudinal studies objectively evaluating changes in regional fat distribution of HIV-infected children assessed by whole body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA are scarce, whilst this long-term effect of HIV and antiretroviral therapy (cART is an important issue in infected children in need for lifelong treatment.We assessed regional fat distribution over time, measured with sequential DEXA-scans in HIV-infected children on cART in cohorts from South Africa (SA and the Netherlands (NL, and in healthy controls (SA. Limb and trunk fat Z-scores were calculated with the lambda-mu-sigma (LMS method. Multivariable linear regression models with mixed effects were used to investigate the effect of cART compounds on body fat distribution over time.In total, 218 children underwent 445 DEXA assessments with a median follow-up of 3.5 years. Fat mass in all limbs was decreased in HIV-infected children compared to controls (arm fat Z-score: coefficient -0.4813; P = 0.006, leg fat Z-score: coefficient -0.4345; P = 0.013. In the HIV-infected group, stavudine treatment was associated with lower subcutaneous fat mass (arm fat Z-score: coefficient -0.5838; P = 0.001, with an additional cumulative exposure effect (arm fat Z-score: coefficient -0.0867; P = 0.003.Our study shows that subcutaneous fat loss is still prevalent in HIV-infected children on cART, and is strongly associated with cumulative stavudine exposure. These results underline the need for early detection of subcutaneous fat loss and alternative treatment options for HIV-infected children globally.

  2. A NEW CLASS OF NASCENT ECLIPSING BINARIES WITH EXTREME MASS RATIOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, Maxwell; Stefano, Rosanne Di, E-mail: mmoe@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-10, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-03-10

    Early B-type main-sequence (MS) stars (M {sub 1} ≈ 5-16 M {sub ☉}) with closely orbiting low-mass stellar companions (q = M {sub 2}/M {sub 1} < 0.25) can evolve to produce Type Ia supernovae, low-mass X-ray binaries, and millisecond pulsars. However, the formation mechanism and intrinsic frequency of such close extreme mass-ratio binaries have been debated, especially considering none have hitherto been detected. Utilizing observations of the Large Magellanic Cloud galaxy conducted by the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment, we have discovered a new class of eclipsing binaries in which a luminous B-type MS star irradiates a closely orbiting low-mass pre-MS companion that has not yet fully formed. The primordial pre-MS companions have large radii and discernibly reflect much of the light they intercept from the B-type MS primaries (ΔI {sub refl} ≈ 0.02-0.14 mag). For the 18 definitive MS + pre-MS eclipsing binaries in our sample with good model fits to the observed light-curves, we measure short orbital periods P = 3.0-8.5 days, young ages τ ≈ 0.6-8 Myr, and small secondary masses M {sub 2} ≈ 0.8-2.4 M {sub ☉} (q ≈ 0.07-0.36). The majority of these nascent eclipsing binaries are still associated with stellar nurseries, e.g., the system with the deepest eclipse ΔI {sub 1} = 2.8 mag and youngest age τ = 0.6 ± 0.4 Myr is embedded in the bright H II region 30 Doradus. After correcting for selection effects, we find that (2.0 ± 0.6)% of B-type MS stars have companions with short orbital periods P = 3.0-8.5 days and extreme mass ratios q ≈ 0.06-0.25. This is ≈10 times greater than that observed for solar-type MS primaries. We discuss how these new eclipsing binaries provide invaluable insights, diagnostics, and challenges for the formation and evolution of stars, binaries, and H II regions.

  3. Test-day somatic cell score, fat-to-protein ratio and milk yield as indicator traits for sub-clinical mastitis in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamrozik, J; Schaeffer, L R

    2012-02-01

    Test-day (TD) records of milk, fat-to-protein ratio (F:P) and somatic cell score (SCS) of first-lactation Canadian Holstein cows were analysed by a three-trait finite mixture random regression model, with the purpose of revealing hidden structures in the data owing to putative, sub-clinical mastitis. Different distributions of the data were allowed in 30 intervals of days in milk (DIM), covering the lactation from 5 to 305 days. Bayesian analysis with Gibbs sampling was used for model inferences. Estimated proportion of TD records originated from cows infected with mastitis was 0.66 in DIM from 5 to 15 and averaged 0.2 in the remaining part of lactation. Data from healthy and mastitic cows exhibited markedly different distributions, with respect to both average value and the variance, across all parts of lactation. Heterogeneity of distributions for infected cows was also apparent in different DIM intervals. Cows with mastitis were characterized by smaller milk yield (down to -5 kg) and larger F:P (up to 0.13) and SCS (up to 1.3) compared with healthy contemporaries. Differences in averages between healthy and infected cows for F:P were the most profound at the beginning of lactation, when a dairy cow suffers the strongest energy deficit and is therefore more prone to mammary infection. Residual variances for data from infected cows were substantially larger than for the other mixture components. Fat-to-protein ratio had a significant genetic component, with estimates of heritability that were larger or comparable with milk yield, and was not strongly correlated with milk and SCS on both genetic and environmental scales. Daily milk, F:P and SCS are easily available from milk-recording data for most breeding schemes in dairy cattle. Fat-to-protein ratio can potentially be a valuable addition to SCS and milk yield as an indicator trait for selection against mastitis.

  4. Can body mass index, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio and waist-height ratio predict the presence of multiple metabolic risk factors in Chinese subjects?

    OpenAIRE

    Lu Liping; Tong Weiwei; Tong Guanghui; Liu Yong; Qin Xiaosong

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Obesity is associated with metabolic risk factors. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-height ratio (WHtR) are used to predict the risk of obesity related diseases. However, it has not been examined whether these four indicators can detect the clustering of metabolic risk factors in Chinese subjects. Methods There are 772 Chinese subjects in the present study. Metabolic risk factors including high blood pressure, dyslipidemia, and gl...

  5. A continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry method for high precision determination of dissolved gas ratios and isotopic composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charoenpong, C. N.; Bristow, L. A.; Altabet, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Dissolved gas ratios and isotopic compositions provide essential information about the biological and physical mechanisms influencing N-2, O-2, and Ar in aquatic systems. Current methods available are either limited by overall cost, labor-intensive sample collection and analysis, or insufficient ...

  6. Carbon isotope ratio mass spectrometry for detection of endogenous steroid use: a testing strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Brian D; Butch, Anthony W

    2013-07-01

    Isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) testing is performed to determine if an atypical steroid profile is due to administration of an endogenous steroid. Androsterone (Andro) and etiocholanolone (Etio), and/or the androstanediols (5α- and 5β-androstane-3α,17β-diol) are typically analyzed by IRMS to determine the (13) C/(12) C ratio. The ratios of these target compounds are compared to the (13) C/(12) C ratio of an endogenous reference compound (ERC) such as 5β-pregnane-3α,20α-diol (Pdiol). Concentrations of Andro and Etio are high so (13) C/(12) C ratios can easily be measured in most urine samples. Despite the potentially improved sensitivity of the androstanediols for detecting the use of some testosterone formulations, additional processing steps are often required that increase labour costs and turnaround times. Since this can be problematic when performing large numbers of IRMS measurements, we established thresholds for Andro and Etio that can be used to determine the need for additional androstanediol testing. Using these criteria, 105 out of 2639 urine samples exceeded the Andro and/or Etio thresholds, with 52 of these samples being positive based on Andro and Etio IRMS testing alone. The remaining 53 urine samples had androstanediol IRMS testing performed and 3 samples were positive based on the androstanediol results. A similar strategy was used to establish a threshold for Pdiol to identify athletes with relatively (13) C-depleted values so that an alternative ERC can be used to confirm or establish a true endogenous reference value. Adoption of a similar strategy by other laboratories can significantly reduce IRMS sample processing and analysis times, thereby increasing testing capacity.

  7. Search for a drifting proton--electron mass ratio from H$_2$

    CERN Document Server

    Ubachs, Wim; Salumbides, Edcel J; Murphy, Michael T; Kaper, Lex

    2015-01-01

    An overview is presented of the H$_2$ quasar absorption method to search for a possible variation of the proton--electron mass ratio $\\mu=m_p/m_e$ on a cosmological time scale. Details of the analysis of astronomical spectra, obtained with large 8--10 m class optical telescopes, equipped with high-resolution echelle grating based spectrographs, are explained. The methods and results of the laboratory molecular spectroscopy of H$_2$, in particular the laser-based metrology studies for the determination of rest wavelengths of the Lyman and Werner band absorption lines, are reviewed. Theoretical physics scenarios delivering a rationale for a varying $\\mu$ will be discussed briefly, as well as alternative spectroscopic approaches to probe variation of $\\mu$, other than the H$_2$ method. Also a recent approach to detect a dependence of the proton-to-electron mass ratio on environmental conditions, such as the presence of strong gravitational fields, will be highlighted. Currently some 56 H$_2$ absorption systems a...

  8. Spin–orbit precession for eccentric black hole binaries at first order in the mass ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcay, Sarp; Dempsey, David; Dolan, Sam R.

    2017-04-01

    We consider spin–orbit (‘geodetic’) precession for a compact binary in strong-field gravity. Specifically, we compute ψ, the ratio of the accumulated spin-precession and orbital angles over one radial period, for a spinning compact body of mass m 1 and spin s 1, with {{s}1}\\ll Gm12/c , orbiting a non-rotating black hole. We show that ψ can be computed for eccentric orbits in both the gravitational self-force and post-Newtonian frameworks, and that the results appear to be consistent. We present a post-Newtonian expansion for ψ at next-to-next-to-leading order, and a Lorenz-gauge gravitational self-force calculation for ψ at first order in the mass ratio. The latter provides new numerical data in the strong-field regime to inform the effective one-body model of the gravitational two-body problem. We conclude that ψ complements the Detweiler redshift z as a key invariant quantity characterizing eccentric orbits in the gravitational two-body problem.

  9. Cosmological Constraints from Galaxy Clustering and the Mass-to-Number Ratio of Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Tinker, Jeremy L; Wechsler, Risa H; Becker, Matthew R; Rozo, Eduardo; Zu, Ying; Weinberg, David H; Zehavi, Idit; Blanton, Michael; Busha, Michael; Koester, Benjamin P

    2011-01-01

    We place constraints on the average density (Omega_m) and clustering amplitude (sigma_8) of matter using a combination of two measurements from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey: the galaxy two-point correlation function, w_p, and the mass-to-galaxy-number ratio within galaxy clusters, M/N, analogous to cluster M/L ratios. Our w_p measurements are obtained from DR7 while the sample of clusters is the maxBCG sample, with cluster masses derived from weak gravitational lensing. We construct non-linear galaxy bias models using the Halo Occupation Distribution (HOD) to fit both w_p and M/N for different cosmological parameters. HOD models that match the same two-point clustering predict different numbers of galaxies in massive halos when Omega_m or sigma_8 is varied, thereby breaking the degeneracy between cosmology and bias. We demonstrate that this technique yields constraints that are consistent and competitive with current results from cluster abundance studies, even though this technique does not use abundance inf...

  10. Abundance ratios of red giants in low mass ultra faint dwarf spheroidal galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    François, P; Bonifacio, P; Bidin, C Moni; Geisler, D; Sbordone, L

    2015-01-01

    Low mass dwarf spheroidal galaxies are key objects for our understanding of the chemical evolution of the pristine Universe and the Local Group of galaxies. Abundance ratios in stars of these objects can be used to better understand their star formation and chemical evolution. We report on the analysis of a sample of 11 stars belonging to 5 different ultra faint dwarf spheroidal galaxies (UfDSph) based on X-Shooter spectra obtained at the VLT. Medium resolution spectra have been used to determine the detailed chemical composition of their atmosphere. We performed a standard 1D LTE analysis to compute the abundances. Considering all the stars as representative of the same population of low mass galaxies, we found that the [alpha/Fe] ratios vs [Fe/H] decreases as the metallicity of the star increases in a way similar to what is found for the population of stars belonging to dwarf spheroidal galaxies. The main difference is that the solar [alpha/Fe] is reached at a much lower metallicity for the UfDSph than the ...

  11. Body Estimation and Physical Performance: Estimation of Lifting and Carrying from Fat-Free Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-30

    fat content determined from hydrodensitometry and application of the Siri 2- compartment model. 8 whom information was collected gave their consent to...the vertex of the head and measurement taken. Body composition Body volume was determined by hydrodensitometry (underwater weighing; Goldman and Buskirk

  12. Assessing Fat Mass of Adolescent Swimmers Using Anthropometric Equations: A DXA Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Berges, Gabriel; Gómez-Bruton, Alejandro; Matute-Llorente, Ángel; Julián-Almárcegui, Cristina; Gómez-Cabello, Alba; González-Agüero, Alejandro; Casajús, José A.; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to determine which of the published anthropometric equations is the most appropriate to estimate body-fat percentage (BF%) in adolescent swimmers. Method: Eighty-eight swimmers (45 boys, 43 girls) participated in this study. Following the recommendations of the International Society of the Advancement of…

  13. Abdominal fat mass is associated with adaptive immune activation: the CODAM study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thewissen, M.M.; Damoiseaux, J.G.; Duijvestijn, A.M.; Greevenbroek, M.M.; Kallen, van der C.J.H.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Blaak, E.E.; Schalkwijk, C.G.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Cohen Tervaert, J.W.; Ferreira, I.

    2011-01-01

    Abdominal fat-related activation of the innate immune system and insulin resistance (IR) are implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Recent data support an important role of the adaptive immune system as well. In this study, we investigate the association between waist circumferen

  14. Pre-treatment microbial Prevotella-to-Bacteroides ratio, determines body fat loss success during a 6-month randomized controlled diet intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, M F; Roager, Henrik Munch; Larsen, T. M.

    2017-01-01

    Based on the abundance of specific bacterial genera, the human gut microbiota can be divided into two relatively stable groups that might play a role in personalized nutrition. We studied these simplified enterotypes as prognostic markers for successful body fat loss on two different diets. A total....... divided by Bacteroides spp. (P/B ratio) obtained by quantitative PCR analysis. Modifications of dietary effects of pre-treatment P/B group were examined by linear mixed models. Among individuals with high P/B the NND resulted in a 3.15 kg (95%CI 1.55;4.76, P

  15. Fasting gall bladder volume and lithogenicity in relation to glucose tolerance, total and intra-abdominal fat masses in obese non-diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, H W; Højgaard, L; Andersen, T

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether total body fat mass or fat distribution and associated metabolic disturbances in glucose and lipid metabolism influence the well known gallstone pathogenetic factors in obese subjects in order to explain why some obese subjects develop gallstones and some do not....... DESIGN: Cross sectional study of gallstone pathogenetic factors, body composition, fat distribution, glucose and lipid metabolism. SUBJECTS: 57 healthy overweight subjects (aged 26-64y, body mass index (BMI) 30-45 kg/m2). MEASUREMENTS: Total and intra-abdominal fat masses were measured by dual X......-ray absorptiometry and abdominal CT scanning, respectively. The lithogenic index was measured in aspirated bile. The gallbladder volume was determined by ultrasound and the gallbladder ejection fraction% by dynamic cholescintigraphy. Plasma cholecystokinin (CCK) concentrations during a meal were measured...

  16. New CCD photometry for the extreme lower mass-ratio binary AW Ursae Majoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuangui

    2008-04-01

    This paper presents charge-couple device (CCD) photometric observations for the eclipsing binary AW UMa. The V-band light curve in 2007 was analyzed using the 2003 version of the Wilson Devinney code. It is confirmed that AW UMa is a total eclipsing binary with a higher degree of contact f=80.2% and a lower mass ratio of q=0.076. From the ( O- C) curve, the orbital period shows a continuous period decrease at a rate of dP/ dt=-2.05×10-7 d yr-1. The long-term period decrease suggested that AW UMa is undergoing the mass transfer from the primary component to the secondary one, accompanied by angular momentum loss due to mass outflow L 2. Weak evidence indicates that there exists a cyclic variation with a period of 17.6 yr and a small amplitude of A=0. d 0019, which may be attributed to the light-time effect via the third body. If the existence of an additional body is true, it may remove a great amount of angular momentum from the central system. For this kind of contact binary, as the orbital period decreases, the shrinking of the inner and outer critical Roche lobes will cause the contact degree f to increase. Finally, this kind of binary will merge into a single rapid-rotation star.

  17. Deep, Low Mass Ratio Overcontact Binary Systems. XIII. DZ Piscium with Intrinsic Light Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.-G.; Qian, S.-B.; Zhang, L.-Y.; Dai, H.-F.; Soonthornthum, B.

    2013-08-01

    New multi-color photometry for the eclipsing binary DZ Psc was performed in 2011 and 2012 using the 85 cm telescope at the Xinglong Station of the National Astronomical Observatories of China. Using the updated Wilson-Devinney (W-D) code, we deduced two sets of photometric solutions. The overcontact degree is f = 89.7(± 1.0)%, identifying DZ Psc as a deep, low mass ratio overcontact binary. The asymmetric light curves (i.e., LC2 in 2012) were modeled by a hot spot on the primary star. Based on all of the available light minimum times, we discovered that the orbital period of DZ Psc may be undergoing a secular period increase with a cyclic variation. The modulated period and semi-amplitude of this oscillation are P mod = 11.89(± 0.19) yr and A = 0.0064(± 0.0006) days, which may be possibly attributed to either cyclic magnetic activity or light-time effect due to the third body. The long-term period increases at a rate of dP/dt=+7.43(+/- 0.17)\\times 10^{-7}{\\,days\\, yr^{-1}}, which may be interpreted as conserved mass transfer from the less massive component to the more massive one. With mass transferring, DZ Psc will finally merge into a rapid-rotation single star when J spin/J orb > 1/3.

  18. On the mass-to-light ratios of fossil groups. Are they simply dark clusters?

    CERN Document Server

    Proctor, Robert N; Dupke, Renato; de Oliveira, Raimundo Lopes; Cypriano, Eduardo S; Miller, Eric D; Rykoff, Eli

    2011-01-01

    Defined as X-ray bright galaxy groups with large differences between the luminosities of their brightest and second brightest galaxies, "fossil groups" are believed to be some of the oldest galaxy systems in the universe. They have therefore been the subject of much recent research. In this work we present a study of 10 fossil group candidates with an average of 33 spectroscopically confirmed members per group, making this the deepest study of its type to-date. We also use this data to perform an analysis of the luminosity function of our sample of fossil groups. We confirm the high masses previously reported for many of fossil systems, finding values more similar to those of clusters than of groups. We also confirm the high dynamical mass-to-light ratios reported in many previous studies. While our results are consistent with previous studies in many ways, our interpretation is not. This is because we show that, while the luminosities of the BCGs in these systems are consistent with their high dynamical mass...

  19. Space-time variation of the electron-to-proton mass ratio in a Weyl model

    CERN Document Server

    Landau, Susana J; Bonder, Yuri; Sudarsky, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    We consider a phenomenological model where the effective fermion masses depend on the local value of Weyl tensor as a possible explanation for the recent data indicating a space-time variation of the electron-to-proton mass ratio ($\\Delta \\mu/\\mu$) within the Milky Way. We also contrast the required value of the model's parameters with the bounds obtained for the same quantity from modern tests on the violation of the Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP). We obtain the theoretical expression for the variation of $\\Delta \\mu/\\mu$ and for the violation of the WEP as a function of the model parameters. We perform a least square minimization in order to obtain constraints on the model parameters from bounds on the WEP. The bounds obtained on the model parameters from the variation of $\\Delta \\mu/\\mu$ are inconsistent with the bounds obtained from constraints on the violation of the WEP. The variation of nucleon and electron masses through the Weyl tensor is not a viable model.

  20. Impact of indexing resting metabolic rate against fat-free mass determined by different body composition models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaForgia, J; van der Ploeg, G E; Withers, R T; Gunn, S M; Brooks, A G; Chatterton, B E

    2004-08-01

    To examine the differences arising from indexing resting metabolic rate (RMR) against fat-free mass (FFM) determined using two-, three- and four-compartment body composition models. All RMR and body composition measurements were conducted on the same day for each subject following compliance with premeasurement protocols. Data were generated from measurements on 104 males (age 32.1+/-12.1 y (mean+/-s.d.); body mass 81.15+/-12.85 kg; height 179.5+/-6.5 cm; body fat 20.6+/-7.6%). Body density (BD), total body water (TBW) and bone mineral mass (BMM) were measured by hydrodensitometry, deuterium dilution and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), respectively. These measures were used to determine two (hydrodensitometry: BD; hydrometry: TBW)-, three (BD and TBW)- and four- compartment (BD, TBW and BMM) FFM values. DXA also provided three compartment derived FFM values. RMR was measured using open circuit indirect calorimetry. Three (body fat group: lean, moderate, high) x five (body composition determination: hydrodensitometry, hydrometry, three-compartment, DXA, four-compartment) ANOVAs were conducted on FFM and RMR kJ.kg FFM(-1).d(-1). Within-group comparisons revealed that hydrodensitometry and DXA were associated with significant (P or =0.68) different from criterion values intraindividual differences were large (FFM: -1.5 to 2.9 kg; RMR: -6.0 to 3.2 kJ.kg FFM(-1).d(-1)). The relationship between RMR kJ.kg FFM(-1).d(-1) and exercise status would best be investigated using three (BD, TBW)- or four (BD, TBW, BMM)-compartment body composition models to determine FFM. Other models either significantly underestimate indexed RMR (hydrodensitometry, DXA) or display large intraindividual differences (hydrometry) compared with four-compartment derived criterion values. Australian Research Council (small grants scheme).

  1. Nucleosynthesis in AGB stars traced by isotopic ratios. I - Determining the stellar initial mass by means of the $^{17}$O/$^{18}$O ratio

    CERN Document Server

    De Nutte, R; Olofsson, H; Lombaert, R; de Koter, A; Karakas, A; Milam, S; Ramstedt, S; Stancliffe, R J; Homan, W; Van de Sande, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the $^{17}$O/$^{18}$O ratio for a sample of AGB stars, containing M-, S- and C-type stars. These ratios are evaluated in relation to fundamental stellar evolution parameters: the stellar initial mass and pulsation period. This study is the first to explore these oxygen ratios for a sample covering the three spectral types. Circumstellar $^{13}$C$^{16}$O, $^{12}$C$^{17}$O and $^{12}$C$^{18}$O line observations were obtained for a sample of nine stars with various single-dish long-wavelength facilities. These data have been fully reduced and analyzed. The line intensity ratios obtained from these observations are then related directly to the surface $^{17}$O/$^{18}$O abundance ratio. Stellar evolution models predict the $^{17}$O/$^{18}$O ratio to be a sensitive function of initial mass and to remain constant throughout the entire TP-AGB phase for stars less massive than 5 M$_{\\odot}$. This allows the measured ratio to function as an effective method of determining the ini...

  2. Four-Year Changes in Visceral Fat Mass and the Risk of Developing Proteinuria in the General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jwa-Kyung; Kwon, Young-Jun; Song, Young Rim; Kim, Young-Su; Kim, Hyung Jik; Kim, Sung Gyun; Ju, Young-Su

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous cross-sectional studies demonstrated the close relationship between visceral obesity and the increased prevalence of proteinuria. But, little is known about the role of changes in visceral fat mass (∆VFM) over several years in the development of proteinuria. In this longitudinal cohort study with the general population, the changes in ∆VFM as well as baseline VFM on proteinuria development were evaluated. Methods Healthy individuals (n = 2393) who participated in two health screening exams were analyzed. Subjects were divided into three groups based on gender-specific tertiles of baseline VFM and ∆VFM. Each patient was tested for proteinuria using a dipstick, and proteinuria was defined as 1+ or greater. Results The mean age was 51.9±7.7 years, and the incidence of proteinuria was 3.9% (n = 93). During the 4 years, 52.5% of the subjects experienced a decline in ∆VFM. However, subjects who developed proteinuria exhibited a significant increase in ∆VFM. Even after adjustment for age, smoking, systolic and diastolic BP, serum creatinine, and hs-CRP levels, the highest tertiles for baseline VFM [men, odds ratio (OR) 3.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.22–9.67; women, OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.05–4.15] and ∆VFM (men, OR 2.92, 95% CI 1.22–6.99; women, OR 3.16, 95% CI 1.56–6.39) were independent predictors of proteinuria development. Following adjustment of both parameters, subjects in the highest baseline VFM and ∆VFM tertiles exhibited the greatest risk of proteinuria development, which suggested the additive harmful effects of the two factors. Conclusions Baseline VFM and greater increase in ∆VFM were both important risk factors for developing proteinuria in the general population. Appropriate education and interventions to prevent accumulation of VFM should be the major focus of preemptive strategies. PMID:26083499

  3. THE CONTRIBUTION OF HALOS WITH DIFFERENT MASS RATIOS TO THE OVERALL GROWTH OF CLUSTER-SIZED HALOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemze, Doron; Ford, Holland C.; Medezinski, Elinor [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Postman, Marc; Koekemoer, Anton [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21208 (United States); Genel, Shy [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Balestra, Italo; Nonino, Mario; Biviano, Andrea [INAF/Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via G.B. Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy); Donahue, Megan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-2320 (United States); Kelson, Daniel; Voit, G. Mark [Carnegie Institute for Science, Carnegie Observatories, Pasadena, CA (United States); Mercurio, Amata [INAF/Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Salita Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli (Italy); Rosati, Piero [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Umetsu, Keiichi [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Sand, David [Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Box 41051, Lubbock, TX 79409-1051 (United States); Meneghetti, Massimo [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Melchior, Peter [Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, The Ohio State University, 191 West Woodruff Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Newman, Andrew B. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MS 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bhatti, Waqas A. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); and others

    2013-10-20

    We provide a new observational test for a key prediction of the ΛCDM cosmological model: the contributions of mergers with different halo-to-main-cluster mass ratios to cluster-sized halo growth. We perform this test by dynamically analyzing 7 galaxy clusters, spanning the redshift range 0.13 < z{sub c} < 0.45 and caustic mass range 0.4-1.5 10{sup 15} h{sub 0.73}{sup -1} M{sub ☉}, with an average of 293 spectroscopically confirmed bound galaxies to each cluster. The large radial coverage (a few virial radii), which covers the whole infall region, with a high number of spectroscopically identified galaxies enables this new study. For each cluster, we identify bound galaxies. Out of these galaxies, we identify infalling and accreted halos and estimate their masses and their dynamical states. Using the estimated masses, we derive the contribution of different mass ratios to cluster-sized halo growth. For mass ratios between ∼0.2 and ∼0.7, we find a ∼1σ agreement with ΛCDM expectations based on the Millennium simulations I and II. At low mass ratios, ∼< 0.2, our derived contribution is underestimated since the detection efficiency decreases at low masses, ∼2 × 10{sup 14} h{sub 0.73}{sup -1} M{sub ☉}. At large mass ratios, ∼> 0.7, we do not detect halos probably because our sample, which was chosen to be quite X-ray relaxed, is biased against large mass ratios. Therefore, at large mass ratios, the derived contribution is also underestimated.

  4. Associations Between Sedentary Time, Physical Activity, and Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Measures of Total Body, Android, and Gynoid Fat Mass in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Lacey; Meendering, Jessica; Specker, Bonny; Binkley, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Negative health outcomes are associated with excess body fat, low levels of physical activity (PA), and high sedentary time (ST). Relationships between PA, ST, and body fat distribution, including android and gynoid fat, assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) have not been measured in children. The purpose of this study was to test associations between levels of activity and body composition in children and to evaluate if levels of activity predict body composition by DXA and by body mass index percentile in a similar manner. PA, ST, and body composition from 87 children (8.8-11.8 yr, grades 3-5, 44 boys) were used to test the association among study variables. Accelerometers measured PA and ST. Body composition measured by DXA included bone mineral content (BMC) and fat and lean mass of the total body (TB, less head), android, and gynoid regions. ST (range: 409-685 min/wk) was positively associated with TB percent fat (0.03, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.00-0.05) and android fat mass (1.5 g, 95% CI: 0.4-3.0), and inversely associated with the lean mass of the TB (-10.7 g, 95% CI: -20.8 to -0.63) and gynoid regions (-2.2 g, 95% CI: -4.3 to -0.2), and with BMC (-0.43 g, 95% CI: 0.77-0.09). Moderate-to-vigorous PA was associated with lower TB (-53 g, 95% CI: -87 to -18), android (-5 g, 95% CI: -8 to -2]), and gynoid fat (-6 g, 95% CI: -11 to -0.5). Vigorous activity results were similar. Light PA was associated with increased TB (17.1 g, 95% CI: 3.0-31.3) and gynoid lean mass (3.9 g, 95% CI: 1.0-6.8) and BMC (0.59 g, 95% CI: 0.10-1.07). In boys, there were significant associations between activity and DXA percent body fat measures that were not found with the body mass index percentile. Objective measures of PA were inversely associated with TB, android, and gynoid fat, whereas ST was directly associated with TB percent fat and, in particular, android fat. Activity levels predict body composition measures by DXA and, in

  5. Colloquium: Search for a drifting proton-electron mass ratio from H2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubachs, W.; Bagdonaite, J.; Salumbides, E. J.; Murphy, M. T.; Kaper, L.

    2016-04-01

    An overview is presented of the H2 quasar absorption method to search for a possible variation of the proton-electron mass ratio μ =mp/me on a cosmological time scale. The method is based on a comparison between wavelengths of absorption lines in the H2 Lyman and Werner bands as observed at high redshift with wavelengths of the same lines measured at zero redshift in the laboratory. For such comparison sensitivity coefficients to a relative variation of μ are calculated for all individual lines and included in the fitting routine deriving a value for Δ μ /μ . Details of the analysis of astronomical spectra, obtained with large 8-10 m class optical telescopes, equipped with high-resolution echelle grating based spectrographs, are explained. The methods and results of the laboratory molecular spectroscopy of H2, in particular, the laser-based metrology studies for the determination of rest wavelengths of the Lyman and Werner band absorption lines, are reviewed. Theoretical physics scenarios delivering a rationale for a varying μ are discussed briefly, as well as alternative spectroscopic approaches to probe variation of μ , other than the H2 method. Also a recent approach to detect a dependence of the proton-to-electron mass ratio on environmental conditions, such as the presence of strong gravitational fields, are highlighted. Currently some 56 H2 absorption systems are known and listed. Their usefulness to detect μ variation is discussed, in terms of column densities and brightness of background quasar sources, along with future observational strategies. The astronomical observations of ten quasar systems analyzed so far set a constraint on a varying proton-electron mass ratio of |Δ μ /μ |<5 ×1 0-6 (3 σ ), which is a null result, holding for redshifts in the range z =2.0 - 4.2 . This corresponds to look-back times of (10 - 12.4 )×109 years into cosmic history. Attempts to interpret the results from these ten H2 absorbers in terms of a spatial

  6. Early decrease in dietary protein:energy ratio by fat addition and ontogenetic changes in muscle growth mechanisms of rainbow trout: short- and long-term effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alami-Durante, Hélène; Cluzeaud, Marianne; Duval, Carine; Maunas, Patrick; Girod-David, Virginia; Médale, Françoise

    2014-09-14

    As the understanding of the nutritional regulation of muscle growth mechanisms in fish is fragmentary, the present study aimed to (1) characterise ontogenetic changes in muscle growth-related genes in parallel to changes in muscle cellularity; (2) determine whether an early decrease in dietary protein:energy ratio by fat addition affects the muscle growth mechanisms of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) alevins; and (3) determine whether this early feeding of a high-fat (HF) diet to alevins had a long-term effect on muscle growth processes in juveniles fed a commercial diet. Developmental regulation of hyperplasia and hypertrophy was evidenced at the molecular (expression of myogenic regulatory factors, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and myosin heavy chains (MHC)) and cellular (number and diameter of white muscle fibres) levels. An early decrease in dietary protein:energy ratio by fat addition stimulated the body growth of alevins but led to a fatty phenotype, with accumulation of lipids in the anterior part, and less caudal muscle when compared at similar body weights, due to a decrease in both the white muscle hyperplasia and maximum hypertrophy of white muscle fibres. These HF diet-induced cellular changes were preceded by a very rapid down-regulation of the expression of fast-MHC. The present study also demonstrated that early dietary composition had a long-term effect on the subsequent muscle growth processes of juveniles fed a commercial diet for 3 months. When compared at similar body weights, initially HF diet-fed juveniles indeed had a lower mean diameter of white muscle fibres, a smaller number of large white muscle fibres, and lower expression levels of MyoD1 and myogenin. These findings demonstrated the strong effect of early feed composition on the muscle growth mechanisms of trout alevins and juveniles.

  7. Reduced dietary omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid ratio and 12/15-lipoxygenase deficiency are protective against chronic high fat diet-induced steatohepatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milos Lazic

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with metabolic perturbations including liver and adipose tissue inflammation, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. Omega-6 fatty acids (ω6 promote and omega-3 fatty acids (ω3 reduce inflammation as they can be metabolized to pro- and anti-inflammatory eicosanoids, respectively. 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LO enzymatically produces some of these metabolites and is induced by high fat (HF diet. We investigated the effects of altering dietary ω6/ω3 ratio and 12/15-LO deficiency on HF diet-induced tissue inflammation and insulin resistance. We examined how these conditions affect circulating concentrations of oxidized metabolites of ω6 arachidonic and linoleic acids and innate and adaptive immune system activity in the liver. For 15 weeks, wild-type (WT mice were fed either a soybean oil-enriched HF diet with high dietary ω6/ω3 ratio (11∶1, HFH, similar to Western-style diet, or a fat Kcal-matched, fish oil-enriched HF diet with a low dietary ω6/ω3 ratio of 2.7∶1 (HFL. Importantly, the total saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat content was matched in the two HF diets, which is unlike most published fish oil studies in mice. Despite modestly increased food intake, WT mice fed HFL were protected from HFH-diet induced steatohepatitis, evidenced by decreased hepatic mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory genes and genes involved in lymphocyte homing, and reduced deposition of hepatic triglyceride. Furthermore, oxidized metabolites of ω6 arachidonic acid were decreased in the plasma of WT HFL compared to WT HFH-fed mice. 12/15-LO knockout (KO mice were also protected from HFH-induced fatty liver and elevated mRNA markers of inflammation and lymphocyte homing. 12/15-LOKO mice were protected from HFH-induced insulin resistance but reducing dietary ω6/ω3 ratio in WT mice did not ameliorate insulin resistance or adipose tissue inflammation. In conclusion, lowering dietary ω6/ω3 ratio in HF diet

  8. Apoptosis, mastocytosis, and diminished adipocytokine gene expression accompany reduced epididymal fat mass in long-standing diet-induced obese mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altintas Mehmet M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is characterized by increased cell death and inflammatory reactions in the adipose tissue. Here, we explored pathophysiological alterations taking place in the adipose tissue in long-standing obesity. In the epididymal fat of C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet for 20 weeks, the prevalence and distribution of dead adipocytes (crown-like structures, mast cells (toluidine blue, mMCP6, macrophages (F4/80, and apoptotic cells (cleaved caspase-3 were measured. Moreover, gene and/or protein expression of several adipocytokines (leptin, adiponectin, TNF-α, IL-10, IL-6, MCP-1, F4/80, mMCP6, cleaved caspase-3 were determined. Results We observed that the epididymal fat mass was lower in obese than in lean mice. In obese mice, the epididymal fat mass correlated inversely with body weight and liver mass. Dead adipocytes, mast cells, macrophages, and apoptotic cells were abundant in the epididymal fat of obese mice, especially in the rostral vs. caudal zone. Accordingly, mMCP6, F4/80, and cleaved caspase-3 gene and/or protein expression was increased. Conversely, adiponectin, leptin, IL-6, and MCP-1 gene expression levels were lower in the epididymal fat of obese than lean mice. Although TNF-α and IL-10 gene expression was higher in the epididymal fat of obese mice, their expression relative to F4/80 and mMCP6 expression were lower in the heavily infiltrated rostral than caudal zone. Conclusions This study demonstrates that in mice with long-standing obesity diminished gene expression of several adipocytokines accompany apoptosis and reduced mass of the epididymal fat. Our findings suggest that this is due to both increased prevalence of dead adipocytes and altered immune cell activity. Differential distribution of metabolically challenged adipocytes is indicative of the presence of biologically diverse zones within the epididymal fat.

  9. Maternal fat mass may predict overweight/obesity in non-instituzionalized women with intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Fornieles

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Previous studies have found a significant correlation between parents and offspring regarding overweight and obesity in general population at early life stages. However this issue has received no attention in people with intellectual disability (ID. Therefore, the present study was designed to find out potential correlations in overweight/obesity between young adult women with ID living in the family and their parents. Material and methods: In the present observational cross-sectional study, a total of thirty-four women with Down syndrome (n = 34; 22.6 ± 2.1 years; 29.6 ± 3.3 km/m² were recruited through different community support groups for people with intellectual disabilities. Furthermore, biological mothers (n = 34; 59.6 ± 4.9 years; 28.5 ± 3.2 km/m² and fathers (n = 34; 61.5 ± 5.3 years; 26.2 ± 2.7 km/m² volunteered for this study. They all underwent an anthropometric assessment to determine body mass index (BMI. This protocol was approved by an Institutional Ethics Committee. Results: In the studied population, a total of 26 (76.5% women with ID were overweight/obese. Furthermore, there were 22 (66.6% overweight/obese mothers and 16(53.3% fathers. Results also showed significant correlations between participants BMI and their father (r = 0.327; p = 0.0116 and mother BMI (r = 0.412; p < 0.001. Lastly, overweight/obese women presented a stronger correlation with overweight/obese mothers (odds ratio 4.3; 95%CI 2.9-7.3 than fathers (odds ratio 3.1; 95%CI 1.6-4.4. Conclusion: Parental overweight/obesity, especially maternal one, was strongly associated to overweight/obesity in young adult women with DS. Accordingly, there is an urgent necessity of incorporating parents in the intervention programs designed to the prevention and treatment of overweight and obesity in people with ID.

  10. Effect of body mass index and intra-abdominal fat measured by computed tomography on the risk of bowel symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoyoshi Nagata

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the association between body mass index (BMI or intra-abdominal fat measured by computed tomography (CT and bowel symptoms.A cohort of 958 Japanese adults who underwent colonoscopy and CT and completed questionnaires after excluding colorectal diseases was analyzed. Six symptoms (constipation, diarrhea, loose stools, hard stools, fecal urgency, and incomplete evacuation using a 7-point Likert scale were evaluated between baseline and second questionnaire for test-retest reliability. Associations between BMI, visceral adipose tissue (VAT, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT, and symptom score were analyzed by a rank-ordered logistic model, adjusting for age, sex, smoking, and alcohol consumption, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia.Some bowel symptom scores were significantly (p<0.05 different between the age groups, sexes, smoking, and alcohol consumption. In multivariate analysis, constipation was associated with low BMI (p<0.01, low VAT area (p = 0.01, and low SAT area (p<0.01. Moreover, hard stools was associated with low BMI (p<0.01 and low SAT area (p<0.01. The remaining symptoms were not significantly associated with BMI or intra-abdominal fat. Test-retest reliability of bowel symptom scores with a mean duration of 7.5 months was good (mean kappa, 0.672.Both low BMI and low abdominal fat accumulation appears to be useful indicators of increased risk for constipation and hard stools. The long-term test-retest reliability of symptom score suggests that bowel symptoms relevant to BMI or visceral fat remain consistent over several months.

  11. Saturated fat intake modulates the association between an obesity genetic risk score and body mass index in two US populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Agustench, Patricia; Arnett, Donna K; Smith, Caren E; Lai, Chao-Qiang; Parnell, Laurence D; Borecki, Ingrid B; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C; Allison, Matthew; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Taylor, Kent D; Rich, Stephen S; Rotter, Jerome I; Lee, Yu-Chi; Ordovás, José M

    2014-12-01

    Combining multiple genetic variants related to obesity into a genetic risk score (GRS) might improve identification of individuals at risk of developing obesity. Moreover, characterizing gene-diet interactions is a research challenge to establish dietary recommendations to individuals with higher predisposition to obesity. Our objective was to analyze the association between an obesity GRS and body mass index (BMI) in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) population, focusing on gene-diet interactions with total fat and saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake, and to replicate findings in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) population. Cross-sectional analyses included 783 white US participants from GOLDN and 2,035 from MESA. Dietary intakes were estimated with validated food frequency questionnaires. Height and weight were measured. A weighted GRS was calculated on the basis of 63 obesity-associated variants. Multiple linear regression models adjusted by potential confounders were used to examine gene-diet interactions between dietary intake (total fat and SFA) and the obesity GRS in determining BMI. Significant interactions were found between total fat intake and the obesity GRS using these variables as continuous for BMI (P for interaction=0.010, 0.046, and 0.002 in GOLDN, MESA, and meta-analysis, respectively). These association terms were stronger when assessing interactions between SFA intake and GRS for BMI (P for interaction=0.005, 0.018, and intake interacts with an obesity GRS in modulating BMI in two US populations. Although determining the causal direction requires further investigation, these findings suggest that potential dietary recommendations to reduce BMI effectively in populations with high obesity GRS would be to reduce total fat intake mainly by limiting SFAs. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Metabolic adaptations in the adipose tissue that underlie the body fat mass gain in middle-aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sertié, Rogério Antonio Laurato; Caminhotto, Rennan de Oliveira; Andreotti, Sandra; Campaña, Amanda Baron; de Proença, André Ricardo Gomes; de Castro, Natalie Carolina; Lima, Fábio Bessa

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about adipocyte metabolism during aging process and whether this can influence body fat redistribution and systemic metabolism. To better understand this phenomenon, two animal groups were studied: young-14 weeks old-and middle-aged-16 months old. Periepididymal (PE) and subcutaneous (SC) adipocytes were isolated and tested for their capacities to perform lipolysis and to incorporate D-[U-(14)C]-glucose, D-[U-(14)C]-lactate, and [9,10(n)-(3)H]-oleic acid into lipids. Additionally, the morphometric characteristics of the adipose tissues, glucose tolerance tests, and biochemical determinations (fasting glucose, triglycerides, insulin) in blood were performed. The middle-aged rats showed adipocyte (PE and SC) hypertrophy and glucose intolerance, although there were no significant changes in fasting glycemia and insulin. Furthermore, PE tissue revealed elevated rates (+50 %) of lipolysis during beta-adrenergic-stimulation. There was also an increase (+62 %) in the baseline rate of glucose incorporation into lipids in the PE adipocytes, while these PE cells were almost unresponsive to insulin stimulation and less responsive (a 34 % decrease) in the SC tissue. Also, the capacity of oleic acid esterification was elevated in baseline state and with insulin stimulus in the PE tissue (+90 and 82 %, respectively). Likewise, spontaneous incorporation of lactate into lipids in the PE and SC tissues was higher (+100 and 11 %, respectively) in middle-aged rats. We concluded that adipocyte metabolism of middle-aged animals seems to strongly favor cellular hypertrophy and increased adipose mass, particularly the intra-abdominal PE fat pad. In discussion, we have interpreted all these results as a metabolic adaptations to avoid the spreading of fat that can reach tissues beyond adipose protecting them against ectopic fat accumulation. However, these adaptations may have the potential to lead to future metabolic dysfunctions seen in the senescence.

  13. Accuracy of body mass index (BMI) thresholds for predicting excess body fat in girls from five ethnicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, J Scott; Duncan, Elizabeth K; Schofield, Grant

    2009-01-01

    The association between body mass index (BMI) and body fat in young people differs among ethnic groups. Consequently, BMI thresholds for defining childhood overweight may not represent an equivalent level of adiposity in multiethnic populations. The objectives of this study were to characterise the relationships between BMI and percentage body fat (%BF) and to determine the appropriateness of universal BMI standards for predicting excess fatness in girls from five ethnic groups. The BMI and %BF of 1,676 European, Maori, Pacific Island, East Asian, and South Asian girls aged 5-16 years were determined using anthropometric and bioimpedance measurements. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were prepared to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the International Obesity Taskforce (IOTF) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) BMI thresholds for detecting %BF >85th percentile. Compared with European girls, South and East Asians averaged 4.2% and 1.3% more %BF at a fixed BMI and age, whereas Pacific Islanders averaged 1.8% less %BF. Areas under the ROC curves ranged from 89.9% to 92.4%, suggesting that BMI is an acceptable screening tool for identifying excess adiposity. However, the IOTF and CDC thresholds showed low sensitivity for predicting excess %BF in South and East Asian girls, with low specificity in Pacific Island and Maori girls. The development of an ethnic-specific definition of overweight improved diagnostic performance. We conclude that BMI can be an acceptable proxy measure of excess fatness in girls from diverse ethnicities, especially when ethnic-specific BMI reference points are implemented.

  14. Utility of inline milk fat and protein ratio to diagnose subclinical ketosis and to assign propylene glycol treatment in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Nicholas T; Peña, Gustavo; Risco, Carlos; Barbosa, Carolina C; Vieira-Neto, Achilles; Galvão, Klibs N

    2015-08-01

    The objective was to identify a fat-to-protein ratio (FPR) cut-off to diagnose subclinical ketosis (SCK) and to evaluate the effect of propylene glycol (PPG) treatment of cows with high FPR. The optimized cut-off was > 1.42; sensitivity (Se) = 92%; specificity (Sp) = 65%. A cut-off > 1.5 was selected for the PPG trial for balanced Se-Sp. Fat-to-protein ratio cut-offs > 1.25, 1.35, 1.50, 1.60, and 1.70 resulted in Se-Sp of 100% to 49%, 96% to 59%, 75% to 78%, 33% to 90%, and 8% to 96%, respectively. The proportions of cows with FPR > 1.25, 1.35, 1.42, 1.50, 1.60, and 1.70 were 60%, 50%, 44%, 30%, 14%, and 6%, respectively. Incidences of clinical ketosis and milk yield were similar between cows that received 400 mL of PPG (n = 34) and control cows (n = 38). Prevalence of SCK at enrollment was 29.2%; therefore, FPR > 1.5 is not indicated for treatment. Lower cut-offs should be used for screening.

  15. Derivation and validation of simple anthropometric equations to predict adipose tissue mass and total fat mass with MRI as the reference method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gindan, Yasmin Y.; Hankey, Catherine R.; Govan, Lindsay; Gallagher, Dympna; Heymsfield, Steven B.; Lean, Michael E. J.

    2017-01-01

    The reference organ-level body composition measurement method is MRI. Practical estimations of total adipose tissue mass (TATM), total adipose tissue fat mass (TATFM) and total body fat are valuable for epidemiology, but validated prediction equations based on MRI are not currently available. We aimed to derive and validate new anthropometric equations to estimate MRI-measured TATM/TATFM/total body fat and compare them with existing prediction equations using older methods. The derivation sample included 416 participants (222 women), aged between 18 and 88 years with BMI between 15·9 and 40·8 (kg/m2). The validation sample included 204 participants (110 women), aged between 18 and 86 years with BMI between 15·7 and 36·4 (kg/m2). Both samples included mixed ethnic/racial groups. All the participants underwent whole-body MRI to quantify TATM (dependent variable) and anthropometry (independent variables). Prediction equations developed using stepwise multiple regression were further investigated for agreement and bias before validation in separate data sets. Simplest equations with optimal R2 and Bland–Altman plots demonstrated good agreement without bias in the validation analyses: men: TATM (kg) = 0·198 weight (kg) + 0·478 waist (cm) − 0·147 height (cm) − 12·8 (validation: R2 0·79, CV = 20 %, standard error of the estimate (SEE)=3·8 kg) and women: TATM (kg)=0·789 weight (kg) + 0·0786 age (years) − 0·342 height (cm) + 24·5 (validation: R2 0·84, CV = 13 %, SEE = 3·0 kg). Published anthropometric prediction equations, based on MRI and computed tomographic scans, correlated strongly with MRI-measured TATM: (R2 0·70 – 0·82). Estimated TATFM correlated well with published prediction equations for total body fat based on underwater weighing (R2 0·70–0·80), with mean bias of 2·5–4·9 kg, correctable with log-transformation in most equations. In conclusion, new equations, using simple anthropometric measurements, estimated MRI-measured TATM

  16. Derivation and validation of simple anthropometric equations to predict adipose tissue mass and total fat mass with MRI as the reference method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gindan, Yasmin Y; Hankey, Catherine R; Govan, Lindsay; Gallagher, Dympna; Heymsfield, Steven B; Lean, Michael E J

    2015-12-14

    The reference organ-level body composition measurement method is MRI. Practical estimations of total adipose tissue mass (TATM), total adipose tissue fat mass (TATFM) and total body fat are valuable for epidemiology, but validated prediction equations based on MRI are not currently available. We aimed to derive and validate new anthropometric equations to estimate MRI-measured TATM/TATFM/total body fat and compare them with existing prediction equations using older methods. The derivation sample included 416 participants (222 women), aged between 18 and 88 years with BMI between 15·9 and 40·8 (kg/m2). The validation sample included 204 participants (110 women), aged between 18 and 86 years with BMI between 15·7 and 36·4 (kg/m2). Both samples included mixed ethnic/racial groups. All the participants underwent whole-body MRI to quantify TATM (dependent variable) and anthropometry (independent variables). Prediction equations developed using stepwise multiple regression were further investigated for agreement and bias before validation in separate data sets. Simplest equations with optimal R (2) and Bland-Altman plots demonstrated good agreement without bias in the validation analyses: men: TATM (kg)=0·198 weight (kg)+0·478 waist (cm)-0·147 height (cm)-12·8 (validation: R 2 0·79, CV=20 %, standard error of the estimate (SEE)=3·8 kg) and women: TATM (kg)=0·789 weight (kg)+0·0786 age (years)-0·342 height (cm)+24·5 (validation: R (2) 0·84, CV=13 %, SEE=3·0 kg). Published anthropometric prediction equations, based on MRI and computed tomographic scans, correlated strongly with MRI-measured TATM: (R (2) 0·70-0·82). Estimated TATFM correlated well with published prediction equations for total body fat based on underwater weighing (R (2) 0·70-0·80), with mean bias of 2·5-4·9 kg, correctable with log-transformation in most equations. In conclusion, new equations, using simple anthropometric measurements, estimated MRI-measured TATM with correlations and

  17. Body fat is associated with increased and lean mass with decreased knee cartilage loss in older adults: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, C; Stannus, O; Cicuttini, F; Antony, B; Jones, G

    2013-06-01

    To determine the associations between body composition at baseline and knee cartilage loss over 2.9 years in older adults. A total of 395 randomly selected subjects (mean 62 years, range 51-81, 50% female) were studied at baseline and 2.9 years later. T1-weighted fat-suppressed magnetic resonance imaging of the right knee was performed to determine knee cartilage volume and tibial bone area at baseline and follow-up. Height, weight and radiographic osteoarthritis were measured by standard protocols at baseline. Fat mass and lean mass were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline. Tibial cartilage volume decreased by 2.0-2.7% per annum. In multivariable analysis, annual change in medial cartilage volume was negatively and significantly associated with body mass index (β: -0.14% per kg m(-2), 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.25%, -0.02%), percentage total body fat (β: -0.19% per %, 95% CI: -0.30%, -0.07%) and percentage trunk fat (β: -0.10% per %, 95% CI: -0.19%, -0.02%), and positively associated with percentage lean mass (β: 0.20% per %, 95% CI: 0.08%, 0.32%). Change in lateral tibial cartilage volume was also significantly associated with percentage total body fat (β: -0.11% per %, 95% CI: -0.21%, -0.001%) and total lean mass (β: 0.13% per kg, 95% CI: 0.04%, 0.22%). These were independent of sex and age even though both were also significant predictors. Body fat adversely affects tibial cartilage loss over time, whereas lean mass is protective. Strategies aimed at reducing body fat but increasing lean mass may reduce knee cartilage loss in older people.

  18. Persistent junk solutions in time-domain modeling of extreme mass ratio binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Field, Scott E; Lau, Stephen R

    2010-01-01

    In the context of metric perturbation theory for non-spinning black holes, extreme mass ratio binary (EMRB) systems are described by distributionally forced master wave equations. Numerical solution of a master wave equation as an initial boundary value problem requires initial data. However, because the correct initial data for generic-orbit systems is unknown, specification of trivial initial data is a common choice, despite being inconsistent and resulting in a solution which is initially discontinuous in time. As is well known, this choice leads to a "burst" of junk radiation which eventually propagates off the computational domain. We observe another unintended consequence of trivial initial data: development of a persistent spurious solution, here referred to as the Jost junk solution, which contaminates the physical solution for long times. This work studies the influence of both types of junk on metric perturbations, waveforms, and self-force measurements, and it demonstrates that smooth modified sour...

  19. Measurement and simulation of jet mass caused by a high-aspect ratio pertubation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiter, Paul A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cooley, James [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kyrala, George [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wilson, Doug [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Blue, Brent [LLNL/GA; Elliott, Jim [