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Sample records for fat body cells

  1. Subcutaneous adipose cell size and distribution: relationship to insulin resistance and body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, T; Lamendola, C; Coghlan, N; Liu, T C; Lerner, K; Sherman, A; Cushman, S W

    2014-03-01

    Metabolic heterogeneity among obese individuals may be attributable to differences in adipose cell size. We sought to clarify this by quantifying adipose cell size distribution, body fat, and insulin-mediated glucose uptake in overweight to moderately-obese individuals. A total of 148 healthy nondiabetic subjects with BMI 25-38 kg/m2 underwent subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies and quantification of insulin-mediated glucose uptake with steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentrations during the modified insulin suppression test. Cell size distributions were obtained with Beckman Coulter Multisizer. Primary endpoints included % small adipose cells and diameter of large adipose cells. Cell-size and metabolic parameters were compared by regression for the whole group, according to insulin-resistant (IR) and insulin-sensitive (IS) subgroups, and by body fat quintile. Both large and small adipose cells were present in nearly equal proportions. Percent small cells was associated with SSPG (r = 0.26, P = 0.003). Compared to BMI-matched IS individuals, IR counterparts demonstrated fewer, but larger large adipose cells, and a greater proportion of small-to-large adipose cells. Diameter of the large adipose cells was associated with % body fat (r = 0.26, P = 0.014), female sex (r = 0.21, P = 0.036), and SSPG (r = 0.20, P = 0.012). In the highest versus lowest % body fat quintile, adipose cell size increased by only 7%, whereas adipose cell number increased by 74%. Recruitment of adipose cells is required for expansion of body fat mass beyond BMI of 25 kg/m2 . Insulin resistance is associated with accumulation of small adipose cells and enlargement of large adipose cells. These data support the notion that impaired adipogenesis may underlie insulin resistance. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  2. Fat cell-specific ablation of rictor in mice impairs insulin-regulated fat cell and whole-body glucose and lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Lawrence, John C; Jung, Dae Young; Ko, Hwi Jin; Keller, Susanna R; Kim, Jason K; Magnuson, Mark A; Harris, Thurl E

    2010-06-01

    Rictor is an essential component of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex (mTORC) 2, a kinase that phosphorylates and activates Akt, an insulin signaling intermediary that regulates glucose and lipid metabolism in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver. To determine the physiological role of rictor/mTORC2 in insulin signaling and action in fat cells, we developed fat cell-specific rictor knockout (FRic(-/-)) mice. Insulin signaling and glucose and lipid metabolism were studied in FRic(-/-) fat cells. In vivo glucose metabolism was evaluated by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Loss of rictor in fat cells prevents insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt at S473, which, in turn, impairs the phosphorylation of downstream targets such as FoxO3a at T32 and AS160 at T642. However, glycogen synthase kinase-3beta phosphorylation at S9 is not affected. The signaling defects in FRic(-/-) fat cells lead to impaired insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane and decreased glucose transport. Furthermore, rictor-null fat cells are unable to suppress lipolysis in response to insulin, leading to elevated circulating free fatty acids and glycerol. These metabolic perturbations are likely to account for defects observed at the whole-body level of FRic(-/-) mice, including glucose intolerance, marked hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance in skeletal muscle and liver, and hepatic steatosis. Rictor/mTORC2 in fat cells plays an important role in whole-body energy homeostasis by mediating signaling necessary for the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism in fat cells.

  3. Fat Cell–Specific Ablation of Rictor in Mice Impairs Insulin-Regulated Fat Cell and Whole-Body Glucose and Lipid Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Lawrence, John C.; Jung, Dae Young; Ko, Hwi Jin; Keller, Susanna R.; Kim, Jason K.; Magnuson, Mark A.; Harris, Thurl E.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Rictor is an essential component of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex (mTORC) 2, a kinase that phosphorylates and activates Akt, an insulin signaling intermediary that regulates glucose and lipid metabolism in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver. To determine the physiological role of rictor/mTORC2 in insulin signaling and action in fat cells, we developed fat cell–specific rictor knockout (FRic−/−) mice. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Insulin signaling and glucose and lipid metabolism were studied in FRic−/− fat cells. In vivo glucose metabolism was evaluated by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. RESULTS Loss of rictor in fat cells prevents insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt at S473, which, in turn, impairs the phosphorylation of downstream targets such as FoxO3a at T32 and AS160 at T642. However, glycogen synthase kinase-3β phosphorylation at S9 is not affected. The signaling defects in FRic−/− fat cells lead to impaired insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane and decreased glucose transport. Furthermore, rictor-null fat cells are unable to suppress lipolysis in response to insulin, leading to elevated circulating free fatty acids and glycerol. These metabolic perturbations are likely to account for defects observed at the whole-body level of FRic−/− mice, including glucose intolerance, marked hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance in skeletal muscle and liver, and hepatic steatosis. CONCLUSIONS Rictor/mTORC2 in fat cells plays an important role in whole-body energy homeostasis by mediating signaling necessary for the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism in fat cells. PMID:20332342

  4. Pancreatic Fat Is Associated With Metabolic Syndrome and Visceral Fat but Not Beta-Cell Function or Body Mass Index in Pediatric Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staaf, Johan; Labmayr, Viktor; Paulmichl, Katharina; Manell, Hannes; Cen, Jing; Ciba, Iris; Dahlbom, Marie; Roomp, Kirsten; Anderwald, Christian-Heinz; Meissnitzer, Matthias; Schneider, Reinhard; Forslund, Anders; Widhalm, Kurt; Bergquist, Jonas; Ahlström, Håkan; Bergsten, Peter; Weghuber, Daniel; Kullberg, Joel

    2017-01-01

    Objective Adolescents with obesity have increased risk of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Pancreatic fat has been related to these conditions; however, little is known about associations in pediatric obesity. The present study was designed to explore these associations further. Methods We examined 116 subjects, 90 with obesity. Anthropometry, MetS, blood samples, and oral glucose tolerance tests were assessed using standard techniques. Pancreatic fat fraction (PFF) and other fat depots were quantified using magnetic resonance imaging. Results The PFF was elevated in subjects with obesity. No association between PFF and body mass index-standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) was found in the obesity subcohort. Pancreatic fat fraction correlated to Insulin Secretion Sensitivity Index-2 and Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance in simple regression; however, when using adjusted regression and correcting for BMI-SDS and other fat compartments, PFF correlated only to visceral adipose tissue and fasting glucose. Highest levels of PFF were found in subjects with obesity and MetS. Conclusions In adolescents with obesity, PFF is elevated and associated to MetS, fasting glucose, and visceral adipose tissue but not to beta-cell function, glucose tolerance, or BMI-SDS. This study demonstrates that conclusions regarding PFF and its associations depend on the body mass features of the cohort. PMID:27941426

  5. Ultramorphology and histochemistry of fat body cells from last Instar larval of the Pachycondyla (=Neoponera) villosa (Fabricius) (Formicidae: Ponerinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Zara,F. J.; Caetano, F. H.

    2004-01-01

    The fat body cells of Pachycondyla (=Neoponera) villosa are disposed in a single layer between the cuticle and the digestive tract, forming a group of cells enclosed by a thin membrane. Histological studies have revealed three different cellular types: trophocyte (more abundant), urate, (located among the trophocytes), and oenocyte (the scarcest), usually observed laying near the cuticle. Histochemically, the trophocytes showed a positive reaction for basic proteins in the nucleus and cytopla...

  6. Assessing Body Condition from Fat on Carcass

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — SOP guiding assessment of body condition based on carcass fat. Provides stepwise instructions and photos on how to assess body condition from carcass fat

  7. Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to VO(2PEAK) in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2011-01-01

    -based level. Methods. Cross-sectional study of 225 children (128 boys and 97 girls) aged 8-11 years, recruited from a population-based cohort. Total lean body mass (LBM), total fat mass (TBF), and abdominal fat mass (AFM) were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Body fat was also calculated...... as a percentage of body mass (BF%) and body fat distribution as AFM/TBF. VO(2PEAK) was assessed by indirect calorimetry during maximal exercise test. Results. Significant relationships existed between body fat measurements and VO(2PEAK) in both boys and girls, with Pearson correlation coefficients for absolute...... values of VO(2PEAK) (0.22-0.36, Pmass (-0.38 - -0.70, P...

  8. Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to cardiovascular risk factors in prepubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2012-01-01

    Aim:  We analysed whether total body fat (TBF), abdominal fat and body fat distribution are associated with higher composite risk factor scores for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in young children. Methods:  Cross-sectional study of 238 children aged 8-11 years. TBF and abdominal fat mass (AFM) wer......, separately, and used as composite risk factor score. Results:  Pearson correlations between ln BF%, ln AFM and AFM/TBF versus composite risk factor score for boys were r = 0.56, r = 0.59 and r = 0.48, all p ...

  9. Relationship between leptin concentration and body fat with peripheral blood mononuclear cells cytokines among obese and overweight adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrati, M; Salehi, E; Razmpoosh, E; Shoormasti, R S; Hosseinzadeh-Attar, M J; Shidfar, F

    2017-02-01

    Overweight and obesity has been suggested to be well correlated with altered levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The purpose of this study is to assess the relationship of body fat mass (BFM), body fat percentage (BFP) and leptin levels with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) cytokines among obese and overweight adults. Eighty-two overweight and obese individuals were divided into two BMI-category groups (BMI leptin and anthropometric indices were measured and PBMCs were cultured. Mean of leptin concentrations were 23.14 ± 4.07 and 28.25 ± 4.35 pg/ml among individuals with BMI leptin (P leptin (P Leptin had a positive significant correlation with IFN-γ (p = 0.03, r = 0.251). Regarding these results, we proved that BFP, BFM and leptin levels have significant correlations with some PBMC cytokines. Focusing on such strategies may lead to promises for alleviating obesity and its co-morbidities.

  10. Dietary fat oxidation as a function of body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerterp, Klaas R; Smeets, Astrid; Lejeune, Manuela P; Wouters-Adriaens, Mirjam P E; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2008-01-01

    It is hypothesized that low dietary fat oxidation makes subjects prone to weight gain. The aim of the study was to determine dietary fat oxidation in normal, overweight, and obese subjects. The subjects were 38 women and 18 men with a mean (+/-SD) age of 30+/-12 y and a body mass index (in kg/m2) of 25+/-4 (range: 18-39). Dietary fat oxidation was measured with deuterated palmitic acid, given simultaneously with breakfast, while the subjects were fed under controlled conditions in a respiration chamber. Body composition was measured by hydrodensitometry and deuterium dilution. Dietary fat oxidation, measured over 12 h after breakfast, ranged from 4% to 28% with a mean (+/-SD) of 16+/-6%. Dietary fat oxidation was negatively related to percentage body fat, and lean subjects had the highest and obese subjects the lowest values (r=-0.65, P<0.001). The observed reduction in dietary fat oxidation in subjects with a higher percentage body fat may play a role in human obesity.

  11. Sexual dimorphisms in genetic loci linked to body fat distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulit, Sara L.; Karaderi, Tugce

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic condition associated with increased morbidity and mortality and is a risk factor for a number of other diseases including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Obesity confers an enormous, costly burden on both individuals and public health more broadly. Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes. Body fat distribution is distinct from overall obesity in measurement, but studies of body fat distribution can yield insights into the risk factors for and causes of overall obesity. Sexual dimorphism in body fat distribution is present throughout life. Though sexual dimorphism is subtle in early stages of life, it is attenuated in puberty and during menopause. This phenomenon could be, at least in part, due to the influence of sex hormones on the trait. Findings from recent large genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for various measures of body fat distribution (including waist-to-hip ratio, hip or waist circumference, trunk fat percentage and the ratio of android and gynoid fat percentage) emphasize the strong sexual dimorphism in the genetic regulation of fat distribution traits. Importantly, sexual dimorphism is not observed for overall obesity (as assessed by body mass index or total fat percentage). Notably, the genetic loci associated with body fat distribution, which show sexual dimorphism, are located near genes that are expressed in adipose tissues and/or adipose cells. Considering the epidemiological and genetic evidence, sexual dimorphism is a prominent feature of body fat distribution. Research that specifically focuses on sexual dimorphism in fat distribution can provide novel insights into human physiology and into the development of obesity and its comorbidities, as well as yield biological clues that will aid in the improvement of disease prevention and treatment. PMID:28073971

  12. Plaster body wrap: effects on abdominal fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Moreira, Juliana; Melo, Ana Sofia Carneiro Pinto de; Noites, Andreia; Couto, Miriam Faria; Melo, Cristina Argel de; Adubeiro, Nuno Carvalho Freire de Almeida

    2013-12-01

    Abdominal fat is associated with metabolic disorders, leading to cardiovascular risk factors and numerous diseases. This study aimed to analyze the effect of plaster body wrap in combination with aerobic exercise on abdominal fat. Nineteen female volunteers were randomly divided into intervention group (IG; n = 10) performing aerobic exercise with plaster body wrap, and control group (CG; n = 9) performing only exercise. Subcutaneous and visceral fat were measured using ultrasound; subcutaneous fat was also estimated on analysis of skinfolds and abdominal perimeters. At the end of the 10-sessions protocol, the IG demonstrated a significant decrease (p ≤ 0.05) in subcutaneous fat at the left anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) level and in iliac crest perimeter measurements. A large intervention effect size strength (0.80) was found in subcutaneous fat below the navel and a moderate effect size strength on the vertical abdominal skinfold (0.62) and the perimeter of the most prominent abdominal point (0.57). Comparing the initial and final data of each group, the IG showed a significant decrease in numerous variables including visceral and subcutaneous fat above and below the navel measured by ultrasound (p ≤ 0.05). Plaster body wrap in combination with aerobic exercise seems to be effective for abdominal fat reduction.

  13. Ribonuclease-mediated control of body fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habacher, Cornelia; Guo, Yanwu; Venz, Richard

    2016-01-01

    . Using exon-intron split analysis, we find that REGE-1 promotes fat by degrading the mRNA encoding ETS-4, a fat-loss-promoting transcription factor. Because ETS-4, in turn, induces rege-1 transcription, REGE-1 and ETS-4 appear to form an auto-regulatory module. We propose that this type of fat regulation......Obesity is a global health issue, arousing interest in molecular mechanisms controlling fat. Transcriptional regulation of fat has received much attention, and key transcription factors involved in lipid metabolism, such as SBP-1/SREBP, LPD-2/C/EBP, and MDT-15, are conserved from nematodes...... to mammals. However, there is a growing awareness that lipid metabolism can also be controlled by post-transcriptional mechanisms. Here, we show that the Caenorhabditis elegans RNase, REGE-1, related to MCPIP1/Zc3h12a/Regnase-1, a key regulator of mammalian innate immunity, promotes accumulation of body fat...

  14. Seasonal change in body fat of the Hyrax Procavia capensis (Pallas, 1766 using a body fat ranking index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.J. Fourie

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the body fat content of the hyrax Procavia capensis were used as an indicator of physiological condition. Body fat rankings for the different sexes showed seasonal variations related to physiologically stressful periods (rutting, gestation and lactation. The subjective body fat rankings were correlated significantly with total body fat.

  15. Body Fat, Abdominal Fat, and Body Fat Distribution Is Related to Left Atrial Diameter in Young Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Thorsson, Ola; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2012-01-01

    ). Body fat was also calculated as a percentage of body mass (BF%). Body fat distribution (AFM/TBF) was calculated. Echocardiography was performed with two-dimensional guided M-mode. LA diameter was measured and left ventricular mass (LVM) was calculated. Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood......In adults, the size of the left atria (LA) has important prognostic information. In obese adults, adolescents and children enlargement of LA have been observed. This has not been investigated on a population-based level in young children. We therefore assessed if total body fat mass (TBF...... pressure were measured and maturity assessed according to Tanner. There were significant (P

  16. Age-related rump fat, fat percent, body fat mass, leptin, androgens and semen parameters ofArab stallions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AmalMAboEl-Maaty; GamalA ElSisy; MonaHShaker; OmimaH Ezzo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives:To study the effect of age and body fat on leptin levels and semen parameters of Arab horse.Methods:Fifteen fertileArab stallions of different ages belonging toPoliceAcademy were divided into three equal groups according to their age.Old horses are those of >18 yeas (18-27),Mid-age horses≥13 to18 years(13-18),Young horses are those of <12 years(7-11). Semen was evaluated three times for each stallion.Blood and seminal plasma were assayed for measuring leptin, testosterone and estradiol.Subcutaneous rump fat thickness was measured using ultrasound for estimating body fat percent and fat mass percent.Results:All body fat parameters were significantly high inYoung stallions and decreased with increasing age.As age increased, testosterone levels increases but leptin levels decreased.Age was inversely correlated with fat%, fat mass and leptin.All fat parameters had direct correlation with leptin in semen and serum but an inverse one with serum testosterone.Serum leptin directly correlated with sperm cell concentration inMid- age stallions and inversely correlated with percent of live sperm in Old stallions.Semen leptin correlated directly with both percent of live sperm and percent of abnormal sperm inOld stallions.Conclusion:This study proved that aging in stallions is related to a drop in fertility, a decrease in body fat and in turn leptin.Arab stallions of age7 to18 years could be used in the breeding efficiently.

  17. Common variants near MC4R in relation to body fat, body fat distribution, metabolic traits and energy expenditure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia Inez Iqbal; Holst, C; Toubro, Søren

    2010-01-01

    Common variants near melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) have been related to fatness and type 2 diabetes. We examined the associations of rs17782313 and rs17700633 in relation to body fat, body fat distribution, metabolic traits, weight development and energy expenditure.......Common variants near melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) have been related to fatness and type 2 diabetes. We examined the associations of rs17782313 and rs17700633 in relation to body fat, body fat distribution, metabolic traits, weight development and energy expenditure....

  18. Modelling the relationship between body fat and the BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, T C; Gallagher, D; Wang, J; Heshka, S

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Given the increasing concerns about the levels of obesity being reached throughout the world, this paper analyses the relationship between the most common index of obesity, the BMI, and levels of body fat. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: The statistical relationship, in terms of functional form, between body fat and BMI is analysed using a large data set which can be categorized by race, sex and age. RESULTS: Irrespective of race, body fat and BMI are linearly related for males, with age entering logarithmically and with a positive effect on body fat. Caucasian males have higher body fat irrespective of age, but African American males' body fat increases with age faster than that of Asians and Hispanics. Age is not a significant predictor of body fat for females, where the relationship between body fat and BMI is nonlinear except for Asians. Caucasian females have higher predicted body fat than other races, except at low BMIs, where Asian females are predicted to have the highest body fat. DISCUSSION: Using BMIs to make predictions about body fat should be done with caution, as such predictions will depend upon race, sex and age and can be relatively imprecise. The results are of practical importance for informing the current debate on whether standard BMI cut-off values for overweight and obesity should apply to all sex and racial groups given that these BMI values are shown to correspond to different levels of adiposity in different groups.

  19. Cell biology of fat storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Paul; Spiegelman, Bruce M

    2016-08-15

    The worldwide epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes has greatly increased interest in the biology and physiology of adipose tissues. Adipose (fat) cells are specialized for the storage of energy in the form of triglycerides, but research in the last few decades has shown that fat cells also play a critical role in sensing and responding to changes in systemic energy balance. White fat cells secrete important hormone-like molecules such as leptin, adiponectin, and adipsin to influence processes such as food intake, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion. Brown fat, on the other hand, dissipates chemical energy in the form of heat, thereby defending against hypothermia, obesity, and diabetes. It is now appreciated that there are two distinct types of thermogenic fat cells, termed brown and beige adipocytes. In addition to these distinct properties of fat cells, adipocytes exist within adipose tissue, where they are in dynamic communication with immune cells and closely influenced by innervation and blood supply. This review is intended to serve as an introduction to adipose cell biology and to familiarize the reader with how these cell types play a role in metabolic disease and, perhaps, as targets for therapeutic development.

  20. Improved visualization of fat body conditions and abundance in the southern green stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fat bodies are a crucial source of energy for insect survival and reproduction. Differing types of fat body cells and amounts have been previously reported for southern green stink bug but clear supporting images are lacking. Further, in ongoing studies elucidating the ecology of southern green st...

  1. Short-term re-feeding of previously energy-restricted C57BL/6 male mice restores body weight and body fat and attenuates the decline in natural killer cell function after primary influenza infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinthorne, Jonathan F; Adams, Douglas J; Fenton, Jenifer I; Ritz, Barry W; Gardner, Elizabeth M

    2010-08-01

    A hallmark of energy restriction (ER) is a decrease in total body fat, which is thought to increase lifespan and maintain immune function. However, we have shown that during primary influenza infection, ER induces rapid weight loss, impairs natural killer (NK) cell function, and increases mortality in young and aged mice. To determine whether influenza-induced NK cell function could be restored in ER mice, young adult (6 mo) male C57BL/6 mice were fed an ER diet or re-fed (RF) control diet ad libitum for 2 wk before infection with PR8 influenza A. An initial hyperphagic response was observed in RF mice, characterized by increased food intake, rapid weight gain, and restoration of body fat and fat depots by 5-7 d of re-feeding to levels comparable to control ad libitum (AL) mice. Re-feeding improved survival and attenuated the decline in NK cell function during infection, evidenced by increased numbers, percentages, and CD69 expression by d 3 postinfection in RF mice. Interestingly, an altered metabolic phenotype was observed during infection of RF mice, with plasma leptin concentrations greater than in ER mice but less than in AL mice. In contrast, adiponectin concentrations of RF mice were lower than those of both ER and AL mice. These data suggest that re-feeding for a defined period before, and perhaps throughout, influenza season may provide the energy needed to counter the deleterious effects of ER on NK cell function, especially during exposure to newly emerging strains of influenza, for which vaccines are limited or unavailable.

  2. Measurement of body fat and hydration of the fat-free body in health and disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streat, S.J.; Beddoe, A.H.; Hill, G.L.

    1985-06-01

    Body fat mass, fat-free body mass and body water are basic components of body composition which are used in nutritional and metabolic studies and in patient care. A method of measuring total body fat (TBF), fat-free mass (FFM) and its hydration (TBW/FFM) involving prompt gamma in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) and tritium dilution has been compared with the more traditional methods of densitometry and skinfold anthropometry in 36 normal volunteers, and with skinfold anthropometry in 56 patients presenting for nutritional support. While the mean values of TBF were in reasonable agreement for the three methods in normals it was founds that skinfold anthropometry underestimated TBF relative to the IVNAA/tritium method by, on average, 3.0 kg (19%) in patients. Furthermore, the ranges of values in normals of the ratio TBW/FFM for the anthropometric (0.62 to 0.80) and densitometric (0.65 to 0.80) methods were much wider than the range for the IVNAA/tritium method (0.69 to 0.76), in which TBW was measured by tritium dilution in all cases. In the patients, the ranges of this ratio were 0.52 to 0.90 for the anthropometric method and 0.67 to 0.82 for the IVNAA/tritium method; clearly anthropometry yields values of TBW/FFM which are outside accepted biological limits. On the basis of these findings, ranges of TBW/FFM are suggested for both normal adults (0.69 to 0.75) and patients requiring nutritional support (0.67 to 0.83). Finally it is concluded that the IVNAA/tritium method is a suitable method for measuring TBF and FFM and particularly so when body composition is abnormal.

  3. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, body fat and inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anne-Sofie Quist; Hasselbalch, Ann Louise; Gamborg, Michael

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Based on animal studies, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been suggested to lower the risk of obesity and inflammation. We aimed to investigate if, among humans, intake of n-3 PUFAs was associated with i) total body fat, ii) body fat distribution and iii) obesity-related i......BACKGROUND: Based on animal studies, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been suggested to lower the risk of obesity and inflammation. We aimed to investigate if, among humans, intake of n-3 PUFAs was associated with i) total body fat, ii) body fat distribution and iii) obesity...

  4. FTO gene associated fatness in relation to body fat distribution and metabolic traits throughout a broad range of fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia I I; Holst, Claus; Zimmermann, Esther

    2008-01-01

    A common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of FTO (rs9939609, T/A) is associated with total body fatness. We investigated the association of this SNP with abdominal and peripheral fatness and obesity-related metabolic traits in middle-aged men through a broad range of fatness present already i...

  5. FTO gene associated fatness in relation to body fat distribution and metabolic traits throughout a broad range of fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia I I; Holst, Claus; Zimmermann, Esther;

    2008-01-01

    A common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of FTO (rs9939609, T/A) is associated with total body fatness. We investigated the association of this SNP with abdominal and peripheral fatness and obesity-related metabolic traits in middle-aged men through a broad range of fatness present already...

  6. The relationship of female physical attractiveness to body fatness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanlin Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aspects of the female body may be attractive because they signal evolutionary fitness. Greater body fatness might reflect greater potential to survive famines, but individuals carrying larger fat stores may have poor health and lower fertility in non-famine conditions. A mathematical statistical model using epidemiological data linking fatness to fitness traits, predicted a peaked relationship between fatness and attractiveness (maximum at body mass index (BMI = 22.8 to 24.8 depending on ethnicity and assumptions. Participants from three Caucasian populations (Austria, Lithuania and the UK, three Asian populations (China, Iran and Mauritius and four African populations (Kenya, Morocco, Nigeria and Senegal rated attractiveness of a series of female images varying in fatness (BMI and waist to hip ratio (WHR. There was an inverse linear relationship between physical attractiveness and body fatness or BMI in all populations. Lower body fat was more attractive, down to at least BMI = 19. There was no peak in the relationship over the range we studied in any population. WHR was a significant independent but less important factor, which was more important (greater r2 in African populations. Predictions based on the fitness model were not supported. Raters appeared to use body fat percentage (BF% and BMI as markers of age. The covariance of BF% and BMI with age indicates that the role of body fatness alone, as a marker of attractiveness, has been overestimated.

  7. The relationship of female physical attractiveness to body fatness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanlin; Djafarian, Kurosh; Egedigwe, Chima A; El Hamdouchi, Asmaa; Ojiambo, Robert; Ramuth, Harris; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra Johanna; Lackner, Sonja; Diouf, Adama; Sauciuvenaite, Justina; Hambly, Catherine; Vaanholt, Lobke M; Faries, Mark D; Speakman, John R

    2015-01-01

    Aspects of the female body may be attractive because they signal evolutionary fitness. Greater body fatness might reflect greater potential to survive famines, but individuals carrying larger fat stores may have poor health and lower fertility in non-famine conditions. A mathematical statistical model using epidemiological data linking fatness to fitness traits, predicted a peaked relationship between fatness and attractiveness (maximum at body mass index (BMI) = 22.8 to 24.8 depending on ethnicity and assumptions). Participants from three Caucasian populations (Austria, Lithuania and the UK), three Asian populations (China, Iran and Mauritius) and four African populations (Kenya, Morocco, Nigeria and Senegal) rated attractiveness of a series of female images varying in fatness (BMI) and waist to hip ratio (WHR). There was an inverse linear relationship between physical attractiveness and body fatness or BMI in all populations. Lower body fat was more attractive, down to at least BMI = 19. There was no peak in the relationship over the range we studied in any population. WHR was a significant independent but less important factor, which was more important (greater r (2)) in African populations. Predictions based on the fitness model were not supported. Raters appeared to use body fat percentage (BF%) and BMI as markers of age. The covariance of BF% and BMI with age indicates that the role of body fatness alone, as a marker of attractiveness, has been overestimated.

  8. The relationship of female physical attractiveness to body fatness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanlin; Djafarian, Kurosh; Egedigwe, Chima A.; El Hamdouchi, Asmaa; Ojiambo, Robert; Ramuth, Harris; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra Johanna; Lackner, Sonja; Diouf, Adama; Sauciuvenaite, Justina; Hambly, Catherine; Vaanholt, Lobke M.; Faries, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Aspects of the female body may be attractive because they signal evolutionary fitness. Greater body fatness might reflect greater potential to survive famines, but individuals carrying larger fat stores may have poor health and lower fertility in non-famine conditions. A mathematical statistical model using epidemiological data linking fatness to fitness traits, predicted a peaked relationship between fatness and attractiveness (maximum at body mass index (BMI) = 22.8 to 24.8 depending on ethnicity and assumptions). Participants from three Caucasian populations (Austria, Lithuania and the UK), three Asian populations (China, Iran and Mauritius) and four African populations (Kenya, Morocco, Nigeria and Senegal) rated attractiveness of a series of female images varying in fatness (BMI) and waist to hip ratio (WHR). There was an inverse linear relationship between physical attractiveness and body fatness or BMI in all populations. Lower body fat was more attractive, down to at least BMI = 19. There was no peak in the relationship over the range we studied in any population. WHR was a significant independent but less important factor, which was more important (greater r2) in African populations. Predictions based on the fitness model were not supported. Raters appeared to use body fat percentage (BF%) and BMI as markers of age. The covariance of BF% and BMI with age indicates that the role of body fatness alone, as a marker of attractiveness, has been overestimated. PMID:26336638

  9. Regulation of glycogenolysis in the locust fat body during flight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marrewijk, W.J.A. van; Broek, A.Th.M. van den; Beenakkers, A.M.Th.

    1980-01-01

    Glycogen reserves in the fat body of Locusta migratoria decrease dramatically during the first two hours of flight. In fat body of rested locusts only 10% of glycogen phosphorylase occurs in the active form. The enzyme is activated significantly during flight, when up to one-third of the total phosp

  10. Diabetic mice exhibited a peculiar alteration in body composition with exaggerated ectopic fat deposition after muscle injury due to anomalous cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogi, Masaki; Kohara, Katsuhiko; Nakaoka, Hirotomo; Kan-No, Harumi; Tsukuda, Kana; Wang, Xiao-Li; Chisaka, Toshiyuki; Bai, Hui-Yu; Shan, Bao-Shuai; Kukida, Masayoshi; Iwanami, Jun; Miki, Tetsuro; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

    2016-05-01

    Sarcopenic obesity, age-related muscle loss, which is compensated by an increase in fat mass, impairs quality of life in elderly people. Although the increase in intramuscular fat is associated with decreased insulin sensitivity and increased metabolic risk factors, the origin of diabetes-associated intramuscular fat has not been elucidated. Here, we investigated intramuscular fat deposition using a muscle injury model in type 2 diabetic mice. Male 8-week-old C57BL/6 and 8-week-old and 26-week-old KKAy underwent intramuscular injection of cardiotoxin (Ctx) (100 μL/10 μM) into the tibialis anterior (TA) muscles. After 2 weeks, the muscles were removed and evaluated. KKAy exhibited impaired muscle regeneration and ectopic fat deposition. Such impairment was more marked in older KKAy. These changes were also observed in another diabetic mouse model, db/db and diet-induced obese mice but not in streptozocin-induced diabetic mice. Deposited fat was platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor alpha positive and its cytoskeleton was stained with Masson's trichrome, indicating it to be of fibro-adipocyte progenitor cell origin. Expression of a myogenic marker, myoD, was lower and that of PDGF receptor alpha and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (CEBP) alpha was higher in Ctx-injured TA of KKAy compared with that of C57BL/6. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) was highly expressed in fat-forming lesions in older KKAy. Treatment with all-trans retinoic acid prevented the formation of intramuscular fat; however, treatment with GW9662, a PPARγ antagonist, increased the fibrotic change in muscle. Diabetic mice showed impaired muscle regeneration with fat deposition, suggesting that diabetes may enhance sarcopenic obesity through a mechanism involving anomalous fibro-adipocyte progenitor cell differentiation.

  11. Body fat and fat distribution by anthropometry and the response to high-fat cholesterol-containing diet in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, D S; Sharma, R C; Chin, H P; Jiao, Q; Kramsch, D M

    1993-02-01

    Considerable variability exists among individuals in the response of plasma cholesterol to changes in dietary fat and cholesterol, and obesity is one variable reported to affect this response. This study was performed to determine the relationship between body fat and changes in plasma cholesterol in cynomolgus monkeys fed a high-fat cholesterol-containing diet for 12 months. The animals gained significant body weight (body mass index increased from 30.5 +/- 0.5 to 35.7 +/- 2.8 kg/m2) and skinfold parameters of body fat increased as well. Total cholesterol increased from 109 +/- 4 to 390 +/- 25 mg/dl (P < 0.001), and there were also significant increases in LDL- and HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride. While there was very little relationship between body fat and plasma lipids before the diet, after 12 months, there were significant negative correlations between total and LDL-cholesterol and anthropometric measures of body fat (r ranged from -0.37 to -0.55, P < 0.01). The correlations were not affected when the effects of baseline body mass index and serum cholesterol and total food intake were controlled by partial correlation analysis. In this sample of animals, the acquisition of greater body fat appeared to protect against rises in cholesterol in response to consumption of a high-fat cholesterol-containing diet.

  12. [Progress in dedifferentiated fat cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Feifei; Yang, Zhi; Qian, Cheng

    2014-10-01

    When mature adipocytes are subjected to an in vitro dedifferentiation strategy referred to as ceiling culture, these mature adipocytes can revert to dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells. DFAT cells have many advantages compared with adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). For example, DFAT cells are homogeneous and could be obtained from donors regardless of their age. Furthermore, DFAT cells also have the same multi-lineage potentials and low immunogenicity as ASCs. As an excellent source of seed cells for tissue engineering and stem cell transplantation, DFAT cells have better prospects in the treatment of many clinical diseases, such as bone defects, neurological diseases, ischemic heart disease and kidney disease. It is necessary to make more intensive studies of DFAT cells. This article summarizes progresses in the immunological characteristics, differentiation ability and potential clinical applications of DFAT cells.

  13. Anorexia nervosa and body fat distribution: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ghoch, Marwan; Calugi, Simona; Lamburghini, Silvia; Dalle Grave, Riccardo

    2014-09-23

    The aim of this paper was to conduct a systematic review of body fat distribution before and after partial and complete weight restoration in individuals with anorexia nervosa. Literature searches, study selection, method development and quality appraisal were performed independently by two authors, and data was synthesized using a narrative approach. Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria and were consequently analyzed. The review had five main findings. First, during anorexia nervosa adolescent females lose more central body fat, while adult females more peripheral fat. Second, partial weight restoration leads to greater fat mass deposition in the trunk region than other body regions in adolescent females. Third, after short-term weight restoration, whether partial or complete, adults show a central adiposity phenotype with respect to healthy age-matched controls. Fourth, central fat distribution is associated with increased insulin resistance, but does not adversely affect eating disorder psychopathology or cause psychological distress in female adults. Fifth, the abnormal central fat distribution seems to normalize after long-term maintenance of complete weight restoration, indicating that preferential central distribution of body fat is a transitory phenomenon. However, a discrepancy in the findings has been noted, especially between adolescents and adults; besides age and gender, these appear to be related to differences in the methodology and time of body composition assessments. The PROSPERO Registry-Anorexia Nervosa and Body Fat Distribution: A Systematic Review (CRD42014008738).

  14. Anorexia Nervosa and Body Fat Distribution: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan El Ghoch

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to conduct a systematic review of body fat distribution before and after partial and complete weight restoration in individuals with anorexia nervosa. Literature searches, study selection, method development and quality appraisal were performed independently by two authors, and data was synthesized using a narrative approach. Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria and were consequently analyzed. The review had five main findings. First, during anorexia nervosa adolescent females lose more central body fat, while adult females more peripheral fat. Second, partial weight restoration leads to greater fat mass deposition in the trunk region than other body regions in adolescent females. Third, after short-term weight restoration, whether partial or complete, adults show a central adiposity phenotype with respect to healthy age-matched controls. Fourth, central fat distribution is associated with increased insulin resistance, but does not adversely affect eating disorder psychopathology or cause psychological distress in female adults. Fifth, the abnormal central fat distribution seems to normalize after long-term maintenance of complete weight restoration, indicating that preferential central distribution of body fat is a transitory phenomenon. However, a discrepancy in the findings has been noted, especially between adolescents and adults; besides age and gender, these appear to be related to differences in the methodology and time of body composition assessments. The PROSPERO Registry—Anorexia Nervosa and Body Fat Distribution: A Systematic Review (CRD42014008738.

  15. Body fat throughout childhood in 2647 healthy Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Tinggaard, Jeanette; Winther, K.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Total body fat percentage (%BF) evaluated by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans (DXA %BF) is widely recognized as a precise measure of fatness. We aimed to establish national reference curves for DXA %BF, %BF calculated from skinfolds (SF %BF) and waist circumfere......BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Total body fat percentage (%BF) evaluated by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans (DXA %BF) is widely recognized as a precise measure of fatness. We aimed to establish national reference curves for DXA %BF, %BF calculated from skinfolds (SF %BF) and waist...

  16. NONSULFATED SULFAKININ CHANGES METABOLIC PARAMETERS OF INSECT FAT BODY MITOCHONDRIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocinska, Malgorzata; Antos-Krzeminska, Nina; Rosinski, Grzegorz; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the effect of neuropeptide, the nonsulfated sulfakinin (SK) Zopat-SK-1 (pETSDDYGHLRFa) on the mitochondrial oxidative metabolism in the Zophobas atratus larval fat body. Mitochondria were isolated from beetle fat bodies 2 and 24 h after hormone injection. The administration of 20 pmol of Zopat-SK-1 to feeding larvae led to decreased mitochondrial oxidative activities in larval fat body. Diminished activities of citrate synthase and the cytochrome pathway, that is, nonphosphorylating and phosphorylating respiration during succinate oxidation, were observed. However, the effect of Zopat-SK-1 was more pronounced in fat body of insects after 24 h since hormone application. In hormone-treated larval fat bodies, mitochondrial respiration was decreased at the level of respiratory chain and the TCA cycle as well as at the level of mitochondrial biogenesis, as indicated by decreased activities of mitochondrial marker enzymes in fat body homogenates. The inhibition of succinate oxidation may indicate the role of Zopat-SK-1 in the regulation of mitochondrial complex II activity. Moreover, decreased respiratory chain activity was accompanied by the reduced activity of mitochondrial energy-dissipating pathway, uncoupling protein 4. The observed decrease in mitochondrial oxidative metabolism may reflect the Zopat-SK-1-induced reduction in the metabolic rate of larval fat body linked to actual energetic demands of animal. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Fat body, fat pad and adipose tissues in invertebrates and vertebrates: the nexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeez, Odunayo Ibraheem; Meintjes, Roy; Chamunorwa, Joseph Panashe

    2014-04-23

    The fat body in invertebrates was shown to participate in energy storage and homeostasis, apart from its other roles in immune mediation and protein synthesis to mention a few. Thus, sharing similar characteristics with the liver and adipose tissues in vertebrates. However, vertebrate adipose tissue or fat has been incriminated in the pathophysiology of metabolic disorders due to its role in production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This has not been reported in the insect fat body. The link between the fat body and adipose tissue was examined in this review with the aim of determining the principal factors responsible for resistance to inflammation in the insect fat body. This could be the missing link in the prevention of metabolic disorders in vertebrates, occasioned by obesity.

  18. Sonographic Prediction of Body Fat Volume (Subcutaneous and Visceral Fat in Cardiovascular Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Soleymanzadeh

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inappropriate body composition represents impaired energy and nutrient intake and can be a risk factor for many diseases, especially for cardiovascular disease. Different methods have been suggested for the estimation of body fat volume and its distribution. However, they may be either expensive or hazardous for some groups of patients. Sonography is a very accessible technique, which may be used for the evaluation of visceral and subcutaneous fat volume. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sonographic prediction of body fat and its distribution in subcutaneous and visceral compartments.Methods: During a three-month period, we conducted sonographic evaluations for visceral and subcutaneous fat in 106 patients who were admitted to our hospital. The subcutaneous fat was measured at the para-umbilical region and visceral fat was measured in the right para-renal space. The results were compared with the data obtained from the body mass index(BMI and bioelectric impedance analysis.Results: The mean age of the patients was 58.8 years, and the mean BMI was26.48 ± 0.33. The mean values of fat percent and fat mass obtained by the electric-method were 31.07 ± 0.81% and 22.12 ± 0.68 kg, respectively. The respective mean values of subcutaneous and visceral fat obtained by sonography were 20.50±0.56 mm and 24.14 ± 0.58 mm. The correlationbetween BMI and subcutaneous fat was 0.85 (p value < 0.0001 and the correlation between BMI and visceral fat was0.46(p value < 0.0001.Conclusion: Sonography is a reliable and available method for the estimation of body fat and its distribution in cardiovascularpatients, in subcutaneous and visceral compartments.

  19. RELATION OF FAT AND NON-FAT BODY COMPOSITION IN WOMEN WITH X-LEG DEFORMITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla Elezi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Influence of x-leg deformity in relation to fat and non-fat body composition in women was the goal of the paper. In this regards, the research included 41 female students with x-leg deformity and 41 female students without the deformity, while the total number of participants of the research was 82 aged from 18 to 19 years. 6 anthropometric variables have been used; one form measuring the body volme, three variables regarding the dimension of the sub skin fat tissue, one variable for measurement of non-fat body composition and one variable for measurement of fat body mass. Anthropometric measurements were carried out according to International Biological Program (IBP. Data collected demonstrates that x-leg deformity in women have significant influence on relation of fat and non-fat body composition. This relation is manifested as a result of decreased capacity of muscle endurance of leg muscles as main parts responsible for the physical activities, then consumption of calories and insufficient burning of fat as result of decreased capacity of movement.

  20. Observational study of body weight, body fat with segmental fat distribution, visceral fat and body mass index in type 2 diabetic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Sunil Dube; Shanti Viswanathan; Manjree Dube

    2016-01-01

    Background: There has been an increase in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases in the last decade. This prevalence has been steadily increasing and is expected to increase further in the coming decade. The change in our lifestyle plus a sedentary lifestyle has led to this .Various body composition monitoring methods help us evaluate obesity and its association with diabetes. In this study, we analysed the trend of body fat distribution in diabetics. Methods: A multifrequency body c...

  1. Mathematical description of human body constitution and fatness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh-Zade, Yu R; Galenko-Yaroshevskii, P A; Cherednik, I L

    2014-02-01

    Using mathematical modeling of human body, we demonstrated logical drawbacks of body mass index (BMI1 = M/H(2); A. Quetelet, 1832) and proposed more precise body mass index (BMI2 = M/H(3)) as well as body constitution index (BCI = (M/H(3))(1/2)) and fatness index (FI = M/HC(2)), where M, H, and C are body weight, height, and wrist circumference of the individual.

  2. Age–related rump fat, fat percent, body fat mass, leptin, androgens and semen parameters of Arab stallions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal M. Abo El-Maaty

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: This study proved that aging in stallions is related to a drop in fertility, a decrease in body fat and in turn leptin. Arab stallions of age 7 to 18 years could be used in the breeding efficiently.

  3. MR-based assessment of body fat distribution and characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Thomas; Cordes, Christian; Dieckmeyer, Michael; Ruschke, Stefan; Franz, Daniela; Hauner, Hans; Kirschke, Jan S; Karampinos, Dimitrios C

    2016-08-01

    The assessment of body fat distribution and characteristics using magnetic resonance (MR) methods has recently gained significant attention as it further extends our pathophysiological understanding of diseases including obesity, metabolic syndrome, or type 2 diabetes mellitus, and allows more detailed insights into treatment response and effects of lifestyle interventions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to review the current literature on MR-based assessment of body fat distribution and characteristics. PubMed search was performed to identify relevant studies on the assessment of body fat distribution and characteristics using MR methods. T1-, T2-weighted MR Imaging (MRI), Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS), and chemical shift-encoding based water-fat MRI have been successfully used for the assessment of body fat distribution and characteristics. The relationship of insulin resistance and serum lipids with abdominal adipose tissue (i.e. subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue), liver, muscle, and bone marrow fat content have been extensively investigated and may help to understand the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and the multifaceted obese phenotype. MR methods have also been used to monitor changes of body fat distribution and characteristics after interventions (e.g. diet or physical activity) and revealed distinct, adipose tissue-specific properties. Lastly, chemical shift-encoding based water-fat MRI can detect brown adipose tissue which is currently the focus of intense research as a potential treatment target for obesity. In conclusion, MR methods reliably allow the assessment of body fat distribution and characteristics. Irrespective of the promising findings based on these MR methods the clinical usefulness remains to be established.

  4. [Body composition at menarche. Estimation of total body weight, total body water, lean and fat body weight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurlo de Mirotti, S M; Lesa, A M; Barrón de Carbonetti, M; Roitter, H; Villagra de Lacuara, S

    1995-01-01

    Our aim was to confirm in our environment what has been observed and described by other writers about the importance of achieving a "critical body weight'' and an adequate "fat percentage'' -on the basis of the calculation of total body water- for the initiation and development of pubertal events. This study included 92 girls, healthy, well nourished, belonging to upper middle class from a high school of The National University of Cordoba. The longitudinal method of control was used every 6 months and at the precise moment of menarche. Out of 20 antropometrical variables observed height, weight and height, TBW as percentage of body weight, lean body and fat weight, fat percentage and skin folds ppercentiles for each girl at menarche. A regression between fat percentage and skin folds was done. Percentiles 5 to 95 of fat percentage in relation to body water percentage were estimated. At menarche the average for the different variables are: Heigth 155.6 cm +/- 0.469; Weight 45.8 Kg +/- 0,5; TBW 25.216 lit. +/- 0.318; lean body weigth 35.02 Kg (S.D.2.98); fat weigth 10.86 Kg (S. D. 3.17). The addition of skin folds was correlated fat percentage, thus, an equation was obtained for the average calculation of such percentage %F= 12.16 + (0.313 x fold addition). The minium percentage for the onset of menstrual cycles is 17.3% and corresponds to percentile 10. However, there is a 5% of girls who start to menstruate with a 15.5% of fat and none of them is below that value. The reasons mentioned above suggest that is necessary to obtain a "critical body weigth'' as well as a "fat percentage'' minimum for the onset and maintenance of menstrual cycles, among our girls, similar o what has been obtained by doctor Frisch.

  5. Evaluation of a rotary laser body scanner for body volume and fat assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Pepper, M Reese; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H.; Yu, Wurong; Stanforth, Philip R.; Xu, Bugao

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the evaluation tests on the reliability and validity of a 3-dimensional (3D) laser body scanner for estimation of body volume and % fat. Repeated measures of body imaging were performed for reproducibility analysis. Validity of the instrument was assessed by comparison of measures of body volume by imaging to hydrodensitometry, and body fat was compared to hydrodensitometry and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Reproducibility analysis showed little difference between withi...

  6. Visual adaptation to thin and fat bodies transfers across identity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Hummel

    Full Text Available Visual perception is highly variable and can be influenced by the surrounding world. Previous research has revealed that body perception can be biased due to adaptation to thin or fat body shapes. The aim of the present study was to show that adaptation to certain body shapes and the resulting perceptual biases transfer across different identities of adaptation and test stimuli. We designed two similar adaptation experiments in which healthy female participants adapted to pictures of either thin or fat bodies and subsequently compared more or less distorted pictures of their own body to their actual body shape. In the first experiment (n = 16 the same identity was used as adaptation and test stimuli (i.e. pictures of the participant's own body while in the second experiment (n = 16 we used pictures of unfamiliar thin or fat bodies as adaptation stimuli. We found comparable adaptation effects in both experiments: After adaptation to a thin body, participants rated a thinner than actual body picture to be the most realistic and vice versa. We therefore assume that adaptation to certain body shapes transfers across different identities. These results raise the questions of whether some type of natural adaptation occurs in everyday life. Natural and predominant exposure to certain bodily features like body shape--especially the thin ideal in Western societies--could bias perception for these features. In this regard, further research might shed light on aspects of body dissatisfaction and the development of body image disturbances in terms of eating disorders.

  7. Visceral fat cell lipolysis and cardiovascular risk factors in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, D P; Löfgren, P; Thorell, A; Arner, P; Hoffstedt, J

    2011-10-01

    Visceral fat accumulation relates to cardiovascular risk factors, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We investigated the role of visceral adipocyte triglyceride breakdown (lipolysis) for several risk factors of cardiovascular disease. In 73 obese women, fat mass and distribution, blood pressure, blood samples for cardiometabolic risk factors, and whole-body insulin sensitivity were determined. A subcutaneous and a visceral fat biopsy were taken. Fat cell glycerol release after stimulation with a major lipolytic hormone, noradrenaline, was measured. In simple regression analysis, visceral fat cell lipolysis, but not subcutaneous adipocyte lipolysis was related to components of the metabolic syndrome. Moreover, subjects in the highest quartile of catecholamine-induced visceral lipolysis had higher levels of systolic blood pressure, estimated liver fat, plasma levels of glucose, insulin, cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and apolipoprotein B and lower whole-body insulin sensitivity than those in the lowest quartile (p=0.0004-0.048). Among subjects with the metabolic syndrome, visceral fat cell lipolysis was 40% higher than in the remaining subjects (p=0.0052). Catecholamine-activated lipolysis in visceral but not subcutaneous fat cells is associated with cardiovascular risk factors in obesity. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Somatic maturation and body composition in female healthy adolescents with or without adjustment for body fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Paulo N. Miranda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the relationship between the stages of somatic maturation and body composition in eutrophic female adolescents with or without excessive body fat. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 118 female adolescents, from 14 to 19 years-old, in Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Southeast Brazil. The adolescents were divided in two groups: Group 1 (G1, eutrophic with adequate body fat percentage, and Group 2 (G2, eutrophic with high body fat percentage. The somatic maturation was assessed by the formula for estimating the Peak Height Velocity (PHV. Results: The PHV had higher average score in G1 adolescents compared to G2 (0.26 versus 0.05; p=0.032. There was an association between G1, G2 and the somatic maturation (p=0.049. The female adolescents before and during PHV presented higher values of fat body BMI (p=0.034 and percentage of central fat (p=0.039 compared to the adolescents after PHV. There was a correspondence between before PHV stage and the excess of body fat (α=0.751. Conclusions: There was an association between somatic maturation and body composition in eutrophic female adolescents. Length, BMI and fat percentage were different among the somatic maturation stages. It is relevant to evaluate the somatic maturation and the changes occurring in the body composition during adolescence in order to better evaluate and manage the nutritional status and the body fat excess.

  9. Evaluation of a rotary laser body scanner for body volume and fat assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, M Reese; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H; Yu, Wurong; Stanforth, Philip R; Xu, Bugao

    2010-07-08

    This paper reports the evaluation tests on the reliability and validity of a 3-dimensional (3D) laser body scanner for estimation of body volume and % fat. Repeated measures of body imaging were performed for reproducibility analysis. Validity of the instrument was assessed by comparison of measures of body volume by imaging to hydrodensitometry, and body fat was compared to hydrodensitometry and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Reproducibility analysis showed little difference between within-subjects measurements of volume (ICC ≥ 0.99, p laser body scanner and hydrodensitometry were strongly related (r = 0.99, p 0.05). These findings indicate that the 3D laser body scanner is a reliable and valid technique for the estimation of body volume. Furthermore, body imaging is an accurate measure of body fat, as compared to dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. This new instrument is promising as a quick, simple to use, and inexpensive method of body composition analysis.

  10. Eating Regulation Styles, Appearance Schemas, and Body Satisfaction Predict Changes in Body Fat for Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Ali Zaremba; Keiley, Margaret K.; Ryan, Aubrey E.; Radomski, Juliana Groves; Gropper, Sareen S.; Connell, Lenda Jo; Simmons, Karla P.; Ulrich, Pamela V.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and high body fat percentages are a major public health issue. The percentage of obese and overweight Americans has increased over the past 30 years. On average, overweight individuals with higher percent body fat than normal weight individuals are at increased risk for numerous negative outcomes both physically and mentally. A prime time…

  11. Calorie for calorie, dietary fat restriction results in more body fat loss than carbohydrate restriction in people with obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Kevin D; Bemis, Thomas; Brychta, Robert; Chen, Kong Y.; Courville, Amber; Crayner, Emma J.; Goodwin, Stephanie; Guo, Juen; Howard, Lilian; Knuth, Nicolas D.; Miller, Bernard V.; Prado, Carla M.; Siervo, Mario; Skarulis, Monica C.; Walter, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Dietary carbohydrate restriction has been purported to cause endocrine adaptations that promote body fat loss more than dietary fat restriction. We selectively restricted dietary carbohydrate versus fat for 6 days following a 5 day baseline diet in 19 adults with obesity confined to a metabolic ward where they exercised daily. Subjects received both isocaloric diets in random order during each of two inpatient stays. Body fat loss was calculated as the difference between daily fat intake and ...

  12. Associations between dietary intake and body fat independent of genetic and familial environmental background

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Ann Louise; Heitmann, B L; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm;

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether habitual dietary intake was associated with body fat mass and body fat distribution, independently of possible confounding by the genetic and shared environmental background.......To determine whether habitual dietary intake was associated with body fat mass and body fat distribution, independently of possible confounding by the genetic and shared environmental background....

  13. Percent body fat, fractures and risk of osteoporosis in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyshak, G

    2010-06-01

    Globally, in an aging population, osteoporosis and fractures are emerging as major public health problems; accessible and affordable recognition, prevention and treatment strategies are needed. Percent body fat is known to be associated with bone mineral density and fractures. This paper uses an innovative, virtually cost-free method to estimate percent body fat from age, height and weight, and assesses its validity by examining the association between percent body fat and fractures among women 39 and older. An epidemiologic study. 3940 college alumnae, median age 53.6, participated by responding to a mailed questionnaire covering medical history, behavioral factors, birth date, weight and height. T-tests, chi-square and multivariable logistic regression. Percent body fat estimated from age, weight, height and gender. Associations of fractures with percent body fat are expressed as odds ratios: for osteoporotic (wrist, hip and/or x-ray confirmed vertebral), the adjusted OR = 2.41, 95% CI (1.65, 3.54), P age, height and weight may be a valid, cost-saving, and cost-effective alternative tool for screening and assessing risk of osteoporosis in settings where Dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) or other radiological techniques are too costly or unavailable.

  14. Differences in nutrient uptake between the fat body and embryonic primary cultures of silkworm (Bombyx mori)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEILA MATINDOOST; JALAL J. SENDI; HOORIEH SOLEIMAN JAHI; KAYVAN ETEBARI

    2006-01-01

    Nutrition utilization and by-product formation in cultured insect cells has been investigated in several insect cells and has been of great interest to cell culturists and physiologists. In this research the biochemical changes in embryonic and fat body primary cultures of silkworm, Bombyx mori, have been compared. TC-100 medium supplemented with 10% and 20% FBS was used in embryonic and fat body primary cultures, respectively.Medium was renewed every week and the amount of glucose, uric acid, urea, total protein and alkaline phosphatase were measured in the samples from medium of primary cultures using spectrophotometeric methods. All biochemical macromolecules except uric acid showed significant changes. Glucose decreased in embryonic tissues, while in fat body culture its amount increased. Urea accumulation in embryonic culture was higher than in the fat body cultures. Since urea is a by-product, this accumulation could be due to higher utilization of amino acids. Total protein showed considerable changes and was consumed by embryonic culture more than the fat body' s. Alkaline phosphatase showed stronger activity in embryonic cells.

  15. Effect of body fat distribution on the transcription response to dietary fat interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radonjic, M.; Erk, M.J. van; Pasman, W.J.; Wortelboer, H.M.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Ommen, B. van

    2009-01-01

    Combination of decreased energy expenditure and increased food intake results in fat accumulation either in the abdominal site (upper body obesity, UBO) or on the hips (lower body obesity, LBO). In this study, we used microarray gene expression profiling of adipose tissue biopsies to investigate the

  16. Body mass index and percent body fat: a meta analysis among different ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deurenberg, P; Yap, M; van Staveren, W A

    1998-12-01

    To study the relationship between percent body fat and body mass index (BMI) in different ethnic groups and to evaluate the validity of the BMI cut-off points for obesity. Meta analysis of literature data. Populations of American Blacks, Caucasians, Chinese, Ethiopians, Indonesians, Polynesians and Thais. Mean values of BMI, percent body fat, gender and age were adapted from original papers. The relationship between percent body fat and BMI differs in the ethnic groups studied. For the same level of body fat, age and gender, American Blacks have a 1.3 kg/m2 and Polynesians a 4.5 kg/m2 lower BMI compared to Caucasians. By contrast, in Chinese, Ethiopians, Indonesians and Thais BMIs are 1.9, 4.6, 3.2 and 2.9 kg/m2 lower compared to Caucasians, respectively. Slight differences in the relationship between percent body fat and BMI of American Caucasians and European Caucasians were also found. The differences found in the body fat/BMI relationship in different ethnic groups could be due to differences in energy balance as well as to differences in body build. The results show that the relationship between percent body fat and BMI is different among different ethnic groups. This should have public health implications for the definitions of BMI cut-off points for obesity, which would need to be population-specific.

  17. Tracking of weight status and body fatness in Italian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toselli, Stefania; Brasili, Patricia; Di Michele, Rocco

    2013-12-01

    The prevalence of weight disorders among school-aged children is an increasing phenomenon and it is of great importance to identify the characteristics of individuals at risk of gaining or retaining weight. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of weight disorders and their tracking over a 3-year period in a sample of Italian children. Body mass, body height and selected skinfold thicknesses were assessed in 355 children at the age of 7 and 10 years. Tracking of body mass index (BMI), inverted BMI (iBMI) and skinfold-based body fat were analyzed and the relationships between changes in BMI and body fat were examined. Children presenting with overweight or obesity at 7 years old showed a trend toward lower weight categories at 10 years old. Conversely, a trend to become overweight was observed among normal weight boys, and a trend to become underweight was observed among normal weight girls. BMI, iBMI and body fat showed good levels of tracking, with high correlations between measurements performed at 7 and 10 years of age. Furthermore, BMI and iBMI changes were correlated to body fatness changes. The present study shows the importance of carefully following children's development over time because weight disorders may appear even in previously normal weight children.

  18. Changes in subcutaneous fat cell volume and insulin sensitivity after weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Daniel P; Eriksson Hogling, Daniel; Thorell, Anders; Toft, Eva; Qvisth, Veronica; Näslund, Erik; Thörne, Anders; Wirén, Mikael; Löfgren, Patrik; Hoffstedt, Johan; Dahlman, Ingrid; Mejhert, Niklas; Rydén, Mikael; Arner, Erik; Arner, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Large subcutaneous fat cells associate with insulin resistance and high risk of developing type 2 diabetes. We investigated if changes in fat cell volume and fat mass correlate with improvements in the metabolic risk profile after bariatric surgery in obese patients. Fat cell volume and number were measured in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue in 62 obese women before and 2 years after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Regional body fat mass by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; insulin sensitivity by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp; and plasma glucose, insulin, and lipid profile were assessed. RYGB decreased body weight by 33%, which was accompanied by decreased adipocyte volume but not number. Fat mass in the measured regions decreased and all metabolic parameters were improved after RYGB (P fat cell size correlated strongly with improved insulin sensitivity (P = 0.0057), regional changes in fat mass did not, except for a weak correlation between changes in visceral fat mass and insulin sensitivity and triglycerides. The curve-linear relationship between fat cell size and fat mass was altered after weight loss (P = 0.03). After bariatric surgery in obese women, a reduction in subcutaneous fat cell volume associates more strongly with improvement of insulin sensitivity than fat mass reduction per se. An altered relationship between adipocyte size and fat mass may be important for improving insulin sensitivity after weight loss. Fat cell size reduction could constitute a target to improve insulin sensitivity. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association.

  19. Holding fat stereotypes is associated with lower body dissatisfaction in normal weight Caucasian women who engage in body surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jean; Jarry, Josée L

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the moderating effect of body surveillance on the relationship between fat stereotype endorsement and body dissatisfaction in normal weight women. Participants (N=225) completed online measures of fat stereotyping, body surveillance, body dissatisfaction, and internalized thin ideals. After accounting for thin ideals, body surveillance moderated the relationship between fat stereotypes and body dissatisfaction. Contrary to hypotheses, higher fat stereotype endorsement predicted lower body dissatisfaction in women with higher body surveillance. Conversely, higher fat stereotype endorsement predicted greater body dissatisfaction in women with lower body surveillance. Thus, endorsing fat stereotypes appears protective against body dissatisfaction in normal weight women who extensively engage in body surveillance. For women who hold fat stereotypes and report high body surveillance, we propose that downward appearance comparison may create a contrast between themselves and the people with overweight whom they denigrate, thus improving body dissatisfaction.

  20. Insulin resistance and body fat distribution in South Asian men compared to Caucasian men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Chandalia

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: South Asians are susceptible to insulin resistance even without obesity. We examined the characteristics of body fat content, distribution and function in South Asian men and their relationships to insulin resistance compared to Caucasians. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Twenty-nine South Asian and 18 Caucasian non-diabetic men (age 27+/-3 and 27+/-3 years, respectively underwent euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp for insulin sensitivity, underwater weighing for total body fat, MRI of entire abdomen for intraperitoneal (IP and subcutaneous abdominal (SA fat and biopsy of SA fat for adipocyte size. RESULTS: Compared to Caucasians, in spite of similar BMI, South Asians had higher total body fat (22+/-6 and 15+/-4% of body weight; p-value<0.0001, higher SA fat (3.5+/-1.9 and 2.2+/-1.3 kg, respectively; p-value = 0.004, but no differences in IP fat (1.0+/-0.5 and 1.0+/-0.7 kg, respectively; p-value = 0.4. SA adipocyte cell size was significantly higher in South Asians (3491+/-1393 and 1648+/-864 microm2; p-value = 0.0001 and was inversely correlated with both glucose disposal rate (r-value = -0.57; p-value = 0.0008 and plasma adiponectin concentrations (r-value = -0.71; p-value<0.0001. Adipocyte size differences persisted even when SA was matched between South Asians and Caucasians. CONCLUSIONS: Insulin resistance in young South Asian men can be observed even without increase in IP fat mass and is related to large SA adipocytes size. Hence ethnic excess in insulin resistance in South Asians appears to be related more to excess truncal fat and dysfunctional adipose tissue than to excess visceral fat.

  1. Detrimental and protective fat: body fat distribution and its relation to metabolic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Andrea; Magnuson, Aaron; Foster, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is linked to numerous comorbidities that include, but are not limited to, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular disease. Current evidence suggests, however, obesity itself is not an exclusive predictor of metabolic dysregulation but rather adipose tissue distribution. Obesity-related adverse health consequences occur predominately in individuals with upper body fat accumulation, the detrimental distribution, commonly associated with visceral obesity. Increased lower body subcutaneous adipose tissue, however, is associated with a reduced risk of obesity-induced metabolic dysregulation and even enhanced insulin sensitivity, thus, storage in this region is considered protective. The proposed mechanisms that causally relate the differential outcomes of adipose tissue distribution are often attributed to location and/or adipocyte regulation. Visceral adipose tissue effluent to the portal vein drains into the liver where hepatocytes are directly exposed to its metabolites and secretory products, whereas the subcutaneous adipose tissue drains systemically. Adipose depots are also inherently different in numerous ways such as adipokine release, immunity response and regulation, lipid turnover, rate of cell growth and death, and response to stress and sex hormones. Proximal extrinsic factors also play a role in the differential drive between adipose tissue depots. This review focuses on the deleterious mechanisms postulated to drive the differential metabolic response between central and lower body adipose tissue distribution.

  2. Comparison of the effectiveness of body mass index and body fat percentage in defining body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonasegaran, Arvin Raj; Nabila, Fatin Nabila; Shuhada, Nurul Shuhada

    2012-06-01

    Body mass index (BMI) has limited diagnostic performance due to its inability to discriminate between fat and lean mass. This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of body fat percentage (BFP) against BMI in defining body composition. A cross-sectional study was conducted on students aged 17-30 years in Melaka, Malaysia. Basic anthropometric measurements were acquired using a manual weighing scale, measuring tape and a fixed stadiometer. BFP was calculated using the United States Navy formula. Data was tabulated and analysed using Epi Info and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software. Pearson's correlation coefficient and Kappa values were used. A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Out of the 490 subjects recruited, 43% of males and 24.6% of females were found to be overweight, while 14.3% of males and 7.8% of females were obese, when calculated using BMI. However, 8.9% of males and 22.8% of females were considered obese based on the BFP. BFP plays a more important role in distinguishing between healthy and obese individuals, as it has a greater ability to differentiate between lean mass and fat mass compared to BMI.

  3. Light physical activity increased body fat percentage in elderly Javanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatmah Fatmah

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity in Indonesia is rapidly increasing, particularly in older people. Obesity is characterized by increased percentage of body fat in the form of visceral fat and non-visceral or subcutaneous fat. The aim of this study was to analyze body fat percentage (BFP and associated risk factors, i.e. type of residence (rural or urban, physical activity, gender, age, intakes of energy and fat, and socio-economic background (educational level and occupational status. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 812 older persons (517 females and 295 males from December 2007- February 2008 in the cities of Surabaya, Semarang, Yogyakarta, Wonogiri, Gunung Kidul, and Magetan subdistricts. BFP was assessed using an Omron Fat Analyzer. Nutritional intakes were collected through interviews using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. To obtain overall total energy expenditure for physical activity (PA, the energy expenditures for exercise (sports PA, daily activities, and leisure time PA were added together. The study results indicated that urban residence and light PA at age 55 years constituted risk factors for high BFP. Light PA at 55 years of age was the most influential risk factor, since it was 4.3 times greater than vigorous PA at the same age (OR=4.3; 95% Confidence interval 2.6-7.1 It is recommended to implement nutritional counseling about adequate intakes for increased PA in all age groups (adolescents, adults, older persons, particularly in urban areas with their greater risk of high BFP.

  4. FTO gene associated fatness in relation to body fat distribution and metabolic traits throughout a broad range of fatness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia I I Kring

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP of FTO (rs9939609, T/A is associated with total body fatness. We investigated the association of this SNP with abdominal and peripheral fatness and obesity-related metabolic traits in middle-aged men through a broad range of fatness present already in adolescence. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Obese young Danish men (n = 753, BMI > or = 31.0 kg/m(2 and a randomly selected group (n = 879 from the same population were examined in three surveys (mean age 35, 46 and 49 years, respectively. The traits included anthropometrics, body composition, oral glucose tolerance test, blood lipids, blood pressure, fibrinogen and aspartate aminotransferase. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the age-adjusted association between the phenotypes and the odds ratios for the FTO rs9939609 (TT and TA genotype versus the AA genotype, for anthropometrics and body composition estimated per unit z-score. BMI was strongly associated with the AA genotype in all three surveys: OR = 1.17, p = 1.1*10(-6, OR = 1.20, p = 1.7*10(-7, OR = 1.17, p = 3.4*10(-3, respectively. Fat body mass index was also associated with the AA genotype (OR = 1.21, p = 4.6*10(-7 and OR = 1.21, p = 1.0*10(-3. Increased abdominal fatness was associated with the AA genotype when measured as waist circumference (OR = 1.21, p = 2.2*10(-6 and OR = 1.19, p = 5.9*10(-3, sagittal abdominal diameter (OR = 1.17, p = 1.3*10(-4 and OR = 1.18, p = 0.011 and intra-abdominal adipose tissue (OR = 1.21, p = 0.005. Increased peripheral fatness measured as hip circumference (OR = 1.19, p = 1.3*10(-5 and OR = 1.18, p = 0.004 and lower body fat mass (OR = 1.26, p = 0.002 was associated with the AA genotype. The AA genotype was significantly associated with decreased Stumvoll insulin sensitivity index (OR = 0.93, p = 0.02 and with decreased non-fasting plasma HDL-cholesterol (OR = 0.57, p = 0.037, but not with any other of the metabolic traits. However

  5. Body mass index: a true indicator of body fat in obese gravidas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, Mark F; Huston-Presley, Larraine; Amini, Saeid B; Catalano, Patrick M

    2007-10-01

    To determine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat in overweight/obese pregnant women (BMI >25) before and during pregnancy. Thirteen overweight women were evaluated longitudinally (prospective cohort study design) before conception, in early gestation (12-22 weeks) and in late gestation (31-36 weeks). BMI was calculated as weight (kg)/height (m)2, and percent body fat was estimated using hydrodensitometry with correction for residual lung volume. The correlation between BMI and percent body fat before conception was r2 = 0.86 (p = 0.001). Furthermore, the correlation remained strong in early pregnancy, r2 = 0.84 (p = 0.001), but was less strong yet significant, r2 = 0.54 (p = 0.004), in late gestation. In overweight women, the correlation between BMI and percent body fat remained significant during pregnancy. However, the correlation weakened as the pregnancy advanced.

  6. A regulatory pathway, ecdysone-transcription factor relish-cathepsin L, is involved in insect fat body dissociation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Zhang

    Full Text Available Insect fat body is the organ for intermediary metabolism, comparable to vertebrate liver and adipose tissue. Larval fat body is disintegrated to individual fat body cells and then adult fat body is remodeled at the pupal stage. However, little is known about the dissociation mechanism. We find that the moth Helicoverpa armigera cathepsin L (Har-CL is expressed heavily in the fat body and is released from fat body cells into the extracellular matrix. The inhibitor and RNAi experiments demonstrate that Har-CL functions in the fat body dissociation in H. armigera. Further, a nuclear protein is identified to be transcription factor Har-Relish, which was found in insect immune response and specifically binds to the promoter of Har-CL gene to regulate its activity. Har-Relish also responds to the steroid hormone ecdysone. Thus, the dissociation of the larval fat body is involved in the hormone (ecdysone-transcription factor (Relish-target gene (cathepsin L regulatory pathway.

  7. Neither Good nor Useful: Looking Ad Vivum in Children's Assessments of Fat and Healthy Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    Fat bodies are not, fait accompli, bad. Yet in our international research, we found overwhelmingly that fat functioned as a marker to indicate health or lack of health. A body with fat was simply and conclusively unhealthy. This article reports on how this unbalanced view of fat was tied to assessments of healthy bodies that were achieved by "the…

  8. Relationship between body fat and body mass index: differences between Indonesians and Dutch Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurrici, S; Hartriyanti, Y; Hautvast, J G; Deurenberg, P

    1998-11-01

    To study the relationship between percent body fat and body mass index (BMI) in two different ethnic groups (Indonesians and Caucasians) in order to evaluate the validity of the BMI cut-off points for obesity. Cross-sectional study. Not specially selected populations living in southern Sumatra (Palembang, Indonesia) and Caucasian Dutch living in Wageningen. Body weight, body height, body fat by deuterium oxide dilution and skinfold thickness. Body fat could be well predicted by body mass index (BMI) and sex in the Indonesians and by BMI, sex and age in the Dutch with a prediction error of 3.6 and 3.3% for the two populations respectively. Although the body mass index in the Indonesian group was about 2 kg/m2 lower compared to the Dutch, the amount of body fat was 3% points higher. Because of small differences between the groups in age, weight and height the differences in body fat were corrected for this (ANOVA). Indonesians having the same weight, height, age and sex have generally 4.8% points more body fat compared to Dutch. Indonesians having the same % BF, age and sex have generally a 2.9 kg/m2 lower BMI compared to the Dutch. The results show that the relationship between % BF and BMI is different between Indonesians and Dutch Caucasians. If obesity is regarded as an excess of body fat and not as an excess of weight (increased BMI), the cut-off points for obesity in Indonesia based on the BMI should be 27 kg/m2 instead of 30 kg/m2.

  9. Body fat and fat-free mass and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigaard, Janne; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Tjønneland, Anne

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the association between BMI and all-cause mortality could be disentangled into opposite effects of body fat and fat-free mass (FFM). RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: All-cause mortality was studied in the Danish follow-up study "Diet, Cancer and Health" with 27...... fat mass divided by height squared), FFM index (FFM divided by height squared), and mortality. All analyses were adjusted for smoking habits. RESULTS: Men and women showed similar associations. J-shaped associations were found between body fat mass index and mortality adjusted for FFM and smoking....... The mortality rate ratios in the upper part of body fat mass were 1.12 per kg/m2 (95% confidence interval: 1.07, 1.18) in men and 1.06 per kg/m2 (95% confidence interval: 1.02, 1.10) in women. Reversed J-shaped associations were found between FFM index and mortality with a tendency to level off for high values...

  10. Physics for Medicine and Biology: Determining Body Fat Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Ronald; Altman, Albert

    2011-04-01

    Hydrostatic weighing is a technique for determining body fat content that is based on Archimedes principle and varied applications of the ideal gas law. We use this procedure as an example of the types of physics material which should be presented in an introductory course for students that are interested in careers in biology and medicine.

  11. The Relationship between Lutein and Zeaxanthin Status and Body Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billy R. Hammond

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this project was to investigate the relationships between total and regional distribution of body fat and tissue lutein (L and zeaxanthin (Z status. Healthy men and women (N = 100; average age: 22.5 year, average BMI: 23.4 kg/m2 were evaluated. Total body and regional fat mass were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (Hologic Delphi A. Serum LZ was measured using reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and retinal LZ (referred to as macular pigment optical density; MPOD was measured using heterochromatic flicker photometry. Body fat percentage (total and regional was inversely related to MPOD (p < 0.01 but no significant relationship was found for serum LZ. Higher body fat percentage, even within relatively healthy limits, is associated with lower tissue LZ status. The results indicate that adiposity may affect the nutritional state of the retina. Such links may be one of the reasons that obesity promotes age-related degenerative conditions of the retina.

  12. Predicting Body Fat Using Data on the BMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Terence C.

    2005-01-01

    A data set contained in the "Journal of Statistical Education's" data archive provides a way of exploring regression analysis at a variety of teaching levels. An appropriate functional form for the relationship between percentage body fat and the BMI is shown to be the semi-logarithmic, with variation in the BMI accounting for a little over half…

  13. Proline synthesis in fat body of Leptinotarsa decemlineata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weeda, E.; Koopmanschap, A.B.; Kort, C.A.D. de; Beenakkers, A.M.Th.

    1980-01-01

    Fat body isolated from the Colorado potato beetle is capable of synthesizing proline. Maximum rate of proline synthesis is achieved with alanine as substrate. A metabolic pathway in which stored lipid participates in proline synthesis is suggested. The close relationship between flight muscle and fa

  14. Fat Talk and Body Dissatisfaction among College Dancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartawidjaja, Jenae E.; Cordero, Elizabeth D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate "fat talk" conversations about weight and body dissatisfaction within college dancers. Participants were 116 female undergraduates who were dancers/dance majors ("n"?=?20), dancers/nondance majors ("n"?=?32), and nondancers ("n"?=?63). Participants responded to…

  15. Clinical Usefulness of a New Equation for Estimating Body Fat

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez-Ambrosi, J.; De Silva, C.; Catalan, V.; Rodriguez, A.; Galofre, J.C. (Juan Carlos); Escalada, J.; Valenti, V; Rotellar, F. (Fernando); Romero, S.; Ramirez, B.; J. Salvador; Frühbeck, G.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the predictive capacity of a recently described equation that we have termed CUN-BAE (Clínica Universidad de Navarra-Body Adiposity Estimator) based on BMI, sex, and age for estimating body fat percentage (BF%) and to study its clinical usefulness. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a comparison study of the developed equation with many other anthropometric indices regarding its correlation with actual BF% in a large cohort of 6,510 white subjects from b...

  16. Calorie for Calorie, Dietary Fat Restriction Results in More Body Fat Loss than Carbohydrate Restriction in People with Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kevin D; Bemis, Thomas; Brychta, Robert; Chen, Kong Y; Courville, Amber; Crayner, Emma J; Goodwin, Stephanie; Guo, Juen; Howard, Lilian; Knuth, Nicolas D; Miller, Bernard V; Prado, Carla M; Siervo, Mario; Skarulis, Monica C; Walter, Mary; Walter, Peter J; Yannai, Laura

    2015-09-01

    Dietary carbohydrate restriction has been purported to cause endocrine adaptations that promote body fat loss more than dietary fat restriction. We selectively restricted dietary carbohydrate versus fat for 6 days following a 5-day baseline diet in 19 adults with obesity confined to a metabolic ward where they exercised daily. Subjects received both isocaloric diets in random order during each of two inpatient stays. Body fat loss was calculated as the difference between daily fat intake and net fat oxidation measured while residing in a metabolic chamber. Whereas carbohydrate restriction led to sustained increases in fat oxidation and loss of 53 ± 6 g/day of body fat, fat oxidation was unchanged by fat restriction, leading to 89 ± 6 g/day of fat loss, and was significantly greater than carbohydrate restriction (p = 0.002). Mathematical model simulations agreed with these data, but predicted that the body acts to minimize body fat differences with prolonged isocaloric diets varying in carbohydrate and fat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Association between cardiorespiratory fitness and body fat in girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minatto, Giseli; de Sousa, Thiago Ferreira; de Carvalho, Wellington Roberto Gomes; Ribeiro, Roberto Régis; Santos, Keila Donassolo; Petroski, Edio Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To estimate the prevalence of low cardiorespiratory fitness and its association with excess body fat, considering the sexual maturation and economic level in female adolescents. Methods: Cross-sectional, epidemiological study of 1223 adolescents (10-17 years) from the public school system of Cascavel, PR, Brazil, in 2006. We analyzed the self-assessed sexual maturation level (prepubertal, pubertal and post-pubertal), the economic level (high and low) through a questionnaire and body fat (normal and high) through triceps and subscapular skinfolds. The 20-meter back-and-forth test was applied to estimate maximum oxygen consumption. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed according to reference criteria and considered low when the minimum health criterion for age and sex was not met. Chi-square test and logistic regression were applied, with a significance level of 5%. Results: The prevalence of low cardiorespiratory fitness was 51.3%, being associated with all study variables (p<0.001). At the crude analysis, adolescents with high body fat were associated with low cardiorespiratory fitness, when compared to those with normal body fat (OR=2.76; 95%CI: 2.17-3.52). After adjustment by sexual maturation, this association remained valid and showed an effect that was 1.8-fold higher (95%CI: 1.39-2.46) and after adjusting by economic level, the effect was 1.9-fold higher (95%CI: 1.45-2.61). Conclusions: Approximately half of the assessed girls showed unsatisfactory levels of cardiorespiratory fitness for health, which was associated with high body fat, regardless of sexual maturation level and economic level. Effective public health measures are needed, with particular attention to high-risk groups. PMID:27131896

  18. Dietary intake mediates the relationship of body fat to pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Charles F; Olson, KayLoni L; Bodine, Andrew; Lee, Victoria; Habash, Diane L

    2017-02-01

    Prior studies have documented an association of obesity with chronic pain, but the mechanism explaining the association remains unknown. This study evaluated the degree to which dietary intake of foods with anti-inflammatory effects mediates the relationship of body fat to body pain. Ninety-eight community-residing healthy adults (60% women; mean age = 43.2 ± 15.3 years; range: 20-78 years) participated in a home-based study of home environment, food-related behaviors, health, and adiposity. During a 3-hour home visit evaluation, 3 measures of body fat were collected, including height and weight for calculation of body mass index (BMI). Participants also completed a 24-hour food recall interview and self-report measures of bodily pain (BP; BP subscale from the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36) and psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). Quality of dietary intake was rated using the Healthy Eating Index-2010. Mediation models were conducted with the PROCESS macro in SAS 9.3. Mean BMI was consistent with obesity (30.4 ± 7.8; range: 18.2-53.3), and BP values (73.2 ± 22.1; range: 0-100) and dietary intake quality (59.4 ± 15.5; range: 26.8-88.1) were consistent with population norms. Modeling in PROCESS revealed that Healthy Eating Index-2010 scores mediated the relationship between BMI and BP (bindirect = -0.34, 95% confidence interval = -0.68 to -0.13). The mediation model remained significant when controlling for biomechanical factors (arthritis/joint pain), medication use, psychological distress, age, and education, and models remained significant using the other 2 body fat measures. Thus, the data indicate that dietary intake of foods with anti-inflammatory effects mediates the relationship of body fat to body pain in healthy men and women.

  19. A role for the adult fat body in Drosophila male courtship behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna A Lazareva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mating behavior in Drosophila depends critically on the sexual identity of specific regions in the brain, but several studies have identified courtship genes that express products only outside the nervous system. Although these genes are each active in a variety of non-neuronal cell types, they are all prominently expressed in the adult fat body, suggesting an important role for this tissue in behavior. To test its role in male courtship, fat body was feminized using the highly specific Larval serum protein promoter. We report here that the specific feminization of this tissue strongly reduces the competence of males to perform courtship. This effect is limited to the fat body of sexually mature adults as the feminization of larval fat body that normally persists in young adults does not affect mating. We propose that feminization of fat body affects the synthesis of male-specific secreted circulating proteins that influence the central nervous system. In support of this idea, we demonstrate that Takeout, a protein known to influence mating, is present in the hemolymph of adult males but not females and acts as a secreted protein.

  20. Association of body fat with inflammation in peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mattos, Andresa Marques; Ovidio, Paula Payão; Jordão, Alceu Afonso; da Costa, José Abrão Cardeal; Chiarello, Paula Garcia

    2013-06-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) frequently leads to body weight gain, which appears to be a potential cause of the chronic inflammation frequently present in these patients. The consequences of this inflammation are impaired nutritional status, accelerated atherosclerosis, and increased mortality. To assess the association between inflammation and body fat in female patients treated with PD. Nineteen female patients on PD for at least 6 months with no infectious complications or malignant or acute inflammatory diseases. Nutritional status was determined by measuring weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist (WC), and mid-arm circumferences (MAC), mid-arm muscle area, and tricipital fold (TCF). Bioelectrical impedance (BIA) was used to determine body composition. Biochemical evaluation included the determination of serum albumin, urea, creatinine, and C-reactive protein (CRP). The glucose absorbed from the dialysis solution was quantitated. According to BMI, two patients were classified as malnourished and ten as overweight/obese. Sixteen individuals had high WC measurements and 12 had excess body fat (BF) as measured by BIA. High CRP levels were observed in 12 patients, who had higher WC, MAC, BMI, TCF, and BF measurements compared to non-inflamed patients. Positive associations were detected between CRP and BMI, MAC, WC, and TCF. Associations between BF and CRP suggest that adiposity may be a potent exacerbating factor of inflammation in this population, especially visceral fat. Thus, obesity may be considered to be one more factor responsible for the early atherosclerosis and high cardiovascular mortality observed in these patients.

  1. Relationship between body fat mass and bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holecki, Michał; Wiecek, Andrzej

    2010-09-01

    The protective effect of obesity on bone tissue has not been unequivocally demonstrated. On one hand, it is known that obese people have a lower risk of osteoporotic fractures compared with normal-weight individuals. On the other hand, obese patients are characterized by disorders of calcium-phosphate homeostasis and bone metabolism. Moreover, it is not known whether it is fat or lean body mass that determines the development of bone mass. It can be assumed that adipose tissue exerts independent effects on bone remodeling by releasing a number of biologically active substances. Moreover, it seems that the main mechanism of action of these substances is closely related to the type and location of adipose tissue in the body. The present article describes the relationship between fat and bones, including the effect of body weight on bone tissue, the local mechanisms of osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation, and the hormonal activity of adipose tissue.

  2. Associations between body fat and vitamin K status in older women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fat soluble nutrients are stored in fat tissue. Yet, the association between body fat and vitamin K status is not clear. We examined associations between % body fat (%BF) and 3 circulating measures of vitamin K status [plasma phylloquinone (plasma K1), uncarboxylated prothrombin (PIVKA), uncarboxyla...

  3. Body fat and risk of colorectal cancer among postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Geoffrey C; Heo, Moonseong; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Messina, Catherine; Thomson, Cynthia A; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Rohan, Thomas E

    2013-06-01

    Studies of the relationship between anthropometric indices of obesity and colorectal cancer risk in women have shown only weak and inconsistent associations. Given the limitations of such indices, we used dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-derived measures of body fat obtained in the Women's Health Initiative to examine the association between body fat and risk of incident colorectal cancer. We compared these risk estimates with those obtained using conventional anthropometric measurements (body mass index and waist circumference). After exclusions, the study population consisted of 11,124 postmenopausal women with DXA measurements at baseline and no history of colorectal cancer. After a median follow-up period of 12.9 years, 169 incident colorectal cancer cases were ascertained. Cox's proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95 % confidence intervals for the exposures of interest. Neither DXA-derived body fat measures nor anthropometric measures showed significant associations with risk. In view of the limited number of cases, we cannot rule out the existence of weak associations of these measures with risk of colorectal cancer.

  4. Body Fat Percentage Prediction Using Intelligent Hybrid Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuehjen E. Shao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Excess of body fat often leads to obesity. Obesity is typically associated with serious medical diseases, such as cancer, heart disease, and diabetes. Accordingly, knowing the body fat is an extremely important issue since it affects everyone’s health. Although there are several ways to measure the body fat percentage (BFP, the accurate methods are often associated with hassle and/or high costs. Traditional single-stage approaches may use certain body measurements or explanatory variables to predict the BFP. Diverging from existing approaches, this study proposes new intelligent hybrid approaches to obtain fewer explanatory variables, and the proposed forecasting models are able to effectively predict the BFP. The proposed hybrid models consist of multiple regression (MR, artificial neural network (ANN, multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS, and support vector regression (SVR techniques. The first stage of the modeling includes the use of MR and MARS to obtain fewer but more important sets of explanatory variables. In the second stage, the remaining important variables are served as inputs for the other forecasting methods. A real dataset was used to demonstrate the development of the proposed hybrid models. The prediction results revealed that the proposed hybrid schemes outperformed the typical, single-stage forecasting models.

  5. Relationship between Regional Body Fat Distribution and Diabetes Mellitus: 2008 to 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soo In; Chung, Dawn; Lim, Jung Soo; Lee, Mi Young; Shin, Jang Yel; Chung, Choon Hee

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the association between regional body fat distribution, especially leg fat mass, and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in adult populations. Methods A total of 3,181 men and 3,827 postmenopausal women aged 50 years or older were analyzed based on Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2008 to 2010). Body compositions including muscle mass and regional fat mass were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results The odds ratios (ORs) for DM was higher with increasing truncal fat mass and arm fat mass, while it was lower with increasing leg fat mass. In a partial correlation analysis adjusted for age, leg fat mass was negatively associated with glycosylated hemoglobin in both sexes and fasting glucose in women. Leg fat mass was positively correlated with appendicular skeletal muscle mass and homeostasis model assessment of β cell. In addition, after adjusting for confounding factors, the OR for DM decreased gradually with increasing leg fat mass quartiles in both genders. When we subdivided the participants into four groups based on the median values of leg fat mass and leg muscle mass, higher leg fat mass significantly lowered the risk of DM even though they have smaller leg muscle mass in both genders (P<0.001). Conclusion The relationship between fat mass and the prevalence of DM is different according to regional body fat distribution. Higher leg fat mass was associated with a lower risk of DM in Korean populations. Maintaining leg fat mass may be important in preventing impaired glucose tolerance. PMID:28029016

  6. Anorexia Nervosa and Body Fat Distribution: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Marwan El Ghoch; Simona Calugi; Silvia Lamburghini; Riccardo Dalle Grave

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to conduct a systematic review of body fat distribution before and after partial and complete weight restoration in individuals with anorexia nervosa. Literature searches, study selection, method development and quality appraisal were performed independently by two authors, and data was synthesized using a narrative approach. Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria and were consequently analyzed. The review had five main findings. First, during anorexia nervosa ado...

  7. Body fat and cholecalciferol supplementation in elderly homebound individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H.S. Canto-Costa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency, observed mainly in the geriatric population, is responsible for loss of bone mass and increased risk of bone fractures. Currently, recommended doses of cholecalciferol are advised, but since there are few studies evaluating the factors that influence the serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD following supplementation, we analyzed the relationship between the increase in serum 25(OHD after supplementation and body fat. We studied a group of 42 homebound elderly subjects over 65 years old (31 women in order to assess whether there is a need for adjustment of the doses of cholecalciferol administered to this group according to their adipose mass. Baseline measurements of 25(OHD, intact parathyroid hormone and bone remodeling markers (osteocalcin and carboxy-terminal fraction of type 1 collagen were performed. Percent body fat was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The patients were divided into three groups according to their percent body fat index and were treated with cholecalciferol, 7,000 IU a week, for 12 weeks. The increases in serum levels of 25(OHD were similar for all groups, averaging 7.46 ng/mL (P < 0.05. It is noteworthy that this increase only shifted these patients from the insufficiency category to hypovitaminosis. Peak levels of 25(OHD were attained after only 6 weeks of treatment. This study demonstrated that adipose tissue mass does not influence the elevation of 25(OHD levels following vitamin D supplementation, suggesting that there is no need to adjust vitamin D dose according to body fat in elderly homebound individuals.

  8. Estimation of body fat in rats by whole-body counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pommer, A.M.; Lakshmanan, F.L.

    1975-07-01

    A method for determining body fat in vivo in rats by whole-body counting of /sup 40/K is described. The technique utilizes a Nuclear Chicago Corporation TOBOR system with 5-in thallium-activated sodium iodide crystals. To test the method a regression equation was developed using the /sup 40/K counts and body weight of young adult rats weighing 333 to 788 g; the results were compared with those obtained from the gravimetric determination of fat in the carcass. The correlation coefficient between the two methods was 0.945. (auth)

  9. The relationship between body fat and pancreatic β -cell function of type 2 diabetics%67例2型糖尿病患者体脂与其胰岛B细胞功能的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭金芸; 刘丹; 张殷殷

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨2型糖尿病(T2DM)患者体脂肪量、分布与其胰岛B细胞功能相关性.方法 用体重脂肪测定仪测量67例T2DM患者的体脂肪率、体脂肪含量、测身高、体重、腰围、臀围,计算体重指数、腰臀比.作标准馒头试验和精氨酸刺激试验,分别检测各时断分泌的C肽,计算C肽曲线下的面积.结果 WHR、WC、BMI、FAT、FATMASS与0hC肽、2hC肽、标准馒头试验和精氨酸刺激试验测得的C肽曲线下的面积呈正相关(P<0.05).结论 体脂增多,尤其是腹部脂肪增多,加重T2DM患者胰岛B细胞的负担,是T2DM患者胰岛素抵抗的重要危险因素.%Objective To investigate the relation of body fat content and distribution with pancreatic β-cell function of type 2 diabetics. Methods FAT, FATMASS were measured with TBF-300GS in 67 type 2 diabetic cases Height, body weight and waist circumference were also measured to calculate BMI and WHR. Standard steamed bread Test and arginine stimulation test were done in the cases to measure plasma glucose and C-peptide of every time scale, then to calculate Area under a curve of C-peptide. Results WHR, WC, BMI, FAT、FATMASS were correlated positively with 0 hours C-tipetide, 2 hours C-peptide、 Area under a curve of C-peptide which measured by Standard steamed bread Test and arginine stimulation test, ( P< 0.05 ). Conclusions Increasing body fat, especial increasing area of abdominal fat, will increase the B cell of pancreas's work, which is an important risk factor of insulin resistance for type 2 diabetics.

  10. Relationship between Psychosocial Functioning and Body Fat in Preschool Children: A Longitudinal Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klesges, Robert C.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined whether 132 preschool children who varied in levels of body fat differed on psychosocial functioning. Children did not differ in self-esteem and family functioning as function of body fat. Prospectively, physical self-esteem weakly but significantly correlated with body fat at one and two years; father's perception of family functioning…

  11. Prolonged adaptation to fat-rich diet and training; effects on body fat stores and insulin resistance in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the effect of prolonged adaptation to training and fat- or carbohydrate-rich diet on body composition and insulin resistance.......To investigate the effect of prolonged adaptation to training and fat- or carbohydrate-rich diet on body composition and insulin resistance....

  12. Brief communication: Body mass index, body adiposity index, and percent body fat in Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dapeng; Li, Yonglan; Zheng, Lianbin; Yu, Keli

    2013-10-01

    Human obesity is a growing epidemic throughout the world. Body mass index (BMI) is commonly used as a good indicator of obesity. Body adiposity index (BAI = hip circumference (cm)/stature (m)(1.5) - 18), as a new surrogate measure, has been proposed recently as an alternative to BMI. This study, for the first time, compares BMI and BAI for predicting percent body fat (PBF; estimated from skinfolds) in a sample of 302 Buryat adults (148 men and 154 women) living in China. The BMI and BAI were strongly correlated with PBF in both men and women. The correlation coefficient between BMI and PBF was higher than that between BAI and PBF for both sexes. For the linear regression analysis, BMI better predicted PBF in both men and women; the variation around the regression lines for each sex was greater for BAI comparisons. For the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the area under the ROC curve for BMI was higher than that for BAI for each sex, which suggests that the discriminatory capacity of the BMI is higher than the one of BAI. Taken together, we conclude that BMI is a more reliable indicator of PBF derived from skinfold thickness in adult Buryats. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Association of body fat and vitamin D status and the effect of body fat on the response to vitamin D supplementation in Pakistani immigrants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønborg, Ida Marie; Lundby, M.; Mølgaard, C.;

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency and obesity are both prevalent conditions in the northern countries, especially among immigrants. The aims were to assess the possible relationship between body fat and vitamin D status, and to investigate the effect of body fat on the response to oral vitamin D supplementation...... in Pakistani immigrants in Denmark. Data were obtained from a 1-year double-blind randomised controlled trial with oral vitamin D supplementation. A total of 122 women and men received either vitamin D3 supplementation (10 or 20 μg/day) or placebo. No association was found between body fat percentage...... and vitamin D status in a multiple linear regression model (Pbody fat was seen on the vitamin D status response following the intervention with vitamin D. In conclusion, there was no baseline association between body fat percentage and vitamin D status, and body fat percentage had...

  14. The Body Fat-Cognition Relationship in Healthy Older Individuals: Does Gynoid vs Android Distribution Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, R; Pesce, C; De Vito, G; Boreham, C A G

    2017-01-01

    To examine the relationship between regional and whole body fat accumulation and core cognitive executive functions. Cross-sectional study. 78 healthy men and women aged between 65 and 75 years recruited through consumer's database. DXA measured percentage total body fat, android, gynoid distribution and android/gynoid ratio; inhibition and working memory updating through Random Number Generation test and cognitive flexibility by Trail Making test. First-order partial correlations between regional body fat and cognitive executive function were computed partialling out the effects of whole body fat. Moderation analysis was performed to verify the effect of gender on the body fat-cognition relationship. Results showed a differentiated pattern of fat-cognition relationship depending on fat localization and type of cognitive function. Statistically significant relationships were observed between working memory updating and: android fat (r = -0.232; p = 0.042), gynoid fat (r = 0.333; p = 0.003) and android/gynoid ratio (r = -0.272; p = 0.017). Separating genders, the only significant relationship was observed in females between working memory updating and gynoid fat (r = 0.280; p = 0.045). In spite of gender differences in both working memory updating and gynoid body fat levels, moderation analysis did not show an effect of gender on the relationship between gynoid fat and working memory updating. Results suggest a protective effect of gynoid body fat and a deleterious effect of android body fat. Although excessive body fat increases the risk of developing CDV, metabolic and cognitive problems, maintaining a certain proportion of gynoid fat may help prevent cognitive decline, particularly in older women. Guidelines for optimal body composition maintenance for the elderly should not target indiscriminate weight loss, but weight maintenance through body fat/lean mass control based on non-pharmacological tools such as physical exercise, known to have protective effects

  15. Circulating persistent organic pollutants and body fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zong, Geng; Grandjean, Philippe; Wu, Hongyu

    2015-01-01

    and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004. Partial Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated, after adjusting for major confounders, including age, smoking status, and history of lactation and parity. Wolfe's method was used to compare correlation coefficients derived from the same participants. RESULTS......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare the correlations of various circulating persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with fat mass percentages (FM%) of trunk, leg, and whole body measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. METHODS: This study included 2358 adults (≥20 years) in the National Health......: Twelve POPs showed significantly different correlations with fat depots in trunk and leg regions. β-hexachlorocyclohexane, heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-126 showed stronger positive correlations with trunk FM% than with leg FM%, whereas PCBs...

  16. Nuclear Immunolocalization of Hexamerins in the Fat Body of Metamorphosing Honey Bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Ramos Martins

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Hexamerins are storage proteins with primordial functions in insect metamorphosis. They are actively secreted by the larval fat body and stored in the hemolymph. During metamorphosis, they return to the fat body to be processed. For decades, these proteins were thought to exclusively function as an amino acid source for tissue reconstruction during the non-feeding pupal and pharate adult stages and, in some species, for egg production. Recently, new findings have linked the hexamerins to caste polyphenism and gonad development in social insects. To explore the roles of hexamerins during the honey bee metamorphosis, we used specific antibodies in expression analysis by western blot, in situ immunolocalization by confocal laser-scanning microscopy and in vivo injections to lower their endogenous levels. Our expression analysis highlighted the changing expression patterns in the fat body and hemolymph during development, which is consistent with the temporal dynamics of hexamerin secretion, storage and depletion. Confocal microscopy showed hexamerin expression in the cytoplasm of both types of fat body cells, trophocytes and oenocytes. Notably, hexamerin foci were also found in the nuclei of these cells, thus confirming our western blot analysis of fat body nuclear-enriched fractions. We also observed that the decrease in soluble hexamerins in antibody-treated pharate adults led to a precocious adult ecdysis, perhaps in response to the lack (or decrease in hexamerin-derived amino acids. Taken together, these findings indicate that hexamerins have other functions in addition to their well-established role as amino acid sources for development.

  17. Acoustic wave therapy for cellulite, body shaping and fat reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hexsel, Doris; Camozzato, Fernanda Oliveira; Silva, Aline Flor; Siega, Carolina

    2017-06-01

    Cellulite is a common aesthetic condition that affects almost every woman. To evaluate the efficacy of acoustic wave therapy (AWT) for cellulite and body shaping. In this open-label, single-centre trial, 30 women presenting moderate or severe cellulite underwent 12 sessions of AWT on the gluteus and back of the thighs, over six weeks. The following assessments were performed at baseline, and up to 12 weeks after treatment: Cellulite Severity Scale (CSS), body circumference measurements, subcutaneous fat thickness by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), quality of life related by Celluqol(®) and a satisfaction questionnaire. The treatment reduced cellulite severity from baseline up to 12 weeks after the last treatment session (subjects presenting severe cellulite: 60% to 38%). The mean CSS shifted from 11.1 to 9.5 (p cellulite appearance and reduce body circumferences.

  18. Step count recommendations for children based on body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, J Scott; Schofield, Grant; Duncan, Elizabeth K

    2007-01-01

    Current recommendations for pedometer-determined physical activity in children (boys, 15,000 steps/day; girls, 12,000 steps/day) were based on the association between weekday step counts and body mass index. The objective of this study was to develop new targets using both weekday and weekend step counts with percentage body fat (%BF) as the criterion reference. The %BF of 969 New Zealand European, Polynesian, and Asian children (515 male, 454 female) aged 5-12 years was measured in 2004 using hand-to-foot bioelectrical impedance analysis. Weekday and weekend step counts, assessed using sealed multi-day-memory pedometers over 5 days, were combined into a scaled mean step count. The contrasting groups method for determining criterion-referenced cut-off points was used to establish the optimal step count values for predicting overweight (%BF>85th percentile) and non-overweight (%BFcut-off points were 16,000 steps/day for boys and 13,000 steps/day for girls. Step count targets for reducing the risk of excess body fat in children are 1000 steps/day higher than existing BMI-referenced guidelines.

  19. The utility of fat mass index vs. body mass index and percentage of body fat in the screening of metabolic syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Pengju; Ma, Fang; Lou, Huiping; Liu, Yanping

    2013-01-01

    ...). Although body mass index (BMI) is the most frequently used method to assess overweightness and obesity, this method has been criticized because BMI does not always reflect true body fatness, which may be better evaluated...

  20. Ultrasound as a Tool to Assess Body Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale R. Wagner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound has been used effectively to assess body fat for nearly 5 decades, yet this method is not known as well as many other body composition techniques. The purpose of this review is to explain the technical principles of the ultrasound method, explain the procedures for taking a measurement and interpreting the results, evaluate the reliability and validity of this method for measuring subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue, highlight the advantages and limitations of ultrasound relative to other body composition methods, consider its utility to clinical populations, and introduce new body composition-specific ultrasound technology. The focus of this review is adipose, although various tissue thicknesses (e.g., muscle and bone can be measured with ultrasound. Being a portable imaging device that is capable of making fast regional estimates of body composition, ultrasound is an attractive assessment tool in instances when other methods are limited. Furthermore, much of the research suggests that it is reliable, reproducible, and accurate. The biggest limitations appear to be a lack of standardization for the measurement technique and results that are highly dependent on operator proficiency. New ultrasound devices and accompanying software designed specifically for the purpose of body composition assessment might help to minimize these limitations.

  1. New percentage body fat prediction equations for Japanese males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Masaharu; Kerr, Deborah; Binns, Colin W

    2006-07-01

    Anthropometry is simple, cheap, portable and non-invasive method for the assessment of body composition. While the Nagamine and Suzuki body density prediction equation has been frequently used to estimate %BF of Japanese, the equation was developed more than 40 years ago and its applicability to the current Japanese population has not been studied. This study aimed to compare %BF results estimated from anthropometry and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in order to examine applicability of the Nagamine and Suzuki equation. Body composition of 45 Japanese males (age: 24.3+/-5.5 years, stature: 171.6+/-5.8 cm, body mass: 62.6+/-7.1 kg, %BF: 15.7+/-5.6%) were assessed using whole-body DXA (Hologic QDR-2000) scan and anthropometry using the protocol of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK). From anthropometric measurements %BF was calculated using the Nagamine and Suzuki equation. The results showed that the Nagamine and Suzuki equation significantly (p<0.05) underestimated %BF of Japanese males compared to the DXA results. There was a trend towards greater underestimation as the estimated %BF values using DXA increased. New %BF prediction equations were proposed from the DXA and anthropometry results. Application of the proposed equations may assist in more accurate assessment of body fatness in Japanese males living today.

  2. The Use of Skinfold to Estimate Body Fatness on Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, T. G.

    1987-01-01

    Concern about the body fat of children and its relation to adult obesity has led to the development of standards for assessing children's optimal body fat content. The use of skinfold thickness measures to establish the degree of fatness is described. (MT)

  3. Examination of central body fat deposition as a risk factor for loss-of-control eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Laura A; Arigo, Danielle; Mayer, Laurel Es; Sarwer, David B; Lowe, Michael R

    2015-10-01

    Elevated body mass index (BMI), higher waist-to-hip ratio, and body dissatisfaction have been investigated as risk factors for the development of bulimic symptoms. Central fat deposition may be particularly relevant to eating disorders. To our knowledge, the longitudinal relations between fat distribution, body dissatisfaction, and loss-of-control (LOC) eating development and maintenance have not been studied. We examined body fat distribution, independent of BMI and depressive symptoms, as a unique correlate and predictor of body dissatisfaction and LOC eating cross-sectionally and over a 2-y follow-up. Body composition was measured by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 294 adult women at risk of weight gain at baseline, 6 mo, and 24 mo. We assessed LOC eating, body dissatisfaction, and depressive symptoms at baseline, 6 wk, 6 mo, 12 mo, and 24 mo by using the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Interview, the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire-Appearance Scales Body Areas Satisfaction subscale, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale, respectively. Independent of BMI, baseline total percentage body fat, percentage trunk fat, and percentage abdominal fat were related to greater body dissatisfaction. Total percentage body fat and trunk fat tended to be associated with greater body dissatisfaction at all subsequent time points. Women with a greater percentage trunk fat, specifically abdominal fat, were at highest risk of developing LOC eating. In the full sample, women with higher baseline percentage trunk and abdominal fat showed increases in LOC eating episode frequency over time, whereas LOC eating frequency remained stable among women with smaller percentages of fat in trunk and abdominal regions. These findings lend further support to the premise that increased central body fat deposition is associated with body image dissatisfaction and suggest that it may represent a risk and maintenance factor for LOC eating. This trial was

  4. [Measurement of human body fat by means of gravimetry. Application of Archimedes' principle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettwiler, W; Ribordy, M; Donath, A; Scherrer, J R

    1978-12-02

    The weighing of the human body under water is an application of Archimedes' law. Fat being lighter than water or than the structures of lean body mass, body fat can be measured by determining the specific gravity of the human body; that is, by underwater weighing. Body fat has been determined in an "ideal" sample of 14 men and 23 women, all aged 20 years. Testing against a reference measure of body fat makes it possible to test the validity of some anthropometric measurements and of some indices of obesity. These indices offer no advantages over anthropometric measurements.

  5. Determination of Percent Body Fat Using 3D Whole Body Laser Scanning: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    M.M., 1967: The assessment of the amount of fat in the human body from measurements of skinfold thickness . Br. J. Nurt., 21, 681-689. Ellis, KJ...underwater weighing, water or air displacement, electrical impedance or conductivity, skinfold measurements, circumferences, ultrasound, magnetic

  6. Central Body Fat Distribution Associates with Unfavorable Renal Hemodynamics Independent of Body Mass Index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakernaak, Arjan J.; Zelle, Dorien M.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Navis, Gerjan

    2013-01-01

    Central distribution of body fat is associated with a higher risk of renal disease, but whether it is the distribution pattern or the overall excess weight that underlies this association is not well understood. Here, we studied the association between waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), which reflects centra

  7. Current challenges in dedifferentiated fat cells research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mickey; George, Richard L; Evancho-Chapman, M Michelle; Zhang, Ge

    2016-07-02

    Dedifferentiated fat cells show great promises as a novel cell source for stem cell research. It has many advantages when used for cell-based therapeutics including abundance, pluripotency, and safety. However, there are many obstacles researchers need to overcome to make the next big move in DFAT cells research. In this review, we summarize the current main challenges in DFAT cells research including cell culture purity, phenotypic properties, and dedifferentiation mechanisms. The common methods to produce DFAT cells as well as the cell purity issue during DFAT cell production have been introduced. Current approaches to improve DFAT cell purity have been discussed. The phenotypic profile of DFAT cells have been listed and compared with other stem cells. Further studies on elucidating the underlying dedifferentiation mechanisms will dramatically advance DFAT cell research.

  8. Fat Body Organ Culture System in Aedes Aegypti, a Vector of Zika Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hae-Na; Rodriguez, Stacy D; Carpenter, Victoria K; Vulcan, Julia; Bailey, C Donovan; Nageswara-Rao, Madhugiri; Li, Yiyi; Attardo, Geoffrey M; Hansen, Immo A

    2017-08-19

    The insect fat body plays a central role in insect metabolism and nutrient storage, mirroring functions of the liver and fat tissue in vertebrates. Insect fat body tissue is usually distributed throughout the insect body. However, it is often concentrated in the abdomen and attached to the abdominal body wall. The mosquito fat body is the sole source of yolk proteins, which are critical for egg production. Therefore, the in vitro culture of mosquito fat body tissues represents an important system for the study of mosquito physiology, metabolism, and, ultimately, egg production. The fat body culture process begins with the preparation of solutions and reagents, including amino acid stock solutions, Aedes physiological saline salt stock solution (APS), calcium stock solution, and fat body culture medium. The process continues with fat body dissection, followed by an experimental treatment. After treatment, a variety of different analyses can be performed, including RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq), qPCR, Western blots, proteomics, and metabolomics. In our example experiment, we demonstrate the protocol through the excision and culture of fat bodies from the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, a principal vector of arboviruses including dengue, chikungunya, and Zika. RNA from fat bodies cultured under a physiological condition known to upregulate yolk proteins versus the control were subject to RNA-Seq analysis to demonstrate the potential utility of this procedure for investigations of gene expression.

  9. Assessment of body fatness in childhood obesity: evaluation of laboratory and anthropometric techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandini, L.G.; Dietz, W.H. Jr.

    1987-10-01

    The identification of obesity as a pathological diagnosis depends on an accurate assessment of body fatness and a correlation of fatness with pathological consequences. Because total body fat varies with body weight, the proportion of body weight that is fat is probably a more reliable indicator of risk. Among obese children and adolescents, several problems have hindered the development of accurate clinical measures of percent body fat and total body fat. First, the use of direct methods to measure body composition is limited by expense and labor. Second, the relationship between anthropometric indexes and body composition in obese children and adolescents has not been intensively studied. Third, sample sizes of normal weight children have been too small to permit the development of diagnostic criteria. Fourth, the triceps skinfold is less reproducible in overweight subjects. Increases in lean body mass in obese adolescents may confound the use of the body mass index as a measure of adiposity. Current laboratory methods for the measurement of body composition include: (1) underwater weighing, (2) 40K counting, (3) isotopic dilution measures, (4) neutron activation, and (5) electrical impedance. This article examines relationships between those methods and anthropometry in the measurement of fatness in children and adolescents, as well as the difficulties in measuring body fatness and the importance of body fat distribution and its relationship to morbidity in children. Current evidence suggests an association of morbidity and upper segment obesity in adults. Corresponding studies in children and adolescents are yet to be carried out.

  10. Discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2) regulates body size and fat metabolism in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Ikuma; Matsumura, Hirokazu; Fujii, Wataru; Naito, Kunihiko; Kusakabe, Ken; Kiso, Yasuo; Kano, Kiyoshi

    2014-02-01

    Discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that is activated by fibrillar collagens, which act as its endogenous ligand. DDR2 regulates cell proliferation, cell adhesion, migration, extracellular matrix remodeling and reproductive functions. Both DDR2 null allele mice and mice with a recessive, loss-of-function allele for Ddr2 exhibit dwarfing and a reduction in body weight. However, the detailed mechanisms by which DDR2 exerts its positive systemic regulation of whole body size, local skeletal size and fat tissue volume remain to be clarified. To investigate the systemic role of DDR2 in body size regulation, we produced transgenic mice in which the DDR2 protein is overexpressed, then screened the transgenic mice for abnormalities using systematic mouse abnormality screening. The modified-SHIPRA screen revealed that only the parameter of body size was significantly different among the genotypes. We also discovered that the body length was significantly increased, while the body weight was significantly decreased in transgenic mice compared to their littermate controls. We also found that the epididymal fat pads were significantly decreased in transgenic mice compared to normal littermate mice, which may have been the cause of the leptin decrement in the transgenic mice. The new insight that DDR2 might promote metabolism in adipocyte cells is very interesting, but more experiments will be needed to elucidate the direct relation between DDR2 and adipose-derived hormones. Taken together, our data demonstrated that DDR2 might play a systemic role in the regulation of body size thorough skeletal formation and fat metabolism.

  11. Genetic Correlation between Body Fat Percentage and Cardiorespiratory Fitness Suggests Common Genetic Etiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnurr, Theresia Maria; Gjesing, Anette Marianne Prior; Sandholt, Camilla Helene

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: It has long been discussed whether fitness or fatness is a more important determinant of health status. If the same genetic factors that promote body fat percentage (body fat%) are related to cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), part of the concurrent associations with health outcomes could...... reflect a common genetic origin. In this study we aimed to 1) examine genetic correlations between body fat% and CRF; 2) determine whether CRF can be attributed to a genetic risk score (GRS) based on known body fat% increasing loci; and 3) examine whether the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) locus...... associates with CRF. Methods: Genetic correlations based on pedigree information were examined in a family based cohort (n = 230 from 55 families). For the genetic association analyses, we examined two Danish population-based cohorts (ntotal = 3206). The body fat% GRS was created by summing the alleles...

  12. Genetic Correlation between Body Fat Percentage and Cardiorespiratory Fitness Suggests Common Genetic Etiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnurr, Theresia M; Gjesing, Anette P; Sandholt, Camilla H

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: It has long been discussed whether fitness or fatness is a more important determinant of health status. If the same genetic factors that promote body fat percentage (body fat%) are related to cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), part of the concurrent associations with health outcomes could...... reflect a common genetic origin. In this study we aimed to 1) examine genetic correlations between body fat% and CRF; 2) determine whether CRF can be attributed to a genetic risk score (GRS) based on known body fat% increasing loci; and 3) examine whether the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) locus...... associates with CRF. METHODS: Genetic correlations based on pedigree information were examined in a family based cohort (n = 230 from 55 families). For the genetic association analyses, we examined two Danish population-based cohorts (ntotal = 3206). The body fat% GRS was created by summing the alleles...

  13. Comparison of methods of estimating body fat in normal subjects and cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohn, S.H. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY); Ellis, K.J.; Vartsky, D.; Sawitsky, A.; Gartenhaus, W.; Yasumura, S.; Vaswani, A.N.

    1981-12-01

    Total body fat can be indirectly estimated by the following noninvasive techniques: determination of lean body mass by measurement of body potassium or body water, and determination of density by underwater weighing or by skinfold measurements. The measurement of total body nitrogen by neutron activation provides another technique for estimating lean body mass and hence body fat. The nitrogen measurement can also be combined with the measurement of total body potassium in a two compartment model of the lean body mass from which another estimate of body fat can be derived. All of the above techniques are subject to various errors and are based on a number of assumptions, some of which are incompletely validated. These techniques were applied to a population of normal subjects and to a group of cancer patients. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed in terms of their ability to estimate total body fat.

  14. Comparison of methods of estimating body fat in normal subjects and cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, S H; Ellis, K J; Vartsky, D; Sawitsky, A; Gartenhaus, W; Yasumura, S; Vaswani, A N

    1981-12-01

    Total body fat can be indirectly estimated by the following noninvasive techniques: determination of lean body mass by measurement of body potassium or body water, and determination of density by underwater weighing or by skinfold measurements. The measurement of total body nitrogen by neutron activation provides another technique for estimating lean body mass and hence body fat. The nitrogen measurement can also be combined with the measurement of total body potassium in a two compartment model of the lean body mass from which another estimate of body fat can be derived. All of the above techniques are subject to various errors and are based on a number of assumptions, some of which are incompletely validated. These techniques were applied to a population of normal subjects and to a group of cancer patients. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed in terms of their ability to estimate total body fat.

  15. Polymorphisms in the NPY and AGRP genes and body fatness in Dutch adults.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossum, Caroline T M van; Pijl, H; Adan, R A H; Hoebee, Barbara; Seidell, J C

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between DNA polymorphisms in the NPY and AGRP genes and body fatness. DESIGN AND METHODS: The association between the AGRP Ala67Thr or the NPY Leu7Pro polymorphisms and indicators of body fatness (baseline leptin levels, body mass index (BMI) values and

  16. Effect of Physical Activity on BMI and Percent Body Fat of Chinese Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Frank H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of regular physical activity on body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat of Chinese girls grouped by age and physical activity patterns. Measurements of skinfold, height, and weight, and BMI calculations, found differences in BMI and percent body fat between active and inactive girls. (SM)

  17. Switching from high-fat to low-fat diet normalizes glucose metabolism and improves glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity but not body weight in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agardh, Carl-David; Ahrén, Bo

    2012-03-01

    Environmental factors such as a high-fat diet contribute to type 2 diabetes and obesity. This study examined glycemia, insulin sensitivity, and β-cell function after switching from a high-fat diet to a low-fat diet in mice. C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet or low-fat diet for 18 months, after which mice on the high-fat diet either maintained this diet or switched to a low-fat diet for 4 weeks. Body weight and glucose and insulin responses to intraperitoneal glucose were determined. Insulin secretion (insulinogenic index: the 10-minute insulin response divided by the 10-minute glucose level) and insulin sensitivity (1 divided by basal insulin) were determined. After 18 months on a high-fat diet, mice had glucose intolerance, marked hyperinsulinemia, and increased body weight compared to mice on a low-fat diet (P diet to low-fat diet normalized glucose tolerance, reduced but not normalized body weight (P diet to low-fat diet normalizes glucose tolerance and improves but not normalizes insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. These effects are more pronounced than the reduced body weight.

  18. Conjugated Linoleic Acids Reduce Body Fat in Healthy Postmenopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raff, M.; Tholstrup, T.; Toubro, S.

    2009-01-01

    Isomers of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) reduce fat mass FM) and increase insulin sensitivity in some, but not all, murine studies. In humans, this effect is still debatable. In this study, we compared the effect of 2 CLA supplements on total and regional FM assessed by dual energy X-ray absorp......Isomers of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) reduce fat mass FM) and increase insulin sensitivity in some, but not all, murine studies. In humans, this effect is still debatable. In this study, we compared the effect of 2 CLA supplements on total and regional FM assessed by dual energy X......-ray absorptiometry, changes in serum insulin and glucose concentrations, and adipose tissue (AT) gene expression in humans. In a double-blind, parallel, 16-wk intervention, we randomized 81 healthy postmenopausal women to 1) 5.5 g/d of 40/40% of cis9, trans11-CLA (c9, t11-CLA) and trans10, cis12-CLA (t10, c12-CLA......) (CLA-mix); 2) cis9, trans11-CLA (c9, t11-CLA); or 3) control (olive oil). We assessed all variables before and after the intervention. The CLA-mix group had less total FM (4%) and lower-body FM (7%) than the control (P = 0.02 and

  19. Targeting gene expression to the female larval fat body of transgenic Aedes aegypti mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    TOTTEN, Daniel C.; Vuong, Mai; LITVINOVA, Oksana V.; Jinwal, Umesh K.; Gulia-Nuss, Monika; Harrell, Robert A.; Beneš, Helen

    2012-01-01

    As the fat body is a critical tissue for mosquito development, metamorphosis, immune and reproductive system function, characterization of regulatory modules targeting gene expression to the female mosquito fat body at distinct life stages is much needed for multiple, varied strategies for controlling vector-borne diseases such as dengue and malaria. The hexameric storage protein, Hexamerin-1.2, of the mosquito, Aedes atropalpus, is female-specific and uniquely expressed in the fat body of fo...

  20. Type of body fat distribution in postmenopausal women and its related factors

    OpenAIRE

    Noroozi, Mahnaz; Rastegari, Zahra; Paknahad, Zamzam

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The type of body fat distribution has an important role for identifying risk of diseases. One of the simple anthropometric indexes for estimating type of body fat distribution is waist circumference index. This study is aimed to determine the type of body fat distribution in postmenopausal women and its related factors. METHODS: This is a cross sectional descriptive analytical study. Samples were 278 postmenopausal women in Isfahan who were selected by stratified sampling and then...

  1. Effect of breed-type on the relationships between intramuscular and total body fat in steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, P T; Casal, J J; Parodi, J J

    1986-01-01

    The partitioning of total dissectible body fat and the amounts of intramuscular fat in Psoas major, Semitendinosus and Biceps brachii muscles were determined in two groups of A. Angus and AA × Nelore steers with similar averages of total dissectible fat (27·7 kg). In addition, the fatty acid composition of total fat and the triglyceride fraction from dissectible and intramuscular fats were determined. The AA × Nelore steers have higher levels of subcutaneous fat and lower levels of intermuscular fat than the A. Angus but contain lower levels of intramuscular fat in the three muscles. The allometric regressions varied according to the muscle and breed type. The fatty acid composition of subcutaneous and kidney fats were similar but differences in the percentages of 14:0, 18:0, 18:2 and 20:4 fatty acids in intramuscular fats between the two genetic groups were detected.

  2. Body Mass Index, percent body fat, and regional body fat distribution in relation to leptin concentrations in healthy, non-smoking postmenopausal women in a feeding study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell William

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between BMI and leptin has been studied extensively in the past, but previous reports in postmenopausal women have not been conducted under carefully controlled dietary conditions of weight maintenance using precise measures of body fat distribution. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between serum leptin concentration and adiposity as estimated by BMI and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA measures (percent body fat, central and peripheral fat, and lean mass in postmenopausal women. Methods This study was conducted as a cross-sectional analysis within the control segment of a randomized, crossover trial in which postmenopausal women (n = 51 consumed 0 (control, 15 (one drink, and 30 (two drinks g alcohol (ethanol/d for 8 weeks as part of a controlled diet. BMIs were determined and DEXA scans were administered to the women during the 0 g alcohol treatment, and a blood sample was collected at baseline and week 8 of each study period for leptin analysis. Results and discussion In multivariate analysis, women who were overweight (BMI > 25 to ≤ 30 kg/m2 had a 2-fold increase, and obese women (BMI > 30 kg/m2 had more than a 3-fold increase in serum leptin concentrations compared to normal weight (BMI ≤25 kg/m2 women. When the models for the different measures of adiposity were assessed by multiple R2, models which included percent body fat explained the highest proportion (approximately 80% of the serum leptin variance. Conclusion Under carefully controlled dietary conditions, we confirm that higher levels of adiposity were associated with higher concentrations of serum leptin. It appears that percent body fat in postmenopausal women may be the best adiposity-related predictor of serum leptin.

  3. Body mass index and distribution of body fat can influence sensory detection and pain sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashani, O A; Astita, R; Sharp, D; Johnson, M I

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of body fat percentage and its distribution on sensory detection and pain sensitivity responses to experimentally induced noxious stimuli in otherwise pain-free individuals. Seventy-two participants were divided into three equal groups according to their body mass index (BMI: normal, overweight and obese). Percentage body fat was estimated using a four-site skinfold method. Measurements of cold pressor pain threshold, tolerance and intensity; contact thermal sensory detection and heat pain threshold and tolerance (TSA-II - NeuroSensory Analyzer, Medoc); and blunt pressure pain threshold (algometer, Somedic SenseLab AB) were taken at the waist and thenar eminence. Mean ± SD pressure pain threshold of the obese group (620.72 ± 423.81 kPa) was significantly lower than normal (1154.70 ± 847.18 kPa) and overweight (1285.14 ± 998.89 kPa) groups. Repeated measures ANOVA found significant effects for site for cold detection threshold (F1,68  = 8.3, p = 0.005) and warm detection threshold (F1,68  = 38.69, p = 0.001) with waist having lower sensory detection thresholds than thenar eminence. For heat pain threshold, there were significant effects for site (F1,68  = 4.868, p = 0.031) which was lower for waist compared with thenar eminence (mean difference = 0.89 °C). Obese individuals were more sensitive than non-obese individuals to pressure pain but not to thermal pain. Body sites may vary in their response to different types and intensities of stimuli. The inconsistency of findings within and between research studies should catalyse further research in this field. This study provided evidence that body mass index and distribution of body fat can influence sensory detection and pain sensitivity. Obese individuals were more sensitive than normal range body mass index individuals to pressure pain but not to thermal pain. Pain response varied according to subcutaneous body fat at different body

  4. Independent Aftereffects of Fat and Muscle: Implications for neural encoding, body space representation, and body image disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturman, Daniel; Stephen, Ian D; Mond, Jonathan; Stevenson, Richard J; Brooks, Kevin R

    2017-01-10

    Although research addressing body size misperception has focused on socio-cognitive processes, such as internalization of the "ideal" images of bodies in the media, the perceptual basis of this phenomenon remains largely unknown. Further, most studies focus on body size per se even though this depends on both fat and muscle mass - variables that have very different relationships with health. We tested visual adaptation as a mechanism for inducing body fat and muscle mass misperception, and assessed whether these two dimensions of body space are processed independently. Observers manipulated the apparent fat and muscle mass of bodies to make them appear "normal" before and after inspecting images from one of four adaptation conditions (increased fat/decreased fat/increased muscle/decreased muscle). Exposure resulted in a shift in the point of subjective normality in the direction of the adapting images along the relevant (fat or muscle) axis, suggesting that the neural mechanisms involved in body fat and muscle perception are independent. This supports the viability of adaptation as a model of real-world body size misperception, and extends its applicability to clinical manifestations of body image disturbance that entail not only preoccupation with thinness (e.g., anorexia nervosa) but also with muscularity (e.g., muscle dysmorphia).

  5. Independent Aftereffects of Fat and Muscle: Implications for neural encoding, body space representation, and body image disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturman, Daniel; Stephen, Ian D.; Mond, Jonathan; Stevenson, Richard J; Brooks, Kevin R.

    2017-01-01

    Although research addressing body size misperception has focused on socio-cognitive processes, such as internalization of the “ideal” images of bodies in the media, the perceptual basis of this phenomenon remains largely unknown. Further, most studies focus on body size per se even though this depends on both fat and muscle mass – variables that have very different relationships with health. We tested visual adaptation as a mechanism for inducing body fat and muscle mass misperception, and assessed whether these two dimensions of body space are processed independently. Observers manipulated the apparent fat and muscle mass of bodies to make them appear “normal” before and after inspecting images from one of four adaptation conditions (increased fat/decreased fat/increased muscle/decreased muscle). Exposure resulted in a shift in the point of subjective normality in the direction of the adapting images along the relevant (fat or muscle) axis, suggesting that the neural mechanisms involved in body fat and muscle perception are independent. This supports the viability of adaptation as a model of real-world body size misperception, and extends its applicability to clinical manifestations of body image disturbance that entail not only preoccupation with thinness (e.g., anorexia nervosa) but also with muscularity (e.g., muscle dysmorphia). PMID:28071712

  6. Body composition and prediction equations using skinfold thickness for body fat percentage in Southern Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripka, Wagner Luis; Ulbricht, Leandra; Gewehr, Pedro Miguel

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to: a) determine the nutritional status of Brazilian adolescents, and; b) present a skinfold thickness model (ST) to estimate body fat developed with Brazilian samples, using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as reference method. The main study group was composed of 374 adolescents, and further 42 adolescents for the validation group. Weight, height, waist circumference measurements, and body mass index (BMI) were collected, as well as nine ST-biceps (BI), triceps (TR), chest (CH), axillary (AX) subscapularis (SB), abdominal (AB), suprailiac (SI), medial thigh (TH), calf (CF), and fat percentage (%BF) obtained by DXA. The prevalence of overweight in adolescents was 20.9%, and obesity 5.8%. Regression analysis through ordinary least square method (OLS) allowed obtainment of three equations with values of R2 = 0.935, 0.912 and 0.850, standard error estimated = 1.79, 1.78 and 1.87, and bias = 0.06, 0.20 and 0.05, respectively. the innovation of this study lies in presenting new regression equations for predicting body fat in Southern Brazilian adolescents based on a representative and heterogeneous sample from DXA.

  7. Ethanolic extract of Taheebo attenuates increase in body weight and fatty liver in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won Hee; Um, Min Young; Ahn, Jiyun; Jung, Chang Hwa; Park, Myung Kyu; Ha, Tae Youl

    2014-10-08

    We evaluated whether intake of an ethanolic extract of Taheebo (TBE) from Tabebuia avellanedae protects against body weight increase and fat accumulation in mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Four-week old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a HFD (25% fat, w/w) for 11 weeks. The diet of control (HFD) mice was supplemented with vehicle (0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose by gavage); the diet of experimental (TBE) mice was supplemented with TBE (150 mg/kg body weight/day by gavage). Mice administered TBE had significantly reduced body weight gain, fat accumulation in the liver, and fat pad weight, compared to HFD mice. Reduced hypertrophy of fat cells was also observed in TBE mice. Mice administered TBE also showed significantly lower serum levels of triglycerides, insulin, and leptin. Lipid profiles and levels of mRNAs and proteins related to lipid metabolism were determined in liver and white adipose tissue of the mice. Expression of mRNA and proteins related to lipogenesis were decreased in TBE-administered mice compared to mice fed HFD alone. These results suggest that TBE inhibits obesity and fat accumulation by regulation of gene expression related to lipid metabolism in HFD-induced obesity in mice.

  8. Body Mass Index and Body Fat Status of Men Involved in Sports, Exercise, and Sedentary Activites

    OpenAIRE

    Wan Nudri, Wan Daud; Wan Abdul Manan, Wan Muda; Mohamed Rusli, Abdullah

    2009-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out in Kota Bharu on three groups of men with ages ranging from 18 to 44 years. The study groups included 83 athletes representing various types of sports and levels of participation (athlete group), 80 active men who exercised a minimum of 30 minutes per day at least 3 times per week (exercise group), and 80 inactive men (sedentary group). The objectives of the study were to compare the body mass indices (BMIs) and body fat statuses among the three groups ...

  9. Alterations in the fat body and midgut of Culex quinquefasciatus larvae following exposure to different insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Stênio Nunes; Serrão, José Eduardo; Melo, Alan Lane

    2010-08-01

    This study describes morphological alterations in the fat body and midgut of Culex quinquefasciatus larvae following exposure to different insecticides. To this end, both third and fourth instars of C. quinquefasciatus larvae were exposed for 30 and 60 min to organophosphate (50 ppb), pyrethroids (20 and 30 ppb), and avermectin derivates (1.5 and 54 ppb). Following incubation, pH measurements of the larvae gut were recorded. The fat body and midgut were also analyzed by light and transmission electron microscopy. These studies demonstrate a decrease in the pH of the larvae anterior midgut following exposure to all of the tested insecticides. Histochemical tests revealed a strong reaction for neutral lipids in the control group and a marked decrease in the group exposed to cypermethrin. Furthermore, a weak reaction with acidic lipids in larvae exposed to deltamethrin, temephos, ivermectin and abamectin was also observed. Insecticide-exposed larvae also exhibited cytoplasm granule differences, relative to control larvae. Finally, we noted a small reduction in microvilli size in the apex of digestive cells, although vesicles were found to be present. The destructive changes in the larvae were very similar regardless of the type of insecticide analyzed. These data suggest that alterations in the fat body and midgut are a common response to cellular intoxication.

  10. The Relationship between Physical Activity Level, Body Mass Index, and Body Fat Percentages in Urban and Rural Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Özlem

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the physical activity levels, physical activity types, Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) values of elementary school students living in rural and urban. Body height (BH), body weight (BW), BF% and BMI data were measured. Physical activity questionnaire was conducted to determine the…

  11. The Relationship between Physical Activity Level, Body Mass Index, and Body Fat Percentages in Urban and Rural Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Özlem

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the physical activity levels, physical activity types, Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) values of elementary school students living in rural and urban. Body height (BH), body weight (BW), BF% and BMI data were measured. Physical activity questionnaire was conducted to determine the…

  12. The Metabolic Syndrome in Obese Postmenopausal Women: Relationship to Body Composition, Visceral Fat, and Inflammation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    You, Tongjian; Ryan, Alice S; Nicklas, Barbara J

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether aerobic fitness, body composition, body fat distribution, and inflammation are different in obese postmenopausal women with and without the metabolic syndrome (MS...

  13. New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shungin, Dmitry; Winkler, Thomas W.; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C.; Ferreira, Teresa; Lockes, Adam E.; Maegi, Reedik; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Pers, Tune H.; Fischer, Krista; Justice, Anne E.; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Wu, Joseph M. W.; Buchkovich, Martin L.; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Roman, Tamara S.; Drong, Alexander W.; Song, Ci; Gustafsson, Stefan; Day, Felix R.; Esko, Tonu; Fall, Tove; Kutalik, Zoltan; Luan, Jian'an; Randall, Joshua C.; Scherag, Andre; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R.; Chen, Jin; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Karjalainen, Juha; Kahali, Bratati; Liu, Ching-Ti; Schmidt, Ellen M.; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Anderson, Denise; Beekman, Marian; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Buyske, Steven; Demirkan, Ayse; Ehret, Georg B.; Feitosa, Mary F.; Goel, Anuj; Jackson, Anne U.; Johnson, Toby; Kleber, Marcus E.; Kristiansson, Kati; Mangino, Massimo; Leach, Irene Mateo; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Palmer, Cameron D.; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivaniss, Sonali; Peters, Marjolein J.; Prokopenko, Inga; Stancakova, Alena; Sung, Yun Ju; Tanakam, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Yengo, Loic; Zhang, Weihua; Albrecht, Eva; Arnlov, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J.; Berne, Christian; Blueher, Matthias; Buhringer, Stefan; Bonnet, Fabrice; Boettcher, Yvonne; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Carba, Delia B.; Caspersen, Ida H.; Clarke, Robert; Daw, E. Warwick; Deelen, Joris; Deelman, Ewa; Delgado, Graciela; Doney, Alex S. F.; Eklund, Niina; Erdos, Michael R.; Estrada, Karol; Eury, Elodie; Friedrichs, Nele; Garcia, Melissa E.; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Gigante, Bruna; Go, Alan S.; Golay, Alain; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B.; Graessler, Juergen; Grewal, Jagvir; Groves, Christopher J.; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heikkila, Kauko; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Helmer, Quinta; Hillege, Hans L.; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hunt, Steven C.; Isaacs, Aaron; Ittermann, Till; James, Alan L.; Johansson, Ingegerd; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Kalafati, Ioanna-Panagiota; Kinnunen, Leena; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kooner, Ishminder K.; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Lamina, Claudia; Leander, Karin; Lee, Nanette R.; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindstrom, Jaana; Lobbens, Stephane; Lorentzon, Mattias; Mach, Francois; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Mahajan, Anubha; McArdle, Wendy L.; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Mills, Rebecca; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Ken L.; Mooijaart, Simon P.; Muehleisen, Thomas W.; Mulas, Antonella; Mueller, Gabriele; Mueller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Nalls, Michael A.; Narisu, Narisu; Glorioso, Nicola; Nolte, Ilja M.; Olden, Matthias; Rayner, Nigel W.; Renstrom, Frida; Ried, Janina S.; Robertson, Neil R.; Rose, Lynda M.; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Sennblad, Bengt; Seufferlein, Thomas; Sitlani, Colleen M.; Smith, Albert Vernon; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stringham, Heather M.; Sundstrom, Johan; Swertz, Morris A.; Swift, Amy J.; Syvanen, Ann-Christine; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Thorand, Barbara; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Troffa, Chiara; van Oort, Floor V. A.; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M.; Waite, Lindsay L.; Wennauer, Roman; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Wong, Andrew; Zhang, Qunyuan; Zhao, Jing Hua; Brennan, Eoin P.; Choi, Murim; Eriksson, Per; Folkersen, Lasse; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Gharavi, Ali G.; Hedman, Asa K.; Hivert, Marie-France; Huang, Jinyan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karpe, Fredrik; Keildson, Sarah; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Liang, Liming; Lifton, Richard P.; Ma, Baoshan; McKnight, Amy J.; McPherson, Ruth; Metspalu, Andres; Min, Josine L.; Moffatt, Miriam F.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Nicholson, George; Nyholt, Dale R.; Olsson, Christian; Perry, John R. B.; Reinmaa, Eva; Salem, Rany M.; Sandholm, Niina; Schadt, Eric E.; Scott, Robert A.; Stolk, Lisette; Vallejo, Edgar E.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zondervan, Krina T.; Amouyel, Philippe; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N.; Blangero, John; Brown, Morris J.; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chiness, Peter S.; Claudi-Boehmi, Simone; Collins, Francis S.; Crawford, Dana C.; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; de Geusl, Eco J. C.; Doerr, Marcus; Erbel, Raimund; Eriksson, Johan G.; Farrall, Martin; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrieres, Jean; Forouhi, Nita G.; Forrester, Terrence; Franco, Oscar H.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Gieger, Christian; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Haiman, Christopher A.; Harris, Tamara B.; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Heliovaara, Markku; Hicks, Andrew A.; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Humphries, Steve E.; Hyppoenen, Elina; Illig, Thomas; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Johansen, Berit; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti M.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kee, Frank; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M.; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Kooperberg, Charles; Kovacs, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T.; Kumari, Meena; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lakka, Timo A.; Langenberg, Claudia; Le Marchand, Loic; Lehtimaki, Terho; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Mannisto, Satu; Marette, Andre; Matise, Tara C.; McKenzie, Colin A.; McKnight, Barbara; Musk, Arthur W.; Mohlenkamp, Stefan; Morris, Andrew D.; Nelis, Mari; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Ong, Ken K.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Peters, Annette; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Raitakari, Olli T.; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D. C.; Rice, Treva K.; Ridker, Paul M.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J.; Saramies, Jouko; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Staessen, Jan A.; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stolk, Ronald P.; Strauch, Konstantin; Toenjes, Anke; Tremblay, Angelo; Tremoli, Elena; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Voelker, Uwe; Vollenweider, Peter; Wilson, James F.; Witteman, Jacqueline C.; Adair, Linda S.; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Bouchard, Claude; Cauchi, Stephane; Caulfield, Mark J.; Chambers, John C.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Cooper, Richard S.; Dedoussis, George; Ferrucci, Luigi; Froguel, Philippe; Grabe, Hans-Joergen; Hamsten, Anders; Hui, Jennie; Hveem, Kristian; Joeckel, Karl-Heinz; Kivimaki, Mika; Kuh, Diana; Laakso, Markku; Liu, Yongmei; Maerz, Winfried; Munroe, Patricia B.; Njolstad, Inger; Oostra, Ben A.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Perola, Markus; Perusse, Louis; Peters, Ulrike; Power, Chris; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Saaristo, Timo E.; Saleheen, Danish; Sinisalo, Juha; Slagboom, P. Eline; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur R.; Stumvoll, Michael; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Uusitupa, Math; van der Harst, Pim; Veronesi, Giovanni; Walker, Mark; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Watkins, Hugh; Wichmann, H-Erich; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Boehnkes, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Deloukas, Panos; Franke, Lude; Frayling, Timothy M.; Groop, Leif C.; Hunter, David J.; Kaplan, Robert C.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Qi, Lu; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P.; Stefansson, Kari; van Dujin, Cornelia M.; Willer, Cristen J.; Visscher, Peter M.; Yang, Jian; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Zillikens, M. Carola; McCarthy, Mark I.; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; North, Kari E.; Fox, Caroline S.; Barroso, Ines; Franks, Paul W.; Ingelsson, Erik; Heid, Iris M.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Morris, Andrew P.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Mohlke, Karen L.; Uiterwaal, C.S.P.M.; Moret, NC; Broekmans, FJM; Fauser, BCJM

    2015-01-01

    Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct genome-wide asso

  14. New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Shungin (Dmitry); T.W. Winkler (Thomas W.); D.C. Croteau-Chonka (Damien); T. Ferreira (Teresa); A. Locke (Adam); R. Mägi (Reedik); R.J. Strawbridge (Rona); T.H. Pers (Tune); K. Fischer (Krista); A.E. Justice (Anne); T. Workalemahu (Tsegaselassie); J.M.W. Wu (Joseph M. W.); M.L. Buchkovich (Martin); N.L. Heard-Costa (Nancy); T.S. Roman (Tamara S.); A. Drong (Alexander); C. Song (Ci); S. Gustafsson (Stefan); F.R. Day (Felix); T. Esko (Tõnu); M. Fall (Magnus); Z. Kutalik (Zolta'n); J. Luan; J.C. Randall (Joshua); A. Scherag (Andre); S. Vedantam (Sailaja); A.R. Wood (Andrew); J. Chen (Jin); R.S.N. Fehrmann (Rudolf); J. Karjalainen (Juha); B. Kahali (Bratati); C.-T. Liu (Ching-Ti); E.M. Schmidt (Ellen); D. Absher (Devin); N. Amin (Najaf); D. Anderson (David); M. Beekman (Marian); J.L. Bragg-Gresham (Jennifer L.); S. Buyske (Steven); A. Demirkan (Ayşe); G.B. Ehret (Georg); M.F. Feitosa (Mary Furlan); A. Goel (Anuj); A.U. Jackson (Anne); T. Johnson (Toby); M.E. Kleber (Marcus); K. Kristiansson (Kati); M. Mangino (Massimo); I.M. Leach (Irene Mateo); M.C. Medina-Gomez (Carolina); C. Palmer (Cameron); D. Pasko (Dorota); S. Pechlivanis (Sonali); M.J. Peters (Marjolein); I. Prokopenko (Inga); A. Stanca'kova' (Alena); Y.J. Sung (Yun Ju); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); A. Teumer (Alexander); J.V. van Vliet-Ostaptchouk (Jana); L. Yengo (Loic); W. Zhang (Weihua); E. Albrecht (Eva); J. Ärnlöv (Johan); G.M. Arscott (Gillian M.); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); A. Barrett (Angela); C. Bellis (Claire); A.J. Bennett (Amanda); C. Berne (Christian); M. Blüher (Matthias); S. Böhringer (Stefan); F. Bonnet (Fabrice); Y. Böttcher (Yvonne); M. Bruinenberg (M.); D.B. Carba (Delia B.); I.H. Caspersen (Ida H.); R. Clarke (Robert); E.W. Daw (E. Warwick); J. Deelen (Joris); E. Deelman (Ewa); G. Delgado; A.S.F. Doney (Alex); N. Eklund (Niina); M.R. Erdos (Michael); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); E. Eury (Elodie); N. Friedrich (Nele); M. Garcia (Melissa); V. Giedraitis (Vilmantas); B. Gigante (Bruna); A. Go (Attie); A. Golay (Alain); H. Grallert (Harald); T.B. Grammer (Tanja); J. Gräsler (Jürgen); J. Grewal (Jagvir); C.J. Groves (Christopher); T. Haller (Toomas); G. Hallmans (Göran); C.A. Hartman (Catharina); M. Hassinen (Maija); C. Hayward (Caroline); K. Heikkilä (Kauko); K.H. Herzig; Q. Helmer (Quinta); H.L. Hillege (Hans); O.L. Holmen (Oddgeir); S.C. Hunt (Steven); A. Isaacs (Aaron); T. Ittermann (Till); A.L. James (Alan); I. Johansson (Inger); T. Juliusdottir (Thorhildur); I.-P. Kalafati (Ioanna-Panagiota); L. Kinnunen (Leena); W. Koenig (Wolfgang); I.K. Kooner (Ishminder K.); W. Kratzer (Wolfgang); C. Lamina (Claudia); K. Leander (Karin); N.R. Lee (Nanette R.); P. Lichtner (Peter); L. Lind (Lars); J. Lindström (Jaana); S. Lobbens (Stéphane); M. Lorentzon (Mattias); F. MacH (François); P.K. Magnusson (Patrik); A. Mahajan (Anubha); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); C. Menni (Cristina); S. Merger (Sigrun); E. Mihailov (Evelin); L. Milani (Lili); R. Mills (Rebecca); A. Moayyeri (Alireza); K.L. Monda (Keri); S.P. Mooijaart (Simon); T.W. Mühleisen (Thomas); A. Mulas (Antonella); G. Müller (Gabriele); M. Müller-Nurasyid (Martina); R. Nagaraja (Ramaiah); M.A. Nalls (Michael); N. Narisu (Narisu); N. Glorioso (Nicola); I.M. Nolte (Ilja M.); M. Olden (Matthias); N.W. Rayner (Nigel William); F. Renström (Frida); J.S. Ried (Janina); N.R. Robertson (Neil R.); L.M. Rose (Lynda); S. Sanna (Serena); H. Scharnagl (Hubert); S. Scholtens (Salome); B. Sennblad (Bengt); T. Seufferlein (Thomas); C.M. Sitlani (Colleen); G.D. Smith; K. Stirrups (Kathy); H.M. Stringham (Heather); J. Sundstrom (Johan); M. Swertz (Morris); A.J. Swift (Amy); A.C. Syvanen; B. Tayo (Bamidele); B. Thorand (Barbara); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); A. Tomaschitz (Andreas); C. Troffa (Chiara); F.V.A. van Oort (Floor); N. Verweij (Niek); J.M. Vonk (Judith); L. Waite (Lindsay); R. Wennauer (Roman); T. Wilsgaard (Tom); M.K. Wojczynski (Mary ); A. Wong (Andrew); Q. Zhang (Qunyuan); J.H. Zhao; E.P. Brennan (Eoin P.); M. Choi (Murim); P. Eriksson (Per); L. Folkersen (Lasse); A. Franco-Cereceda (Anders); A.G. Gharavi (Ali G.); A.K. Hedman (Asa); M.-F. Hivert (Marie-France); J. Huang (Jinyan); S. Kanoni (Stavroula); F. Karpe (Fredrik); S. Keildson (Sarah); K. Kiryluk (Krzysztof); L. Liang (Liming); R.P. Lifton (Richard); B. Ma (Baoshan); A.J. McKnight (Amy J.); R. McPherson (Ruth); A. Metspalu (Andres); J.L. Min (Josine L.); M.F. Moffatt (Miriam); G.W. Montgomery (Grant); J. Murabito (Joanne); G. Nicholson (Ggeorge); A.S. Dimas (Antigone); C. Olsson (Christian); J.R.B. Perry (John); E. Reinmaa (Eva); R.M. Salem (Rany); N. Sandholm (Niina); E.E. Schadt (Eric); R.A. Scott (Robert); L. Stolk (Lisette); E.E. Vallejo (Edgar E.); H.J. Westra (Harm-Jan); K.T. Zondervan (Krina); P. Amouyel (Philippe); D. Arveiler (Dominique); S.J.L. Bakker (Stephan); J.P. Beilby (John); R.N. Bergman (Richard); J. Blangero (John); M.J. Brown (Morris); M. Burnier (Michel); H. Campbell (Harry); A. Chakravarti (Aravinda); P.S. Chines (Peter); S. Claudi-Boehm (Simone); F.S. Collins (Francis); D.C. Crawford (Dana); J. Danesh (John); U. de Faire (Ulf); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); M. Dörr (Marcus); R. Erbel (Raimund); K. Hagen (Knut); M. Farrall (Martin); E. Ferrannini (Ele); J. Ferrieres (Jean); N.G. Forouhi (Nita); T. Forrester (Terrence); O.H. Franco (Oscar); R.T. Gansevoort (Ron); C. Gieger (Christian); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); C.A. Haiman (Christopher); T.B. Harris (Tamara); A.T. Hattersley (Andrew); M. Heliovaara (Markku); A.A. Hicks (Andrew); A. Hingorani (Aroon); W. Hoffmann (Wolfgang); A. Hofman (Albert); G. Homuth (Georg); S.E. Humphries (Steve); E. Hypponen (Elina); T. Illig (Thomas); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); B. Johansen (Berit); P. Jousilahti (Pekka); A. Jula (Antti); J. Kaprio (Jaakko); F. Kee (F.); S. Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi (Sirkka); J.S. Kooner (Jaspal S.); C. Kooperberg (Charles); P. Kovacs (Peter); A. Kraja (Aldi); M. Kumari (Meena); K. Kuulasmaa (Kari); J. Kuusisto (Johanna); T.A. Lakka (Timo); C. Langenberg (Claudia); L. Le Marchand (Loic); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); V. Lyssenko (Valeriya); S. Männistö (Satu); A. Marette (Andre'); T.C. Matise (Tara C.); C.A. McKenzie (Colin A.); B. McKnight (Barbara); A.W. Musk (Arthur); S. Möhlenkamp (Stefan); A.D. Morris (Andrew); M. Nelis (Mari); C. Ohlsson (Claes); A.J. Oldehinkel (Albertine); K.K. Ong (Ken K.); C. Palmer (Cameron); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); A. Peters (Annette); P.P. Pramstaller (Peter Paul); O. Raitakari (Olli); T. Rankinen (Tuomo); D.C. Rao (Dabeeru C.); T.K. Rice (Treva K.); P.M. Ridker (Paul); M.D. Ritchie (Marylyn D.); I. Rudan (Igor); V. Salomaa (Veikko); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); J. Saramies (Jouko); M.A. Sarzynski (Mark A.); P.E.H. Schwarz (Peter E. H.); A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); J.A. Staessen (Jan); V. Steinthorsdottir (Valgerdur); R.P. Stolk (Ronald); K. Strauch (Konstantin); A. Tönjes (Anke); A. Tremblay (Angelo); E. Tremoli (Elena); M.-C. Vohl (Marie-Claude); U. Völker (Uwe); P. Vollenweider (Peter); J.F. Wilson (James F); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); L.S. Adair (Linda); M. Bochud (Murielle); B.O. Boehm (Bernhard); S.R. Bornstein (Stefan R.); C. Bouchard (Claude); S. Cauchi (Ste'phane); M. Caulfield (Mark); J.C. Chambers (John C.); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); R.S. Cooper (Richard S.); G.V. Dedoussis (George); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); P. Froguel (Philippe); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); A. Hamsten (Anders); J. Hui (Jennie); K. Hveem (Kristian); K.-H. Jöckel (Karl-Heinz); M. Kivimaki (Mika); D. Kuh (Diana); M. Laakso (Markku); Y. Liu (Yongmei); W. März (Winfried); P. Munroe (Patricia); I. Njølstad (Inger); B.A. Oostra (Ben); C.N.A. Palmer (Colin); N.L. Pedersen (Nancy L.); M. Perola (Markus); L. Perusse (Louis); U. Peters (Ulrike); C. Power (Christopher); T. Quertermous (Thomas); R. Rauramaa (Rainer); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); T. Saaristo (Timo); D. Saleheen; J. Sinisalo (Juha); P.E. Slagboom (Eline); H. Snieder (Harold); T.D. Spector (Timothy); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); M. Stumvoll (Michael); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); M. Uusitupa (Matti); P. van der Harst (Pim); G. Veronesi (Giovanni); M. Walker (Mark); N.J. Wareham (Nick); H. Watkins (Hugh); H.E. Wichmann (Heinz Erich); G.R. Abecasis (Gonçalo); T.L. Assimes (Themistocles); S.I. Berndt (Sonja); M. Boehnke (Michael); I.B. Borecki (Ingrid); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); L. Franke (Lude); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); L. Groop (Leif); D. Hunter (David); R.C. Kaplan (Robert); J.R. O´Connell; L. Qi (Lu); D. Schlessinger (David); D.P. Strachan (David); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); C.J. Willer (Cristen); P.M. Visscher (Peter); J. Yang (Joanna); J.N. Hirschhorn (Joel N.); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); E.K. Speliotes (Elizabeth); K.E. North (Kari); C.S. Fox (Caroline S.); I. Barroso (Inês); P.W. Franks (Paul); E. Ingelsson (Erik); I.M. Heid (Iris); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); A.P. Morris (Andrew); C.M. Lindgren (Cecilia); K.L. Mohlke (Karen)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBody fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct geno

  15. Motor competence and cardiorespiratory fitness have greater influence on body fatness than physical activity across time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, R A; Pfeiffer, K A; Bugge, A

    2017-01-01

    battery. VO2peak was evaluated using a continuous running protocol until exhaustion. Body fatness was determined by the sum of four skinfolds. Structural equation modeling was performed to evaluate the longitudinal associations among PA, MC, VO2peak, and body fatness and the potential mediation effects...

  16. Macronutrient distribution over a period of 23 years in relation to energy intake and body fatness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppes, L.L.J.; Boon, N.; Nooyens, A.C.J.; Mechelen, W. van; Saris, W.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    The distribution of the four macronutrients is associated with energy intake and body fatness according to short-term interventions. The present study involves macronutrient distribution in relation to energy intake and body fatness over a period of 23 years in individuals who have ad libitum access

  17. Determinants of relative weight and body fat distribution in an international perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Molarius (Anu)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractOverweight can be defined as excess storage of body fat in an individual. In adult men with a "normal" weight, the percentage of body fat is about 15-20%. In women this percentage is higher, about 25-30%. In spite of the fact that differences in weight between individuals are only partly

  18. Macronutrient distribution over a period of 23 years in relation to energy intake and body fatness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppes, L.L.J.; Boon, N.; Nooyens, A.C.J.; Mechelen, W. van; Saris, W.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    The distribution of the four macronutrients is associated with energy intake and body fatness according to short-term interventions. The present study involves macronutrient distribution in relation to energy intake and body fatness over a period of 23 years in individuals who have ad libitum access

  19. Field method to measure changes in percent body fat of young women: The TIGER Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Body mass index (BMI), waist (W) and hip (H) circumference (C) are commonly used to assess changes in body composition for field research. We developed a model to estimate changes in dual energy X-ray absorption (DXA) percent fat (% fat) from these variables with a diverse sample of young women fro...

  20. New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Shungin (Dmitry); T.W. Winkler (Thomas W.); D.C. Croteau-Chonka (Damien); T. Ferreira (Teresa); A. Locke (Adam); R. Mägi (Reedik); R.J. Strawbridge (Rona); T.H. Pers (Tune); K. Fischer (Krista); A.E. Justice (Anne); T. Workalemahu (Tsegaselassie); J.M.W. Wu (Joseph M. W.); M.L. Buchkovich (Martin); N.L. Heard-Costa (Nancy); T.S. Roman (Tamara S.); A. Drong (Alexander); C. Song (Ci); S. Gustafsson (Stefan); F.R. Day (Felix); T. Esko (Tõnu); M. Fall (Magnus); Z. Kutalik (Zolta'n); J. Luan; J.C. Randall (Joshua); A. Scherag (Andre); S. Vedantam (Sailaja); A.R. Wood (Andrew); J. Chen (Jin); R.S.N. Fehrmann (Rudolf); J. Karjalainen (Juha); B. Kahali (Bratati); C.-T. Liu (Ching-Ti); E.M. Schmidt (Ellen); D. Absher (Devin); N. Amin (Najaf); D. Anderson (David); M. Beekman (Marian); J.L. Bragg-Gresham (Jennifer L.); S. Buyske (Steven); A. Demirkan (Ayşe); G.B. Ehret (Georg); M.F. Feitosa (Mary Furlan); A. Goel (Anuj); A.U. Jackson (Anne); T. Johnson (Toby); M.E. Kleber (Marcus); K. Kristiansson (Kati); M. Mangino (Massimo); I.M. Leach (Irene Mateo); M.C. Medina-Gomez (Carolina); C. Palmer (Cameron); D. Pasko (Dorota); S. Pechlivanis (Sonali); M.J. Peters (Marjolein); I. Prokopenko (Inga); A. Stanca'kova' (Alena); Y.J. Sung (Yun Ju); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); A. Teumer (Alexander); J.V. van Vliet-Ostaptchouk (Jana); L. Yengo (Loic); W. Zhang (Weihua); E. Albrecht (Eva); J. Ärnlöv (Johan); G.M. Arscott (Gillian M.); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); A. Barrett (Angela); C. Bellis (Claire); A.J. Bennett (Amanda); C. Berne (Christian); M. Blüher (Matthias); S. Böhringer (Stefan); F. Bonnet (Fabrice); Y. Böttcher (Yvonne); M. Bruinenberg (M.); D.B. Carba (Delia B.); I.H. Caspersen (Ida H.); R. Clarke (Robert); E.W. Daw (E. Warwick); J. Deelen (Joris); E. Deelman (Ewa); G. Delgado; A.S.F. Doney (Alex); N. Eklund (Niina); M.R. Erdos (Michael); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); E. Eury (Elodie); N. Friedrich (Nele); M. Garcia (Melissa); V. Giedraitis (Vilmantas); B. Gigante (Bruna); A. Go (Attie); A. Golay (Alain); H. Grallert (Harald); T.B. Grammer (Tanja); J. Gräsler (Jürgen); J. Grewal (Jagvir); C.J. Groves (Christopher); T. Haller (Toomas); G. Hallmans (Göran); C.A. Hartman (Catharina); M. Hassinen (Maija); C. Hayward (Caroline); K. Heikkilä (Kauko); K.H. Herzig; Q. Helmer (Quinta); H.L. Hillege (Hans); O.L. Holmen (Oddgeir); S.C. Hunt (Steven); A. Isaacs (Aaron); T. Ittermann (Till); A.L. James (Alan); I. Johansson (Inger); T. Juliusdottir (Thorhildur); I.-P. Kalafati (Ioanna-Panagiota); L. Kinnunen (Leena); W. Koenig (Wolfgang); I.K. Kooner (Ishminder K.); W. Kratzer (Wolfgang); C. Lamina (Claudia); K. Leander (Karin); N.R. Lee (Nanette R.); P. Lichtner (Peter); L. Lind (Lars); J. Lindström (Jaana); S. Lobbens (Stéphane); M. Lorentzon (Mattias); F. MacH (François); P.K. Magnusson (Patrik); A. Mahajan (Anubha); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); C. Menni (Cristina); S. Merger (Sigrun); E. Mihailov (Evelin); L. Milani (Lili); R. Mills (Rebecca); A. Moayyeri (Alireza); K.L. Monda (Keri); S.P. Mooijaart (Simon); T.W. Mühleisen (Thomas); A. Mulas (Antonella); G. Müller (Gabriele); M. Müller-Nurasyid (Martina); R. Nagaraja (Ramaiah); M.A. Nalls (Michael); N. Narisu (Narisu); N. Glorioso (Nicola); I.M. Nolte (Ilja M.); M. Olden (Matthias); N.W. Rayner (Nigel William); F. Renström (Frida); J.S. Ried (Janina); N.R. Robertson (Neil R.); L.M. Rose (Lynda); S. Sanna (Serena); H. Scharnagl (Hubert); S. Scholtens (Salome); B. Sennblad (Bengt); T. Seufferlein (Thomas); C.M. Sitlani (Colleen); G.D. Smith; K. Stirrups (Kathy); H.M. Stringham (Heather); J. Sundstrom (Johan); M. Swertz (Morris); A.J. Swift (Amy); A.C. Syvanen; B. Tayo (Bamidele); B. Thorand (Barbara); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); A. Tomaschitz (Andreas); C. Troffa (Chiara); F.V.A. van Oort (Floor); N. Verweij (Niek); J.M. Vonk (Judith); L. Waite (Lindsay); R. Wennauer (Roman); T. Wilsgaard (Tom); M.K. Wojczynski (Mary ); A. Wong (Andrew); Q. Zhang (Qunyuan); J.H. Zhao; E.P. Brennan (Eoin P.); M. Choi (Murim); P. Eriksson (Per); L. Folkersen (Lasse); A. Franco-Cereceda (Anders); A.G. Gharavi (Ali G.); A.K. Hedman (Asa); M.-F. Hivert (Marie-France); J. Huang (Jinyan); S. Kanoni (Stavroula); F. Karpe (Fredrik); S. Keildson (Sarah); K. Kiryluk (Krzysztof); L. Liang (Liming); R.P. Lifton (Richard); B. Ma (Baoshan); A.J. McKnight (Amy J.); R. McPherson (Ruth); A. Metspalu (Andres); J.L. Min (Josine L.); M.F. Moffatt (Miriam); G.W. Montgomery (Grant); J. Murabito (Joanne); G. Nicholson (Ggeorge); A.S. Dimas (Antigone); C. Olsson (Christian); J.R.B. Perry (John); E. Reinmaa (Eva); R.M. Salem (Rany); N. Sandholm (Niina); E.E. Schadt (Eric); R.A. Scott (Robert); L. Stolk (Lisette); E.E. Vallejo (Edgar E.); H.J. Westra (Harm-Jan); K.T. Zondervan (Krina); P. Amouyel (Philippe); D. Arveiler (Dominique); S.J.L. Bakker (Stephan); J.P. Beilby (John); R.N. Bergman (Richard); J. Blangero (John); M.J. Brown (Morris); M. Burnier (Michel); H. Campbell (Harry); A. Chakravarti (Aravinda); P.S. Chines (Peter); S. Claudi-Boehm (Simone); F.S. Collins (Francis); D.C. Crawford (Dana); J. Danesh (John); U. de Faire (Ulf); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); M. Dörr (Marcus); R. Erbel (Raimund); K. Hagen (Knut); M. Farrall (Martin); E. Ferrannini (Ele); J. Ferrieres (Jean); N.G. Forouhi (Nita); T. Forrester (Terrence); O.H. Franco (Oscar); R.T. Gansevoort (Ron); C. Gieger (Christian); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); C.A. Haiman (Christopher); T.B. Harris (Tamara); A.T. Hattersley (Andrew); M. Heliovaara (Markku); A.A. Hicks (Andrew); A. Hingorani (Aroon); W. Hoffmann (Wolfgang); A. Hofman (Albert); G. Homuth (Georg); S.E. Humphries (Steve); E. Hypponen (Elina); T. Illig (Thomas); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); B. Johansen (Berit); P. Jousilahti (Pekka); A. Jula (Antti); J. Kaprio (Jaakko); F. Kee (F.); S. Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi (Sirkka); J.S. Kooner (Jaspal S.); C. Kooperberg (Charles); P. Kovacs (Peter); A. Kraja (Aldi); M. Kumari (Meena); K. Kuulasmaa (Kari); J. Kuusisto (Johanna); T.A. Lakka (Timo); C. Langenberg (Claudia); L. Le Marchand (Loic); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); V. Lyssenko (Valeriya); S. Männistö (Satu); A. Marette (Andre'); T.C. Matise (Tara C.); C.A. McKenzie (Colin A.); B. McKnight (Barbara); A.W. Musk (Arthur); S. Möhlenkamp (Stefan); A.D. Morris (Andrew); M. Nelis (Mari); C. Ohlsson (Claes); A.J. Oldehinkel (Albertine); K.K. Ong (Ken K.); C. Palmer (Cameron); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); A. Peters (Annette); P.P. Pramstaller (Peter Paul); O. Raitakari (Olli); T. Rankinen (Tuomo); D.C. Rao (Dabeeru C.); T.K. Rice (Treva K.); P.M. Ridker (Paul); M.D. Ritchie (Marylyn D.); I. Rudan (Igor); V. Salomaa (Veikko); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); J. Saramies (Jouko); M.A. Sarzynski (Mark A.); P.E.H. Schwarz (Peter E. H.); A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); J.A. Staessen (Jan); V. Steinthorsdottir (Valgerdur); R.P. Stolk (Ronald); K. Strauch (Konstantin); A. Tönjes (Anke); A. Tremblay (Angelo); E. Tremoli (Elena); M.-C. Vohl (Marie-Claude); U. Völker (Uwe); P. Vollenweider (Peter); J.F. Wilson (James F); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); L.S. Adair (Linda); M. Bochud (Murielle); B.O. Boehm (Bernhard); S.R. Bornstein (Stefan R.); C. Bouchard (Claude); S. Cauchi (Ste'phane); M. Caulfield (Mark); J.C. Chambers (John C.); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); R.S. Cooper (Richard S.); G.V. Dedoussis (George); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); P. Froguel (Philippe); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); A. Hamsten (Anders); J. Hui (Jennie); K. Hveem (Kristian); K.-H. Jöckel (Karl-Heinz); M. Kivimaki (Mika); D. Kuh (Diana); M. Laakso (Markku); Y. Liu (Yongmei); W. März (Winfried); P. Munroe (Patricia); I. Njølstad (Inger); B.A. Oostra (Ben); C.N.A. Palmer (Colin); N.L. Pedersen (Nancy L.); M. Perola (Markus); L. Perusse (Louis); U. Peters (Ulrike); C. Power (Christopher); T. Quertermous (Thomas); R. Rauramaa (Rainer); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); T. Saaristo (Timo); D. Saleheen; J. Sinisalo (Juha); P.E. Slagboom (Eline); H. Snieder (Harold); T.D. Spector (Timothy); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); M. Stumvoll (Michael); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); M. Uusitupa (Matti); P. van der Harst (Pim); G. Veronesi (Giovanni); M. Walker (Mark); N.J. Wareham (Nick); H. Watkins (Hugh); H.E. Wichmann (Heinz Erich); G.R. Abecasis (Gonçalo); T.L. Assimes (Themistocles); S.I. Berndt (Sonja); M. Boehnke (Michael); I.B. Borecki (Ingrid); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); L. Franke (Lude); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); L. Groop (Leif); D. Hunter (David); R.C. Kaplan (Robert); J.R. O´Connell; L. Qi (Lu); D. Schlessinger (David); D.P. Strachan (David); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); C.J. Willer (Cristen); P.M. Visscher (Peter); J. Yang (Joanna); J.N. Hirschhorn (Joel N.); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); E.K. Speliotes (Elizabeth); K.E. North (Kari); C.S. Fox (Caroline S.); I. Barroso (Inês); P.W. Franks (Paul); E. Ingelsson (Erik); I.M. Heid (Iris); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); A.P. Morris (Andrew); C.M. Lindgren (Cecilia); K.L. Mohlke (Karen)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBody fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct geno

  1. New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shungin, Dmitry; Winkler, Thomas W.; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C.; Ferreira, Teresa; Lockes, Adam E.; Maegi, Reedik; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Pers, Tune H.; Fischer, Krista; Justice, Anne E.; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Wu, Joseph M. W.; Buchkovich, Martin L.; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Roman, Tamara S.; Drong, Alexander W.; Song, Ci; Gustafsson, Stefan; Day, Felix R.; Esko, Tonu; Fall, Tove; Kutalik, Zoltan; Luan, Jian'an; Randall, Joshua C.; Scherag, Andre; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R.; Chen, Jin; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Karjalainen, Juha; Kahali, Bratati; Liu, Ching-Ti; Schmidt, Ellen M.; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Anderson, Denise; Beekman, Marian; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Buyske, Steven; Demirkan, Ayse; Ehret, Georg B.; Feitosa, Mary F.; Goel, Anuj; Jackson, Anne U.; Johnson, Toby; Kleber, Marcus E.; Kristiansson, Kati; Mangino, Massimo; Leach, Irene Mateo; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Palmer, Cameron D.; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivaniss, Sonali; Peters, Marjolein J.; Prokopenko, Inga; Stancakova, Alena; Sung, Yun Ju; Tanakam, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Yengo, Loic; Zhang, Weihua; Albrecht, Eva; Arnlov, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J.; Berne, Christian; Blueher, Matthias; Buhringer, Stefan; Bonnet, Fabrice; Boettcher, Yvonne; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Carba, Delia B.; Caspersen, Ida H.; Clarke, Robert; Daw, E. Warwick; Deelen, Joris; Deelman, Ewa; Delgado, Graciela; Doney, Alex S. F.; Eklund, Niina; Erdos, Michael R.; Estrada, Karol; Eury, Elodie; Friedrichs, Nele; Garcia, Melissa E.; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Gigante, Bruna; Go, Alan S.; Golay, Alain; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B.; Graessler, Juergen; Grewal, Jagvir; Groves, Christopher J.; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heikkila, Kauko; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Helmer, Quinta; Hillege, Hans L.; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hunt, Steven C.; Isaacs, Aaron; Ittermann, Till; James, Alan L.; Johansson, Ingegerd; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Kalafati, Ioanna-Panagiota; Kinnunen, Leena; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kooner, Ishminder K.; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Lamina, Claudia; Leander, Karin; Lee, Nanette R.; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindstrom, Jaana; Lobbens, Stephane; Lorentzon, Mattias; Mach, Francois; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Mahajan, Anubha; McArdle, Wendy L.; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Mills, Rebecca; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Ken L.; Mooijaart, Simon P.; Muehleisen, Thomas W.; Mulas, Antonella; Mueller, Gabriele; Mueller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Nalls, Michael A.; Narisu, Narisu; Glorioso, Nicola; Nolte, Ilja M.; Olden, Matthias; Rayner, Nigel W.; Renstrom, Frida; Ried, Janina S.; Robertson, Neil R.; Rose, Lynda M.; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Sennblad, Bengt; Seufferlein, Thomas; Sitlani, Colleen M.; Smith, Albert Vernon; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stringham, Heather M.; Sundstrom, Johan; Swertz, Morris A.; Swift, Amy J.; Syvanen, Ann-Christine; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Thorand, Barbara; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Troffa, Chiara; van Oort, Floor V. A.; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M.; Waite, Lindsay L.; Wennauer, Roman; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Wong, Andrew; Zhang, Qunyuan; Zhao, Jing Hua; Brennan, Eoin P.; Choi, Murim; Eriksson, Per; Folkersen, Lasse; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Gharavi, Ali G.; Hedman, Asa K.; Hivert, Marie-France; Huang, Jinyan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karpe, Fredrik; Keildson, Sarah; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Liang, Liming; Lifton, Richard P.; Ma, Baoshan; McKnight, Amy J.; McPherson, Ruth; Metspalu, Andres; Min, Josine L.; Moffatt, Miriam F.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Nicholson, George; Nyholt, Dale R.; Olsson, Christian; Perry, John R. B.; Reinmaa, Eva; Salem, Rany M.; Sandholm, Niina; Schadt, Eric E.; Scott, Robert A.; Stolk, Lisette; Vallejo, Edgar E.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zondervan, Krina T.; Amouyel, Philippe; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N.; Blangero, John; Brown, Morris J.; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chiness, Peter S.; Claudi-Boehmi, Simone; Collins, Francis S.; Crawford, Dana C.; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; de Geusl, Eco J. C.; Doerr, Marcus; Erbel, Raimund; Eriksson, Johan G.; Farrall, Martin; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrieres, Jean; Forouhi, Nita G.; Forrester, Terrence; Franco, Oscar H.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Gieger, Christian; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Haiman, Christopher A.; Harris, Tamara B.; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Heliovaara, Markku; Hicks, Andrew A.; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Humphries, Steve E.; Hyppoenen, Elina; Illig, Thomas; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Johansen, Berit; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti M.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kee, Frank; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M.; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Kooperberg, Charles; Kovacs, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T.; Kumari, Meena; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lakka, Timo A.; Langenberg, Claudia; Le Marchand, Loic; Lehtimaki, Terho; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Mannisto, Satu; Marette, Andre; Matise, Tara C.; McKenzie, Colin A.; McKnight, Barbara; Musk, Arthur W.; Mohlenkamp, Stefan; Morris, Andrew D.; Nelis, Mari; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Ong, Ken K.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Peters, Annette; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Raitakari, Olli T.; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D. C.; Rice, Treva K.; Ridker, Paul M.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J.; Saramies, Jouko; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Staessen, Jan A.; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stolk, Ronald P.; Strauch, Konstantin; Toenjes, Anke; Tremblay, Angelo; Tremoli, Elena; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Voelker, Uwe; Vollenweider, Peter; Wilson, James F.; Witteman, Jacqueline C.; Adair, Linda S.; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Bouchard, Claude; Cauchi, Stephane; Caulfield, Mark J.; Chambers, John C.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Cooper, Richard S.; Dedoussis, George; Ferrucci, Luigi; Froguel, Philippe; Grabe, Hans-Joergen; Hamsten, Anders; Hui, Jennie; Hveem, Kristian; Joeckel, Karl-Heinz; Kivimaki, Mika; Kuh, Diana; Laakso, Markku; Liu, Yongmei; Maerz, Winfried; Munroe, Patricia B.; Njolstad, Inger; Oostra, Ben A.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Perola, Markus; Perusse, Louis; Peters, Ulrike; Power, Chris; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Saaristo, Timo E.; Saleheen, Danish; Sinisalo, Juha; Slagboom, P. Eline; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur R.; Stumvoll, Michael; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Uusitupa, Math; van der Harst, Pim; Veronesi, Giovanni; Walker, Mark; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Watkins, Hugh; Wichmann, H-Erich; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Boehnkes, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Deloukas, Panos; Franke, Lude; Frayling, Timothy M.; Groop, Leif C.; Hunter, David J.; Kaplan, Robert C.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Qi, Lu; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P.; Stefansson, Kari; van Dujin, Cornelia M.; Willer, Cristen J.; Visscher, Peter M.; Yang, Jian; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Zillikens, M. Carola; McCarthy, Mark I.; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; North, Kari E.; Fox, Caroline S.; Barroso, Ines; Franks, Paul W.; Ingelsson, Erik; Heid, Iris M.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Morris, Andrew P.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Mohlke, Karen L.; Uiterwaal, C.S.P.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/136603947; Moret, NC|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/26504362X; Broekmans, FJM|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/145488594; Fauser, BCJM|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071281932

    2015-01-01

    Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct genome-wide asso

  2. New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shungin, Dmitry; Winkler, Thomas W.; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C.; Ferreira, Teresa; Lockes, Adam E.; Maegi, Reedik; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Pers, Tune H.; Fischer, Krista; Justice, Anne E.; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Wu, Joseph M. W.; Buchkovich, Martin L.; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Roman, Tamara S.; Drong, Alexander W.; Song, Ci; Gustafsson, Stefan; Day, Felix R.; Esko, Tonu; Fall, Tove; Kutalik, Zoltan; Luan, Jian'an; Randall, Joshua C.; Scherag, Andre; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R.; Chen, Jin; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Karjalainen, Juha; Kahali, Bratati; Liu, Ching-Ti; Schmidt, Ellen M.; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Anderson, Denise; Beekman, Marian; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Buyske, Steven; Demirkan, Ayse; Ehret, Georg B.; Feitosa, Mary F.; Goel, Anuj; Jackson, Anne U.; Johnson, Toby; Kleber, Marcus E.; Kristiansson, Kati; Mangino, Massimo; Leach, Irene Mateo; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Palmer, Cameron D.; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivaniss, Sonali; Peters, Marjolein J.; Prokopenko, Inga; Stancakova, Alena; Sung, Yun Ju; Tanakam, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Yengo, Loic; Zhang, Weihua; Albrecht, Eva; Arnlov, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J.; Berne, Christian; Blueher, Matthias; Buhringer, Stefan; Bonnet, Fabrice; Boettcher, Yvonne; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Carba, Delia B.; Caspersen, Ida H.; Clarke, Robert; Daw, E. Warwick; Deelen, Joris; Deelman, Ewa; Delgado, Graciela; Doney, Alex S. F.; Eklund, Niina; Erdos, Michael R.; Estrada, Karol; Eury, Elodie; Friedrichs, Nele; Garcia, Melissa E.; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Gigante, Bruna; Go, Alan S.; Golay, Alain; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B.; Graessler, Juergen; Grewal, Jagvir; Groves, Christopher J.; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heikkila, Kauko; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Helmer, Quinta; Hillege, Hans L.; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hunt, Steven C.; Isaacs, Aaron; Ittermann, Till; James, Alan L.; Johansson, Ingegerd; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Kalafati, Ioanna-Panagiota; Kinnunen, Leena; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kooner, Ishminder K.; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Lamina, Claudia; Leander, Karin; Lee, Nanette R.; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindstrom, Jaana; Lobbens, Stephane; Lorentzon, Mattias; Mach, Francois; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Mahajan, Anubha; McArdle, Wendy L.; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Mills, Rebecca; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Ken L.; Mooijaart, Simon P.; Muehleisen, Thomas W.; Mulas, Antonella; Mueller, Gabriele; Mueller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Nalls, Michael A.; Narisu, Narisu; Glorioso, Nicola; Nolte, Ilja M.; Olden, Matthias; Rayner, Nigel W.; Renstrom, Frida; Ried, Janina S.; Robertson, Neil R.; Rose, Lynda M.; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Sennblad, Bengt; Seufferlein, Thomas; Sitlani, Colleen M.; Smith, Albert Vernon; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stringham, Heather M.; Sundstrom, Johan; Swertz, Morris A.; Swift, Amy J.; Syvanen, Ann-Christine; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Thorand, Barbara; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Troffa, Chiara; van Oort, Floor V. A.; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M.; Waite, Lindsay L.; Wennauer, Roman; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Wong, Andrew; Zhang, Qunyuan; Zhao, Jing Hua; Brennan, Eoin P.; Choi, Murim; Eriksson, Per; Folkersen, Lasse; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Gharavi, Ali G.; Hedman, Asa K.; Hivert, Marie-France; Huang, Jinyan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karpe, Fredrik; Keildson, Sarah; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Liang, Liming; Lifton, Richard P.; Ma, Baoshan; McKnight, Amy J.; McPherson, Ruth; Metspalu, Andres; Min, Josine L.; Moffatt, Miriam F.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Nicholson, George; Nyholt, Dale R.; Olsson, Christian; Perry, John R. B.; Reinmaa, Eva; Salem, Rany M.; Sandholm, Niina; Schadt, Eric E.; Scott, Robert A.; Stolk, Lisette; Vallejo, Edgar E.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zondervan, Krina T.; Amouyel, Philippe; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N.; Blangero, John; Brown, Morris J.; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chiness, Peter S.; Claudi-Boehmi, Simone; Collins, Francis S.; Crawford, Dana C.; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; de Geusl, Eco J. C.; Doerr, Marcus; Erbel, Raimund; Eriksson, Johan G.; Farrall, Martin; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrieres, Jean; Forouhi, Nita G.; Forrester, Terrence; Franco, Oscar H.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Gieger, Christian; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Haiman, Christopher A.; Harris, Tamara B.; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Heliovaara, Markku; Hicks, Andrew A.

    2015-01-01

    Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct genome-wide

  3. New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Shungin (Dmitry); T.W. Winkler (Thomas W.); D.C. Croteau-Chonka (Damien); T. Ferreira (Teresa); A. Locke (Adam); R. Mägi (Reedik); R.J. Strawbridge (Rona); T.H. Pers (Tune); K. Fischer (Krista); A.E. Justice (Anne); T. Workalemahu (Tsegaselassie); J.M.W. Wu (Joseph M. W.); M.L. Buchkovich (Martin); N.L. Heard-Costa (Nancy); T.S. Roman (Tamara S.); A. Drong (Alexander); C. Song (Ci); S. Gustafsson (Stefan); F.R. Day (Felix); T. Esko (Tõnu); M. Fall (Magnus); Z. Kutalik (Zolta'n); J. Luan; J.C. Randall (Joshua); A. Scherag (Andre); S. Vedantam (Sailaja); A.R. Wood (Andrew); J. Chen (Jin); R.S.N. Fehrmann (Rudolf); J. Karjalainen (Juha); B. Kahali (Bratati); C.-T. Liu (Ching-Ti); E.M. Schmidt (Ellen); D. Absher (Devin); N. Amin (Najaf); D. Anderson (David); M. Beekman (Marian); J.L. Bragg-Gresham (Jennifer L.); S. Buyske (Steven); A. Demirkan (Ayşe); G.B. Ehret (Georg); M.F. Feitosa (Mary Furlan); A. Goel (Anuj); A.U. Jackson (Anne); T. Johnson (Toby); M.E. Kleber (Marcus); K. Kristiansson (Kati); M. Mangino (Massimo); I.M. Leach (Irene Mateo); M.C. Medina-Gomez (Carolina); C. Palmer (Cameron); D. Pasko (Dorota); S. Pechlivanis (Sonali); M.J. Peters (Marjolein); I. Prokopenko (Inga); A. Stanca'kova' (Alena); Y.J. Sung (Yun Ju); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); A. Teumer (Alexander); J.V. van Vliet-Ostaptchouk (Jana); L. Yengo (Loic); W. Zhang (Weihua); E. Albrecht (Eva); J. Ärnlöv (Johan); G.M. Arscott (Gillian M.); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); A. Barrett (Angela); C. Bellis (Claire); A.J. Bennett (Amanda); C. Berne (Christian); M. Blüher (Matthias); S. Böhringer (Stefan); F. Bonnet (Fabrice); Y. Böttcher (Yvonne); M. Bruinenberg (M.); D.B. Carba (Delia B.); I.H. Caspersen (Ida H.); R. Clarke (Robert); E.W. Daw (E. Warwick); J. Deelen (Joris); E. Deelman (Ewa); G. Delgado; A.S.F. Doney (Alex); N. Eklund (Niina); M.R. Erdos (Michael); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); E. Eury (Elodie); N. Friedrich (Nele); M. Garcia (Melissa); V. Giedraitis (Vilmantas); B. Gigante (Bruna); A. Go (Attie); A. Golay (Alain); H. Grallert (Harald); T.B. Grammer (Tanja); J. Gräsler (Jürgen); J. Grewal (Jagvir); C.J. Groves (Christopher); T. Haller (Toomas); G. Hallmans (Göran); C.A. Hartman (Catharina); M. Hassinen (Maija); C. Hayward (Caroline); K. Heikkilä (Kauko); K.H. Herzig; Q. Helmer (Quinta); H.L. Hillege (Hans); O.L. Holmen (Oddgeir); S.C. Hunt (Steven); A. Isaacs (Aaron); T. Ittermann (Till); A.L. James (Alan); I. Johansson (Inger); T. Juliusdottir (Thorhildur); I.-P. Kalafati (Ioanna-Panagiota); L. Kinnunen (Leena); W. Koenig (Wolfgang); I.K. Kooner (Ishminder K.); W. Kratzer (Wolfgang); C. Lamina (Claudia); K. Leander (Karin); N.R. Lee (Nanette R.); P. Lichtner (Peter); L. Lind (Lars); J. Lindström (Jaana); S. Lobbens (Stéphane); M. Lorentzon (Mattias); F. MacH (François); P.K. Magnusson (Patrik); A. Mahajan (Anubha); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); C. Menni (Cristina); S. Merger (Sigrun); E. Mihailov (Evelin); L. Milani (Lili); R. Mills (Rebecca); A. Moayyeri (Alireza); K.L. Monda (Keri); S.P. Mooijaart (Simon); T.W. Mühleisen (Thomas); A. Mulas (Antonella); G. Müller (Gabriele); M. Müller-Nurasyid (Martina); R. Nagaraja (Ramaiah); M.A. Nalls (Michael); N. Narisu (Narisu); N. Glorioso (Nicola); I.M. Nolte (Ilja M.); M. Olden (Matthias); N.W. Rayner (Nigel William); F. Renström (Frida); J.S. Ried (Janina); N.R. Robertson (Neil R.); L.M. Rose (Lynda); S. Sanna (Serena); H. Scharnagl (Hubert); S. Scholtens (Salome); B. Sennblad (Bengt); T. Seufferlein (Thomas); C.M. Sitlani (Colleen); G.D. Smith; K. Stirrups (Kathy); H.M. Stringham (Heather); J. Sundstrom (Johan); M. Swertz (Morris); A.J. Swift (Amy); A.C. Syvanen; B. Tayo (Bamidele); B. Thorand (Barbara); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); A. Tomaschitz (Andreas); C. Troffa (Chiara); F.V.A. van Oort (Floor); N. Verweij (Niek); J.M. Vonk (Judith); L. Waite (Lindsay); R. Wennauer (Roman); T. Wilsgaard (Tom); M.K. Wojczynski (Mary ); A. Wong (Andrew); Q. Zhang (Qunyuan); J.H. Zhao; E.P. Brennan (Eoin P.); M. Choi (Murim); P. Eriksson (Per); L. Folkersen (Lasse); A. Franco-Cereceda (Anders); A.G. Gharavi (Ali G.); A.K. Hedman (Asa); M.-F. Hivert (Marie-France); J. Huang (Jinyan); S. Kanoni (Stavroula); F. Karpe (Fredrik); S. Keildson (Sarah); K. Kiryluk (Krzysztof); L. Liang (Liming); R.P. Lifton (Richard); B. Ma (Baoshan); A.J. McKnight (Amy J.); R. McPherson (Ruth); A. Metspalu (Andres); J.L. Min (Josine L.); M.F. Moffatt (Miriam); G.W. Montgomery (Grant); J. Murabito (Joanne); G. Nicholson (Ggeorge)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBody fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct

  4. Meal-Skipping Behaviors and Body Fat in 6-Year-Old Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.I. Wijtzes (Anne); W. Jansen (Wilma); S.H. Bouthoorn (Selma); F.J. van Lenthe (Frank); O.H. Franco (Oscar); A. Hofman (Albert); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent W. V.); H. Raat (Hein)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjective To assess the prospective associations of breakfast, lunch, and dinner skipping at age 4 years with body fat (ie, percent fat mass, body mass index [BMI], and weight status) at age 6 years. Study design Data were analyzed from 5913 children participating in the Generation R Stu

  5. Ultrasonic Measurement of Body Fat as a Means of Assessing Body Condition in Free-Ranging Raccoons (Procyon lotor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M. Stringer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of body condition of free-ranging animals is important when evaluating population health and fitness. The following study used body condition scoring, ultrasound, and dissected physical measurement to assess fat stores in free-ranging raccoons (Procyon lotor. Measurements were taken of subcutaneous fat at interscapular, thoracolumbar, and lumbosacral paraspinal and ventral midline sites. These measurements were examined in relationship to body condition scores and body weight. The ultrasound technique accurately measured the subcutaneous fat of raccoons when compared to dissected physical measurement and yielded data that strongly correlated with both body condition score and body weight, with the ventral midline measurement most strongly correlated. This noninvasive method may be useful in conjunction with body condition score and body weight when assessing the nutritional status of raccoons and potentially other small carnivore species.

  6. Measuring adiposity in patients: the utility of body mass index (BMI, percent body fat, and leptin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirav R Shah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is a serious disease that is associated with an increased risk of diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, stroke, and cancer, among other diseases. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC estimates a 20% obesity rate in the 50 states, with 12 states having rates of over 30%. Currently, the body mass index (BMI is most commonly used to determine adiposity. However, BMI presents as an inaccurate obesity classification method that underestimates the epidemic and contributes to failed treatment. In this study, we examine the effectiveness of precise biomarkers and duel-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA to help diagnose and treat obesity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional study of adults with BMI, DXA, fasting leptin and insulin results were measured from 1998-2009. Of the participants, 63% were females, 37% were males, 75% white, with a mean age = 51.4 (SD = 14.2. Mean BMI was 27.3 (SD = 5.9 and mean percent body fat was 31.3% (SD = 9.3. BMI characterized 26% of the subjects as obese, while DXA indicated that 64% of them were obese. 39% of the subjects were classified as non-obese by BMI, but were found to be obese by DXA. BMI misclassified 25% men and 48% women. Meanwhile, a strong relationship was demonstrated between increased leptin and increased body fat. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate the prevalence of false-negative BMIs, increased misclassifications in women of advancing age, and the reliability of gender-specific revised BMI cutoffs. BMI underestimates obesity prevalence, especially in women with high leptin levels (>30 ng/mL. Clinicians can use leptin-revised levels to enhance the accuracy of BMI estimates of percentage body fat when DXA is unavailable.

  7. COPD, Body Mass, Fat Free Body Mass and prognosis in Patients from a Random Population Sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen; Prescott, E; Almdal, Thomas Peter;

    2006-01-01

    RATIONALE: Low body mass index (BMI) is a marker of poor prognosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the general population, the harmful effect of low BMI is due to the deleterious effects of a low fat-free mass index (FFMI; fat-free mass/weight(2)). OBJECTIVES: We explored...... distribution of low FFMI and its association with prognosis in a population-based cohort of patients with COPD. METHODS: We used data on 1,898 patients with COPD identified in a population-based epidemiologic study in Copenhagen. FFM was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Patients were followed...... 10th percentile of the general population. BMI and FFMI were significant predictors of mortality, independent of relevant covariates. Being in the lowest 10th percentile of the general population for FFMI was associated with a hazard ratio of 1.5 (95% confidence interval, 1.2-1.8) for overall...

  8. [A Case of Invasive Ductal Carcinoma in the Fat Replacement of the Pancreatic Body and Tail].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebihara, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Tameyoshi; Hoshino, Hiromitsu; Yoshimura, Jumpei; Sasamatsu, Shingo; Hiraki, Yoko; Nishi, Hidemi; Shimizu, Katsushu; Kawada, Masahiro; Inoue, Toshiya; Kato, Fumitaka; Amano, Koji; Mikami, Jota; Yamamura, Jun; Makari, Yoichi; Nakata, Ken; Ikeda, Naoki; Kamigaki, Shunji; Tsujie, Masaki; Kimura, Yutaka; Nakata, Yasuki; Munakata, Satoru; Ohzato, Hiroki

    2015-11-01

    A 56 year-old woman with obesity (BMI3 2) and diabetes mellitus was diagnosed with right renal cell carcinoma. She underwent right nephrectomy 1 year ago. Seven months after surgery, CT revealed a rapidly growing mass near the spleen. The mass showed slight accumulation of FDG (SUVmax=2.4) on PET-CT. Since the lesion grew rapidly and was not enhanced in the early phase of enhanced CT, we diagnosed pancreatic cancer. Distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy were performed. The final pathological diagnosis was invasive ductal carcinoma in the fat replacement of the pancreatic body and tail. Postoperatively, the patient had no complications such as pancreatic fistula or aggravation of glucose intolerance. She received postoperative chemotherapy with gemcitabine. Since she developed pulmonary artery thrombosis, postoperative chemotherapy was interrupted after 8 courses. Thirty-two months after the surgery, she was still living without any recurrence. Acinar cells were absent in the fat replacement of the pancreas, but the pancreatic duct cells were still present. There was carcinoma in situ in the main pancreatic duct surrounding chronic inflammation. Fat replacement itself could be potentially precursor of the pancreatic cancer.

  9. Influence of age, menopause status, body mass index and physical activity on body composition and body fat distribution in midlife women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Dai-min; Yu Qi; Zhang Ying; Chen Feng-ling

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of age,menopause status,body mass index (BMI) and physical activity on body composition and body fat distribution in Chinese midlife women.Methods: The healthy women who underwent anniversary health checkup in Peking Union Medical College Hospital were recruited cross-sectionally.The level of physical activity was determined via International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short in Chinese Version.The body composition and fat distribution were measured by dualenergy X-ray absorptiometry.Results: A total of 162 women with average age 52 years (40-62 years) were recruited.Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to test the relationship between age,menopause status,BMI and physical activity and parameters of body composition and body fat distribution.The total fat tissue percentage was positively associated with BMI (standardized partial regression coefficient: b=0.70),menopause status (b=0.19,grading variables 1,2,3 were assigned to represent for reproductive group,menopausal transition group and postmenopausal group,respectively),and negatively associated with physical activity energy expenditure (b=-0.17) with model determination coefficient 0.55.Total body fat-free-tissue mass was positively associated with BMI (b =0.61),negatively associated with menopause status (b =-0.14) with model determination coefficient 0.39.The ratio of trunk fat-tissue mass/total body fat-tissue mass (Tr/T) was positively associated with BMI (b=0.32) and menopause status (b= 0.30) with model determination coefficient 0.20.After adjusted the effects of BMI,menopause status and physical activity,age was not significantly related with total fat tissue percentage,body fat-free-tissue mass,nor ratio of (Tr/T).Conclusion: Menopause impacts body composition and body fat distribution independently.During the process of female reproductive aging,body fat tissue mass and centrally distributed fat tissue mass increase,while body fatfree

  10. Fat and lean BMI reference curves in children and adolescents and their utility in identifying excess adiposity compared with BMI and percentage body fat1234

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, David R.; Moore, Reneé H.; Leonard, Mary B.; Zemel, Babette S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Body mass index (BMI) and percentage body fat (%BF) are widely used to assess adiposity. These indexes fail to account for independent contributions of fat mass (FM) and lean body mass (LBM) to body weight, which vary according to age, sex, pubertal status, and population ancestry in the pediatric population.

  11. Dietary whey protein decreases food intake and body fat in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, June; Keenan, Michael J; Losso, Jack N; Raggio, Anne M; Shen, Li; McCutcheon, Kathleen L; Tulley, Richard T; Blackman, Marc R; Martin, Roy J

    2011-08-01

    We investigated the effects of dietary whey protein on food intake, body fat, and body weight gain in rats. Adult (11-12 week) male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three dietary treatment groups for a 10-week study: control. Whey protein (HP-W), or high-protein content control (HP-S). Albumin was used as the basic protein source for all three diets. HP-W and HP-S diets contained an additional 24% (wt/wt) whey or isoflavone-free soy protein, respectively. Food intake, body weight, body fat, respiratory quotient (RQ), plasma cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), and leptin were measured during and/or at the end of the study. The results showed that body fat and body weight gain were lower (P food intake measured over the 10-week study period was lower in the HP-W vs. control and HP-S groups (P fat accumulation and body weight gain, the mechanism(s) involved appear to be different. HP-S fed rats exhibit increased fat oxidation, whereas HP-W fed rats show decreased food intake and increased fat oxidation, which may contribute to the effects of whey protein on body fat.

  12. Trained vs untrained evaluator assessment of body condition score as a predictor of percent body fat in adult cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoveller, Anna K; DiGennaro, Joe; Lanman, Cynthia; Spangler, Dawn

    2014-12-01

    Body condition scoring (BCS) provides a readily available technique that can be used by both veterinary professionals and owners to assess the body condition of cats, and diagnose overweight or underweight conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate a five-point BCS system with half-point delineations using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Four evaluators (a veterinarian, veterinary technician, trained scorer and untrained scorer) assessed 133 neutered adult cats. For all scorers, BCS score was more strongly correlated with percent body fat than with body weight. Percent body fat increased by approximately 7% within each step increase in BCS. The veterinarian had the strongest correlation coefficient between BCS and percent fat (r = 0.80). Mean body fat in cats classified as being in ideal body condition was 12 and 19%, for 3.0 and 3.5 BCS, respectively. Within BCS category, male cats were significantly heavier in body weight than females within the same assigned BCS category. However, DXA-measured percent body fat did not differ significantly between male and female cats within BCS category, as assigned by the veterinarian (P >0.13). Conversely, when assessed by others, mean percent body fat within BCS category was lower in males than females for cats classified as being overweight (BCS >4.0). The results of this study show that using a BCS system that has been validated within a range of normal weight to moderately overweight cats can help to differentiate between lean cats and cats that may not be excessively overweight, but that still carry a higher proportion of body fat.

  13. Variations in the efficacy of resistant maltodextrin on body fat reduction in rats fed different high-fat models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hui-Fang; Pan, Min-Hsiung; Ho, Chi-Tang; Tseng, Yu-Han; Wang, William Wei-Li; Chau, Chi-Fai

    2014-01-08

    Many studies have utilized a variety of methods to induce obesity in rodents, but they often received inconsistent results. The present study intended to use resistant maltodextrin (RMD) as a means to investigate the variations in its efficacy on body fat accumulation under the influence of four high-fat (HF) models of 23% or 40% total fat, comprising soybean oil, lard, and/or condensed milk. Results indicated that integrating condensed milk into the diets could help increase diet intake, boost energy intake, increase weight gain, and enhance fat formation. Supplementation of RMD (2.07 g/kg) notably reduced total body fat levels in three HF models, with the exception of a condensed-milk-added 40%-fat diet that may have misrepresented the functions of RMD. The uses of the 23% HF diets, with and without milk, and the milk-free 40% HF diet were therefore recommended as suitable models for antiobesity evaluations of RMD, or other fiber-rich products.

  14. Total Body Fat Content versus BMI in 4-Year-Old Healthy Swedish Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabet Forsum

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood overweight and obesity, a worldwide problem, is generally identified using BMI (body mass index. However, this application of BMI has been little investigated in children below 5 years of age due to a lack of appropriate methods to assess body composition. Therefore, we used air displacement plethysmography (ADP to study 4.4-year old boys and girls since this method is accurate in young children if they accept the requirements of the measurement. The purpose was to analyze the relationship between BMI and body fat in these children. Body composition was assessed in 76 (43 boys, 33 girls of the 84 children brought to the measurement session. Boys and girls contained 25.2±4.7 and 26.8±4.0% body fat, respectively. BMI-based cut-offs for overweight could not effectively identify children with a high body fat content. There was a significant (P<0.001 but weak (r=0.39 correlation between BMI and body fat (%. In conclusion, requirements associated with a successful assessment of body composition by means of ADP were accepted by most 4-year-olds. Furthermore, BMI-based cut-offs for overweight did not effectively identify children with a high body fatness and BMI explained only a small proportion of the variation in body fat (% in this age group.

  15. Total body fat content versus BMI in 4-year-old healthy Swedish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsum, Elisabet; Flinke Carlsson, Eva; Henriksson, Hanna; Henriksson, Pontus; Löf, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Childhood overweight and obesity, a worldwide problem, is generally identified using BMI (body mass index). However, this application of BMI has been little investigated in children below 5 years of age due to a lack of appropriate methods to assess body composition. Therefore, we used air displacement plethysmography (ADP) to study 4.4-year old boys and girls since this method is accurate in young children if they accept the requirements of the measurement. The purpose was to analyze the relationship between BMI and body fat in these children. Body composition was assessed in 76 (43 boys, 33 girls) of the 84 children brought to the measurement session. Boys and girls contained 25.2 ± 4.7 and 26.8 ± 4.0% body fat, respectively. BMI-based cut-offs for overweight could not effectively identify children with a high body fat content. There was a significant (P BMI and body fat (%). In conclusion, requirements associated with a successful assessment of body composition by means of ADP were accepted by most 4-year-olds. Furthermore, BMI-based cut-offs for overweight did not effectively identify children with a high body fatness and BMI explained only a small proportion of the variation in body fat (%) in this age group.

  16. Mexican American Female Adolescent Self-Esteem: The Effect of Body Image, Exercise Behavior, and Body Fatness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Bobby; Semper, Tom; Jorgensen, Layne

    1997-01-01

    A study of 254 Mexican American eighth-grade girls in south Texas found that girls' self-esteem was positively related to body image and exercise involvement and negatively related to body fatness. This population displayed somewhat distorted body image, which was the strongest predictor of self-esteem. Contains 43 references. (SV)

  17. Growth hormone-mediated breakdown of body fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, T.; Malmlöf, K.; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2003-01-01

    regimen. Twelve-month-old rats fed first a high-fat diet or a low-fat diet for 14 weeks were injected with saline or growth hormone (4 mg/kg/d) for four days or three weeks in different combinations with either high- or low-fat diets. In adipose tissue, growth hormone generally inhibited lipoprotein...... lipase and also attenuated the inhibiting effect of insulin on hormone-sensitive lipase activity. Growth hormone treatment combined with restricted high-fat feeding reduced the activity of both lipases in adipose tissue and stimulated hormone-sensitive lipase in muscle. Generally, plasma levels of free...... fatty acids, glycerol and cholesterol were reduced by growth hormone, and in combination with restricted high-fat feeding, triglyceride levels improved too. We conclude that growth hormone inhibits lipid storage in adipose tissue by reducing both lipoprotein lipase activity and insulin's inhibitory...

  18. Age-associated de-repression of retrotransposons in the Drosophila fat body, its potential cause and consequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiyang; Zheng, Xiaobin; Xiao, Danqing; Zheng, Yixian

    2016-06-01

    Eukaryotic genomes contain transposable elements (TE) that can move into new locations upon activation. Since uncontrolled transposition of TEs, including the retrotransposons and DNA transposons, can lead to DNA breaks and genomic instability, multiple mechanisms, including heterochromatin-mediated repression, have evolved to repress TE activation. Studies in model organisms have shown that TEs become activated upon aging as a result of age-associated deregulation of heterochromatin. Considering that different organisms or cell types may undergo distinct heterochromatin changes upon aging, it is important to identify pathways that lead to TE activation in specific tissues and cell types. Through deep sequencing of isolated RNAs, we report an increased expression of many retrotransposons in the old Drosophila fat body, an organ equivalent to the mammalian liver and adipose tissue. This de-repression correlates with an increased number of DNA damage foci and decreased level of Drosophila lamin-B in the old fat body cells. Depletion of the Drosophila lamin-B in the young or larval fat body results in a reduction of heterochromatin and a corresponding increase in retrotransposon expression and DNA damage. Further manipulations of lamin-B and retrotransposon expression suggest a role of the nuclear lamina in maintaining the genome integrity of the Drosophila fat body by repressing retrotransposons.

  19. Polymorphisms in the NPY and AGRP genes and body fatness in Dutch adults.

    OpenAIRE

    Rossum, Caroline T M van; Pijl, H.; Adan, R A H; Hoebee, Barbara; Seidell, J. C.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between DNA polymorphisms in the NPY and AGRP genes and body fatness. DESIGN AND METHODS: The association between the AGRP Ala67Thr or the NPY Leu7Pro polymorphisms and indicators of body fatness (baseline leptin levels, body mass index (BMI) values and prevalence of overweight) are investigated in 582 participants of two large cohorts in The Netherlands (total 18 500 adult men and women), aged 20-40 years whose weight remained relatively constant or ...

  20. [Regional distribution of the body fat: use of image techniques as tools for nutritional diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Miguelsanz, M J; Cabrera Parra, W; Varela Moreiras, G; Garaulet, M

    2010-01-01

    Fat mass is the most variable component in the human body, both when comparing several individuals and when considering changes in the same person throughout life. Obesity is characterized by an excess of body fat that affects health and well-being of individuals. Risk associated with excess body fat is due, in part, to location of fat rather than to total amount. Today is stated that causes and metabolic consequences of regional distribution of fat are of particular clinical importance. To identify a compartment of morbid adipose tissue and to be able to act on it is one of the main aims of the present research. In this review, we have revised the existing literature on location and characteristics of total body fat in human adult. We have focused on abdominal region, basing this review on the use of modern imaging techniques available nowadays, such as computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, with their advantages and limitations. The purpose of this review is to assess whether it is possible to know the body composition and fat distribution on the basis of image methods. Computed tomography technique was first applied in studies of obesity, but today, due to the inconvenience of irradiating the patient, this technique is being replaced by magnetic resonance that, in addition to avoid radiation, provides images of extraordinary quality. Both methods allow to subdivide the classic general fat depots in others more specific. Subcutaneous fat depot can be superficial or deep, while visceral can be divided in mesenteric, omental or epiploic, retroperitoneal and perirrenal fat. In addition, these modern techniques of imaging permit to study muscular fat, considered by some authors as the new fat compartment. Muscular fat includes fat located between skeletal muscle fibers, called extramyocellular fat, as well as lipids located within skeletal muscle fibers (intramyocellular fat). Its importance lies not only in size, similar to visceral fat, but on its

  1. Derivation of epithelial-like cells from eyelid fat-derived stem cells in thermosensitive hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari Keshel, Saeed; Rostampour, Maryam; Khosropour, Golbahar; Bandbon B, Atefehsadat; Baradaran-Rafii, Alireza; Biazar, Esmaeil

    2016-01-01

    Injectable hydrogel is one of the great interests for tissue engineering and cell encapsulation. In the study, the thermosensitive chitosan/gelatin/β-glycerol phosphate (C/G/GP) disodium salt hydrogels were designed and investigated by different analyses. The eye fat-derived stem cells were used to evaluate the biocompatibility of hydrogels based on their phenotypic profile, viability, proliferation, and attachment ability. The results show that the sol/gel transition temperature of the C/G/GP hydrogel was in the range of 31.1-33.8 °C at neutral pH value, the gelation time was shortened, and the gel strength also improved at body temperature when compared with the C/GP hydrogel. In vitro cell culture experiments with eyelid fat-derived stem cells in hydrogel showed beneficial effects on the cell phenotypic morphology, proliferation, and differentiation. Microscopic figures showed that the eyelid fat stem cell were firmly anchored to the substrates and were able to retain a normal stem cell phenotype. Immunocytochemistry (ICC) and real-time-PCR results revealed change in the expression profile of eyelid fat stem cells grown with hydrogels when compared to those grown on control in epithelial induction condition. This study indicates that using chitosan/gelatin/β-glycerol phosphate hydrogel for cell culture is feasible and may apply in minimal invasive surgery in the future.

  2. Total body fat as a possible indicator of metabolic syndrome in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Navarro Lechuga

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The metabolic syndrome is a set of factors related to insulin resistance, which increases the likelihood of coronary events. It is important timely onset identifying to reduce its prevalence. Objective: To explore the percentage of total body fat as indicator of metabolic syndrome in adults from Soledad, Colombia. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional study. n=99 adults (non-pregnant, nor subjects with psychomotor disturbances. Blood samples were taken: total cholesterol, HDL; triglycerides and glucose. Waist circumference, Body Mass Index and body fat by bioimpedance and skinfold thickness were measured. Diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was made according to NHLBI/AHA, ATP III and IDF criteria. Subjects with and without metabolic syndrome according to total body fat averages were compared. Results: The average percentage of body fat was higher (p0.05 in the classification according to ATP III in women, where the average fat percentage was 39.31 % in those with metabolic syndrome and 37.7% in those not suffering. Conclusions: Subjects with metabolic syndrome have higher mean total body fat, significantly, compared with those who did not, so it could be considered the values of total body fat obtained by bioimpedance as future indicators of metabolic syndrome, both as screening and control.

  3. The effect of exercise on obesity, body fat distribution and risk for type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedecke, Julia H; Micklesfield, Lisa K

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D), while exercise is known to reduce body fatness and attenuate the risk of T2D. The aim of this chapter is to examine the interactions between exercise, obesity and body fat distribution, and the risk for T2D. Firstly, we show that body fatness, in particular visceral adipose tissue (VAT) accumulation, is associated with insulin resistance and incident T2D. We then show that aerobic exercise of sufficient intensity and volume results in a decrease in body fat and VAT. Conversely, sedentary behavior and physical inactivity are associated with increased body fat and VAT. Finally, the chapter examines the interaction between physical activity (PA), obesity and risk for T2D and shows that both obesity and PA are significant independent predictors of incident T2D, but the magnitude of risk imparted by high levels of body fat is much greater than that of low levels of PA. Further, we show that obese physically active individuals are at greater risk for incident T2D than normal-weight physically inactive individuals. The mechanisms underlying this complex interaction include the ability of exercise to increase free fatty acid oxidation to match high rates of lipolysis associated with obesity, as well as the effects of exercise on adipokine, cytokine and myokine secretion. Exercise, of sufficient volume and intensity, is therefore recommended to reduce obesity, centralization of body fat, and risk of T2D.

  4. Relationships between body size and percent body fat among Melanesians in Vanuatu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancause, Kelsey Needham; Vilar, Miguel; DeHuff, Christa; Wilson, Michelle; Soloway, Laura E; Chan, Chim; Lum, J Koji; Garruto, Ralph M

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is a global epidemic, and measures to define it must be appropriate for diverse populations for accurate assessment of worldwide risk. Obesity refers to excess body fatness, but is more commonly defined by body mass index (BMI). Body composition varies among populations: Asians have higher percent body fat (%BF), and Pacific Islanders lower %BF at a given BMI compared to Europeans. Many researchers thus propose higher BMI cut-off points for obesity among Pacific Islanders and lower cut-offs for Asians. Because of the great genetic diversity in the Asia-Pacific region, more studies analyzing associations between BMI and %BF among diverse populations remain necessary. We measured height; weight; tricep, subscapular, and suprailiac skinfolds; waist and hip circumference; and %BF by bioelectrical impedance among 546 adult Melanesians from Vanuatu in the South Pacific. We analyzed relationships among anthropometric measurements and compared them to measurements from other populations in the Asia-Pacific region. BMI was a relatively good predictor of %BF among our sample. Based on regression analyses, the BMI value associated with obesity defined by %BF (>25% for men, >35% for women) at age 40 was 27.9 for men and 27.8 for women. This indicates a need for a more nuanced definition of obesity than provided by the common BMI cut-off value of 30. Rather than using population-specific cut-offs for Pacific Islanders, we suggest the World Health Organization's public health action cut-off points (23, 27.5, 32.5, 37.5), which enhance the precision of assessments of population-wide obesity burdens while still allowing for international comparison.

  5. A Study of VO2 Max and Body Fat Percentage in Female Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bute, Smita S; Deshmukh, P.R

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Aerobic capacity of athletes is an important element of success in sports achievements. It is generally considered the best indicator of cardio respiratory endurance and athletic fitness. Body fat percentage affects VO2 max and thus the cardiovascular status of the athletes. The present study was undertaken to assess the VO2 max and body fat percentage in athletes. The secondary objective of the study was to study the relationship between VO2 max and body fat percentage. Materials and Methods: Twenty five female athletes of age group 17-22years were selected for the study. VO2 max was determined by Queen’s college step test and body fat percentage by skin fold calipers. The VO2 max and body fat percentage were determined in non athletes of same age group for comparison. The statistical analysis was done by Student’s t-test and Pearson correlation test. Observation and Results: The mean VO2 max in athletic group was 39.62 ± 2.80 ml/kg/min. In non-athletic group, VO2 max was 23.54 ± 3.26 ml/kg/min. The mean body fat percentage in athletes was 24.11 ± 1.83% and in non-athletes it was 29.31 ± 3.86%.The difference in VO2 max and body fat percentage was statistically significant in our study. The VO2 max and body fat percentage in both the groups showed negative correlation by Pearson test but, was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The present study showed a statistically significant higher VO2 max in female athletes. The study showed a negative correlation between VO2 max and body fat percentage but was not statistically significant. PMID:25653935

  6. Genetic Correlation between Body Fat Percentage and Cardiorespiratory Fitness Suggests Common Genetic Etiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnurr, Theresia M; Gjesing, Anette P; Sandholt, Camilla H

    2016-01-01

    reflect a common genetic origin. In this study we aimed to 1) examine genetic correlations between body fat% and CRF; 2) determine whether CRF can be attributed to a genetic risk score (GRS) based on known body fat% increasing loci; and 3) examine whether the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) locus...... of twelve independent risk variants known to associate with body fat%. We assessed CRF as maximal oxygen uptake expressed in millilitres of oxygen uptake per kg of body mass (VO2 max), per kg fat-free mass (VO2 maxFFM ), or per kg fat mass (VO2 maxFM ). All analyses were adjusted for age and sex, and when...... was associated with a 0.42 mL/kg/min unit decrease in VO2 max per allele (p = 0.0092, age and sex adjusted). Both associations were abolished after additional adjustment for body fat %. The fat% increasing GRS and FTO risk allele were associated with decreased VO2 maxFM but not with VO2 maxFFM . Conclusions Our...

  7. The relationship between endogenous androgens and body fat distribution in early and late postmenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuankui Cao

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between endogenous androgens and body fat distribution in early and late postmenopausal women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled postmenopausal women consisting of an early group (≤ 5 years since menopause, n = 105 and a late group (≥ 10 years since menopause, n = 107. Each group was subdivided into normal weight (BMI 0.05.The FT in early postmenopausal women and the DHEA-S levels in late postmenopausal women correlated positively with the trunk/leg fat ratio (T/L and the proportion of android fat whereas correlated negatively with the proportion of gynoid fat in the partial correlation and multiple linear regression analyses (all P<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Serum T levels do not correlate directly with body fat distribution, the FT in early postmenopausal women and DHEA-S levels in late postmenopausal women correlate positively with abdominal fat accumulation.

  8. The body that does not diminish itself: fat acceptance in Israel's lesbian queer communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maor, Maya

    2012-01-01

    This article follows Charlotte Cooper's call to widen fat studies scholarship to contexts outside the United States, and Adrianne Hill's call to locate historically specific connections between lesbian communities and promotion of fat acceptance. Three in-depth interviews were conducted with Jewish-Israeli fat women. Through the development of their ability to appreciate their fat body and the fat bodies of other women, participants employed a mixture of disparate feminist-lesbian and queer discourses, in a similar, albeit not identical manner to the one used in the U.S. context. One of the major differences is that queer/lesbian communities in Israel are not in contact with the Israeli fat acceptance movement.

  9. Which index best correlates with body fat mass: BAI, BMI, waist or WHR?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchanek, Pavel; Kralova Lesna, Ivana; Mengerova, Olga; Mrazkova, Jolana; Lanska, Vera; Stavek, Petr

    2012-01-01

    The body mass index (BMI) has been the most commonly applied clinical measure to characterise body composition in individuals. However, the BMI has been criticised as being an inaccurate measure of body fatness. Recently, a new index reflecting body composition, the Body Adiposity Index (BAI) was proposed. The BAI was calculated using the equation BAI=((hip circumference)/ ((height)1.5) - 18). The aim of this study was to compare estimates of body fat content, i.e., body adiposity index (BAI), BMI, waist-hip ratio (WHR) and waist and hip circumferences, with respect to their ability to predict the percentage of body fat (PBF). To select an optimal surrogate for adiposity, we examined the correlation between body adiposity percentage as measured by BIA and several variables, including BAI, BMI and WHR. Correlations ranged from a high of 0.78 for BMI, 0.67 for BAI and 0.66 for waist circumference to a low value of 0.39 for the WHR index. The correlation between PBF and BAI (R=0.67, R2=0.45, pBMI (R=0.78, R2=0.60, pindex is not a universally valid index that could be used in the place of the BMI index in a Caucasian population; indeed, it would not accurately reflect body fat mass and thus could lead to an increased risk of obesity. Further, WHR index is not a suitable for an estimation of body fat.

  10. [Development of skin moisture and body fat measurement system for mobile application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Naihan; Chen, Xiang; Wang, Congzheng; Dong, Zhongfei

    2014-03-01

    Integrating physiological parameters measurement into mobile devices is a development tendency of mobile healthcare. Measurement methods for skin moisture and body fat content are studied in this paper. Electrodes are designed for easy integration into mobile devices, and can be embedded in the cover of the mobile phone. Experiments were conducted to obtain a fast and easy measurement method. The results of evaluation show that the measurement system can achieve the same accuracy as commercial products (with correlation above 0.9 and root mean squared error below 4%) in skin moisture and body fat content measurement. Measurement of local-area body fat content showed a nearly linear positive correlation between local-area body fat content and local-area body impedance.

  11. The plasma leptin concentration is closely associated with the body fat mass in nondiabetic uremic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Nielsen, P K; Olgaard, K

    1999-01-01

    Plasma leptin is associated with the body mass index and, more precisely, with the body fat mass. Plasma leptin has been found to be elevated in uremic patients. This study aimed at investigating the plasma leptin concentration and associations between plasma leptin, body fat mass, and glomerular...... filtration rate in nondiabetic predialysis uremic patients and in nondiabetic patients on chronic hemodialysis. Plasma leptin, body fat mass, and creatinine clearance were measured in 22 predialysis uremic patients, 18 hemodialysis patients, and 24 healthy control subjects. The logarithmically transformed...... plasma leptin concentration was closely associated with the body fat mass in all groups (r = 0.93, r = 0.83, and r = 0.72, respectively; p

  12. Apiology: royal secrets in the queen's fat body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Naoki; O'Connor, Michael B

    2011-07-12

    Royalactin, a component of royal jelly, induces queen differentiation in honeybees. Surprisingly, royalactin has a similar effect on growth in fruit flies, highlighting many unexpected features of growth regulation by the insect fat tissue.

  13. Body size, body composition and fat distribution: comparative analysis of European, Maori, Pacific Island and Asian Indian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Elaine C; Freitas, Ismael; Plank, Lindsay D

    2009-08-01

    Although there is evidence that Asian Indians, Polynesians and Europeans differ in their body fat (BF)-BMI relationships, detailed comparative analysis of their underlying body composition and build characteristics is lacking. We investigated differences in the relationships between body fatness and BMI, fat distribution, muscularity, bone mineral mass, leg length and age-related changes in body composition between these ethnic groups. Cross-sectional analysis of 933 European, Maori, Pacific Island and Asian Indian adult volunteers was performed for total and percentage of BF, abdominal fat, thigh fat, appendicular muscle mass, bone mineral content and leg length measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Asian Indian men and women (BMI of 24 and 26 kg/m2, respectively) had the same percentage of BF as Europeans with a BMI of 30 kg/m2 or Pacific men and women with BMI of 34 and 35 kg/m2, respectively. Asian Indians had more fat, both total and in the abdominal region, with less lean mass, skeletal muscle and bone mineral than all other ethnic groups. Leg length was relatively longer in Pacific men and Asian and Pacific women than in other ethnic groups. In Asian Indians, abdominal fat increased with increasing age, while the percentage of BF showed little change. In the other ethnic groups, both abdominal and total BF increased with age. In conclusion, ethnic differences in fat distribution, muscularity, bone mass and leg length may contribute to ethnic-specific relationships between body fatness and BMI. The use of universal BMI cut-off points may not be appropriate for the comparison of obesity prevalence between ethnic groups.

  14. Associations among eating regulation and body mass index, weight, and body fat in college students: the moderating role of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gropper, Sareen S; Arsiwalla, Dilbur D; Lord, Denali C; Huggins, Kevin W; Simmons, Karla P; Ulrich, Pamela V

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated associations between eating regulation behaviors and body mass index (BMI), weight, and percent body fat in male and female students over the first two years of college. Subjects included 328 college students (215 females and 113 males). Height and weight (via standard techniques), body composition (via bioelectrical impedance analysis), and eating regulation behaviors (using the Regulation of Eating Behavior Scale) were conducted two to three times during both the freshman and sophomore years. Significant associations between eating regulation and BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were shown mostly in females. In females, higher BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat at the end of the second year of college were found in those with low levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and high levels of amotivation, while lower BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were associated with high levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and low levels of amotivation. The findings that specific eating behaviors in females during the first two years of college influence BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat may be useful for inclusion in university programs focused on college student health to help decrease the risk of obesity and disordered eating/eating disorders in female college students.

  15. A comparison of the effect of free access to reduced fat products or their full fat equivalents on food intake, body weight, blood lipids and fat-soluble antioxidants levels and haemostasis variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weststrate, J.A.; Hof, K.H. van het; Berg, H. van den; Velthuis-te-Wierik, E.J.M. te; Graaf, C. de; Zimmermanns, N.J.H.; Westerterp, K.R.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S.; Verboeket-Venne, W.P.H.G. van de

    1998-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the effects of free access to reduced fat products or their full fat equivalents on fat and energy intake, body weight, plasma lipids and fat-soluble antioxidants concentrations and haemostasis variables. Design: A multicentre open randomised controlled trial in which

  16. Body Fat Assessment: A Comparison of Visual Estimation and Skinfold Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterner, Thomas G.; Burke, Edmund J.

    1986-01-01

    This study compared skinfold measurements and visual estimation as methods of measuring percent body fat against underwater weighing, using a sample of 71 males. The results suggest some individuals can visually estimate percent fat about as accurately as skinfold measures do. (MT)

  17. A central body fat distribution is related to renal function impairment, even in lean subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinto-Sietsma, SJ; Navis, G; Janssen, WMT; de Zeeuw, D; Gans, ROB; de Jong, PE

    2003-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity are believed to be associated with renal damage. Whether this depends on fat distribution is not known. We hypothesize that in addition to overweight, fat distribution may be associated with renal function abnormalities. Methods: We studied the relation between body

  18. Whole-body fat oxidation determined by graded exercise and indirect calorimetry: a role for muscle oxidative capacity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, P; Saltin, B; Helge, J W

    2006-01-01

    During whole-body exercise, peak fat oxidation occurs at a moderate intensity. This study investigated whole-body peak fat oxidation in untrained and trained subjects, and the presence of a relation between skeletal muscle oxidative enzyme activity and whole-body peak fat oxidation. Healthy male...... muscle oxidative capacity was not correlated to whole-body peak fat oxidation. In conclusion, whole-body peak fat oxidation occurred at a higher relative exercise load in trained compared with untrained subjects. Whole-body peak fat oxidation was not significantly related to leg muscle oxidative capacity......, but was related to lean body mass and maximal oxygen uptake. This may suggest that leg muscle oxidative activity is not the main determinant of whole-body peak fat oxidation....

  19. Cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons affects total body weight, body fat and lean body mass: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaver, M; Dekker, M J H J; de Mutsert, R; Twisk, J W R; den Heijer, M

    2016-08-29

    Weight gain and body fat increase the risk of cardiometabolic disease. Cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons leads to changes in body weight and body composition, but it is unclear to what extent. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the changes in body weight, body fat and lean body mass during cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons. We searched the PubMed database for eligible studies until November 2015. Ten studies reporting changes in body weight, body fat or lean mass in hormone naive transgender persons were included, examining 171 male-to-female and 354 female-to-male transgender people. Pooled effect estimates in the male-to-female group were +1.8 kg (95% CI: 0.2;3.4) for body weight, +3.0 kg (2.0;3.9) for body fat and -2.4 kg (-2.8; -2.1) for lean body mass. In the female-to-male group, body weight changed with +1.7 kg (0.7;2.7), body fat with -2.6 kg (-3.9; -1.4) and lean body mass with +3.9 kg (3.2;4.5). Cross-sex hormone therapy increases body weight in both sexes. In the male-to-female group, a gain in body fat and a decline in lean body mass are observed, while the opposite effects are seen in the female-to-male group. Possibly, these changes increase the risk of cardiometabolic disease in the male-to-female group.

  20. Whole‐body MRI‐based fat quantification: A comparison to air displacement plethysmography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ludwig, Ute A; Klausmann, Florian; Baumann, Sandra; Honal, Matthias; Hövener, Jan‐Bernd; König, Daniel; Deibert, Peter; Büchert, Martin

    2014-01-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of an algorithm for MRI whole-body quantification of internal and subcutaneous fat and quantitative comparison of total adipose tissue to air displacement plethysmography (ADP...

  1. Daily physical activity related to aerobic fitness and body fat in an urban sample of children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, M; Thorsson, O; Karlsson, M K;

    2008-01-01

    -energy x-ray absorptiometry. TBF was calculated as percentage of total body mass (BF%). Body fat distribution was calculated as AFM/TBF. Aerobic fitness was measured by indirect calorimetry during a maximal cycle ergometer exercise test. Daily physical activity was assessed by accelerometers for 4 days......This study evaluates associations between objectively measured daily physical activity vs aerobic fitness and body fat in children aged 8-11 years. A cross-sectional study of 225 children aged 7.9-11.1 years was performed. Abdominal fat mass (AFM) and total body fat (TBF) were quantified by dual...... and daily accumulation of moderate-to-vigorous and vigorous activity was calculated. Significant relationships (Pfitness (r=0.38), whereas moderate-to-vigorous activity displayed weaker relationships...

  2. To Study Correlation of Body Fat and Blood Lipids with Autonomic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To Study Correlation of Body Fat and Blood Lipids with Autonomic Nervous System ... Subjects and Methods: A total of 60 PM sedentary women without any gross ... Multiple regression analysis revealed LDL cholesterol as the only significant ...

  3. Cocaine's appetite for fat and the consequences on body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billing, Lawrence; Ersche, Karen D

    2015-03-01

    For many individuals in treatment for cocaine dependence, weight gain is a substantial problem during recovery. This weight gain causes significant distress and seems to increase the risk of relapse. The mechanisms underlying cocaine's effects on weight remain elusive. It is widely assumed that this weight gain reflects a metabolic or behavioural compensatory response to the cessation of cocaine use. Here we challenge this assumption and outline potential mechanisms by which chronic cocaine use produces disturbances in the regulation of fat intake and storage, through its effects on the central and peripheral nervous systems, specifically the sympathetic nervous system. We hypothesize that the cocaine-induced alteration in fat regulation results in cocaine users developing a pronounced appetite for fatty food but keeps their fat mass low. This altered fat appetite subsequently leads to excessive weight gain when individuals enter treatment and stop using cocaine. Our aim is to shed light on the neurobiological mechanisms that may underlie the alterations in eating and fat regulation in cocaine-dependent individuals, to open up potential new avenues to support these individuals in recovery.

  4. Social likeability, conformity, and body talk: Does fat talk have a normative rival in female body image conversations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, K Brooke; Martz, Denise M; Rocheleau, Courtney A; Bazzini, Doris G

    2009-09-01

    Fat talk, dialogues among women involving negative body-focused discussions, was studied as a function of conformity and social likeability through the use of four vignettes depicting young women in conversation. Using a 2 (body presentation style of the group: negative or positive)x2 (body presentation style of the target, Jenny: negative or positive) factorial design, 215 college women (92.1% non-Hispanic Caucasian) read one of four vignettes in a classroom setting and made ratings on a social likeability scale. Participants' personal ratings of Jenny's likeability were higher when she spoke positively about her body, whereas they expected the other group members in the vignette to like Jenny more when she conformed to the group's body presentation style. This study is the first to support two competing norms for women's body image-the existing norm to fat talk versus a newly documented norm that some women like others who express body acceptance.

  5. Comparison of body adiposity index (BAI) and BMI with estimations of % body fat in clinically severe obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geliebter, Allan; Atalayer, Deniz; Flancbaum, Louis; Gibson, Charlisa D

    2013-03-01

    Body adiposity index (BAI), a new surrogate measure of body fat (hip circumference/(height(1.5) - 18)), has been proposed as an alternative to body mass index (BMI). We compared BAI with BMI, and each of them with laboratory measures of body fat-derived from bioimpedance analysis (BIA), air displacement plethysmography (ADP), and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in clinically severe obese (CSO) participants. Nineteen prebariatric surgery CSO, nondiabetic women were recruited (age = 32.6 ± 7.7 SD; BMI = 46.5 ± 9.0 kg/m(2) ). Anthropometrics and body fat percentage (% fat) were determined from BIA, ADP, and DXA. Scatter plots with lines of equality and Bland-Altman plots were used to compare BAI and BMI with % fat derived from BIA, ADP, and DXA. BAI and BMI correlated highly with each other (r = 0.90, P BMI correlated significantly with % fat from BIA and ADP. BAI, however, did not correlate significantly with % fat from DXA (r = 0.42, P = 0.08) whereas BMI did (r = 0.65, P = 0.003). BMI was also the single best predictor of % fat from both BIA (r(2) = 0.80, P BMI comparisons with BIA, ADP, and DXA. Consistent with this, the Bland and Altman plots indicated wider 95% confidence intervals for BAI difference comparisons than for BMI difference comparisons for their respective means for BIA, ADP, and DXA. Thus, BAI does not appear to be an appropriate proxy for BMI in CSO women. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  6. The fat body transcriptomes of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti, pre- and post- blood meal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P Price

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The fat body is the main organ of intermediary metabolism in insects and the principal source of hemolymph proteins. As part of our ongoing efforts to understand mosquito fat body physiology and to identify novel targets for insect control, we have conducted a transcriptome analysis of the fat body of Aedes aegypti before and in response to blood feeding. RESULTS: We created two fat body non-normalized EST libraries, one from mosquito fat bodies non-blood fed (NBF and another from mosquitoes 24 hrs post-blood meal (PBM. 454 pyrosequencing of the non-normalized libraries resulted in 204,578 useable reads from the NBF sample and 323,474 useable reads from the PBM sample. Alignment of reads to the existing reference Ae. aegypti transcript libraries for analysis of differential expression between NBF and PBM samples revealed 116,912 and 115,051 matches, respectively. De novo assembly of the reads from the NBF sample resulted in 15,456 contigs, and assembly of the reads from the PBM sample resulted in 15,010 contigs. Collectively, 123 novel transcripts were identified within these contigs. Prominently expressed transcripts in the NBF fat body library were represented by transcripts encoding ribosomal proteins. Thirty-five point four percent of all reads in the PBM library were represented by transcripts that encode yolk proteins. The most highly expressed were transcripts encoding members of the cathepsin b, vitellogenin, vitellogenic carboxypeptidase, and vitelline membrane protein families. CONCLUSION: The two fat body transcriptomes were considerably different from each other in terms of transcript expression in terms of abundances of transcripts and genes expressed. They reflect the physiological shift of the pre-feeding fat body from a resting state to vitellogenic gene expression after feeding.

  7. The paradox of low body mass index and high body fat percentage among Chinese, Malays and Indians in Singapore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg-Yap, M.; Schmidt, G.; Staveren, van W.A.; Deurenberg, P.

    2000-01-01

    To study the relationship between body fat percentage and body mass index (BMI) in three different ethnic groups in Singapore (Chinese, Malays and Indians) in order to evaluate the validity of the BMI cut-off points for obesity. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS: Two-hundred and ninety-one sub

  8. Obesity classification in military personnel: A comparison of body fat, waist circumference, and body mass index measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate obesity classifications from body fat percentage (BF%), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). A total of 451 overweight/obese active duty military personnel completed all three assessments. Most were obese (men, 81%; women, 98%) using National...

  9. The validity of predicted body fat percent from body mass index and from impedance in samples of five European populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg, P.; Andreoli, A.; Borg, P.; Kukkonen-Harjula, K.; Lorenzo, de A.; Marken Lichtenbelt, van W.; Testolin, G.; Vigano, R.; Vollaard, N.

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To test and compare the validity of a body mass index (BMI)-based prediction equation and an impedance-based prediction equation for body fat percentage among various European population groups. Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Settings: The study was performed in five differ

  10. Asians are different from Caucasians and from each other in their body mass index/body fat per cent relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg, P.; Deurenberg-Yap, M.; Guricci, S.

    2002-01-01

    The objective was to study the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and body fat per cent (BF%) in different population groups of Asians. The study design was a literature overview with special attention to recent Asian data. Specific information is provided on Indonesians (Malays and Chinese

  11. Asians are different from Caucasians and from each other in their body mass index/body fat per cent relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg, P.; Deurenberg-Yap, M.; Guricci, S.

    2002-01-01

    The objective was to study the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and body fat per cent (BF%) in different population groups of Asians. The study design was a literature overview with special attention to recent Asian data. Specific information is provided on Indonesians (Malays and Chinese

  12. Validation study of the body adiposity index as a predictor of percent body fat in older individuals: findings from the BLSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hui; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Ferrucci, Luigi; Cooper, Jamie A

    2014-09-01

    A new body adiposity index (BAI = (hip circumference)/((height)(1.5)) - 18) has been developed and validated in adult populations. We aimed to assess the validity of BAI in an older population. We compared the concordance correlation coefficient between BAI, body mass index (BMI), and percent body fat (fat%; by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) in an older population (n = 954) participating in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. BAI was more strongly correlated with fat% than BMI (r of .7 vs .6 for BAI vs BMI and fat%, respectively, p BMI and fat%, respectively, p BMI was in better agreement with fat% (r of .6 vs .7 for BAI vs BMI and fat%, respectively, p BMI and fat%, respectively, p BMI may be a better index for older men. Finally, BAI is not accurate in people with extremely low or high body fat percentages.

  13. Assessment and correction of skinfold thickness equations in estimating body fat in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurka, Matthew J; Kuperminc, Michelle N; Busby, Marjorie G; Bennis, Jacey A; Grossberg, Richard I; Houlihan, Christine M; Stevenson, Richard D; Henderson, Richard C

    2010-02-01

    To assess the accuracy of skinfold equations in estimating percentage body fat in children with cerebral palsy (CP), compared with assessment of body fat from dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Data were collected from 71 participants (30 females, 41 males) with CP (Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS] levels I-V) between the ages of 8 and 18 years. Estimated percentage body fat was computed using established (Slaughter) equations based on the triceps and subscapular skinfolds. A linear model was fitted to assess the use of a simple correction to these equations for children with CP. Slaughter's equations consistently underestimated percentage body fat (mean difference compared with DXA percentage body fat -9.6/100 [SD 6.2]; 95% confidence interval [CI] -11.0 to -8.1). New equations were developed in which a correction factor was added to the existing equations based on sex, race, GMFCS level, size, and pubertal status. These corrected equations for children with CP agree better with DXA (mean difference 0.2/100 [SD=4.8]; 95% CI -1.0 to 1.3) than existing equations. A simple correction factor to commonly used equations substantially improves the ability to estimate percentage body fat from two skinfold measures in children with CP.

  14. New metabolic activity of the nonsulfated sulfakinin Zopat-SK-1 in the insect fat body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocinska, Malgorzata; Marciniak, Pawel; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa; Rosinski, Grzegorz

    2015-06-01

    Insect sulfakinins are multifunctional neuropeptides homologous to vertebrate gastrin/cholecystokin (CCK) neuropeptide hormones. We investigated the action of the nonsulfated sulfakinin Zopat-SK-1 (pETSDDYGHLRFa) on the levels of chosen metabolites in the Zophobas atratus beetle fat body. Samples of fat body were collected 2h and 24h after hormone injection. The administration of 20pmol of Zopat-SK-1 to feeding larvae significantly increased concentrations of lipids and proteins and decreased the content of glycogen in fat body tissue in the 24h experimental group. In contrast, the only increase in total lipid concentration in prepupal fat bodies was observed 24h after Zopat-SK-1 treatment. Simultaneously, changes in the quality and quantity of free sugars in the hemolymph were measured. In larval hemolymph, a marked increase in free sugar concentration and a decrease in glucose content were observed 24h and 2h after Zopat-SK-1 application, respectively. No changes in the prepupal stage were observed. For the first time we show potent metabolic activity of sulfakinin in the fat body tissue of an insect. Our findings imply a physiological function of the nonsulfated form of sulfakinin in energy storage and release processes in fat body tissue of larvae and prepupae was indicated. We suggest a role for sulfakinin signaling in the regulation of energy metabolism in insect tissues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A systematic review of body fat distribution and mortality in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Su-Hsin; Beason, Tracey S; Hunleth, Jean M; Colditz, Graham A

    2012-07-01

    We conducted a systematic review investigating body fat distribution in older adults and its association with morbidity and mortality. Our search yielded 2702 citations. Following three levels of screening, 25 studies were selected to evaluate the association between body fat distribution and comorbidity, and 17 studies were used in the mortality analysis. Most of the selected studies in our analyses used anthropometric measures, e.g., body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio; relatively few studies used direct measures, such as body fat/lean mass, and percentage body fat. Studies reported inconsistent findings regarding the strongest predictor(s) of morbidity and mortality. However, the majority of studies suggested that BMI per se was not the most appropriate predictor of morbidity and mortality in the elderly because of its inability to discern or detect age-related body fat redistribution. In addition, studies using BMI found that the optimal BMI range for the lowest mortality in the elderly was overweight (25 kg/m(2)≤BMIBMIbody fat distribution measurements, and to certify that these guidelines will not be applied to inappropriate populations.

  16. Influence of Regular Exercise on Body Fat and Eating Patterns of Patients with Intermittent Claudication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Leicht

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the impact of regular supervised exercise on body fat, assessed via anthropometry, and eating patterns of peripheral arterial disease patients with intermittent claudication (IC. Body fat, eating patterns and walking ability were assessed in 11 healthy adults (Control and age- and mass-matched IC patients undertaking usual care (n = 10; IC-Con or supervised exercise (12-months; n = 10; IC-Ex. At entry, all groups exhibited similar body fat and eating patterns. Maximal walking ability was greatest for Control participants and similar for IC-Ex and IC-Con patients. Supervised exercise resulted in significantly greater improvements in maximal walking ability (IC-Ex 148%–170% vs. IC-Con 29%–52% and smaller increases in body fat (IC-Ex −2.1%–1.4% vs. IC-Con 8.4%–10%. IC-Con patients exhibited significantly greater increases in body fat compared with Control at follow-up (8.4%–10% vs. −0.6%–1.4%. Eating patterns were similar for all groups at follow-up. The current study demonstrated that regular, supervised exercise significantly improved maximal walking ability and minimised increase in body fat amongst IC patients without changes in eating patterns. The study supports the use of supervised exercise to minimize cardiovascular risk amongst IC patients. Further studies are needed to examine the additional value of other lifestyle interventions such as diet modification.

  17. Marrow fat cell: response to x-ray induced aplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bathija, A.; Ohanian, M.; Davis, S.; Trubowitz, S.

    1979-09-11

    Adipose tissue is an integral structural component of normal rabbit marrow and is believed to behave primarily as a cushion in response to hemopoietic proliferation, accommodating to changes in hemopoiesis by change in either size or number or both of the fat cells in order to maintain constancy of the marrow volume. To test this hypothesis, aplasia of the right femur of New Zealand white rabbits was induced by x irradiation with 8000 rads; the left unirradiated limb served as control. Twenty-four hours before sacrifice 50 ..mu..Ci of palmitate-114C was administered intravenously and the marrow of both femurs removed. Samples of perinephric fat were taken for comparison. Fat cell volume, C14 palmitate turnover and fatty acid composition were determined. The total number of fat cells in the entire marrow of both femurs was calculated. The measurements showed no difference in size or fatty acid turnover of the fat cells in the irradiated aplastic marrow from the cells of the control marrow. The number of fat cells in both the irradiated and the unirradiated control femurs was essentially the same. These findings do not support the view that marrow fat cells respond to diminished hematopoiesis by either increase in their volume or number. In addition, the findings suggest that both marrow and subcutaneous fat cells are fairly resistant to high doses of x-ray irradiation.

  18. Indices of vascular stiffness and wave reflection in relation to body mass index or body fat in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wykretowicz, Andrzej; Adamska, Karolina; Guzik, Przemyslaw; Krauze, Tomasz; Wysocki, Henryk

    2007-10-01

    1. Obesity appears to influence vascular stiffness, an important cardiovascular risk factor. An accurate picture of arterial stiffness may be obtained when a combination of various techniques is used. 2. The purpose of the present study was to assess whether the body mass index (BMI) and body fat content obtained by bioimpedance were of equal value in estimating the influence of body fatness on various indices of vascular stiffness and wave reflection. 3. A total of 175 healthy subjects was studied. Anthropometric measurements and total body bio-impedance analysis were performed to assess fat mass as a proportion of total body composition. Arterial stiffness and wave reflection were assessed using digital volume pulse analysis and tonometric measurement of the wave reflection indices and central haemodynamics. 4. Significant differences in the stiffness index (SI(DVP); P < 0.0001), peripheral augmentation index (pAI(x); P < 0.0001), central augmentation index (cAI(x); P < 0.0001), peripheral pulse pressure (pPP; P = 0.026) and central pulse pressure (cPP; P < 0.0001) were found when the population examined was divided accordingly to tertile of body fat content. However, subdividing various indices of arterial stiffness according to the tertile of BMI did not reveal any significant differences between groups, except for pPP and cPP. 5. Body fat content was significantly correlated with SI(DVP), pAI(x), cAI(x), pPP and cPP. The BMI correlated weakly with SI(DVP), pPP and cPP. 6. In conclusion, the BMI is not very useful in predicting changes in arterial stiffness and wave reflection due to obesity. However, stiffness and wave reflection indices derived from digital volume pulse analysis, the characteristics of radial and aortic pressure waveforms and peripheral and aortic pulse pressure are all related to body fat content, as estimated by bioimpedance.

  19. Comparison of percent body fat estimates using air displacement plethysmography and hydrodensitometry in adults and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demerath, E W; Guo, S S; Chumlea, W C; Towne, B; Roche, A F; Siervogel, R M

    2002-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare estimates of body density and percentage body fat from air displacement plethysmography (ADP) to those from hydrodensitometry (HD) in adults and children and to provide a review of similar recent studies. Body density and percentage body fat (% BF) were assessed by ADP and HD on the same day in 87 adults aged 18-69 y (41 males and 46 females) and 39 children aged 8-17 y (19 males and 20 females). Differences between measured and predicted thoracic gas volumes determined during the ADP procedure and the resultant effects of those differences on body composition estimates were also compared. In a subset of 50 individuals (31 adults and 19 children), reliability of ADP was measured and the relative ease or difficulty of ADP and HD were probed with a questionnaire. The coefficient of reliability between %BF on day 1 and day 2 was 96.4 in adults and 90.1 in children, and the technical error of measurement of 1.6% in adults and 1.8% in children. Using a predicted rather than a measured thoracic gas volume did not significantly affect percentage body fat estimates in adults, but resulted in overestimates of percentage body fat in children. Mean percentage body fat from ADP was higher than percentage body fat from HD, although this was statistically significant only in adults (29.3 vs 27.7%, P<0.05). The 95% confidence interval of the between-method differences for all subjects was -7 to +9% body fat, and the root mean square error (r.m.s.e.) was approximately 4% body fat. In the subset of individuals who were asked to compare the two methods, 46 out of 50 (92%) indicated that they preferred the ADP to HD. ADP is a reliable method of measuring body composition that subjects found preferable to underwater weighing. However, as shown here and in most other studies, there are differences in percentage body fat estimates assessed by the two methods, perhaps related to body size, age or other factors, that are sufficient to preclude ADP

  20. A somatic piRNA pathway in the Drosophila fat body ensures metabolic homeostasis and normal lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brian C; Wood, Jason G; Chang, Chengyi; Tam, Austin D; Franklin, Michael J; Siegel, Emily R; Helfand, Stephen L

    2016-12-21

    In gonadal tissues, the Piwi-interacting (piRNA) pathway preserves genomic integrity by employing 23-29 nucleotide (nt) small RNAs complexed with argonaute proteins to suppress parasitic mobile sequences of DNA called transposable elements (TEs). Although recent evidence suggests that the piRNA pathway may be present in select somatic cells outside the gonads, the role of a non-gonadal somatic piRNA pathway is not well characterized. Here we report a functional somatic piRNA pathway in the adult Drosophila fat body including the presence of the piRNA effector protein Piwi and canonical 23-29 nt long TE-mapping piRNAs. The piwi mutants exhibit depletion of fat body piRNAs, increased TE mobilization, increased levels of DNA damage and reduced lipid stores. These mutants are starvation sensitive, immunologically compromised and short-lived, all phenotypes associated with compromised fat body function. These findings demonstrate the presence of a functional non-gonadal somatic piRNA pathway in the adult fat body that affects normal metabolism and overall organismal health.

  1. Edin Expression in the Fat Body Is Required in the Defense Against Parasitic Wasps in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanha-Aho, Leena-Maija; Anderl, Ines; Vesala, Laura; Hultmark, Dan; Valanne, Susanna; Rämet, Mika

    2015-05-01

    The cellular immune response against parasitoid wasps in Drosophila involves the activation, mobilization, proliferation and differentiation of different blood cell types. Here, we have assessed the role of Edin (elevated during infection) in the immune response against the parasitoid wasp Leptopilina boulardi in Drosophila melanogaster larvae. The expression of edin was induced within hours after a wasp infection in larval fat bodies. Using tissue-specific RNAi, we show that Edin is an important determinant of the encapsulation response. Although edin expression in the fat body was required for the larvae to mount a normal encapsulation response, it was dispensable in hemocytes. Edin expression in the fat body was not required for lamellocyte differentiation, but it was needed for the increase in plasmatocyte numbers and for the release of sessile hemocytes into the hemolymph. We conclude that edin expression in the fat body affects the outcome of a wasp infection by regulating the increase of plasmatocyte numbers and the mobilization of sessile hemocytes in Drosophila larvae.

  2. Vitellogenin content in fat body and ovary homogenates of workers and queens of Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides during vitellogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vagner Tadeu Paes de Oliveira; Bruno Berger; Carminda da Cruz-Landim; Zilá Luz PaulinoSim(o)es

    2012-01-01

    Vitellogenin (Vg) is an egg yolk protein that is produced primarily in the fat body of most female insects.In the advanced social structure of eusocial honeybees,the presence of the queen inhibits egg maturation in the workers' ovaries.However in the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata,the workers always develop ovaries and lay a certain amount of eggs while provisioning the brood cells with larval food during what is known as the worker nurse phase.The present work is a comparative study of the presence of Vg in homogenates of the fat bodies and ovaries of the nurse workers,and the virgin and physogastric queens ofM.quadrifasciata.The presence of Vg was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting using Apis mellifera anti-egg antibody.Vg was not detected in the fat bodies or ovaries of the workers,but it was found in the ovaries of virgin and physogastric queens and in the fat body ofphysogastric queens.The results are discussed,taking into account the reproductive state of the individuals and the other possible roles of Vg,such as a storage protein for metoabolism of other organs.

  3. New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shungin, Dmitry; Winkler, Thomas W; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C.

    2015-01-01

    (-8)). In total, 20 of the 49 waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI loci show significant sexual dimorphism, 19 of which display a stronger effect in women. The identified loci were enriched for genes expressed in adipose tissue and for putative regulatory elements in adipocytes. Pathway analyses implicated......Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct genome...... adipogenesis, angiogenesis, transcriptional regulation and insulin resistance as processes affecting fat distribution, providing insight into potential pathophysiological mechanisms....

  4. Transgenic mice with astrocyte-targeted production of interleukin-6 are resistant to high-fat diet-induced increases in body weight and body fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hidalgo, Juan; Florit, Sergi; Giralt, Mercedes

    2010-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a major cytokine involved in both normal physiological brain functions and underlying significant neuropathology. IL-6 has been suggested to play a role in the control of body weight but the results are somewhat controversial. In this study we have challenged transgenic mi......-fat diet feeding. In summary, the present results demonstrate that brain-specific IL-6 controls body weight which may be a significant factor in physiological conditions and/or in diseases causing neuroinflammation....

  5. Relationship between body fat mass and free fatty acid kinetics in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittendorfer, Bettina; Magkos, Faidon; Fabbrini, Elisa; Mohammed, B Selma; Klein, Samuel

    2009-10-01

    An increased release of free fatty acids (FFAs) into plasma likely contributes to the metabolic complications associated with obesity. However, the relationship between body fat and FFA metabolism is unclear because of conflicting results from different studies. The goal of our study was to determine the inter-relationships between body fat, sex, and plasma FFA kinetics. We determined FFA rate of appearance (Ra) in plasma, by using stable isotopically labeled tracer techniques, during basal conditions in 106 lean, overweight, and obese, nondiabetic subjects (43 men and 63 women who had 7.0-56.0% body fat). Correlation analyses demonstrated: (i) no differences between men and women in the relationship between fat mass (FM) and total FFA Ra (micromol/min); (ii) total FFA Ra increased linearly with increasing FM (r=0.652, Pfashion with increasing FM (r=-0.806; Pmen; and (v) abdominal fat itself was not an important determinant of total FFA Ra. We conclude that total body fat, not regional fat distribution or sex, is an important modulator of the rate of FFA release into plasma. Although increased adiposity is associated with a decrease in fatty acid release in relationship to FM, this downregulation is unable to completely compensate for the increase in FM, so total FFA Ra and FFA Ra with respect to FFM are greater in women than in men and in obese than in lean subjects.

  6. Relationship of body fat and cardiorespiratory fitness with cardiovascular risk in Chinese children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-gang Wang

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: BACKGROUNDS/OBJECTIVES: Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF and body fat play an important role in elevated risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD. However, the combined effects of CRF and obesity on metabolic health in Chinese children are unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the independent and combined associations between body fat, CRF, and CVD risk in Chinese schoolchildren. METHODS: The study subjects comprised 676 schoolchildren (392 boys and 284 girls, aged 9.6±0.7 yrs old in Wuhan, China. Their body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, CRF, blood pressure (BP, lipids, glucose, and pubertal status were assessed. Children were categorized into different groups based on their BMI, WC, and CRF using Chinese obesity cut-off points and CRF sex-specific median points. Metabolic Risk Score (MRS was computed based on the standardized scores of BP, lipids, and glucose. RESULTS: Multiple linear regression models showed that, in the separate models, body fat was positively associated with MRS while CRF was inversely associated with MRS (p<0.001. However, when assessed simultaneously, only body fat had a significant association with MRS (p<0.001. In general, low-fit children had a lower MRS compared to their counterparts, and a significant difference between the two extreme groups was observed (low CRF and high fat vs. high CRF and low fat, p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that both body fat and CRF should be considered when interpreting CVD risk in Chinese children, while body fat may be correlated with CVD risk more than CRF.

  7. Swimming exercise increases serum irisin level and reduces body fat mass in high-fat-diet fed Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yun; Li, Hongwei; Shen, Shi-Wei; Shen, Zhen-Hai; Xu, Ming; Yang, Cheng-Jian; Li, Feng; Feng, Yin-Bo; Yun, Jing-Ting; Wang, Ling; Qi, Hua-Jin

    2016-05-13

    It has been shown that irisin levels are reduced in skeletal muscle and plasma of obese rats; however, the effect of exercise training on irisin level remains controversial. We aim to evaluate the association of swimming exercise with serum irisin level and other obesity-associated parameters. Forty healthy male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups: a normal diet and sedentary group (ND group), normal diet and exercise group (NDE group), high-fat diet and sedentary group (HFD group), and high-fat diet and exercise group (HFDE group. After 8 consecutive weeks of swimming exercise, fat mass and serum irisin level was determined. Higher serum irisin levels were detected in the HFDE group (1.15 ± 0.28 μg/L) and NDE group (1.76 ± 0.17 μg/L) than in the HFD group (0.84 ± 0.23 μg/L) or the ND group (1.24 ± 0.29 μg/L), respectively (HFDE group vs. HFD group, P Swimming exercise decreases body fat mass in high-fat-fed Wistar rats, which may be attributable to elevated irisin levels induced by swimming exercise.

  8. Body trunk fat and insulin resistance in post-pubertal obese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Caroline dos Santos

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Insulin resistance is a metabolic disorder commonly associated with excess body fat accumulation that may increase chronic disease risk. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between body composition and insulin resistance among obese adolescents. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study, at the Adolescence Center, Pediatric Department, Universidade Federal de São Paulo. METHODS: Body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Dietary intake was evaluated using a three-day dietary record. The biochemical evaluation comprised glucose, insulin, serum lipid, leptin and ghrelin measurements. Insulin resistance was calculated by means of the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. RESULTS: Forty-nine post-pubertal obese adolescents participated in the study: 12 boys and 37 girls of mean age 16.6 (1.4 years and mean body mass index (BMI of 35.0 (3.9 kg/m². The mean glucose, insulin and HOMA values were 90.3 (6.4 mg/dl, 16.6 (8.1 µIU/ml and 3.7 (1.9, respectively. Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance were observed in 40.2% and 57.1% of the subjects, respectively. Adolescents with insulin resistance had higher BMI and body trunk fat. There was a trend towards higher leptin concentration in obese individuals with insulin resistance. Insulin resistance was positively correlated with body trunk fat, BMI, body fat mass (kg, leptin and body fat percentage. Furthermore, there was a negative correlation between HOMA-IR and lean body mass. The body composition predicted 30% of the HOMA-IR levels, according to linear regression models. CONCLUSION: Body trunk fat was significantly associated with insulin resistance, demonstrating the clinical importance of abdominal obesity during adolescence.

  9. Effects of covert subject actions on percent body fat by air-displacement plethsymography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegenkamp, Michelle H; Clark, R Randall; Schoeller, Dale A; Landry, Greg L

    2011-07-01

    Air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) is used for estimation of body composition, however, some individuals, such as athletes in weight classification sports, may use covert methods during ADP testing to alter their apparent percent body fat. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of covert subject actions on percent body fat measured by ADP. Subjects underwent body composition analysis in the Bod Pod following the standard procedure using the manufacturer's guidelines. The subjects then underwent 8 more measurements while performing the following intentional manipulations: 4 breathing patterns altering lung volume, foot movement to disrupt air, hand cupping to trap air, and heat and cold exposure before entering the chamber. Increasing and decreasing lung volume during thoracic volume measurement and during body density measurement altered the percent body fat assessment (p < 0.001). High lung volume during thoracic gas measures overestimated fat by 3.7 ± 2.1 percentage points. Lowered lung volume during body volume measures overestimated body fat by an additional 2.2 ± 2.1 percentage points. The heat and cold exposure, tapping, and cupping treatments provided similar estimates of percent body fat when compared with the standard condition. These results demonstrate the subjects were able to covertly change their estimated ADP body composition value by altering breathing when compared with the standard condition. We recommend that sports conditioning coaches, athletic trainers, and technicians administering ADP should be aware of the potential effects of these covert actions. The individual responsible for administering ADP should remain vigilant during testing to detect deliberate altered breathing patterns by athletes in an effort to gain a competitive advantage by manipulating their body composition assessment.

  10. Body Fat Distribution and Its Association with Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Adolescent Iranian Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Reza Parizadeh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The relationships between body fat distribution, lipid profile and blood pressure, have not been studied extensively in young population. This study was designed to evaluate the association between measures of adiposity and established cardiovascular risk factors in adolescent girls.Methods: A total of 477 adolescent girls aged 15 to 18 years were recruited from Mashhad high schools.Socio-demographic characteristics were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. Anthropometricassessments, blood pressure measurement and biochemical assessment were performed. Total and regionalfat mass were determined by bio-impedance analysis. Cardiovascular disease risk factors were assessed in relation to body fat measures with adjustment for confounder factors including age and family socioeconomic status.Findings: The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 14.6% and 3.4% respectively; 16% of study population had greater fat mass compared to its ideal distribution. The majority of cardiovascular riskfactors, especially systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride concentration, CRP and fasting blood sugar were significantly higher in group with a high body fat when compared to those with normal and low values. All anthropometric indices showed significant correlation with fat mass, fat free mass, total andregional body fat percent (P<0.001. After adjustment for age and family socioeconomic status, a high fat massespecially, truncal fat, was positively associated with triglyceride and blood pressure.Conclusion: Adiposity, especially truncal adiposity, which can be assessed by simple measures such as Body Mass Index (BMI and Waist Circumference (WC may predispose adolescent girls for demonstration of metabolic abnormalities and consequently cardiovascular diseases.

  11. [Anthropometric indicators of obesity in the prediction of high body fat in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelegrini, Andreia; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Silva, João Marcos Ferreira de Lima; Grigollo, Leoberto; Petroski, Edio Luiz

    2015-01-01

    To determine the anthropometric indicators of obesity in the prediction of high body fat in adolescents from a Brazilian State. The study included 1,197 adolescents (15-17 years old). The following anthropometric measurements were collected: body mass (weight and height), waist circumference and skinfolds (triceps and medial calf). The anthropometric indicators analyzed were: body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and conicity index (C-Index). Body fat percentage, estimated by the Slaughter et al equation, was used as the reference method. Descriptive statistics, U Mann-Whitney test, and ROC curve were used for data analysis. Of the four anthropometric indicators studied, BMI, WHtR and WC had the largest areas under the ROC curve in relation to relative high body fat in both genders. The cutoffs for boys and girls, respectively, associated with high body fat were BMI 22.7 and 20.1 kg/m(2), WHtR 0.43 and 0.41, WC 75.7 and 67.7 cm and C-Index 1.12 and 1.06. Anthropometric indicators can be used in screening for identification of body fat in adolescents, because they are simple, have low cost and are non-invasive. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. The cell biology of fat expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Rutkowski, Joseph M.; Stern, Jennifer H.; Scherer, Philipp E.

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a complex, multicellular organ that profoundly influences the function of nearly all other organ systems through its diverse metabolite and adipokine secretome. Adipocytes are the primary cell type of adipose tissue and play a key role in maintaining energy homeostasis. The efficiency with which adipose tissue responds to whole-body energetic demands reflects the ability of adipocytes to adapt to an altered nutrient environment, and has profound systemic implications. Deciph...

  13. The cell biology of fat expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Joseph M; Stern, Jennifer H; Scherer, Philipp E

    2015-03-02

    Adipose tissue is a complex, multicellular organ that profoundly influences the function of nearly all other organ systems through its diverse metabolite and adipokine secretome. Adipocytes are the primary cell type of adipose tissue and play a key role in maintaining energy homeostasis. The efficiency with which adipose tissue responds to whole-body energetic demands reflects the ability of adipocytes to adapt to an altered nutrient environment, and has profound systemic implications. Deciphering adipocyte cell biology is an important component of understanding how the aberrant physiology of expanding adipose tissue contributes to the metabolic dysregulation associated with obesity. © 2015 Rutkowski et al.

  14. The cell biology of fat expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Joseph M.; Stern, Jennifer H.

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a complex, multicellular organ that profoundly influences the function of nearly all other organ systems through its diverse metabolite and adipokine secretome. Adipocytes are the primary cell type of adipose tissue and play a key role in maintaining energy homeostasis. The efficiency with which adipose tissue responds to whole-body energetic demands reflects the ability of adipocytes to adapt to an altered nutrient environment, and has profound systemic implications. Deciphering adipocyte cell biology is an important component of understanding how the aberrant physiology of expanding adipose tissue contributes to the metabolic dysregulation associated with obesity. PMID:25733711

  15. Comparison of methods to assess body fat in non-obese six to seven-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L'Abee, Carianne; Visser, G. Henk; Liem, Eryn T.; Kok, Dieuwertje E. G.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Stolk, Ronald P.

    Background & aim: Different non-invasive methods exist to evaluate total body fat in children. Most methods have shown to be able to confirm a high fat percentage in children with overweight and obesity. No data are available on the estimation of total body fat in non-obese children. The aim of this

  16. Comparison of methods to assess body fat in non-obese six to seven-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abée, l' C.; Visser, G.H.; Liem, E.T.; Kok, D.E.G.; Sauer, P.J.; Stolk, R.P.

    2010-01-01

    Background & aim Different non-invasive methods exist to evaluate total body fat in children. Most methods have shown to be able to confirm a high fat percentage in children with overweight and obesity. No data are available on the estimation of total body fat in non-obese children. The aim of

  17. Comparison of methods to assess body fat in non-obese six to seven-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abée, l' C.; Visser, G.H.; Liem, E.T.; Kok, D.E.G.; Sauer, P.J.; Stolk, R.P.

    2010-01-01

    Background & aim Different non-invasive methods exist to evaluate total body fat in children. Most methods have shown to be able to confirm a high fat percentage in children with overweight and obesity. No data are available on the estimation of total body fat in non-obese children. The aim of t

  18. Comparison of methods to assess body fat in non-obese six to seven-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L'Abee, Carianne; Visser, G. Henk; Liem, Eryn T.; Kok, Dieuwertje E. G.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Stolk, Ronald P.

    2010-01-01

    Background & aim: Different non-invasive methods exist to evaluate total body fat in children. Most methods have shown to be able to confirm a high fat percentage in children with overweight and obesity. No data are available on the estimation of total body fat in non-obese children. The aim of this

  19. Drosophila ste-20 family protein kinase, hippo, modulates fat cell proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongling Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evolutionarily conserved Hippo (Hpo pathway plays a pivotal role in the control of organ size. Although the Hpo pathway regulates proliferation of a variety of epidermal cells, its function in non-ectoderm-derived cells is largely unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Through methods including fat quantification assays, starvation assays, in vivo labeling assays, we show that overexpression of Hpo in Drosophila melanogaster fat body restricts Drosophila body growth and reduces fat storage through regulation of adipocyte proliferation rather than through influencing the size of fat cells and lipid metabolism, whereas compromising Hpo activity results in weight gain and greater fat storage. Furthermore, we provide evidence that Yorkie (Yki, a transcriptional coactivator that functions in the Hpo pathway antagonizes Hpo to modulate fat storage in Drosophila. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings specify a role of Hpo in controlling mesoderm-derived cell proliferation. The observed anti-obesity effects of Hpo may indicate great potential for its utilization in anti-obesity therapeutics.

  20. Percent body fat is a better predictor of cardiovascular risk factors than body mass index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Qiang; Dong, Sheng-Yong; Sun, Xiao-Nan; Xie, Jing; Cui, Yi [International Medical Center, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2012-04-20

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the predictive values of percent body fat (PBF) and body mass index (BMI) for cardiovascular risk factors, especially when PBF and BMI are conflicting. BMI was calculated by the standard formula and PBF was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. A total of 3859 ambulatory adult Han Chinese subjects (2173 males and 1686 females, age range: 18-85 years) without a history of cardiovascular diseases were recruited from February to September 2009. Based on BMI and PBF, they were classified into group 1 (normal BMI and PBF, N = 1961), group 2 (normal BMI, but abnormal PBF, N = 381), group 3 (abnormal BMI, but normal PBF, N = 681), and group 4 (abnormal BMI and PBF, N = 836). When age, gender, lifestyle, and family history of obesity were adjusted, PBF, but not BMI, was correlated with blood glucose and lipid levels. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for cardiovascular risk factors in groups 2 and 4 were 1.88 (1.45-2.45) and 2.06 (1.26-3.35) times those in group 1, respectively, but remained unchanged in group 3 (OR = 1.32, 95%CI = 0.92-1.89). Logistic regression models also demonstrated that PBF, rather than BMI, was independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors. In conclusion, PBF, and not BMI, is independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors, indicating that PBF is a better predictor.

  1. Body mass index versus percentage body fat in Chinese, African-American and Caucasian postmenopausal women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Ai-jun; He Qing; Lin Shou-qing; Tian Jun-ping; Stan He-shka; Jack Wang; Steven Heymsfield; Richard N. Pierson; Dympna Gallagher

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate in postmenopausal women whether the relationship between percentage body fat (PBF) and body mass index (BMI) differs between Asians living in Beijing (BA) and African-Americans (AA), and Caucasians (Ca) living in New York City.Methods: Healthy postmenopausal women (231 BA; 113 AA, 95 Ca), aged 50-80 years, were studied. Weight, height and PBF by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were measured. The relationship between PBF and BMI was assessed by multiple regression analysis. Results: Race, reciprocal of BMI (1/BMI) and the interaction between race and 1/BMI were all significantly (P<0.05) related to PBF in this sample. The slope of the line relating 1/BMI to PBF was different for BA compared to AA (P=0.01) and Ca (P=0.003) while the slopes for AA and Ca were not different (P>0.05). At lower levels of BMI, Asians tended to have higher PBF comparable to AA and Ca, while at BMI >30 BA tended to have less PBF than the other groups. Conclusion: The relation between PBF and BMI in BA postmenopausal women differs from that of AA and Ca women in this sample.

  2. Body Fat and Physical Activity Modulate the Association Between Sarcopenia and Osteoporosis in Elderly Korean Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Inhwan; Cho, Jinkyung; Jin, Youngyun; Ha, Changduk; Kim, Taehee; Kang, Hyunsik

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether modifiable lifestyle factors, such as body fatness and physical activity, modulate the association between sarcopenia and osteoporosis. In a cross-sectional design, 269 postmenopausal women, aged 65 years and older, underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans to measure their body fat percentage, total fat mass, total fat-free mass, appendicular lean mass, bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content. The participants wore a uniaxial accelerometer for seven consecutive days to quantify daily physical activity. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, and a binary logistic regression. Pearson correlation analyses showed that total neck/femur BMD was positively associated with weight-adjusted appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) and objectively-measured physical activities. ASM was positively associated with body fatness. Binary logistic regression analyses showed that the odds ratio (OR) of sarcopenia for osteopenia and/or osteoporosis was substantially attenuated but remained marginally significant when adjusted for age and postmenopausal period (OR = 2.370 and p = 0.050). However, the OR was no longer significant when additionally adjusted for body fatness (OR = 2.218 and p = 0.117) and physical activity (OR = 1.240 and p = 0.448). The findings of the study showed that, in this sample of elderly Korean women, modifiable lifestyle risk factors such as body fatness and physical inactivity played an important role in determining the association between sarcopenia and osteopenia/osteoporosis. Key points Osteoporosis and sarcopenia are major health conditions responsible for an increased risk of bone fractures and reduced functional capacity, respectively, in older adults. We investigated whether lifestyle-related risk factors modulate the association between sarcopenia and osteoporosis in older Korean adults. The current findings of the study suggest that physical activity and

  3. Effect of high-fat diets on body composition, lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity, and the role of exercise on these parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F. Coelho

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fat composition can interfere in the development of obesity due to the specific roles of some fatty acids that have different metabolic activities, which can alter both fat oxidation and deposition rates, resulting in changes in body weight and/or composition. High-fat diets in general are associated with hyperphagia, but the type of dietary fat seems to be more important since saturated fats are linked to a positive fat balance and omental adipose tissue accumulation when compared to other types of fat, while polyunsaturated fats, omega-3 and omega-6, seem to increase energy expenditure and decrease energy intake by specific mechanisms involving hormone-sensitive lipase, activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα and others. Saturated fat intake can also impair insulin sensitivity compared to omega-3 fat, which has the opposite effect due to alterations in cell membranes. Obesity is also associated with impaired mitochondrial function. Fat excess favors the production of malonyl-CoA, which reduces GLUT4 efficiency. The tricarboxylic acid cycle and beta-oxidation are temporarily uncoupled, forming metabolite byproducts that augment reactive oxygen species production. Exercise can restore mitochondrial function and insulin sensitivity, which may be crucial for a better prognosis in treating or preventing obesity.

  4. Intricate Transcriptional Networks of Classical Brown and Beige Fat Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun Hong; Hur, Wonhee; Lee, Sean Bong

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipocytes are a specialized cell type that is critical for adaptive thermogenesis, energy homeostasis, and metabolism. In response to cold, both classical brown fat and the newly identified "beige" or "brite" cells are activated by β-adrenergic signaling and catabolize stored lipids and carbohydrates to produce heat via UCP1. Once thought to be non-existent in adults, recent studies have discovered active classical brown and beige fat cells in humans, thus reinvigorating interest in brown and beige adipocytes. This review will focus on the newly discovered transcription factors and microRNAs that specify and orchestrate the classical brown and beige fat cell development.

  5. Extended longevity lines of Drosophila melanogaster: abundance of yolk protein gene mRNA in fat body and ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, K A; Harshman, L G

    1999-04-01

    Lines of Drosophila melanogaster selected for late-life female reproduction typically exhibit correlated responses of reduced early fecundity and increased longevity. This relationship suggests a tradeoff between reproductive effort and somatic maintenance, which in turn, underlies some evolutionary theories of senescence. The mechanistic basis of the apparent tradeoff between increased longevity and reduced early-age fecundity has remained obscure. The present manuscript addresses the issues of whether the reduced early-age fecundity in selected lines corresponds to reduced yolk-protein mRNA production, and whether long-lived flies exhibit somatic maintenance in terms of relatively reduced yolk-protein mRNA production in the fat body. Yolk protein is one of the most abundant proteins used for female reproduction. By comparing a set of lines selected for late life reproduction with the corresponding control lines, we show that that yolk-protein gene mRNA relative abundance during the first four days posteclosion did not correspond to reduced early-life fecundity in the selected lines. In D. melanogaster, yolk protein is produced in the fat body and ovarian follicle cells. On the fourth day posteclosion, relatively more yolk-protein gene mRNA was present in the fat body. On day 1 posteclosion, supplemental yeast did not alter relative yolk-protein gene mRNA abundance. However, on day 4 posteclosion, supplemental yeast stimulated yolk-protein gene mRNA production in the fat body, which suggests an underlying mechanism for the nutrition-based phenotypic plasticity of fecundity previously documented in these lines. On medium without supplemental yeast, the relatively low abundance of fat body yolk-protein gene mRNA in the selected lines on day 4 posteclosion corresponds to a prediction derived from the disposable soma theory.

  6. Does relative body fat influence the Movement ABC-2 assessment in children with and without developmental coordination disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faught, Brent E; Demetriades, Stephen; Hay, John; Cairney, John

    2013-12-01

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a condition that results in an impairment of gross and/or fine motor coordination. Compromised motor coordination contributes to lower levels of physical activity, which is associated with elevated body fat. The impact of elevated body fat on motor coordination diagnostic assessments in children with DCD has not been established. The purpose of this study was to determine if relative body fat influences performance on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, 2nd Edition (MABC-2) test items in children with and without DCD. A nested case-control, design was conducted within the Physical Health Activity Study Team longitudinal cohort study. The MABC-2 was used to assess motor coordination to categorize cases and matched controls. Relative body fat was assessed using whole body air displacement plethysmography. Relative body fat was negatively associated with the MABC-2 "balance" subcategory after adjusting for physical activity and DCD status. Relative body fat did not influence the subcategories of "manual dexterity" or "aiming and catching". Item analysis of the three balance tasks indicated that relative body fat significantly influences both "2-board balance" and "zig-zag hopping", but not "walking heel-toe backwards". Children with higher levels of relative body fat do not perform as well on the MABC-2, regardless of whether the have DCD or not. Dynamic balance test items are most negatively influenced by body fat. Health practitioners and researchers should be aware that body fat can influence results when interpreting MABC-2 test scores.

  7. Comparison of estimates of body fat content in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinicato, N A; Peres, F A; de Oliveira Peliçari, K; de Oliveira Santos, A; Ramos, C D; Marini, R; Appenzeller, S

    2017-04-01

    Objective We aimed to compare estimates of body fat content with respect to their ability to predict the percentage of body fat, confirmed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus. Methods We included 64 consecutive childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients and 64 healthy age and sex-matched controls in a cross-sectional study. Anthropometric data, body mass index and body adiposity index were calculated for all subjects. Childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients were further assessed for clinical and laboratory childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus manifestations and fat mass, lean mass and percentage of body fat evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results Elevated waist/hip ratio was observed in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients when compared to controls ( p systemic lupus erythematosus patients and controls. Using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry as gold standard we observed that all indirect estimates of body fat were correlated with whole body fat mass. We observed a correlation between height and cumulative corticosteroid dose adjusted by weight ( r = 0.429, p = 0.005) in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus. On whole body analysis we observed a correlation between lean mass and ACR Damage Index scores ( r = -0.395; p = 0.019); percentage of body fat and adjusted Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index ( r = 0.402; p = 0.008), disease duration ( r = -0.370; p = 0.012). On trunk analysis we observed a correlation between lean mass and ACR Damage Index ( r = -0.319; p = 0.042); percentage of body fat with adjusted Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index ( r = 0.402; p = 0.005), disease duration ( r = -0.408; p = 0.005). Conclusions This is the first study analyzing body adiposity index in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients. We observed that all

  8. Negotiating and Navigating my Fat body - feminist autoethnographic encounters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Smailes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two years I have been consciously critically engaging with autoethnography as a way of gaining insight into the cultural phenomenon of being a fat woman. Autoethnography is an in-depth and engaged approach which opens up spaces of particular ways of being which have often been colonised by particular discourse in formed by invested situational knowledge. This process has involved me drawing on past journals, memories and re-memory work and present interwoven layers of process and reflection (Ronai 1995. It has been and is challenging, Chatham-Carpenter (2010 writes about the difficulties of being with and exposing vulnerable 'selves' - a self which is still very much part of the present, rather than a neatly contained and managed 'identity'. So part of what I will do in this article is consider the critical process of my feminist autoethnography, interweaving and responding to the literature' in feminist research, feminisms, autoethnography, critical fat studies, and intersectionality.  A key to this exploration is the experience of researching the experiences of being a fat woman, from within a feminist commitment - at some level I want to consider whether and how the experience reflects Averett, Soper's (2011, 371-372 suggestion that "Feminist autoethnography is intended to resist the social and institutional norms that often dictate research. It promotes women's voices and unique experiences".

  9. [Macronutrients, food intake and body weight; the role of fat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalá-Bejarano Carrillo, Jesús; Yago Torregrosa, Maria Dolores; Mañas Almendros, Mariano; López Millán, María Belén; Martínez Burgos, María Alba; Martínez de Victoria Muñoz, Emilio

    2014-11-27

    "Globesity" is the term that the World Health Organization (WHO) employs to define the growth of obesity in the world from the last 40 years which started in the developed countries and has been inevitably propagated to the developing ones. Governments and international organizations are aware of the problem and they are trying to implement measures to fight it. To analyze the current evidence in terms of studies about the relationship between macronutrients (especially fat and lipid release systems) and the secretion of gastrointestinal peptides that are involved with satiety and satiation. The search was conducted in Medline (via Pubmed) using different combinations of MeSH terms and in the database LILACs using "DeCS". A selection of another articles relevant to the review topic was also examined. At present, there are several laboratories and industries developing novel bioactive ingredients aimed at the regulation of food intake, with emphasis on those related with fat intake and the different ways in which fat can be technologically processed in order to create structures able to enhance satiety and/ or diminish hunger. These ingredients will be the future of functional foods focused on the prevention of weight gain and the support of other strategies against obesity (dietary, behavioral, etc…). Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  10. High-fat diet is associated with obesity-mediated insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction in Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Mary Helen; Watanabe, Richard M; Trigo, Enrique; Takayanagi, Miwa; Lawrence, Jean M; Buchanan, Thomas A; Xiang, Anny H

    2013-04-01

    Consumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods has contributed to the rising incidence of obesity and may underlie insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction. Macronutrient intake patterns were examined in relation to anthropometric and metabolic traits in participants of BetaGene, a family-based study of obesity, insulin resistance, and β-cell dysfunction in Mexican Americans. Dietary intake, body composition, insulin sensitivity (SI), and β-cell function [Disposition Index (DI)] were assessed by food-frequency questionnaires, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and intravenous glucose-tolerance tests, respectively. Patterns of macronutrient intake were identified by using a K-means model based on the proportion of total energy intake per day attributable to carbohydrate, fat, and protein and were tested for association with anthropometric and metabolic traits. Among 1150 subjects aged 18-65 y (73% female), tertiles of fat intake were associated with greater adiposity and lower SI, after adjustment for age, sex, and daily energy intake. Moreover, 3 distinct dietary patterns were identified: "high fat" (35% fat, 44% carbohydrate, 21% protein; n = 238), "moderate fat" (28% fat, 54% carbohydrate, 18% protein; n = 520), and "low fat" (20% fat, 65% carbohydrate, 15% protein; n = 392). Compared with the low-fat group, the high-fat group had higher age- and sex-adjusted mean body mass index, body fat percentage, and trunk fat and lower SI and DI. Further adjustment for daily energy intake by matching individuals across dietary pattern groups yielded similar results. None of the observed associations were altered after adjustment for physical activity; however, associations with SI and DI were attenuated after adjustment for adiposity. These findings suggest that high-fat diets may contribute to increased adiposity and concomitant insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction in Mexican Americans.

  11. Impact of obesity and body fat distribution on survival after pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaujoux, Sébastien; Torres, Javiera; Olson, Sara; Winston, Corrine; Gonen, Mithat; Brennan, Murray F; Klimstra, David S; D'Angelica, Michael; DeMatteo, Ronald; Fong, Yuman; House, Michael; Jarnagin, William; Kurtz, Robert C; Allen, Peter J

    2012-09-01

    Epidemiologic studies have reported a positive correlation between body mass index (BMI) and pancreatic cancer risk, but clinical relevance of obesity and/or body fat distribution on tumor characteristics and cancer-related outcome remain controversial. We sought to assess the influence of obesity and body fat distribution on pathologic characteristics and survival after pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Demographic and biometric data were collected on 328 patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. In a subset of patients, pancreatic fatty infiltration and fibrosis were assessed pathologically, and visceral fat area (VFA) was evaluated. Influence of BMI and body fat distribution on tumor characteristics and survival were evaluated. A significant positive correlation between BMI and VFA was observed, with a wide range of VFA value within each BMI class. According to BMI or VFA distribution, there were no significant differences in patient characteristics, intraoperative or perioperative outcome, or pathologic characteristics, with the exception of significantly higher blood loss in patients with an increased body weight or VFA. Unadjusted overall and disease-free survival between BMI class and VFA quartile were not significantly different. In this study, obesity and body fat distribution were not correlated with specific tumor characteristics or cancer-related outcome.

  12. Histochemical and ultrastructural studies of the mosquito Aedes aegypti fat body: effects of aging and diet type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Gustavo Ferreira; Serrão, José Eduardo; Ramalho-Ortigão, José Marcelo; Pimenta, Paulo Filemon Paolucci

    2011-11-01

    Aedes aegypti is the principal vector of dengue world wide and a major vector of urban yellow fever. Despite its epidemiological importance, not much is known regarding cellular and structural changes in the fat body in this mosquito. Here, we applied light and transmission electron microscopies to investigate structural changes in the fat body of three groups of A. aegypti females: newly emerged, 18-day-old sugar-fed, and 18-day-old blood-fed. The fat body consists of a layer of cells attached to the abdomen integument, formed by trophocytes and oenocytes. Trophocytes are strongly positive for carbohydrates, while oenocytes are strongly positive for proteins and lipids. Ultrastructural analyses of trophocytes from newly emerged and 18-day-old blood-fed indicate that these cells are rich in glycogen and free ribosomes. Many lipid droplets and protein granules, which are broken down after the blood meal, are also detected. In 18-day-old sugar-fed, trophocytes display a disorganized cytoplasm filled with lipid droplets, and reduced numbers of free ribosomes, glycogen, rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and mitochondria. Following a blood meal, the RER and mitochondria display enlarged sizes, suggestive of increased activity. With regard to oenocytes, these cells display an electron-dense cytoplasm and plasma membrane infoldings facing the hemolymph. As the A. aegypti female ages, trophocyte and oenocyte cell nuclei become larger but decrease in diameter after blood feeding. Our findings suggest that the trophocytes and oenocytes remodeling is likely involved in functional changes of fat body that take place during aging and following a blood meal in A. aegypti females. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. [Daily calorie and macronutrient consumption in girls of different somatotypes with different shares of body fat, muscle and bone components].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fefelova, V V; Fefelova, Yu A; Koloskova, T P; Kazakova, T V; Sergeeva, E Yu

    2016-01-01

    211 practically healthy girls, the students of Krasnoyarsk Medical University in the ages of 16 to 20 years, have been examined. We determined their somatotypes (euriplastic, athletic, subathletic and stenoplastic) and body composition (fat, muscle, bone component). Actual nutrition in these subjects was studied by the method. of 24-hour nutrition recall involving foodstuffs models. Energy consumption in cohorts with different somatotypes did not differ from one another and ranged from 1880 to 2115 kilocalories per day, that corresponded to normal physiological needs in women of this age with the coefficient of physical activity as 1.4 (students). Only the intake of fat (% of calories) exceeded the performance standards. As for macronutrients, the majority of indicators of nutrient intake did not differ significantly among girls with different somatotype, except for fat intake in girls with athletic and stenoplastic somatotypes (psomatotypes (psomatotypes with statistically considerable, differences in both overall dimensions (body mass and length) and the ratios between fat, muscle and bone as somatic components. In general, macronutrient consumption did not show any differences as well. Thus, apart from the energy and macronutrient consumption, definite meaning within the process of the formation of body composition can belong to the characteristics of the changes following nutrition load on lipoid spectrum of blood serum as well 'as the peculiarities of the distribution of substrate flow among cell metabolic paths, appropriate of definite somatotypes.

  14. Body fat and breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohan, Thomas E; Heo, Moonseong; Choi, Lydia; Datta, Mridul; Freudenheim, Jo L; Kamensky, Victor; Ochs-Balcom, Heather M; Qi, Lihong; Thomson, Cynthia A; Vitolins, Mara Z; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Kabat, Geoffrey C

    2013-01-01

    Associations between anthropometric indices of obesity and breast cancer risk may fail to capture the true relationship between excess body fat and risk. We used dual-energy-X-ray-absorptiometry- (DXA-) derived measures of body fat obtained in the Women's Health Initiative to examine the association between body fat and breast cancer risk; we compared these risk estimates with those for conventional anthropometric measurements. The study included 10,960 postmenopausal women aged 50-79 years at recruitment, with baseline DXA measurements and no history of breast cancer. During followup (median: 12.9 years), 503 incident breast cancer cases were diagnosed. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. All baseline DXA-derived body fat measures showed strong positive associations with breast cancer risk. The multivariable-adjusted HR for the uppermost quintile level (versus lowest) ranged from 1.53 (95% CI 1.14-2.07) for fat mass of the right leg to 2.05 (1.50-2.79) for fat mass of the trunk. Anthropometric indices (categorized by quintiles) of obesity (BMI (1.97, 1.45-2.68), waist circumference (1.97, 1.46-2.65), and waist : hip ratio (1.91, 1.41-2.58)) were all strongly, positively associated with risk and did not differ from DXA-derived measures in prediction of risk.

  15. Body Fat and Breast Cancer Risk in Postmenopausal Women: A Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Rohan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Associations between anthropometric indices of obesity and breast cancer risk may fail to capture the true relationship between excess body fat and risk. We used dual-energy-X-ray-absorptiometry- (DXA- derived measures of body fat obtained in the Women’s Health Initiative to examine the association between body fat and breast cancer risk; we compared these risk estimates with those for conventional anthropometric measurements. The study included 10,960 postmenopausal women aged 50–79 years at recruitment, with baseline DXA measurements and no history of breast cancer. During followup (median: 12.9 years, 503 incident breast cancer cases were diagnosed. Hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. All baseline DXA-derived body fat measures showed strong positive associations with breast cancer risk. The multivariable-adjusted HR for the uppermost quintile level (versus lowest ranged from 1.53 (95% CI 1.14–2.07 for fat mass of the right leg to 2.05 (1.50–2.79 for fat mass of the trunk. Anthropometric indices (categorized by quintiles of obesity (BMI (1.97, 1.45–2.68, waist circumference (1.97, 1.46–2.65, and waist : hip ratio (1.91, 1.41–2.58 were all strongly, positively associated with risk and did not differ from DXA-derived measures in prediction of risk.

  16. Relationships Between Body Fat and Appearance Ratings of U.S. Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-01

    of endomorphy using Sheldon’s (1940) visual somatotyping scheme and body specific gravity. This work was extended by Brozek and Keys (1952) to show...1950) Anthropometry of extreme somatotypes . Amer. J. Phys. Anthrop. 8:367-385. Durnin, J.V.G.A., and J. Womersely. (1974) Body fat assessed from total

  17. Aerobic fitness in prepubertal children according to level of body fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Bugge, Anna; Hermansen, Bianca

    2010-01-01

    (2PEAK) was measured by indirect calorimetry during a maximal exercise test. Percent body fat (BF%) was estimated from skinfold measurements. RESULTS:  Significant relationships existed between BF% and absolute values of VO(2PEAK) (mL/min), VO(2PEAK) scaled by body weight (mL/min/kg) and VO(2PEAK...

  18. Body Estimation and Physical Performance: Estimation of Lifting and Carrying from Fat-Free Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-30

    fat content determined from hydrodensitometry and application of the Siri 2- compartment model. 8 whom information was collected gave their consent to...the vertex of the head and measurement taken. Body composition Body volume was determined by hydrodensitometry (underwater weighing; Goldman and Buskirk

  19. Relationship of the reported intakes of fat and fatty acids to body weight in US adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary fat composition may modulate energy expenditure and body weight. Little is known about the relationship between fatty acid intake and body weight at a population level. The purposes of this study were to compare intakes of energy, macronutrients, and individual fatty acids across BMI categor...

  20. Dietary and 24-h fat oxidation in Asians and whites who differ in body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulan, Siti N; Westerterp, Klaas R; Plasqui, Guy

    2012-06-01

    With the same BMI, age, and sex, Asians were reported to have a higher body fat percentage than whites. This study aimed to determine the difference in body composition and its effect on dietary and 24-h fat oxidation between Asians and whites when they were fed a diet that contained 30% of energy as fat. Seventeen Asians (8 men) were matched with 17 whites (8 men) for BMI, age, and sex. Physical activity was measured for 7 d with an accelerometer. During the last 3 d of the activity measurement, subjects were given a diet to maintain energy balances. Energy expenditure and substrate use were measured for 24 h in a respiration chamber. Dietary fat oxidation was determined from the percentage recovery of deuterium in the urine after a breakfast meal that contained deuterated palmitic acid. Body composition was calculated with a 3-compartment model from body mass, body volume (hydrodensitometry), and total body water (deuterium dilution). Asians had 5% higher body fat than whites (28.1 ± 7.3% compared with 23.0 ± 6.9%, respectively; P = 0.03). The fat-free mass index tended to be lower in Asians than in whites (16.3 ± 1.6 compared with 17.0 ± 1.7 kg/m(2), respectively; P = 0.07). Dietary fat oxidation as a percentage of fat consumed was 11.7 ± 3.6% compared with 10.8 ± 4.5% (P = 0.50) for Asians and whites, respectively. In Asians and whites, the 24-h fat oxidation as a percentage of total energy expenditure was 17.7 ± 6.9% compared with 19.2 ± 5.1% (P = 0.63), respectively; carbohydrate oxidation was 68.0 ± 6.8% compared with 66.1 ± 5.1% (P = 0.51), respectively; and protein oxidation was 14.3 ± 2.2 compared with 14.7 ± 1.6% (P = 0.61), respectively. Dietary and 24-h fat oxidation were not different between Asians and whites despite differences in body composition. This study was registered in the public trial registry at www.ccmo.nl as NL31217.068.10.

  1. Insulin resistance as a predictor of gains in body fat, weight, and abdominal fat in nondiabetic women: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Larry A; Tucker, Jared M

    2012-07-01

    The purpose was to determine the relationship between insulin resistance (IR) and risk of gaining body fat percentage (BF%), body weight, and abdominal fat over 18 months. A prospective cohort study was conducted using a sample of 226 women. IR was assessed using fasting blood insulin and glucose levels to calculate homeostatic model assessment (HOMA). Participants were divided into High (4th quartile) Moderate (2nd and 3rd quartiles), and Low (1st quartile) HOMA categories. BF% was estimated using plethysmography (Bod Pod), weight was measured in a standard swimsuit, and abdominal fat was indexed using the average of two circumferences taken at the umbilicus. Participants wore accelerometers and completed weighed food logs for 7 consecutive days to control for the effect of physical activity (PA) and energy intake, respectively. On average, women in the High HOMA group decreased in BF% (-0.48 ± 3.60), whereas those in the Moderate (0.40 ± 3.66) and Low HOMA (1.17 ± 3.15) groups gained BF% (F = 5.4, P = 0.0211). Changes in body weight showed a similar dose-response relationship (F = 4.7, P = 0.0317). However, baseline IR was not predictive of changes in abdominal fat (F = 0.8, P = 0.3635). Controlling for several covariates had little effect on gains in BF% and weight, but adjusting for initial BF% and/or initial weight nullified changes in BF% and weight across the IR groups. In conclusion, women with High HOMA tend to gain significantly less BF% and weight than women with low or moderate HOMA. The decreased risk appears unrelated to several covariates, except initial BF% and weight levels, which seem to play key roles in the relationships.

  2. Oral fat perception is related with body mass index, preference and consumption of high-fat foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ruiz, Nina R; López-Díaz, José A; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Jiménez-Castro, Jorge A; Angulo, Ofelia

    2014-04-22

    Oral sensory perception may play an important role in food preferences, driving food intake and energy balance. Fat perceived in oral cavity has been associated with satiety and homeostatic signals. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that fat oral-intensity perception may be associated with BMI, food preferences and consumption of fat-rich foods. The ability to perceive linoleic acid at different concentrations by intensity scaling was measured in young adults (n=121), characterized by anthropometric measurements such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and total body fat (TBF) percentage. Additionally, dietary habits were recorded online during 35days using a questionnaire designed according to the 24-hour recall and the food diary methods. Finally, food preferences were evaluated online using a nine-point hedonic scale. Taste sensitivity (intensity scaling with suprathreshold concentrations) was estimated with different linoleic acid concentrations using a linear scale of 150mm labeled at the ends. Four groups were established after the ratings for oral-intensity perception of linoleic acid: quartile high ratings (QH), quartile medium-high ratings (QMH), quartile medium-low ratings (QML) and quartile low ratings (QL). Participants with high-intensity ratings for linoleic acid (QH) had lower BMI (p=0.04) and waist circumference (WC) (p=0.03) values than participants in the QL group. High-fat foods (foods with more than 20% of energy from lipids such as fast foods and Mexican street foods) were less preferred by participants with high-intensity ratings for linoleic acid (QH) than by participants with medium- (QMH, QML) and low-(QL) intensity ratings (pfoods like fast foods (p=0.04) and Mexican street foods (p=0.03) than subjects with medium- (QMH, QML) and low-(QL) intensity ratings. Overall, these data suggest that the participant's intensity ratings for oral perception of linoleic acid were inversely correlated with BMI, WC

  3. Cloning of PaAtg8 and roles of autophagy in adaptation to starvation with respect to the fat body and midgut of the Americana cockroach, Periplaneta americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Moon Soo; Takeda, Makio

    2014-05-01

    Starvation, in particular amino acid deprivation, induces autophagy in trophocytes (adipocytes), the major component of the fat body cell types, in the larvae of Drosophila melanogaster. However, the fat body of cockroach has two additional cell types: urocytes depositing uric acid in urate vacuoles as a nitrogen resource and mycetocytes harboring an endosymbiont, Blattabacterium cuenoti, which can synthesize amino acids from the metabolites of the stored uric acid. These cells might complement the roles of autophagy in recycling amino acids in the fat body or other organs of cockroaches under starvation. We investigate the presence of autophagy in tissues such as the fat body and midgut of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, under starvation by immunoblotting with antibody against Atg8, a ubiquitin-like protein required for the formation of autophagosomes and by electron microscopy. Corresponding changes in acid phosphatase activity were also investigated as representing lysosome activity. Starvation increased the level of an autophagic marker, Atg8-II, in both the tissues, extensively stimulating the formation of autophagic compartments in trophocytes of the fat body and columnar cells of the midgut for over 2 weeks. Acid phosphatase showed no significant increase in the fat body of the starved cockroaches but was higher in the midgut of the continuously fed animals. Thus, a distinct autophagic mechanism operates in these tissues under starvation of 2 weeks and longer. The late induction of autophagy implies exhaustion of the stored uric acid in the fat body. High activity of acid phosphatase in the midgut of the fed cockroaches might represent enhanced assimilation and not an autophagy-related function.

  4. The effects of the academic performance of college students whose major is sports on body composition and abdominal fat rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hyeon-Ok; Lee, Bo-Ae

    2016-01-01

    The subjects of this research are 30 students of Dong-Eui Institute of Technology in Busan city, who were grouped into two categories after applying the curriculum of the second semester of the freshman year to their classes: those whose academic performance was at the top 20% (15 students) and those whose academic performance was at the bottom 20% (15 students). For the measurement items, we measured their weight, body fat mass, body fat rates, body mass index, and abdominal fat rates by using a body composition testing machine. We then analyzed the t-test results by using the IBM SPSS ver. 18.0 program. Through this research, we found that there was a significant difference among those in the group of students whose academic performance was at the top 20% in terms of body fat mass and body fat rates, which means that academic performance has relatively little effect on body composition and abdominal fat rates. PMID:27656630

  5. The effects of the academic performance of college students whose major is sports on body composition and abdominal fat rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hyeon-Ok; Lee, Bo-Ae

    2016-08-01

    The subjects of this research are 30 students of Dong-Eui Institute of Technology in Busan city, who were grouped into two categories after applying the curriculum of the second semester of the freshman year to their classes: those whose academic performance was at the top 20% (15 students) and those whose academic performance was at the bottom 20% (15 students). For the measurement items, we measured their weight, body fat mass, body fat rates, body mass index, and abdominal fat rates by using a body composition testing machine. We then analyzed the t-test results by using the IBM SPSS ver. 18.0 program. Through this research, we found that there was a significant difference among those in the group of students whose academic performance was at the top 20% in terms of body fat mass and body fat rates, which means that academic performance has relatively little effect on body composition and abdominal fat rates.

  6. [Measurements of location of body fat distribution: an assessment of colinearity with body mass, adiposity and stature in female adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Patrícia Feliciano; Serrano, Hiara Miguel Stanciola; Carvalho, Gisele Queiroz; Ribeiro, Sônia Machado Rocha; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2015-01-01

    To verify the correlation between body fat location measurements with the body mass index (BMI), percentage of body fat (%BF) and stature, according to the nutritional status in female adolescents. A controlled cross sectional study was carried out with 113 adolescents (G1: 38 eutrophic, but with high body fat level, G2: 40 eutrophic and G3: 35 overweight) from public schools in Viçosa-MG, Brazil. The following measures have been assessed: weight, stature, waist circumference (WC), umbilical circumference (UC), hip circumference (HC), thigh circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-stature ratio (WSR), waist-to-thigh ratio (WTR), conicity index (CI), sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), coronal diameter (CD), central skinfolds (CS) and peripheral (PS). The %BF was assessed by tetrapolar electric bioimpedance. The increase of central fat, represented by WC, UC, WSR, SAD, CD and CS, and the increase of peripheral fat indicated by HC and thigh were proportional to the increase of BMI and %BF. WC and especially the UC showed the strongest correlations with adiposity. Weak correlation between WHR, WTR, CI and CS/PS with adiposity were observed. The stature showed correlation with almost all the fat location measures, being regular or weak with waist. The results indicate colinearity between body mass and total adiposity with central and peripheral adipose tissue. We recommend the use of UC for assessing nutritional status of adolescents, because it showed the highest ability to predict adiposity in each group, and also presented regular or weak correlation with stature. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Dedifferentiated fat cells: A cell source for regenerative medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Medet; Jumabay; Kristina; I; Bostr?m

    2015-01-01

    The identification of an ideal cell source for tissue regeneration remains a challenge in the stem cell field. The ability of progeny cells to differentiate into other cell types is important for the processes of tissue reconstruction and tissue engineering and has clinical, biochemical or molecular implications. The adaptation of stem cells from adipose tissue for use in regenerative medicine has created a new role for adipocytes. Mature adipocytes can easily be isolated from adipose cell suspensions and allowed to dedifferentiate into lipidfree multipotent cells, referred to as dedifferentiated fat(DFAT) cells. Compared to other adult stem cells, the DFAT cells have unique advantages in their abundance, ease of isolation and homogeneity. Under proper condition in vitro and in vivo, the DFAT cells have exhibited adipogenic, osteogenic, chondrogenic, cardiomyogenc, angiogenic, myogenic, and neurogenic potentials. In this review, we first discuss the phenomena of dedifferentiation and transdifferentiation of cells, and then dedifferentiation of adipocytes in particular. Understanding the dedifferentiation process itself may contribute to our knowledge of normal growth processes, as well as mechanisms of disease. Second, we highlight new developments in DFAT cell culture and summarize the current understanding of DFAT cell properties. The unique features of DFAT cells are promising for clinical applications such as tissue regeneration.

  8. Dedifferentiated fat cells: A cell source for regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumabay, Medet; Boström, Kristina I

    2015-11-26

    The identification of an ideal cell source for tissue regeneration remains a challenge in the stem cell field. The ability of progeny cells to differentiate into other cell types is important for the processes of tissue reconstruction and tissue engineering and has clinical, biochemical or molecular implications. The adaptation of stem cells from adipose tissue for use in regenerative medicine has created a new role for adipocytes. Mature adipocytes can easily be isolated from adipose cell suspensions and allowed to dedifferentiate into lipid-free multipotent cells, referred to as dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells. Compared to other adult stem cells, the DFAT cells have unique advantages in their abundance, ease of isolation and homogeneity. Under proper condition in vitro and in vivo, the DFAT cells have exhibited adipogenic, osteogenic, chondrogenic, cardiomyogenc, angiogenic, myogenic, and neurogenic potentials. In this review, we first discuss the phenomena of dedifferentiation and transdifferentiation of cells, and then dedifferentiation of adipocytes in particular. Understanding the dedifferentiation process itself may contribute to our knowledge of normal growth processes, as well as mechanisms of disease. Second, we highlight new developments in DFAT cell culture and summarize the current understanding of DFAT cell properties. The unique features of DFAT cells are promising for clinical applications such as tissue regeneration.

  9. Comparison of two field methods for estimating body fat in different spanish dance disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvero-Cruz, José Ramón; Marfell-Jones, Mike; Alacid, Fernando; Artero Orta, Pedro; Correas-Gómez, Lorena; Santonja Medina, Fernando; Carnero, Elvis A

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate percentage body fat (%BF) differences in three Spanish dance disciplines and to compare skinfold and bioelectrical impedance predictions of body fat percentage in the same sample. Seventy-six female dancers, divided into three groups, Classical (n=23), Spanish (n=29) and Flamenco (n=24), were measured using skinfold measurements at four sites: triceps, subscapular, biceps and iliac crest, and whole body multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance (BIA). The skinfold measures were used to predict body fat percentage via Durnin and Womersley's and Segal, Sun and Yannakoulia equations by BIA. Differences in percent fat mass between groups (Classical, Spanish and Flamenco) were tested by using repeated measures analysis (ANOVA). Also, Pearson's product-moment correlations were performed on the body fat percentage values obtained using both methods. In addition, Bland-Altman plots were used to assess agreement, between anthropometric and BIA methods. Repeated measures analysis of variance did not found differences in %BF between modalities (p<0.05). Fat percentage correlations ranged from r= 0.57 to r=0.97 (all, p<0.001). Bland-Altman analysis revealed differences between BIA Yannakoulia as a reference method with BIA Segal (-0.35 ± 2.32%, 95%CI: -0.89to 0.18, p=0.38), with BIA Sun (-0.73 ± 2.3%, 95%CI: -1.27 to -0.20, p=0.014) and Durnin-Womersley (-2.65 ± 2,48%, 95%CI: -3.22 to -2.07, p<0.0001). It was concluded that body fat percentage estimates by BIA compared with skinfold method were systematically different in young adult female ballet dancers, having a tendency to produce underestimations as %BF increased with Segal and Durnin-Womersley equations compared to Yannakoulia, concluding that these methods are not interchangeable. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of two field methods for estimating body fat in different Spanish Dance disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ramón Alvero-Cruz

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate percentage body fat (%BF differences in three Spanish dance disciplines and to compare skinfold and bioelectrical impedance predictions of body fat percentage in the same sample. Seventy-six female dancers, divided into three groups, Classical (n=23, Spanish (n=29 and Flamenco (n=24, were measured using skinfold measurements at four sites: triceps, subscapular, biceps and iliac crest, and whole body multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance (BIA. The skin-fold measures were used to predict body fat percentage via Durnin and Womersley's and Segal, Sun and Yannakoulia equations by BIA. Differences in percent fat mass between groups (Classical, Spanish and Flamenco were tested by using repeated measures analysis (ANOVA. Also, Pearson's product-moment correlations were performed on the body fat percentage values obtained using both methods. In addition, Bland-Altman plots were used to assess agreement, between anthropometric and BIA methods. Repeated measures analysis of variance did not found differences in %BF between modalities (p<0.05. Fat percentage correlations ranged from r= 0.57 to r=0.97 (all, p<0.001. Bland-Altman analysis revealed differences between BIA Yannakoulia as a reference method with BIA Segal (-0.35 ± 2.32%, 95%CI: -0.89to 0.18, p=0.38, with BIA Sun (-0.73 ± 2.3%, 95%CI: -1.27 to -0.20, p=0.014 and Durnin-Womersley (-2.65 ± 2,48%, 95%CI: -3.22 to -2.07, p<0.0001. It was concluded that body fat percentage estimates by BIA compared with skinfold method were systematically different in young adult female ballet dancers, having a tendency to produce underestimations as %BF increased with Segal and Durnin-Womersley equations compared to Yannakoulia, concluding that these methods are not interchangeable.

  11. I'm not just fat, I'm old: has the study of body image overlooked "old talk"?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Becker, Carolyn Black; Diedrichs, Phillippa C; Jankowski, Glen; Werchan, Chelsey

    2013-01-01

    .... "Fat talk," a well-studied form of body image talk in adolescents and university-aged women, has been implicated as contributing to body dissatisfaction and mediating the relationship between body...

  12. Topographical body fat distribution links to amino acid and lipid metabolism in healthy obese women [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois-Pierre J Martin

    Full Text Available Visceral adiposity is increasingly recognized as a key condition for the development of obesity related disorders, with the ratio between visceral adipose tissue (VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT reported as the best correlate of cardiometabolic risk. In this study, using a cohort of 40 obese females (age: 25-45 y, BMI: 28-40 kg/m(2 under healthy clinical conditions and monitored over a 2 weeks period we examined the relationships between different body composition parameters, estimates of visceral adiposity and blood/urine metabolic profiles. Metabonomics and lipidomics analysis of blood plasma and urine were employed in combination with in vivo quantitation of body composition and abdominal fat distribution using iDXA and computerized tomography. Of the various visceral fat estimates, VAT/SAT and VAT/total abdominal fat ratios exhibited significant associations with regio-specific body lean and fat composition. The integration of these visceral fat estimates with metabolic profiles of blood and urine described a distinct amino acid, diacyl and ether phospholipid phenotype in women with higher visceral fat. Metabolites important in predicting visceral fat adiposity as assessed by Random forest analysis highlighted 7 most robust markers, including tyrosine, glutamine, PC-O 44∶6, PC-O 44∶4, PC-O 42∶4, PC-O 40∶4, and PC-O 40∶3 lipid species. Unexpectedly, the visceral fat associated inflammatory profiles were shown to be highly influenced by inter-days and between-subject variations. Nevertheless, the visceral fat associated amino acid and lipid signature is proposed to be further validated for future patient stratification and cardiometabolic health diagnostics.

  13. Influence of apolipoprotein-E gene on lipid profile, physical activity and body fat relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thales Boaventura Rachid Nascimento

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity and body fat modify lipemia, and this effect seems to be influenced by apolipoprotein-E (APOE gene polymorphism. Thus, the purpose of this article was to review main results of studies that have analyzed the relation of APOE gene with physical activity and body fat on triglycerides, total cholesterol and low (LDL and high density lipoprotein (HDL concentrations. The Scientific Electronic Library Online – SciELO, Web of Science and PubMed database were used to locate the articles. The keywords used in combination were: apoe genotype, apolipoprotein-E polymorphism, physical exercise, physical activity, aerobic exercise, body fat and obesity. Originals scientific investigations performed with humans were included, and excluded those ones which involved samples with diseases, except obesity and/or lipemic disorders. It was observed a trend, that ε2 allele carriers are the ones with the greater improvements on lipemia from physical exercise. In addition, the body fat impact on the elevation of triglycerides and LDL are stronger in carriers of the ε2 and ε4 allele, respectively. Considering the small number of originals scientific investigations and their divergent results, reliable inferences can not be made about the APOE gene polymorphism influences on physical activity and body fat effect on lipemia. Thus, further studies with others populations and more volunteers for allele, as well as others exercise modalities and intensities, are necessary.

  14. Increased Akt signaling in the mosquito fat body increases adult survivorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arik, Anam J; Hun, Lewis V; Quicke, Kendra; Piatt, Michael; Ziegler, Rolf; Scaraffia, Patricia Y; Badgandi, Hemant; Riehle, Michael A

    2015-04-01

    Akt signaling regulates diverse physiologies in a wide range of organisms. We examine the impact of increased Akt signaling in the fat body of 2 mosquito species, the Asian malaria mosquito Anopheles stephensi and the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. Overexpression of a myristoylated and active form of A. stephensi and Ae. aegypti Akt in the fat body of transgenic mosquitoes led to activation of the downstream signaling molecules forkhead box O (FOXO) and p70 S6 kinase in a tissue and blood meal-specific manner. In both species, increased Akt signaling in the fat body after blood feeding significantly increased adult survivorship relative to nontransgenic sibling controls. In A. stephensi, survivorship was increased by 15% to 45%, while in Ae. aegypti, it increased 14% to 47%. Transgenic mosquitoes fed only sugar, and thus not expressing active Akt, had no significant difference in survivorship relative to nontransgenic siblings. Expression of active Akt also increased expression of fat body vitellogenin, but the number of viable eggs did not differ significantly between transgenic and nontransgenic controls. This work demonstrates a novel mechanism of enhanced survivorship through increased Akt signaling in the fat bodies of multiple mosquito genera and provides new tools to unlock the molecular underpinnings of aging in eukaryotic organisms.

  15. Effect of icodextrin dialysis solution on body weight and fat accumulation over time in CAPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyu-Hyang; Do, Jun-Young; Park, Jong-Won; Yoon, Kyung-Woo

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the changes of body composition and the effects of icodextrin dialysis solution over time on peritoneal dialysis (PD) in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. Among 183 incident patients, 75 patients finished a complete 36-month protocol. Clinical indices including daily glucose absorption and body composition, by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), were measured in both groups (icodextrin group: 36 patients, non-icodextrin group: 39 patients) at the 1st (baseline), 12th, 24th and 36th months. There were significant increases in body weight and fat mass during the 36 months after initiation of CAPD. It was found that 78% of 3 years of weight gain occurred during the first year and 88% of weight gain at the end of the first year was fat mass gain. The icodextrin group showed a significantly lower percent of fat mass during the first 36 months (P icodextrin group. There were no significant changes in total body water (TBW), extra cellular fluid (ECF), oedema index and lean body mass (LBM) through comparable daily and ultrafiltration volume (UFV) between the two groups during the initial 3 years. Factors associated with the higher percent of fat mass gain over time on peritoneal dialysis were age, diabetes, gender (female) and non-icodextrin group (all, P icodextrin solution may be a better option to alleviate excessive fat gain over time for patients on PD.

  16. A new method for body fat evaluation, body adiposity index, is useful in women with familial partial lipodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy-Matos, Amélio F; Moreira, Rodrigo O; Valerio, Cynthia M; Mory, Patricia B; Moises, Regina S

    2012-02-01

    BMI is a widely used method to evaluate adiposity. However, it has several limitations, particularly an inability to differentiate lean from fat mass. A new method, body adiposity index (BAI), has been recently proposed as a new measurement capable to determine fat excess better than BMI. The aim of this study was to investigate BAI as a mean to evaluate adiposity in a group of women with familial partial lipodystrophy (FPLD) and compare it with BMI. Thirteen women with FLPD Dunnigan type (FPLD2) and 13 healthy volunteers matched by age and BMI were studied. Body fat content and distribution were analyzed by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Plasma leptin was also measured. BAI was significantly lower in FPLD2 in comparison to control group (24.6 ± 1.5 vs. 30.4 ± 4.3; P < 0.001) and presented a more significant correlation with total fat (%) (r = 0.71; P < 0.001) and fat Mass (g) (r = 0.80; P < 0.001) than BMI (r = 0.27; P = 0.17 for total fat and r = 0.52; P = 0.006 for fat mass). There was a correlation between leptin and BAI (r = 0.57; P = 0.01), [corrected] but not between leptin and BMI. In conclusion, BAI was able to catch differences in adiposity in a sample of FPLD2 patients. It also correlated better with leptin levels than BMI. Therefore, we provide further evidence that BAI may become a more reliable indicator of fat mass content than the currently available measurements.

  17. Association between body fat and vitamin D status in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seung Seok; Kim, Myounghee; Lee, Su Mi; Lee, Jung Pyo; Kim, Sejoong; Joo, Kwon Wook; Lim, Chun Soo; Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Dong Ki

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between body fat mass and vitamin D appears to vary by ethnicity, but our understanding of this predisposition in Asians is limited due to the scarcity of prior investigations. Data on 1,697 Korean adults were obtained from the second and third years (2008-2009) of the fourth Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey. Body fat mass was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Both linear regression analysis for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and logistic analysis for vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D BMI, waist circumference (WC), and body fat percentage (BF), after adjustment of multiple covariates. To explore a possible non-linear relationship between them, the fractional polynomials method was used. All analyses were conducted following stratification by sex. In linear regression analysis, BMI and WC were not associated with 25(OH)D. However, BF was inversely related to 25(OH)D, irrespective of the fat location (both appendicular and truncal fat) in both sexes. In logistic regression analysis, the highest quartile group of BF had a greater OR for vitamin D deficiency than the lower quartile groups, irrespective of the fat location and sex. However, the quartiles of BMI and WC were not associated with vitamin D deficiency. The linear relationships between BF and 25(OH)D (or vitamin D deficiency) were confirmed despite use of the fractional polynomials method. Body fat mass is inversely associated with serum 25(OH)D in Korean adults. Monitoring of vitamin D deficiency in Korean adults with high fat mass is needed.

  18. The accuracy of the body adiposity index for predicting body fat percentage in collegiate female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esco, Michael R

    2013-06-01

    The body adiposity index (BAI) is a new simplistic method for predicting body fat percentage (BF%) via a simple equation of hip circumference to height. A scientific study of this novel method in athletic groups is warranted because of the possibility of it serving as an inexpensive field technique. The purpose of this study was to cross-validate the BAI for predicting BF% in a group of collegiate female athletes by using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the criterion variable. Thirty college-aged female athletes (age = 20.0 ± 1.3 years) participated in this study. For each participant, BF% was obtained with the BAI method and compared with DXA. The mean BF% was 27.1 ± 3.4 by the BAI and 26.7 ± 5.9 from DXA, which was not significantly different (p > 0.05). However, the BAI did not provide a significant correlation with the DXA (r = 0.28, R2 = 0.08, p > 0.05) and resulted in a standard error of estimate = 5.78% and total error = 5.84%. Bland-Altman plot showed that the limits of agreement (95% confidence intervals) between the DXA and BAI ranged between -10.2 and 11.8%, and there was a significant negative association between the difference and mean of the 2 methods (r = -0.52, p < 0.01). The results of this investigation indicate that BAI results in large individual errors when predicting BF% in female athletes and has a tendency to provide overestimated values as BF% decreases. Therefore, this method should not be used for predicting individual BF% in athletic women.

  19. Peer pressure to "Fat talk": Does audience type influence how women portray their body image?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Ashley B; Martz, Denise M; Bazzini, Doris G

    2007-04-01

    "Fat talk" describes women discussing their bodies disparangingly for impression management while interacting with one another. This study examined whether college females deliberately alter their self-reported body image according to characteristics of their prospective audience. This study was a mixed experimental design with four audience conditions (private, public, female audience, male audience) as the between-subjects factor and time across trials as the within-subjects factor using college females as participants (N=100). Pre versus posttest changes on the Body Esteem Scale (BES) and the Body Weight Figure Assessment (BWFA) served as the dependent variables. It was hypothesized that body image would decrease to indicate self-derogation (fat talk) in the public audience and female audience conditions, whereas body image would increase in the male audience condition. These hypotheses were not supported using repeated measures ANOVA. Strengths and weaknesses of the study are discussed.

  20. Effects of behavior modification on body image, depression and body fat in obese Korean elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Young Im; Park, Ho Ran; Koo, Hyun Young; Kim, Hyo Shin

    2004-02-29

    This study was performed to investigate the effects of behavior modification on body image, depression and body fat in obese elementary school children. Sixty-two elementary students of the 4th to 6th grade were selected from two different Seoul schools. Thirty-four children in one school were designated as the experimental group, and 28 children from the other school as the control group. The experimental group received 60 - 70 minutes of behavior modification, once a week, for 8 weeks. The control group received neither management nor treatment. The results indicated a significant improvement of body image and a reduction in the increase rate of body fat for the experimental group. This finding strongly supports the theory that behavior modification can be used as an effective strategy in the treatment of obese children.

  1. Genetic association study of common mitochondrial variants on body fat mass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tie-Lin Yang

    Full Text Available Mitochondria play a central role in ATP production and energy metabolism. Previous studies suggest that common variants in mtDNA are associated with several common complex diseases, including obesity. To test the hypothesis that common mtDNA variants influence obesity-related phenotypes, including BMI and body fat mass, we genotyped a total of 445 mtSNPs across the whole mitochondrial genome in a large sample of 2,286 unrelated Caucasian subjects. 72 of these 445 mtSNPs passed quality control criteria, and were used for subsequent analyses. We also classified all subjects into nine common European haplogroups. Association analyses were conducted for both BMI and body fat mass with single mtSNPs and mtDNA haplogroups. Two mtSNPs, mt4823 and mt8873 were detected to be significantly associated with body fat mass, with adjusted P values of 4.94 × 10⁻³ and 4.58 × 10⁻², respectively. The minor alleles mt4823 C and mt8873 A were associated with reduced fat mass values and the effect size (β was estimated to be 3.52 and 3.18, respectively. These two mtSNPs also achieved nominally significant levels for association with BMI. For haplogroup analyses, we found that haplogroup X was strongly associated with both BMI (adjusted P = 8.31 × 10⁻³ and body fat mass (adjusted P = 5.67×10⁻⁴ Subjects classified as haplogroup X had lower BMI and fat mass values, with the β estimated to be 2.86 and 6.03, respectively. Our findings suggest that common variants in mitochondria might play a role in variations of body fat mass. Further molecular and functional studies will be needed to clarify the potential mechanism.

  2. Relationship between Body Mass Index and Percent Body Fat in Vietnamese: Implications for the Diagnosis of Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Ho-Pham, Lan T; Lai, Thai Q.; Nguyen, Mai T. T.; Nguyen, Tuan V

    2015-01-01

    Background The burden of obesity in Vietnam has not been well defined because there is a lack of reference data for percent body fat (PBF) in Asians. This study sought to define the relationship between PBF and body mass index (BMI) in the Vietnamese population. Methods The study was designed as a comparative cross-sectional investigation that involved 1217 individuals of Vietnamese background (862 women) aged 20 years and older (average age 47 yr) who were randomly selected from the general ...

  3. Menopause is associated with decreased whole body fat oxidation during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, J; Pedersen, A T; Green, C J

    2013-01-01

    ), and postmenopausal (n = 14)]. Estimated insulin sensitivity was obtained from an oral glucose tolerance test. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging. Fat oxidation and energy expenditure were measured during an acute exercise bout of 45 min of ergometer...... biking at 50% of maximal oxygen consumption (Vo2 max). Muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis of the quadriceps muscle were obtained before and immediately after the exercise bout. Postmenopausal women had 33% [confidence interval (CI) 95%: 12-55] lower whole body fat oxidation (P = 0.005) and 19% (CI...... 95%: 9-22) lower energy expenditure (P = 0.02) during exercise, as well as 4.28 kg lower lean body mass (LBM) than premenopausal women. Correction for LBM reduced differences in fat oxidation to 23% (P = 0.05), whereas differences in energy expenditure disappeared (P = 0.22). No differences between...

  4. Dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load in Danish children in relation to body fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B. M.; Bjørnsbo, K. B.; Tetens, Inge

    2005-01-01

    population comprised 485 children aged 10 years and 364 children aged 16 years from Odense County, Denmark. Dietary GI and GL were estimated using international food tables, and the associations between energy-adjusted dietary GI, GL and body fatness were analysed by multiple linear regression. The mean......The aim of this study was to describe dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) values in the diets of Danish children, and to examine the associations between dietary GI, GL and body fatness. Data were collected during 1997-8 as part of the European Youth Heart Study. The study...... associations were observed between dietary GI and Sigma SF (beta=0 center dot 60, SE=0 center dot 21, P=0 center dot 006), and between dietary GL and Sigma SF (beta=0 center dot 15, SE=0.06, P=0 center dot 009). In conclusion, dietary GI and GL were positively associated with body fatness among Danish boys...

  5. The influence of hormones on the lipid profile in the fat body of insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Cerkowniak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Peptide hormones play a special role in the neuroendocrine systems of insects and affect a number of physiological processes related to their development, reproduction and behavior. The lipid content in the fat body of insects is closely correlated with the work of the endocrine glands. The lipid profile of the fat body of the Zophobas atratus beetle reveals a predominant proportion of triacylglycerols when compared to free fatty acids and other lipid compounds, such as fatty acid esters, fatty alcohols and sterols. Although it may depend on the stage of the insects’ development, the disparate impacts of the adipokinetic hormone (AKH on the lipid content in the fat bodies of the feeding larvae and the non-feeding pupae of Z. atratus, may signify the different roles this hormone plays in the indirect control of the insects’ metabolism.

  6. Body Fat Patterning, Hepatic Fat and Pancreatic Volume of Non-Obese Asian Indians with Type 2 Diabetes in North India: A Case-Control Study.

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    Anoop Misra

    Full Text Available To evaluate body fat patterning and phenotype including hepatic fat and pancreatic volume of non-obese (BMI: < 25 kg/m2 Asian Indians with type 2 diabetes residing in North India.Non-obese patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 93 and non-obese, normo-glycemic subjects (n = 40 were recruited. BMI, waist & hip circumferences, skinfold thickness at 8 sites, body fat, lean mass and detailed abdominal fat evaluation [total abdominal fat, total subcutaneous fat (superficial, deep, anterior, and posterior, total intra-abdominal fat (intra-peritoneal, retroperitoneal], liver span, grades of fatty liver and pancreatic volume were compared.Waist circumference, subscapular skinfolds and total truncal fat (on DEXA were higher whereas calf, total peripheral skinfolds and total leg fat (on DEXA lower in patients. Specifically, the following volumes were higher in cases as compared to controls; total abdominal fat (19.4%, total intra-abdominal fat (49.7%, intra-peritoneal fat (47.7%, retroperitoneal fat (70.7%, pancreatic volume (26.6%, pancreatic volume index (21.3% and liver span (10.8%. In cases, significant positive correlations were observed for pancreatic volume with BMI, waist and hip circumferences, W-HR, subscapular, abdominal and total truncal skinfolds, truncal, total subcutaneous, total intra-abdominal, intra-peritoneal, retroperitoneal fat depots, liver span and fatty liver.In non-obese Asian Indians with type 2 diabetes, subcutaneous and intra-abdominal obesity, including fatty liver, and pancreatic volume were higher and peripheral subcutaneous adiposity was lower than BMI matched non-diabetic subjects. Importantly, increased pancreatic volume in patients was highly correlated with multiple measures of abdominal obesity and liver fat.

  7. AHSG gene variation is not associated with regional body fat distribution--a magnetic resonance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müssig, K; Staiger, H; Machicao, F; Machann, J; Hennige, A M; Schick, F; Claussen, C D; Fritsche, A; Häring, H-U; Stefan, N

    2009-09-01

    Obesity-resistance in AHSG-knockout mice indicate an important role of alpha2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein/fetuin-A (AHSG) in the development of obesity. We studied whether genetic variation within AHSG affects whole-body adiposity and regional fat distribution in humans. We genotyped 321 subjects at increased risk for type 2 diabetes for five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) rs2248690, rs4831, rs2070635, rs4917, and rs1071592. Body fat distribution and ectopic hepatic and intramyocellular lipids were assessed by magnetic resonance techniques. AHSG levels were determined by immunoturbidimetry. The five chosen SNPs covered 100% of common genetic variation (minor allele frequency >/=0.05) within AHSG (r (2)>/=0.8). All SNPs were significantly associated with AHSG levels (pbody mass index (BMI). AHSG levels were associated with liver fat content (p=0.0160) and BMI (p=0.0247) after adjustment for gender and age. While rs2248690 was nominally associated with BMI in the dominant model (p=0.0432), none of the SNPs was associated with regional fat distribution. Common genetic variation within AHSG does not appear to influence regional body fat distribution, but may affect whole-body adiposity in humans.

  8. Comparison of variations between percentage of body fat, body mass index and daily physical activity among young Japanese and Thai female students

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    Morinaka Tomoko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In our series of investigations concerning the causes of seasonal change in fat accumulation in young university students, we could not find any contribution of seasonal variation in the ratio of carbohydrate and fat metabolism to that of body fat percentage in Japanese and Thai participants. After our previous study, we examined the effect of daily physical activity on body fat percentage to look for the major causes of seasonal change in fat accumulation in young university students. Findings In this study, we measured participants’ (young Japanese and Thai university students daily physical activity by a uniaxial accelerometer in addition to the measurements of body fat percentage and body mass index by a bioelectrical impedance meter. We found that there was significant and moderate negative correlation between body fat percentage and daily step counts among Japanese but not Thai participants. We observed significant, moderate and positive correlations between the percentage of body fat and body mass index among Japanese and Thai participants. Conclusions Daily physical activity plays an important role in the seasonal variation of body fat percentage of Japanese female students. Our present study also confirmed the importance of daily physical activity for controlling body mass index and for the prevention of obesity.

  9. Fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Katrine Kleberg

    In 1727, the English physician Thomas Short wrote: “I believe no Age did ever afford more instances of Corpulency than our own.” Even in the 18th century, fatness was addressed as an issue of special contemporary concern. This thesis probes concepts and perceptions of fatness in Western European...... Medicine c. 1700–1900. It has been written with particular attention to whether and how fatness has been regarded as a disease during that period in history. One purpose of the thesis is to investigate the immediate period before fatness allegedly became problematized. Another purpose has been to grasp...

  10. Fat, Stem Cells, and Platelet-Rich Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Isaac B; Coleman, Sydney R; Rubin, J Peter

    2016-07-01

    The ideal filler for aesthetic surgery is inexpensive and easy to obtain, natural in appearance and texture, immunologically compatible, and long lasting without risk of infection. By most metrics, autologous fat grafts meet these criteria perfectly. Although facial fat grafting is now a commonly accepted surgical procedure, there has been a wave of activity applying stem cells and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapies to aesthetic practice. This article addresses technical considerations in the use of autologous fat transfer for facial rejuvenation, and also explores the current evidence for these stem cell and PRP therapies in aesthetic practice.

  11. Abdominal Obesity and their association with Total Body: Fat Distribution and Composition. Case of Algerian Teenager Male high school students

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    Mohammed Zerf

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Our aim attempted to esteem the impact of abdominal fat on body fat distribution or composition related to total body fat as recommended weight loss among High School Students. Material: For the proposed, 100 male students from the Algerian high school Education Sector's mandate Sidi Bel Abbes, participate in the present study. Their average age 16±1.52 years, distributed into homogeneous groups, according to their body fat percent categories. Examined by saving tests (Body Fat Percentage (BFP - Abdominal circumference (WC - Body mass index (BMI. Results: Based on the test data and the analysis statistics applied, we confirm: a Abdominal obesity is excess body gain correlate with total fat BMI. It highly affected body composition reported as additional fat for overweight in compare with acceptable according to Ideal BFP categories. b Abdominal obesity is an amount deep fat correlates to total BFP. It higher influenced the distribution of total body fat reported as additional excess fat among overweight category compared to the acceptable group. c Waist circumference (WC is the leading marker of abdominal fat deposits located in the central region of the body. While the combination of body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC, reflects the combined effects of body build (fat or fatness in individuals at higher risk of excessive body fat. Conclusions: founded on the differences acquired by the research team. We highlight that abdominal obesity is strongly connected to larger WC relate to total body gain located as excess inordinate fatness BMI or fat distribution BFP among our overall sample. Evidence, which guides us to recommend our adolescent students to intensification their hours of sports practice, in order to avoid the consequences of abdominal obesity gain. Announced in the present study as excess abdominal adiposity more metabolically active. Requiring the control of body weight loss (BFP or BMI strongly correlates to

  12. Comparison of Body Adiposity Index (BAI) and Body Mass Index (BMI) with Estimations of % Body Fat in Clinically Severe Obese Women

    OpenAIRE

    Geliebter, Allan; Atalayer, Deniz; Flancbaum, Louis; Gibson, Charlisa D.

    2013-01-01

    Body Adiposity Index (BAI), a new surrogate measure of body fat (hip circumference/[height1.5 -18]), has been proposed as an alternative to BMI. We compared BAI with BMI, and each of them with laboratory measures of body fat-derived from bioimpedance analysis (BIA), air displacement (ADP), and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in clinically severe obese (CSO) participants. Nineteen pre-bariatric surgery CSO, non-diabetic women were recruited (age=32.6±7.7 SD; BMI=46.5±9.0 kg/m2). Anthrop...

  13. Adipokines, hormones related to body composition, and insulin resistance in HIV fat redistribution syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Paula; Carvalho, Davide; Santos, Ana Cristina; Madureira, António José; Martinez, Esteban; Pereira, Jorge; Sarmento, António; Medina, José Luís

    2014-06-23

    Lipodystrophies are characterized by adipose tissue redistribution, insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic complications. Adipokines and hormones related to body composition may play an important role linking these alterations. Our aim was to evaluate adipocyte-derived hormones (adiponectin, leptin, resistin, TNF-α, PAI-1) and ghrelin plasma levels and their relationship with IR in HIV-infected patients according to the presence of lipodystrophy and fat redistribution. Anthropometric and metabolic parameters, HOMA-IR, body composition by DXA and CT, and adipokines were evaluated in 217 HIV-infected patients on cART and 74 controls. Fat mass ratio defined lipodystrophy (L-FMR) was defined as the ratio of the percentage of the trunk fat mass to the percentage of the lower limb fat mass by DXA. Patient's fat redistribution was classified into 4 different groups according the presence or absence of either clinical lipoatrophy or abdominal prominence: no lipodystrophy, isolated central fat accumulation (ICFA), isolated lipoatrophy and mixed forms (MXF). The associations between adipokines levels and anthropometric, metabolic and body composition were estimated by Spearman correlation. Leptin levels were lower in patients with FMR-L and isolated lipoatrophy, and higher in those with ICFA and MXF. Positive correlations were found between leptin and body fat (total, trunk, leg, arm fat evaluated by DXA, and total, visceral (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and VAT/SAT ratio evaluated by CT) regardless of FMR-L, and with HOMA-IR only in patients with FMR-L. Adiponectin correlated negatively with VAT, and its mean levels were lower in patients with ICFA and higher in those with no lipodystrophy. Resistin was not correlated with adipose tissue but positively correlated with HOMA-IR in FMR-L patients. PAI-1 levels were higher in MXF-patients and their levels were positively correlated with VAT in those with FMR-L. Ghrelin was higher in HIV-infected patients than

  14. High fat feeding affects the number of GPR120 cells and enteroendocrine cells in the mouse stomach

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    Patricia eWidmayer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Long-term intake of dietary fat is supposed to be associated with adaptive reactions of the organism and it is assumptive that this is particularly true for fat responsive epithelial cells in the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract. Recent studies suggest that epithelial cells expressing the receptor for medium and long chain fatty acids, GPR120 (FFAR4, may operate as fat sensors. Changes in expression level and/or cell density are supposed to be accompanied with a consumption of high fat (HF diet. To assess whether feeding a HF diet might impact on the expression of fatty acid receptors or the number of lipid sensing cells as well as enteroendocrine cell populations, gastric tissue samples of non-obese and obese mice were compared using a real time PCR and immunohistochemical approach. In this study, we have identified GPR120 cells in the corpus region of the mouse stomach which appeared to be brush cells. Monitoring the effect of HF diet on the expression of GPR120 revealed that after 3 weeks and 6 months the level of mRNA for GPR120 in the tissue was significantly increased which coincided with and probably reflected a significant increase in the number of GPR120 positive cells in the corpus region; in contrast, within the antrum region, the number of GPR120 cells decreased. Furthermore, dietary fat intake also led to changes in the number of enteroendocrine cells producing either ghrelin or gastrin. After 3 weeks and even more pronounced after 6 months the number of ghrelin cells and gastrin cells was significantly increased. These results imply that a HF diet leads to significant changes in the cellular repertoire of the stomach mucosa. Whether these changes are a consequence of the direct exposure to high fat in the luminal content or a physiological response to the high level of fat in the body remains elusive.

  15. Percentage of Body Fat and Fat Mass Index as a Screening Tool for Metabolic Syndrome Prediction in Colombian University Students

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    Robinson Ramírez-Vélez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available High body fat is related to metabolic syndrome (MetS in all ethnic groups. Based on the International Diabetes Federation (IDF definition of MetS, the aim of this study was to explore thresholds of body fat percentage (BF% and fat mass index (FMI for the prediction of MetS among Colombian University students. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1687 volunteers (63.4% women, mean age = 20.6 years. Weight, waist circumference, serum lipids indices, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose were measured. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA and FMI was calculated. MetS was defined as including more than or equal to three of the metabolic abnormalities according to the IDF definition. Receiver operating curve (ROC analysis was used to determine optimal cut-off points for BF% and FMI in relation to the area under the curve (AUC, sensitivity, and specificity in both sexes. The overall prevalence of MetS was found to be 7.7%, higher in men than women (11.1% vs. 5.3%; p < 0.001. BF% and FMI were positively correlated to MetS components (p < 0.05. ROC analysis indicated that BF% and FMI can be used with moderate accuracy to identify MetS in university-aged students. BF% and FMI thresholds of 25.55% and 6.97 kg/m2 in men, and 38.95% and 11.86 kg/m2 in women, were found to be indicative of high MetS risk. Based on the IDF criteria, both indexes’ thresholds seem to be good tools to identify university students with unfavorable metabolic profiles.

  16. Variations in body weight, food intake and body composition after long-term high-fat diet feeding in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongbin; Smith, Daniel L; Keating, Karen D; Allison, David B; Nagy, Tim R

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the variations in body weight, food intake, and body composition of both male and female C57BL/6J mice during a diet-induced obesity model with high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. Mice were individually housed and fed ad libitum either a low-fat diet (LFD, 10% calories from fat; n = 15 male, n = 15 female) or HFD (45% calories from fat; n = 277 male, n = 278 female) from 8 to 43 weeks of age. Body weight, food intake, and body composition were routinely measured. Body weight was significantly increased with HFD (vs. LFD) in males from week 14 (P = 0.0221) and in females from week 27 (P = 0.0076). Fat mass and fat-free mass of all groups were significantly increased over time (all P weight for both sexes (P weight. Copyright © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  17. Adipokines, cytokines and body fat stores in hepatitis Cvirus liver steatosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    AIM To identify patients with or without liver steatosisand its severity in treatment-na?ve patients affected byhepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.METHODS: We included 56 HCV infected patients, andassessed the amount of liver fat by histomorphometry,and its relationships with fat and lean mass at differentparts of the body (by densitometry), hormones [insulin,homeostatic model assessment (HOMA)], adipokines(resistin, adiponectin, leptin), and cytokines (tumornecrosis factor α, interleukin-6).RESULTS: Although the intensity of liver steatosis isrelated to trunk fat mass and HOMA, 33% of patientsshowed no liver steatosis, and this finding was notrelated to body mass index or genotype. Besides trunk fat mass, no other factor was related to the presenceor not of liver steatosis, or to the intensity of it, by multivariateanalysis. Lean mass was not related to liversteatosis. Adiponectin levels were lower among patients.No differences were observed in leptin and resistin.CONCLUSION: Steatosis in HCV infection is common(67.2%), and closely related to trunk fat, and insulinresistance, but not with leg fat mass or adipokines.

  18. Changes in Skinfold Thicknesses and Body Fat in Ultra-endurance Cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischof, Martin; Knechtle, Beat; A Rüst, Christoph; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    The present study investigated the changes in single skinfold thicknesses and body fat during an ultra-endurance cycling race. One hundred and nineteen ultra-endurance cyclists in the 'Swiss Cycling Marathon' covering a distance of 600 km were included. Changes in skinfold thickness, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass and total body water were estimated using anthropometric methods. The subjects were riding at a mean speed of 23.5±4.0 km/h and finished the race within 1,580±296 min. During the race, body mass decreased by 1.5±1.2 kg (P0.05). The decrease in body mass correlated to the decrease in fat mass (r = 0.20, P=0.03). The skinfold thicknesses at pectoral (-14.7%), abdominal (-14.9%), and thigh (-10.2%) site showed the largest decrease. The decrease in abdominal skinfold was significantly and negatively related to cycling speed during the race (r = -0.31, Pskinfold thicknesses. The largest decrease in skinfold thickness was recorded for pectoral, abdominal, and thigh site. The decrease in abdominal skinfold thickness was negatively related to cycling speed. The body seems to reduce adipose subcutaneous fat during an ultra-endurance performance at the site of the thickest skinfold.

  19. Comparison of body fat in Brazilian adult females by bioelectrical impedance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamir, Vaz; Frère, Slaets Annie France; Ramírez Leonardo, López

    2012-12-01

    Body-fat is essential for human body, provided that its amount is at healthy levels. If in-excess body-fat is deleterious, its lack is otherwise also harmful. Estimated percent body-fat performed with commercially available devices measuring bioimpedance have many advantages, such as easy measurement and low cost. However, these measurements are based on standard models and equations that are not disclosed by manufacturers, and this leads to questioning the validity of these estimates for Brazilian females. The aim of this study was to compare electrical tetrapolar and octapolar impedance results obtained with commercially available equipment: Maltron BF-906 and OMRON 510-W. Data analysis involved descriptive and inferential statistics. Devices used in this study to estimate body fat quantity have not shown any significant differences in results; this is a major issue when selecting equipment based on three factors: study focus, available financial resources, and target population. Results obtained from the two devices have not shown any significant differences, which lead to the conclusion that either device may be reliably used.

  20. Renal morphology assessed by ultrasound in relation to central haemodynamics and body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wykretowicz, Mateusz; Katulska, Katarzyna; Krauze, Tomasz; Milewska, Agata; Przymuszala, Dagmara; Piskorski, Jaroslaw; Stajgis, Marek; Wysocki, Henryk

    2013-02-01

    There is a correlation between renal function and the morphological characteristics of the kidney. However, little is known about the association between renal morphology and other important predictors of the risk of cardiovascular diseases, such as central haemodynamics or body fat. Thus, in the present study we investigated correlations between renal morphology, body fat and central haemodynamics. Renal morphology and intra-abdominal and subcutaneous fat were assessed by ultrasound, whereas central haemodynamics were evaluated by pulse wave analysis, in 93 healthy, non-obese subjects (mean (±SEM) age 52 ± 1 years; 43 men, 50 women). Significant correlations were found for indices of body fat (waist : hip ratio, body mass index and intra-abdominal fat) and renal morphology (kidney length, width and volume). Significant inverse correlations were found between central augmentation pressure (cAP) and kidney length (r = -0.33; P = 0.0009), width (r = -0.24; P = 0.01) and volume (r = -0.27; P = 0.007). In addition, significant negative correlations were found between the central augmentation index (cAIx) and kidney length (r = -0.36; P = 0.0003), width (r = -0.29; P = 0.003) and volume (r = -0.33; P = 0.0008). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed independent associations between kidney length and both cAP and cAIx. In conclusion, common morphometric characteristics of the kidney, as assessed by ultrasound, are associated with measures of body fat and descriptors of central haemodynamics. The relationships demonstrated in the present study indicate that these associations may be a biologically plausible phenomenon.

  1. Body mass index has a curvilinear relationship with the percentage of body fat among children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Bruno

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body Mass Index (BMI, which is defined as the ratio between weight (in kg and height (in m2, is often used in clinical practice as well as in large scale epidemiological studies to classify subjects as underweight, normal weight, overweight or obese. Although BMI does not directly measure the percentage of Body Fat (BF%, it is widely applied because it is strongly related with BF%, it is easy to measure and it is an important predictor of mortality. Among children, age and sex-specific reference values of BMI, known as percentiles, are used. However, it is not clear how strong the relationship between BMI and BF% is among children and whether the association is linear. We performed a cross-sectional study aiming at evaluating the strength and shape of the relationship between BMI and BF% among school-aged children aged 6-12 years. Findings The study was conducted on a sample of 361 football-playing male children aged 6 to 12 years in Rome, Italy. Age, weight, height and skinfold thickness were collected. BF% was estimated using 4 skinfold equations whereas BMI was converted into BMI-for-age z-score. The relationship between these variables was examined using linear regression analyses. Mean BMI was 18.2 (± 2.8, whereas BF% was influenced by the skinfold equation used, with mean values ranging from 15.6% to 23.0%. A curvilinear relationship between BMI-for-age zscore and BF % was found, with the regression line being convex. The association between BMI-for-age zscore and BF% was stronger among overweight/obese children than among normal/underweight children. This curvilinear pattern was evident in all 4 skinfold equations used. Conclusions The association between BMI-for-age zscore and BF% is not linear among male children aged 6-12 years and it is stronger among overweight and obese subjects than among normal and underweight subjects. In this age group, BMI is a valid index of adiposity only among overweight and obese

  2. Body mass index as discriminator of the lean mass deficit and excess body fat in institutionalized elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Maria Helena; Bolina, Alisson F; Luiz, Raíssa B; de Oliveira, Karoline F; Virtuoso, Jair S; Rodrigues, Rosalina A P; Silva, Larissa C; da Cunha, Daniel F; De Mattia, Ana Lúcia; Barichello, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the discriminating criterion for body mass index (BMI) in the prediction of low fat free mass and high body fat percentage according to sex among older people. Observational analytical study with cross-sectional design was used for this study. All institutionalized older people from the city of Uberaba (Minas Gerais, Brazil) who fit within the inclusion and exclusion criteria were approached. Sixty-five institutionalized older people were evaluated after signing a Free and Informed Consent Form. Descriptive and inferential statistical procedures were employed for the analysis, using Student's t-test and multiple linear regression. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to determine the BMI (kg/m(2)) cut-off points. The study complied with all the ethical norms for research involving human beings. In comparing the anthropometric measurements obtained via bioimpedance, elder male had higher mean height and body water volume than females. However, women had higher mean triceps skinfold and fat free mass than men. The BMI cut-off points, as discriminators of low fat free mass percentage and high body fat percentage in women, were ≤22.4 kg/m(2) and >26.6 kg/m(2), respectively; while for men they were ≤19.2 kg/m(2) and >23.8 kg/m(2). The results of this study indicate the need for multicenter studies aimed at suggesting BMI cut-off points for institutionalized older people, taking into account specific sex characteristics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of Weight Loss with and without Exercise on Regional Body Fat Distribution in Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Monica C; Blumenthal, Jacob B; Addison, Odessa R; Miller, Ann J; Goldberg, Andrew P; Ryan, Alice S

    2017-01-01

    The purpose was to determine whether lifestyle interventions have different effects on regional fat in women with normal glucose tolerance vs. impaired glucose tolerance (NGT vs. IGT). Changes in glucose metabolism (2-h oral glucose-tolerance tests), android to gynoid fat mass ratio (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry [DXA]), visceral to subcutaneous abdominal fat area ratio (CT), and abdominal to gluteal subcutaneous fat cell weight (FCW; adipose tissue biopsies) were determined in 60 overweight postmenopausal women (45-80 years) following 6 months of weight loss alone (WL; n = 28) or with aerobic exercise (AEX + WL; n = 32). The interventions led to ∼8% decrease in weight, but only the AEX + WL group improved fitness (↑11% in VO2max) and reduced the android-to-gynoid fat mass ratio (↓5%; p fat areas and abdominal and gluteal FCWs, which related to improvements in homeostatic model assessment (r = 0.34-0.42) and 2-h glucose (r = 0.34-0.35), respectively (p fat loss should be explored as reductions in abdominal fat area and subcutaneous FCW appear to influence glucose metabolism. This is a work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. Foreign copyrights may apply. Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Body image and body type preferences in St. Kitts, Caribbean: a cross- cultural comparison with U.S. samples regarding attitudes towards muscularity, body fat, and breast size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Peter B; Frederick, David A

    2012-09-06

    We investigated body image in St. Kitts, a Caribbean island where tourism, international media, and relatively high levels of body fat are common. Participants were men and women recruited from St. Kitts (n = 39) and, for comparison, U.S. samples from universities (n = 618) and the Internet (n = 438). Participants were shown computer generated images varying in apparent body fat level and muscularity or breast size and they indicated their body type preferences and attitudes. Overall, there were only modest differences in body type preferences between St. Kitts and the Internet sample, with the St. Kitts participants being somewhat more likely to value heavier women. Notably, however, men and women from St. Kitts were more likely to idealize smaller breasts than participants in the U.S. samples. Attitudes regarding muscularity were generally similar across samples. This study provides one of the few investigations of body preferences in the Caribbean.

  5. Efficacy of orlistat 60 mg on weight loss and body fat mass in US Army soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tracey J; Crombie, Aaron; Sanders, Leslee Funderburk; Sigrist, Lori D; Bathalon, Gaston P; McGraw, Susan; Young, Andrew J

    2012-04-01

    A higher body mass index is associated with exercise-related injuries and increased risk for musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders, which are relevant to military personnel. Studies show the efficacy of orlistat 60 mg for promoting weight and body fat loss in civilians; however, its efficacy among predominantly young, male soldiers is unknown. This study's objective was to examine the effect of a 6-month, standard education-based weight-management program with and without orlistat 60 mg on changes in weight and body fat in overweight soldiers. Data were collected for this randomized, controlled trial from March 2008 to November 2010 at Fort Bragg, NC. Participants were enrolled in an education-based weight management program (n=435; 75% men) and were randomized to placebo or orlistat 60 mg, three capsules daily with meals. All participants were recommended to maintain a reduced-energy, low-fat diet. Among study completers (14% retention rate; placebo n=22, orlistat n=35) members of both groups lost significant weight from baseline (placebo -3.0±5.2 kg; orlistat -3.2±4.7 kg; Porlistat group lost fat mass (-2.5±3.9 kg; Porlistat group lost more fat mass vs the placebo group (-1.3±2.9 kg vs ?0.6±1.8 kg, respectively; POrlistat 60 mg may be an effective adjunct to an education-based weight management program in a mostly young, male soldier population.

  6. Degree of obesity influences the relationship of PAI-1 with body fat distribution and metabolic variables in African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Sunelle A; Pieters, Marlien; Nienaber-Rousseau, Cornelie; Kruger, Herculina S

    2016-10-01

    Although the relationship of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) with obesity has been well established, the relationship of PAI-1 with different body fat distribution patterns is less clear particularly in non-white ethnicities. We investigated the cross-sectional association of PAI-1act with body fat % and two different body fat distribution patterns, namely sarcopenic obesity (SO) and visceral (VAT) compared to subcutaneous (SCAT) abdominal obesity, in 246 healthy African women by creating sub-groups according to different body fat distribution patterns. The PAI-1act level of the SO group did not differ significantly from that of the excessive % body fat, non-sarcopenic group (p=0.8). The relationship of PAI-1act, with body fat %, insulin, triglycerides and appendicular skeletal mass (ASM) was influenced by body fat distribution patterns and degree of obesity. PAI-1act was higher (1.65 vs 0.16U/ml; p=0.001) in women with a proportionally higher abdominal VAT compared to higher abdominal SCAT compartment in the total study population, but not in the centrally obese sub-group (1.72 vs 0.83U/ml; p=0.5). Multiple regression models indicated that body fat % per se did not contribute significantly to PAI-1act variance in women with increased fat mass. Fat distribution patterns and degree of obesity influenced the association of PAI-1act with insulin, triglycerides, ASM and body fat % in African women. In centrally obese women, abdominal VAT no longer contributed more to plasma PAI-1act, than abdominal SCAT. Inflammation and endothelial dysfunction contributed more to PAI-1act variance in obese African women than did body fat % per se. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Historical perspectives in fat cell biology: the fat cell as a model for the investigation of hormonal and metabolic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafontan, Max

    2012-01-15

    For many years, there was little interest in the biochemistry or physiology of adipose tissue. It is now well recognized that adipocytes play an important dynamic role in metabolic regulation. They are able to sense metabolic states via their ability to perceive a large number of nervous and hormonal signals. They are also able to produce hormones, called adipokines, that affect nutrient intake, metabolism and energy expenditure. The report by Rodbell in 1964 that intact fat cells can be obtained by collagenase digestion of adipose tissue revolutionized studies on the hormonal regulation and metabolism of the fat cell. In the context of the advent of systems biology in the field of cell biology, the present seems an appropriate time to look back at the global contribution of the fat cell to cell biology knowledge. This review focuses on the very early approaches that used the fat cell as a tool to discover and understand various cellular mechanisms. Attention essentially focuses on the early investigations revealing the major contribution of mature fat cells and also fat cells originating from adipose cell lines to the discovery of major events related to hormone action (hormone receptors and transduction pathways involved in hormonal signaling) and mechanisms involved in metabolite processing (hexose uptake and uptake, storage, and efflux of fatty acids). Dormant preadipocytes exist in the stroma-vascular fraction of the adipose tissue of rodents and humans; cell culture systems have proven to be valuable models for the study of the processes involved in the formation of new fat cells. Finally, more recent insights into adipocyte secretion, a completely new role with major metabolic impact, are also briefly summarized.

  8. Effects of Dietary Calcium on Body Weight, Carcass Fat Content and Adipocyte Size in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Malekzadeh

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Calcium is a micronutrient and now receiving much attention for its doubtful effects on weight and body fatness. A few mechanisms has been suggested for calcium effects on body fatness and the most emphasized one is the reducing of lipolysis and increasing lipogenesis via reducing parathyroid hormone levels. The present study is designed to evaluate the effects of nondairy dietary calcium on adipogenesis and adipocyte size in male Sprague dawley rats. Materials & Methods: This experimental study was done from November to September of 2005 at Tehran school of health, nutrition department. 48 male Spragu-Dawley rats from Damgostar Company were used in three randomly selected groups. The rats were fed low (0.2% W/W, usual (0.5% W/W and high (1.2% W/W dietary calcium based on AIN-93M purified diet. Rats were housed in 12 hours light-dark cycle, 22-25°C room temperature with free access to their respective diets. At the end of the experiment, rats were decapitated and carcass fat content, carcass ash content and mean adipocyte size in testis, peritoneal and subcutaneous fat pads were compared in three groups. The SPSS 11.5 was used as statistical software, running analysis of variance for comparing the effects. Results: weight gain, carcass fat content and adipocyte size, in groups were not significantly different, while serum parathyroid hormone concentrations in high calcium group was significantly lower than low calcium group (p<0.05 and insignificantly lower than usual calcium group [12.36, 23.57 and 42.2 pg/dl respectively]. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxy cholecalciferol were also insignificantly lower in high calcium group. Conclusion: Our findings suggested that physiological concentration of dietary calcium is not effective on weight gain, body fatness and adipocyte size. Relatively equal fat content beside significant difference in serum parathyroid hormone levels is against the parathyroid theory of calcium

  9. Food reward in active compared to inactive men: Roles for gastric emptying and body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Katy M; Finlayson, Graham; Byrne, Nuala M; King, Neil A

    2016-06-01

    Habitual exercise could contribute to weight management by altering processes of food reward via the gut-brain axis. We investigated hedonic processes of food reward in active and inactive men and characterised relationships with gastric emptying and body fat. Forty-four men (active: n=22; inactive: n=22, BMI range 21-36kg/m(2); percent fat mass range 9-42%) were studied. Participants were provided with a standardised fixed breakfast and an ad libitum lunch meal 5h later. Explicit liking, implicit wanting and preference among high-fat, low-fat, sweet and savoury food items were assessed immediately post-breakfast (fed state) and again pre-lunch (hungry state) using the Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire. Gastric emptying was assessed by (13)C-octanoic acid breath test. Active individuals exhibited a lower liking for foods overall and a greater implicit wanting for low-fat savoury foods in the fed state, compared to inactive men. Differences in the fed state remained significant after adjusting for percent fat mass. Active men also had a greater increase in liking for savoury foods in the interval between breakfast and lunch. Faster gastric emptying was associated with liking for savoury foods and with an increase in liking for savoury foods in the postprandial interval. In contrast, greater implicit wanting for high-fat foods was associated with slower gastric emptying. These associations were independent of each other, activity status and body fat. In conclusion, active and inactive men differ in processes of food reward. The rate of gastric emptying may play a role in the association between physical activity status and food reward, via the gut-brain axis.

  10. Insulin stimulates translocation of human GLUT4 to the membrane in fat bodies of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster.

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    Georgeta Crivat

    Full Text Available The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is an excellent model system for studies of genes controlling development and disease. However, its applicability to physiological systems is less clear because of metabolic differences between insects and mammals. Insulin signaling has been studied in mammals because of relevance to diabetes and other diseases but there are many parallels between mammalian and insect pathways. For example, deletion of Drosophila Insulin-Like Peptides resulted in 'diabetic' flies with elevated circulating sugar levels. Whether this situation reflects failure of sugar uptake into peripheral tissues as seen in mammals is unclear and depends upon whether flies harbor the machinery to mount mammalian-like insulin-dependent sugar uptake responses. Here we asked whether Drosophila fat cells are competent to respond to insulin with mammalian-like regulated trafficking of sugar transporters. Transgenic Drosophila expressing human glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4, the sugar transporter expressed primarily in insulin-responsive tissues, were generated. After expression in fat bodies, GLUT4 intracellular trafficking and localization were monitored by confocal and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM. We found that fat body cells responded to insulin with increased GLUT4 trafficking and translocation to the plasma membrane. While the amplitude of these responses was relatively weak in animals reared on a standard diet, it was greatly enhanced in animals reared on sugar-restricted diets, suggesting that flies fed standard diets are insulin resistant. Our findings demonstrate that flies are competent to mobilize translocation of sugar transporters to the cell surface in response to insulin. They suggest that Drosophila fat cells are primed for a response to insulin and that these pathways are down-regulated when animals are exposed to constant, high levels of sugar. Finally, these studies are the first to use TIRFM to

  11. Insulin Stimulates Translocation of Human GLUT4 to the Membrane in Fat Bodies of Transgenic Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crivat, Georgeta; Lizunov, Vladimir A.; Li, Caroline R.; Stenkula, Karin G.; Zimmerberg, Joshua; Cushman, Samuel W.; Pick, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is an excellent model system for studies of genes controlling development and disease. However, its applicability to physiological systems is less clear because of metabolic differences between insects and mammals. Insulin signaling has been studied in mammals because of relevance to diabetes and other diseases but there are many parallels between mammalian and insect pathways. For example, deletion of Drosophila Insulin-Like Peptides resulted in ‘diabetic’ flies with elevated circulating sugar levels. Whether this situation reflects failure of sugar uptake into peripheral tissues as seen in mammals is unclear and depends upon whether flies harbor the machinery to mount mammalian-like insulin-dependent sugar uptake responses. Here we asked whether Drosophila fat cells are competent to respond to insulin with mammalian-like regulated trafficking of sugar transporters. Transgenic Drosophila expressing human glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4), the sugar transporter expressed primarily in insulin-responsive tissues, were generated. After expression in fat bodies, GLUT4 intracellular trafficking and localization were monitored by confocal and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM). We found that fat body cells responded to insulin with increased GLUT4 trafficking and translocation to the plasma membrane. While the amplitude of these responses was relatively weak in animals reared on a standard diet, it was greatly enhanced in animals reared on sugar-restricted diets, suggesting that flies fed standard diets are insulin resistant. Our findings demonstrate that flies are competent to mobilize translocation of sugar transporters to the cell surface in response to insulin. They suggest that Drosophila fat cells are primed for a response to insulin and that these pathways are down-regulated when animals are exposed to constant, high levels of sugar. Finally, these studies are the first to use TIRFM to monitor insulin

  12. Camphor Tree Seed Kernel Oil Reduces Body Fat Deposition and Improves Blood Lipids in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jing; Wang, Baogui; Gong, Deming; Zeng, Cheng; Jiang, Yihao; Zeng, Zheling

    2015-08-01

    The total and positional fatty acid composition in camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora) seed kernel oil (CKO) were analyzed, and for the first time, the effect of CKO on body fat deposition and blood lipids in rats was studied. The major fatty acids in CKO were determined to be decanoic acid (C10:0, 51.49%) and dodecanoic acid (C12:0, 40.08%), and uniformly distributed at Sn-1, 3, and Sn-2 positions in triglyceride (TG). Rats were randomly divided into control, CKO, lard, and soybean oil groups. At the end of the experiment, levels of blood lipids and the fats of abdomen in the rats were measured. The main organ were weighted and used for the histological examination. The results showed that body weight and fat deposition in CKO group were significantly lower than the lard and soybean groups. Moderate consumption of CKO was found to improve the levels of blood TG and low density lipoprotein cholesterol.

  13. Association of Fat Mass and Obesity-associated Gene Variant with Lifestyle Factors and Body Fat in Indian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarthy, Lavanya S; Phadke, Nikhil; Chiplonkar, Shashi; Khadilkar, Anuradha; Khatod, Kavita; Ekbote, Veena; Shah, Surabhi; Khadilkar, Vaman

    2017-01-01

    Common intronic variants of the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene have been associated with obesity-related traits in humans. (1) The aim of this study is to study the distribution of FTO gene variants across different body mass index (BMI) categories and (2) to explore the association between FTO gene variants and lifestyle factors in obese and normal weight Indian children. Fifty-six children (26 boys, mean age 10.3 ± 2.2 years) were studied. Height, weight, and waist and hip circumference were measured. Physical activity (questionnaire) and food intake (food frequency questionnaire) were assessed. Body fat percentage (%BF) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. FTO allelic variants at rs9939609 site were detected by SYBR Green Amplification Refractory Mutation System real-time polymerase chain reaction using allele-specific primers. Generalized linear model was used to investigate the simultaneous influence of genetic and lifestyle factors on %BF. Mean height, weight, and BMI of normal and obese children were 130.6 ± 7.1 versus 143.2 ± 15.6, 24.0 ± 5.2 versus 53.1 ± 15.8, and 13.9 ± 2.1 versus 25.3 ± 3.2, respectively. The frequency of AA allele was 57% among obese children and 35% in normal weight children. Children with the AA allele who were obese had least physical activity, whereas children with AT allele and obesity had the highest intake of calories when compared to children who had AT allele and were normal. %BF was positively associated with AA alleles and junk food intake and negatively with healthy food intake and moderate physical activity. Healthy lifestyle with high physical activity and diet low in calories and fat may help in modifying the risk imposed by FTO variants in children.

  14. Association of fat mass and obesity-associated gene variant with lifestyle factors and body fat in Indian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavanya S Parthasarthy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Common intronic variants of the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO gene have been associated with obesity-related traits in humans. Aims: (1 The aim of this study is to study the distribution of FTO gene variants across different body mass index (BMI categories and (2 to explore the association between FTO gene variants and lifestyle factors in obese and normal weight Indian children. Subjects and Methods: Fifty-six children (26 boys, mean age 10.3 ± 2.2 years were studied. Height, weight, and waist and hip circumference were measured. Physical activity (questionnaire and food intake (food frequency questionnaire were assessed. Body fat percentage (%BF was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. FTO allelic variants at rs9939609 site were detected by SYBR Green Amplification Refractory Mutation System real-time polymerase chain reaction using allele-specific primers. Generalized linear model was used to investigate the simultaneous influence of genetic and lifestyle factors on %BF. Results: Mean height, weight, and BMI of normal and obese children were 130.6 ± 7.1 versus 143.2 ± 15.6, 24.0 ± 5.2 versus 53.1 ± 15.8, and 13.9 ± 2.1 versus 25.3 ± 3.2, respectively. The frequency of AA allele was 57% among obese children and 35% in normal weight children. Children with the AA allele who were obese had least physical activity, whereas children with AT allele and obesity had the highest intake of calories when compared to children who had AT allele and were normal. %BF was positively associated with AA alleles and junk food intake and negatively with healthy food intake and moderate physical activity. Conclusions: Healthy lifestyle with high physical activity and diet low in calories and fat may help in modifying the risk imposed by FTO variants in children.

  15. Correlation between percentage of body fat measured by the Slaughter equation and bio impedance analysis technique in Mexican schoolchildren

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    Mariana Orta Duarte

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity is considered one of the most serious public health problems of the 21st century in children and adolescents. The percentile or Z-score of the body mass index is widely used in children and adolescents to define and assess overweight and obesity, but it does not determine the percentage of total body fat. Other anthropometric measurements that determine total body fat are skinfold thickness and methods of body composition assessment such as bio impedance analysis, both of which are rapid and inexpensive. Objetive: The aim of the study was to correlate the percentage of body fat determined by the Slaughter equation with the percentage of body fat determined by the bio impedance analysis technique, and the body mass index in schoolchildren. Methods: The design of the study is cross-sectional and it was performed on a random selection of 74 children (9.47 ± 1.55 years old attending a primary school in Colima, Mexico during 2011. The percentage of body fat was measured by the Slaughter equation and bio impedance analysis technique. Body mass index was calculated. Inferential statistics were performed with the non-paired Student's t test, Pearson's correlation for quantitative variables (percentage of body fat by the Slaughter equation and bio impedance analysis and the Fisher exact test for qualitative variables. Results: A significant correlation (r = 0.74; p < 0.001 was identified between the percentage of fat measured by the Slaughter equation and bio impedance analysis. We also identified a significant correlation between the percentage of fat measured by the Slaughter equation and body mass index (r = 0. 85; p < 0.001 and the percentage of fat measured by bio impedance analysis and body mass index (r = 0.78; p < 0.001. Conclusion: Given that we identified a significant positive correlation between BIA and STE, we conclude that both are adequate alternatives for measuring the percentage of body fat among schoolchildren in

  16. Ethnic differences in the relationship between body mass index and percentage body fat among Asian children from different backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ailing; Byrne, Nuala M; Kagawa, Masaharu; Ma, Guansheng; Poh, Bee Koon; Ismail, Mohammad Noor; Kijboonchoo, Kallaya; Nasreddine, Lara; Trinidad, Trinidad Palad; Hills, Andrew P

    2011-11-01

    Overweight and obesity in Asian children are increasing at an alarming rate; therefore a better understanding of the relationship between BMI and percentage body fat (%BF) in this population is important. A total of 1039 children aged 8-10 years, encompassing a wide BMI range, were recruited from China, Lebanon, Malaysia, The Philippines and Thailand. Body composition was determined using the 2H dilution technique to quantify total body water and subsequently fat mass, fat-free mass and %BF. Ethnic differences in the BMI-%BF relationship were found; for example, %BF in Filipino boys was approximately 2 % lower than in their Thai and Malay counterparts. In contrast, Thai girls had approximately 2.0 % higher %BF values than in their Chinese, Lebanese, Filipino and Malay counterparts at a given BMI. However, the ethnic difference in the BMI-%BF relationship varied by BMI. Compared with Caucasian children of the same age, Asian children had 3-6 units lower BMI at a given %BF. Approximately one-third of the obese Asian children (%BF above 25 % for boys and above 30 % for girls) in the study were not identified using the WHO classification and more than half using the International Obesity Task Force classification. Use of the Chinese classification increased the sensitivity. Results confirmed the necessity to consider ethnic differences in body composition when developing BMI cut-points and other obesity criteria in Asian children.

  17. Variation in sequence and expression of the avian FTO, and association with glucose metabolism, body weight, fatness and body composition in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, X; Nie, Q; Lamont, S J; Zhang, X

    2012-08-01

    The fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO), a crucial gene that affects human obesity and metabolism, has been widely studied in mammals but remains poorly characterized in birds. We aimed to identify variant FTO transcripts in domestic avian species, and to characterize the expression and biological functions of FTO in chickens. Variant FTO transcripts and their expression in birds were investigated using RACE and real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR technology. The effects of FTO on glucose metabolism, growth and body composition were determined by fasting and various diet treatments, as well as association analysis in a F₂ resource population. The function of cFTO1 was further studied by overexpression in chick embryo fibroblast (CEF) cells. Variant FTO transcripts were identified in chicken (cFTO1 to cFTO4), duck (dFTO1, dFTO2 and dFTO4) and goose (gFTO1, gFTO2 and gFTO5). In the chicken, the complete transcript (cFTO1) was predominantly expressed in the leg muscle, pituitary, hypothalamus and cerebellum. Fasting increased both cFTO1 and PGC1α gene expression in the cerebrum, liver, breast muscle and subcutaneous fat, but decreased expression in the pituitary and anterior hypothalamus. In all tested tissues in chickens, a high-glucose diet markedly increased cFTO1 and PGC1α expression. Feeding a high-fat diet increased both cFTO1 and PGC1α expression, except in the pituitary. Overexpression of cFTO1 in CEF cells significantly increased the expression of PGC1α (2.5-fold), STAT3 (2.2-fold) and HL (1.5-fold), a cluster of genes related to energy metabolism. A total of 65 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in chicken FTO, and 18 tested SNPs were significantly associated with traits of body weight, body composition and fatness. These data collectively indicate that FTO is related to glucose metabolism, body weight, fatness and body composition in birds, thus expanding knowledge of FTO function to non-mammalian species.

  18. Newborn body fat: associations with maternal metabolic state and placental size.

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    Camilla M Friis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neonatal body composition has implications for the health of the newborn both in short and long term perspective. The objective of the current study was first to explore the association between maternal BMI and metabolic parameters associated with BMI and neonatal percentage body fat and to determine to which extent any associations were modified if adjusting for placental weight. Secondly, we examined the relations between maternal metabolic parameters associated with BMI and placental weight. METHODS: The present work was performed in a subcohort (n = 207 of the STORK study, an observational, prospective study on the determinants of fetal growth and birthweight in healthy pregnancies at Oslo University Hospital, Norway. Fasting glucose, insulin, triglycerides, free fatty acids, HDL- and total cholesterol were measured at week 30-32. Newborn body composition was determined by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA. Placenta was weighed at birth. Linear regression models were used with newborn fat percentage and placental weight as main outcomes. RESULTS: Maternal BMI, fasting glucose and gestational age were independently associated with neonatal fat percentage. However, if placental weight was introduced as a covariate, only placental weight and gestational age remained significant. In the univariate model, the determinants of placenta weight included BMI, insulin, triglycerides, total- and HDL-cholesterol (negatively, gestational weight gain and parity. In the multivariable model, BMI, total cholesterol HDL-cholesterol, gestational weight gain and parity remained independent covariates. CONCLUSION: Maternal BMI and fasting glucose were independently associated with newborn percentage fat. This effect disappeared by introducing placental weight as a covariate. Several metabolic factors associated with maternal BMI were associated with placental weight, but not with neonatal body fat. Our findings are consistent with a concept

  19. Adipocytokine responses to acute exercise in athletes with different body fat content and sedentary controls

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    Mirjana Sumarac Dumanovic

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recent research in the biology of adipose tissue indicates that it is far more than a simply an energy storage organ, and it is in fact an active endocrine organ secreting numerous bioactive mediators, called adipokines, including leptin, adiponectin and visfatin (Galic, 2010. To date, less attention has been focused on the kinetics of adipokines levels during and after high intensity exercise. Several reports pointed at the metabolic role of adipokines during exercise in elite athletes, but the data are currently equivocal (Bouassida et al., 2010; Jürimäe et al., 2011. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate adipocytokine responses to a single bout acute exercise in elite athletes with low percentage of body fat, elite athletes with a high percentage of body fat and sedentary controls. Methods: Sixteen athletes with low percentage of body fat (volleyball players, low fat athletes group, LFAG, fifteen athletes with high percentage of body fat (water polo players, high fat athletes group, HFAG and fifteen sedentary subjects participated in this study (age [years] 20±2; 20±2; 20±1, respectively. All subjects were exposed to: anthropometric measurements; exercise test on treadmill in order to examine acute changes of adipocytokines; blood samples were obtained at baseline levels, immediately after the exercise test and 30 minutes after recovery. Separated serum or plasma were used for hormone (leptin, adiponectin and visfatin ELISA analysis. Results: In athletes in LFAG, baseline leptin concentration was significantly lower, but adiponectin and visfatin concentrations were significantly higher, compared to sedentary controls and athletes in HFAG (p0.05. Conclusions: Our findings show leptin and visfatin levels, but not adiponectin respond to acute exercise. Acute exercise elicited an inverse visfatin response in athletes in HFAG and controls. Also, these results suggest that leptin is altered after acute exercise

  20. Body mass index, general fatness, lipid profile and bone mineral density in young women and men

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    Kopiczko Anna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The bone tissue is metabolically active. Throughout the entire life, it undergoes changes in the form of bone resorption processes which are successive, with the participation of the resorbing cells and bone formation processes. The aim of the study was to evaluate mineral density and bone mass tissue and the lipid profile, BMI, total body fat in young females and males. The study involved 100 people (50 females and 50 males studying in Warsaw at the age of 23,2 ± 4,0 years. The densitometry method of the forearm was used for the assessment of bone mineral density (BMD and bone mass (BMC. The method of bioelectrical impedance was used for the assessment of body components. Basic body dimensions and indicators were assessed using anthropometric measurements. Body height, body mass and the needs for the densitometry study of the forearm were measured. The total cholesterol concentration was determined in the blood serum using diagnostic kits, as well as high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C and triglycerides. The concentration of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C was calculated. While in men the occurrence of a significant, positive correlation was stated between the concentration of the HDL cholesterol fraction and the mineral density and T-score index in the ultra-distal point, the analysis of the compounds of mineral density (BMD, bone mass (BMC of the forearm, T-score index with somatic features in women showed a significant, positive relation between the body weight and the bone mass mineral density and T-score indicator in the proximal point. Also, a significant weak, positive correlation was observed between the BMI, the mineral density and T-score indicator in the proximal point. In men, the occurrence of significant, positive correlations was stated between the body weight and BMC, BMD, T-score indicator in the proximal point of the forearm bone and ultra-distal point. Similar relations were observed between the BMI, mineral density, T

  1. Optimism and positive body image in women : The mediating role of the feared fat self

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalley, Simon E.; Vidal, Jose

    2013-01-01

    We predicted that an expectancy judgment about acquiring a feared fat self and an expectancy judgment about acquiring a hoped-for thin self would mediate dispositional optimism on positive body image. We also predicted that the mediation pathway through the feared self would be significantly stronge

  2. Personality characteristics in adolescence predict long-term changes in body fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppes, Lando L J; de Boer, Michiel R; Samoocha, David

    2008-01-01

    Five personality characteristics were assessed in 312 adolescent boys and girls, and investigated in relation to the change in body fat percentage over 22 years of follow up. Boys with low levels of Social Inadequacy and girls with high levels of Recalcitrance showed relatively large gains in bod...

  3. Hormonal control of protein synthesis in the fat body of Leptinotarsa decemlineata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dortland, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    This thesis deals with the hormonal control of protein synthesis in the female fat body of Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say. The results are discussed in relation to reproduction (obtained by rearing under long day conditions) and the preparation for diapause (obtained by rearing u

  4. New loci for body fat percentage reveal link between adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Yingchang; Day, Felix R; Gustafsson, Stefan; Buchkovich, Martin L; Na, Jianbo; Bataille, Veronique; Cousminer, Diana L; Dastani, Zari; Drong, Alexander W; Esko, Tõnu; Evans, David M; Falchi, Mario; Feitosa, Mary F; Ferreira, Teresa; Hedman, Åsa K; Haring, Robin; Hysi, Pirro G; Iles, Mark M; Justice, Anne E; Kanoni, Stavroula; Lagou, Vasiliki; Li, Rui; Li, Xin; Locke, Adam; Lu, Chen; Mägi, Reedik; Perry, John R B; Pers, Tune H; Qi, Qibin; Sanna, Marianna; Schmidt, Ellen M; Scott, William R; Shungin, Dmitry; Teumer, Alexander; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E; Walker, Ryan W; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zhang, Mingfeng; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhu, Zhihong; Afzal, Uzma; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh; Bakker, Stephan J L; Bellis, Claire; Bonnefond, Amélie; Borodulin, Katja; Buchman, Aron S; Cederholm, Tommy; Choh, Audrey C; Choi, Hyung Jin; Curran, Joanne E; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; De Jager, Philip L; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A M; Enneman, Anke W; Eury, Elodie; Evans, Daniel S; Forsen, Tom; Friedrich, Nele; Fumeron, Frédéric; Garcia, Melissa E; Gärtner, Simone; Han, Bok-Ghee; Havulinna, Aki S; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hillege, Hans; Ittermann, Till; Kent, Jack W; Kolcic, Ivana; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lahti, Jari; Mateo Leach, Irene; Lee, Christine G; Lee, Jong-Young; Liu, Tian; Liu, Youfang; Lobbens, Stéphane; Loh, Marie; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Michaëlsson, Karl; Nalls, Mike A; Nielson, Carrie M; Oozageer, Laticia; Pascoe, Laura; Paternoster, Lavinia; Polašek, Ozren; Ripatti, Samuli; Sarzynski, Mark A; Shin, Chan Soo; Narančić, Nina Smolej; Spira, Dominik; Srikanth, Priya; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Sung, Yun Ju; Swart, Karin M A; Taittonen, Leena; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tikkanen, Emmi; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Schoor, Natasja M; Verweij, Niek; Wright, Alan F; Yu, Lei; Zmuda, Joseph M; Eklund, Niina; Forrester, Terrence; Grarup, Niels; Jackson, Anne U; Kristiansson, Kati; Kuulasmaa, Teemu; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lichtner, Peter; Luan, Jian'an; Mahajan, Anubha; Männistö, Satu; Palmer, Cameron D; Ried, Janina S; Scott, Robert A; Stancáková, Alena; Wagner, Peter J; Demirkan, Ayse; Döring, Angela; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Kiel, Douglas P; Kühnel, Brigitte; Mangino, Massimo; Mcknight, Barbara; Menni, Cristina; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Oostra, Ben A; Shuldiner, Alan R; Song, Kijoung; Vandenput, Liesbeth; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vollenweider, Peter; White, Charles C; Boehnke, Michael; Boettcher, Yvonne; Cooper, Richard S; Forouhi, Nita G; Gieger, Christian; Grallert, Harald; Hingorani, Aroon; Jørgensen, Torben; Jousilahti, Pekka; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Laakso, Markku; Langenberg, Claudia; Linneberg, Allan; Luke, Amy; Mckenzie, Colin A; Palotie, Aarno; Pedersen, Oluf; Peters, Annette; Strauch, Konstantin; Tayo, Bamidele O; Wareham, Nicholas J; Bennett, David A; Bertram, Lars; Blangero, John; Blüher, Matthias; Bouchard, Claude; Campbell, Harry; Cho, Nam H; Cummings, Steven R; Czerwinski, Stefan A; Demuth, Ilja; Eckardt, Rahel; Eriksson, Johan G; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franco, Oscar H; Froguel, Philippe; Gansevoort, Ron T; Hansen, Torben; Harris, Tamara B; Hastie, Nicholas; Heliövaara, Markku; Hofman, Albert; Jordan, Joanne M; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Knekt, Paul B; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lind, Lars; Liu, Yongmei; Orwoll, Eric S; Osmond, Clive; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D C; Rice, Treva K; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Stumvoll, Michael; Tönjes, Anke; Towne, Bradford; Tranah, Gregory J; Tremblay, Angelo; Uitterlinden, André G; van der Harst, Pim; Vartiainen, Erkki; Viikari, Jorma S; Vitart, Veronique; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völzke, Henry; Walker, Mark; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wild, Sarah; Wilson, James F; Yengo, Loïc; Bishop, D Timothy; Borecki, Ingrid B; Chambers, John C; Cupples, L Adrienne; Dehghan, Abbas; Deloukas, Panos; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Fox, Caroline; Furey, Terrence S; Franke, Lude; Han, Jiali; Hunter, David J; Karjalainen, Juha; Karpe, Fredrik; Kaplan, Robert C; Kooner, Jaspal S; McCarthy, Mark I; Murabito, Joanne M; Morris, Andrew P; Bishop, Julia A N; North, Kari E; Ohlsson, Claes; Ong, Ken K; Prokopenko, Inga; Richards, J Brent; Schadt, Eric E; Spector, Tim D; Widén, Elisabeth; Willer, Cristen J; Yang, Jian; Ingelsson, Erik; Mohlke, Karen L; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Pospisilik, John Andrew; Zillikens, M Carola; Lindgren, Cecilia; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas Oskari; Loos, Ruth J F

    2016-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of adiposity and its links to cardiometabolic disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of body fat percentage (BF%) in up to 100,716 individuals. Twelve loci reached genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10(-8)), of which eight w

  5. New loci for body fat percentage reveal link between adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Yingchang; Day, Felix R; Gustafsson, Stefan; Buchkovich, Martin L; Na, Jianbo; Bataille, Veronique; Cousminer, Diana L; Dastani, Zari; Drong, Alexander W; Esko, Tõnu; Evans, David M; Falchi, Mario; Feitosa, Mary F; Ferreira, Teresa; Hedman, Åsa K; Haring, Robin; Hysi, Pirro G; Iles, Mark M; Justice, Anne E; Kanoni, Stavroula; Lagou, Vasiliki; Li, Rui; Li, Xin; Locke, Adam; Lu, Chen; Mägi, Reedik; Perry, John R B; Pers, Tune H; Qi, Qibin; Sanna, Marianna; Schmidt, Ellen M; Scott, William R; Shungin, Dmitry; Teumer, Alexander; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E; Walker, Ryan W; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zhang, Mingfeng; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhu, Zhihong; Afzal, Uzma; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh; Bakker, Stephan J L; Bellis, Claire; Bonnefond, Amélie; Borodulin, Katja; Buchman, Aron S; Cederholm, Tommy; Choh, Audrey C; Choi, Hyung Jin; Curran, Joanne E; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; De Jager, Philip L; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A M; Enneman, Anke W; Eury, Elodie; Evans, Daniel S; Forsen, Tom; Friedrich, Nele; Fumeron, Frédéric; Garcia, Melissa E; Gärtner, Simone; Han, Bok-Ghee; Havulinna, Aki S; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hillege, Hans; Ittermann, Till; Kent, Jack W; Kolcic, Ivana; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lahti, Jari; Mateo Leach, Irene; Lee, Christine G; Lee, Jong-Young; Liu, Tian; Liu, Youfang; Lobbens, Stéphane; Loh, Marie; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Michaëlsson, Karl; Nalls, Mike A; Nielson, Carrie M; Oozageer, Laticia; Pascoe, Laura; Paternoster, Lavinia; Polašek, Ozren; Ripatti, Samuli; Sarzynski, Mark A; Shin, Chan Soo; Narančić, Nina Smolej; Spira, Dominik; Srikanth, Priya; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Sung, Yun Ju; Swart, Karin M A; Taittonen, Leena; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tikkanen, Emmi; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Schoor, Natasja M; Verweij, Niek; Wright, Alan F; Yu, Lei; Zmuda, Joseph M; Eklund, Niina; Forrester, Terrence; Grarup, Niels; Jackson, Anne U; Kristiansson, Kati; Kuulasmaa, Teemu; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lichtner, Peter; Luan, Jian'an; Mahajan, Anubha; Männistö, Satu; Palmer, Cameron D; Ried, Janina S; Scott, Robert A; Stancáková, Alena; Wagner, Peter J; Demirkan, Ayse; Döring, Angela; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Kiel, Douglas P; Kühnel, Brigitte; Mangino, Massimo; Mcknight, Barbara; Menni, Cristina; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Oostra, Ben A; Shuldiner, Alan R; Song, Kijoung; Vandenput, Liesbeth; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vollenweider, Peter; White, Charles C; Boehnke, Michael; Boettcher, Yvonne; Cooper, Richard S; Forouhi, Nita G; Gieger, Christian; Grallert, Harald; Hingorani, Aroon; Jørgensen, Torben; Jousilahti, Pekka; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Laakso, Markku; Langenberg, Claudia; Linneberg, Allan; Luke, Amy; Mckenzie, Colin A; Palotie, Aarno; Pedersen, Oluf; Peters, Annette; Strauch, Konstantin; Tayo, Bamidele O; Wareham, Nicholas J; Bennett, David A; Bertram, Lars; Blangero, John; Blüher, Matthias; Bouchard, Claude; Campbell, Harry; Cho, Nam H; Cummings, Steven R; Czerwinski, Stefan A; Demuth, Ilja; Eckardt, Rahel; Eriksson, Johan G; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franco, Oscar H; Froguel, Philippe; Gansevoort, Ron T; Hansen, Torben; Harris, Tamara B; Hastie, Nicholas; Heliövaara, Markku; Hofman, Albert; Jordan, Joanne M; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Knekt, Paul B; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lind, Lars; Liu, Yongmei; Orwoll, Eric S; Osmond, Clive; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D C; Rice, Treva K; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Stumvoll, Michael; Tönjes, Anke; Towne, Bradford; Tranah, Gregory J; Tremblay, Angelo; Uitterlinden, André G; van der Harst, Pim; Vartiainen, Erkki; Viikari, Jorma S; Vitart, Veronique; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völzke, Henry; Walker, Mark; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wild, Sarah; Wilson, James F; Yengo, Loïc; Bishop, D Timothy; Borecki, Ingrid B; Chambers, John C; Cupples, L Adrienne; Dehghan, Abbas; Deloukas, Panos; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Fox, Caroline; Furey, Terrence S; Franke, Lude; Han, Jiali; Hunter, David J; Karjalainen, Juha; Karpe, Fredrik; Kaplan, Robert C; Kooner, Jaspal S; McCarthy, Mark I; Murabito, Joanne M; Morris, Andrew P; Bishop, Julia A N; North, Kari E; Ohlsson, Claes; Ong, Ken K; Prokopenko, Inga; Richards, J Brent; Schadt, Eric E; Spector, Tim D; Widén, Elisabeth; Willer, Cristen J; Yang, Jian; Ingelsson, Erik; Mohlke, Karen L; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Pospisilik, John Andrew; Zillikens, M Carola; Lindgren, Cecilia; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas Oskari; Loos, Ruth J F

    2016-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of adiposity and its links to cardiometabolic disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of body fat percentage (BF%) in up to 100,716 individuals. Twelve loci reached genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10(-8)), of which eight w

  6. New loci for body fat percentage reveal link between adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Lu (Yingchang); F.R. Day (Felix); S. Gustafsson (Stefan); M.L. Buchkovich (Martin); Na, J. (Jianbo); V. Bataille (Veronique); D.L. Cousminer (Diana); Z. Dastani (Zari); A. Drong (Alexander); T. Esko (Tõnu); D.M. Evans (David); M. Falchi (Mario); M.F. Feitosa (Mary Furlan); T. Ferreira (Teresa); A.K. Hedman (Asa); R. Haring (Robin); P.G. Hysi (Pirro); M.M. Iles (Mark M.); A.E. Justice (Anne); S. Kanoni (Stavroula); V. Lagou (Vasiliki); R. Li (Rui); X. Li (Xin); A. Locke (Adam); C. Lu (Chao); R. Mägi (Reedik); J.R.B. Perry (John); T.H. Pers (Tune); Q. Qi; Sanna, M. (Marianna); E.M. Schmidt (Ellen); W.R. Scott (William R.); D. Shungin (Dmitry); A. Teumer (Alexander); A.A.E. Vinkhuyzen (Anna A.); Walker, R.W. (Ryan W.); H.J. Westra (Harm-Jan); M. Zhang (Mingfeng); W. Zhang (Weihua); J.H. Zhao; Z. Zhu; U. Afzal (Uzma); T.S. Ahluwalia (Tarunveer Singh); S.J.L. Bakker (Stephan); C. Bellis (Claire); A. Bonnefond (Amélie); K. Borodulin (Katja); Buchman, A.S. (Aron S.); T. Cederholm (Tommy); A.C. Choh (Audrey); Choi, H.J. (Hyung Jin); J.E. Curran (Joanne); L.C.P.G.M. de Groot (Lisette); P.L. de Jager (Philip); R.A.M. Dhonukshe-Rutten (Rosalie); A.W. Enneman (Anke); E. Eury (Elodie); D.S. Evans (Daniel); T. Forsen (Tom); N. Friedrich (Nele); Fumeron, F. (Frédéric); M. Garcia (Melissa); Gärtner, S. (Simone); B.-G. Han; A.S. Havulinna (Aki); C. Hayward (Caroline); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); H.L. Hillege (Hans); T. Ittermann (Till); J.W. Kent (Jack W.); I. Kolcic (Ivana); T. Laatikainen (Tiina); J. Lahti (Jari); I.M. Leach (Irene Mateo); Lee, C.G. (Christine G.); J.-Y. Lee (Jong-Young); T. Liu (Tian); Liu, Y. (Youfang); S. Lobbens (Stéphane); Loh, M. (Marie); L.-P. Lyytikäinen (Leo-Pekka); Medina-Gomez, C. (Carolina); K. Michaëlsson; M.A. Nalls (Michael); C. Nielson (Carrie); L. Oozageer (Laticia); L. Pascoe (Laura); L. Paternoster (Lavinia); O. Polasek (Ozren); S. Ripatti (Samuli); M.A. Sarzynski (Mark A.); Shin, C.S. (Chan Soo); Naranäiä, N.S. (Nina Smolej); Spira, D. (Dominik); P. Srikanth (Priya); Steinhagen-Thiessen, E. (Elisabeth); Sung, Y.J. (Yun Ju); K.M.A. Swart (Karin); Taittonen, L. (Leena); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); E. Tikkanen (Emmi); N. van der Velde (Nathalie); N.M. van Schoor (Natasja); N. Verweij (Niek); A.F. Wright (Alan); L. Yu (Lei); J. Zmuda (Joseph); N. Eklund (Niina); T. Forrester (Terrence); N. Grarup (Niels); A.U. Jackson (Anne); K. Kristiansson (Kati); T. Kuulasmaa (Teemu); J. Kuusisto (Johanna); P. Lichtner (Peter); J. Luan (Jian'An); A. Mahajan (Anubha); S. Männistö (Satu); C. Palmer (Cameron); J.S. Ried (Janina); R.A. Scott (Robert); A. Stancáková (Alena); P.J. Wagner (Peter); A. Demirkan (Ayşe); A. Döring (Angela); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); D.P. Kiel (Douglas P.); B. Kuhnel (Brigitte); M. Mangino (Massimo); B. McKnight (Barbara); C. Menni (Cristina); O'Connell, J.R. (Jeffrey R.); B.A. Oostra (Ben); A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); K. Song (Kijoung); L. Vandenput (Liesbeth); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); P. Vollenweider (Peter); C.C. White (Charles); M. Boehnke (Michael); Boettcher, Y. (Yvonne); Cooper, R.S. (Richard S.); N.G. Forouhi (Nita); C. Gieger (Christian); H. Grallert (Harald); A. Hingorani (Aroon); T. Jorgensen (Torben); P. Jousilahti (Pekka); M. Kivimaki (Mika); M. Kumari (Meena); M. Laakso (Markku); C. Langenberg (Claudia); A. Linneberg (Allan); Luke, A. (Amy); C.A. McKenzie (Colin); A. Palotie (Aarno); O. Pedersen (Oluf); A. Peters (Annette); K. Strauch (Konstantin); B. Tayo (Bamidele); N.J. Wareham (Nick); D.A. Bennett (David A.); L. Bertram (Lars); J. Blangero (John); M. Blüher (Matthias); C. Bouchard (Claude); H. Campbell (Harry); Cho, N.H. (Nam H.); S.R. Cummings (Steven R.); S.A. Czerwinski (Stefan); I. Demuth (Ilja); Eckardt, R. (Rahel); K. Hagen (Knut); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); O.H. Franco (Oscar); P. Froguel (Philippe); R.T. Gansevoort (Ron); T. Hansen (T.); T.B. Harris (Tamara); N. Hastie (Nick); M. Heliovaara (Markku); Hofman, A. (Albert); Jordan, J.M. (Joanne M.); A. Jula (Antti); M. Kähönen (Mika); E. Kajantie (Eero); P. Knekt; Koskinen, S. (Seppo); P. Kovacs (Peter); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); W.H.L. Kao (Wen); Y. Liu (Yongmei); E.S. Orwoll (Eric); C. Osmond (Clive); M. Perola (Markus); L. Perusse (Louis); Raitakari, O.T. (Olli T.); T. Rankinen (Tuomo); Rao, D.C.; Rice, T.K. (Treva K.); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); I. Rudan (Igor); V. Salomaa (Veikko); T.I.A. Sørensen (Thorkild); M. Stumvoll (Michael); A. Tönjes (Anke); B. Towne (Bradford); G.J. Tranah (Gregory); Tremblay, A. (Angelo); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); P. van der Harst (Pim); Vartiainen, E. (Erkki); J. Viikari (Jorma); Vitart, V. (Veronique); M.-C. Vohl (Marie-Claude); H. Völzke (Henry); Walker, M. (Mark); H. Wallaschofski (Henri); S.H. Wild (Sarah); J.F. Wilson (James F.); L. Yengo (Loic); D.T. Bishop (David Timothy); I.B. Borecki (Ingrid); J.C. Chambers (John C.); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); A. Dehghan (Abbas); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); Fatemifar, G. (Ghazaleh); C.S. Fox (Caroline); Furey, T.S. (Terrence S.); L. Franke (Lude); J. Han; D. Hunter (David); J. Karjalainen (Juha); F. Karpe (Fredrik); R.C. Kaplan (Robert); J.S. Kooner (Jaspal S.); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); J. Murabito (Joanne); A.P. Morris (Andrew); Bishop, J.A.N. (Julia A. N.); K.E. North (Kari); C. Ohlsson (Claes); K.K. Ong (Ken); I. Prokopenko (Inga); Richards, J.B. (J. Brent); E.E. Schadt (Eric); T.D. Spector (Timothy); E. Widen (Elisabeth); C.J. Willer (Cristen); J. Yang (Joanna); Ingelsson, E. (Erik); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); J.N. Hirschhorn (Joel); J.A. Pospisilik (Andrew); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); C.M. Lindgren (Cecilia M.); T.O. Kilpeläinen (Tuomas); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractTo increase our understanding of the genetic basis of adiposity and its links to cardiometabolic disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of body fat percentage (BF%) in up to 100,716 individuals. Twelve loci reached genome-wide significance (Po5108), of which e

  7. New loci for body fat percentage reveal link between adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Yingchang; Day, Felix R; Gustafsson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of adiposity and its links to cardiometabolic disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of body fat percentage (BF%) in up to 100,716 individuals. Twelve loci reached genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10(-8)), of which eigh...

  8. Waist circumference adjusted for body mass index and intra-abdominal fat mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Angquist, Lars; Kotronen, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The association between waist circumference (WC) and mortality is particularly strong and direct when adjusted for body mass index (BMI). One conceivable explanation for this association is that WC adjusted for BMI is a better predictor of the presumably most harmful intra-abdominal fat mass (IAFM...

  9. Targeting gene expression to the female larval fat body of transgenic Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totten, D C; Vuong, M; Litvinova, O V; Jinwal, U K; Gulia-Nuss, M; Harrell, R A; Beneš, H

    2013-02-01

    As the fat body is a critical tissue for mosquito development, metamorphosis, immune and reproductive system function, the characterization of regulatory modules targeting gene expression to the female mosquito fat body at distinct life stages is much needed for multiple, varied strategies for controlling vector-borne diseases such as dengue and malaria. The hexameric storage protein, Hexamerin-1.2, of the mosquito Aedes atropalpus is female-specific and uniquely expressed in the fat body of fourth instar larvae and young adults. We have identified in the Hex-1.2 gene, a short regulatory module that directs female-, tissue-, and stage-specific lacZ reporter gene expression using a heterologous promoter in transgenic lines of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. Male transgenic larvae and pupae of one line expressed no Escherichia coli β-galactosidase or transgene product; in two other lines reporter gene activity was highly female-biased. All transgenic lines expressed the reporter only in the fat body; however, lacZ mRNA levels were no different in males and females at any stage examined, suggesting that the gene regulatory module drives female-specific expression by post-transcriptional regulation in the heterologous mosquito. This regulatory element from the Hex-1.2 gene thus provides a new molecular tool for transgenic mosquito control as well as functional genetic analysis in aedine mosquitoes.

  10. Body fatness as a cause of cancer: epidemiologic clues to biologic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, Tim; Sedjo, Rebecca L

    2015-06-01

    Carrying excess body fat is a leading cause of cancer. Epidemiologic evidence gives strong clues about the mechanisms that link excess adiposity to risk for several cancer sites. For postmenopausal breast cancer and endometrial cancer, the hyper-estrogenic state that is induced by excess body fatness is the likely cause. For esophageal cancer and gallbladder cancer, chronic local inflammation induced by acid reflux and gallstones is the likely cause, and for liver cancer, local inflammation induced by hepatic fatty infiltration is the likely cause. However, for several other cancers known to be associated with excess adiposity, including cancers of the colon, pancreas, ovary, kidney, and prostate, specific causes are not known. Possible candidates include elevated systemic or local tissue inflammation induced by adiposity and effects of the elevated levels of leptin, insulin, IGFs, and depressed immune function that are seen with excess adiposity. There is growing evidence that intentional weight loss not only reduces circulating levels of cancer-associated factors but that it also reduces cancer incidence and recurrence. Better research is needed to understand the mechanisms that link excess body fat to cancer risk as well as to understand the amount of weight loss needed for substantial cancer risk reduction. Finally, as we develop better understanding of the mediators of the effects of excess body fatness on cancer risk, we should identify pharmacologic interventions that target those mediators so that they can be used to complement weight loss in order to reduce cancer risk. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  11. Perceived parenting behaviours predict young adolescents' nutritional intake and body fatness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Jeong; McIntosh, William A; Anding, Jenna; Kubena, Karen S; Reed, Debra B; Moon, Gap-Soon

    2008-10-01

    This study investigated whether perceptions of parenting behaviours predict young adolescents' nutritional intake and body fatness. The randomly selected study sample consisted of 106 13-15 years olds from Houston Metropolitan Statistical Area. Parenting style variables were created by cluster analysis and factor analysis. A two-cluster solution for both maternal and paternal parenting style represented authoritative vs. non-authoritative parenting. Two parenting dimension factors derived were maternal/paternal nurturing and control. For adolescents' energy and nutrient intake, greater maternal nurturing appeared to be most beneficial given its association with lower consumption of total kilocalorie and lower saturated fat intake. Paternal nurturing was associated with lower sodium intake, whereas paternal control predicted lower percentage of kilocalories from carbohydrate and percentage Dietary Reference Intake for dietary fibre, and greater percentage of kilocalories from total fat. Maternal authoritative parenting and lower maternal control over their adolescents may have protective effects against having heavier and fatter adolescents given their associations with adolescents' body weight, sub-scapular skinfold, waist circumference, body mass index, and the tendencies of being at risk of overweight and being overweight. None of paternal parenting styles or dimensions appeared to be significantly related to adolescents' body fatness.

  12. Optimism and positive body image in women : The mediating role of the feared fat self

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalley, Simon E.; Vidal, Jose

    We predicted that an expectancy judgment about acquiring a feared fat self and an expectancy judgment about acquiring a hoped-for thin self would mediate dispositional optimism on positive body image. We also predicted that the mediation pathway through the feared self would be significantly

  13. Smoking and body fatness measurements : A cross-sectional analysis in the EPIC-PANACEA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Travier, Noemie; Agudo, Antonio; May, Anne M.; Gonzalez, Carlos; Luan, Jian'an; Besson, Herve; Wareham, Nick J.; Slimani, Nadia; Rinaldi, Sabina; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Palli, Domenico; Agnoli, Claudia; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Rodriguez, Laudina; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Dorronsoro, Miren; Barricarte, Aurelio; Tormo, Maria-Jose; Norat, Teresa; Mouw, Traci; Key, Tim J.; Spencer, Elizabeth A.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Vrieling, Alina; Orfanos, Philippos; Naska, Ada; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Rohrmann, Sabina; Kaaks, Rudolf; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Boeing, Heiner; Hallmans, Goran; Johansson, Ingegerd; Manjer, Jonas; Lindkvist, Bjorn; Jakobsen, Mariane Uhre; Overvad, Kim; Tjonneland, Anne; Halkjaer, Jytte; Lund, Eiliv; Braaten, Toni; Odysseos, Andreani; Riboli, Elio; Peeters, Petra H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective. The present study investigates the cross-sectional relationship between tobacco smoking and body fatness. Methods. This cross-sectional study consisted of 469,543 men and women who participated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study between 1992 a

  14. Changes in body composition and fat distribution in response to weight loss and weight regain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooy, van der K.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of weight loss and subsequent weight regain on body composition, fat distribution and resting energy expenditure in moderately obese men and moderately obese premenopausal women. Participants were subjected to a controlled 4.2 MJ/day energy deficit diet for

  15. New loci for body fat percentage reveal link between adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Y.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of adiposity and its links to cardiometabolic disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of body fat percentage (BF%) in up to 100,716 individuals. Twelve loci reached genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10−8), of which eight

  16. Optimism and positive body image in women : The mediating role of the feared fat self

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalley, Simon E.; Vidal, Jose

    2013-01-01

    We predicted that an expectancy judgment about acquiring a feared fat self and an expectancy judgment about acquiring a hoped-for thin self would mediate dispositional optimism on positive body image. We also predicted that the mediation pathway through the feared self would be significantly stronge

  17. Endocannabinoids and the regulation of body fat: the smoke is clearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Tamas L

    2003-08-01

    Endocannabinoids, endogenous ligands of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1), have emerged as novel and important regulators of energy homeostasis. A report in this issue demonstrates reduced body weight, fat mass, and appetite in CB1-/- mice. Examination of the underlying mechanisms reveals a dual role for endocannabinoids as they affect both appetite and peripheral lipolysis.

  18. Endocannabinoids and the regulation of body fat: the smoke is clearing

    OpenAIRE

    Horvath, Tamas L.

    2003-01-01

    Endocannabinoids, endogenous ligands of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1), have emerged as novel and important regulators of energy homeostasis. A report in this issue demonstrates reduced body weight, fat mass, and appetite in CB1–/– mice. Examination of the underlying mechanisms reveals a dual role for endocannabinoids as they affect both appetite and peripheral lipolysis.

  19. New loci for body fat percentage reveal link between adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Yingchang; Day, Felix R; Gustafsson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of adiposity and its links to cardiometabolic disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of body fat percentage (BF%) in up to 100,716 individuals. Twelve loci reached genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10(-8)), of which eigh...

  20. Body fat related to daily physical activity and insulin concentrations in non-diabetic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Thorsson, Ola; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2007-01-01

    This study explored the associations between body fat versus daily physical activity and insulin concentrations in non-diabetic young children in a cross-sectional study of 172 children (93 boys and 79 girls) aged 8-11 years. Blood samples were analysed for serum insulin and daily physical activity...

  1. BODY FAT TOPOGRAPHY AND WAIST HIP RATIO IN FEMALE HANDBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Anand Asia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The WHR was significantly lower in sport group as compared to control group. Body fat (% did not differ significantly in the two groups. The FFM (kg was significantly greater in the sports group. Findings of the above study could be utilized for the selection and recruitment of athletes and development of training programmes.

  2. Comparison of ultrasonography and skinfold measurements of subcutaneous fat thickness in the evaluation of body composition

    OpenAIRE

    Akyer, Şahika Pınar; Adıgüzel, Esat; Sabir, Nuran; Akdoğan, Ilgaz; Yılmaz, Birsen; yonguç, gökşin nilüfer

    2014-01-01

    Objectives:To determine the amount of body fat tissue with skinfold thickness measurements is a common method to estimate the body composition. The other method used for this purpose is ultrasonography which is expensive and needs specialization to apply. In this study, validity of skinfold thickness measurements was investigated using ultrasonography. Methods: One hundred adult volunteers (50 males and 50 females) were used in this study. The ages of the subjects were 20to 70, selected as10 ...

  3. Methods of Assessing Body Fatness among Children: Implications for the National Child Measurement Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Sharon; Twist, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is increasingly recognized as an inadequate measure for determining obesity in children. Therefore, the aim within this study was to investigate other indirect methods of body fat assessment that could potentially be used in place of BMI. Twenty-four children (boys: 13.8 [plus or minus] 0.8 yr; girls: 13.3 [plus or minus] 0.5…

  4. Thylakoids suppress appetite by increasing cholecystokinin resulting in lower food intake and body weight in high-fat fed mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köhnke, Rickard; Lindqvist, Andreas; Göransson, Nathanael

    2009-01-01

    affect food intake and body weight during long-term feeding in mice. Female apolipoprotein E-deficient mice were fed a high-fat diet containing 41% of fat by energy with and without thylakoids for 100 days. Mice fed the thylakoid-enriched diet had suppressed food intake, body weight gain and body fat...... fat mass. There was no sign of desensitization in the animals treated with thylakoids. The results suggest that thylakoids are useful to suppress appetite and body weight gain when supplemented to a high-fat food during long-term feeding....... compared with the high-fat fed control mice. Reduced serum glucose, serum triglyceride and serum free fatty acid levels were found in the thylakoid-treated animals. The satiety hormone cholecystokinin was elevated, suggesting this hormone mediates satiety. Leptin levels were reduced, reflecting a decreased...

  5. Spillover of Fatty acids during dietary fat storage in type 2 diabetes: relationship to body fat depots and effects of weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almandoz, Jaime P; Singh, Ekta; Howell, Lisa A; Grothe, Karen; Vlazny, Danielle T; Smailovic, Almira; Irving, Brian A; Nelson, Robert H; Miles, John M

    2013-06-01

    Spillover of lipoprotein lipase-generated fatty acids from chylomicrons into the plasma free fatty acid (FFA) pool is an important source of FFA and reflects inefficiency in dietary fat storage. We measured spillover in 13 people with type 2 diabetes using infusions of a [(3)H]triolein-labeled lipid emulsion and [U-(13)C]oleate during continuous feeding, before and after weight loss. Body fat was measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography. Participants lost ∼14% of body weight. There was an ∼38% decrease in meal-suppressed FFA concentration (P fat (r = -0.79, P = 0.001) and a positive correlation with the trunk-to-leg fat ratio (R = 0.56, P = 0.047). These correlations disappeared after weight loss. Baseline leg fat (R = -0.61, P = 0.027) but not trunk fat (R = -0.27, P = 0.38) negatively predicted decreases in spillover with weight loss. These results indicate that spillover, a measure of inefficiency in dietary fat storage, is inversely associated with lower body fat in type 2 diabetes.

  6. High fat feeding affects the number of GPR120 cells and enteroendocrine cells in the mouse stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmayer, Patricia; Goldschmid, Hannah; Henkel, Helena; Küper, Markus; Königsrainer, Alfred; Breer, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Long-term intake of dietary fat is supposed to be associated with adaptive reactions of the organism and it is assumptive that this is particularly true for fat responsive epithelial cells in the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract. Recent studies suggest that epithelial cells expressing the receptor for medium and long chain fatty acids, GPR120 (FFAR4), may operate as fat sensors. Changes in expression level and/or cell density are supposed to be accompanied with a consumption of high fat (HF) diet. To assess whether feeding a HF diet might impact on the expression of fatty acid receptors or the number of lipid sensing cells as well as enteroendocrine cell populations, gastric tissue samples of non-obese and obese mice were compared using a real time PCR and immunohistochemical approach. In this study, we have identified GPR120 cells in the corpus region of the mouse stomach which appeared to be brush cells. Monitoring the effect of HF diet on the expression of GPR120 revealed that after 3 weeks and 6 months the level of mRNA for GPR120 in the tissue was significantly increased which coincided with and probably reflected a significant increase in the number of GPR120 positive cells in the corpus region; in contrast, within the antrum region, the number of GPR120 cells decreased. Furthermore, dietary fat intake also led to changes in the number of enteroendocrine cells producing either ghrelin or gastrin. After 3 weeks and even more pronounced after 6 months the number of ghrelin cells and gastrin cells was significantly increased. These results imply that a HF diet leads to significant changes in the cellular repertoire of the stomach mucosa. Whether these changes are a consequence of the direct exposure to HF in the luminal content or a physiological response to the high level of fat in the body remains elusive.

  7. Body fat mass and the proportion of very large adipocytes in pregnant women are associated with gestational insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, H; Wetterling, L; Bosaeus, M; Odén, B; Odén, A; Jennische, E; Edén, S; Holmäng, A; Lönn, M

    2016-04-01

    Pregnancy is accompanied by fat gain and insulin resistance. Changes in adipose tissue morphology and function during pregnancy and factors contributing to gestational insulin resistance are incompletely known. We sought to characterize adipose tissue in trimesters 1 and 3 (T1/T3) in normal weight (NW) and obese pregnant women, and identify adipose tissue-related factors associated with gestational insulin resistance. Twenty-two NW and 11 obese women were recruited early in pregnancy for the Pregnancy Obesity Nutrition and Child Health study. Examinations and sampling of blood and abdominal adipose tissue were performed longitudinally in T1/T3 to determine fat mass (air-displacement plethysmography); insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, HOMA-IR); size, number and lipolytic activity of adipocytes; and adipokine release and density of immune cells and blood vessels in adipose tissue. Fat mass and HOMA-IR increased similarly between T1 and T3 in the groups; all remained normoglycemic. Adipocyte size increased in NW women. Adipocyte number was not influenced, but proportions of small and large adipocytes changed oppositely in the groups. Lipolytic activity and circulating adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein increased in both groups. Adiponectin release was reduced in NW women. Fat mass and the proportion of very large adipocytes were most strongly associated with T3 HOMA-IR by multivariable linear regression (R(2)=0.751, Pchange comprehensively. NW women accumulated fat in existing adipocytes, accompanied by reduced adiponectin release. In comparison with the NW group, obese women had signs of adipocyte recruitment and maintained adiponectin levels. Body fat and large adipocytes may contribute significantly to gestational insulin resistance.

  8. Circulating Persistent Organic Pollutants and Body Fat Distribution, Evidence from NHANES 1999-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Geng; Grandjean, Philippe; Wu, Hongyu; Sun, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate and compare the correlations of various circulating persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with fat mass percentages (FM%) of trunk, leg, and whole body measured by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Methods This study included 2358 adults (≥20 years) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004. Partial Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated, after adjusting for major confounders, including age, smoking status, and history of lactation and parity. Wolfe's method was used to compare correlation coefficients derived from the same participants. Results Twelve POPs showed significantly different correlations with fat depots in trunk and leg regions. β-hexachlorocyclohexane, heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, and octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-126 showed stronger positive correlations with trunk FM% than with leg FM%, whereas PCBs with ≥6 chlorines were more inversely correlated with trunk FM% than leg FM%. Age-stratified analysis showed stronger inverse correlations between POPs and trunk FM% mainly in participants <40 years, whereas stronger positive correlations between POPs and trunk FM% were observed in older participants. Conclusions Stronger associations between POPs and trunk fat as compared to leg fat, possibly indicated a more important role of trunk fat in the pharmacokinetics of POPs, or a stronger effect of POPs, as endocrine disruptors, on trunk fat metabolism. PMID:26237202

  9. Sex effect on productive parameters, carcass and body fat composition of two commercial broilers lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rondelli

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate sex effect on behavior of two commercial broilers lines. Productive parameters, carcass composition and yield, amount and quality of fat deposited in the meat and skin and total body fat were studied. A completely randomized design with four treatments (MR-Male Ross, HR-Female Ross, MAF-Male Avian Farm and HAF-Female Avian Farm and eight repetitions of 40 chickens was used. Animals received water and food ad libitum. After 50 days, two birds (a male and a female per repetition were chosen at random and slaughtered for carcass evaluation. Samples of breast, leg, skin and abdominal fats were analyzed to determine the percentage of intramuscular fat, total cholesterol and fatty acid composition. The Ross line showed higher final weight and weight gain, better intake and feed conversion rate. Also, it was observed that females of both lines had similar results in relation to these parameters. Better yield of breast with bone was found in Ross males and females. In relation to legs and thigh, Ross males showed better results and no differences were observed among females of both lines. Males deposited less fat than females. Finally, differences in percentage of intramuscular fat, content of cholesterol in breast with skin, leg with skin and skin, percentage of saturated, mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids were observed between sex and lines.

  10. Personal Best Time, Percent Body Fat, and Training Are Differently Associated with Race Time for Male and Female Ironman Triathletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Baumann, Barbara; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We studied male and female nonprofessional Ironman triathletes to determine whether percent body fat, training, and/or previous race experience were associated with race performance. We used simple linear regression analysis, with total race time as the dependent variable, to investigate the relationship among athletes' percent body fat, average…

  11. Body fat and racial genetic admixture are associated with aerobic fitness levels in a multiethnic pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willig, Amanda L; Hunter, Gary R; Casazza, Krista; Heimburger, Douglas C; Beasley, T Mark; Fernandez, Jose R

    2011-11-01

    Aerobic fitness and adiposity are each independently associated with health outcomes among children, although the relationship between these two variables is unclear. Our objectives were to evaluate (i) the association of adiposity with aerobic fitness using objectively measured levels of percent body fat, compared to BMI as a percentile proxy for adiposity while controlling for genetic admixture, and (ii) the congruence of BMI categories with high and low body fat categories of objectively measured percent body fat. Participants were 232 African-American (AA), European-American (EA), and Hispanic-American (HA) children aged 7-12 years (Tanner stage body fat group (body fat group based on their percent body fat; children were also categorized according to BMI percentile. Children in the low body fat group had significantly higher aerobic fitness (P BMI percentile classification. Higher African genetic admixture was associated with lower aerobic fitness (P body fat and genetic admixture irrespective of BMI classification, and such differences should be taken into account when evaluating outcomes of health interventions.

  12. The Correlation of Sonographic Finding of Fatty Liver with Hematologic Examination and Body Fat Percentage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheon, Hae Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Sun General Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Tae Yong; Kim, Young Ran [Dept. of Preventive Medicine and Public Health College of Midicin, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Ultrasonography has been used as a basic examination of a medical check up for prevention and diagnostics of diseases. Even the person who has no particular subjective symptoms can have a variety of diseases. Especially fatty liver is found in many cases. In this study, we tested 3582 persons who are in between the ages of 15 to 81 and observed that 1390 persons had fatty liver while 2192 persons are normal. We classified the grade of fatty liver and compared their life styles with the results of liver function test and BMI. The results are as follows. Ratio of the subjects who had a fatty liver is 38.8%. Male and female ratio was 46.2% and 24.2%. On the correlation among the fatty liver, the body mass index and the body fat, the average value of body mass index and body fat were significantly higher in the group of the fatty liver than in those of the normal liver. The influence of the related factor and the correlation on the fatty liver was shown that it was more related with the order of age, body mass index, triglyceride, ALT, body fat, sex, HDL-Cholesterol, LDL-Cholesterol, and GGT. The result of the ultrasonography carried out for the purpose of regular health check up indicates that even the 38.8% of those who was diagnosed as normal condition could have the fatty liver and have possibility of other diseases. Therefore, if there are any troubles related to liver function and lipid through hematologic examination or when practicing follow-up study with ultrasonography concerning the correlation relation between the body fat and dietary preference, alcohol consumption and exercise, the ultrasonography is definitely useful for prevention and treatment of diseases.

  13. Detecting body fat-A weighty problem BMI versus subcutaneous fat patterns in athletes and non-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruschitz, Renate; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra J; Hamlin, Michael J; Moser, Maximilian; Ludvik, Bernhard; Schnedl, Wolfgang J; Tafeit, Erwin

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to describe the relationship between BMI and the subcutaneous adipose tissue topography within young athletes and non-athletic controls, to comparatively evaluate the diagnostic powers of subcutaneous adipose tissue thicknesses at different body sites, furthermore to explore appropriate cut-offs to discriminate between athletes and controls. Measurements were determined in 64 males and 42 females, who were subsequently separated into two even groups (athletes and non-athletes). The optical device LIPOMETER was applied at standardised body sites to measure the thickness of subcutaneous adipose tissue layers. To calculate the power of the different body sites and the BMI to discriminate between athletes and non-athletes, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed. In men, the neck (optimal cut-off value 2.3 mm) and trunk (optimal cut-off value 15.5 mm) provided the strongest discrimination power: with 90.6% (58 of 64) of the subjects being correctly classified into athletes or non-athletes. Discrimination power of the BMI values was 64.1% (41 of 64 were correctly classified). In women, the upper back (optimal cut-off value 3.3 mm) and arms (optimal cut-off value 15.9 mm) provided the strongest discrimination power with 88.1% (37 of 42 being correctly classified). When using BMI to discriminate between athletes and non-athletes only 52.4% (22 of 42) were correctly classified. These results suggest that compared to BMI levels, subcutaneous fat patterns are a more accurate way of discriminating between athletes and non-athletes. In particular the neck and the trunk compartment in men and the upper back and arms compartment in women, were the best sites to discriminate between young athletes and non-athletes on the basis of their fat patterns.

  14. Isolation of Precursor Cells from Waste Solid Fat Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byerly, Diane; Sognier, Marguerite A.

    2009-01-01

    A process for isolating tissue-specific progenitor cells exploits solid fat tissue obtained as waste from such elective surgical procedures as abdominoplasties (tummy tucks) and breast reductions. Until now, a painful and risky process of aspiration of bone marrow has been used to obtain a limited number of tissue- specific progenitor cells. The present process yields more tissue-specific progenitor cells and involves much less pain and risk for the patient. This process includes separation of fat from skin, mincing of the fat into small pieces, and forcing a fat saline mixture through a sieve. The mixture is then digested with collagenase type I in an incubator. After centrifugation tissue-specific progenitor cells are recovered and placed in a tissue-culture medium in flasks or Petri dishes. The tissue-specific progenitor cells can be used for such purposes as (1) generating three-dimensional tissue equivalent models for studying bone loss and muscle atrophy (among other deficiencies) and, ultimately, (2) generating replacements for tissues lost by the fat donor because of injury or disease.

  15. Tissue Liquefaction Liposuction for Body Contouring and Autologous Fat Transfer: A Retrospective Review Over 3 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godek, Christopher P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Tissue liquefaction lipoplasty is a novel, low-energy method cleared for use in aesthetic body contouring and autologous fat transfer. This is a retrospective review of the clinical effectiveness and safety of a liquefaction lipoplasty system for liposuction and autologous fat transfer. Methods: A retrospective review was done evaluating all liquefaction lipoplasty procedures with or without autologous fat transfer performed by a single surgeon (March 2013 to June 2016). Patient demographics, operative details, and any complications were tabulated from patient charts. A typical case reported is presented with pre-/postoperative photographs. Results: Two hundred fifty-five consecutive liquefaction lipoplasty procedures were performed over 39 months. The average lipoaspirate volume was 1208 ± 991 mL and the average fat graft volume was 322 ± 277 mL. The overall complication rate was 9 of 255 (3.52%). There were 2 episodes of seroma (0.78%) that were aspirated and 2 episodes of cellulitis (0.78%) that responded to oral antibiotics. In the autologous fat transfer cohort, there were 5 of 103 (4.85%) cases of mild to moderate fat necrosis, with 1 patient requiring return to the operating room for removal of an oil cyst. No revisions of donor sites were required. Conclusions: Liquefaction lipoplasty appears safe for liposuction and autologous fat transfer, with a complication profile that is comparable with other widely used forms of suction-assisted liposuction. The liquefaction lipoplasty technology also provides potential time savings in the operating room that can minimize surgeon fatigue when harvesting large volumes of high-quality fat. Liquefaction lipoplasty appears to have advantages for both the patient and the surgeon, and further studies are underway. PMID:28077985

  16. Near infrared spectroscopy for body fat sensing in neonates: quantitative analysis by GAMOS simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Fatin Hamimi; Jones, Peter W; McEwan, Alistair L

    2017-01-11

    Under-nutrition in neonates is closely linked to low body fat percentage. Undernourished neonates are exposed to immediate mortality as well as unwanted health impacts in their later life including obesity and hypertension. One potential low cost approach for obtaining direct measurements of body fat is near-infrared (NIR) interactance. The aims of this study were to model the effect of varying volume fractions of melanin and water in skin over NIR spectra, and to define sensitivity of NIR reflection on changes of thickness of subcutaneous fat. GAMOS simulations were used to develop two single fat layer models and four complete skin models over a range of skin colour (only for four skin models) and hydration within a spectrum of 800-1100 nm. The thickness of the subcutaneous fat was set from 1 to 15 mm in 1 mm intervals in each model. Varying volume fractions of water in skin resulted minimal changes of NIR intensity at ranges of wavelengths from 890 to 940 nm and from 1010 to 1100 nm. Variation of the melanin volume in skin meanwhile was found to strongly influence the NIR intensity and sensitivity. The NIR sensitivities and NIR intensity over thickness of fat decreased from the Caucasian skin to African skin throughout the range of wavelengths. For the relationship between the NIR reflection and the thickness of subcutaneous fat, logarithmic relationship was obtained. The minimal changes of NIR intensity values at wavelengths within the ranges from 890 to 940 nm and from 1010 to 1100 nm to variation of volume fractions of water suggests that wavelengths within those two ranges are considered for use in measurement of body fat to solve the variation of hydration in neonates. The stronger influence of skin colour on NIR shows that the melanin effect needs to be corrected by an independent measurement or by a modeling approach. The logarithmic response obtained with higher sensitivity at the lower range of thickness of fat suggests that implementation of NIRS

  17. Body electrical loss analysis (BELA in the assessment of visceral fat: a demonstration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blomqvist Kim H

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body electrical loss analysis (BELA is a new non-invasive way to assess visceral fat depot size through the use of electromagnetism. BELA has worked well in phantom measurements, but the technology is not yet fully validated. Methods Ten volunteers (5 men and 5 women, age: 22-60 y, BMI: 21-30 kg/m2, waist circumference: 73-108 cm were measured with the BELA instrument and with cross-sectional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI at the navel level, navel +5 cm and navel -5 cm. The BELA signal was compared with visceral and subcutaneous fat areas calculated from the MR images. Results The BELA signal did not correlate with subcutaneous fat area at any level, but correlated significantly with visceral fat area at the navel level and navel +5 cm. The correlation was best at level of navel +5 cm (R2 = 0.74, P 2, LOOCV = 40.1 cm2, where SEE is the standard error of the estimate and LOOCV is the root mean squared error of leave-one-out style cross-validation. The average estimate of repeatability of the BELA signal observed through the study was ±9.6 %. One of the volunteers had an exceptionally large amount of visceral fat, which was underestimated by BELA. Conclusions The correlation of the BELA signal with the visceral but not with the subcutaneous fat area as measured by MRI is promising. The lack of correlation with the subcutaneous fat suggests that subcutaneous fat has a minor influence to the BELA signal. Further research will show if it is possible to develop a reliable low-cost method for the assessment of visceral fat either using BELA only or combining it, for example, with bioelectrical impedance measurement. The combination of these measurements may help assessing visceral fat in a large scale of body composition. Before large-scale clinical testing and ROC analysis, the initial BELA instrumentation requires improvements. The accuracy of the present equipment is not sufficient for such new technology.

  18. Basal metabolic rate and body fatness of adult men in northern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, M E; Moya, S Y; McNeill, G; Haggarty, P

    1994-03-01

    To investigate the possibility that overprediction of basal metabolic rate (BMR) of tropical populations is related to differences in fatness between tropical and temperate populations, 32 Mexican men aged 18-40 years underwent measurements of BMR and body fat content. The men were divided into four body mass index (BMI) groups (FAO/WHO/UNU (1985) equations. The FAO/WHO/UNU equations overestimated measured BMR by 9.8%, 9.6%, 7.8% and 5.5% in the four groups. The overall difference was 8.2%, which was statistically significant (P < 0.001). The intercepts of the two equations were significantly different (P < 0.001) by 532 kJ/day, but there was no significant difference between the slopes of the two regression equations. There was no significant difference between BMR/kg fat-free mass in the four BMI groups. The results therefore do not support the possibility that the overprediction of BMR in tropical populations by international prediction equations based on body weight is accounted for by differences in fatness between tropical and temperate populations.

  19. Sex effect on productive parameters, carcass and body fat composition of two commercial broilers lines

    OpenAIRE

    S Rondelli; Martinez, O; PT García

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate sex effect on behavior of two commercial broilers lines. Productive parameters, carcass composition and yield, amount and quality of fat deposited in the meat and skin and total body fat were studied. A completely randomized design with four treatments (MR-Male Ross, HR-Female Ross, MAF-Male Avian Farm and HAF-Female Avian Farm) and eight repetitions of 40 chickens was used. Animals received water and food ad libitum. After 50 days, two birds (a male and a...

  20. Review of the Mechanisms and Effects of Noninvasive Body Contouring Devices on Cellulite and Subcutaneous Fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Zahra; Halabchi, Farzin; Mazaheri, Reza; Abolhasani, Maryam; Tabesh, Mastaneh

    2016-10-01

    Today, different kinds of non-invasive body contouring modalities, including cryolipolysis, radiofrequency (RF), low-level laser therapy (LLLT), and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) are available for reducing the volume of subcutaneous adipose tissue or cellulite. Each procedure has distinct mechanisms for stimulating apoptosis or necrosis adipose tissue. In addition to the mentioned techniques, some investigations are underway for analyzing the efficacy of other techniques such as whole body vibration (WBV) and extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT). In the present review the mechanisms, effects and side effects of the mentioned methods have been discussed. The effect of these devices on cellulite or subcutaneous fat reduction has been assessed. We searched pubmed, google scholar and the cochrane databases for systemic reviews, review articles, meta-analysis and randomized clinical trials up to February 2015. The keywords were subcutaneous fat, cellulite, obesity, noninvasive body contouring, cryolipolysis, RF, LLLT, HIFU, ESWT and WBV with full names and abbreviations. We included seven reviews and 66 original articles in the present narrative review. Most of them were applied on normal weight or overweight participants (body mass index cellulite in some body areas. However, the clinical effects are mild to moderate, for example 2 - 4 cm circumference reduction as a sign of subcutaneous fat reduction during total treatment sessions. Overall, there is no definitive noninvasive treatment method for cellulite. Additionally, due to the methodological differences in the existing evidence, comparing the techniques is difficult.

  1. Significant Beneficial Association of High Dietary Selenium Intake with Reduced Body Fat in the CODING Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongbo; Gao, Xiang; Pedram, Pardis; Shahidi, Mariam; Du, Jianling; Yi, Yanqing; Gulliver, Wayne; Zhang, Hongwei; Sun, Guang

    2016-01-04

    Selenium (Se) is a trace element which plays an important role in adipocyte hypertrophy and adipogenesis. Some studies suggest that variations in serum Se may be associated with obesity. However, there are few studies examining the relationship between dietary Se and obesity, and findings are inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the association between dietary Se intake and a panel of obesity measurements with systematic control of major confounding factors. A total of 3214 subjects participated in the study. Dietary Se intake was determined from the Willett food frequency questionnaire. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Obese men and women had the lowest dietary Se intake, being 24% to 31% lower than corresponding normal weight men and women, classified by both BMI and body fat percentage. Moreover, subjects with the highest dietary Se intake had the lowest BMI, waist circumference, and trunk, android, gynoid and total body fat percentages, with a clear dose-dependent inverse relationship observed in both gender groups. Furthermore, significant negative associations discovered between dietary Se intake and obesity measurements were independent of age, total dietary calorie intake, physical activity, smoking, alcohol, medication, and menopausal status. Dietary Se intake alone may account for 9%-27% of the observed variations in body fat percentage. The findings from this study strongly suggest that high dietary Se intake is associated with a beneficial body composition profile.

  2. Resveratrol does not increase body fat loss induced by energy restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberdi, Goiuri; Macarulla, M Teresa; Portillo, María P; Rodríguez, Víctor M

    2014-06-01

    Resveratrol (RSV) is known to have an antiobesogenic effect because it mimics energy restriction. However, hardly any evidence exists concerning the combined effects of RSV and energy restriction on body fat reduction. So, the aim of the present study was to determine whether RSV increases body fat reduction induced by energy restriction. Male Wistar rats were fed a high-fat, high-sucrose diet for 6 weeks to obtain a diet-induced obesity model. Then they were submitted to a mild energy restriction (25%) without or with RSV supplementation (30 mg/kg body weight/day) for 2 weeks. Final body weight, subcutaneous and intra-abdominal white adipose tissues weights, Adipose Index, and serum triacylglycerol, cholesterol, glucose, and insulin were assessed. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) activities, as well as their genetic expressions, were measured in white adipose tissue. Final body weight, white adipose tissue weights, Adipose Index, and serum triacylglycerol, cholesterol, and insulin were reduced in both groups, but no differences were found among them. FAS, ACC, and LPL activities and expressions were also similar in both groups. These results suggest a lack of any adjuvant effect of RSV on energy restriction for obesity treatment purposes.

  3. Body Fat and Body-Mass Index among a Multiethnic Sample of College-Age Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine L. Carpenter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity prevalence and average body composition vary by US race and gender. Asian Americans have the lowest prevalence of obesity. Relying on body-mass index (BMI to estimate obesity prevalence may misclassify subgroups that appear normally weighted but have excess body fat. We evaluated percentage body fat (PBF and BMI to determine whether BMI reflects PBF consistently across different races. 940 college students were recruited from a local public university over four consecutive years. We measured PBF by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA, weight by physicians’ scales, and height with stadiometers. Our sample comprised Asians (49%, Caucasians (23%, Hispanics (7%, and Other (21%. Participants averaged 21.4 years old; BMI was 22.9 kg/m2; PBF was 24.8%. BMI and PBF varied significantly by race and gender (P value = 0.002 and 0.005 for men; 0.0009 and 0.0008 for women. Asian-American women had the lowest BMI (21.5 kg/m2 but the second highest PBF (27.8%. Linear association between BMI and PBF was the weakest ( among Asian-American women and BMI had the poorest sensitivity (37% to detect PBF. The high PBF with low BMI pattern exhibited by Asian-American women suggests that they could escape detection for obesity-related disease if BMI is the sole measure that estimates body composition.

  4. Glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to changes in body weight, body fat distribution, and body composition in adult Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hare-Bruun, Helle; Flint, Anne; Heitmann, Berit L

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A diet with a high glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) may promote overconsumption of energy and increase the risk of weight gain. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to investigate the relation between GI and GL of habitual diets and subsequent 6-y changes in body weight...... born in 1922, 1932, 1942, or 1952. A baseline health examination and a dietary history interview were carried out in 1987 and 1988; a follow-up health examination was performed in 1993 and 1994. RESULTS: Positive associations between GI and changes in body weight (DeltaBW), percentage body fat (Delta...... observed in men, and no significant associations with GL were observed in either sex. CONCLUSIONS: High-GI diets may lead to increases in BW, body fat mass, and WC in women, especially in sedentary women, which suggests that physical activity may protect against diet-induced weight gain. No associations...

  5. Whole-Body Vibration Training Improves Heart Rate Variability and Body Fat Percentage in Obese Hispanic Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severino, Gregory; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos; Walters-Edwards, Michelle; Nordvall, Michael; Chernykh, Oksana; Adames, Jason; Wong, Alexei

    2017-07-01

    The present study examined the effects of a 6-week whole-body vibration training (WBVT) regimen on heart rate variability (HRV) and body composition in obese Hispanic postmenopausal women. Participants were randomly assigned to either WBVT (n = 13) or a nonexercising control group (n = 14). HRV and body composition were measured before and after 6 weeks. There was a significant group by time interaction (P body fat percentage (BF%) such that all significantly decreased (P changes after control. The changes in sympathovagal balance were correlated with changes in BF% (r = .63, P HRV and BF% in obese Hispanic postmenopausal women. The improvement in BF% partially explained the decrease in sympathovagal balance. Since obese and older individuals are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, they could potentially benefit from WBVT.

  6. Accuracy of body mass index (BMI) thresholds for predicting excess body fat in girls from five ethnicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, J Scott; Duncan, Elizabeth K; Schofield, Grant

    2009-01-01

    The association between body mass index (BMI) and body fat in young people differs among ethnic groups. Consequently, BMI thresholds for defining childhood overweight may not represent an equivalent level of adiposity in multiethnic populations. The objectives of this study were to characterise the relationships between BMI and percentage body fat (%BF) and to determine the appropriateness of universal BMI standards for predicting excess fatness in girls from five ethnic groups. The BMI and %BF of 1,676 European, Maori, Pacific Island, East Asian, and South Asian girls aged 5-16 years were determined using anthropometric and bioimpedance measurements. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were prepared to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the International Obesity Taskforce (IOTF) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) BMI thresholds for detecting %BF >85th percentile. Compared with European girls, South and East Asians averaged 4.2% and 1.3% more %BF at a fixed BMI and age, whereas Pacific Islanders averaged 1.8% less %BF. Areas under the ROC curves ranged from 89.9% to 92.4%, suggesting that BMI is an acceptable screening tool for identifying excess adiposity. However, the IOTF and CDC thresholds showed low sensitivity for predicting excess %BF in South and East Asian girls, with low specificity in Pacific Island and Maori girls. The development of an ethnic-specific definition of overweight improved diagnostic performance. We conclude that BMI can be an acceptable proxy measure of excess fatness in girls from diverse ethnicities, especially when ethnic-specific BMI reference points are implemented.

  7. Whole body, regional fat accumulation, and appetite-related hormonal response after hypoxic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishima, Takuma; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Goto, Kazushige

    2014-03-01

    The present study was conducted to determine change in regional fat accumulation and appetite-related hormonal response following hypoxic training. Twenty sedentary subjects underwent hypoxic (n = 9, HYPO, FiO(2) = 15%) or normoxic training (n = 11, NOR, FiO(2) = 20·9%) during a 4-week period (3 days per week). They performed a 4-week training at 55% of maximal oxygen uptake (V·O(2max)) for each condition. Before and after the training period, V·O(2max), whole body fat mass, abdominal fat area, intramyocellular lipid content (IMCL), fasting and postprandial appetite-related hormonal responses were determined. Both groups showed a significant increase in V·O(2max) following training (Pdecreased in both groups (Pappetite-related hormones.

  8. Animal models of sugar and fat bingeing: relationship to food addiction and increased body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avena, Nicole M; Bocarsly, Miriam E; Hoebel, Bartley G

    2012-01-01

    Binge eating is a behavior that occurs in some eating disorders, as well as in obesity and in nonclinical populations. Both sugars and fats are readily consumed by human beings and are common components of binges. This chapter describes animal models of sugar and fat bingeing, which allow for a detailed analysis of these behaviors and their concomitant physiological effects. The model of sugar bingeing has been used successfully to elicit behavioral and neurochemical signs of dependence in rats; e.g., indices of opiate-like withdrawal, increased intake after abstinence, cross-sensitization with drugs of abuse, and the repeated release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens following repeated bingeing. Studies using the model of fat bingeing suggest that it can produce some, but not all, of the signs of dependence that are seen with sugar binge eating, as well as increase body weight, potentially leading to obesity.

  9. Body mass, fat-free body mass, and prognosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease from a random population sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen; Prescott, Eva; Almdal, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Low body mass index (BMI) is a marker of poor prognosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the general population, the harmful effect of low BMI is due to the deleterious effects of a low fat-free mass index (FFMI; fat-free mass/weight(2)).......Low body mass index (BMI) is a marker of poor prognosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the general population, the harmful effect of low BMI is due to the deleterious effects of a low fat-free mass index (FFMI; fat-free mass/weight(2))....

  10. Gender- and Gestational Age-Specific Body Fat Percentage at Birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hawkes, Colin P

    2011-08-08

    Background: There is increasing evidence that in utero growth has both immediate and far-reaching influence on health. Birth weight and length are used as surrogate measures of in utero growth. However, these measures poorly reflect neonatal adiposity. Air-displacement plethysmography has been validated for the measurement of body fat in the neonatal population. Objective: The goal of this study was to show the normal reference values of percentage body fat (%BF) in infants during the first 4 days of life. Methods: As part of a large population-based birth cohort study, fat mass, fat-free mass, and %BF were measured within the first 4 days of life using air-displacement plethsymography. Infants were grouped into gestational age and gender categories. Results: Of the 786 enrolled infants, fat mass, fat-free mass, and %BF were measured in 743 (94.5%) infants within the first 4 days of life. %BF increased significantly with gestational age. Mean (SD) %BF at 36 to 37 weeks\\' gestation was 8.9% (3.5%); at 38 to 39 weeks\\' gestation, 10.3% (4%); and at 40 to 41 weeks\\' gestation, 11.2% (4.3%) (P < .001). Female infants had significantly increased mean (SD) %BF at 38 to 39(11.1% [3.9%] vs 9.8% [3.9%]; P = .012) and at 40 to 41 (12.5% [4.4%] vs 10% [3.9%]; P < .001) weeks\\' gestation compared with male infants. Gender- and gestational age-specific centiles were calculated, and a normative table was generated for reference. Conclusion: %BF at birth is influenced by gestational age and gender. We generated accurate %BF centiles from a large population-based cohort.

  11. Sequence of fat partitioning and its relationship with whole body insulin resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Xiu-ping; LI Hong-liang; YANG Wen-ying; XIAO Jian-zhong; WANG Bing; LOU Da-jun; DU Rui-qin

    2010-01-01

    Background Currently it is unclear whether lipid accumulation occurs in a particular sequence and its relationship with whole body insulin resistance (IR). This study aimed to answer this question.Methods Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were fed on a normal or a high-fat diet for 20 weeks. Serum triglycerides (TG), serum free fatty acids (FFA), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and liver and skeletal muscle TG were measured. The glucose infusion rate (GIR) and mRNA levels of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) in the liver and skeletal muscle were determined at different stages.Results Compared with rats fed on the normal diet, serum FFA was not significantly increased in rats fed on the high-fat diet until 20 weeks. In contrast, liver TG was significantly increased by the high-fat diet by four weeks (20-fold; P <0.01),and remained elevated until the end of the study. However, skeletal muscle TG was not significantly increased by the high-fat diet until 20 weeks (10.6-fold; P<0.01), and neither was the FPG. The GIR was significantly reduced (1.6-fold; P <0.01) by the high-fat diet after 8 weeks. The mRNA levels of ACC gradually increased over time and CPT-1 decreased over time, in both the liver and skeletal muscle in rats fed the high-fat diet.Conclusions Lipid accumulation in the liver occurs earlier than lipid accumulation in the skeletal muscle. Fatty liver may be one of the early markers of whole body IR. Changes in the gene expression levels of ACC and CPT-1 may have important roles in the process of IR development.

  12. Supplementation with CLA: isomer incorporation into serum lipids and effect on body fat of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petridou, Anatoli; Mougios, Vassilis; Sagredos, Angelos

    2003-08-01

    Animal studies have suggested that CLA, a natural component of meat and dairy products, may confer beneficial effects on health. However, human studies using supplementation with CLA have produced contradictory results. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the effect of CLA supplementation on human body fat, serum leptin, and serum lipids, as well as the incorporation of CLA isomers into serum lipids classes. Sixteen young healthy nonobese sedentary women received 2.1 g of CLA (divided equally between the cis,trans-9,11 and trans,cis-10,12 isomers) daily for 45 d and placebo for 45 d in a randomized double-blind crossover design. Body fat was estimated (by measurement of skinfold thickness at 10 sites), and blood was sampled at the beginning, middle, and end of the entire intervention period; an additional blood sample was obtained 2 wk thereafter. No significant differences in energy, carbohydrate, lipid, or protein intake existed between the CLA and placebo intake periods. No significant differences were found in body fat or serum leptin, TAG, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and alanine aminotransferase between CLA and placebo. The CLA isomer content of serum TAG, phospholipids, and total lipids increased 2-5 times with CLA supplementation (P lipids. These data indicate that supplementation with 2.1 g of CLA daily for 45 d increased its levels in blood but had no effect on body composition or the lipidemic profile of nonobese women.

  13. RELATIVE TOTAL BODY FAT AND SKINFOLD PATTERNING IN FILIPINO NATIONAL COMBAT SPORT ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi T. Bercades

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess relative total body fat and skinfold patterning in Filipino national karate and pencak silat athletes. Participants were members of the Philippine men's and women's national teams in karate (12 males, 5 females and pencak silat (17 males and 5 females. In addition to age, the following anthropometric measurements were taken: height, body mass, triceps, subscapular, supraspinale, umbilical, anterior thigh and medial calf skinfolds. Relative total body fat was expressed as sum of six skinfolds. Sum of skinfolds and each individual skinfold were also expressed relative to Phantom height. A two-way (Sport*Gender ANOVA was used to determine the differences between men and women in total body fat and skinfold patterning. A Bonferroni-adjusted alpha was employed for all analyses. The women had a higher proportional sum of skinfols (80.19 ± 25.31 mm vs. 51.77 ± 21.13 mm, p = 0. 001, eta2 = 0.275. The men had a lower proportional triceps skinfolds (-1.72 ± 0.71 versus - 0.35 ± 0.75, p < 0.001. Collapsed over gender, the karate athletes (-2.18 ± 0.66 had a lower proportional anterior thigh skinfold than their pencak silat colleagues (-1.71 ± 0.74, p = 0.001. Differences in competition requirements between sports may account for some of the disparity in anthropometric measurements

  14. The Effects of Varying Concentrations of Dietary Protein and Fat on Blood Gas, Hematologic Serum Chemistry, and Body Temperature Before and After Exercise in Labrador Retrievers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ober, John; Gillette, Robert L; Angle, Thomas Craig; Haney, Pamela; Fletcher, Daniel J; Wakshlag, Joseph J

    2016-01-01

    Optimal dietary protocols for the athletic canine are often defined by requirements for endurance athletes that do not always translate into optimal dietary interventions for all canine athletes. Prior research studying detection dogs suggests that dietary fat sources can influence olfaction; however, as fat is added to the diet the protein calories can be diminished potentially resulting in decreased red blood cell counts or albumin status. Optimal macronutrient profile for detection dogs may be different considering the unique work they engage in. To study a calorically low protein: high fat (18:57% ME), high protein: high fat (27:57% ME), and high protein: low fat (27:32% ME) approach to feeding, 17 dogs were provided various diets in a 3 × 3 cross over design. Dogs were exercised on a treadmill and blood was taken pre-exercise, immediately post-exercise, 10- and 20-min post-exercise to assess complete blood count, serum chemistry, blood gases, and cortisol; as well as rectal and core body temperature. Exercise induced a decrease in serum phosphorus, potassium, and increases in non-esterified fatty acids and cortisol typical of moderate exercise bouts. A complete and balanced high protein: high-fat diet (27:57% ME) induced decreases in serum cortisol and alkaline phosphatase. Corn oil top dressed low protein: high-fat diet (18:57% ME) induced a slightly better thermal recovery than a complete and balanced high protein: high fat diet and a high protein: low fat (27%:32% ME) diet suggesting some mild advantages when using the low protein: high fat diet that warrant further investigation regarding optimal protein and fat calories and thermal recovery.

  15. exo-Brevicomin biosynthesis in the fat body of the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Minmin; Gorzalski, Andrew; Nguyen, Trang T; Liu, Xibei; Jeffrey, Christopher; Blomquist, Gary J; Tittiger, Claus

    2014-02-01

    exo-Brevicomin (exo-7-ethyl-5-methyl-6,8-dioxabicyclo[3.2.1]octane) is an important semiochemical for a number of beetle species, including the highly destructive mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae. It also has been found in other insects and even in the African elephant. Despite its significance, little is known about its biosynthesis. In order to fill this gap and to identify new molecular targets for potential pest management methods, we performed gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of cell cultures and in vitro assays of various D. ponderosae tissues with exo-brevicomin intermediates, analogs, and inhibitors. We confirmed that exo-brevicomin was synthesized by "unfed" males after emerging from the brood tree. Furthermore, in contrast to the paradigm established for biosynthesis of monoterpenoid pheromone components in bark beetles, exo-brevicomin was produced in the fat body, and not in the anterior midgut. The first committed step involves decarboxylation or decarbonylation of ω-3-decenoic acid, which is derived from a longer-chain precursor via β-oxidation, to (Z)-6-nonen-2-ol. This secondary alcohol is converted to the known precursor, (Z)-6-nonen-2-one, and further epoxidized by a cytochrome P450 to 6,7-epoxynonan-2-one. The keto-epoxide is stable at physiological pH, suggesting that its final cyclization to form exo-brevicomin is enzyme-catalyzed. exo-Brevicomin production is unusual in that tissue not derived from ectoderm apparently is involved.

  16. Reported food intake and distribution of body fat: a repeated cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stenlund Hans

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body mass, as well as distribution of body fat, are predictors of both diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In Northern Sweden, despite a marked increase in average body mass, prevalence of diabetes was stagnant and myocardial infarctions decreased. A more favourable distribution of body fat is a possible contributing factor. This study investigates the relative importance of individual food items for time trends in waist circumference (WC and hip circumference (HC on a population level. Methods Independent cross-sectional surveys conducted in 1986, 1990, 1994 and 1999 in the two northernmost counties of Sweden with a common population of 250000. Randomly selected age stratified samples, altogether 2982 men and 3087 women aged 25–64 years. Questionnaires were completed and anthropometric measurements taken. For each food item, associations between frequency of consumption and waist and hip circumferences were estimated. Partial regression coefficients for every level of reported intake were multiplied with differences in proportion of the population reporting the corresponding levels of intake in 1986 and 1999. The sum of these product terms for every food item was the respective estimated impact on mean circumference. Results Time trends in reported food consumption associated with the more favourable gynoid distribution of adipose tissue were increased use of vegetable oil, pasta and 1.5% fat milk. Trends associated with abdominal obesity were increased consumption of beer in men and higher intake of hamburgers and French fried potatoes in women. Conclusion Food trends as markers of time trends in body fat distribution have been identified. The method is a complement to conventional approaches to establish associations between food intake and disease risk on a population level.

  17. Body adiposity index (BAI) correlates with BMI and body fat pre- and post-bariatric surgery but is not an adequate substitute for BMI in severely obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, C D; Atalayer, D; Flancbaum, L; Geliebter, A

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Body Adiposity Index (BAI), a new surrogate measure of body fat (hip circumference/[height 1.5-18]), has been proposed as a more accurate alternative to BMI. We compared BAI with BMI and their correlations with measures of body fat, waist circumference (WC), and indirect indices of fat pre- and post-Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). METHODS: Sixteen clinically severe obese (CSO) non-diabetic women (age = 33.9± 7.9 SD; BMI = 46.5±9.5 kg/m(2)) were assessed pre-surgery, and at 2 (n=9) and 5 mo (n=8) post-surgery. Body fat percentage (% fat) was estimated with bioimpedance analysis (BIA), air displacement plethysmography (ADP), and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). WC, an indicator of central fat, and both plasma leptin (ng/ml) and insulin (mU/l) concentrations were measured as indirect body fat indices. Pre- and post-surgery values were analyzed with Pearson correlations and linear regressions. RESULTS: BAI and BMI correlated significantly with each other pre-surgery and at each time point post surgery. BAI and BMI also correlated significantly with % fat from BIA and ADP; however, only BMI correlated significantly with % fat from DXA pre- and post-RYGB. BMI was the single best predictor of WC and leptin at 2 and 5 mo post-surgery and had significant longitudinal changes correlating with % fat from BIA and DXA as well as with leptin. DISCUSSION: Both BAI and BMI were good surrogates of % fat as estimated from BIA and ADP, but only BMI was a good surrogate of % fat from DXA in CSO women. Thus, BAI may not be a better alternative to BMI.

  18. Body mass index and measures of body fat for defining obesity and underweight: a cross-sectional, population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Pasco, Julie A; Kara L. Holloway; Amelia G. Dobbins; Kotowicz, Mark A; Lana J Williams; Brennan, Sharon L

    2014-01-01

    Background The body mass index (BMI) is commonly used as a surrogate marker for adiposity. However, the BMI indicates weight-for-height without considering differences in body composition and the contribution of body fat to overall body weight. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify sex-and-age-specific values for percentage body fat (%BF), measured using whole body dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), that correspond to BMI 18.5 kg/m2 (threshold for underweight), 25.0 kg/m2...

  19. Body fat and dairy product intake in lactase persistent and non-persistent children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Almon

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background : Lactase non-persistent (LNP individuals may be lactose intolerant and therefore on a more restricted diet concerning milk and milk products compared to lactase persistent (LP individuals. This may have an impact on body fat mass. Objective : This study examines if LP and LNP children and adolescents, defined by genotyping for the LCT-13910 C > T polymorphism, differ from each other with regard to milk and milk product intake, and measures of body fat mass. Design : Children (n=298, mean age 9.6 years and adolescents (n=386, mean age 15.6 years, belonging to the Swedish part of the European Youth Heart Study, were genotyped for the LCT-13910 C > T polymorphism. Dietary intakes of reduced and full-fat dairy varieties were determined. Results : LNP (CC genotype subjects consumed less milk, soured milk and yoghurt compared to LP (CT/TT genotype subjects (p<0.001. Subsequent partitioning for age group attenuated this observation (p=0.002 for children and p=0.023 in adolescents. Six subjects were reported by parents to be ‘lactose intolerant’, none of whom were LNP. LNP children and adolescents consumed significantly less reduced fat milk and milk products than LP children and adolescents (p=0.009 for children and p = 0.001 for adolescents. Conclusions : We conclude that LP is linked to an overall higher milk and dairy intake, but is not linked to higher body fat mass in children and adolescents.

  20. Accuracy of different cutoff points of body mass index to identify overweight according to body fat values estimated by DEXA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzolin, Caroline Cristina; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Zanuto, Edner Fernando; Cayres, Suziane Ungari; Codogno, Jamile Sanches; Costa Junior, Paulo; Machado, Dalmo Roberto Lopes; Christofaro, Diego Giulliano Destro

    To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of different cutoff points of body mass index for predicting overweight/obesity according to body fat values estimated by DEXA among Brazilian adolescents. Cross-sectional study including 229 male adolescents aged 10-15 years, in which body adiposity and anthropometric measures were assessed. Nutritional status was classified by BMI according to cutoff points described in scientific literature. Moderate agreements were observed between body fat estimated by DEXA and cutoffs proposed by Cole et al. (K=0.61), Conde and Monteiro (K=0.65), Must et al. (K=0.61) and WHO (K=0.63). The BMI in continuous form showed good agreement with the Dexa (ICC=0.72). The highest sensitivity was observed for cutoff by Conde and Monteiro (0.74 [0.62, 0.84]) and the highest specificity by Cole et al. (0.98 [0.94, 0.99]). For the areas under the ROC curve of cutoff points analyzed, significant difference comparing the cutoff points by Cole et al. and Conde and Monteiro (0.0449 [0.00294, 0.0927]) was observed. The cutoff proposed by Conde and Monteiro was more sensitive in identifying overweight and obesity when compared to the reference method, and the cutoff proposed by Cole et al. presented the highest specificity for such outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Estimation of body fat in Pakistani adult: A comparison of equations based upon skinfold thickness measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, Hafeeza; Mushtaq, Kinza; Butt, Bilal Azeem; Khawaja, Khadija Irfan

    2017-01-01

    To compare three different body fats estimation equations using skin fold measurements with bioelectrical impedance analysis. A total of 130 subjects were included from Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Services Hospital, Lahore from 1(st) April 2016 to 30(th) Sep. 2016. The triceps, biceps, subscapular, chest, thigh, abdominal, suprailiac skinfold thickness of the subjects was measured with skin-fold calipers (Harpenden) on non-dominant side. The percentage fat mass (%FM) predicted by using each skin-fold-thickness equations namely Durnin & Womersley, Jackson & Pollock and Sloan was compared with %FM measured using a bioelectrical impedance analyzer (BIA). The mean age of subjects was 48.75±10.7 years, mean BMI was 29.08±6.09 kg/m(2). The mean %FM calculated by Durnin & Womersley (32.408±0.584), Jackson & Pollock (24.658±0.527), Sloan (20.40±0.545). The %FM by BIA was 38.182±0.529. All three equations showed positive correlation but underestimated %FM as compared to BIA. All three BF estimation equations underestimate body fat percentage compared to BIA. Among the three, Durnin & Womersley equation shows best positive correlation and hence it can be used for estimation of percentage fat mass as an alternate to BIA.

  2. Relationship Between Triglyceride Tolerance, Body Mass Index, and Fat Depots in Hospitalized Patients Receiving Parenteral Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazee, Erin N; Nystrom, Erin M; McMahon, M Molly; Williamson, Eric E; Miles, John M

    2015-11-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia has been associated with adverse outcomes in patients receiving intravenous fat emulsions (IVFEs), but little is known about its prevalence and causes. The study investigated whether a relationship exists between body mass index (BMI) and triglyceride tolerance in parenterally fed patients. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 287 adults receiving parenteral nutrition to determine whether patients with very low BMI (VLBMI, triglyceride concentration during IVFE was significantly lower in VLBMI patients at 107 mg/dL compared with 124 mg/dL in non-VLBMI patients (P = .016), despite higher lipid infusion rates in the VLBMI group. There was a significant association between triglycerides and BMI in the aggregate cohort (R = 0.2375, P triglyceride concentrations correlated with visceral fat but not subcutaneous abdominal fat. In summary, patients with VLBMI have lower triglyceride concentrations during IVFEs than do other individuals, but there is considerable variability in triglycerides and body fat in this group. Caution should be employed with the use of IVFEs, especially in HBMI patients. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  3. Fat Body dSir2 Regulates Muscle Mitochondrial Physiology and Energy Homeostasis Nonautonomously and Mimics the Autonomous Functions of dSir2 in Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Kushal K.; Ayyub, Champakali; Sengupta, Samudra

    2013-01-01

    Sir2 is an evolutionarily conserved NAD+-dependent deacetylase which has been shown to play a critical role in glucose and fat metabolism. In this study, we have perturbed Drosophila Sir2 (dSir2) expression, bidirectionally, in muscles and the fat body. We report that dSir2 plays a critical role in insulin signaling, glucose homeostasis, and mitochondrial functions. Importantly, we establish the nonautonomous functions of fat body dSir2 in regulating mitochondrial physiology and insulin signaling in muscles. We have identified a novel interplay between dSir2 and dFOXO at an organismal level, which involves Drosophila insulin-like peptide (dILP)-dependent insulin signaling. By genetic perturbations and metabolic rescue, we provide evidence to illustrate that fat body dSir2 mediates its effects on the muscles via free fatty acids (FFA) and dILPs (from the insulin-producing cells [IPCs]). In summary, we show that fat body dSir2 is a master regulator of organismal energy homeostasis and is required for maintaining the metabolic regulatory network across tissues. PMID:23129806

  4. Association of total body and visceral fat mass with iron deficiency in preadolescents: the Healthy Growth Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschonis, George; Chrousos, George P; Lionis, Christos; Mougios, Vassilis; Manios, Yannis

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the associations of obesity, percentage body fat and visceral fat mass with body Fe status in a representative sample of 1493 schoolchildren aged 9-13 years. Anthropometric, body composition, biochemical, clinical (Tanner stage, age of menarche) and dietary intake data were collected. Fe deficiency (ID) was defined as transferrin saturation (TS) deficiency anaemia (IDA) as ID with Hb < 120 g/l. Obese boys and girls and those in the highest quartiles of percentage body fat mass had significantly higher levels of serum ferritin (P ≤ 0.05) compared to their normal-weight peers and those in the corresponding lowest quartiles. Similarly, obese boys and girls and those in the highest quartiles of percentage body fat and visceral fat mass had significantly lower levels of TS (P ≤ 0.05) compared to normal-weight children and those in the corresponding lowest quartiles. The prevalence of ID and IDA was significantly higher in boys and girls in the highest quartiles of percentage body fat than in peers in the lowest quartile. Higher quartiles of percentage body fat and visceral fat mass were the main significant predictors of ID in boys, after controlling for other important confounders, with OR of 2.48 (95 % CI, 1.26, 4.88) and 2.12 (95 % CI, 1.07, 4.19), respectively. Similar significant associations were observed for girls. In conclusion, percentage body fat and visceral fat mass were positively associated with ID in both sexes of preadolescents. These associations might be attributed to the chronic inflammation induced by excess adiposity.

  5. Assessment of body fat and lean in the elderly by measuring body carbon and oxygen: validation against hydrodensitometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehayias, J J; Zhuang, H; Hughes, V; Dowling, L

    1998-01-01

    Based on the observation that the carbon-to-oxygen ratio (C/O) in tissue is a measure of fat content, we developed a model which correlates C/O to percent body fat. Carbon and oxygen mass and their ratio are measured in vivo by fast neutron inelastic scattering, using a miniature D-T neutron generator, at a radiation exposure of less than 0.06 mSv. We tested the validity of this model against hydrodensitometry with 19 healthy adult volunteers. The method was found to be accurate and insensitive to assumptions about the composition of lean tissue and, therefore, appropriate for studying the elderly and patients with catabolic conditions.

  6. Small Buccal Fat Pad Cells Have High Osteogenic Differentiation Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurumachi, Niina; Akita, Daisuke; Kano, Koichiro; Matsumoto, Taro; Toriumi, Taku; Kazama, Tomohiko; Oki, Yoshinao; Tamura, Yoko; Tonogi, Morio; Isokawa, Keitaro; Shimizu, Noriyoshi; Honda, Masaki

    2016-03-01

    Dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells derived from mature adipocytes have mesenchymal stem cells' (MSCs) characteristics. Generally, mature adipocytes are 60-110 μm in diameter; however, association between adipocyte size and dedifferentiation efficiency is still unknown. This study, therefore, investigated the dedifferentiation efficiency of adipocytes based on cell diameter. Buccal fat pad was harvested from five human donors and dissociated by collagenase digestion. After exclusion of unwanted stromal cells by centrifugation, floating adipocytes were collected and their size distribution was analyzed. The floating adipocytes were then separated into two groups depending on cell size using 40- and 100-μm nylon mesh filters: cell diameters less than 40 μm (small adipocytes: S-adipocytes) and cell diameters of 40-100 μm (large adipocytes: L-adipocytes). Finally, we evaluated the efficiency of adipocyte dedifferentiation and then characterized the resultant DFAT cells. The S-adipocytes showed a higher capacity to dedifferentiate into DFAT cells (S-DFAT cells) compared to the L-adipocytes (L-DFAT cells). The S-DFAT cells also showed a relatively higher proportion of CD146-positive cells than L-DFAT cells, and exhibited more osteogenic differentiation ability based on the alkaline phosphatase activity and amount of calcium deposition. These results suggested that the S- and L-DFAT cells had distinct characteristics, and that the higher dedifferentiation potential of S-adipocytes compared to L-adipocytes gives the former group an advantage in yielding DFAT cells.

  7. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Obesity, body fatness and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Annie S; Key, Timothy J; Norat, Teresa; Scoccianti, Chiara; Cecchini, Michele; Berrino, Franco; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Espina, Carolina; Leitzmann, Michael; Powers, Hilary; Wiseman, Martin; Romieu, Isabelle

    2015-12-01

    It is estimated that over half the population of the European Union (EU) is overweight or obese due to an imbalance between energy expenditure and energy intake; this is related to an obesogenic environment of sociocultural, economic and marketing challenges to the control of body weight. Excess body fat is associated with nine cancer sites - oesophagus, colorectum, gall bladder, pancreas, postmenopausal breast, endometrium, ovary, kidney and prostate (advanced) - and 4-38% of these cancers (depending on site and gender) can be attributed to overweight/obesity status. Metabolic alterations which accompany excess body weight are accompanied by increased levels of inflammation, insulin, oestrogens and other hormonal factors. There are some indications that intentional weight loss is associated with reduced cancer incidence (notably in postmenopausal breast and endometrial cancers). Excess body weight is also a risk factor for several other diseases, including diabetes and heart disease, and is related to higher risk of premature death. In reviewing the current evidence related to excess body fat and cancer, the European Code against Cancer Nutrition Working Group has developed the following recommendation: 'Take action to be a healthy body weight'. Copyright © 2015 International Agency for Research on Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Low physical activity accentuates the effect of the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism on body fat accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Camilla H; Stender-Petersen, Kirstine L; Mogensen, Mette S

    2008-01-01

    was examined. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The FTO rs9939609 polymorphism was genotyped in a total of 17,508 Danes from five different study groups. RESULTS: In studies of 3,856 type 2 diabetic case subjects and 4,861 normal glucose-tolerant control subjects, the minor A-allele of rs9939609 associated......(-16)). Furthermore, obesity-related quantitative traits such as body weight, waist circumference, fat mass, and fasting serum leptin levels were significantly elevated in A-allele carriers. An interaction between the FTO rs9939609 genotype and physical activity (P = 0.007) was found, where physically inactive...... activity seems to accentuate the effect of FTO rs9939609 on body fat accumulation....

  9. The correlation study on arch type with physical fitness, body fat and heath-carter somatotype

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lei; Yin Shuai; Sui Yuelin; Liu Yuanyuan; Ding Wenfeng

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between the arch type and physical form, physical fit-ness, body fat and somatotype. Methods:Measure and type the arch of 382 male soldier in a certain army by foot-print ratio method; Routinely detect the results of height and weight, body fat, 100 and 5 000 meters running, standing jump;According to the international heath-carter method, ten indexes were measured and the somatotype were evaluated. Results:①382 samples, flatfoot 91, accounted for 23. 6%, the foot arch index 0. 60 + 0. 21;non-flatfoot 291 , 76 . 2%, arch index 1 . 14 +0 . 22 , t=22 . 83 , P=0 . 001;②Comparing the mean of the results of height, weight, BMI, body fat percentage,100 and 5 000 meters running, standing jump of the two groups( flatfoot and non-flatfoot) samples, t-text, P>0. 05; ③Assessed by the method of heath-carter shape, flatfoot group so-matotype mean is 2. 7 (0. 7) -4. 8 (1. 3) -2. 7 (0. 9), sam is 1. 5 (0. 9);non flatfoot group somatotype mean is 2. 3 (0. 7) -5. 0 (3. 1) -2. 4 (0. 9), sam is 1. 6 (1. 0);The distance of two groups`points in 3D space mean somatotypes is 0. 54; t-test of the two groups`somatotype mean, P>0. 05. Conclusions: Compared the flatfoot group with the control group, there is no significant difference in physical form, physical fitness, body fat and so-matotype. The increasingly high rate of flatfoot in healthy people is physical, but not flatfoot disease, and no need for surgery.

  10. Equations based on anthropometry to predict body fat measured by absorptiometry in schoolchildren and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Hernández, Luis; Vega López, A Valeria; Ramos-Ibáñez, Norma; Cázares Lara, L Joana; Medina Gómez, R Joab; Pérez-Salgado, Diana

    To develop and validate equations to estimate the percentage of body fat of children and adolescents from Mexico using anthropometric measurements. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 601 children and adolescents from Mexico aged 5-19 years. The participants were randomly divided into the following two groups: the development sample (n=398) and the validation sample (n=203). The validity of previously published equations (e.g., Slaughter) was also assessed. The percentage of body fat was estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The anthropometric measurements included height, sitting height, weight, waist and arm circumferences, skinfolds (triceps, biceps, subscapular, supra-iliac, and calf), and elbow and bitrochanteric breadth. Linear regression models were estimated with the percentage of body fat as the dependent variable and the anthropometric measurements as the independent variables. Equations were created based on combinations of six to nine anthropometric variables and had coefficients of determination (r(2)) equal to or higher than 92.4% for boys and 85.8% for girls. In the validation sample, the developed equations had high r(2) values (≥85.6% in boys and ≥78.1% in girls) in all age groups, low standard errors (SE≤3.05% in boys and ≤3.52% in girls), and the intercepts were not different from the origin (p>0.050). Using the previously published equations, the coefficients of determination were lower, and/or the intercepts were different from the origin. The equations developed in this study can be used to assess the percentage of body fat of Mexican schoolchildren and adolescents, as they demonstrate greater validity and lower error compared with previously published equations. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Validation Study of the Body Adiposity Index as a Predictor of Percent Body Fat in Older Individuals: Findings From the BLSA

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Hui; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Cooper, Jamie A.

    2013-01-01

    A new body adiposity index (BAI = (hip circumference)/((height)1.5) − 18) has been developed and validated in adult populations. We aimed to assess the validity of BAI in an older population. We compared the concordance correlation coefficient between BAI, body mass index (BMI), and percent body fat (fat%; by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) in an older population (n = 954) participating in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. BAI was more strongly correlated with fat% than BMI (r of ....

  12. Ethnic differences in body fat distribution among Asian pre-pubertal children: A cross-sectional multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koon Poh Bee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnic differences in body fat distribution contribute to ethnic differences in cardiovascular morbidities and diabetes. However few data are available on differences in fat distribution in Asian children from various backgrounds. Therefore, the current study aimed to explore ethnic differences in body fat distribution among Asian children from four countries. Methods A total of 758 children aged 8-10 y from China, Lebanon, Malaysia and Thailand were recruited using a non-random purposive sampling approach to enrol children encompassing a wide BMI range. Height, weight, waist circumference (WC, fat mass (FM, derived from total body water [TBW] estimation using the deuterium dilution technique and skinfold thickness (SFT at biceps, triceps, subscapular, supraspinale and medial calf were collected. Results After controlling for height and weight, Chinese and Thai children had a significantly higher WC than their Lebanese and Malay counterparts. Chinese and Thais tended to have higher trunk fat deposits than Lebanese and Malays reflected in trunk SFT, trunk/upper extremity ratio or supraspinale/upper extremity ratio after adjustment for age and total body fat. The subscapular/supraspinale skinfold ratio was lower in Chinese and Thais compared with Lebanese and Malays after correcting for trunk SFT. Conclusions Asian pre-pubertal children from different origins vary in body fat distribution. These results indicate the importance of population-specific WC cut-off points or other fat distribution indices to identify the population at risk of obesity-related health problems.

  13. Differences in mitochondrial DNA inheritance and function align with body conformation in genetically lean and fat sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, B A; Loughnan, R; Hickford, J; Young, I R; St John, J C; Clarke, I

    2015-05-01

    Body weight and adiposity are determined by the balance between energy intake, energy expenditure, and nutrient deposition. We have identified differences in appetite-regulating peptides in sheep selectively bred to be either lean or fat, wherein gene expression for orexin and melanin-concentrating hormone are elevated in the lean group. Despite this, the underlying mechanisms leading to differences in body composition in the lean and fat lines remains unknown. We measured postprandial temperature in adipose tissue and muscle to ascertain whether a difference in thermogenesis is associated with the difference in body composition in genetically lean (n = 8) and fat (n = 12) ewes. Body weight was higher (P fat mass was lower (P fat groups. Animals received intracerebroventricular cannulae and temperature probes implanted into the retroperitoneal fat and the hind-limb skeletal muscle (vastus lateralis). Animals were meal fed (1100-1600 h) to entrain postprandial thermogenesis. Food intake was similar between lean and fat animals. Postprandial thermogenesis was greater (P tissue of lean animals but not in skeletal muscle. Intracerebroventricular infusion of leptin reduced (Pfat of lean animals, with similar UCP3 expression in skeletal muscle. Mitochondrial genome sequencing indicated haplotypic clustering in lean and fat animals within both the encoding and nonencoding regions. This demonstrates that differences in body composition may be underpinned by differences in thermogenesis, specifically within adipose tissue. Furthermore, thermogenic differences may be associated with specific mitochondrial DNA haplotypes, suggesting a strong genetic component inherited through the maternal lineage.

  14. Differences in the relationship between BMI and percentage body fat between Japanese and Australian-Caucasian young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Masaharu; Kerr, Deborah; Uchida, Hayato; Binns, Colin W

    2006-05-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to determine ethnic and environmental influences on the relationship between BMI and percentage body fat, using a sample of 144 Japanese and 140 Australian-Caucasian men living in Australia, and eighty-eight Japanese men living in Japan. Body composition was assessed by anthropometry using standard international methods (International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry protocol). Body density was predicted using Durnin and Womersley's (1974) equation, and percentage body fat was calculated from Siri's (1961) equation. Significant (P<0.05) ethnic differences in stature, body mass and BMI were observed between Japanese and Australian men, but no ethnic differences were observed in their percentage body fat and height-corrected sum of skinfold thicknesses. No differences were found in the BMI-percentage body fat relationship between the Japanese subjects living in Australia and in Japan. Significant (P<0.05) ethnic differences in the BMI-percentage body fat relationship observed from a comparison between pooled Japanese men (aged 18-40 years, BMI range 16.6-32.8 kg/m2) and Australians (aged 18-39 years, BMI range 16.1-31.4 kg/m2) suggest that Japanese men are likely to have a greater percentage body fat than Australian men at any given BMI value. From the analyses, the Japanese men were estimated to have an equivalent amount of body fat to the Australian men at BMI values that were about 1.5 units lower than those of the Australians (23.5 kg/m2 and 28.2 kg/m2, respectively). It was concluded that Japanese men have greater body fat deposition than Australian-Caucasians at the same BMI value. Japanese men may therefore require lower BMI cut-off points to identify obese individuals compared with Australian-Caucasian men.

  15. Leptin as a Marker of Body Fat and Hyperinsulinemia in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, Angela M.; Strother, Myra L.; Li, Chaoyang; Kaur, Harsohena; Huang, Terry T-K.

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about obesity and insulin resistance in college students. Leptin is a hormone secreted by fat cells and has been shown to strongly correlate with both obesity and insulin resistance in children and adults. We investigated associations of leptin with insulin secretion and action in 119 normal-weight students aged 18-24 years. Leptin…

  16. New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shungin, Dmitry; Winkler, Thomas W; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Ferreira, Teresa; Locke, Adam E; Mägi, Reedik; Strawbridge, Rona J; Pers, Tune H; Fischer, Krista; Justice, Anne E; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Wu, Joseph M W; Buchkovich, Martin L; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Roman, Tamara S; Drong, Alexander W; Song, Ci; Gustafsson, Stefan; Day, Felix R; Esko, Tonu; Fall, Tove; Kutalik, Zoltán; Luan, Jian'an; Randall, Joshua C; Scherag, André; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R; Chen, Jin; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Karjalainen, Juha; Kahali, Bratati; Liu, Ching-Ti; Schmidt, Ellen M; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Anderson, Denise; Beekman, Marian; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Buyske, Steven; Demirkan, Ayse; Ehret, Georg B; Feitosa, Mary F; Goel, Anuj; Jackson, Anne U; Johnson, Toby; Kleber, Marcus E; Kristiansson, Kati; Mangino, Massimo; Mateo Leach, Irene; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Palmer, Cameron D; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Peters, Marjolein J; Prokopenko, Inga; Stančáková, Alena; Ju Sung, Yun; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Yengo, Loïc; Zhang, Weihua; Albrecht, Eva; Ärnlöv, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J; Berne, Christian; Blüher, Matthias; Böhringer, Stefan; Bonnet, Fabrice; Böttcher, Yvonne; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Carba, Delia B; Caspersen, Ida H; Clarke, Robert; Daw, E Warwick; Deelen, Joris; Deelman, Ewa; Delgado, Graciela; Doney, Alex S F; Eklund, Niina; Erdos, Michael R; Estrada, Karol; Eury, Elodie; Friedrich, Nele; Garcia, Melissa E; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Gigante, Bruna; Go, Alan S; Golay, Alain; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grewal, Jagvir; Groves, Christopher J; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hartman, Catharina A; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heikkilä, Kauko; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Helmer, Quinta; Hillege, Hans L; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hunt, Steven C; Isaacs, Aaron; Ittermann, Till; James, Alan L; Johansson, Ingegerd; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Kalafati, Ioanna-Panagiota; Kinnunen, Leena; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kooner, Ishminder K; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Lamina, Claudia; Leander, Karin; Lee, Nanette R; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Lobbens, Stéphane; Lorentzon, Mattias; Mach, François; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Mahajan, Anubha; McArdle, Wendy L; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Mills, Rebecca; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Keri L; Mooijaart, Simon P; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Mulas, Antonella; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Nalls, Michael A; Narisu, Narisu; Glorioso, Nicola; Nolte, Ilja M; Olden, Matthias; Rayner, Nigel W; Renstrom, Frida; Ried, Janina S; Robertson, Neil R; Rose, Lynda M; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Sennblad, Bengt; Seufferlein, Thomas; Sitlani, Colleen M; Vernon Smith, Albert; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stringham, Heather M; Sundström, Johan; Swertz, Morris A; Swift, Amy J; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tayo, Bamidele O; Thorand, Barbara; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Troffa, Chiara; van Oort, Floor V A; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M; Waite, Lindsay L; Wennauer, Roman; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K; Wong, Andrew; Zhang, Qunyuan; Hua Zhao, Jing; Brennan, Eoin P; Choi, Murim; Eriksson, Per; Folkersen, Lasse; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Gharavi, Ali G; Hedman, Åsa K; Hivert, Marie-France; Huang, Jinyan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karpe, Fredrik; Keildson, Sarah; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Liang, Liming; Lifton, Richard P; Ma, Baoshan; McKnight, Amy J; McPherson, Ruth; Metspalu, Andres; Min, Josine L; Moffatt, Miriam F; Montgomery, Grant W; Murabito, Joanne M; Nicholson, George; Nyholt, Dale R; Olsson, Christian; Perry, John R B; Reinmaa, Eva; Salem, Rany M; Sandholm, Niina; Schadt, Eric E; Scott, Robert A; Stolk, Lisette; Vallejo, Edgar E; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zondervan, Krina T; Amouyel, Philippe; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan J L; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N; Blangero, John; Brown, Morris J; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chines, Peter S; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Collins, Francis S; Crawford, Dana C; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; de Geus, Eco J C; Dörr, Marcus; Erbel, Raimund; Eriksson, Johan G; Farrall, Martin; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrières, Jean; Forouhi, Nita G; Forrester, Terrence; Franco, Oscar H; Gansevoort, Ron T; Gieger, Christian; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Haiman, Christopher A; Harris, Tamara B; Hattersley, Andrew T; Heliövaara, Markku; Hicks, Andrew A; Hingorani, Aroon D; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Humphries, Steve E; Hyppönen, Elina; Illig, Thomas; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Johansen, Berit; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti M; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kee, Frank; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M; Kooner, Jaspal S; Kooperberg, Charles; Kovacs, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T; Kumari, Meena; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lakka, Timo A; Langenberg, Claudia; Le Marchand, Loic; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Männistö, Satu; Marette, André; Matise, Tara C; McKenzie, Colin A; McKnight, Barbara; Musk, Arthur W; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Morris, Andrew D; Nelis, Mari; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Ong, Ken K; Palmer, Lyle J; Penninx, Brenda W; Peters, Annette; Pramstaller, Peter P; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D C; Rice, Treva K; Ridker, Paul M; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J; Saramies, Jouko; Sarzynski, Mark A; Schwarz, Peter E H; Shuldiner, Alan R; Staessen, Jan A; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stolk, Ronald P; Strauch, Konstantin; Tönjes, Anke; Tremblay, Angelo; Tremoli, Elena; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völker, Uwe; Vollenweider, Peter; Wilson, James F; Witteman, Jacqueline C; Adair, Linda S; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bouchard, Claude; Cauchi, Stéphane; Caulfield, Mark J; Chambers, John C; Chasman, Daniel I; Cooper, Richard S; Dedoussis, George; Ferrucci, Luigi; Froguel, Philippe; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Hamsten, Anders; Hui, Jennie; Hveem, Kristian; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kivimaki, Mika; Kuh, Diana; Laakso, Markku; Liu, Yongmei; März, Winfried; Munroe, Patricia B; Njølstad, Inger; Oostra, Ben A; Palmer, Colin N A; Pedersen, Nancy L; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Peters, Ulrike; Power, Chris; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Saaristo, Timo E; Saleheen, Danish; Sinisalo, Juha; Slagboom, P Eline; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stumvoll, Michael; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, André G; Uusitupa, Matti; van der Harst, Pim; Veronesi, Giovanni; Walker, Mark; Wareham, Nicholas J; Watkins, Hugh; Wichmann, H-Erich; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Assimes, Themistocles L; Berndt, Sonja I; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B; Deloukas, Panos; Franke, Lude; Frayling, Timothy M; Groop, Leif C; Hunter, David J; Kaplan, Robert C; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Qi, Lu; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Willer, Cristen J; Visscher, Peter M; Yang, Jian; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Zillikens, M Carola; McCarthy, Mark I; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; North, Kari E; Fox, Caroline S; Barroso, Inês; Franks, Paul W; Ingelsson, Erik; Heid, Iris M; Loos, Ruth J F; Cupples, L Adrienne; Morris, Andrew P; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Mohlke, Karen L

    2015-02-12

    Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct genome-wide association meta-analyses of traits related to waist and hip circumferences in up to 224,459 individuals. We identify 49 loci (33 new) associated with waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index (BMI), and an additional 19 loci newly associated with related waist and hip circumference measures (P < 5 × 10(-8)). In total, 20 of the 49 waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI loci show significant sexual dimorphism, 19 of which display a stronger effect in women. The identified loci were enriched for genes expressed in adipose tissue and for putative regulatory elements in adipocytes. Pathway analyses implicated adipogenesis, angiogenesis, transcriptional regulation and insulin resistance as processes affecting fat distribution, providing insight into potential pathophysiological mechanisms.

  17. A comparison between CLNA and CLA effects on body fat, serum parameters and liver composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J; Fernández-Quintela, A; Macarulla, M T; Churruca, I; García, C; Rodríguez, V M; Simón, E; Portillo, M P

    2009-03-01

    The potential of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) as an anti-obesity molecule for humans is still a matter for debate. Thus, a great deal of scientific work is focussed on the research of new effective molecules without deleterious effects on health. The aim of the present work was to analyse the effects of jacaranda seed oil, rich in a conjugated linolenic acid (CLNA), jacaric acid (cis-8,trans-10,cis-12), on body fat, serum parameters and liver composition in rats, and to compare these effects with those of trans-10,cis-12 CLA. Twenty-six male Wistar rats were divided into three groups fed with high-fat diets, supplemented or not (control group) with 0.5% trans-10,cis-12 CLA (CLA group) or 0.5% jacaric acid (CLNA group) for 7 weeks. No statistical differences in food intake or in final body weight were found. Whereas CLA reduced adipose tissue size, CLNA did not. Both CLA and CLNA significantly reduced non-HDL-cholesterol. In spite of a lack of significant changes in glucose and insulin levels, HOMA-IR index was significantly increased, as well as did non-esterified fatty acid levels in CLNA-fed rats. No changes in liver composition were observed. In conclusion, under our experimental conditions, jacaric acid, unlike CLA, does not show a body-fat lowering effect. Even though it leads to a healthy lipoprotein profile, it impairs insulin function. Consequently, it cannot be proposed as an anti-obesity molecule.

  18. [Clinical anatomy of the fat body in the forearm and in the palm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidenbach, M M; Schmidt, H M

    1993-02-01

    In the hand the space between the deep flexor tendons and the interosseous fascia is named the midpalmar space, spatium palmare medianum. A fat body, Corpus adiposum palmare profundum, can be found there regularly. Despite the anatomical narrowness in this region, it reaches up into the carpal canal. Also in the deep forearm space there is always a fat body, Corpus adiposum profundum antebrachii, located dorsally to the deep flexor tendons, lying on the palmar fascia of the pronator quadratus muscle. Usually it is not connected to the Corpus adiposum palmare profundum. The regular occurrence of both fat bodies indicates their functional importance. It is to be supposed that they serve as a gliding layer for the deep flexor tendons. Especially the Corpus adiposum palmare profundum may provide an essential protecting function to the dorsally located deep branch of the ulnar nerve and deep palmar arch. In contrast there is a higher risk of mechanical irritation and compression of the deep branches of the ulnar nerve and artery during their more proximal course through the opponens muscle of the little finger ("opponens-canal") and the ulnar marginal septum. Characteristic features of dimensions and location of the Corpus adiposum profundum antebrachii and the Corpus adiposum palmare profundum and of the deep branches of the ulnar nerve and artery are described. The clinical relevance is discussed.

  19. The determination of subcutaneous body fat percentage by measuring skinfold thickness in teenagers in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavak, Vatan

    2006-06-01

    Our aim in this study was to determine the body fat percentage of teenagers in Diyarbakir, a city in southeast Turkey. The study included 1118 children between the ages of 10 to 15. Basic anthropometric measurements including body-mass index (BMI) and skinfold thickness were taken. The skinfold thickness were measured with a Lange skinfold caliper. Fat mass percentage (FM %) was predicted by using skinfold thickness equations. Differences between boys and girls across age groups for weight, height, and BMI were found to be statistically significant (P skinfold thickness in the 10-y-old group, the thickness at triceps and subscapular sites in girls was higher than those of boys. In the 12-y-old group, the thickness was found to be higher in girls than boys at the triceps, biceps, and subscapular sites. We found that an increase in skinfold thickness in the 13, 14, and 15-y-old groups was significantly higher among girls than boys and tended to increase with age. However, such a tendency was not shown in boys. This tendency was found only at the triceps site in 10, 12, and 13-y-old boys. In addition, the skinfold thickness at the biceps site was found to be greater in the 14-y-old boys. The body fat mass percent in girls, especially those older than age 13, was also increased.

  20. The phytochemical glaucarubinone promotes mitochondrial metabolism, reduces body fat, and extends lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarse, K; Bossecker, A; Müller-Kuhrt, L; Siems, K; Hernandez, M A; Berendsohn, W G; Birringer, M; Ristow, M

    2011-04-01

    Naturally occurring compounds that promote energy expenditure and delay aging in model organisms may be of significant interest, since these substances potentially provide pharmaceutical approaches to tackle obesity and promote healthy lifespan in humans. We aimed to test whether pharmaceutical concentrations of glaucarubinone, a cytotoxic and antimalarial quassinoid known from different species of the plant family Simaroubaceae, are capable of affecting metabolism and/or extending lifespan in a nematodal model organism for aging processes, the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans. Adult C. elegans roundworms, maintained on agar plates, were fed with E. coli strain OP50 bacteria, and glaucarubinone was applied to the agar to test (i) whether it alters respiration rates and mitochondrial activity, (ii) whether it affects body fat content, and (iii) whether it may promote longevity by quantifying survival in the presence and absence of the compound. We have found that glaucarubinone induces oxygen consumption and reduces body fat content of C. elegans. Moreover and consistent with the concept of mitohormesis, glaucarubinone extends C. elegans lifespan when applied at a concentration of 1 or 10 nanomolar. Taken together, glaucarubinone is capable of reducing body fat and promoting longevity in C. elegans, tentatively suggesting that this compound may promote metabolic health and lifespan in mammals and possibly humans.

  1. Cross-talk between the fat body and brain regulates insect developmental arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei-Hua; Lu, Yu-Xuan; Denlinger, David L

    2012-09-04

    Developmental arrest, a critical component of the life cycle in animals as diverse as nematodes (dauer state), insects (diapause), and vertebrates (hibernation), results in dramatic depression of the metabolic rate and a profound extension in longevity. Although many details of the hormonal systems controlling developmental arrest are well-known, we know little about the interactions between metabolic events and the hormones controlling the arrested state. Here, we show that diapause is regulated by an interplay between blood-borne metabolites and regulatory centers within the brain. Gene expression in the fat body, the insect equivalent of the liver, is strongly suppressed during diapause, resulting in low levels of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) intermediates circulating within the blood, and at diapause termination, the fat body becomes activated, releasing an abundance of TCA intermediates that act on the brain to stimulate synthesis of regulatory peptides that prompt production of the insect growth hormone ecdysone. This model is supported by our success in breaking diapause by injecting a mixture of TCA intermediates and upstream metabolites. The results underscore the importance of cross-talk between the brain and fat body as a regulator of diapause and suggest that the TCA cycle may be a checkpoint for regulating different forms of animal dormancy.

  2. New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawbridge, Rona J; Pers, Tune H; Fischer, Krista; Justice, Anne E; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Wu, Joseph M.W.; Buchkovich, Martin L; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Roman, Tamara S; Drong, Alexander W; Song, Ci; Gustafsson, Stefan; Day, Felix R; Esko, Tonu; Fall, Tove; Kutalik, Zoltán; Luan, Jian’an; Randall, Joshua C; Scherag, André; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R; Chen, Jin; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Karjalainen, Juha; Kahali, Bratati; Liu, Ching-Ti; Schmidt, Ellen M; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Anderson, Denise; Beekman, Marian; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Buyske, Steven; Demirkan, Ayse; Ehret, Georg B; Feitosa, Mary F; Goel, Anuj; Jackson, Anne U; Johnson, Toby; Kleber, Marcus E; Kristiansson, Kati; Mangino, Massimo; Leach, Irene Mateo; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Palmer, Cameron D; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Peters, Marjolein J; Prokopenko, Inga; Stančáková, Alena; Sung, Yun Ju; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Yengo, Loïc; Zhang, Weihua; Albrecht, Eva; Ärnlöv, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J; Berne, Christian; Blüher, Matthias; Böhringer, Stefan; Bonnet, Fabrice; Böttcher, Yvonne; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Carba, Delia B; Caspersen, Ida H; Clarke, Robert; Daw, E Warwick; Deelen, Joris; Deelman, Ewa; Delgado, Graciela; Doney, Alex SF; Eklund, Niina; Erdos, Michael R; Estrada, Karol; Eury, Elodie; Friedrich, Nele; Garcia, Melissa E; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Gigante, Bruna; Go, Alan S; Golay, Alain; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grewal, Jagvir; Groves, Christopher J; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hartman, Catharina A; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heikkilä, Kauko; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Helmer, Quinta; Hillege, Hans L; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hunt, Steven C; Isaacs, Aaron; Ittermann, Till; James, Alan L; Johansson, Ingegerd; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Kalafati, Ioanna-Panagiota; Kinnunen, Leena; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kooner, Ishminder K; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Lamina, Claudia; Leander, Karin; Lee, Nanette R; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Lobbens, Stéphane; Lorentzon, Mattias; Mach, François; Magnusson, Patrik KE; Mahajan, Anubha; McArdle, Wendy L; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Mills, Rebecca; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Keri L; Mooijaart, Simon P; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Mulas, Antonella; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Nalls, Michael A; Narisu, Narisu; Glorioso, Nicola; Nolte, Ilja M; Olden, Matthias; Rayner, Nigel W; Renstrom, Frida; Ried, Janina S; Robertson, Neil R; Rose, Lynda M; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Sennblad, Bengt; Seufferlein, Thomas; Sitlani, Colleen M; Smith, Albert Vernon; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stringham, Heather M; Sundström, Johan; Swertz, Morris A; Swift, Amy J; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tayo, Bamidele O; Thorand, Barbara; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Troffa, Chiara; van Oort, Floor VA; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M; Waite, Lindsay L; Wennauer, Roman; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K; Wong, Andrew; Zhang, Qunyuan; Zhao, Jing Hua; Brennan, Eoin P.; Choi, Murim; Eriksson, Per; Folkersen, Lasse; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Gharavi, Ali G; Hedman, Åsa K; Hivert, Marie-France; Huang, Jinyan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karpe, Fredrik; Keildson, Sarah; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Liang, Liming; Lifton, Richard P; Ma, Baoshan; McKnight, Amy J; McPherson, Ruth; Metspalu, Andres; Min, Josine L; Moffatt, Miriam F; Montgomery, Grant W; Murabito, Joanne M; Nicholson, George; Nyholt, Dale R; Olsson, Christian; Perry, John RB; Reinmaa, Eva; Salem, Rany M; Sandholm, Niina; Schadt, Eric E; Scott, Robert A; Stolk, Lisette; Vallejo, Edgar E.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zondervan, Krina T; Amouyel, Philippe; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan JL; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N; Blangero, John; Brown, Morris J; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chines, Peter S; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Collins, Francis S; Crawford, Dana C; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; de Geus, Eco JC; Dörr, Marcus; Erbel, Raimund; Eriksson, Johan G; Farrall, Martin; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrières, Jean; Forouhi, Nita G; Forrester, Terrence; Franco, Oscar H; Gansevoort, Ron T; Gieger, Christian; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Haiman, Christopher A; Harris, Tamara B; Hattersley, Andrew T; Heliövaara, Markku; Hicks, Andrew A; Hingorani, Aroon D; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Humphries, Steve E; Hyppönen, Elina; Illig, Thomas; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Johansen, Berit; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti M; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kee, Frank; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M; Kooner, Jaspal S; Kooperberg, Charles; Kovacs, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T; Kumari, Meena; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lakka, Timo A; Langenberg, Claudia; Le Marchand, Loic; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Männistö, Satu; Marette, André; Matise, Tara C; McKenzie, Colin A; McKnight, Barbara; Musk, Arthur W; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Morris, Andrew D; Nelis, Mari; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Ong, Ken K; Palmer, Lyle J; Penninx, Brenda W; Peters, Annette; Pramstaller, Peter P; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, DC; Rice, Treva K; Ridker, Paul M; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J; Saramies, Jouko; Sarzynski, Mark A; Schwarz, Peter EH; Shuldiner, Alan R; Staessen, Jan A; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stolk, Ronald P; Strauch, Konstantin; Tönjes, Anke; Tremblay, Angelo; Tremoli, Elena; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völker, Uwe; Vollenweider, Peter; Wilson, James F; Witteman, Jacqueline C; Adair, Linda S; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bouchard, Claude; Cauchi, Stéphane; Caulfield, Mark J; Chambers, John C; Chasman, Daniel I; Cooper, Richard S; Dedoussis, George; Ferrucci, Luigi; Froguel, Philippe; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Hamsten, Anders; Hui, Jennie; Hveem, Kristian; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kivimaki, Mika; Kuh, Diana; Laakso, Markku; Liu, Yongmei; März, Winfried; Munroe, Patricia B; Njølstad, Inger; Oostra, Ben A; Palmer, Colin NA; Pedersen, Nancy L; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Peters, Ulrike; Power, Chris; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Saaristo, Timo E; Saleheen, Danish; Sinisalo, Juha; Slagboom, P Eline; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D; Stefansson, Kari; Stumvoll, Michael; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, André G; Uusitupa, Matti; van der Harst, Pim; Veronesi, Giovanni; Walker, Mark; Wareham, Nicholas J; Watkins, Hugh; Wichmann, H-Erich; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Assimes, Themistocles L; Berndt, Sonja I; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B; Deloukas, Panos; Franke, Lude; Frayling, Timothy M; Groop, Leif C; Hunter, David J.; Kaplan, Robert C; O’Connell, Jeffrey R; Qi, Lu; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Willer, Cristen J; Visscher, Peter M; Yang, Jian; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Zillikens, M Carola; McCarthy, Mark I; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; North, Kari E; Fox, Caroline S; Barroso, Inês; Franks, Paul W; Ingelsson, Erik; Heid, Iris M; Loos, Ruth JF; Cupples, L Adrienne; Morris, Andrew P; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Mohlke, Karen L

    2014-01-01

    Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, we conducted genome-wide association meta-analyses of waist and hip circumference-related traits in up to 224,459 individuals. We identified 49 loci (33 new) associated with waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index (WHRadjBMI) and an additional 19 loci newly associated with related waist and hip circumference measures (P<5×10−8). Twenty of the 49 WHRadjBMI loci showed significant sexual dimorphism, 19 of which displayed a stronger effect in women. The identified loci were enriched for genes expressed in adipose tissue and for putative regulatory elements in adipocytes. Pathway analyses implicated adipogenesis, angiogenesis, transcriptional regulation, and insulin resistance as processes affecting fat distribution, providing insight into potential pathophysiological mechanisms. PMID:25673412

  3. Cross-talk between the fat body and brain regulates insect developmental arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei-Hua; Lu, Yu-Xuan; Denlinger, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Developmental arrest, a critical component of the life cycle in animals as diverse as nematodes (dauer state), insects (diapause), and vertebrates (hibernation), results in dramatic depression of the metabolic rate and a profound extension in longevity. Although many details of the hormonal systems controlling developmental arrest are well-known, we know little about the interactions between metabolic events and the hormones controlling the arrested state. Here, we show that diapause is regulated by an interplay between blood-borne metabolites and regulatory centers within the brain. Gene expression in the fat body, the insect equivalent of the liver, is strongly suppressed during diapause, resulting in low levels of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) intermediates circulating within the blood, and at diapause termination, the fat body becomes activated, releasing an abundance of TCA intermediates that act on the brain to stimulate synthesis of regulatory peptides that prompt production of the insect growth hormone ecdysone. This model is supported by our success in breaking diapause by injecting a mixture of TCA intermediates and upstream metabolites. The results underscore the importance of cross-talk between the brain and fat body as a regulator of diapause and suggest that the TCA cycle may be a checkpoint for regulating different forms of animal dormancy. PMID:22912402

  4. Comparison of BMI and percentage of body fat of Indian and German children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janewa, Vanessa Schönfeld; Ghosh, Arnab; Scheffler, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Today, serious health problems as overweight and obesity are not just constricted to the developed world, but also increase in the developing countries (Prentice 2006, Ramachandram et al. 2002). Focusing on this issue, BMI and percentage of body fat were compared in 2094 schoolchildren from two cross-sectional studies from India and Germany investigated in 2008 and 2009. The German children are in all age groups significantly taller, whereas the Indian children show higher values in BMI (e.g. 12 years: Indian: around 22 kg/m2; German: around 19 kg/m2) and in the percentage of body fat (e.g. 12 years: Indian: around 27%; German: around 18-20%) in most of the investigated age groups. The Indian children have significantly higher BMI between 10 and 13 (boys) respectively 14 years (girls). Indian children showed significant higher percentage of body fat between 10 and 15 years (boys) and between 8 and 16 years (girls). The difference in overweight between Indian and German children was strongest at 11 (boys) and 12 (girls) years: 70% of the Indian but 20% of the German children were classified as overweight. In countries such as India that undergo nutritional transition, a rapid increase in obesity and overweight is observed. In contrast to the industrialized countries, the risk of overweight in developing countries is associated with high socioeconomic status. Other reasons of the rapid increase of overweight in the developing countries caused by different environmental or genetic factors are discussed.

  5. Predicting body fat percentage based on gender, age and BMI by using artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupusinac, Aleksandar; Stokić, Edita; Doroslovački, Rade

    2014-02-01

    In the human body, the relation between fat and fat-free mass (muscles, bones etc.) is necessary for the diagnosis of obesity and prediction of its comorbidities. Numerous formulas, such as Deurenberg et al., Gallagher et al., Jackson and Pollock, Jackson et al. etc., are available to predict body fat percentage (BF%) from gender (GEN), age (AGE) and body mass index (BMI). These formulas are all fairly similar and widely applicable, since they provide an easy, low-cost and non-invasive prediction of BF%. This paper presents a program solution for predicting BF% based on artificial neural network (ANN). ANN training, validation and testing are done by randomly divided dataset that includes 2755 subjects: 1332 women (GEN = 0) and 1423 men (GEN = 1), with AGE from 18 to 88 y and BMI from 16.60 to 64.60 kg/m(2). BF% was estimated by using Tanita bioelectrical impedance measurements (Tanita Corporation, Tokyo, Japan). ANN inputs are: GEN, AGE and BMI, and output is BF%. The predictive accuracy of our solution is 80.43%. The main goal of this paper is to promote a new approach to predicting BF% that has same complexity and costs but higher predictive accuracy than above-mentioned formulas.

  6. Comparison of isocaloric very low carbohydrate/high saturated fat and high carbohydrate/low saturated fat diets on body composition and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noakes, Manny; Foster, Paul R; Keogh, Jennifer B; James, Anthony P; Mamo, John C; Clifton, Peter M

    2006-01-11

    It is speculated that high saturated fat very low carbohydrate diets (VLCARB) have adverse effects on cardiovascular risk but evidence for this in controlled studies is lacking. The objective of this study was to compare, under isocaloric conditions, the effects of a VLCARB to 2 low saturated fat high carbohydrate diets on body composition and cardiovascular risk. Eighty three subjects, 48 +/- 8 y, total cholesterol 5.9 +/- 1.0 mmol/L, BMI 33 +/- 3 kg/m2 were randomly allocated to one of 3 isocaloric weight loss diets (6 MJ) for 8 weeks and on the same diets in energy balance for 4 weeks: Very Low Fat (VLF) (CHO:Fat:Protein; %SF = 70:10:20; 3%), High Unsaturated Fat (HUF) = (50:30:20; 6%), VLCARB (4:61:35; 20%) Percent fat mass loss was not different between diets VLCARB -4.5 +/- 0.5, VLF-4.0 +/- 0.5, HUF -4.4 +/- 0.6 kg). Lean mass loss was 32-31% on VLCARB and VLF compared to HUF (21%) (P fat loss than diets low in saturated fat, but are more effective in improving triacylglycerols, HDL-C, fasting and post prandial glucose and insulin concentrations. VLCARB may be useful in the short-term management of subjects with insulin resistance and hypertriacylglycerolemia.

  7. Comparison of isocaloric very low carbohydrate/high saturated fat and high carbohydrate/low saturated fat diets on body composition and cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Anthony P

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is speculated that high saturated fat very low carbohydrate diets (VLCARB have adverse effects on cardiovascular risk but evidence for this in controlled studies is lacking. The objective of this study was to compare, under isocaloric conditions, the effects of a VLCARB to 2 low saturated fat high carbohydrate diets on body composition and cardiovascular risk. Methods Eighty three subjects, 48 ± 8 y, total cholesterol 5.9 ± 1.0 mmol/L, BMI 33 ± 3 kg/m2 were randomly allocated to one of 3 isocaloric weight loss diets (6 MJ for 8 weeks and on the same diets in energy balance for 4 weeks: Very Low Fat (VLF (CHO:Fat:Protein; %SF = 70:10:20; 3%, High Unsaturated Fat (HUF = (50:30:20; 6%, VLCARB (4:61:35; 20% Results Percent fat mass loss was not different between diets VLCARB -4.5 ± 0.5, VLF-4.0 ± 0.5, HUF -4.4 ± 0.6 kg. Lean mass loss was 32-31% on VLCARB and VLF compared to HUF (21% (P Conclusion Isocaloric VLCARB results in similar fat loss than diets low in saturated fat, but are more effective in improving triacylglycerols, HDL-C, fasting and post prandial glucose and insulin concentrations. VLCARB may be useful in the short-term management of subjects with insulin resistance and hypertriacylglycerolemia.

  8. Relation of fat-mass and obesity-associated gene polymorphism to fat mass content and body mass index in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrzak, Beata; Wisniewska, Alicja; Majcher, Anna; Tysarowski, Andrzej; Demkow, Urszula

    2013-01-01

    Fat mass content, fat distribution, and fat-mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene have been reported among a broad spectrum of genetic variation connected with body weight. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the T/A rs9939609 polymorphism of the FTO gene may influence obesity and metabolic indices in children. A 160 children were examined (136 obese and 24 non-obese). The anthropometric measurements and calculations included: height, weight, waist and hip circumference, sum of the thickness of 3 and 10 skin folds, % of fat content, % FAT- BIA , % LBM-BIA. BMI, SDS of BMI, WHR, and WHtR. Fasting plasma total cholesterol (TC), HDL and LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and HOMA-IR were analyzed and the blood pressure were measured. The rs9939609 polymorphism of FTO gene was genotyped by allele-specific real-time polymerase chain- reaction (RT-PCR). We found that the mean concentrations of TC, TG, LDLC, and HOMA-IR were significantly higher, and HDL was lower in the obese than in non-obese children. The presence of TT, but not AA alleles, related to the percentage of fat content, BMI, and z-score of BMI. None of the other anthropometric indices did differ between the children with gene polymorphism and wild homozygous. In conclusion, rs9939609 polymorphism in the fat-mass and obesity-associated gene is associated with BMI and the percent of fat content in children.

  9. Metabolism and Whole-Body Fat Oxidation Following Post-Exercise Carbohydrate or Protein Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Ulrika Andersson; Pettersson, Stefan; Edin, Fredrik; Pedersen, Anders; Malmodin, Daniel; Madsen, Klavs

    2017-09-05

    This study investigated how post-exercise intake of placebo (PLA), protein (PRO) or carbohydrate (CHO) affected fat oxidation (FO) and metabolic parameters during recovery and subsequent exercise. In a cross-over design, 12 moderately trained women (VO2max 45 ± 6 ml·min(-1)·kg(-1)) performed three days of testing. A 23 min control (CON) incremental FO bike test (30-80% VO2max) was followed by 60 min exercise at 75% VO2max. Immediately post-exercise, subjects ingested PLA, 20 g PRO or 40 g CHO followed by a second FO bike test 2h later. Maximal fat oxidation (MFO) and the intensity at which MFO occurs (Fatmax) increased at the second FO test compared to the first following all three post-exercise drinks (MFO for CON=0.28±0.08, PLA=0.57±0.13, PRO=0.52±0.08, CHO=0.44±0.12 g fat·min(-1); Fatmax for CON=41±7, PLA=54±4, PRO=55±6, CHO=50±8 %VO2max, P<0.01 for all values compared to CON). Resting FO, MFO and Fatmax were not significantly different between PLA and PRO, but lower for CHO. PRO and CHO increased insulin levels at 1h post-exercise, though both glucose and insulin were equal with PLA at 2h. Increased post-exercise ketone levels only occurred with PLA. Protein supplementation immediately post-exercise did not affect the doubling in whole body fat oxidation seen during a subsequent exercise trial 2 hours later. Neither did it affect resting fat oxidation during the post-exercise period despite increased insulin levels and attenuated ketosis. Carbohydrate intake dampened the increase in fat oxidation during the second test, though a significant increase was still observed compared to the first test.

  10. Importance of mesenchymal stem cells in autologous fat grafting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trojahn Kølle, Stig-Frederik; Oliveri, Roberto S; Glovinski, Peter Viktor

    2012-01-01

    . In the human studies, so-called cell assisted lipotransfer (CAL) increased the ASC concentration 2-5 times compared with non-manipulated fat grafts, which caused a questionable improvement in survival of fat grafts, compared with that of traditional lipofilling. In contrast, in two of the murine studies ASC....... The surgical and tissue handling techniques used in lipofilling are well proved, but the added effect of high-level enrichment with ex vivo expanded ASC still needs to be investigated properly in human lipofilling studies, combined with a thorough follow up and matched control groups. In conclusion, ASC...

  11. Relation of Body's Lean Mass, Fat Mass, and Body Mass Index With Submaximal Systolic Blood Pressure in Young Adult Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Vivek K; Drenowatz, Clemens; Hand, Gregory A; Lavie, Carl J; Sui, Xuemei; Demello, Madison; Blair, Steven N

    2016-02-01

    We examined the association of body composition and body mass index (BMI) with submaximal systolic blood pressure (SSBP) among young adult men. The analysis included 211 men with BMI between 20 and 35 kg/m(2). Total lean mass and fat mass were measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry and lean mass percentage was calculated from the total lean mass. Fat mass index (FMI) and BMI were calculated using height and weight (total fat mass and total weight, respectively) measurements. SSBP was measured at each stage of a graded exercise test. Quintiles of lean mass percentage, FMI, and BMI were created with quintile 1 the lowest and quintile 5 the highest lean mass percentage, FMI, and BMI. Compared with men in lean mass percentage quintile 1, those in quintiles 2, 3, and 4 had significantly lower SSBP, whereas there was no significant difference in SSBP between quintile 1 and 5 at 6, 8, and 10 minutes. Compared with men in FMI quintile 5, those in quintiles 2, 3, and 4 had significantly lower SSBP, whereas there was no significant difference in SSBP between quintile 1 and 5. SSBP among men in lean mass percentage quintile 5 and FMI quintile 1 were still less than lean mass percentage quintile 1 and FMI quintile 5, respectively. There were no significant differences in SSBP across BMI quintiles 1 to 4 but a significantly higher SSBP in quintile 5 compared with quintiles 1 to 4. In conclusion, there was a J-curve pattern between SSBP and components of body composition, whereas, a linear relation between SSBP and BMI.

  12. Resistin levels are related to fat mass, but not to body mass index in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Lorena; Riestra, Pía; Navarro, Pilar; Gavela-Pérez, Teresa; Soriano-Guillén, Leandro; Garcés, Carmen

    2013-11-01

    The relationship of resistin levels with obesity remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine resistin levels in prepubertal children and adolescents and evaluate their association with anthropometric parameters and body composition. The study population included 420 randomly selected 6-8-year-old children and 712 children aged 12-16 years. Anthropometric data were measured and body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip and waist-to-height ratios were calculated. Body composition was assessed using an impedance body composition analyzer. Serum resistin levels were determined using a multiplexed bead immunoassay. Resistin levels were not significantly different between sexes. No significant differences in serum resistin concentrations were found between obese, overweight, and normal weight children at any age, and no significant correlations were observed between resistin concentrations and weight or BMI. However, resistin levels showed a significant positive correlation with fat mass in 12-16-year-old children, particularly in girls. In addition to describing serum resistin levels in prepubertal children and adolescents, our study suggests that resistin is related to body fat rather than to BMI in adolescents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Adolescent skinfold thickness is a better predictor of high body fatness in adults than is body mass index: the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooyens, Astrid C J; Koppes, Lando L J; Visscher, Tommy L S; Twisk, Jos W R; Kemper, Han C G; Schuit, A Jantine; van Mechelen, Willem; Seidell, Jacob C

    2007-06-01

    Body mass index (BMI) during adolescence is predictive of BMI at adult age. However, BMI cannot distinguish between lean and fat body mass. Skinfold thickness may be a better predictor of body fatness. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relations between BMI and skinfold thickness during adolescence and body fatness during adulthood. We included 168 men and 182 women from the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study, a prospective study that conducted 8 measurements of BMI and skinfold thickness between 1976 and 2000. BMI and skinfold thickness during adolescence were analyzed in relation to adult body fatness measured at a mean age of 37 y with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. None of the boys and 1.7% of the girls were overweight at baseline, whereas the prevalence of high body fatness during adulthood was 29% in men and 32% in women. At the ages of 12-16 y, skinfold thickness was more strongly associated with adult body fatness than was BMI. Age-specific relative risks for a high level of adult body fatness varied between 2.3 and 4.0 in boys and between 2.1 and 4.3 in girls in the highest versus the lowest tertile of the sum of 4 skinfold thicknesses. For the highest tertile of BMI, the relative risk varied between 0.8 and 2.1 in boys and between 1.3 and 1.8 in girls. Skinfold thickness during adolescence is a better predictor of high body fatness during adulthood than is BMI during adolescence.

  14. Bioelectrical impedance analysis and skinfold thickness sum in assessing body fat mass of renal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Natália Cristina Lima; Sala, Priscila Campos; Horie, Lilian Mika; Dias, Maria Carolina Gonçalves; Torrinhas, Raquel Susana Matos de Miranda; Romão, João Egídio; Cecconello, Ivan; Waitzberg, Dan Linetzky

    2012-07-01

    In chronic renal failure patients under hemodialysis (HD) treatment, the availability of simple, safe, and effective tools to assess body composition enables evaluation of body composition accurately, in spite of changes in body fluids that occur in dialysis therapy, thus contributing to planning and monitoring of nutritional treatment. We evaluated the performance of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and the skinfold thickness sum (SKF) to assess fat mass (FM) in chronic renal failure patients before (BHD) and after (AHD) HD, using air displacement plethysmography (ADP) as the standard method. This single-center cross-sectional trial involved comparing the FM of 60 HD patients estimated BHD and AHD by BIA (multifrequential; 29 women, 31 men) and by SKF with those estimated by the reference method, ADP. Body fat-free mass (FFM) was also obtained by subtracting the total body fat from the individual total weight. Mean estimated FM (kg [%]) observed by ADP BHD was 17.95 ± 0.99 kg (30.11% ± 1.30%), with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 16.00 to 19.90 (27.56 to 32.66); mean estimated FM observed AHD was 17.92 ± 1.11 kg (30.04% ± 1.40%), with a 95% CI of 15.74 to 20.10 (27.28 to 32.79). Neither study period showed a difference in FM and FFM (for both kg and %) estimates by the SKF method when compared with ADP; however, the BIA underestimated the FM and overestimated the FFM (for both kg and %) when compared with ADP. The SKF, but not the BIA, method showed results similar to ADP and can be considered adequate for FM evaluation in HD patients. Copyright © 2012 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Review of the Mechanisms and Effects of Noninvasive Body Contouring Devices on Cellulite and Subcutaneous Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alizadeh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Context Today, different kinds of non-invasive body contouring modalities, including cryolipolysis, radiofrequency (RF, low-level laser therapy (LLLT, and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU are available for reducing the volume of subcutaneous adipose tissue or cellulite. Each procedure has distinct mechanisms for stimulating apoptosis or necrosis adipose tissue. In addition to the mentioned techniques, some investigations are underway for analyzing the efficacy of other techniques such as whole body vibration (WBV and extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT. In the present review the mechanisms, effects and side effects of the mentioned methods have been discussed. The effect of these devices on cellulite or subcutaneous fat reduction has been assessed. Evidence Acquisition We searched pubmed, google scholar and the cochrane databases for systemic reviews, review articles, meta-analysis and randomized clinical trials up to February 2015. The keywords were subcutaneous fat, cellulite, obesity, noninvasive body contouring, cryolipolysis, RF, LLLT, HIFU, ESWT and WBV with full names and abbreviations. Results We included seven reviews and 66 original articles in the present narrative review. Most of them were applied on normal weight or overweight participants (body mass index < 30 kg/m2 in both genders with broad range of ages (18 to 50 years on average. In the original articles, the numbers of included methods were: 10 HIFU, 13 RF, 22 cryolipolysis, 11 LLLT, 5 ESWT and 4 WBV therapies. Six of the articles evaluated combination therapies and seven compared the effects of different devices. Conclusions Some of the noninvasive body contouring devices in animal and human studies such as cryolipolysis, RF, LLLT and HIFU showed statistical significant effects on body contouring, removing unwanted fat and cellulite in some body areas. However, the clinical effects are mild to moderate, for example 2 - 4 cm circumference reduction as a sign of

  16. Quantitation and localization of regional body fat distribution--a comparison between magnetic resonance imaging and somatometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R C; Kramsch, D M; Lee, P L; Colletti, P; Jiao, Q

    1996-03-01

    The emerging concept that various fat compartments are metabolically active and play separate and decisive roles in the pathogenesis of coronary atherosclerosis, hypertension, insulin resistance, diabetes and stroke, has given obesity research a new direction. Of particular interest is the relative amount of intra-abdominal fat thought to be responsible for the metabolic complications. We studied the precise fat distribution and its correlations with the metabolic parameters in 44 non-human primates (Macaca fascicularis). Intra-abdominal, subcutaneous, and total abdominal fat (IAF, SAF, TAF) were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and somatometry. Quantitative computer analyses of abdominal MRI scans revealed predominant IAF distribution. Box plot analysis of IAF and SAF revealed wide diversity in the amounts of fat, especially in monkeys with body mass index (BMI) < 30 kg/m2. Primates with similar BMI in each quartile revealed an extensive heterogeneity in IAF as well as SAF. Numerous significant correlations within site-specific somatometric measurements as well as within the MRI determinants of abdominal fat were seen. However, only body weight correlated with IAF and skinfolds could predict SAF. After adjusting for body weight, partial correlation analysis showed a significant correlation (P < 0.05) between total cholesterol and IAF. MRI revealed considerable heterogeneity of IAF, SAF and TAF in cohort of primates believed to be homogeneous by somatometric definition. Male cynomolgus monkeys appear to be a valuable model for a systematic evaluation of fat. Individuals with identical body weight and height may show a diverse pattern of fat distribution.

  17. The role of body mass index, insulin, and adiponectin in the relation between fat distribution and bone mineral density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C. Zillikens (Carola); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); J.P.T.M. van Leeuwen (Hans); A.L. Berends (Anne); P. Henneman (Peter); J.A.P. Willems van Dijk (Ko); B.A. Oostra (Ben); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractDespite the positive association between body mass index (BMI) and bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC), the role of fat distribution in BMD/BMC remains unclear. We examined relationships between BMD/BMC and various measurements of fat distribution and studied the role of BMI, in

  18. Body composition among Sri Lankan infants by 18*O dilution method and the validity of anthropometric equations to predict body fat against 18*O dilution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Body composition indicators provide a better guidance for growth and nutritional status of the infants. This study was designed to (1) measure the body composition of the Sri Lankan infants using a reference method, the 18*O dilution method; (2) calculate the body fat content of the infants using pu...

  19. Characteristics and multipotency of equine dedifferentiated fat cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Daiki; Yamasaki, Atsushi; Matsuzaki, Shouta; Sunaga, Takafumi; Fujiki, Makoto; Tokunaga, Satoshi; Misumi, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells have been shown to be multipotent, similar to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In this study, we aimed to establish and characterize equine DFAT cells. Equine adipocytes were ceiling cultured, and then dedifferentiated into DFAT cells by the seventh day of culture. The number of DFAT cells was increased to over 10 million by the fourth passage. Flow cytometry of DFAT cells showed that the cells were strongly positive for CD44, CD90, and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I; moderately positive for CD11a/18, CD105, and MHC class II; and negative for CD34 and CD45. Moreover, DFAT cells were positive for the expression of sex determining region Y-box 2 as a marker of multipotency. Finally, we found that DFAT cells could differentiate into osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic lineages under specific nutrient conditions. Thus, DFAT cells could have clinical applications in tissue regeneration, similar to MSCs derived from adipose tissue.

  20. Body fat measurements in elite adolescent volleyball players: correlation between skinfold thickness, bioelectrical impedance analysis, air-displacement plethysmography, and body mass index percentiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portal, Shawn; Rabinowitz, Jonathan; Adler-Portal, Dana; Burstein, Ruty Pilz; Lahav, Yair; Meckel, Yoav; Nemet, Dan; Eliakim, Alon

    2010-04-01

    Determination of body composition is an essential parameter in training athletes because low fat-muscle ratio might improve physical performance in many types of sports. Since training is often conducted in the field, it is important to determine whether simple field measurements of body composition assessment correlate with laboratory measurements. Examine the correlation of body fat content as measured using skinfold thicknesses (SF), air-displacement plethysmography (BOD POD), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and body mass index (BMI) age and gender adjusted percentiles. Body mass as measured by SF, BOD POD, BIA, and BMI percentiles were examined in 29 elite, national team level, male and female volleyball players (age range 13 to 18) at the beginning of the training season. Body fat percent measured by SF, BIA and BOD POD were highly positively correlated (r > 0.83). Measurements of body fat by SF, BIA and BOD POD were weakly correlated with BMI percentiles (r < 0.45). Results suggest that BMI percentile is not a good measure for body fat in adolescent elite male and female volleyball players. SF and measurements of body composition by BIA and BOD POD are essentially interchangeable.

  1. Measuring adiposity in patients: the utility of body mass index (BMI), percent body fat, and leptin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shah, Nirav R; Braverman, Eric R

    2012-01-01

    ...%. Currently, the body mass index (BMI) is most commonly used to determine adiposity. However, BMI presents as an inaccurate obesity classification method that underestimates the epidemic and contributes to failed treatment...

  2. Bias and limits of agreement between hydrodensitometry, bioelectrical impedance and skinfold calipers measures of percentage body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C A; Bale, P

    1998-02-01

    Previous research has often used correlations as a statistical method to show agreement; however, this is not a valid use of the statistic. The purpose of this study was to investigate the bias and limits of agreement for three methods of estimating percentage body fat for 117 male and 114 female university athletes: hydrodensitometry (HYD), bioelectrical impedance (BIA) and skinfold calipers (SKF). The mean (SD) percentage body fat for males as assessed by HYD, BIA and SKF methods, respectively, were 13.2 (3.3)%, 14.1, (3.3)% and 13.0 (3.2)%. Female body fat measurements were 22.5 (3.9)%, 23.7 (4.3)% and 23.8 (4.2)%, respectively. Pearson product moment correlations for male and female body fat percentages between the three methods were high, ranging from 0.81 to 0.86 (P < 0.05). However, compared to the criterion measure of body fat percentage (HYD), the magnitude of agreement BIA and SKF revealed a different pattern. The mean absolute difference between HYD and BIA measurements of body fat for males was -0.8 (2.0)% fat, and between HYD and SKF was it was 0.2 (1.7)% fat. The mean absolute difference for females between HYD and BIA was -1.2 (2.5)%; for HYD and SKF it was -1.4 (2.2)%. Compared to the HYD measures for males and females, the BIA and SKF measures were as much as a 3.8% underestimation and a 6.2% overestimation of body fat. This study provides evidence that the strength of a correlation does not indicate agreement between two methods. In future, reliability and validity studies should examine the absolute differences between two variables and calculate limits of agreement around which a practitioner can appreciate the precision of the methodologies.

  3. Development of a body condition scoring index for female African elephants validated by ultrasound measurements of subcutaneous fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfeld, Kari A; Lehnhardt, John; Alligood, Christina; Bolling, Jeff; Brown, Janine L

    2014-01-01

    Obesity-related health and reproductive problems may be contributing to non-sustainability of zoo African elephant (Loxodonta africana) populations. However, a major constraint in screening for obesity in elephants is lack of a practical method to accurately assess body fat. Body condition scoring (BCS) is the assessment of subcutaneous fat stores based on visual evaluation and provides an immediate appraisal of the degree of obesity of an individual. The objective of this study was to develop a visual BCS index for female African elephants and validate it using ultrasound measures of subcutaneous fat. To develop the index, standardized photographs were collected from zoo (n = 50) and free-ranging (n = 57) female African elephants for identifying key body regions and skeletal features, which were then used to visually determine body fat deposition patterns. This information was used to develop a visual BCS method consisting of a list of body regions and the physical criteria for assigning an overall score on a 5-point scale, with 1 representing the lowest and 5 representing the highest levels of body fat. Results showed that as BCS increased, ultrasound measures of subcutaneous fat thickness also increased (Pelephants, the median BCS in the free-ranging individuals (BCS = 3, range 1-5) was lower (Pelephants. This tool can be used to examine which factors impact body condition in zoo and free-ranging elephants, providing valuable information on how it affects health and reproductive potential of individual elephants.

  4. Later circadian timing of food intake is associated with increased body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHill, Andrew W; Phillips, Andrew Jk; Czeisler, Charles A; Keating, Leigh; Yee, Karen; Barger, Laura K; Garaulet, Marta; Scheer, Frank Ajl; Klerman, Elizabeth B

    2017-09-06

    Background: Weight gain and obesity have reached alarming levels. Eating at a later clock hour is a newly described risk factor for adverse metabolic health; yet, how eating at a later circadian time influences body composition is unknown. Using clock hour to document eating times may be misleading owing to individual differences in circadian timing relative to clock hour.Objective: This study examined the relations between the timing of food consumption relative to clock hour and endogenous circadian time, content of food intake, and body composition.Design: We enrolled 110 participants, aged 18-22 y, in a 30-d cross-sectional study to document sleep and circadian behaviors within their regular daily routines. We used a time-stamped-picture mobile phone application to record all food intake across 7 consecutive days during a participant's regular daily routines and assessed their body composition and timing of melatonin release during an in-laboratory assessment.Results: Nonlean individuals (high body fat) consumed most of their calories 1.1 h closer to melatonin onset, which heralds the beginning of the biological night, than did lean individuals (low body fat) (log-rank P = 0.009). In contrast, there were no differences between lean and nonlean individuals in the clock hour of food consumption (P = 0.72). Multiple regression analysis showed that the timing of food intake relative to melatonin onset was significantly associated with the percentage of body fat and body mass index (both P food intake, caloric amount, meal macronutrient composition, activity or exercise level, or sleep duration and either of these body composition measures (all P > 0.72).Conclusions: These results provide evidence that the consumption of food during the circadian evening and/or night, independent of more traditional risk factors such as amount or content of food intake and activity level, plays an important role in body composition. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as

  5. Administration of dried Aloe vera gel powder reduced body fat mass in diet-induced obesity (DIO) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misawa, Eriko; Tanaka, Miyuki; Nabeshima, Kazumi; Nomaguchi, Kouji; Yamada, Muneo; Toida, Tomohiro; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-obesity effects of Aloe vera gel administration in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with diet-induced obesity (DIO). SD rats at 7 wk of age were fed either a standard diet (10 kcal% fat) (StdD) or high-fat (60 kcal% fat) diet (HFD) during the experimental period. Four weeks after of HFD-feeding, DIO rats (11 wk of age) were orally administered with two doses of Aloe vera gel powder (20 and 200 mg/kg/d) for 90 d. Body weights (g) and body fat (%) of HFD fed rats were significantly higher than those of StdD-fed rats. Although a modest decrease of body weight (g) was observed with the administration of dried Aloe vera gel powder, both subcutaneous and visceral fat weight (g) and body fat (%) were reduced significantly in Aloe vera gel-treated rats. Serum lipid parameters elevated by HFD were also improved by the Aloe vera gel treatment. The oxygen consumption (VO(2)), an index of energy expenditure, was decreased in HFD-fed rats compared with that in StdD-fed rats. Administration of Aloe vera gel reversed the change in VO(2) in the HFD-fed rats. These results suggest that intake of Aloe vera gel reduced body fat accumulation, in part, by stimulation of energy expenditure. Aloe vera gel might be beneficial for the prevention and improvement of diet-induced obesity.

  6. Overfat Adults and Children in Developed Countries: The Public Health Importance of Identifying Excess Body Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip B. Maffetone

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The global overfat pandemic is a serious public health crisis that places a substantial burden on economic resources in developed countries. The term overfat refers to the presence of excess body fat that can impair health, even for normal weight non-obese individuals. Excess body fat is associated with cardiometabolic dysfunction, a clinical situation that can progressively worsen, potentially leading to various common disease risk factors, chronic diseases, increased morbidity and mortality, and reduced quality of life. The prevalence of overfat populations in 30 of the world’s most developed countries is substantially higher than recent global estimations, with the largest growth due to a relatively recent increased number of people with excess abdominal fat. Abdominal overfat is the most unhealthful form of this condition, so it is concerning that average waist circumference measures, generally indicative of abdominal overfat, have increased. Despite a leveling off appearance of being overweight and/or obese in some developed countries, the overfat pandemic continues to grow.

  7. Regulation of Food Intake, Energy Balance, and Body Fat Mass: Implications for the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Obesity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guyenet, Stephan J; Schwartz, Michael W

    2012-01-01

    .... Because the growing obesity epidemic is linked to a substantial increase in daily energy intake, a key priority is to delineate how mechanisms governing food intake and body fat content are altered...

  8. Clinical review: Regulation of food intake, energy balance, and body fat mass: implications for the pathogenesis and treatment of obesity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guyenet, Stephan J; Schwartz, Michael W

    2012-01-01

    .... Because the growing obesity epidemic is linked to a substantial increase in daily energy intake, a key priority is to delineate how mechanisms governing food intake and body fat content are altered...

  9. The influence of body composition, fat distribution, and sustained weight loss on left ventricular mass and geometry in obesity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kardassis, Dimitris; Bech-Hanssen, Odd; Schönander, Marie; Sjöström, Lars; Karason, Kristjan

    2012-01-01

    .... In a case-control study, we examined how body composition and fat distribution relate to left ventricular structure and examine how sustained weight loss affects left ventricular mass and geometry...

  10. Exploring the Dietary Patterns of Young New Zealand Women and Associations with BMI and Body Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna K. Schrijvers

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Examining dietary patterns provides an alternative approach to investigating dietary behaviors related to excess adiposity. The study aim was to investigate dietary patterns and body composition profiles of New Zealand European (NZE women, participating in the women’s EXPLORE (Examining the Predictors Linking Obesity Related Elements study. Post-menarche, pre-menopausal NZE women (16–45 years (n = 231 completed a validated 220-item, self-administrated, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI was calculated using measured height (cm and weight (kg; body fat percentage (BF% was measured using air displacement plethysmography (BodPod. Dietary patterns were identified using principal component factor analysis. Associations between dietary patterns, age, BMI and BF% were investigated. Four dietary patterns were identified: snacking; energy-dense meat; fruit and vegetable; healthy, which explained 6.9%, 6.8%, 5.6% and 4.8% of food intake variation, respectively. Age (p = 0.012 and BMI (p = 0.016 were positively associated with the “energy-dense meat” pattern. BF% (p = 0.016 was positively associated with the “energy-dense meat” pattern after adjusting for energy intake. The women following the identified dietary patterns had carbohydrate intakes below and saturated fat intakes above recommended guidelines. Dietary patterns in NZE women explain only some variations in body composition. Further research should examine other potential factors including physical activity and socioeconomic status.

  11. Exploring the Dietary Patterns of Young New Zealand Women and Associations with BMI and Body Fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrijvers, Jenna K; McNaughton, Sarah A; Beck, Kathryn L; Kruger, Rozanne

    2016-07-26

    Examining dietary patterns provides an alternative approach to investigating dietary behaviors related to excess adiposity. The study aim was to investigate dietary patterns and body composition profiles of New Zealand European (NZE) women, participating in the women's EXPLORE (Examining the Predictors Linking Obesity Related Elements) study. Post-menarche, pre-menopausal NZE women (16-45 years) (n = 231) completed a validated 220-item, self-administrated, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using measured height (cm) and weight (kg); body fat percentage (BF%) was measured using air displacement plethysmography (BodPod). Dietary patterns were identified using principal component factor analysis. Associations between dietary patterns, age, BMI and BF% were investigated. Four dietary patterns were identified: snacking; energy-dense meat; fruit and vegetable; healthy, which explained 6.9%, 6.8%, 5.6% and 4.8% of food intake variation, respectively. Age (p = 0.012) and BMI (p = 0.016) were positively associated with the "energy-dense meat" pattern. BF% (p = 0.016) was positively associated with the "energy-dense meat" pattern after adjusting for energy intake. The women following the identified dietary patterns had carbohydrate intakes below and saturated fat intakes above recommended guidelines. Dietary patterns in NZE women explain only some variations in body composition. Further research should examine other potential factors including physical activity and socioeconomic status.

  12. Menopause is associated with decreased whole body fat oxidation during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abildgaard, J; Pedersen, A T; Green, C J; Harder-Lauridsen, N M; Solomon, T P; Thomsen, C; Juul, A; Pedersen, M; Pedersen, J T; Mortensen, O H; Pilegaard, H; Pedersen, B K; Lindegaard, B

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if fat oxidation was affected by menopausal status and to investigate if this could be related to the oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle. Forty-one healthy women were enrolled in this cross-sectional study [premenopausal (n = 19), perimenopausal (n = 8), and postmenopausal (n = 14)]. Estimated insulin sensitivity was obtained from an oral glucose tolerance test. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging. Fat oxidation and energy expenditure were measured during an acute exercise bout of 45 min of ergometer biking at 50% of maximal oxygen consumption (Vo2 max). Muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis of the quadriceps muscle were obtained before and immediately after the exercise bout. Postmenopausal women had 33% [confidence interval (CI) 95%: 12-55] lower whole body fat oxidation (P = 0.005) and 19% (CI 95%: 9-22) lower energy expenditure (P = 0.02) during exercise, as well as 4.28 kg lower lean body mass (LBM) than premenopausal women. Correction for LBM reduced differences in fat oxidation to 23% (P = 0.05), whereas differences in energy expenditure disappeared (P = 0.22). No differences between groups were found in mRNA [carnitine palmitoyltransferase I, β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (β-HAD), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α, citrate synthase (CS), pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α)], protein [phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), vascular endothelial growth factor, pyruvate dehydrogenase-1Eα, cytochrome oxidase I], or enzyme activities (β-HAD, CS) in resting skeletal muscle, except for an increased protein level of cytochrome c in the post- and perimenopausal women relative to premenopausal women. Postmenopausal women demonstrated a trend to a blunted exercise-induced increase in phosphorylation of AMPK compared with premenopausal women (P = 0.06). We conclude

  13. Prebiotics Reduce Body Fat and Alter Intestinal Microbiota in Children Who Are Overweight or With Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolucci, Alissa C; Hume, Megan P; Martínez, Inés; Mayengbam, Shyamchand; Walter, Jens; Reimer, Raylene A

    2017-09-01

    It might be possible to manipulate the intestinal microbiota with prebiotics or other agents to prevent or treat obesity. However, little is known about the ability of prebiotics to specifically modify gut microbiota in children with overweight/obesity or reduce body weight. We performed a randomized controlled trial to study the effects of prebiotics on body composition, markers of inflammation, bile acids in fecal samples, and composition of the intestinal microbiota in children with overweight or obesity. We performed a single-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 2 separate cohorts (March 2014 and August 2014) at the University of Calgary in Canada. Participants included children, 7-12 years old, with overweight or obesity (>85th percentile of body mass index) but otherwise healthy. Participants were randomly assigned to groups given either oligofructose-enriched inulin (OI; 8 g/day; n=22) or maltodextrin placebo (isocaloric dose, controls; n=20) once daily for 16 weeks. Fat mass and lean mass were measured using dual-energy-x-ray absorptiometry. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured at baseline and every 4 weeks thereafter. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 16 weeks, and analyzed for lipids, cytokines, lipopolysaccharide, and insulin. Fecal samples were collected at baseline and 16 weeks; bile acids were profiled using high-performance liquid chromatography and the composition of the microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The primary outcome was change in percent body fat from baseline to 16 weeks. After 16 weeks, children who consumed OI had significant decreases in body weight z-score (decrease of 3.1%), percent body fat (decrease of 2.4%), and percent trunk fat (decrease of 3.8%) compared with children given placebo (increase of 0.5%, increase of 0.05%, and decrease of 0.3%, respectively). Children who consumed OI also had a significant reduction in level of

  14. Breathless cancer cells get fat on glutamine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dimitrios Anastasiou; Lewis C Cantley

    2012-01-01

    Many cancer cells depend on glutamine as a fuel for proliferation,yet the mechanisms by which glutamine supports cancer metabolism are not fully understood.Two recent studies highlight an important role for glutamine in the synthesis of lipids and provide novel insights into how glutamine metabolism could be targeted for cancer therapy.

  15. Dietary fat drives whole-body insulin resistance and promotes intestinal inflammation independent of body weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Benjamin Anderschou Holbech; Nielsen, Thomas Svava; Fritzen, Andreas Mæchel

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The obesogenic potential of high-fat diets (HFD) in rodents is attenuated when the protein:carbohydrate ratio is increased. However, it is not known if intake of an HFD irrespective of the protein:carbohydrate ratio and in the absence of weight gain, affects glucose homeostasis...... glucose production under insulin-stimulated conditions. We observed no impairment of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscles of different fiber type composition. HFD-feeding altered the gut microbiota composition paralleled by increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and genes...... involved in gluconeogenesis in intestinal epithelial cells of the jejunum. CONCLUSIONS: Intake of a HFD profoundly affected glucose homeostasis, gut inflammatory responses, and gut microbiota composition in the absence of fat mass accretion....

  16. The Relationship Between Body Fat Percentage and Body Mass Index in Overweight and Obese Individuals in an Urban African Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Julie S.; Igumbor, Ehimario U.

    2016-01-01

    The increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in both developed and developing countries is associated with musculoskeletal and other non-communicable diseases. To address this, an accurate measure of body adiposity, bearing in mind several shortcomings of body mass index (BMI), should be used. This study determined the relationship between BMI and body fat (BF)% among adult Nigerians of different ethnic groups residing in an urban setting. Using multistage cluster sampling technique were recruited 1571 subjects (>18 years; male=51.2%) in a cross-sectional study. Body adiposity indices were assessed using BMI and BF%. Using BF%, the result shows that a total number of 156 (9.9%) had low BF% while 291 (18.5%) had very high BF%, while the BMI classifications of body adiposity, 68 (4.3%) were underweight while 271 (17.3%) were obese. There was a strong and positive statistical relationship between BF% and BMI when both were paired without controlling for gender and age (r=0.81, PBMI and BF%, and age and sex are predictors of this association.

  17. Energy absorption, lean body mass, and total body fat changes during 5 weeks of continuous bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Jean M.; Evans, Harlan; Kuo, Mike C.; Schneider, Victor S.; Leblanc, Adrian D.

    1990-01-01

    The nature of the body composition changes due to inactivity was examined together with the question of whether these changes are secondary to changes in energy absorption. Volunteers were 15 healthy males who lived on a metabolic research ward under close staff supervision for 11 weeks. Subjects were ambulatory during the first six weeks and remained in continuous bed rest for the last five weeks of the study. Six male volunteers (age 24-61 years) were selected for body composition measurements. Nine different male volunteers (age 21-50 years) were selected for energy absorption measurements. The volunteers were fed weighed conventional foods on a constant 7-d rotation menu. The average daily caloric content was 2,592 kcal. Comparing the five weeks of continuous bed rest with the previous six weeks of ambulation, it was observed that there was no change in energy absorption or total body weight during bed rest, but a significant decrease in lean body mass and a significant increase in total body fat (p less than 0.05).

  18. Body size, body composition, and fat distribution: a comparison of young New Zealand men of European, Pacific Island, and Asian Indian ethnicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Elaine; Plank, Lindsay; Chandu, Vishnu; Laulu, Manaia; Simmons, David; Swinburn, Boyd; Yajnik, Chittaranjan

    2004-12-17

    To investigate body size and body fat relationships and fat distribution in young healthy men drawn from New Zealand European, Pacific Island, and Asian Indian populations. A total of 114 healthy men (64 European, 31 Pacific Island, 19 Asian Indian) aged 17-30 years underwent measurements of height, weight, and body composition by total body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Body mass index (BMI) was then calculated. Percent body fat (%BF), fat-free mass, bone mineral content, bone mineral density, abdominal fat, thigh fat, and appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASMM) were obtained from the DXA scans. For the same BMI, %BF for Pacific Island men was 4% points lower and for Asian Indian men was 7-8% points higher compared to Europeans. Compared to European men for the same %BF, BMI was 2-3 units higher for Pacific Island, and 3-6 units lower for Asian Indian. The ratio of abdominal fat to thigh fat, adjusted for height, weight, and %BF, was significantly higher for Asian Indian men than European (p=0.022) and Pacific Island (p=0.002) men. ASMM, adjusted for height and weight, was highest in Pacific Island and lowest in Asian Indian men. The relationship between %BF and BMI is different for European, Pacific Island, and Asian Indian men which may, at least in part, be due to differences in muscularity. Asian Indians have more abdominal fat deposition than their European and Pacific Island counterparts. Use of universal BMI cut-off points are not appropriate for comparison of obesity prevalence between these ethnic groups.

  19. Irisin plasma concentration in PCOS and healthy subjects is related to body fat content and android fat distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukajło, Katarzyna; Łaczmański, Łukasz; Kolackov, Katarzyna; Kuliczkowska-Płaksej, Justyna; Bolanowski, Marek; Milewicz, Andrzej; Daroszewski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Irisin (Ir), a recently identified adipo-myokine, cleaved and secreted from the protein FNDC5 in response to physical activity, has been postulated to induce the differentiation of a subset of white adipocytes into brown fat and to mediate the beneficial effects on metabolic homeostasis. Metabolic syndrome (MS), a cluster of factors leading to impaired energy homeostasis, affects a significant proportion of subjects suffering from polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between Ir plasma concentrations and metabolic disturbances. The study group consisted of 179 PCOS patients and a population of 122 healthy controls (both groups aged 25-35 years). A subset of 90 subjects with MS was isolated. A positive association between Ir plasma level and MS in the whole group and in controls was found. In subjects with high adipose body content (>40%), Ir was higher than in lean persons (<30%). Our results showed a significant positive association between Ir concentration and android type of adipose tissue in the whole study group and in the control group. Understanding the role of Ir in increased energy expenditure may lead to the development of new therapeutics for obesity and obesity-related diseases.

  20. Body fat of rats of different age-groups and nutritional states: assessment by micro-CT and skinfold thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekus, Eva; Miko, Alexandra; Furedi, Nora; Rostas, Ildiko; Tenk, Judit; Kiss, Tamas; Szitter, István; Balasko, Marta; Helyes, Zsuzsanna; Wilhelm, Marta; Petervari, Erika

    2017-07-20

    Obesity presents a growing public health problem. Therefore, the analysis of body composition is important in clinical practice as well as in animal research models of obesity, hence precise methods for the assessment of body fat would be essential. We aimed to evaluate in vivo abdominal micro-computed tomography scan restricted to the L1-L3 region (micro-CT(L1-L3)), a skinfold thickness-based method (STM) and post mortem body composition analysis (PMA) with regard to whole-body micro-CT scan in rats. Male Wistar rats of different age-groups (from 3 to 24 months) and nutritional states (normally fed, high-fat diet-induced obese, calorie-restricted) were used. The fat percentage was determined with micro-CT(L1-L3) and whole-body scan in anesthesized rats. Their skinfold thickness was measured in five locations with Lange caliper. Wet weights of epididymal and retroperitoneal fat pads were determined via PMA. With regard to fat mass, the strongest correlation was observed between abdominal and whole-body micro-CT. The other methods showed weaker associations with whole-body micro-CT and with each other. Micro-CT(L1-L3) and PMA showed similar age-associated increase in fat mass between 3-18 months. Micro-CT(L1-L3), STM and PMA were efficient to detect differences in fat mass values in groups of different nutritional states. Micro-CT(L1-L3) appears to be a useful method for body fat assessment in rats with reduced scanning time. In rats STM may also be a useful, low-priced, non-invasive and simple in vivo technique to assess obesity. Copyright © 2016, Journal of Applied Physiology.

  1. The impact of dietary fat withdrawal on carcass iodine value, belly characteristics, and changes in body fat over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, T A; Prusa, K J; Patience, J F

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of unsaturated fats in pig diets has raised issues related to pork carcass fat quality. The objective of this experiment was to understand how withdrawal from the diet of unsaturated dietary fat before slaughter impacts the composition of jowl fat during the growth cycle and at market. Fifty individually housed pigs (PIC 337 × C22/29; initial BW = 59.3 ± 0.55 kg) were allotted based on sex and initial BW to 10 treatments for an 82-d experiment as follows: 3 dietary fat withdrawal times before slaughter (21, 42, or 63 d) by 3 dietary fat unsaturation loads (DFUL), which includea high intake of unsaturated fatty acids supplied through an inclusion of 5% corn oil (HIGH), a high intake of a mixture of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids supplied through an inclusion of 5% animal-vegetable blend (MED), and a moderate intake of unsaturated fatty acids supplied through an inclusion of 2.5% corn oil (LOW). Pigs were weighed and jowl adipose samples were collected on d 0, 21, 42, and 63 and at harvest on d 82. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED with treatment and sex as fixed effects. At market (d 82), increasing the withdrawal of dietary fat further away from market increased 18:1 (P = 0.045) and tended to increase 14:0 concentrations (P = 0.054). It also significantly decreased 18:2 (P < 0.001) and tended to decrease 18:3 concentrations (P = 0.081). A HIGH DFUL resulted in the greatest 18:2 concentrations in jowl fat followed by LOW; MED resulted in the lowest 18:2 levels (P < 0.001). Dietary fat withdrawal before market significantly reduced carcass iodine value (IV) measured at d 82 (P = 0.006). In conclusion, elevated 18:2 intake makes lowering carcass IV in the depot fat very difficult and may take as long as 61 d. The withdrawal of unsaturated dietary fat apparently altered the fat depot to be more reflective of fat synthesized de novo, resulting in a more saturated depot fat. Importantly, this alteration of deposited fat composition did not

  2. New loci for body fat percentage reveal link between adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yingchang; Day, Felix R.; Gustafsson, Stefan; Buchkovich, Martin L.; Na, Jianbo; Bataille, Veronique; Cousminer, Diana L.; Dastani, Zari; Drong, Alexander W.; Esko, Tõnu; Evans, David M.; Falchi, Mario; Feitosa, Mary F.; Ferreira, Teresa; Hedman, Åsa K.; Haring, Robin; Hysi, Pirro G.; Iles, Mark M.; Justice, Anne E.; Kanoni, Stavroula; Lagou, Vasiliki; Li, Rui; Li, Xin; Locke, Adam; Lu, Chen; Mägi, Reedik; Perry, John R. B.; Pers, Tune H.; Qi, Qibin; Sanna, Marianna; Schmidt, Ellen M.; Scott, William R.; Shungin, Dmitry; Teumer, Alexander; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A. E.; Walker, Ryan W.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zhang, Mingfeng; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhu, Zhihong; Afzal, Uzma; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Bellis, Claire; Bonnefond, Amélie; Borodulin, Katja; Buchman, Aron S.; Cederholm, Tommy; Choh, Audrey C.; Choi, Hyung Jin; Curran, Joanne E.; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.; De Jager, Philip L.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A. M.; Enneman, Anke W.; Eury, Elodie; Evans, Daniel S.; Forsen, Tom; Friedrich, Nele; Fumeron, Frédéric; Garcia, Melissa E.; Gärtner, Simone; Han, Bok-Ghee; Havulinna, Aki S.; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hillege, Hans; Ittermann, Till; Kent, Jack W.; Kolcic, Ivana; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lahti, Jari; Leach, Irene Mateo; Lee, Christine G.; Lee, Jong-Young; Liu, Tian; Liu, Youfang; Lobbens, Stéphane; Loh, Marie; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Michaëlsson, Karl; Nalls, Mike A.; Nielson, Carrie M.; Oozageer, Laticia; Pascoe, Laura; Paternoster, Lavinia; Polašek, Ozren; Ripatti, Samuli; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Shin, Chan Soo; Narančić, Nina Smolej; Spira, Dominik; Srikanth, Priya; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Sung, Yun Ju; Swart, Karin M. A.; Taittonen, Leena; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tikkanen, Emmi; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Schoor, Natasja M.; Verweij, Niek; Wright, Alan F.; Yu, Lei; Zmuda, Joseph M.; Eklund, Niina; Forrester, Terrence; Grarup, Niels; Jackson, Anne U.; Kristiansson, Kati; Kuulasmaa, Teemu; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lichtner, Peter; Luan, Jian'an; Mahajan, Anubha; Männistö, Satu; Palmer, Cameron D.; Ried, Janina S.; Scott, Robert A.; Stancáková, Alena; Wagner, Peter J.; Demirkan, Ayse; Döring, Angela; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Kiel, Douglas P.; Kühnel, Brigitte; Mangino, Massimo; Mcknight, Barbara; Menni, Cristina; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Oostra, Ben A.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Song, Kijoung; Vandenput, Liesbeth; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Vollenweider, Peter; White, Charles C.; Boehnke, Michael; Boettcher, Yvonne; Cooper, Richard S.; Forouhi, Nita G.; Gieger, Christian; Grallert, Harald; Hingorani, Aroon; Jørgensen, Torben; Jousilahti, Pekka; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Laakso, Markku; Langenberg, Claudia; Linneberg, Allan; Luke, Amy; Mckenzie, Colin A.; Palotie, Aarno; Pedersen, Oluf; Peters, Annette; Strauch, Konstantin; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Bennett, David A.; Bertram, Lars; Blangero, John; Blüher, Matthias; Bouchard, Claude; Campbell, Harry; Cho, Nam H.; Cummings, Steven R.; Czerwinski, Stefan A.; Demuth, Ilja; Eckardt, Rahel; Eriksson, Johan G.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franco, Oscar H.; Froguel, Philippe; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Hansen, Torben; Harris, Tamara B.; Hastie, Nicholas; Heliövaara, Markku; Hofman, Albert; Jordan, Joanne M.; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Knekt, Paul B.; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lind, Lars; Liu, Yongmei; Orwoll, Eric S.; Osmond, Clive; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Raitakari, Olli T.; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D. C.; Rice, Treva K.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Stumvoll, Michael; Tönjes, Anke; Towne, Bradford; Tranah, Gregory J.; Tremblay, Angelo; Uitterlinden, André G.; van der Harst, Pim; Vartiainen, Erkki; Viikari, Jorma S.; Vitart, Veronique; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völzke, Henry; Walker, Mark; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wild, Sarah; Wilson, James F.; Yengo, Loïc; Bishop, D. Timothy; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Chambers, John C.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Dehghan, Abbas; Deloukas, Panos; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Fox, Caroline; Furey, Terrence S.; Franke, Lude; Han, Jiali; Hunter, David J.; Karjalainen, Juha; Karpe, Fredrik; Kaplan, Robert C.; Kooner, Jaspal S.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Morris, Andrew P.; Bishop, Julia A. N.; North, Kari E.; Ohlsson, Claes; Ong, Ken K.; Prokopenko, Inga; Richards, J. Brent; Schadt, Eric E.; Spector, Tim D.; Widén, Elisabeth; Willer, Cristen J.; Yang, Jian; Ingelsson, Erik; Mohlke, Karen L.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Pospisilik, John Andrew; Zillikens, M. Carola; Lindgren, Cecilia; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas Oskari; Loos, Ruth J. F.

    2016-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of adiposity and its links to cardiometabolic disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of body fat percentage (BF%) in up to 100,716 individuals. Twelve loci reached genome-wide significance (PCRTC1) were novel associations with BF%. Seven loci showed a larger effect on BF% than on BMI, suggestive of a primary association with adiposity, while five loci showed larger effects on BMI than on BF%, suggesting association with both fat and lean mass. In particular, the loci more strongly associated with BF% showed distinct cross-phenotype association signatures with a range of cardiometabolic traits revealing new insights in the link between adiposity and disease risk. PMID:26833246

  3. Percentile curves for body fatness and cut-offs to define malnutrition in Russians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, D. V.; Rudnev, S. G.; Starunova, O. A.; Eryukova, T. A.; Kolesnikov, V. A.; Ponomareva, E. G.; Soboleva, N. P.; Sterlikov, S. A.

    2013-04-01

    Here, we report first results of the large-scale ongoing bioelectrical impedance body composition study in Russians. By the end of 2012, 216 out of 800 Russian Health Centres submitted raw bioimpedance data on 844,221 adults and children aged 5-80 years, representing nearly 0.6% of the Russian population, who were accessed cross-sectionally using the same type of bioimpedance meter, ABC-01 Medas. Estimates of overweight, obesity, and normal weight obesity prevalence in the general population, as well as characteristics of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the conventional WHO BMI-based criteria of obesity depending on age are obtained. The smoothed reference centile curves for percentage fat mass are constructed, and localized cut-offs for fatness and thinness are provided that can be used both at the individual and epidemiological levels.

  4. New loci for body fat percentage reveal link between adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Yingchang; Day, Felix R; Gustafsson, Stefan;

    2016-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of adiposity and its links to cardiometabolic disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of body fat percentage (BF%) in up to 100,716 individuals. Twelve loci reached genome-wide significance (P... were previously associated with increased overall adiposity (BMI, BF%) and four (in or near COBLL1/GRB14, IGF2BP1, PLA2G6, CRTC1) were novel associations with BF%. Seven loci showed a larger effect on BF% than on BMI, suggestive of a primary association with adiposity, while five loci showed larger...... effects on BMI than on BF%, suggesting association with both fat and lean mass. In particular, the loci more strongly associated with BF% showed distinct cross-phenotype association signatures with a range of cardiometabolic traits revealing new insights in the link between adiposity and disease risk....

  5. Mature adipocyte-derived dedifferentiated fat cells exhibit multilineage potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Taro; Kano, Koichiro; Kondo, Daisuke; Fukuda, Noboru; Iribe, Yuji; Tanaka, Nobuaki; Matsubara, Yoshiyuki; Sakuma, Takahiro; Satomi, Aya; Otaki, Munenori; Ryu, Jyunnosuke; Mugishima, Hideo

    2008-04-01

    When mature adipocytes are subjected to an in vitro dedifferentiation strategy referred to as ceiling culture, these mature adipocytes can revert to a more primitive phenotype and gain cell proliferative ability. We refer to these cells as dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells. In the present study, we examined the multilineage differentiation potential of DFAT cells. DFAT cells obtained from adipose tissues of 18 donors exhibited a fibroblast-like morphology and sustained high proliferative activity. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that DFAT cells comprised a highly homogeneous cell population compared with that of adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (ASCs), although the cell-surface antigen profile of DFAT cells was very similar to that of ASCs. DFAT cells lost expression of mature adipocytes marker genes but retained or gained expression of mesenchymal lineage-committed marker genes such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), RUNX2, and SOX9. In vitro differentiation analysis revealed that DFAT cells could differentiate into adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteoblasts under appropriate culture conditions. DFAT cells also formed osteoid matrix when implanted subcutaneously into nude mice. In addition, clonally expanded porcine DFAT cells showed the ability to differentiate into multiple mesenchymal cell lineages. These results indicate that DFAT cells represent a type of multipotent progenitor cell. The accessibility and ease of culture of DFAT cells support their potential application for cell-based therapies.

  6. The fatty acid transport protein Fat1p is involved in the export of fatty acids from lipid bodies in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulermo, Rémi; Gamboa-Meléndez, Heber; Dulermo, Thierry; Thevenieau, France; Nicaud, Jean-Marc

    2014-09-01

    In order to live, cells need to import different molecules, such as sugars, amino acids or lipids, using transporters. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the ScFAT1 gene encodes the long-chain fatty acid transporter; however, the transport of fatty acids (FAs) in the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica has not yet been studied. In contrast to what has previously been found for ΔScfat1 strains, ΔYlfat1 yeast was still able to grow on substrates containing short-, medium- or long-chain FAs. We observed a notable difference in cell lipid content between wild-type (WT) and deletion mutant strains after 24 h of culture in minimal oleate medium: in the WT strain, lipids represented 24% of cell dry weight (CDW), while they accounted for 37% of CDW in the ΔYlfat1 strain. This result indicates that YlFat1p is not involved in cell lipid uptake. Moreover, we also observed that fatty acid remobilisation was decreased in the ΔYlfat1 strain and that fluorescence-tagged YlFat1p proteins localised to the interfaces between lipid bodies, which suggests that YlFat1p may play a role in the export of FAs from lipid bodies.

  7. Body Fat Percentile Curves for Korean Children and Adolescents: A Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kirang; Yun, Sung Ha; Jang, Myoung Jin; Oh, Kyung Won

    2013-01-01

    A valid assessment of obesity in children and adolescents is important due to significant change in body composition during growth. This study aimed to develop percentile curves of body fat and fat free mass using the Lambda, Mu, and Sigma method, and to examine the relationship among body mass index (BMI), fat mass and fat free mass in Korean children and adolescents, using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2009-2010. The study subjects were 834 for boys an...

  8. Adipose tissue (P)RR regulates insulin sensitivity, fat mass and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamansurova, Zulaykho; Tan, Paul; Ahmed, Basma; Pepin, Emilie; Seda, Ondrej; Lavoie, Julie L

    2016-10-01

    We previously demonstrated that the handle-region peptide, a prorenin/renin receptor [(P)RR] blocker, reduces body weight and fat mass and may improve insulin sensitivity in high-fat fed mice. We hypothesized that knocking out the adipose tissue (P)RR gene would prevent weight gain and insulin resistance. An adipose tissue-specific (P)RR knockout (KO) mouse was created by Cre-loxP technology using AP2-Cre recombinase mice. Because the (P)RR gene is located on the X chromosome, hemizygous males were complete KO and had a more pronounced phenotype on a normal diet (ND) diet compared to heterozygous KO females. Therefore, we challenged the female mice with a high-fat diet (HFD) to uncover certain phenotypes. Mice were maintained on either diet for 9 weeks. KO mice had lower body weights compared to wild-types (WT). Only hemizygous male KO mice presented with lower total fat mass, higher total lean mass as well as smaller adipocytes compared to WT mice. Although food intake was similar between genotypes, locomotor activity during the active period was increased in both male and female KO mice. Interestingly, only male KO mice had increased O2 consumption and CO2 production during the entire 24-hour period, suggesting an increased basal metabolic rate. Although glycemia during a glucose tolerance test was similar, KO males as well as HFD-fed females had lower plasma insulin and C-peptide levels compared to WT mice, suggesting improved insulin sensitivity. Remarkably, all KO animals exhibited higher circulating adiponectin levels, suggesting that this phenotype can occur even in the absence of a significant reduction in adipose tissue weight, as observed in females and, thus, may be a specific effect related to the (P)RR. (P)RR may be an important therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity and its associated complications such as type 2 diabetes.

  9. Metabolic adaptations in the adipose tissue that underlie the body fat mass gain in middle-aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sertié, Rogério Antonio Laurato; Caminhotto, Rennan de Oliveira; Andreotti, Sandra; Campaña, Amanda Baron; de Proença, André Ricardo Gomes; de Castro, Natalie Carolina; Lima, Fábio Bessa

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about adipocyte metabolism during aging process and whether this can influence body fat redistribution and systemic metabolism. To better understand this phenomenon, two animal groups were studied: young-14 weeks old-and middle-aged-16 months old. Periepididymal (PE) and subcutaneous (SC) adipocytes were isolated and tested for their capacities to perform lipolysis and to incorporate D-[U-(14)C]-glucose, D-[U-(14)C]-lactate, and [9,10(n)-(3)H]-oleic acid into lipids. Additionally, the morphometric characteristics of the adipose tissues, glucose tolerance tests, and biochemical determinations (fasting glucose, triglycerides, insulin) in blood were performed. The middle-aged rats showed adipocyte (PE and SC) hypertrophy and glucose intolerance, although there were no significant changes in fasting glycemia and insulin. Furthermore, PE tissue revealed elevated rates (+50 %) of lipolysis during beta-adrenergic-stimulation. There was also an increase (+62 %) in the baseline rate of glucose incorporation into lipids in the PE adipocytes, while these PE cells were almost unresponsive to insulin stimulation and less responsive (a 34 % decrease) in the SC tissue. Also, the capacity of oleic acid esterification was elevated in baseline state and with insulin stimulus in the PE tissue (+90 and 82 %, respectively). Likewise, spontaneous incorporation of lactate into lipids in the PE and SC tissues was higher (+100 and 11 %, respectively) in middle-aged rats. We concluded that adipocyte metabolism of middle-aged animals seems to strongly favor cellular hypertrophy and increased adipose mass, particularly the intra-abdominal PE fat pad. In discussion, we have interpreted all these results as a metabolic adaptations to avoid the spreading of fat that can reach tissues beyond adipose protecting them against ectopic fat accumulation. However, these adaptations may have the potential to lead to future metabolic dysfunctions seen in the senescence.

  10. Effects of weight loss using supplementation with Lactobacillus strains on body fat and medium-chain acylcarnitines in overweight individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minkyung; Kim, Minjoo; Kang, Miso; Yoo, Hye Jin; Kim, Min Sun; Ahn, Young-Tae; Sim, Jae-Hun; Jee, Sun Ha; Lee, Jong Ho

    2017-01-25

    Our previous study showed that supplementation with a combination of Lactobacillus curvatus (L. curvatus) HY7601 and Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) KY1032 reduced the body weight, body fat percentage, body fat mass and L1 subcutaneous fat area in overweight subjects. We aimed to evaluate whether the changes in adiposity after supplementation with Lactobacillus strains were associated with metabolic intermediates. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 66 non-diabetic and overweight individuals. Over a 12-week period, the probiotic group consumed 2 g of probiotic powder, whereas the placebo group consumed the same product without the probiotics. To investigate metabolic alterations, we performed plasma metabolomics using ultra-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (UPLC-LTQ/Orbitrap MS). Probiotic supplementation significantly increased the levels of octenoylcarnitine (C8:1), tetradecenoylcarnitine (C14:1), decanoylcarnitine (C10) and dodecenoylcarnitine (C12:1) compared with the levels from placebo supplementation. In the probiotic group, the changes in the body weight, body fat percentage, body fat mass and L1 subcutaneous fat area were negatively associated with changes in the levels of C8:1, C14:1, C10 and C12:1 acylcarnitines. In overweight individuals, probiotic-induced weight loss and adiposity reduction from the probiotic supplementation were associated with an increase in medium-chain acylcarnitines.

  11. Eating Disorder Risk and Body Dissatisfaction Based on Muscularity and Body Fat in Male University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Carrie; George, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between risk of eating disorders, body dissatisfaction, and perceptual attractiveness in male university students. Participants: Research was conducted January-April 2012 and involved 339 male and 441 female students. Methods: Eating disorder risk was assessed with the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) and body…

  12. Eating Disorder Risk and Body Dissatisfaction Based on Muscularity and Body Fat in Male University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Carrie; George, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between risk of eating disorders, body dissatisfaction, and perceptual attractiveness in male university students. Participants: Research was conducted January-April 2012 and involved 339 male and 441 female students. Methods: Eating disorder risk was assessed with the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) and body…

  13. Dedifferentiated fat cells differentiate into osteoblasts in titanium fiber mesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Naotaka; Momota, Yoshihiro; Hashimoto, Yoshiya; Ando, Kayoko; Omasa, Takeshi; Kotani, Junichiro

    2013-01-01

    Mature adipocyte-derived dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells rapidly differentiate into osteoblasts under three-dimensional culture conditions. However, it has not been demonstrated that DFAT cells can differentiate into osteoblasts in a rigid scaffold consisting of titanium fiber mesh (TFM). We examined the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation ability of DFAT cells using TFM as a scaffold. DFAT cells derived from rabbit subcutaneous fat were seeded into TFM and cultured in osteogenic medium containing dexamethasone, L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate and β-glycerophosphate for 14 days. In scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis, well-spread cells covered the titanium fibers on day 3, and appeared to increase in number from day 3 to 7. Numerous globular accretions were found and almost completely covered the fibers on day 14. Cell proliferation, as measured by DNA content in the TFM, was significantly higher on day 7 compared with that of day 1. Osteocalcin and calcium content in the TFM were significantly higher on day 14 compared to those of days 1, 3, and 7, indicating DFAT cells differentiated into osteoblasts. We theorize that globular accretions observed in SEM analysis may be calcified matrix resulting from osteocalcin secreted by osteoblasts binding calcium contained in fetal bovine serum. In this study, we demonstrated that DFAT cells differentiate into osteoblasts and deposit mineralized matrices in TFM. Therefore, the combination of DFAT cells and TFM may be an attractive option for bone tissue engineering.

  14. Relationship between FAT/CD36 Protein in Skeletal Muscle and Whole-body Fat Oxidation in Endurance-trained Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jisu; Lim, Kiwon

    2016-12-31

    We investigated the effects of endurance training on the expression of long-chain fatty acid transport proteins in the skeletal muscle and whole-body fat oxidation during endurance exercise. Seven-week-old male ICR mice (n = 12) were divided into 2 groups, namely, Sed (sedentary; non-trained) and Tr (endurance-trained) groups. The Tr group was adapted to treadmill training at a fixed intensity (15 m/min, 8° slope) for 3 days. Next, the exercise intensity was increased while maintaining the 8° slope. In the last week of training, the exercise intensity was set at 25 m/min for 50 min (about 70-75% maximal oxygen uptake for 4 weeks). After the protocol ended, the mice were sacrificed, and tissues were collected for western blot analysis. Four weeks of endurance training resulted in a significant increase in the protein levels of FAT/CD36 and CPTІ. The FAT/ CD36 protein level in the Tr group was about 1.3-fold greater than that in the Sed group (p increased CPTІ indicated higher activity (19% upregulation) in the Tr group compared to the Sed group (p FAT/CD36 protein level and the estimated whole-body fat oxidation rate during 1-h exercise were found to be significantly correlated (r = 0.765, p increase in FAT/CD36 protein in skeletal muscle by endurance training might be positively associated with whole-body fat oxidation, which might enhance endurance exercise capacity.

  15. Transgenic Rescue of Adipocyte Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide Receptor Expression Restores High Fat Diet-induced Body Weight Gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ugleholdt, Randi; Pedersen, Jens; Bassi, Maria Rosaria

    2011-01-01

    to adipose tissue have a similar high fat diet -induced body weight gain as control mice, significantly greater than the weight gain in mice with a general ablation of the receptor. Surprisingly, this difference was due to an increase in total lean body mass rather than a gain in total fat mass......The glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor (GIPr) has been implicated in high fat diet-induced obesity and is proposed as an anti-obesity target despite an uncertainty regarding the mechanism of action. To independently investigate the contribution of the insulinotropic effects...

  16. Assessment of percent body fat content in young and middle aged men: skinfold method v/s girth method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hegde S

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Percent body fat content was found in apparently normal healthy 30 young (17-20 Yrs. and 30 middle aged men (30-46 Yrs. by measuring the skinfold and girth. None of the subjects were athletes or did regular physical exercise. Body density was calculated using mean of the four skinfold measurements as per the equations advocated by Durnin and Womersley, while percent body fat content was calculated from the body density by the Siri′s equation. The mean % body fat content by this method in young men was 15.87 +/- 3.85% and in middle aged men was 24.75 +/- 3.55%. Ten percent of the young subjects and 90% of the middle aged subjects were found to be obese. Percent body fat content was also calculated from the girth measurements as advocated by McArdle et al. The mean of % body fat content with this method was 14.91 +/- 3.82% in young men and 24.30 +/- 3.35% in middle aged men. On comparison, the difference in percent body fat content calculated by both the methods was found to be significant in young men but not for middle aged men. The correlation, coefficient between girth method and skinfold method was 0.95 in case of young men and 0.90 for middle aged men. Therefore, we advocate that girth measurements can be used to determine percent body fat content, main advantage being simplicity of technique and requirement of inexpensive instruments for measurement.

  17. Secular trends in the fat and fat-free components of body mass index in children aged 8–18 years born 1958–1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William; Chumlea, Wm. Cameron; Czerwinski, Stefan A.; Demerath, Ellen W.

    2014-01-01

    Background It is unknown whether the secular trend in childhood BMI reflects increases in fat-free mass as well as fat mass. Methods This study decomposed BMI trends in 488 participants in the Fels Longitudinal Study born between 1958–1995 and aged 8–17.99 years into their fat and fat-free components. Generalized estimating equations estimated birth year cohort (1958–1970–1971–1983–1984–1995) effects on 2208 observations of BMI, fat mass index (FMI = fat mass (kg)/height (m)2) and fat-free mass index (FFMI = fat-free mass (kg)/height (m)2). Results BMI in boys increased across cohorts, with those born between 1984–1995 being 2 kg/m2 larger than those born between 1958–1970 (p = 0.001) and increases in FMI were highly significant (p-values < 0.001). FFMI did not differ by cohort. In girls, there was a significant advantage in BMI (1.2 kg/m2) and FFMI (0.8 kg/m2) of the 1984–1995 cohort compared to the 1971–1983 cohort (p-values < 0.05). Conclusions Because the long term trend in childhood BMI in boys appears to be driven by an increase in total body adiposity, evidence is provided to support current knowledge on the predicted deleterious long-term consequences of the childhood obesity epidemic in boys. Research is needed to confirm whether recent changes in BMI in girls are due to increases in fat-free mass resulting from changes in behaviour and lifestyle not yet manifest in boys. PMID:23013058

  18. The role of prenatal exposures on body fat patterns at 7 years: Intrauterine programming or birthweight effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, S; Severo, M; Gaillard, R; Santos, A C; Barros, H; Oliveira, A

    2016-11-01

    It remains unknown whether the effects of prenatal exposures on child's adiposity reflect entirely intrauterine programming. We aimed to assess the effects of maternal gestational weight gain, diabetes and smoking on the child's body fat patterns, disentangling the direct (through intrauterine programming) and indirect (through birthweight) effects. We included 4747 singleton 7-year-old children from the Generation XXI birth cohort (Porto, Portugal). At birth, maternal and newborn's characteristics were obtained. Anthropometrics were measured at age 7 years and body fat patterns were identified by principal component analysis. Path analysis was used to quantify direct, indirect and total effects of gestational weight gain, diabetes and smoking on body fat patterns. Pattern 1 was characterized by strong factor loadings with body mass index, fat mass index and waist-to-height ratio (fat quantity) and pattern 2 with waist-to-hip ratio, waist-to-thigh ratio, and waist-to-weight ratio (fat distribution). The positive total effect of maternal gestational weight gain and diabetes on the child's fat quantity was mainly through a direct pathway, responsible for 91.7% and 83.7% of total effects, respectively (β = 0.022; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.017, 0.027; β = 0.041; 95% CI: -0.011, 0.093). No effects on fat distribution were found. Maternal prenatal smoking had a positive direct effect on patterns 1 and 2, explaining 94.9% and 76.1% of total effects, respectively. The effects of maternal gestational weight gain, diabetes and smoking on a child's fat quantity seem to be mainly through intrauterine programming. Maternal smoking also showed a positive direct effect on child's fat distribution. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Body mass index and body fat percentage are associated with decreased physical fitness in adolescent and adult female volleyball players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theo

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objectives of this study were to examine (a) the prevalence of overweight/obesity, and (b) the relationship between body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF) and physical fitness in adolescent and adult female volleyball players. Materials and Methods: Adolescent (n = 102, aged 15.2 ± 2.0 year) and adult (n = 57, 25.9 ± 5.0 year) players were examined for anthropometric characteristics and body composition, and performed the physical working capacity in heart rate 170 min-1 test, a force-velocity test, the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT), sit-and-reach test (SAR), handgrip strength test (HST) and countermovement vertical jump (CVJ). Results: Based on international BMI cut-off points, 27.5% (n = 28) of adolescent and 12.3% (n = 7) of adult participants were classified as overweight, with the prevalence of overweight being higher in girls than in women (χ2 = 4.90, P = 0.027). BMI was correlated with BF in both age groups (r = 0.72, P volleyball players was higher than in general population, which was a novel finding, suggesting that proper exercise interventions should be developed to target the excess of body mass in youth volleyball clubs. PMID:23900100

  20. Coffee polyphenols suppress diet-induced body fat accumulation by downregulating SREBP-1c and related molecules in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Takatoshi; Misawa, Koichi; Minegishi, Yoshihiko; Aoki, Masafumi; Ominami, Hideo; Suzuki, Yasuto; Shibuya, Yusuke; Hase, Tadashi

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing globally, and obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We investigated the effects of coffee polyphenols (CPP), which are abundant in coffee and consumed worldwide, on diet-induced body fat accumulation. C57BL/6J mice were fed either a control diet, a high-fat diet, or a high-fat diet supplemented with 0.5 to 1.0% CPP for 2-15 wk. Supplementation with CPP significantly reduced body weight gain, abdominal and liver fat accumulation, and infiltration of macrophages into adipose tissues. Energy expenditure evaluated by indirect calorimetry was significantly increased i