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Sample records for fat attenuates psychostimulant

  1. Exposure to elevated levels of dietary fat attenuates psychostimulant reward and mesolimbic dopamine turnover in the rat

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    Davis, Jon F.; Tracy, Andrea L.; Schurdak, Jennifer D.; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Lipton, Jack W.; Clegg, Deborah J.; Benoit, Stephen C.

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that decreased central dopamine is associated with diet-induced obesity in humans and in animal models. In the current study, we assessed the hypothesis that diet-induced obesity reduces mesolimbic dopamine function. Specifically, we compared dopamine turnover in this region between rats fed a high-fat diet and those consuming a standard low-fat diet. We also assessed behavioral consequences of diet-induced obesity by testing the response of these animals in a conditio...

  2. Fat Attenuation at CT in Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Corey M.; Torriani, Martin; Murphy, Rachel; Harris, Tamara B.; Miller, Karen K.; Klibanski, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the composition, cross-sectional area (CSA), and hormonal correlates of different fat depots in women with anorexia nervosa (AN) and control subjects with normal weights to find out whether patients with AN have lower fat CSA but higher attenuation than did control subjects and whether these changes may be mediated by gonadal steroids, cortisol, and thyroid hormones. Materials and Methods This study was institutional review board approved and HIPAA compliant. Written informed consent was obtained. Forty premenopausal women with AN and 40 normal-weight women of comparable age (mean age ± standard deviation, 26 years ± 5) were studied. All individuals underwent computed tomography of the abdomen and thigh with a calibration phantom. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), thigh SAT, and thigh intermuscular adipose tissue CSA and attenuation were quantified. Serum estradiol, thyroid hormones, and urinary free cortisol levels were assessed. Variables were compared by using analysis of variance. Associations were examined by using linear regression analysis. Results Women with AN had higher fat attenuation than did control subjects (−100.1 to −46.7 HU vs −117.6 to −61.8 HU, P < .0001), despite lower fat CSA (2.0–62.8 cm2 vs 5.5–185.9 cm2, P < .0001). VAT attenuation but not CSA was inversely associated with lowest prior lifetime body mass index in AN (r = −0.71, P = .006). Serum estradiol levels were inversely associated with fat attenuation (r = −0.34 to −0.61, P = .03 to <.0001) and were positively associated with fat CSA of all compartments (r = 0.42–0.64, P = .007 to <.0001). Thyroxine levels and urinary free cortisol levels were positively associated with thigh SAT attenuation (r = 0.64 [P = .006] and r = 0.68 [P = .0004], respectively) and were inversely associated with abdominal SAT and VAT CSA (r = −0.44 to −0.58, P = .04 to .02). Conclusion Women with AN have differences in fat

  3. Psychostimulant Drugs and Neuroplasticity

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    Emilio Fernandez-Espejo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Drugs of abuse induce plastic changes in the brain that seem to underlie addictive phenomena. These plastic changes can be structural (morphological or synaptic (biochemical, and most of them take place in the mesolimbic and mesostriatal circuits. Several addiction-related changes in brain circuits (hypofrontality, sensitization, tolerance as well as the outcome of treatment have been visualized in addicts to psychostimulants using neuroimaging techniques. Repeated exposure to psychostimulants induces morphological changes such as increase in the number of dendritic spines, changes in the morphology of dendritic spines, and altered cellular coupling through new gap junctions. Repeated exposure to psychostimulants also induces various synaptic adaptations, many of them related to sensitization and neuroplastic processes, that include up- or down-regulation of D1, D2 and D3 dopamine receptors, changes in subunits of G proteins, increased adenylyl cyclase activity, cyclic AMP and protein kinase A in the nucleus accumbens, increased tyrosine hydroxylase enzyme activity, increased calmodulin and activated CaMKII in the ventral tegmental area, and increased deltaFosB, c-Fos and AP-1 binding proteins. Most of these changes are transient, suggesting that more lasting plastic brain adaptations should take place. In this context, protein synthesis inhibitors block the development of sensitization to cocaine, indicating that rearrangement of neural networks must develop for the long-lasting plasticity required for addiction to occur. Self-administration studies indicate the importance of glutamate neurotransmission in neuroplastic changes underlying transition from use to abuse. Finally, plastic changes in the addicted brain are enhanced and aggravated by neuroinflammation and neurotrophic disbalance after repeated psychostimulants.

  4. Resistance Exercise Attenuates High-Fructose, High-Fat-Induced Postprandial Lipemia

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    Jessie R. Wilburn; Jeffrey Bourquin; Andrea Wysong; Christopher L. Melby

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Meals rich in both fructose and fat are commonly consumed by many Americans, especially young men, which can produce a significant postprandial lipemic response. Increasing evidence suggests that aerobic exercise can attenuate the postprandial increase in plasma triacylglycerols (TAGs) in response to a high-fat or a high-fructose meal. However, it is unknown if resistance exercise can dampen the postprandial lipemic response to a meal rich in both fructose and fat. Methods Eight ...

  5. [Psychostimulants for late life depression].

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    Delsalle, P; Schuster, J-P; von Gunten, A; Limosin, F

    2017-11-28

    The use of psychostimulants in the treatment of depressive disorders is receiving renewed interest. Recent publications suggest a particular interest of psychostimulants in the treatment of depression in the elderly. The aim of this article is to review the literature on the role of psychostimulants in the treatment of depression in older adults. The literature review focused on efficacy and tolerability studies of psychostimulants in the treatment of depression for the elderly that were published between 1980 and 2016. The only inclusion criterion applied was an average age of the sample studied greater than or equal to 60 years. Overall, 12 trials were selected: 3 controlled trials and 9 uncontrolled trials. Of the 3 controlled trials, one compared parallel groups and the other two were cross-tests. Among the psychostimulants, methylphenidate was the most studied molecule. The trials demonstrate an efficacy of this molecule in particular as an add-on therapy in old-age depression but for the most part with a level of proof that remains insufficient. The small size of the samples and the methodological limitations of the studies obviate the possibility of extracting definitive conclusions concerning the place of psychostimulants in the treatment of depression in the elderly. Further studies are required in particular in the treatment of resistant depressive episodes. Copyright © 2017 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. The diagnostic accuracy of pericolonic fat extension and attenuation for colorectal tumors

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    Zeina, Abdel-Rauf, E-mail: raufzeina3@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera (Israel); Affiliated with the Faculty of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel); Mahamid, Ahmad [Division of Surgery, Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera (Israel); Affiliated with the Faculty of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel); Walid, Saliba [Department of Internal Medicine C, Ha’emek Medical Center, Afula (Israel); Affiliated with the Faculty of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel); Nachtigal, Alicia; Shapira-Rootman, Mika [Department of Radiology, Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera (Israel); Affiliated with the Faculty of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Pericolonic fat extent and attenuation were higher in stage ≥T3 than fat infiltration in detecting ≥T3 tumors was 95% and the specificity 20%. • Pericolonic fat extent, pericolonic fat attenuation, and maximal tumor diameter were assessed. • The application of all three parameters achieves 100% specificity. - Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the utility of quantitative analysis of the extension and attenuation of pericolonic fat in the local staging of colorectal cancer (CRC) using multi detector computed tomography (MDCT). Materials and methods: This was a retrospective study of 110 patients who were operated due to pathologically proven CRC from January 2007 to January 2010, and who underwent preoperative MDCT of the abdomen and pelvis with administration of intravenous contrast material and image acquisition during the portal venous phase. The mean age was 69 years (range of 38–90 years). Pathological reports were reviewed for TNM staging. All MDCT studies were reviewed by two certified radiologists for maximal and minimal tumor diameter, extent of the infiltrated pericolonic fat (measured in mm), attenuation of the infiltrated pericolonic fat (measured in Hounsfield units), and attenuation of normally appearing fat next to the tumor. The sensitivity and specificity of these parameters in detecting patients with ≥ T3 CRC were calculated. Results: The overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of pericolonic fat infiltration in detecting patients with ≥T3 stage were 95% (95% CI, 89.0–98.7%), 20% (5.8–43.7%), and 81.9% (74.7–89%) respectively. The mean extent and attenuation of the infiltrated pericolonic fat, in addition to the maximal tumor diameter, were higher in the ≥T3 group (p < 0.05). By defining threshold values to these parameters, the positive predictive value for detecting ≥T3 stage tumors approaches 100%. Conclusion: Quantitative analysis of pericolonic fat

  7. Resistance Exercise Attenuates High-Fructose, High-Fat-Induced Postprandial Lipemia

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    Jessie R. Wilburn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Meals rich in both fructose and fat are commonly consumed by many Americans, especially young men, which can produce a significant postprandial lipemic response. Increasing evidence suggests that aerobic exercise can attenuate the postprandial increase in plasma triacylglycerols (TAGs in response to a high-fat or a high-fructose meal. However, it is unknown if resistance exercise can dampen the postprandial lipemic response to a meal rich in both fructose and fat. Methods Eight apparently healthy men (Mean ± SEM; age = 27 ± 2 years participated in a crossover study to examine the effects of acute resistance exercise on next-day postprandial lipemia resulting from a high-fructose, high-fat meal. Participants completed three separate two-day conditions in a random order: (1 EX-COMP: a full-body weightlifting workout with the provision of additional kilocalories to compensate for the estimated net energy cost of exercise on day 1, followed by the consumption of a high-fructose, high-fat liquid test meal the next morning (day 2 (~600 kcal and the determination of the plasma glucose, lactate, insulin, and TAG responses during a six-hour postprandial period; (2 EX-DEF: same condition as EX-COMP but without exercise energy compensation on day 1; and (3 CON: no exercise control. Results The six-hour postprandial plasma insulin and lactate responses did not differ between conditions. However, the postprandial plasma TAG concentrations were 16.5% and 24.4% lower for EX-COMP (551.0 ± 80.5 mg/dL x 360 minutes and EX-DEF (499.4 ± 73.5 mg/dL x 360 minutes, respectively, compared to CON (660.2 ± 95.0 mg/dL x 360 minutes ( P < 0.05. Conclusions A single resistance exercise bout, performed ~15 hours prior to a high-fructose, high-fat meal, attenuated the postprandial TAG response, as compared to a no-exercise control condition, in healthy, resistance-trained men.

  8. Resistance Exercise Attenuates High-Fructose, High-Fat-Induced Postprandial Lipemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, Jessie R; Bourquin, Jeffrey; Wysong, Andrea; Melby, Christopher L

    2015-01-01

    Meals rich in both fructose and fat are commonly consumed by many Americans, especially young men, which can produce a significant postprandial lipemic response. Increasing evidence suggests that aerobic exercise can attenuate the postprandial increase in plasma triacylglycerols (TAGs) in response to a high-fat or a high-fructose meal. However, it is unknown if resistance exercise can dampen the postprandial lipemic response to a meal rich in both fructose and fat. Eight apparently healthy men (Mean ± SEM; age = 27 ± 2 years) participated in a crossover study to examine the effects of acute resistance exercise on next-day postprandial lipemia resulting from a high-fructose, high-fat meal. Participants completed three separate two-day conditions in a random order: (1) EX-COMP: a full-body weightlifting workout with the provision of additional kilocalories to compensate for the estimated net energy cost of exercise on day 1, followed by the consumption of a high-fructose, high-fat liquid test meal the next morning (day 2) (~600 kcal) and the determination of the plasma glucose, lactate, insulin, and TAG responses during a six-hour postprandial period; (2) EX-DEF: same condition as EX-COMP but without exercise energy compensation on day 1; and (3) CON: no exercise control. The six-hour postprandial plasma insulin and lactate responses did not differ between conditions. However, the postprandial plasma TAG concentrations were 16.5% and 24.4% lower for EX-COMP (551.0 ± 80.5 mg/dL × 360 minutes) and EX-DEF (499.4 ± 73.5 mg/dL × 360 minutes), respectively, compared to CON (660.2 ± 95.0 mg/dL × 360 minutes) (P < 0.05). A single resistance exercise bout, performed ~15 hours prior to a high-fructose, high-fat meal, attenuated the postprandial TAG response, as compared to a no-exercise control condition, in healthy, resistance-trained men.

  9. Behavioral effects of ketamine and toxic interactions with psychostimulants

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    Yamamoto Keiichi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The anesthetic drug ketamine (KT has been reported to be an abused drug and fatal cases have been observed in polydrug users. In the present study, considering the possibility of KT-enhanced toxic effects of other drugs, and KT-induced promotion of an overdose without making the subject aware of the danger due to the attenuation of several painful subjective symptoms, the intraperitoneal (i.p. KT-induced alterations in behaviors and toxic interactions with popular co-abused drugs, the psychostimulants cocaine (COC and methamphetamine (MA, were examined in ICR mice. Results A single dose of KT caused hyperlocomotion in a low (30 mg/kg, i.p. dose group, and hypolocomotion followed by hyperlocomotion in a high (100 mg/kg, i.p. dose group. However, no behavioral alterations derived from enhanced stress-related depression or anxiety were observed in the forced swimming or the elevated plus-maze test. A single non-fatal dose of COC (30 mg/kg, i.p. or MA (4 mg/kg, i.p. caused hyperlocomotion, stress-related depression in swimming behaviors in the forced swimming test, and anxiety-related behavioral changes (preference for closed arms in the elevated plus-maze test. For the COC (30 mg/kg or MA (4 mg/kg groups of mice simultaneously co-treated with KT, the psychostimulant-induced hyperlocomotion was suppressed by the high dose KT, and the psychostimulant-induced behavioral alterations in the above tests were reversed by both low and high doses of KT. For the toxic dose COC (70 mg/kg, i.p.- or MA (15 mg/kg, i.p.-only group, mortality and severe seizures were observed in some animals. In the toxic dose psychostimulant-KT groups, KT attenuated the severity of seizures dose-dependently. Nevertheless, the mortality rate was significantly increased by co-treatment with the high dose KT. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that, in spite of the absence of stress-related depressive and anxiety-related behavioral alterations following a single

  10. Effects of Psychostimulant Drugs on Developing Brain

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    Ibrahim Durukan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Although psychostimulants have been used for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder for approximately 70 years, little is known about the long term effects of these drugs on developing brain. The observable effects of psychostimulants are influenced by the timing of exposure, the age of examination after drug exposure and sex. Preclinical studies point out that chronic psychostimulant exposure before adolescence cause reverse sensitization or tolerance and this leads to reduction in stimulant effectiveness in adolesecence and adulthood. Preclinical studies show the potential long term effects of psychostimulants. But it is necessary to investigate the relationship between preclinical effects and clinical practice. A developmental approach is needed to understand the impact of pediatric medications on the brain that includes assessment at multiple ages to completely characterize the long term effects of these medications. The aim of this paper is to review the effects of psychostimulants on developing brain.

  11. Ellagic acid attenuates high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome in rats.

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    Panchal, Sunil K; Ward, Leigh; Brown, Lindsay

    2013-03-01

    Fruits and nuts may prevent or reverse common human health conditions such as obesity, diabetes and hypertension; together, these conditions are referred to as metabolic syndrome, an increasing problem. This study has investigated the responses to ellagic acid, present in many fruits and nuts, in a diet-induced rat model of metabolic syndrome. Eight- to nine-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into four groups for 16-week feeding with cornstarch diet (C), cornstarch diet supplemented with ellagic acid (CE), high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet (H) and high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet supplemented with ellagic acid (HE). CE and HE rats were given 0.8 g/kg ellagic acid in food from week 8 to 16 only. At the end of 16 weeks, cardiovascular, hepatic and metabolic parameters along with protein levels of Nrf2, NF-κB and CPT1 in the heart and the liver were characterised. High-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats developed cardiovascular remodelling, impaired ventricular function, impaired glucose tolerance, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease with increased protein levels of NF-κB and decreased protein levels of Nrf2 and CPT1 in the heart and the liver. Ellagic acid attenuated these diet-induced symptoms of metabolic syndrome with normalisation of protein levels of Nrf2, NF-κB and CPT1. Ellagic acid derived from nuts and fruits such as raspberries and pomegranates may provide a useful dietary supplement to decrease the characteristic changes in metabolism and in cardiac and hepatic structure and function induced by a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet by suppressing oxidative stress and inflammation.

  12. Pyrrolidine Dithiocarbamate (PDTC Attenuates Cancer Cachexia by Affecting Muscle Atrophy and Fat Lipolysis

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    Chunxiao Miao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cachexia is a kind of whole body metabolic disorder syndrome accompanied with severe wasting of muscle and adipose tissue. NF-κB signaling plays an important role during skeletal muscle atrophy and fat lipolysis. As an inhibitor of NF-κB signaling, Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC was reported to relieve cancer cachexia; however, its mechanism remains largely unknown. In our study, we showed that PDTC attenuated cancer cachexia symptom in C26 tumor bearing mice models in vivo without influencing tumor volume. What’s more, PDTC inhibited muscle atrophy and lipolysis in cells models in vitro induced by TNFα and C26 tumor medium. PDTC suppressed atrophy of myotubes differentiated from C2C12 by reducing MyoD and upregulating MuRF1, and preserving the expression of perilipin as well as blocking the activation of HSL in 3T3-L1 mature adipocytes. Meaningfully, we observed that PDTC also inhibited p38 MAPK signaling besides the NF-κB signaling in cancer cachexia in vitro models. In addition, PDTC also influenced the protein synthesis of skeletal muscle by activating AKT signaling and regulated fat energy metabolism by inhibiting AMPK signaling. Therefore, PDTC primarily influenced different pathways in different tissues. The study not only established a simple and reliable screening drugs model of cancer cachexia in vitro but also provided new theoretical basis for future treatment of cancer cachexia.

  13. Inulin oligofructose attenuates metabolic syndrome in high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats.

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    Kumar, Senthil A; Ward, Leigh C; Brown, Lindsay

    2016-11-01

    Prebiotics alter bacterial content in the colon, and therefore could be useful for obesity management. We investigated the changes following addition of inulin oligofructose (IO) in the food of rats fed either a corn starch (C) diet or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat (H) diet as a model of diet-induced metabolic syndrome. IO did not affect food intake, but reduced body weight gain by 5·3 and 12·3 % in corn starch+inulin oligofructose (CIO) and high-carbohydrate, high-fat with inulin oligofructose (HIO) rats, respectively. IO reduced plasma concentrations of free fatty acids by 26·2 % and TAG by 75·8 % in HIO rats. IO increased faecal output by 93·2 %, faecal lipid excretion by 37·9 % and weight of caecum by 23·4 % and colon by 41·5 % in HIO rats. IO improved ileal morphology by reducing inflammation and improving the density of crypt cells in HIO rats. IO attenuated H diet-induced increases in abdominal fat pads (C 275 (sem 19), CIO 264 (sem 40), H 688 (sem 55), HIO 419 (sem 32) mg/mm tibial length), fasting blood glucose concentrations (C 4·5 (sem 0·1), CIO 4·2 (sem 0·1), H 5·2 (sem 0·1), HIO 4·3 (sem 0·1) mmol/l), systolic blood pressure (C 124 (sem 2), CIO 118 (sem 2), H 152 (sem 2), HIO 123 (sem 3) mmHg), left ventricular diastolic stiffness (C 22·9 (sem 0·6), CIO 22·9 (sem 0·5), H 27·8 (sem 0·5), HIO 22·6 (sem 1·2)) and plasma alanine transaminase (C 29·6 (sem 2·8), CIO 32·1 (sem 3·0), H 43·9 (sem 2·6), HIO 33·6 (sem 2·0) U/l). IO attenuated H-induced increases in inflammatory cell infiltration in the heart and liver, lipid droplets in the liver and plasma lipids as well as impaired glucose and insulin tolerance. These results suggest that increasing soluble fibre intake with IO improves signs of the metabolic syndrome by decreasing gastrointestinal carbohydrate and lipid uptake.

  14. Edible bird’s nest attenuates procoagulation effects of high-fat diet in rats

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    Yida Z

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Zhang Yida,1,2 Mustapha Umar Imam,1 Maznah Ismail,1,3 Norsharina Ismail,1 Zhiping Hou1 1Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Cardiology Department, Affiliated Hospital of Chengde Medical University, Chengde, Hebei, People’s Republic of China; 3Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia Abstract: Edible bird’s nest (EBN is popular in Asia, and has long been used traditionally as a supplement. There are, however, limited evidence-based studies on its efficacy. EBN has been reported to improve dyslipidemia, which is closely linked to hypercoagulation states. In the present study, the effects of EBN on high-fat diet- (HFD- induced coagulation in rats were evaluated. Rats were fed for 12 weeks with HFD alone or in combination with simvastatin or EBN. Food intake was estimated, and weight measurements were made during the experimental period. After sacrifice, serum oxidized low-density lipo­protein (oxLDL, adiponectin, leptin, von willibrand factor, prostacyclin, thromboxane and lipid profile, and whole blood coagulation indices (bleeding time, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, red blood count count, and platelet count were estimated. Furthermore, hepatic expression of coagulation-related genes was evaluated using multiplex polymerase chain reaction. The results indicated that EBN could attenuate HFD-induced hypercholesterolemia and coagulation similar to simvastatin, partly through transcriptional regulation of coagulation-related genes. The results suggested that EBN has the potential for lowering the risk of cardiovascular disease-related hypercoagulation due to hypercholesterolemia. Keywords: edible bird’s nest, coagulation, high-fat diet, hypercholesterolemia, nutrigeno­mics

  15. Psychostimulants in moderate to severe affective disorder

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    Abbasowa, Leda; Kessing, Lars V; Vinberg, Maj

    2013-01-01

    Background: Despite antidepressant therapy of appropriate trial duration and dose optimization, 50-60% of depressed patients have an adequate treatment response, whereas only 35-40% achieve remission. Psychostimulants have been suggested as potential candidates to promote acceleration of response...... and to alleviate residual symptoms of depression. Aims: In this review results from randomized clinical trials (RCTs) exploring the efficacy of psychostimulants in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) were analyzed to clarify the current empirically founded evidence for clinical approaches involving...... provided results for unipolar depression, two for bipolar depression, whereas two articles presented mixed samples of unipolar and bipolar patients. Results: Five different psychostimulants were evaluated: modafinil, methylphenidate, dexamphetamine, methylamphetamine and pemoline. Two studies examining...

  16. Psychostimulants and Artistic, Musical, and Literary Creativity.

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    Smith, Iain

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explores links between psychostimulants and creativity in the arts. These links are set in the context of an overview of the association between mind-altering drugs in general and specific branches of the arts, particularly literature. The economic impact of the psychostimulants both historically and in today's world has been substantial and this is mirrored in the culture of the countries involved with the trade in these special commodities. As with other families of addictive drugs, the psychostimulants are sought out more frequently than is the norm by creative individuals who then may represent the drugs in their art or associate the drugs with their creativity. The creative process is outlined and it is noted that if a drug helps at all with creativity then the specific properties of the drug may link it to a particular stage of the creative process. Stimulants are particularly associated with the evaluation and elaboration stage of the creative process and in particular nicotine and caffeine have been used in this way by writers when putting words on paper. The ability of psychostimulants to boost convergent thinking is the main mechanism at work but this is at a cost as divergent thinking is diminished. The other findings of note in this review are that particular venues based around the consumption of a psychostimulants can act as a creative hub-café culture in Paris and Vienna and early modern Europe-and that particular drugs can come to define an artistic grouping as with the Beats and the group around Warhol who had a preference for amphetamine. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 deficiency attenuates and high-fat diet exacerbates bone loss in mice with Lewis lung carcinoma.

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    Yan, Lin; Nielsen, Forrest H; Sundaram, Sneha; Cao, Jay

    2017-04-04

    Bone loss occurs in obesity and cancer-associated complications including wasting. This study determined whether a high-fat diet and a deficiency in monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) altered bone structural defects in male C57BL/6 mice with Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) metastases in lungs. Compared to non-tumor-bearing mice, LLC reduced bone volume fraction, connectivity density, trabecular number, trabecular thickness and bone mineral density and increased trabecular separation in femurs. Similar changes occurred in vertebrae. The high-fat diet compared to the AIN93G diet exacerbated LLC-induced detrimental structural changes; the exacerbation was greater in femurs than in vertebrae. Mice deficient in MCP-1 compared to wild-type mice exhibited increases in bone volume fraction, connectivity density, trabecular number and decreases in trabecular separation in both femurs and vertebrae, and increases in trabecular thickness and bone mineral density and a decrease in structure model index in vertebrae. Lewis lung carcinoma significantly decreased osteocalcin but increased tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP 5b) in plasma. In LLC-bearing mice, the high-fat diet increased and MCP-1 deficiency decreased plasma TRAP 5b; neither the high-fat diet nor MCP-1 deficiency resulted in significant changes in plasma concentration of osteocalcin. In conclusion, pulmonary metastasis of LLC is accompanied by detrimental bone structural changes; MCP-1 deficiency attenuates and high-fat diet exacerbates the metastasis-associated bone wasting.

  18. Resistant starch and exercise independently attenuate weight regain on a high fat diet in a rat model of obesity

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    Johnson Ginger C

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-term weight reduction remains elusive for many obese individuals. Resistant starch (RS and exercise may be useful for weight maintenance. The effects of RS, with or without exercise, on weight regain was examined during relapse to obesity on a high carbohydrate, high fat (HC/HF diet. Methods Obesity-prone rats were fed ad libitum for 16 weeks then weight reduced on a low fat diet to induce a 17% body weight loss (weight reduced rats. Weight reduced rats were maintained on an energy-restricted low fat diet for 18 weeks, with or without a daily bout of treadmill exercise. Rats were then allowed free access to HC/HF diet containing low (0.3% or high (5.9% levels of RS. Weight regain, energy balance, body composition, adipocyte cellularity, and fuel utilization were monitored as rats relapsed to obesity and surpassed their original, obese weight. Results Both RS and exercise independently attenuated weight regain by reducing the energy gap between the drive to eat and suppressed energy requirements. Exercise attenuated the deposition of lean mass during relapse, whereas its combination with RS sustained lean mass accrual as body weight returned. Early in relapse, RS lowered insulin levels and reduced the deposition of fat in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Exercise cessation at five weeks of relapse led to increased weight gain, body fat, subcutaneous adipocytes, and decreased lean mass; all detrimental consequences to overall metabolic health. Conclusions These data are the first to show the complimentary effects of dietary RS and regular exercise in countering the metabolic drive to regain weight following weight loss and suggest that exercise cessation, in the context of relapse on a HC/HF diet, may have dire metabolic consequences.

  19. Could piracetam potentiate behavioural effects of psychostimulants?

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    Slais, Karel; Machalova, Alena; Landa, Leos; Vrskova, Dagmar; Sulcova, Alexandra

    2012-08-01

    Press and internet reports mention abuse of nootropic drug piracetam (PIR) in combination with psychostimulants methamphetamine (MET) or 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). These combinations are believed to produce more profound desirable effects, while decreasing hangover. However, there is a lack of valid experimental studies on such drug-drug interactions in the scientific literature available. Our hypothesis proposes that a functional interaction exists between PIR and amphetamine psychostimulants (MET and MDMA) which can potentiate psychostimulant behavioural effects. Our hypothesis is supported by the results of our pilot experiment testing acute effects of drugs given to mice intraperitoneally (Vehicle, n=12; MET 2.5mg/kg, n=10; MDMA 2.5mg/kg, n=11; PIR 300 mg/kg, n=12; PIR+MET, n=12; PIR+MDMA, n=11) in the Open Field Test (Actitrack, Panlab, Spain). PIR given alone caused no significant changes in mouse locomotor/exploratory behaviour, whereas the same dose combined with either MET or MDMA significantly enhanced their stimulatory effects. Different possible neurobiological mechanism underlying drug-drug interaction of PIR with MET or MDMA are discussed, as modulation of dopaminergic, glutamatergic or cholinergic brain systems. However, the interaction with membrane phospholipids seems as the most plausible mechanism explaining PIR action on activities of neurotransmitter systems. Despite that our behavioural experiment cannot serve for explanation of the pharmacological mechanisms of these functional interactions, it shows that PIR effects can increase behavioural stimulation of amphetamine drugs. Thus, the reported combining of PIR with MET or MDMA by human abusers is not perhaps a coincidental phenomenon and may be based on existing PIR potential to intensify acute psychostimulant effects of these drugs of abuse. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fatness

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    Hansen, Anne Katrine Kleberg

    In 1727, the English physician Thomas Short wrote: “I believe no Age did ever afford more instances of Corpulency than our own.” Even in the 18th century, fatness was addressed as an issue of special contemporary concern. This thesis probes concepts and perceptions of fatness in Western European...... Medicine c. 1700–1900. It has been written with particular attention to whether and how fatness has been regarded as a disease during that period in history. One purpose of the thesis is to investigate the immediate period before fatness allegedly became problematized. Another purpose has been to grasp...

  1. Ghrelin and Ghrelin Receptor Modulation of Psychostimulant Action

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    Paul Jeff Wellman

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ghrelin (GHR is an orexigenic gut peptide that modulates multiple homeostatic functions including gastric emptying, anxiety, stress, memory, feeding and reinforcement. GHR is known to bind and activate growth-hormone secretagogue receptors (termed GHR-Rs. Of interest to our laboratory has been the assessment of the impact of GHR modulation of the locomotor activation and reward/reinforcement properties of psychostimulants such as cocaine and nicotine. Systemic GHR infusions augment cocaine stimulated locomotion and conditioned place preference (CPP in rats, as does food restriction which elevates plasma ghrelin levels. Ghrelin enhancement of psychostimulant function may occur owing to a direct action on mesolimbic dopamine function or may reflect an indirect action of ghrelin on glucocorticoid pathways. Genomic or pharmacological ablation of GHR-Rs attenuates the acute locomotor-enhancing effects of nicotine, cocaine, amphetamine and alcohol and blunts the CPP induced by food, alcohol, amphetamine and cocaine in mice. The stimulant nicotine can induce CPP and like amphetamine and cocaine, repeated administration of nicotine induces locomotor sensitization in rats. Inactivation of ghrelin circuit function in rats by injection of a ghrelin receptor antagonist (e.g. JMV 2959 diminishes the development of nicotine-induced locomotor sensitization. These results suggest a key permissive role for GHR-R activity for the induction of locomotor sensitization to nicotine. Our finding that GHR-R null rats exhibit diminished patterns of responding for intracranial self-stimulation complements an emerging literature implicating central GHR circuits in drug reward/reinforcement. Finally, antagonism of GHR-Rs may represent a smoking cessation modality that not only blocks nicotine-induced reward but that also may limit weight gain after smoking cessation.

  2. Neonatal overfeeding attenuates acute central pro-inflammatory effects of short-term high fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohui eCai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal obesity predisposes individuals to obesity throughout life. In rats, neonatal overfeeding also leads to early accelerated weight gain that persists into adulthood. The phenotype is associated with dysfunction in a number of systems including paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN responses to psychological and immune stressors. However, in many cases weight gain in neonatally overfed rats stabilizes in early adulthood so the animal does not become more obese as it ages. Here we examined if neonatal overfeeding by suckling rats in small litters predisposes them to exacerbated metabolic and central inflammatory disturbances if they are also given a high fat diet in later life. In adulthood we gave the rats normal chow, 3 days, or 3 weeks high fat diet (45% kcal from fat and measured peripheral indices of metabolic disturbance. We also investigated hypothalamic microglial changes, as an index of central inflammation, as well as PVN responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Surprisingly, neonatal overfeeding did not predispose rats to the metabolic effects of a high fat diet. Weight changes and glucose metabolism were unaffected by the early life experience. However, short term (3 day high fat diet was associated with more microglia in the hypothalamus and a markedly exacerbated PVN response to LPS in control rats; effects not seen in the neonatally overfed. Our findings indicate neonatally overfed animals are not more susceptible to the adverse metabolic effects of a short-term high fat diet but may be less able to respond to the central effects.

  3. Bovine milk fat enriched in conjugated linoleic and vaccenic acids attenuates allergic airway disease in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwar, R K; Macgibbon, A K; Black, P N; Kanwar, J R; Rowan, A; Vale, M; Krissansen, G W

    2008-01-01

    It has been argued that a reduction in the Western diet of anti-inflammatory unsaturated lipids, such as n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, has contributed to the increase in the frequency and severity of allergic diseases. We investigated whether feeding milk fat enriched in conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acids (VAs) ('enriched' milk fat), produced by supplementing the diet of pasture-fed cows with fish and sunflower oil, will prevent development of allergic airway responses. C57BL/6 mice were fed a control diet containing soybean oil and diets supplemented with milk lipids. They were sensitized by intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin (OVA) on days 14 and 28, and challenged intranasally with OVA on day 42. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, lung tissues and serum samples were collected 6 days after the intranasal challenge. Feeding of enriched milk fat led to marked suppression of airway inflammation as evidenced by reductions in eosinophilia and lymphocytosis in the airways, compared with feeding of normal milk fat and control diet. Enriched milk fat significantly reduced circulating allergen-specific IgE and IgG1 levels, together with reductions in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of IL-5 and CCL11. Treatment significantly inhibited changes in the airway including airway epithelial cell hypertrophy, goblet cell metaplasia and mucus hypersecretion. The two major components of enriched milk fat, cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid and VA, inhibited airway inflammation when fed together to mice, whereas alone they were not effective. Milk fat enriched in conjugated linoleic and VAs suppresses inflammation and changes to the airways in an animal model of allergic airway disease.

  4. High Fat Diet Attenuates the Anticontractile Activity of Aortic PVAT via a Mechanism Involving AMPK and Reduced Adiponectin Secretion

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    Tarek A. M. Almabrouk

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT positively regulates vascular function through production of factors such as adiponectin but this effect is attenuated in obesity. The enzyme AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK is present in PVAT and is implicated in mediating the vascular effects of adiponectin. In this study, we investigated the effect of an obesogenic high fat diet (HFD on aortic PVAT and whether any changes involved AMPK.Methods: Wild type Sv129 (WT and AMPKα1 knockout (KO mice aged 8 weeks were fed normal diet (ND or HFD (42% kcal fat for 12 weeks. Adiponectin production by PVAT was assessed by ELISA and AMPK expression studied using immunoblotting. Macrophages in PVAT were identified using immunohistochemistry and markers of M1 and M2 macrophage subtypes evaluated using real time-qPCR. Vascular responses were measured in endothelium-denuded aortic rings with or without attached PVAT. Carotid wire injury was performed and PVAT inflammation studied 7 days later.Key results: Aortic PVAT from KO and WT mice was morphologically indistinct but KO PVAT had more infiltrating macrophages. HFD caused an increased infiltration of macrophages in WT mice with increased expression of the M1 macrophage markers Nos2 and Il1b and the M2 marker Chil3. In WT mice, HFD reduced the anticontractile effect of PVAT as well as reducing adiponectin secretion and AMPK phosphorylation. PVAT from KO mice on ND had significantly reduced adiponectin secretion and no anticontractile effect and feeding HFD did not alter this. Wire injury induced macrophage infiltration of PVAT but did not cause further infiltration in KO mice.Conclusions: High-fat diet causes an inflammatory infiltrate, reduced AMPK phosphorylation and attenuates the anticontractile effect of murine aortic PVAT. Mice lacking AMPKα1 phenocopy many of the changes in wild-type aortic PVAT after HFD, suggesting that AMPK may protect the vessel against deleterious changes in response to

  5. High-fat diet-induced plasma protein and liver changes in obese rats can be attenuated by melatonin supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongchitrat, Prapimpun; Klosen, Paul; Pannengpetch, Supitcha; Kitidee, Kuntida; Govitrapong, Piyarat; Isarankura-Na-Ayudhya, Chartchalerm

    2017-06-01

    Obesity triggers changes in protein expression in various organs that might participate in the pathogenesis of obesity. Melatonin has been reported to prevent or attenuate such pathological protein changes in several chronic diseases. However, such melatonin effects on plasma proteins have not yet been studied in an obesity model. Using a proteomic approach, we investigated the effect of melatonin on plasma protein profiles after rats were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) to induce obesity. We hypothesized that melatonin would attenuate abnormal protein expression in obese rats. After 10weeks of the HFD, animals displayed increased body weight and fat accumulation as well as increased glucose levels, indicating an obesity-induced prediabetes mellitus-like state. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry revealed 12 proteins whose expression was altered in response to the HFD and the melatonin treatment. The altered proteins are related to the development of liver pathology, such as cirrhosis (α1-antiproteinase), thrombosis (fibrinogen, plasminogen), and inflammation (mannose-binding protein A, complement C4, complement factor B), contributing to liver steatosis or hepatic cell death. Melatonin treatment most probably reduced the severity of the HFD-induced obesity by reducing the amplitude of HFD-induced plasma protein changes. In conclusion, we identified several potential biomarkers associated with the progression of obesity and its complications, such as liver damage. Furthermore, our findings reveal melatonin's beneficial effect of attenuating plasma protein changes and liver pathogenesis in obese rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Andrographis paniculata extract attenuates pathological cardiac hypertrophy and apoptosis in high-fat diet fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, You-Liang; Shibu, Marthandam Asokan; Lii, Chong-Kuei; Viswanadha, Vijaya Padma; Lin, Yi-Lin; Lai, Chao-Hung; Chen, Yu-Feng; Lin, Kuan-Ho; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2016-11-04

    Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees (Acanthaceae) has a considerable medicinal reputation in most parts of Asia as a potent medicine in the treatment of Endocrine disorders, inflammation and hypertension. Water extract of A. paniculata and its active constituent andrographolide are known to possess anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects. Our aim is to identify whether A. paniculata extract could protect myocardial damage in high-fat diet induced obese mice. The test mice were divided into three groups fed either with normal chow or with high fat diet (obese) or with high fat diet treated with A. paniculata extract (2g/kg/day, through gavage, for a week). We found that the myocardial inflammation pathway related proteins were increased in the obese mouse which potentially contributes to cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial apoptosis. But feeding with A. paniculata extract showed significant inhibition on the effects of high fat diet. Our study strongly suggests that supplementation of A. paniculata extract can be used for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease in obese patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Palmitoleic Acid (N-7 Attenuates the Immunometabolic Disturbances Caused by a High-Fat Diet Independently of PPARα

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    Camila O. Souza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Palmitoleic acid (PMA has anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic activities. Here we tested whether these effects of PMA on glucose homeostasis and liver inflammation, in mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD, are PPAR-α dependent. C57BL6 wild-type (WT and PPAR-α-knockout (KO mice fed with a standard diet (SD or HFD for 12 weeks were treated after the 10th week with oleic acid (OLA, 300 mg/kg of b.w. or PMA 300 mg/kg of b.w. Steatosis induced by HFD was associated with liver inflammation only in the KO mice, as shown by the increased hepatic levels of IL1-beta, IL-12, and TNF-α; however, the HFD increased the expression of TLR4 and decreased the expression of IL1-Ra in both genotypes. Treatment with palmitoleate markedly attenuated the insulin resistance induced by the HFD, increased glucose uptake and incorporation into muscle in vitro, reduced the serum levels of AST in WT mice, decreased the hepatic levels of IL1-beta and IL-12 in KO mice, reduced the expression of TLR-4 and increased the expression of IL-1Ra in WT mice, and reduced the phosphorylation of NF B (p65 in the livers of KO mice. We conclude that palmitoleate attenuates diet-induced insulin resistance, liver inflammation, and damage through mechanisms that do not depend on PPAR-α.

  8. SGLT2 Inhibition by Empagliflozin Promotes Fat Utilization and Browning and Attenuates Inflammation and Insulin Resistance by Polarizing M2 Macrophages in Diet-induced Obese Mice

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    Liang Xu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT 2 inhibitors increase urinary glucose excretion (UGE, leading to blood glucose reductions and weight loss. However, the impacts of SGLT2 inhibition on energy homeostasis and obesity-induced insulin resistance are less well known. Here, we show that empagliflozin, a SGLT2 inhibitor, enhanced energy expenditure and attenuated inflammation and insulin resistance in high-fat-diet-induced obese (DIO mice. C57BL/6J mice were pair-fed a high-fat diet (HFD or a HFD with empagliflozin for 16 weeks. Empagliflozin administration increased UGE in the DIO mice, whereas it suppressed HFD-induced weight gain, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis. Moreover, empagliflozin shifted energy metabolism towards fat utilization, elevated AMP-activated protein kinase and acetyl-CoA carbolxylase phosphorylation in skeletal muscle, and increased hepatic and plasma fibroblast growth factor 21 levels. Importantly, empagliflozin increased energy expenditure, heat production, and the expression of uncoupling protein 1 in brown fat and in inguinal and epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT. Furthermore, empagliflozin reduced M1-polarized macrophage accumulation while inducing the anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype of macrophages within WAT and liver, lowering plasma TNFα levels and attenuating obesity-related chronic inflammation. Thus, empagliflozin suppressed weight gain by enhancing fat utilization and browning and attenuated obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance by polarizing M2 macrophages in WAT and liver.

  9. Genetic risk scores for body fat distribution attenuate weight loss in women during dietary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendstrup, M; Allin, K H; Sørensen, T I A

    2018-01-01

    to lose weight. We aimed to study the effect of weighted genetic risk scores (GRSs) on weight loss based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with waist-hip-ratio adjusted for body mass index (WHRadjBMI). METHOD: We included 707 participants (533 women and 174 men) from the NUGENOB multi......-center 10 week diet intervention study with weekly weight measurements. We created 3 GRSs, one including all reported WHRadjBMI SNPs (GRStotal), one including only SNPs with genome wide significance in women or with significantly greater effect in women (GRSwomen), and one excluding SNPs in the GRSwomen...... (GRSmen). The data was analyzed in a mixed linear model framework. RESULTS: The GRStotal and GRSwomen attenuated weight loss in women. The effect was strongest for the GRSwomen with an effect of 2.21 g/risk allele/day [95% CI (0.90;3.52), P=0.0009]. Adjustment for WHR, basal metabolic rate or diet...

  10. Chitin Oligosaccharide Modulates Gut Microbiota and Attenuates High-Fat-Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Mice

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    Junping Zheng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota has been proved to be an indispensable link between nutrient excess and metabolic syndrome, and chitin oligosaccharide (NACOS has displayed therapeutic effects on multiple diseases such as cancer and gastritis. In this study, we aim to confirm whether NACOS can ameliorate high-fat diet (HFD-induced metabolic syndrome by rebuilding the structure of the gut microbiota community. Male C57BL/6J mice fed with HFD were treated with NACOS (1 mg/mL in drinking water for five months. The results indicate that NACOS improved glucose metabolic disorder in HFD-fed mice and suppressed mRNA expression of the protein regulators related to lipogenesis, gluconeogenesis, adipocyte differentiation, and inflammation in adipose tissues. Additionally, NACOS inhibited the destruction of the gut barrier in HFD-treated mice. Furthermore, 16S ribosome RNA sequencing of fecal samples demonstrates that NACOS promoted the growth of beneficial intestinal bacteria remarkably and decreased the abundance of inflammogenic taxa. In summary, NACOS partly rebuilt the microbial community and improved the metabolic syndrome of HFD-fed mice. These data confirm the preventive effects of NACOS on nutrient excess-related metabolic diseases.

  11. Central inhibition of IKKβ/NF-κB signaling attenuates high-fat diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzler, Jonas; Ganjam, Goutham K; Pretz, Dominik; Oelkrug, Rebecca; Koch, Christiane E; Legler, Karen; Stöhr, Sigrid; Culmsee, Carsten; Williams, Lynda M; Tups, Alexander

    2015-06-01

    Metabolic inflammation in the central nervous system might be causative for the development of overnutrition-induced metabolic syndrome and related disorders, such as obesity, leptin and insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. Here we investigated whether nutritive and genetic inhibition of the central IκB kinase β (IKKβ)/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway in diet-induced obese (DIO) and leptin-deficient mice improves these metabolic impairments. A known prominent inhibitor of IKKβ/NF-κB signaling is the dietary flavonoid butein. We initially determined that oral, intraperitoneal, and intracerebroventricular administration of this flavonoid improved glucose tolerance and hypothalamic insulin signaling. The dose-dependent glucose-lowering capacity was profound regardless of whether obesity was caused by leptin deficiency or high-fat diet (HFD). To confirm the apparent central role of IKKβ/NF-κB signaling in the control of glucose and energy homeostasis, we genetically inhibited this pathway in neurons of the arcuate nucleus, one key center for control of energy homeostasis, via specific adeno-associated virus serotype 2-mediated overexpression of IκBα, which inhibits NF-κB nuclear translocation. This treatment attenuated HFD-induced body weight gain, body fat mass accumulation, increased energy expenditure, and reduced arcuate suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 expression, indicative for enhanced leptin signaling. These results reinforce a specific role of central proinflammatory IKKβ/NF-κB signaling in the development and potential treatment of DIO-induced comorbidities. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  12. Modulation of gut microbiota during probiotic-mediated attenuation of metabolic syndrome in high fat diet-fed mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingjing; Tang, Huang; Zhang, Chenhong; Zhao, Yufeng; Derrien, Muriel; Rocher, Emilie; van-Hylckama Vlieg, Johan ET; Strissel, Katherine; Zhao, Liping; Obin, Martin; Shen, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Structural disruption of gut microbiota and associated inflammation are considered important etiological factors in high fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic syndrome (MS). Three candidate probiotic strains, Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-4270 (LC), L. rhamnosus I-3690 (LR) and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis I-2494 (BA), were individually administered to HFD-fed mice (108 cells day−1) for 12 weeks. Each strain attenuated weight gain and macrophage infiltration into epididymal adipose tissue and markedly improved glucose–insulin homeostasis and hepatic steatosis. Weighted UniFrac principal coordinate analysis based on 454 pyrosequencing of fecal bacterial 16S rRNA genes showed that the probiotic strains shifted the overall structure of the HFD-disrupted gut microbiota toward that of lean mice fed a normal (chow) diet. Redundancy analysis revealed that abundances of 83 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were altered by probiotics. Forty-nine altered OTUs were significantly correlated with one or more host MS parameters and were designated ‘functionally relevant phylotypes'. Thirteen of the 15 functionally relevant OTUs that were negatively correlated with MS phenotypes were promoted, and 26 of the 34 functionally relevant OTUs that were positively correlated with MS were reduced by at least one of the probiotics, but each strain changed a distinct set of functionally relevant OTUs. LC and LR increased cecal acetate but did not affect circulating lipopolysaccharide-binding protein; in contrast, BA did not increase acetate but significantly decreased adipose and hepatic tumor necrosis factor-α gene expression. These results suggest that Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium differentially attenuate obesity comorbidities in part through strain-specific impacts on MS-associated phylotypes of gut microbiota in mice. PMID:24936764

  13. N-Acetylneuraminic acid attenuates hypercoagulation on high fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats

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    Zhang Yida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: N-Acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac, a type of sialic acid, has close links with cholesterol metabolism and is often used as a biomarker in evaluating the risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, most studies on the health implications of Neu5Ac have focused on its effects on the nervous system, while its effects on cardiovascular risk factors have largely been unreported. Thus, the effects of Neu5Ac on coagulation status in high fat diet (HFD-induced hyperlipidemic rats were evaluated in this study. Methods: Sprague Dawley male rats were divided into five different groups and fed with HFD alone, HFD low-dose Neu5Ac, HFD high-dose Neu5Ac, HFD simvastatin (10 mg/kg day, and normal pellet alone. Food was given ad libitum while body weight of rats was measured weekly. After 12 weeks of intervention, rats were sacrificed and serum and tissue samples were collected for biochemistry and gene expression analysis, respectively. Results: The results showed that Neu5Ac could improve lipid metabolism and hyperlipidemia-associated coagulation. Neu5Ac exerted comparable or sometimes better physiological effects than simvastatin, at biochemical and gene expression levels. Conclusions: The data indicated that Neu5Ac prevented HFD-induced hyperlipidemia and associated hypercoagulation in rats through regulation of lipid-related and coagulation-related genes and, by extension, induced metabolite and protein changes. The implications of the present findings are that Neu5Ac may be used to prevent coagulation-related cardiovascular events in hyperlipidemic conditions. These findings are worth studying further.

  14. Polyphenol Rich Extract of Garcinia pedunculata Fruit Attenuates the Hyperlipidemia induced by High Fat Diet

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    Rahul Sarma

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fatty foods, the most common diet today are the crux of many metabolic disorders which need urgent attention. Garcinia pedunculata Roxb. (GP, Clusiaceae is a plant found available in Northeast (NE region of India, is considered to have versatile therapeutic properties. The people of this region has been using dried pulp of GP fruit for the treatment of different stomach related diseases traditionally. This study aimed at evaluating the potential therapeutic action of the polyphenol-rich methanolic extract (ME of the fruit in experimental induced obese rats. In vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic activity of GP extracts, i.e., fruit extract (GF and seed extract (GS were determined by using various methods viz., 1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2′-Azinobis (3-ethyl benzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS•+, nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT and α-glucosidase inhibition assay for detection of antihyperglycemic activity. In vivo antilipidemic and antiobesity activities were evaluated by administrating oral dose of GF for 60 days on a high-fat diet (HFD induced hyperlipidemia in the rat. GF showed higher antioxidant activity than GS by DPPH radical scavenging (IC50=4.01 µg/ml, ABTS•+ (IC50=0.82 µg/ml, NBT (IC50=0.07 µg/ml and also showed notable α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50=19.26 µg/ml. Furthermore, GF treated rat revealed a reduction in the body weight (~60%, serum total cholesterol (33%, triglycerides (32%, low-density lipoprotein (38% and liver biomarker enzymes after 60 days HFD fed animals. Simultaneously, GF supplementation significantly protected the HFD induced changes in hematological parameters. Histological observations clearly differentiate the structural changes in liver of HFD and GF treated group. This novel dietary lipid adsorbing agent of GF exhibited prevention of hyperlipidemia induced by HFD in the rat.

  15. The Health Effect of Psychostimulants: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Broers; Thierry Favrod-Coune

    2010-01-01

    Prevalence of psychostimulant use is high, and raising in several countries. Nicotine is the legal stimulant causing the most important public health impact. Cocaine ranks among the most used illicit substances after cannabis. Stimulant medications are frequently misused. Psychostimulants can lead to addiction, have physical, psychological and social health consequences and can induce a great disease burden. The aim of the present article is to provide a literature review on the health effect...

  16. Momordica charantia (bitter melon attenuates high-fat diet-associated oxidative stress and neuroinflammation

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    Feher Domonkos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rising epidemic of obesity is associated with cognitive decline and is considered as one of the major risk factors for neurodegenerative diseases. Neuroinflammation is a critical component in the progression of several neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. Increased metabolic flux to the brain during overnutrition and obesity can orchestrate stress response, blood-brain barrier (BBB disruption, recruitment of inflammatory immune cells from peripheral blood and microglial cells activation leading to neuroinflammation. The lack of an effective treatment for obesity-associated brain dysfunction may have far-reaching public health ramifications, urgently necessitating the identification of appropriate preventive and therapeutic strategies. The objective of our study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of Momordica charantia (bitter melon on high-fat diet (HFD-associated BBB disruption, stress and neuroinflammatory cytokines. Methods C57BL/6 female mice were fed HFD with and without bitter melon (BM for 16 weeks. BBB disruption was analyzed using Evans blue dye. Phosphate-buffered saline (PBS perfused brains were analyzed for neuroinflammatory markers such as interleukin-22 (IL-22, IL-17R, IL-16, NF-κB1, and glial cells activation markers such as Iba1, CD11b, GFAP and S100β. Additionally, antioxidant enzymes, ER-stress proteins, and stress-resistant transcription factors, sirtuin 1 (Sirt1 and forkhead box class O transcription factor (FoxO were analyzed using microarray, quantitative real-time RT-PCR, western immunoblotting and enzymatic assays. Systemic inflammation was analyzed using cytokine antibody array. Results BM ameliorated HFD-associated changes in BBB permeability as evident by reduced leakage of Evans blue dye. HFD-induced glial cells activation and expression of neuroinflammatory markers such as NF-κB1, IL-16, IL-22 as well as IL-17R were normalized in the brains of mice supplemented with BM

  17. Neurochemical mechanisms underlying responses to psychostimulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.S.; Hitzemann, R.; Wang, G.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    1994-11-01

    This study employed positron emission tomography (PET) to investigate biochemical and metabolic characteristics of the brain of individuals which could put them at risk for drug addiction. It takes advantage of the normal variability between individuals in response to psychoactive drugs to investigate relation between mental state, brain neurochemistry and metabolism and the behavioral response to drugs. We discuss its use to assess if there is an association between mental state and dompaminergic reactivity in response to the psychostimulant drug methylphenidate (MP). Changes in synaptic dopamine induced by MP were evaluated with PET and [11C]raclopride, a D{sub 2} receptor radioligand that is sensitive to endogenous dopamine. Methylpphenidate significantly decreased striatal [11C]raclopride binding. The study showed a correlation between the magnitude of the dopamine-induced changes by methylphenidate, and the mental state of the subjects. Subjects reporting high levels of anxiety and restlessness at baseline had larger changes in MP-induced dopamine changes than those that did not. Further investigations on the relation between an individual`s response to a drug and his/her mental state and personality as well as his neurochemical brain composition may enable to understand better differences in drug addiction vulnerability.

  18. Insulin detemir attenuates food intake, body weight gain and fat mass gain in diet-induced obese Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, J M; Printz, R L; Niswender, K D

    2011-07-04

    Initiation and intensification of insulin therapy commonly causes weight gain, a barrier to therapy. A contrasting body of evidence indicates that insulin functions as an adiposity negative feedback signal and reduces food intake, weight gain and adiposity via action in the central nervous system. Basal insulin analogs, detemir (Det) and glargine (Glar), have been associated with less hypoglycemia compared with neutral protamine hagedorn insulin, and Det with less weight gain, especially in patients with higher body mass index (BMI). We sought to determine whether insulin therapy per se causes body weight and fat mass gain when delivered via a clinically relevant subcutaneous (SC) route in the absence of hypoglycemia and glycosuria in non-diabetic lean and diet-induced obese rats. Rats were exposed to either a low-fat diet (LFD; 13.5% fat) or high-fat diet (HFD; 60% fat), and received Det (0.5 U kg(-1)), Glar (0.2 U kg(-1)) or vehicle (Veh) SC once daily for 4 weeks. These dosages of insulin were equipotent in rats with respect to blood-glucose concentration and did not induce hypoglycemia. As predicted by current models of energy homeostasis, neither insulin Det nor Glar therapy affected food intake and weight gain in LFD rats. Det treatment significantly attenuated food intake, body weight gain and fat mass gain relative to the Glar and Veh in high-fat fed animals, mirroring observations in humans. That neither insulin group gained excess weight, suggests weight gain with SC basal insulin therapy may not be inevitable. Our data further suggest that Det possesses a unique property to attenuate the development of obesity associated with a HFD.

  19. The Mixture of Anemarrhena asphodeloides and Coptis chinensis Attenuates High-Fat Diet-Induced Colitis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Su-Min; Choi, Hyun-Sik; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Anemarrhena asphodeloides (AA, family Liliaceae) inhibits macrophage activation by inhibiting IRAK1 phosphorylation and helper T (Th)17 differentiation. Coptis chinensis (CC, family Ranunculaceae), which inhibits macrophage activation by inhibiting the binding of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on toll-like receptor 4 and inducing regulatory T (Treg) cell differentiation. The mixture of AA and CC (AC-mix) synergistically attenuates 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid or dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice by inhibiting NF-[Formula: see text]B activation and regulating Th17/Treg balance. In the present study, we examined the effect of AC-mix on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced colitis in mice, which induced NF-[Formula: see text]B activation and disturbed Th17/Treg balance. Long-term feeding of HFD in mice caused colitis, including increased macroscopic score and myeloperoxidase activity. Oral administration of AC-mix (20[Formula: see text]mg/kg) suppressed HFD-induced myeloperoxidase activity by 68% ([Formula: see text]). Furthermore, treatment with the AC-mix (20[Formula: see text]mg/kg) inhibited HFD-induced activation of NF-[Formula: see text]B and expression of cyclooxygenase-2, inducible NO synthase, interleukin (IL)-17, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha but increased HFD- suppressed expression of IL-10. AC-mix suppressed HFD-induced differentiation into Th17 cells by 46% ([Formula: see text]) and increased HFD-induced differentiation into regulatory T cells 2.2-fold ([Formula: see text]). AC-mix also suppressed the HFD-induced Proteobacteria/Bacteroidetes ratio on the gut microbiota by 48% ([Formula: see text]). These findings suggest that AC-mix can ameliorate HFD-induced colitis by regulating innate and adaptive immunities and correcting the disturbance of gut microbiota.

  20. Brown rice and its component, γ-oryzanol, attenuate the preference for high-fat diet by decreasing hypothalamic endoplasmic reticulum stress in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozuka, Chisayo; Yabiku, Kouichi; Sunagawa, Sumito; Ueda, Rei; Taira, Shin-Ichiro; Ohshiro, Hiroyuki; Ikema, Tomomi; Yamakawa, Ken; Higa, Moritake; Tanaka, Hideaki; Takayama, Chitoshi; Matsushita, Masayuki; Oyadomari, Seiichi; Shimabukuro, Michio; Masuzaki, Hiroaki

    2012-12-01

    Brown rice is known to improve glucose intolerance and prevent the onset of diabetes. However, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. In the current study, we investigated the effect of brown rice and its major component, γ-oryzanol (Orz), on feeding behavior and fuel homeostasis in mice. When mice were allowed free access to a brown rice-containing chow diet (CD) and a high-fat diet (HFD), they significantly preferred CD to HFD. To reduce hypothalamic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress on an HFD, mice were administered with 4-phenylbutyric acid, a chemical chaperone, which caused them to prefer the CD. Notably, oral administration of Orz, a mixture of major bioactive components in brown rice, also improved glucose intolerance and attenuated hypothalamic ER stress in mice fed the HFD. In murine primary neuronal cells, Orz attenuated the tunicamycin-induced ER stress. In luciferase reporter assays in human embryonic kidney 293 cells, Orz suppressed the activation of ER stress-responsive cis-acting elements and unfolded protein response element, suggesting that Orz acts as a chemical chaperone in viable cells. Collectively, the current study is the first demonstration that brown rice and Orz improve glucose metabolism, reduce hypothalamic ER stress, and, consequently, attenuate the preference for dietary fat in mice fed an HFD.

  1. Eating meals before wheel-running exercise attenuate high fat diet-driven obesity in mice under two meals per day schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Yuta; Ikeda, Yuko; Kamagata, Mayo; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2015-06-01

    Mice that exercise after meals gain less body weight and visceral fat compared to those that exercised before meals under a one meal/exercise time per day schedule. Humans generally eat two or three meals per day, and rarely have only one meal. To extend our previous observations, we examined here whether a "two meals, two exercise sessions per day" schedule was optimal in terms of maintaining a healthy body weight. In this experiment, "morning" refers to the beginning of the active phase (the "morning" for nocturnal animals). We found that 2-h feeding before 2-h exercise in the morning and evening (F-Ex/F-Ex) resulted in greater attenuation of high fat diet (HFD)-induced weight gain compared to other combinations of feeding and exercise under two daily meals and two daily exercise periods. There were no significant differences in total food intake and total wheel counts, but feeding before exercise in the morning groups (F-Ex/F-Ex and F-Ex/Ex-F) increased the morning wheel counts. These results suggest that habitual exercise after feeding in the morning and evening is more effective for preventing HFD-induced weight gain. We also determined whether there were any correlations between food intake, wheel rotation, visceral fat volume and skeletal muscle volumes. We found positive associations between gastrocnemius muscle volumes and morning wheel counts, as well as negative associations between morning food intake volumes/body weight and morning wheel counts. These results suggest that morning exercise-induced increase of muscle volume may refer to anti-obesity. Evening exercise is negatively associated with fat volume increases, suggesting that this practice may counteract fat deposition. Our multifactorial analysis revealed that morning food intake helps to increase exercise, and that evening exercise reduced fat volumes. Thus, exercise in the morning or evening is important for preventing the onset of obesity.

  2. Milk Fat Globule Membrane Attenuates High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity by Inhibiting Adipogenesis and Increasing Uncoupling Protein 1 Expression in White Adipose Tissue of Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiange Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM, a protein-lipid complex surrounding the fat globules in milk, has many health benefits. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether MFGM could prevent obesity through inhibiting adipogenesis and promoting brown remodeling of white adipose tissue (WAT in mice fed with high-fat diet. C57BL/6 mice were fed a normal diet (ND, high-fat diet (HFD, HFD plus MFGM at 100 mg/kg BW, 200 mg/kg BW or 400 mg/kg BW for 8 weeks. Results showed that MFGM suppressed body weight gain induced by HFD, reduced white adipose tissue (WAT mass accompanied with the decrease in adipocyte sizes. MFGM was found to have partially improved serum lipid profiles, as well as to have suppressed HFD-induced adipogenesis as shown by reduced expression of peroxisome proliferators-activator receptor-γ (PPARγ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α (C/EBPα and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c. MFGM also markedly increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, showing activation of AMPK pathway. Moreover, MFGM promoted browning of inguinal WAT by upregulation the protein expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1 in HFD mice. Taken together, these findings provide evidence that MFGM may protect against diet-induced adiposity by suppressing adipogenesis and promoting brown-like transformation in WAT.

  3. Iron Status in Toddlerhood Predicts Sensitivity to Psychostimulants in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Catharyn A.; Xie, Diqiong; Zimmerman, Bridget M.; Calarge, Chadi A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Iron deficiency is associated with impaired dopaminergic signaling and externalizing behavior. The authors examine, whether iron stores in toddlerhood influence later response to psychostimulants. Method: Youth participating in a study monitoring the long-term safety of risperidone were included in this analysis if they had received…

  4. Effects of psychostimulants on social interaction in adult male rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šlamberová, R.; Mikulecká, Anna; Macúchová, E.; Hrebíčková, I.; Ševčíková, M.; Nohejlová, K.; Pometlová, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 8 (2015), s. 776-785 ISSN 0955-8810 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : amphetamine * cocaine * male rats * 3,4 methylenedimethoxyamphetamine * psychostimulants * social behavior Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.000, year: 2015

  5. Green Tea Extract Supplementation Induces the Lipolytic Pathway, Attenuates Obesity, and Reduces Low-Grade Inflammation in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio A. Cunha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of green tea Camellia sinensis extract on proinflammatory molecules and lipolytic protein levels in adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice. Animals were randomized into four groups: CW (chow diet and water; CG (chow diet and water + green tea extract; HW (high-fat diet and water; HG (high-fat diet and water + green tea extract. The mice were fed ad libitum with chow or high-fat diet and concomitantly supplemented (oral gavage with 400 mg/kg body weight/day of green tea extract (CG and HG, resp.. The treatments were performed for eight weeks. UPLC showed that in 10 mg/mL green tea extract, there were 15 μg/mg epigallocatechin, 95 μg/mg epigallocatechin gallate, 20.8 μg/mg epicatechin gallate, and 4.9 μg/mg gallocatechin gallate. Green tea administered concomitantly with a high-fat diet increased HSL, ABHD5, and perilipin in mesenteric adipose tissue, and this was associated with reduced body weight and adipose tissue gain. Further, we observed that green tea supplementation reduced inflammatory cytokine TNFα levels, as well as TLR4, MYD88, and TRAF6 proinflammatory signalling. Our results show that green tea increases the lipolytic pathway and reduces adipose tissue, and this may explain the attenuation of low-grade inflammation in obese mice.

  6. Measurement of attenuation coefficients for bone, muscle, fat and water at 140, 364 and 662keV γ-ray energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akar, A.; Baltas, H.; Cevik, U.; Korkmaz, F.; Okumusoglu, N.T.

    2006-01-01

    The half-value thicknesses, linear and mass attenuation coefficients of biological samples such as bone, muscle, fat and water have been measured at 140, 364 and 662keV γ-ray energies by using the ATOMLAB TM -930 medical spectrometer. The γ-rays were obtained from 99m Tc, 131 I and 137 Cs γ-ray point sources. Also theoretical calculations have been performed in order to obtain the half-value thicknesses and, mass and linear attenuation coefficients at photon energies 0.001keV-20MeV for bone, muscle and water samples. The calculated value and the experimental results of this work and the other results in literature are found to be in good agreement

  7. PDHK-2 deficiency is associated with attenuation of lipase-mediated fat consumption for the increased survival of Caenorhabditis elegans dauers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunhee Kim

    Full Text Available In Caenorhabditis elegans, slow fat consumption has been suggested to contribute to the extension of the survival rate during nutritionally adverse conditions. Here, we investigated the potential role of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDHK-2, the C. elegans homolog of mammalian PDK, effects on fat metabolism under nutritional conditions. PDHK-2 was expressed at low levels under well-fed conditions but was highly induced during long-term starvation and in the dauer state. This increase in pdhk-2 expression was regulated by both DAF-16 and NHR-49. Dauer-specific induction of PDHK-2 was abolished upon entry into the post-dauer stage. Interestingly, in the long-term dauer state, stored fat levels were higher in daf-2(e1370;pdhk-2 double mutants than in daf-2(e1370, suggesting a positive relationship between PDHK-2 activity and fat consumption. PDHK-2 deficiency has been shown to lead to greater preservation of residual fats, which would be predicted to contribute to survival during the dauer state. A test of this prediction showed that the survival rates of daf-2(e1370;pdhk-2(tm3075 and daf-2(e1370;pdhk-2(tm3086 double mutants were higher than that of daf-2(e1370, suggesting that loss of either the ATP-binding domain (tm3075 or branched chain keto-acid dehydrogenase kinase domain (tm3086 of PDHK-2 leads to reduced fat consumption and thus favors increased dauer survival. This attenuated fat consumption in the long-term dauer state of C. elegans daf-2 (e1370;pdhk-2 mutants was associated with concomitant down-regulation of the lipases ATGL (adipose triglyceride lipase, HSL (hormone-sensitive lipase, and C07E3.9 (phospholipase. In contrast, PDHK-2 overexpression in wild-type starved worms induced lipase expression and promoted abnormal dauer formation. Thus, we propose that PDHK-2 serves as a molecular bridge, connecting fat metabolism and survival under nutritionally adverse conditions in C. elegans.

  8. Opuntia ficus-indica seed attenuates hepatic steatosis and promotes M2 macrophage polarization in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jung-Woo; Shin, Jun-Kyu; Koh, Eun-Ji; Ryu, Hyojeong; Kim, Hyoung Ja; Lee, Sun-Mee

    2016-04-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) is a popular edible plant that possesses considerable nutritional value and exhibits diverse biological actions including anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic activities. In this study, we hypothesized that DWJ504, an extract of O ficus-indica seed, would ameliorate hepatic steatosis and inflammation by regulating hepatic de novo lipogenesis and macrophage polarization against experimental nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Mice were fed a normal diet or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 10 weeks. DWJ504 (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) or vehicle (0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose) were orally administered for the last 4 weeks of the 10-week HFD feeding period. DWJ504 treatment remarkably attenuated HFD-induced increases in hepatic lipid content and hepatocellular damage. DWJ504 attenuated increases in sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 and carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein expression and a decrease in carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A. Although DWJ504 augmented peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α protein expression, it attenuated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ expression. Moreover, DWJ504 promoted hepatic M2 macrophage polarization as indicated by attenuation of the M1 marker genes and enhancement of M2 marker genes. Finally, DWJ504 attenuated expression of toll-like receptor 4, nuclear factor κB, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 6, TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon β, and interferon β levels. Our results demonstrate that DWJ504 prevented intrahepatic lipid accumulation, induced M2 macrophage polarization, and suppressed the toll-like receptor 4-mediated inflammatory signaling pathway. Thus, DWJ504 has therapeutic potential in the prevention of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Forkhead Box O6 (FoxO6) Depletion Attenuates Hepatic Gluconeogenesis and Protects against Fat-induced Glucose Disorder in Mice*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabuig-Navarro, Virtu; Yamauchi, Jun; Lee, Sojin; Zhang, Ting; Liu, Yun-Zi; Sadlek, Kelsey; Coudriet, Gina M.; Piganelli, Jon D.; Jiang, Chun-Lei; Miller, Rita; Lowe, Mark; Harashima, Hideyoshi; Dong, H. Henry

    2015-01-01

    Excessive endogenous glucose production contributes to fasting hyperglycemia in diabetes. FoxO6 is a distinct member of the FoxO subfamily. To elucidate the role of FoxO6 in hepatic gluconeogenesis and assess its contribution to the pathogenesis of fasting hyperglycemia in diabetes, we generated FoxO6 knock-out (FoxO6-KO) mice followed by determining the effect of FoxO6 loss-of-function on hepatic gluconeogenesis under physiological and pathological conditions. FoxO6 depletion attenuated hepatic gluconeogenesis and lowered fasting glycemia in FoxO6-KO mice. FoxO6-deficient primary hepatocytes were associated with reduced capacities to produce glucose in response to glucagon. When fed a high fat diet, FoxO6-KO mice exhibited significantly enhanced glucose tolerance and reduced blood glucose levels accompanied by improved insulin sensitivity. These effects correlated with attenuated hepatic gluconeogenesis in FoxO6-KO mice. In contrast, wild-type littermates developed fat-induced glucose intolerance with a concomitant induction of fasting hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia. Furthermore, FoxO6-KO mice displayed significantly diminished macrophage infiltration into liver and adipose tissues, correlating with the reduction of macrophage expression of C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2), a factor that is critical for regulating macrophage recruitment in peripheral tissues. Our data indicate that FoxO6 depletion protected against diet-induced glucose intolerance and insulin resistance by attenuating hepatic gluconeogenesis and curbing macrophage infiltration in liver and adipose tissues in mice. PMID:25944898

  10. Forkhead Box O6 (FoxO6) Depletion Attenuates Hepatic Gluconeogenesis and Protects against Fat-induced Glucose Disorder in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabuig-Navarro, Virtu; Yamauchi, Jun; Lee, Sojin; Zhang, Ting; Liu, Yun-Zi; Sadlek, Kelsey; Coudriet, Gina M; Piganelli, Jon D; Jiang, Chun-Lei; Miller, Rita; Lowe, Mark; Harashima, Hideyoshi; Dong, H Henry

    2015-06-19

    Excessive endogenous glucose production contributes to fasting hyperglycemia in diabetes. FoxO6 is a distinct member of the FoxO subfamily. To elucidate the role of FoxO6 in hepatic gluconeogenesis and assess its contribution to the pathogenesis of fasting hyperglycemia in diabetes, we generated FoxO6 knock-out (FoxO6-KO) mice followed by determining the effect of FoxO6 loss-of-function on hepatic gluconeogenesis under physiological and pathological conditions. FoxO6 depletion attenuated hepatic gluconeogenesis and lowered fasting glycemia in FoxO6-KO mice. FoxO6-deficient primary hepatocytes were associated with reduced capacities to produce glucose in response to glucagon. When fed a high fat diet, FoxO6-KO mice exhibited significantly enhanced glucose tolerance and reduced blood glucose levels accompanied by improved insulin sensitivity. These effects correlated with attenuated hepatic gluconeogenesis in FoxO6-KO mice. In contrast, wild-type littermates developed fat-induced glucose intolerance with a concomitant induction of fasting hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia. Furthermore, FoxO6-KO mice displayed significantly diminished macrophage infiltration into liver and adipose tissues, correlating with the reduction of macrophage expression of C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2), a factor that is critical for regulating macrophage recruitment in peripheral tissues. Our data indicate that FoxO6 depletion protected against diet-induced glucose intolerance and insulin resistance by attenuating hepatic gluconeogenesis and curbing macrophage infiltration in liver and adipose tissues in mice. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Korean Pine Nut Oil Attenuated Hepatic Triacylglycerol Accumulation in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyoung Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Korean pine nut oil (PNO has been reported to influence weight gain and lipid metabolism. We examined whether PNO replacement in a high-fat diet (HFD can ameliorate HFD-induced hepatic steatosis. Five-week-old male C57BL mice were fed control diets containing 10% of the energy from fat from PNO or soybean oil (SBO (PC, SC or HFDs with 45% of the energy from fat, with 10% from PNO or SBO and 35% from lard (PHFD, SHFD, for 12 weeks. Body weight gain and amount of white adipose tissue were lower in PHFD (10% and 18% lower, respectively compared with SHFD. Hepatic triacylglycerol (TG level was significantly lower in PHFD than the SHFD (26% lower. PNO consumption upregulated hepatic ACADL mRNA levels. The hepatic PPARG mRNA level was lower in the PC than in the SC. Expression of the sirtuin (SIRT 3 protein in white adipose tissue was down-regulated in the SHFD and restored in the PHFD to the level in the lean control mice. SIRT 3 was reported to be upregulated under conditions of caloric restriction (CR and plays a role in regulating mitochondrial function. PNO consumption resulted in lower body fat and hepatic TG accumulation in HFD-induced obesity, which seemed to be associated with the CR-mimetic response.

  12. Mori Folium and Mori Fructus Mixture Attenuates High-Fat Diet-Induced Cognitive Deficits in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Geun Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has become a global health problem, contributing to various diseases including diabetes, hypertension, cancer, and dementia. Increasing evidence suggests that obesity can also cause neuronal damage, long-term memory loss, and cognitive impairment. The leaves and the fruits of Morus alba L., containing active phytochemicals, have been shown to possess antiobesity and hypolipidemic properties. Thus, in the present study, we assessed their effects on cognitive functioning in mice fed a high-fat diet by performing immunohistochemistry, using antibodies against c-Fos, synaptophysin, and postsynaptic density protein 95 and a behavioral test. C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet for 21 weeks exhibited increased body weight, but mice coadministered an optimized Mori Folium and Mori Fructus extract mixture (2 : 1; MFE for the final 12 weeks exhibited significant body weight loss. Additionally, obese mice exhibited not only reduced neural activity, but also decreased presynaptic and postsynaptic activities, while MFE-treated mice exhibited recovery of these activities. Finally, cognitive deficits induced by the high-fat diet were recovered by cotreatment with MFE in the novel object recognition test. Our findings suggest that the antiobesity effects of MFE resulted in recovery of the cognitive deficits induced by the high-fat diet by regulation of neural and synaptic activities.

  13. The Role of Adenosine Receptors in Psychostimulant Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Ballesteros-Yáñez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Adenosine receptors (AR are a family of G-protein coupled receptors, comprised of four members, named A1, A2A, A2B, and A3 receptors, found widely distributed in almost all human body tissues and organs. To date, they are known to participate in a large variety of physiopathological responses, which include vasodilation, pain, and inflammation. In particular, in the central nervous system (CNS, adenosine acts as a neuromodulator, exerting different functions depending on the type of AR and consequent cellular signaling involved. In terms of molecular pathways and second messengers involved, A1 and A3 receptors inhibit adenylyl cyclase (AC, through Gi/o proteins, while A2A and A2B receptors stimulate it through Gs proteins. In the CNS, A1 receptors are widely distributed in the cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum, A2A receptors are localized mainly in the striatum and olfactory bulb, while A2B and A3 receptors are found at low levels of expression. In addition, AR are able to form heteromers, both among themselves (e.g., A1/A2A, as well as with other subtypes (e.g., A2A/D2, opening a whole range of possibilities in the field of the pharmacology of AR. Nowadays, we know that adenosine, by acting on adenosine A1 and A2A receptors, is known to antagonistically modulate dopaminergic neurotransmission and therefore reward systems, being A1 receptors colocalized in heteromeric complexes with D1 receptors, and A2A receptors with D2 receptors. This review documents the present state of knowledge of the contribution of AR, particularly A1 and A2A, to psychostimulants-mediated effects, including locomotor activity, discrimination, seeking and reward, and discuss their therapeutic relevance to psychostimulant addiction. Studies presented in this review reinforce the potential of A1 agonists as an effective strategy to counteract psychostimulant-induced effects. Furthermore, different experimental data support the hypothesis that A2A/D2 heterodimers are

  14. Over-expression of Follistatin-like 3 attenuates fat accumulation and improves insulin sensitivity in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Claus; Hansen, Rasmus Hvass; Hansen, Jakob Bondo

    2015-01-01

    -fat feeding. Body weight, food intake, fat accumulation by MR scanning, and glucose, insulin and glucagon tolerance were evaluated, as was the response in body weight and metabolic parameters to 24h fasting. Effects of fstl3 on pancreatic insulin and glucagon content, and pancreatic islet morphology were......OBJECTIVE: Follistatin-like 3 (fstl3), a natural inhibitor of members of the TGF-β family, increases during resistance training in human plasma. Fstl3 primarily binds myostatin and activin A, and thereby inhibits their functions. We hypothesize that blocking myostatin and activin A signalling....../glucagon ratio. Accordingly, fstl3 transfection improved counter-regulation to 24h fasting. CONCLUSION: Fstl3 over-expression regulates insulin and glucagon sensitivities through increased muscular insulin action, as well as increased hepatic glucagon sensitivity and pancreatic glucagon content....

  15. Omega-3 attenuates high fat diet-induced kidney injury of female rats and renal programming of their offsprings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamseldeen, Asmaa Mohammed; Ali Eshra, Mohammed; Ahmed Rashed, Laila; Fathy Amer, Marwa; Elham Fares, Amal; Samir Kamar, Samaa

    2018-05-09

    Maternal diet composition could influence fetal organogenesis. We investigated effects of high fat diet (HFD) intake alone or combined with omega 3 during pregnancy, lactation and early days of weaning on nephrogenesis of pups and maternal renal function and morphology. Mothers and their pups included in each group were supplied with the same diet composition. Rats were divided into group I, II and III supplied with chow of either 10 kcal%, 45 kcal% or 45 kcal% from fat together with omega-3 respectively. Group II showed increased serum urea and creatinine, renal TNF-α, IL1β. Structural injury was observed in mothers and their pups as Bowman's capsule and tubular dilatation and increased expression of PCNA that were decreased following omega-3 supplementation added to down regulation of Wnt4, Pax2 gene and podocin expression. Omega-3 supplementation improves lipid nephrotoxicity observed in mothers and their pups.

  16. Phlorizin Supplementation Attenuates Obesity, Inflammation, and Hyperglycemia in Diet-Induced Obese Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Kyung Shin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, along with its related complications, is a serious health problem worldwide. Many studies reported the anti-diabetic effect of phlorizin, while little is known about its anti-obesity effect. We investigated the beneficial effects of phlorizin on obesity and its complications, including diabetes and inflammation in obese animal. Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into three groups and fed their respective experimental diets for 16 weeks: a normal diet (ND, 5% fat, w/w, high-fat diet (HFD, 20% fat, w/w, or HFD supplemented with phlorizin (PH, 0.02%, w/w. The findings revealed that the PH group had significantly decreased visceral and total white adipose tissue (WAT weights, and adipocyte size compared to the HFD. Plasma and hepatic lipids profiles also improved in the PH group. The decreased levels of hepatic lipids in PH were associated with decreased activities of enzymes involved in hepatic lipogenesis, cholesterol synthesis and esterification. The PH also suppressed plasma pro-inflammatory adipokines levels such as leptin, adipsin, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interferon-γ, and interleukin-6, and prevented HFD-induced collagen accumulation in the liver and WAT. Furthermore, the PH supplementation also decreased plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance levels. In conclusion, phlorizin is beneficial for preventing diet-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis, as well as insulin resistance.

  17. Wheat bran with enriched gamma-aminobutyric acid attenuates glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinemia induced by a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Wenting; Si, Xu; Zhou, Zhongkai; Strappe, Padraig; Blanchard, Chris

    2018-05-23

    In this study, the level of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in wheat bran was increased to be six times higher through the action of endogenous glutamate decarboxylase compared with untreated bran. The process of GABA formation in wheat bran also led to an increased level of phenolic compounds with enhanced antioxidant capacity 2 times higher than the untreated status. The interventional effect of a diet containing GABA-enriched bran on hyperinsulinemia induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) was investigated in a rat model. The results showed that, when compared with animals fed with HFD-containing untreated bran (NB group), the consumption of HFD-containing GABA-enriched bran (GB group) demonstrated a greater improvement of insulin resistance/sensitivity as revealed by the changes in the homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI). The expression of hepatic genes, cytochrome P450 family 7 subfamily A member 1 (Cyp7a1) and ubiquitin C (Ubc), which are involved in the adipogenesis-associated PPAR signalling pathway, was found to be significantly down-regulated in the GB group compared with the HFD group (P = 0.0055). Meanwhile, changes in the expression of a number of genes associated with lipid metabolism and gluconeogenesis were also noted in the GB group versus the HFD group, but not in the NB group, indicating different regulatory patterns between the two brans in a high-fat diet. More importantly, the analysis of key genes related to glucose metabolism further revealed that the expression of insulin-induced gene 1/2 (Insig-1/2) was increased following GB intervention with a corresponding reduction in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (Pepck) and glucose-6-phosphatase, catalytic subunit (G6pc) expression, suggesting that glucose homeostasis is greatly improved through the intervention of GABA-enriched bran in the context of a high-fat diet.

  18. A high carbohydrate, but not fat or protein meal attenuates postprandial ghrelin, PYY and GLP-1 responses in Chinese men

    OpenAIRE

    Parvaresh Rizi, Ehsan; Loh, Tze Ping; Baig, Sonia; Chhay, Vanna; Huang, Shiqi; Caleb Quek, Jonathan; Tai, E. Shyong; Toh, Sue-Anne; Khoo, Chin Meng

    2018-01-01

    It is known that the macronutrient content of a meal has different impacts on the postprandial satiety and appetite hormonal responses. Whether obesity interacts with such nutrient-dependent responses is not well characterized. We examined the postprandial appetite and satiety hormonal responses after a high-protein (HP), high-carbohydrate (HC), or high-fat (HF) mixed meal. This was a randomized cross-over study of 9 lean insulin-sensitive (mean±SEM HOMA-IR 0.83±0.10) and 9 obese insulin-resi...

  19. Quercetin Isolated from Toona sinensis Leaves Attenuates Hyperglycemia and Protects Hepatocytes in High-Carbohydrate/High-Fat Diet and Alloxan Induced Experimental Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yali Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of diabetes mellitus is related to oxidant stress induced by a high carbohydrate/high-fat diet (HFD. Quercetin, as a major bioactive component in Toona sinensis leaves (QTL, is a natural antioxidant. However, the exact mechanism by which QTL ameliorate diabetes mellitus is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the hypoglycemic effects and hepatocytes protection of QTL on HFD and alloxan induced diabetic mice. Intragastric administration of QTL significantly reduced body weight gain, serum glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase serum levels compared to those of diabetic mice. Furthermore, it significantly attenuated oxidative stress, as determined by lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide content, and inducible nitric oxide synthase activity and as a result attenuated liver injury. QTL also significantly suppressed the diabetes-induced activation of the p65/NF-κB and ERK1/2/MAPK pathways, as well as caspase-9 and caspase-3 levels in liver tissues of diabetic mice. Finally, micrograph analysis of liver samples showed decreased cellular organelle injury in hepatocytes of QTL treated mice. Taken together, QTL can be viewed as a promising dietary agent that can be used to reduce the risk of diabetes mellitus and its secondary complications by ameliorating oxidative stress in the liver.

  20. Liver glycogen reduces food intake and attenuates obesity in a high-fat diet-fed mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Soldado, Iliana; Zafra, Delia; Duran, Jordi; Adrover, Anna; Calbó, Joaquim; Guinovart, Joan J

    2015-03-01

    We generated mice that overexpress protein targeting to glycogen (PTG) in the liver (PTG(OE)), which results in an increase in liver glycogen. When fed a high-fat diet (HFD), these animals reduced their food intake. The resulting effect was a lower body weight, decreased fat mass, and reduced leptin levels. Furthermore, PTG overexpression reversed the glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinemia caused by the HFD and protected against HFD-induced hepatic steatosis. Of note, when fed an HFD, PTG(OE) mice did not show the decrease in hepatic ATP content observed in control animals and had lower expression of neuropeptide Y and higher expression of proopiomelanocortin in the hypothalamus. Additionally, after an overnight fast, PTG(OE) animals presented high liver glycogen content, lower liver triacylglycerol content, and lower serum concentrations of fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate than control mice, regardless of whether they were fed an HFD or a standard diet. In conclusion, liver glycogen accumulation caused a reduced food intake, protected against the deleterious effects of an HFD, and diminished the metabolic impact of fasting. Therefore, we propose that hepatic glycogen content be considered a potential target for the pharmacological manipulation of diabetes and obesity. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  1. A high carbohydrate, but not fat or protein meal attenuates postprandial ghrelin, PYY and GLP-1 responses in Chinese men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Parvaresh Rizi

    Full Text Available It is known that the macronutrient content of a meal has different impacts on the postprandial satiety and appetite hormonal responses. Whether obesity interacts with such nutrient-dependent responses is not well characterized. We examined the postprandial appetite and satiety hormonal responses after a high-protein (HP, high-carbohydrate (HC, or high-fat (HF mixed meal. This was a randomized cross-over study of 9 lean insulin-sensitive (mean±SEM HOMA-IR 0.83±0.10 and 9 obese insulin-resistant (HOMA-IR 4.34±0.41 young (age 21-40 years, normoglycaemic Chinese men. We measured fasting and postprandial plasma concentration of glucose, insulin, active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, total peptide-YY (PYY, and acyl-ghrelin in response to HP, HF, or HC meals. Overall postprandial plasma insulin response was more robust in the lean compared to obese subjects. The postprandial GLP-1 response after HF or HP meal was higher than HC meal in both lean and obese subjects. In obese subjects, HF meal induced higher response in postprandial PYY compared to HC meal. HP and HF meals also suppressed ghrelin greater compared to HC meal in the obese than lean subjects. In conclusion, a high-protein or high-fat meal induces a more favorable postprandial satiety and appetite hormonal response than a high-carbohydrate meal in obese insulin-resistant subjects.

  2. A high carbohydrate, but not fat or protein meal attenuates postprandial ghrelin, PYY and GLP-1 responses in Chinese men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvaresh Rizi, Ehsan; Loh, Tze Ping; Baig, Sonia; Chhay, Vanna; Huang, Shiqi; Caleb Quek, Jonathan; Tai, E. Shyong; Toh, Sue-Anne

    2018-01-01

    It is known that the macronutrient content of a meal has different impacts on the postprandial satiety and appetite hormonal responses. Whether obesity interacts with such nutrient-dependent responses is not well characterized. We examined the postprandial appetite and satiety hormonal responses after a high-protein (HP), high-carbohydrate (HC), or high-fat (HF) mixed meal. This was a randomized cross-over study of 9 lean insulin-sensitive (mean±SEM HOMA-IR 0.83±0.10) and 9 obese insulin-resistant (HOMA-IR 4.34±0.41) young (age 21–40 years), normoglycaemic Chinese men. We measured fasting and postprandial plasma concentration of glucose, insulin, active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), total peptide-YY (PYY), and acyl-ghrelin in response to HP, HF, or HC meals. Overall postprandial plasma insulin response was more robust in the lean compared to obese subjects. The postprandial GLP-1 response after HF or HP meal was higher than HC meal in both lean and obese subjects. In obese subjects, HF meal induced higher response in postprandial PYY compared to HC meal. HP and HF meals also suppressed ghrelin greater compared to HC meal in the obese than lean subjects. In conclusion, a high-protein or high-fat meal induces a more favorable postprandial satiety and appetite hormonal response than a high-carbohydrate meal in obese insulin-resistant subjects. PMID:29385178

  3. A high-fat, high-protein diet attenuates the negative impact of casein-induced chronic inflammation on testicular steroidogenesis and sperm parameters in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing-Lu; Zhao, Yu-Yun; Zhu, Wei-Jie

    2017-10-01

    RNA and protein levels of the StAR and 3β-HSD in group HFPD+CS were both higher than those of in group ND+CS. These results indicated that Kunming male mice with high-fat, high-protein diet and casein injection for 8weeks can be used to establish a diet-induced obesity and chronic systemic inflammation. The sperm parameters in groups ND+CS and HFPD+SI decreased accompanied by pathological changes of testicular tissue. This resultant effect of reduced serum testosterone levels was associated with the overproduction of TNF-α and IL-10 and down-regulation of StAR and CYP11A1. Under the same casein-induced chronic inflammation condition, the mice with high-fat, high-protein diet had better testicular steroidogenesis activity and sperm parameters compared with the mice in normal diet, indicating that the mice with casein-induced inflammatory injury consuming a high-fat, high-protein diet gained weight normally, reduced serum adiponectin level and increased testosterone production by an upregulation of 3β-HSD expression. High-fat, high-protein diet attenuated the negative impact of casein-induced chronic inflammation on testicular steroidogenesis and sperm parameters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Health Effect of Psychostimulants: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Broers

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of psychostimulant use is high, and raising in several countries. Nicotine is the legal stimulant causing the most important public health impact. Cocaine ranks among the most used illicit substances after cannabis. Stimulant medications are frequently misused. Psychostimulants can lead to addiction, have physical, psychological and social health consequences and can induce a great disease burden. The aim of the present article is to provide a literature review on the health effects of stimulants as potential drugs of abuse. It will cover essentially cocaine, amphetamines and its derivatives (including methamphetamines and 3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, ecstasy, nicotine, caffeine and khat, and touch upon the issues of prescribed substances (anti-depressants, weight control medications, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder medications, hypersomniac disorder. Their pharmacology, addictive potential, health consequences and treatment will be discussed. We used Medline for the literature review from 1990 to the date of this review, and mention the findings of human and animal studies (the latter only if they are of clinical relevance.

  5. The Health Effect of Psychostimulants: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favrod-Coune, Thierry; Broers, Barbara

    2010-07-22

    Prevalence of psychostimulant use is high, and raising in several countries. Nicotine is the legal stimulant causing the most important public health impact. Cocaine ranks among the most used illicit substances after cannabis. Stimulant medications are frequently misused. Psychostimulants can lead to addiction, have physical, psychological and social health consequences and can induce a great disease burden. The aim of the present article is to provide a literature review on the health effects of stimulants as potential drugs of abuse. It will cover essentially cocaine, amphetamines and its derivatives (including methamphetamines and 3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, ecstasy), nicotine, caffeine and khat, and touch upon the issues of prescribed substances (anti-depressants, weight control medications, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder medications, hypersomniac disorder). Their pharmacology, addictive potential, health consequences and treatment will be discussed. We used Medline for the literature review from 1990 to the date of this review, and mention the findings of human and animal studies (the latter only if they are of clinical relevance).

  6. Cannabinoid receptor 2 agonist attenuates pain related behavior in rats with chronic alcohol/high fat diet induced pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liping; Kline, Robert H; McNearney, Terry A; Johnson, Michael P; Westlund, Karin N

    2014-11-17

    Chronic Pancreatitis (CP) is a complex and multifactorial syndrome. Many contributing factors result in development of dysfunctional pain in a significant number of patients. Drugs developed to treat a variety of pain states fall short of providing effective analgesia for patients with chronic pancreatitis, often providing minimal to partial pain relief over time with significant side effects. Recently, availability of selective pharmacological tools has enabled great advances in our knowledge of the role of the cannabinoid receptors in pathophysiology. In particular, cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) has emerged as an attractive target for management of chronic pain, as demonstrated in several studies with inflammatory and neuropathic preclinical pain models. In this study, the analgesic efficacy of a novel, highly selective CB2 receptor agonist, LY3038404 HCl, is investigated in a chronic pancreatitis pain model, induced with an alcohol/high fat (AHF) diet. Rats fed the AHF diet developed visceral pain-like behaviors detectable by week 3 and reached a maximum at week 5 that persists as long as the diet is maintained. Rats with AHF induced chronic pancreatitis were treated with LY3038404 HCl (10 mg/kg, orally, twice a day for 9 days). The treated animals demonstrated significantly alleviated pain related behaviors after 3 days of dosing, including increased paw withdrawal thresholds (PWT), prolonged abdominal withdrawal latencies (ABWL), and decreased nocifensive responses to noxious 44°C hotplate stimuli. Terminal histological analysis of pancreatic tissue sections from the AHF chronic pancreatitis animals demonstrated extensive injury, including a global pancreatic gland degeneration (cellular atrophy), vacuolization (fat deposition), and fibrosis. After the LY3038404 HCl treatment, pancreatic tissue was significantly protected from severe damage and fibrosis. LY3038404 HCl affected neither open field exploratory behaviors nor dark/light box preferences as measures

  7. Shugan Xiaozhi Decoction Attenuates Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis by Enhancing PPARα and L-FABP Expressions in High-Fat-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-feng Xing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of Shugan Xiaozhi decoction (SX on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH induced by high-fat diet in rats. The rats were randomly divided into 6 groups, namely, control, model, fenofibrate, and three different dosage of SX (10, 20, and 40 g/kg/day, p.o.. After establishing the NASH model, at 8 weeks of the experiment, treatments were administrated intragastrically to the fenofibrate and SX groups. All rats were killed after 4 weeks of treatment. Compared with the model group, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, free fatty acid (FFA, total cholesterol (TC, triacylglycerol (TG, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL serum in the serum were significantly reduced in all SX treatment groups in a dose-dependent manner. Evidence showed that SX could protect the liver by upregulating the gene and protein expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα and liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP in a dose-dependent manner. Chemical constituents of SX were further analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS and 30 chemicals in the ethanolic extract were tentatively identified. To conclude, our results clearly indicated that SX could protect liver functions and relieve hepatic steatosis and inflammation.

  8. Inhibition of ROS and inflammation by an imidazopyridine derivative X22 attenuate high fat diet-induced arterial injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weixin; Wang, Lintao; Huang, Weijian; Skibba, Melissa; Fang, Qilu; Xie, Longteng; Wei, Tiemin; Feng, Zhiguo; Liang, Guang

    2015-09-01

    Obesity is strongly associated with the cause of structural and functional changes of the artery. Oxidative stress and inflammation play a critical role in the development of obesity-induced cardiovascular disorders. Our group previously found that an imidazopyridine derivative X22 showed excellent anti-inflammatory activity in LPS-stimulated macrophages. This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of X22 on high fat diet (HFD)-induced arterial injury and its underlying mechanisms. We observed that palmitate (PA) treatment in HUVECs induced a marked increase in reactive oxygen species, inflammation, apoptosis, and fibrosis. All of these changes were effectively suppressed by X22 treatment in a dose-dependent manner, associated with NF-κB inactivation and Nrf-2 activation. In HFD-fed rats, administration of X22 at 10mg/kg significantly decreased the arterial inflammation and oxidative stress, and eventually improved the arterial matrix remodeling and apoptosis. X22 at 10mg/kg showed a comparable bioactivity with the positive control, curcumin at 50mg/kg. The in vivo beneficial effects of X22 are also associated with its ability to increase Nrf2 expression and inhibit NF-κB activation in the artery of HFD-fed rats. Overall, these results suggest that X22 may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of obesity-induced artery injury via regulation of Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress and NF-κB-mediated inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Neuropeptide Y deficiency attenuates responses to fasting and high-fat diet in obesity-prone mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Hiralben R; Qi, Yong; Hawkins, Evan J; Hileman, Stanley M; Elmquist, Joel K; Imai, Yumi; Ahima, Rexford S

    2006-11-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) stimulates feeding and weight gain, but deletion of the NPY gene does not affect food intake and body weight in mice bred on a mixed genetic background. We reasoned that the orexigenic action of NPY would be evident in C57Bl/6J mice susceptible to obesity. NPY deficiency has no significant effect in mice fed a normal rodent diet. However, energy expenditure is elevated during fasting, and hyperphagia and weight gain are blunted during refeeding. Expression of agouti-related peptide (AGRP) in the hypothalamus is increased in NPY knockout (NPYko) than wild-type mice, but unlike wild type there is no further increase in AGRP when NPYko mice are fasted. Moreover, NPYko mice have higher oxygen consumption and uncoupling protein-1 expression in brown adipose tissue during fasting. The failure of an increase in orexigenic peptides and higher thermogenesis may contribute to attenuation of weight gain when NPYko mice are refed. C57Bl/6J mice lacking NPY are also less susceptible to diet-induced obesity (DIO) as a result of reduced feeding and increased energy expenditure. The resistance to DIO in NPYko mice is associated with a reduction in nocturnal feeding and increased expression of anorexigenic hypothalamic peptides. Insulin, leptin, and triglyceride levels increase with adiposity in both wild-type and NPYko mice.

  10. Supplementation of Lactobacillus plantarum K68 and Fruit-Vegetable Ferment along with High Fat-Fructose Diet Attenuates Metabolic Syndrome in Rats with Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Yu Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus plantarum K68 (isolated from fu-tsai and fruit-vegetable ferment (FVF have been tested for antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties in a rat model of insulin resistance, induced by chronic high fat-fructose diet. Fifty rats were equally assigned into control (CON, high fat-fructose diet (HFFD, HFFD plus K68, HFFD plus FVF, and HFFD plus both K68 and FVF (MIX groups. Respective groups were orally administered with K68 (1×109 CFU/0.5 mL or FVF (180 mg/kg or MIX for 8 weeks. We found that HFFD-induced increased bodyweights were prevented, and progressively increased fasting blood glucose and insulin levels were reversed (P<0.01 by K68 and FVF treatments. Elevated glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c and HOMA-IR values were controlled in supplemented groups. Furthermore, dyslipidemia, characterized by elevated total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, and low-density lipoproteins (LDLs with HFFD, was significantly (P<0.01 attenuated with MIX. Elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, were controlled (P<0.01 by K68, FVF, and MIX treatments. Moreover, decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities were substantially (P<0.01 restored by all treatments. Experimental evidences demonstrate that K68 and FVF may be effective alternative medicine to prevent HFFD-induced hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperlipidemia, possibly associated with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant efficacies.

  11. Tea polyphenols alleviate high fat and high glucose-induced endothelial hyperpermeability by attenuating ROS production via NADPH oxidase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Xuezhi; Tian, Chong; Zhao, Nana; Ren, Weiye; Meng, Yi; Jin, Xin; Zhang, Ying; Ding, Shibin; Ying, Chenjiang; Ye, Xiaolei

    2014-03-02

    Hyperglycemia-induced endothelial hyperpermeability is crucial to cardiovascular disorders and macro-vascular complications in diabetes mellitus. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTPs) on endothelial hyperpermeability and the role of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) pathway. Male Wistar rats fed on a high fat diet (HF) were treated with GTPs (0, 0.8, 1.6, 3.2 g/L in drinking water) for 26 weeks. Bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) were treated with high glucose (HG, 33 mmol/L) and GTPs (0.0, 0.4, or 4 μg/mL) for 24 hours in vitro. The endothelial permeabilities in rat aorta and monolayer BAECs were measured by Evans blue injection method and efflux of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran, respectively. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in rat aorta and monolayer BAECs were measured by dihydroethidium (DHE) and 2', 7'-dichloro-fluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) fluorescent probe, respectively. Protein levels of NADPH oxidase subunits were determined by Western-blot. HF diet-fed increased the endothelial permeability and ROS levels in rat aorta while HG treatments increased the endothelial permeability and ROS levels in cultured BAECs. Co-treatment with GTPs alleviated those changes both in vivo and in vitro. In in vitro studies, GTPs treatments protected against the HG-induced over-expressions of p22phox and p67phox. Diphenylene iodonium chloride (DPI), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, alleviated the hyperpermeability induced by HG. GTPs could alleviate endothelial hyperpermeabilities in HF diet-fed rat aorta and in HG treated BAECs. The decrease of ROS production resulting from down-regulation of NADPH oxidase contributed to the alleviation of endothelial hyperpermeability.

  12. Restoration of Circulating MFGE8 (Milk Fat Globule-EGF Factor 8) Attenuates Cardiac Hypertrophy Through Inhibition of Akt Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ke-Qiong; Li, Jing; She, Zhi-Gang; Gong, Jun; Cheng, Wen-Lin; Gong, Fu-Han; Zhu, Xue-Yong; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Zhihua; Li, Hongliang

    2017-10-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy occurs in response to numerous stimuli like neurohumoral stress, pressure overload, infection, and injury, and leads to heart failure. Mfge8 (milk fat globule-EGF factor 8) is a secreted protein involved in various human diseases, but its regulation and function during cardiac hypertrophy remain unexplored. Here, we found that circulating MFGE8 levels declined significantly in failing hearts from patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. Correlation analyses revealed that circulating MFGE8 levels were negatively correlated with the severity of cardiac dysfunction and remodeling in affected patients. Deleting Mfge8 in mice maintained normal heart function at basal level but substantially exacerbated the hypertrophic enlargement of cardiomyocytes, reprogramming of pathological genes, contractile dysfunction, and myocardial fibrosis after aortic banding surgery. In contrast, cardiac-specific Mfge8 overexpression in transgenic mice significantly blunted aortic banding-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Whereas MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) pathways were unaffected in either Mfge8 -knockout or Mfge8 -overexpressing mice, the activated Akt/PKB (protein kinase B)-Gsk-3β (glycogen synthase kinase-3β)/mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway after aortic banding was significantly potentiated by Mfge8 deficiency but suppressed by Mfge8 overexpression. Inhibition of Akt with MK-2206 blocked the prohypertrophic effects of Mfge8 deficiency in angiotensin II-treated neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Finally, administering a recombinant human MFGE8 in mice in vivo alleviated cardiac hypertrophy induced by aortic banding. Our findings indicate that Mfge8 is an endogenous negative regulator of pathological cardiac hypertrophy and may, thus, have potential both as a novel biomarker and as a therapeutic target for treatment of cardiac hypertrophy. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor-factor VIII attenuates sepsis-induced acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Cindy; Aziz, Monowar; Yang, Weng-Lang; Zhou, Mian; Nicastro, Jeffrey M; Coppa, Gene F; Wang, Ping

    2017-06-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is most commonly caused by sepsis in critically ill patients, and it is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The pathophysiology of sepsis-induced AKI is generally accepted to include direct inflammatory injury, endothelial cell dysfunction, and apoptosis. Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor-factor VIII (MFG-E8) is a secretory glycoprotein with a known role in the enhancement of apoptotic cell clearance and regulation of inflammation. We hypothesize that administration of recombinant mouse MFG-E8 (rmMFG-E8) can protect mice from kidney injuries caused by sepsis. Sepsis was induced in 8-wk-old male C57BL/6 mice by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). rmMFG-E8 or phosphate-buffered saline (vehicle) was injected intravenously at a dosage of 20 μg/kg body weight at time of CLP (n = 5-8 mice per group). After 20 h, serum and renal tissue were harvested for various analyses. The renal injury markers blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine were determined by enzymatic and chemical reactions, respectively. The gene expression analysis was carried out by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. At 20 h after CLP, serum levels of BUN and creatinine were both significantly increased in the vehicle group compared with the sham group, whereas the mice treated with rmMFG-E8 had a significant reduction in BUN and creatinine levels by 28% and 24.1%, respectively (BUN: 197.7 ± 23.6 versus 142.3 ± 20.7 mg/dL; creatinine: 0.83 ± 0.12 versus 0.63 ± 0.06 mg/dL; P sepsis through inhibiting the production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokine, as well as through the activation of endothelial cells. Thus, MFG-E8 may have a therapeutic potential for treating AKI induced by sepsis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Troxerutin Attenuates Enhancement of Hepatic Gluconeogenesis by Inhibiting NOD Activation-Mediated Inflammation in High-Fat Diet-Treated Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zifeng; Wang, Xin; Zheng, Guihong; Shan, Qun; Lu, Jun; Fan, Shaohua; Sun, Chunhui; Wu, Dongmei; Zhang, Cheng; Su, Weitong; Sui, Junwen; Zheng, Yuanlin

    2016-12-25

    Recent evidence suggests that troxerutin, a trihydroxyethylated derivative of natural bioflavonoid rutin, exhibits beneficial effects on diabetes-related symptoms. Here we investigated the effects of troxerutin on the enhancement of hepatic gluconeogenesis in high-fat diet (HFD)-treated mice and the mechanisms underlying these effects. Mice were divided into four groups: Control group, HFD group, HFD + Troxerutin group, and Troxerutin group. Troxerutin was treated by daily oral administration at doses of 150 mg/kg/day for 20 weeks. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) was used to inhibit endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress). Our results showed that troxerutin effectively improved obesity and related metabolic parameters, and liver injuries in HFD-treated mouse. Furthermore, troxerutin significantly attenuated enhancement of hepatic gluconeogenesis in HFD-fed mouse. Moreover, troxerutin notably suppressed nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 transcriptional activation and release of inflammatory cytokines in HFD-treated mouse livers. Mechanismly, troxerutin dramatically decreased Nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD) expression, as well as interaction between NOD1/2 with interacting protein-2 (RIP2), by abating oxidative stress-induced ER stress in HFD-treated mouse livers, which was confirmed by TUDCA treatment. These improvement effects of troxerutin on hepatic glucose disorders might be mediated by its anti-obesity effect. In conclusion, troxerutin markedly diminished HFD-induced enhancement of hepatic gluconeogenesis via its inhibitory effects on ER stress-mediated NOD activation and consequent inflammation, which might be mediated by its anti-obesity effect.

  15. Troxerutin Attenuates Enhancement of Hepatic Gluconeogenesis by Inhibiting NOD Activation-Mediated Inflammation in High-Fat Diet-Treated Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zifeng Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that troxerutin, a trihydroxyethylated derivative of natural bioflavonoid rutin, exhibits beneficial effects on diabetes-related symptoms. Here we investigated the effects of troxerutin on the enhancement of hepatic gluconeogenesis in high-fat diet (HFD-treated mice and the mechanisms underlying these effects. Mice were divided into four groups: Control group, HFD group, HFD + Troxerutin group, and Troxerutin group. Troxerutin was treated by daily oral administration at doses of 150 mg/kg/day for 20 weeks. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA was used to inhibit endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress. Our results showed that troxerutin effectively improved obesity and related metabolic parameters, and liver injuries in HFD-treated mouse. Furthermore, troxerutin significantly attenuated enhancement of hepatic gluconeogenesis in HFD-fed mouse. Moreover, troxerutin notably suppressed nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB p65 transcriptional activation and release of inflammatory cytokines in HFD-treated mouse livers. Mechanismly, troxerutin dramatically decreased Nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD expression, as well as interaction between NOD1/2 with interacting protein-2 (RIP2, by abating oxidative stress-induced ER stress in HFD-treated mouse livers, which was confirmed by TUDCA treatment. These improvement effects of troxerutin on hepatic glucose disorders might be mediated by its anti-obesity effect. In conclusion, troxerutin markedly diminished HFD-induced enhancement of hepatic gluconeogenesis via its inhibitory effects on ER stress-mediated NOD activation and consequent inflammation, which might be mediated by its anti-obesity effect.

  16. Abusive prescription of psychostimulants: a study of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pélissier-Alicot, Anne-Laure; Piercecchi-Marti, Marie-Dominique; Bartoli, Christophe; Kuhlmann, Erika; Coiffait, Philippe-Emmanuel; Sanvoisin, Alain; Giocanti, Dominique; Léonetti, Georges

    2006-03-01

    Because psychostimulants have serious possible side effects and particular potential for abuse, their therapeutic indications are today exclusively limited to disorders such as obesity, narcolepsy, or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. We report two cases of abusive prescription of these drugs. The first concerns a woman who was treated for a 3 kg weight gain with fenproporex for 5 years and presented a withdrawal syndrome when this drug was no longer marketed in France. In the second case, a woman who complained of atypical sleep problems was prescribed modafinil, methylphenidate, clobazam, lormetazepam, meprobamate, and aceprometazine, and was found dead in her home a few weeks later in unexplained circumstances. For these two patients, neither the indications, nor the contraindications, nor the prescribing rules for these restricted drugs had been complied with. This case report highlights the extreme danger of these substances and stresses the importance of adhering to the rules of prescription.

  17. Milk fat globule membrane supplementation with voluntary running exercise attenuates age-related motor dysfunction by suppressing neuromuscular junction abnormalities in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Michiko; Minegishi, Yoshihiko; Sugita, Satoshi; Ota, Noriyasu

    2017-10-15

    Age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function attenuates physical performance, and maintaining fine muscle innervation is known to play an important role in its prevention. We had previously shown that consumption of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) with habitual exercise improves the muscle mass and motor function in humans and mice. Improvement of neuromuscular junction (NMJ) was suggested as one of the mechanisms underlying these effects. In this study, we evaluated the effect of MFGM intake combined with voluntary running (MFGM-VR) on morphological changes of NMJ and motor function in aging mice. Seven months following the intervention, the MFGM-VR group showed a significantly improved motor coordination in the rotarod test and muscle force in the grip strength test compared with the control group at 13 and 14months of age, respectively. In 14-month old control mice, the extensor digitorum longus muscle showed increased abnormal NMJs, such as fragmentation and denervation, compared with 6-month old young mice. However, such age-related deteriorations of NMJs were significantly suppressed in the MFGM-VR group. Increase in the expression of NMJ formation-related genes, such as agrin and LDL Receptor Related Protein 4 (LRP4), might contribute to this beneficial effect. Rotarod performance and grip strength showed significant negative correlation with the status of denervation and fragmentation of NMJs. These results suggest that MFGM intake with voluntary running exercise effectively suppresses age-related morphological deterioration of NMJ, thus contributing to improvement of motor function. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization of attenuated food motivation in high-fat diet-induced obesity: Critical roles for time on diet and reinforcer familiarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Andrea L; Wee, Colin J M; Hazeltine, Grace E; Carter, Rebecca A

    2015-03-15

    Prior work using animal models to study the effects of obesogenic diets on food motivation have generated inconsistent results, with some reporting increases and others reporting decreases in responding on food-reinforced tasks. Here, we identified two specific variables that may account for these discrepant outcomes - the length of time on the obesigenic diet and the familiarity of the food reinforcer - and examined the independent roles of these factors. Time on diet was found to be inversely related to food motivation, as rats consuming a 40% high-fat diet (HFD) for only 3weeks did not differ from chow-fed rats when responding for a sucrose reinforcer on a progressive ratio (PR) schedule, but responding was suppressed after 6weeks of ad lib HFD consumption. Explicitly manipulating experience with the sucrose reinforcer by pre-exposing half the rats prior to 10weeks of HFD consumption attenuated the motivational deficit seen in the absence of this familiarity, resulting in obese rats performing at the same level as lean rats. Finally, after 8weeks on a HFD, rats did not express a conditioned place preference for sucrose, indicating a decrement in reward value independent of motivation. These findings are consistent with prior literature showing an increase in food motivation for rats with a shorter time consuming the obesigenic diet, and for those with more prior experience with the reinforcer. This account also helps reconcile these findings with increased food motivation in obese humans due to extensive experience with palatable food and suggests that researchers engaging in non-human animal studies of obesity would better model the conditions under which human obesity develops by using a varied, cafeteria-style diet to increase the breadth of food experiences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. PTP1B deficiency improves hypothalamic insulin sensitivity resulting in the attenuation of AgRP mRNA expression under high-fat diet conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Mariko; Banno, Ryoichi; Mizoguchi, Akira; Tominaga, Takashi; Tsunekawa, Taku; Onoue, Takeshi; Hagiwara, Daisuke; Ito, Yoshihiro; Morishita, Yoshiaki; Iwama, Shintaro; Goto, Motomitsu; Suga, Hidetaka; Arima, Hiroshi

    2017-06-17

    Hypothalamic insulin receptor signaling regulates energy balance and glucose homeostasis via agouti-related protein (AgRP). While protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is classically known to be a negative regulator of peripheral insulin signaling by dephosphorylating both insulin receptor β (IRβ) and insulin receptor substrate, the role of PTP1B in hypothalamic insulin signaling remains to be fully elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the role of PTP1B in hypothalamic insulin signaling using PTP1B deficient (KO) mice in vivo and ex vivo. For the in vivo study, hypothalamic insulin resistance induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) improved in KO mice compared to wild-type (WT) mice. Hypothalamic AgRP mRNA expression levels were also significantly decreased in KO mice independent of body weight changes. In an ex vivo study using hypothalamic organotypic cultures, insulin treatment significantly increased the phosphorylation of both IRβ and Akt in the hypothalamus of KO mice compared to WT mice, and also significantly decreased AgRP mRNA expression levels in KO mice. While incubation with inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) had no effect on basal levels of Akt phosphorylation, these suppressed insulin induction of Akt phosphorylation to almost basal levels in WT and KO mice. The inhibition of the PI3K-Akt pathway blocked the downregulation of AgRP mRNA expression in KO mice treated with insulin. These data suggest that PTP1B acts on the hypothalamic insulin signaling via the PI3K-Akt pathway. Together, our results suggest a deficiency of PTP1B improves hypothalamic insulin sensitivity resulting in the attenuation of AgRP mRNA expression under HFD conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Qualitative and quantitative comparison of contrast-enhanced fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, magnetization transfer spin echo, and fat-saturation T1-weighted sequences in infectious meningitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azad, Rajiv; Tayal, Mohit; Azad, Sheenam; Sharma, Garima; Srivastava, Rajendra Kumar

    2017-01-01

    To compare the contrast-enhanced fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (CE-FLAIR), the CE T1-weighted (CE-T1W) sequence with fat suppression (FS) and magnetization transfer (MT) for early detection and characterization of infectious meningitis. Fifty patients and 10 control subjects were evaluated with the CE-FLAIR and the CE-T1W sequences with FS and MT. Qualitative assessment was done by two observers for presence and grading of abnormal leptomeningeal enhancement. Quantitative assessment included computation of net meningeal enhancement, using single pixel signal intensity software. A newly devised FLAIR based scoring system, based on certain imaging features including ventricular dilatation, ependymal enhancement, infarcts and subdural effusions was used to indicate the etiology. Data were analysed using the Student's t test, Cohen's Kappa coefficient, Pearson's correlation coefficient, the intraclass correlation coefficient, one way analysis of variance, and Fisher's exact test with Bonferroni correction as the post hoc test. The CE-FLAIR sequence demonstrated a better sensitivity (100%), diagnostic accuracy (95%), and a stronger correlation with the cerebrospinal fluid, total leukocyte count (r = 0.75), protein (r = 0.77), adenosine deaminase (r = 0.81) and blood glucose (r = -0.6) values compared to the CE-T1W sequences. Qualitative grades and quantitative meningeal enhancement on the CE-FLAIR sequence were also significantly greater than those on the other sequences. The FLAIR based scoring system yielded a diagnostic accuracy of 91.6% and a sensitivity of 96%. A strong inverse Pearson's correlation (r = -0.95) was found between the assigned score and patient's Glasgow Coma Scale at the time of admission. The CE-FLAIR sequence is better suited for evaluating infectious meningitis and could be included as a part of the routine MR imaging protocol

  1. Qualitative and quantitative comparison of contrast-enhanced fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, magnetization transfer spin echo, and fat-saturation T1-weighted sequences in infectious meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azad, Rajiv; Tayal, Mohit; Azad, Sheenam; Sharma, Garima; Srivastava, Rajendra Kumar [SGRR Institute of Medical and Health Sciences, Patel Nagar, Dehradun (India)

    2017-11-15

    To compare the contrast-enhanced fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (CE-FLAIR), the CE T1-weighted (CE-T1W) sequence with fat suppression (FS) and magnetization transfer (MT) for early detection and characterization of infectious meningitis. Fifty patients and 10 control subjects were evaluated with the CE-FLAIR and the CE-T1W sequences with FS and MT. Qualitative assessment was done by two observers for presence and grading of abnormal leptomeningeal enhancement. Quantitative assessment included computation of net meningeal enhancement, using single pixel signal intensity software. A newly devised FLAIR based scoring system, based on certain imaging features including ventricular dilatation, ependymal enhancement, infarcts and subdural effusions was used to indicate the etiology. Data were analysed using the Student's t test, Cohen's Kappa coefficient, Pearson's correlation coefficient, the intraclass correlation coefficient, one way analysis of variance, and Fisher's exact test with Bonferroni correction as the post hoc test. The CE-FLAIR sequence demonstrated a better sensitivity (100%), diagnostic accuracy (95%), and a stronger correlation with the cerebrospinal fluid, total leukocyte count (r = 0.75), protein (r = 0.77), adenosine deaminase (r = 0.81) and blood glucose (r = -0.6) values compared to the CE-T1W sequences. Qualitative grades and quantitative meningeal enhancement on the CE-FLAIR sequence were also significantly greater than those on the other sequences. The FLAIR based scoring system yielded a diagnostic accuracy of 91.6% and a sensitivity of 96%. A strong inverse Pearson's correlation (r = -0.95) was found between the assigned score and patient's Glasgow Coma Scale at the time of admission. The CE-FLAIR sequence is better suited for evaluating infectious meningitis and could be included as a part of the routine MR imaging protocol.

  2. Preliminary Evidence for the Off-Label Treatment of Bulimia Nervosa With Psychostimulants: Six Case Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshen, Aaron; Helson, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    Psychostimulants have been assessed in bulimia nervosa patients with comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but few studies have examined the impact of psychostimulants on bulimia nervosa patients without comorbid ADHD. The aim of this study was to examine psychostimulants as a potential treatment for bulimia nervosa and to assess the concern of weight loss, given the medication's appetite-suppressing effects. This retrospective study describes 6 case reports of outpatients who were prescribed a psychostimulant specifically for their bulimia nervosa. The number of binge/purge days per months and body mass index were assessed. All patients demonstrated reductions in the number of binge/purge days per month, and 1 patient experienced total remission of bulimic symptoms. Minor fluctuations in weight were observed, but no clinically significant reductions in weight were noted. These findings support the need for clinical trials to examine the efficacy and safety of this potential treatment. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  3. Meta-Analysis: Risk of Tics Associated With Psychostimulant Use in Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Stephanie C; Mulqueen, Jilian M; Ferracioli-Oda, Eduardo; Stuckelman, Zachary D; Coughlin, Catherine G; Leckman, James F; Bloch, Michael H

    2015-09-01

    Clinical practice currently restricts the use of psychostimulant medications in children with tics or a family history of tics for fear that tics will develop or worsen as a side effect of treatment. Our goal was to conduct a meta-analysis to examine the risk of new onset or worsening of tics as an adverse event of psychostimulants in randomized, placebo-controlled trials. We conducted a PubMed search to identify all double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials examining the efficacy of psychostimulant medications in the treatment of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We used a fixed effects meta-analysis with risk ratio of new onset or worsening tics in children treated with psychostimulants compared to placebo. We used stratified subgroup analysis and meta-regression to examine the effects of stimulant type, dose, duration of treatment, recorder of side effect data, trial design, and mean age of participants on the measured risk of tics. We identified 22 studies involving 2,385 children with ADHD for inclusion in our meta-analysis. New onset tics or worsening of tic symptoms were commonly reported in the psychostimulant (event rate = 5.7%, 95% CI = 3.7%-8.6%) and placebo groups (event rate = 6.5%, 95% CI = 4.4%-9.5%). The risk of new onset or worsening of tics associated with psychostimulant treatment was similar to that observed with placebo (risk ratio = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.78-1.27, z = -0.05, p = .962). Type of psychostimulant, dose, duration of treatment, recorder, and participant age did not affect risk of new onset or worsening of tics. Crossover studies were associated with a significantly greater measured risk of tics with psychostimulant use compared to parallel group trials. Meta-analysis of controlled trials does not support an association between new onset or worsening of tics and psychostimulant use. Clinicians may want to consider rechallenging children who report new onset or worsening of tics with psychostimulant

  4. Beyond Neuronal Activity Markers: Select Immediate Early Genes in Striatal Neuron Subtypes Functionally Mediate Psychostimulant Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Chandra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Immediate early genes (IEGs were traditionally used as markers of neuronal activity in striatum in response to stimuli including drugs of abuse such as psychostimulants. Early studies using these neuronal activity markers led to important insights in striatal neuron subtype responsiveness to psychostimulants. Such studies have helped identify striatum as a critical brain center for motivational, reinforcement and habitual behaviors in psychostimulant addiction. While the use of IEGs as neuronal activity markers in response to psychostimulants and other stimuli persists today, the functional role and implications of these IEGs has often been neglected. Nonetheless, there is a subset of research that investigates the functional role of IEGs in molecular, cellular and behavioral alterations by psychostimulants through striatal medium spiny neuron (MSN subtypes, the two projection neuron subtypes in striatum. This review article will address and highlight the studies that provide a functional mechanism by which IEGs mediate psychostimulant molecular, cellular and behavioral plasticity through MSN subtypes. Insight into the functional role of IEGs in striatal MSN subtypes could provide improved understanding into addiction and neuropsychiatric diseases affecting striatum, such as affective disorders and compulsive disorders characterized by dysfunctional motivation and habitual behavior.

  5. DARK Classics in Chemical Neuroscience: Cathinone-Derived Psychostimulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Steven J; Leyrer-Jackson, Jonna M; Oliver, Chicora F; Hicks, Callum; Muschamp, John W; Rawls, Scott M; Olive, M Foster

    2018-05-11

    Cathinone is a plant alkaloid found in khat leaves of perennial shrubs grown in East Africa. Similar to cocaine, cathinone elicits psychostimulant effects which are in part attributed to its amphetamine-like structure. Around 2010, home laboratories began altering the parent structure of cathinone to synthesize derivatives with mechanisms of action, potencies, and pharmacokinetics permitting high abuse potential and toxicity. These "synthetic cathinones" include 4-methylmethcathinone (mephedrone), 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), and the empathogenic agent 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone (methylone) which collectively gained international popularity following aggressive online marketing as well as availability in various retail outlets. Case reports made clear the health risks associated with these agents and, in 2012, the Drug Enforcement Agency of the United States placed a series of synthetic cathinones on Schedule I under emergency order. Mechanistically, cathinone and synthetic derivatives work by augmenting monoamine transmission through release facilitation and/or presynaptic transport inhibition. Animal studies confirm the rewarding and reinforcing properties of synthetic cathinones by utilizing self-administration, place conditioning, and intracranial self-stimulation assays and additionally show persistent neuropathological features which demonstrate a clear need to better understand this class of drugs. This Review will thus detail (i) historical context of cathinone use and the rise of "dark" synthetic derivatives, (ii) structural features and mechanisms of synthetic cathinones, (iii) behavioral effects observed clinically and in animals under controlled laboratory conditions, and (iv) neurotransmitters and circuits that may be targeted to manage synthetic cathinone abuse in humans.

  6. Serotonin and conditioning: focus on Pavlovian psychostimulant drug conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Robert J; Damianopoulos, Ernest N

    2015-04-01

    Serotonin containing neurons are located in nuclei deep in the brainstem and send axons throughout the central nervous system from the spinal cord to the cerebral cortex. The vast scope of these connections and interactions enable serotonin and serotonin analogs to have profound effects upon sensory/motor processes. In that conditioning represents a neuroplastic process that leads to new sensory/motor connections, it is apparent that the serotonin system has the potential for a critical role in conditioning. In this article we review the basics of conditioning as well as the serotonergic system and point up the number of non-associative ways in which manipulations of serotonin neurotransmission have an impact upon conditioning. We focus upon psychostimulant drug conditioning and review the contribution of drug stimuli in the use of serotonin drugs to investigate drug conditioning and the important impact drug stimuli can have on conditioning by introducing new sensory stimuli that can create or mask a CS. We also review the ways in which experimental manipulations of serotonin can disrupt conditioned behavioral effects but not the associative processes in conditioning. In addition, we propose the use of the recently developed memory re-consolidation model of conditioning as an approach to assess the possible role of serotonin in associative processes without the complexities of performance effects related to serotonin treatment induced alterations in sensory/motor systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A choline-deficient diet exacerbates fatty liver but attenuates insulin resistance and glucose intolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raubenheimer, Peter J; Nyirenda, Moffat J; Walker, Brian R

    2006-07-01

    Liver fat accumulation is proposed to link obesity and insulin resistance. To dissect the role of liver fat in the insulin resistance of diet-induced obesity, we altered liver fat using a choline-deficient diet. C57Bl/6 mice were fed a low-fat (10% of calories) or high-fat (45% of calories) diet for 8 weeks; during the final 4 weeks, diets were either choline deficient or choline supplemented. In choline replete animals, high-fat feeding induced weight gain, elevated liver triglycerides (171%), hyperinsulinemia, and glucose intolerance. Choline deficiency did not affect body or adipose depot weights but amplified liver fat accumulation with high-fat diet (281%, P insulin (from 983 +/- 175 to 433 +/- 36 pmol/l, P phosphatidylcholine synthesis and of enzymes involved in free fatty acid esterification, without affecting those of de novo lipogenesis or fatty acid oxidation. We conclude that liver fat accumulation per se does not cause insulin resistance during high-fat feeding and that choline deficiency may shunt potentially toxic free fatty acids toward innocuous storage triglyceride in the liver.

  8. Increased meal frequency attenuates fat-free mass losses and some markers of health status with a portion-controlled weight loss diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Michelle K; Beam, Jason R; McCormick, James J; White, Ailish C; Salgado, Roy M; Kravitz, Len R; Mermier, Christine M; Gibson, Ann L; Conn, Carole A; Kolkmeyer, Deborah; Ferraro, Robert T; Kerksick, Chad M

    2015-05-01

    Increased meal frequency (MF) may be associated with improvements in blood markers of health and body composition during weight loss; however, this claim has not been validated. The purpose of the study was to determine if either a 2-meal (2 MF) or 6-meal frequency (6 MF) regimen can improve body composition and blood-based markers of health while consuming a portion-controlled equihypocaloric diet. Eleven (N=11) obese women (52 ± 7 years, 101.7 ± 22.6 kg, 39.1 ± 7.6 kg/m(2)) were randomized into treatment condition (2 MF or 6 MF) for 2 weeks, completed a 2-week washout, and alternated treatment conditions. In pre/post fashion, changes in body composition, glucose, insulin, and lipid components were measured in response to a test meal. Body mass was successfully lost (P ≤ .05) under both feeding regimens (2 MF: -2.8 ± 1.5 vs 6 MF: -1.9 ± 1.5 kg). Altering MF did not impact glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P>.05). On average, fat-free mass (FFM) decreased by -3.3% ± 2.6% following the 2 MF condition and, on average, increased by 1.2% ± 1.7% following the 6 MF condition (P ≤ .05). Fasting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) percentage increased during the 2 MF condition; this was significantly greater than that in the 6 MF condition (1.3% ± 12.2% vs 0.12% ± 10.3%) (P ≤ .05). Overall, reductions in MF (2 MF) were associated with improved HDL-C levels; but the clinical significance is not clear. Alternatively, increased MF (6 MF) did appear to favorably preserve FFM during weight loss. In conclusion, caloric restriction was effective in reducing body mass and attenuating FFM changes in body composition; however, glucose, insulin, and lipid metabolism had no significant differences between MF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Application of attenuated total reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) in MIR range coupled with chemometrics for detection of pig body fat in pure ghee (heat clarified milk fat)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Neelam; Jaiswal, Pranita; Jha, Shyam Narayan

    2018-02-01

    Pure ghee is superior to other fats and oils due to the presence of bioactive lipids and its rich flavor. Adulteration of ghee with cheaper fats and oils is a prevalent fraudulent practice. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy was coupled with chemometrics for the purpose of detection of presence of pig body fat in pure ghee. Pure mixed ghee was spiked with pig body fat @ 3, 4, 5, 10, 15% level. The spectra of pure (ghee and pig body fat) along with the spiked samples was taken in MIR from 4000 to 500 cm-1. Some wavenumber ranges were selected on the basis of differences in the spectra obtained. Separate clusters of the samples were obtained by employing principal component analysis at 5% level of significance on the selected wavenumber range. Probable class membership was predicted by applying SIMCA approach. Approximately, 90% of the samples classified into their respective class and pure ghee and pig body fat never misclassified themselves. The value of R2 was >0.99 for both calibration and validation sets using partial least square method. The study concluded that spiking of pig body fat in pure ghee can be detected even at a level of 3%.

  10. Psychostimulant and sensory stimulation interventions that target the reading and math deficits of students with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentall, Sydney S; Tom-Wright, Kinsey; Lee, Jiyeon

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this review of students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was to summarize the following: (1) academic deficits in math and reading, (2) possible theoretical contributors to these deficits, and (3) psychostimulant interventions that target math and reading, as well as, parallel interventions involving sensory stimulation. A comprehensive examination of the literature was conducted on children with ADHD with and without co-occurring disabilities, summarizing their reading and math achievement and the effects of psychostimulant and sensory stimulant interventions on these academic areas. Students without co-occurring disabilities (ADHD-) had fewer deficits in reading than in math and than students with co-occurring disabilities (ADHD+). Furthermore, students with ADHD+ demonstrated greater responsiveness to psychostimulants through improved reading recognition and math calculations, with limited gains in literal reading comprehension. Added sensory stimulation produced differential gains for both groups in reading recognition and comprehension and in math calculations and problem solving. The efficacy of psychostimulants was documented on specific areas of achievement for the ADHD+ group, but this review did not support the administration of psychostimulants for students with ADHD-. For both groups of students, differential gains, losses, and habituation were documented in response to sensory stimulation for both subareas within reading and math, which were interpreted as support for the optimal stimulation theory.

  11. Rapid analysis of effluents generated by the dairy industry for fat determination by preconcentration in nylon membranes and attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moliner Martínez, Y; Muñoz-Ortuño, M; Herráez-Hernández, R; Campíns-Falcó, P

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes a new approach for the determination of fat in the effluents generated by the dairy industry which is based on the retention of fat in nylon membranes and measurement of the absorbances on the membrane surface by ATR-IR spectroscopy. Different options have been evaluated for retaining fat in the membranes using milk samples of different origin and fat content. Based on the results obtained, a method is proposed for the determination of fat in effluents which involves the filtration of 1 mL of the samples through 0.45 µm nylon membranes of 13 mm diameter. The fat content is then determined by measuring the absorbance of band at 1745 cm(-1). The proposed method can be used for the direct estimation of fat at concentrations in the 2-12 mg/L interval with adequate reproducibility. The intraday precision, expressed as coefficients of variation CVs, were ≤ 11%, whereas the interday CVs were ≤ 20%. The method shows a good tolerance towards conditions typically found in the effluents generated by the dairy industry. The most relevant features of the proposed method are simplicity and speed as the samples can be characterized in a few minutes. Sample preparation does not involve either additional instrumentation (such as pumps or vacuum equipment) or organic solvents or other chemicals. Therefore, the proposed method can be considered a rapid, simple and cost-effective alternative to gravimetric methods for controlling fat content in these effluents during production or cleaning processes. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Reduction of bulimia nervosa symptoms after psychostimulant initiation in patients with comorbid ADHD: five case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshen, Aaron; Ivanova, Iryna

    2013-01-01

    Studies reveal a higher occurrence of bulimia nervosa (BN) in patients with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared to controls. Due to this high degree of comorbidity, some clinicians have used psychostimulants in this population. The goal of this article is to describe five patients with comorbid BN and ADHD and their responses to a course of psychostimulants. After medication initiation, all five patients experienced a decrease in binge/purging and an improvement in ADHD symptoms. Overall, the medications were well tolerated. Possible mechanisms underlying the relationship between ADHD and BN, and words of caution are discussed. The need for clinical trials to further evaluate the efficacy of psychostimulants in this population is warranted.

  13. Possible inclinations for psychostimulant, toxic agent and drug abuse among youths and students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Ginzburg

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account modern achievements in medicine, psychology and sociology, the attempt at complex research of possible inclinations for psychostimulant, toxic agent and drug abuse among youths and students was made with the subsequent determination of the possible alternates of primary prevention. It is analysed the basic and additional risk factors promoting smoking, drinking, psychostimulant abuse, toxicomania and narcomania among young people. The dynamics of possible influences of medical, psychological and social factors is studied. The attempt of short-term prognostication and ranking was made.

  14. Platycodon grandiflorus Root Extract Attenuates Body Fat Mass, Hepatic Steatosis and Insulin Resistance through the Interplay between the Liver and Adipose Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Jin Kim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Platycodon grandiflorus root, a Korean medicinal food, is well known to have beneficial effects on obesity and diabetes. In this study, we demonstrated the metabolic effects of P. grandiflorus root ethanol extract (PGE, which is rich in platycodins, on diet-induced obesity. C57BL/6J mice (four-week-old males were fed a normal diet (16.58% of kilocalories from fat, high-fat diet (HFD, 60% of kilocalories from fat, and HFD supplemented with 5% (w/w PGE. In the HFD-fed mice, PGE markedly suppressed the body weight gain and white fat mass to normal control level, with simultaneous increase in the expression of thermogenic genes (such as SIRT1, PPARα, PGC1α, and UCP1, that accompanied changes in fatty acid oxidation (FAO and energy expenditure. In addition, PGE improved insulin sensitivity through activation of the PPARγ expression, which upregulates adiponectin while decreasing leptin gene expression in adipocytes. Furthermore, PGE improved hepatic steatosis by suppressing hepatic lipogenesis while increasing expression of FAO-associated genes such as PGC1α. PGE normalized body fat and body weight, which is likely associated with the increased energy expenditure and thermogenic gene expression. PGE can protect from HFD-induced insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis by controlling lipid and glucose metabolism.

  15. Meta-Analysis: Reduced Risk of Anxiety with Psychostimulant Treatment in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Catherine G; Cohen, Stephanie C; Mulqueen, Jilian M; Ferracioli-Oda, Eduardo; Stuckelman, Zachary D; Bloch, Michael H

    2015-10-01

    Anxiety is a commonly reported side-effect of psychostimulant treatment. Our goal was to quantify the risk of anxiety as a side effect of psychostimulant treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We conducted a PubMed search to identify all double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials examining the efficacy of psychostimulant medications in the treatment of children with ADHD. We used a fixed-effects meta-analysis to examine the risk ratio of anxiety reported as a side effect in children treated with psychostimulants compared with those treated with placebo. We used stratified subgroup analysis and meta-regression to examine the effects of stimulant type, dosage, duration of use, and trial design on the measured risk of anxiety. We identified 23 studies involving 2959 children with ADHD for inclusion in our meta-analysis. The risk of anxiety associated with psychostimulant treatment was significantly lower than that experienced with placebo (relative risk [RR] = 0.86 [95% CI: 0.77, 0.95], z = -2.90, p anxiety of psychostimulants when compared with placebo (β = -0.0039 [95% CI: -0.00718, -0.00064], z = -2.34, p = 0.019). Meta-analysis suggests that treatment with psychostimulants significantly reduced the risk of anxiety when compared with placebo. This finding does not rule out the possibility that some children experience increased anxiety when treated with psychostimulants, but suggests that those risks are outweighed by the number of children who experience improvement in anxiety symptoms (possibly as a secondary effect of improved control of ADHD symptoms). Clinicians should consider rechallenging children with ADHD who report new-onset or worsening anxiety with psychostimulants, as these symptoms are much more likely to be coincidental rather than caused by psychostimulants.

  16. Activation of hindbrain neurons in response to gastrointestinal lipid is attenuated by high fat, high energy diets in mice prone to diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Michael J; Paulino, Gabriel; Raybould, Helen E

    2009-01-12

    Food intake is controlled by peripheral signals from the gastrointestinal tract and adipocytes, which are integrated within the central nervous system. There is evidence that signals from the GI tract are modulated by long term changes in diet, possibly leading to hyperphagia and increased body weight. We tested the hypothesis that diet-induced obese-prone (DIO-P) and obese-resistant (DIO-R) mice strains differ in the long term adaptive response of the gut-brain pathway to a high fat diet. Immunochemical detection of Fos protein was used as a measure of neuronal activation in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) in response to intragastric administration of lipid in DIO-P (C57Bl6) and DIO-R (129sv) mouse strains maintained on chow or high fat, high energy diets (45% or 60% kcal from fat). Intragastric lipid administration activated neurons in the NTS in both DIO-P and DIO-R mice; the number of activated neurons was significantly greater in DIO-P than in DIO-R mice (Pdiet, for 4 or 8 weeks, compared to chow fed controls (Pdiet (45% or 60%) had no effect on lipid-induced activation of NTS neurons. These results demonstrate that DIO-P and DIO-R mice strains differ in the adaptation of the pathway to long term ingestion of high fat diets, which may contribute to decrease satiation and increased food intake.

  17. General Practitioners' Management of Psychostimulant Drug Misuse: Implications for Education and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhamis, Ahmed; Matheson, Catriona; Bond, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To provide baseline data regarding GPs' knowledge, experience, and attitudes toward the management of PsychoStimulant Drug Misuse (PSDM) patients to inform future education and training initiatives. Methods: A structured cross-sectional postal questionnaire was developed following initial content setting interviews, piloted then sent to a…

  18. Psychostimulant and Sensory Stimulation Interventions That Target the Reading and Math Deficits of Students with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentall, Sydney S.; Tom-Wright, Kinsey; Lee, Jiyeon

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this review of students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was to summarize the following: (1) academic deficits in math and reading, (2) possible theoretical contributors to these deficits, and (3) psychostimulant interventions that target math and reading, as well as, parallel interventions involving…

  19. Psychostimulants affect dopamine transmission through both dopamine transporter-dependent and independent mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    dela Peña, Ike; Gevorkiana, Ruzanna; Shi, Wei-Xing

    2015-01-01

    The precise mechanisms by which cocaine and amphetamine-like psychostimulants exert their reinforcing effects are not yet fully defined. It is widely believed, however, that these drugs produce their effects by enhancing dopamine neurotransmission in the brain, especially in limbic areas such as the nucleus accumbens, by inducing dopamine transporter-mediated reverse transport and/or blocking dopamine reuptake though the dopamine transporter. Here, we present the evidence that aside from dopamine transporter, non-dopamine transporter-mediated mechanisms also participate in psychostimulant-induced dopamine release and contribute to the behavioral effects of these drugs, such as locomotor activation and reward. Accordingly, psychostimulants could increase norepinephrine release in the prefrontal cortex, the latter then alters the firing pattern of dopamine neurons resulting in changes in action potential-dependent dopamine release. These alterations would further affect the temporal pattern of dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens, thereby modifying information processing in that area. Hence, a synaptic input to a nucleus accumbens neuron may be enhanced or inhibited by dopamine depending on its temporal relationship to dopamine release. Specific temporal patterns of dopamine release may also be required for certain forms of synaptic plasticity in the nucleus accumbens. Together, these effects induced by psychostimulants, mediated through a non-dopamine transporter-mediated mechanism involving norepinephrine and the prefrontal cortex, may also contribute importantly to the reinforcing properties of these drugs. PMID:26209364

  20. A Controlled Trial of Extended-Release Guanfacine and Psychostimulants for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilens, Timothy E.; Bukstein, Oscar; Brams, Matthew; Cutler, Andrew J.; Childress, Ann; Rugino, Thomas; Lyne, Andrew; Grannis, Kara; Youcha, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine efficacy, tolerability, and safety of guanfacine extended release (GXR; less than or equal to 4 mg/d) adjunctive to a long-acting psychostimulant for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents 6 to 17 years of age with suboptimal, but partial, response to psychostimulant…

  1. Mechanisms of the psychostimulant effects of caffeine: Implications for substance use disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Sergi

    2016-01-01

    Background The psychostimulant properties of caffeine are reviewed and compared with those of prototypical psychostimulants, able to cause substance use disorders (SUD). Caffeine produces psychomotor activating, reinforcing and arousing effects, which depend on its ability to disinhibit the brake that endogenous adenosine imposes on the ascending dopamine and arousal systems. Objectives A model that considers the striatal adenosine A2A-dopamine D2 receptor heteromer as a key modulator of dopamine-dependent striatal functions (reward-oriented behavior and learning of stimulus-reward and reward-response associations) is introduced, which should explain most of the psychomotor and reinforcing effects of caffeine. Highlights The model can explain the caffeine-induced rotational behavior in rats with unilateral striatal dopamine denervation and the ability of caffeine to reverse the adipsic-aphagic syndrome in dopamine-deficient rodents. The model can also explain the weaker reinforcing effects and low abuse liability of caffeine, compared with prototypical psychostimulants. Finally the model can explain the actual major societal dangers of caffeine: the ability of caffeine to potentiate the addictive and toxic effects of drugs of abuse, with the particularly alarming associations of caffeine (as adulterant) with cocaine, amphetamine derivatives and synthetic cathinones and energy drinks with alcohol; and the higher sensitivity of children and adolescents to the psychostimulants effects of caffeine and its possible increase in the vulnerability to develop SUD. Conclusions The striatal A2A-D2 receptor heteromer constitutes an unequivocal main pharmacological target of caffeine and provides the main mechanisms by which caffeine potentiates the acute and long-term effects of prototypical psychostimulants. PMID:26786412

  2. Central Administration of 1-Deoxynojirimycin Attenuates Hypothalamic Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Regulates Food Intake and Body Weight in Mice with High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jongwan; Yun, Eun-Young; Quan, Fu-Shi; Park, Seung-Won; Goo, Tae-Won

    2017-01-01

    The α-glucosidase inhibitor, 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), is widely used for its antiobesity and antidiabetic effects. Researchers have demonstrated that DNJ regulates body weight by increasing adiponectin levels, which affects energy intake and prevents diet-induced obesity. However, the mechanism by which centrally administered DNJ exerts anorexigenic effects has not been studied until now. We investigated the effect of DNJ in the hypothalamus of mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity. Result...

  3. Prenatal Metformin Therapy Attenuates Hypertension of Developmental Origin in Male Adult Offspring Exposed to Maternal High-Fructose and Post-Weaning High-Fat Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Lin Tain

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Widespread consumption of a Western diet, comprised of highly refined carbohydrates and fat, may play a role in the epidemic of hypertension. Hypertension can take origin from early life. Metformin is the preferred treatment for type 2 diabetes. We examined whether prenatal metformin therapy can prevent maternal high-fructose plus post-weaning high-fat diets-induced hypertension of developmental origins via regulation of nutrient sensing signals, uric acid, oxidative stress, and the nitric oxide (NO pathway. Gestating Sprague–Dawley rats received regular chow (ND or chow supplemented with 60% fructose diet (HFR throughout pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring were onto either the ND or high-fat diet (HFA from weaning to 12 weeks of age. A total of 40 male offspring were assigned to five groups (n = 8/group: ND/ND, HFR/ND, ND/HFA, HFR/HFA, and HFR/HFA+metformin. Metformin (500 mg/kg/day was administered via gastric gavage for three weeks during the pregnancy period. Combined maternal HFR plus post-weaning HFA induced hypertension in male adult offspring, which prenatal metformin therapy prevented. The protective effects of prenatal metformin therapy on HFR/HFA-induced hypertension, including downregulation of the renin-angiotensin system, decrease in uric acid level, and reduction of oxidative stress. Our results highlighted that the programming effects of metformin administered prenatally might be different from those reported in adults, and that deserves further elucidation.

  4. Tocotrienol rich tocomin attenuates oxidative stress and improves endothelium-dependent relaxation in aortae from rats fed a high-fat western diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saher F Ali

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We have previously reported that tocomin, a mixture high in tocotrienol content and also containing tocopherol, acutely preserves endothelial function in the presence of oxidative stress. In this study we investigated whether tocomin treatment would preserve endothelial function in aortae isolated from rats fed a high fat diet known to cause oxidative stress. Wistar hooded rats were fed a western diet (WD, 21% fat or control rat chow (SD, 6% fat for 12 weeks. Tocomin (40 mg/kg/day sc or its vehicle (peanut oil was administered for the last 4 weeks of the feeding regime. Aortae from WD rats showed an impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation that was associated with an increased expression of the NADPH oxidase Nox2 subunit and an increase in the vascular generation of superoxide measured using L-012 chemiluminescence. The increase in vascular oxidative stress was accompanied by a decrease in basal NO release and impairment of the contribution of NO to ACh-induced relaxation. The impaired relaxation is likely contributed to by a decreased expression of eNOS, calmodulin and phosphorylated Akt and an increase in caveolin-Tocotrienol rich tocomin, which prevented the diet-induced changes in vascular function, reduced vascular superoxide production and abolished the diet-induced changes in eNOS and other protein expression. Using selective inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase (NOS, soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC and calcium activated potassium (KCa channels we demonstrated that tocomin increased NO mediated relaxation, without affecting the contribution of endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization type relaxation to the endothelium-dependent relaxation. The beneficial actions of tocomin in this diet-induced model of obesity suggests that it may have potential to be used as a therapeutic agent to prevent vascular disease in obesity.

  5. Quantitative computer-aided diagnostic algorithm for automated detection of peak lesion attenuation in differentiating clear cell from papillary and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma, oncocytoma, and fat-poor angiomyolipoma on multiphasic multidetector computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, Heidi; Young, Jonathan R; Douek, Michael L; Brown, Matthew S; Sayre, James; Raman, Steven S

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the performance of a novel, quantitative computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) algorithm on four-phase multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) to detect peak lesion attenuation to enable differentiation of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) from chromophobe RCC (chRCC), papillary RCC (pRCC), oncocytoma, and fat-poor angiomyolipoma (fp-AML). We queried our clinical databases to obtain a cohort of histologically proven renal masses with preoperative MDCT with four phases [unenhanced (U), corticomedullary (CM), nephrographic (NP), and excretory (E)]. A whole lesion 3D contour was obtained in all four phases. The CAD algorithm determined a region of interest (ROI) of peak lesion attenuation within the 3D lesion contour. For comparison, a manual ROI was separately placed in the most enhancing portion of the lesion by visual inspection for a reference standard, and in uninvolved renal cortex. Relative lesion attenuation for both CAD and manual methods was obtained by normalizing the CAD peak lesion attenuation ROI (and the reference standard manually placed ROI) to uninvolved renal cortex with the formula [(peak lesion attenuation ROI - cortex ROI)/cortex ROI] × 100%. ROC analysis and area under the curve (AUC) were used to assess diagnostic performance. Bland-Altman analysis was used to compare peak ROI between CAD and manual method. The study cohort comprised 200 patients with 200 unique renal masses: 106 (53%) ccRCC, 32 (16%) oncocytomas, 18 (9%) chRCCs, 34 (17%) pRCCs, and 10 (5%) fp-AMLs. In the CM phase, CAD-derived ROI enabled characterization of ccRCC from chRCC, pRCC, oncocytoma, and fp-AML with AUCs of 0.850 (95% CI 0.732-0.968), 0.959 (95% CI 0.930-0.989), 0.792 (95% CI 0.716-0.869), and 0.825 (95% CI 0.703-0.948), respectively. On Bland-Altman analysis, there was excellent agreement of CAD and manual methods with mean differences between 14 and 26 HU in each phase. A novel, quantitative CAD algorithm enabled robust peak HU lesion detection

  6. The mAb against adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein 2E4 attenuates the inflammation in the mouse model of high-fat diet-induced obesity via toll-like receptor 4 pathway.

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    Miao, Xiaoliang; Wang, Ying; Wang, Wang; Lv, Xiaobo; Wang, Min; Yin, Hongping

    2015-03-05

    Adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP) plays an important role in fatty acid-mediated processes and related metabolic and inflammatory responses. In this study, we prepared a novel monoclonal antibody against A-FABP, designated 2E4. Our data showed that 2E4 specifically binded to the recombinant A-FABP and native A-FABP of mice adipose tissue. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of 2E4 on metabolic and inflammatory responses in C57BL/6J obese mice fed on a high fat diet. 2E4 administration improved glucose response in high-fat-diet induced obese mice. The 2E4 treated groups exhibited lower free fatty acids, cholesterol, and triglycerides in a concentration-dependent manner. These changes were accompanied by down-regulated expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in adipose tissue, including tumor necrosis factor α, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and interleukin-6. Meanwhile, our data demonstrated that 2E4 significantly decreased the mRNA and protein levels of A-FABP in adipose tissue of mice. Further experiments showed that 2E4 notably suppressed the phosphorylation of IκBα and jun-N-terminal kinase through toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway. Taken together, 2E4 is an effective monoclonal antibody against A-FABP, which attenuated the inflammatory responses induced in the high-fat-diet mice. These findings may provide scientific insight into the treatment of chronic low-grade inflammation in obesity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Acetaminophen-induced Liver Injury is Attenuated in Transgenic fat-1 Mice Endogenously Synthesizing Long-chain n-3 Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ruibing; Wang, Yang; Liu, Conghui; Yan, Chunyan; Zhang, Hang; Su, Huanxing; Kang, Jing X; Shang, Chang-Zhen; Wan, Jian-Bo

    2018-04-18

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose-caused hepatotoxicity is the most commonly cause of drugs-induced liver failurecharacterized by oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and cell damage. Therapeutic efficacy of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) in several models of liver disease is well documented. However, the impacts of n-3 PUFA on APAP hepatotoxicity are not adequately addressed. In this study, the fat-1 transgenic mice that synthesize endogenous n-3 PUFA and wild type (WT) littermates were injected intraperitoneally with APAP at the dose of 400 mg/kg to induce liver injury, and euthanized at 0 h, 2 h, 4 h and 6 h post APAP injection for sampling. APAP overdose caused severe liver injury in WT mice as indicated by serum parameters, histopathological changes and hepatocyte apoptosis, which were remarkably ameliorated in fat-1 mice. These protective effects of n-3 PUFA were associated with regulation of the prolonged JNK activation via inhibition of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) / mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MKK4) pathway. Additionally, the augment of endogenous n-3 PUFA reduced nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) - mediated inflammation response induced by APAP treatment in the liver. These findings indicate that n-3 PUFA has potent protective effects against APAP-induced acute liver injury, suggesting that n-3 dietary supplement with n-3 PUFA may be a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of hepatotoxicity induced by APAP overdose. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Voluntary exercise and green tea enhance the expression of genes related to energy utilization and attenuate metabolic syndrome in high fat fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sae-Tan, Sudathip; Rogers, Connie J; Lambert, Joshua D

    2014-05-01

    Obesity and metabolic syndrome are growing public health problems. We investigated the effects of decaffeinated green tea extract (GTE) and voluntary running exercise (Ex) alone or in combination against obesity and metabolic syndrome in high fat (HF) fed C57BL/6J mice. After 16 wk, GTE + Ex treatment reduced final body mass (27.1% decrease) and total visceral fat mass (36.6% decrease) compared to HF-fed mice. GTE + Ex reduced fasting blood glucose (17% decrease), plasma insulin (65% decrease), and insulin resistance (65% decrease) compared to HF-fed mice. GTE or Ex alone had less significant effects. In the skeletal muscle, the combination of Ex and GTE increased the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (Ppargc1a), mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase 5 (mt-Nd5), mitochondrial cytochrome b (mt-Cytb), and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase III (mt-Co3). An increase in hepatic expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (Ppara) and liver carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1α (Cpt1a) and a decrease in hepatic expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (Scd1) mRNA was observed in GTE + Ex mice. GTE + Ex was more effective than either treatment alone in reducing diet-induced obesity. These effects are due in part to modulation of genes related to energy metabolism and de novo lipogenesis. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Antidepressant, psychostimulant, and nootropic effects of major and trace element composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasieva, O G; Suslov, N I; Shilova, I V

    2013-06-01

    The antidepressant, psychostimulant, and nootropic effects of a composition of major and trace elements including KCl, RbNO3, magnesium sulfate, and zinc sulfate were studied on the models of behavioural despair (Porsolt test) and conditioned passive avoidance test. The preparation was found to shorten the immobilization time in the Porsolt test and promote retention of the conditioned passive avoidance. The most pronounced psychostimulant effect of the substance was observed at a dose of 4.68 mg/kg and the most pronounced antidepressant effect was found at a dose of 18.72 mg/kg. Maximum nootropic activity of the preparation was found at a dose of 93.6 mg/kg.

  10. Central Administration of 1-Deoxynojirimycin Attenuates Hypothalamic Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Regulates Food Intake and Body Weight in Mice with High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongwan; Yun, Eun-Young; Quan, Fu-Shi; Park, Seung-Won; Goo, Tae-Won

    2017-01-01

    The α -glucosidase inhibitor, 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), is widely used for its antiobesity and antidiabetic effects. Researchers have demonstrated that DNJ regulates body weight by increasing adiponectin levels, which affects energy intake and prevents diet-induced obesity. However, the mechanism by which centrally administered DNJ exerts anorexigenic effects has not been studied until now. We investigated the effect of DNJ in the hypothalamus of mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity. Results showed that intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of DNJ reduced hypothalamic ER stress, which activated the leptin-induced Janus-activated kinase 2 (JAK2)/signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway to cause appetite suppression. We conclude that DNJ may reduce obesity by moderating feeding behavior and ER stress in the hypothalamic portion of the central nervous system (CNS).

  11. Central Administration of 1-Deoxynojirimycin Attenuates Hypothalamic Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Regulates Food Intake and Body Weight in Mice with High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongwan Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The α-glucosidase inhibitor, 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ, is widely used for its antiobesity and antidiabetic effects. Researchers have demonstrated that DNJ regulates body weight by increasing adiponectin levels, which affects energy intake and prevents diet-induced obesity. However, the mechanism by which centrally administered DNJ exerts anorexigenic effects has not been studied until now. We investigated the effect of DNJ in the hypothalamus of mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity. Results showed that intracerebroventricular (ICV administration of DNJ reduced hypothalamic ER stress, which activated the leptin-induced Janus-activated kinase 2 (JAK2/signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3 signaling pathway to cause appetite suppression. We conclude that DNJ may reduce obesity by moderating feeding behavior and ER stress in the hypothalamic portion of the central nervous system (CNS.

  12. Role of the dopamine transporter in the action of psychostimulants, nicotine, and other drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J; Reith, M E A

    2008-11-01

    A number of studies over the last two decades have demonstrated the critical importance of dopamine (DA) in the behavioral pharmacology and addictive properties of abused drugs. The DA transporter (DAT) is a major target for drugs of abuse in the category of psychostimulants, and for methylphenidate (MPH), a drug used for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which can also be a psychostimulant drug of abuse. Other drugs of abuse such as nicotine, ethanol, heroin and morphine interact with the DAT in more indirect ways. Despite the different ways in which drugs of abuse can affect DAT function, one evolving theme in all cases is regulation of the DAT at the level of surface expression. DAT function is dynamically regulated by multiple intracellular and extracellular signaling pathways and several protein-protein interactions. In addition, DAT expression is regulated through the removal (internalization) and recycling of the protein from the cell surface. Furthermore, recent studies have demonstrated that individual differences in response to novel environments and psychostimulants can be predicted based on individual basal functional DAT expression. Although current knowledge of multiple factors regulating DAT activity has greatly expanded, many aspects of this regulation remain to be elucidated; these data will enable efforts to identify drugs that might be used therapeutically for drug dependence therapeutics.

  13. Deficiency of the Purinergic Receptor 2X7 Attenuates Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Induced by High-Fat Diet: Possible Role of the NLRP3 Inflammasome

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    Claudia Blasetti Fantauzzi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular mechanisms driving transition from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, a critical step in the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD to cirrhosis, are poorly defined. This study aimed at investigating the role of the purinergic receptor 2X7 (PR2X7, through the NLRP3 inflammasome, in the development of NASH. To this end, mice knockout for the Pr2x7 gene (Pr2x7−/− and coeval wild-type (WT mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD or normal-fat diet for 16 weeks. NAFLD grade and stage were lower in Pr2x7−/− than WT mice, and only 1/7 Pr2x7−/− animals showed evidence of NASH, as compared with 4/7 WT mice. Molecular markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrosis were markedly increased in WT-HFD mice, whereas no or significantly reduced increments were detected in Pr2x7−/− animals, which showed also decreased modulation of genes of lipid metabolism. Deletion of Pr2x7 gene was associated with blunted or abolished activation of NLRP3 inflammasome and expression of its components, which were induced in liver sinusoidal endothelial cells challenged with appropriate stimuli. These data show that Pr2x7 gene deletion protects mice from HFD-induced NASH, possibly through blunted activation of NLRP3 inflammasome, suggesting that PR2X7 and NLRP3 may represent novel therapeutic targets.

  14. Effects of ingredients of Korean brown rice cookies on attenuation of cholesterol level and oxidative stress in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sun Hee; Kim, Mijeong; Woo, Minji; Song, Yeong Ok

    2017-10-01

    Owing to health concerns related to the consumption of traditional snacks high in sugars and fats, much effort has been made to develop functional snacks with low calorie content. In this study, a new recipe for Korean rice cookie, dasik , was developed and its antioxidative, lipid-lowering, and anti-inflammatory effects and related mechanisms were elucidated. The effects were compared with those of traditional rice cake dasik (RCD), the lipid-lowering effect of which is greater than that of traditional western-style cookies. Ginseng-added brown rice dasik (GBRD) was prepared with brown rice flour, fructooligosaccharide, red ginseng extract, and propolis. Mice were grouped (n = 7 per group) into those fed a normal AIN-76 diet, a high-fat diet (HFD), and HFD supplemented with RCD or GBRD. Dasik in the HFD accounted for 7% of the total calories. The lipid, reactive oxygen species, and peroxynitrite levels, and degree of lipid peroxidation in the plasma or liver were determined. The expression levels of proteins involved in lipid metabolism and inflammation, and those of antioxidant enzymes were determined by western blot analysis. The plasma and hepatic total cholesterol concentrations in the GBRD group were significantly decreased via downregulation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase ( P < 0.05). The hepatic peroxynitrite level was significantly lower, whereas glutathione was higher, in the GBRD group than in the RCD group. Among the antioxidant enzymes, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were significantly upregulated in the GBRD group ( P < 0.05). In addition, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) expression in the GBRD group was significantly lower than that in the RCD group. GBRD decreases the plasma and hepatic cholesterol levels by downregulating cholesterol synthesis. This new dasik recipe also improves the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory status in HFD-fed mice via CAT and GPx upregulation and

  15. Milk Fat Globule-Epidermal Growth Factor-8 Pretreatment Attenuates Apoptosis and Inflammation via the Integrin-β3 Pathway after Surgical Brain Injury in Rats

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    Yicai Xiao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Iatrogenic brain injury inevitably occurs in neurosurgical operations, leading to brain edema, ischemia, intracranial hematoma, and other postoperative complications, eventually worsening neurological outcomes of patients. If apoptotic cells are not rapidly eliminated by phagocytic engulfment, they may communicate with surrounding cells to undergo secondary necrosis and releasing toxic signals. Recent studies have shown that milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor-8 (MFGE8, which promotes phagocytosis and inhibits inflammation, is an endogenous protective factor in response to brain infarction, Alzheimer’s disease, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and prion disease. In the present study, we sought to investigate the different effects of both pretreated and posttreated recombinant milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor-8 (rhMFGE8 for the surgical brain injury (SBI rat model and potential involvement of its receptor integrin β3 for apoptosis and neuroinflammation after SBI. One hundred and sixty-seven male rats were employed in the preset study. Experiment 1 was performed to evaluate neurological scores and MFGE8, cleaved caspase-3 (CC3, and interleukine-1 beta (IL-1β levels at 3, 24, and 120 h after SBI. Experiment 2 was performed to evaluate the effects of rhMFGE8 pretreatment (10 min before SBI and rhMFGE8 posttreatment (6 h after SBI on brain edema at 24 and 72 h after SBI. Experiment 3 was performed to evaluate the potential anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects of rhMFGE8 pretreatment and posttreatment. Experiment 4 sought to investigate the involvement of the integrin-β3 signal in the effects of MFGE8 pretreatment. Our data showed rhMFGE8 pretreatment alleviated neurological deficits and decreased brain water content and apoptotic cells in the SBI model, which exhibited neurological dysfunction, apoptosis, and inflammation. Meanwhile, MFGE8 siRNA, which inhibited endogenous MFGE8 expression, significantly increased IL-1

  16. Dairy Attenuates Weight Gain to a Similar Extent as Exercise in Rats Fed a High-Fat, High-Sugar Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trottier, Sarah K; MacPherson, Rebecca E K; Knuth, Carly M; Townsend, Logan K; Peppler, Willem T; Mikhaeil, John S; Leveille, Cam F; LeBlanc, Paul J; Shearer, Jane; Reimer, Raylene A; Wright, David C

    2017-10-01

    To compare the individual and combined effects of dairy and endurance exercise training in reducing weight gain and adiposity in a rodent model of diet-induced obesity. An 8-week feeding intervention of a high-fat, high-sugar diet was used to induce obesity in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were then assigned to one of four groups for 6 weeks: (1) casein sedentary (casein-S), (2) casein exercise (casein-E), (3) dairy sedentary (dairy-S), and (4) dairy exercise (dairy-E). Rats were exercise trained by treadmill running 5 d/wk. Dairy-E prevented weight gain to a greater extent than either dairy or exercise alone. Adipose tissue and liver mass were reduced to a similar extent in dairy-S, casein-E, and dairy-E groups. Differences in weight gain were not explained by food intake or total energy expenditure. The total amount of lipid excreted was greater in the dairy-S compared to casein-S and dairy-E groups. This study provides evidence that dairy limits weight gain to a similar extent as exercise training and the combined effects are greater than either intervention alone. While exercise training reduces weight gain through increases in energy expenditure, dairy appears to increase lipid excretion in the feces. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  17. Fruit vinegars attenuate cardiac injury via anti-inflammatory and anti-adiposity actions in high-fat diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounihi, Abdenour; Bitam, Arezki; Bouazza, Asma; Yargui, Lyece; Koceir, Elhadj Ahmed

    2017-12-01

    Fruit vinegars (FVs) are used in Mediterranean folk medicine for their hypolipidemic and weight-reducing properties. To investigate the preventive effects of three types of FV, commonly available in Algeria, namely prickly pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill (Cectaceae)], pomegranate [Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae)], and apple [Malus domestica Borkh. (Rosaceae)], against obesity-induced cardiomyopathy and its underlying mechanisms. Seventy-two male Wistar rats were equally divided into 12 groups. The first group served as normal control (distilled water, 7 mL/kg bw), and the remaining groups were respectively treated with distilled water (7 mL/kg bw), acetic acid (0.5% w/v, 7 mL/kg bw) and vinegars of pomegranate, apple or prickly pear (at doses of 3.5, 7 and 14 mL/kg bw, acetic acid content as mentioned above) along with a high-fat diet (HFD). The effects of the oral administration of FV for 18 weeks on the body and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) weights, plasma inflammatory and cardiac enzymes biomarkers, and in heart tissue were evaluated. Vinegars treatments significantly (p inflammatory and anti-adiposity properties of these vinegars.

  18. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Crescenzo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease in oxidative capacity and an increase in oxidative stress in liver mitochondria. To investigate whether polyunsaturated fats could attenuate the above deleterious effects of high fat diets, energy balance and body composition were assessed after two weeks in rats fed isocaloric amounts of a high-fat diet (58.2% by energy rich either in lard or safflower/linseed oil. Hepatic functionality, plasma parameters, and oxidative status were also measured. The results show that feeding on safflower/linseed oil diet attenuates the obesogenic effect of high fat diets and ameliorates the blood lipid profile. Conversely, hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial oxidative stress appear to be negatively affected by a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids.

  19. Attenuation of liver pro-inflammatory responses by Zingiber officinale via inhibition of NF-kappa B activation in high-fat diet-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Hong; McGrath, Kristine C-Y; Nammi, Srinivas; Heather, Alison K; Roufogalis, Basil D

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether treatment with a ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract of high-fat diet (HFD)-fed rats suppresses Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB)-driven hepatic inflammation and to subsequently explore the molecular mechanisms in vitro. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with an ethanolic extract of Zingiber officinale (400 mg/kg) along with a HFD for 6 weeks. Hepatic cytokine mRNA levels, cytokine protein levels and NF-κB activation were measured by real-time PCR, Western blot and an NF-κB nuclear translocation assay, respectively. In vitro, cell culture studies were carried out in human hepatocyte (HuH-7) cells by treatment with Zingiber officinale (100 μg/mL) for 24 hr prior to interleukin-1β (IL-1β, 8 ng/mL)-induced inflammation. We showed that Zingiber officinale treatment decreased cytokine gene TNFα and IL-6 expression in HFD-fed rats, which was associated with suppression of NF-κB activation. In vitro, Zingiber officinale treatment decreased NF-κB-target inflammatory gene expression of IL-6, IL-8 and serum amyloid A1 (SAA1), while it suppressed NF-κB activity, IκBα degradation and IκB kinase (IKK) activity. In conclusion, Zingiber officinale suppressed markers of hepatic inflammation in HFD-fed rats, as demonstrated by decreased hepatic cytokine gene expression and decreased NF-κB activation. The study demonstrates that the anti-inflammatory effect of Zingiber officinale occurs at least in part through the NF-κB signalling pathway. © 2011 The Authors. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology © 2011 Nordic Pharmacological Society.

  20. In utero exposure to germinated brown rice and its oryzanol-rich extract attenuated high fat diet-induced insulin resistance in F1 generation of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamu, Hadiza Altine; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Ooi, Der-Jiun; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd; Rosli, Rozita; Ismail, Maznah

    2017-01-21

    The development of insulin resistance is multifactorial, with maternal pre- and postnatal nutrition having significant influences. In this regard, high fat diet (HFD) feeding in pregnancy has been shown to increase risks of metabolic diseases. Thus, we investigated the effects of supplementation of HFD with germinated brown rice (GBR) and GBR-derived gamma oryzanol-rich extract (OE) on insulin resistance and its epigenetic implications in pregnant rats and their offsprings. Pregnant female Sprague dawley rats were fed with HFD alone, HFD + GBR or HFD + OE (100 or 200 mg/kg/day) throughout pregnancy and lactation. Their offsprings were weaned at 4 weeks post-delivery and were followed up until 8 weeks. Serum levels of adipokines were measured in dams and their offsprings, and global DNA methylation and histone acetylation patterns were estimated from the liver. The dams and offsprings of the GBR and OE groups had lower weight gain, glycemic response, 8-Iso prostaglandin, retinol binding protein 4 and fasting insulin, and elevated adiponectin levels compared with the HFD group. Fasting leptin levels were lower only in the GBR groups. Hepatic global DNA methylation was lower in the GBR groups while hepatic H4 acetylation was lower in both GBR and OE dams. In the offsprings, DNA methylation and H4 acetylation were only lower in the OE group. However, dams and offsprings of the GBR and OE groups had higher hepatic H3 acetylation. GBR and OE can be used as functional ingredients for the amelioration of HFD-induced epigeneticallymediated insulin resistance.

  1. Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor attenuates obesity-induced myocardial fibrosis by inhibiting transforming growth factor-βl and Smad2/3 pathways in high-fat diet-induced obesity rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seul-Ki; Choo, Eun-Ho; Ihm, Sang-Hyun; Chang, Kiyuk; Seung, Ki-Bae

    2017-11-01

    Obesity-induced myocardial fibrosis may lead to diastolic dysfunction and ultimately heart failure. Activation of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-βl and its downstream Smad2/3 pathways may play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of obesity-induced myocardial fibrosis, and the antidiabetic dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors (DPP4i) might affect these pathways. We investigated whether DPP4i reduces myocardial fibrosis by inhibiting the TGF-β1 and Smad2/3 pathways in the myocardium of a diet-induced obesity (DIO) rat model. Eight-week-old male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were fed either a normal fat diet (chow) or a high-fat diet (HFD) and then the HFD-fed SHRs were randomized to either the DPP4i (MK-0626) or control (distilled water) groups for 12weeks. At 20weeks old, all the rats underwent hemodynamic and metabolic studies and Doppler echocardiography. Compared with the normal fat diet (chow)-fed SHRs, the HFD-fed SHRs developed a more intense degree of hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia and showed a constellation of left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction, and exacerbated myocardial fibrosis, as well as activation of the TGF-β1 and Smad2/3 pathways. DPP4i significantly improved the metabolic and hemodynamic parameters. The echocardiogram showed that DPP4i improved the LV diastolic dysfunction (early to late ventricular filling velocity [E/A] ratio, 1.49±0.21 vs. 1.77±0.09, p<0.05). Furthermore, DPP4i significantly reduced myocardial fibrosis and collagen production by the myocardium and suppressed TGF-β1 and phosphorylation of Smad2/3 in the heart. In addition, DPP4i decreased TGF-β1-induced collagen production and TGF-β1-mediated phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of Smad2/3 in rat cardiac fibroblasts. In conclusion, DPP4 inhibition attenuated myocardial fibrosis and improved LV diastolic dysfunction in a DIO rat model by modulating the TGF-β1 and Smad2/3 pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Psychostimulants: Influence on Body Mass Index and Height in a Pediatric Population with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentferink, Yvette E; van de Garde, Ewoudt M W; Knibbe, Catherijne A J; van der Vorst, Marja M J

    2018-05-16

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often treated with psychostimulants. Psychostimulants' adverse effects on body mass index standard deviation score (BMI-sds) and height in children/adolescents with ADHD have been reported. However, literature is inconsistent, and it is unclear whether the observed effects are dosage- and/or BMI-dependent. Therefore, the aim of this retrospective observational study is to evaluate the influence of psychostimulants on BMI-sds and height-sds in a pediatric cohort with ADHD from an outpatient clinic, and to study the correlation between psychostimulant dosage and BMI-sds and height-sds change. Participants ≤18 years of age diagnosed with ADHD who started with psychostimulants (methylphenidate) were studied. Changes in BMI-sds and height-sds over an 18-month treatment period were assessed in subgroups according to baseline BMI-sds, gender, and age. Furthermore, correlations between BMI-sds, height-sds, and psychostimulant dose were studied. In total, 298 participants [median age 9.8 years, height-sds 0.0, BMI-sds 0.5, psychostimulant dosage 0.5 (0.2-1.4) mg/kg/day] were analyzed, with an underweight, overweight, and obesity prevalence of 5%, 21%, and 7%, respectively. After 18 months of treatment a significant decline in BMI-sds (-0.4) and height-sds (-0.2) was observed. These effects were consistent in all subgroups except for no change in BMI-sds in the underweight subgroup and no change in height-sds in the overweight subgroup. Medication dosage was weakly correlated with change in BMI-sds [r = -0.3 (-0.9 to +0.5); p < 0.01] and height-sds [r = -0.2 (-0.4 to -0.1); p = 0.01]. After 18 months of psychostimulant treatment, a significant decline in BMI-sds and height-sds was observed. However, the correlation with psychostimulant dosage was weak, and the decline was not observed in all subgroups. Therefore, further studies on the etiology of BMI-change are warranted, particularly with regard to the

  3. Pharmacologically-mediated reactivation and reconsolidation blockade of the psychostimulant-abuse circuit: A novel treatment strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tong H.; Szabo, Steven T.; Fowler, J. Corey; Mannelli, Paolo; Mangum, O. Barry; Beyer, Wayne F.; Patkar, Ashwin; Wetsel, William C.

    2012-01-01

    Psychostimulant abuse continues to present legal, socioeconomic and medical challenges as a primary psychiatric disorder, and represents a significant comorbid factor in major psychiatric and medical illnesses. To date, monotherapeutic drug treatments have not proven effective in promoting long-term abstinence in psychostimulant abusers. In contrast to clinical trials utilizing monotherapies, combinations of dopamine (DA) agonists and selective 5-HT3, 5HT2A/2C, or NK1 antagonists have shown robust efficacy in reversing behavioral and neurobiological alterations in animal models of psychostimulant abuse. One important temporal requirement for these treatments is that the 5-HT or NK1 receptor antagonist be given at a critical time window after DA agonist administration. This requirement may reflect a necessary dosing regimen towards normalizing underlying dysfunctional neural circuits and “addiction memory” states. Indeed, chronic psychostimulant abuse can be conceptualized as a consolidated form of dysfunctional memory maintained by repeated drug- or cue-induced reactivation of neural circuit and subsequent reconsolidation. According to this concept, the DA agonist given first may reactivate this memory circuit, thereby rendering it transiently labile. The subsequent antagonist is hypothesized to disrupt reconsolidation necessary for restabilization, thus leading progressively to a therapeutically-mediated abolishment of dysfunctional synaptic plasticity. We propose that long-term abstinence in psychostimulant abusers may be achieved not only by targeting putative mechanistic pathways, but also by optimizing drug treatment regimens designed to disrupt the neural processes underlying the addicted state. PMID:22356892

  4. Age-related patterns of drug use initiation among polydrug using regular psychostimulant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darke, Shane; Kaye, Sharlene; Torok, Michelle

    2012-09-01

    To determine age-related patterns of drug use initiation, drug sequencing and treatment entry among regular psychostimulant users. Cross-sectional study of 269 regular psychostimulant users, administered a structured interview examining onset of use for major licit and illicit drugs. The mean age at first intoxication was not associated with age or gender. In contrast, younger age was associated with earlier ages of onset for all of the illicit drug classes. Each additional year of age was associated with a 4 month increase in onset age for methamphetamine, and 3 months for heroin. By the age of 17, those born prior to 1961 had, on average, used only tobacco and alcohol, whereas those born between 1986 and 1990 had used nine different drug classes. The period between initial use and the transition to regular use, however, was stable. Age was also negatively correlated with both age at initial injection and regular injecting. Onset sequences, however, remained stable. Consistent with the age-related patterns of drug use, each additional year of age associated with a 0.47 year increase in the age at first treatment. While the age at first intoxication appeared stable, the trajectory through illicit drug use was substantially truncated. The data indicate that, at least among those who progress to regular illicit drug use, younger users are likely to be exposed to far broader polydrug use in their teens than has previously been the case. © 2012 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  5. Impact of social stress in addiction to psychostimulants: what we know from animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Maria A; García-Pardo, Maria P; Montagud-Romero, Sandra; Miñarro, José; Do Couto, Bruno Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    Psychostimulant addiction, most notably cocaine and amphetamine - type stimulants are an important public health problem worldwide. It appears that social factors may influence the initiation, maintenance and recovery from addictions. Several animal models have been developed to study addiction, highlighting drug self-administration (SA) and the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigms. These models have been modified to accurately reflect the characteristics of drug addiction in its different stages. One factor that clearly plays a major role in addiction is stress, which is a risk factor not only for the initiation, maintenance and escalation of drug consumption, but also for relapse. In animal models, stress for itself can provoke reinstatement of self-administration or CPP. The relationship between stress and addiction is very tight. One example is the close anatomical relationship of some areas that share these two phenomena. It seems obvious to think that the main source of stress in humans is social interaction. The aim of the present review is to gather the current information regarding the role of social stress in the addiction to psychostimulant drugs in animal models. First, we briefly describe the mechanisms by which stress exerts its effects and the basic concepts of addiction. We will try to establish common pathways of stress and addiction, to address later social stress effects on different stages of addiction. Then, we will address pharmacological therapies and preventive factors that counteract the enhancing effects of social stress in addiction. Finally, we will analyze how negative environmental conditions may induce individuals to increased vulnerability to drugs, and how favorable environmental conditions may have protective and curative effects against addiction. In this sense, we also analyze the importance of social interactions and their ability to modulate the different stages of addiction. As a conclusion, and despite the scarcity of

  6. Fat heaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmasry, Amr Ahmed Abd Elmoneim; Katajainen, Jyrki

    This report is an electronic appendix to our paper \\Fat heaps without regular counters". In that paper we described a new variant of fat heaps that is conceptually simpler and easier to implement than the original version. We also compared the practical performance of this data structure...

  7. [Use of psychostimulants in a sexual context: Analysis of cases reported to the French network of Addictovigilance Centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batisse, Anne; Peyrière, Hélène; Eiden, Céline; Courné, Marie-Anne; Djezzar, Samira

    2016-10-01

    The "SLAM" phenomenon is an increasingly popular practice, in Paris and London gay scene, defined by 3 characteristics: injection, sexual party and psychostimulant drugs. The French Medical Agency requested a risk assessment of "SLAM" and more broadly of the use of psychostimulants in a sexual context, by the analysis of complications related to this practice notified to the French Network of Addictovigilance Centers. All cases of complications related to "SLAM" practice, including cases of abuse or dependence, and somatic and psychiatric complications, were analysed. Between January 2008 to December 2013, 51 cases were collected. Users were exclusively men, with a mean age of 40 years, having psychostimulants exposure in a sexual context, mainly in men who have sex with men (MSM) context (100%, n=35). The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection was 82% (n=32) with a high level of HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection (50%, n=16). The main psychostimulants reported are synthetic cathinones (89.5%). Cathinones users tended to be polydrug users: 62% also reported use other than psychoactive substances (gamma-butyrolactone [GBL], ketamine, methylenedioxyméthamphetamine [MDMA], lysergic acid diethylamide [LSD]…). The main complications were psychiatric disorders in 50% (psychotic symptoms, agitation, anxiety, suicidal ideas or attempt and forensic problems), acute intoxication in 25% (including 3 deaths), dependence and abuse in 17% and infectious complications in 8% (viral seroconversion). Health professionals as well as users should be aware of the physical (cardiovascular) and behavioural (psychic, fast dependence syndrome) toxicity of cathinones. Risk reduction policy must be targeted to the population of MSM with specific interventions both on risky sexual behavior and substance use. Copyright © 2016 Société française de pharmacologie et de thérapeutique. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. A universal harm-minimisation approach to preventing psychostimulant and cannabis use in adolescents: a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, Laura Elise; Newton, Nicola Clare; Champion, Katrina Elizabeth; Teesson, Maree

    2014-06-18

    Psychostimulants and cannabis are two of the three most commonly used illicit drugs by young Australians. As such, it is important to deliver prevention for these substances to prevent their misuse and to reduce associated harms. The present study aims to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of the universal computer-based Climate Schools: Psychostimulant and Cannabis Module. A cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted with 1734 Year 10 students (mean age = 15.44 years; SD = 0.41) from 21 secondary schools in Australia. Schools were randomised to receive either the six lesson computer-based Climate Schools program or their usual health classes, including drug education, over the year. The Climate Schools program was shown to increase knowledge of cannabis and psychostimulants and decrease pro-drug attitudes. In the short-term the program was effective in subduing the uptake and plateauing the frequency of ecstasy use, however there were no changes in meth/amphetamine use. In addition, females who received the program used cannabis significantly less frequently than students who received drug education as usual. Finally, the Climate Schools program was related to decreasing students' intentions to use meth/amphetamine and ecstasy in the future, however these effects did not last over time. These findings provide support for the use of a harm-minimisation approach and computer technology as an innovative platform for the delivery of prevention education for illicit drugs in schools. The current study indicated that teachers and students enjoyed the program and that it is feasible to extend the successful Climate Schools model to the prevention of other drugs, namely cannabis and psychostimulants. Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12613000492752.

  9. Effects of cannabinoid CB₁ receptor antagonist rimonabant on acquisition and reinstatement of psychostimulant reward memory in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lu-Lu; Zhou, Shuang-Jiang; Wang, Xue-Yi; Liu, Jian-Feng; Xue, Yan-Xue; Jiang, Wengao; Lu, Lin

    2011-02-02

    Drug addiction processes are considered to be mainly controlled by the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system. Cannabinoids, a class of psychoactive drugs of abuse, elicit their rewarding and pharmacological effects through the endocannabinoid system. Previous research has indicated that dopaminergic neurons in the mesocorticolimbic system are also under the control of the endocannabinoid system. Recently, evidence has suggested that the endocannabinoid system may also participate in the modulation of the common reward system. The present study examined whether rimonabant, a cannabinoid CB₁ receptor antagonist, disrupts the acquisition and reinstatement of psychostimulant reward memory measured by conditioned place preference (CPP). Mice were trained to acquire methamphetamine or cocaine-induced CPP. A priming injection of methamphetamine (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) or cocaine (5 mg/kg, i.p.) was respectively given to reinstate methamphetamine or cocaine-induced CPP after extinction. Vehicle or rimonabant (1 or 3 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered at different time-points: 30 min before each CPP training session (acquisition) or 30 min before the priming injection (reinstatement). Rimonabant at doses of 1 and 3 mg/kg significantly inhibited the acquisition of methamphetamine- and cocaine-induced CPP. At the high dose (3 mg/kg), rimonabant disrupted the reinstatement of extinguished methamphetamine- or cocaine-induced CPP. These findings indicate that cannabinoid CB₁ receptors play a major role in psychostimulant reward memory, and rimonabant may be a potential pharmacotherapy for psychostimulant addiction. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Caffeine provokes adverse interactions with 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ‘ecstasy’) and related psychostimulants: mechanisms and mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanattou-Saïfoudine, N; McNamara, R; Harkin, A

    2012-01-01

    Concomitant consumption of caffeine with recreational psychostimulant drugs of abuse can provoke severe acute adverse reactions in addition to longer term consequences. The mechanisms by which caffeine increases the toxicity of psychostimulants include changes in body temperature regulation, cardiotoxicity and lowering of the seizure threshold. Caffeine also influences the stimulatory, discriminative and reinforcing effects of psychostimulant drugs. In this review, we consider our current understanding of such caffeine-related drug interactions, placing a particular emphasis on an adverse interaction between caffeine and the substituted amphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ‘ecstasy’), which has been most recently described and characterized. Co-administration of caffeine profoundly enhances the acute toxicity of MDMA in rats, as manifested by high core body temperature, tachycardia and increased mortality. In addition, co-administration of caffeine enhances the long-term serotonergic neurotoxicity induced by MDMA. Observations to date support an interactive model of drug-induced toxicity comprising MDMA-related enhancement of dopamine release coupled to a caffeine-mediated antagonism of adenosine receptors in addition to inhibition of PDE. These experiments are reviewed together with reports of caffeine-related drug interactions with cocaine, d-amphetamine and ephedrine where similar mechanisms are implicated. Understanding the underlying mechanisms will guide appropriate intervention strategies for the management of severe reactions and potential for increased drug-related toxicity, resulting from concomitant caffeine consumption. PMID:22671762

  11. The psychostimulant modafinil facilitates water maze performance and augments synaptic potentiation in dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsanov, Marian; Lyons, Declan G; Barlow, Sally; González Reyes, Rodrigo E; O'Mara, Shane M

    2010-01-01

    Modafinil is a psychostimulant drug used widely for the treatment of narcolepsy, which also has additional positive effects on cognition. Here, we investigate the effects of modafinil on behavioural performance and synaptic plasticity in rats. Improved acquisition in the water maze task was observed in animals that underwent chronic treatment with modafinil. We found that the distance traveled and escape latency were reduced after the first day in chronically-treated rats, compared to controls. Importantly, swim velocity was similar for both groups, excluding pharmacological effects on motor skills. We also found that modafinil increases synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus of urethane-anaesthetized rats; modafinil induced a robust augmentation of the population spike, evident after application of 2 bursts of 200 Hz high-frequency stimulation. Furthermore, the modafinil-dependent enhancement of postsynaptic potentials correlated selectively with theta rhythm augmentation. We propose that modafinil may facilitate hippocampal-associated spatial representation via increased theta-related hippocampal plasticity. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Brief daily postpartum separations from the litter alter dam response to psychostimulants and to stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.P. Silveira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal handling induces several behavioral and neurochemical alterations in pups, including decreased responses to stress and reduced fear in new environments. However, there are few reports in the literature concerning the behavioral effects of this neonatal intervention on the dams during the postpartum period. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to determine if brief postpartum separation from pups has a persistent impact on the dam's stress response and behavior. Litters were divided into two neonatal groups: 1 non-handled and 2 handled [10 min/day, from postnatal day (PND 1 to 10]. Weaning occurred at PND 21 when behavioral tasks started to be applied to the dams, including sweet food ingestion (PND 21, forced swimming test (PND 28, and locomotor response to a psychostimulant (PND 28. On postpartum day 40, plasma was collected at baseline for leptin assays and after 1 h of restraint for corticosterone assay. Regarding sweet food consumption, behavior during the forced swimming test or plasma leptin levels did not differ between dams briefly separated and non-separated from their pups during the postpartum period. On the other hand, both increased locomotion in response to diethylpropion and increased corticosterone secretion in response to acute stress were detected in dams briefly separated from their pups during the first 10 postnatal days. Taken together, these findings suggest that brief, repeated separations from the pups during the neonatal period persistently impact the behavior and induce signs of dopaminergic sensitization in the dam.

  13. A new method to assess Pavlovian conditioning of psychostimulant drug effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damianopoulos, E N; Carey, R J

    1994-07-01

    Experimental studies of psychoactive drugs by pavlovian drug-conditioning methods, which originally began with investigations of drug-induced responses mediated by the autonomic nervous system, have now been expanded to include drug-induced response effects expressed as modulations of spontaneous motoric behaviors. In the latter application, however, equivalent behavioral response outcomes in post-treatment tests for conditioning can occur following a psychostimulant drug treatment either through drug interference effects on habituation processes, drug-induced stress effects and/or by pavlovian conditioning of the drug-induced motoric activation effect. Current methodologies for the study of pavlovian conditioned drug effects and/or drug sensitization cannot distinguish among these possibilities. This methodological inadequacy was addressed by a modification of the conventional paired-unpaired treatment protocol. In the new protocol, the animal is sequentially placed into two test compartments with the drug treatment administered in conjunction with placement into the second test compartment. This design permits a differentiation of a pavlovian conditioned drug responses from non-conditioned drug effects through continuous measurement of the non-drug behavioral baseline in both the drug and non-drug control treatment groups combined with multiple response measurements and post-treatment tests for conditioning at variable post-conditioning intervals. The present study details the use of the new modified pavlovian protocol with repeated cocaine (10 mg/kg) treatment. A cocaine conditioned response at 1, 7, and 21 days post-conditioning was identified and distinguished from habituation and stress effects.

  14. Rottlerin impairs the formation and maintenance of psychostimulant-supported memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Tien You; Tzeng, Wen-Yu; Wu, Hsin-Hua; Cherng, Chianfang G; Wang, Ching-Yi; Hu, Sherry S-J; Yu, Lung

    2016-04-01

    Since brain proteins such as protein kinase C (PKC), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) are involved in the establishment and maintenance of psychostimulant memory, we sought to determine if systemic treatment with rottlerin, a natural compound affecting all these proteins, may modulate stimulant-supported memory. Stimulant-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) was used in modeling stimulant-supported memory. Three cocaine (10 mg/kg; COC) or three methamphetamine (1 mg/kg; MA) conditioning trials reliably established the drug-induced CPP in male C57BL/6 mice. An intra-peritoneal rottlerin injection (5 mg/kg) at least 24 h prior to the first COC or first MA conditioning trial prevented the establishment of CPP. Following the establishment of the COC- or MA-induced CPP, saline conditioning trial was used to extinguish the CPP. Rottlerin (5 mg/kg, intra-peritoneal (i.p.)) administered 20 h prior to the first saline conditioning trial diminished subsequent drug- and stressor-primed reinstatement of the extinguished CPP. Rottlerin (5 mg/kg, i.p.) produced a fast-onset and long-lasting increase in hippocampal BDNF levels. However, treatment with a BDNF tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) receptor antagonist, K252a (5 μg/kg), did not affect rottlerin's suppressing effect on COC-induced CPP and treatment with 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (10 mg/kg x 6, 7,8-DHF), a selective TrkB agonist, prior to each conditioning trial did not affect COC-induced CPP. These results suggest that systemic rottlerin treatment may impair the formation of COC- and MA-supported memory. Importantly, such a treatment may advance our understanding of the underlying mechanism through which extinction training resulted in the "forgetting" of the COC- and MA-supported memory.

  15. Replacement of Dietary Saturated Fat by PUFA-Rich Pumpkin Seed Oil Attenuates Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Atherosclerosis Development, with Additional Health Effects of Virgin over Refined Oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, P.; Stavro, P.M.; Manuel Suárez, M.; Arola-Arnal, A.; Duyvenvoorde, W. van; Kooistra, T.; Wielinga, P.Y.; Kleemann, R.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims As dietary saturated fatty acids are associated with metabolic and cardiovascular disease, a potentially interesting strategy to reduce disease risk is modification of the quality of fat consumed. Vegetable oils represent an attractive target for intervention, as they largely

  16. Replacement of dietary saturated fat by PUFA-rich pumpkin seed oil attenuates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and atherosclerosis development, with additional health effects of virgin over refined oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrison, M.C.; Mulder, Petra; Stavro, P.M.; Suárez, Manuel; Arola-Arnal, Anna; Duyvenvoorde, Van Wim; Kooistra, Teake; Wielinga, P.Y.; Kleemann, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: As dietary saturated fatty acids are associated with metabolic and cardiovascular disease, a potentially interesting strategy to reduce disease risk is modification of the quality of fat consumed. Vegetable oils represent an attractive target for intervention, as they largely

  17. Psychostimulant and other effects of caffeine in 9- to 11-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heatherley, Susan V; Hancock, Katie M F; Rogers, Peter J

    2006-02-01

    Recent research on adults suggests that "beneficial" psychostimulant effects of caffeine are found only in the context of caffeine deprivation; that is, caffeine improves psychomotor and cognitive performance in habitual caffeine consumers following caffeine withdrawal. Furthermore, no net benefit is gained because performance is merely restored to "baseline" levels. The effects of caffeine in children is an under-researched area, with only a handful of studies being carried out in the US where children's consumption of caffeine appears to be lower on average than in the UK. Twenty-six children aged between 9 and 11 years completed a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Habitual caffeine consumers (mean daily caffeine intake = 109 mg) and non/low-consumers (12 mg) were tested on two separate days following overnight caffeine abstinence. On each day measures of cognitive performance (a number search task), and self-rated mood and physical symptoms, including alertness and headache, were taken before and after administration of 50 mg of caffeine, or placebo. At baseline (before treatment), the habitual consumers showed poorer performance on the cognitive test than did the non/low-consumers, although no significant differences in mood or physical symptoms were found between the two groups. There were significant habit by treatment (caffeine vs. placebo) interactions for accuracy of performance and headache, and a significant main effect of treatment for alertness. Post hoc comparisons showed that caffeine administration improved the consumers' accuracy on the cognitive test (to near the level displayed by the non/low-consumers at baseline), but that it had no significant effect on the non/low-consumers' performance. In the consumers, caffeine prevented an increase in headache that occurred after placebo, and it increased alertness relative to placebo. Again, however, caffeine did not significantly affect levels of headache or alertness in the non

  18. Haloperidol attenuates Methylphenidate and Modafinil induced behavioural sensitization and cognitive enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Nausheen; Choudhary, Kulsoom

    2018-06-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that repeated psychostimulant administration produces behavioural sensitization and cognitive tolerance. Brain dopaminergic system and the involvement of dopamine D 2 -receptors are considered to be important in psychostimulant-induced sensitization. Study designed to compared the motor activity by using familiar and novel enviroments and cognitive effects by water maze and passive avoidance test after long term administration of methylphenidate(at the dose 0.6 mg/kg/day, 2.5 mg/kg/day and 10 mg/kg/day) and modafinil (50 mg/kg/day, 64 mg/kg/day and 75 mg/kg/day) in rats. The effects of challenge dose of haloperidol (at the dose of 1 mg/kg i.p.) has monitored to visualize any subsensitization or supersensitization of D 2 receptors. We found that motor activity and cognitive performance was increased in all doses and sensitization effect was more pronounced after 13 days of drug administration were greater at high than low and medium doses.Challenge dose of haloperidol attenuate motor activity in familiar and novel environment and impaired cognition in water maze and passive avoidance test in all treated rats. The effect of Haloperidol in high dose treated rats were however somewhat greater than low and medium dose treated rats following methylphenidate and modafinil administration. Increased response of haloperidol in methylphenidate treated rats can be explained in term of supersensitization of D 2 receptors which is greater in high dose treated rats. The results show that the role of D 2 receptors to develop side effects such as behavioural sensitization and cognitive tolerance by the long term administration of psychostimulants is of sufficient importance and helpful in understanding the mechanisms underlying the undesirable effects of psychostimulants.

  19. Psychostimulant use among college students during periods of high and low stress: an interdisciplinary approach utilizing both self-report and unobtrusive chemical sample data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David R; Burgard, Daniel A; Larson, Ramsey G; Ferm, Mikael

    2014-05-01

    This study quantified psychostimulant use patterns over periods of high and low stress from both self-report measures and chemical wastewater analyses and identified possible predictors of psychostimulant abuse on a college campus. Self-report data were collected at three times of varying stress levels throughout one college semester: during the first week of school (N=676), midterms (N=468), and shortly before final exams (N=400). Campus wastewater samples were collected over 72-hour periods during the same time frames as the surveys. The metabolites of Adderall and Ritalin were quantified through solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Samples were normalized with creatinine. Evidence was found to suggest an increase in psychostimulant use during periods of stress, with significant differences found from self-report data between the first week and midterms and from chemical data between these same two assessment periods as well as between the first week of classes and finals. Key predictors of lifetime non-prescriptive psychostimulant use included self-reported procrastination and poor time-management, use of other substances (especially nicotine/tobacco, alcohol, and cocaine), and students' perception of non-prescriptive psychostimulant use as normative on campus. The findings shed further light on psychostimulant use patterns among college students, particularly as a function of stress; the study also highlights the benefit of utilizing an interdisciplinary approach that uses both subjective and objective empirical data. The results have implications for prevention/intervention programs on college campuses designed to reduce stress and facilitate healthier coping. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The rare DAT coding variant Val559 perturbs DA neuron function, changes behavior, and alters in vivo responses to psychostimulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergy, Marc A; Gowrishankar, Raajaram; Gresch, Paul J; Gantz, Stephanie C; Williams, John; Davis, Gwynne L; Wheeler, C Austin; Stanwood, Gregg D; Hahn, Maureen K; Blakely, Randy D

    2014-11-04

    Despite the critical role of the presynaptic dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT, SLC6A3) in DA clearance and psychostimulant responses, evidence that DAT dysfunction supports risk for mental illness is indirect. Recently, we identified a rare, nonsynonymous Slc6a3 variant that produces the DAT substitution Ala559Val in two male siblings who share a diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with other studies identifying the variant in subjects with bipolar disorder (BPD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previously, using transfected cell studies, we observed that although DAT Val559 displays normal total and surface DAT protein levels, and normal DA recognition and uptake, the variant transporter exhibits anomalous DA efflux (ADE) and lacks capacity for amphetamine (AMPH)-stimulated DA release. To pursue the significance of these findings in vivo, we engineered DAT Val559 knock-in mice, and here we demonstrate in this model the presence of elevated extracellular DA levels, altered somatodendritic and presynaptic D2 DA receptor (D2R) function, a blunted ability of DA terminals to support depolarization and AMPH-evoked DA release, and disruptions in basal and psychostimulant-evoked locomotor behavior. Together, our studies demonstrate an in vivo functional impact of the DAT Val559 variant, providing support for the ability of DAT dysfunction to impact risk for mental illness.

  1. [Treatment of attention deficit disorders in adulthood using psychostimulants and low-dose neuroleptics--a critical case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, L G; Schlünder, M; Reischies, F M

    1988-03-01

    Psychiatric research and therapy recently evinced increasing interest in patients suffering from attention deficit disorder. "Attention deficit disorder" is a category of mental disorders listed in DSM III, with a separate diagnostic subgroup for attention deficit disorders persisting in adults who had been hyperkinetic in childhood ("attention deficit disorder-residual type"); however, this does not feature in a corresponding manner in the ICD 9 version. Since there are practically no therapy studies in existence within the ICD range that can be relevant for such disorders, we studied the treatment of an adult patient with the psychostimulant fenetylline under clinical conditions and found a significant improvement in attention performance. However, on integration in a long-term day-clinic rehabilitation programme we found that low-dose neuroleptic treatment was on the whole of greater benefit than fenetylline treatment.

  2. Facts about trans fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trans fat is a type of dietary fat . Of all the fats, trans fat is the worst for your health. Too much ... from solid margarine to soft margarine. Ask what type of fats foods are cooked in when you eat out ...

  3. Regulator of G protein signaling-12 modulates the dopamine transporter in ventral striatum and locomotor responses to psychostimulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Joshua D; Kaski, Shane W; Schroer, Adam B; Wix, Kimberley A; Siderovski, David P; Setola, Vincent

    2018-02-01

    Regulators of G protein signaling are proteins that accelerate the termination of effector stimulation after G protein-coupled receptor activation. Many regulators of G protein signaling proteins are highly expressed in the brain and therefore considered potential drug discovery targets for central nervous system pathologies; for example, here we show that RGS12 is highly expressed in microdissected mouse ventral striatum. Given a role for the ventral striatum in psychostimulant-induced locomotor activity, we tested whether Rgs12 genetic ablation affected behavioral responses to amphetamine and cocaine. RGS12 loss significantly decreased hyperlocomotion to lower doses of both amphetamine and cocaine; however, other outcomes of administration (sensitization and conditioned place preference) were unaffected, suggesting that RGS12 does not function in support of the rewarding properties of these psychostimulants. To test whether observed response changes upon RGS12 loss were caused by changes to dopamine transporter expression and/or function, we prepared crude membranes from the brains of wild-type and RGS12-null mice and measured dopamine transporter-selective [ 3 H]WIN 35428 binding, revealing an increase in dopamine transporter levels in the ventral-but not dorsal-striatum of RGS12-null mice. To address dopamine transporter function, we prepared striatal synaptosomes and measured [ 3 H]dopamine uptake. Consistent with increased [ 3 H]WIN 35428 binding, dopamine transporter-specific [ 3 H]dopamine uptake in RGS12-null ventral striatal synaptosomes was found to be increased. Decreased amphetamine-induced locomotor activity and increased [ 3 H]WIN 35428 binding were recapitulated with an independent RGS12-null mouse strain. Thus, we propose that RGS12 regulates dopamine transporter expression and function in the ventral striatum, affecting amphetamine- and cocaine-induced increases in dopamine levels that specifically elicit acute hyperlocomotor responses.

  4. Wheat-bran autolytic peptides containing a branched-chain amino acid attenuate non-alcoholic steatohepatitis via the suppression of oxidative stress and the upregulation of AMPK/ACC in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Takumi; Ueno, Takato; Nogata, Yoichi; Hayakawa, Masako; Koga, Hironori; Torimura, Takuji

    2017-02-01

    Whole-wheat intake is known to reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome. However, the active component remains unclear. Recently, we identified bioactive peptides [leucine-arginine-proline (LRP) and leucine-glutamine‑proline (LQP)] from wheat bran autolytic hydrolysate. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of LRP and LQP on non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in a mouse model. We also evaluated the effects of these peptides on oxidative stress and on the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway, two major pathogenic factors of NASH. Seven‑week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet for 10 weeks and administered water supplemented with 0.05% LRP, 0.20% LRP, 0.05% LQP, or 0.20% LQP (each n=5) or distilled water (control; n=5) ad libitum. Oxidative stress was evaluated by measuring the serum levels of diacron reactive oxygen metabolite (d-ROM) and biological antioxidant potential (BAP). Hepatic expression of phosphorylated AMPK and phosphorylated acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) were evaluated by immunoblotting. The result showed that non‑alcoholic fatty liver disease activity score was significantly decreased in all types of treatment. Serum d-ROM levels were significantly decreased in the 0.20% LRP group, but not in the 0.05% LRP, 0.05% LQP, and 0.20% LQP groups. Serum BAP levels were significantly increased in the 0.05% LRP and 0.20% LRP groups, but not in the 0.05% LQP and 0.20% LQP groups. Immunoblotting analysis revealed that the expression of phospho-AMPK was increased whereas that of phospho-ACC was decreased in the 0.20% LQP group. In conclusion, we demonstrated that both LRP and LQP alleviated the severity of NASH in a high-fat diet-induced NASH mouse model. In addition, we showed that LRP and LQP modulated oxidative stress and upregulated AMPK/ACC, respectively. Thus, LRP and LQP may constitute clinically applicable therapeutic agents for NASH.

  5. The Inhibitory Effects of Purple Sweet Potato Color on Hepatic Inflammation Is Associated with Restoration of NAD⁺ Levels and Attenuation of NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation in High-Fat-Diet-Treated Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Zhang, Zi-Feng; Zheng, Gui-Hong; Wang, Ai-Min; Sun, Chun-Hui; Qin, Su-Ping; Zhuang, Juan; Lu, Jun; Ma, Dai-Fu; Zheng, Yuan-Lin

    2017-08-08

    Purple sweet potato color (PSPC), a class of naturally occurring anthocyanins, exhibits beneficial effects on metabolic syndrome. Sustained inflammation plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. Here we explored the effects of PSPC on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic inflammation and the mechanisms underlying these effects. Mice were divided into four groups: Control group, HFD group, HFD + PSPC group, and PSPC group. PSPC was administered by daily oral gavage at doses of 700 mg/kg/day for 20 weeks. Nicotinamide riboside (NR) was used to increase NAD⁺ levels. Our results showed that PSPC effectively ameliorated obesity and liver injuries in HFD-fed mice. Moreover, PSPC notably blocked hepatic oxidative stress in HFD-treated mice. Furthermore, PSPC dramatically restored NAD⁺ level to abate endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) in HFD-treated mouse livers, which was confirmed by NR treatment. Consequently, PSPC remarkably suppressed the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 nuclear translocation and nucleotide oligomerization domain protein1/2 (NOD1/2) signaling in HFD-treated mouse livers. Thereby, PSPC markedly diminished the NLR family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation, ultimately lowering the expressions of inflammation-related genes in HFD-treated mouse livers. In summary, PSPC protected against HFD-induced hepatic inflammation by boosting NAD⁺ level to inhibit NLRP3 inflammasome activation.

  6. Carbohydrates as Fat Replacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xingyun; Yao, Yuan

    2017-02-28

    The overconsumption of dietary fat contributes to various chronic diseases, which encourages attempts to develop and consume low-fat foods. Simple fat reduction causes quality losses that impede the acceptance of foods. Fat replacers are utilized to minimize the quality deterioration after fat reduction or removal to achieve low-calorie, low-fat claims. In this review, the forms of fats and their functions in contributing to food textural and sensory qualities are discussed in various food systems. The connections between fat reduction and quality loss are described in order to clarify the rationales of fat replacement. Carbohydrate fat replacers usually have low calorie density and provide gelling, thickening, stabilizing, and other texture-modifying properties. In this review, carbohydrates, including starches, maltodextrins, polydextrose, gums, and fibers, are discussed with regard to their interactions with other components in foods as well as their performances as fat replacers in various systems.

  7. Inhibition of the Inflammasome NLRP3 by Arglabin Attenuates Inflammation, Protects Pancreatic β-Cells from Apoptosis, and Prevents Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Development in ApoE2Ki Mice on a Chronic High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abderrazak, Amna; El Hadri, Khadija; Bosc, Elodie; Blondeau, Bertrand; Slimane, Mohamed-Naceur; Büchele, Berthold; Simmet, Thomas; Couchie, Dominique; Rouis, Mustapha

    2016-06-01

    Intraperitoneal injection of arglabin (2.5 ng/g of body weight, twice daily, 13 weeks) into female human apolipoprotein E2 gene knock-in (ApoE2Ki) mice fed a high-fat Western-type diet (HFD) reduced plasma levels of glucose and insulin by ∼20.0% ± 3.5% and by 50.0% ± 2.0%, respectively, in comparison with vehicle-treated mice. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed the absence of active caspase-3 in islet sections from ApoE2Ki mice fed a HFD and treated with arglabin. In addition, arglabin reduced interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production in a concentration-dependent manner in Langerhans islets isolated from ApoE2Ki mice treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and with cholesterol crystals. This inhibitory effect is specific for the inflammasome NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) because IL-1β production was abolished in Langerhans islets isolated from Nlrp3(-/-) mice. In the insulin-secreting INS-1 cells, arglabin inhibited, in a concentration-dependent manner, the maturation of pro-IL-1β into biologically active IL-1β probably through the inhibition of the maturation of procaspase-1 into active capsase-1. Moreover, arglabin reduced the susceptibility of INS-1 cells to apoptosis by increasing Bcl-2 levels. Similarly, autophagy activation by rapamycin decreased apoptosis susceptibility while autophagy inhibition by 3-methyladenin treatment promoted apoptosis. Arglabin further increased the expression of the autophagic markers Bcl2-interacting protein (Beclin-1) and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 II (LC3-II) in a concentration-dependent manner. Thus, arglabin reduces NLRP3-dependent inflammation as well as apoptosis in pancreatic β-cells in vivo and in the INS-1 cell line in vitro, whereas it increases autophagy in cultured INS-1 cells, indicating survival-promoting properties of the compound in these cells. Hence, arglabin may represent a new promising compound to treat inflammation and type 2 diabetes mellitus development

  8. Altered energy production, lowered antioxidant potential, and inflammatory processes mediate CNS damage associated with abuse of the psychostimulants MDMA and methamphetamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Luke A.; Loftis, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) damage associated with psychostimulant dependence may be an ongoing, degenerative process with adverse effects on neuropsychiatric function. However, the molecular mechanisms regarding how altered energy regulation affects immune response in the context of substance use disorders are not fully understood. This review summarizes the current evidence regarding the effects of psychostimulant [particularly 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA) and methamphetamine] exposure on brain energy regulation, immune response, and neuropsychiatric function. Importantly, the neuropsychiatric impairments (e.g., cognitive deficits, depression, and anxiety) that persist following abstinence are associated with poorer treatment outcomes – increased relapse rates, lower treatment retention rates, and reduced daily functioning. Qualifying the molecular changes within the CNS according to the exposure and use patterns of specifically abused substances should inform the development of new therapeutic approaches for addiction treatment. PMID:24485894

  9. Association of Changes in Abdominal Fat and Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jane J.; Pedley, Alison; Hoffmann, Udo; Massaro, Joseph M.; Fox, Caroline S.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) are associated with adverse cardiometabolic risk profiles. OBJECTIVES This study explored the degree to which changes in abdominal fat quantity and quality are associated with changes in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. METHODS Study participants (n = 1,106; 44.1% women; mean baseline age 45.1 years) were drawn from the Framingham Heart Study Third Generation cohort who participated in the computed tomography (CT) substudy Exams 1 and 2. Participants were followed for 6.1 years on average. Abdominal adipose tissue volume in cm3 and attenuation in Hounsfield units (HU) were determined by CT-acquired abdominal scans. RESULTS The mean fat volume change was an increase of 602 cm3 for SAT and an increase of 703 cm3 for VAT; the mean fat attenuation change was a decrease of 5.5HU for SAT and an increase of 0.07 HU for VAT. An increase in fat volume and decrease in fat attenuation were associated with adverse changes in CVD risk factors. An additional 500 cm3 increase in fat volume was associated with incident hypertension (odds ratio [OR]: 1.21 for SAT; OR: 1.30 for VAT), hypertriglyceridemia (OR: 1.15 for SAT; OR: 1.56 for VAT), and metabolic syndrome (OR: 1.43 for SAT; OR: 1.82 for VAT; all p abdominal adipose tissue attenuation. Most associations remained significant even after further accounting for body mass index change, waist circumference change, or respective abdominal adipose tissue volumes. CONCLUSIONS Increasing accumulation of fat quantity and decreasing fat attenuation are associated with worsening of CVD risk factors beyond the associations with generalized adiposity, central adiposity, or respective adipose tissue volumes. PMID:27687192

  10. Psychostimulant Effect of the Synthetic Cannabinoid JWH-018 and AKB48: Behavioral, Neurochemical, and Dopamine Transporter Scan Imaging Studies in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ossato, Andrea; Uccelli, Licia; Bilel, Sabrine; Canazza, Isabella; Di Domenico, Giovanni; Pasquali, Micol; Pupillo, Gaia; De Luca, Maria Antonietta; Boschi, Alessandra; Vincenzi, Fabrizio; Rimondo, Claudia; Beggiato, Sarah; Ferraro, Luca; Varani, Katia; Borea, Pier Andrea

    2017-01-01

    JWH-018 and AKB48 are two synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs) belonging to different structural classes and illegally marketed as incense, herbal preparations, or chemical supply for theirs psychoactive cannabis-like effects. Clinical reports from emergency room reported psychomotor agitation as one of the most frequent effects in people assuming SCBs. This study aimed to investigate the psychostimulant properties of JWH-018 and AKB48 in male CD-1 mice and to compare their behavioral and biochemica...

  11. Sensitivity to cognitive effort mediates psychostimulant effects on a novel rodent cost/benefit decision-making task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocker, Paul J; Hosking, Jay G; Benoit, James; Winstanley, Catharine A

    2012-07-01

    Amotivational states and insufficient recruitment of mental effort have been observed in a variety of clinical populations, including depression, traumatic brain injury, post-traumatic stress disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Previous rodent models of effort-based decision making have utilized physical costs whereas human studies of effort are primarily cognitive in nature, and it is unclear whether the two types of effortful decision making are underpinned by the same neurobiological processes. We therefore designed a novel rat cognitive effort task (rCET) based on the 5-choice serial reaction time task, a well-validated measure of attention and impulsivity. Within each trial of the rCET, rats are given the choice between an easy or hard visuospatial discrimination, and successful hard trials are rewarded with double the number of sugar pellets. Similar to previous human studies, stable individual variation in choice behavior was observed, with 'workers' choosing hard trials significantly more than their 'slacker' counterparts. Whereas workers 'slacked off' in response to administration of amphetamine and caffeine, slackers 'worked harder' under amphetamine, but not caffeine. Conversely, these stimulants increased motor impulsivity in all animals. Ethanol did not affect animals' choice but invigorated behavior. In sum, we have shown for the first time that rats are differentially sensitive to cognitive effort when making decisions, independent of other processes such as impulsivity, and these baseline differences can influence the cognitive response to psychostimulants. Such findings could inform our understanding of impairments in effort-based decision making and contribute to treatment development.

  12. Novel approaches for the treatment of psychostimulant and opioid abuse - focus on opioid receptor-based therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Chris P; Husbands, Stephen M

    2014-11-01

    Psychostimulant and opioid addiction are poorly treated. The majority of abstinent users relapse back to drug-taking within a year of abstinence, making 'anti-relapse' therapies the focus of much current research. There are two fundamental challenges to developing novel treatments for drug addiction. First, there are three key stimuli that precipitate relapse back to drug-taking: stress, presentation of drug-conditioned cue, taking a small dose of drug. The most successful novel treatment would be effective against all three stimuli. Second, a large number of drug users are poly-drug users: taking more than one drug of abuse at a time. The ideal anti-addiction treatment would, therefore, be effective against all classes of drugs of abuse. In this review, the authors discuss the clinical need and animal models used to uncover potential novel treatments. There is a very broad range of potential treatment approaches and targets currently being examined as potential anti-relapse therapies. These broadly fit into two categories: 'memory-based' and 'receptor-based' and the authors discuss the key targets here within. Opioid receptors and ligands have been widely studied, and research into how different opioid subtypes affect behaviours related to addiction (reward, dysphoria, motivation) suggests that they are tractable targets as anti-relapse treatments. Regarding opioid ligands as novel 'anti-relapse' medication targets, research suggests that a 'non-selective' approach to targeting opioid receptors will be the most effective.

  13. Changes in gene expression and sensitivity of cocaine reward produced by a continuous fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Gandía, M Carmen; Aracil-Fernández, Auxiliadora; Montagud-Romero, Sandra; Aguilar, Maria A; Manzanares, Jorge; Miñarro, José; Rodríguez-Arias, Marta

    2017-08-01

    Preclinical studies report that free access to a high-fat diet (HFD) alters the response to psychostimulants. The aim of the present study was to examine how HFD exposure during adolescence modifies cocaine effects. Gene expression of CB1 and mu-opioid receptors (MOr) in the nucleus accumbens (N Acc) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) and ghrelin receptor (GHSR) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) were assessed. Mice were allowed continuous access to fat from PND 29, and the locomotor (10 mg/kg) and reinforcing effects of cocaine (1 and 6 mg/kg) on conditioned place preference (CPP) were evaluated on PND 69. Another group of mice was exposed to a standard diet until the day of post-conditioning, on which free access to the HFD began. HFD induced an increase of MOr gene expression in the N Acc, but decreased CB1 receptor in the N Acc and PFC. After fat withdrawal, the reduction of CB1 receptor in the N Acc was maintained. Gene expression of GHSR in the VTA decreased during the HFD and increased after withdrawal. Following fat discontinuation, mice exhibited increased anxiety, augmented locomotor response to cocaine, and developed CPP for 1 mg/kg cocaine. HFD reduced the number of sessions required to extinguish the preference and decreased sensitivity to drug priming-induced reinstatement. Our results suggest that consumption of a HFD during adolescence induces neurobiochemical changes that increased sensitivity to cocaine when fat is withdrawn, acting as an alternative reward.

  14. Fecal Fat: The Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and, in severe cases, symptoms of malnutrition and vitamin deficiency. If the condition prevents the digestion and/or absorption of fats from the diet, then excess fat is present in the stool and the ...

  15. Use and perception of the psychostimulant, khat (catha edulis) among three occupational groups in south western Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihunwo, A O; Kayanja, F I B; Amadi-Ihunwo, U B

    2004-09-01

    To examine the use of and perception of the psychostimulant, khat (catha edulis) in three towns in south-western Uganda. Cross-sectional survey. Mbarara, Kabale and Fort Portal. Three categories of respondents prone to khat chewing habit were selected; One hundred and thirty students, thirty five law enforcement officials and sixteen transporters. Khat chewers existed within the sampled population. The relationship between tobacco smoking, drinking alcoholic beverages and the khat chewing habit was established. Out of 181 respondents, 164(90.6%) had heard of khat, 126(69.6%) had seen it and 57(31.5%) had chewed khat before. As at the time of this study, 37(20.4%) still chewed khat. Within the three categories of subjects, the use of khat was highest among law enforcement officials (97.1%), followed by transporters (68.8%) and students (9.2%). The majority of khat chewers were in the age range of 16-25 years. There was a clear correlation between khat chewing and the use of stimulants such as alcoholic beverages and tobacco smoking. Those who smoked cigarettes were twenty-eight times more likely to chew khat (OR=28.95% CI=9.6,83.7). Euphoria, suppressed sleep and increased sexual desire were the most predominant effects experienced by khat chewers. The knowledge of khat is widespread and its consumption is on the increase among students, law enforcement officials and transporters in south-western Uganda. This calls for attention considering the public health implications.

  16. Tracer attenuation in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetkovic, Vladimir

    2011-12-01

    The self-purifying capacity of aquifers strongly depends on the attenuation of waterborne contaminants, i.e., irreversible loss of contaminant mass on a given scale as a result of coupled transport and transformation processes. A general formulation of tracer attenuation in groundwater is presented. Basic sensitivities of attenuation to macrodispersion and retention are illustrated for a few typical retention mechanisms. Tracer recovery is suggested as an experimental proxy for attenuation. Unique experimental data of tracer recovery in crystalline rock compare favorably with the theoretical model that is based on diffusion-controlled retention. Non-Fickian hydrodynamic transport has potentially a large impact on field-scale attenuation of dissolved contaminants.

  17. Fat utilization during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Watt, Peter W.; Richter, Erik

    2001-01-01

    1. This study was carried out to test the hypothesis that the greater fat oxidation observed during exercise after adaptation to a high-fat diet is due to an increased uptake of fat originating from the bloodstream. 2. Of 13 male untrained subjects, seven consumed a fat-rich diet (62 % fat, 21...... % carbohydrate) and six consumed a carbohydrate-rich diet (20 % fat, 65 % carbohydrate). After 7 weeks of training and diet, 60 min of bicycle exercise was performed at 68 +/- 1 % of maximum oxygen uptake. During exercise [1-(13)C]palmitate was infused, arterial and venous femoral blood samples were collected......, and blood flow was determined by the thermodilution technique. Muscle biopsy samples were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle before and after exercise. 3. During exercise, the respiratory exchange ratio was significantly lower in subjects consuming the fat-rich diet (0.86 +/- 0.01, mean +/- S.E.M.) than...

  18. Psychostimulant Effect of the Synthetic Cannabinoid JWH-018 and AKB48: Behavioral, Neurochemical, and Dopamine Transporter Scan Imaging Studies in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossato, Andrea; Uccelli, Licia; Bilel, Sabrine; Canazza, Isabella; Di Domenico, Giovanni; Pasquali, Micol; Pupillo, Gaia; De Luca, Maria Antonietta; Boschi, Alessandra; Vincenzi, Fabrizio; Rimondo, Claudia; Beggiato, Sarah; Ferraro, Luca; Varani, Katia; Borea, Pier Andrea; Serpelloni, Giovanni; De-Giorgio, Fabio; Marti, Matteo

    2017-01-01

    JWH-018 and AKB48 are two synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs) belonging to different structural classes and illegally marketed as incense, herbal preparations, or chemical supply for theirs psychoactive cannabis-like effects. Clinical reports from emergency room reported psychomotor agitation as one of the most frequent effects in people assuming SCBs. This study aimed to investigate the psychostimulant properties of JWH-018 and AKB48 in male CD-1 mice and to compare their behavioral and biochemical effects with those caused by cocaine and amphetamine. In vivo studies showed that JWH-018 and AKB48, as cocaine and amphetamine, facilitated spontaneous locomotion in mice. These effects were prevented by CB 1 receptor blockade and dopamine (DA) D 1/5 and D 2/3 receptors inhibition. SPECT-CT studies on dopamine transporter (DAT) revealed that, as cocaine and amphetamine, JWH-018 and AKB48 decreased the [ 123 I]-FP-CIT binding in the mouse striatum. Conversely, in vitro competition binding studies revealed that, unlike cocaine and amphetamine, JWH-018 and AKB48 did not bind to mouse or human DAT. Moreover, microdialysis studies showed that the systemic administration of JWH-018, AKB48, cocaine, and amphetamine stimulated DA release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell of freely moving mice. Finally, unlike amphetamine and cocaine, JWH-018 and AKB48 did not induce any changes on spontaneous [ 3 H]-DA efflux from murine striatal synaptosomes. The present results suggest that SCBs facilitate striatal DA release possibly with different mechanisms than cocaine and amphetamine. Furthermore, they demonstrate, for the first time, that JWH-018 and AKB48 induce a psychostimulant effect in mice possibly by increasing NAc DA release. These data, according to clinical reports, outline the potential psychostimulant action of SCBs highlighting their possible danger to human health.

  19. Psychostimulant Effect of the Synthetic Cannabinoid JWH-018 and AKB48: Behavioral, Neurochemical, and Dopamine Transporter Scan Imaging Studies in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ossato

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available JWH-018 and AKB48 are two synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs belonging to different structural classes and illegally marketed as incense, herbal preparations, or chemical supply for theirs psychoactive cannabis-like effects. Clinical reports from emergency room reported psychomotor agitation as one of the most frequent effects in people assuming SCBs. This study aimed to investigate the psychostimulant properties of JWH-018 and AKB48 in male CD-1 mice and to compare their behavioral and biochemical effects with those caused by cocaine and amphetamine. In vivo studies showed that JWH-018 and AKB48, as cocaine and amphetamine, facilitated spontaneous locomotion in mice. These effects were prevented by CB1 receptor blockade and dopamine (DA D1/5 and D2/3 receptors inhibition. SPECT-CT studies on dopamine transporter (DAT revealed that, as cocaine and amphetamine, JWH-018 and AKB48 decreased the [123I]-FP-CIT binding in the mouse striatum. Conversely, in vitro competition binding studies revealed that, unlike cocaine and amphetamine, JWH-018 and AKB48 did not bind to mouse or human DAT. Moreover, microdialysis studies showed that the systemic administration of JWH-018, AKB48, cocaine, and amphetamine stimulated DA release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc shell of freely moving mice. Finally, unlike amphetamine and cocaine, JWH-018 and AKB48 did not induce any changes on spontaneous [3H]-DA efflux from murine striatal synaptosomes. The present results suggest that SCBs facilitate striatal DA release possibly with different mechanisms than cocaine and amphetamine. Furthermore, they demonstrate, for the first time, that JWH-018 and AKB48 induce a psychostimulant effect in mice possibly by increasing NAc DA release. These data, according to clinical reports, outline the potential psychostimulant action of SCBs highlighting their possible danger to human health.

  20. An FMRI study of the effects of psychostimulants on default-mode processing during Stroop task performance in youths with ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, Bradley S; Potenza, Marc N; Wang, Zhishun

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors examined the effect of psychostimulants on brain activity in children and adolescents with ADHD performing the Stroop Color and Word Test. METHOD: The authors acquired 52 functional MRI scans in 16 youths with ADHD who were known responders to stimulant medication and 20...... cingulate and posterior cingulate cortices, components of a circuit in which activity has been shown to correlate with the degree of mind-wandering during attentional tasks. Stimulants seem to improve symptoms in youths with ADHD by normalizing activity within this circuit and improving its functional...

  1. Growth hormone-mediated breakdown of body fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, T.; Malmlöf, K.; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2003-01-01

    regimen. Twelve-month-old rats fed first a high-fat diet or a low-fat diet for 14 weeks were injected with saline or growth hormone (4 mg/kg/d) for four days or three weeks in different combinations with either high- or low-fat diets. In adipose tissue, growth hormone generally inhibited lipoprotein...... lipase and also attenuated the inhibiting effect of insulin on hormone-sensitive lipase activity. Growth hormone treatment combined with restricted high-fat feeding reduced the activity of both lipases in adipose tissue and stimulated hormone-sensitive lipase in muscle. Generally, plasma levels of free...... fatty acids, glycerol and cholesterol were reduced by growth hormone, and in combination with restricted high-fat feeding, triglyceride levels improved too. We conclude that growth hormone inhibits lipid storage in adipose tissue by reducing both lipoprotein lipase activity and insulin's inhibitory...

  2. Ratio of muscle mass to fat mass assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis is significantly correlated with liver fat accumulation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurinami, Noboru; Sugiyama, Seigo; Morita, Ayami; Yoshida, Akira; Hieshima, Kunio; Miyamoto, Fumio; Kajiwara, Keizo; Jinnouch, Katsunori; Jinnouchi, Tomio; Jinnouchi, Hideaki

    2018-05-01

    Obesity and ectopic fat accumulation are important conditions of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Our aim was to determine whether bioelectrical impedance body composition analysis combined with blood test results could estimate liver ectopic fat accumulation in patients with treatment-naïve T2DM. Subjects were 119 untreated T2DM patients. Computed tomography scans were performed to calculate the liver to spleen attenuation ratio (L/S ratio) as a measure of liver fat accumulation, with excess liver fat accumulation defined as an L/S ratio analysis using InBody770. The Nagelkerke R 2 test showed that the muscle mass/fat mass ratio (muscle/fat ratio) was the most suitable variable among anthropometric factors and body component indexes for estimating liver fat accumulation. The muscle/fat ratio was significantly correlated with the L/S ratio (ρ = 0.4386, P analysis showed that the muscle/fat ratio (odds ratio 0.40, 95% confidence interval 0.22-0.73, P ratio 1.06, 95% confidence interval 1.02-1.10, P analysis, the cutoff value of the muscle/fat ratio for excess liver fat accumulation was 2.34. In patients with treatment-naïve T2DM, the muscle/fat ratio and ALT are useful for estimating the presence of excess liver fat accumulation in daily clinical practice. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Metabolism and Whole-Body Fat Oxidation Following Post-Exercise Carbohydrate or Protein Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Ulrika Andersson; Pettersson, Stefan; Edin, Fredrik

    2018-01-01

    : Protein supplementation immediately post-exercise did not affect the doubling in whole body fat oxidation seen during a subsequent exercise trial 2 hours later. Neither did it affect resting fat oxidation during the post-exercise period despite increased insulin levels and attenuated ketosis. Carbohydrate...

  4. The role of fat tissues in the diagnosis of musculoskeletal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sue Yon; Park, Ji Seon; Ryu, Kyung Nam; Jin, Wook

    2007-01-01

    Fat tissue is a unique component of the soft tissue, and this fat tissue lies primarily in the spaces beneath the normal subcutaneous tissue, and within or around the organs. An entire lesion, or just a part of it, can be composed of these fat tissues. Therefore, it plays an important role in the diagnostic workup of suspected musculoskeletal diseases as well as in the differentiation between them. Fat tissue is shown as low density on plain radiographs, decreased attenuation on CT images, high signal intensity on T1-weighted images and it is hypoechoic on sonography. Because of its distinctive features, fat tissue is easy to verify on various modalities. In addition, recent image studies like fat-suppressed imaging and STIR imaging provide more precise information of the lesion that involve fat tissue. In this article, we have reviewed the differentiation of musculoskeletal diseases, including the various tumorous lesion and tumor-like lesions involving the fat tissue

  5. Androidal fat dominates in predicting cardiometabolic risk in postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    We hypothesized that soy isoflavones would attenuate the anticipated increase in androidal fat mass in postmenopausal women during the 36-month treatment, and thereby favorably modify the circulating cardiometabolic risk factors: triacylglycerol, LDLC, HDL-C, glucose, insulin, uric acid, C-reactive ...

  6. A Fat strange Repeller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申影; 何阅; 姜玉梅; 何大韧

    2004-01-01

    This article reports an observation on a fat strange repeller, which appears after a characteristic crisis observed in a kicked rotor subjected to a piecewise continuous force field. The discontinuity border in the definition range of the two-dimensional mapping, which describes the system, oscillates as the discrete time develops. At a threshold of a control parameter a fat chaotic attractor suddenly transfers to a fat transient set. The strange repeller, which appears after the crisis, is also a fat fractal. This is the reason why super-transience happens

  7. Dietary fat and carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woutersen, R.A.; Appel, M.J.; Garderen-Hoetmer, A. van; Wijnands, M.V.W.

    1999-01-01

    Epidemiologic investigations have suggested a relationship between dietary fat intake and various types of cancer incidences. Furthermore, epidemiologic studies as well as studies with animal models have demonstrated that not only the amount but also the type of fat consumed is important. At

  8. Ultrasonographic Quantification of Fat Content in Fatty Liver Phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Il Young; Kim, Pyo Nyun; Joo, Gyung Soo; Kim, Ho Jung; Kim, Young Beom; Lee, Byoung Ho

    1995-01-01

    Assuming that the fat content of certain tissue might be quantified by measurirrg the ultrasound echo level, we analyzed the ultrasound histograms obtained from the fatty liver phantoms that contained various amount of fat. Various amount of margarine(Mazola. Cliff wood. USA) was mixed with 2% of agarin solution state to produce fatty liver phantoms that contained 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40% of fat. We obtained ultrasound histogram from each fatty liver phantom in gel state. We used 2% agar gel as a control. The ultrasound histograms from the control phantom showed gradual increase in echo level as the depth from the surface increased. The echo level from the phantom that contained 5% of fat showed gradual increase and subsequent decrease with the peak echo level at the depth of 3cm. The echo levels from the phantoms that contained more in 5% of fat gradually decreased as the depth from the surface increased; the change becoming more pronounced as the fat content of the phantom increased. The echo levels measured at the depth of 1cm were 9.3(control), 29.6(5%phantom), 3l.3 (10% phantom), 26.3 (20% phantom), l8.8 (30% phantom), and l6dB (40% phantom). Fat content of fatty phantoms can not be quantified by measuring only echo level. Simultaneous measurement of attenuation of ultrasound, which is not easy to do and not done in this study, is prerequisite to quantify fat content

  9. Attenuation correction for SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoba, Minoru

    1986-01-01

    Attenuation correction is required for the reconstruction of a quantitative SPECT image. A new method for detecting body contours, which are important for the correction of tissue attenuation, is presented. The effect of body contours, detected by the newly developed method, on the reconstructed images was evaluated using various techniques for attenuation correction. The count rates in the specified region of interest in the phantom image by the Radial Post Correction (RPC) method, the Weighted Back Projection (WBP) method, Chang's method were strongly affected by the accuracy of the contours, as compared to those by Sorenson's method. To evaluate the effect of non-uniform attenuators on the cardiac SPECT, computer simulation experiments were performed using two types of models, the uniform attenuator model (UAM) and the non-uniform attenuator model (NUAM). The RPC method showed the lowest relative percent error (%ERROR) in UAM (11 %). However, 20 to 30 percent increase in %ERROR was observed for NUAM reconstructed with the RPC, WBP, and Chang's methods. Introducing an average attenuation coefficient (0.12/cm for Tc-99m and 0.14/cm for Tl-201) in the RPC method decreased %ERROR to the levels for UAM. Finally, a comparison between images, which were obtained by 180 deg and 360 deg scans and reconstructed from the RPC method, showed that the degree of the distortion of the contour of the simulated ventricles in the 180 deg scan was 15 % higher than that in the 360 deg scan. (Namekawa, K.)

  10. Differential fat harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Torres Farr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Volume replacement with fillers is regularly performed with the use of diverse volumetric materials to correct different structures around the face, depending on the volume enhancement required and the thickness of the soft tissue envelope. Differential fat harvesting and posterior grafting is performed to place the correct fat parcel size for each target area, expanding the potential applications of fat. Methods: Sixty patients consecutively recruited on a first come basis undergone a facial fat grafting procedure, in private practice setting between March 2012 and October 2013. Fat grafting quantity and quality was predicted for each case. Differential harvesting was performed, with 2 fat parcels size. Processing was performed through washing. Fat infiltration was carried out through small cannulas or needles depending on the treated area. Outcomes were analysed both by the physicians and the patients at 7 days, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months through a perceived satisfaction questionnaire. Parameters considered were downtime or discomfort, skin benefits, volume restoration, reabsorption rate estimated and overall improvement. Results: Full facial differential fat grafting procedure lasted an average of 1.5-2.5 h. Average downtime was 3-4 days. Follow-up was performed to a minimum of 6 months. Both patient and physician overall satisfaction rates were mostly excellent. Adverse events like lumps or irregularities were not encountered. Conclusion: Differential fat harvesting and posterior grafting is a valid alternative, to expand the repertoire of fat use, allow a more homogeneous effect, reduce the potential complications, speed up the process, improve graft survival, and to enhance overall aesthetic outcome.

  11. Neurotensin Agonist Attenuates Nicotine Potentiation to Cocaine Sensitization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Fredrickson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco usage typically precedes illicit drug use in adolescent and young adult populations. Several animal studies suggest nicotine increases the risk for subsequent cocaine abuse, and may be a negative prognostic factor for treatment of cocaine addiction; i.e., a “gateway drug”. Neurotensin (NT is a 13-amino acid neuropeptide that modulates dopamine, acetylcholine, glutamate, and GABA neurotransmission in brain reward pathways. NT69L, a NT(8-13 analog, blocks behavioral sensitization (an animal model for psychostimulant addiction to nicotine, and nicotine self-administration in rats. The present study tested the effect of NT69L on the potentiating effects of nicotine on cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization. Male Wistar rats were injected daily for seven days with nicotine or saline (control followed by four daily injections of cocaine. NT69L was administered 30 min prior to the last cocaine injection. Behavior was recorded with the use of activity chambers. Subchronic administration of nicotine enhanced cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization in Wistar rats, consistent with an hypothesized gateway effect. These behavioral effects of cocaine were attenuated by pretreatment with NT69L. The effect of the neurotensin agonist on cocaine sensitization in the nicotine treated group indicated a possible therapeutic effect for cocaine addiction, even in the presence of enhanced behavioral sensitization induced by nicotine.

  12. Abdominal wall fat pad biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyloidosis - abdominal wall fat pad biopsy; Abdominal wall biopsy; Biopsy - abdominal wall fat pad ... is the most common method of taking an abdominal wall fat pad biopsy . The health care provider cleans the ...

  13. Landing gear noise attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Whitmire, Julia (Inventor); Kwan, Hwa-Wan (Inventor); Abeysinghe, Amal (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A landing gear noise attenuator mitigates noise generated by airframe deployable landing gear. The noise attenuator can have a first position when the landing gear is in its deployed or down position, and a second position when the landing gear is in its up or stowed position. The noise attenuator may be an inflatable fairing that does not compromise limited space constraints associated with landing gear retraction and stowage. A truck fairing mounted under a truck beam can have a compliant edge to allow for non-destructive impingement of a deflected fire during certain conditions.

  14. S36. DIFFERENTIAL ENCODING OF SENSITIZATION AND CROSS SENSITIZATION TO PSYCHOSTIMULANTS AND ANTIPSYCHOTICS IN NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS D1- AND D2- RECEPTOR EXPRESSING MEDIUM SPINY NEURONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Davide; Heinsbroek, Jasper; Kalivas, Peter W

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Nearly half of all individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia abuse addictive substances such as cocaine. Currently, the neurobiological mechanisms in patients with schizophrenia that lead to cocaine abuse are unknown. A possible explanation for the co-morbidity between schizophrenia and addiction is that the rewarding properties of cocaine reverse the diminished motivational drive caused by chronic antipsychotic regimen. Moreover, chronic antipsychotic treatment can sensitize and amplify cocaine rewarding effects and exacerbate psychoses. Methods The rewarding properties of cocaine are attributed to the differential effects of dopamine on D1 and D2 receptor-expressing medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Using in vivo Ca2+ miniature microscopic imaging, we characterize the role of D1 and D2 MSN in mono- and a cross- sensitization paradigms. D1- and D2-Cre mice were injected with a Cre dependent calcium indicator (gCaMP6f) and implanted with a gradient index (GRIN) lens above the nucleus accumbens and calcium activity was recorded using a head mounted miniature microscope. Cocaine sensitization was measured after a classic repeated cocaine regiment and antipsychotic and psychostimulant cross-sensitization was measured by a single cocaine injection after chronic pre-treatment with haloperidol. Results We found that both D1-MSN and D2-MSN populations are modulated by initial cocaine experience and further modulated during the expression of cocaine sensitization. A subpopulation of D1-MSN displayed initial activation, but reduced activity during the expression of sensitization. By contrast, the majority of D2-MSNs were suppressed by initial cocaine experience, but became active during the expression of sensitization. Furthermore, activity of D1- and D2-MSNs bidirectionally related with the observed behavioral responses to cocaine. Cross-sensitization following haloperidol treatment led to increased behavioral responses to

  15. An FMRI study of the effects of psychostimulants on default-mode processing during Stroop task performance in youths with ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, Bradley S; Potenza, Marc N; Wang, Zhishun

    2009-01-01

    in the ADHD group. When off medication, youths with ADHD were unable to suppress default-mode activity to the same degree as comparison subjects, whereas when on medication, they suppressed this activity to comparison group levels. Greater activation of the lateral prefrontal cortex when off medication...... predicted a greater reduction in ADHD symptoms when on medication. Granger causality analyses demonstrated that activity in the lateral prefrontal and ventral anterior cingulate cortices mutually influenced one another but that the influence of the ventral anterior cingulate cortex on the lateral prefrontal...... cortex was significantly reduced in youths with ADHD off medication relative to comparison subjects and increased significantly to normal levels when ADHD youths were on medication. CONCLUSIONS: Psychostimulants in youths with ADHD improved suppression of default-mode activity in the ventral anterior...

  16. Dietary Fat Overload Reprograms Brown Fat Mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELE eLETTIERI BARBATO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic nutrient overload accelerates the onset of several aging-related diseases reducing life expectancy. Although the mechanisms by which overnutrition affects metabolic processes in many tissues are known, its role on BAT physiology is still unclear. Herein, we investigated the mitochondrial responses in BAT of female mice exposed to high fat diet (HFD at different steps of life. Although adult mice showed an unchanged mitochondrial amount, both respiration and OxPHOS subunits were strongly affected. Differently, offspring pups exposed to HFD during pregnancy and lactation displayed reduced mitochondrial mass but high oxidative efficiency that, however, resulted in increased bioenergetics state of BAT rather than augmented uncoupling respiration. Interestingly, the metabolic responses triggered by HFD were accompanied by changes in mitochondrial dynamics characterized by decreased content of the fragmentation marker Drp1 both in mothers and offspring pups. HFD-induced inactivation of the FoxO1 transcription factor seemed to be the up-stream modulator of Drp1 levels in brown fat cells. Furthermore, HFD offspring pups weaned with normal diet only partially reverted the mitochondrial dysfunctions caused by HFD. Finally these mice failed in activating the thermogenic program upon cold exposure. Collectively our findings suggest that maternal dietary fat overload irreversibly commits BAT unresponsiveness to physiological stimuli such as cool temperature and this dysfunction in the early stage of life might negatively modulates health and lifespan.

  17. Know Your Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... They're mainly found in fish such as salmon, trout and herring, avocados, olives, walnuts and liquid ... fats are found in many fried foods and baked goods such as pastries, pizza dough, pie crust, ...

  18. Facts about polyunsaturated fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... albacore tuna, and trout Corn oil Soybean oil Safflower oil To get the health benefits, you need to ... sunflower seeds to salads. Cook with corn or safflower oil instead of butter and solid fats.

  19. The effects of HIV-1 regulatory TAT protein expression on brain reward function, response to psychostimulants and delay-dependent memory in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesby, James P; Markou, Athina; Semenova, Svetlana

    2016-10-01

    Depression and psychostimulant abuse are common comorbidities among humans with immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. The HIV regulatory protein TAT is one of multiple HIV-related proteins associated with HIV-induced neurotoxicity. TAT-induced dysfunction of dopamine and serotonin systems in corticolimbic brain areas may result in impaired reward function, thus, contributing to depressive symptoms and psychostimulant abuse. Transgenic mice with doxycycline-induced TAT protein expression in the brain (TAT+, TAT- control) show neuropathology resembling brain abnormalities in HIV+ humans. We evaluated brain reward function in response to TAT expression, nicotine and methamphetamine administration in TAT+ and TAT- mice using the intracranial self-stimulation procedure. We evaluated the brain dopamine and serotonin systems with high-performance liquid chromatography. The effects of TAT expression on delay-dependent working memory in TAT+ and TAT- mice using the operant delayed nonmatch-to-position task were also assessed. During doxycycline administration, reward thresholds were elevated by 20% in TAT+ mice compared with TAT- mice. After the termination of doxycycline treatment, thresholds of TAT+ mice remained significantly higher than those of TAT- mice and this was associated with changes in mesolimbic serotonin and dopamine levels. TAT+ mice showed a greater methamphetamine-induced threshold lowering compared with TAT- mice. TAT expression did not alter delay-dependent working memory. These results indicate that TAT expression in mice leads to reward deficits, a core symptom of depression, and a greater sensitivity to methamphetamine-induced reward enhancement. Our findings suggest that the TAT protein may contribute to increased depressive-like symptoms and continued methamphetamine use in HIV-positive individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Alternative fat sources to animal fat for pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Charlotte; Christensen, Thomas Bruun; Halekoh, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    % of either animal fat, palm oil mix, palm oil, vegetable oil mix, coconut oil, or rapeseed oil were tested in weaned and growing pigs. It was concluded that several vegetable fat sources (palm oil mix, palm oil, coconut oil, rapeseed oil) could be used as alternatives to animal fat in pig feed, whereas fat......The use of fats and oils in diets for pigs is of great importance due to their high energy value. As a consequence of the BSE-crisis in the European Union, the amount of animal fat available for animal feeds has been reduced, and alternative fat sources are of increasing importance. In this paper...

  1. Radiofrequency attenuator and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Benjamin P [Los Alamos, NM; McCleskey, T Mark [Los Alamos, NM; Burrell, Anthony K [Los Alamos, NM; Agrawal, Anoop [Tucson, AZ; Hall, Simon B [Palmerston North, NZ

    2009-01-20

    Radiofrequency attenuator and method. The attenuator includes a pair of transparent windows. A chamber between the windows is filled with molten salt. Preferred molten salts include quarternary ammonium cations and fluorine-containing anions such as tetrafluoroborate (BF.sub.4.sup.-), hexafluorophosphate (PF.sub.6.sup.-), hexafluoroarsenate (AsF.sub.6.sup.-), trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3C.sup.-). Radicals or radical cations may be added to or electrochemically generated in the molten salt to enhance the RF attenuation.

  2. Attenuation coefficients of soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martini, E.; Naziry, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    As a prerequisite to the interpretation of gamma-spectrometric in situ measurements of activity concentrations of soil radionuclides the attenuation of 60 to 1332 keV gamma radiation by soil samples varying in water content and density has been investigated. A useful empirical equation could be set up to describe the dependence of the mass attenuation coefficient upon photon energy for soil with a mean water content of 10%, with the results comparing well with data in the literature. The mean density of soil in the GDR was estimated at 1.6 g/cm 3 . This value was used to derive the linear attenuation coefficients, their range of variation being 10%. 7 figs., 5 tabs. (author)

  3. Computer-controlled attenuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitov, D; Grozev, Z

    1991-01-01

    Various possibilities for applying electronic computer-controlled attenuators for the automation of physiological experiments are considered. A detailed description is given of the design of a 4-channel computer-controlled attenuator, in two of the channels of which the output signal can change by a linear step, in the other two channels--by a logarithmic step. This, together with the existence of additional programmable timers, allows to automate a wide range of studies in different spheres of physiology and psychophysics, including vision and hearing.

  4. Brain fat embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, Yoshihiro; Kawamura, Yasutaka; Suzuki, Hisato; Yanagimoto, Masahiro; Goto, Yukio

    1994-01-01

    Recently CT and MR imaging have demonstrated that cerebral edema is present in cases of fat embolism syndrome. To simulate this we have made a model of brain-fat embolism in rats under MR imaging. In 20 rats, we did intravenous injection of heparinized blood, 1.5 ml·kg -1 taken from femoral bone marrow cavity. Twenty four hours after the injection, we examined the MR images (1.5 tesla, spin-echo method) of brains and histologic findings of brains and lungs were obtained. In 5 of 20 rats, high signal intensity on T2-weighted images and low signal intensity on T1-weighted images were observed in the area of the unilateral cerebral cortex or hippocampus. These findings showed edema of the brains. They disappeared, however, one week later. Histologic examinations showed massive micro-fat emboli in capillaries of the deep cerebral cortex and substantia nigra, but no edematous findings of the brain were revealed in HE staining. In pulmonary arteries, we also found large fat emboli. We conclude that our model is a useful one for the study of brain fat embolism. (author)

  5. Natural attenuation of herbicides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuxen, Nina; Højberg, Anker Lajer; Broholm, Mette Martina

    2002-01-01

    A field injection experiment in a sandy, aerobic aquifer showed that two phenoxy acids MCPP (mecoprop) and dichlorprop were degraded within I in downgradient of the injection wells after an apparent lag period. The plume development and microbial measurements indicated that microbial growth gover....... The observations may be important for application of natural attenuation as a remedy in field scale systems....

  6. Measured attenuation correction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostertag, H.; Kuebler, W.K.; Doll, J.; Lorenz, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    Accurate attenuation correction is a prerequisite for the determination of exact local radioactivity concentrations in positron emission tomography. Attenuation correction factors range from 4-5 in brain studies to 50-100 in whole body measurements. This report gives an overview of the different methods of determining the attenuation correction factors by transmission measurements using an external positron emitting source. The long-lived generator nuclide 68 Ge/ 68 Ga is commonly used for this purpose. The additional patient dose from the transmission source is usually a small fraction of the dose due to the subsequent emission measurement. Ring-shaped transmission sources as well as rotating point or line sources are employed in modern positron tomographs. By masking a rotating line or point source, random and scattered events in the transmission scans can be effectively suppressed. The problems of measured attenuation correction are discussed: Transmission/emission mismatch, random and scattered event contamination, counting statistics, transmission/emission scatter compensation, transmission scan after administration of activity to the patient. By using a double masking technique simultaneous emission and transmission scans become feasible. (orig.)

  7. Dietary fat and corticosterone levels are contributing factors to meal anticipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namvar, Sara; Gyte, Amy; Denn, Mark; Leighton, Brendan; Piggins, Hugh D

    2016-04-15

    Daily restricted access to food leads to the development of food anticipatory activity and metabolism, which depends upon an as yet unidentified food-entrainable oscillator(s). A premeal anticipatory peak in circulating hormones, including corticosterone is also elicited by daily restricted feeding. High-fat feeding is associated with elevated levels of corticosterone with disrupted circadian rhythms and a failure to develop robust meal anticipation. It is not clear whether the disrupted corticosterone rhythm, resulting from high-fat feeding contributes to attenuated meal anticipation in high-fat fed rats. Our aim was to better characterize meal anticipation in rats fed a low- or high-fat diet, and to better understand the role of corticosterone in this process. To this end, we utilized behavioral observations, hypothalamic c-Fos expression, and indirect calorimetry to assess meal entrainment. We also used the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, RU486, to dissect out the role of corticosterone in meal anticipation in rats given daily access to a meal with different fat content. Restricted access to a low-fat diet led to robust meal anticipation, as well as entrainment of hypothalamic c-Fos expression, metabolism, and circulating corticosterone. These measures were significantly attenuated in response to a high-fat diet, and animals on this diet exhibited a postanticipatory rise in corticosterone. Interestingly, antagonism of glucocorticoid activity using RU486 attenuated meal anticipation in low-fat fed rats, but promoted meal anticipation in high-fat-fed rats. These findings suggest an important role for corticosterone in the regulation of meal anticipation in a manner dependent upon dietary fat content. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Short post-weaning social isolation induces long-term changes in the dopaminergic system and increases susceptibility to psychostimulants in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Carine; Arcego, Danusa Mar; de Sá Couto-Pereira, Natividade; Dos Santos Vieira, Aline; Toniazzo, Ana Paula; Krolow, Rachel; Garcia, Emily; Vendite, Deusa Aparecida; Calcagnotto, Maria Elisa; Dalmaz, Carla

    2017-10-01

    parameters evaluated, despite having modified some oxidative parameters. This study showed for the first time that a short post-weaning social isolation was able to induce long-term changes in the striatal dopaminergic system and increased the response to psychostimulants. These results emphasize the importance of stressful experiences during a short period of development on programming susceptibility to psychostimulants later in life. Copyright © 2017 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aydin, Dogu; Berg, Jais O

    2016-01-01

    We have described subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis, which is benign, usually asymptomatic and underreported. Images have only been published on two earlier occasions, in which the necrotic nodules appear "pearly" than the cloudy yellow surface in present case. The presented image may help...

  10. Fats for diabetics. (Letter).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katan, M.B.

    1994-01-01

    Opinion. Comments on the treatment of type 2 diabetes from the interaction between nature and nurture. Effective form of treatment for type 2 diabetes; Composition of the diet for diabetics; Identification of unsaturated fats in the diabetic diet; Risks faced by diabetic patients.

  11. That Fat Cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2012-01-01

    This activity began with a picture book, Nurit Karlin's "Fat Cat On a Mat" (HarperCollins; 1998). The author and her students started their project with a 5-inch circular template for the head of their cats. They reviewed shapes as they drew the head and then added the ears and nose, which were triangles. Details to the face were added when…

  12. Photon attenuation by intensifying screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holje, G.

    1983-01-01

    The photon attenuation by intensifying screens of different chemical composition has been determined. The attenuation of photons between 20 keV and 120 keV was measured by use of a multi-channel analyzer and a broad bremsstrahlung distribution. The attenuation by the intensifying screens was hereby determined simultaneously at many different monoenergetic photon energies. Experimentally determined attenuations were found to agree well with attenuation calculated from mass attenuation coefficients. The attenuation by the screens was also determined at various bremsstrahlung distributions, simulating those occurring behind the patient in various diagnostic X-ray examinations. The high attenuation in some of the intensifying screens form the basis for an analysis of the construction of asymmetric screen pairs. Single screen systems are suggested as a favourable alternative to thick screen pair systems. (Author)

  13. Spectral detector CT-derived virtual non-contrast images: comparison of attenuation values with unenhanced CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthakrishnan, Lakshmi; Rajiah, Prabhakar; Ahn, Richard; Rassouli, Negin; Xi, Yin; Soesbe, Todd C; Lewis, Matthew A; Lenkinski, Robert E; Leyendecker, John R; Abbara, Suhny

    2017-03-01

    To assess virtual non-contrast (VNC) images obtained on a detection-based spectral detector CT scanner and determine how attenuation on VNC images derived from various phases of enhanced CT compare to those obtained from true unenhanced images. In this HIPAA compliant, IRB approved prospective multi-institutional study, 46 patients underwent pre- and post-contrast imaging on a prototype dual-layer spectral detector CT between October 2013 and November 2015, yielding 84 unenhanced and VNC pairs (25 arterial, 39 portal venous/nephrographic, 20 urographic). Mean attenuation was measured by one of three readers in the liver, spleen, kidneys, psoas muscle, abdominal aorta, and subcutaneous fat. Equivalence testing was used to determine if the mean difference between unenhanced and VNC attenuation was less than 5, 10, or 15 HU. VNC image quality was assessed on a 5 point scale. Mean difference between unenhanced and VNC attenuation was VNC attenuation were equivalent in all tissues except fat using a threshold of VNC overestimated the HU relative to unenhanced images. VNC image quality was rated as excellent or good in 84% of arterial phase and 85% of nephrographic phase cases, but only 40% of urographic phase. VNC images derived from novel dual layer spectral detector CT demonstrate attenuation values similar to unenhanced images in all tissues evaluated except for subcutaneous fat. Further study is needed to determine if attenuation thresholds currently used clinically for common pathology should be adjusted, particularly for lesions containing fat.

  14. Intra-abdominal fat: Comparison of computed tomography fat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Intra-abdominal fat is an important factor in determining the metabolic syndrome/insulin resistance, and thus the risk of diabetes and ischaemic heart disease. Computed Tomography (CT) fat segmentation represents a defined method of quantifying intra-abdominal fat, with attendant radiation risks.

  15. Figuring Out Fat and Calories

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our growth and activities — everything from solving a math problem to racing up and down the soccer ... saturated fat and trans fat raise blood cholesterol levels, increasing a person's chances of developing heart disease, ...

  16. Angiomyolipoma with minimal fat: Differentiation from papillary renal cell carcinoma by helical CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.-Y.; Luo, S.; Liu, Y.; Xu, R.-T.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate whether helical computed tomography (CT) images can be used to differentiate angiomyolipomas (AMLs) with minimal fat from papillary renal cell carcinomas (PRCCs) based on their morphological characteristics and enhancement features. Materials and methods: This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board. Informed consent was waived. Forty-four patients (21 with AMLs with minimal fat and 23 with PRCCs) who underwent enhanced helical CT before total or partial nephrectomy were included. Two radiologists, who were blinded to the histopathology results, read the CT images and recorded the attenuation value, morphological characteristics, and enhancement features of the tumours, which were subsequently evaluated. An independent samples t-test, χ 2 test, and rank sum test were performed between the tumours. The predictive value of a CT finding was determined by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: AML with minimal fat had an apparent female prevalence (p < 0.01). Intra-tumoural vessels were noted in 11 cases of AML with minimal fat and three PRCC cases (p < 0.01). The unenhanced attenuation characteristic was significantly different between the two diseases (p < 0.001). The absolute attenuation values (AAVs) and the corrected attenuation values (CAVs) of the AML with minimal fat group of unenhanced and two phases of enhanced images were greater compared with that of the PRCC group (p < 0.05). After contrast medium injection, the tumour enhancement value (TEV) of the AML with minimal fat group in the corticomedullary phase was greater than that of the PRCC group (p < 0.01). Most cases of both tumour types demonstrated early enhancement characteristics; the enhancement value of the AML with minimal fat group was greater compared with that of the PRCC group (p < 0.01). The unenhanced attenuation characteristic, intra-tumoural vessels, and CAVs of unenhanced and early excretory phase scans were valuable parameters to

  17. Enhanced Attenuation: Chlorinated Organics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    attenuation capacity of the aquifer downgradient from the source (e.g., permeable reactive barriers or phytoremediation ) Selection of EA remedies should be...prevalence and/or mobility of nitrate and sulfate compounds and/or metals such as iron, manganese, chromium, copper, and arsenic . Furthermore, in...ranging from very aggressive source destruction and removal methods to less energy-intensive methods, such as phytoremediation . In many cases, it

  18. Optimize fat Replacers in food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M HassaniMoosaAbadi

    2018-03-01

    CONCLUSION: In order to solve some problems related to the elimination or reduction of fat , cardiovascular diseases prevention and health improvement, it is possible to use fat alternatives in communities’ food, furthermore, the obtained results indicated that the production of low-calorie foods is similar to the texture of high fat products.

  19. Mechanism underlying selective regulation of G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium channels by the psychostimulant-sensitive sorting nexin 27

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balana, Bartosz; Maslennikov, Innokentiy; Kwiatkowski, Witek; Stern, Kalyn M.; Bahima, Laia; Choe, Senyon; Slesinger, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels are important gatekeepers of neuronal excitability. The surface expression of neuronal GIRK channels is regulated by the psychostimulant-sensitive sorting nexin 27 (SNX27) protein through a class I (-X-Ser/Thr-X-Φ, where X is any residue and Φ is a hydrophobic amino acid) PDZ-binding interaction. The G protein-insensitive inward rectifier channel (IRK1) contains the same class I PDZ-binding motif but associates with a different synaptic PDZ protein, postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95). The mechanism by which SNX27 and PSD95 discriminate these channels was previously unclear. Using high-resolution structures coupled with biochemical and functional analyses, we identified key amino acids upstream of the channel's canonical PDZ-binding motif that associate electrostatically with a unique structural pocket in the SNX27-PDZ domain. Changing specific charged residues in the channel's carboxyl terminus or in the PDZ domain converts the selective association and functional regulation by SNX27. Elucidation of this unique interaction site between ion channels and PDZ-containing proteins could provide a therapeutic target for treating brain diseases. PMID:21422294

  20. Control algorithms for dynamic attenuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Scott S., E-mail: sshsieh@stanford.edu [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Pelc, Norbert J. [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford California 94305 and Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The authors describe algorithms to control dynamic attenuators in CT and compare their performance using simulated scans. Dynamic attenuators are prepatient beam shaping filters that modulate the distribution of x-ray fluence incident on the patient on a view-by-view basis. These attenuators can reduce dose while improving key image quality metrics such as peak or mean variance. In each view, the attenuator presents several degrees of freedom which may be individually adjusted. The total number of degrees of freedom across all views is very large, making many optimization techniques impractical. The authors develop a theory for optimally controlling these attenuators. Special attention is paid to a theoretically perfect attenuator which controls the fluence for each ray individually, but the authors also investigate and compare three other, practical attenuator designs which have been previously proposed: the piecewise-linear attenuator, the translating attenuator, and the double wedge attenuator. Methods: The authors pose and solve the optimization problems of minimizing the mean and peak variance subject to a fixed dose limit. For a perfect attenuator and mean variance minimization, this problem can be solved in simple, closed form. For other attenuator designs, the problem can be decomposed into separate problems for each view to greatly reduce the computational complexity. Peak variance minimization can be approximately solved using iterated, weighted mean variance (WMV) minimization. Also, the authors develop heuristics for the perfect and piecewise-linear attenuators which do not requirea priori knowledge of the patient anatomy. The authors compare these control algorithms on different types of dynamic attenuators using simulated raw data from forward projected DICOM files of a thorax and an abdomen. Results: The translating and double wedge attenuators reduce dose by an average of 30% relative to current techniques (bowtie filter with tube current

  1. Control algorithms for dynamic attenuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Scott S.; Pelc, Norbert J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The authors describe algorithms to control dynamic attenuators in CT and compare their performance using simulated scans. Dynamic attenuators are prepatient beam shaping filters that modulate the distribution of x-ray fluence incident on the patient on a view-by-view basis. These attenuators can reduce dose while improving key image quality metrics such as peak or mean variance. In each view, the attenuator presents several degrees of freedom which may be individually adjusted. The total number of degrees of freedom across all views is very large, making many optimization techniques impractical. The authors develop a theory for optimally controlling these attenuators. Special attention is paid to a theoretically perfect attenuator which controls the fluence for each ray individually, but the authors also investigate and compare three other, practical attenuator designs which have been previously proposed: the piecewise-linear attenuator, the translating attenuator, and the double wedge attenuator. Methods: The authors pose and solve the optimization problems of minimizing the mean and peak variance subject to a fixed dose limit. For a perfect attenuator and mean variance minimization, this problem can be solved in simple, closed form. For other attenuator designs, the problem can be decomposed into separate problems for each view to greatly reduce the computational complexity. Peak variance minimization can be approximately solved using iterated, weighted mean variance (WMV) minimization. Also, the authors develop heuristics for the perfect and piecewise-linear attenuators which do not requirea priori knowledge of the patient anatomy. The authors compare these control algorithms on different types of dynamic attenuators using simulated raw data from forward projected DICOM files of a thorax and an abdomen. Results: The translating and double wedge attenuators reduce dose by an average of 30% relative to current techniques (bowtie filter with tube current

  2. Control algorithms for dynamic attenuators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Scott S; Pelc, Norbert J

    2014-06-01

    The authors describe algorithms to control dynamic attenuators in CT and compare their performance using simulated scans. Dynamic attenuators are prepatient beam shaping filters that modulate the distribution of x-ray fluence incident on the patient on a view-by-view basis. These attenuators can reduce dose while improving key image quality metrics such as peak or mean variance. In each view, the attenuator presents several degrees of freedom which may be individually adjusted. The total number of degrees of freedom across all views is very large, making many optimization techniques impractical. The authors develop a theory for optimally controlling these attenuators. Special attention is paid to a theoretically perfect attenuator which controls the fluence for each ray individually, but the authors also investigate and compare three other, practical attenuator designs which have been previously proposed: the piecewise-linear attenuator, the translating attenuator, and the double wedge attenuator. The authors pose and solve the optimization problems of minimizing the mean and peak variance subject to a fixed dose limit. For a perfect attenuator and mean variance minimization, this problem can be solved in simple, closed form. For other attenuator designs, the problem can be decomposed into separate problems for each view to greatly reduce the computational complexity. Peak variance minimization can be approximately solved using iterated, weighted mean variance (WMV) minimization. Also, the authors develop heuristics for the perfect and piecewise-linear attenuators which do not require a priori knowledge of the patient anatomy. The authors compare these control algorithms on different types of dynamic attenuators using simulated raw data from forward projected DICOM files of a thorax and an abdomen. The translating and double wedge attenuators reduce dose by an average of 30% relative to current techniques (bowtie filter with tube current modulation) without

  3. Cerebral fat embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Toshihisa; Sawada, Yusuke; Yukioka, Tetsuo; Nishide, Kazuyuki; Yoshioka, Toshiharu

    1982-01-01

    A case of cerebral fat embolism is reported. A 18-year-old patient with multiple bone fractures was in semiconma immediately after an injury. Brain CT showed no brain swelling or intracranial hematoma. Hypoxemia and alcoholemia were noted on admission, which returned to normal without improvement of consciousness level. In addition, respiratory symptoms with positive radiographic changes, tachycardia, pyrexia, sudden drop in hemoglobin level, and sudden thrombocytopenia developed. These symptoms were compatible with Gurd's criteria of systemic fat embolism. Eight days after injury, multiple low density areas appeared on CT and disappeared within the subsequent two weeks, and subdural effusion with cerebral atrophy developed. These CT findings were not considered due to cerebral trauma. Diagnosis of cerebral fat embolism was made. The subdural effusion was drained. Neurologic and pulmonary recoveries took place slowly and one month following the injury the patient became alert and exhibited fully coordinated limb movement. The CT scans of the present case well corresponded with hitherto reported pathological findings. Petechiae in the white matter must have developed on the day of injury, which could not be detected by CT examination. It is suggested that some petechial regions fused to purpuras and then gradually resolved when they were detected as multiple low density areas on CT. CT in the purpuras phase would have shown these lesions as high density areas. These lesions must have healed with formation of tiny scars and blood pigment which were demonstrated as the disappearance of multiple low density areas by CT examination. Cerebral atrophy and subsequent subdural effusion developed as a result of demyelination. The patient took the typical clinical course of cerebral fat embolism and serial CT scans served for its assessment. (author)

  4. Radiologic and pathologic findings of a follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer with extensive stromal fat: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jn Woo; Kim, Tae Hyung; Roh, Hong Gee; Moon, Won Jin; Lee, Sang Hwa; Hwang, Tae Sook; Park, Kyoung Sik [Konkuk University Medical Center, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Thyroid cancer may have small adipose structures detected by microscopy. However, there are no reports of thyroid cancer with gross fat evaluated by radiological methods. We reported a case of a 58-year-old woman with a fat containing thyroid mass. The mass was hyperechoic and ovoid in shape with a smooth margin on ultrasonography. On computed tomography, the mass had markedly low attenuation suggestive of fat, and fine reticular and thick septa-like structures. The patient underwent a right lobectomy. The mass was finally diagnosed as a follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer with massive stromal fat.

  5. Vinpocetine attenuates lipid accumulation and atherosclerosis formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Yujun; Li, Jian-Dong; Yan, Chen

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Vinpocetine attenuates hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerosis in a mouse model. •Vinpocetine antagonizes ox-LDL uptake and accumulation in macrophages. •Vinpocetine blocks the induction of ox-LDL receptor LOX-1 in vitro and in vivo. -- Abstract: Atherosclerosis, the major cause of myocardial infarction and stroke, is a chronic arterial disease characterized by lipid deposition and inflammation in the vessel wall. Cholesterol, in low-density lipoprotein (LDL), plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has long been used as a cerebral blood flow enhancer for treating cognitive impairment. Recent study indicated that vinpocetine is a potent anti-inflammatory agent. However, its role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis remains unexplored. In the present study, we show that vinpocetine significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesion formation in ApoE knockout mice fed with a high-fat diet. In cultured murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells, vinpocetine markedly attenuated oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) uptake and foam cell formation. Moreover, vinpocetine greatly blocked the induction of ox-LDL receptor 1 (LOX-1) in cultured macrophages as well as in the LOX-1 level in atherosclerotic lesions. Taken together, our data reveal a novel role of vinpocetine in reduction of pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, at least partially through suppressing LOX-1 signaling pathway. Given the excellent safety profile of vinpocetine, this study suggests vinpocetine may be a therapeutic candidate for treating atherosclerosis

  6. Vinpocetine attenuates lipid accumulation and atherosclerosis formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yujun [Aab Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Ave, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Li, Jian-Dong [Center for Inflammation, Immunity and Infection, and Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Yan, Chen, E-mail: Chen_Yan@urmc.rochester.edu [Aab Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Ave, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States)

    2013-05-10

    Highlights: •Vinpocetine attenuates hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerosis in a mouse model. •Vinpocetine antagonizes ox-LDL uptake and accumulation in macrophages. •Vinpocetine blocks the induction of ox-LDL receptor LOX-1 in vitro and in vivo. -- Abstract: Atherosclerosis, the major cause of myocardial infarction and stroke, is a chronic arterial disease characterized by lipid deposition and inflammation in the vessel wall. Cholesterol, in low-density lipoprotein (LDL), plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has long been used as a cerebral blood flow enhancer for treating cognitive impairment. Recent study indicated that vinpocetine is a potent anti-inflammatory agent. However, its role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis remains unexplored. In the present study, we show that vinpocetine significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesion formation in ApoE knockout mice fed with a high-fat diet. In cultured murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells, vinpocetine markedly attenuated oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) uptake and foam cell formation. Moreover, vinpocetine greatly blocked the induction of ox-LDL receptor 1 (LOX-1) in cultured macrophages as well as in the LOX-1 level in atherosclerotic lesions. Taken together, our data reveal a novel role of vinpocetine in reduction of pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, at least partially through suppressing LOX-1 signaling pathway. Given the excellent safety profile of vinpocetine, this study suggests vinpocetine may be a therapeutic candidate for treating atherosclerosis.

  7. Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) attenuates diet-induced aortic stiffening independent of changes in body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Tyler; Ouyang, An; Berrones, Adam J; Campbell, Marilyn S; Du, Bing; Fleenor, Bradley S

    2017-08-01

    We hypothesized a sweet potato intervention would prevent high-fat (HF) diet-induced aortic stiffness, which would be associated with decreased arterial oxidative stress and increased mitochondrial uncoupling. Young (8-week old) C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: low fat (LF; 10% fat), HF (60% fat), low-fat sweet potato (LFSP; 10% fat containing 260.3 μg/kcal sweet potato), or high-fat sweet potato diet (HFSP; 60% fat containing 260.3 μg/kcal sweet potato) for 16 weeks. Compared with LF and LFSP, HF- and HFSP-fed mice had increased body mass and percent fat mass with lower percent lean mass (all, P Sweet potato intervention did not influence body composition (all, P > 0.05). Arterial stiffness, assessed by aortic pulse wave velocity and ex vivo mechanical testing of the elastin region elastic modulus (EEM) was greater in HF compared with LF and HFSP animals (all, P sweet potato attenuates diet-induced aortic stiffness independent of body mass and composition, which is associated with a normalization of arterial oxidative stress possibly due to mitochondrial uncoupling.

  8. Intermittent fasting reduces body fat but exacerbates hepatic insulin resistance in young rats regardless of high protein and fat diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunmin; Yoo, Kyung Min; Hyun, Joo Suk; Kang, Suna

    2017-02-01

    Intermittent fasting (IMF) is a relatively new dietary approach to weight management, although the efficacy and adverse effects have not been full elucidated and the optimal diets for IMF are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that a one-meal-per-day intermittent fasting with high fat (HF) or protein (HP) diets can modify energy, lipid, and glucose metabolism in normal young male Sprague-Dawley rats with diet-induced obesity or overweight. Male rats aged 5 weeks received either HF (40% fat) or HP (26% protein) diets ad libitum (AL) or for 3 h at the beginning of the dark cycle (IMF) for 5 weeks. Epidydimal fat pads and fat deposits in the leg and abdomen were lower with HP and IMF. Energy expenditure at the beginning of the dark cycle, especially from fat oxidation, was higher with IMF than AL, possibly due to greater activity levels. Brown fat content was higher with IMF. Serum ghrelin levels were higher in HP-IMF than other groups, and accordingly, cumulative food intake was also higher in HP-IMF than HF-IMF. HF-IMF exhibited higher area under the curve (AUC) of serum glucose at the first part (0-40 min) during oral glucose tolerance test, whereas AUC of serum insulin levels in both parts were higher in IMF and HF. During intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test, serum glucose levels were higher with IMF than AL. Consistently, hepatic insulin signaling (GLUT2, pAkt) was attenuated and PEPCK expression was higher with IMF and HF than other groups, and HOMA-IR revealed significantly impaired attenuated insulin sensitivity in the IMF groups. However, surprisingly, hepatic and skeletal muscle glycogen storage was higher in IMF groups than AL. The higher glycogen storage in the IMF groups was associated with the lower expression of glycogen phosphorylase than the AL groups. In conclusion, IMF especially with HF increased insulin resistance, possibly by attenuating hepatic insulin signaling, and lowered glycogen phosphorylase expression despite decreased fat mass in young

  9. Association between pancreatic fat and incidence of metabolic syndrome: a 5-year Japanese cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Hajime; Tauchi, Shinichi; Kimachi, Miho; Dohke, Mitsuru; Hanawa, Nagisa; Kodama, Yoshihisa; Katanuma, Akio; Yamamoto, Yosuke; Fukuma, Shingo; Fukuhara, Shunichi

    2018-04-26

    Previous cross-sectional studies showed that pancreatic fat was associated with metabolic syndrome. However, no longitudinal study has evaluated whether people with high pancreatic fat are likely to develop future metabolic syndrome. This study investigated the association between baseline pancreatic fat and metabolic syndrome incidence. In 2008-2009, 320 participants without metabolic syndrome underwent health checks, which included unenhanced computed tomography, and were followed up annually for 4-5 years. Baseline pancreatic fat amounts were evaluated using a histologically validated method that measured differences between pancreas and spleen attenuations on computed tomography. The participants were divided into low (reference), intermediate, and high pancreatic fat groups based on pancreas and spleen attenuation tertiles. Metabolic syndrome incidence was evaluated annually over a median follow-up period of 4.99 (interquartile range, 4.88-5.05) years, in accordance with the 2009 harmonized criteria. Risk ratios (RRs) for the association between baseline pancreatic fat amounts and metabolic syndrome incidence were estimated using Poisson regression models adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, liver fat, pre-metabolic syndrome, cigarette use, alcohol use, and physical activity. Metabolic syndrome incidence was 30.6% (98/320). Pancreatic fat was associated with an increased incidence of metabolic syndrome, based on a univariate analysis (RRs [95% confidence interval], 3.14 [1.74-5.67] and 3.96 [2.23-7.03] in the intermediate and high pancreatic fat groups, respectively). The association remained statistically significant in the multivariate analysis (RR [95% confidence interval], 2.04 [1.14-3.64] and 2.30 [1.28-4.14] for the same groups, respectively). Pancreatic fat predicts the future risk of metabolic syndrome. © 2018 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Association of Changes in Abdominal Fat Quantity and Quality With Incident Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jane J; Pedley, Alison; Hoffmann, Udo; Massaro, Joseph M; Fox, Caroline S

    2016-10-04

    Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) are associated with adverse cardiometabolic risk profiles. This study explored the degree to which changes in abdominal fat quantity and quality are associated with changes in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Study participants (n = 1,106; 44.1% women; mean baseline age 45.1 years) were drawn from the Framingham Heart Study Third Generation cohort who participated in the computed tomography (CT) substudy Exams 1 and 2. Participants were followed for 6.1 years on average. Abdominal adipose tissue volume in cm(3) and attenuation in Hounsfield units (HU) were determined by CT-acquired abdominal scans. The mean fat volume change was an increase of 602 cm(3) for SAT and an increase of 703 cm(3) for VAT; the mean fat attenuation change was a decrease of 5.5 HU for SAT and an increase of 0.07 HU for VAT. An increase in fat volume and decrease in fat attenuation were associated with adverse changes in CVD risk factors. An additional 500 cm(3) increase in fat volume was associated with incident hypertension (odds ratio [OR]: 1.21 for SAT; OR: 1.30 for VAT), hypertriglyceridemia (OR: 1.15 for SAT; OR: 1.56 for VAT), and metabolic syndrome (OR: 1.43 for SAT; OR: 1.82 for VAT; all p abdominal adipose tissue attenuation. Most associations remained significant even after further accounting for body mass index change, waist circumference change, or respective abdominal adipose tissue volumes. Increasing accumulation of fat quantity and decreasing fat attenuation are associated with worsening of CVD risk factors beyond the associations with generalized adiposity, central adiposity, or respective adipose tissue volumes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Facial fat necrosis following autologous fat transfer and its management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweta Rai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autologous fat transfer (AFT is an increasingly popular cosmetic procedure practiced by dermatologic surgeons worldwide. As this is an office based procedure performed under local or tumescent anaesthesia with fat transferred within the same individual and limited associated down time its is considered relatively safe and risk free in the cosmetic surgery arena. We describe a case of AFT related fat necrosis causing significant facial dysmorphia and psychosocial distress. We also discuss the benefits and risks of AFT highlighting common causes of fat graft failure.

  12. Psychostimulants and forced swim stress interaction: how activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and stress-induced hyperglycemia are affected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliano, Humberto; Ortega-Sanchez, Juan Antonio; Nadal, Roser; Armario, Antonio

    2017-10-01

    We recently reported that simultaneous exposure to amphetamine and various stressors resulted in reduced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and glycemic responses to the stressors. Since this is a new and relevant phenomenon, we wanted to further explore this interaction. This study aims (i) to characterize the effect of various doses of amphetamine on the physiological response to a predominantly emotional stressor (forced swim) when the drug was given immediately before stress; (ii) to study if an interaction appears when the drug was given 30 min or 7 days before swim; and (iii) to know whether cocaine causes similar effects when given just before stress. Adult male rats were used and plasma levels of ACTH, corticosterone, and glucose were the outcomes. Amphetamine caused a dose-dependent activation of the HPA axis, but all doses reduced HPA and glycemic responses to swim when given just before the stressor. Importantly, during the post-swim period, the stressor potently inhibited the ACTH response to amphetamine, demonstrating mutual inhibition between the two stimuli. The highest dose of amphetamine also reduced the response to swim when given 30 min before stress, whereas it caused HPA sensitization when given 7 days before. Cocaine also reduced stress-induced HPA activation when given just before swim. The present results demonstrate a negative synergy between psychostimulants (amphetamine and cocaine) and stress regarding HPA and glucose responses when rats were exposed simultaneously to both stimuli. The inhibitory effect of amphetamine is also observed when given shortly before stress, but not some days before.

  13. Usefulness of combined fat- and fluid-suppressed SPIR-FLAIR images in optic neurits : Comparison with fat-suppressed SPIR or STIR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hye Yeon; Son, Seok Hyun; Eun, Choong Ki; Han, Sang Suk

    2001-01-01

    To compare the usefulness of combined fat- and fluid-suppressed selective partial inversion recovery-fluid attenuated inversion recovery(SPIR-FLAIR) images in the detection of high signal intensity of the optic nerve in optic neuritis with that of fat-suppressed selective partial inversion recovery(SPIR) or short inversion time inversion recovery(STIR) images. Two radiologists independently analyzed randomly mixed MR images of 16 lesions in 14 patients (M:F=7:7; mean age, 40 years) in whom optic neuritis had been clinically diagnosed. All subjects underwent both SPIR-FLAIR and fat-suppressed SPIR or STIR imaging, in a blind fashion. In order to evaluate the optic nerve, coronal images perpendicular to its long axis were obtained. The detection rate of high signal intensity of the optic nerve, the radiologists preferred imaging sequences, and intersubject consistency of detection were evaluated. 'High signal intensity' was defined as the subjective visual evaluation of increased signal intensity compared with that of the contralateral optic nerve or that of white matter. The mean detection rate of high signal intensity of the optic nerve was 90% for combined fat- and fluid-suppressed SPIR-FLAIR images, and 59% for fat-suppressed SPIR or STIR images. In all cases in which the signal intensity observed on SPIR-FLAIR images was normal, that on fat-suppressed SPIR or STIR images was also normal. The radiologists preferred the contrast properties of SPIR-FLAIR to those of fat-suppressed SPIR or STIR images. In the diagnosis of optic neuritis using MRI, combined fat- and fluid-suppressed SPIR-FLAIR images were more useful for the detection of high signal intensity of the optic nerve than fat-suppressed SPIR or STIR images. For the evaluation of optic neuritis, combined fat- and fluid-suppressed SPIR-FLAIR imaging is superior to fat-suppressed SPIR or STIR imaging

  14. Gallic acid attenuates high-fat diet fed-streptozotocin-induced insulin resistance via partial agonism of PPARγ in experimental type 2 diabetic rats and enhances glucose uptake through translocation and activation of GLUT4 in PI3K/p-Akt signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Gopalsamy Rajiv; Jothi, Gnanasekaran; Antony, Poovathumkal James; Balakrishna, Kedike; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu; Stalin, Antony; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah

    2014-12-15

    In this study, the therapeutic efficacy of gallic acid from Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub. (Fabaceae) beans was examined against high-fat diet fed-streptozotocin-induced experimental type 2 diabetic rats. Molecular-dockings were done to determine the putative binding modes of gallic acid into the active sites of key insulin-signaling markers. Gallic acid (20 mg/kg) given to high-fat diet fed-streptozotocin-induced rats lowered body weight gain, fasting blood glucose and plasma insulin in diabetic rats. It further restored the alterations of biochemical parameters to near normal levels in diabetic treated rats along with cytoprotective action on pancreatic β-cell. Histology of liver and adipose tissues supported the biochemical findings. Gallic acid significantly enhanced the level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) expression in the adipose tissue of treated rat compared to untreated diabetic rat; it also slightly activated PPARγ expressions in the liver and skeletal muscle. Consequently, it improved insulin-dependent glucose transport in adipose tissue through translocation and activation of glucose transporter protein 4 (GLUT4) in phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-Akt) dependent pathway. Gallic acid docked with PPARγ; it exhibited promising interactions with the GLUT4, glucose transporter protein 1 (GLUT1), PI3K and p-Akt. These findings provided evidence to show that gallic acid could improve adipose tissue insulin sensitivity, modulate adipogenesis, increase adipose glucose uptake and protect β-cells from impairment. Hence it can be used in the management of obesity-associated type 2 diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Ultrasonic attenuation in superconducting zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auluck, S.

    1978-01-01

    The differences in the Zn ultrasonic attenuation data of different workers are analyzed. The superconducting energy gaps deduced from our analysis of the ultrasonic-attenuation data of Cleavelin and Marshall are consistent with the gaps deduced from the knowledge of the Fermi surface and the electron-phonon mass enhancement factor

  16. Myostatin Attenuation In Vivo Reduces Adiposity, but Activates Adipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Naisi; Yang, Qiyuan; Walker, Ryan G; Thompson, Thomas B; Du, Min; Rodgers, Buel D

    2016-01-01

    A potentially novel approach for treating obesity includes attenuating myostatin as this increases muscle mass and decreases fat mass. Notwithstanding, conflicting studies report that myostatin stimulates or inhibits adipogenesis and it is unknown whether reduced adiposity with myostatin attenuation results from changes in fat deposition or adipogenesis. We therefore quantified changes in the stem, transit amplifying and progenitor cell pool in white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) using label-retaining wild-type and mstn(-/-) (Jekyll) mice. Muscle mass was larger in Jekyll mice, WAT and BAT mass was smaller and label induction was equal in all tissues from both wild-type and Jekyll mice. The number of label-retaining cells, however, dissipated quicker in WAT and BAT of Jekyll mice and was only 25% and 17%, respectively, of wild-type cell counts 1 month after induction. Adipose cell density was significantly higher in Jekyll mice and increased over time concomitant with label-retaining cell disappearance, which is consistent with enhanced expansion and differentiation of the stem, transit amplifying and progenitor pool. Stromal vascular cells from Jekyll WAT and BAT differentiated into mature adipocytes at a faster rate than wild-type cells and although Jekyll WAT cells also proliferated quicker in vitro, those from BAT did not. Differentiation marker expression in vitro, however, suggests that mstn(-/-) BAT preadipocytes are far more sensitive to the suppressive effects of myostatin. These results suggest that myostatin attenuation stimulates adipogenesis in vivo and that the reduced adiposity in mstn(-/-) animals results from nutrient partitioning away from fat and in support of muscle.

  17. Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to cardiovascular risk factors in prepubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2012-01-01

    Aim:  We analysed whether total body fat (TBF), abdominal fat and body fat distribution are associated with higher composite risk factor scores for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in young children. Methods:  Cross-sectional study of 238 children aged 8-11 years. TBF and abdominal fat mass (AFM) wer......, separately, and used as composite risk factor score. Results:  Pearson correlations between ln BF%, ln AFM and AFM/TBF versus composite risk factor score for boys were r = 0.56, r = 0.59 and r = 0.48, all p ...

  18. Protect Your Heart: Choose Healthy Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... peanut butter and peanut oil Polyunsaturated fat: Polyunsaturated fat, another type of unsaturated fat, protects your heart. Sources of ... paste • safflower oil • walnuts • salad dressings Omega-3 fats: This type of fat helps prevent clogging of the arteries. ...

  19. Bias atlases for segmentation-based PET attenuation correction using PET-CT and MR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Jinsong; Chun, Se Young; Petibon, Yoann; Bonab, Ali A; Alpert, Nathaniel; Fakhri, Georges El

    2013-10-01

    This study was to obtain voxel-wise PET accuracy and precision using tissue-segmentation for attenuation correction. We applied multiple thresholds to the CTs of 23 patients to classify tissues. For six of the 23 patients, MR images were also acquired. The MR fat/in-phase ratio images were used for fat segmentation. Segmented tissue classes were used to create attenuation maps, which were used for attenuation correction in PET reconstruction. PET bias images were then computed using the PET reconstructed with the original CT as the reference. We registered the CTs for all the patients and transformed the corresponding bias images accordingly. We then obtained the mean and standard deviation bias atlas using all the registered bias images. Our CT-based study shows that four-class segmentation (air, lungs, fat, other tissues), which is available on most PET-MR scanners, yields 15.1%, 4.1%, 6.6%, and 12.9% RMSE bias in lungs, fat, non-fat soft-tissues, and bones, respectively. An accurate fat identification is achievable using fat/in-phase MR images. Furthermore, we have found that three-class segmentation (air, lungs, other tissues) yields less than 5% standard deviation of bias within the heart, liver, and kidneys. This implies that three-class segmentation can be sufficient to achieve small variation of bias for imaging these three organs. Finally, we have found that inter- and intra-patient lung density variations contribute almost equally to the overall standard deviation of bias within the lungs.

  20. Methyl donor supplementation blocks the adverse effects of maternal high fat diet on offspring physiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesselea Carlin

    Full Text Available Maternal consumption of a high fat diet during pregnancy increases the offspring risk for obesity. Using a mouse model, we have previously shown that maternal consumption of a high fat (60% diet leads to global and gene specific decreases in DNA methylation in the brain of the offspring. The present experiments were designed to attempt to reverse this DNA hypomethylation through supplementation of the maternal diet with methyl donors, and to determine whether methyl donor supplementation could block or attenuate phenotypes associated with maternal consumption of a HF diet. Metabolic and behavioral (fat preference outcomes were assessed in male and female adult offspring. Expression of the mu-opioid receptor and dopamine transporter mRNA, as well as global DNA methylation were measured in the brain. Supplementation of the maternal diet with methyl donors attenuated the development of some of the adverse effects seen in offspring from dams fed a high fat diet; including weight gain, increased fat preference (males, changes in CNS gene expression and global hypomethylation in the prefrontal cortex. Notable sex differences were observed. These findings identify the importance of balanced methylation status during pregnancy, particularly in the context of a maternal high fat diet, for optimal offspring outcome.

  1. Hepatic fat quantification using automated six-point Dixon: Comparison with conventional chemical shift based sequences and computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Kie; Namimoto, Tomohiro; Nakagawa, Masataka; Morita, Kosuke; Oda, Seitaro; Nakaura, Takeshi; Utsunomiya, Daisuke; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

    To compare automated six-point Dixon (6-p-Dixon) MRI comparing with dual-echo chemical-shift-imaging (CSI) and CT for hepatic fat fraction in phantoms and clinical study. Phantoms and fifty-nine patients were examined both MRI and CT for quantitative fat measurements. In phantom study, linear regression between fat concentration and 6-p-Dixon showed good agreement. In clinical study, linear regression between 6-p-Dixon and dual-echo CSI showed good agreement. CT attenuation value was strongly correlated with 6-p-Dixon (R 2 =0.852; PDixon and dual-echo CSI were accurate correlation with CT attenuation value of liver parenchyma. 6-p-Dixon has the potential for automated hepatic fat quantification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Association of ectopic fat with abdominal aorto-illiac and coronary artery calcification in african ancestry men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Allison L; Zmuda, Joseph M; Carr, J Jeffrey; Terry, James G; Nair, Sangeeta; Cvejkus, Ryan; Bunker, Clareann H; Patrick, Alan L; Wassel, Christina L; Miljkovic, Iva

    2017-08-01

    There is strong evidence that fat accumulating in non-adipose sites, "ectopic fat", is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), including vascular calcification. Most previous studies of this association have assessed only a single ectopic fat depot. Therefore, our aim was to assess the association of total, regional, and ectopic fat with abdominal aorto-illiac calcification (AAC) and coronary artery calcification (CAC) in 798 African ancestry men. Participants (mean age 62) were from the Tobago Bone Health Study cohort. Adiposity was assessed via clinical examination, dual x-ray absorptiometry, and computed tomography (CT). Ectopic fat depots included: abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT), liver attenuation, and calf intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT). Vascular calcification was assessed by CT and quantified as present versus absent. Associations were tested using multiple logistic regression adjusted for traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Models of ectopic fat were additionally adjusted for total body fat and standing height. All adiposity measures, except VAT, were associated with AAC. Lower liver attenuation or greater calf IMAT was associated with 1.2-1.3-fold increased odds of AAC (p fat measure was associated with CAC. Greater adiposity in the skeletal muscle and liver, but not in the visceral compartment, was associated with increased odds of AAC in African ancestry men. These results highlight the potential importance of both quantity and location of adiposity accumulation throughout the body. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of myostatin depletion on weight gain, hyperglycemia, and hepatic steatosis during five months of high-fat feeding in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerri Burgess

    Full Text Available The marked hypermuscularity in mice with constitutive myostatin deficiency reduces fat accumulation and hyperglycemia induced by high-fat feeding, but it is unclear whether the smaller increase in muscle mass caused by postdevelopmental loss of myostatin activity has beneficial metabolic effects during high-fat feeding. We therefore examined how postdevelopmental myostatin knockout influenced effects of high-fat feeding. Male mice with ubiquitous expression of tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase were fed tamoxifen for 2 weeks at 4 months of age. This depleted myostatin in mice with floxed myostatin genes, but not in control mice with normal myostatin genes. Some mice were fed a high-fat diet (60% of energy for 22 weeks, starting 2 weeks after cessation of tamoxifen feeding. Myostatin depletion increased skeletal muscle mass ∼30%. Hypermuscular mice had ∼50% less weight gain than control mice over the first 8 weeks of high-fat feeding. During the subsequent 3 months of high-fat feeding, additional weight gain was similar in control and myostatin-deficient mice. After 5 months of high-fat feeding, the mass of epididymal and retroperitoneal fat pads was similar in control and myostatin-deficient mice even though myostatin depletion reduced the weight gain attributable to the high-fat diet (mean weight with high-fat diet minus mean weight with low-fat diet: 19.9 g in control mice, 14.1 g in myostatin-deficient mice. Myostatin depletion did not alter fasting blood glucose levels after 3 or 5 months of high-fat feeding, but reduced glucose levels measured 90 min after intraperitoneal glucose injection. Myostatin depletion also attenuated hepatic steatosis and accumulation of fat in muscle tissue. We conclude that blocking myostatin signaling after maturity can attenuate some of the adverse effects of a high-fat diet.

  4. Prior exercise training blunts short-term high-fat diet-induced weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snook, Laelie A; MacPherson, Rebecca E K; Monaco, Cynthia M F; Frendo-Cumbo, Scott; Castellani, Laura; Peppler, Willem T; Anderson, Zachary G; Buzelle, Samyra L; LeBlanc, Paul J; Holloway, Graham P; Wright, David C

    2016-08-01

    High-fat diets rapidly cause weight gain and glucose intolerance. We sought to determine whether these changes could be mitigated with prior exercise training. Male C57BL/6J mice were exercise-trained by treadmill running (1 h/day, 5 days/wk) for 4 wk. Twenty-four hours after the final bout of exercise, mice were provided with a high-fat diet (HFD; 60% kcal from lard) for 4 days, with no further exercise. In mice fed the HFD prior to exercise training, the results were blunted weight gain, reduced fat mass, and a slight attenuation in glucose intolerance that was mirrored by greater insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscle compared with sedentary mice fed the HFD. When ad libitum-fed sedentary mice were compared with sedentary high-fat fed mice that were calorie restricted (-30%) to match the weight gain of the previously trained high-fat fed mice, the same attenuated impairments in glucose tolerance were found. Blunted weight gain was associated with a greater capacity to increase energy expenditure in trained compared with sedentary mice when challenged with a HFD. Although mitochondrial enzymes in white adipose tissue and UCP-1 protein content in brown adipose tissue were increased in previously exercised compared with sedentary mice fed a HFD, ex vivo mitochondrial respiration was not increased in either tissue. Our data suggest that prior exercise training attenuates high-fat diet-induced weight gain and glucose intolerance and is associated with a greater ability to increase energy expenditure in response to a high-fat diet. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Steato-Score: Non-Invasive Quantitative Assessment of Liver Fat by Ultrasound Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lascio, Nicole; Avigo, Cinzia; Salvati, Antonio; Martini, Nicola; Ragucci, Monica; Monti, Serena; Prinster, Anna; Chiappino, Dante; Mancini, Marcello; D'Elia, Domenico; Ghiadoni, Lorenzo; Bonino, Ferruccio; Brunetto, Maurizia R; Faita, Francesco

    2018-05-04

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is becoming a global epidemic. The aim of this study was to develop a system for assessing liver fat content based on ultrasound images. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements were obtained in 61 patients and the controlled attenuation parameter in 54. Ultrasound images were acquired for all 115 participants and used to calculate the hepatic/renal ratio, hepatic/portal vein ratio, attenuation rate, diaphragm visualization and portal vein wall visualization. The Steato-score was obtained by combining these five parameters. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements were significantly correlated with hepatic/renal ratio, hepatic/portal vein ratio, attenuation rate, diaphragm visualization and portal vein wall visualization; Steato-score was dependent on hepatic/renal ratio, attenuation rate and diaphragm visualization. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was equal to 0.98, with 89% sensitivity and 94% specificity. Controlled attenuation parameter values were significantly correlated with hepatic/renal ratio, attenuation rate, diaphragm visualization and Steato-score; the area under the curve was 0.79. This system could be a valid alternative as a non-invasive, simple and inexpensive assessment of intrahepatic fat. Copyright © 2018 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to VO(2PEAK) in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2011-01-01

    as a percentage of body mass (BF%) and body fat distribution as AFM/TBF. VO(2PEAK) was assessed by indirect calorimetry during maximal exercise test. Results. Significant relationships existed between body fat measurements and VO(2PEAK) in both boys and girls, with Pearson correlation coefficients for absolute...

  7. Mesotherapy for local fat reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, S; Guillot, T; Bissoon, L; Greenway, F

    2013-10-01

    Mesotherapy, which is the injection of substances locally into mesodermally derived subcutaneous tissue, developed from empirical observations of a French physician in the 1950s. Although popular in Europe for many medical purposes, it is used for local cosmetic fat reduction in the United States. This paper reviews manuscripts indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE under 'mesotherapy', which pertains to local fat reduction. The history of lipolytic mesotherapy, the physiology of body fat distribution, the mechanism of action of different lipolytic stimulators and their increased efficacy in combination are reviewed. Mesotherapy falls into two categories. Lipolytic mesotherapy using lipolytic stimulators requires more frequent treatments as the fat cells are not destroyed and can refill over time. Ablative mesotherapy destroys fat cells with a detergent, causes inflammation and scarring from the fat necrosis, but requires fewer treatments. The historic and empiric mixing of sodium channel blocking local anaesthetics in mesotherapy solutions inhibits the intended lipolysis. Major mesotherapy safety concerns include injection site infections from poor sterile technique. Cosmetic mesotherapy directs the area from which fat is lost to improve self-image. Studies were of relatively small number, many with limited sample sizes. Future research should be directed towards achieving a Food and Drug Administration indication rather than continuing expansion of off-label use. © 2013 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  8. Chronic blood pressure and appetite responses to central leptin infusion in rats fed a high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinion, John H; da Silva, Alexandre A; Hall, John E

    2011-04-01

    Obesity has been suggested to induce selective leptin resistance whereby leptin's anorexic effects are attenuated, whereas the effects to increase sympathetic nervous system activity and blood pressure remain intact. Most studies, however, have tested only the acute responses to leptin administration. This study tested whether feeding a high-fat diet causes resistance to the appetite and cardiovascular responses to chronic central leptin infusion. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed high-fat diet (40% kcal from fat, n=5) or normal-fat diet (13% kcal from fat, n=5) for a year. Radiotelemeters were implanted for continuous monitoring of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR). A 21G steel cannula was implanted in the lateral cerebral ventricle [intracerebroventricular (ICV)]. After recovery, leptin was infused ICV at 0.02 μg/kg per min for 10 days. High-fat rats were heavier than normal-fat rats (582±12 vs. 511±19 g) and exhibited significantly higher MAP (114±3 vs. 96±7 mmHg). Although the acute (24 h) effects of leptin were attenuated in high-fat rats, chronic ICV leptin infusion decreased caloric intake in both groups similarly (50±8 vs. 40±10%) by day 5. Despite decreased food intake and weight loss, leptin infusion significantly increased MAP and HR in both high-fat and normal-fat rats (7±2 and 5±1 mmHg; 18±11 and 21±10 b.p.m., respectively). These results suggest that obesity induced by feeding a high-fat diet blunts the acute anorexic effects of leptin but does not cause significant resistance to the chronic central nervous system effects of leptin on appetite, MAP, or HR.

  9. Ectopic fat accumulation in patients with COPD: an ECLIPSE substudy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin M

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mickaël Martin,1 Natalie Almeras,1 Jean-Pierre Després,1 Harvey O Coxson,2 George R Washko,3 Isabelle Vivodtzev,4 Emiel FM Wouters,5 Erica Rutten,6 Michelle C Williams,7 John T Murchison,8 William MacNee,7 Don D Sin,2 François Maltais1 On behalf of the Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints (ECLIPSE Study Group 1Research Centre, Institut universitaire de cardiologie et de pneumologie de Québec, Université Laval, Québec, QC, 2Department of Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 3Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 4Hypoxia Pathophysiology Laboratory, Grenoble University Hospital, Grenoble, France; 5Department of Respiratory Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, 6Research and Development, CIRO, Horn, the Netherlands; 7Department of Respiratory Medicine, University of Edinburgh, 8Department of Radiology, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK Background: Obesity is increasingly associated with COPD, but little is known about the prevalence of ectopic fat accumulation in COPD and whether this can possibly be associated with poor clinical outcomes and comorbidities. The Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints (ECLIPSE substudy tested the hypothesis that COPD is associated with increased ectopic fat accumulation and that this would be associated with COPD-related outcomes and comorbidities.Methods: Computed tomography (CT images of the thorax obtained in ECLIPSE were used to quantify ectopic fat accumulation at L2–L3 (eg, cross-sectional area [CSA] of visceral adipose tissue [VAT] and muscle tissue [MT] attenuation, a reflection of muscle fat infiltration and CSA of MT. A dose–response relationship between CSA of VAT, MT attenuation and CSA of MT and COPD-related outcomes (6-minute walking distance [6MWD], exacerbation rate, quality of life, and forced

  10. Bioactive Lipids in Dairy Fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellgren, Lars; Nordby, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    Milk fat is the most important energy source for the newborn infant beside its important role as energy source, milk fat also contain a range of bioactive lipids, that potentially can modulate the immune response and metabolic regulation in the child. In this chapter we review the literature on b...... on bioactive dairy fatty acids: conjugated linoleic acid, branched chained and odd chained fatty acids, as well as bioactive complex lipids such as sphingomyelin and gangliosides....

  11. Fat in the dural sinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokiguchi, S.; Ando, K.; Tsuchiya, T.; Ito, J.

    1986-01-01

    Fat density in the dural sinus on computed tomography (CT) is described in eight cases. Of the eight cases, five had fat deposit in the torcular Herophili, and three in the superior sagittal sinus. This finding was incidentally found by CT and there was no common underlying disease in these cases. It is suggested that this finding represents normal adipose tissue in the dural sinus. (orig.)

  12. Correlation between Abdominal Fat Amount and Fatty Liver, using Liver to Kidney Echo Ratio on Ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yanhg Shin; Lee, Chang Hee; Choi, Kyung Mook; Lee, Jong Mee; Choi, Jae Woong; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Park, Cheol Min [Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    It has been generally recognized that fatty liver can often be seen in the obese population. This study was conducted in order to evaluate the association between fatty liver and abdominal fat volume. A total of 105 patients who visited our obesity clinic in the recent three years underwent fat CT scans and abdominal US. Attenuation difference between liver and spleen on CT was considered as a reference standard for the diagnosis of fatty liver. On US, the echogenicity of the liver parenchyma was measured in three different regions of interest (ROI) close to the adjacent right kidney in the same slice, avoiding vessels, bile duct, and calcification. Similar measurements were performed in the right renal cortex. The mean values were calculated automatically on the histogram of the ROI using the PACS program. The hepatorenal echogenicity ratio (HER; mean hepatic echogenicity/ mean renal echogenicity) was then calculated. Abdominal fat volume was measured using a 3 mm slice CT scan at the L4/5 level and was calculated automatically using a workstation. Abdominal fat was classified according to total fat (TF), visceral fat (VF), and subcutaneous fat (SF). We used Pearson's bivariate correlation method for assessment of the correlation between HER and TF, VF, and SF, respectively. Significant correlation was observed between HER and abdominal fat (TF, VF, and SF). HER showed significant correlation with VF and TF (r = 0.491 and 0.402, respectively; p = 0.000). The correlation between HER and SF (r = 0.255, p = 0.009) was less significant than for VF or TF. Fat measurement (HER) by hepatic ultrasound correlated well with the amount of abdominal fat. In particular, the VF was found to show a stronger association with fatty liver than SF.

  13. Correlation between Abdominal Fat Amount and Fatty Liver, using Liver to Kidney Echo Ratio on Ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yanhg Shin; Lee, Chang Hee; Choi, Kyung Mook; Lee, Jong Mee; Choi, Jae Woong; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Park, Cheol Min

    2012-01-01

    It has been generally recognized that fatty liver can often be seen in the obese population. This study was conducted in order to evaluate the association between fatty liver and abdominal fat volume. A total of 105 patients who visited our obesity clinic in the recent three years underwent fat CT scans and abdominal US. Attenuation difference between liver and spleen on CT was considered as a reference standard for the diagnosis of fatty liver. On US, the echogenicity of the liver parenchyma was measured in three different regions of interest (ROI) close to the adjacent right kidney in the same slice, avoiding vessels, bile duct, and calcification. Similar measurements were performed in the right renal cortex. The mean values were calculated automatically on the histogram of the ROI using the PACS program. The hepatorenal echogenicity ratio (HER; mean hepatic echogenicity/ mean renal echogenicity) was then calculated. Abdominal fat volume was measured using a 3 mm slice CT scan at the L4/5 level and was calculated automatically using a workstation. Abdominal fat was classified according to total fat (TF), visceral fat (VF), and subcutaneous fat (SF). We used Pearson's bivariate correlation method for assessment of the correlation between HER and TF, VF, and SF, respectively. Significant correlation was observed between HER and abdominal fat (TF, VF, and SF). HER showed significant correlation with VF and TF (r = 0.491 and 0.402, respectively; p = 0.000). The correlation between HER and SF (r = 0.255, p = 0.009) was less significant than for VF or TF. Fat measurement (HER) by hepatic ultrasound correlated well with the amount of abdominal fat. In particular, the VF was found to show a stronger association with fatty liver than SF.

  14. The effect of exercise on obesity, body fat distribution and risk for type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedecke, Julia H; Micklesfield, Lisa K

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D), while exercise is known to reduce body fatness and attenuate the risk of T2D. The aim of this chapter is to examine the interactions between exercise, obesity and body fat distribution, and the risk for T2D. Firstly, we show that body fatness, in particular visceral adipose tissue (VAT) accumulation, is associated with insulin resistance and incident T2D. We then show that aerobic exercise of sufficient intensity and volume results in a decrease in body fat and VAT. Conversely, sedentary behavior and physical inactivity are associated with increased body fat and VAT. Finally, the chapter examines the interaction between physical activity (PA), obesity and risk for T2D and shows that both obesity and PA are significant independent predictors of incident T2D, but the magnitude of risk imparted by high levels of body fat is much greater than that of low levels of PA. Further, we show that obese physically active individuals are at greater risk for incident T2D than normal-weight physically inactive individuals. The mechanisms underlying this complex interaction include the ability of exercise to increase free fatty acid oxidation to match high rates of lipolysis associated with obesity, as well as the effects of exercise on adipokine, cytokine and myokine secretion. Exercise, of sufficient volume and intensity, is therefore recommended to reduce obesity, centralization of body fat, and risk of T2D.

  15. Fat Grafting for Facial Filling and Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Sydney R; Katzel, Evan B

    2015-07-01

    Plastic surgeons have come to realize that fat grafting can rejuvenate an aging face by restoring or creating fullness. However, fat grafting does much more than simply add volume. Grafted fat can transform or repair the tissues into which it is placed. Historically, surgeons have hesitated to embrace the rejuvenating potential of fat grafting because of poor graft take, fat necrosis, and inconsistent outcomes. This article describes fat grafting techniques and practices to assist readers in successful harvesting, processing, and placement of fat for optimal graft retention and facial esthetic outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Attenuation in Superconducting Circular Waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Yeap

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We present an analysis on wave propagation in superconducting circular waveguides. In order to account for the presence of quasiparticles in the intragap states of a superconductor, we employ the characteristic equation derived from the extended Mattis-Bardeen theory to compute the values of the complex conductivity. To calculate the attenuation in a circular waveguide, the tangential fields at the boundary of the wall are first matched with the electrical properties (which includes the complex conductivity of the wall material. The matching of fields with the electrical properties results in a set of transcendental equations which is able to accurately describe the propagation constant of the fields. Our results show that although the attenuation in the superconducting waveguide above cutoff (but below the gap frequency is finite, it is considerably lower than that in a normal waveguide. Above the gap frequency, however, the attenuation in the superconducting waveguide increases sharply. The attenuation eventually surpasses that in a normal waveguide. As frequency increases above the gap frequency, Cooper pairs break into quasiparticles. Hence, we attribute the sharp rise in attenuation to the increase in random collision of the quasiparticles with the lattice structure.

  17. Effects of dietary fat on appetite and energy intake in health and obesity--oral and gastrointestinal sensory contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Tanya J; Feinle-Bisset, Christine

    2011-09-26

    While epidemiological studies have revealed a strong positive relationship between the intake of dietary fat with total energy intake and body weight, laboratory-based studies investigating physiological effects of fat have demonstrated that the direct exposure of receptors in the oral cavity and small intestine to fat, specifically fatty acids (FAs), induces potent effects on gastrointestinal (GI) motility and gut peptide secretion that favor the suppression of appetite and energy intake. Recent studies in humans have demonstrated an association between a decreased ability to detect the presence of FAs in the oral cavity with increased energy intake and body mass index suggesting that impairment of oral fat sensing mechanisms may contribute to overeating and obesity. Furthermore, while sensing of the presence of FAs in the small intestine results in the modulation of GI motility, stimulation of GI hormone release, including cholecystokinin (CCK) and peptide YY (PYY), and suppression of subsequent energy intake, recent data indicate that these effects of fat are attenuated in individuals with reduced oral sensitivity to fat, and following consumption of a high-fat diet. This review will focus on emerging knowledge about the physiological mechanisms that sense the presence of fat in both the oral cavity and the small intestine, and environmental factors, such as high-fat diet exposure and energy restriction, that may modulate sensitivity to nutrients, and thereby contribute to the regulation of appetite and body weight. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Nutritional Strategies for the Preservation of Fat Free Mass at High Altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacie L. Wing-Gaia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to extreme altitude presents many physiological challenges. In addition to impaired physical and cognitive function, energy imbalance invariably occurs resulting in weight loss and body composition changes. Weight loss, and in particular, loss of fat free mass, combined with the inherent risks associated with extreme environments presents potential performance, safety, and health risks for those working, recreating, or conducting military operations at extreme altitude. In this review, contributors to muscle wasting at altitude are highlighted with special emphasis on protein turnover. The article will conclude with nutritional strategies that may potentially attenuate loss of fat free mass during high altitude exposure.

  19. Novel determination of protein, fat, and lactose of milk by liquid scintillation counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, R.C.; Shand, J.H.; West, I.G.

    1981-01-01

    A method for routine determination of protein, fat, and lactose contents of milk is based on the ability of a scintillation counter to measure coloration or opalescence through attenuation of photons emitted from sealed miniature carbon-14 and hydrogen-3 radioactive standards. A series of simplified and accurate analytical procedures enable full advantage to be taken of the automatic facilities on the modern liquid scintillation counter. The methods provide several advantages over existing procedures. Accuracy of quantification was high as assessed by comparing the results with those derived by recommended Kjeldahl, Gerber, and colorimetric procedures for protein, fat, and lactose determinations, respectively

  20. Autologous Fat Injection for Augmented Mammoplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Eul Sik; Seo, Bo Kyoung; Yi, Ann; Cho, Kyu Ran

    2008-01-01

    Autologous fat injection is one of the methods utilized for augmented mammoplasty methods. In this surgical procedure, the fat for transfer is obtained from the donor site of the patient's own body by liposuction and the fat is then injected into the breast. We report here cases of three patients who underwent autologous fat injection. Two of the patients had palpable masses that were present after surgery. The serial imaging findings and surgical method of autologous fat transfer are demonstrated

  1. The LCLS Gas Attenuator Revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryutov, D

    2005-01-01

    In the report ''X-ray attenuation cell'' [1] a preliminary analysis of the gas attenuator for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) was presented. This analysis was carried out for extremely stringent set of specifications. In particular, a very large diameter for the unobstructed beam was set (1 cm) to accommodate the spontaneous radiation; the attenuator was supposed to cover the whole range of energies of the coherent radiation, from 800 eV to 8000 eV; the maximum attenuation was set at the level of 10 4 ; the use of solid attenuators was not allowed, as well as the use of rotating shutters. The need to reach a sufficient absorption at the high-energy end of the spectrum predetermined the choice of Xe as the working gas (in order to have a reasonable absorption at a not-too-high pressure). A sophisticated differential pumping system that included a Penning-type ion pump was suggested in order to minimize the gas leak into the undulator/accelerator part of the facility. A high cost of xenon meant also that an efficient (and expensive) gas-recovery system would have to be installed. The main parameter that determined the high cost and the complexity of the system was a large radius of the orifice. The present viewpoint allows for much smaller size of the orifice, r 0 = 1.5 mm. (1) The use of solid attenuators is also allowed (R.M. Bionta, private communication). It is, therefore, worthwhile to reconsider various parameters of the gas attenuator for these much less stringent conditions. This brief study should be considered as a physics input for the engineering design. As a working gas we consider now the argon, which, on the one hand, provides a reasonable absorption lengths and, on the other hand, is inexpensive enough to be exhausted into the atmosphere (no recovery). The absorption properties of argon are illustrated by Fig.1 where the attenuation factor A is shown for various beam energies, based on Ref. [2]. The other relevant parameters for argon are

  2. Josephson tunnel junction microwave attenuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koshelets, V. P.; Shitov, S. V.; Shchukin, A. V.

    1993-01-01

    A new element for superconducting electronic circuitry-a variable attenuator-has been proposed, designed, and successfully tested. The principle of operation is based on the change in the microwave impedance of a superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) Josephson tunnel junction when dc biased...... at different points in the current-voltage characteristic. Both numerical calculations based on the Tien-Gordon theory and 70-GHz microwave experiments have confirmed the wide dynamic range (more than 15-dB attenuation for one stage) and the low insertion loss in the ''open'' state. The performance of a fully...

  3. [Autologous fat grafting in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, C; Bertrand, B; Philandrianos, C; Degardin, N; Casanova, D

    2016-10-01

    Lipofilling or fat grafting transfer is defined as a technique of filling soft tissue by autologous fat grafting. The basic principle of lipofilling is based on a harvest of adipose tissue, followed by a reinjection after treatment. Lipofilling main objective is a volume defect filling, but also improving cutaneous trophicity. Lipofilling specificities among children is mainly based on these indications. Complications of autologous fat grafting among children are the same as those in adults: we distinguish short-term complications (intraoperative and perioperative) and the medium and long-term complications. The harvesting of fat tissue is the main limiting factor of the technique, due to low percentage of body fat of children. Indications of lipofilling among children may be specific or similar to those in adults. There are two types of indications: cosmetic, in which the aim of lipofilling is correcting a defect density, acquired (iatrogenic, post-traumatic scar) or malformation (otomandibular dysplasia, craniosynostosis, Parry Romberg syndrom, Poland syndrom, pectus excavatum…). The aim of functional indications is correcting a velar insufficiency or lagophthalmos. In the paediatric sector, lipofilling has become an alternative to the conventional techniques, by its reliability, safety, reproducibility, and good results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Fat Quantification in the Abdomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Cheng William; Fazeli Dehkordy, Soudabeh; Hooker, Jonathan C; Hamilton, Gavin; Sirlin, Claude B

    2017-12-01

    Fatty liver disease is characterized histologically by hepatic steatosis, the abnormal accumulation of lipid in hepatocytes. It is classified into alcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and is an increasingly important cause of chronic liver disease and cirrhosis. Assessing the severity of hepatic steatosis in these conditions is important for diagnostic and prognostic purposes, as hepatic steatosis is potentially reversible if diagnosed early. The criterion standard for assessing hepatic steatosis is liver biopsy, which is limited by sampling error, its invasive nature, and associated morbidity. As such, noninvasive imaging-based methods of assessing hepatic steatosis are needed. Ultrasound and computed tomography are able to suggest the presence of hepatic steatosis based on imaging features, but are unable to accurately quantify hepatic fat content. Since Dixon's seminal work in 1984, magnetic resonance imaging has been used to compute the signal fat fraction from chemical shift-encoded imaging, commonly implemented as out-of-phase and in-phase imaging. However, signal fat fraction is confounded by several factors that limit its accuracy and reproducibility. Recently, advanced chemical shift-encoded magnetic resonance imaging methods have been developed that address these confounders and are able to measure the proton density fat fraction, a standardized, accurate, and reproducible biomarker of fat content. The use of these methods in the liver, as well as in other abdominal organs such as the pancreas, adrenal glands, and adipose tissue will be discussed in this review.

  5. Gain attenuation of gated framing camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Shali; Liu Shenye; Cao Zhurong; Li Hang; Zhang Haiying; Yuan Zheng; Wang Liwei

    2009-01-01

    The theoretic model of framing camera's gain attenuation is analyzed. The exponential attenuation curve of the gain along the pulse propagation time is simulated. An experiment to measure the coefficient of gain attenuation based on the gain attenuation theory is designed. Experiment result shows that the gain follows an exponential attenuation rule with a quotient of 0.0249 nm -1 , the attenuation coefficient of the pulse is 0.00356 mm -1 . The loss of the pulse propagation along the MCP stripline is the leading reason of gain attenuation. But in the figure of a single stripline, the gain dose not follow the rule of exponential attenuation completely, instead, there is a gain increase at the stripline bottom. That is caused by the reflection of the pulse. The reflectance is about 24.2%. Combining the experiment and theory, which design of the stripline MCP can improved the gain attenuation. (authors)

  6. A Green Algae Mixture of Scenedesmus and Schroederiella Attenuates Obesity-Linked Metabolic Syndrome in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Senthil Arun; Magnusson, Marie; Ward, Leigh C.; Paul, Nicholas A.; Brown, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the responses to a green algae mixture of Scenedesmus dimorphus and Schroederiella apiculata (SC) containing protein (46.1% of dry algae), insoluble fibre (19.6% of dry algae), minerals (3.7% of dry algae) and omega-3 fatty acids (2.8% of dry algae) as a dietary intervention in a high carbohydrate, high fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome model in four groups of male Wistar rats. Two groups were fed with a corn starch diet containing 68% carbohydrates as polysaccharides, while the other two groups were fed a diet high in simple carbohydrates (fructose and sucrose in food, 25% fructose in drinking water, total 68%) and fats (saturated and trans fats from beef tallow, total 24%). High carbohydrate, high fat-fed rats showed visceral obesity with hypertension, insulin resistance, cardiovascular remodelling, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. SC supplementation (5% of food) lowered total body and abdominal fat mass, increased lean mass, and attenuated hypertension, impaired glucose and insulin tolerance, endothelial dysfunction, infiltration of inflammatory cells into heart and liver, fibrosis, increased cardiac stiffness, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in the high carbohydrate, high fat diet-fed rats. This study suggests that the insoluble fibre or protein in SC helps reverse diet-induced metabolic syndrome. PMID:25875119

  7. Transient attenuation in optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, A.A.; Kelly, R.E.; Looney, L.D.; Lyons, P.B.

    1984-01-01

    Low and high energy pulsed electron beams were used to generate radiation-induced transient attenuation in high-OH, Suprasil core, PCS fibers, demonstrating the energy dependence of the radiation damage and recovery mechanisms. A radiation resistant low-OH fiber was studied and its performance contrasted to that of high-OH materials. Several fibers with differing core compositions were also studied

  8. A Generalized Correction for Attenuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Anne C.; Bock, R. Darrell

    Use of the usual bivariate correction for attenuation with more than two variables presents two statistical problems. This pairwise method may produce a covariance matrix which is not at least positive semi-definite, and the bivariate procedure does not consider the possible influences of correlated errors among the variables. The method described…

  9. Compact plasmonic variable optical attenuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leosson, Kristjan; Rosenzveig, Tiberiu; Hermannsson, Pétur Gordon

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate plasmonic nanowire-based thermo-optic variable optical attenuators operating in the 1525-1625 nm wavelength range. The devices have a footprint as low as 1 mm, extinction ratio exceeding 40 dB, driving voltage below 3 V, and full modulation bandwidth of 1 kHz. The polarization...

  10. Attenuation of Vrancea events revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radulian, M.; Popa, M.; Grecu, B.; Panza, G.F.

    2003-11-01

    New aspects of the frequency-dependent attenuation of the seismic waves traveling from Vrancea subcrustal sources toward NW (Transylvanian Basin) and SE (Romanian Plain) are evidenced by the recent experimental data made available by the CALIXTO'99 tomography experiment. The observations validate the previous theoretical computations performed for the assessment, by means of a deterministic approach, of the seismic hazard in Romania. They reveal an essential aspect of the seismic ground motion attenuation, that has important implications on the probabilistic assessment of seismic hazard from Vrancea intermediate-depth earthquakes. The attenuation toward NW is shown to be a much stronger frequency-dependent effect than the attenuation toward SE and the seismic hazard computed by the deterministic approach fits satisfactorily well the observed ground motion distribution in the low-frequency band (< 1 Hz). The apparent contradiction with the historically-based intensity maps arises mainly from a systematic difference in the vulnerability (buildings eigenperiod) of the buildings in the intra- and extra-Carpathians regions. (author)

  11. Fat and fat-free mass at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gregers Stig; Girma, Tsinuel; Wells, Jonathan CK

    2011-01-01

    LBW increases the risk of a number of noncommunicable diseases in adulthood. However, birth weight (BW) cannot describe variability in infant body composition (BC). Variability in fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) at birth may be particularly important in low-income countries because they und......LBW increases the risk of a number of noncommunicable diseases in adulthood. However, birth weight (BW) cannot describe variability in infant body composition (BC). Variability in fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) at birth may be particularly important in low-income countries because...... they undergo nutritional transition. There is a need for data on birth BC and its predictors from low-income countries in transition. We assessed absolute FM and FFM at birth and examined the role of gender, parity, GA, and LBW as predictors of birth BC. FM and FFM were assessed within 48 h of birth on 350...... Ethiopian newborns using air displacement plethysmography (ADP). Female gender and being an infant of primi- or secundiparous mothers predicted lower BW and lower birth FFM but not FM, compared with male gender and infants of multiparous mothers, respectively. There was a positive linear relationship...

  12. Membrane permeable C-terminal dopamine transporter peptides attenuate amphetamine-evoked dopamine release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rickhag, Karl Mattias; Owens, WA; Winkler, Marie-Therese

    2013-01-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) is responsible for sequestration of extracellular dopamine (DA). The psychostimulant amphetamine (AMPH) is a DAT substrate, which is actively transported into the nerve terminal, eliciting vesicular depletion and reversal of DA transport via DAT. Here, we investigate......-terminal protein-protein interactions are critical for AMPH-evoked DA efflux and suggest that it may be possible to target protein-protein interactions to modulate transporter function and interfere with psychostimulant effects....

  13. Severe fat embolism in perioperative abdominal liposuction and fat grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima E Souza, Rodrigo; Apgaua, Bruno Tavares; Milhomens, João Daniel; Albuquerque, Francisco Tadeu Motta; Carneiro, Luiz Antônio; Mendes, Márcio Henrique; Garcia, Tiago Carvalho; Paiva, Clerisson; Ladeia, Felipe; Jeunon, Deiler Célio

    2016-01-01

    Fat embolism syndrome may occur in patients suffering from multiple trauma (long bone fractures) or plastic surgery (liposuction), compromising the circulatory, respiratory and/or central nervous systems. This report shows the evolution of severe fat embolism syndrome after liposuction and fat grafting. SSS, 42 years old, ASA 1, no risk factors for thrombosis, candidate for abdominal liposuction and breast implant prosthesis. Subjected to balanced general anesthesia with basic monitoring and controlled ventilation. After 45min of procedure, there was a sudden and gradual decrease of capnometry, severe hypoxemia and hypotension. The patient was immediately monitored for MAP and central catheter, treated with vasopressors, inotropes, and crystalloid infusion, stabilizing her condition. Arterial blood sample showed pH=7.21; PCO2=51mmHg; PO2=52mmHg; BE=-8; HCO3=18mEqL(-1), and lactate=6.0mmolL(-1). Transthoracic echocardiogram showed PASP=55mmHg, hypocontractile VD and LVEF=60%. Diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. After 24h of intensive treatment, the patient developed anisocoria and coma (Glasgow coma scale=3). A brain CT was performed which showed severe cerebral hemispheric ischemia with signs of fat emboli in right middle cerebral artery; transesophageal echocardiography showed a patent foramen ovale. Finally, after 72h of evolution, the patient progressed to brain death. Fat embolism syndrome usually occurs in young people. Treatment is based mainly on the infusion of fluids and vasoactive drugs, mechanical ventilation, and triggering factor correction (early fixation of fractures or suspension of liposuction). The multiorgânico involvement indicates a worse prognosis. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. The mitochondrial pyruvate carrier mediates high fat diet-induced increases in hepatic TCA cycle capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Rauckhorst, Adam J.; Gray, Lawrence R.; Sheldon, Ryan D.; Fu, Xiaorong; Pewa, Alvin D.; Feddersen, Charlotte R.; Dupuy, Adam J.; Gibson-Corley, Katherine N.; Cox, James E.; Burgess, Shawn C.; Taylor, Eric B.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Excessive hepatic gluconeogenesis is a defining feature of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Most gluconeogenic flux is routed through mitochondria. The mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) transports pyruvate from the cytosol into the mitochondrial matrix, thereby gating pyruvate-driven gluconeogenesis. Disruption of the hepatocyte MPC attenuates hyperglycemia in mice during high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity but exerts minimal effects on glycemia in normal chow diet (NCD)-fed conditions. T...

  15. Accuracy of Liver Fat Quantification With Advanced CT, MRI, and Ultrasound Techniques: Prospective Comparison With MR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Harald; Pickhardt, Perry J; Kliewer, Mark A; Hernando, Diego; Chen, Guang-Hong; Zagzebski, James A; Reeder, Scott B

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate the accuracy of proton-density fat-fraction, single- and dual-energy CT (SECT and DECT), gray-scale ultrasound (US), and US shear-wave elastography (US-SWE) in the quantification of hepatic steatosis with MR spectroscopy (MRS) as the reference standard. Fifty adults who did not have symptoms (23 men, 27 women; mean age, 57 ± 5 years; body mass index, 27 ± 5) underwent liver imaging with un-enhanced SECT, DECT, gray-scale US, US-SWE, proton-density fat-fraction MRI, and MRS for this prospective trial. MRS voxels for the reference standard were colocalized with all other modalities under investigation. For SECT (120 kVp), attenuation values were recorded. For rapid-switching DECT (80/140 kVp), monochromatic images (70-140 keV) and fat density-derived material decomposition images were reconstructed. For proton-density fat fraction MRI, a quantitative chemical shift-encoded method was used. For US, echogenicity was evaluated on a qualitative 0-3 scale. Quantitative US shear-wave velocities were also recorded. Data were analyzed by linear regression for each technique compared with MRS. There was excellent correlation between MRS and both proton-density fat-fraction MRI (r 2 = 0.992; slope, 0.974; intercept, -0.943) and SECT (r 2 = 0.856; slope, -0.559; intercept, 35.418). DECT fat attenuation had moderate correlation with MRS measurements (r 2 = 0.423; slope, 0.034; intercept, 8.459). There was good correlation between qualitative US echogenicity and MRS measurements with a weighted kappa value of 0.82. US-SWE velocity did not have reliable correlation with MRS measurements (r 2 = 0.004; slope, 0.069; intercept, 6.168). Quantitative MRI proton-density fat fraction and SECT fat attenuation have excellent linear correlation with MRS measurements and can serve as accurate noninvasive biomarkers for quantifying steatosis. Material decomposition with DECT does not improve the accuracy of fat quantification over

  16. Playing with bone and fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Zvonic, Sanjin; Floyd, Z. Elisabeth

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between bone and fat formation within the bone marrow microenvironment is complex and remains an area of active investigation. Classical in vitro and in vivo studies strongly support an inverse relationship between the commitment of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells...

  17. Dietary fat and cardiovascular disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lie T. Merijanti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dietary saturated fat (SF intake has been shown to increase low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol and therefore has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. This evidence coupled with inferences from epidemiologic studies and clinical trials, had led to longstanding public health recommendations for limiting SF intake as a means of preventing CVD. However the relationship between SF and CVD risk remains controversial, due at least in part to the intrinsic limitations of clinical studies that have evaluated this relationship. A recent meta analysis showed that current evidence does not clearly support cardiovascular guidelines that encourage high consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and low consumption of total SF. They found weak positive associations between circulating palmitic and stearic acids (found largely in palm oil and animal fats, respectively and CVD, whereas circulating margaric acid (a dairy fat significantly reduced the risk of CVD.(2,3 Saturated fat are not associated with all cause mortality, CVD, CHD, ischemic stroke or type 2 diabetes, but the evidence is heterogenous with methodological limitations.

  18. Biodiesel via hydrotreating of fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Ahmed, El Hadi; Christensen, Claus Hviid

    Biodiesel production via transesterification to fatty acid alkyl esters is rising rapidly worldwide due to the limited availability of fossil resources and the problems of global warming. Often, however, the use of 2nd-generation feedstock like animal waste fat and trap greases etc. is made...

  19. High fat diet disrupts endoplasmic reticulum calcium homeostasis in the rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wires, Emily S; Trychta, Kathleen A; Bäck, Susanne; Sulima, Agnieszka; Rice, Kenner C; Harvey, Brandon K

    2017-11-01

    Disruption to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium homeostasis has been implicated in obesity, however, the ability to longitudinally monitor ER calcium fluctuations has been challenging with prior methodologies. We recently described the development of a Gaussia luciferase (GLuc)-based reporter protein responsive to ER calcium depletion (GLuc-SERCaMP) and investigated the effect of a high fat diet on ER calcium homeostasis. A GLuc-based reporter cell line was treated with palmitate, a free fatty acid. Rats intrahepatically injected with GLuc-SERCaMP reporter were fed a cafeteria diet or high fat diet. The liver and plasma were examined for established markers of steatosis and compared to plasma levels of SERCaMP activity. Palmitate induced GLuc-SERCaMP release in vitro, indicating ER calcium depletion. Consumption of a cafeteria diet or high fat pellets correlated with alterations to hepatic ER calcium homeostasis in rats, shown by increased GLuc-SERCaMP release. Access to ad lib high fat pellets also led to a corresponding decrease in microsomal calcium ATPase activity and an increase in markers of hepatic steatosis. In addition to GLuc-SERCaMP, we have also identified endogenous proteins (endogenous SERCaMPs) with a similar response to ER calcium depletion. We demonstrated the release of an endogenous SERCaMP, thought to be a liver esterase, during access to a high fat diet. Attenuation of both GLuc-SERCaMP and endogenous SERCaMP was observed during dantrolene administration. Here we describe the use of a reporter for in vitro and in vivo models of high fat diet. Our results support the theory that dietary fat intake correlates with a decrease in ER calcium levels in the liver and suggest a high fat diet alters the ER proteome. Lay summary: ER calcium dysregulation was observed in rats fed a cafeteria diet or high fat pellets, with fluctuations in sensor release correlating with fat intake. Attenuation of sensor release, as well as food intake was observed during

  20. Differentiation of lard, chicken fat, beef fat and mutton fat by GCMS and EA-IRMS techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Nizar, Nina Naquiah; Nazrim Marikkar, Jalaldeen Mohamed; Hashim, Dzulkifly Mat

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to differentiate lard, chicken fat, beef fat and mutton fat using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Elemental Analyzer-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (EA-IRMS). The comparison of overall fatty acid data showed that lard and chicken fat share common characteristics by having palmitic, oleic and linoleic acid as major fatty acids while beef and mutton fats shared common characteristics by possessing palmitic, stearic and oleic acid as major fatty acids. The direct comparisons among the fatty acid data, therefore, may not be suitable for discrimination of different animal fats. When the fatty acid distributional data was subjected to Principle Component Analysis (PCA), it was demonstrated that stearic, oleic and linoleic acids as the most discriminating parameters in the clustering of animal fats into four subclasses. The bulk carbon analysis of animal fats using EA-IRMS showed that determination of the carbon isotope ratios (δ¹³C) would be a good indicator for discriminating lard, chicken fat, beef fat and mutton fat. This would lead to a faster and more efficient method to ascertain the source of origin of fats used in food products.

  1. FTO gene associated fatness in relation to body fat distribution and metabolic traits throughout a broad range of fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia I I; Holst, Claus; Zimmermann, Esther

    2008-01-01

    A common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of FTO (rs9939609, T/A) is associated with total body fatness. We investigated the association of this SNP with abdominal and peripheral fatness and obesity-related metabolic traits in middle-aged men through a broad range of fatness present already...

  2. Novel nuances of human brown fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheele, Camilla; Larsen, Therese Juhlin; Nielsen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    the types of thermogenic adipocytes in humans. We recently published a contradictory mRNA expression signature of human supraclavicular fat defined by an upregulation of the brite marker TBX1 along with the classical brown markers ZIC1 and LHX8, as well as genes indicating brown fat activity including UCP1......, there was no difference in UCP1, PGC-1α, PRDM16, suggesting both depots had equal brown fat potency. Taken together, supraclavicular brown fat derived from adult humans seems to represent a type of brown fat with distinct features from both subcutaneous white/brite and interscapular brown fat. Therefore......There is a current debate in the literature on whether human fat derived from the supraclavicular region should be classified as brown, or as the white fat-derived less potent, brite/beige. This commentary addresses whether the existing classification defined in mice is sufficient to describe...

  3. The impact of a low glycaemic index (GI diet on simultaneous measurements of blood glucose and fat oxidation: A whole body calorimetric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupinder Kaur

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Consumption of LGI meals was capable of attenuating 24-hour blood glucose profiles and decreasing postprandial glucose excursions in healthy Asian males. Additionally, LGI mixed meals were able to promote fat oxidation over carbohydrate oxidation when compared to HGI mixed meals. The consumption of low GI meals may be a strategic approach in improving overall glycaemia and increasing fat oxidation in Asians consuming a high carbohydrate diet.

  4. Ghrelin receptor antagonism attenuates cocaine- and amphetamine-induced locomotor stimulation, accumbal dopamine release, and conditioned place preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerlhag, Elisabet; Egecioglu, Emil; Dickson, Suzanne L; Engel, Jörgen A

    2010-09-01

    Recently we demonstrated that genetic or pharmacological suppression of the central ghrelin signaling system, involving the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1A (GHS-R1A), lead to a reduced reward profile from alcohol. As the target circuits for ghrelin in the brain include a mesolimbic reward pathway that is intimately associated with reward-seeking behaviour, we sought to determine whether the central ghrelin signaling system is required for reward from drugs of abuse other than alcohol, namely cocaine or amphetamine. We found that amphetamine-as well as cocaine-induced locomotor stimulation and accumbal dopamine release were reduced in mice treated with a GHS-R1A antagonist. Moreover, the ability of these drugs to condition a place preference was also attenuated by the GHS-R1A antagonist. Thus GHS-R1A appears to be required not only for alcohol-induced reward, but also for reward induced by psychostimulant drugs. Our data suggest that the central ghrelin signaling system constitutes a novel potential target for treatment of addictive behaviours such as drug dependence.

  5. The animal fat paradox and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, E C; O'Neill, H A

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to address some of the paradoxical issues and perceptions regarding animal fats and the related effects on meat quality and consumer perceptions. Meat scientists have been studying carcass characteristics for many years and although the factors that influence the accumulation, distribution and composition of carcass fat in livestock have been extensively researched, the role, value and perceptions of animal fats in meat quality differ significantly in importance between producers, abattoirs, butchers, retailers and consumers. Fat and long-chain fatty acids, whether in adipose tissue or muscle, contribute to important aspects of meat quality and are central to the nutritional and sensory values of meat. In this review the nutritional value of fat, as well as the importance of fat in terms of carcass and meat quality will be highlighted. The 'quality' of meat depends greatly on the socio-demographic backgrounds of the consumer. The aim is to focus on the global importance of fat in the carcass to the producer, processor and consumer. There is currently no clear cut definition for fat quality because the acceptability and perceived quality of fat varies significantly in terms of quantity, colour, consistency and chemical composition in different species of livestock around the world. The association between animal fats and human health is critical and recommendations by health professionals range from excluding fats altogether to a moderate consumption of fats due to their essential role in the body. Recently the emphasis has shifted away from fat quantity to fat quality. Despite these recommendations and years of bad publicity in terms of the adverse affects of animal fats in human health, the livestock industry seems reluctant to shift its focus to fat quality rather than quantity. This approach may adversely affect future meat consumption by consumers who are becoming increasingly critical about the food they eat.

  6. Luteinized fat in Krukenberg tumor: MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yong Yeon; Kang, Heoung Keun; Seo, Jeong Jin; Nam, Jong Hee

    2002-01-01

    To our knowledge, there is no description of the fat-containing Krukenberg tumor. We report on a case of Krukenberg tumor associated with luteinized fat, which showed hyperintensity on T1-weighted MR image. The diagnosis was surgically confirmed. Hyperintense portion of the Krukenberg tumor on T1-weighted image showed diminished signal intensity on fat-saturated, T1-weighted images. Krukenberg tumor should be considered in the differential diagnosis of ovarian masses when fat signal is seen. (orig.)

  7. Regular-fat dairy and human health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne; Bradley, Beth H Rice; Brenna, J Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In recent history, some dietary recommendations have treated dairy fat as an unnecessary source of calories and saturated fat in the human diet. These assumptions, however, have recently been brought into question by current research on regular fat dairy products and human health. In an effort to......, cheese and yogurt, can be important components of an overall healthy dietary pattern. Systematic examination of the effects of dietary patterns that include regular-fat milk, cheese and yogurt on human health is warranted....

  8. Melatonin counteracts changes in hypothalamic gene expression of signals regulating feeding behavior in high-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Lugo, María J; Jiménez-Ortega, Vanesa; Cano-Barquilla, Pilar; Mateos, Pilar Fernández; Spinedi, Eduardo J; Cardinali, Daniel P; Esquifino, Ana I

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies indicate that the administration of melatonin caused body weight and abdominal visceral fat reductions in rodent models of hyperadiposity. The objective of the present study performed in high-fat fed rats was to evaluate the activity of melatonin on gene expression of some medial basal hypothalamus (MBH) signals involved in feeding behavior regulation, including neuropeptide Y (NPY), proopiomelanocortin (POMC), prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP), leptin- and insulin-receptors (R) and insulin-R substrate (IRS)-1 and -2. Blood levels of leptin and adiponectin were also measured. Adult Wistar male rats were divided into four groups (n=16 per group): (i) control diet (3% fat); (ii) high-fat (35%) diet; (iii) high-fat diet+melatonin; (iv) control diet+melatonin. Rats had free access to high-fat or control chow and one of the following drinking solutions: (a) tap water; (b) 25 μg/mL of melatonin. After 10 weeks, the high-fat fed rats showed augmented MBH mRNA levels of NPY, leptin-R, PrRP, insulin-R, IRS-1 and IRS-2. The concomitant administration of melatonin counteracted this increase. Feeding of rats with a high-fat diet augmented expression of the MBH POMC gene through an effect insensitive to melatonin treatment. The augmented levels of circulating leptin and adiponectin seen in high-fat fed rats were counteracted by melatonin as was the augmented body weight: melatonin significantly attenuated a body weight increase in high-fat fed rats without affecting chow or water consumption. Melatonin augmented plasma leptin and adiponectin in control rats. The results indicate that an effect on gene expression of feeding behavior signals at the central nervous system (CNS) may complement a peripheral rise of the energy expenditure produced by melatonin to decrease body weight in high-fat fed rats.

  9. SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

    2002-01-01

    In Section 1 of this first report we will describe the work we are doing to collect and analyze rock physics data for the purpose of modeling seismic attenuation from other measurable quantities such as porosity, water saturation, clay content and net stress. This work and other empirical methods to be presented later, will form the basis for ''Q pseudo-well modeling'' that is a key part of this project. In Section 2 of this report, we will show the fundamentals of a new method to extract Q, dispersion, and attenuation from field seismic data. The method is called Gabor-Morlet time-frequency decomposition. This technique has a number of advantages including greater stability and better time resolution than spectral ratio methods.

  10. Macroseismic intensity attenuation in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghmaei-Sabegh, Saman

    2018-01-01

    Macroseismic intensity data plays an important role in the process of seismic hazard analysis as well in developing of reliable earthquake loss models. This paper presents a physical-based model to predict macroseismic intensity attenuation based on 560 intensity data obtained in Iran in the time period 1975-2013. The geometric spreading and energy absorption of seismic waves have been considered in the proposed model. The proposed easy to implement relation describes the intensity simply as a function of moment magnitude, source to site distance and focal depth. The prediction capability of the proposed model is assessed by means of residuals analysis. Prediction results have been compared with those of other intensity prediction models for Italy, Turkey, Iran and central Asia. The results indicate the higher attenuation rate for the study area in distances less than 70km.

  11. ENHANCEMENTS TO NATURAL ATTENUATION: SELECTED CASE STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vangelas, K; W. H. Albright, W; E. S. Becvar, E; C. H. Benson, C; T. O. Early, T; E. Hood, E; P. M. Jardine, P; M. Lorah, M; E. Majche, E; D. Major, D; W. J. Waugh, W; G. Wein, G; O. R. West, O

    2007-05-15

    In 2003 the US Department of Energy (DOE) embarked on a project to explore an innovative approach to remediation of subsurface contaminant plumes that focused on introducing mechanisms for augmenting natural attenuation to achieve site closure. Termed enhanced attenuation (EA), this approach has drawn its inspiration from the concept of monitored natural attenuation (MNA).

  12. Pioglitazone retrieves hepatic antioxidant DNA repair in a mice model of high fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Ching-Hsiu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pioglitazone was reported to improve hepatic steatosis and necroinflammation in human studies. To investigate whether the hepato-protective effect of pioglitazone was associated with an improvement of antioxidant defense mechanism, oxidative DNA damage and repair activity were determined in a high fat diet model. Male C57BL/6 mice were respectively fed with a 30% fat diet, the same diet with pioglitazone 100 mg/kg/day, or a chow diet as control for 8 weeks. Tissue oxidative stress was indicated by malondialdehyde concentration. Oxidative DNA damage was detected by immunohistochemical 8-oxoG staining. Enzymatic antioxidant defense was detected by the real-time PCR of superoxide dismutase (Sod1, Sod2 and DNA glycosylase (Ogg1, MutY. Oxidative DNA repair was detected by immunohistochemical staining and western blotting of OGG1 expression. Results Our results show that hepatic steatosis was induced by a high-fat diet and improved by adding pioglitazone. Malondialdehyde concentration and 8-oxoG staining were strongly increased in the high-fat diet group, but attenuated by pioglitazone. Gene expressions of antioxidant defense mechanism: Sod1, Sod2, Ogg1 and MutY significantly decreased in the high-fat diet group but reversed by pioglitazone co-administration. Conclusion The attenuation of hepatic oxidative DNA damage by pioglitazone in a high-fat diet may be mediated by up-regulation of the antioxidant defense mechanism and oxidative DNA repair activity. The diminution of oxidative damage may explain the clinical benefit of pioglitazone treatment in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

  13. Pioglitazone retrieves hepatic antioxidant DNA repair in a mice model of high fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Pi-Jung; Hsieh, Tusty-Jiuan; Kuo, Kung-Kai; Hung, Wei-Wen; Tsai, Kun-Bow; Yang, Ching-Hsiu; Yu, Ming-Lung; Shin, Shyi-Jang

    2008-01-01

    Background Pioglitazone was reported to improve hepatic steatosis and necroinflammation in human studies. To investigate whether the hepato-protective effect of pioglitazone was associated with an improvement of antioxidant defense mechanism, oxidative DNA damage and repair activity were determined in a high fat diet model. Male C57BL/6 mice were respectively fed with a 30% fat diet, the same diet with pioglitazone 100 mg/kg/day, or a chow diet as control for 8 weeks. Tissue oxidative stress was indicated by malondialdehyde concentration. Oxidative DNA damage was detected by immunohistochemical 8-oxoG staining. Enzymatic antioxidant defense was detected by the real-time PCR of superoxide dismutase (Sod1, Sod2) and DNA glycosylase (Ogg1, MutY). Oxidative DNA repair was detected by immunohistochemical staining and western blotting of OGG1 expression. Results Our results show that hepatic steatosis was induced by a high-fat diet and improved by adding pioglitazone. Malondialdehyde concentration and 8-oxoG staining were strongly increased in the high-fat diet group, but attenuated by pioglitazone. Gene expressions of antioxidant defense mechanism: Sod1, Sod2, Ogg1 and MutY significantly decreased in the high-fat diet group but reversed by pioglitazone co-administration. Conclusion The attenuation of hepatic oxidative DNA damage by pioglitazone in a high-fat diet may be mediated by up-regulation of the antioxidant defense mechanism and oxidative DNA repair activity. The diminution of oxidative damage may explain the clinical benefit of pioglitazone treatment in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:18822121

  14. Ribonuclease-mediated control of body fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habacher, Cornelia; Guo, Yanwu; Venz, Richard

    2016-01-01

    . Using exon-intron split analysis, we find that REGE-1 promotes fat by degrading the mRNA encoding ETS-4, a fat-loss-promoting transcription factor. Because ETS-4, in turn, induces rege-1 transcription, REGE-1 and ETS-4 appear to form an auto-regulatory module. We propose that this type of fat regulation...

  15. Is fat perception a thermal effect?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinz, J.F.; Wijk, R.A. de; Huntjens, L.A.H.; Engelen, L.; Polet, I.A.

    2007-01-01

    It has been generally assumed that fat is detected by its flavour and by its lubrication of the oral mucosa. A recent study reported a correlation of -.99 between perceived temperature of a product and its fat content. This was significantly higher than correlations of sensory scores for fat

  16. Speciation of animal fat: Needs and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yun-Hwa Peggy; Ofori, Jack Appiah

    2017-05-24

    The use of pork fat is a concern for Muslims and Jews, who for religious reasons avoid consuming anything that is pig-derived. The use of bovine materials, including beef fat, is prohibited in Hinduism and may also pose a risk of carrying the infectious agent for bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Vegetable oils are sometimes adulterated with animal fat or pork fat with beef fat for economic gain. The development of methods to determine the species origin of fat has therefore become a priority due to the complex and global nature of the food trade, which creates opportunities for the fraudulent use of these animal fats as food ingredients. However, determining the species origin of fats in processed foods or composite blends is an arduous task as the adulterant has a composition that is very similar to that of the original fat or oil. This review examines some of the methods that have been developed for fat speciation, including both fat-based and DNA-based methods, their shortcomings, and the need for additional alternatives. Protein-based methods, specifically immunoassays targeting residual proteins in adipose tissue, that are being explored by researchers as a new tool for fat speciation will also be discussed.

  17. Dietary fat, fat subtypes and hepatocellular carcinoma in a large European cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte-Salles, Talita; Fedirko, Veronika; Stepien, Magdalena; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Bamia, Christina; Lagiou, Pagona; Laursen, Anne Sofie Dam; Hansen, Louise; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; His, Mathilde; Boeing, Heiner; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Valanou, Elissavet; Kritikou, Maria; Masala, Giovanna; Panico, Salvatore; Sieri, Sabina; Ricceri, Fulvio; Tumino, Rosario; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H. B.; Peeters, Petra H.; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Ardanaz, Eva; Bonet, Catalina; Chirlaque, Maria Dolores; Dorronsoro, Miren; Quirõs, J. Ramõn; Johansson, Ingegerd; Ohlsson, Bodil; Sjöberg, Klas; Wennberg, Maria; Khaw, Kay Tee; Travis, Ruth C.; Wareham, Nick; Ferrari, Pietro; Freisling, Heinz; Romieu, Isabelle; Cross, Amanda J.; Gunter, Marc; Lu, Yunxia; Jenab, Mazda

    2015-01-01

    The role of amount and type of dietary fat consumption in the etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is poorly understood, despite suggestive biological plausibility. The associations of total fat, fat subtypes and fat sources with HCC incidence were investigated in the European Prospective

  18. Galectin-3 levels relate in children to total body fat, abdominal fat, body fat distribution, and cardiac size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dencker, Magnus; Arvidsson, Daniel; Karlsson, Magnus K; Wollmer, Per; Andersen, Lars B; Thorsson, Ola

    2018-03-01

    Galectin-3 has recently been proposed as a novel biomarker for cardiovascular disease in adults. The purpose of this investigation was to assess relationships between galectin-3 levels and total body fat, abdominal fat, body fat distribution, aerobic fitness, blood pressure, left ventricular mass, left atrial size, and increase in body fat over a 2-year period in a population-based sample of children. Our study included 170 children aged 8-11 years. Total fat mass and abdominal fat were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Body fat distribution was expressed as abdominal fat/total fat mass. Maximal oxygen uptake was assessed by indirect calorimetry during a maximal exercise test and scaled to body mass. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and pulse pressure were measured. Left atrial size, left ventricular mass, and relative wall thickness were measured by echocardiography. Frozen serum samples were analyzed for galectin-3 by the Proximity Extension Assay technique. A follow-up DXA scan was performed in 152 children 2 years after the baseline exam. Partial correlations, with adjustment for sex and age, between galectin-3 versus body fat measurements indicated weak to moderate relationships. Moreover, left atrial size, left ventricular mass, and relative wall thickness and pulse pressure were also correlated with galectin-3. Neither systolic blood pressure nor maximal oxygen uptake was correlated with galectin-3. There was also a correlation between galectin-3 and increase in total body fat over 2 years, while no such correlations were found for the other fat measurements. More body fat and abdominal fat, more abdominal body fat distribution, more left ventricular mass, and increased left atrial size were all associated with higher levels of galectin-3. Increase in total body fat over 2 years was also associated with higher levels of galectin-3. What is Known: • Galectin-3 has been linked to obesity and been proposed to be a novel biomarker

  19. Effect of Distinct Lifestyle Interventions on Mobilization of Fat Storage Pools: CENTRAL Magnetic Resonance Imaging Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gepner, Yftach; Shelef, Ilan; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Zelicha, Hila; Tene, Lilac; Yaskolka Meir, Anat; Tsaban, Gal; Cohen, Noa; Bril, Nitzan; Rein, Michal; Serfaty, Dana; Kenigsbuch, Shira; Komy, Oded; Wolak, Arik; Chassidim, Yoash; Golan, Rachel; Avni-Hassid, Hila; Bilitzky, Avital; Sarusi, Benjamin; Goshen, Eyal; Shemesh, Elad; Henkin, Yaakov; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Thiery, Joachim; Ceglarek, Uta; Rudich, Assaf; Stampfer, Meir J; Shai, Iris

    2018-03-13

    We aimed to assess whether distinct lifestyle strategies can differentially affect specific body adipose depots. We performed an 18-month randomized controlled trial among 278 sedentary adults with abdominal obesity (75%) or dyslipidemia in an isolated workplace with a monitored provided lunch. Participants were randomized to isocaloric low-fat or Mediterranean/low-carbohydrate (MED/LC) diet+28 g walnuts/day with/without added moderate physical activity (PA; 80% aerobic; supervised/free gym membership). Overall primary outcome was body fat redistribution, and the main specific end point was visceral adipose tissue (VAT). We further followed the dynamics of different fat depots (deep and superficial subcutaneous, liver, pericardial, muscle, pancreas, and renal sinus) by magnetic resonance imaging. Of 278 participants (age, 48 years, 89% men, body mass index, 30.8 kg/m 2 ), 86% completed the trial with good adherence. The low-fat group preferentially decreased reported fat intake (-21.0% versus -11.5% for the MED/LC; P carbohydrates intake (-39.5% versus -21.3% for the low-fat group; P loss was indifferent, exercise attenuated the waist circumference rebound with the greatest effect in the MED/LC PA+ group ( P fats declines were higher than pancreatic and femur intermuscular fats (1% to 2%) loss. Independent of weight loss, PA + with either diet had a significantly greater effect on decreasing VAT (mean of difference, -6.67cm 2 ; 95% confidence interval, -14.8 to -0.45) compared with PA - . The MED/LC diet was superior to the low-fat diet in decreasing intrahepatic, intrapericardial, and pancreatic fats ( P fats were not differentially altered by lifestyle interventions but by weight loss per se. In multivariate models further adjusted for weight loss, losing VAT or intrahepatic fat was independently associated with improved lipid profile, losing deep subcutaneous adipose tissue with improved insulin sensitivity, and losing superficial subcutaneous adipose tissue

  20. Diet-induced obesity attenuates fasting-induced hyperphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, D I; Lemus, M B; Kua, E; Andrews, Z B

    2011-07-01

    Obesity impairs arcuate (ARC) neuropeptide Y (NPY)/agouti-releated peptide (AgRP) neuronal function and renders these homeostatic neurones unresponsive to the orexigenic hormone ghrelin. In the present study, we investigated the effect of diet-induced obesity (DIO) on feeding behaviour, ARC neuronal activation and mRNA expression following another orexigenic stimulus, an overnight fast. We show that 9 weeks of high-fat feeding attenuates fasting-induced hyperphagia by suppressing ARC neuronal activation and hypothalamic NPY/AgRP mRNA expression. Thus, the lack of appropriate feeding responses in DIO mice to a fast is caused by failure ARC neurones to recognise and/or respond to orexigenic cues. We propose that fasting-induced hyperphagia is regulated not by homeostatic control of appetite in DIO mice, but rather by changes in the reward circuitry. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neuroendocrinology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Effects of attenuation map accuracy on attenuation-corrected micro-SPECT images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, C.; Gratama van Andel, H.A.; Laverman, P.; Boerman, O.C.; Beekman, F.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background In single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), attenuation of photon flux in tissue affects quantitative accuracy of reconstructed images. Attenuation maps derived from X-ray computed tomography (CT) can be employed for attenuation correction. The attenuation coefficients as well

  2. Injectable agents affecting subcutaneous fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, David Lk; Cohen, Joel L; Green, Jeremy B

    2015-09-01

    Mesotherapy is an intradermal or subcutaneous injection of therapeutic agents to induce local effects, and was pioneered in Europe during the 1950s. For the past 2 decades, there has been significant interest in the use of mesotherapy for minimally invasive local fat contouring. Based on the theorized lipolytic effects of the agent phosphatidylcholine, initial attempts involved its injection into subcutaneous tissue. With further studies, however, it became apparent that the activity attributed to phosphatidylcholine mesotherapy was due to the adipolytic effects of deoxycholate, a detergent used to solubilize phosphatidylcholine. Since then, clinical trials have surfaced that demonstrate the efficacy of a proprietary formulation of deoxycholate for local fat contouring. Current trials on mesotherapy with salmeterol, a b-adrenergic agonist and lipolysis stimulator, are underway-with promising preliminary results as well. ©2015 Frontline Medical Communications.

  3. The FAt Spondyloarthritis Spine Score (FASSS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Juhl; Zhao, Zheng; Lambert, Robert Gw

    2013-01-01

    an important measure of treatment efficacy as well as a surrogate marker for new bone formation. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a new scoring method for fat lesions in the spine, the Fat SpA Spine Score (FASSS), which in contrast to the existing scoring method addresses the localization......Studies have shown that fat lesions follow resolution of inflammation in the spine of patients with axial spondyloarthritis (SpA). Fat lesions at vertebral corners have also been shown to predict development of new syndesmophytes. Therefore, scoring of fat lesions in the spine may constitute both...

  4. Desire to eat high- and low-fat foods following a low-fat dietary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieve, Frederick G; Vander Weg, Mark W

    2003-01-01

    This study examined changes in desires to eat high-fat and low-fat foods across an obesity treatment program. The hypotheses under examination were (1) preferences for low-fat foods would increase across time and (2) preferences for high-fat foods would decrease across time. Single-group, prospective examination of desires to eat 48 foods, categorized according to fat content, before and after the 16-week treatment program. University clinic, Memphis, Tennessee. 118 obese (mean weight = 194.4 lbs) women (mean age = 45.24 years) participating in an obesity treatment program. A 16-week cognitive-behavioral program for obesity. Desires to eat 48 foods varying in fat content and whether or not participants actually ate these foods. Analysis of variance, multiple regression, and paired t tests. The results indicate that during the program, preferences for low-fat foods increased, whereas preferences for high-fat foods decreased. These changes mirrored the changes in consumption of both low-fat and high-fat foods. Within a behavioral economic perspective, the reinforcement value of low-fat foods may increase following a low-fat dietary intervention, whereas the reinforcing properties of high-fat foods may decline. This is desirable as low-fat foods hold many advantages over high-fat foods in terms of weight maintenance.

  5. Fat metabolism in formerly obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranneries, C; Bülow, J; Buemann, B

    1998-01-01

    An impaired fat oxidation has been implicated to play a role in the etiology of obesity, but it is unclear to what extent impaired fat mobilization from adipose tissue or oxidation of fat is responsible. The present study aimed to examine fat mobilization from adipose tissue and whole body fat...... oxidation stimulated by exercise in seven formerly obese women (FO) and eight matched controls (C). Lipolysis in the periumbilical subcutaneous adipose tissue, whole body energy expenditure (EE), and substrate oxidation rates were measured before, during, and after a 60-min bicycle exercise bout of moderate.......32 +/- 0.84 vs. 3.70 +/- 0.57 kJ/min, P obese group. In conclusion, fat mobilization both at rest and during exercise is intact in FO, whereas fat oxidation...

  6. Edible bird’s nest attenuates procoagulation effects of high-fat diet in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Umar Imam, Mustapha; Zhang,Yi Da; Ismail,Maznah; Ismail,Norsharina; Hou,Zhiping

    2015-01-01

    Zhang Yida,1,2 Mustapha Umar Imam,1 Maznah Ismail,1,3 Norsharina Ismail,1 Zhiping Hou1 1Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Cardiology Department, Affiliated Hospital of Chengde Medical University, Chengde, Hebei, People’s Republic of China; 3Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia Abstract: Edible bird&...

  7. Cold-increase in brown fat thyroxine 5'-monodeiodinase is attenuated in Zucker obese rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, S.Y.; Stern, J.S.; Fisher, D.A.; Glick, Z.

    1987-01-01

    In this study the authors examined the possibility that the reduced brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis in the Zucker obese rat may result from a limited capacity for enzymic conversion of thyroxine (T 4 ) to triiodothyronine (T 3 ) in BAT. A total of 34 lean and obese rats, ∼4 mo old were divided into three treatment groups: group 1 (5 lean and 6 obese) was fed Purina rat chow for 21 days, and group two (5 lean and 6 obese) was fed a cafeteria diet for 21 days, and groups 3 (6 lean and 6 obese) was fed Purina rat chow and maintained in the cold (8 +/- 1 0 C) for 7 days. Activity of T 4 5'-deiodinase was determined as the rate of T 3 production from added T 4 under controlled in vitro conditions. Serum T 4 and T 3 were determined by radioimmunoassay. The rate of T 4 -to-T 3 conversion in BAT was similar in the lean and obese rats maintained at room temperature, whether fed rat chow or a cafeteria diet. However, expressed per scapular BAT depot, lean rats exposed to cold displayed about a fivefold increase in BAT T 3 production whereas only a small increase was observed in the cold-exposed obese rats. Serum T 3 levels tended to be reduced in the Zucker obese rats. The data indicate a reduced capacity for T 3 production of Zucker rat BAT exposed to cold. This defect may account for the reduced tolerance of the obese animals to cold, but it does not account for their reduced diet-induced BAT thermogenesis

  8. (-) Epicatechin regulates blood lipids and attenuates hepatic steatosis in rats fed high fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    (-)-Epicatechin (EC) is a natural flavanol monomer found in cocoa, green tea and a variety of other plant foods. Recent studies have shown that EC and foods rich in EC exerted vascular protective effects. In this study, effects of EC on blood lipids and hepatic steatosis, and the underlying mechani...

  9. Effects of Acute Active Video Games on Endothelial Function Following a High-Fat Meal in Overweight Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo Hyun; Yoon, Eun Sun; Lee, Yong Hee; Kim, Chul-Ho; Bunsawat, Kanokwan; Heffernan, Kevin S; Fernall, Bo; Jae, Sae Young

    2015-06-01

    We tested the hypothesis that an active video game following a high-fat meal would partially prevent the unfavorable effect of a high-fat meal on vascular function in overweight adolescents. Twenty-four overweight adolescents were randomized to either a 60-minute active video game (AVG) group (n = 12) or seated rest (SR) as a control group (n = 12) after a high-fat meal. Blood parameters were measured, and vascular function was measured using brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) at baseline and 3 hours after a high-fat meal. No significant interaction was found in any blood parameter. A high-fat meal significantly increased blood triglyceride and glucose concentrations in both groups in a similar manner. Brachial artery FMD significantly decreased in the SR group (13.8 ± 3.2% to 11.8 ± 2.5), but increased in the AVG group (11.4 ± 4.0% to 13.3 ± 3.5), with a significant interaction (P = .034). These findings show that an active video game attenuated high-fat meal-induced endothelial dysfunction. This suggests that an active video game may have a cardioprotective effect on endothelial function in overweight adolescents when exposed to a high-fat meal.

  10. Chest Fat Quantification via CT Based on Standardized Anatomy Space in Adult Lung Transplant Candidates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubing Tong

    Full Text Available Overweight and underweight conditions are considered relative contraindications to lung transplantation due to their association with excess mortality. Yet, recent work suggests that body mass index (BMI does not accurately reflect adipose tissue mass in adults with advanced lung diseases. Alternative and more accurate measures of adiposity are needed. Chest fat estimation by routine computed tomography (CT imaging may therefore be important for identifying high-risk lung transplant candidates. In this paper, an approach to chest fat quantification and quality assessment based on a recently formulated concept of standardized anatomic space (SAS is presented. The goal of the paper is to seek answers to several key questions related to chest fat quantity and quality assessment based on a single slice CT (whether in the chest, abdomen, or thigh versus a volumetric CT, which have not been addressed in the literature.Unenhanced chest CT image data sets from 40 adult lung transplant candidates (age 58 ± 12 yrs and BMI 26.4 ± 4.3 kg/m2, 16 with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, 16 with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF, and the remainder with other conditions were analyzed together with a single slice acquired for each patient at the L5 vertebral level and mid-thigh level. The thoracic body region and the interface between subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT and visceral adipose tissue (VAT in the chest were consistently defined in all patients and delineated using Live Wire tools. The SAT and VAT components of chest were then segmented guided by this interface. The SAS approach was used to identify the corresponding anatomic slices in each chest CT study, and SAT and VAT areas in each slice as well as their whole volumes were quantified. Similarly, the SAT and VAT components were segmented in the abdomen and thigh slices. Key parameters of the attenuation (Hounsfield unit (HU distributions were determined from each chest slice and from the

  11. The estimation of total body fat by inelastic neutron scattering - a geometrical feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lizos, F.; Kotzasarlidoou, M.; Makridou, A.; Giannopoulou, K.

    2012-01-01

    A rough quantitative representation of the basic elements in a human body is shown. It deals with a hypothetical, normal adult weighting 70 kg. It is possible to measure two basic quantities, the FFM, standing for Fat Free Mass and the FM, standing for Fat Mass. The present simulation deals with the most important aspect of the estimation of storage fat in the human body and in order to accomplish such a task, it is considered a representation of the human body, containing a uniform distribution of triacylglycerols, in a shape of cylindrical phantom. The whole process is analyzed and simulated by a geometrical model and with the aid of a computer program which takes into consideration the different attenuation for neutrons and photons, the amount of gamma radiation reaching the detector is also calculated. The net result is the determination of sensitivity for a particular set-up and by relating the out coming data to the amount of carbon; the quantity of fat is estimated. In addition, the non-uniformity is calculated, from the computer programs expressing the consistency of the system. In order to determine the storage fat, a simulation model that will enable to represent the detection of the carbon atoms in triacylglycerols was built

  12. Lumbar facet joint fat pads: Their normal anatomy and their appearance when enlarged

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.R.; McCormick, C.C.

    1991-01-01

    The polar recesses, superior and inferior to lumbar facet joints, are filled by fat pads from which fat-filled synovial folds project between the articular surfaces for a distance of two to four millimetres. The intracapsular superior recess lies between the ligamentum flavum and the lamina above. The extracapsular inferior recess lies on the back of the lamina below and communicates with the joint through a hole in the inferior capsule. The intracapsular folds move freely in and out of the joint during movements. These features are demonstrated in anatomic studies using transverse sections and radiologic studies using computed tomography. In about 4% of lumbar spines examined, the intraarticular fat pads are enlarged and extend from the joint recess(es) into the middle third of one or more facet joints. The fat pads can be identified in CT scans by their radiolucency and distinguished from vacuum phenomenon by measuring their attenuation values. The cause of the intra-articular enlargement of the fat pads is unknown, but it is suggested that their extension into the middle third of the joint may be secondary to degenerative change in the motion segment with capsular laxity in the affected joint. (orig.)

  13. Chlorine signal attenuation in concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, A A; Maslehuddin, M; Ur-Rehman, Khateeb; Al-Amoudi, O S B

    2015-11-01

    The intensity of prompt gamma-ray was measured at various depths from chlorine-contaminated silica fume (SF) concrete slab concrete specimens using portable neutron generator-based prompt gamma-ray setup. The intensity of 6.11MeV chloride gamma-rays was measured from the chloride contaminated slab at distance of 15.25, 20.25, 25.25, 30.25 and 35.25cm from neutron target in a SF cement concrete slab specimens. Due to attenuation of thermal neutron flux and emitted gamma-ray intensity in SF cement concrete at various depths, the measured intensity of chlorine gamma-rays decreases non-linearly with increasing depth in concrete. A good agreement was noted between the experimental results and the results of Monte Carlo simulation. This study has provided useful experimental data for evaluating the chloride contamination in the SF concrete utilizing gamma-ray attenuation method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Naum Derzhi; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

    2003-12-01

    We have developed and tested technology for a new type of direct hydrocarbon detection. The method uses inelastic rock properties to greatly enhance the sensitivity of surface seismic methods to the presence of oil and gas saturation. These methods include use of energy absorption, dispersion, and attenuation (Q) along with traditional seismic attributes like velocity, impedance, and AVO. Our approach is to combine three elements: (1) a synthesis of the latest rock physics understanding of how rock inelasticity is related to rock type, pore fluid types, and pore microstructure, (2) synthetic seismic modeling that will help identify the relative contributions of scattering and intrinsic inelasticity to apparent Q attributes, and (3) robust algorithms that extract relative wave attenuation attributes from seismic data. This project provides: (1) Additional petrophysical insight from acquired data; (2) Increased understanding of rock and fluid properties; (3) New techniques to measure reservoir properties that are not currently available; and (4) Provide tools to more accurately describe the reservoir and predict oil location and volumes. These methodologies will improve the industry's ability to predict and quantify oil and gas saturation distribution, and to apply this information through geologic models to enhance reservoir simulation. We have applied for two separate patents relating to work that was completed as part of this project.

  15. The pharmacological management of oppositional behaviour, conduct problems, and aggression in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Part 1: psychostimulants, alpha-2 agonists, and atomoxetine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringsheim, Tamara; Hirsch, Lauren; Gardner, David; Gorman, Daniel A

    2015-02-01

    Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may have oppositional behaviour, conduct problems, and aggression. These symptoms vary in severity, and may be related to a comorbid diagnosis of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD). Critical evaluation of the efficacy of ADHD medications may guide the clinician regarding the usefulness of medications for these symptoms. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of psychostimulants, alpha-2 agonists, and atomoxetine for oppositional behaviour, conduct problems, and aggression in youth with ADHD, ODD, and CD. The quality of evidence for medications was rated using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. Two systematic reviews and 20 randomized controlled trials were included. There is high-quality evidence that psychostimulants have a moderate-to-large effect on oppositional behaviour, conduct problems, and aggression in youth with ADHD, with and without ODD or CD. There is very-low-quality evidence that clonidine has a small effect on oppositional behaviour and conduct problems in youth with ADHD, with and without ODD or CD. There is moderate-quality evidence that guanfacine has a small-to-moderate effect on oppositional behaviour in youth with ADHD, with and without ODD. There is high-quality evidence that atomoxetine has a small effect on oppositional behaviour in youth with ADHD, with and without ODD or CD. Evidence indicates that psychostimulants, alpha-2 agonists, and atomoxetine can be beneficial for disruptive and aggressive behaviours in addition to core ADHD symptoms; however, psychostimulants generally provide the most benefit.

  16. Polyunsaturated fats, carbohydrates and carotid disease: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Carotid MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearborn, Jennifer L; Qiao, Ye; Guallar, Eliseo; Steffen, Lyn M; Gottesman, Rebecca F; Zhang, Yiyi; Wasserman, Bruce A

    2016-08-01

    Carbohydrates and fat intake have both been linked to development of atherosclerosis. We examined associations between glycemic index (GI) and fat intake with carotid atherosclerosis. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) cohort enrolled participants during the period 1987-1989 and the Carotid MRI sub-study occurred between 2004 and 2006 (1672 participants attending both visits). Measures of carbohydrate quality (usual GI), fat intake (total, polyunsaturated and saturated) and overall dietary quality index (DASH Diet Score) were derived from a 66-item food frequency questionnaire administered at baseline. Trained readers measured lipid core presence and maximum wall thickness. Using multivariate logistic regression, we determined the odds of lipid core presence by quintile (Q) of energy-adjusted dietary components. Restricted cubic spline models were used to examine non-linear associations between dietary components and maximum wall thickness. Mean daily polyunsaturated fat intake was 5 g (SD 1.4). GI and polyunsaturated fat intake had a nonlinear relationship with maximum wall thickness. Low (1-4 g) and high (6-12 g) polyunsaturated fat intake were associated with a statistically significant decreased odds of lipid core presence compared to intake in a majority of participants (OR Q5 vs. Q2-4: 0.64, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.98; OR Q1 vs. Q2-4: 0.64, 95% CI 0.42, 0.96), however, the association with lipid core was attenuated by adjustment for maximum wall thickness, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes. GI and polyunsaturated fat intake were not associated with high-risk plaque features, such as lipid core presence, independent of traditional vascular risk factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A study on change in the center frequency depending on the fat content and on change in the fat saturation image with the use of a self-manufactured phantom depending on the center frequency adjustment method in an MRI breast scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Bok; Dong, Kyung-Rae; Gho, Hee-Jin; Chung, Woon-Kwan; Joo, Kyu-Ji; Kim, Young-Jae

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the changes in the center frequency according to the fat content the using a self-manufactured phantom. In addition, the change in the fat saturation image according to when the center frequency was applied automatically or adjusted manually was analyzed to determine the importance of a manual adjustment of the center frequency. Distilled water and animal fat were solidified in a 10-ml syringe to manufacture nine phantoms for each condition (18 in total). A MR scanner at 1.5 Tesla was used to obtain a T1-weighted three dimensional fast low-angle shot (T1 3D FLASH) dynamic fat saturation image according to the spectral attenuated inversion recovery(SPAIR) method. The images obtained were classified into the following before analyzing the center frequencies for each image: Test A (image where fat was not saturated), Test B (image where fat was saturated in an automatic adjustment of the center frequency), and Test C (image where fat was saturated in a manual adjustment of the center frequency). The signal intensity (SI) values of water, fat and background were measured to calculate the signal to noise ratio (SNR) before examining the difference in the SNRs of water and fat (SNR difference = water SNR — fat SNR). The mean center frequency in Tests A, B and C was 63.631179 MHz when the fat content was 70% or lower. The mean center frequency for Tests A and B was 63.631002 MHz when the fat content was 80% or higher, which was 226 Hz lower than that for Test C (63.631228 MHz). The water SIs of Tests A, B and C with increasing fat content showed a pattern of change similar to that of the fat SIs of Tests A and C. On the other hand, the fat SI of Test B was similar to that of Test A when the fat content was 80%, which showed a large difference in change. The water SNRs of Tests A, B and C, and the fat SNR and SNR differences of Tests A and C showed similar changes according to the fat content. The difference between the fat SNR and the SNR of Test B

  18. Calculation Of Pneumatic Attenuation In Pressure Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Stephen A.

    1991-01-01

    Errors caused by attenuation of air-pressure waves in narrow tubes calculated by method based on fundamental equations of flow. Changes in ambient pressure transmitted along narrow tube to sensor. Attenuation of high-frequency components of pressure wave calculated from wave equation derived from Navier-Stokes equations of viscous flow in tube. Developed to understand and compensate for frictional attenuation in narrow tubes used to connect aircraft pressure sensors with pressure taps on affected surfaces.

  19. Estimating Rain Attenuation In Satellite Communication Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, R. M.

    1991-01-01

    Attenuation computed with help of statistical model and meteorological data. NASA Lewis Research Center Satellite Link Attenuation Model (SLAM) program QuickBASIC computer program evaluating static and dynamic statistical assessment of impact of rain attenuation on communication link established between Earth terminal and geosynchronous satellite. Application in specification, design, and assessment of satellite communication links for any terminal location in continental United States. Written in Microsoft QuickBASIC.

  20. Gluteal fat thickness in pelvic CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeong Mi; Jung, Se Young; Lee, Jae Mun; Park, Seog Hee; Kim, Choon Yul; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1986-01-01

    Many calcifications due to fat necrosis in the buttocks detected on the pelvis roentgenograms suggest that the majority of injections intended to be intramuscular actually are delivered into fat. We measured thickness of adult gluteal fat to decide whether the injection using needle of usual length is done into fat or muscle. We measured the vertical thickness of the subcutaneous fat at a point of 2-3cm above the femoral head cut slice with randomly collected 116 cases of adults in the department of Radiology, St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic Medical College. We found that 32% female cases might actually receive on intra adipose injection when a needle of maximum 3.8cm length is inserted into the buttock. If deposition into muscle is desirable, we need to choose needle whose length is appropriate for the site of injection and the patient's deposits of fat.

  1. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been

  2. Why does starvation make bones fat?

    OpenAIRE

    Devlin, Maureen J.

    2011-01-01

    Body fat, or adipose tissue, is a crucial energetic buffer against starvation in humans and other mammals, and reserves of white adipose tissue (WAT) rise and fall in parallel with food intake. Much less is known about the function of bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT), which are fat cells found in bone marrow. BMAT mass actually increases during starvation, even as other fat depots are being mobilized for energy. Here I review the possible reasons for this poorly understood phenomenon. Is BMA...

  3. Thermogenic Blend Alone or in Combination with Whey Protein Supplement Stimulates Fat Metabolism and Improves Body Composition in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira-Brock, Paula de Lima; Vaughan, Brent M.; Vollmer, David L.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Certain food ingredients promote thermogenesis and fat loss. Similarly, whey protein improves body composition. Due to this potential synergistic effect, a blend of thermogenic food ingredients containing African mango, citrus fruit extract, Coleus forskohlii, dihydrocapsiate, and red pepper was tested alone and in combination with a whey protein supplement for its effects on body composition in sedentary mice during high-fat diet. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the interaction of thermogenic foods on improving body composition during consumption of an unhealthy diet. Materials and Methods: C57BL/6J young adult male mice (n = 12) were placed on a 60% high-fat diet for 4 weeks and subsequently randomly assigned to receive daily dosing by oral gavage of vehicle, the novel blend alone or with whey protein supplement for another 4 weeks. Body composition, thermal imaging of brown adipose tissue (BAT), mitochondrial BAT uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), and plasma levels of leptin were assessed. Results: Novel blend alone and in combination with protein supplement attenuated body weight gain, fat, and increased surface BAT temperature in comparison to vehicle control and to baseline (P blend and whey protein supplement also significantly increased UCP1 protein expression in BAT mitochondria in comparison to vehicle control and novel blend alone (P blend stimulates thermogenesis and attenuates the gain in body weight and fat in response to high-fat diet in mice and these effects were improved when administered in combination with whey protein supplement. SUMMARY 30 days oral administration to mice of a novel blend containing African mango seed extract, citrus fruits extract, Coleus forskohlii root extract, dihydrocapsiate and red pepper fruit extract reduced body weight and fat gain in response to high-fat diet without impairing muscle mass.The novel blend stimulated thermogenesis as shown by the increased thermal imaging and UCP1 protein

  4. Hypoxia, Oxidative Stress and Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaus Netzer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic disturbances in white adipose tissue in obese individuals contribute to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Impaired insulin action in adipocytes is associated with elevated lipolysis and increased free fatty acids leading to ectopic fat deposition in liver and skeletal muscle. Chronic adipose tissue hypoxia has been suggested to be part of pathomechanisms causing dysfunction of adipocytes. Hypoxia can provoke oxidative stress in human and animal adipocytes and reduce the production of beneficial adipokines, such as adiponectin. However, time-dose responses to hypoxia relativize the effects of hypoxic stress. Long-term exposure of fat cells to hypoxia can lead to the production of beneficial substances such as leptin. Knowledge of time-dose responses of hypoxia on white adipose tissue and the time course of generation of oxidative stress in adipocytes is still scarce. This paper reviews the potential links between adipose tissue hypoxia, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and low-grade inflammation caused by adipocyte hypertrophy, macrophage infiltration and production of inflammatory mediators.

  5. High Phenolics Rutgers Scarlet Lettuce Improves Glucose Metabolism in High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Diana M.; Roopchand, Diana E.; Poulev, Alexander; Kuhn, Peter; Armas, Isabel; Johnson, William D.; Oren, Andrew; Ribnicky, David; Zelzion, Ehud; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Raskin, Ilya

    2016-01-01

    Scope The ability of high phenolic Rutgers Scarlet Lettuce (RSL) to attenuate metabolic syndrome and gut dysbiosis was studied in very high fat diet (VHFD)-fed mice. Phenolic absorption was assessed in vivo and in a gastrointestinal tract model. Methods and results Mice were fed VHFD, VHFD supplemented with RSL (RSL-VHFD) or store-purchased green lettuce (GL-VHFD), or low-fat diet (LFD) for 13 weeks. Compared to VHFD or GL-VHFD-fed groups, RSL-VHFD group showed significantly improved oral glucose tolerance (p<0.05). Comparison of VHFD, RSL-VHFD, and GL-VHFD groups revealed no significant differences with respect to insulin tolerance, hepatic lipids, body weight gain, fat mass, plasma glucose, triglycerides, free fatty acid, and lipopolysaccharide levels, as well as relative abundances of major bacterial phyla from 16S rDNA amplicon data sequences (from fecal and cecal samples). However, RSL and GL-supplementation increased abundance of several taxa involved in plant polysaccharide degradation/fermentation. RSL phenolics chlorogenic acid, quercetin-3-glucoside, and quercetin-malonyl-glucoside were bioaccessible in the TIM-1 digestion model, but had relatively low recovery. Conclusions RSL phenolics contributed to attenuation of postprandial hyperglycemia. Changes in gut microbiota were likely due to microbiota accessible carbohydrates in RSL and GL rather than RSL phenolics, which may be metabolized, absorbed, or degraded before reaching the colon. PMID:27529448

  6. Body Fat, Abdominal Fat, and Body Fat Distribution Is Related to Left Atrial Diameter in Young Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Thorsson, Ola; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2012-01-01

    such as lean body mass, blood pressure, gender, age, and Tanner stage revealed that TBF, AFM, and AFM/TBF were all independently related to LA diameter. Differences in the different body fat measurements explained 6-9% of the variance in LA size. These results demonstrated that both total body fat, AFM...

  7. Fat watch: A nationwide campaign in the Netherlands to reduce fat intake-effect evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wechem, S.N. van; Brug, J.; Assema, P. van; Kistemaker, C.; Riedstra, M.; Löwik, M.R.H.

    1998-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the nationwide Fat Watch campaign aiming at a reduction in fat consumption was organized from 1991 onwards. This study describes the effects of the first three consecutive campaign years on attention to fat, diet and health, attitudes, self-efficacy expectations and intentions

  8. Attenuation in Melting Layer of Precipitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, W.

    1988-01-01

    A model of the melting layer is employed on radar measurements to simulate the attenuation of radio waves at 12, 20 and 30GHz. The attenuation in the melting layer is simulated to be slightly larger than that of rain with the same path length and precipitation intensity. The result appears to depend

  9. Precision Model for Microwave Rotary Vane Attenuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldbrandsen, Tom

    1979-01-01

    A model for a rotary vane attenuator is developed to describe the attenuator reflection and transmission coefficients in detail. All the parameters of the model can be measured in situ, i.e., without diassembling any part. The tranmission errors caused by internal reflections are calculated from ...

  10. Photostimulated attenuation of hypersound in superlattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mensah, S.Y.; Allotey, F.K.; Adjepong, S.K.

    1992-10-01

    Photostimulated attenuation of hypersound in semiconductor superlattice has been investigated. It is shown that the attenuation coefficient depends on the phonon wave vector q in an oscillatory manner and that from this oscillation the band width Δ of superlattice can be found. (author). 14 refs, 1 fig

  11. Relation of Pericardial Fat, Intrathoracic Fat, and Abdominal Visceral Fat with Incident Atrial Fibrillation (From the Framingham Heart Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jane J.; Yin, Xiaoyan; Hoffmann, Udo; Fox, Caroline S.; Benjamin, Emelia J.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is associated with increased risk of developing atrial fibrillation (AF). Different fat depots may have differential associations with cardiac pathology. We examined the longitudinal associations between pericardial, intrathoracic, and visceral fat with incident AF. We studied Framingham Heart Study Offspring and Third Generation Cohorts who participated in the multi-detector computed tomography sub-study examination 1. We constructed multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models for risk of incident AF. Body mass index (BMI) was included in the multivariable-adjusted model as a secondary adjustment. We included 2,135 participants (53.3% women; mean age 58.8 years). During a median follow-up of 9.7 years, we identified 162 cases of incident AF. Across the increasing tertiles of pericardial fat volume, age- and sex-adjusted incident AF rate per 1000 person-years of follow-up were 8.4, 7.5, and 10.2. Based on an age- and sex-adjusted model, greater pericardial fat [hazard ratio (HR) 1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.34] and intrathoracic fat (HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.06-1.45) were associated with increased risk of incident AF. The HRs (95% CI) for incident AF were 1.13 (0.99-1.30) for pericardial fat, 1.19 (1.01-1.40) for intrathoracic fat, and 1.09 (0.93-1.28) for abdominal visceral fat after multivariable adjustment. After additional adjustment of BMI, none of the associations remained significant (all p>0.05). Our findings suggest that cardiac ectopic fat depots may share common risk factors with AF, which may have led to a lack of independence in the association between pericardial fat with incident AF. PMID:27666172

  12. Ultrasound fields in an attenuating medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Gandhi,, D; O'Brien,, W.D., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    of the rectangles and sums all contributions to arrive at the spatial impulse response for the aperture and field point. This approach makes it possible to model all transducer apertures, and the program can readily calculate the emitted, pulse-echo and continuous wave field. Attenuation is included by splitting...... it into a frequency dependent part and frequency independent part. The latter results in an attenuation factor that is multiplied onto the responses from the individual elements, and the frequency dependent part is handled by attenuating the basic one-dimensional pulse. The influence on ultrasound fields from......Ultrasound fields propagating in tissue will undergo changes in shape not only due to diffraction, but also due to the frequency dependent attenuation. Linear fields can be fairly well predicted for a non-attenuating medium like water by using the Tupholme-Stepanishen method for calculating...

  13. A fat gluino in disguise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, J.; Wiesler, D.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate how a sizeable width-to-mass ratio for a gluino, as is for example realized in GMSB scenarios, could affect the discovery potential of gluinos at the LHC. More importantly, the influence of the gluino being ''fat'' on the standard mass and spin determination methods at the LHC are investigated. For this purpose, we focus on gluino production at the LHC, where we do not factorize the first step in the gluino decay cascade, but treat the following decay cascades step in factorization, including full spin correlations. The effects of sizeable width-to-mass ratios from a few up to 15-20 per cent on the endpoint of several mass determination methods as well as on means for discrimination between BSM spin paradigms like SUSY and UED are studied.

  14. A fat gluino in disguise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuter, J.; Wiesler, D.

    2012-12-15

    In this paper, we investigate how a sizeable width-to-mass ratio for a gluino, as is for example realized in GMSB scenarios, could affect the discovery potential of gluinos at the LHC. More importantly, the influence of the gluino being ''fat'' on the standard mass and spin determination methods at the LHC are investigated. For this purpose, we focus on gluino production at the LHC, where we do not factorize the first step in the gluino decay cascade, but treat the following decay cascades step in factorization, including full spin correlations. The effects of sizeable width-to-mass ratios from a few up to 15-20 per cent on the endpoint of several mass determination methods as well as on means for discrimination between BSM spin paradigms like SUSY and UED are studied.

  15. On Learning to Teach Fat Feminism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boling, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    As a feminist theorist who frequently teaches theorizing that starts from embodied experience, the author has begun to incorporate fat feminism into her teaching. As a neophyte and a relatively thin woman, she has been self-conscious about broaching issues related to fat bodies in her teaching, even though they clearly raise important issues about…

  16. Pork fat hydrolysed by Staphylococcus xylosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, B. B.; Stahnke, Louise Heller; Zeuthen, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Staphylococcus xylosus is used as a starter culture in the production of fermented sausages. Its ability to hydrolyse pork fat was investigated. Within 15 days of incubation an interaction of bacterial growth, lipase production and lipase activity in a pork fat containing medium caused liberation...

  17. Genetic variation in bovine milk fat composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoop, W.M.

    2009-01-01

    In her thesis, Stoop shows that there is considerable genetic variation in milk fat composition, which opens opportunities to improve milk fat composition by selective breeding. Short and medium chain fatty acids had high heritabilities, whereas variation due to herd (mainly feed effects) was

  18. Dietary fat and obesity : An epidemiologic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidell, Jacob C.

    1998-01-01

    The observation that dietary fat has an effect on weight gain and the development of obesity that is larger than would be expected on the basis of fat's energy value is mainly experimental. Several methodologic problems limit the interpretation of epidemiologic studies of the association between

  19. Dietary fat and obesity : an epidemiologic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidell, J C

    The observation that dietary fat has an effect on weight gain and the development of obesity that is larger than would be expected on the basis of fat's energy value is mainly experimental. Several methodologic problems limit the interpretation of epidemiologic studies of the association between

  20. Coming out as Fat: Rethinking Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saguy, Abigail C.; Ward, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the surprising case of women who "come out as fat" to test and refine theories about social change, social mobilization, stigma, and stigma resistance. First, supporting theories about "social movement spillover," we find that overlapping memberships in queer and fat activist groups, as well as networks between these groups,…

  1. Bone and fat connection in aging bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Gustavo

    2008-07-01

    The fat and bone connection plays an important role in the pathophysiology of age-related bone loss. This review will focus on the age-induced mechanisms regulating the predominant differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into adipocytes. Additionally, bone marrow fat will be considered as a diagnostic and therapeutic approach to osteoporosis. There are two types of bone and fat connection. The 'systemic connection', usually seen in obese patients, is hormonally regulated and associated with high bone mass and strength. The 'local connection' happens inside the bone marrow. Increasing amounts of bone marrow fat affect bone turnover through the inhibition of osteoblast function and survival and the promotion of osteoclast differentiation and activation. This interaction is regulated by paracrine secretion of fatty acids and adipokines. Additionally, bone marrow fat could be quantified using noninvasive methods and could be used as a therapeutic approach due to its capacity to transdifferentiate into bone without affecting other types of fat in the body. The bone and fat connection within the bone marrow constitutes a typical example of lipotoxicity. Additionally, bone marrow fat could be used as a new diagnostic and therapeutic approach for osteoporosis in older persons.

  2. Large deformation behavior of fat crystal networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloek, W.; Vliet, van T.; Walstra, P.

    2005-01-01

    Compression and wire-cutting experiments on dispersions of fully hydrogenated palm oil in sunflower oil with varying fraction solid fat were carried out to establish which parameters are important for the large deformation behavior of fat crystal networks. Compression experiments showed that the

  3. Bioelectrical impedance analysis of bovine milk fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, E. A.; Bertemes-Filho, P.

    2012-12-01

    Three samples of 250ml at home temperature of 20°C were obtained from whole, low fat and fat free bovine UHT milk. They were analysed by measuring both impedance spectra and dc conductivity in order to establish the relationship between samples related to fat content. An impedance measuring system was developed, which is based on digital oscilloscope, a current source and a FPGA. Data was measured by the oscilloscope in the frequency 1 kHz to 100 kHz. It was showed that there is approximately 7.9% difference in the conductivity between whole and low fat milk whereas 15.9% between low fat and free fat one. The change of fatness in the milk can be significantly sensed by both impedance spectra measurements and dc conductivity. This result might be useful for detecting fat content of milk in a very simple way and also may help the development of sensors for measuring milk quality, as for example the detection of mastitis.

  4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis of bovine milk fat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veiga, E A; Bertemes-Filho, P [Department of Electrical Eng., State University of Santa Catarina, Joinville (Brazil)

    2012-12-20

    Three samples of 250ml at home temperature of 20 Degree-Sign C were obtained from whole, low fat and fat free bovine UHT milk. They were analysed by measuring both impedance spectra and dc conductivity in order to establish the relationship between samples related to fat content. An impedance measuring system was developed, which is based on digital oscilloscope, a current source and a FPGA. Data was measured by the oscilloscope in the frequency 1 kHz to 100 kHz. It was showed that there is approximately 7.9% difference in the conductivity between whole and low fat milk whereas 15.9% between low fat and free fat one. The change of fatness in the milk can be significantly sensed by both impedance spectra measurements and dc conductivity. This result might be useful for detecting fat content of milk in a very simple way and also may help the development of sensors for measuring milk quality, as for example the detection of mastitis.

  5. Bioelectrical impedance analysis of bovine milk fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veiga, E A; Bertemes-Filho, P

    2012-01-01

    Three samples of 250ml at home temperature of 20°C were obtained from whole, low fat and fat free bovine UHT milk. They were analysed by measuring both impedance spectra and dc conductivity in order to establish the relationship between samples related to fat content. An impedance measuring system was developed, which is based on digital oscilloscope, a current source and a FPGA. Data was measured by the oscilloscope in the frequency 1 kHz to 100 kHz. It was showed that there is approximately 7.9% difference in the conductivity between whole and low fat milk whereas 15.9% between low fat and free fat one. The change of fatness in the milk can be significantly sensed by both impedance spectra measurements and dc conductivity. This result might be useful for detecting fat content of milk in a very simple way and also may help the development of sensors for measuring milk quality, as for example the detection of mastitis.

  6. Genetic ablation or chemical inhibition of phosphatidylcholine transfer protein attenuates diet-induced hepatic glucose production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishova, Ekaterina Y; Stoll, Janis M; Ersoy, Baran A; Shrestha, Sudeep; Scapa, Erez F; Li, Yingxia; Niepel, Michele W; Su, Ya; Jelicks, Linda A; Stahl, Gregory L; Glicksman, Marcie A; Gutierrez-Juarez, Roger; Cuny, Gregory D; Cohen, David E

    2011-08-01

    Phosphatidylcholine transfer protein (PC-TP, synonym StARD2) is a highly specific intracellular lipid binding protein that is enriched in liver. Coding region polymorphisms in both humans and mice appear to confer protection against measures of insulin resistance. The current study was designed to test the hypotheses that Pctp-/- mice are protected against diet-induced increases in hepatic glucose production and that small molecule inhibition of PC-TP recapitulates this phenotype. Pctp-/- and wildtype mice were subjected to high-fat feeding and rates of hepatic glucose production and glucose clearance were quantified by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp studies and pyruvate tolerance tests. These studies revealed that high-fat diet-induced increases in hepatic glucose production were markedly attenuated in Pctp-/- mice. Small molecule inhibitors of PC-TP were synthesized and their potencies, as well as mechanism of inhibition, were characterized in vitro. An optimized inhibitor was administered to high-fat-fed mice and used to explore effects on insulin signaling in cell culture systems. Small molecule inhibitors bound PC-TP, displaced phosphatidylcholines from the lipid binding site, and increased the thermal stability of the protein. Administration of the optimized inhibitor to wildtype mice attenuated hepatic glucose production associated with high-fat feeding, but had no activity in Pctp-/- mice. Indicative of a mechanism for reducing glucose intolerance that is distinct from commonly utilized insulin-sensitizing agents, the inhibitor promoted insulin-independent phosphorylation of key insulin signaling molecules. These findings suggest PC-TP inhibition as a novel therapeutic strategy in the management of hepatic insulin resistance. Copyright © 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  7. 21 CFR 582.4521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4521 Section 582.4521 Food and... Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming... oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  8. 21 CFR 582.4505 - Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Emulsifying Agents § 582.4505 Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids. (a) Product. Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

  9. FAT PHOBIA IN MEXICAN NUTRITION STUDENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacardía Gascón, Montserrat; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo; Castillo-Ruiz, Octelina; Bezares-Sarmiento, Vidalma Del Rosario; León-González, Juan Marcos

    2015-12-01

    Nutritionists play a major role in the prevention and treatment of obesity. Currently, fat phobia among nutrition students and health workers is resulting in health and social consequences. The aim of this study was to assess the fat phobia among nutrition college students of two schools from different regions in Mexico. Six hundred and thirty 18 to 25 yo nutrition students participated in the study. Fat phobia was assessed using the F-scale, containing 14 pairs of adjectives that described people with obesity. Participants achieved a mean F-scale score of 3.45, which could be considered a moderate amount of fat phobia. Only twelve per cent showed neutral or positive attitudes towards obesity (≤ 2.5), while negative attitude (≥ 2.5) was observed among 88% of all students showing a high prevalence of fat phobia towards obesity. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  10. Red Cabbage Microgreens Lower Circulating Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL), Liver Cholesterol, and Inflammatory Cytokines in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haiqiu; Jiang, Xiaojing; Xiao, Zhenlei; Yu, Lu; Pham, Quynhchi; Sun, Jianghao; Chen, Pei; Yokoyama, Wallace; Yu, Liangli Lucy; Luo, Yaguang Sunny; Wang, Thomas T Y

    2016-12-07

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States, and hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor. Population studies, as well as animal and intervention studies, support the consumption of a variety of vegetables as a means to reduce CVD risk through modulation of hypercholesterolemia. Microgreens of a variety of vegetables and herbs have been reported to be more nutrient dense compared to their mature counterparts. However, little is known about the effectiveness of microgreens in affecting lipid and cholesterol levels. The present study used a rodent diet-induced obesity (DIO) model to address this question. C57BL/6NCr mice (n = 60, male, 5 weeks old) were randomly assigned to six feeding groups: (1) low-fat diet; (2) high-fat diet; (3) low-fat diet + 1.09% red cabbage microgreens; (4) low-fat diet + 1.66% mature red cabbage; (5) high-fat diet + 1.09% red cabbage microgreens; (6) high-fat diet + 1.66% mature red cabbage. The animals were on their respective diets for 8 weeks. We found microgreen supplementation attenuated high-fat diet induced weight gain. Moreover, supplementation with microgreens significantly lowered circulating LDL levels in animals fed the high-fat diet and reduced hepatic cholesterol ester, triacylglycerol levels, and expression of inflammatory cytokines in the liver. These data suggest that microgreens can modulate weight gain and cholesterol metabolism and may protect against CVD by preventing hypercholesterolemia.

  11. IDENTIFICATION OF THE MASS DISTRIBUTIONS OF THE MILK FAT PHASE USING UNIVERSAL PEARSON DISTRIBUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Khvostov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider the problem of approximating the experimental values of the coefficient of attenuation of ultrasonic oscillations and the mass distribution of the fat globules in the milk and milk products. The analysis of experimental data in terms of the choice of the method of approximation was done. A approximating dependence is based on the solution of Pearson differential equations. The advantages of the proposed method for the type of approximation of the experimental data obtained. An algorithm for constructing a mathematical model describing the relaxation spectrum and mass distribution of the fat globules in the milk and milk products was implemented. As a result, a family of Pearson approximation curves of the experimental data shows the ability to qualitatively correctly describe the change in the distribution of the fat phase in the process of homogenization. It estimates the error of approximating dependence, which amounted to 18 %. It is shown that during of the process of homogenization of dairy products changes shape of the curve describing the distribution of the fat globules, in view of the fact that there is a local extremum, caused by the presence of the non-homogenized fat globules. The accuracy of the selected mathematical model is significantly reduced. At the same time, it loses its physical meaning and its parameters. To address the identified deviations in the proposed mass distribution of fat globules as a function with two modes. It is proved that the complexity of the model is not only doubles the number of its parameters, but also complicates the interpretation of measurement results in a control system, and makes it difficult to analyze the obtained parameters of approximation by decision-maker. As a result of approximation of experimental data suggested to use statistical moments of the distribution for problem decision.

  12. Studies in Fat Grafting: Part II. Effects of Injection Mechanics on Material Properties of Fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atashroo, David; Raphel, Jordan; Chung, Michael T.; Paik, Kevin J.; Parisi-Amon, Andreina; McArdle, Adrian; Senarath-Yapa, Kshemendra; Zielins, Elizabeth R.; Tevlin, Ruth; Duldulao, Chris; Walmsley, Graham G.; Hu, Michael S.; Momeni, Arash; Domecus, Brian; Rimsa, Joe R.; Greenberg, Lauren; Gurtner, Geoffrey C.; Longaker, Michael T.; Wan, Derrick C.

    2014-01-01

    Background While fat grafting can address many soft tissue deficits, results remain inconsistent. In this study, we compared physical properties of fat following injection using an automated, low shear device or the modified Coleman technique. Methods Lipoaspirate was obtained from nine patients and processed for injection using either a modified Coleman technique or with an automated, low shear device. Fat was passed through a 2 mm cannula and compared to minimally processed fat. A rheometer was used to measure the storage modulus and shear rate at which tissues began to lose their solid-like properties. Viscosity was also measured and gross properties of treatment groups were qualitatively evaluated with a glass slide test. Results Fat injected through an automated, low shear device closely matched physical properties of minimally processed fat. The storage modulus (G′) of fat for the device group was greater than the modified Coleman group and the onset of breakdown was delayed. Similarly, viscosity measurement of fat from the automated device closely matched minimally processed fat and was greater than the modified Coleman group. Conclusions The physical properties of lipoaspirate processed using an automated, low shear device with a 2 mm cannula preserved the intactness of fat more than the modified Coleman technique. Our rheological data demonstrate less damage using an automated device compared to modified Coleman technique and potentially support its use for improved fat graft integrity. PMID:25028817

  13. Beta attenuation transmission system (BATS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagan, R.C.; Fullbright, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    The beta attenuation transmission system (BATS) is an automated radiation gauge designed for quantitative measurement of component thickness in explosive detonators. The BATS was designed and built by Group M-1, the Nondestructive Testing Group, of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory to measure the areal thickness, in mg/cm/sup 2/, of a cylinder of high explosive (HE) enclosed within a plastic holder. The problem is to determine the density of the HE. A /sup 90/Sr source is collimated by a 0.25 x 1.59-mm slit, and the transmitted beta-particle flux is detected by a plastic scintillator, coupled to a photomultiplier tube. The detonator is transported through the radiation beam by a leadscrew, ballnut, stepping-motor combination. Continuous analog position data are available, derived from the output from a linear-actuated potentiometer attached to the scanner. A linear electrometer amplifies the detected signal, which is then integrated for a preselected time, to obtain the desired statistical accuracy. A microprocessor (..mu..P) is used to control the scanner position and to make the data readings at the assigned positions. The data are stored, and, at the completion of the scan, are processed into the desired format. The final answer is displayed to the operator or output to a peripheral device for permanent record. The characteristics of the radiation source, the collimator, the signal detection and conditioning, and the final results are described in detail. The scanner and the microprocessor control system are briefly outlined.

  14. Transport and attenuation of radiations

    CERN Document Server

    Nimal, J C

    2003-01-01

    This article treats of the calculation methods used for the dimensioning of the protections against radiations. The method consists in determining for a given point the flux of particles coming from a source at a given time. A strong attenuation (of about some few mu Sv.h sup - sup 1) is in general expected between the source and the areas accessible to the personnel or the public. The calculation has to take into account a huge number of radiation-matter interactions and to solve the integral-differential transport equation which links the particles flux to the source. Several methods exist from the simplified physical model with numerical developments to the more or less precise resolution of the transport equation. These methods allows also the calculation of the uncertainties of equivalent dose rates, heat sources, structure damages using the data covariances (efficient cross-sections, modeling, etc..): 1 - transport equation; 2 - Monte-Carlo method; 3 - semi-numerical methods S sub N; 4 - methods based o...

  15. Plasmodium falciparum: attenuation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waki, S.; Yonome, I.; Suzuki, M.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of irradiation on the in vitro growth of Plasmodium falciparum was investigated. The cultured malarial parasites at selected stages of development were exposed to gamma rays and the sensitivity of each stage was determined. The stages most sensitive to irradiation were the ring forms and the early trophozoites; late trophozoites were relatively insensitive. The greatest resistance was shown when parasites were irradiated at a time of transition from the late trophozoite and schizont stages to young ring forms. The characteristics of radiosensitive variation in the parasite cycle resembled that of mammalian cells. Growth curves of parasites exposed to doses of irradiation upto 150 gray had the same slope as nonirradiated controls but parasites which were exposed to 200 gray exhibited a growth curve which was less steep than that for parasites in other groups. Less than 10 organisms survived from the 10(6) parasites exposed to this high dose of irradiation; the possibility exists of obtaining radiation-attenuated P. falciparum

  16. Beta attenuation transmission system (BATS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagan, R.C.; Fullbright, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    The beta attenuation transmission system (BATS) is an automated radiation gauge designed for quantitative measurement of component thickness in explosive detonators. The BATS was designed and built by Group M-1, the Nondestructive Testing Group, of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory to measure the areal thickness, in mg/cm 2 , of a cylinder of high explosive (HE) enclosed within a plastic holder. The problem is to determine the density of the HE. A 90 Sr source is collimated by a 0.25 x 1.59-mm slit, and the transmitted beta-particle flux is detected by a plastic scintillator, coupled to a photomultiplier tube. The detonator is transported through the radiation beam by a leadscrew, ballnut, stepping-motor combination. Continuous analog position data are available, derived from the output from a linear-actuated potentiometer attached to the scanner. A linear electrometer amplifies the detected signal, which is then integrated for a preselected time, to obtain the desired statistical accuracy. A microprocessor (μP) is used to control the scanner position and to make the data readings at the assigned positions. The data are stored, and, at the completion of the scan, are processed into the desired format. The final answer is displayed to the operator or output to a peripheral device for permanent record. The characteristics of the radiation source, the collimator, the signal detection and conditioning, and the final results are described in detail. The scanner and the microprocessor control system are briefly outlined

  17. Attenuation characteristics of gypsum wallboard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, Ralph C.; Sayeg, Joseph

    1978-01-01

    Increased cost of lead is promoting enhanced usage of common building materials for shielding in diagnostic medical and dental facilities where only a few half value layers (HVLs) are needed. We have measured attenuation of x-rays in gypsum wallboard as a function of kVp, filtration, and wallboard thickness. Our findings, obtained using a Victoreen 555 with an 0.1 DAS probe in poor geometry, are in agreement with the sparse data in the literature (Gross and McCullough (1977), Radiology 122: 825. Moos et al. (1961), Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, and Oral Pathology 14: 569) but extend to thicker wall configurations and different kVp and filtration parameters. We conclude that gypsum wallboard as sole shielding material should be used with great caution. These findings are of value in maximizing the benefit/cost ratio for diagnostic shielding, and strengthen the conviction that, where used for shielding purposes, common building materials must be installed carefully and HVL-depth dependence considered thoroughly. (author)

  18. Comparison of fat maintenance in the face with centrifuge versus filtered and washed fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asilian, Ali; Siadat, Amir Hossein; Iraji, Razieh

    2014-06-01

    Autogenous fat injection of the face is a viable and lasting remedy for soft tissue loss and has become a mainstay in facial rejuvenation. Fat transfer as either a stand-alone technique or as an adjunct to other filler technique and lifting depending on patient needs. Although soft tissue augmentation with autologous fat transfer has been increasingly used by esthetic surgeon, but there is no agreement concerning the best way of processing the harvested fat before injection. This study compared the clinical results obtained using simple filtered and washed fat via metal sieve with those achieved by means of pure centrifuged fat. A prospective single-blind analysis on 32 healthy patients undergoing nasolabial fold fat transplantation from 2009 to 2011 (simple sampling). Patients assigned in two groups randomly. The face of half (16 subjects) was injected with centrifuged, another half with simple filtered and washed fat to evaluate the effect of preparation methods on fat graft viability. Objective method was used to evaluate the results, involving the evaluation of postoperative photographs (in month 1, 6 and 12) by an esthetic surgeon (according to the nasolabial scale). Subjective method was a self-assessment obtained from patients about general level of satisfaction and improvement of skin texture, statistical analysis were performed by means of the Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney test. Acquired data were analyzed using SPSS version 15 and a value of P > 0.05 was considered as significant. There was no significant difference in the survival of grafted fat between the Group 1 (fat-processing with centrifuge at 3400 rpm for 1-min) and Group 2 (washing the fat in the sieve). Our data suggest that the centrifuge of the fat does not enhance survival of grafted fat (P > 0.05).

  19. Tocotrienols Reverse Cardiovascular, Metabolic and Liver Changes in High Carbohydrate, High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng-Yew Wong

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Tocotrienols have been reported to improve lipid profiles, reduce atherosclerotic lesions, decrease blood glucose and glycated haemoglobin concentrations, normalise blood pressure in vivo and inhibit adipogenesis in vitro, yet their role in the metabolic syndrome has not been investigated. In this study, we investigated the effects of palm tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF on high carbohydrate, high fat diet-induced metabolic, cardiovascular and liver dysfunction in rats. Rats fed a high carbohydrate, high fat diet for 16 weeks developed abdominal obesity, hypertension, impaired glucose and insulin tolerance with increased ventricular stiffness, lower systolic function and reduced liver function. TRF treatment improved ventricular function, attenuated cardiac stiffness and hypertension, and improved glucose and insulin tolerance, with reduced left ventricular collagen deposition and inflammatory cell infiltration. TRF improved liver structure and function with reduced plasma liver enzymes, inflammatory cell infiltration, fat vacuoles and balloon hepatocytes. TRF reduced plasma free fatty acid and triglyceride concentrations but only omental fat deposition was decreased in the abdomen. These results suggest that tocotrienols protect the heart and liver, and improve plasma glucose and lipid profiles with minimal changes in abdominal obesity in this model of human metabolic syndrome.

  20. Pharmacological TLR4 Inhibition Protects against Acute and Chronic Fat-Induced Insulin Resistance in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Liang, Hanyu; Farese, Robert V; Li, Ji; Musi, Nicolas; Hussey, Sophie E

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate whether pharmacological TLR4 inhibition protects against acute and chronic fat-induced insulin resistance in rats. For the acute experiment, rats received a TLR4 inhibitor [TAK-242 or E5564 (2x5 mg/kg i.v. bolus)] or vehicle, and an 8-h Intralipid (20%, 8.5 mg/kg/min) or saline infusion, followed by a two-step hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. For the chronic experiment, rats were subcutaneously implanted with a slow-release pellet of TAK-242 (1.5 mg/d) or placebo. Rats then received a high fat diet (HFD) or a low fat control diet (LFD) for 10 weeks, followed by a two-step insulin clamp. Acute experiment; the lipid-induced reduction (18%) in insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (Rd) was attenuated by TAK-242 and E5564 (the effect of E5564 was more robust), suggesting improved peripheral insulin action. Insulin was able to suppress hepatic glucose production (HGP) in saline- but not lipid-treated rats. TAK-242, but not E5564, partially restored this effect, suggesting improved HGP. Chronic experiment; insulin-stimulated Rd was reduced ~30% by the HFD, but completely restored by TAK-242. Insulin could not suppress HGP in rats fed a HFD and TAK-242 had no effect on HGP. Pharmacological TLR4 inhibition provides partial protection against acute and chronic fat-induced insulin resistance in vivo.

  1. Effect of fat type in baked bread on amylose-lipid complex formation and glycaemic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Evelyn; Zhou, Weibiao; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2016-06-01

    The formation of amylose-lipid complexes (ALC) had been associated with reduced starch digestibility. A few studies have directly characterised the extent of ALC formation with glycaemic response. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of using fats with varying degree of saturation and chain length on ALC formation as well as glycaemic and insulinaemic responses after consumption of bread. Healthy men consumed five test breads in a random order: control bread without any added fats (CTR) and breads baked with butter (BTR), coconut oil (COC), grapeseed oil (GRP) or olive oil (OLV). There was a significant difference in glycaemic response between the different test breads (P=0·002), primarily due to COC having a lower response than CTR (P=0·016), but no significant differences between fat types were observed. Insulinaemic response was not altered by the addition of fats/oils. Although BTR was more insulinotropic than GRP (Pfats/oils, with coconut oil showing the greatest attenuation of glycaemic response.

  2. Lessons from the war on dietary fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Thomas B; Parker, Mary Jo

    2014-01-01

    Conventional dietary guidelines put forth by health care institutions and providers for the past 40 years have stressed the importance of reducing the amount of dietary fat consumed. Such a diet is purported to mitigate metabolic risk factors and optimize the ability to achieve or maintain a healthy body weight. However, over the past 35 years obesity rates in the United States have risen dramatically though the level of dietary fat consumed by U.S. adults has fallen. This review examines the potential reasons for this paradox. Various meta-analyses, controlled trials, and cohort studies have demonstrated that reducing dietary fat intake provides for very little weight loss unless accompanied by equal or greater reductions in total energy intake. Due to both psychological (e.g., the tendency for people to eat more of what they consider low fat) and physiological (e.g., the low satiety that accompanies carbohydrate intake) factors, reducing total caloric intake while simultaneously reducing fat intake is a difficult challenge. Further, reductions in total carbohydrate intake, increases in protein intake, and adoption of a Mediterranean diet seem to be more effective in inducing weight loss than reductions in fat intake. Traditional claims that simply reducing dietary fat will improve metabolic risk factors are also not borne out by research. There is some evidence that replacing dietary saturated fat with unsaturated fat may improve metabolic risk factors, but that research is not conclusive. • Over the past 40 years, Americans have decreased the percentage of calories they get from dietary fat while rates of overweight and obesity have risen dramatically. • It appears that a decrease in total dietary fat in ad libitum diets may induce a very small decrease in body weight. • Evidence suggests that reductions in total dietary fat intake often occur in conjunction with an increase in total caloric intake. • It seems reasonable to conclude that guiding the

  3. Strong influence of dietary intake and physical activity on body fatness in elderly Japanese men: age-associated loss of polygenic resistance against obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanisawa, Kumpei; Ito, Tomoko; Sun, Xiaomin; Ise, Ryuken; Oshima, Satomi; Cao, Zhen-Bo; Sakamoto, Shizuo; Tanaka, Masashi; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2014-09-01

    Genome-wide association studies identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with body mass index (BMI) in middle-aged populations; however, it is unclear whether these SNPs are associated with body fatness in elderly people. We examined the association between genetic risk score (GRS) from BMI-associated SNPs and body fatness in elderly Japanese men. We also examined the contribution of GRS, dietary macronutrient intake, and physical activity to body fatness by different age groups. GRS was calculated from 10 BMI-associated SNPs in 84 middle-aged (30-64 years) and 97 elderly (65-79 years) Japanese men; subjects were divided into low, middle, and high GRS groups. Dietary macronutrient intake was assessed using a questionnaire, and physical activity was evaluated using both a questionnaire and an accelerometer. The middle-aged individuals with a high GRS had greater BMI; waist circumference; and total abdominal fat, visceral fat, and subcutaneous fat areas than the middle-aged individuals with low GRS, whereas the indicators were not different between the GRS groups in elderly individuals. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that GRS was the strongest predictor of BMI, total abdominal fat, and visceral fat in the middle-aged group, whereas fat, alcohol, and protein intakes or vigorous-intensity physical activity were more strongly associated with these indicators than was GRS in the elderly group. These results suggest that GRS from BMI-associated SNPs is not predictive of body fatness in elderly Japanese men. The stronger contribution of dietary macronutrient intake and physical activity to body fatness may attenuate the genetic predisposition in elderly men.

  4. Light attenuation in estuarine mangrove lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankovich, Thomas A.; Rudnick, David T.; Fourqurean, James W.

    2017-01-01

    Submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) cover has declined in brackish lakes in the southern Everglades characterized by low water transparencies, emphasizing the need to evaluate the suitability of the aquatic medium for SAV growth and to identify the light attenuating components that contribute most to light attenuation. Underwater attenuation of downwards irradiance of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was determined over a three year period at 42 sites in shallow (freshwater flow into these areas may dilute CDOM concentrations and improve the salinity and light climate for SAV communities.

  5. Invisible fat on CT: making it visible by MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünal, Emre; Karaosmanoğlu, Ali Devrim; Akata, Deniz; Özmen, Mustafa Nasuh; Karçaaltıncaba, Muşturay

    2016-01-01

    Presence of fat in a lesion significantly narrows the differential diagnosis. Small quantities of macroscopic fat and intracellular fat are invisible on computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonography. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can reveal any fatty change in a lesion and can also differentiate macroscopic fat from intracellular and intravoxel fat. Hypodensity on CT may be a sign of invisible fat and MRI can help to diagnose even minute amounts of fat in liver, pancreas, adrenal, musculoskeletal, and omental pseudolesions and lesions. This article will review the superiority of MRI over CT in demonstrating fat in abdominal lesions.

  6. [Combine fats products: methodic opportunities of it identification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viktorova, E V; Kulakova, S N; Mikhaĭlov, N A

    2006-01-01

    At present time very topical problem is falsification of milk fat. The number of methods was considered to detection of milk fat authention and possibilities his difference from combined fat products. The analysis of modern approaches to valuation of milk fat authention has showed that the main method for detection of fat nature is gas chromatography analysis. The computer method of express identification of fat products is proposed for quick getting of information about accessory of examine fat to nature milk or combined fat product.

  7. Subpleural thoracic fat as defined with CT of the chest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.J.; Glazer, H.S.; Molina, P.L.; Sagel, S.S.

    1988-01-01

    Consecutive computed tomographic (CT) examinations of the chest (n=202) were reviewed to determine the location, thickness, and extent of subpleural fat. Patient age, thickness of subcutaneous fat, and adjacent pleural or parenchymal abnormalities were recorded. Subpleural fat was most often identified in the paravertebral region (48%) and in the apices (23%). Fatty deposits anterolaterally were seen in seven individuals. Subpleural fat thickness ranged from 1 to 19 mm, except in the apex, where fat sometimes filled the space. A direct relationship between subcutaneous fat thickness and a higher incidence of subpleural fat was observed in the paravertebral region. Subpleural fat occurs commonly in the paravertebral regions but is unusual in other areas

  8. Teratoma with intraventricular free fat on CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Naohisa; Fuchinoe, Tokuro; Yahagi, Yasuji; Nakamura, Toshihiko

    1983-01-01

    Intracranial fat-containing congenital tumors are characterized by negative absorption values on computed tomography(CT). We are reporting a case of teratoma with intraventricular free fat diagnosed preoperatively by CT. The case is a 19-year-old female who was admitted to our hospital because of contineous severe headache, nausea and vomiting. At the time of admission, her physical and neurological examination was negative except for bilateral papilledema. CT demonstrated marked enlargement of the right lateral ventricle. In addition, there was negative absorption value (-90 H.U.), suggesting free fat, within right frontal horn layering above the CSF with a fluid level. Metrizamide ventriculography demonstrated complete obstruction and revealed an irregular shadow defect at the right foramen of Monro. At surgery, yellowish cheese-like material, white hair was found on the surface of the CSF. Tumor arose from the floor of the right foramen of Monro and extended upward. The patient made an uneventful recovery and was discharged 17 days after surgery. Intraventricular free fat is likely that to be released from the teratoma cyst ruptured spontaneously when the patient complained of severe headache 40 days prior to admission. There have been several published reports of the CT appearances of intracranial fat-containing tumors, however, teratoma with intraventricular free fat is very rare. It was concluded that fat-containing tumors should be highly suspected, when negative absorption values were found on CT. (author)

  9. Age-related fat deposition in multifidus muscle could be a marker for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitajima, Yoichiro; Eguchi, Yuichiro; Ishibashi, Eriko

    2010-01-01

    Although nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with visceral obesity, the relationship between visceral fat accumulation and skeletal muscle steatosis in patients with NAFLD has not been established. We evaluated: the relationship between multifidus muscular tissue steatosis, visceral fat accumulation, and biochemical data in a cross-sectional study, and the influence of weight reduction on multifidus muscular tissue steatosis in a longitudinal study. Three hundred thirty-three NAFLD patients were enrolled. Hepatic steatosis, visceral fat area, and the multifidus muscle/subcutaneous fat attenuation ratio (MM/F ratio) were evaluated by computed tomography. To evaluate how weight reduction produced by diet and exercise affected the MM/F ratio, changes in the MM/F ratio were compared between weight reduction and non-weight reduction groups. There was a gender difference in MM/F ratios. The MM/F ratio was significantly correlated with age (male r=0.613, P<0.01; female r=0.440, P<0.01). The MM/F ratio was positively correlated with visceral fat area (male: r=0.262, P<0.01; female: r=0.214, P<0.01). A decrease in the MM/F ratio, concomitant with reduced visceral fat accumulation, led to alleviation of hepatic steatosis in 20 patients with weight reduction, but not in 22 patients without weight reduction. The MM/F ratio was closely related to aging and visceral fat accumulation. The MM/F ratio was improved by weight reduction, indicating that fat accumulation in the multifidus muscle evaluated by computed tomography might be a therapeutic indicator of NAFLD. (author)

  10. Antioxidant catalase rescues against high fat diet-induced cardiac dysfunction via an IKKβ-AMPK-dependent regulation of autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lei; Shou, Xi-Ling; Zhao, Hai-Kang; Ren, Gu-Qun; Wang, Jian-Bang; Wang, Xi-Hui; Ai, Wen-Ting; Maris, Jackie R; Hueckstaedt, Lindsay K; Ma, Ai-Qun; Zhang, Yingmei

    2015-02-01

    Autophagy, a conservative degradation process for long-lived and damaged proteins, participates in a variety of biological processes including obesity. However, the precise mechanism of action behind obesity-induced changes in autophagy still remains elusive. This study was designed to examine the role of the antioxidant catalase in high fat diet-induced changes in cardiac geometry and function as well as the underlying mechanism of action involved with a focus on autophagy. Wild-type (WT) and transgenic mice with cardiac overexpression of catalase were fed low or high fat diet for 20 weeks prior to assessment of myocardial geometry and function. High fat diet intake triggered obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia, the effects of which were unaffected by catalase transgene. Myocardial geometry and function were compromised with fat diet intake as manifested by cardiac hypertrophy, enlarged left ventricular end systolic and diastolic diameters, fractional shortening, cardiomyocyte contractile capacity and intracellular Ca²⁺ mishandling, the effects of which were ameliorated by catalase. High fat diet intake promoted reactive oxygen species production and suppressed autophagy in the heart, the effects of which were attenuated by catalase. High fat diet intake dampened phosphorylation of inhibitor kappa B kinase β(IKKβ), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and tuberous sclerosis 2 (TSC2) while promoting phosphorylation of mTOR, the effects of which were ablated by catalase. In vitro study revealed that palmitic acid compromised cardiomyocyte autophagy and contractile function in a manner reminiscent of fat diet intake, the effect of which was significantly alleviated by inhibition of IKKβ, activation of AMPK and induction of autophagy. Taken together, our data revealed that the antioxidant catalase counteracts against high fat diet-induced cardiac geometric and functional anomalies possibly via an IKKβ-AMPK-dependent restoration of myocardial

  11. The relationships among total body fat, bone mineral content and bone marrow adipose tissue in early-pubertal girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L Newton, Anna; J Hanks, Lynae; Davis, Michelle; Casazza, Krista

    2013-01-01

    Investigation of the physiologic relevance of bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) during growth may promote understanding of the bone-fat axis and confluence with metabolic factors. The objective of this pilot investigation was two-fold: (1) to evaluate the relationships among total body fat, bone mineral content (BMC) and femoral BMAT during childhood and underlying metabolic determinants and (2) to determine if the relationships differ by race. Participants included white and non-Hispanic black girls (n=59) ages 4-10 years. Femoral BMAT volume was measured by magnetic resonance imaging, BMC and body fat by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Metabolic parameters were assessed in the fasted state. Total fat and BMC were positively associated with BMAT; however, simultaneous inclusion of BMC and body fat in the statistical model attenuated the association between BMC and BMAT. Differences in BMAT volume were observed, non-Hispanic black girls exhibiting marginally greater BMAT at age eight (P=0.05) and white girls exhibiting greater BMAT at age ten (PBMAT and leptin (P=0.02) and adiponectin (P=0.002) in white girls while BMAT and insulin were inversely related in non-Hispanic black girls (P=0.008). Our findings revealed a positive relationship between BMAT, body fat and BMC, although body fat, respective to leptin, contributed partly to the relationship between BMAT and BMC. Despite large differences in total fat between non-Hispanic black and white, the relationship between BMAT and BMC was similar to white girls. However, this relationship appeared to be impacted through different mechanisms according to race.

  12. Application of fats in some food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Vallerio Rios

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fats and oils are very important raw materials and functional ingredients for several food products such as confectionery, bakery, ice creams, emulsions, and sauces, shortenings, margarines, and other specially tailored products. Formulated products are made with just about every part of chemistry, but they are not simple chemicals. In general, they consist of several, and often many, components. Each of these components has a purpose. Most formulated products have a micro- or nano-structure that is important for their function, but obtaining this structure is often the big challenge. Due to a rise in overweight or obesity, health concerns have increased. This fact has led to the need to the develop products with low fat content, which have become a market trend. In addition, the development of new products using fat substitutes can be a good option for companies that are always trying to reduce costs or substitute trans fat or saturated fat. However, the successful development of these products is still a challenge because fat plays multiple roles in determining the desirable physicochemical and sensory attributes, and because the consumers who want or need to replace these ingredients, seek products with similar characteristics to those of the original product. Important attributes such as smooth, creamy and rich texture; milky and creamy appearance; desirable flavor; and satiating effects are influenced by the droplets of fat, and these characteristics are paramount to the consumer and consequently crucial to the success of the product in the market. Therefore, it is important to identify commercially viable strategies that are capable of removing or reducing fat content of food products without altering their sensory and nutritional characteristics. This paper intended to provide an overview about the role of fat in different food systems such as chocolate, ice cream, bakery products like biscuits, breads, and cakes considering the major

  13. Detection of non-milk fat in milk fat by gas chromatography and linear discriminant analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, R; Vega, S; Díaz, G; Sánchez, J; Coronado, M; Ramírez, A; Pérez, J; González, M; Schettino, B

    2009-05-01

    Gas chromatography was utilized to determine triacylglycerol profiles in milk and non-milk fat. The values of triacylglycerol were subjected to linear discriminant analysis to detect and quantify non-milk fat in milk fat. Two groups of milk fat were analyzed: A) raw milk fat from the central region of Mexico (n = 216) and B) ultrapasteurized milk fat from 3 industries (n = 36), as well as pork lard (n = 2), bovine tallow (n = 2), fish oil (n = 2), peanut (n = 2), corn (n = 2), olive (n = 2), and soy (n = 2). The samples of raw milk fat were adulterated with non-milk fats in proportions of 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% to form 5 groups. The first function obtained from the linear discriminant analysis allowed the correct classification of 94.4% of the samples with levels <10% of adulteration. The triacylglycerol values of the ultrapasteurized milk fats were evaluated with the discriminant function, demonstrating that one industry added non-milk fat to its product in 80% of the samples analyzed.

  14. Associations of Infant Subcutaneous Fat Mass with Total and Abdominal Fat Mass at School-Age: The Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Susana; Gaillard, Romy; Oliveira, Andreia; Barros, Henrique; Abrahamse-Berkeveld, Marieke; van der Beek, Eline M; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2016-09-01

    Skinfold thickness enables the measurement of overall and regional subcutaneous fatness in infancy and may be associated with total and abdominal body fat in later childhood. We examined the associations of subcutaneous fat in infancy with total and abdominal fat at school-age. In a population-based prospective cohort study among 821 children, we calculated total subcutaneous fat (sum of biceps, triceps, suprailiacal, and subscapular skinfold thicknesses) and central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio (sum of suprailiacal and subscapular skinfold thicknesses/total subcutaneous fat) at 1.5 and 24 months. At 6 years, we measured fat mass index (total fat/height(3) ), central-to-total fat ratio (trunk fat/total fat), and android-to-gynoid fat ratio (android fat/gynoid fat) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and preperitoneal fat mass area by abdominal ultrasound. Central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio at 1.5 months was positively associated with fat mass index and central-to-total fat ratio at 6 years, whereas both total and central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio at 24 months were positively associated with all childhood adiposity measures. A 1-standard-deviation scores higher total subcutaneous fat at 24 months was associated with an increased risk of childhood overweight (odds ratio 1.70, 95% confidence interval 1.36, 2.12). These associations were weaker than those for body mass index and stronger among girls than boys. Subcutaneous fat in infancy is positively associated with total and abdominal fat at school-age. Our results also suggest that skinfold thicknesses add little value to estimate later body fat, as compared with body mass index. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Duplex ultrasound evidence of fat embolism syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Naddaf, MD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fat embolism syndrome is a potentially fatal disease process most commonly associated with long-bone and pelvic fractures. Reports describing ultrasound evidence of fat emboli are restricted to echocardiography. We propose a new objective finding on venous duplex ultrasound imaging of the lower extremities as a useful diagnostic criterion by presenting the case reports of two patients with acute long-bone fractures, possibly leading to earlier orthopedic fixation and allocation of resources to those patients at higher risk of fat embolism syndrome.

  16. CT findings of cerebral fat embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashiyama, Shoji; Kawakami, Kiyoshi; Ohtsuki, Taisuke; Ishibashi, Takao.

    1986-01-01

    A case of cerebral fat embolism following multiple bone fractures is presented. A 27-year-old patient was admitted to our clinic 50 minutes after a traffic accident. He was somnolent on admission, but his consciousness level was gradually raised and respiratory symptoms (dyspnea, bloody sputum) appeared with petechiae of his conjunctiva and chest. We diagnosed cerebral fat embolism. On CT scan we found multiple high-density areas, which gradually turned into multiple low-density areas. Subsequent cerebral atrophy and subdural effusion developed one month after the injury. This patient showed a typical clinical course and CT findings of cerebral fat embolism. (author)

  17. Differential effect of gender on hepatic fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilsanz, Vicente; Chung, Sandra A.; Kaplowitz, Neil

    2011-01-01

    There are discrepant data on whether men or women have a higher risk for hepatic steatosis. To examine the influence of gender on hepatic adiposity in teenagers and young adults. We measured subcutaneous abdominal fat (SAF), intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and hepatic tissue density (a surrogate measure of hepatic fat) using CT in 505 healthy teenagers and young adults (254 males, 251 females; ages 15-22.9 years). Overall, compared to men, women had higher values of SAF (P 0.05). When compared to overweight and obese young women, overweight and obese young men are at greater risk for hepatic steatosis, independent of IAF. (orig.)

  18. Monounsaturated fats and immune function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Yaqoob

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Animal studies suggest that olive oil is capable of modulating functions of cells of the immune system in a manner similar to, albeit weaker than, fish oils. There is some evidence that the effects of olive oil on immune function in animal studies are due to oleic acid rather than to trace elements or antioxidants. Importantly, several studies have demonstrated effects of oleic acid-containing diets on in vivo immune responses. In contrast, consumption of a monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA-rich diet by humans does not appear to bring about a general suppression of immune cell functions. The effects of this diet in humans are limited to decreasing aspects of adhesion of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, although there are trends towards decreases in natural killer cell activity and proliferation. The lack of a clear effect of MUFA in humans may be attributable to the higher level of monounsaturated fat used in the animal studies, although it is ultimately of importance to examine the effects of intakes which are in no way extreme. The effects of MUFA on adhesion molecules are potentially important, since these molecules appear to have a role in the pathology of a number of diseases involving the immune system. This area clearly deserves further exploration

  19. R-Modafinil Attenuates Nicotine-Taking and Nicotine-Seeking Behavior in Alcohol-Preferring Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Fei; Bi, Guo-Hua; He, Yi; Yang, Hong-Ju; Gao, Jun-Tao; Okunola-Bakare, Oluyomi M; Slack, Rachel D; Gardner, Eliot L; Xi, Zheng-Xiong; Newman, Amy Hauck

    2015-01-01

    (±)-Modafinil (MOD) is used clinically for the treatment of sleep disorders and has been investigated as a potential medication for the treatment of psychostimulant addiction. However, the therapeutic efficacy of (±)-MOD for addiction is inconclusive. Herein we used animal models of self-administration and in vivo microdialysis to study the pharmacological actions of R-modafinil (R-MOD) and S-modafinil (S-MOD) on nicotine-taking and nicotine-seeking behavior, and mechanisms underlying such actions. We found that R-MOD is more potent and effective than S-MOD in attenuating nicotine self-administration in Long–Evans rats. As Long–Evans rats did not show a robust reinstatement response to nicotine, we used alcohol-preferring rats (P-rats) that display much higher reinstatement responses to nicotine than Long–Evans rats. We found that R-MOD significantly inhibited intravenous nicotine self-administration, nicotine-induced reinstatement, and nicotine-associated cue-induced drug-seeking behavior in P-rats. R-MOD alone neither sustained self-administration in P-rats previously self-administering nicotine nor reinstated extinguished nicotine-seeking behavior. The in vivo brain microdialysis assays demonstrated that R-MOD alone produced a slow-onset moderate increase in extracellular DA. Pretreatment with R-MOD dose-dependently blocked nicotine-induced dopamine (DA) release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in both naive and nicotine self-administrating rats, suggesting a DA-dependent mechanism underlying mitigation of nicotine's effects. In conclusion, the present findings support further investigation of R-MOD for treatment of nicotine dependence in humans. PMID:25613829

  20. Seismic attenuation system for a nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liszkai, Tamas; Cadell, Seth

    2018-01-30

    A system for attenuating seismic forces includes a reactor pressure vessel containing nuclear fuel and a containment vessel that houses the reactor pressure vessel. Both the reactor pressure vessel and the containment vessel include a bottom head. Additionally, the system includes a base support to contact a support surface on which the containment vessel is positioned in a substantially vertical orientation. An attenuation device is located between the bottom head of the reactor pressure vessel and the bottom head of the containment vessel. Seismic forces that travel from the base support to the reactor pressure vessel via the containment vessel are attenuated by the attenuation device in a direction that is substantially lateral to the vertical orientation of the containment vessel.

  1. Dexmedetomidine in premedication to attenuate the acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The choice of anaesthetic agent for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) depends on seizure duration, haemodynamic ... and infarction. To attenuate this acute ... scheduled for ECT, physical status ASA I and II, age between 18 and.

  2. Attenuation measurements in solutions of some carbohydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagandeep; Singh, K.; Lark, B.S.; Sahota, H.S.

    2000-01-01

    The linear attenuation coefficients in aqueous solutions of three carbohydrates, glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ), maltose monohydrate (C 12 H 22 O 11 ·H 2 O), and sucrose (C 12 H 22 O 11 ), were determined at 81, 356, 511, 662, 1,173, and 1,332 keV by the gamma-ray transmission method in a good geometry setup. From the precisely measured densities of these solutions, mass attenuation coefficients were then obtained that varied systematically with the corresponding changes in the concentrations (g/cm 3 ) of these solutions. The experimental results were used in terms of effective atomic numbers and electron densities. A comparison between experimental and theoretical values of attenuation coefficients has proven that the study has a potential application for the determination of attenuation coefficients of solid solutes from their solutions without obtaining them in pure crystalline form

  3. Attenuation Measurements in Solutions of Some Carbohydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagandeep; Singh, Kulwant; Lark, B.S.; Sahota, H.S.

    2000-01-01

    The linear attenuation coefficients in aqueous solutions of three carbohydrates, glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ), maltose monohydrate (C 12 H 22 O 11 .H 2 O), and sucrose (C 12 H 22 O 11 ), were determined at 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173, and 1332 keV by the gamma-ray transmission method in a good geometry setup. From the precisely measured densities of these solutions, mass attenuation coefficients were then obtained that varied systematically with the corresponding changes in the concentrations (g/cm 3 ) of these solutions. The experimental results were used in terms of effective atomic numbers and electron densities. A comparison between experimental and theoretical values of attenuation coefficients has proven that the study has a potential application for the determination of attenuation coefficients of solid solutes from their solutions without obtaining them in pure crystalline form

  4. Radiation-attenuated vaccine for lungworm disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, C.M.

    1977-01-01

    The work done at the Indian Veternary Research Institute, Izatnagar, on the development of a vaccine for lungworm diseases is reported. Research work done includes: (1) studies on the epidemiology and the incidence of the lungworm infections, (ii) studies on the radiation-attenuated lungworm Dictyocaulus filaria vaccine, (iii) studies on other parasites using ionizing radiation, (iv) incidence of lungworm infection in sheep in Jammu and Kashmir State, (v) suitable dose of gamma radiation for attenuation, (vi) laboratory studies with radiation-attenuated D. filaria vaccine, (vii) serology of D. filaria infection, (viii) field trials with the radiation-attenuated vaccine, (ix) immune response of previously exposed lambs to vaccination, (x) comparative susceptibility of sheep and goats to infection with D. filaria, (xi) quantitative studies of D. filaria in lambs and (xii) production and supply of lungworm vaccine. (A.K.)

  5. Modified broken rice starch as fat substitute in sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Maria Limberger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The demand for low-fat beef products has led the food industry to use fat substitutes such as modified starch. About 14% of broken rice is generated during processing. Nevertheless, this by-product contains high levels of starch; being therefore, great raw material for fat substitution. This study evaluated the applicability of chemically and physically modified broken rice starch as fat substitute in sausages. Extruded and phosphorylated broken rice was used in low-fat sausage formulation. All low-fat sausages presented about 55% reduction in the fat content and around 28% reduction in the total caloric value. Fat replacement with phosphorylated and extruded broken rice starch increased the texture acceptability of low-fat sausages, when compared to low-fat sausages with no modified broken rice. Results suggest that modified broken rice can be used as fat substitute in sausage formulations, yielding lower caloric value products with acceptable sensory characteristics.

  6. Post-Retrieval Extinction Attenuates Cocaine Memories

    OpenAIRE

    Sartor, Gregory C; Aston-Jones, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that post-retrieval extinction training attenuates fear and reward-related memories in both humans and rodents. This noninvasive, behavioral approach has the potential to be used in clinical settings to treat maladaptive memories that underlie several psychiatric disorders, including drug addiction. However, few studies to date have used a post-retrieval extinction approach to attenuate addiction-related memories. In the current study, we attempted to disrupt cocaine...

  7. Electron Effective-Attenuation-Length Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 82 NIST Electron Effective-Attenuation-Length Database (PC database, no charge)   This database provides values of electron effective attenuation lengths (EALs) in solid elements and compounds at selected electron energies between 50 eV and 2,000 eV. The database was designed mainly to provide EALs (to account for effects of elastic-eletron scattering) for applications in surface analysis by Auger-electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

  8. Investigation of photon attenuation coefficients for marble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basyigit, C; Akkurt, I; Kilincarslan, S; Akkurt, A

    2005-01-01

    The total linear attenuation coefficients μ (cm -1 ) have been obtained using the XCOM program at photon energies of 1 keV to 1 GeV for six different natural marbles produced in different places in Turkey. The individual contribution of photon interaction processes to the total linear attenuation coefficients for marble has been investigated. The calculated results were also compared with the measurements. The results obtained for marble were also compared with concrete. (note)

  9. Mechanisms of geometrical seismic attenuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor B. Morozov

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In several recent reports, we have explained the frequency dependence of the apparent seismic quality-factor (Q observed in many studies according to the effects of geometrical attenuation, which was defined as the zero-frequency limit of the temporal attenuation coefficient. In particular, geometrical attenuation was found to be positive for most waves traveling within the lithosphere. Here, we present three theoretical models that illustrate the origin of this geometrical attenuation, and we investigate the causes of its preferential positive values. In addition, we discuss the physical basis and limitations of both the conventional and new attenuation models. For waves in media with slowly varying properties, geometrical attenuation is caused by variations in the wavefront curvature, which can be both positive (for defocusing and negative (for focusing. In media with velocity/density contrasts, incoherent reflectivity leads to geometrical-attenuation coefficients which are proportional to the mean squared reflectivity and are always positive. For «coherent» reflectivity, the geometrical attenuation is approximately zero, and the attenuation process can be described according to the concept of «scattering Q». However, the true meaning of this parameter is in describing the mean reflectivity within the medium, and not that of the traditional resonator quality factor known in mechanics. The general conclusion from these models is that non-zero and often positive levels of geometrical attenuation are common in realistic, heterogeneous media, both observationally and theoretically. When transformed into the conventional Q-factor form, this positive geometrical attenuation leads to Q values that quickly increase with frequency. These predictions show that the positive frequency-dependent Q observed in many datasets might represent artifacts of the transformations of the attenuation coefficients into Q.

  1. Fat intake and energy-balance effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerterp-Plantenga, M S

    2004-12-30

    This paper focuses on the effects of dietary fats or fatty acids on key targets of metabolic intermediates for body-weight control, i.e. satiety, thermogenesis, fat oxidation and body composition. With respect to sensory satiety, it appeared, e.g. that linoleic acid tasters showed a different mechanism for meal termination than non-tasters did. They stopped eating linoleic acid containing food based upon satiety, whereas the non-tasters stopped eating based upon the change in pleasantness of taste. Moreover, in the normal range of body mass index, an inverse relationship was shown between % 'tasters' and BMI. In a high fat diet vs. a low fat high protein high carbohydrate diet, metabolic satiety appeared to be continuously lower and correlated positively to diet-induced energy expenditure. However, with respect to the intermeal interval, satiety appeared to be more sustained following a high fat vs. a high CHO preload, resulting in a lower meal frequency. Covert fat replacement during breakfast by sucrose polyester was successful in combination with dietary restraint, yet overt fat replacement in snacks was successful in the dietary-unrestrained subjects, i.e. those who habitually ate snacks. With respect to fat oxidation, from a respiration-chamber experiment on the effects of diacylglycerol compared (DG) to triacylglycerol (TG) intake, it was concluded that consumption of DG increased fat oxidation and beta-hydroxy-butyrate levels, but did not affect energy metabolism or triacylglycerol level. Parameters of appetite were all lowered by DG compared to TG. With respect to body composition, the effects of 13 weeks CLA supplementation in overweight subjects during weight regain were assessed. Although CLA did not affect %body-weight regain, the regain of fat-free mass was increased by CLA, independently of %body-weight regain and physical activity, and as a consequence resting metabolic rate was increased. At the same time, appetite was reduced and satiety and

  2. Effects of gender on locomotor sensitivity to amphetamine, body weight, and fat mass in regulator of G protein signaling 9 (RGS9) knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Paul D; Jarosz, Patricia A; Bouhamdan, Mohamad; MacKenzie, Robert G

    2015-01-01

    Regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) protein 9-2 is enriched in the striatum where it modulates dopamine and opioid receptor-mediated signaling. RGS9 knockout (KO) mice show increased psychostimulant-induced behavioral sensitization, as well as exhibit higher body weights and greater fat accumulation compared to wild-type (WT) littermates. In the present study, we found gender influences on each of these phenotypic characteristics. Female RGS9 KO mice exhibited greater locomotor sensitization to amphetamine (1.0mg/kg) treatment as compared to male RGS9 KO mice. Male RGS9 KO mice showed increased body weights as compared to male WT littermates, while no such differences were detected in female mice. Quantitative magnetic resonance showed that male RGS9 KO mice accumulated greater fat mass vs. WT littermates at 5months of age. Such observations could not be explained by increased caloric consumption since male and female RGS9 KO mice demonstrated equivalent daily food intake as compared to their respective WT littermates. Although indirect calorimetry methods found decreased oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production during the 12-hour dark phase in male RGS9 KO vs. WT mice which are indicative of less energy expenditure, male RGS9 KO mice exhibited lower levels of locomotor activity during this period. Genotype had no effect on metabolic activities when KO and WT groups were compared under fasting vs. feeding treatments. In summary, these results highlight the importance of factoring gender into the experimental design since many studies conducted in RGS9 KO mice utilize locomotor activity as a measured outcome. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Autologous fat transplantation for labia majora reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, P M; Herold, C; Rennekampff, H O

    2011-10-01

    A case of autologous fat transplantation for labia majora augmentation after ablative surgery is presented. The patient reported pain and deformity of the left labium majus after resection for Bowen's disease. The symptoms had not been solved by classic plastic surgical reconstructions including a pudendal thigh fasciocutaneous flap. Use of autologous fat transplantation facilitated an improved aesthetic result while preserving residual sensation to the external genitalia and improving symptoms of mucosal exposure and dryness.

  4. Trans fat consumption and aggression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice A Golomb

    biological plausibility add weight to the prospect of a causal connection. Our results may have relevance to public policy determinations regarding dietary trans fats. Clinicaltrials.gov # NCT00330980.

  5. Linear attenuation coefficients of tissues from 1 keV to 150 keV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böke, Aysun

    2014-09-01

    The linear attenuation coefficients and three interaction processes have been computed for liver, kidney, muscle, fat and for a range of x-ray energies from 1 keV to 150 keV. Molecular photoelectric absorption cross sections were calculated from atomic cross section data. Total coherent (Rayleigh) and incoherent (Compton) scattering cross sections were obtained by numerical integration over combinations of F2m(x) with the Thomson formula and Sm(x) with the Klein-Nishina formula, respectively. For the coherent (Rayleigh) scattering cross section calculations, molecular form factors were obtained from recent experimental data in the literature for values of xelements involved in tissue composition is 5 for liver, 47 for kidney, 44 for muscle and 3 for fat. The results are compared with previously published experimental and theoretical linear attenuation coefficients. In general, good agreement is obtained. The molecular form factors and scattering functions and cross sections are incorporated into a Monte Carlo program. The energy distributions of x-ray photons scattered from tissues have been simulated and the results are presented.

  6. Is fat perception a thermal effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, J F; de Wijk, R A; Huntjens, L A H; Engelen, L; Polet, I A

    2007-04-01

    It has been generally assumed that fat is detected by its flavour and by its lubrication of the oral mucosa. A recent study reported a correlation of -.99 between perceived temperature of a product and its fat content. This was significantly higher than correlations of sensory scores for fat flavour, mouthfeel, and afterfeel. This suggested a third detection mechanism; fat may be detected via its effect on the thermal conductivity of the food. In 3 studies, thermal sensitivity in humans was investigated to verify whether oral thermal receptors are sufficiently rapid and accurate to play a role in the perception of fats. The thermal sensitivity of the lips and oral mucosa of the anterior and middle one-third of the tongue were assessed using a Peltier device. Subjects detected 0.5 Hz fluctuations in temperature of 0.08'C on the lower lip, 0.26 degrees C and 1.36 degrees C at the tip and dorsum of the tongue, demonstrating that the lips are sufficiently sensitive to detect small differences in temperature. In two further experiments subjects ingested custards and mayonnaises and then spat out samples after 5, 10, or 20 sec. The temperature of the food and oral mucosa was measured before and after spitting and the rates of heating were calculated. Results suggest assessment of thermal conductivity of food may be used to assess fat content.

  7. Fat intake and injury in female runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Kristen E; Burton, Harold W; Dorn, Joan M; Leddy, John J; Horvath, Peter J

    2008-01-03

    Our purpose was to determine the relationship between energy intake, energy availability, dietary fat and lower extremity injury in adult female runners. We hypothesized that runners who develop overuse running-related injuries have lower energy intakes, lower energy availability and lower fat intake compared to non-injured runners. Eighty-six female subjects, running a minimum of 20 miles/week, completed a food frequency questionnaire and informed us about injury incidence over the next year. Injured runners had significantly lower intakes of total fat (63 +/- 20 vs. 80 +/- 50 g/d) and percentage of kilocalories from fat (27 +/- 5 vs. 30 +/- 8 %) compared with non-injured runners. A logistic regression analysis found that fat intake was the best dietary predictor, correctly identifying 64% of future injuries. Lower energy intake and lower energy availability approached, but did not reach, a significant association with overuse injury in this study. Fat intake is likely associated with injury risk in female runners. By documenting these associations, better strategies can be developed to reduce running injuries in women.

  8. Food Supplement Reduces Fat, Improves Flavor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Diversified Services Corporation, seeking to develop a new nutritional fat replacement and flavor enhancement product, took advantage of the NASA Glenn Garrett Morgan Commercialization Initiative (GMCI) for technology acquisition and development and introductions to potential customers and strategic partners. Having developed and commercialized the product, named Nurtigras, the company is now marketing it through its subsidiary, H.F. Food Technologies Inc. The Nutrigras fat substitute is available in liquid, gel, or dry form and can be easily customized to the specific needs of the food manufacturer. It is primarily intended for use as a partial replacement for animal fat in beef patties and other normally high-fat meat products, and can also be used in soups, sauces, bakery items, and desserts. In addition to the nutritional benefits, the fat replacement costs less than the food it replaces, and as such can help manufacturers reduce material costs. In precooked products, Nutrigras can increase moisture content and thereby increase product yield. The company has been able to repay the help provided by NASA by contributing to the Space Agency's astronaut diet-the Nutrigras fat substitute can be used as a flavor enhancer and shelf-life extender for food on the ISS.

  9. Quantification of liver fat: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goceri, Evgin; Shah, Zarine K; Layman, Rick; Jiang, Xia; Gurcan, Metin N

    2016-04-01

    Fat accumulation in the liver causes metabolic diseases such as obesity, hypertension, diabetes or dyslipidemia by affecting insulin resistance, and increasing the risk of cardiac complications and cardiovascular disease mortality. Fatty liver diseases are often reversible in their early stage; therefore, there is a recognized need to detect their presence and to assess its severity to recognize fat-related functional abnormalities in the liver. This is crucial in evaluating living liver donors prior to transplantation because fat content in the liver can change liver regeneration in the recipient and donor. There are several methods to diagnose fatty liver, measure the amount of fat, and to classify and stage liver diseases (e.g. hepatic steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis): biopsy (the gold-standard procedure), clinical (medical physics based) and image analysis (semi or fully automated approaches). Liver biopsy has many drawbacks: it is invasive, inappropriate for monitoring (i.e., repeated evaluation), and assessment of steatosis is somewhat subjective. Qualitative biomarkers are mostly insufficient for accurate detection since fat has to be quantified by a varying threshold to measure disease severity. Therefore, a quantitative biomarker is required for detection of steatosis, accurate measurement of severity of diseases, clinical decision-making, prognosis and longitudinal monitoring of therapy. This study presents a comprehensive review of both clinical and automated image analysis based approaches to quantify liver fat and evaluate fatty liver diseases from different medical imaging modalities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fat intake and injury in female runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leddy John J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our purpose was to determine the relationship between energy intake, energy availability, dietary fat and lower extremity injury in adult female runners. We hypothesized that runners who develop overuse running-related injuries have lower energy intakes, lower energy availability and lower fat intake compared to non-injured runners. Methods Eighty-six female subjects, running a minimum of 20 miles/week, completed a food frequency questionnaire and informed us about injury incidence over the next year. Results Injured runners had significantly lower intakes of total fat (63 ± 20 vs. 80 ± 50 g/d and percentage of kilocalories from fat (27 ± 5 vs. 30 ± 8 % compared with non-injured runners. A logistic regression analysis found that fat intake was the best dietary predictor, correctly identifying 64% of future injuries. Lower energy intake and lower energy availability approached, but did not reach, a significant association with overuse injury in this study. Conclusion Fat intake is likely associated with injury risk in female runners. By documenting these associations, better strategies can be developed to reduce running injuries in women.

  11. Computed tomography of peripancreatic fat planes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittich, G.R.; Van Sonnenberg, E.; Willson, S.A.; Tobin, R.S.; Cubberley, D.A.; Marx, M.Q.

    1987-01-01

    Obliteration of peripancreatic fat planes usually is considered an indicator of peripancreatic tumour infiltration in the presence of a malignant mass, or of inflammation of peripancreatic tissues in patients with pancreatitis. However, absence of peripancreatic fat planes also may be found in patients without evidence of pancreatic disease. Hence, CT scans of 125 patients without clinical or computed tomographic evidence of pancreatic disease were evaluated to assess normal variations in the anatomy of the pancreas and its relation to surrounding vessels and bowel loops. The fat plane separating the superior mesenteric artery from the pancreas was preserved in 100% of patients. Conversely, fat planes between the pancreas and the superior mesenteric vein, inferior vena cava, and adjacent bowel loops were partially or totally obliterated in 13% to 50% of patients. It is concluded that the absence of fat around the superior mesenteric artery is highly suggestive of pathologic changes of the pancreas, while the lack of fat planes between the pancreas and other splanchnic vessels or bowel loops frequently is normal, and therefore, is an unreliable sign of pancreatic disease. The applications of these findings to the assessment of tumour resectability by CT, and to CT scanning techniques, are discussed. (orig.)

  12. Permeabilization of enterocytes induced by absorption of dietary fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Erik Michael; Hansen, Gert H; Rasmussen, Karina

    2013-01-01

    the physiological process of dietary fat absorption, and short exposures to the fat mixture caused fat droplet accumulation within villus enterocytes. Lucifer yellow (LY), a fluorescent membrane-impermeable polar tracer was included to monitor epithelial integrity. Both in controls and during fat absorption LY...

  13. The degree of saturation of fatty acids in dietary fats does not affect the metabolic response to ingested carbohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulescu, Angela; Hassan, Youssef; Gannon, Mary C; Nuttall, Frank Q

    2009-06-01

    We are interested in the metabolic response to ingested macronutrients, and the interaction between macronutrients in meals. Previously, we and others reported that the postprandial rise in serum glucose following ingestion of 50 g carbohydrate, consumed as potato, was markedly attenuated when butter was ingested with the carbohydrate, whereas the serum insulin response was little affected by the combination. To determine whether a similar response would be observed with three other dietary fats considerably different in fatty acid composition. Nine healthy subjects received lard, twelve received olive oil and eleven received safflower oil as a test meal. The subjects ingested meals of 25 g fat (lard, olive oil or safflower oil), 50 g CHO (potato), 25 g fat with 50 g CHO or water only. Glucose, C peptide, insulin, triacylglycerols and nonesterified fatty acids were determined. Ingestion of lard, olive oil or safflower oil with potato did not affect the quantitative glucose and insulin responses to potato alone. However, the responses were delayed, diminished and prolonged. All three fats when ingested alone modestly increased the insulin concentration when compared to ingestion of water alone. When either lard, olive oil or safflower oil was ingested with the potato, there was an accelerated rise in triacylglycerols. This was most dramatic with safflower oil. Our data indicate that the glucose and insulin response to butter is unique when compared with the three other fat sources varying in their fatty acid composition.

  14. The Interaction between Dietary Fiber and Fat and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in the Women’s Health Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandi L. Navarro

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Combined intakes of specific dietary fiber and fat subtypes protect against colon cancer in animal models. We evaluated associations between self-reported individual and combinations of fiber (insoluble, soluble, and pectins, specifically and fat (omega-6, omega-3, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, specifically and colorectal cancer (CRC risk in the Women’s Health Initiative prospective cohort (n = 134,017. During a mean 11.7 years (1993–2010, 1952 incident CRC cases were identified. Cox regression models computed multivariate adjusted hazard ratios to estimate the association between dietary factors and CRC risk. Assessing fiber and fat individually, there was a modest trend for lower CRC risk with increasing intakes of total and insoluble fiber (p-trend 0.09 and 0.08. An interaction (p = 0.01 was observed between soluble fiber and DHA + EPA, with protective effects of DHA + EPA with lower intakes of soluble fiber and an attenuation at higher intakes, however this association was no longer significant after correction for multiple testing. These results suggest a modest protective effect of higher fiber intake on CRC risk, but not in combination with dietary fat subtypes. Given the robust results in preclinical models and mixed results in observational studies, controlled dietary interventions with standardized intakes are needed to better understand the interaction of specific fat and fiber subtypes on colon biology and ultimately CRC susceptibility in humans.

  15. Leucine deprivation stimulates fat loss via increasing CRH expression in the hypothalamus and activating the sympathetic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ying; Zhang, Qian; Meng, Qingshu; Xia, Tingting; Huang, Zhiying; Wang, Chunxia; Liu, Bin; Chen, Shanghai; Xiao, Fei; Du, Ying; Guo, Feifan

    2011-09-01

    We previously showed that leucine deprivation decreases abdominal fat mass largely by increasing energy expenditure, as demonstrated by increased lipolysis in white adipose tissue (WAT) and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression in brown adipose tissue (BAT). The goal of the present study was to investigate the possible involvement of central nervous system (CNS) in this regulation and elucidate underlying molecular mechanisms. For this purpose, levels of genes and proteins related to lipolysis in WAT and UCP1 expression in BAT were analyzed in wild-type mice after intracerebroventricular administration of leucine or corticotrophin-releasing hormone antibodies, or in mice deleted for three β-adrenergic receptors, after being maintained on a leucine-deficient diet for 7 d. Here, we show that intracerebroventricular administration of leucine significantly attenuates abdominal fat loss and blocks activation of hormone sensitive lipase in WAT and induction of UCP1 in BAT in leucine-deprived mice. Furthermore, we provide evidence that leucine deprivation stimulates fat loss by increasing expression of corticotrophin-releasing hormone in the hypothalamus via activation of stimulatory G protein/cAMP/protein kinase A/cAMP response element-binding protein pathway. Finally, we show that the effect of leucine deprivation on fat loss is mediated by activation of the sympathetic nervous system. These results suggest that CNS plays an important role in regulating fat loss under leucine deprivation and thereby provide novel and important insights concerning the importance of CNS leucine in the regulation of energy homeostasis.

  16. Body fat and dairy product intake in lactase persistent and non-persistent children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Almon

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background : Lactase non-persistent (LNP individuals may be lactose intolerant and therefore on a more restricted diet concerning milk and milk products compared to lactase persistent (LP individuals. This may have an impact on body fat mass. Objective : This study examines if LP and LNP children and adolescents, defined by genotyping for the LCT-13910 C > T polymorphism, differ from each other with regard to milk and milk product intake, and measures of body fat mass. Design : Children (n=298, mean age 9.6 years and adolescents (n=386, mean age 15.6 years, belonging to the Swedish part of the European Youth Heart Study, were genotyped for the LCT-13910 C > T polymorphism. Dietary intakes of reduced and full-fat dairy varieties were determined. Results : LNP (CC genotype subjects consumed less milk, soured milk and yoghurt compared to LP (CT/TT genotype subjects (p<0.001. Subsequent partitioning for age group attenuated this observation (p=0.002 for children and p=0.023 in adolescents. Six subjects were reported by parents to be ‘lactose intolerant’, none of whom were LNP. LNP children and adolescents consumed significantly less reduced fat milk and milk products than LP children and adolescents (p=0.009 for children and p = 0.001 for adolescents. Conclusions : We conclude that LP is linked to an overall higher milk and dairy intake, but is not linked to higher body fat mass in children and adolescents.

  17. Fitness and fatness in relation with attention capacity in European adolescents: The HELENA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadenas-Sanchez, Cristina; Vanhelst, Jeremy; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Castillo-Gualda, Ruth; Libuda, Lars; Labayen, Idoia; De Miguel-Etayo, Pilar; Marcos, Ascensión; Molnár, Eszter; Catena, Andrés; Moreno, Luis A; Sjöström, Michael; Gottrand, Frederic; Widhalm, Kurt; Ortega, Francisco B

    2017-04-01

    To examine the association of health-related physical fitness components and accurate measures of fatness with attention in European adolescents. Cross-sectional study. A sub-sample of 444 adolescents from the HELENA study (14.5±1.2years) from 6 different countries participated in this study. Adolescents underwent evaluations of fitness (20m shuttle run, handgrip strength, standing long jump and 4×10m shuttle run tests), fatness (body mass index, skinfold thicknesses, bioelectrical impedance, Bod Pod and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and attention (d2-test). Higher cardiorespiratory fitness was positively associated with better attention capacity (β=0.1, p=0.03). Body mass index and fat mass index measured by Bod Pod and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in a subset were negatively associated with attention (β=-0.11, p=0.02; β=-0.36, p=0.02; β=-0.34, p=0.03; respectively). All models were adjusted for age, sex, family-affluence scale and mother education. When these models were additionally adjusted for cardiorespiratory fitness when fatness was the main predictor and vice versa, the associations were somewhat attenuated and were no longer statistically significant. Muscular strength, speed-agility and body fatness markers measured by bioelectrical impedance and skinfolds were not associated with attention. The fit and non-overweight adolescents presented the highest values of attention capacity whilst their unfit and overweight peers showed the lowest values of attention (47.31±2.34 vs. 33.74±4.39; pattention, yet these associations are not independent. A combined effect was also observed, with fit and non-overweight adolescents showing the highest levels of attention and those unfit and overweight the lowest. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Lg Attenuation Modeling in the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasyanos, M. E.; Matzel, E. M.; Walter, W. R.; Rodgers, A. J.

    2008-12-01

    We present a broadband tomographic model of Lg attenuation in the Middle East derived from source- and site-corrected amplitudes. The study region spans from Turkey through the Arabian Peninsula and Iran to Pakistan, Afghanistan, and northwest India. Absolute amplitude measurements are made on hand-selected and carefully windowed seismograms for tens of stations and thousands of crustal earthquakes resulting in excellent coverage of the region. We have modified the standard attenuation tomography technique to more explicitly define the earthquake source expression in terms of the seismic moment. This facilitates the use of the model to predict the expected amplitudes of new events, an important consideration for earthquake hazard or explosion monitoring applications. We will discuss the updated method and implications of this parameterization. A conjugate gradient method is used to tomographically invert the amplitude dataset of over 8000 paths. We solve for Q variation, as well as site and source terms, for a wide range of frequencies ranging from 0.5 -- 10 Hz. The attenuation results have a strong correlation to tectonics. Shields have low attenuation, while tectonic regions have high attenuation, with the highest attenuation at 1 Hz found in eastern Turkey. The results also compare favorably to other studies in the region made using Lg propagation efficiency, Lg/Pg amplitude ratios and two-station methods. We tomographically invert the amplitude measurements for each frequency independently. In doing so, it appears the frequency-dependence of attenuation is not compatible with the power law representation of Q(f). This research was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract number DE-AC52-07NA27344. This is LLNL contribution LLNL-ABS-406761.

  19. Maximum likelihood estimation of the attenuated ultrasound pulse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Klaus Bolding

    1994-01-01

    The attenuated ultrasound pulse is divided into two parts: a stationary basic pulse and a nonstationary attenuation pulse. A standard ARMA model is used for the basic pulse, and a nonstandard ARMA model is derived for the attenuation pulse. The maximum likelihood estimator of the attenuated...

  20. Clinical and CT imaging features of abdominal fat necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jinkun; Bai Renju

    2013-01-01

    Fat necrosis is a common pathological change at abdominal cross-sectional imaging, and it may cause abdominal pain, mimic pathological change of acute abdomen, or be asymptomatic and accompany other pathophysiologic processes. Fat necrosis is actually the result of steatosis by metabolism or mechanical injury. Common processes that are present in fat necrosis include epiploic appendagitis, infarction of the greater omentum, pancreatitis, and fat necrosis related to trauma or ischemia. As a common fat disease, fat necrosis should be known by clinicians and radiologists. Main content of this text is the clinical symptoms and CT findings of belly fat necrosis and related diseases. (authors)

  1. Physical interactions between cupuassu and cocoa fats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gioielli, L. A.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum, Sterculiaceae is an Amazonian native fruit and nowadays is cultivated only in Amazonian region. The seeds that come to about 16% of the dry weight can be used to derive a cocoa butter like product and the content of fat in the seeds is about 60% dry weight. In general, these fats are similar to those of cocoa, although they show difference in some physical properties. The objective of this study was to analyse some physical and crystallization properties of the cupuassu fat, cocoa butter and some mixtures between the two fats. The analyses performed were: dropping point, solid fat content, hardness index and Jensen cooling curve. The results suggested some advantages of the use of cupuassu fat, as lower crystallization time and smoothness than cocoa butter. The mixtures showed compatibility, cocoa butter showed bigger solid fat content at room temperature than cupuassu fat and the mixtures. Cupuassu fat had a lower dropping point than cocoa butter. The possible use of cupuassu fat and the mixtures could be in fillings and cold weather chocolate productsCupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum, Sterculiaceae es una fruta nativa amazónica que hoy día sólo se cultiva en esta región. Las semillas con un 16%, aproximadamente, del peso seco, tienen, aproximadamente, el 60% de grasa y pueden usarse como sustituto de manteca de cacao. En general, estas grasas son similares a las del cacao, aunque muestran diferencias en algunas de sus propiedades físicas. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar algunas propiedades físicas y de cristalización de la grasa de cupuassu, de la manteca de cacao y de mezclas de las dos grasas. Los análisis realizados fueron: punto de goteo, contenido en grasa sólida, índice de dureza y la curva de enfriamiento de Jensen. El tiempo de cristalización inferior y la mayor suavidad que muestra la grasa de cupuassu frente a la manteca de cacao, sugieren algunas ventajas del uso de la misma

  2. Dietary fat, fat subtypes and hepatocellular carcinoma in a large European cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte-Salles, Talita; Fedirko, Veronika; Stepien, Magdalena; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Bamia, Christina; Lagiou, Pagona; Laursen, Anne Sofie Dam; Hansen, Louise; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; His, Mathilde; Boeing, Heiner; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Valanou, Elissavet; Kritikou, Maria; Masala, Giovanna; Panico, Salvatore; Sieri, Sabina; Ricceri, Fulvio; Tumino, Rosario; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Peeters, Petra H; Hjartåker, Anette; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Ardanaz, Eva; Bonet, Catalina; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Dorronsoro, Miren; Quirós, J Ramón; Johansson, Ingegerd; Ohlsson, Bodil; Sjöberg, Klas; Wennberg, Maria; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Travis, Ruth C; Wareham, Nick; Ferrari, Pietro; Freisling, Heinz; Romieu, Isabelle; Cross, Amanda J; Gunter, Marc; Lu, Yunxia; Jenab, Mazda

    2015-12-01

    The role of amount and type of dietary fat consumption in the etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is poorly understood, despite suggestive biological plausibility. The associations of total fat, fat subtypes and fat sources with HCC incidence were investigated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, which includes 191 incident HCC cases diagnosed between 1992 and 2010. Diet was assessed by country-specific, validated dietary questionnaires. A single 24-hr diet recall from a cohort subsample was used for measurement error calibration. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated from Cox proportional hazard models. Hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV/HCV) status and biomarkers of liver function were assessed separately in a nested case-control subset with available blood samples (HCC = 122). In multivariable calibrated models, there was a statistically significant inverse association between total fat intake and risk of HCC (per 10 g/day, HR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.65-0.99), which was mainly driven by monounsaturated fats (per 5 g/day, HR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.55-0.92) rather than polyunsaturated fats (per 5 g/day, HR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.68-1.25). There was no association between saturated fats (HR = 1.08, 95% CI: 0.88-1.34) and HCC risk. The ratio of polyunsaturated/monounsaturated fats to saturated fats was not significantly associated with HCC risk (per 0.2 point, HR = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.73-1.01). Restriction of analyses to HBV/HCV free participants or adjustment for liver function did not substantially alter the findings. In this large prospective European cohort, higher consumption of monounsaturated fats is associated with lower HCC risk. © 2015 UICC.

  3. The mitochondrial pyruvate carrier mediates high fat diet-induced increases in hepatic TCA cycle capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauckhorst, Adam J; Gray, Lawrence R; Sheldon, Ryan D; Fu, Xiaorong; Pewa, Alvin D; Feddersen, Charlotte R; Dupuy, Adam J; Gibson-Corley, Katherine N; Cox, James E; Burgess, Shawn C; Taylor, Eric B

    2017-11-01

    Excessive hepatic gluconeogenesis is a defining feature of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Most gluconeogenic flux is routed through mitochondria. The mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) transports pyruvate from the cytosol into the mitochondrial matrix, thereby gating pyruvate-driven gluconeogenesis. Disruption of the hepatocyte MPC attenuates hyperglycemia in mice during high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity but exerts minimal effects on glycemia in normal chow diet (NCD)-fed conditions. The goal of this investigation was to test whether hepatocyte MPC disruption provides sustained protection from hyperglycemia during long-term HFD and the differential effects of hepatocyte MPC disruption on TCA cycle metabolism in NCD versus HFD conditions. We utilized long-term high fat feeding, serial measurements of postabsorptive blood glucose and metabolomic profiling and 13 C-lactate/ 13 C-pyruvate tracing to investigate the contribution of the MPC to hyperglycemia and altered hepatic TCA cycle metabolism during HFD-induced obesity. Hepatocyte MPC disruption resulted in long-term attenuation of hyperglycemia induced by HFD. HFD increased hepatic mitochondrial pyruvate utilization and TCA cycle capacity in an MPC-dependent manner. Furthermore, MPC disruption decreased progression of fibrosis and levels of transcript markers of inflammation. By contributing to chronic hyperglycemia, fibrosis, and TCA cycle expansion, the hepatocyte MPC is a key mediator of the pathophysiology induced in the HFD model of T2D. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  4. Shivering heat production and body fat protect the core from cooling during body immersion, but not during head submersion: a structural equation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, Thea; Lix, Lisa; Giesbrecht, Gordon

    2011-03-01

    Previous studies showed that core cooling rates are similar when only the head or only the body is cooled. Structural equation modeling was used on data from two cold water studies involving body-only, or whole body (including head) cooling. Exposure of both the body and head increased core cooling, while only body cooling elicited shivering. Body fat attenuates shivering and core cooling. It is postulated that this protection occurs mainly during body cooling where fat acts as insulation against cold. This explains why head cooling increases surface heat loss with only 11% while increasing core cooling by 39%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Seasonal change in body fat of the Hyrax Procavia capensis (Pallas, 1766 using a body fat ranking index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.J. Fourie

    1985-11-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the body fat content of the hyrax Procavia capensis were used as an indicator of physiological condition. Body fat rankings for the different sexes showed seasonal variations related to physiologically stressful periods (rutting, gestation and lactation. The subjective body fat rankings were correlated significantly with total body fat.

  6. Corn silk extract improves cholesterol metabolism in C57BL/6J mouse fed high-fat diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jae Hoon; Kim, Sun Rim; Kang, Hyun Joong; Kim, Myung Hwan; Ha, Ae Wha; Kim, Woo Kyoung

    2016-10-01

    Corn silk (CS) extract contains large amounts of maysin, which is a major flavonoid in CS. However, studies regarding the effect of CS extract on cholesterol metabolism is limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of CS extract on cholesterol metabolism in C57BL/6J mouse fed high-fat diets. Normal-fat group fed 7% fat diet, high-fat (HF) group fed 25% fat diet, and high-fat with corn silk (HFCS) group were orally administered CS extract (100 mg/kg body weight) daily. Serum and hepatic levels of total lipids, triglycerides, and total cholesterol as well as serum free fatty acid, glucose, and insulin levels were determined. The mRNA expression levels of acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT), cholesterol 7-alpha hydroxylase (CYP7A1), farnesoid X receptor (FXR), lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), low-density lipoprotein receptor, 3-hyroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase), adiponectin, leptin, and tumor necrosis factor α were determined. Oral administration of CS extract with HF improved serum glucose and insulin levels as well as attenuated HF-induced fatty liver. CS extracts significantly elevated mRNA expression levels of adipocytokines and reduced mRNA expression levels of HMG-CoA reductase, ACAT, and FXR. The mRNA expression levels of CYP7A1 and LCAT between the HF group and HFCS group were not statistically different. CS extract supplementation with a high-fat diet improves levels of adipocytokine secretion and glucose homeostasis. CS extract is also effective in decreasing the regulatory pool of hepatic cholesterol, in line with decreased blood and hepatic levels of cholesterol though modulation of mRNA expression levels of HMG-CoA reductase, ACAT, and FXR.

  7. INVESTIGATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP OF THE STATISTICAL MOMENTS OF THE FAT PHASE MASS DISTRIBUTION AND RELAXATION SPECTRA OF DAIRY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Merzlikin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the search for optimal parameter estimation of the parameters of the process of homogenization of dairy products. Provides a theoretical basis for relationship of the relaxation time of the fat globules and attenuation coefficient of ultrasonic oscillations in dairy products. Suggested from the measured acoustic properties of milk to make the calculations of the mass distribution of fat globules. Studies on the proof of this hypothesis. Morphological analysis procedure carried out for homogenized milk samples at different pressures, as well as homogenized. As a result of research obtained distribution histogram of fat globules in dependence on the homogenization pressure. Also performed acoustic studies to obtain the frequency characteristics of loss modulus as a function of homogenization pressure. For further research the choice of method for approximating dependences is obtained using statistical moments of distributions. The parameters for the approximation of the distribution of fat globules and loss modulus versus pressure homogenization were obtained. Was carried out to test the hypothesis on the relationship parameters of approximation of the distribution of the fat globules and loss modulus as a function of pressure homogenization. Correlation analysis showed a clear dependence of the first and second statistical moment distributions of the pressure homogenization. The obtain ed dependence is consistent with the physical meaning of the first two moments of a statistical distribution. Correlation analysis was carried out according to the statistical moments of the distribution of the fat globules from moments of loss modulus. It is concluded that the possibility of ultrasonic testing the degree of homogenization and mass distribution of the fat globules of milk products.

  8. Estimation of percentage body fat by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry: evaluation by in vivo human elemental composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zimian; Pierson, Richard N; Heymsfield, Steven B; Chen Zhao; Zhu Shankuan

    2010-01-01

    Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is widely applied for estimating body fat. The percentage of body mass as fat (%fat) is predicted from a DXA-estimated R ST value defined as the ratio of soft tissue attenuation at two photon energies (e.g., 40 keV and 70 keV). Theoretically, the R ST concept depends on the mass of each major element in the human body. The DXA R ST values, however, have never been fully evaluated by measured human elemental composition. The present investigation evaluated the DXA R ST value by the total body mass of 11 major elements and the DXA %fat by the five-component (5C) model, respectively. Six elements (i.e. C, N, Na, P, Cl and Ca) were measured by in vivo neutron activation analysis, and potassium (i.e. K) by whole-body 40 K counting in 27 healthy adults. Models were developed for predicting the total body mass of four additional elements (i.e. H, O, Mg and S). The elemental content of soft tissue, after correction for bone mineral elements, was used to predict the R ST values. The DXA R ST values were strongly associated with the R ST values predicted from elemental content (r = 0.976, P ST to systematically exceed the DXA-measured R ST (mean ± SD, 1.389 ± 0.024 versus 1.341 ± 0.024). DXA-estimated %fat was strongly associated with 5C %fat (24.4 ± 12.0% versus 24.9 ± 11.1%, r = 0.983, P ST is evaluated by in vivo elemental composition, and the present study supports the underlying physical concept and accuracy of the DXA method for estimating %fat.

  9. Elastic wave attenuation in rocks containing fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    The low-frequency limit of Biot's theory of fluid-saturated porous media predicts that the coefficients for viscous attenuation of shear waves and of the fast compressional wave are proportional to the fluid permeability. Although the observed attenuation is generally in qualitative agreement with the theory, the magnitude of the observed attenuation coefficient in rocks is often more than an order of magnitude higher than expected. This apparent dilemma can be resolved without invoking other attenuation mechanisms if the intrinsic permeability of the rock is inhomogeneous and varies widely in magnitude. A simple calculation of the overall behavior of a layered porous material using local-flow Biot theory shows that the effective permeability for attenuation is the mean of the constituent permeabilities while the effective permeability for fluid flow is the harmonic mean. When the range of variation in the local permeability is one or more orders of magnitude, this difference in averaging method can easily explain some of the observed discrepancies

  10. Monitoring illicit psychostimulants and related health issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunt, T.M.

    2012-01-01

    Tibor Brunt onderzocht het Drug Informatie en Monitoring Systeem (DIMS), een landelijk netwerk dat de samenstelling van drugs als ecstasy en cocaïne analyseert. Die middelen zijn van gebruikers zelf afkomstig. Het is een effectieve manier om riskante stoffen te detecteren die aan de drugs worden

  11. Antiresistin RNA Oligonucleotide Ameliorates Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Mice through Attenuating Proinflammatory Cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Tan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether inhibition of resistin by a synthetic antiresistin RNA (oligonucleotide oligo ameliorates metabolic and histological abnormalities in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD induced by high-fat diet (HFD in mice. The antiresistin RNA oligo and a scrambled control oligo (25 mg/kg of body weight were i.p. injected to HFD mice. Serum metabolic parameters and hepatic enzymes were measured after 4-week treatment. The treatment significantly reduced epididymal fat and attenuated the elevated serum resistin, cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, and insulin with an improved glucose tolerance test. Antiresistin RNA oligo also normalized serum AST and ALT levels with improved pathohistology of NAFLD. Immunoblotting and qRT-PCR revealed that decreased protein and mRNA expression of resistin in fat and liver tissues of the treated mice were associated with reduction of adipose TNF-α and IL-6 expression and secretion into circulation. mRNA and protein expression of hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c were also significantly decreased in the treated mice. Our results suggest that resistin may exacerbate NAFLD in metabolic syndrome through upregulating inflammatory cytokines and hepatic PEPCK and SREBP-1c. Antiresistin RNA oligo ameliorated metabolic abnormalities and histopathology of NAFLD through attenuating proinflammatory cytokines.

  12. Authentication of feeding fats: Classification of animal fats, fish oils and recycled cooking oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruth, van S.M.; Rozijn, M.; Koot, A.H.; Perez-Garcia, R.; Kamp, van der H.J.; Codony, R.

    2010-01-01

    Classification of fats and oils involves the recognition of one/several markers typical of the product. The ideal marker(s) should be specific to the fat or oil. Not many chemical markers fulfill these criteria. Authenticity assessment is a difficult task, which in most cases requires the

  13. Inhomogeneous distribution of fat enhances the perception of fat-related sensory attributes in gelled foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosca, A.C.; Rocha, J.L.; Sala, G.; Velde, van de F.; Stieger, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of the spatial distribution of fat on the perception of fat-related sensory attributes using a model system that consisted of layered agar/gelatin gels containing oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion droplets dispersed in the gel matrix. Four layers of gel varying in the

  14. The influence of fat score and fat trimming on primal cut composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the primal cut composition of South African lamb carcasses with different fat scores, and to identify cuts suitable for fat trimming. Sixty grain fed Dorper lambs (rams and ewes) were divided into three groups and slaughtered at 30, 36 and 42 kg. Chilled carcass sides were ...

  15. Intra-abdominal fat: Comparison of computed tomography fat segmentation and bioimpedance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Intra-abdominal fat is an important factor in determining the metabolic syndrome/insulin resistance, and thus the risk of diabetes and ischaemic heart disease. Computed Tomography (CT) fat segmentation represents a defined method of quantifying intra-abdominal fat, with attendant radiation risks. Bioimpedance spectroscopy may offer a method of assessment without any risks to the patients. A comparison is made of these two methods. This was a preliminary study of the utility of multifrequency bioimpedance spectroscopy of the mid abdomen as a measure of intra-abdominal fat, by comparison with fat segmentation of an abdominal CT scan in the -30 to -190 HU range. There was a significant (P abdominal fat and mid-upper arm circumference, as well as the bioimpedance parameter, the R/S ratio. Multivariate analysis showed that these were the only independant variables and allowed the derivation of a formula to estimate intra-abdominal fat: IAF = 0.02 × MAC - 0.757 × R/S + 0.036. Circumabdominal bioimpedance spectroscopy may prove a useful method of assessing intra-abdominal fat, and may be suitable for use in studies to enhance other measures of body composition, such as mid-upper arm circumference.

  16. Factors that Alter Body Fat, Body Mass, and Fat-Free Mass in Pediatric Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMura, Linda M.; Maziekas, Michael T.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effects of exercise programs on changes in body mass, fat-free mass, and body fat in obese children and adolescents. Research review indicated that exercise effectively helped reduce children's and adolescents' body composition variables. The most favorable body alterations occurred with low- intensity, long-duration exercise;…

  17. INCREASED FAT INTAKE MAY STABILIZED CKD PROGRESSION IN LOW-FAT INTAKE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Yu Chang

    2012-06-01

    Inadequate calories intake will induce excessive protein catabolism, which can cause accumulation of uremic toxins and acceleration of renal failure. Increasing fats intake is an easy way to achieve adequate calories acquirement and may stabilize the progression of CKD especially in low-fat intake patients.

  18. Fat ViP MRI: Virtual Phantom Magnetic Resonance Imaging of water-fat systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvati, Roberto; Hitti, Eric; Bellanger, Jean-Jacques; Saint-Jalmes, Hervé; Gambarota, Giulio

    2016-06-01

    Virtual Phantom Magnetic Resonance Imaging (ViP MRI) is a method to generate reference signals on MR images, using external radiofrequency (RF) signals. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of ViP MRI to generate complex-data images of phantoms mimicking water-fat systems. Various numerical phantoms with a given fat fraction, T2* and field map were designed. The k-space of numerical phantoms was converted into RF signals to generate virtual phantoms. MRI experiments were performed at 4.7T using a multi-gradient-echo sequence on virtual and physical phantoms. The data acquisition of virtual and physical phantoms was simultaneous. Decomposition of the water and fat signals was performed using a complex-based water-fat separation algorithm. Overall, a good agreement was observed between the fat fraction, T2* and phase map values of the virtual and numerical phantoms. In particular, fat fractions of 10.5±0.1 (vs 10% of the numerical phantom), 20.3±0.1 (vs 20%) and 30.4±0.1 (vs 30%) were obtained in virtual phantoms. The ViP MRI method allows for generating imaging phantoms that i) mimic water-fat systems and ii) can be analyzed with water-fat separation algorithms based on complex data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Fat watch: A nationwide campaign in the Netherlands to reduce fat intake-process evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelie, J.; Feen van der, Lille, J.C.J.F. de; Riedstra, M.; Hardeman, W.; Wedel, M.; Brug, J.; Pruyn, J.F.A.; Löwik, M.R.H.

    1998-01-01

    Fat Watch was a four-year campaign carried out in cooperation with retailers and industry, aiming at a reduction of fat consumption by 10% among the Dutch population. Mass media and supermarkets were the main conveyers of the message. Supermarkets participated well in the first (53%) and in the

  20. Attenuation of the gamma rays in tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcos P, A.; Rodriguez N, S.; Pinedo S, A.; Amador V, P.; Chacon R, A.; Vega C, H.R.

    2005-01-01

    The mass and lineal attenuation coefficient and of hepatic tissue, muscular, osseous and of brain before gamma rays of 10 -3 to 10 5 MeV were calculated. For the case of the osseous tissue the calculation was made for the cartilage, the cortical tissue and the bone marrow. During the calculations the elementary composition of the tissues of human origin was used. The calculations include by separate the Photoelectric effect, the Compton scattering and the Pair production, as well as the total. For to establish a comparison with the attenuation capacities, the coefficients of the water, the aluminum and the lead also were calculated. The study was complemented measuring the attenuation coefficient of hepatic tissue of bovine before gamma rays of 0.662 MeV of a source of 137 Cs. The measurement was made through of an experiment of photons transmission through samples frozen of hepatic tissue and with a Geiger-Mueller detector. (Author)

  1. Electromagnetic Wave Attenuation in Atmospheric Pressure Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shu; Hu Xiwei; Liu Minghai; Luo Fang; Feng Zelong

    2007-01-01

    When an electromagnetic (EM) wave propagates in an atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) layer, its attenuation depends on the APP parameters such as the layer width, the electron density and its profile and collision frequency between electrons and neutrals. This paper proposes that a combined parameter-the product of the line average electron density n-bar and width d of the APP layer (i.e., the total number of electrons in a unit volume along the wave propagation path) can play a more explicit and decisive role in the wave attenuation than any of the above individual parameters does. The attenuation of the EM wave via the product of n-bar and d with various collision frequencies between electrons and neutrals is presented

  2. Fat body, fat pad and adipose tissues in invertebrates and vertebrates: the nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The fat body in invertebrates was shown to participate in energy storage and homeostasis, apart from its other roles in immune mediation and protein synthesis to mention a few. Thus, sharing similar characteristics with the liver and adipose tissues in vertebrates. However, vertebrate adipose tissue or fat has been incriminated in the pathophysiology of metabolic disorders due to its role in production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This has not been reported in the insect fat body. The link between the fat body and adipose tissue was examined in this review with the aim of determining the principal factors responsible for resistance to inflammation in the insect fat body. This could be the missing link in the prevention of metabolic disorders in vertebrates, occasioned by obesity. PMID:24758278

  3. Differential effect of gender on hepatic fat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilsanz, Vicente [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, USC, Keck School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, MS 81, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, USC, Keck School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Chung, Sandra A. [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, USC, Keck School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, MS 81, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Kaplowitz, Neil [USC, Keck School of Medicine, USC Research Center for Liver Disease, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2011-09-15

    There are discrepant data on whether men or women have a higher risk for hepatic steatosis. To examine the influence of gender on hepatic adiposity in teenagers and young adults. We measured subcutaneous abdominal fat (SAF), intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and hepatic tissue density (a surrogate measure of hepatic fat) using CT in 505 healthy teenagers and young adults (254 males, 251 females; ages 15-22.9 years). Overall, compared to men, women had higher values of SAF (P < 0.0001) but similar measures of IAF and liver tissue density (P = 0.09 and 0.92, respectively). However, when compared to overweight/obese men, overweight/obese women had strikingly similar IAF values (P = 0.85) but lower hepatic fat (P = 0.009). Multiple regression analyses indicated that, after adjusting for age and SAF, IAF independently predicted hepatic density in males (P < 0.0001) but not in females (P = 0.36). Hepatic fat increased with body mass in males from lean to overweight and obese (P < 0.0001) but not in females (P > 0.05). When compared to overweight and obese young women, overweight and obese young men are at greater risk for hepatic steatosis, independent of IAF. (orig.)

  4. Dietary fat intake and functional dyspepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Khodarahm

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A few studies have assessed the effects of fat intake in the induction of dyspeptic symptoms. So, the aim of this study was to review the articles regarding the dietary fat intake and FD. We used electronic database of PubMed to search. These key words were chosen: FD, dietary fat, dyspeptic symptom, energy intake and nutrients. First, articles that their title and abstract were related to the mentioned subject were gathered. Then, full texts of related articles were selected for reading. Finally, by excluding four articles that was irrelevant to subject, 19 relevant English papers by designing clinical trial, cross-sectional, case–control, prospective cohort, and review that published from 1992 to 2012 were investigated. Anecdotally, specific food items or food groups, particularly fatty foods have been related to dyspepsia. Laboratory studies have shown that the addition of fat to a meal resulted in more symptoms of fullness, bloating, and nausea in dyspeptic patients. Studies have reported that hypersensitivity of the stomach to postprandial distension is an essential factor in the generation of dyspeptic symptoms. Small intestinal infusions of nutrients, particularly fat, exacerbate this hypersensitivity. Moreover, evidence showed that perception of gastric distension increased by lipids but not by glucose. Long chain triglycerides appear to be more potent than medium chain triglycerides in inducing symptoms of fullness, nausea, and suppression of hunger. Thus, Fatty foods may exacerbate dyspeptic symptoms. Therefore, it seems that a reduction in intake of fatty foods may useful, although this requires more evaluations.

  5. Massive Cerebral Infarction Following Facial Fat Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiao; Li, Qi; Zhang, Hengshu

    2016-10-01

    Autologous facial fat injection is becoming popular around the world. Semiliquid fat grafts are used for correction of deformities or aesthetic purposes. Fat transfer is a mini-invasive surgical procedure, but causes severe complications occasionally. A 30-year-old female patient presented to our hospital with sudden unconsciousness and left limb weakness 8 h after facial fat injection. Brain arteriography (CTA) and venography were performed immediately after her admission. Frontal temporoparietal decompressive craniectomy plus multiple treatments was scheduled for the patient. The patient was diagnosed with extensive cerebral infarction of the right hemisphere. CTA showed that both external and internal carotid arteries were obstructed. A sectional filling defect could be seen at the telecentric segment of the right carotid artery. No development was observed during the full course of the treatment at the carotid bifurcation, external carotid artery, or internal carotid artery. Routine cosmetic procedures of facial fat injections could cause devastating and even fatal complications to patients. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the A5 online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.

  6. Weighing Posthumanism: Fatness and Contested Humanity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Apostolidou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Our project on fatness begins by turning attention to the multiple cultural instances in which fatness has been intrinsically linked with notions such as self—neglect and poor self—management. In Foucauldian terms, we analyse the fat subject as a failed homo economicus, an individual who has failed to be an “entrepreneur of himself, being for himself his own capital, being for himself his own producer, being for himself the source of [his] earnings” (Foucault, 2008, p. 226. From this perspective, we analyse instances of collective hatred towards fat subjects as direct results of the biopolitical triplet of responsibility, rationality, and morality. Morality is our bridge into the field of posthumanism, in which, as we demonstrate, these biopolitical imperatives also apply, reinforced by the field’s fascination with prosthetics and enhancement. Where, by biopolitical standards, fat subjects have failed to manage themselves, posthuman subjects find themselves guilty of not responsibly, rationally, and morally manipulating themselves to optimal productivity. Using criticism that disability studies scholars like Sarah S. Jain and Vivian Sobchack have voiced about posthumanism, we demonstrate the ways in which, within posthumanism, all subjects can be found as lacking when compared to their potential, enhanced post­human version.

  7. Duodenal fat intensifies the perception of heartburn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, J; Lembo, A; Elashoff, J; Fass, R; Mayer, E

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) frequently report that meals high in fat worsen heartburn. Nevertheless, studies to determine whether high fat meals promote gastro-oesophageal reflux have produced conflicting and equivocal conclusions.
PATIENTS AND METHODS—To determine, alternatively, whether fat in the small intestinal lumen intensifies the perception of heartburn, we studied 11 patients with typical heartburn from GORD. After being placed on omeprazole to suppress endogenous acid, these fasting subjects underwent oesophageal perfusions with graded doses of HCl at pH values of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5. Oesophageal perfusions were conducted while the duodenum was perfused with saline (control) and again with fat at 8 g/h.
RESULTS—Time to onset, intensity, and severity of heartburn varied with dose of oesophageal acid (pheartburn significantly (pheartburn.


Keywords: gastro-oesophageal reflux disease; heartburn; perception; fat PMID:11600463

  8. Fat Taste Sensitivity Is Associated with Short-Term and Habitual Fat Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Costanzo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests individuals less sensitive to fat taste (high fat taste thresholds (FTT may be overweight or obese and consume greater amounts of dietary fat than more sensitive individuals. The aims of this study were to assess associations between FTT, anthropometric measurements, fat intake, and liking of fatty foods. FTT was assessed in 69 Australian females (mean age 41.3 (15.6 (SD years and mean body mass index 26.3 (5.7 kg/m2 by a 3-alternate forced choice methodology and transformed to an ordinal scale (FT rank. Food liking was assessed by hedonic ratings of high-fat and reduced-fat foods, and a 24-h food recall and food frequency questionnaire was completed. Linear mixed regression models were fitted. FT rank was associated with dietary % energy from fat ( β ^ = 0.110 [95% CI: 0.003, 0.216], % energy from carbohydrate ( β ^ = −0.112 [−0.188, −0.035], and frequency of consumption of foods per day from food groups: high-fat dairy ( β ^ = 1.091 [0.106, 2.242], meat & meat alternatives ( β ^ = 0.669 [0.168, 1.170], and grain & cereals ( β ^ = 0.771 [0.212, 1.329] (adjusted for energy and age. There were no associations between FT rank and anthropometric measurements or hedonic ratings. Therefore, fat taste sensitivity appears to be associated with short-term fat intake, but not body size in this group of females.

  9. Do Fat Supplements Increase Physical Performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Di Felice

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Fish oil and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA belong to a popular class of food supplements known as “fat supplements”, which are claimed to reduce muscle glycogen breakdown, reduce body mass, as well as reduce muscle damage and inflammatory responses. Sport athletes consume fish oil and CLA mainly to increase lean body mass and reduce body fat. Recent evidence indicates that this kind of supplementation may have other side-effects and a new role has been identified in steroidogenensis. Preliminary findings demonstrate that fish oil and CLA may induce a physiological increase in testosterone synthesis. The aim of this review is to describe the effects of fish oil and CLA on physical performance (endurance and resistance exercise, and highlight the new results on the effects on testosterone biosynthesis. In view of these new data, we can hypothesize that fat supplements may improve the anabolic effect of exercise.

  10. Why does starvation make bones fat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Maureen J

    2011-01-01

    Body fat, or adipose tissue, is a crucial energetic buffer against starvation in humans and other mammals, and reserves of white adipose tissue (WAT) rise and fall in parallel with food intake. Much less is known about the function of bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT), which are fat cells found in bone marrow. BMAT mass actually increases during starvation, even as other fat depots are being mobilized for energy. This review considers several possible reasons for this poorly understood phenomenon. Is BMAT a passive filler that occupies spaces left by dying bone cells, a pathological consequence of suppressed bone formation, or potentially an adaptation for surviving starvation? These possibilities are evaluated in terms of the effects of starvation on the body, particularly the skeleton, and the mechanisms involved in storing and metabolizing BMAT during negative energy balance. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Postoperative hypoxemia due to fat embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Bhalla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the reported incidence of fat embolism syndrome (FES is low (approximately 1%, it is likely that microscopic fat emboli are showered during manipulation of long bone fractures. Even though there continues to be debate regarding the etiology and proposed mechanism responsible for FES, significant systemic manifestations may occur. Treatment is generally symptomatic based on the clinical presentations. We report a 10-year-old girl who developed hypoxemia following treatment of a displaced Salter-Harris type II fracture of the distal tibia. The subsequent evaluation and hospital course pointed to fat embolism as the most likely etiology for the hypoxemia. We discuss the etiology for FES, review the proposed pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for its clinical manifestations, present currently accepted diagnostic criteria, and discuss its treatment.

  12. [Fat grafting in facial burns sequelae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viard, R; Bouguila, J; Voulliaume, D; Comparin, J-P; Dionyssopoulos, A; Foyatier, J-L

    2012-06-01

    Fat graft is now part of the armamentarium in face plastic surgery. It is successfully used in burn scars. The aim of our study is the discussion of the value of this technique in optimizing cosmetic result of burns face sequelae. Fifteen adult patients (10 females and five males) with scars resulting from severe burns 2 to 9 years previously were selected. The patients were treated by injection of adipose tissue harvested from abdominal subcutaneous fat and processed according to Coleman's technique. Two to three injections were administered at the dermohypodermal junction. Ages, sexes, aetiology of burn, facial burn sequelae, recipient sites, quantity of fat injected, aesthetic results are discussed. Patient age ranged from 21 to 55 years (average: 38). The mean follow-up of the study was 66 months (23-118). Patients received 7.5 (5-11) facial restorative surgeries before fat graft. Patients underwent two sessions of fat transfer, 33cc average per session. We did not report any complications. The clinical appearance, discussed by three surgeons and subjective patient feelings, after a 6-month follow-up period, suggests considerable improvement in the mimic features, skin texture, and thickness. The result is good in 86% of cases and acceptable in the other cases. Burns sequelae offer local conditions which justify special cannula can cross fibrosis and explaining the value of multiplying the sessions. Indications for lipostructure include four distinct nosological situations, sometimes combined. Lipostructure can restore a missing relief, filling a localized depression, reshape a lack of face volume or smooth a scarring skin. Fat graft seems to complete and improve the results of the standard surgical approach in burned face. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Postnatal treatment with metyrapone attenuates the effects of diet-induced obesity in female rats exposed to early-life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Margaret O; Herald, Joseph B; Wills, Caleb T; Unfried, Stanley G; Cohn, Dianne M; Loria, Analia S

    2017-02-01

    Experimental studies in rodents have shown that females are more susceptible to exhibiting fat expansion and metabolic disease compared with males in several models of fetal programming. This study tested the hypothesis that female rat pups exposed to maternal separation (MatSep), a model of early-life stress, display an exacerbated response to diet-induced obesity compared with male rats. Also, we tested whether the postnatal treatment with metyrapone (MTP), a corticosterone synthase inhibitor, would attenuate this phenotype. MatSep was performed in WKY offspring by separation from the dam (3 h/day, postnatal days 2-14). Upon weaning, male and female rats were placed on a normal (ND; 18% kcal fat) or high-fat diet (HFD; 60% kcal fat). Nondisturbed littermates served as controls. In male rats, no diet-induced differences in body weight (BW), glucose tolerance, and fat tissue weight and morphology were found between MatSep and control male rats. However, female MatSep rats displayed increased BW gain, fat pad weights, and glucose intolerance compared with control rats (P obesity risk factors, including elevated adiposity, hyperleptinemia, and glucose intolerance. These findings show that exposure to stress hormones during early life could be a key event to enhance diet-induced obesity and metabolic disease in female rats. Thus, pharmacological and/or behavioral inflection of the stress levels is a potential therapeutic approach for prevention of early life stress-enhanced obesity and metabolic disease. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswalt, G C; Montes, L F; Cassady, G

    1978-08-01

    Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn (SFNN) developed in a 1-week-old black boy. His mother had received numerous medications for eclampsia. Birth was by Caesarean section and complicated by meconium aspiration. There were numerous nodules over the back, buttocks and extremities that yielded a caseous-like material. Microscopically, these nodules showed crystallization and necrosis of the fat. Hypoglycemia, pneumonia, oliguria, thrombocytopenia, seizures and urinary infection were associated with the cutaneous problem and led to a fatal outcome 2 weeks after birth.

  15. Relationships between rodent white adipose fat pads and human white adipose fat depots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella E. Chusyd

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review was to compare and contrast the physiological and metabolic profiles of rodent white adipose fat pads with white adipose fat depots in humans. Human fat distribution and its metabolic consequences have received extensive attention, but much of what has been tested in translational research has relied heavily on rodents. Unfortunately, the validity of using rodent fat pads as a model of human adiposity has received less attention. There is a surprisingly lack of studies demonstrating an analogous relationship between rodent and human adiposity on obesity-related comorbidities. Therefore, we aimed to compare known similarities and disparities in terms of white adipose tissue development and distribution, sexual dimorphism, weight loss, adipokine secretion, and aging. While the literature supports the notion that many similarities exist between rodents and humans, notable differences emerge related to fat deposition and function of white adipose tissue. Thus, further research is warranted to more carefully define the strengths and limitations of rodent white adipose tissue as a model for humans, with a particular emphasis on comparable fat depots, such as mesenteric fat.

  16. Rice bran water extract attenuates pancreatic abnormalities in high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    105 on pancreatic abnormalities in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats. Methods: Male ... initiation of these metabolic disturbances [2]. Under physiological ..... injury in the zucker diabetic fatty rat fed a chronic high- fat diet. Pancreas 2014 ...

  17. GPR measurements of attenuation in concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenmann, David, E-mail: djeisen@cnde.iastate.edu; Margetan, Frank J., E-mail: djeisen@cnde.iastate.edu; Pavel, Brittney, E-mail: djeisen@cnde.iastate.edu [Center for Nondestructive Evaluation, Iowa State University, 1915 Scholl Road, Ames, IA 50011-3042 (United States)

    2015-03-31

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) signals from concrete structures are affected by several phenomenon, including: (1) transmission and reflection coefficients at interfaces; (2) the radiation patterns of the antenna(s) being used; and (3) the material properties of concrete and any embedded objects. In this paper we investigate different schemes for determining the electromagnetic (EM) attenuation of concrete from measured signals obtained using commercially-available GPR equipment. We adapt procedures commonly used in ultrasonic inspections where one compares the relative strengths of two or more signals having different travel paths through the material of interest. After correcting for beam spread (i.e., diffraction), interface phenomena, and equipment amplification settings, any remaining signal differences are assumed to be due to attenuation thus allowing the attenuation coefficient (say, in dB of loss per inch of travel) to be estimated. We begin with a brief overview of our approach, and then discuss how diffraction corrections were determined for our two 1.6 GHz GPR antennas. We then present results of attenuation measurements for two types of concrete using both pulse/echo and pitch/catch measurement setups.

  18. Mirtazapine attenuates cocaine seeking in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa-Méndez, Susana; Leff, Phillipe; Arías-Caballero, Adriana; Hernández-Miramontes, Ricardo; Heinze, Gerardo; Salazar-Juárez, Alberto

    2017-09-01

    Relapse to cocaine use is a major problem in the clinical treatment of cocaine addiction. Antidepressants have been studied for their therapeutic potential to treat cocaine use disorder. Research has suggested that antidepressants attenuate both drug craving and the re-acquisition of drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors. This study examined the efficacy of mirtazapine, an antidepressant/anxiolytic, in decreasing cocaine seeking in rats. We used the cocaine self-administration paradigm to assess the effects of mirtazapine on rats trained to self-administer cocaine or food under a fixed-ratio schedule. Mirtazapine (30 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered during extinction. Mirtazapine significantly attenuated non-reinforced lever-press responses during extinction. Moreover, the mirtazapine dosed for 30 days during extinction produced sustained attenuation of lever-press responses during re-acquisition of cocaine self-administration, without changing food-seeking behavior. Our results showed that mirtazapine attenuated the re-acquisition of cocaine-seeking responses. Our study pointed to the efficacy of mirtazapine in reducing the risk of drug relapse during abstinence, suggesting for its potential use as a novel pharmacological agent to treat drug abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Controlled Attenuation Parameter And Alcoholic Hepatic Steatosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiele, Maja; Rausch, Vanessa; Fluhr, Gabriele

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) is a novel non-invasive measure of hepatic steatosis, but has not been evaluated in alcoholic liver disease. We therefore aimed to validate CAP for assessment of biopsy-verified alcoholic steatosis and to study the effect of alcohol deto...

  20. Heat-accelerated radioinactivation of attenuated poliovirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugan, V.L.; Trujillo, R.

    1975-01-01

    Attenuated poliovirus is inactivated in a synergistic manner when exposed simultaneously to heat and ionizing radiation. The synergistic response is observed in both the thermally labile and stable forms of the virus. A three-term kinetic model may be used to describe the inactivation response of the virus in a thermal and/or ionizing radiation environment. (orig.) [de

  1. Ultrasonic attenuation in rare-earth monoarsenides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-27

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 86; Issue 6. Ultrasonic attenuation in rare-earth monoarsenides .... Proceedings of the International Workshop/Conference on Computational Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science (IWCCMP-2015). Posted on November 27, 2015. Guest Editors: Anurag ...

  2. GPR measurements of attenuation in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, David; Margetan, Frank J.; Pavel, Brittney

    2015-03-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) signals from concrete structures are affected by several phenomenon, including: (1) transmission and reflection coefficients at interfaces; (2) the radiation patterns of the antenna(s) being used; and (3) the material properties of concrete and any embedded objects. In this paper we investigate different schemes for determining the electromagnetic (EM) attenuation of concrete from measured signals obtained using commercially-available GPR equipment. We adapt procedures commonly used in ultrasonic inspections where one compares the relative strengths of two or more signals having different travel paths through the material of interest. After correcting for beam spread (i.e., diffraction), interface phenomena, and equipment amplification settings, any remaining signal differences are assumed to be due to attenuation thus allowing the attenuation coefficient (say, in dB of loss per inch of travel) to be estimated. We begin with a brief overview of our approach, and then discuss how diffraction corrections were determined for our two 1.6 GHz GPR antennas. We then present results of attenuation measurements for two types of concrete using both pulse/echo and pitch/catch measurement setups.

  3. GPR measurements of attenuation in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenmann, David; Margetan, Frank J.; Pavel, Brittney

    2015-01-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) signals from concrete structures are affected by several phenomenon, including: (1) transmission and reflection coefficients at interfaces; (2) the radiation patterns of the antenna(s) being used; and (3) the material properties of concrete and any embedded objects. In this paper we investigate different schemes for determining the electromagnetic (EM) attenuation of concrete from measured signals obtained using commercially-available GPR equipment. We adapt procedures commonly used in ultrasonic inspections where one compares the relative strengths of two or more signals having different travel paths through the material of interest. After correcting for beam spread (i.e., diffraction), interface phenomena, and equipment amplification settings, any remaining signal differences are assumed to be due to attenuation thus allowing the attenuation coefficient (say, in dB of loss per inch of travel) to be estimated. We begin with a brief overview of our approach, and then discuss how diffraction corrections were determined for our two 1.6 GHz GPR antennas. We then present results of attenuation measurements for two types of concrete using both pulse/echo and pitch/catch measurement setups

  4. Anethum Graveolens Linn (Umbelliferae) Extract Attenuates Stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anethum Graveolens Linn (Umbelliferae) Extract Attenuates Stress-induced Urinary Biochemical Changes and Improves Cognition in Scopolamineinduced Amnesic Rats. ... Conclusion: The aqueous extract of A. graveolens exhibited significant anti-stress, antioxidant and memory enhancing activities. The study provides a ...

  5. Electron attenuation characteristics of LiF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paliwal, B R [Wisconsin Univ., Madison (USA). Div. of Clinical Oncology; Almond, P R

    1976-08-01

    The results of a study, indicating the exponential nature of the attenuation of electrons in LiF, are reported. This conclusion holds good not only for the monoenergetic electrons obtained from several pure ..beta.. emitters but also for the high energy electron beams delivered by radiotherapy facilities.

  6. Microwave attenuation with composite of copper microwires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorriti, A.G.; Marin, P.; Cortina, D.; Hernando, A.

    2010-01-01

    It is shown that copper microwires composite media attenuates microwave reflection of metallic surfaces. We show how the distance to the metallic surface, as well as the length and volume fraction of microwires, determine the frequency of maximum absorption and the return loss level. Furthermore, we were able to fit the experimental results with a theoretical model based on Maxwell-Garnett mixing formula.

  7. Microwave attenuation with composite of copper microwires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorriti, A.G.; Marin, P. [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, (UCM-ADIF-CSIC) and Departamento de Fisica de Materiales (UCM). P.O. Box 155, Las Rozas, Madrid 28230 (Spain); Cortina, D. [Micromag S.L., Las Rozas, Madrid 28230 (Spain); Hernando, A., E-mail: antonio.hernando@adif.e [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, (UCM-ADIF-CSIC) and Departamento de Fisica de Materiales (UCM). P.O. Box 155, Las Rozas, Madrid 28230 (Spain); Micromag S.L., Las Rozas, Madrid 28230 (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    It is shown that copper microwires composite media attenuates microwave reflection of metallic surfaces. We show how the distance to the metallic surface, as well as the length and volume fraction of microwires, determine the frequency of maximum absorption and the return loss level. Furthermore, we were able to fit the experimental results with a theoretical model based on Maxwell-Garnett mixing formula.

  8. Touch Attenuates Infants' Physiological Reactivity to Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Ruth; Singer, Magi; Zagoory, Orna

    2010-01-01

    Animal studies demonstrate that maternal touch and contact regulate infant stress, and handling during periods of maternal deprivation attenuates the stress response. To measure the effects of touch on infant stress reactivity during simulated maternal deprivation, 53 dyads were tested in two paradigms: still-face (SF) and still-face with maternal…

  9. Hepatic fat accumulation and regulation of FAT/CD36: an effect of hepatic irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martius, Gesa; Alwahsh, Salamah Mohammad; Rave-Fränk, Margret; Hess, Clemens Friedrich; Christiansen, Hans; Ramadori, Giuliano; Malik, Ihtzaz Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Irradiation is known to induce inflammation and affect fat metabolic pathways. The current study investigates hepatic fat accumulation and fatty acid transportation in a rat model of single dose liver irradiation (25-Gy). Rat livers were selectively irradiated in-vivo (25-Gy), sham-irradiated rats served as controls. Hepatic lipids were studied by colorimetric assays in liver and serum. Intracellular lipids, protein and mRNA were studied by Nile red staining, immunohistology, Western Blot analysis and RT-PCR in liver, respectively. Changes in FAT/CD36 expression were studied in-vitro in a human monocyte cell line U937 after irradiation in presence or absence of infliximab (IFX). Nile Red staining of liver cryosections showed a quick (12-48 h) increase in fat droplets. Accordingly, hepatic triglycerides (TG) and free fatty acids (FFA) were elevated. An early increase (3-6 h) in the serum level of HDL-C, TG and cholesterol was measured after single dose irradiation followed by a decrease thereafter. Furthermore, expression of the fat transporter protein FAT/CD36 was increased, immunohistochemistry revealed basolateral and cytoplasmic expression in hepatocytes. Moreover, apolipoprotein-B100, -C3 and enzymes (acetyl-CoA carboxylase, lipoprotein-lipase, carnitine-palmitoyltransferase, malonyl-CoA-decarboxylase) involved in fat metabolism were induced at 12-24 h. Early activation of the NFkβ pathway (IκBα) by TNF-α was seen, followed by a significant elevation of serum markers for liver damage (AST and GLDH). TNF-α blockage by anti-TNF-α in cell culture (U937) prevented the increase of FAT/CD36 caused by irradiation. Selective liver irradiation is a model for rapid induction of steatosis hepatis and fat accumulation could be triggered by irradiation-induced inflammatory mediators (e.g. TNF-α). PMID:25197426

  10. Analysis of biological samples by x-ray attenuation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesareo, R.

    1988-01-01

    Over the last few years there has been an increasing interest in X-ray attenuation measurements, mainly due to the enormous development of computer assisted tomography (CAT). With CAT, analytical information concerning the density and the mean atomic number distributions in a sample is deduced from a large number of attenuation measurements. Particular transmission methods developed, based on the differential attenuation method are discussed. The theoretical background for attenuation of radiation and for differential attenuation of radiation is given. Details about the generation of monoenergetic X-rays are discussed. Applications of attenuation measurements in the field of Medicine are presented

  11. The effects of high-fat diet, branched-chain amino acids and exercise on female C57BL/6 mouse Achilles tendon biomechanical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Boivin, G. P.; Platt, K. M.; Corbett, J.; Reeves, J.; Hardy, A. L.; Elenes, E. Y.; Charnigo, R. J.; Hunter, S. A.; Pearson, K. J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The goals of this study were: 1) to determine if high-fat diet (HFD) feeding in female mice would negatively impact biomechanical and histologic consequences on the Achilles tendon and quadriceps muscle; and 2) to investigate whether exercise and branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation would affect these parameters or attenuate any negative consequences resulting from HFD consumption. Methods We examined the effects of 16 weeks of 60% HFD feeding, voluntary exercise (free ...

  12. Fatness-Associated FTO Gene Variant Increases Mortality Independent of Fatness - in Cohorts of Danish Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, E; Kring, SI; Berentzen, TL

    2009-01-01

    The A-allele of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs9939609, in the FTO gene is associated with increased fatness. We hypothesized that the SNP is associated with morbidity and mortality through the effect on fatness. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a population of 362,200 Danish young...... prior to death suggested a general protective effect of the TT genotype, whereas there were only weak associations with disease incidence, except for diseases of the nervous system. CONCLUSION: Independent of fatness, the A-allele of the FTO SNP appears to increase mortality of a magnitude similar...

  13. Active inference, sensory attenuation and illusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Harriet; Adams, Rick A; Parees, Isabel; Edwards, Mark; Friston, Karl

    2013-11-01

    Active inference provides a simple and neurobiologically plausible account of how action and perception are coupled in producing (Bayes) optimal behaviour. This can be seen most easily as minimising prediction error: we can either change our predictions to explain sensory input through perception. Alternatively, we can actively change sensory input to fulfil our predictions. In active inference, this action is mediated by classical reflex arcs that minimise proprioceptive prediction error created by descending proprioceptive predictions. However, this creates a conflict between action and perception; in that, self-generated movements require predictions to override the sensory evidence that one is not actually moving. However, ignoring sensory evidence means that externally generated sensations will not be perceived. Conversely, attending to (proprioceptive and somatosensory) sensations enables the detection of externally generated events but precludes generation of actions. This conflict can be resolved by attenuating the precision of sensory evidence during movement or, equivalently, attending away from the consequences of self-made acts. We propose that this Bayes optimal withdrawal of precise sensory evidence during movement is the cause of psychophysical sensory attenuation. Furthermore, it explains the force-matching illusion and reproduces empirical results almost exactly. Finally, if attenuation is removed, the force-matching illusion disappears and false (delusional) inferences about agency emerge. This is important, given the negative correlation between sensory attenuation and delusional beliefs in normal subjects--and the reduction in the magnitude of the illusion in schizophrenia. Active inference therefore links the neuromodulatory optimisation of precision to sensory attenuation and illusory phenomena during the attribution of agency in normal subjects. It also provides a functional account of deficits in syndromes characterised by false inference

  14. Correlation of the controlled attenuation parameter with indices of liver steatosis in overweight or obese individuals: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraioli, Giovanna; Tinelli, Carmine; Lissandrin, Raffaella; Zicchetti, Mabel; Faliva, Milena; Perna, Simone; Perani, Guido; Alessandrino, Francesco; Calliada, Fabrizio; Rondanelli, Mariangela; Filice, Carlo

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the clinical relevance of the controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) by analyzing the correlations between CAP and indirect indices of liver steatosis in obese or overweight individuals. Consecutive participants were prospectively enrolled. BMI, waist circumference, hepatic steatosis index, fatty liver index, percent fat mass and regional fat masses as assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), fat signal fraction as assessed by MRI, and CAP were obtained. Pearson's r coefficient was used to test the correlation between two study variables. A total of 88 individuals were studied. They included 31 men [age, 50.4 years (12.9 years); BMI, 30.7 kg/m (4.8 kg/m)] and 57 women [age, 49.0 years (12.6 years); BMI, 31.4 kg/m (5.6 kg/m)]. DXA, anthropometric parameters, and fatty liver index were moderately correlated with CAP in men. In women, there was a moderate correlation of CAP with the hepatic steatosis index and anthropometric parameters and only a slight or fair correlation of CAP with DXA parameters. CAP and fat signal fraction showed a good correlation (r=0.65 in men, P=0.002; r=0.68 in women, P=0.0009). Measurement of CAP is a reliable method for noninvasive assessment of liver steatosis, showing a correlation with other indirect markers of central obesity and a good correlation with MRI results.

  15. Hepatic FDG Uptake is not associated with hepatic steatosis but with visceral fat volume in cancer screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pak, Kyoung June; Kim, Seong Jang; Kim, In Joo; Kin, Keun Young; Kim, Hee Young; Kim, So Jung [Pusan National Univ. Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    We aimed to evaluate the relation between visceral fat volume and fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)uptake of the liver measured by maximum or mean standardized uptake value. We retrospectively analyzed 96 consecutive records of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT)performed for cancer screening between May 2011 and December 2011. Subjects were divided into 2 groups according to Hounsfield unit (HU)of the liver comparing with that of the spleen. The control group (20 women, 56 men)demonstrating HU of the liver equal or greater than that of the spleen included 76 patients, while the fatty liver group (2 Women, 18 men)showing HU of the liver less than that of the spleen included 20 patients. We compared FDG uptake of the liver and visceral fat volume between two groups. We evaluated correlation of hepatic FDG uptake measured by maximum or mean standardized uptake value (SUV)with visceral fat volume and attenuation. The fatty liver disease group showed higher aspartate aminotransferase (AST)of (24.42{+-}7.22, p=0.012), alanine aminotransferase (ALT)of (25.16{+-}11.68, p=0.011), body mass index (BMI)of (24.58{+-}3.29, p=0.021), and visceral fat volume (3063.53{+-}1561.42, p=0.011)than the control group. There were no statistically significant differences of mean standardized uptake value of the liver (liver SUV{sup mean})(2.73{+-}0.19, p=0.723), maximum standardized uptake value of the liver (liver SUV{sup max})(3.39{+-}0.53, p=0.8248)and liver SUV{sup mean}/spleen SUV{sup mean}(1.13{+-}0.10, p=0.081)between the two groups. Strong correlations were shown between liver SUV{sup mean} and BMI (r=0.609, p<0.001)and between liver SUV{sup mean} and visceral fat volume (r=0.457, p<0.001). Liver SUV{sup max} was also strongly correlated with BMI (r=0.622, p=0.001)and visceral fat volume (r=0.547, p<0.001). There was no significant association of mean attenuation value of the liver (liver HU{sup mean})with liver SUV{sup mean} (r=0.003, p=0.979)or liver SUV{sup max} (r

  16. [Progress of midfacial fat compartments and related clinical applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Lihong; Wang, Jinhuang; Li, Yang; Liu, Dalie

    2018-02-01

    To review the research progress of midfacial fat compartments, and to thoroughly understand its current state of the anatomy and the aging morphologic characters of midfacial fat compartments, as well as the current status of clinical applications. The recent literature concerning the midfacial fat compartments and related clinical applications were extensively reviewed and analyzed. Midfacial fat layer has been considered as a fusion and a continuous layer, experiencing a global atrophy when aging. As more anatomical researches have done, recent studies have shown that midfacial fat layer is broadly divided into superficial and deep layers, which are both divided into different fat compartments by fascia, ligaments, or muscles. Midfacial fat compartments tend to atrophy with age, specifically in the deep fat compartments while hypertrophy in the superficial fat compartments. Clinical applications show that fat volumetric restoration with deep medial cheek fat and Ristow's space can restore the appearance of midface effectively. In recent years, the researches of midfacial fat compartments have achieved obvious progress, which will provide new ideas and basis for fat volumetric restoration. Corresponding treatments are selected based on different sites and different layers with different aging changes, reshaping a more youthful midface.

  17. Common variants near MC4R in relation to body fat, body fat distribution, metabolic traits and energy expenditure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia Inez Iqbal; Holst, C; Toubro, Søren

    2010-01-01

    Common variants near melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) have been related to fatness and type 2 diabetes. We examined the associations of rs17782313 and rs17700633 in relation to body fat, body fat distribution, metabolic traits, weight development and energy expenditure.......Common variants near melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) have been related to fatness and type 2 diabetes. We examined the associations of rs17782313 and rs17700633 in relation to body fat, body fat distribution, metabolic traits, weight development and energy expenditure....

  18. Formation of trans fats during food preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybylski, Oman; Aladedunye, Felix A

    2012-01-01

    An investigation was completed to determine how typical cooking procedures used in food preparation, such as baking and stir-frying, affect trans fats formation. Canola oil was used as the main fat ingredient. Zucchini cake and gingersnap cookies were baked at 180o C and 200o C, while stir-fried chicken was prepared at 200o C and 275o C. The lipids from the food were extracted following the Folch procedure, and analyzed for trans fatty acids according to ISO official method 15304. Minimal changes were observed in the amount of trans fats during baking. Application of extreme temperatures during baking, which caused carbonization of the outer layer of products, yielded an insignificant increase in the amount of trans isomers. As with baking, stir-frying did not result in significant isomerization of the fatty acids, even when the oil was heated to 275o C and smoking heavily before the food was placed in it. Irrespective of the cooking procedure, linolenic acid was the most prone to isomerization with the highest amount of trans isomers formation. Baking and stir-frying at normal and/or extreme temperatures do not significantly affect the amounts of trans fats. Likewise, heating oil to the smoking point during stir-frying may decrease the amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids because of oxidative degradation.

  19. Facial rejuvenation: Serial fat graft transfer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saad Mohamed Saad Ibrahiem

    2016-02-01

    Feb 1, 2016 ... This a clinical study carried out to test the aesthetic outcome of serial injection of the cryo-preserved fat cells for both aesthetic and reconstructive purposes. Methods: Clinical ..... ucts, devices, or drugs mentioned in this manuscript that might create a ... Adipose stem cells and regenerative medicine. 7th ed.

  20. GPR119 as a fat sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S; Rosenkilde, Mette M; Holst, Jens Juul

    2012-01-01

    acting through, for example, GPR40, but is also probably mediated in large part through the luminal formation of 2-monoacylglycerol acting on the 'fat sensor' GPR119. In the pancreas GPR119 may also be stimulated by 2-monoacylglycerol generated from local turnover of pancreatic triacylglycerol. Knowledge...

  1. Understanding hydrodeoxygenation of oils and fats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Riisager, Anders; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2009-01-01

    Production of diesel fuels from renewable feedstock is increasing. One auspicious route could be by hydrodeoxygenating waste fats and oils to result long-chain alkanes, a process well suited for existing fuel infrastructure. This was studied over metal oxide-supported platinum-group metals...

  2. Investigation of Hydrodeoxygenation of Oils and Fats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Riisager, Anders; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    The use of renewable biofuels in the transport sector represents an important step towards a sustainable society. Biodiesel is currently produced by the transesterification of fats and oils with methanol, but another viable method could be reaction of the feedstock with H2 to produce long-chain a...

  3. Ghrelin receptor controls obesity by fat burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerging evidence show that brown fat in the body produces heat to burn energy, thus prompting weight loss. Ghrelin is the only known hormone which increases appetite and promotes weight gain. We have reported that mice that lack the receptor which mediates the functions of ghrelin are lean. Our fu...

  4. Relationship between waist circumference, visceral fat and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The prevalence was higher in women for enlarged waist circumference according to the pathological IDF or NCEP / ATP III threshold (p < 0.0001) contrasting with lower rates for pathological accumulation of visceral fat in men (p = 0.0001). The highest values for sensitivity and specificity were obtained for a ...

  5. Fat in the normal cavernous sinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoya, Takaaki; Kera, Masahiro; Suzuki, Toshifumi; Yamaguchi, Koichi

    1986-01-01

    The cavernous sinuses of 17 patients examined by metrizamide CT cisternography with 1.5 mm-thick silces were reviewed. Most of the cavernous sinuses contained fatty components. Anterior lateral end and posterior end of the cavernous sinus are the comon sites where the fat is visible. (orig.)

  6. Pulmonary fat embolism: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douvlou, E.; Vakhnina-Vassila, O.; Vlahou, I.; Petrocheilou, G.; Markantonatos, D.; Petinelli, A.; Stathopoulou, S.; Kokkinis, C.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Fat embolism is a clinical syndrome that usually occurs from the first to third day after a bone fracture or/and an orthopaedic surgery. The target organs are the lungs and more rarely the brain and the skin. Objectives and tasks: The aim of this presentation is to discuss the imaging diagnostic criteria of lung fat embolism in CT on the occasion of a case. Material and methods: A 30-years-old male patient was admitted to the Orthopaedic Department after a motorbike accident. A fracture of the head of his right femur was diagnosed and the patient underwent a surgery 3 days later. During the first postoperative day, the patient presented severe dyspnoea, tachycardia, a significant fall of PO 2 (59 mmHg) and a parallel increase in d-Dimmers (7.8 mg/l). The patient was then referred for a chest CT scan. Results: Contrast enhanced CT excluded the presence of thrombus in the pulmonary arteries and raised the diagnosis of lung fat embolism (septal thickening with a nodular pattern and diffuse ground-glass opacities along with the presence of small quantity of bilateral pleural effusions). Conclusion: Chest CT prior and the use of intravenous contrast media after is the most reliable diagnostic method to confirm or exclude pulmonary fat embolism syndrome

  7. Anthropometrical Profile, Skinfold Tickness and Subcutaneous Fat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The threatening health problems resulting from excess subcutaneous fat depositions have been reported by the world Health Organization. Also noteworthy is that childhood obesity is a pointer to adult obesity. This necessitated a study on the anthropometrical profiles of adolescents of Southeast Nigeria using ...

  8. Hydrotreatment of Oils and Fats for Biodiesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Riisager, Anders; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    The use of renewable biofuels in the transport sector represents an important step towards a sustainable society. Biodiesel is currently produced by the transesterification of fats and oils with methanol, but another viable method could be reaction of the feedstock with H2 to produce long...

  9. Jinlida reduces insulin resistance and ameliorates liver oxidative stress in high-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yixuan; Song, An; Zang, Shasha; Wang, Chao; Song, Guangyao; Li, Xiaoling; Zhu, Yajun; Yu, Xian; Li, Ling; Wang, Yun; Duan, Liyuan

    2015-03-13

    Jinlida (JLD) is a compound preparation formulated on the basis of traditional Chinese medicine and is officially approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in China. We aimed to elucidate the mechanism of JLD treatment, in comparison to metformin treatment, on ameliorating insulin sensitivity in insulin resistant rats and to reveal its anti-oxidant properties. Rats were fed with standard or high-fat diet for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks, the high-fat fed rats were subdivided into five groups and orally fed with JLD or metformin for 8 weeks. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting blood insulin, blood lipid and antioxidant enzymes were measured. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp technique were carried out to measure insulin sensitivity. Gene expression of the major signaling pathway molecules that regulate glucose uptake, including insulin receptor (INSR), insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase beta (AKT), and glucose transporter type 2 (GLUT2), were assessed by quantitative RT-PCR. The totle and phosphorylation expression of IRS-1, AKT, JNK and p38MAPK were determined by Western blot. Treatment with JLD effectively ameliorated the high-fat induced hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and hyperlipidemia. Similar to metformin, the high insulin resistance in high-fat fed rats was significantly decreased by JLD treatment. JLD displayed anti-oxidant effects, coupled with up-regulation of the insulin signaling pathway. The attenuation of hepatic oxidative stress by JLD treatment was associated with reduced phosphorylation protein levels of JNK and p38MAPK. Treatment with JLD could moderate glucose and lipid metabolism as well as reduce hepatic oxidative stress, most likely through the JNK and p38MAPK pathways. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Voluntary exercise improves high-fat diet-induced leptin resistance independent of adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczewski Carhuatanta, Kimberly A; Demuro, Giovanna; Tschöp, Matthias H; Pfluger, Paul T; Benoit, Stephen C; Obici, Silvana

    2011-07-01

    The efficacy of exercise as primary prevention of obesity is the subject of intense investigation. Here, we show that voluntary exercise in a mouse strain susceptible to diet-induced obesity (C57B6J) decreases fat mass and increases energy expenditure. In addition, exercise attenuates obesity in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Using FosB immunoreactivity as a marker of chronic neuronal activation, we found that exercise activates leptin receptor-positive neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, involved in homeostatic control of energy balance. FosB immunoreactivity in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus is decreased in sedentary mice exposed to HFD but is increased in exercised mice independent of adiposity. To determine whether the antiobesity effects of voluntary exercise improve central nervous system (CNS) leptin action, we measured the anorectic and weight reducing effects of intracerebroventricular (ICV) leptin in sedentary and exercised mice exposed to HFD (EH), as well as in sedentary mice that have been calorie restricted (SR) to match the fat mass of EH mice. ICV leptin was ineffective in lowering food intake and body weight (BW) in sedentary mice exposed to HFD mice. The anorectic potency of leptin was partially restored in EH and SR groups. However, ICV leptin significantly lowered BW in EH but not SR mice. Thus, exercise leads to the maintenance of a lower BW and leaner composition, as well as to improved CNS leptin action, independent of fat mass. These results support the notion that physical exercise directly influences the responsiveness of the CNS circuits involved in energy homeostasis by allowing the defense of a lowered BW.

  11. Rheological properties of cupuassu and cocoa fats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gioielli, L. A.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa butter is an important ingredient in chocolate formulation as it dictates the main properties (texture, sensation in the mouth, and gloss. In the food industry, the texture of fat-containing products strongly depends on the macroscopic properties of the fat network formed within the finished product. Cupuassu ( Theobroma grandiflorum , Sterculiaceae is an Amazonian native fruit and the seeds can be used to derive a cocoa butter like product. In general, these fats are similar to those of cocoa, although they are different in some physical properties. The objective of this study was to analyze several properties of the cupuassu fat and cocoa butter (crystal formation at 25 ° C, rheological properties, and fatty acid composition and mixtures between the two fats (rheological properties, in order to understand the behavior of these fats for their use in chocolate products. Fat flow was described using common rheological models ( Newton , Power Law, Casson and Bingham plastic.La manteca de cacao es un ingrediente muy importante en la formulación de chocolates y es responsable de la mayor parte de sus propiedades (textura, palatibilidad y brillo. En la industria de alimentos, la textura de productos que contienen grasa depende enormemente de las propiedades macroscópicas de la red cristalina de la grasa en el producto final. El cupuaçu es una fruta nativa de la región amazónica y sus semillas pueden ser usadas para obtener una grasa semejante a la manteca de cacao. En general, esta grasa es similar a la manteca de cacao, pero difiere en algunas de sus propiedades fisicas . El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar algunas propiedades de la grasa de cupuaçu y de la manteca de cacao (formación de cristales a 25 °C, propiedades reológicas y composición en ácidos grasos y de algunas mezclas entre las dos grasas (propiedades reológicas, a fin de conocer el comportamiento de estas grasas para ser usadas en productos de la industria

  12. Psoralea corylifolia L. Attenuates Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis in Juvenile Mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lishan Zhou

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Psoralea corylifolia L. (PC is a traditional Chinese herb used to treat yang deficiency of the spleen and kidney in pediatric disease. Recent studies have shown its liver protection and anti-oxidative effects. The aim of this study was to explore the effect and mechanism of PC on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in juvenile mice. The juvenile mouse model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NAFLD/NASH was established by being fed a high-fat diet in maternal-offspring manner. PC granules were prepared and the quality was assessed. The main components were identified by high performance liquid chromatography. Then, different dosages of PC were administered for 6 weeks. Homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, plasma liver enzymes, hepatic morphology, hepatic superoxide anion, and triglyceride/total cholesterol levels were examined. The changes of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB activity phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K/protein kinase B (Akt and protein kinase C-α (PKC-α/nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase signaling pathways in hepatic tissues were also determined. Our data demonstrated that PC significantly improved liver dysfunction, liver triglyceride/total cholesterol accumulation and insulin resistance in juvenile NAFLD/NASH mice. PC also alleviated hepatic steatosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, and fibroplasia in the portal area. Additionally, PC inhibited the activation of NF-κB and the mRNA expression of inflammatory factors while enhancing PI3K/Akt signaling in hepatic tissues. PC could also reduce hepatic superoxide anion levels, and NADPH oxidase activity as well as p47phox protein expression and PKCα activation in hepatic tissues. The results suggest that PC is effective in the treatment of NASH in juvenile mice. The mechanism may be related to the attenuation of hepatic oxidative stress through the PKC-α/NADPH oxidase signaling pathway.

  13. A comparative study of cross sectional anatomy and computer tomography of perirenal fat depots in New Zealand White rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonkova, P.; Dimitrov, R.; Toneva, J.; Zapryanova, D.

    2010-01-01

    CT is a contemporary non-invasive imaging technique that gains an increasing importance for in vivo investigations of subcutaneous and visceral fat. The purpose of this investigation was to describe the topography and anatomy imaging features of perirenal fat depots at the level of both kidneys in clinically healthy New Zealand White rabbits that attained slaughter weight. The CT consecutive transverse scans from the last thoracic to the fifth lumbar vertebrae showed that in rabbits, perirenal fat appeared as a homogeneous hypodense structure at the background of denser shadows of lumbar and abdominal muscles, kidneys and abdominal organs. Perirenal fat depot exhibited a soft tissue density with average attenuation of −120.97±4.73 HU. On CT scans, the largest dimensions of the perirenal fat depot were 1.3±0.01 cm at the level of the right kidneys cranial pole; 1.96 cm in the plane where the right renal hilus was visualized; 1.66±0.08 cm at the level of the right kidneys caudal pole; 1.10±0.18 cm in the plane where the left renal hilus was visualized and 1.06±0.15 cm at the level of the left kidneys caudal pole. No subcutaneous fat deposits in the abdominal area were seen. Results obtained in the present study could be used as basic information for various anatomy investigations of rabbits as well as experimental designs for study of obesity in animals and humans. (author)

  14. Improvement of quantitation in SPECT: Attenuation and scatter correction using non-uniform attenuation data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, T.; Torizuka, K.; Douglass, K.H.; Wagner, H.N.

    1985-01-01

    Quantitative assessment of tracer distribution with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is difficult because of attenuation and scattering of gamma rays within the object. A method considering the source geometry was developed, and effects of attenuation and scatter on SPECT quantitation were studied using phantoms with non-uniform attenuation. The distribution of attenuation coefficients (μ) within the source were obtained by transmission CT. The attenuation correction was performed by an iterative reprojection technique. The scatter correction was done by convolution of the attenuation corrected image and an appropriate filter made by line source studies. The filter characteristics depended on μ and SPEC measurement at each pixel. The SPECT obtained by this method showed the most reasonable results than the images reconstructed by other methods. The scatter correction could compensate completely for a 28% scatter components from a long line source, and a 61% component for thick and extended source. Consideration of source geometries was necessary for effective corrections. The present method is expected to be valuable for the quantitative assessment of regional tracer activity

  15. Long-term fat diet adaptation effects on performance, training capacity, and fat utilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2002-01-01

    It is well known that adaptation to a fat-rich carbohydrate-poor diet results in lower resting muscle glycogen content and a higher rate of fat oxidation during exercise when compared with a carbohydrate-rich diet. The net effect of such an adaptation could potentially be a sparing of muscle...... glycogen, and because muscle glycogen storage is coupled to endurance performance, it is possible that adaptation to a high-fat diet potentially could enhance endurance performance. Therefore, the first issue in this review is to critically evaluate the available evidence for a potential endurance...... performance enhancement after long-term fat-rich diet adaptation. Attainment of optimal performance is among other factors dependent also on the quality and quantity of the training performed. When exercise intensity is increased, there is an increased need for carbohydrates. On the other hand, consumption...

  16. Met-myoglobin formation, accumulation, degradation, and myoglobin oxygenation monitoring based on multiwavelength attenuance measurement in porcine meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thien; Phan, Kien Nguyen; Lee, Jee-Bum; Kim, Jae Gwan

    2016-05-01

    We propose a simple, rapid, and nondestructive method to investigate formation, accumulation, and degradation of met-myoglobin (met-Mb) and myoglobin oxygenation from the interior of porcine meat. For the experiment, color photos and attenuance spectra of porcine meat (well-bled muscle, fat, and mixed) were collected daily to perform colorimetric analysis and to obtain the differences of attenuance between 578 and 567 nm (A578-A567) and between 615 and 630 nm (A630-A615), respectively. Oxy-, deoxy-, and met-myoglobin concentration changes over storage time were also calculated using Beer-Lamberts' law with reflectance intensities at 557, 582, and 630 nm. The change of A578-A567 was well matched with the change of myoglobin oxygenation, and the change of A630-A615 corresponded well with the formation and degradation of met-Mb. In addition, attenuation differences, A578-A567 and A630-A615, were able to show the formation of met-Mb earlier than colorimetric analysis. Therefore, the attenuance differences between wavelengths can be indicators for estimating myoglobin oxygenation and met-Mb formation, accumulation, and degradation, which enable us to design a simple device to monitor myoglobin activities in porcine meat.

  17. Canagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor, attenuates the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in a mouse model of human NASH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Kumiko; Tsuchiya, Kyoichiro; Komiya, Chikara; Miyachi, Yasutaka; Mori, Kentaro; Shimazu, Noriko; Yamaguchi, Shinobu; Ogasawara, Naomi; Katoh, Makoto; Itoh, Michiko; Suganami, Takayoshi; Ogawa, Yoshihiro

    2018-02-05

    Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, an antidiabetic drug, promotes urinary excretion of glucose by blocking its reabsorption in the renal proximal tubules. It is unclear whether SGLT2 inhibition could attenuate nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and NASH-associated hepatocellular carcinoma. We examined the preventive effects of an SGLT2 inhibitor canagliflozin (CANA) in Western diet (WD)-fed melanocortin 4 receptor-deficient (MC4R-KO) mice, a mouse model of human NASH. An eight-week CANA treatment attenuated hepatic steatosis in WD-fed MC4R-KO mice, with increased epididymal fat mass without inflammatory changes. CANA treatment for 20 weeks inhibited the development of hepatic fibrosis in WD-fed MC4R-KO mice. After one year of CANA treatment, the number of liver tumors was significantly reduced in WD-fed MC4R-KO mice. In adipose tissue, CANA suppressed the ratio of oxidative to reduced forms of glutathiones (GSSG/GSH) in WD-fed MC4R-KO mice. Treatment with GSH significantly attenuated the H 2 O 2 -induced upregulation of genes related to NADPH oxidase in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and that of Il6, Tgfb, and Pdgfb in RAW264.7 cells. This study provides evidence that SGLT2 inhibitors represent the unique class of drugs that can attenuate or delay the onset of NASH and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma, at least partly, through "healthy adipose expansion".

  18. Original Research Intra-abdominal fat: Comparison of computed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    advantage for composition measurement of no radiation exposure ... Computed Tomography (CT) fat segmentation represents a defined method of quantifying intra-abdominal fat, with .... spiral CT scan with 3-mm slices covering the abdomen,.

  19. Improving low fat meatball characteristics by adding whey powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdaroğlu, Meltem

    2006-01-01

    In this study whey powder (WP) at levels of 0%, 2% and 4% was added to beef meatballs formulated with 5%, 10% and 20% fat levels. Raw and cooked meatballs were analyzed for protein, fat, moisture, ash and pH. Meatballs were evaluated for cooking characteristics, juiciness, colour parameters (L*,a*,b*) and sensory properties. Addition of WP did not affect fat and protein contents of meatballs. Addition of 2% or 4% WP significantly increased cooking yield regardless of the fat level. Both fat level and WP level significantly affected fat retention values of meatballs. Incorporating WP had no effect on meatball juiciness. Addition of WP increased fat and moisture retention of meatballs. Twenty percent fat resulted in higher L* and lower a* values. Adding WP resulted in higher L* values but WP had no effect on a* and b* values. WP had no detrimental effect on sensory properties.

  20. Analysis association of milk fat and protein percent in quantitative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis association of milk fat and protein percent in quantitative trait locus ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Protein and fat percent as content of milk are high-priority criteria for financial aims and selection of programs in dairy cattle.

  1. Reduced Fat Food Emulsions: Physicochemical, Sensory, and Biological Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Cheryl; Smith, Gordon; Degner, Brian; McClements, David Julian

    2016-01-01

    Fat plays multiple important roles in imparting desirable sensory attributes to emulsion-based food products, such as sauces, dressings, soups, beverages, and desserts. However, there is concern that over consumption of fats leads to increased incidences of chronic diseases, such as obesity, coronary heart disease, and diabetes. Consequently, there is a need to develop reduced fat products with desirable sensory profiles that match those of their full-fat counterparts. The successful design of high quality reduced-fat products requires an understanding of the many roles that fat plays in determining the sensory attributes of food emulsions, and of appropriate strategies to replace some or all of these attributes. This paper reviews our current understanding of the influence of fat on the physicochemical and physiological attributes of food emulsions, and highlights some of the main approaches that can be used to create high quality emulsion-based food products with reduced fat contents.

  2. Preformulation compatibility screening of dika fat-drug mixtures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used as screening technique for assessing compatibility between dika fat and drug substances. Dika fat was found to be compatible with aspirin, ascorbic acid, paracetamol, sulphanilamide, phenylpropanolamine hydrochloride, bromopheniramine maleate, chlorpheniramire ...

  3. Impaired oxidative capacity due to decreased CPT1b levels as a contributing factor to fat accumulation in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Cecilia; Madsen, Andreas Nygaard; Kristensen, Line Vildbrad

    2015-01-01

    In order to characterize mechanisms responsible for fat accumulation we used a selectively bred obesity-prone (OP) and obesity-resistant (OR) rat model, where the rats were fed a Western diet for 76 days. Body composition was assessed by MRI scans and as expected the OP rats developed a higher...... likewise had higher RER values indicating that this trait may be a primary and contributing factor to their obese phenotype. When the adult obese rats were exposed to the orexigenic and adipogenic hormone ghrelin, we observed increased RER values in both OP and OR rats, while OR rats were more sensitive...... to ghrelin's orexigenic effects as well as ghrelin-induced attenuation of activity and energy expenditure. Thus, increased fat accumulation characterizing obesity may be caused by impaired oxidative capacity due to decreased carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b levels in the white adipose tissue, while ghrelin...

  4. Zanthoxylum piperitum DC ethanol extract suppresses fat accumulation in adipocytes and high fat diet-induced obese mice by regulating adipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwon, So Young; Ahn, Ji Yun; Kim, Tae Wan; Ha, Tae Youl

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the anti-obesity effects of Zanthoxylum piperitum DC fruit ethanol extract (ZPE) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and obese mice fed a high-fat diet. We evaluated the influence of the addition of ZPE to a high-fat diet on body weight, adipose tissue weight, serum and hepatic lipids in C57BL/6 mice. In addition, adipogenic gene expression was determined by Western blot and real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis. We assessed the effect of ZPE on 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation. ZPE reduced weight gain, white adipose tissue mass, and serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels (pZPE decreased lipid accumulation and PPARγ, C/EBPα, SREBP-1, and FAS protein and mRNA levels in the liver. ZPE inhibited in vitro adipocyte differentiation in a dose-dependent manner and significantly attenuated adipogenic transcription factors, such as PPARγ, C/EBPα, and SREBP-1 in 3T3L1 cells. These findings suggest that Z. piperitum DC exerts an anti-obesity effect by inhibiting adipogenesis through the downregulation of genes involved in the adipogenesis pathway.

  5. Food sources of fat may clarify the inconsistent role of dietary fat intake for incidence of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericson, Ulrika; Hellstrand, Sophie; Brunkwall, Louise; Schulz, Christina-Alexandra; Sonestedt, Emily; Wallström, Peter; Gullberg, Bo; Wirfält, Elisabet; Orho-Melander, Marju

    2015-05-01

    Dietary fats could affect glucose metabolism and obesity development and, thereby, may have a crucial role in the cause of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Studies indicated that replacing saturated with unsaturated fats might be favorable, and plant foods might be a better choice than animal foods. Nevertheless, epidemiologic studies suggested that dairy foods are protective. We hypothesized that, by examining dietary fat and its food sources classified according to fat type and fat content, some clarification regarding the role of dietary fat in T2D incidence could be provided. A total of 26,930 individuals (61% women), aged 45-74 y, from the Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort were included in the study. Dietary data were collected by using a modified diet-history method. During 14 y of follow-up, 2860 incident T2D cases were identified. Total intake of high-fat dairy products (regular-fat alternatives) was inversely associated with incident T2D (HR for highest compared with lowest quintiles: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.68, 0.87; P-trend fat fermented milk (P-trend fat dairy products was associated with increased risk, but this association disappeared when low- and high-fat dairy were mutually adjusted (P-trend = 0.18). Intakes of both high-fat meat (P-trend = 0.04) and low-fat meat (P-trend fat content and T2D (P-trend = 0.24), but intakes of saturated fatty acids with 4-10 carbons, lauric acid (12:0), and myristic acid (14:0) were associated with decreased risk (P-trend fat dairy products suggests that dairy fat partly could have contributed to previously observed protective associations between dairy intake and T2D. Meat intake was associated with increased risk independently of the fat content. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Calorie for Calorie, Dietary Fat Restriction Results in More Body Fat Loss than Carbohydrate Restriction in People with Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kevin D; Bemis, Thomas; Brychta, Robert; Chen, Kong Y; Courville, Amber; Crayner, Emma J; Goodwin, Stephanie; Guo, Juen; Howard, Lilian; Knuth, Nicolas D; Miller, Bernard V; Prado, Carla M; Siervo, Mario; Skarulis, Monica C; Walter, Mary; Walter, Peter J; Yannai, Laura

    2015-09-01

    Dietary carbohydrate restriction has been purported to cause endocrine adaptations that promote body fat loss more than dietary fat restriction. We selectively restricted dietary carbohydrate versus fat for 6 days following a 5-day baseline diet in 19 adults with obesity confined to a metabolic ward where they exercised daily. Subjects received both isocaloric diets in random order during each of two inpatient stays. Body fat loss was calculated as the difference between daily fat intake and net fat oxidation measured while residing in a metabolic chamber. Whereas carbohydrate restriction led to sustained increases in fat oxidation and loss of 53 ± 6 g/day of body fat, fat oxidation was unchanged by fat restriction, leading to 89 ± 6 g/day of fat loss, and was significantly greater than carbohydrate restriction (p = 0.002). Mathematical model simulations agreed with these data, but predicted that the body acts to minimize body fat differences with prolonged isocaloric diets varying in carbohydrate and fat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The subcutaneous abdominal fat and not the intraabdominal fat compartment is associated with anovulation in women with obesity and infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchenbecker, Walter K H; Groen, Henk; Zijlstra, Tineke M; Bolster, Johanna H T; Slart, Riemer H J; van der Jagt, Erik J; Kobold, Anneke C Muller; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Land, Jolande A; Hoek, Annemieke

    2010-05-01

    Abdominal fat contributes to anovulation. We compared body fat distribution measurements and their contribution to anovulation in obese ovulatory and anovulatory infertile women. Seventeen ovulatory and 40 anovulatory women (age, 30 +/- 4 yr; body mass index, 37.7 +/- 6.1 kg/m(2)) participated. Body fat distribution was measured by anthropometrics, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and single-sliced abdominal computed tomography scan. Multiple logistic regression analysis was applied to determine which fat compartments significantly contributed to anovulation. Anovulatory women had a higher waist circumference (113 +/- 11 vs. 104 +/- 9 cm; P fat (23.0 +/- 5.3 vs. 19.1 +/- 4.2 kg; P abdominal fat (4.4 +/- 1.3 kg vs. 3.5 +/- 0.9 kg; P fat on single-sliced abdominal computed tomography scan was not significantly different between the two groups (203 +/- 56 vs. 195 +/- 71 cm(3); P = 0.65), but anovulatory women had significantly more sc abdominal fat (SAF) (992 +/- 198 vs. 864 +/- 146 cm(3); P fat, abdominal fat, and SAF were associated with anovulation. Abdominal fat is increased in anovulatory women due to a significant increase in SAF and not in intraabdominal fat. SAF and especially abdominal and trunk fat accumulation are associated with anovulation.

  8. Quantitative assessment of fat infiltration in the rotator cuff muscles using water-fat MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardo, Lorenzo; Karampinos, Dimitrios C; Lansdown, Drew A; Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Lee, Sonia; Maroldi, Roberto; Ma, C Benjamin; Link, Thomas M; Krug, Roland

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate a chemical shift-based fat quantification technique in the rotator cuff muscles in comparison with the semiquantitative Goutallier fat infiltration classification (GC) and to assess their relationship with clinical parameters. The shoulders of 57 patients were imaged using a 3T MR scanner. The rotator cuff muscles were assessed for fat infiltration using GC by two radiologists and an orthopedic surgeon. Sequences included oblique-sagittal T1-, T2-, and proton density-weighted fast spin echo, and six-echo gradient echo. The iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least-squares estimation (IDEAL) was used to measure fat fraction. Pain and range of motion of the shoulder were recorded. Fat fraction values were significantly correlated with GC grades (P 0.9) showing consistent increase with GC grades (grade = 0, 0%-5.59%; grade = 1, 1.1%-9.70%; grade = 2, 6.44%-14.86%; grade = 3, 15.25%-17.77%; grade = 4, 19.85%-29.63%). A significant correlation between fat infiltration of the subscapularis muscle quantified with IDEAL versus 1) deficit in internal rotation (Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient [SRC] = 0.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.13-0.60, P infiltration measures of the supraspinatus muscle were significantly correlated with a deficit in abduction (SRC coefficient = 0.45, 95% CI 0.20-0.60, P water-fat magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques is possible and significantly correlates with shoulder pain and range of motion. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Proton density-weighted MR imaging of the knee: fat suppression versus without fat suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, So-Yeon; Kim, Sun Ki; Jee, Won-Hee; Kim, Jung-Man

    2011-01-01

    To prospectively evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of proton density-weighted imaging with and without fat suppression for detecting meniscal tears. The study involved 48 patients who underwent arthroscopy less than 3 months after proton density-weighted imaging with and without fat suppression. Sagittal images were independently reviewed by two radiologists for the presence of meniscal tears. Medial and lateral menisci were separately analyzed in terms of anterior horn, body, and posterior horn. Interobserver agreement was assessed using κ coefficients. The McNemar test was used to determine any differences between the two methods in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Arthroscopy findings were used as the diagnostic reference standard. Arthroscopy revealed 71 tears involving 85 meniscal segments: 34 medial meniscal segments and 51 lateral meniscal segments. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of each radiologist were 95% (81/85), 92% (186/203), and 93% (267/288), and 93% (79/85), 93% (189/203), and 93% (268/288) when using fat-suppressed proton density-weighted imaging, and 91% (77/85), 93% (189/203), and 92% (266/288), and 91% (77/85), 93% (188/203), and 92% (265/288) when using proton density-weighted imaging without fat suppression, respectively. Interobserver agreement for meniscal tears was very high with proton-weighted imaging with (κ = 0.87) or without (κ = 0.86) fat suppression. There were no significant differences for detection of medial meniscal tears when using proton density-weighted imaging with or without fat suppression for both readers (p > 0.05). Fat-suppressed proton density-weighted imaging can replace proton density-weighted imaging without fat suppression for the detection of meniscal tears. (orig.)

  10. Proton density-weighted MR imaging of the knee: fat suppression versus without fat suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, So-Yeon; Kim, Sun Ki [Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jee, Won-Hee [Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Catholic University of Korea, Diagnostic Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung-Man [Catholic University of Korea, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    To prospectively evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of proton density-weighted imaging with and without fat suppression for detecting meniscal tears. The study involved 48 patients who underwent arthroscopy less than 3 months after proton density-weighted imaging with and without fat suppression. Sagittal images were independently reviewed by two radiologists for the presence of meniscal tears. Medial and lateral menisci were separately analyzed in terms of anterior horn, body, and posterior horn. Interobserver agreement was assessed using {kappa} coefficients. The McNemar test was used to determine any differences between the two methods in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Arthroscopy findings were used as the diagnostic reference standard. Arthroscopy revealed 71 tears involving 85 meniscal segments: 34 medial meniscal segments and 51 lateral meniscal segments. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of each radiologist were 95% (81/85), 92% (186/203), and 93% (267/288), and 93% (79/85), 93% (189/203), and 93% (268/288) when using fat-suppressed proton density-weighted imaging, and 91% (77/85), 93% (189/203), and 92% (266/288), and 91% (77/85), 93% (188/203), and 92% (265/288) when using proton density-weighted imaging without fat suppression, respectively. Interobserver agreement for meniscal tears was very high with proton-weighted imaging with ({kappa} = 0.87) or without ({kappa} = 0.86) fat suppression. There were no significant differences for detection of medial meniscal tears when using proton density-weighted imaging with or without fat suppression for both readers (p > 0.05). Fat-suppressed proton density-weighted imaging can replace proton density-weighted imaging without fat suppression for the detection of meniscal tears. (orig.)

  11. Dietary capsaicin and antibiotics act synergistically to reduce non-alcoholic fatty liver disease induced by high fat diet in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jingjuan; Luo, Haihua; Jiang, Yong; Chen, Peng

    2017-06-13

    The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is increasing rapidly worldwide. However, effective strategies for combating high-fat diet (HFD) induced obesity, fatty liver and metabolic disorder are still limited, and outcomes remain poor. In the present study, we evaluated the combined actions of dietary capsaicin and antibiotics on HFD-induced physiological abnormalities in mice. C57BL/6 male mice were fed with HFD (60% calories from fat) for 17 weeks, and the resultant pathophysiological effects were examined. Antibiotic treatment markedly attenuated gut inflammation and leakiness induced by HFD, whereas capsaicin showed limited effects on the gut. However, dietary capsaicin significantly increased PPAR-α expression in adipose tissue, while antibiotics had no such effect. Animals treated with a combination of capsaicin and antibiotics had the smallest body weight gain and fat pad index, as well as the lowest hepatic fat accumulation. Combination treatment also maximally improved insulin responsiveness, as indicated by insulin tolerance tests. These results suggest the co-treatment of capsaicin and antibiotics, a novel combination strategy, would play synergistically to attenuate the HFD-induced obesity, fatty liver and metabolic disorder.

  12. Evaluation of fat grains in gothaj sausage using image analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ludmila Luňáková; Matej Pospiech; Bohuslava Tremlová; Alena Saláková; Zdeňka Javůrková; Josef Kameník

    2016-01-01

    Fat is an irreplacable ingredient in the production of sausages and it determines the appearance of the resulting cut to a significant extent. When shopping, consumers choose a traditional product mostly according to its appearance, based onwhat they are used to. Chemical analysis is capable to determine the total fat content in the product, but it cannot accurately describe the shape and size of fat grains which the consumer observes when looking at the product. The size of fat grains consid...

  13. MRI Findings of Pericardial Fat Necrosis: Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyo Hyeok; Ryu, Dae Shick; Jung, Sang Sig; Jung, Seung Mun; Choi, Soo Jung; Shin, Dae Hee

    2011-01-01

    Pericardial fat necrosis is an infrequent cause of acute chest pain and this can mimic acute myocardial infarction and acute pericarditis. We describe here a patient with the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of pericardial fat necrosis and this was correlated with the computed tomography (CT) findings. The MRI findings may be helpful for distinguishing pericardial fat necrosis from other causes of acute chest pain and from the fat-containing tumors in the cardiophrenic space of the anterior mediastinum.

  14. Reducing Abdominal Fat Deposition in Broiler Through Feeding Management

    OpenAIRE

    Cecep Hidayat

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal fat in broiler carcass is considered as a waste and its existence reduces the carcass quality. Abdominal fat deposition is affected by several factors such as genetic, nutrition, feed, sex, age and environment. Reducing abdominal fat deposition can be carried out by regulating the nutrient intake to ensure that no excessive nutrient was consumed. Nutrition effects to reduce abdominal fat deposition are associated with nutrient concentration of ration and quantity of daily feed intak...

  15. Dioxin monitoring in fats oils for the feed industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asselt, van E.D.; Sterrenburg, P.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present project was to determine the most critical steps in the production of fats and oils. First, production processes of vegetables oils, animal fat, fish oil, biodiesel and fat blending were studied and experts from the industry as well as in-house dioxin experts were consulted to

  16. GIANT FAT CONTAINING BREAST MASSES: REPORT OF SIX ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2003-02-02

    Feb 2, 2003 ... and be mistaken for fibroadenoma(6). Oil cysts (traumatic lipid cyst) represent a focal form of fat necrosis(1). It is produced by saponification of fat by tissue lipase after local destruction of fat cells with release of lipids and associated haemorrhage and fibrotic proliferation. It may result from direct breast.

  17. 9 CFR 319.701 - Mixed fat shortening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mixed fat shortening. 319.701 Section... § 319.701 Mixed fat shortening. Shortening prepared with a mixture of meat fats and vegetable oils may... descending order of predominance. ...

  18. Glucose tolerance in obese pregnant women determines newborn fat mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Emma Malchau; Renault, Kristina Martha; Nørgaard, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Offspring of obese women have both short- and long-term increased morbidities. We investigated the relationship between maternal 2-h plasma glucose level determined by oral glucose tolerance test, degree of obesity, gestational weight gain and total fat, abdominal fat, and fat-free ...

  19. Association between fatness and coronary heart disease risk factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body fat was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and lipid profile (cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose) by the fasting blood test. Weak correlations were obtained between fatness and the CHD risk factors for both genders. Positive correlations were reported for fatness against all the CHD variables except ...

  20. Raman hyperspectral imaging and analysis of fat spreads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalen, van G.; Velzen, van E.J.J.; Heussen, P.C.M.; Sovago, M.; Malssen, van K.F.; Duynhoven, van J.P.M.

    2017-01-01

    The microstructure of fat spreads is of fundamental importance to their sensorial properties such as texture, mouthfeel and spreadability. Fat spreads are water in oil emulsions,with a continuous phase supported by a fat crystal network. Confocal Raman microscopy offers the possibility for the