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Sample records for fasting-induced hepatic lipidosis

  1. Metabolic profiles and bile acid extraction rate in the liver of cows with fasting-induced hepatic lipidosis.

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    Mohamed, T; Oikawa, S; Iwasaki, Y; Mizunuma, Y; Takehana, K; Endoh, D; Kurosawa, T; Sato, H

    2004-04-01

    This study was designed to monitor lipid profile in the portal and hepatic blood of cows with fasting-induced hepatic lipidosis, and to compare the results with those in the jugular blood. The work was also carried out to investigate bile acid (BA) in these vessels, and further to investigate BA extraction rate in the liver. Five cows were equipped with catheters in the portal, hepatic and jugular veins (day 0), fasted for 4 days (day 1-day 4) and then refed (day 5-day 11). Before morning feeding, blood was sampled before, during and after fasting from the catheterized vessels. In the portal blood, the concentration of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) showed a progressive increase and at day 5 there was an approximate twofold rise. Increased NEFA concentrations were also found similarly in the other two veins. At day 5, beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) in the portal, hepatic and jugular blood rose to 197, 190 and 186% of the pre-fasting value, respectively. However, the concentrations of NEFA and BHBA in the three veins gradually returned to pre-fasting concentration during the refeeding period. Compared with the pre-fasting value at day 0, the content of liver triglyceride (TG) increased significantly at day 5 (P hepatic extraction rate of BA dropped from 3.1 times pre-fasting to 2.2 times during fasting. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of glucose, TG, total cholesterol, cholesterol esters, free cholesterol and phospholipids. The results of the current study show that metabolic alterations occur in the portal, hepatic and jugular veins during induction of hepatic lipidosis in cows, and mostly metabolites, with exception of BA concentration, run parallel. The decreased BA extraction rate in the liver of fasted cows was considered to reflect hepatic cell impairment caused by TG accumulation. Hopefully, the findings, at least in part, contribute to the explanation of the pathophysiology of hepatic lipidosis in dairy cows.

  2. Changes of very low-density lipoprotein concentration in hepatic blood from cows with fasting-induced hepatic lipidosis.

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    Oikawa, Shin; Mizunuma, Yuko; Iwasaki, Yukari; Tharwat, Mohamed

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) components in hepatic blood (HB) from 5 nonlactating nonpregnant cows fasted from days 0 to 3 and subsequently refed to day 10 and, in addition, to assess those of other lipoproteins. Increased phospholipid concentrations in each lipoprotein after the start of fasting suggested their availability for the surface lipids of lipoproteins. Although the VLDL-triglyceride (TG) concentration in HB from all cows increased on day 1, the value on day 4 became similar to that on day 0. However, the concentration on day 10 was significantly increased. In all cows, the decreased ratio of the VLDL-TG concentration in HB to the non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentration in portal blood (PB) on day 4 appeared to reflect relatively decreased secretion of TG as VLDL by NEFA excessively mobilized to the liver via PB. The markedly increased ratio on day 10 was considered to contribute to the improvement of hepatic lipidosis.

  3. FELINE HEPATIC LIPIDOSIS

    OpenAIRE

    C. Masotti; M. O. Lima; A. M. Cruz; G. D. Cruz

    2016-01-01

    Since the first description of feline hepatic lipidosis occurred in 1977, it becames the most diagnosed liver disease in cats. Several factors have been proposed as causes of disease, and obesity being a predisposing factor. The disease can be considered primary or idiopathic when its underlying cause is unknown, or secondary when there is another concomitant disease lipidosis. Cats with hepatic lipidosis have anorexia usually ranging from several days to weeks and weight loss, followed by ja...

  4. FELINE HEPATIC LIPIDOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Masotti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the first description of feline hepatic lipidosis occurred in 1977, it becames the most diagnosed liver disease in cats. Several factors have been proposed as causes of disease, and obesity being a predisposing factor. The disease can be considered primary or idiopathic when its underlying cause is unknown, or secondary when there is another concomitant disease lipidosis. Cats with hepatic lipidosis have anorexia usually ranging from several days to weeks and weight loss, followed by jaundice and varying degrees of dehydration, diarrhea and vomiting episodes may occur. A worsening of the disease shows signs of hepatic encephalopathy, drooling and retroflexion of the neck. In clinical examination can be observed depression, lethargy and hepatomegaly. The definitive diagnosis of the disease can be performed by fine needle aspiration biopsy guided by ultrasound and cytology or biopsy. The treatment of hepatic lipidosis is based on stabilizing the patient by supplying water and electrolyte losses and provide adequate nutritional support. The diet is usually provided through feeding tubes for a period ranging from 4 to 6 weeks may occur depending on the patient's condition. The prognosis for cats with hepatic lipidosis is favored in cases of identification followed by intensive treatment of underlying causes and for patients receiving therapy necessary in cases of idiopathic hepatic lipidosis.

  5. Hepatic lipidosis in turkeys.

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    Gazdzinski, P; Squires, E J; Julian, R J

    1994-01-01

    Two flocks of 14,000 twenty-week-old turkey hens each experienced increased mortality due to hepatic lipidosis. Some hens showed signs of dyspnea and cyanosis before death. Necropsy revealed dark muscles and enlarged livers with pale areas and numerous hemorrhages. Petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhages were also found on the abdominal fat and epicardium. Lung congestion and edema were prominent. In the heart and blood vessels, the blood was uncoagulated. Mortality was elevated for 12 days and resulted in the death of 0.7% of the turkey hens in one flock and 1.7% in the other. Vitamin E administered in water at a dose of 25 IU per hen appeared to reduce mortality. The nutritional and environmental factors that may contribute to the development of hepatic lipidosis in turkeys are discussed.

  6. Feline Hepatic Lipidosis.

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    Valtolina, Chiara; Favier, Robert P

    2017-05-01

    Feline hepatic lipidosis (FHL) is a common and potentially fatal liver disorder. Although the pathophysiologic mechanisms of FHL remain elusive, there is an imbalance between the influx of fatty acids from peripheral fat stores into the liver, de novo liposynthesis, and the rate of hepatic oxidation and dispersal of hepatic TAG via excretion of very-low density lipoproteins. The diagnosis of FHL is based on anamnestic, clinical, and clinicopathologic findings, associated with diagnostic imaging of the liver, and cytology, or histological examination of liver biopsies. Fluid therapy, electrolyte correction and adequate early nutrition are essential components of the therapy for FHL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Hepatic encephalopathy associated with hepatic lipidosis in llamas (Lama glama).

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    Pillitteri, C A; Craig, L E

    2013-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy has been listed as a differential for llamas displaying neurologic signs, but it has not been histopathologically described. This report details the neurologic histopathologic findings associated with 3 cases of hepatic lipidosis with concurrent neurologic signs and compares them to 3 cases of hepatic lipidosis in the absence of neurologic signs and 3 cases without hepatic lipidosis. Brain from all 3 llamas displaying neurologic signs contained Alzheimer type II cells, which were not detected in either subset of llamas without neurologic signs. Astrocytic immunohistochemical staining intensity for glial fibrillary acid protein was decreased in llamas with neurologic signs as compared to 2 of 3 llamas with hepatic lipidosis and without neurologic signs and to 2 of 3 llamas without hepatic lipidosis. Immunohistochemical staining for S100 did not vary between groups. These findings suggest that hepatic encephalopathy may be associated with hepatic lipidosis in llamas.

  8. Experimental induction of hepatic lipidosis in cats.

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    Biourge, V C; Groff, J M; Munn, R J; Kirk, C A; Nyland, T G; Madeiros, V A; Morris, J G; Rogers, Q R

    1994-09-01

    The effect of long-term voluntary fasting on hematologic variables, biochemical profiles, and liver histologic findings was assessed in 15 obese cats (> 40% overweight). Clinical signs and laboratory results consistent with hepatic lipidosis were observed in 12 of 15 cats after 5 to 7 weeks of fasting, and were associated with 30 to 35% reduction of initial body weight. Histologic examination of successive liver biopsy specimens revealed that obesity was not associated with liver parenchymal lipid accumulation, but that fasting resulted in lipidosis in all 15 cats. The long-term fast was associated with an early (after 2 to 4 weeks of fasting) and significant (P hepatic-associated enzyme activities and in total and direct serum bilirubin concentrations. Significant (P hepatic lipidosis, cats appeared to tolerate the fast without other adverse effect. This study confirmed that long-term fasting may induce clinical hepatic lipidosis in obese cats. Fasting appears to induce a syndrome of hepatic lipidosis that is indistinguishable from feline idiopathic hepatic lipidosis and may be an appropriate model to study the pathophysiologic features and treatment of hepatic lipidosis.

  9. Acute pancreatitis in cats with hepatic lipidosis.

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    Akol, K G; Washabau, R J; Saunders, H M; Hendrick, M J

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the incidence, clinical features, and prognosis of acute pancreatitis in cats with hepatic lipidosis. Of 13 cats histologically diagnosed with hepatic lipidosis between July 1988, and November 1989, 5(38%) were also histologically diagnosed with acute pancreatitis. In cats with hepatic lipidosis alone, the signalment, history, physical examination, and clinicopathologic findings were generally indistinguishable from those of cats with concurrent acute pancreatitis except that cats with acute pancreatitis were more likely to be cachectic and to have coagulation abnormalities. Hepatomegaly was seen on abdominal radiographs in both groups. Of the 5 cats with concurrent acute pancreatitis, abdominal ultrasonography detected 1 cat with a hypoechoic pancreas and 5 with peritoneal effusion; those abnormalities were not seen in cats without concurrent acute pancreatitis. Cats with concurrent acute pancreatitis had only a 20% recovery rate, compared with a 50% recovery rate in cats with hepatic lipidosis alone. We conclude that cats with hepatic lipidosis should be rigorously evaluated for concurrent acute pancreatitis because of 1) the rate of disease coincidence, 2) the inability of signalment, history, physical examination, and clinicopathologic findings to adequately distinguish between hepatic lipidosis and acute pancreatitis, 3) the worse prognosis associated with concurrent acute pancreatitis, and 4) the opposing nutritional strategies for hepatic lipidosis and acute pancreatitis.

  10. Rapid development of fasting-induced hepatic lipidosis in the American mink (Neovison vison): effects of food deprivation and re-alimentation on body fat depots, tissue fatty acid profiles, hematology and endocrinology.

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    Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Conway, Rebecca; Pal, Catherine; Harris, Lora; Saarela, Seppo; Strandberg, Ursula; Nieminen, Petteri

    2010-02-01

    Hepatic lipidosis is a common pathological finding in the American mink (Neovison vison) and can be caused by nutritional imbalance due to obesity or rapid body weight loss. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the timeline and characterize the development of hepatic lipidosis in mink in response to 0-7 days of food deprivation and liver recovery after 28 days of re-feeding. We report here the effects on hematological and endocrine variables, body fat mobilization, the development of hepatic lipidosis and the alterations in the liver lipid classes and tissue fatty acid (FA) sums. Food deprivation resulted in the rapid mobilization of body fat, most notably visceral, causing elevated hepatosomatic index and increased liver triacylglycerol content. The increased absolute amounts of liver total phospholipids and phosphatidylcholine suggested endoplasmic reticulum stress. The hepatic lipid infiltration and the altered liver lipid profiles were associated with a significantly reduced proportion of n-3 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) in the livers and the decrease was more evident in the females. Likewise, re-feeding of the female mink resulted in a more pronounced recovery of the liver n-3 PUFA. The rapid decrease in the n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio in response to food deprivation could trigger an inflammatory response in the liver. This could be a key contributor to the pathophysiology of fatty liver disease in mink influencing disease progression.

  11. Feline idiopathic hepatic lipidosis.

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    Dimski, D S; Taboada, J

    1995-03-01

    Feline IHL is a severe hepatopathy that can be treated by aggressive nutritional support. Until the underlying mechanisms of protein and lipid metabolism are understood in both healthy and ill cats, dietary therapy remains supportive. It is likely that the pathogenesis of IHL in cats is multifactorial, involving both increased fatty acid mobilization to the liver and a defect in oxidation of fatty acids or removal of VLDL. It is also possible that individual variation may play a role in the development of this disease in cats undergoing starvation. Continued studies will focus on the unique pathways of hepatic metabolism in the cat, and how these pathways are altered, leading to hepatic lipid accumulation and clinical disease. Hopefully, these studies can be applied to the prevention or treatment of IHL in cats.

  12. Metabolic and hormonal alterations in cats with hepatic lipidosis.

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    Brown, B; Mauldin, G E; Armstrong, J; Moroff, S D; Mauldin, G N

    2000-01-01

    Hepatic lipidosis in cats is a commonly diagnosed hepatobiliary disease of unknown cause. The purpose of this prospective study was to characterize the blood hormone and lipid status of cats with hepatic lipidosis, and to compare this status to that of cats with other types of liver disease and to control cats. Twenty-three cats with hepatic disease were assigned to 1 of 2 groups on the basis of cytopathologic or histopathologic examination of the liver: group 1, hepatic lipidosis (n = 18); or group 2, cholangiohepatitis (n = 5). Ten healthy young adult cats were used as controls. Food was withheld from control animals for 24 hours before blood collection. Concentrations of plasma glucagon and serum insulin, cortisol, thyroxine, triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids, and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) were determined in all cats, in addition to routine hematologic and serum biochemical testing. Cats with hepatic lipidosis had higher serum NEFA concentrations than cats with cholangiohepatitis or control cats (P lipidosis or control cats (P hepatic lipidosis. Serum insulin concentrations were significantly higher in control cats than in diseased cats (P hepatic disease. The high concentration of NEFAs in cats with hepatic lipidosis suggests that at least 1 factor in the pathogenesis of this syndrome may involve the regulation of hormone-sensitive lipase.

  13. Distal renal tubular acidosis and hepatic lipidosis in a cat.

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    Brown, S A; Spyridakis, L K; Crowell, W A

    1986-11-15

    Clinical and laboratory evidence of hepatic failure was found in a chronically anorectic cat. Simultaneous blood and urine pH determinations established a diagnosis of distal renal tubular acidosis. The cat did not respond to treatment. Necropsy revealed distal tubular nephrosis and hepatic lipidosis. The finding of distal renal tubular acidosis in a cat with hepatic lipidosis emphasizes the importance of complete evaluation of acid-base disorders in patients.

  14. Relationship of hepatic lipidosis to health and performance in dairy cattle.

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    Gerloff, B J; Herdt, T H; Emery, R S

    1986-04-15

    In a field study of 80 cows in 9 dairy herds, serial liver biopsies were performed over the peripartum period to determine degree of hepatic lipidosis. Cattle were separated into categories of mild, moderate, and severe hepatic lipidosis on the basis of maximal amounts of hepatic triglyceride that accumulated during this period. Number of cattle with mild, moderate, and severe hepatic lipidosis were 52, 16, and 12, respectively. Cattle with severe hepatic lipidosis had greater concentrations of hepatic triglyceride before calving and after parturition, and greater serum nonesterified fatty acid concentrations and body condition loss after parturition than cattle with mild hepatic lipidosis. Rate of disease and culling and death rate because of disease were greater in cattle with severe hepatic lipidosis. Cattle with severe hepatic lipidosis had reproductive performance equal to clinically normal cattle; however, cattle with moderate hepatic lipidosis had increased days to conception, possibly related to greater milk production.

  15. Metabolomic biomarkers correlating with hepatic lipidosis in dairy cows.

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    Imhasly, Sandro; Naegeli, Hanspeter; Baumann, Sven; von Bergen, Martin; Luch, Andreas; Jungnickel, Harald; Potratz, Sarah; Gerspach, Christian

    2014-06-02

    Hepatic lipidosis or fatty liver disease is a major metabolic disorder of high-producing dairy cows that compromises animal performance and, hence, causes heavy economic losses worldwide. This syndrome, occurring during the critical transition from gestation to early lactation, leads to an impaired health status, decreased milk yield, reduced fertility and shortened lifetime. Because the prevailing clinical chemistry parameters indicate advanced liver damage independently of the underlying disease, currently, hepatic lipidosis can only be ascertained by liver biopsy. We hypothesized that the condition of fatty liver disease may be accompanied by an altered profile of endogenous metabolites in the blood of affected animals. To identify potential small-molecule biomarkers as a novel diagnostic alternative, the serum samples of diseased dairy cows were subjected to a targeted metabolomics screen by triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. A subsequent multivariate test involving principal component and linear discriminant analyses yielded 29 metabolites (amino acids, phosphatidylcholines and sphingomyelines) that, in conjunction, were able to distinguish between dairy cows with no hepatic lipidosis and those displaying different stages of the disorder. This proof-of-concept study indicates that metabolomic profiles, including both amino acids and lipids, distinguish hepatic lipidosis from other peripartal disorders and, hence, provide a promising new tool for the diagnosis of hepatic lipidosis. By generating insights into the molecular pathogenesis of hepatic lipidosis, metabolomics studies may also facilitate the prevention of this syndrome.

  16. Ultrastructural hepatocellular features associated with severe hepatic lipidosis in cats.

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    Center, S A; Guida, L; Zanelli, M J; Dougherty, E; Cummings, J; King, J

    1993-05-01

    In this study, we compared hepatic ultrastructure in healthy cats, in cats with severe hepatic lipidosis, and in cats with experimentally induced, chronic, extrahepatic bile duct occlusion. Ultrastructural features unique to the lipidosis syndrome included an apparent reduction in number of peroxisomes and alteration in their morphologic features. The quantity of endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complexes, and lysosomes was subjectively reduced, and paucity of cytosolic glycogen was observed. Bile canaliculi appeared collapsed because of cytosolic distention with lipid. Mitochondria were reduced in number and were markedly pleomorphic. Cristae assumed a variety of shapes, lengths, and orientations. Ultrastructural features of bile duct occlusion were similar to those described in other species and differed from those in cats with hepatic lipidosis.

  17. Impaired specific immunoreactivity in cows with hepatic lipidosis.

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    Wentink, G H; Rutten, V P; van den Ingh, T S; Hoek, A; Müller, K E; Wensing, T

    1997-05-01

    In this study, hepatic lipidosis in cows was experimentally induced by offering an energy surplus during the dry period. Liver triacylglycerol (TAG) was 16% in the experimental group. In the control group fed the same diet in restricted quantities, liver TAG was about 7%. The animals of both groups were vaccinated with tetanus vaccine at Day 3 after parturition. It was demonstrated that the cows with high liver TAG percentages had lower humoral and cellular (P hepatic lipidosis may be due to impaired immunoreactivity.

  18. Gallbladder mucocoele and concurrent hepatic lipidosis in a cat.

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    Bennett, S L; Milne, M; Slocombe, R F; Landon, B P

    2007-10-01

    A 3-year-old Domestic Shorthair cat was presented with weight loss, anorexia and icterus. Feline hepatic lipidosis and gallbladder mucocoele were diagnosed; this is the first report of gallbladder mucocoele in the cat. The case was managed successfully with cholecystojejunostomy, gastrostomy tube placement and tube feeding for 3 months. The cat has survived over the long term with minimal complications.

  19. Human Placenta Extract Therapy for Feline Hepatic Lipidosis

    OpenAIRE

    2018-01-01

    Feline hepatic lipidosis (HL), the most common hepatobiliary disease in cats, is characterized by the accumulation of excessive triglycerides (TGs) in more than 80% of hepatocytes. Forced oral feeding is recommended as the only therapy for this disease but the prognosis is often poor. As human placenta extract (Laennec) has been used to improve hepatic metabolism, we investigated the efficacy of this drug for the treatment of cats with HL. Ten cats diagnosed with HL in this study were treated...

  20. Alterations in adipokines in feline hepatic lipidosis.

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    Mazaki-Tovi, M; Abood, S K; Segev, G; Schenck, P A

    2013-01-01

    Feline hepatic lipidosis (HL) is associated with alterations in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. The adipokines, adiponectin, and leptin have lipid-lowering and insulin-sensitizing effects. Serum concentrations of adiponectin and leptin are altered in feline HL. Client-owned cats: 55 healthy and 45 with liver disease. Cats with liver disease were categorized as having HL (n = 20), HL and concurrent disease (n = 19), or other liver disease (n = 6), based on clinical signs, laboratory findings, abdominal ultrasound examination as well as liver cytopathology, histopathology, or both. Serum samples were collected and body condition score determined. Mean serum concentrations of adiponectin were higher in overweight cats with HL (4.5 μg/mL), HL and concurrent disease (4.4 μg/mL), or other liver disease (6.1 μg/mL), as compared with healthy cats (1.5 μg/mL; P < .001, P < .001, and P = .04, respectively). Mean serum concentration of leptin was higher in cats with HL (9.8 ng/mL) or HL and concurrent disease (10.7 ng/mL) than healthy cats (4.9 ng/mL, P < .001 and P < .001, respectively). Cats with other liver disease had leptin concentration (4.9 ng/mL) similar to healthy cats. Concentrations of adiponectin were correlated with alanine aminotransferase activity (r = 0.40, P = .0069), and concentrations of leptin were correlated with alkaline phosphatase activity (r = 0.42, P = .0051) in cats with liver disease. Adipokine concentrations are altered in feline HL. Increased concentrations of adiponectin are related to liver disease, whereas increased concentrations of leptin are specifically related to HL. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  1. Hepatic lipidosis in pregnant captive American bison (Bison bison).

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    Palmer, Mitchell V; Olsen, Steve C

    2002-11-01

    Hepatic lipidosis, a hallmark lesion of lipid mobilization disorders in ruminants, was noted in four 3-year-old, pregnant bison (Bison bison) after periods of anorexia that progressed to recumbency and death. The affected bison were part of a herd at the National Animal Disease Center (NADC) that was used for brucellosis vaccine research. Microscopically, the liver contained swollen hepatocytes with numerous, variably sized, round, smoothly contoured vacuoles that displaced cytoplasmic structures. Hepatocytes in all zones of the lobule were affected equally. Hypoglycemia, decreased total carbon dioxide, elevated gamma-glutamyltransferase, elevated alkaline phosphatase, and increased nonesterified fatty acid levels were noted. As in the case of cattle, altered nutritional demands of late gestation combined with management factors such as obesity, nutrition, stress, and concomitant disease may be critical in the pathophysiology of lipid mobilization disorders in bison. Additionally, stressors unique to this research herd likely contributed to fatal hepatic lipidosis.

  2. Hepatic lipidosis associated with cobalt deficiency in Omani goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E H; Muirhead, D E; Annamalai, K; King, G J; Al-Busaidy, R; Hameed, M S

    1999-06-01

    Livers from 36 of 684 (5.3%) apparently healthy goats examined at an abattoir in the greater Muscat area of Oman exhibited gross pathological findings characterized by extremely pale, friable, fatty livers encompassing the entire organ. Histopathologically, diffuse hepatic lipidosis and occasional bile duct proliferation were observed. Periodic acid Schiff-positive, diastase-resistant pigment was observed in the macrophages lining the sinusoids. These histopathological lesions were consistent with those characteristic of ovine white liver disease. Cobalt analysis revealed that normal livers had six times more cobalt and a 3-fold less fat content than those measured in the fatty livers. This is the first report of an association between cobalt deficiency and hepatic lipidosis in Omani goats.

  3. Metabolomic biomarkers correlating with hepatic lipidosis in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Imhasly, Sandro; Naegeli, Hanspeter; Baumann, Sven; von Bergen, Martin; Luch, Andreas; Jungnickel, Harald; Potratz, Sarah; Gerspach, Christian

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatic lipidosis or fatty liver disease is a major metabolic disorder of high-producing dairy cows that compromises animal performance and, hence, causes heavy economic losses worldwide. This syndrome, occurring during the critical transition from gestation to early lactation, leads to an impaired health status, decreased milk yield, reduced fertility and shortened lifetime. Because the prevailing clinical chemistry parameters indicate advanced liver damage independently of the u...

  4. Hepatic lipidosis in pregnant cows on a dairy farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentink, G H; van Dijk, S; Goedegebuure, S A; Vos, J; Wensing, T

    1992-12-01

    A syndrome very similar to hepatic lipidosis is described in dairy cows during the dry period. After being sent to pasture the animals did not eat well for undetermined reasons. The disease phenomena were mainly observed in animals carrying twins. At post mortem examination severe falty infiltration was found in the 3 animals made available for post mortem examination. Increase of the energy supply to the dry cows by addition of maize silage to the ration prevented new cases.

  5. Hepatic lipidosis in a black-headed python (Aspidites melanocephalus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Mark

    2006-09-01

    The number of people keeping reptiles in captivity has markedly increased, and widespread inappropriate husbandry will result in an increasing incidence of the diagnosis of hepatic lipidosis(HL). It may become apparent that some species of snake have predisposition to develop HL. In the specific instance of the genus Aspidites, alterations to the usual husbandry that limit feeding and thereby body weight should markedly lessen the chance of the animal's developing HL. It is important for clinicians to develop a more aggressive approach to these cases and to build a bank of data with which to promote understanding of this common malady.

  6. Dietary menhaden oil contributes to hepatic lipidosis in laying hens.

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    Van Elswyk, M E; Hargis, B M; Williams, J D; Hargis, P S

    1994-05-01

    Clinical and epidemiological investigations have indicated that there may be substantial human cardiovascular benefits associated with increased consumption of n-3 fatty acids commonly found in fish oils. Recent studies have indicated that egg yolk n-3 fatty acid content is significantly increased when hens are fed diets enriched with selected fish oils such as menhaden oil (MO). In the present study, reproductively active females but not males exhibited increased hepatic lipidosis following 6 mo of feeding 3% MO. Hens fed 3% animal-vegetable oil (AV) did not exhibit hepatic lipid accumulation. Serum triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations were reduced (P < or = .05) in hens fed MO. Subsequently, yolk and total egg weights of hens fed MO were decreased as compared with those of hens fed AV. A significant interaction of dietary MO and exogenous 17 beta-estradiol was noted among chick liver and gallbladder weights. These data suggest that dietary MO and estradiol may interact in a manner that enhances the lipogenic activity of the liver, thereby inducing hepatic lipidosis in laying hens.

  7. Coagulation Tests and Selected Biochemical Analytes in Dairy Cows with Hepatic Lipidosis

    OpenAIRE

    S. Padilla-Arellanes; F. Constantino-Casas; L. Núnez-Ochoa; J. Doubek; C. Vega-Murguia; J. Bouda

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the values and changes in conventional and optimised clotting tests, as well as in selected biochemical analytes during hepatic lipidosis in postpartum dairy cows. Ten healthy and ten Holstein cows with hepatic lipidosis were selected based upon clinical history, clinical examination, liver biopsy, flotation test and histological analysis of hepatic tissue. Prothrombin time (PT) and partial thromboplastin time (PTT) were determined in non-diluted and dil...

  8. Reduced lymphoid response to skin allotransplants in cows with hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentink, G H; van den Ingh, T S; Rutten, V P; Müller, K E; Wensing, T

    1999-04-01

    The immune responsiveness of cows with hepatic lipidosis (fatty liver) in comparison to control cows with a normal liver fat content was tested by applying skin allotransplants to the skin of the back of cows on day 3 after parturition. Immunoreactivity was determined by semiquantitative counting of the number of infiltrating lymphocytes in the recipient skin adjacent to the allotransplants during a period of 21 days. There were more invading lymphocytes in samples from control cows than there were in samples from cows with hepatic lipidosis. It was concluded that cows with hepatic lipidosis have a reduced lymphoid response to skin allotransplants.

  9. Caprine hepatic lipidosis induced through the intake of low levels of dietary cobalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eugene H; Al-Habsi, Khalid; Kaplan, Evelyn; Srikandakumar, Anandarajah; Kadim, Isam T; Annamalai, Kanthi; Al-Busaidy, Rashid; Mahgoub, Osman

    2004-09-01

    Forty-one, 10-week-old newly weaned goats were randomly allocated into two groups, namely control (n=22) and treated (n=19). Kids in both groups were fed Rhodegrass hay ad libitum that contained hepatic lipidosis associated with low liver levels of cobalt. Only one (5.3%) of the treated goats developed hepatic lipidosis. Contrary to previous reports that suggested that goats are less sensitive to low levels of dietary cobalt than sheep, it is apparent that this is not the case with Omani goats. This is the first report of the induction of hepatic lipidosis in goats due to feeding low levels of cobalt in their diet.

  10. Accuracy of ultrasonography in the detection of severe hepatic lipidosis in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, A E; Mohammed, H

    1992-04-01

    The accuracy of ultrasonography in detection of feline hepatic lipidosis was studied retrospectively. The following ultrasonographic criteria were associated positively with severe hepatic lipidosis: the liver hyperechoic, compared with falciform fat; the liver isoechoic or hyperechoic, compared with omental fat; poor visualization of intrahepatic vessel borders; and increased attenuation of sound by the liver. In a group of 36 cats with clinically apparent hepatobiliary disease and in which liver biopsy was done, liver hyperechoic, compared with falciform fat, was the best criterion for diagnosis of severe hepatic lipidosis with 91% sensitivity, 100% specificity, and 100% positive predictive value.

  11. Nutritional support for treatment of hepatic lipidosis in a llama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Saun, R J; Callihan, B R; Tornquist, S J

    2000-11-15

    A 3-year-old female llama that was 3 months into her first lactation and 10 weeks pregnant was evaluated for anorexia of 24 hours' duration. On physical examination, the llama was in lateral recumbency, bradycardic, tachypneic, and hyperthermic. Palpation per rectum confirmed the presence of a possible dry fecal mass in the spiral colon. A tissue biopsy specimen of the liver was obtained, and histologic examination revealed moderate diffuse lipid accumulation within the hepatocytes. Lactated Ringer's solution was administered for rehydration, and partial parenteral nutrition was then initiated. Hepatic lipidosis is a disease characterized by abnormal accumulation of lipid in the liver and is associated with high mortality in camelids. Anorexia associated with hepatic lipidosis promotes further lipid mobilization and fatty infiltration of the liver. Partial parenteral nutrition with enteral supplementation may be used to maintain adequate energy intake and minimize further lipid mobilization. The distinctive metabolism of camelids may require higher amino acid supplementation relative to nonprotein calories in parenteral solutions than those traditionally provided to other species. Treatment with insulin may be effective

  12. Coagulation Tests and Selected Biochemical Analytes in Dairy Cows with Hepatic Lipidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Padilla-Arellanes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the values and changes in conventional and optimised clotting tests, as well as in selected biochemical analytes during hepatic lipidosis in postpartum dairy cows. Ten healthy and ten Holstein cows with hepatic lipidosis were selected based upon clinical history, clinical examination, liver biopsy, flotation test and histological analysis of hepatic tissue. Prothrombin time (PT and partial thromboplastin time (PTT were determined in non-diluted and diluted blood plasma samples. Clotting times determined in diluted plasma samples were prolonged in cows with hepatic lipidosis and there was a difference in the PT value at both 50% and 25% plasma dilutions between both groups of animals (P = 0.004 and P = 0.001. Significant differences between healthy animals and cows with hepatic lipidosis were observed in blood serum values for free fatty acids (FFA, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and triacyglycerols (P = 0.001, P = 0.007 and P = 0.044, respectively. FFA and liver biopsy are better diagnostic indicators for hepatic lipidosis than coagulation tests. The optimised PT is prolonged in cows with hepatic lipidosis and can detect this alteration that cannot be appreciated using conventional PT test.

  13. Serum free amino acid concentration in hepatic lipidosis of dairy cows in the periparturient period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibano, Ken-ichi; Kawamura, Seiichi

    2006-04-01

    Blood samples were taken from eight multiparous cows at a dairy farm on eight occasions between the prepartum period and peak lactation to study the serum concentrations of amino acids and biochemical constituents. The cows were classified as having either severe hepatic lipidosis (HL) or non-hepatic lipidosis (non-HL) according to their clinical condition after calving and changes in serum biochemical parameters. The serum concentrations of beta-hydroxybutyric acid were higher in the HL group than in the non-HL group (ANOVA: phepatic lipidosis.

  14. Fine-needle aspirate cytology suggesting hepatic lipidosis in four cats with infiltrative hepatic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, M D; Weeks, B R; Johnson, M

    1999-12-01

    Four cats are reported in which cytology smears obtained by ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration of the liver were interpreted as indicative of hepatic lipidosis. However, histopathology of hepatic tissue samples obtained with Tru-Cut-like needles or wedge biopsy revealed that the cats had inflammatory or neoplastic hepatic disease causing their clinical signs. Fine needle aspiration and cytology may not detect infiltrative lesions, particularly those that are nodular, multifocal, or localised around the portal regions. Fine needle aspirate cytology is a useful diagnostic procedure with many advantages, but care must be taken to avoid diagnosing hepatic lipidosis as the cause of illness when an infiltrative lesion is responsible. Copyright 1999 European Society of Feline Medicine.

  15. Refeeding syndrome in a cat with hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Karen; KuKanich, Kate S; Smee, Nicole M

    2011-08-01

    Refeeding syndrome is characterized by severe hypophosphatemia occurring in patients given enteral or parenteral nutrition after severe weight loss. There are few veterinary reports that describe this syndrome but it is well documented in human medicine. This report describes a case of a domestic shorthair cat diagnosed with hepatic lipidosis following a 4-week history of decreased appetite and weight loss and in whom refeeding syndrome was documented after initiation of enteral nutrition. Clinical findings, blood work abnormalities and disease progression in this patient are described from the time of diagnosis through to recovery. A review of the current literature pertinent to this clinical syndrome is included. Copyright © 2011 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. USE OF COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY FOR INVESTIGATION OF HEPATIC LIPIDOSIS IN CAPTIVE CHELONOIDIS CARBONARIA (SPIX, 1824).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, Adriano; da Silva, Ieverton Cleiton Correia; de Albuquerque Bonelli, Marília; de Albuquerque Zanotti, Luciana Carla Rameh; Siqueira, Daniel B; Zanotti, Alexandre Pinheiro; Costa, Fabiano Séllos

    2015-06-01

    Computed tomography is a sensitive and highly applicable technique for determining the degree of radiographic attenuation of the hepatic parenchyma. Radiodensity measurements of the liver can help in the diagnosis of hepatic lipidosis in humans and animals. The objective was to investigate the presence of hepatic lipidosis in captive red-footed tortoises (Chelonoidis carbonaria) using computed tomography. Computed tomography was performed in 10 male red-footed tortoises. Mean radiographic attenuation values for the hepatic parenchyma were 11.2±3.0 Hounsfield units (HU). Seven red-footed tortoises had values lower than 20 HU, which is compatible with C. carbonaria hepatic lipidosis. These results allowed an early diagnosis of the hepatic changes and suggested corrective measures regarding feeding and management protocols.

  17. Serum bile acid concentrations in dairy cattle with hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garry, F B; Fettman, M J; Curtis, C R; Smith, J A

    1994-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate serum bile acid measurements as indicatory, of liver function and/or hepatic fat infiltration in dairy cattle. Serum bile acid concentrations were measured in healthy dairy cattle at different stages of lactation after fasting or feeding. Bile acid concentrations were compared with liver fat content and sulfobromophthalein (BSP) half-life (T 1/2). Serum bile acid concentrations were higher in cows in early lactation and with higher daily milk production. Compared with prefasting values, bile acid concentrations were decreased at 8, 14, and 24 hours of fasting. Blood samples from fed cows at 1- to 2-hour intervals had wide and inconsistent variations in bile acid concentration. Because serum bile acids correlated well with BSP T 1/2, it is suggested that both measurements evaluate a similar aspect of liver function. Neither bile acids nor BSP T 1/2 correlated with differences in liver fat content among cows. Because of large variability in serum bile acid concentrations in fed cows and the lack of correlation of measured values with liver fat content, bile acid determinations do not appear useful for showing changes in hepatic function in fed cows with subclinical hepatic lipidosis nor serve as a screening test for this condition.

  18. Spontaneous occurrence of hepatic lipidosis in a group of laboratory cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biourge, V; Pion, P; Lewis, J; Morris, J G; Rogers, Q R

    1993-01-01

    Clinical signs consistent with hepatic lipidosis occurred in six obese adult laboratory cats, housed in a group cage, 6 to 7 weeks after changing their diet from a commercial to a purified diet. The affected cats lost 30 to 40% of their body weight in this time period. This rate of weight loss is compatible with little or no food intake. For treatment, 5 cats were tube-fed three or four times daily with a high-fat liquid diet supplemented with L-citrulline and choline. All cats tolerated the diet, which contained 35% protein on an energy basis. Substantial voluntary food intake resumed 12 to 16 days after initiating treatment. The sixth cat was euthanatized. These observations suggest that 6 to 7 weeks of anorexia, associated with 30 to 40% weight loss, can induce hepatic lipidosis in obese but otherwise healthy cats, and confirm that with appropriate management the prognosis for cats with hepatic lipidosis is favorable.

  19. Hepatic lipidosis: Clinical review drawn from collective effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Craig B

    2018-03-01

    Practical relevance: Hepatic lipidosis (HL) is the most common form of liver dysfunction in cats. If recognized early and treated appropriately, the prognosis is good; if not, the prognosis is grave. Clinical challenges: Distinguishing HL as idiopathic or secondary is critical since the presence of a concurrent disease affects the therapeutic plan and the prognosis. Despite the unique and severe nature of a cat's response to anorexia and the complexity of the metabolic changes underlying this condition, the clinical acumen and technical ability to effectively diagnose and treat HL are readily available to all small animal practitioners. Patient group: Although many species develop a 'fatty liver', the cat is one of relatively few species that suffer from HL. The classic presentation is that of an overweight cat that stops eating for days to weeks, losing weight in the process. Equipment: Abdominal ultrasound is frequently employed in the diagnostic work-up of an anorectic cat; ultrasonographic findings often support a presumptive diagnosis, provide samples for cytology and, perhaps most importantly, help identify concurrent conditions that must be addressed for therapeutic success. All of the equipment necessary for essential nutritional intervention in an anorectic cat is readily available and easily affordable. Evidence base: The material for this review draws heavily on a relatively large number of original studies, excellent reviews by recognized experts, and informative communication with experienced clinicians, hence the term 'collective effort'.

  20. Ultrasonographic evaluation to diagnose hepatic lipidosis in Egyptian Zaraibi goats with vitamin B12 deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabry A. El-Khodery

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As little is known about the ultrasonographic features of hepatic lipidosis (white liver disease in goats, this study was undertaken to evaluate the use of ultrasound for the diagnosis of hepatic lipidosis associated with vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin deficiency in Egyptian Zaraibi goats. A total of 38 goats (28 with weight loss, diarrhoea and anaemia and 10 clinically healthy were studied. Twenty-one goats were demonstrated to have cobalt and cyanocobalamin deficiency (0.33 ± 0.12 μmol/l and 0.17 ± 0.10 μg/l, respectively. Goats were examined with a real-time ultrasound system using a 5-MHz convex transducer. Ultrasound-guided liver biopsies and blood samples were obtained from each animal at examination. Based on the histopathological findings, diseased goats were classified as having mild (n = 6, moderate (n = 6 or severe lipidosis (n = 9. Ultrasonographic-hepatic changes were recorded in 19 (90.4% out of 21 goats. Severe lipidosis showed diffuse hyper-echogenicity of hepatic parenchyma. However, focal hyper-echoic lesions with various shapes, sizes and positions were visualized in mild and moderate lipidosis. Liver size increased significantly (P < 0.05 in severely affected goats compared with the controls. Histopathologically, macrovacuolations, congestion of hepatic sinusoids and infiltration of the portal area with inflammatory cells and connective tissues were evident in moderate and severely affected cases. There were varying degrees of anaemia, hypoglycemia and hypoproteinemia with significant increases (P < 0.05 of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP in diseased animals compared with the controls. In conclusion, ultrasound may be a useful diagnostic tool in goats with suspected hepatic lipidosis associated with vitamin B12 deficiency.

  1. Ultrasonographic evaluation to diagnose hepatic lipidosis in Egyptian Zaraibi goats with vitamin B12 deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Sabry A. El-Khodery; Hussein S. Hussein; Mohamed E. El-Boshy; Medhat N. Nassif

    2011-01-01

    As little is known about the ultrasonographic features of hepatic lipidosis (white liver disease) in goats, this study was undertaken to evaluate the use of ultrasound for the diagnosis of hepatic lipidosis associated with vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) deficiency in Egyptian Zaraibi goats. A total of 38 goats (28 with weight loss, diarrhoea and anaemia and 10 clinically healthy) were studied. Twenty-one goats were demonstrated to have cobalt and cyanocobalamin deficiency (0.33 ± 0.12 μmol/l an...

  2. Betaine reduces hepatic lipidosis induced by carbon tetrachloride in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junnila, M; Barak, A J; Beckenhauer, H C; Rahko, T

    1998-10-01

    Carbon tetrachloride-injected rats were given liquid diets with and without betaine for 7 d. Hepatic lipidosis was induced by 4 daily injections of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Animals were killed and their livers and blood taken for analysis of betaine, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), betaine homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), triglyceride, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. Liver samples were also processed and stained for histological examination. Supplemental betaine reduced triglyceride in the liver and centrilobular hepatic lipidosis induced by the CCl4 injections. In both the control and experimental groups receiving betaine, liver betaine, BHMT and SAM were significantly higher than in their respective groups not receiving betaine. This study provides evidence that betaine protects the liver against CCl4-induced lipidosis and may be a useful therapeutic and prophylactic agent in ameliorating the harmful effects of CCl4.

  3. Hepatic Lipidosis in a Research Colony of Big Brown Bats (Eptesicus fuscus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jessica M; Treuting, Piper M; Brabb, Thea; Miller, Kimberly E; Covey, Ellen; Lencioni, Karen L

    2015-04-01

    During a nearby construction project, a sudden decrease in food intake and guano production occurred in an outdoor colony of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), and one animal was found dead. Investigation revealed that the project was generating a large amount of noise and vibration, which disturbed the bats' feeding. Consequently the bats were moved into an indoor enclosure away from the construction noises, and the colony resumed eating. Over the next 3 wk, additional animals presented with clinical signs of lethargy, weight loss, ecchymoses, and icterus and were necropsied. Gross necropsy of the affected bats revealed large, pale yellow to tan, friable livers with rounded edges that floated when placed in 10% neutral-buffered formalin. Some bats had ecchymoses on the webbing and skin and gross perirenal hemorrhage. Histologic examination showed hepatic and renal tubular lipidosis. The clinical and pathologic signs of hemorrhage and icterus were suggestive of hepatic failure. Hepatic lipidosis was attributed to stress and inappetence associated with environmental perturbations. Once the environmental stressor was removed, the colony morbidity and mortality decreased. However, 2 y later, a series of new environmental stressors triggered additional deaths associated with hepatic lipidosis. Over a 9-y period, 21 cases of hepatic lipidosis were diagnosed in this bat colony.

  4. Myopathy and hepatic lipidosis in weaned lambs due to vitamin E deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, Paula; Langs, Lisa; Boermans, Herman; Martin, John; McNally, John

    2004-03-01

    A sheep flock experienced losses in weaned lambs from myopathy and hepatic lipidosis. Investigation revealed painful ambulation, illthrift, and unexpected death in lambs with normal selenium levels, deficient vitamin E levels, and elevated muscle and liver enzyme levels. Vitamin E deficiency should be considered when investigating myopathy and illthrift in lambs.

  5. Myopathy and hepatic lipidosis in weaned lambs due to vitamin E deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Menzies, Paula; Langs, Lisa; Boermans, Herman; Martin, John; McNally, John

    2004-01-01

    A sheep flock experienced losses in weaned lambs from myopathy and hepatic lipidosis. Investigation revealed painful ambulation, illthrift, and unexpected death in lambs with normal selenium levels, deficient vitamin E levels, and elevated muscle and liver enzyme levels. Vitamin E deficiency should be considered when investigating myopathy and illthrift in lambs.

  6. Hepatic lipidosis in anorectic, lactating holstein cattle: a retrospective study of serum biochemical abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebra, C K; Garry, F B; Getzy, D M; Fettman, M J

    1997-01-01

    The association between hepatic lipidosis (HL) and disease in 59 anorectic, ketotic, lactating Holstein heifers and cows was investigated. Severe HL, as determined by histologic evaluation of liver tissue, was present in 46 animals; only half of these animals required intensive treatment for ketosis, and only half had serum biochemical evidence of liver disease, as determined by the presence of a last value of 2-fold or greater than the upper limit of the reference ranges for at least 2 of the 4 serum tests: gamma-glutamyl transferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and sorbitol dehydrogenase activities and bile acid concentrations. Most cattle with biochemical evidence of liver disease and severe HL had been lactating for 14 or more days. Cows that required intensive treatment inconsistently had serum biochemical evidence of liver disease. Although cattle with severe HL had significantly higher serum bilirubin concentrations and aspartate aminotransferase and sorbitol dehydrogenase activities than cattle with less severe lipidosis, the specificity of abnormally high serum sorbitol dehydrogenase activity or bilirubin concentration for severe lipidosis was only 8%. Abnormally high serum aspartate aminotransferase activity was 83% sensitive and 62% specific for severe lipidosis. Serum glucose and total carbon dioxide concentrations were significantly lower in cattle with severe lipidosis than in those with mild or moderate lipidosis, and low serum glucose or total carbon dioxide concentrations were rare in cattle without severe lipidosis. From these data, we conclude that the use of a single biochemical or histopathologic criterion to define severity of disease or degree of liver compromise in anorectic, ketotic cows results in the misidentification of many animals.

  7. Comparison of plasma, liver, and skeletal muscle carnitine concentrations in cats with idiopathic hepatic lipidosis and in healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, G; Cornelius, L; Keene, B; Rakich, P; Shug, A

    1990-09-01

    Concentrations of total, free, and esterified carnitine were determined in plasma, liver, and skeletal muscle from cats with idiopathic hepatic lipidosis and compared with values from healthy cats. The mean concentrations of plasma, liver, and skeletal muscle total carnitine; plasma and skeletal muscle free carnitine; and plasma and liver esterified carnitine were greater (P less than 0.05) in cats with idiopathic hepatic lipidosis than in control cats. The mean for the ratio of free/total carnitine in plasma and liver was lower (P less than 0.05) in cats with idiopathic hepatic lipidosis than in control cats. These data suggest that carnitine deficiency does not contribute to the pathogenesis of feline idiopathic hepatic lipidosis.

  8. A retrospective study of 77 cats with severe hepatic lipidosis: 1975-1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center, S A; Crawford, M A; Guida, L; Erb, H N; King, J

    1993-01-01

    The physical, clinicopathologic, and survival rates of 77 cats with severe spontaneous hepatic lipidosis are detailed in this report. Cats were subdivided into groups designated as idiopathic lipidosis if no other disease process was recognized, or secondary lipidosis if another disease process was diagnosed. Cats were also subdivided into groups designated as survivors or nonsurvivors on the basis of successful recuperation at 4 months after initial diagnosis. Differences between disease and survival groups were evaluated for significance. Overall, more female cats and middle-aged cats were affected. Presenting complaints of vomiting, anorexia, weakness, and weight loss were common. Physical assessment of most cats showed obvious hepatomegaly, jaundice, dehydration, and a weight loss > or = 25% of usual body weight. Neurobehavioral signs indicative of hepatic encephalopathy, other than ptyalism and depression, were rare. Clinicopathologic features are characterized by hyperbilirubinemia and increased activities of serum ALT, AST, and ALP, with only small if any increase in gamma GT activity. Clinical features distinguishing cats with hepatic lipidosis from those with other serious cholestatic disorders include absence of hyperglobulinemia and low gamma GT activity relative to ALP activity. Although coagulation tests were abnormal in 45% of cats tested (n = 44), few cats showed clinical bleeding tendencies. Most cats received prophylactic vitamin K1 therapy. Forty two cats received aggressive nutritional and supportive care and of these 55% survived. Cats with idiopathic disease were significantly younger, had significantly higher ALP activity and bilirubin concentration, and had a slightly better survival rate than cats with secondary lipidosis. Low PCV, hypokalemia, and an older age were significantly related to nonsurvival. Because of the variety of diets and food supplements used in case management, the influence of nutritional factors on survival could not be

  9. High feline trypsin-like immunoreactivity in a cat with pancreatitis and hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, J M; Steiner, J M; Williams, D A; Van Alstine, W G; Blevins, W

    1997-06-15

    A 1.5-year-old domestic shorthair cat was examined because of vomiting and icterus. Clinicopathologic abnormalities included high alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyltransferase activities and high total bilirubin concentration. During abdominal ultrasonography, the left limb and body of the pancreas appeared hypoechoic, and a small quantity of peritoneal effusion was seen. The liver was diffusely hyperechoic, with echogenicity similar to that of the spleen, indicating hepatic lipidosis. Feline trypsin-like immunoreactivity was high, suggesting that the cat also had pancreatitis. The cat was treated with crystalloid fluids and was fed a protein-restricted diet via a percutaneous endoscopically placed gastrostomy tube. The cat's condition continued to deteriorate despite medical treatment, and it was euthanatized. Necropsy confirmed the clinical suspicion of acute pancreatitis and hepatic lipidosis. This case suggests that measurement of trypsin-like immunoreactivity may be useful in cats suspected of having pancreatitis.

  10. Use of propofol for anesthesia in cats with primary hepatic lipidosis: 44 cases (1995-2004).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Lysa P; Asakawa, Makoto; Erb, Hollis N

    2008-06-15

    OBJECTIVE-To determine morbidity and fatalities in cats with hepatic lipidosis that received propofol to facilitate placement of a feeding tube. STUDY DESIGN-Retrospective case series. ANIMALS-44 Cats with presumed primary hepatic lipidosis anesthetized for placement of a feeding tube. PROCEDURES-Medical records from January 1995 through December 2004 were reviewed to identify cats that matched the inclusion criteria (histologic confirmation of hepatic lipidosis, anesthetized for placement of feeding tube, complete intensive care unit [ICU] records, and recorded outcome). Data extracted included age, body weight, sex, anesthetic drugs, drug dosages, type of feeding tube, duration of anesthesia, number of hours in ICU, administration of blood products, and survival until discharge from ICU. RESULTS-44 Cats (21 females and 23 males) were included in the analysis. Age range was 3 to 15 years (median, 8 years), and body weight ranged from 1.8 to 9.0 kg (4.0 to 19.8 lb), with a median of 4.8 kg (10.6 lb). Twenty-seven cats were administered propofol. There was no significant association between the use of propofol or the dosage of propofol and any risk factor, need for blood products, number of hours in the ICU, or survival. There was no significant difference between cats that received propofol and cats that did not receive propofol with regard to interval until discharge from the ICU. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE-The use of propofol did not increase morbidity or fatalities in cats with primary hepatic lipidosis. Thus, propofol can be used in these cats for placement of a feeding tube.

  11. Influence of body condition on incidence and degree of hepatic lipidosis in cows

    OpenAIRE

    Šamanc Horea; Stojić Velibor; Kirovski Danijela; Jovanović Milijan; Cernescu Horia; Vujanac Ivan; Prodanović Radiša

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of energy status of cows, estimated by body condition score, on the incidence and the degree of hepatic lipidosis during the early stage of lactation. Cows were divided into four groups: dry, early puerperal, early lactation and late lactation period. Each group consisted of 60 cows. Body condition was scored by the method established in Elaco Animal Health Buletin Al 8478. According to this method, body condition score is represented num...

  12. Influence of body condition on incidence and degree of hepatic lipidosis in cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šamanc Horea

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of energy status of cows, estimated by body condition score, on the incidence and the degree of hepatic lipidosis during the early stage of lactation. Cows were divided into four groups: dry, early puerperal, early lactation and late lactation period. Each group consisted of 60 cows. Body condition was scored by the method established in Elaco Animal Health Buletin Al 8478. According to this method, body condition score is represented numerically from 1 to 5 points. Liver samples for pathohistological analyses were taken by biopsy from early lactation cows (60. day of lactation. Fat content in hepatocytes was determined morphometrically and results were compared with criteria based on total lipid and triglyceride content in liver tissue. On farm A, average body condition scores were in a range from 3.31, at sixty days of lactation, to 3.86 points in the dry period. Nevertheless, the range was wider on farm B, and was from 2.18 points at sixty days of lactation to 4.15 points at the dry period. Besides, differences in average body condition scores were higher than 1 point, and in some cases (between late lactation or dry period to sixty days of lactation were almost 2 points. The incidence and the degree of hepatic lipidosis strongly differ between the two examined farms. On farm A the incidence of hepatic lipidosis was 18.33 percent, while on farm B that percent was much higher (43.32. A significant difference was established in the degree of hepatic lipidosis between those two farms. On farm A diffuse hepatic lipidosis was determined in 5.0 percent of cows, while on farm B that percent was 18.33. According to these results, most of the cows on farm B had uncontrolled lipomobilisation and severe fatty liver during the early lactation period, probably due to the obesity of these cows in late lactation and the dry period.

  13. Sex specific differences in hepatic and plasma lipid profiles in healthy cats pre and post spaying and neutering: relationship with feline hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtolina, Chiara; Vaandrager, Arie B; Favier, Robert P; Tuohetahuntila, Maidina; Kummeling, Anne; Jeusette, Isabelle; Rothuizen, Jan; Robben, Joris H

    2017-08-08

    A link between lipid metabolism and disease has been recognized in cats. Since hepatic lipidosis is a frequent disorder in cats, the aim of the current study was to evaluate liver and plasma lipid dimorphism in healthy cats and the effects of gonadectomy on lipid profiling. From six female and six male cats plasma and liver lipid profiles before and after spaying/neutering were assessed and compared to five cats (three neutered male and two spayed female) diagnosed with hepatic lipidosis. Intact female cats had a significantly lower level of plasma triacylglycerides (TAG) and a higher liver level of the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid arachidonic acid (AA) compared to their neutered state. Both male and female cats with lipidosis had a higher liver, but not plasma TAG level and an increased level of plasma and liver sphingomyelin compared to the healthy cats. Although lipid dimorphism in healthy cats resembles that of other species, intact female cats show differences in metabolic configuration that could predispose them to develop hepatic lipidosis. The increased sphingomyelin levels in cats with lipidosis could suggest a potential role in the pathogenesis of hepatic lipidosis in cats.

  14. Immunohistochemical characterisation of the hepatic stem cell niche in feline hepatic lipidosis: a preliminary morphological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtolina, Chiara; Robben, Joris H; Favier, Robert P; Rothuizen, Jan; Grinwis, Guy Cm; Schotanus, Baukje A; Penning, Louis C

    2018-05-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to describe the cellular and stromal components of the hepatic progenitor cell niche in feline hepatic lipidosis (FHL). Methods Immunohistochemical staining for the progenitor/bile duct marker (K19), activated Kupffer cells (MAC387), myofibroblasts (alpha-smooth muscle actin [α-SMA]) and the extracellular matrix component laminin were used on seven liver biopsies of cats with FHL and three healthy cats. Double immunofluorescence stainings were performed to investigate co-localisation of different cell types in the hepatic progenitor cell (HPC) niche. Results HPCs, Kupffer cells, myofibroblasts and laminin deposition were observed in the liver samples of FHL, although with variability in the expression and positivity of the different immunostainings between different samples. When compared with the unaffected cats where K19 positivity and minimal α-SMA and laminin positivity were seen mainly in the portal area, in the majority of FHL samples K19 and α-SMA-positive cells and laminin positivity were seen also in the periportal and parenchymatous area. MAC387-positive cells were present throughout the parenchyma. Conclusions and relevance This is a preliminary morphological study to describe the activation and co-localisation of components of the HPC niche in FHL. Although the HPC niche in FHL resembles that described in hepatopathies in dogs and in feline lymphocytic cholangitis, the expression of K19, α-SMA, MAC387 and lamin is more variable in FHL, and a common pattern of activation could not be established. Nevertheless, when HPCs were activated, a spatial association between HPCs and their niche could be demonstrated.

  15. Lysine Acetylation of CREBH Regulates Fasting-Induced Hepatic Lipid Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunbae; Mendez, Roberto; Chen, Xuequn; Fang, Deyu

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 3-like 3, hepatocyte specific (CREBH), is a hepatic transcription factor that functions as a key regulator of energy homeostasis. Here, we defined a regulatory CREBH posttranslational modification process, namely, lysine-specific acetylation, and its functional involvement in fasting-induced hepatic lipid metabolism. Fasting induces CREBH acetylation in mouse livers in a time-dependent manner, and this event is critical for CREBH transcriptional activity in regulating hepatic lipid homeostasis. The histone acetyltransferase PCAF-mediated acetylation and the deacetylase sirtuin-1-mediated deacetylation coexist to maintain CREBH acetylation states under fasting conditions. Site-directed mutagenesis and functional analyses revealed that the lysine (K) residue at position 294 (K294) within the bZIP domain of the CREBH protein is the site where fasting-induced acetylation/deacetylation occurs. Introduction of the acetylation-deficient (K294R) or acetylation-mimicking (K294Q) mutation inhibited or enhanced CREBH transcriptional activity, respectively. Importantly, CREBH acetylation at lysine 294 was required for the interaction and synergy between CREBH and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) in activating their target genes upon fasting or glucagon stimulation. Introduction of the CREBH lysine 294 mutation in the liver leads to hepatic steatosis and hyperlipidemia in animals under prolonged fasting. In summary, our study reveals a molecular mechanism by which fasting or glucagon stimulation modulates lipid homeostasis through acetylation of CREBH. PMID:26438600

  16. Fat content, fatty acid pattern and iron content in livers of turkeys with hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visscher, Christian; Middendorf, Lea; Günther, Ronald; Engels, Alexandra; Leibfacher, Christof; Möhle, Henrik; Düngelhoef, Kristian; Weier, Stefan; Haider, Wolfram; Radko, Dimitri

    2017-05-30

    The so-called "hepatic lipidosis" in turkeys is an acute progressive disease associated with a high mortality rate in a very short time. Dead animals show a massive fatty degeneration of the liver. The cause is still unclear. Previous findings suggest that there may be parallels to human non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The object of the study was to examine the changes in the fat contents, the fatty acid composition and the iron content in livers of animals, which have died from hepatic lipidosis. The conspicuous livers (n = 85) were collected from 20 flocks where the phenomenon of massive increased animal losses accompanied by marked macroscopically visible pathological liver steatosis suddenly occurred. For comparison and as a reference, livers (n = 16) of two healthy flocks were taken. Healthy and diseased flocks were fed identical diets concerning official nutrient recommendations and were operating under standardized, comparable conventional conditions. Compared to livers of healthy animals, in the livers of turkeys died from hepatic lipidosis there were found massively increased fat levels (130 ± 33.2 vs. 324 ± 101 g/kg dry matter-DM). In all fatty livers, different fatty acids concentrations were present in significantly increased concentrations compared to controls (palmitic acid: 104 g/kg DM, +345%; palmitoleic acid: 18.0 g/kg DM, + 570%; oleic acid: 115 g/kg DM, +437%). Fatty acids concentrations relevant for liver metabolism and inflammation were significantly reduced (arachidonic acid: 2.92 g/kg DM, -66.6%; eicosapentaenoic acid: 0.141 g/kg DM, -78.3%; docosahexaenoic acid: 0.227 g/kg DM, -90.4%). The ratio of certain fatty acids to one another between control and case livers changed analogously to liver diseases in humans (e.g.: C18:0/C16:0 - 0.913 against 0.311; C16:1n7/C16:0 - 0.090 against 0.165; C18:1/C18:0 - 0.938 against 4.03). The iron content in the liver tissue also increased massively (271 ± 51.5 vs 712 ± 214 mg/kg DM). The hepatic

  17. Fat content, fatty acid pattern and iron content in livers of turkeys with hepatic lipidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Visscher, Christian; Middendorf, Lea; G?nther, Ronald; Engels, Alexandra; Leibfacher, Christof; M?hle, Henrik; D?ngelhoef, Kristian; Weier, Stefan; Haider, Wolfram; Radko, Dimitri

    2017-01-01

    Background The so-called ?hepatic lipidosis? in turkeys is an acute progressive disease associated with a high mortality rate in a very short time. Dead animals show a massive fatty degeneration of the liver. The cause is still unclear. Previous findings suggest that there may be parallels to human non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The object of the study was to examine the changes in the fat contents, the fatty acid composition and the iron content in livers of animals, which have died from...

  18. Hyperlipidemia, hyperlipemia, and hepatic lipidosis in American miniature horses: 23 cases (1990-1994).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogg, T D; Palmer, J E

    1995-09-01

    The medical records of 23 American Miniature Horses with hyperlipidemia, hyperlipemia, or hepatic lipidosis were reviewed. The most common clinical signs were anorexia and lethargy. The mean duration of clinical signs was 2.4 days. A primary disease was identified in 19 cases. Enterocolitis was the most common primary disease (n = 10). Intentional feed restriction, as part of treatment for colic, resulted in hyperlipemia in 2 horses and hyperlipidemia in 1. Four horses had primary hyperlipemia, 3 of which had signs of hepatoencephalopathy secondary to hepatic lipidosis. Dextrose, heparin, and insulin were the most common treatments. The overall survival was 61% (14/23). All horses with peak serum triglyceride concentrations > 1,200 mg/dl died or were euthanatized, whereas all but 1 with peak serum triglyceride concentrations < 1,200 mg/dl survived. These findings suggest that when American Miniature Horses, like other ponies and donkeys, are in a negative energy balance, they can rapidly develop hyperlipidemia or hyperlipemia. Early detection and treatment may improve survival.

  19. Urinary orotic acid-to-creatinine ratios in cats with hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanSteenhouse, J L; Dimski, D S; Swenson, D H; Taboada, J

    1999-06-01

    To determine urinary orotic acid (OA) concentration and evaluate the urinary OA-to-creatinine ratio (OACR) in cats with hepatic lipidosis (HL). 20 cats with HL and 20 clinically normal cats. Hepatic lipidosis was diagnosed on the basis of clinical signs, results of serum biochemical analyses, exclusion of other concurrent illness, and cytologic or histologic evaluation of liver biopsy specimens. Urine samples were collected from each cat and frozen at -20 C until assayed. Urine creatinine concentrations were determined, using an alkaline picrate method followed by spectrophotometric assay. Urine OA concentration was determined, using high-performance liquid chromatography. Minimum amount of detectable OA in feline urine was 1 microg/ml. Because of small interfering peaks near the base of the OA peak, the minimum quantifiable concentration of OA was determined to be 5 microg/ml. Urinary OACR was compared in both groups of cats. Differences in urinary OACR were not detected between clinically normal cats and cats with HL. Peaks were not detected for urinary OA in any of the 20 clinically normal cats. Of the 20 HL cats, 14 did not have detectable peaks for urinary OA. Of the 6 HL cats that had detectable urinary OA peaks, 3 had values of <5 microg/ml. Apparently, OACR does not increase significantly in cats with HL. Urinary OACR is not a useful diagnostic test for HL in cats.

  20. Lipid composition of hepatic and adipose tissues from normal cats and from cats with idiopathic hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J A; Barstad, L A; Connor, W E

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the lipid classes in hepatic and adipose tissues from cats with idiopathic hepatic lipidosis (IHL). Concentrations of triglyceride, phospholipid phosphorus, and free and total cholesterol were determined in lipid extracts of liver homogenates from 5 cats with IHL and 5 healthy control cats. Total fatty acid composition of liver and adipose tissue was also compared. Triglyceride accounted for 34% of liver by weight in cats with IHL (338 +/- 38 mg/g wet liver) versus 1% in control cats (9.9 +/- 1.0 mg/g wet liver, P hepatic tissue in the 2 groups differed; palmitate was higher (19.5 +/- 1.1% of total fatty acids in cats with IHL versus 9.2 +/- 2.7% in controls, P hepatic triglyceride in cats with IHL is the mobilization of fatty acids from adipose tissue.

  1. Skin fragility syndrome in a cat with cholangiohepatitis and hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Alexandre G T; Lucas, Sílvia R R; Júnior, Archivaldo R; Monteiro, Paula R G; Ramos, Daniela; Pires, Carolina G; Sinhorini, Idércio L

    2010-02-01

    A case of acquired skin fragility syndrome associated with hepatic disease in a 9-year-old, spayed female, domestic shorthair cat is described. The cat was admitted to the veterinary hospital of the University of São Paulo (Brazil) with a 6-week history of vomiting, inappetence and weight loss. Remarkable signs were weakness, lethargy and profound jaundice that had been present for 10 days according to the owner. On completion of the physical examination, when the cat was gently manipulated for blood collection the thoracic limb and interscapular skin tore. Liver enzymes and bilirubin levels were all above the normal range. On histological examination of skin and liver, Masson's trichrome stain showed collagen fibre alteration and major hepatocyte abnormalities. Findings were consistent with feline skin fragility syndrome associated with cholangiohepatitis and hepatic lipidosis. Copyright 2009 ESFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Treatment of idiopathic hepatic lipidosis in cats: 11 cases (1986-1987).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, G; Cornelius, L; Allen, S; Greene, C

    1989-09-01

    Idiopathic hepatic lipidosis was diagnosed in 11 cats. Cats were treated by delivery of balanced nutrients supplemented with L-carnitine via a surgically placed gastrostomy tube. Feeding through the gastrostomy tube was initiated in the hospital and was continued at home in all cats. The mean duration of gastrostomy tube feeding was 48 days (range, 22 to 98 days). Vomiting associated with feeding (3 cats) and localized cellulitis at the gastrostomy site (2 cats) were the most frequent complications. Vomiting was controlled by reducing the volume of food administered at each feeding or by administration of metoclopramide. Cellulitis was treated successfully by parenteral administration of antibiotics and local wound cleansing. Seven of 11 cats (65%) survived and have remained clinically healthy for 15 to 29 months (mean, 20 months) since diagnosis. The other 4 cats died of peritonitis (n = 1), pneumonia (n = 1), hepatic encephalopathy (n = 1), or cardiopulmonary arrest (n = 1) between 0 and 10 days after surgery.

  3. Clinical application of computed tomography for the diagnosis of feline hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Momoko; Chen, Hui-Min; Momoi, Yasuyuki; Iwasaki, Toshiroh

    2005-11-01

    The usefulness of computed tomography (CT) for the diagnosis of feline hepatic lipidosis (FHL) was evaluated. Liver CT number was 54.7+/-5.6 HU (mean+/-SD) in 26 healthy cats. We fast 6 healthy cats for 72 hr to induced FHL experimentally and the cats were assessed by CT and serum biochemical analysis. Liver CT number of the six cats was 53.8+/-3.0 HU before fasting, 46.8+/-2.4 HU after fasting, and 50.2+/-3.6 HU two weeks after restarted feeding. The decreased CT number was associated with the elevation of serum non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and beta-hydroxybutyrate levels. These results indicate that measurement of CT number of the liver is an effective procedure for the diagnosis of FHL.

  4. Sex specific differences in hepatic and plasma lipid profiles in healthy cats pre and post spaying and neutering : relationship with feline hepatic lipidosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valtolina, Chiara|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412503034; Vaandrager, Arie B|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073165506; Favier, Robert P|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304828742; Tuohetahuntila, Maidina; Kummeling, Anne|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304828793; Jeusette, Isabelle; Rothuizen, Jan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071276033; Robben, Joris H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/266740790

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A link between lipid metabolism and disease has been recognized in cats. Since hepatic lipidosis is a frequent disorder in cats, the aim of the current study was to evaluate liver and plasma lipid dimorphism in healthy cats and the effects of gonadectomy on lipid profiling. From six

  5. Polioencephalomalacia and Heart Failure Secondary to Presumptive Thiamine Deficiency, Hepatic Lipidosis, and Starvation in 2 Abandoned Siamese Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anholt, H; Himsworth, C; Britton, A

    2016-07-01

    Two 4-year-old spayed female Siamese cats were seized by the British Columbia Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals after confinement to an abandoned housing unit without food for 9 weeks. One cat was found dead, and the second was euthanized within 24 hours due to neurologic deterioration despite therapy. Polioencephalomalacia of the caudal colliculus, hepatic lipidosis, cachexia, and congestive heart failure with cardiomyocyte atrophy were identified in both cats through postmortem examination and attributed to a prolonged period of starvation. Brain lesions were likely the result of thiamine deficiency (Chastek paralysis), which can be associated with both malnutrition and liver disease. This case highlights the importance of thiamine supplementation during realimentation of cats with hepatic lipidosis. Heart failure resulting from cachexia may have contributed to the death of the first cat and the morbidity of the second cat. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Reduction of serum triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein concentrations in cows with hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdt, T H; Liesman, J S; Gerloff, B J; Emery, R S

    1983-02-01

    The hepatic and serum lipid concentrations in 49 dairy cows with displaced abomasum, 7 postpartum cows fasted for 6 days, and 14 healthy postpartum cows were studied. The cows with displaced abomasums were retrospectively allotted to 2 groups: those with greater than 15% liver fat (DAHF) and those with less than 15% liver fat (DALF). Liver total lipid concentrations were high in the DAHF group, exceeding these values in the fasted cows by 30% and in the healthy and DALF cows by 63% on the average. In contrast, the liver phospholipid concentrations were low in the DAHF group, intermediate in the fasted and DALF groups and high in the healthy group. On a group basis, an inverse relationship was observed between serum and liver lipid concentrations. The serum concentrations of both total and dextran-sulfate-precipitable (DSP) lipids were high in the fasted cows and were less in the DALF and healthy cows and in the DAHF cows (lowest). The between-group differences in serum total and serum DSP concentrations of triacylglycerol, cholesterol, and phospholipid followed the same quantitative pattern as the total lipids. However, the relative difference between groups was greater for each of the DSP lipid fractions. These results support the hypothesis that severe hepatic lipidosis in cattle occurs due to impaired hepatic lipoprotein synthesis and secretion.

  7. Sex specific differences in hepatic and plasma lipid profiles in healthy cats pre and post spaying and neutering: relationship with feline hepatic lipidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Valtolina, Chiara; Vaandrager, Arie B.; Favier, Robert P.; Tuohetahuntila, Maidina; Kummeling, Anne; Jeusette, Isabelle; Rothuizen, Jan; Robben, Joris H.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A link between lipid metabolism and disease has been recognized in cats. Since hepatic lipidosis is a frequent disorder in cats, the aim of the current study was to evaluate liver and plasma lipid dimorphism in healthy cats and the effects of gonadectomy on lipid profiling. From six female and six male cats plasma and liver lipid profiles before and after spaying/neutering were assessed and compared to five cats (three neutered male and two spayed female) diagnosed with hepatic li...

  8. X-ray attenuation of the liver and kidney in cats considered at varying risk of hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Richard; Niessen, Stijn J; Lamb, Christopher R

    2014-01-01

    X-ray attenuation of the liver has been measured using computed tomography (CT) and reported to decrease in cats with experimentally induced hepatic lipidosis. To assess the clinical utility of this technique, medical records and noncontrast CT scans of a series of cats were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 112 cats met inclusion criteria and were stratified into three hepatic lipidosis risk groups. Group 1 cats were considered low-risk based on no history of inappetence or weight loss, and normal serum chemistry values; Group 2 cats were considered intermediate risk based on weight loss, serum hepatic enzymes above normal limits, or reasonably controlled diabetes mellitus; and Group 3 cats were considered high risk based on poorly controlled diabetes mellitus due to hypersomatotropism. Mean CT attenuation values (Hounsfield units, HU) were measured using regions of interest placed within the liver and cranial pole of the right kidney. Hepatic and renal attenuation were weakly positively correlated with each other (r = 0.2, P = 0.03) and weakly negatively correlated with body weight (r = -0.21, P = 0.05, and r = -0.34, P = 0.001, respectively). Mean (SD) hepatic and renal cortical attenuation values were 70.7 (8.7) HU and 49.6 (9.2) HU for Group 1 cats, 71.4 (7.9) HU and 48.6 (9.1) HU for Group 2, and 68.9 (7.6) HU and 47.6 (7.2) HU for Group 3. There were no significant differences in hepatic or renal attenuation among groups. Findings indicated that CT measures of X-ray attenuation in the liver and kidney may not be accurate predictors of naturally occurring hepatic lipidosis in cats. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  9. Molecular evolution of adiponectin in Carnivora and its mRNA expression in relation to hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Petteri; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Kapiainen, Suvi; Harris, Lora; Mustonen, Anne-Mari

    2010-09-15

    Adiponectin is a novel adipocyte-derived hormone with low circulating concentrations and/or mRNA expression in obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The adiponectin mRNA of several Carnivora species was sequenced to enable further gene expression studies in this clade with potential experimental species to examine the connections of hypoadiponectinemia to hepatic lipidosis. In addition, adiponectin mRNA expression was studied in the retroperitoneal fat of the American mink (Neovison vison), as hepatic lipidosis with close similarities to NAFLD can be rapidly induced to the species by fasting. The mRNA expression was determined after overnight-7d of food deprivation and 28d of re-feeding and correlated to the liver fat %. The homologies between the determined carnivoran mRNA sequences and that of the domestic dog were 92.2-99.1%. As the mRNA expression was not affected by short-term fasting and did not correlate with the liver fat %, there seems to be no clear connection between adiponectin and the development of lipidosis in the American mink. In the future, the obtained sequences can be utilized in further studies of adiponectin expression in comparative endocrinology. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The role of exogenous insulin in the complex of hepatic lipidosis and ketosis associated with insulin resistance phenomenon in postpartum dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayirli, A

    2006-10-01

    As a result of a marked decline in dry matter intake (DMI) prior to parturition and a slow rate of increase in DMI relative to milk production after parturition, dairy cattle experience a negative energy balance. Changes in nutritional and metabolic status during the periparturient period predispose dairy cattle to develop hepatic lipidosis and ketosis. The metabolic profile during early lactation includes low concentrations of serum insulin, plasma glucose, and liver glycogen and high concentrations of serum glucagon, adrenaline, growth hormone, plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate and non-esterified fatty acids, and liver triglyceride. Moreover, during late gestation and early lactation, flow of nutrients to fetus and mammary tissues are accorded a high degree of metabolic priority. This priority coincides with lowered responsiveness and sensitivity of extrahepatic tissues to insulin, which presumably plays a key role in development of hepatic lipidosis and ketosis. Hepatic lipidosis and ketosis compromise production, immune function, and fertility. Cows with hepatic lipidosis and ketosis have low tissue responsiveness to insulin owing to ketoacidosis. Insulin has numerous roles in metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. Insulin is an anabolic hormone and acts to preserve nutrients as well as being a potent feed intake regulator. In addition to the major replacement therapy to alleviate severity of negative energy balance, administration of insulin with concomitant delivery of dextrose increases efficiency of treatment for hepatic lipidosis and ketosis. However, data on use of insulin to prevent these lipid-related metabolic disorders are limited and it should be investigated.

  11. Suppression of cytochrome P450 reductase (POR) expression in hepatoma cells replicates the hepatic lipidosis observed in hepatic POR-null mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Todd D; Banerjee, Subhashis; Stolarczyk, Elzbieta I; Zou, Ling

    2011-06-01

    Cytochrome P450 reductase (POR) is a microsomal electron transport protein essential to cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism and sterol and bile acid synthesis. The conditional deletion of hepatic POR gene expression in mice results in a marked decrease in plasma cholesterol levels counterbalanced by the accumulation of triglycerides in lipid droplets in hepatocytes. To evaluate the role of cholesterol and bile acid synthesis in this hepatic lipidosis, as well as the possible role of lipid transport from peripheral tissues, we developed a stable, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated cell culture model for the suppression of POR. POR mRNA and protein expression were decreased by greater than 50% in McArdle-RH7777 rat hepatoma cells 10 days after transfection with a POR-siRNA expression plasmid, and POR expression was nearly completely extinguished by day 20. Immunofluorescent analysis revealed a marked accumulation of lipid droplets in cells by day 15, accompanied by a nearly 2-fold increase in cellular triglyceride content, replicating the lipidosis seen in hepatic POR-null mouse liver. In contrast, suppression of CYP51A1 (lanosterol demethylase) did not result in lipid accumulation, indicating that loss of cholesterol synthesis is not the basis for this lipidosis. Indeed, addition of cholesterol to the medium appeared to augment the lipidosis in POR-suppressed cells, whereas removal of lipids from the medium reversed the lipidosis. Oxysterols did not accumulate in POR-suppressed cells, discounting a role for liver X receptor in stimulating triglyceride synthesis, but addition of chenodeoxycholate significantly repressed lipid accumulation, suggesting that the absence of bile acids and loss of farnesoid X receptor stimulation lead to excessive triglyceride synthesis.

  12. Noninvasive detection of hepatic lipidosis in dairy cows with calibrated ultrasonographic image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, A; Haudum, A; Weijers, G; Herzog, K; Wohlsein, P; Beyerbach, M; de Korte, C L; Thijssen, J M; Rehage, J

    2010-07-01

    The aim was to test the accuracy of calibrated digital analysis of ultrasonographic hepatic images for diagnosing fatty liver in dairy cows. Digital analysis was performed by means of a novel method, computer-aided ultrasound diagnosis (CAUS), previously published by the authors. This method implies a set of pre- and postprocessing steps to normalize and correct the transcutaneous ultrasonographic images. Transcutaneous hepatic ultrasonography was performed before surgical correction on 151 German Holstein dairy cows (mean +/- standard error of the means; body weight: 571+/-7 kg; age: 4.9+/-0.2 yr; DIM: 35+/-5) with left-sided abomasal displacement. Concentration of triacylglycerol (TAG) was biochemically determined in liver samples collected via biopsy and values were considered the gold standard to which ultrasound estimates were compared. According to histopathologic examination of biopsies, none of the cows suffered from hepatic disorders other than hepatic lipidosis. Hepatic TAG concentrations ranged from 4.6 to 292.4 mg/g of liver fresh weight (FW). High correlations were found between the hepatic TAG and mean echo level (r=0.59) and residual attenuation (ResAtt; r=0.80) obtained in ultrasonographic imaging. High correlation existed between ResAtt and mean echo level (r=0.76). The 151 studied cows were split randomly into a training set of 76 cows and a test set of 75 cows. Based on the data from the training set, ResAtt was statistically selected by means of stepwise multiple regression analysis for hepatic TAG prediction (R(2)=0.69). Then, using the predicted TAG data of the test set, receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to summarize the accuracy and predictive potential of the differentiation between various measured hepatic TAG values, based on TAG predicted from the regression formula. The area under the curve values of the receiver operating characteristic based on the regression equation were 0.94 (or=50mg of TAG/g of FW), 0.83 (or

  13. Metabolic changes and induction of hepatic lipidosis during feed restriction in llamas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornquist, S J; Cebra, C K; Van Saun, R J; Smith, B B; Mattoon, J S

    2001-07-01

    To determine whether feed restriction induces hepatic lipidosis (HL) in llamas and to evaluate the metabolic changes that develop during feed restriction. 8 healthy adult female llamas. Llamas were fed grass hay at a rate of 0.25% of their body weight per day for 13 to 28 days. Llamas were monitored by use of clinical observation, serum biochemical analyses, and ultrasound-guided liver biopsies. All 8 llamas lost weight and mobilized fat. Five llamas developed HL, including 4 that were nursing crias. During the period of feed restriction, mean serum concentration of bile acids and activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) were significantly higher in llamas that developed HL, compared with llamas that did not. Mean insulin-to-cortisol concentration ratios were lower in llamas with HL before and up to 7 days of feed restriction, compared with those that did not develop HL. HL in llamas may be induced by severe feed restriction, particularly in the face of increased energy demand. Llamas with weight loss attributable to inadequate dietary intake may develop biochemical evidence of hepatopathy and HL. Increases in serum concentration of bile acids and activities of GGT, AST, and SDH may indicate the development of HL in llamas and identify affected animals for aggressive therapeutic intervention.

  14. Skin fragility syndrome in a cat with feline infectious peritonitis and hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotman, Tara K; Mauldin, Elizabeth; Hoffmann, Vickie; Del Piero, Fabio; Hess, Rebecka S

    2007-10-01

    A 6-year-old spayed female domestic shorthair cat with a 3-week history of inappetence, weight loss, and hiding was examined. A palpable abdominal fluid wave, dehydration, and a small tear on the left flank were noted during initial examination. When the cat was gently restrained for blood sampling, the skin on the dorsal neck tore, leaving a 15 cm x 7 cm flap of skin. Clinicopathological abnormalities included nonregenerative anaemia, hypoalbuminaemia, increased globulin concentration, and mildly elevated aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities. Abdominal fluid was viscous and had a total protein of 5.3 g dL(-1) with 316 cells microL(-1), consistent with a modified transudate. Cytology of the abdominal fluid revealed 86% nondegenerate neutrophils, 13% macrophages, and 1% small lymphocytes. Histopathological evaluation and indirect immunohistochemistry confirmed a diagnosis of feline infectious peritonitis, hepatic lipidosis and feline skin fragility syndrome. Feline skin fragility syndrome has not previously been reported in association with feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Its inclusion as a clinical sign associated with FIP may facilitate a diagnosis.

  15. Hepatic lipidosis in llamas and alpacas: 31 cases (1991-1997).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornquist, S J; Van Saun, R J; Smith, B B; Cebra, C K; Snyder, S P

    1999-05-01

    To identify factors associated with hepatic lipidosis (HL) in llamas and alpacas. Retrospective case series. 30 llamas and 1 alpaca. Medical records were searched to identify llamas or alpacas in which a histologic diagnosis of HL was made. Information was retrieved on signalment, history, clinical and laboratory findings, and results of necropsy or examination of biopsy specimens. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi 2 analyses. Females were affected more often than males; however, the sex distribution was not different from that of the camelid population in the diagnostic laboratory's database. Fifty-four percent of the females were pregnant, and 46% were lactating. Most affected camelids were 6 to 10 years old. Anorexia and recent weight loss were common (51.6% of camelids). An infective agent was found in only one ilama, and toxins and mineral deficiencies were not identified. The most common abnormalities on serum biochemical analysis were a high concentration of bile acids, high activities of gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and hypoproteinemia. Concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta-HB) were high in those camelids in which these compounds were assayed. Twenty-nine camelids did not survive. Sick camelids should be considered at risk for developing HL, especially those with anorexia or the metabolic demands of pregnancy and lactation. Other stresses also appear to contribute. High concentrations of NEFA, beta-HB, and bile acids; high activities of GGT and AST; and hypoproteinemia may indicate that HL has developed.

  16. Hypophosphatemia and hemolytic anemia associated with diabetes mellitus and hepatic lipidosis in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, L G; Hardy, R M; Weiss, D J; Bartges, J W

    1993-01-01

    Hypophosphatemia associated with hemolytic anemia was diagnosed in five cats with diabetes mellitus and in one cat with idiopathic hepatic lipidosis. The hematocrit began decreasing within 24 to 48 hours after documented hypophosphatemia in each case. The anemia resolved in all five surviving cats. Because of the temporal relationship and lack of other detectable causes, hemolytic anemia was presumed to be caused by hypophosphatemia. There were increased Heinz bodies in three of six hypophosphatemic cats during episodes of hemolysis. Intravenous potassium phosphate administration corrected the hypophosphatemia in four of five cats. The effective dosages of intravenous phosphate ranged from 0.011 to 0.017 mmol of phosphate/kg/h for 6 to 12 hours. Hypocalcemia (5.4 to 8.7 mg/dL) occurred in four of five cats treated with intravenous phosphate; however, only one cat developed clinical signs attributable to hypocalcemia. Based on this retrospective study, we recommend monitoring serum phosphorus concentration every 6 to 12 hours in cats likely to become hypophosphatemic. Treatment of hypophosphatemia in cats is warranted because of the apparent increased susceptibility of cats to hypophosphatemia-induced hemolysis. Cats with severe hypophosphatemia (< or = 1.5 mg/dL) should be given oral or parenteral phosphate if contraindications do not exist.

  17. Prognostic markers in feline hepatic lipidosis: a retrospective study of 71 cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzi, Sharon; Segev, Gilad; Kedar, Shay; Yas, Einat; Aroch, Itamar

    2017-11-11

    Feline hepatic lipidosis (HL) is a common, potentially life-threatening disease resulting from prolonged anorexia and increased catabolism. This retrospective study included cats diagnosed with HL based on liver cytology or histopathology (years 2004-2015), and aimed to identify clinical and laboratory parameters associated with mortality. The study included 71 cats (47 females and 24 males) and 85 control cats with non-HL diseases. Most HL cats (90 per cent) were mixed breed, neutered (70; 99 per cent), female (47; 66 per cent), indoor cats (56; 79 per cent), fed dry commercial diets (44 cats; 62 per cent), and with a median age of 7.5 years (range 1.5-16.0). Common primary conditions included gastrointestinal diseases, pancreatitis and cholangiohepatitis (31 cats; 44 per cent) and stressful events (14; 20 per cent). HL was idiopathic in 20 cats (28 per cent). The overall mortality was 38 per cent (27/71 cats). Older age, as well as dullness, weakness, ptyalism, hypoproteinaemia, hypoalbuminaemia, increased serum creatine kinase activity, hypocholesterolaemia and hepatic failure at presentation were significantly (P≤0.033) associated with mortality. The primary disease was unassociated with mortality. Worsening hypoalbuminaemia, hyperammonaemia, hyperbilirubinaemia, electrolyte disorders, and occurrence of cavitary effusions or hypotension during hospitalisation were significantly (P≤0.045) associated with mortality. A decrease of serum β-hydroxybutyrate during hospitalisation was significantly (P=0.01) associated with survival, likely reflecting improvement in the catabolic state. The identified risk factors may be therapeutic targets. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. An immunohistochemical approach to differentiate hepatic lipidosis from hepatic phospholipidosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obert, Leslie A; Sobocinski, Gregg P; Bobrowski, Walter F; Metz, Alan L; Rolsma, Mark D; Altrogge, Douglas M; Dunstan, Robert W

    2007-08-01

    Hepatocellular vacuolation can be a diagnostic challenge since cytoplasmic accumulations of various substances (lipid, water, phospholipids, glycogen, and plasma) can have a similar morphology. Cytoplasmic accumulation of phospholipids following administration of cationic amphiphilic drugs (CAD) can be particularly difficult to differentiate from nonphosphorylated lipid accumulations at the light microscopic level. Histochemical methods (Sudan Black, Oil Red-O, Nile Blue, etc.) can be used to identify both nonphosphorylated and/or phosphorylated lipid accumulations, but these techniques require non-paraffin-embedded tissue and are only moderately sensitive. Thus, electron microscopy is often utilized to achieve a definitive diagnosis based upon the characteristic morphologic features of phospholipid accumulations; however, this is a low throughput and labor intense procedure. In this report, we describe the use of immunohistochemical staining for LAMP-2 (a lysosome-associated protein) and adipophilin (a protein that forms the membrane around non-lysosomal lipid droplets) to differentiate phospholipidosis and lipidosis, respectively in the livers of rats. This staining procedure can be performed on formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissues, is more sensitive than histochemistry, and easier to perform than ultrastructural evaluation.

  19. Interactive vs. automatic ultrasound image segmentation methods for staging hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijers, Gert; Starke, Alexander; Haudum, Alois; Thijssen, Johan M; Rehage, Jürgen; De Korte, Chris L

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that automatic segmentation of vessels in ultrasound (US) images can produce similar or better results in grading fatty livers than interactive segmentation. A study was performed in postpartum dairy cows (N=151), as an animal model of human fatty liver disease, to test this hypothesis. Five transcutaneous and five intraoperative US liver images were acquired in each animal and a liverbiopsy was taken. In liver tissue samples, triacylglycerol (TAG) was measured by biochemical analysis and hepatic diseases other than hepatic lipidosis were excluded by histopathologic examination. Ultrasonic tissue characterization (UTC) parameters--Mean echo level, standard deviation (SD) of echo level, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), residual attenuation coefficient (ResAtt) and axial and lateral speckle size--were derived using a computer-aided US (CAUS) protocol and software package. First, the liver tissue was interactively segmented by two observers. With increasing fat content, fewer hepatic vessels were visible in the ultrasound images and, therefore, a smaller proportion of the liver needed to be excluded from these images. Automatic-segmentation algorithms were implemented and it was investigated whether better results could be achieved than with the subjective and time-consuming interactive-segmentation procedure. The automatic-segmentation algorithms were based on both fixed and adaptive thresholding techniques in combination with a 'speckle'-shaped moving-window exclusion technique. All data were analyzed with and without postprocessing as contained in CAUS and with different automated-segmentation techniques. This enabled us to study the effect of the applied postprocessing steps on single and multiple linear regressions ofthe various UTC parameters with TAG. Improved correlations for all US parameters were found by using automatic-segmentation techniques. Stepwise multiple linear-regression formulas where derived and used

  20. Decreased insulin response in dairy cows following a four-day fast to induce hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikawa, S; Oetzel, G R

    2006-08-01

    Negative energy balance has been implicated in the development of fatty liver, insulin resistance, and impaired health in dairy cows. A 4-d fasting model previously was reported to increase liver triglycerides more than 2.5-fold. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate insulin response in this fasting model. Nonlactating, nonpregnant Holstein cows were fasted for 4 d (6 cows) or fed continuously as control cows (4 cows). Samples were collected 5 d before fasting, during fasting, and immediately after the 4-d fast, 8 d after the fast, and 16 d after the fast. Fasted cows had greater liver triglyceride content (49.4 vs. 16.2 mg/g, wet-weight basis) at the end of the fasting period compared with control cows. Fasted cows also had increased plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations (1.24 vs. 0.21 mmol/L) and increased plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations at the end of the fasting period. Liver triglyceride, plasma NEFA, and plasma BHBA in fasted cows returned to prefasting concentrations by the end of the experiment. Plasma glucose concentrations were not affected by fasting. Plasma insulin concentrations were decreased (6.3 vs. 14.1 microU/mL) and insulin-stimulated blood glucose reduction was decreased (24.9 vs. 48.6%) in the fasted cows compared with control cows at the end of the fast, indicating reduced insulin response. Insulin response was negatively correlated with plasma NEFA and liver triglycerides. Decreased insulin response may be an important complication of negative energy balance and hepatic lipidosis.

  1. Serum Beta Hydroxybutyrate Concentrations in Cats with Chronic Kidney Disease, Hyperthyroidism, or Hepatic Lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, L; Sharkey, L C; Armstrong, P J; Little, K; Rendahl, A

    2016-01-01

    Ketones, including beta hydroxybutyrate (BHB), are produced in conditions of negative energy balance and decreased glucose utilization. Serum BHB concentrations in cats are poorly characterized in diseases other than diabetes mellitus. Serum BHB concentrations will be increased in cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD), hyperthyroidism (HT), or hepatic lipidosis (HL). Twenty-eight client-owned cats with CKD, 34 cats with HT, and 15 cats with HL; 43 healthy cats. Prospective observational study. Serum BHB concentrations were measured at admission in cats with CKD, HT, and HL, for comparison with a reference interval established using healthy cats. Results of dipstick urine ketone measurement, when available, were compared to BHB measurement. Beta hydroxybutyrate was above the reference interval (<0.11 mmol/L) in 6/28 cats (21%) with CKD, 7/34 cats (20%) with HT, and 11/15 cats (73%) with HL, significantly exceeding the expected 2.5% above the reference interval for healthy cats (P < .001 for all groups). Elevations were mild in CKD and HT groups (median BHB 0.1 mmol/L for both groups, 80th percentile 0.12 and 0.11 mmol/L, respectively), but more marked in HL cats (median BHB 0.2 mmol/L, 80th percentile 0.84 mmol/L). None of 11 cats with increased serum BHB concentration having urine dipstick analysis performed within 24 h of sampling for BHB were ketonuric. Increases in serum BHB concentrations occur in cats with CKD, HT, and HL, and might provide an useful index of catabolism. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  2. Hepatic lipidosis and other test findings in two captive adult porcupines (Erethizon dorsatum) dying from a "sudden death syndrome".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barigye, Robert; Schamber, Ev; Newell, Teresa K; Dyer, Neil W

    2007-11-01

    Routine postmortem examination and histologic evaluation of tissue sections demonstrated hepatic lipidosis (HL) in 2 adult captive porcupines with a history of sudden death. The male porcupine had a markedly enlarged pale liver that microscopically showed large unilocular vacuoles within hepatocellular cytoplasm. The periparturient female had similar but less marked hepatic lesions and an incidental pulmonary mycosis. These findings suggest HL as an important differential of spontaneous death in captive porcupines. It is hypothesized that in addition to the widely documented causes, HL in captive porcupines may be specifically associated with nutritional imbalances caused by the feeding of unsuitable commercial diets. The possible association of the condition with dietary and other factors in captive porcupines needs to be thoroughly investigated.

  3. Studies on hepatic lipidosis and coinciding health and fertility problems of high-producing dairy cows using the "Utrecht fatty liver model of dairy cows". A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelen, M J H; Wensing, T

    2006-09-01

    Fatty liver or hepatic lipidosis is a major metabolic disorder of high-producing dairy cows that occurs rather frequently in early lactation and is associated with decreased health, production and fertility. A background section of the review explores reasons why high-producing dairy cows are prone to develop fatty liver post partum. Hepatic lipidosis and coinciding health and fertility problems seriously endanger profitability and longevity of the dairy cow. Results from a great number of earlier epidemiological and clinical studies made it clear that a different approach was needed for elucidation of pathogenesis and etiology of this complex of health problems. There was a need for an adequate animal model in which hepatic lipidosis and production, health and fertility problems could be provoked under controlled conditions. It was hypothesized that overconditioning ante partum and feed restriction post partum might induce lipolysis in adipose tissue and triacylglycerol accumulation in the liver following calving. This consideration formed the basis for the experiments, which resulted in the "Utrecht fatty liver model of dairy cows". In this model, post partum triacylglycerol-lipidosis as well as the whole complex of health and fertility problems are induced under well-controlled conditions. The experimental protocol based on this hypothesis produced in all cases (10 feeding trials with over 150 dairy cattle) the intended result, i.e. all experimental cows developed post partum higher hepatic triacylglycerol concentrations than did control cows. The model was evaluated in biochemical, clinical pathology, immunological, clinical and fertility terms. It turned out that in this model, post partum triacylglycerol-lipidosis as well as the whole complex of health and fertility problems were induced under well-controlled conditions.

  4. Purification of a protein from serum of cattle with hepatic lipidosis, and identification of the protein as haptoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, K; Katoh, N; Takahashi, K; Yuasa, A

    1992-06-01

    A protein that has 2 subunits with molecular weight of 35,000 and 23,000 was detected in serum of cattle with hepatic lipidosis (fatty liver). The protein was purified from serum obtained from a cow with fatty liver, and was identified as haptoglobin, which is known to have hemoglobin-binding capacity and to be an acute-phase protein. To assess the relevance of haptoglobin in fatty liver, cattle were classified in 3 groups (healthy control, haptoglobin-positive, and haptoglobin-negative); liver triglyceride content and several serum biochemical variables were evaluated for the 3 groups. Compared with the control and haptoglobin-negative cattle, haptoglobin-positive cattle had significantly (P less than 0.01) higher liver triglyceride content, serum bilirubin concentration, and aspartate transaminase activity. Serum haptoglobin concentration was high in slaughter cattle (27 of 40 cattle tested), particularly in cows (20/28).

  5. Plasma lipids, lipoprotein composition and profile during induction and treatment of hepatic lipidosis in cats and the metabolic effect of one daily meal in healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, G; Paragon, B M; Sérougne, C; Férézou, J; Milliat, F; Lutton, C

    2004-04-01

    Anorexia in obese cats may result in feline hepatic lipidosis (FHL). This study was designed to determine plasma lipids and lipoprotein profiles in queens at different stages during experimental induction of FHL (lean, obese, FHL), and after 10 weeks of treatment. Results were compared with those obtained from lean queens of same age fed the same diet but at a maintenance level, once a day. Hepatic lipidosis led to an increase in plasma triacylglycerol (TG), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL), and an enrichment of LDL with TG and of high density lipoprotein (HDL) with cholesterol, suggesting that VLDL secretion is enhanced, VLDL and LDL catabolism is lowered, and lipoprotein exchanges are impaired in FHL. This study also showed that cholesterolaemia is increased in cats fed at a dietary rhythm of one meal per day compared to ad libitum feeding.

  6. 3 alpha-Hydroxylated bile acid profiles in clinically normal cats, cats with severe hepatic lipidosis, and cats with complete extrahepatic bile duct occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center, S A; Thompson, M; Guida, L

    1993-05-01

    Concentrations of 3 alpha-hydroxylated bile acids were measured in serum and urine of clinically normal (healthy) cats (n = 6), cats with severe hepatic lipidosis (n = 9), and cats with complete bile duct occlusion (n = 4). Bile acid concentrations were measured by use of a gradient flow high-performance liquid chromatography procedure with an acetonitrile and ammonium phosphate mobile phase and an in-line postanalytic column containing 3 alpha-hydroxy-steroid dehydrogenase and a fluorescence detector. Specific identification of all bile acid peaks was not completed; unidentified moieties were represented in terms of their elution time (in minutes). Significant differences in serum and urine bile acid concentrations, quantitative and proportional, were determined among groups of cats. Cats with hepatic lipidosis and bile duct occlusion had significantly (P > or = 0.05) greater total serum and urine bile acids concentrations than did healthy cats. The proportion of hydrophobic bile acids in serum, those eluting at > or = 400 minutes, was 1.9% for healthy cats, 3.3% for cats with lipidosis, and 5.4% for bile duct-obstructed cats. Both groups of ill cats had a broader spectrum of unidentified late-eluting serum bile acids than did healthy cats; the largest spectrum developed in bile duct-occluded cats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Peculiarities of One-Carbon Metabolism in the Strict Carnivorous Cat and the Role in Feline Hepatic Lipidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marica Bakovic

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Research in various species has indicated that diets deficient in labile methyl groups (methionine, choline, betaine, folate produce fatty liver and links to steatosis and metabolic syndrome, but also provides evidence of the importance of labile methyl group balance to maintain normal liver function. Cats, being obligate carnivores, rely on nutrients in animal tissues and have, due to evolutionary pressure, developed several physiological and metabolic adaptations, including a number of peculiarities in protein and fat metabolism. This has led to specific and unique nutritional requirements. Adult cats require more dietary protein than omnivorous species, maintain a consistently high rate of protein oxidation and gluconeogenesis and are unable to adapt to reduced protein intake. Furthermore, cats have a higher requirement for essential amino acids and essential fatty acids. Hastened use coupled with an inability to conserve certain amino acids, including methionine, cysteine, taurine and arginine, necessitates a higher dietary intake for cats compared to most other species. Cats also seemingly require higher amounts of several B-vitamins compared to other species and are predisposed to depletion during prolonged inappetance. This carnivorous uniqueness makes cats more susceptible to hepatic lipidosis.

  8. Fatal hemorrhagic–necrotizing pancreatitis associated with pancreatic and hepatic lipidosis in an obese Asian palm civet (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bongiovanni Laura

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Asian palm civets (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus, or toddy cats, belong to the family Viverridae. Little is known about the pathology of these animals and few articles have been published, mainly concerning their important role as wild reservoir hosts for severe infectious diseases of domestic animals and human beings. A 4-year-old, female Asian palm civet was found dead by the owner. At necropsy, large amount of adipose tissue was found in the subcutis and in the peritoneal cavity. Most of the pancreas appeared red, translucent. Hepatomegaly, discoloration of the liver were evident, with multifocal areas of degeneration, characterized by white nodular lesions. Histologically, the pancreas showed severe interstitial and perilobular necrosis and extensive haemorrhages, with separation of the interstitium, mild reactive inflammation at the periphery of the pancreatic lobules. Liver showed multifocal foci of vacuolar degeneration, lipidic accumulation, sometimes associated to hepatocyte necrosis. A diagnosis of acute severe hemorrhagic-necrotizing pancreatitis (or acute pancreatic necrosis associated with pancreatic and hepatic lipidosis was made. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first case report of acute lethal pancreatitis in an Asian palm civet. Although the exact cause of the disease remains undetermined, a hypothesis of the cause and pathogenesis is discussed, pointing out dietary indiscretion and consequent overweight as possible important risk factors.

  9. Fatal hemorrhagic-necrotizing pancreatitis associated with pancreatic and hepatic lipidosis in an obese Asian palm civet (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura, Bongiovanni; Nicola, Di Girolamo; Alessandro, Montani; Leonardo, Della Salda; Paolo, Selleri

    2014-05-01

    Asian palm civets (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus), or toddy cats, belong to the family Viverridae. Little is known about the pathology of these animals and few articles have been published, mainly concerning their important role as wild reservoir hosts for severe infectious diseases of domestic animals and human beings. A 4-year-old, female Asian palm civet was found dead by the owner. At necropsy, large amount of adipose tissue was found in the subcutis and in the peritoneal cavity. Most of the pancreas appeared red, translucent. Hepatomegaly, discoloration of the liver were evident, with multifocal areas of degeneration, characterized by white nodular lesions. Histologically, the pancreas showed severe interstitial and perilobular necrosis and extensive haemorrhages, with separation of the interstitium, mild reactive inflammation at the periphery of the pancreatic lobules. Liver showed multifocal foci of vacuolar degeneration, lipidic accumulation, sometimes associated to hepatocyte necrosis. A diagnosis of acute severe hemorrhagic-necrotizing pancreatitis (or acute pancreatic necrosis) associated with pancreatic and hepatic lipidosis was made. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first case report of acute lethal pancreatitis in an Asian palm civet. Although the exact cause of the disease remains undetermined, a hypothesis of the cause and pathogenesis is discussed, pointing out dietary indiscretion and consequent overweight as possible important risk factors.

  10. Peculiarities of one-carbon metabolism in the strict carnivorous cat and the role in feline hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbrugghe, Adronie; Bakovic, Marica

    2013-07-19

    Research in various species has indicated that diets deficient in labile methyl groups (methionine, choline, betaine, folate) produce fatty liver and links to steatosis and metabolic syndrome, but also provides evidence of the importance of labile methyl group balance to maintain normal liver function. Cats, being obligate carnivores, rely on nutrients in animal tissues and have, due to evolutionary pressure, developed several physiological and metabolic adaptations, including a number of peculiarities in protein and fat metabolism. This has led to specific and unique nutritional requirements. Adult cats require more dietary protein than omnivorous species, maintain a consistently high rate of protein oxidation and gluconeogenesis and are unable to adapt to reduced protein intake. Furthermore, cats have a higher requirement for essential amino acids and essential fatty acids. Hastened use coupled with an inability to conserve certain amino acids, including methionine, cysteine, taurine and arginine, necessitates a higher dietary intake for cats compared to most other species. Cats also seemingly require higher amounts of several B-vitamins compared to other species and are predisposed to depletion during prolonged inappetance. This carnivorous uniqueness makes cats more susceptible to hepatic lipidosis.

  11. Texture analysis of B-mode ultrasound images to stage hepatic lipidosis in the dairy cow: A methodological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzato, Tommaso; Fiore, Enrico; Morgante, Massimo; Manuali, Elisabetta; Zotti, Alessandro

    2016-10-01

    Hepatic lipidosis is the most diffused hepatic disease in the lactating cow. A new methodology to estimate the degree of fatty infiltration of the liver in lactating cows by means of texture analysis of B-mode ultrasound images is proposed. B-mode ultrasonography of the liver was performed in 48 Holstein Friesian cows using standardized ultrasound parameters. Liver biopsies to determine the triacylglycerol content of the liver (TAGqa) were obtained from each animal. A large number of texture parameters were calculated on the ultrasound images by means of a free software. Based on the TAGqa content of the liver, 29 samples were classified as mild (TAGqa100mg/g) and 13 as severe (TAG>100mg/g) in steatosis. Stepwise linear regression analysis was performed to predict the TAGqa content of the liver (TAGpred) from the texture parameters calculated on the ultrasound images. A five-variable model was used to predict the TAG content from the ultrasound images. The regression model explained 83.4% of the variance. An area under the curve (AUC) of 0.949 was calculated for 50mg/g of TAGqa; using an optimal cut-off value of 72mg/g TAGpred had a sensitivity of 86.2% and a specificity of 84.2%. An AUC of 0.978 for 100mg/g of TAGqa was calculated; using an optimal cut-off value of 89mg/g, TAGpred sensitivity was 92.3% and specificity was 88.6%. Texture analysis of B-mode ultrasound images may therefore be used to accurately predict the TAG content of the liver in lactating cows. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dietary L-carnitine supplementation in obese cats alters carnitine metabolism and decreases ketosis during fasting and induced hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Géraldine; Paragon, Bernard M; Milliat, Fabien; Lutton, Claude

    2002-02-01

    This study was designed to determine whether dietary carnitine supplement could protect cats from ketosis and improve carnitine and lipid metabolism in experimental feline hepatic lipidosis (FHL). Lean spayed queens received a diet containing 40 (CL group, n = 7) or 1000 (CH group, n = 4) mg/kg of L-carnitine during obesity development. Plasma fatty acid, beta-hydroxybutyrate and carnitine, and liver and muscle carnitine concentrations were measured during experimental induction of FHL and after treatment. In control cats (CL group), fasting and FHL increased the plasma concentrations of fatty acids two- to threefold (P 10-fold (from a basal 0.22 +/- 0.03 to 1.70 +/- 0.73 after 3 wk fasting and 3.13 +/- 0.49 mmol/L during FHL). In carnitine-supplemented cats, these variables increased significantly (P < 0.0001) only during FHL (beta-hydroxybutyrate, 1.42 +/- 0.17 mmol/L). L-Carnitine supplementation significantly increased plasma, muscle and liver carnitine concentrations. Liver carnitine concentration increased dramatically from the obese state to FHL in nonsupplemented cats, but not in supplemented cats, which suggests de novo synthesis of carnitine from endogenous amino acids in control cats and reversible storage in supplemented cats. These results demonstrate the protective effect of a dietary L-carnitine supplement against fasting ketosis during obesity induction. Increasing the L-carnitine level of diets in cats with low energy requirements, such as after neutering, and a high risk of obesity could therefore be recommended.

  13. Noninvasive detection of hepatic lipidosis in dairy cows with calibrated ultrasonographic image analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starke, A.; Haudum, A.; Weijers, G.; Herzog, K.; Wohlsein, P.; Beyerbach, M.; Korte, C.L. de; Thijssen, J.M.; Rehage, J.

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to test the accuracy of calibrated digital analysis of ultrasonographic hepatic images for diagnosing fatty liver in dairy cows. Digital analysis was performed by means of a novel method, computer-aided ultrasound diagnosis (CAUS), previously published by the authors. This method implies

  14. Fatty acid composition and development of hepatic lipidosis during food deprivation--mustelids as a potential animal model for liver steatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Petteri; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Kärjä, Vesa; Asikainen, Juha; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti

    2009-03-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome characterized by asymptomatic hepatic steatosis. It is present in most cases of human obesity but also caused e.g., by rapid weight loss. The patients have decreased n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) proportions with decreased percentages of 18:3(n-3), 20:5(n-3) and 22:6(n-3) and an increased n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio in liver and/or white adipose tissue (WAT). The present study examined a new experimental model to study liver steatosis with possible future applications to NAFLD. Ten European polecats (Mustela putorius), the wild form of the domestic ferret, were food-deprived for 5 days with 10 fed animals as controls. The food-deprived animals showed micro- and macrovesicular hepatic steatosis, decreased proportions of 20:5(n-3), 22:6(n-3) and total n-3 PUFA and increased n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios in liver and WAT. At the same time, the product/precursor ratios decreased in liver. The observed effects can be due to selective fatty acid mobilization preferring n-3 PUFA over n-6 PUFA, decreased Delta5 and Delta6 desaturase activities, oxidative stress, decreased arginine availability and activation of the endocannabinoid system. Hepatic lipidosis induced by food deprivation was manifested in the fatty acid composition of the polecat with similarities to human NAFLD despite the different principal etiologies.

  15. Feline hepatic lipidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Center, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    We have come a long way in understanding and managing the FHL syndrome since it was first described nearly 30 years ago. Increased sensitivity of clinicians for recognizing the syndrome has improved case outcome by arresting this metabolic syndrome in its earliest stages. Simply ensuring adequate intake of a complete and balanced feline diet can rescue cats just developing clinical signs; however, full metabolic support as described herein provides the best chance for recovery of cats demonstrating the most severe clinicopathologic features. It remains possible that adjustments in recommended micronutrient and vitamin intake for healthy cats may pivotally change feline susceptibility to FHL over the coming years

  16. Role of hepatic de novo lipogenesis in the development of fasting-induced fatty liver in the American mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Harris, Lora; Dick, Morag; Pal, Catherine; Lei, Sha; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Nieminen, Petteri

    2012-10-28

    American mink (Neovison vison) develop fatty liver quickly in response to food deprivation, which results in preferential mobilisation of n-3 PUFA. The altered n-3:n-6 PUFA ratio in the liver may activate the endocannabinoid system resulting in increased lipid synthesis. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of feeding intensity (80 or 120% RDA), dietary fat source (n-3, n-6 or n-9 fatty acids (FA)) and short-term fasting (1-7 d) on hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and the development of fatty liver in mink. Significantly elevated expression of mRNA encoding for acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 (ACC-1) and FA synthase (FAS) was observed in the liver of mink fasted for 5-7 d, while upon re-feeding for 28 d after a 7 d food deprivation, DNL returned to pre-fasting levels. The females had a higher expression of ACC-1 and FAS mRNA than the males. In the non-fasted animals, dietary fat source and feeding intensity had significant effects on ACC-1 mRNA. The highest levels were observed in the mink fed the rapeseed oil (n-9) diet at 80% RDA, while the lowest levels were seen when the same diet was fed at 120% RDA. For FAS, the highest gene expression was seen in the fasted mink fed at 80% RDA and the lowest in the non-fasted mink fed at 80%. It is concluded that short-term food deprivation induces hepatic lipidosis in mink and that during this process, hepatic DNL further exacerbates liver fat accumulation.

  17. FREQUENCY OF HEPATIC LIPIDOSIS IN JUVENILE RAINBOW TROUT (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS) IN A FISH FARM IN THE PERUVIAN CENTRAL SIERRA

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenthal N., Sandra; Sandoval C., Nieves; Gavidia C., César; Tabacchi N., Luis

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo del estudio fue determinar la frecuencia de lipidosis hepática en la trucha arcoíris (Oncorhynchus mykiss) de fase juvenil en base a lesiones anátomohistopatológicas en el hígado. Se trabajó con 58 peces de una piscigranja comercial de la sierra central del Perú. Los peces fueron clasificados como sanos (n=23) y enfermos (n=35) según el oscurecimiento de la piel y erosión de las aletas. Se colectaron muestras de hígado, que se fijaron en formol al 10% y fueron coloreadas con Hemat...

  18. Trans-10, cis-12-conjugated linoleic acid alters hepatic gene expression in a polygenic obese line of mice displaying hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwell, Melissa S; Ceddia, Ryan P; House, Ralph L; Cassady, Joseph P; Eisen, Eugene J; Eling, Thomas E; Collins, Jennifer B; Grissom, Sherry F; Odle, Jack

    2010-09-01

    The trans-10, cis-12 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) causes a rapid reduction of body and adipose mass in mice. In addition to changes in adipose tissue, numerous studies have reported alterations in hepatic lipid metabolism. Livers of CLA-fed mice gain mass, partly due to lipid accumulation; however, the precise molecular mechanisms are unknown. To elucidate these mechanisms, we examined fatty acid composition and gene expression profiles of livers from a polygenic obese line of mice fed 1% trans-10, cis-12-CLA for 14 days. Analysis of gene expression data led to the identification of 1393 genes differentially expressed in the liver of CLA-fed male mice at a nominal P value of .01, and 775 were considered significant using a false discovery rate (FDR) threshold of .05. While surprisingly few genes in lipid metabolism were impacted, pathway analysis found that protein kinase A (PKA) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) pathways signaling pathways were affected by CLA treatment and 98 of the 775 genes were found to be regulated by hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha, a transcription factor important in controlling liver metabolic status. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Asprosin, a fasting-induced glucogenic protein hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatic glucose release into the circulation is vital for brain function and survival during periods of fasting and is modulated by an array of hormones that precisely regulate plasma glucose levels. We have identified a fasting-induced protein hormone that modulates hepatic glucose release. It is t...

  20. Stellate-cell lipidosis in liver biopsy specimens. Recognition and significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Pascale Hummel; Delgado, Yara; Theise, Neil D; West, A Brian

    2003-02-01

    Hepatic stellate-cell lipidosis due to hypervitaminosis A can lead to cirrhosis, which can be averted by restricting vitamin A intake. Other causes, including the use of synthetic retinoids, have been postulated. We studied the frequency and etiology of stellate-cell lipidosis in patients undergoing liver biopsy for reasons other than vitamin A abuse. Fourteen cases (1.1%) were identified retrospectively among 1,235 nontransplant liver biopsy specimens examined from January 1995 through December 1999. Diagnostic criteria included the following: lipid-laden cells in the space of Disse; small, dark, crescent-shaped nuclei with inconspicuous nucleoli; and wispy cytoplasmic strands separating fat droplets. Patient details, reason for biopsy, and medication use were studied. Reasons for biopsy included hepatitis C (10 cases), abnormal liver enzyme levels (2 cases), methotrexate use (1 case), and alcohol abuse (1 case). Hypervitaminosis A was not suspected clinically in the 5 patients who used oral vitamin A or 3 who used topical tretinoin (Retin-A). In 6 patients, no cause of stellate-cell lipidosis was discerned. Stellate-cell lipidosis should be reported to alert clinicians to a potentially preventable form of liver injury.

  1. Spontaneous, generalized lipidosis in captive greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozalo, Alfonso S; Schwiebert, Rebecca S; Metzner, Walter; Lawson, Gregory W

    2005-11-01

    During a routine 6-month quarantine period, 3 of 34 greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) captured in mainland China and transported to the United States for use in echolocation studies were found dead with no prior history of illness. All animals were in good body condition at the time of death. At necropsy, a large amount of white fat was found within the subcutis, especially in the sacrolumbar region. The liver, kidneys, and heart were diffusely tan in color. Microscopic examination revealed that hepatocytes throughout the liver were filled with lipid, and in some areas, lipid granulomas were present. renal lesions included moderate amounts of lipid in the cortical tubular epithelium and large amounts of protein and lipid within Bowman's capsules in the glomeruli. In addition, one bat had large lipid vacuoles diffusely distributed throughout the myocardium. The exact pathologic mechanism inducing the hepatic, renal, and cardiac lipidosis is unknown. The horseshoe bats were captured during hibernation and immediately transported to the United States. It is possible that the large amount of fat stored coupled with changes in photoperiod, lack of exercise, and/or the stress of captivity might have contributed to altering the normal metabolic processes, leading to anorexia and consequently lipidosis in these animals.

  2. Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... most common types of viral hepatitis. What Is Hepatitis A? For kids, hep A is the most common ... they recover, it does not come back. Can Hepatitis A Be Prevented? The following will help keep people ...

  3. Sphingomyelin lipidosis (Niemann-Pick disease) in a juvenile raccoon (Procyon lotor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vapniarsky, N; Wenger, D A; Scheenstra, D; Mete, A

    2013-01-01

    A wild caught juvenile male raccoon with neurological disease was humanely destroyed due to poor prognosis. Necropsy examination revealed hepatomegaly, splenomegaly and multicentric lymphadenomegaly with diffuse hepatic pallor and pulmonary consolidation with pinpoint pale subpleural foci. Microscopically, there was marked pale cytoplasmic swelling of the central and peripheral neurons as well as the glial cells in the brain, accompanied by multiorgan infiltration by abundant foamy macrophages. Ultrastructural investigation revealed accumulation of concentrically arranged lamellar material within lysosomes of the affected neurons, macrophages and endothelial cells. Biochemical enzymatic analysis detected sphingomyelinase deficiency and lysosomal storage disease consistent with sphingomyelin lipidosis (Niemann-Pick disease [NPD]) was diagnosed. This is the first report of NPD in a raccoon. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Protective effect of Chinese prescription Kangen-karyu and its crude drug Tanjin against age-related lipidosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eun Ju; Yokozawa, Takako; Okamoto, Takuya

    2007-05-01

    We have investigated the effect of the Chinese prescription Kangen-karyu and its crude drug Tanjin against age-related lipidosis in-vivo in a rat model. The serum and hepatic triglyceride levels were remarkably elevated in 12-month-old compared with two-month-old rats. However, the administration of Kangen-karyu and Tanjin extracts significantly decreased these levels. This suggested a protective role against related pathological conditions as well as hyperlipidaemia. On the other hand, the reduction of the levels of adiponectin in serum with ageing did not show significant changes in rats given diets supplemented with Kangen-karyu and Tanjin extracts. Furthermore, the expression of transcription factors in nuclear hepatic tissue related to lipid metabolism was investigated. The decline in the expression of nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha protein in hepatic tissue with age was ameliorated by the administration of Kangen-karyu and Tanjin supplements. On the other hand, the overexpression of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBP)-1 and SREBP-2 in old rats compared with young rats showed a tendency to decrease with Kangen-karyu and Tanjin administration. The decline of hepatic function with ageing was attenuated by Kangen-karyu and Tanjin, suggesting the beneficial role of Kangen-karyu and Tanjin on lipid metabolism through the improvement of hepatic function. This study has demonstrated that Kangen-karyu and Tanjin inhibited the accumulation of triglyceride with regulation of related protein expressions and they improved hepatic function. Evidence has been provided for the anti-ageing activity of Kangen-karyu and its crude drug Tanjin against age-related lipidosis.

  5. A fasting inducible switch modulates gluconeogenesis via activator/coactivator exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yi; Dentin, Renaud; Chen, Danica

    2008-01-01

    During early fasting, increases in skeletal muscle proteolysis liberate free amino acids for hepatic gluconeogenesis in response to pancreatic glucagon. Hepatic glucose output diminishes during the late protein-sparing phase of fasting, when ketone body production by the liver supplies compensatory...... expression through the dephosphorylation and nuclear shuttling of forkhead box O1 (FOXO1). Here we show that a fasting-inducible switch, consisting of the histone acetyltransferase p300 and the nutrient-sensing deacetylase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), maintains energy balance in mice through the sequential induction...... of CRTC2 and FOXO1. After glucagon induction, CRTC2 stimulated gluconeogenic gene expression by an association with p300, which we show here is also activated by dephosphorylation at Ser 89 during fasting. In turn, p300 increased hepatic CRTC2 activity by acetylating it at Lys 628, a site that also...

  6. Clinicopathologic evaluation of hepatic lipidosis in periparturient dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaitzakis, Emmanouil; Roubies, Nikolaos; Panousis, Nikolaos; Pourliotis, Konstantinos; Kaldrymidou, Eleni; Karatzias, Harilaos

    2007-01-01

    Fatty change of the liver (FCL) is very common in dairy cattle periparturiently. Many laboratory methods have been implicated in order to assist the diagnosis. To investigate whether FCL in dairy cattle could be evaluated by assessment of ornithine carbamoyl transferase (OCT) by means of an assay modified for bovine serum, other enzyme activity, serum bile acids (SBA) concentration, or other biochemical constituents. A total of 187 dairy cattle were included: 106 were suspected to have liver dysfunction and were examined after referral by veterinarians; 70 were clinically healthy with mild FCL; and 11 were clinically healthy without FCL. Blood and liver biopsy samples were obtained after clinical examination. Histologic examination by light microscopy and classification of samples according to the severity of FCL was done, and total lipid and triglyceride concentration was measured. In serum, OCT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and gamma-glutamyltransferase (gamma-GT) activity as well as SBA, glucose, ketones, total bilirubin (tBIL), and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentration were measured. OCT and AST activity and tBIL concentration correlate well with the degree of FCL. SBA concentration does not contribute well to FCL diagnosis. The majority of FCL cases appeared within the first 21 days-in-milk (DIM). The majority of moderate-to-severe and severe FCL cases arose in the first 7 DIM. Except for OCT, AST, and tBIL, none of the biochemical tests used, including SBA, had sufficient discriminatory power to differentiate reliably between mild and severe FCL because of poor sensitivity. A weak correlation between clinical signs and the extent of FCL was evident.

  7. Hepatic Lipodystrophy in Galloway Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, M; Mann, S; Hafner-Marx, A; Ignatius, A; Metzner, M

    2017-05-01

    Hepatic lipodystrophy in Galloway calves is a fatal liver disease affecting a small proportion of the Galloway breed described in different parts of Europe and North America during the past decades. The clinical findings include a diversity of neurological signs. Clinical pathology findings frequently indicate hepatobiliary disease. Postmortem examination reveals an enlarged, pale yellow, and firm liver. Histologic lesions include hepatic fibrosis, hepatic lipidosis, and bile duct hyperplasia. To date, the etiopathogenesis remains obscure. Infectious causes, intoxications, and a hereditary origin have been considered. We describe hepatic lipodystrophy in Galloway calves from an extensively farmed cow-calf operation in southern Germany. Main clinical findings in 6 calves were consistent with hepatic encephalopathy. Clinical pathology findings in 5 of 6 tested animals revealed increased concentration of total bilirubin (maximum value [MV], 54 μmol/l; reference range [RR], 250 U/g Hb). Postmortem examination in 6 calves revealed a firm, diffusely enlarged yellow liver with a finely nodular surface. Histologic lesions included hepatic fibrosis, hepatic lipidosis, and bile duct hyperplasia. Our findings add to the existing data on hepatic lipodystrophy in the Galloway breed and outline a protocol to aid in the diagnosis of this disorder.

  8. Diet-induced obesity attenuates fasting-induced hyperphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, D I; Lemus, M B; Kua, E; Andrews, Z B

    2011-07-01

    Obesity impairs arcuate (ARC) neuropeptide Y (NPY)/agouti-releated peptide (AgRP) neuronal function and renders these homeostatic neurones unresponsive to the orexigenic hormone ghrelin. In the present study, we investigated the effect of diet-induced obesity (DIO) on feeding behaviour, ARC neuronal activation and mRNA expression following another orexigenic stimulus, an overnight fast. We show that 9 weeks of high-fat feeding attenuates fasting-induced hyperphagia by suppressing ARC neuronal activation and hypothalamic NPY/AgRP mRNA expression. Thus, the lack of appropriate feeding responses in DIO mice to a fast is caused by failure ARC neurones to recognise and/or respond to orexigenic cues. We propose that fasting-induced hyperphagia is regulated not by homeostatic control of appetite in DIO mice, but rather by changes in the reward circuitry. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neuroendocrinology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Intestinal lymphangiectasis and lipidosis in rats following subchronic exposure to indole-3-carbinol via oral gavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Michael C; Crabbs, Torrie A; Wyde, Michael E; Painter, J Todd; Hill, Georgette D; Malarkey, David E; Lieuallen, Warren G; Nyska, Abraham

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the toxicity and carcinogenic potential of indole-3-carbinol (I3C), the National Toxicology Program has conducted 13-week subchronic studies in Fisher 344 rats and B6C3F1 mice, and chronic 2-year bioassays in Sprague-Dawley rats and B6C3F1 mice. While the chronic study results are not yet available, subchronic study results and short-term special evaluations of interim sacrifices in the 2-year rat bioassay are presented. F344 rats were orally gavaged ≤300 mg I3C/kg body weight 5 days a week for 13 weeks. Rats treated with ≥150 mg/kg demonstrated a dose-related dilation of lymphatics (lymphangiectasis) of the duodenum, jejunum, and mesenteric lymph nodes. Material within dilated lacteals stained positively for Oil Red O and Sudan Black, consistent with lipid. Electron microscopic evaluation confirmed extracellular lipid accumulation within the villar lamina propria, lacteals, and within villar macrophages. Analyses of hepatic and pulmonary CYP1A enzymes demonstrated dose-dependent I3C induction of CYP1A1 and 1A2. B6C3F1 mice orally gavaged ≤250 mg I3C/kg body weight did not demonstrate histopathological changes; however, hepatic CYP induction was similar to that in rats. The histopathologic changes of intestinal lymphangiectasis and lipidosis in this study share similarities with intestinal lymphangiectasia as observed in humans and dogs. However, the resultant clinical spectrum of protein-losing enteropathy was not present.

  10. Hepatic lesions in 90 captive nondomestic felids presented for autopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, J M; Newkirk, K M; McRee, A E; Whittemore, J C; Ramsay, E C

    2015-03-01

    Hepatic lesions in nondomestic felids are poorly characterized. The purpose of this study was to evaluate hepatic lesions in 90 captive, nondomestic felids including tigers, cougars, and lions. Hepatic lesions were histologically characterized as vacuolar change (lipidosis or glycogenosis), biliary cysts, biliary hyperplasia, hepatitis, necrosis, neoplasia, fibrosis, veno-occlusive disease, cholestasis, hematoma, congestion, or hemorrhage. Stepwise logistic regression analyses were performed for vacuolar change, benign biliary lesions, hepatitis, lipogranulomas, extramedullary hematopoiesis, and hepatic stellate cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia, with species as the outcome variable. Ninety cats met the inclusion criteria. Seventy livers (78%) contained 1 or more lesions. Hepatocellular vacuolar change (41/90 [46%]) was the most common lesion overall. Extramedullary hematopoiesis, lipogranulomas, and hepatic stellate cell hyperplasia were also common. One snow leopard had veno-occlusive disease. Tigers were more likely than other felids to have no significant hepatic histologic lesions (odds ratio [OR], 12.687; P = .002), and lions were more likely to have biliary cysts (OR, 5.97; P = .021). Six animals (7%) died of hepatic disease: cholangiocellular carcinoma (n = 2) and 1 each of hepatic lipidosis, hepatocellular necrosis, pyogranulomatous hepatitis, and suppurative cholecystitis. Hepatocellular iron and copper accumulations were present in 72 of 90 (80%) and 10 of 90 (11%) sections, respectively. Sinusoidal fibrosis was common (74/90 [82%]) and primarily centrilobular (65/74 [88%]). Hepatocellular iron, copper, and fibrosis were not significantly associated with hepatic lesions. Primary hepatic disease was not a common cause of death in nondomestic felids in this study. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Fasting-induced liver GADD45β restrains hepatic fatty acid uptake and improves metabolic health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmeister, Jessica; Zota, Annika; Sijmonsma, Tjeerd P; Seibert, Oksana; Cıngır, Şahika; Schmidt, Kathrin; Vallon, Nicola; de Guia, Roldan M; Niopek, Katharina; Berriel Diaz, Mauricio; Maida, Adriano; Blüher, Matthias; Okun, Jürgen G; Herzig, Stephan; Rose, Adam J

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that repeated short-term nutrient withdrawal (i.e. fasting) has pleiotropic actions to promote organismal health and longevity. Despite this, the molecular physiological mechanisms by which fasting is protective against metabolic disease are largely unknown. Here, we show that, metabolic control, particularly systemic and liver lipid metabolism, is aberrantly regulated in the fasted state in mouse models of metabolic dysfunction. Liver transcript assays between lean/healthy and obese/diabetic mice in fasted and fed states uncovered "growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible" GADD45β as a dysregulated gene transcript during fasting in several models of metabolic dysfunction including ageing, obesity/pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes, in both mice and humans. Using whole-body knockout mice as well as liver/hepatocyte-specific gain- and loss-of-function strategies, we revealed a role for liver GADD45β in the coordination of liver fatty acid uptake, through cytoplasmic retention of FABP1, ultimately impacting obesity-driven hyperglycaemia. In summary, fasting stress-induced GADD45β represents a liver-specific molecular event promoting adaptive metabolic function. © 2016 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  12. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disease Type 1 (von Gierke) Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy ( ... Disease Type 1 (von Gierke) Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy ( ...

  13. Interactive vs. automatic ultrasound image segmentation methods for staging hepatic lipidosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijers, G.; Starke, A.; Haudum, A.; Thijssen, J.M.; Rehage, J.; Korte, C.L. de

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that automatic segmentation of vessels in ultrasound (US) images can produce similar or better results in grading fatty livers than interactive segmentation. A study was performed in postpartum dairy cows (N=151), as an animal model of human fatty

  14. Hepatic Lipidosis in a Research Colony of Big Brown Bats (Eptesicus fuscus)

    OpenAIRE

    Snyder, Jessica M; Treuting, Piper M; Brabb, Thea; Miller, Kimberly E; Covey, Ellen; Lencioni, Karen L

    2015-01-01

    During a nearby construction project, a sudden decrease in food intake and guano production occurred in an outdoor colony of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), and one animal was found dead. Investigation revealed that the project was generating a large amount of noise and vibration, which disturbed the bats’ feeding. Consequently the bats were moved into an indoor enclosure away from the construction noises, and the colony resumed eating. Over the next 3 wk, additional animals presented with...

  15. Fasting-induced adipose factor/angiopoietin-like protein 4: a potential target for dyslipidemia?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandbergen, F.J.; Dijk, van S.; Müller, M.R.; Kersten, A.H.

    2006-01-01

    Recently, several proteins with homology to angiopoietins have been discovered. Three members of this new group, designated angiopoietin-like proteins (ANGPTLs), have been linked to regulation of energy metabolism. This review will focus on the fasting-induced adipose factor (FIAF)/ANGPTL4 as an

  16. Impact of training state on fasting-induced regulation of adipose tissue metabolism in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertholdt, Lærke; Gudiksen, Anders; Stankiewicz, Tomasz

    2018-01-01

    Recruitment of fatty acids from adipose tissue is essential during fasting. However, the molecular mechanisms behind fasting-induced metabolic regulation in human adipose tissue and the potential impact of training state in this are unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investig......Recruitment of fatty acids from adipose tissue is essential during fasting. However, the molecular mechanisms behind fasting-induced metabolic regulation in human adipose tissue and the potential impact of training state in this are unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study...... was to investigate 1) fasting-induced regulation of lipolysis and glyceroneogenesis in human adipose tissue as well as 2) the impact of training state on basal oxidative capacity and fasting-induced metabolic regulation in human adipose tissue. Untrained (VO2max 55ml......RNA content were higher in trained subjects than untrained subjects. In addition, trained subjects had higher adipose tissue hormone sensitive lipase Ser660 phosphorylation and adipose triglyceride lipase protein content as well as higher plasma free fatty acids concentration than untrained subjects during...

  17. Beyond Parasitism: Hepatic Lesions in Stranded Harbor Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) Without Trematode (Campula oblonga) Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiemstra, S; Harkema, L; Wiersma, L C M; Keesler, R I

    2015-11-01

    The liver can be an indicator of the health of an individual or of a group, which can be especially important to identify agents that can cause disease in multiple species. To better characterize hepatic lesions in stranded harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena), we analyzed the livers from 39 porpoises that stranded along the Dutch coast between December 2008 and December 2012. The animals were selected because they had either gross or histologic liver lesions with minimal autolysis and no evidence of trematode (Campula oblonga) infection. The most common finding was a chronic hepatitis (22/39, 56.4%) that was often associated with significant disease reported in another organ system (18/22, 81.8%), of which 14 had chronic systemic disease. One case of chronic hepatitis was so severe as to mimic lymphoma, which could only be differentiated with immunohistochemistry. The other common lesions were lipidosis (11/39, 28.2%) and acute hepatitis (6/39, 15.4%), often in combination with mild chronic changes. Overall, although there were no consistent trends in etiology for the hepatic lesions, lipidosis was associated with starvation (8/11, 72.7%) and acute disease, and acute hepatitis was associated with bacterial infections and sepsis (6/6, 100%). © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Workshops Follow Us Home Health Information Liver Disease Hepatitis (Viral) Hepatitis C Related Topics English English Español Section Navigation Hepatitis (Viral) What Is Viral Hepatitis? Hepatitis A Hepatitis B ...

  19. Cholesterol regulates DAF-16 nuclear localization and fasting-induced longevity in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihara, Akiko; Uno, Masaharu; Miyatake, Koichi; Honjoh, Sakiko; Nishida, Eisuke

    2017-01-01

    Cholesterol has attracted significant attention as a possible lifespan regulator. It has been reported that serum cholesterol levels have an impact on mortality due to age-related disorders such as cardiovascular disease. Diet is also known to be an important lifespan regulator. Dietary restriction retards the onset of age-related diseases and extends lifespan in various organisms. Although cholesterol and dietary restriction are known to be lifespan regulators, it remains to be established whether cholesterol is involved in dietary restriction-induced longevity. Here, we show that cholesterol deprivation suppresses longevity induced by intermittent fasting, which is one of the dietary restriction regimens that effectively extend lifespan. We also found that cholesterol is required for the fasting-induced upregulation of transcriptional target genes such as the insulin/IGF-1 pathway effector DAF-16 and that cholesterol deprivation suppresses the long lifespan of the insulin/IGF-1 receptor daf-2 mutant. Remarkably, we found that cholesterol plays an important role in the fasting-induced nuclear accumulation of DAF-16. Moreover, knockdown of the cholesterol-binding protein NSBP-1, which has been shown to bind to DAF-16 in a cholesterol-dependent manner and to regulate DAF-16 activity, suppresses both fasting-induced longevity and DAF-16 nuclear accumulation. Furthermore, this suppression was not additive to the cholesterol deprivation-induced suppression, which suggests that NSBP-1 mediates, at least in part, the action of cholesterol to promote fasting-induced longevity and DAF-16 nuclear accumulation. These findings identify a novel role for cholesterol in the regulation of lifespan. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Related Liver Disease Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Autoimmune Hepatitis Benign Liver Tumors Biliary Atresia Cirrhosis of the ... Disease Type 1 (von Gierke) Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of ...

  1. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (ICP) Jaundice In Newborns ... are the common causes of cirrhosis? Hepatitis B & C Alcohol-related Liver Disease Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver ...

  2. Manejo terapéutico de lipidosis hepática felina por Mycoplasma haemofelis

    OpenAIRE

    Molina¹, Víctor Manuel; Pacheco, César

    2016-01-01

    Describir el manejo terapéutico de la lipidosis hepática en un felino infectado por Mycoplasma haemofelis y la evaluación de su efectividad terapéutica en Colombia. Un felino hembra, de 1 año de edad, raza Balinés, presentó un cuadro febril, con ictericia, apatía, anorexia, linfopenia y anemia normocítica hipocrómica. El felino a la ecografía mostró hepatomegalia y cambios de ecotextura del hígado, además los valores de enzimas hepáticas aumentados. Fue diagnosticada con presencia de Mycoplas...

  3. Basis of aggravated hepatic lipid metabolism by chronic stress in high-fat diet-fed rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ying; Lin, Min; Wang, Xiaobin; Guo, Keke; Wang, Shanshan; Sun, Mengfei; Wang, Jiao; Han, Xiaoyu; Fu, Ting; Hu, Yang; Fu, Jihua

    2015-03-01

    Our previous study has demonstrated that long-term stress, known as chronic stress (CS), can aggravate nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed rat. In this study, we tried to figure out which lipid metabolic pathways were impacted by CS in the HFD-fed rat. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (6 weeks of age, n = 8 per group) were fed with either standard diet or HFD with or without CS exposure for 8 weeks. Hepatic lipidosis, biochemical, hormonal, and lipid profile markers in serum and liver, and enzymes involved in de novo lipogenesis (DNL) of fatty acids (FAs) and cholesterol, β-oxidation, FAs uptake, triglycerides synthesis, and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) assembly in the liver were detected. CS exposure reduced hepatic lipidosis but further elevated hepatic VLDL content with aggravated dyslipidemia in the HFD-fed rats. There was a synergism between CS and HFD on VLDL production and dyslipidemia. PCR and western blot assays showed that CS exposure significantly promoted hepatic VLDL assembly in rats, especially in the HFD-fed rats, while it had little impact on DNL, β-oxidation, FAs uptake, and triglycerides synthesis in the HFD-fed rats. This phenomenon was in accordance with elevated serum glucocorticoid level. The critical influence of CS exposure on hepatic lipid metabolism in the HFD-fed rats is VLDL assembly which might be regulated by glucocorticoid.

  4. Fasting-induced intestinal damage is mediated by oxidative and inflammatory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdeen, S; Mathew, T C; Khan, I; Dashti, H; Asfar, S

    2009-05-01

    Green tea has been shown to repair fasting-induced mucosal damage in rat intestine. The aim of this study was to elucidate the underlying mechanism. Five groups of rats were used. Group 1 had free access to chow diet and water, and those in group 2 were fasted for 3 days. Animals in group 3 were fasted for 3 days, then were allowed drinking water for a further 7 days. Groups 4 and 5 were fasted for 3 days, then given drinking water containing green tea or vitamin E respectively for 7 days. Blood was collected for estimation of total plasma antioxidants, and jejunal samples were used for immunohistochemical analysis of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and for estimation of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Use of green tea was associated with a significant increase in total plasma antioxidants (P fasting-induced damage to the intestinal mucosa by its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect. 2009 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Hepatic lesions in cetaceans stranded in the Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, J R; Pérez, J; Arbelo, M; Andrada, M; Hidalgo, M; Gómez-Villamandos, J C; Van Den Ingh, T; Fernández, A

    2004-03-01

    This article describes the gross, histopathologic, and ultrastructural findings of the livers of cetaceans stranded on the coast of the Canary Islands between 1992 and 2000. A total of 135 cetaceans were included in the study, among which 25 were common dolphins (Delphinus delphis), 23 Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis), 19 striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba), and 15 other species of dolphins and whales. The most common lesion observed in these animals was a nonspecific chronic reactive hepatitis (47/135), followed by hyaline intracytoplasmic inclusions in hepatocytes (33/135). Parasitic cholangitis was detected in 8/135 animals, whereas hepatic lipidosis was presented in 7/135 animals. The ultrastructure of hyaline hepatocytic cytoplasmic inclusions is described, and possible causes of these inclusions are discussed.

  6. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (ICP) Jaundice In Newborns Diseases of the Liver ... A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (ICP) Jaundice In Newborns Diseases of the Liver ...

  7. Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home A-Z Health Topics Viral hepatitis Viral hepatitis > A-Z Health Topics Viral hepatitis (PDF, 90 ... liver. Source: National Cancer Institute Learn more about hepatitis Watch a video. Learn who is at risk ...

  8. Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... B Entire Lesson Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For Veterans and the Public Veterans ... in their blood (sometimes referred to as the hepatitis B viral load) and an unusually high level of a ...

  9. Lipidosis hepática asociada con malnutrición y preñez en dos perras

    OpenAIRE

    Giordano, Andrea; Arias, Daniel Osvaldo; Araus, S.; Cohen, M.; Gobello, Cristina

    2004-01-01

    En algunos países latinoamericanos se observó que la ascites ocurre en diferentes momentos post parto en perras alimentadas con dietas hipoproteicas. El objetivo de este articulo fue describir 2 casos de perras con ascitis asociada a lipidosis hepática desarrollada después del parto. Las muestras de sangre evidenciaron anormarmalidades compatibles con enfermedad hepática. La paracentesis abdominal reveló un trasudado aséptico y la ultrasonografía hiperecogenicidad hepática. Se arribó al diagn...

  10. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 (von Gierke) Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (ICP) Jaundice ... diseases. What are the common causes of cirrhosis? Hepatitis B & C Alcohol-related Liver Disease Non-alcoholic Fatty ...

  11. Hepatitis Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B.

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B ...

  12. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Donate Today Enroll in 123 What is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy or PSE, is a condition that causes temporary ...

  13. Fasting induces the generation of serum thyronine-binding globulin in Zucker rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, R.A.; Rajatanavin, R.; Moring, A.F.; Braverman, L.E.

    1985-01-01

    Five-month-old lean and obese Zucker rats were fasted for up to 7 days (lean rats) or 28 days (obese rats), and serum total and free T4 and T3 concentrations, percent free T4 and T3 by equilibrium dialysis, and the binding of [ 125 I] T4 to serum proteins by gel electrophoresis were measured. In the lean rats, a 4- or 7-day fast resulted in significant decreases in serum total and free T4 and T3 concentrations. There was a decrease in the percent free T3 after 7 days of starvation. In contrast, a 4- or 7-day fast did not alter any of these variables in the obese rats. However, after 14 or more days of starvation, serum total T4 and T3 concentrations increased, and the percent free T4 and T3 decreased, resulting in no change in the serum free T4 or T3 concentrations in the obese rats. The percent of [ 125 I]T4 bound to serum thyronine-binding globulin increased and the percent bound to thyronine-binding prealbumin decreased with the duration of the fast in both the lean and obese rats. The increase in serum thyronine-binding globulin binding of T4 can explain the increase in serum total T4 and T3 concentrations, the decrease in percent free T4 and T3, and the normal free hormone concentration in the long term fasted obese rats. The findings in the lean rats appear to be due to a combination of the known central hypothyroidism that occurs during 4-7 days of fasting and the fasting-induced changes in T4 binding in serum. Changes in T4 and T3 binding in serum during fasting in the rat must be considered when the effects of fasting on serum concentrations of the thyroid hormones, thyroid hormone kinetics, and the peripheral action of the thyroid hormones are evaluated

  14. Hepatitis C: Managing Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pain: Entire Lesson Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For Veterans and the Public Veterans and the Public Home Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis C Home Getting ...

  15. The microRNA machinery regulates fasting-induced changes in gene expression and longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogure, Akiko; Uno, Masaharu; Ikeda, Takako; Nishida, Eisuke

    2017-07-07

    Intermittent fasting (IF) is a dietary restriction regimen that extends the lifespans of Caenorhabditis elegans and mammals by inducing changes in gene expression. However, how IF induces these changes and promotes longevity remains unclear. One proposed mechanism involves gene regulation by microRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding RNAs (∼22 nucleotides) that repress gene expression and whose expression can be altered by fasting. To test this proposition, we examined the role of the miRNA machinery in fasting-induced transcriptional changes and longevity in C. elegans We revealed that fasting up-regulated the expression of the miRNA-induced silencing complex (miRISC) components, including Argonaute and GW182, and the miRNA-processing enzyme DRSH-1 (the ortholog of the Drosophila Drosha enzyme). Our lifespan measurements demonstrated that IF-induced longevity was suppressed by knock-out or knockdown of miRISC components and was completely inhibited by drsh-1 ablation. Remarkably, drsh-1 ablation inhibited the fasting-induced changes in the expression of the target genes of DAF-16, the insulin/IGF-1 signaling effector in C. elegans Fasting-induced transcriptome alterations were substantially and modestly suppressed in the drsh-1 null mutant and the null mutant of ain-1 , a gene encoding GW182, respectively. Moreover, miRNA array analyses revealed that the expression levels of numerous miRNAs changed after 2 days of fasting. These results indicate that components of the miRNA machinery, especially the miRNA-processing enzyme DRSH-1, play an important role in mediating IF-induced longevity via the regulation of fasting-induced changes in gene expression. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase Expression in Mouse Liver Is Increased in Obesity- and Fasting-Induced Steatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jialin; Kulkarni, Supriya R.; Li, Liya

    2012-01-01

    UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (Ugt) catalyze phase II conjugation reactions with glucuronic acid, which enhances chemical polarity and the elimination from the body. Few studies have addressed whether Ugt expression and activity are affected by liver disease, such as steatosis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether steatosis induced by obesity or fasting could affect liver Ugt mRNA expression and activity. Male C57BL/6J and Lepob/ob (ob/ob) mice were fed ad libitum or food was withheld for 24 h. In steatotic livers of ob/ob mice, Ugt1a1, -1a6, -1a9, -2a3, -3a1, and -3a2 mRNA expression increased. Fasting, which also induced steatosis, increased hepatic Ugt1a1, -1a6, -1a7, -1a9, -2b1, -2b5, -2a3, -3a1, and -3a2 mRNA expression in mouse liver. Likewise, acetaminophen glucuronidation increased by 47% in hepatic microsomes from ob/ob mice compared with that in C57BL/6J mice, but not after fasting. In both steatosis models, Ugt induction was accompanied by increased aryl hydrocarbon receptor, constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α, pregnane X receptor, nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α mRNA expression. In addition, fasting increased CAR, PPAR, and Nrf2 binding activity. The work points to hepatic triglyceride concentrations corresponding with nuclear receptor and Ugt expression. The findings indicate that steatosis significantly alters hepatic Ugt expression and activity, which could have a significant impact on determining circulating hormone levels, drug efficacy, and environmental chemical clearance. PMID:22031624

  17. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase expression in mouse liver is increased in obesity- and fasting-induced steatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jialin; Kulkarni, Supriya R; Li, Liya; Slitt, Angela L

    2012-02-01

    UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (Ugt) catalyze phase II conjugation reactions with glucuronic acid, which enhances chemical polarity and the elimination from the body. Few studies have addressed whether Ugt expression and activity are affected by liver disease, such as steatosis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether steatosis induced by obesity or fasting could affect liver Ugt mRNA expression and activity. Male C57BL/6J and Lep(ob/ob) (ob/ob) mice were fed ad libitum or food was withheld for 24 h. In steatotic livers of ob/ob mice, Ugt1a1, -1a6, -1a9, -2a3, -3a1, and -3a2 mRNA expression increased. Fasting, which also induced steatosis, increased hepatic Ugt1a1, -1a6, -1a7, -1a9, -2b1, -2b5, -2a3, -3a1, and -3a2 mRNA expression in mouse liver. Likewise, acetaminophen glucuronidation increased by 47% in hepatic microsomes from ob/ob mice compared with that in C57BL/6J mice, but not after fasting. In both steatosis models, Ugt induction was accompanied by increased aryl hydrocarbon receptor, constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α, pregnane X receptor, nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α mRNA expression. In addition, fasting increased CAR, PPAR, and Nrf2 binding activity. The work points to hepatic triglyceride concentrations corresponding with nuclear receptor and Ugt expression. The findings indicate that steatosis significantly alters hepatic Ugt expression and activity, which could have a significant impact on determining circulating hormone levels, drug efficacy, and environmental chemical clearance.

  18. Keap1-knockdown decreases fasting-induced fatty liver via altered lipid metabolism and decreased fatty acid mobilization from adipose tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialin Xu

    Full Text Available AIMS: The purpose of this study was to determine whether Nrf2 activation, via Keap1-knockdown (Keap1-KD, regulates lipid metabolism and mobilization induced by food deprivation (e.g. fasting. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male C57BL/6 (WT and Keap1-KD mice were either fed ad libitum or food deprived for 24 hours. After fasting, WT mice exhibited a marked increase in hepatic lipid accumulation, but Keap1-KD mice had an attenuated increase of lipid accumulation, along with reduced expression of lipogenic genes (acetyl-coA carboxylase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, and fatty acid synthase and reduced expression of genes related to fatty acid transport, such as fatty acid translocase/CD36 (CD36 and Fatty acid transport protein (FATP 2, which may attribute to the reduced induction of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (Ppar α signaling in the liver. Additionally, enhanced Nrf2 activity by Keap1-KD increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK phosphorylation in liver. In white adipose tissue, enhanced Nrf2 activity did not change the lipolysis rate by fasting, but reduced expression of fatty acid transporters--CD36 and FATP1, via a PPARα-dependent mechanism, which impaired fatty acid transport from white adipose tissue to periphery circulation system, and resulted in increased white adipose tissue fatty acid content. Moreover, enhanced Nrf2 activity increased glucose tolerance and Akt phosphorylation levels upon insulin administration, suggesting Nrf2 signaling pathway plays a key role in regulating insulin signaling and enhanced insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle. CONCLUSION: Enhanced Nrf2 activity via Keap1-KD decreased fasting-induced steatosis, pointing to an important function of Nrf2 on lipid metabolism under the condition of nutrient deprivation.

  19. Long-Term Adult Feline Liver Organoid Cultures for Disease Modeling of Hepatic Steatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedwig S. Kruitwagen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Hepatic steatosis is a highly prevalent liver disease, yet research is hampered by the lack of tractable cellular and animal models. Steatosis also occurs in cats, where it can cause severe hepatic failure. Previous studies demonstrate the potential of liver organoids for modeling genetic diseases. To examine the possibility of using organoids to model steatosis, we established a long-term feline liver organoid culture with adult liver stem cell characteristics and differentiation potential toward hepatocyte-like cells. Next, organoids from mouse, human, dog, and cat liver were provided with fatty acids. Lipid accumulation was observed in all organoids and interestingly, feline liver organoids accumulated more lipid droplets than human organoids. Finally, we demonstrate effects of interference with β-oxidation on lipid accumulation in feline liver organoids. In conclusion, feline liver organoids can be successfully cultured and display a predisposition for lipid accumulation, making them an interesting model in hepatic steatosis research. : In this study Kruitwagen and colleagues establish and characterize a feline liver organoid culture, which has adult stem cell properties and can be differentiated toward hepatocyte-like cells. They propose liver organoids as a tool to model hepatic steatosis and show that feline liver organoids accumulate more lipids than human organoids when provided with excess fatty acids. Keywords: feline liver organoids, adult liver stem cells, hepatic steatosis, disease modeling, feline hepatic lipidosis, species differences

  20. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... friend, spouse, life partner, parent, sibling or other family member. What is HE? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred ... disease is. It’s important for you and your family to become familiar with the signs of Hepatic ...

  1. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... Your Story Spread the Word Give While You Shop Contact Us Donate Now Hepatic Encephalopathy Back Hepatic ... Your Story Spread the Word Give While You Shop Contact Us Donate Now Help ALF Improve This ...

  2. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... Now Hepatic Encephalopathy Back Hepatic Encephalopathy is a brain disorder that develops in some individuals with liver ... is a condition that causes temporary worsening of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When ...

  3. Alcohol and Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Living with Hepatitis » Daily Living: Alcohol Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... heavy drinking, most heavy drinkers have developed cirrhosis. Hepatitis C and cirrhosis In general, someone with hepatitis ...

  4. Hepatitis C: Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public Home » Hepatitis C » Hepatitis C Treatment Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Hepatitis C Treatment for Veterans and the Public Treatment ...

  5. Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis C, is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). It usually spreads through contact with ... childbirth. Most people who are infected with hepatitis C don't have any symptoms for years. If ...

  6. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Caregiver Support Caregiver Stories Home › What is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Why Your Liver is Important The Connection Between HE and Liver ... Why it’s Important to Treat HE Symptoms of Liver Failure Glossary of terms ... is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy ...

  7. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregiver Support Caregiver Stories Home › What is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Why Your Liver is Important The Connection Between HE and Liver ... Why it’s Important to Treat HE Symptoms of Liver Failure Glossary of terms ... is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy ...

  8. Hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis A, is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). The disease spreads through contact with ... suggest medicines to help relieve your symptoms. The hepatitis A vaccine can prevent HAV. Good hygiene can also ...

  9. Evaluation of hepatic steatosis in dogs with congenital portosystemic shunts using Oil-Red-O staining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, GB; Luff, J; Daniel, L; Van den Bergh, R.

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this prospective study were to quantify steatosis in dogs with congenital portosystemic shunts using a fat-specific stain, to compare the amount of steatosis in different lobes of the liver, and to evaluate intra- and inter-Observer variability in lipid point counting. Computer-assisted point counting of lipid droplets was undertaken following Oil-Red-O staining in 21 dogs with congenital portosystemic shunts and 9 control dogs. Dogs with congenital portosystemic shunts had significantly more small lipid droplets ( 9 μ) and lipogranulomas per tissue point (p = 0.023 and 0.01, respectively). In conclusion, computer-assisted counting of lipid droplets following Oil Red O staining of liver biopsy samples allows objective measurement and detection of significant differences between dogs with CPS and normal dogs. This method will allow future evaluation of the relationship between different presentations of CPS (anatomy, age, breed) and lipidosis, as well as the impact of hepatic lipidosis on outcomes following surgical shunt attenuation. PMID:23528942

  10. Hypoksisk hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amadid, Hanan; Schiødt, Frank Vinholt

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxic hepatitis (HH), also known as ischaemic hepatitis or shock liver, is an acute liver injury caused by hepatic hypoxia. Cardiac failure, respiratory failure and septic shock are the main underlying conditions. In each of these conditions, several haemodynamic mechanisms lead to hepatic...... hypoxia. A shock state is observed in only 50% of cases. Thus, shock liver and ischaemic hepatitis are misnomers. HH can be a diagnostic pitfall but the diagnosis can be established when three criteria are met. Prognosis is poor and prompt identification and treatment of the underlying conditions...

  11. Fasting induces basolateral uptake transporters of the SLC family in the liver via HNF4alpha and PGC1alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Christoph G; Martin, Ina V; Porn, Anne C; Voigt, Sebastian; Gartung, Carsten; Trautwein, Christian; Geier, Andreas

    2007-09-01

    Fasting induces numerous adaptive changes in metabolism by several central signaling pathways, the most important represented by the HNF4alpha/PGC-1alpha-pathway. Because HNF4alpha has been identified as central regulator of basolateral bile acid transporters and a previous study reports increased basolateral bile acid uptake into the liver during fasting, we hypothesized that HNF4alpha is involved in fasting-induced bile acid uptake via upregulation of basolateral bile acid transporters. In rats, mRNA of Ntcp, Oatp1, and Oatp2 were significantly increased after 48 h of fasting. Protein expression as determined by Western blot showed significant increases for all three transporters 72 h after the onset of fasting. Whereas binding activity of HNF1alpha in electrophoretic mobility shift assays remained unchanged, HNF4alpha binding activity to the Ntcp promoter was increased significantly. In line with this result, we found significantly increased mRNA expression of HNF4alpha and PGC-1alpha. Functional studies in HepG2 cells revealed an increased endogenous NTCP mRNA expression upon cotransfection with either HNF4alpha, PGC-1alpha, or a combination of both. We conclude that upregulation of the basolateral bile acid transporters Ntcp, Oatp1, and Oatp2 in fasted rats is mediated via the HNF4alpha/PGC-1alpha pathway.

  12. Glucose supplementation does not interfere with fasting-induced protection against renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, Mariëlle; van de Ven, Marieke; Mitchell, James R; van den Engel, Sandra; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; Ijzermans, Jan N M; de Bruin, Ron W F

    2011-10-15

    Preoperative fasting induces robust protection against renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in mice but is considered overcautious and possibly detrimental for postoperative recovery in humans. Furthermore, fasting seems to conflict with reported benefits of preoperative nutritional enhancement with carbohydrate-rich drinks. Here, we investigated whether preoperative ingestion of a glucose solution interferes with fasting-induced protection against renal I/R injury. Mice were randomized into the following groups: fasted for 3 days with access to water (fasted) or a glucose solution (fasted+glc) and fed ad libitum with water (fed) or a glucose solution (fed+glc). After induction of bilateral renal I/R injury, all animals had free access to food and water. Calorie intake, body weight, insulin sensitivity, kidney function, and animal survival were determined. Fed+glc mice had a comparable daily calorie intake as fed mice, but 50% of those calories were obtained from the glucose solution. Fasted+glc mice had a daily calorie intake of approximately 75% of the intake of both fed groups. This largely prevented the substantial body weight loss seen in fasted animals. Preoperative insulin sensitivity was significantly improved in fasted+glc mice versus fed mice. After I/R injury, kidney function and animal survival were superior in both fasted groups. The benefits of fasting and preoperative nutritional enhancement with carbohydrates are not mutually exclusive and may be a clinically feasible regimen to protect against renal I/R injury.

  13. Hepatitis A through E (Viral Hepatitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Wilson Disease Hepatitis (Viral) View or Print All Sections What is Viral Hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is an infection that causes liver inflammation ...

  14. Hepatitis Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Ogholikhan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver.

  15. Hepatitis Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B.

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver. PMID:26978406

  16. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone Past Issues / Spring 2009 Table ... from all walks of life are affected by hepatitis, especially hepatitis C, the most common form of ...

  17. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plan Long-Term Considerations Patient Support Finding Support Services Peer Support Groups Financial Assistance Support for My ... is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Why Your Liver is ...

  18. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapter 3 - Hepatitis B Chapter 3 - Hepatitis E Hepatitis C Deborah Holtzman INFECTIOUS AGENT Hepatitis C virus ( ... mother to child. Map 3-05. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection 1 PDF Version (printable) 1 ...

  19. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3 - Helminths, Soil-Transmitted Chapter 3 - Hepatitis B Hepatitis A Noele P. Nelson INFECTIOUS AGENT Hepatitis A ... hepatitis/HAV Table 3-02. Vaccines to prevent hepatitis A VACCINE TRADE NAME (MANUFACTURER) AGE (Y) DOSE ...

  20. Hepatitis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hepatitis KidsHealth / For Parents / Hepatitis Print en español Hepatitis What Is Hepatitis? Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. The ...

  1. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapter 3 - Hepatitis A Chapter 3 - Hepatitis C Hepatitis B Francisco Averhoff INFECTIOUS AGENT Hepatitis B virus ( ... progression of disease. Map 3-04. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection 1 PDF Version (printable) 1 ...

  2. Hepatitis C: Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Public Home » Hepatitis C » Treatment Decisions Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... can I find out about participating in a hepatitis C clinical trial? Many trials are being conducted ...

  3. Hepatitis C: Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Public Home Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis C Home Getting Tested Just Diagnosed Treatment Choice Program ... Pain Mental Health Sex and Sexuality (for Hepatitis C) Success Stories FAQs For Health Care Providers Provider ...

  4. Cocaine induces a mixed lysosomal lipidosis in cultured fibroblasts, by inactivation of acid sphingomyelinase and inhibition of phospholipase A1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassogne, Marie-Cecile; Lizarraga, Chantal; N'Kuli, Francisca; Van Bambeke, Francoise; Van Binst, Roger; Wallemacq, Pierre; Tulkens, Paul M.; Mingeot-Leclercq, Marie-Paule; Levade, Thierry; Courtoy, Pierre J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports that cocaine may induce a lysosomal storage disorder. Indeed, culture of Rat-1 fibroblasts with 250-500 μM cocaine induced after 2-3 days a major accumulation in lysosomes of electron-dense lamellar structures. By subcellular fractionation, this was reflected by a selective decrease of the buoyant density of several lysosomal enzymes, indicating lysosomal lipid overload. Biochemical analysis confirmed an increased cellular content of major phospholipids and sphingomyelin, but not of cholesterol. Cocaine, a membrane-permeant weak base, is concentrated by acidotropic sequestration, because its accumulation was abrogated by the proton ionophore, monensin and the vacuolar ATPase inhibitor, bafilomycin A 1 . At its estimated lysosomal concentration, cocaine almost completely inhibited phospholipase A 1 activity on liposomes. Cell incubation with cocaine, but not with its inactive metabolite, benzoylecgonine, rapidly inactivated acid sphingomyelinase, as reflected by a 10-fold decrease in V max with identical K m . Acid sphingomyelinase inactivation was fully prevented by the thiol proteinases inhibitors, leupeptin and E64, indicating that cocaine induces selective sphingomyelinase proteolysis. Upon cocaine removal, acid sphingomyelinase activity was rapidly restored, pointing to its fast turnover. In contrast, the cellular content of several other lysosomal hydrolases was increased up to 2-fold. Together, these data show that acidotropic accumulation of cocaine in lysosomes rapidly inhibits acid phospholipase A 1 and inactivates acid sphingomyelinase, which can explain induction of a mixed lysosomal lipidosis

  5. Evidence Supporting a Role for Constitutive Ghrelin Receptor Signaling in Fasting-Induced Hyperphagia in Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Gimena; Cabral, Agustina; Andreoli, María F; Labarthe, Alexandra; M'Kadmi, Céline; Ramos, Jorge G; Marie, Jacky; Fehrentz, Jean-Alain; Epelbaum, Jacques; Tolle, Virginie; Perello, Mario

    2018-02-01

    Ghrelin is a potent orexigenic peptide hormone that acts through the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), a G protein-coupled receptor highly expressed in the hypothalamus. In vitro studies have shown that GHSR displays a high constitutive activity, whose physiological relevance is uncertain. As GHSR gene expression in the hypothalamus is known to increase in fasting conditions, we tested the hypothesis that constitutive GHSR activity at the hypothalamic level drives the fasting-induced hyperphagia. We found that refed wild-type (WT) mice displayed a robust hyperphagia that continued for 5 days after refeeding and changed their food intake daily pattern. Fasted WT mice showed an increase in plasma ghrelin levels, as well as in GHSR expression levels and ghrelin binding sites in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. When fasting-refeeding responses were evaluated in ghrelin- or GHSR-deficient mice, only the latter displayed an ∼15% smaller hyperphagia, compared with WT mice. Finally, fasting-induced hyperphagia of WT mice was significantly smaller in mice centrally treated with the GHSR inverse agonist K-(D-1-Nal)-FwLL-NH2, compared with mice treated with vehicle, whereas it was unaffected in mice centrally treated with the GHSR antagonists D-Lys3-growth hormone-releasing peptide 6 or JMV2959. Taken together, genetic models and pharmacological results support the notion that constitutive GHSR activity modulates the magnitude of the compensatory hyperphagia triggered by fasting. Thus, the hypothalamic GHSR signaling system could affect the set point of daily food intake, independently of plasma ghrelin levels, in situations of negative energy balance. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  6. Alcoholic Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... yellow color. Confusion, drowsiness and slurred speech (hepatic encephalopathy). A damaged liver has trouble removing toxins from your body. The ... of toxins can damage your brain. Severe hepatic encephalopathy can result in ... of the liver frequently leads to liver failure. Kidney failure. A ...

  7. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to continue to work to my full capacity? Will I be able to drive? Patient Stories Angie M. Caregiver for Brother Charles DiAngelo Hepatic Encephalopathy Jason Dedmon Alcohol-related Cirrhosis ...

  8. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your body when your liver isn’t working well, it may affect your brain and cause HE. ... it apparent that the liver is not doing well. These could be the symptoms of Hepatic Encephalopathy ( ...

  9. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bad. It sends the good things – such as vitamins and nutrients – into your bloodstream for your body ... for Wife Joyce O. Caregiver for Mother Lynette K. Hepatic Encephalopathy Samantha W. Caregiver for Husband Stan ...

  10. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Get Worse? How is HE Diagnosed? Prior to Treatment Who treats HE? Preparing for your Medical Appointment Hepatic Encephalopathy Treatment Options Treatment Basics Treatment Medications Importance of Adhering ...

  11. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... become familiar with the signs of Hepatic Encephalopathy so you can tell your doctor right away if ... with continuous treatment, HE can usually be controlled. So it’s important to tell your doctor about any ...

  12. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... build-up and painful swelling of the legs (edema) and abdomen (ascites) or hepatic encephalopathy. For more ... build up and painful swelling of the legs (edema) and abdomen (ascites) Bruising and bleeding easily Enlarged ...

  13. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Treatment Who treats HE? Preparing for your Medical Appointment Hepatic Encephalopathy Treatment Options Treatment Basics Treatment ... treatment. Being a fully-informed participant in your medical care is an important factor in staying as ...

  14. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hepatic Encephalopathy so you can tell your doctor right away if you think you may have it. ... American Liver Foundation © 2018 American Liver Foundation. All rights reserved. Funding for the HE123 - Diagnosis, Treatment and ...

  15. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... important for you and your family to become familiar with the signs of Hepatic Encephalopathy so you ... team evaluates the person’s overall physical and mental health, plan to pay for transplant related medical expenses, ...

  16. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Symptoms to look for Caregiver Support Caregiver Stories Home › What is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Why Your Liver is ... questions about HE, one step at a time. Home About Us Ways to Give Contact Us Privacy ...

  17. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... responsible for the daily needs of another person. Caregivers can be a friend, spouse, life partner, parent, sibling or other family member. What is HE? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as ...

  18. Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... viral load (the amount of HCV in your blood), imaging tests, and biopsy results. Treatment is especially important for people who are showing signs liver fibrosis or scarring. Medicines used to treat hepatitis C ...

  19. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that can be corrected . It may also occur as part of a chronic problem from liver disease ... worse over time. Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy or PSE, is a condition that ...

  20. Hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Acute liver failure requires a stay in the hospital for monitoring and treatment. Some people with acute liver failure may need a liver transplant. Prevention The hepatitis A vaccine can prevent infection with the virus. The vaccine is typically given ...

  1. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OVERVIEW Donate Now Join an Event Volunteer Your Time The Legacy Society Make Gifts of Stock Donate ... problem from liver disease that gets worse over time. Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy ...

  2. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Patient Advisory Council Media Center Careers How You Can Help OVERVIEW Donate Now Join an Event Volunteer ... Hepatic Encephalopathy is a short-term problem that can be corrected . It may also occur as part ...

  3. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... People ALF Near You Events ALF Blogs Financial Information Policies Advocacy Patient Advisory Council Media Center Careers ... and abdomen (ascites) or hepatic encephalopathy. For more information about cirrhosis of the liver and symptoms, call ...

  4. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disease (NAFLD) & Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) Autoimmune Hepatitis Bile duct disease such as Primary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC) ... spleen (splenomegaly) Stone-like particles in gallbladder and bile duct (gallstones) Liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma) Chronic liver ...

  5. Autoimmune Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hepatitis is the most common form in North America. Type 1 can occur at any age; however, ... eastern time, M-F Follow Us NIH… Turning Discovery Into Health ® Research & Funding Current Funding Opportunities Research ...

  6. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hepatic Encephalopathy Treatment Options Treatment Basics Treatment Medications Importance of Adhering to Your Treatment Plan Long-Term Considerations Patient Support Finding Support Services Peer Support Groups Financial Assistance Support for My Loved Ones Resources Find ...

  7. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... Hepatic Encephalopathy so you can tell your doctor right away if you think you may have it. ... Site Map © COPYRIGHT 2017 AMERICAN LIVER FOUNDATION. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Your Liver Overview

    The Faces ...

  8. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is a condition that causes temporary worsening of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When ... travel through your body until they reach your brain, causing mental and physical symptoms of HE. Hepatic ...

  9. Hepatitis B Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... worldwide 2 Billion People have been infected with Hepatitis B Worldwide The Hepatitis B Foundation is working ... of people living with hepatitis B. Learn About Hepatitis B in 11 Other Languages . Resource Video See ...

  10. What Is Hepatitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Alt+1 Content Alt+2 What is hepatitis? Online Q&A Reviewed July 2016 Q: What ... Question and answer archives Submit a question World Hepatitis Day Posters: Eliminate hepatitis World Hepatitis Day 2017 ...

  11. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis Hepatitis: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention Past Issues / Spring 2009 ... No appetite Fever Headaches Diagnosis To check for hepatitis viruses, your doctor will test your blood. You ...

  12. Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Trials Physician Directory HBV Meeting What Is Hepatitis B? What Is Hepatitis B? The ABCs of Viral Hepatitis Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B Hepatitis Delta Coinfection Hepatitis C Coinfection HIV/AIDS ...

  13. Hepatitis C: Sex and Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Hepatitis » Sex and Sexuality: Entire Lesson Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... hepatitis C virus through sex. Can you pass hepatitis C to a sex partner? Yes, but it ...

  14. Hepatitis C: Diet and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Hepatitis » Daily Living: Diet and Nutrition Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... have high cholesterol and have fatty liver. How hepatitis C affects diet If you have hepatitis, you ...

  15. Hepatitis B & C and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find Services HIV SERVICES LOCATOR Locator Search Search Hepatitis B & C Topics Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis ... Infections Sexually Transmitted Diseases Smoking Women's Health Issues Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Infection People ...

  16. Y2 receptor signalling in NPY neurons controls bone formation and fasting induced feeding but not spontaneous feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yue; Fu, Melissa; Herzog, Herbert

    2016-02-01

    Y2 receptors have been implicated in the development of obesity and are a potential target for obesity treatment due to their known role of inhibiting neuropeptide Y (NPY) induced feeding responses. However, the precise neuronal population on which Y2 receptors act to fulfil this role is less clear. Here we utilise a novel inducible, postnatal onset NPY neurons specific deletion model to investigate the functional consequences of loss of Y2 signalling in this population of neurons on feeding and energy homeostasis regulation. While the consequences of lack of Y2 signalling in NPY neurons are confirmed in terms of the uncoupling of suppression/increasing of NPY and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA expression in the arcuate nuclei (Arc), respectively, this lack of Y2 signalling surprisingly does not have any significant effect on spontaneous food intake. Fasting induced food intake, however, is strongly increased but only in the first 1h after re-feeding. Consequently no significant changes in body weight are being observed although body weight gain is increased in male mice after postnatal onset Y2 deletion. Importantly, another known function of central Y2 receptor signalling, the suppression of bone formation is conserved in this conditional model with whole body bone mineral content being decreased. Taken together this model confirms the critical role of Y2 signalling to control NPY and associated POMC expression in the Arc, but also highlights the possibility that others, non-NPY neuronal Y2 receptors, are also involved in controlling feeding and energy homeostasis regulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Autoimmune hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Färkkilä, Martti

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis is chronic liver disease with two subtypes, type 1 with anti nuclear or smooth muscle antibodies and type 2 with LKM1 or LC1 antibodies, and both with hypergammaglobulinemia and typical histology. Prevalence of AIH is between 10 to 17 per 100000 in Europe. Up to 20-40 % of cases present with acute hepatitis. Budesonide can be used as a first line induction therapy in non-cirrhotic patients, and tiopurines, mercaptopurine or mycophenolic acid as maintenance therapies. Patients not responding to conventional therapy can be treated with ciclosporin, tacrolimus or rituximab or finally with liver transplantation.

  18. Hepatitis E

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... room/fact-sheets/detail/hepatitis-e","@context":"http://schema.org","@type":"Article"}; العربية 中文 français русский español ... E: recognition, investigation and control”. The manual gives information about the epidemiology, clinical manifestations of the disease, ...

  19. Hepatic haemangioma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hp 630 Dual Core

    successful usage of transhepatic compression sutures using polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) pledgets and selective ligation of large feeding vessels from right hepatic artery. Surgical resection may not be technically safe or possible in certain cases due to the massive or diffuse nature of the lesion, proximity to vascular ...

  20. Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... which can lower your chances of developing serious health problems. Your doctor may recommend screening for hepatitis B if you ... see a doctor who specializes in liver diseases. Doctors can treat the health problems related to cirrhosis with medicines, surgery, and other ...

  1. Chronic hepatitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    infection by four diagnostic systems: first generation and second generation. ELlSA, second generation recombinant immunoblot assay and nested polymerase chain reaction analysis. HepatoJogy 1992; 16: 300-305. 14. Van der Poel CL, ... Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency. Alcoholic hepatitis. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

  2. Radiogenic hepatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey, G; Woellgens, P; Haase, W [Katharinenhospital, Stuttgart (F.R. Germany). Strahlenklinik

    1976-08-01

    The article is about a patient who developed hepatitis after post-operative radiotherapy of a hypernephroma on the right side with /sup 60/Co ..gamma.. radiation. The scintigraph showed a normal-sized liver with parenchymal defects. Therapy consisted of anti-emetics and vitamin preparations.

  3. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Lipase Deficiency Liver Cancer Liver Cysts Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Primary Biliary Cholangitis Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis What ... B & C Alcohol-related Liver Disease Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) & Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) Autoimmune Hepatitis ...

  4. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When your liver is damaged it can no longer remove toxic substances from your blood. These toxins build up and can travel through your body until they reach your brain, causing mental and physical symptoms of HE. Hepatic Encephalopathy often ...

  5. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... damages your liver over many years – such as long-term alcohol abuse or chronic hepatitis – can cause ... treated. It’s important to continue treatment for as long as necessary to keep HE from coming back. ...

  6. Hepatic amebiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salles José Maria

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Amebiasis can be considered the most aggressive disease of the human intestine, responsible in its invasive form for clinical syndromes, ranging from the classic dysentery of acute colitis to extra-intestinal disease, with emphasis on hepatic amebiasis, unsuitably named amebic liver abscess. Found worldwide, with a high incidence in India, tropical regions of Africa, Mexico and other areas of Central America, it has been frequently reported in Amazonia. The trophozoite reaches the liver through the portal system, provoking enzymatic focal necrosis of hepatocytes and multiple micro-abscesses that coalesce to develop a single lesion whose central cavity contains a homogeneous thick liquid, with typically reddish brown and yellow color similar to "anchovy paste". Right upper quadrant pain, fever and hepatomegaly are the predominant symptoms of hepatic amebiasis. Jaundice is reported in cases with multiple lesions or a very large abscess, and it affects the prognosis adversely. Besides chest radiography, ultrasonography and computerized tomography have brought remarkable contributions to the diagnosis of hepatic abscesses. The conclusive diagnosis is made however by the finding of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites in the pus and by the detection of serum antibodies to the amoeba. During the evolution of hepatic amebiasis, in spite of the availability of highly effective drugs, some important complications may occur with regularity and are a result of local perforation with extension into the pleural and pericardium cavities, causing pulmonary abscesses and purulent pericarditis, respectively The ruptures into the abdominal cavity may lead to subphrenic abscesses and peritonitis. The treatment of hepatic amebiasis is made by medical therapy, with metronidazole as the initial drug, followed by a luminal amebicide. In patients with large abscesses, showing signs of imminent rupture, and especially those who do not respond to medical treatment, a

  7. Hepatic amebiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Salles

    Full Text Available Amebiasis can be considered the most aggressive disease of the human intestine, responsible in its invasive form for clinical syndromes, ranging from the classic dysentery of acute colitis to extra-intestinal disease, with emphasis on hepatic amebiasis, unsuitably named amebic liver abscess. Found worldwide, with a high incidence in India, tropical regions of Africa, Mexico and other areas of Central America, it has been frequently reported in Amazonia. The trophozoite reaches the liver through the portal system, provoking enzymatic focal necrosis of hepatocytes and multiple micro-abscesses that coalesce to develop a single lesion whose central cavity contains a homogeneous thick liquid, with typically reddish brown and yellow color similar to "anchovy paste". Right upper quadrant pain, fever and hepatomegaly are the predominant symptoms of hepatic amebiasis. Jaundice is reported in cases with multiple lesions or a very large abscess, and it affects the prognosis adversely. Besides chest radiography, ultrasonography and computerized tomography have brought remarkable contributions to the diagnosis of hepatic abscesses. The conclusive diagnosis is made however by the finding of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites in the pus and by the detection of serum antibodies to the amoeba. During the evolution of hepatic amebiasis, in spite of the availability of highly effective drugs, some important complications may occur with regularity and are a result of local perforation with extension into the pleural and pericardium cavities, causing pulmonary abscesses and purulent pericarditis, respectively The ruptures into the abdominal cavity may lead to subphrenic abscesses and peritonitis. The treatment of hepatic amebiasis is made by medical therapy, with metronidazole as the initial drug, followed by a luminal amebicide. In patients with large abscesses, showing signs of imminent rupture, and especially those who do not respond to medical treatment, a

  8. Counter-attack on viral hepatitis. [Hepatitis A; Hepatitis B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prozesky, O W [Pretoria Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Medical Virology; Jupp, P G; Joubert, J J; Taylor, M B; Grabow, W O.K.

    1985-07-01

    The most highly developed radioimmunoassay test system in medical virology is proving of exceptional value in research aimed at controlling and eventually eradicating the scourge of human hepatitis. The use of radioimmunoassay in detecting hepatitis A (HAV) and hepatitis B (HBV) viruses is discussed. The hepatitis A virus is an enterovirus which infects the gastrointestinal tract and is usually transmitted by contaminated food, milk or water. Hepatitis B spreads mainly by the parenteral rate. Bedbugs and ticks are considered as possible transmitters of HBV. Another important contribution of radioimmunoassay is the ability to monitor the immune response of persons at risk who are vaccinated against hepatitis B.

  9. Hepatitis B (HBV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hepatitis B KidsHealth / For Teens / Hepatitis B What's in ... Prevented? Print en español Hepatitis B What Is Hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is an infection of the ...

  10. Hepatitis A Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twinrix® (as a combination product containing Hepatitis A Vaccine, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... Why get vaccinated against hepatitis A?Hepatitis A is a serious liver disease. It is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). HAV is spread from ...

  11. AUTOIMMUNE HEPATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusri Dianne Jurnalis

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakHepatitis autoimun merupakan penyakit inflamasi hati yang berat dengan penyebab pasti yang tidak diketahui yang mengakibatkan morbiditas dan mortalitas yang tinggi. Semua usia dan jenis kelamin dapat dikenai dengan insiden tertinggi pada anak perempuan usia prepubertas, meskipun dapat didiagnosis pada usia 6 bulan. Hepatitis autoimun dapat diklasifikasikan menjadi 2 bagian berdasarkan adanya antibodi spesifik: Smooth Muscle Antibody (SMA dengan anti-actin specificity dan/atau Anti Nuclear Antibody (ANA pada tipe 1 dan Liver-Kidney Microsome antibody (LKM1 dan/atau anti-liver cytosol pada tipe 2. Gambaran histologisnya berupa “interface hepatitis”, dengan infiltrasi sel mononuklear pada saluran portal, berbagai tingkat nekrosis, dan fibrosis yang progresf. Penyakit berjalan secara kronik tetapi keadaan yang berat biasanya menjadi sirosis dan gagal hati.Tipe onset yang paling sering sama dengan hepatitis virus akut dengan gagal hati akut pada beberapa pasien; sekitar sepertiga pasien dengan onset tersembunyi dengan kelemahan dan ikterik progresif ketika 10-15% asimptomatik dan mendadak ditemukan hepatomegali dan/atau peningkatan kadar aminotransferase serum. Adanya predominasi perempuan pada kedua tipe. Pasien LKM1 positif menunjukkan keadaan lebih akut, pada usia yang lebih muda, dan biasanya dengan defisiensi Immunoglobulin A (IgA, dengan durasi gejala sebelum diagnosis, tanda klinis, riwayat penyakit autoimun pada keluarga, adanya kaitan dengan gangguan autoimun, respon pengobatan dan prognosis jangka panjang sama pada kedua tipe.Kortikosteroid yang digunakan secara tunggal atau kombinasi azathioprine merupakan terapi pilihan yang dapat menimbulkan remisi pada lebih dari 90% kasus. Strategi terapi alternatif adalah cyclosporine. Penurunan imunosupresi dikaitkan dengan tingginya relap. Transplantasi hati dianjurkan pada penyakit hati dekom-pensata yang tidak respon dengan pengobatan medis lainnya.Kata kunci : hepatitis Autoimmune

  12. Inositol and hepatic lipidosis. I. Effect of inositol supplementation and time from parturition on liver and serum lipids in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerloff, B J; Herdt, T H; Wells, W W; Liesman, J S; Emery, R S

    1986-06-01

    Percutaneous liver biopsies and blood samples were obtained from 80 multiparous dairy cows in nine Michigan herds. Biopsies and samples were obtained serially over the peripartum period. Thirty-nine cows received 17 g of supplemental myoinositol in the diet to test its use as a possible lipotropic substance and 41 received a placebo. Liver biopsies were assayed for triglyceride (TG) and total myoinositol content. Serum was assayed for dextran precipitable cholesterol and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA). Inositol supplementation had no effect on any of the lipid variables. There was a significant herd effect on liver inositol, serum dextran precipitable cholesterol and NEFA concentrations. Serum NEFA and liver TG concentrations increased in the immediate postpartum period, while dextran precipitable cholesterol decreased. A significant herd X period interaction existed for liver TG and serum dextran precipitable cholesterol concentrations. Liver TG and serum NEFA concentrations were positively correlated. Excessive infiltration of bovine liver with lipid at calving appears to be an exaggerated manifestation of normal metabolic changes.

  13. Autoimmune hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergani, D; Mieli-Vergani, G

    2004-06-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is characterised histologically by interface hepatitis, and serologically by the presence of non-organ and liver specific autoantibodies and increased levels of immunoglobulin G. Its onset is often ill-defined, frequently mimicing acute hepatitis. AIH usually responds to immunosuppressive treatment, which should be instituted as soon as diagnosis is made. Two types of AIH are recognized according to seropositivity for smooth muscle and/or antinuclear antibody (SMA/ANA, type 1 AIH) or liver kidney microsomal type 1 antibody (LKM1, type 2 AIH). There is a female predominance in both. LKM1 positive patients tend to present more acutely, at a younger age and commonly have immunoglobulin A deficiency, while duration of symptoms before diagnosis, clinical signs, family history of autoimmunity, presence of associated autoimmune disorders, response to treatment and long-term prognosis are similar in the 2 groups. Susceptibility to AIH type 1 is conferred by possession of HLA DR3 and DR4, while to AIH type 2 by possession of HLA DR7. Liver damage is likely to derive from an immune reaction to liver cell antigens, possibly triggered by a mechanism of molecular mimicry, where immune responses to external pathogens, e.g. viruses, become directed towards structurally similar self-components. In AIH this process would be perpetuated by impairment in immune regulation.

  14. Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) ... kidneys ) is working. What Is a Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel? A liver function panel is a blood ...

  15. Hepatitis C and Incarceration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hepatitis Cdo to take care of their liver? People with Hepatitis C should not use alcohol or street drugs, as these can hurt the liver. Some other products can also hurt people with Hepatitis C, even if they appear to ...

  16. Hepatitis B virus (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatitis B is also known as serum hepatitis and is spread through blood and sexual contact. It is ... population. This photograph is an electronmicroscopic image of hepatitis B virus particles. (Image courtesy of the Centers for ...

  17. Hepatitis Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Hepatitis Risk Assessment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Viral Hepatitis. Are you at risk? Take this 5 minute Hepatitis Risk Assessment developed ...

  18. Hepatic Fatty Acid Oxidation Restrains Systemic Catabolism during Starvation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieun Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The liver is critical for maintaining systemic energy balance during starvation. To understand the role of hepatic fatty acid β-oxidation on this process, we generated mice with a liver-specific knockout of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 (Cpt2L−/−, an obligate step in mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid β-oxidation. Fasting induced hepatic steatosis and serum dyslipidemia with an absence of circulating ketones, while blood glucose remained normal. Systemic energy homeostasis was largely maintained in fasting Cpt2L−/− mice by adaptations in hepatic and systemic oxidative gene expression mediated in part by Pparα target genes including procatabolic hepatokines Fgf21, Gdf15, and Igfbp1. Feeding a ketogenic diet to Cpt2L−/− mice resulted in severe hepatomegaly, liver damage, and death with a complete absence of adipose triglyceride stores. These data show that hepatic fatty acid oxidation is not required for survival during acute food deprivation but essential for constraining adipocyte lipolysis and regulating systemic catabolism when glucose is limiting.

  19. Hepatitis B Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a combination product containing Haemophilus influenzae type b, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis, Hepatitis B, Polio Vaccine)

  20. Fasting Induces Nuclear Factor E2-Related Factor 2 and ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters via Protein Kinase A and Sirtuin-1 in Mouse and Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Supriya R.; Donepudi, Ajay C.; Xu, Jialin; Wei, Wei; Cheng, Qiuqiong C.; Driscoll, Maureen V.; Johnson, Delinda A.; Johnson, Jeffrey A.; Li, Xiaoling

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine whether 3′-5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-protein kinase A (PKA) and Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) dependent mechanisms modulate ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) transport protein expression. ABC transport proteins (ABCC2–4) are essential for chemical elimination from hepatocytes and biliary excretion. Nuclear factor-E2 related-factor 2 (NRF2) is a transcription factor that mediates ABCC induction in response to chemical inducers and liver injury. However, a role for NRF2 in the regulation of transporter expression in nonchemical models of liver perturbation is largely undescribed. Results: Here we show that fasting increased NRF2 target gene expression through NRF2- and SIRT1–dependent mechanisms. In intact mouse liver, fasting induces NRF2 target gene expression by at least 1.5 to 5-fold. In mouse and human hepatocytes, treatment with 8-Bromoadenosine-cAMP, a cAMP analogue, increased NRF2 target gene expression and antioxidant response element activity, which was decreased by the PKA inhibitor, H-89. Moreover, fasting induced NRF2 target gene expression was decreased in liver and hepatocytes of SIRT1 liver-specific null mice and NRF2-null mice. Lastly, NRF2 and SIRT1 were recruited to MAREs and Antioxidant Response Elements (AREs) in the human ABCC2 promoter. Innovation: Oxidative stress mediated NRF2 activation is well described, yet the influence of basic metabolic processes on NRF2 activation is just emerging. Conclusion: The current data point toward a novel role of nutrient status in regulation of NRF2 activity and the antioxidant response, and indicates that cAMP/PKA and SIRT1 are upstream regulators for fasting-induced activation of the NRF2-ARE pathway. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 15–30. PMID:23725046

  1. Hepatic SIRT1 attenuates hepatic steatosis and controls energy balance in mice by inducing fibroblast growth factor 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Wong, Kimberly; Giles, Amber; Jiang, Jianwei; Lee, Jong Woo; Adams, Andrew C; Kharitonenkov, Alexei; Yang, Qin; Gao, Bin; Guarente, Leonard; Zang, Mengwei

    2014-02-01

    The hepatocyte-derived hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a hormone-like regulator of metabolism. The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylase SIRT1 regulates fatty acid metabolism through multiple nutrient sensors. Hepatic overexpression of SIRT1 reduces steatosis and glucose intolerance in obese mice. We investigated mechanisms by which SIRT1 controls hepatic steatosis in mice. Liver-specific SIRT1 knockout (SIRT1 LKO) mice and their wild-type littermates (controls) were divided into groups that were placed on a normal chow diet, fasted for 24 hours, or fasted for 24 hours and then fed for 6 hours. Liver tissues were collected and analyzed by histologic examination, gene expression profiling, and real-time polymerase chain reaction assays. Human HepG2 cells were incubated with pharmacologic activators of SIRT1 (resveratrol or SRT1720) and mitochondrion oxidation consumption rate and immunoblot analyses were performed. FGF21 was overexpressed in SIRT1 LKO mice using an adenoviral vector. Energy expenditure was assessed by indirect calorimetry. Prolonged fasting induced lipid deposition in livers of control mice, but severe hepatic steatosis in SIRT1 LKO mice. Gene expression analysis showed that fasting up-regulated FGF21 in livers of control mice but not in SIRT1 LKO mice. Decreased hepatic and circulating levels of FGF21 in fasted SIRT1 LKO mice were associated with reduced hepatic expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis, and increased expression of genes that control lipogenesis, compared with fasted control mice. Resveratrol or SRT1720 each increased the transcriptional activity of the FGF21 promoter (-2070/+117) and levels of FGF21 messenger RNA and protein in HepG2 cells. Surprisingly, SIRT1 LKO mice developed late-onset obesity with impaired whole-body energy expenditure. Hepatic overexpression of FGF21 in SIRT1 LKO mice increased the expression of genes that regulate fatty acid oxidation, decreased

  2. Relationship among blood indicators of lipomobilization and hepatic function during early lactation in high-yielding dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Felix Diaz; Muiño, Rodrigo; Pereira, Víctor; Campos, Rómulo; Benedito, José Luis

    2011-09-01

    Blood indicators are used as a tool to diagnose metabolic disorders. The present work was conducted to study the relationships among blood indicators of lipomobilization and hepatic function in high-yielding dairy cows. Two groups of Holstein cows were studied: 27 early lactation cows and 14 mid lactation cows from four different herds with similar husbandry characteristics in Galicia, Spain. Blood samples were obtained to measure beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), triglycerides (TG), and the activity of aspartate transaminase (AST) and gamma-glutamyl transferase. Cows in early lactation had higher levels of BHB and NEFA than mid lactation cows. High lipomobilization (NEFA > 400 µmol/L) was detected in 67% and 7% of early lactation and mid lactation cows, respectively, while subclinical ketosis (BHB > 1.2 mmol/L) was detected in 41% and 28% of the early lactation and lactation cows, respectively. TG concentrations were low in all cows suffering subclinical ketosis and in 61% of the cows with high lipomobilization. During early lactation, 30% of cows suffered hepatic lipidosis as detected by levels of AST. Compromised hepatic function was observed in early lactation cows as shown by lower concentrations of glucose, total protein, and urea.

  3. HIV and Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... common causes of viral hepatitis are hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV). HBV and HCV are common ... gov/ mmwr/ preview/ mmwrhtml/ rr5516a1. htm? s_ cid= rr5516a1_ e. The Numbers • • Of people with HIV in the ...

  4. Hepatic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardino, M.E.; Sones, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    The past several years have seen significant advances in diagnostic and interventional radiology. These advances have been particularly rewarding for the study of liver disease. Improved imaging and therapeutic procedures in oncology have generated changes in treatment protocols and in evaluating the results of therapy for hepatic malignancies. The enriched understanding of the anatomic and hemodynamic aspects of the portal system has greatly benefited patients with portal hypertension. Now physicians are confidently more aggressive in the therapeutic approach to the variceal bleeder, and they have modified their approach to the preservation of portal flow following shunt. All of the diagnostic modalities used to evaluate the liver are represented in this book. In its structure and organization this volume goes beyond a historical overview of imaging to present greater insight into the current state of the art, as well as possible future developments. Each chapter is designed to elucidate the advantages and weaknesses of the various diagnostic modalities

  5. Influence of chronic stress on the compositions of hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride in male Wistar rats fed a high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Siyuan; Han, Xue; Fu, Jihua; Yuan, Xiaoling; Sun, Xing; Li, Qiang

    2012-07-01

      We determined the influence of chronic stress (CS) on the compositions of hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) in rats fed a high fat diet (HFD).   Male Wistar rats were fed either a standard diet or a HFD and half of the HFD fed rats were given CS (electric foot shock assisted with noise) for 8 weeks.   Compared with the control group, the levels of hepatic total cholesterol (TC) and TG were significantly elevated in the HFD and HFD with chronic stress (HFD+CS) groups, and the more severe elevations of them were found in the HFD group. Inversely, the more severe elevations of hepatic water-soluble parts of TC and TG were found in the HFD+CS group, as the elevations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in liver and serum, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and malondialdehyde in liver. Meanwhile, downregulated mRNA expressions of hepatic liver X receptor-α (LXR-α) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) were also more severe in the HFD+CS group.   CS can aggravate the high levels of water-soluble compositions of hepatic TC and TG induced by HFD as it aggravates hepatic inflammation and oxidative stress; in spite of that, however, it cannot further promote hepatic lipidosis. This is consistent with the downregulated mRNA expressions of LXR-α and PPAR-γ. © 2012 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  6. Coactivator PGC-1α regulates the fasting inducible xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme CYP2A5 in mouse primary hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arpiainen, Satu; Jaervenpaeae, Sanna-Mari; Manninen, Aki; Viitala, Pirkko; Lang, Matti A.; Pelkonen, Olavi; Hakkola, Jukka

    2008-01-01

    The nutritional state of organisms and energy balance related diseases such as diabetes regulate the metabolism of xenobiotics such as drugs, toxins and carcinogens. However, the mechanisms behind this regulation are mostly unknown. The xenobiotic-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2A5 enzyme has been shown to be induced by fasting and by glucagon and cyclic AMP (cAMP), which mediate numerous fasting responses. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator (PGC)-1α triggers many of the important hepatic fasting effects in response to elevated cAMP levels. In the present study, we were able to show that cAMP causes a coordinated induction of PGC-1α and CYP2A5 mRNAs in murine primary hepatocytes. Furthermore, the elevation of the PGC-1α expression level by adenovirus mediated gene transfer increased CYP2A5 transcription. Co-transfection of Cyp2a5 5' promoter constructs with the PGC-1α expression vector demonstrated that PGC-1α is able to activate Cyp2a5 transcription through the hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-4α response element in the proximal promoter of the Cyp2a5 gene. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that PGC-1α binds, together with HNF-4α, to the same region at the Cyp2a5 proximal promoter. In conclusion, PGC-1α mediates the expression of CYP2A5 induced by cAMP in mouse hepatocytes through coactivation of transcription factor HNF-4α. This strongly suggests that PGC-1α is the major factor mediating the fasting response of CYP2A5

  7. Fasting-induced G0/G1 switch gene 2 and FGF21 expression in the liver are under regulation of adipose tissue derived fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Doris; Schoiswohl, Gabriele; Hofer, Peter; Schreiber, Renate; Schweiger, Martina; Eichmann, Thomas O.; Pollak, Nina M.; Poecher, Nadja; Grabner, Gernot F.; Zierler, Kathrin A.; Eder, Sandra; Kolb, Dagmar; Radner, Franz P.W.; Preiss-Landl, Karina; Lass, Achim; Zechner, Rudolf; Kershaw, Erin E.; Haemmerle, Guenter

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Adipose tissue (AT)-derived fatty acids (FAs) are utilized for hepatic triacylglycerol (TG) generation upon fasting. However, their potential impact as signaling molecules is not established. Herein we examined the role of exogenous AT-derived FAs in the regulation of hepatic gene expression by investigating mice with a defect in AT-derived FA supply to the liver. Methods Plasma FA levels, tissue TG hydrolytic activities and lipid content were determined in mice lacking the lipase co-activator comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58) selectively in AT (CGI-58-ATko) applying standard protocols. Hepatic expression of lipases, FA oxidative genes, transcription factors, ER stress markers, hormones and cytokines were determined by qRT-PCR, Western blotting and ELISA. Results Impaired AT-derived FA supply upon fasting of CGI-58-ATko mice causes a marked defect in liver PPARα-signaling and nuclear CREBH translocation. This severely reduced the expression of respective target genes such as the ATGL inhibitor G0/G1 switch gene-2 (G0S2) and the endocrine metabolic regulator FGF21. These changes could be reversed by lipid administration and raising plasma FA levels. Impaired AT-lipolysis failed to induce hepatic G0S2 expression in fasted CGI-58-ATko mice leading to enhanced ATGL-mediated TG-breakdown strongly reducing hepatic TG deposition. On high fat diet, impaired AT-lipolysis counteracts hepatic TG accumulation and liver stress linked to improved systemic insulin sensitivity. Conclusions AT-derived FAs are a critical regulator of hepatic fasting gene expression required for the induction of G0S2-expression in the liver to control hepatic TG-breakdown. Interfering with AT-lipolysis or hepatic G0S2 expression represents an effective strategy for the treatment of hepatic steatosis. PMID:25733154

  8. Diabetes and Hepatitis B Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes and Hepatitis B Vaccination Information for Diabetes Educators What is hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a contagious liver disease that results from infection with the hepatitis B virus. When first infected, a person can develop ...

  9. Hepatitis Information for the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hepatitis Contact Us Anonymous Feedback Quick Links to Hepatitis … A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Local Partners & Grantees Policy and Programs Resource Center Hepatitis Information for the Public Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  10. Immunoglobulins for preventing hepatitis A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jian Ping; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Fei, Yutong

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis A (infectious hepatitis) is a common epidemic disease. Immunoglobulins for passive immunisation are used as prevention.......Hepatitis A (infectious hepatitis) is a common epidemic disease. Immunoglobulins for passive immunisation are used as prevention....

  11. Microbiological diagnostics of viral hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    HASDEMİR, Ufuk

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is an infection that primarily affects the liverbut may also have systemic clinical manifestations. The vastmajority of viral hepatitis are caused by one of five hepatotropicviruses: hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV),hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D (delta) virus (HDV), andhepatitis E virus (HEV) (Table I) [1]. HBV, HCV, and HDValso cause chronic hepatitis, whereas HAV does not. HEVcauses acute hepatitis in normal hosts but can cause protractedand chronic he...

  12. [Viral hepatitis in travellers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Cândida

    2007-01-01

    Considering the geographical asymmetric distribution of viral hepatitis A, B and E, having a much higher prevalence in the less developed world, travellers from developed countries are exposed to a considerable and often underestimated risk of hepatitis infection. In fact a significant percentage of viral hepatitis occurring in developed countries is travel related. This results from globalization and increased mobility from tourism, international work, humanitarian and religious missions or other travel related activities. Several studies published in Europe and North America shown that more than 50% of reported cases of hepatitis A are travel related. On the other hand frequent outbreaks of hepatitis A and E in specific geographic areas raise the risk of infection in these restricted zones and that should be clearly identified. Selected aspects related with the distribution of hepatitis A, B and E are reviewed, particularly the situation in Portugal according to the published studies, as well as relevant clinical manifestations and differential diagnosis of viral hepatitis. Basic prevention rules considering enteric transmitted hepatitis (hepatitis A and hepatitis E) and parenteral transmitted (hepatitis B) are reviewed as well as hepatitis A and B immunoprophylaxis. Common clinical situations and daily practice "pre travel" advice issues are discussed according to WHO/CDC recommendations and the Portuguese National Vaccination Program. Implications from near future availability of a hepatitis E vaccine, a currently in phase 2 trial, are highlighted. Potential indications for travellers to endemic countries like India, Nepal and some regions of China, where up to 30% of sporadic cases of acute viral hepatitis are caused by hepatitis E virus, are considered. Continued epidemiological surveillance for viral hepatitis is essential to recognize and control possible outbreaks, but also to identify new viral hepatitis agents that may emerge as important global health

  13. Hepatitis virus panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003558.htm Hepatitis virus panel To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used ...

  14. Hepatitis B - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... B children; HBV children; Pregnancy - hepatitis B children; Maternal transmission - hepatitis B children ... growth and development. Regular monitoring plays an important role in managing the disease in children. You should ...

  15. Hepatitis E Virus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Before the discovery of hepatitis E virus (HEV), many epidemics of hepatitis in ... HEV was discovered in 1983 in the ... HEV infection is increased by HIV infection in pregnancy. (Caron et al. .... immunosuppressive therapy on the natural history.

  16. Delta agent (Hepatitis D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000216.htm Hepatitis D (Delta agent) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis D is a viral infection caused by the ...

  17. Hepatitis A Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Hepatitis A Testing Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At ... IgG HAV-Ab total Anti-HAV Formal Name Viral Hepatitis A Antibody This article was last reviewed on ...

  18. Hepatic falciform artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaques, Paul F.; Mauro, Matthew A.; Sandhu, Jeet

    1997-01-01

    The hepatic falciform artery is an occasional terminal branch of the left or middle hepatic artery, and may provide an uncommon but important collateral route when the principal visceral arteries are occluded

  19. Hepatitis A -- children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007670.htm Hepatitis A - children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis A in children is swelling and inflamed tissue of ...

  20. Hepatitis B Foundation Newsletter: B Informed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Trials Physician Directory HBV Meeting What Is Hepatitis B? What Is Hepatitis B? The ABCs of Viral Hepatitis Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B Hepatitis Delta Coinfection Hepatitis C Coinfection HIV/AIDS ...

  1. Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis - United States, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resource Center Anonymous Feedback Viral Hepatitis Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis – United States, 2014 Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Cases Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Discussion Hepatitis A virus Index PAGE DESCRIPTION Table 2.1 Reported ...

  2. Aberrant hepatic artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstam, M.A.; Novelline, R.A.; Athanasoulis, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    In a patient undergoing selective hepatic arteriography for suspected liver trauma, a nonopacified area of the liver, initially thought to represent a hepatic hematoma, was later discovered to be due to the presence of an accessory right hepatic artery arising from the superior mesenteric artery. This case illustrates the need for a search for aberrant vasculature whenever a liver hematoma is suspected on the basis of a selective hepatic arteriogram. (orig.) [de

  3. Hepatitis viruses overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatitis is major cause of morbidity or mortality worldwide, particularly in the developing world. The major causes of infective hepatitis are hepatitis viruses. A, B, C, D or E. In the acute phase, there are no clinical features that can reliably differentiate between these viruses. Infection may be asymptomatic or can present as.

  4. Hepatitis B Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Hepatitis B Testing Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At ... Known As HBV Tests Hep B anti-HBs Hepatitis B Surface Antibody HBsAg Hepatitis B Surface Antigen HBeAg ...

  5. Histologic examination of hepatic biopsy samples as a prognostic indicator in dogs undergoing surgical correction of congenital portosystemic shunts: 64 cases (1997-2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jacquelyn S; Monnet, Eric; Powers, Barbara E; Twedt, David C

    2008-05-15

    To determine whether results of histologic examination of hepatic biopsy samples could be used as an indicator of survival time in dogs that underwent surgical correction of a congenital portosystemic shunt (PSS). Retrospective case series. 64 dogs that underwent exploratory laparotomy for an extrahepatic (n = 39) or intrahepatic (25) congenital PSS. All H&E-stained histologic slides of hepatic biopsy samples obtained at the time of surgery were reviewed by a single individual, and severity of histologic abnormalities (ie, arteriolar hyperplasia, biliary hyperplasia, fibrosis, cell swelling, lipidosis, lymphoplasmacytic cholangiohepatitis, suppurative cholangiohepatitis, lipid granulomas, and dilated sinusoids) was graded. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to determine whether each histologic feature was associated with survival time. Median follow-up time was 35.7 months, and median survival time was 50.6 months. Thirty-eight dogs were alive at the time of final follow-up; 15 had died of causes associated with the PSS, including 4 that died immediately after surgery; 3 had died of unrelated causes; and 8 were lost to follow-up. None of the histologic features examined were significantly associated with survival time. Findings suggested that results of histologic examination of hepatic biopsy samples obtained at the time of surgery cannot be used to predict long-term outcome in dogs undergoing surgical correction of a PSS.

  6. Alcoholic hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard Sandahl, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute inflammatory syndrome causing significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis is strongly dependent on disease severity, as assessed by clinical scoring systems. Reliable epidemiological data as well as knowledge of the clinical course of AH are essential for planning and resource allocation within the health care system. Likewise, individual evaluation of risk is desirable in the clinical handling of patients with AH as it can guide treatment, improve patient information, and serve as strata in clinical trials. The present PhD thesis is based on three studies using a cohort of nearly 2000 patients diagnosed with AH in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 as a cohort, in a population-based study design. The aims of this thesis were as follows. (1) To describe the incidence and short- and long-term mortality, of AH in Denmark (Study I). (2) To validate and compare the ability of the currently available prognostic scores to predict mortality in AH (Study II). (3) To investigate the short- and long-term causes of death of patients with AH (Study III). During the study decade, the annual incidence rate in the Danish population rose from 37 to 46 per 106 for men and from 24 to 34 per 106 for women. Both short- and long-term mortality rose for men and women, and the increase in short-term mortality was attributable to increasing patient age and prevalence of cirrhosis. Our evaluation of the most commonly used prognostic scores for predicting the mortality of patients with AH showed that all scores performed similarly, with Area under the Receiver Operator Characteristics curves giving values between 0.74 and 0.78 for 28-day mortality assessed on admission. Our study on causes of death showed that in the short-term (thesis provides novel warranted epidemiological information about AH that shows increasing incidence and mortality rates. Consequently, it reiterates the fact that AH is a life-threatening disease and suggests that AH is an

  7. Pathogenesis of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Ciećko-Michalska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic encephalopathy can be a serious complication of acute liver failure and chronic liver diseases, predominantly liver cirrhosis. Hyperammonemia plays the most important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. The brain-blood barrier disturbances, changes in neurotransmission, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, GABA-ergic or benzodiazepine pathway abnormalities, manganese neurotoxicity, brain energetic disturbances, and brain blood flow abnormalities are considered to be involved in the development of hepatic encephalopathy. The influence of small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO on the induction of minimal hepatic encephalopathy is recently emphasized. The aim of this paper is to present the current views on the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy.

  8. Pathogenesis of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciećko-Michalska, Irena; Szczepanek, Małgorzata; Słowik, Agnieszka; Mach, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy can be a serious complication of acute liver failure and chronic liver diseases, predominantly liver cirrhosis. Hyperammonemia plays the most important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. The brain-blood barrier disturbances, changes in neurotransmission, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, GABA-ergic or benzodiazepine pathway abnormalities, manganese neurotoxicity, brain energetic disturbances, and brain blood flow abnormalities are considered to be involved in the development of hepatic encephalopathy. The influence of small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) on the induction of minimal hepatic encephalopathy is recently emphasized. The aim of this paper is to present the current views on the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:23316223

  9. Ghrelin signaling in the ventral tegmental area mediates both reward-based feeding and fasting-induced hyperphagia on high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, X J; Sun, B; Chen, K; Lv, B; Luo, X; Yan, J Q

    2015-08-06

    Ghrelin is a potent orexigenic hormone that acts in the central nervous system to stimulate food intake via the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) that is abundantly expressed in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Not only does ghrelin modulate feeding behavior via a homeostatic mechanism, but numerous studies have identified ghrelin as a key regulator of reward-based hedonic feeding behaviors. Nutritional states influence ghrelin and GHSR expression as well as the behavioral sensitivity to reward-inducing stimuli. In the current study, we examined the role of ghrelin at the VTA level in food intake in two different nutritional states, satiety and hunger, by using a restricted feeding model. In this model, rats were conditioned to a daily 3-h (h) feeding session on standard chow for 10days and a high-fat diet (HFD) was supplied either in the third hour after 2h of chow diet intake, or at the beginning of a daily meal on the test day. We found that intra-VTA microinjection of 1, 2, and 4μg of ghrelin, induced a dose-related increase of 1h of reward-based feeding on HFD in sated rats, as well as a 24-h body weight gain. The overconsumption stimulated by ghrelin could be attenuated by 10μg of direct infusion of the ghrelin receptor antagonist D-Lys3-GHRP-6 into the VTA. Moreover, our data showed that the injection of 1, 2, and 4μg of ghrelin in the VTA, enhanced fasting-induced hyperphagia on HFD in a dose-related manner following a 21-h food restriction as well as a 24-h body weight gain. Conversely, hyperphagia on HFD that is potentiated by ghrelin could be blocked by pretreatment with a 10-μg D-Lys3-GHRP-6 intra-VTA microinjection. Collectively, these data demonstrate that ghrelin signaling at the VTA level mediates both reward-based eating and fasting-induced hyperphagia and provides a primary target for the control of the intake of rewarding food. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Hepatic encephalopathy. Imaging Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo, Maria Claudia; Bermudez Munoz, Sonia; J Morillo, Anibal

    2007-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy occurs in patients with chronic hepatic insufficiency and can produce abnormalities in the central nervous system, which can be observed in MRI studies. Traditionally, these imaging findings include symmetrical hyper intensities in T1-weighted sequences in the basal ganglia (mainly globus pallidus), involving also the substantia nigra, mesencephalic tegmentum, frontal and occipital cortex. These areas appear of normal intensity in T2-weighted imaging sequences. Other entities that can lead to similar findings include manganese intoxication and type-1 neurofibromatosis. Currently, with the advent of MR spectroscopy, abnormalities in patients with clinical and subclinical hepatic encephalopathy have been described. After hepatic transplantation, hyper intensities of the basal ganglia and the MR spectroscopic findings may disappear within 3 months to 1 year, suggesting a functional, more than a structural damage. This article will demonstrate the MR findings of patients with hepatic encephalopathy due to chronic hepatic insufficiency.

  11. Hepatitis isquémica Ischemic hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Amuchástegui (h

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available La hepatitis isquémica es una complicación sumamente infrecuente de cirugía cardiovascular. Las biopsias muestran necrosis centrolobulillar. El término de "hepatitis" fue propuesto debido al aumento de transaminasas similar a aquellas de origen infeccioso, e "isquémica" por falla en la perfusión hepática. Posteriormente se definió el término de hepatitis isquémica como cuadro de elevación aguda y reversible (dentro de las 72 horas de transaminasas de hasta 20 veces el valor normal, asociado a trastornos en la perfusión hepática, luego de haber excluido otras causas de hepatitis aguda o daño hepatocelular. Se describe el caso de un paciente de 53 años que consulta por dolor epigástrico de 12 h de evolución sin fiebre, náuseas ni vómitos, resistente a la medicación. Tenía antecedentes inmediatos de reemplazo de válvula aórtica, y estaba anticoagulado. Evolucionó con shock y fallo multiorgánico. El examen evidenció marcada ictericia y signos de taponamiento pericárdico, asociado a un aumento considerable de enzimas hepáticas. Un ecocardiograma informó signos de taponamiento cardíaco y ausencia de disección aórtica. Se decidió pericardiocentesis, extrayéndose 970 cc. de líquido sanguinolento, y hemodiálisis, con notable mejoría de su estado hemodinámico. Los valores enzimáticos disminuyeron. Los marcadores virales fueron negativos.Ischemic hepatitis is an uncommon cardiovascular surgery complication. Hepatic biopsies show centrolobulillar necrosis. The term "hepatitis" was proposed because of a raise in hepatic enzymes similar with infectious disease, and "ischemic" because of failure in hepatic perfusion. Ischemic hepatitis was then defined as an acute and reversible elevation of hepatic enzymes (within 72 h, associated with disturbance in hepatic perfusion after excluding other causes of acute hepatitis. A 53 year-old male presented complaining of a 12 h epigastric pain, without nausea or vomiting, resistant

  12. Hepatic artery infusion (HAI) for hepatic metastases in combination with hepatic resection and hepatic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrick, H.W.; Dobelbower, R.R.; Ringleint, J.F.; Skeel, R.T.

    1986-01-01

    Renewed interest in hepatic artery infusion has been stimulated by the development of a totally implantable pump which eliminates many of the problems encountered by the external pumps and catheters. As the potential benefit of hepatic artery infusion would be greater if either all gross disease were removed by prior resection, or alternatively, if non-resectable disease were irradiated in conjunction with hepatic artery infusion, the authors initiated a phase I-II trial to evaluate combined modality therapy

  13. Preventing hepatitis B or C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000401.htm Preventing hepatitis B or C To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections cause irritation and ...

  14. Hepatitis in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, Dr. John Ward, Director of CDC’s Division of Viral Hepatitis, discusses the different types of viral hepatitis and how they can be prevented. He also describes how hepatitis is transmitted and treated.

  15. Primary isolated hepatic tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, A.S.F.; Qureshi, I.H.; Saba, K.; Bukhari, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Isolated hepatic tuberculosis without pulmonary or bowel involvement is a diagnostic challenge and can cause considerable morbidity. A young lady from Lahore presented with fever, pain in right hypochondria, nausea and weight loss. CT scan of abdomen showed multiple small hypodense non-enhancing lesions and a heterogeneous texture of liver. Biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of hepatic tuberculosis. It was concluded a case of isolated hepatic tuberculosis without evidence of other primary sites involvement. It is important to consider tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis when suspecting lymphoproliferative or metastatic diseases in a patient with vague symptoms and abnormal hepatic texture on CT. (author)

  16. Hepatitis A virus antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, J.; Kselikova, M.; Urbankova, J.

    1980-01-01

    A description is presented of a radioimmunoassay designed to prove the presence of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus (HA Ab, anti-Ha) using an Abbott HAVAB set. This proof as well as the proof of the antibody against the nucleus of the hepatitis B virus is based on competition between a normal antibody against hepatitis A virus and a 125 I-labelled antibody for the binding sites of a specific antigen spread all over the surface of a tiny ball; this is then indirect proof of the antibody under investigation. The method is described of reading the results from the number of impulses per 60 seconds: the higher the titre of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus in the serum examined, the lower the activity of the specimen concerned. The rate is reported of incidence of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus in a total of 68 convalescents after hepatitis A; the antibody was found in 94.1%. The immunoglobulin made from the convalescents' plasma showed the presence of antibodies in dilutions as high as 1:250 000 while the comparable ratio for normal immunoglobulin Norga was only 1:2500. Differences are discussed in the time incidence of the antibodies against the hepatitis A virus, the antibodies against the surface antigen of hepatitis B, and the antibody against the nucleus of the hepatitis V virus. (author)

  17. The hepatic bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarbaker, Paul H

    2018-07-01

    The hepatic bridge forms a tunnel of liver parenchyma that may obscure peritoneal metastases associated with the round ligament. Visualization and then resection of nodules associated with this structure is necessary. The incidence of a hepatic bridge and the extent that it covered the round ligament was determined in consecutive patients. Extent of coverage of the round ligament by the hepatic bridge was determined: Class 1 indicates up to one-third of the round ligament obscured, Class 2 up to two-thirds and Class 3 more than two-thirds. In 102 patients in whom the round ligament of the liver could be completely visualized, 50 had a hepatic bridge. Class 1 was 22 (44%) of the bridges, Class 2 was 16 (32%) and Class 3 was 12 (24%). A hepatic bridge was more frequently present in 28 of 45 male patients (62%) vs. 22 of 57 female patients (38%). Approximately one-half of our patients having cytoreductive surgery for peritoneal metastases were observed to have a hepatic bridge. Up to 56% of these patients have Class 2 or 3 hepatic bridge and may require division of the hepatic bridge to completely visualize the contents of the tunnel created by this structure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  18. Hepatitis C Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Prevention. Recommendations for the Identification of Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection Among Persons Born During 1945–1965. Prepared by ... Disease Control and Prevention. Vital Signs: Evaluation of Hepatitis C Virus Infection Testing and Reporting — Eight U.S. Sites, 2005–2011. ...

  19. [History of viral hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, José Carlos Ferraz da

    2010-01-01

    The history of viral hepatitis goes back thousands of years and is a fascinating one. When humans were first infected by such agents, a natural repetitive cycle began, with the capacity to infect billions of humans, thus decimating the population and causing sequelae in thousands of lives. This article reviews the available scientific information on the history of viral hepatitis. All the information was obtained through extensive bibliographic review, including original and review articles and consultations on the internet. There are reports on outbreaks of jaundice epidemics in China 5,000 years ago and in Babylon more than 2,500 years ago. The catastrophic history of great jaundice epidemics and pandemics is well known and generally associated with major wars. In the American Civil War, 40,000 cases occurred among Union troops. In 1885, an outbreak of catarrhal jaundice affected 191 workers at the Bremen shipyard (Germany) after vaccination against smallpox. In 1942, 28,585 soldiers became infected with hepatitis after inoculation with the yellow fever vaccine. The number of cases of hepatitis during the Second World War was estimated to be 16 million. Only in the twentieth century were the main agents causing viral hepatitis identified. The hepatitis B virus was the first to be discovered. In this paper, through reviewing the history of major epidemics caused by hepatitis viruses and the history of discovery of these agents, singular peculiarities were revealed. Examples of this include the accidental or chance discovery of the hepatitis B and D viruses.

  20. Cytomegalovirus Hepatitis During Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chan

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although cytomegalovirus (CMV is an uncommon cause of viral hepatitis during pregnancy, a definitive diagnosis is important because of the potential for congenital CMV. In the case reported here, a diagnosis of hepatitis caused by CMV was made after the more common viral pathogens had been ruled out.

  1. Hepatitis E og graviditet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mannheimer, Ebba Elisabeth; Harritshøj, Lene Holm; Katzenstein, Terese Lea

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection among pregnant women is severe, often leading to fulminant hepatic failure and death, with mortality rates up to 15-25%. Studies suggest that differences in genotypes/subgenotypes, hormonal and immunological changes during pregnancy may contribute to the severe...

  2. Pentoxifylline for alcoholic hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Kate; Rambaldi, Andrea; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcoholic hepatitis is a life-threatening disease, with an average mortality of approximately 40%. There is no widely accepted, effective treatment for alcoholic hepatitis. Pentoxifylline is used to treat alcoholic hepatitis, but there has been no systematic review to assess its effects....... OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of pentoxifylline in alcoholic hepatitis. SEARCH STRATEGY: The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, LILACS......, clinicaltrials.gov, and full text searches were conducted until August 2009. Manufacturers and authors were contacted. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised clinical trials of pentoxifylline in participants with alcoholic hepatitis compared to control were selected for inclusion. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two...

  3. Serum Hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B surface antigenaemia in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute hepatitis is common in Nigeria and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been a major aetiological factor. However, the role of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is yet undetermined. Forty-five consecutive Nigerian patients with acute Icteric hepatitis (AIH) attending the Medical Clinic of the University College Hospital, ...

  4. Dopaminergic agonists for hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, B; Gluud, L L; Gluud, C

    2004-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy may be associated with an impairment of the dopaminergic neurotransmission. Dopaminergic agonists may therefore have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy.......Hepatic encephalopathy may be associated with an impairment of the dopaminergic neurotransmission. Dopaminergic agonists may therefore have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy....

  5. Normal variation of hepatic artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Inn; Nam, Myung Hyun; Rhim, Hyun Chul; Koh, Byung Hee; Seo, Heung Suk; Kim, Soon Yong

    1987-01-01

    This study was an analyses of blood supply of the liver in 125 patients who received hepatic arteriography and abdominal aortography from Jan. 1984 to Dec. 1986 at the Department of Radiology of Hanyang University Hospital. A. Variations in extrahepatic arteries: 1. The normal extrahepatic artery pattern occurred in 106 of 125 cases (84.8%) ; Right hepatic and left hepatic arteries arising from the hepatic artery proper and hepatic artery proper arising from the common hepatic artery. 2. The most common type of variation of extrahepatic artery was replaced right hepatic artery from superior mesenteric artery: 6 of 125 cases (4.8%). B. Variations in intrahepatic arteries: 1. The normal intrahepatic artery pattern occurred in 83 of 125 cases (66.4%). Right hepatic and left hepatic arteries arising from the hepatic artery proper and middle hepatic artery arising from lower portion of the umbilical point of left hepatic artery. 2. The most common variation of intrahepatic arteries was middle hepatic artery. 3. Among the variation of middle hepatic artery; Right, middle and left hepatic arteries arising from the same location at the hepatic artery proper was the most common type; 17 of 125 cases (13.6%)

  6. Glucocorticosteroids for viral hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, J; Mellerup, M T; Krogsgaard, K

    2004-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus may cause liver inflammation and fibrosis. It is not known whether glucocorticosteroids are beneficial or harmful for patients with hepatitis C infection.......Hepatitis C virus may cause liver inflammation and fibrosis. It is not known whether glucocorticosteroids are beneficial or harmful for patients with hepatitis C infection....

  7. Apple Polyphenols Decrease Atherosclerosis and Hepatic Steatosis in ApoE-/- Mice through the ROS/MAPK/NF-κB Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhe-Rong; Li, Jin-You; Dong, Xin-Wei; Tan, Zhong-Ju; Wu, Wei-Zhen; Xie, Qiang-Min; Yang, Yun-Mei

    2015-08-24

    In this study, we examined the effects of apple polyphenols (APs) on hyperlipidemia, atherosclerosis, hepatic steatosis and endothelial function and investigated the potential mechanisms. ApoE(-/-) mice were fed a western-type diet and orally treated with APs (100 mg/kg) or atorvastatin (10 mg/kg) for 12 weeks. Hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis in the aortic sinuses and, and hepatic lipidosis were measured. The treatment with APs or atorvastatin induced a remarkable reduction in the atherosclerotic lesions and hepatic steatosis and decreased the levels of low-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, CCL-2 and VCAM-1 levels in the plasma. Conversely, the APs significantly increased the plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and markedly up-regulated the glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels in liver tissues. Moreover, the APs treatment modulated lipid metabolism by up-regulating the transcription of associated hepatic genes including PPARα, while down-regulating the transcription of SCAP and its downstream genes associated with lipid synthesis in the liver. Histological assessment showed that the APs treatment also reduced the macrophage infiltration in the aortic root plaque and the inflammatory cells infiltrations to the liver tissues. Moreover, we confirmed that the APs treatment greatly reduced the ox-LDL-induced endothelial dysfunction and monocyte adhesion to rat aortic endothelial cells (RAECs). Mechanistically, the APs treatment suppressed the ROS/MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway, and consequently, reduced CCL-2, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression. Our results suggest that the APs are a beneficial nutritional supplement for the attenuation of atherosclerosis.

  8. Apple Polyphenols Decrease Atherosclerosis and Hepatic Steatosis in ApoE−/− Mice through the ROS/MAPK/NF-κB Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe-Rong Xu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined the effects of apple polyphenols (APs on hyperlipidemia, atherosclerosis, hepatic steatosis and endothelial function and investigated the potential mechanisms. ApoE−/− mice were fed a western-type diet and orally treated with APs (100 mg/kg or atorvastatin (10 mg/kg for 12 weeks. Hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis in the aortic sinuses and, and hepatic lipidosis were measured. The treatment with APs or atorvastatin induced a remarkable reduction in the atherosclerotic lesions and hepatic steatosis and decreased the levels of low-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, CCL-2 and VCAM-1 levels in the plasma. Conversely, the APs significantly increased the plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol and markedly up-regulated the glutathione peroxidase (GPx, catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD levels in liver tissues. Moreover, the APs treatment modulated lipid metabolism by up-regulating the transcription of associated hepatic genes including PPARα, while down-regulating the transcription of SCAP and its downstream genes associated with lipid synthesis in the liver. Histological assessment showed that the APs treatment also reduced the macrophage infiltration in the aortic root plaque and the inflammatory cells infiltrations to the liver tissues. Moreover, we confirmed that the APs treatment greatly reduced the ox-LDL-induced endothelial dysfunction and monocyte adhesion to rat aortic endothelial cells (RAECs. Mechanistically, the APs treatment suppressed the ROS/MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway, and consequently, reduced CCL-2, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression. Our results suggest that the APs are a beneficial nutritional supplement for the attenuation of atherosclerosis.

  9. Fasting induces IL-1 resistance and free fatty acid-mediated up-regulation of IL-1R2 and IL-1RA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    jenifer j joesting

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Weight loss is a near societal obsession and many diet programs use significant calorie restriction (CR including fasting/short term starvation to generate rapid effects. Fasting is also a well-recognized cause of immunosuppression especially within the innate immune system. In this study, we sought to determine if the IL-1 arm of the neuroimmune system was down-regulated by a 24 hr fast and how fasting might generate this effect. Design: Mice were allowed ad libitum access to food or had food withheld for 24 hrs. Expression of the endogenous IL-1 antagonists IL-1 receptor type 2 (IL-1R2 and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA were determined as were sickness behaviors before and after IL-1 administration.Results: Fasting markedly increased gene expression of IL-1R2 (83-fold in adipose tissue, 9.5-fold in liver and IL-1RA (68-fold in liver. Fasted mice were protected from IL-1-induced weight loss, hypoglycemia, loss of locomotor and social anxiety. These protections were coupled to a large positive interaction of fasting and IL-1 on IL-1R2 gene expression in adipose tissue and liver (2.6-fold and 1.6-fold, respectively. Fasting not only increased IL-1RA and IL-1R2 protein 2.5-fold and 3.2-fold, respectively, in liver; but also increased IL-1R2 1.8-fold in adipose tissue. Fasting, in turn, triggered a 2.4-fold increase in plasma free-fatty acids (FFAs and a 2.1-fold increase in plasma corticosterone. Inhibition, of glucocorticoid action with mifepristone did not impact fasting-dependent IL-1R2 or IL-1RA gene expression. Administration of the FFA, palmitate, to mice increased liver IL-1R2 and IL-1RA gene expression by 14-fold and 11-fold, respectively. Conclusion: These findings indicate that fasting augments expression of endogenous IL-1 antagonists inducing IL-1 resistance. Fasting-induced increases in plasma FFAs appears to be a signal that drives immunosuppression during fasting/short term starvation.

  10. Feature Hepatitis: The Dangers of Hepatitis: What you should know from A to E

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis The Dangers of Hepatitis: What you should know from A to E ... drugs. In some cases, hepatitis lasts a lifetime. Hepatitis: Acute or Chronic? Acute hepatitis is the initial ...

  11. Hepatic protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 3B (Ppp1r3b) promotes hepatic glycogen synthesis and thereby regulates fasting energy homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Minal B; Shewale, Swapnil V; Sequeira, Raymond N; Millar, John S; Hand, Nicholas J; Rader, Daniel J

    2017-06-23

    Maintenance of whole-body glucose homeostasis is critical to glycemic function. Genetic variants mapping to chromosome 8p23.1 in genome-wide association studies have been linked to glycemic traits in humans. The gene of known function closest to the mapped region, PPP1R3B (protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 3B), encodes a protein (G L ) that regulates glycogen metabolism in the liver. We therefore sought to test the hypothesis that hepatic PPP1R3B is associated with glycemic traits. We generated mice with either liver-specific deletion ( Ppp1r3b Δ hep ) or liver-specific overexpression of Ppp1r3b The Ppp1r3b deletion significantly reduced glycogen synthase protein abundance, and the remaining protein was predominantly phosphorylated and inactive. As a consequence, glucose incorporation into hepatic glycogen was significantly impaired, total hepatic glycogen content was substantially decreased, and mice lacking hepatic Ppp1r3b had lower fasting plasma glucose than controls. The concomitant loss of liver glycogen impaired whole-body glucose homeostasis and increased hepatic expression of glycolytic enzymes in Ppp1r3b Δ hep mice relative to controls in the postprandial state. Eight hours of fasting significantly increased the expression of two critical gluconeogenic enzymes, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase, above the levels in control livers. Conversely, the liver-specific overexpression of Ppp1r3b enhanced hepatic glycogen storage above that of controls and, as a result, delayed the onset of fasting-induced hypoglycemia. Moreover, mice overexpressing hepatic Ppp1r3b upon long-term fasting (12-36 h) were protected from blood ketone-body accumulation, unlike control and Ppp1r3b Δ hep mice. These findings indicate a major role for Ppp1r3b in regulating hepatic glycogen stores and whole-body glucose/energy homeostasis. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. HIV and Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV and Opportunistic Infections, Coinfections, and Conditions Home Understanding ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV and Hepatitis C Last Reviewed: July 25, 2017 ...

  13. HIV and Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV and Opportunistic Infections, Coinfections, and Conditions Home Understanding ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV and Hepatitis B Last Reviewed: July 24, 2017 ...

  14. Imaging of hepatic infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, D.J.; Hanbidge, A.E.; O'Malley, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Imaging plays a significant role in the detection, characterization and treatment of hepatic infections. Infectious diseases of the liver include pyogenic and amoebic abscesses and parasitic, fungal, viral and granulomatous infections. With increases in worldwide travel, immunosuppression and changing population demographics, identification of cases of hepatic infection is becoming more common in daily practice. Knowledge of the imaging features seen with hepatic infections can assist in early diagnosis and timely initiation of appropriate therapy. This review presents the imaging appearances of hepatic infections, emphasizing specific features that may contribute to the diagnosis. Examples of the imaging findings seen with pyogenic and amoebic abscesses, infection with Echinococcus granulosus (Hydatid), schistosomiasis, candidiasis and tuberculosis (TB) are presented

  15. Imaging of hepatic infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, D.J. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada)]. E-mail: doyledj@hotmail.com; Hanbidge, A.E. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada); O' Malley, M.E. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada)

    2006-09-15

    Imaging plays a significant role in the detection, characterization and treatment of hepatic infections. Infectious diseases of the liver include pyogenic and amoebic abscesses and parasitic, fungal, viral and granulomatous infections. With increases in worldwide travel, immunosuppression and changing population demographics, identification of cases of hepatic infection is becoming more common in daily practice. Knowledge of the imaging features seen with hepatic infections can assist in early diagnosis and timely initiation of appropriate therapy. This review presents the imaging appearances of hepatic infections, emphasizing specific features that may contribute to the diagnosis. Examples of the imaging findings seen with pyogenic and amoebic abscesses, infection with Echinococcus granulosus (Hydatid), schistosomiasis, candidiasis and tuberculosis (TB) are presented.

  16. hy viral hepatitis?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jelivery.6 They may be confused with surgical conditions and apart from being an ... of the viruses, the diagnosis and treatment of chronic hepatitis, the relationship of .... myocarditis and cardiomyopathy, pancreatitis and CSF abnormalities!

  17. Autoantibodies in Autoimmune Hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Luigi; Deleonardi, Gaia; Lalanne, Claudine; Barbato, Erica; Tovoli, Alessandra; Libra, Alessia; Lenzi, Marco; Cassani, Fabio; Muratori, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The detection of diagnostic autoantibodies such as antinuclear antibodies (ANA), anti-smooth muscle antibodies (SMA), anti-liver/kidney microsomal type 1 (anti-LKM1), anti-liver cytosol type 1 (anti-LC1) and anti-soluble liver antigen (anti-SLA) is historically associated with the diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis. When autoimmune hepatitis is suspected, the detection of one or any combination of diagnostic autoantibodies, by indirect immunofluorescence or immuno-enzymatic techniques with recombinant antigens, is a pivotal step to reach a diagnostic score of probable or definite autoimmune hepatitis. Diagnostic autoantibodies (ANA, SMA, anti-LKM1, anti-LC1, anti-SLA) are a cornerstone in the diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis. Other ancillary autoantibodies, associated with peculiar clinical correlations, appear to be assay-dependent and institution-specific, and validation studies are needed. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Hepatic abscesses after adhesiolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Antonsen

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Febrilia and pain in upper right quadrant of the abdomen days after a simple operation for bowel obstruction could be caused by translocation of intestinal bacteria and subsequent formation of hepatic abscesses.

  19. Hepatitis C pada Anak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusri Dianne Jurnalis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakInfeksi virus hepatitis C saat ini masih merupakan persoalan yang serius. Penularan infeksi HCV pada anak yang utama adalah melalui transfusi darah atau produk darah yang saat ini bertanggung jawab menyebabkan kasus hepatitis C kronis. Selain itu infeksi HCV pada anak dapat disebabkan oleh transmisi perinatal (vertikal. Infeksi HCV akut dapat berakhir dengan sirosis dan karsinoma hepatoselular setelah dekade ketiga (sekitar 20%, karena progresivitas infeksi HCV lebih lambat dari infeksi hepatitis B virus. Pada umumnya infeksi HCV bersifat asimptomatik termasuk pada anak. Karena tidak ada gejala yang jelas pada infeksi HCV tersebut maka diagnosis infeksi HCV hanya dapat ditegakkan dengan pemeriksaan awal laboratorium dan uji serologi, dan bila perlu dengan uji molekuler pada pasien dengan risiko tinggi. Kebijakan kuratif khusus terhadap HCV adalah terapi antivirus berupa interferon dan ribavirin yang diberikan bila diagnosis HCV sudah ditegakkanKata kunci: Hepatitis C, diagnosis and management problem, childrenAbstractHepatitis C virus infection is still a serious problem. Transmission of HCV infection in children is a major blood transfusion or blood products that are currently responsible for causing chronic hepatitis C cases. Additionally HCV infection in children can be caused by perinatal transmission (vertical. Acute HCV infection may end up with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma after the third decade (around 20%, due to a slower progression of HCV infection of hepatitis B virus infection. In most cases of HCV infection are asymptomatic, including in children. Since there are no obvious symptoms in the diagnosis of HCV infection HCV infection can only be confirmed by laboratory examinations and serologic testing early, and if necessary with molecular testing in patients at high risk. Curative policy is specific to HCV antiviral therapy such as interferon and ribavirin are given when the diagnosis of HCV has been establishedKeywords:Hepatitis

  20. Crioglobulinemia y hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Rousseau González, Georgina

    1998-01-01

    Se describieron las manifestaciones principales de la crioglobulinemia mixta esencial su clasificación inmunoquímica, su asociación con los distintos virus de la hepatitis, las distintas alteraciones inmunológicas asociadas y los principales tratamientos utilizados. The main manifestations of essential mixed cryoglobulinemia were described: its immunochemical classification, its association with different hepatitis virus, the different associated immunological alterations, and the main tre...

  1. Hepatic rupture in preeclampsia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winer-Muram, H.T.; Muram, D.; Salazar, J.; Massie, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    The diagnosis of hepatic rupture in patients with pregnancy-induced hypertension (preeclampsia and eclampsia) is rarely made preoperatively. Diagnostic imaging can be utilized in some patients to confirm the preoperative diagnosis. Since hematoma formation precedes hepatic rupture, then, when diagnostic modalities such as sonography and computed tomography identify patients with hematomas, these patients are at risk of rupture, and should be hospitalized until the hematomas resolve

  2. Torsed pedunculated hepatic hamartoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez-Lima, Ignacio; Vazquez, Jose L.; Gallego, Marta; Fernandez, Rebeca; Fernandez, Pilar

    2009-01-01

    We report a 9-year-old boy with a 6-h history of acute abdominal pain due to torsion of a pedunculated hepatic mesenchymal hamartoma. The lesion was seen, on US and CT, to connect to the liver through a pedicle. Mesenchymal hepatic hamartomas are unusual tumours that may be pedunculated, and this is a unique case complicated by torsion. The radiological and pathological findings, differential diagnosis, and clinical course are discussed. (orig.)

  3. CT in hepatic abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Nobuyuki; Hiromura, Tadao; Saitoh, Hiroya; Choji, Kiyoshi; Takahashi, Hiromichi; Shinohara, Masahiro; Irie, Goroh; Nojima, Takayuki; Morita, Yuzuru.

    1987-01-01

    Fifteen CT pictures from 10 cases of hepatic abscess were reviewed. Rim enhancement was noted only in 2. On the other hand, ill defined low density surrounding central cystic structure was demonstrated in 11. Following contrast injection, this ill defined low density becomes isodense to the normal liver. Histologically, the ill defined low density was granulation tissue composed of neutrophils, lymphocytes and Macrophages. We emphasized the importance of the recognition of the granulation tissue surraounding a cyst of hepatic abscess. (author)

  4. Hepatitis C in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonunsanga

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C is a serious public health problem all over the world. It is caused by a single stranded RNA virus. Most acute infections are subclinical, but in 75% of individuals, infection leads to a chronic hepatitis, which in some cases can progress to cirrhosis and occasionally development of hepatoma. It has wide range of dermatological manifestations. This review article deals with the overview of epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, management and prevention.

  5. Hepatitis C FAQs for the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hepatitis Contact Us Anonymous Feedback Quick Links to Hepatitis … A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Local Partners & Grantees Policy and Programs Resource Center Hepatitis C FAQs for the Public Recommend on Facebook ...

  6. Hepatitis B FAQs for the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professional Resources Patient Education Resources Quick Links to Hepatitis … A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Grantees Policy and Programs Resource Center Viral Hepatitis Hepatitis B Questions and Answers for the Public Recommend ...

  7. Alternative and Complementary Therapies for Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Complementary Therapies Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For Veterans and the Public Veterans ... treatments which have been proven to reduce the hepatitis C viral load. Just because something is "natural" (an herb, ...

  8. Viral Hepatitis: A through E and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse What is viral hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is inflammation of the liver caused by ... and serious. Drugs are available to treat chronic hepatitis. 4 Viral Hepatitis: A through E and Beyond What else ...

  9. Hepatic manifestations of celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh James Freeman

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Hugh James FreemanDepartment of Medicine (Gastroenterology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, CanadaAbstract: Different hepatic and biliary tract disorders may occur with celiac disease. Some have been hypothesized to share genetic or immunopathogenetic factors, such as primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and autoimmune hepatitis. Other hepatic changes in celiac disease may occur with malnutrition resulting from impaired nutrient absorption, including hepatic steatosis. In addition, celiac disease may be associated with rare hepatic complications, such as hepatic T-cell lymphoma.Keywords: celiac disease, autoimmune liver disease, primary biliary cirrhosis, fatty liver, gluten-free diet

  10. Severe atrophy of right hepatic lobe simulating right hepatic lobectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, C.W.; Strashun, A.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1981-01-01

    Absence of the right hepatic lobe following blunt abdominal trauma without surgical resection is reported. The usual site of the right hepatic lobe is demonstrated to be occupied by bowel by hepatobiliary imaging

  11. Viral kinetics of the Hepatitis C virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.C. Bekkering (Frank)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractHepatitis A virus and hepatitis B virus were identified as the cause of infectious hepatitis and serum hepatitis respectively in the beginning of the seventies. After introduction of screening tests for hepatitis A and B 4 only 25% of the cases of post transfusion hepatitis were found to

  12. Noninvasive diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C

    OpenAIRE

    Stauber, Rudolf E; Lackner, Carolin

    2007-01-01

    Assessment of hepatic fibrosis is important for determining prognosis, guiding management decisions, and monitoring disease. Histological evaluation of liver biopsy specimens is currently considered the reference test for staging hepatic fibrosis. Since liver biopsy carries a small but significant risk, noninvasive tests to assess hepatic fibrosis are desirable. This editorial gives an overview on noninvasive methods currently available to determine hepatic fibrosis and their diagnostic accur...

  13. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Undertaking blood transfusion, tattooing and sharing of needles were associated with hepatitis C infection (P=0.001). HBV was not associated with any of the risk factors (P>0.05). Conclusion: Our findings suggest a high prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C among pregnant women; blood transfusion, tattooing and ...

  14. Attitudes and Awareness Regarding Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in many cases hepatitis B and C can lead to permanent liver ... Department of Public Health Dentistry, Gian Sagar Dental College and Hospital, 1Department of Oral Surgery, Gian ... training among HCWs to prevent the spread of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus. ..... primary care physicians following the Department of.

  15. Primary hepatic artery embolization in pediatric blunt hepatic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Caroline C P; Toh, Luke; Lo, Richard H G; Yap, Te-Lu; Narasimhan, Kannan

    2012-12-01

    Non-operative management of isolated blunt hepatic trauma is recommended except when hemodynamic instability requires immediate laparotomy. Hepatic artery angioembolization is increasingly used for hepatic injuries with ongoing bleeding as demonstrated by contrast extravasation on the CT scan. It is used primarily or after laparotomy to control ongoing hemorrhage. Hepatic angioembolization as part of multimodality management of hepatic trauma is reported mainly in adults, with few pediatric case reports. We describe our institution experience with primary pediatric hepatic angioembolization and review the literature with regard to indications and complications. Two cases (3 and 8 years old), with high-grade blunt hepatic injuries with contrast extravasation on the CT scan were successfully managed by emergency primary hepatic angioembolization with minimal morbidity and avoided laparotomy. To date, the only reports of pediatric hepatic angioembolization for trauma are 5 cases for acute bleeding and 15 delayed cases for pseudoaneurysm. The role of hepatic angioembolization in the presence of an arterial blush on CT in adults is accepted, but contested in a pediatric series, despite higher transfusion rate and mortality rate. We propose that hepatic angioembolization should be considered adjunct treatment, in lieu of, or in addition to emergency laparotomy for hemostasis in pediatric blunt hepatic injury. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Primary hepatic pheochromocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimmelin, A.; Hartheiser, M.; Gangi, A.; Welsch, M.; Jeung, M.Y.; Jaeck, D.; Tongio, J.; Dietemann, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas are uncommon tumors that represent a potentially curable cause of hypertension. They are usually located in the adrenal glands, but 10% arise from extra-adrenal sites, located along the paravertebral sympathetic chains. We report a case of primary hepatic pheochromocytoma responsible for a severe hypertension in a 24-year-old man. Echotomography showed a lightly heterogeneous mass located in the segment 8 of the liver. Iodine 131 -metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy showed a large hepatic concentration of the tracer and no other localization. This tumor appeared highly vascularized on enhanced CT scan and on aortic angiography. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a hepatic tumor with a high signal intensity on T2-weighted images and with a signal isointense to the liver on T1-weighted images. The hepatic venous sampling contained the highest catecholamine level, whereas the adrenal venous samping was normal. After surgical resection of the hepatic tumor, the tension level and catecholamines plasmatic level normalized. No recurrent symptoms appeared during a 3-year follow-up. (orig.)

  17. Prevention of hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Estera Kowalska

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B (Hepatitis B is a hepatitis B virus (HBV -based liver disease. This virus has an affinity for liver cells, it can cause both acute and chronic viral infections of varying severity. The consequences of chronic HBV infection can be cirrhosis and liver cancer. In Poland in 1989 a preventive program was implemented to reduce HBV infection. Universal vaccinations have been introduced to reduce the prevalence of Type B hepatitis B from 40.3 / 100,000 in 1989 to 7/100 in 2000. In the last 20 years in Poland there has been huge progress in the prevention and suppression of HBV infections. Decrease in the incidence of hepatitis B is mainly the result of the introduction of compulsory vaccination and improving hygiene procedures and improve sanitation aimed at aborting the pathways of the virus. However, still a large part of society is not immune on HBV infection acting potential group of the risk of infection. In addition, in the era of a growing group of followers. movements of the anti vaccine it is necessary to continue to promote knowledge of HBV and the efficacy and safety of vaccination.

  18. Hepatitis in pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ain, F.U.; Amin, A.; Yasmin, F.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the frequency of viral hepatitis in general, spectrum of hepatitis E in particular, and to study the maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality associated with it. In this prospective study, total number of pregnant women was 4723, sera of 35 pregnant women having clinical jaundice in pregnancy were analyzed for markers of hepatitis A , B, C and E viruses. Of the 35 pregnant women with jaundice HEV IgM were 60%,HA V IgM20%, Anti HCV 8.75%,Hbs Ag 5.71%, unexplained 5.71%. Amongst HEV 23.80% had hepatic encephalopathy DIC in 42.85%, PPH in 23.80%, renal failure in 9.52% an- maternal mortality in 4.76%. Approximately two third of pregnant women with HEV infection had preterm deliveries (76.19) % and perinatal mortality of 42.8%. Hepatitis E was the commonest etiological agent in those who had fulminant disease during pregnancy and was associated with high morbidity and mortality. (author)

  19. FastStats: Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Viral Hepatitis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are for the U.S. Morbidity Number of new hepatitis A cases: 1,239 (2014) Number of new ...

  20. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2007-01-01

    Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness.......Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness....

  1. Hepatostomy for central hepatic hematomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gewertz, B.L.; Olsen, W.R.

    1975-01-01

    Two patients with central hepatic hematomas are presented. Hepatostomy tube drainage provided prompt healing of the cavities without complications. The technique is presented as a safe and effective alternative to hepatic resection without compromising the established principles of management

  2. Nitazoxanide for chronic hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolova, Kristiana; Gluud, Christian; Grevstad, Berit

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C infection is a disease of the liver caused by the hepatitis C virus. The estimated number of chronically infected people with hepatitis C virus worldwide is about 150 million people. Every year, another three to four million people acquire the infection. Chronic hepatitis C......) and ribavirin was the approved standard treatment for chronic hepatitis C. In 2011, first-generation direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have been licensed, for use in combination with peginterferon and ribavirin for treating hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection. Nitazoxanide is another antiviral drug with broad...... antiviral activity and may have potential as an effective alternative, or an addition to standard treatment for the treatment of the hepatitis C virus. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of nitazoxanide in people with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. SEARCH METHODS: We searched The Cochrane...

  3. No up-regulation of the phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase pathway and choline production by sex hormones in cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valtolina, Chiara; Vaandrager, Arie B; Favier, Robert P; Robben, Joris H; Tuohetahuntila, Maidina; Kummeling, Anne; Jeusette, Isabelle; Rothuizen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Feline hepatic lipidosis (FHL) is a common cholestatic disease affecting cats of any breed, age and sex. Both choline deficiency and low hepatic phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT) activity are associated with hepatic lipidosis (HL) in humans, mice and rats. The PEMT

  4. Alcohol Use and Hepatitis C

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Marion G.; Terrault, Norah A.

    2002-01-01

    Excess alcohol consumption can worsen the course and outcome of chronic hepatitis C. It is important to distinguish between alcohol abuse, which must be treated on its own merits, and the effect of alcohol use on progression, severity, and treatment of hepatitis C. Most studies on the effects of alcohol on hepatitis C have focused on patients, with high levels of daily alcohol intake. Indeed, the adverse effects of light and moderate amounts of alcohol intake on hepatitis C virus (HCV) infect...

  5. Hepatitis in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-18

    In this podcast, Dr. John Ward, Director of CDC’s Division of Viral Hepatitis, discusses the different types of viral hepatitis and how they can be prevented. He also describes how hepatitis is transmitted and treated.  Created: 5/18/2010 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 5/18/2010.

  6. Fasting exacerbates hepatic growth differentiation factor 15 to promote fatty acid β-oxidation and ketogenesis via activating XBP1 signaling in liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiyuan Zhang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Liver coordinates a series of metabolic adaptations to maintain systemic energy balance and provide adequate nutrients for critical organs, tissues and cells during starvation. However, the mediator(s implicated in orchestrating these fasting-induced adaptive responses and the underlying molecular mechanisms are still obscure. Here we show that hepatic growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15 is regulated by IRE1α-XBP1s branch and promotes hepatic fatty acids β-oxidation and ketogenesis upon fasting. GDF15 expression was exacerbated in liver of mice subjected to long-term fasted or ketogenic diet feeding. Abrogation of hepatic Gdf15 dramatically attenuated hepatic β-oxidation and ketogenesis in fasted mice or mice with STZ-initiated type I diabetes. Further study revealed that XBP1s activated Gdf15 transcription via binding to its promoter. Elevated GDF15 in liver reduced lipid accumulation and impaired NALFD development in obese mice through enhancing fatty acids oxidation in liver. Therefore, our results demonstrate a novel and critical role of hepatic GDF15 activated by IRE1α-XBP1s branch in regulating adaptive responses of liver upon starvation stress. Keywords: Fasting, Fatty acid β-oxidation, Ketogenesis, GDF15, XBP1, NAFLD

  7. Hepatic angiography: Portal hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, T.W. Jr.; Sones, P.J. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Portal hypertension is usually a manifestation of underlying hepatic parenchymal disease, although it may be secondary to portal or hepatic venous thrombosis and rarely to hyperdynamic portal states. Portal hypertension may present as encephalopathy, ascites, jaundice, hepatic failure, or catastrophic upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Radiologic investigation should include indirect or direct measurements of portal pressure, assessment of portal venous perfusion, visualization of collaterals, and demonstration of arterial and venous anatomy for potential shunt procedure. Following survival of initial variceal bleeding, the most effective procedure to prevent recurrent hemorrhage is a shunt to decompress the varices. The decision whether to intervene medically or surgically during the acute hemorrhagic episode as well as the type of shunt used to prevent future hemorrhage is the subject of continuing controversy

  8. Prophylactic Hepatitis E Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Zhao, Qinjian; Xia, Ningshao

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E has been increasingly recognized as an underestimated global disease burden in recent years. Subpopulations with more serious infection-associated damage or death include pregnant women, patients with basic liver diseases, and elderly persons. Vaccine would be the most effective means for prevention of HEV infection. The lack of an efficient cell culture system for HEV makes the development of classic inactive or attenuated vaccine infeasible. Hence, the recombinant vaccine approaches are explored deeply. The neutralizing sites are located almost exclusively in the capsid protein, pORF2, of the virion. Based on pORF2, many vaccine candidates showed potential of protecting primate animals; two of them were tested in human and evidenced to be well tolerated in adults and highly efficacious in preventing hepatitis E. The world's first hepatitis E vaccine, Hecolin ® (HEV 239 vaccine), was licensed in China and launched in 2012.

  9. [Hepatitis E as zoonosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann-Popczyk, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The hepatitis E virus (HEV) the causative agent of hepatitis E, is a non-enveloped RNA virus. HEV is transmitted through oral consumption of contaminated food and water According to the currently knowledge now be considered as zoonosis. The main reservoir of HEV are pigs, boars and deer. For the first time HEV was isolated from animals (pigs) in 1997 in the U.S. Genetic analysis of strains isolated from pigs showed high similarity to strains HEV isolated from humans. This was the first evidence showing that HEV is a zoonosis. Further studies have shown that occupational groups e.g. veterinarians, swine breeders with close contact to pigs have an increased risk for HEV infections. The additional evidence supported the zoonotic potential of HEV were reports of acute hepatitis E after the consumption of undercooked meat from deer and wild boar. Infection of HEV in the domestic pig and wild boar population in Europe is widespread.

  10. Hepatic artery aneurysms (HAAs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosratini, H.

    2004-01-01

    The hepatic artery aneurysms are rare, especially in interahepatic branches, The frequency consists of 75-80% extrahepatic and 20-25% intrahepatic. Catheterization is achieved usually from common femoral artery, other methods implemented in the case of unsuccessful catheterization from femoral artery, are translumbar and brachial catheterization. The study consist of 565 patients that were referred to the angiography ward, During seven years of assessment, five cases of hepatic artery aneurysm were found; this is a rare condition reported in the English literature. In the literature as well as in this case report the hepatic artery aneurysms are rare. In reported series the extrahepatic artery aneurysms are found more often than in the intrahepatic artery aneurysm but in this case report intrahepatic artery aneurysms are more than extrahepatic one. (author)

  11. Hepatitis Awareness Month PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-05-11

    May is National Hepatitis Awareness Month. This 30 second PSA discusses hepatitis and encourages listners to talk to their health care professional about getting tested.  Created: 5/11/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention.   Date Released: 5/11/2011.

  12. Canine Copper-Associated Hepatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirksen, Karen; Fieten, Hille

    2017-01-01

    Copper-associated hepatitis is recognized with increasing frequency in dogs. The disease is characterized by centrolobular hepatic copper accumulation, leading to hepatitis and eventually cirrhosis. The only way to establish the diagnosis is by histologic assessment of copper distribution and copper

  13. Hepatitis A: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fluids enter another person’s bloodstream. • Hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infections can cause chronic liver problems. Infection with hepa- ... there is no vaccine to protect people from hepatitis C virus infection. • There are medications that are approved by the ...

  14. Accessory hepatic vein: MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Hee; Rho, Tack Soo; Cha, Sang Hoon; Park, Cheol Min; Cha, In Ho

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the MR appearance of the accessory hepatic veins. The study included 87 consecutive patients for whom abdominal MR images were obtained. The subjects who had liver lesion or hepatic vascular abnormalities were excluded. Couinaud classified accessory hepatic veins into inferior and middle right hepatic veins. Our major interests were evaluation of the incidence, morphology, and location of the accessory hepatic vein. Inferior right hepatic vein was demonstrated in 43 out of 87 patients (49%). The morphology was linear in 35 patients (80.5%), and V-shaped in 8 patients (19.5%). In 40 patients (93%), the inferior right hepatic vein was located in the posteroinferior aspect of the right lobe. Middle right hepatic vein was demonstrated in 7 out of 87 patients (8%). All were single linear in morphology, combined with the inferior right hepatic vein, and located between the right hepatic vein and inferior right hepatic vein. The accessory hepatic vein was demonstrated in 49% among the Korean adult population, and was located in posteroinferior portion of the liver, in 93%

  15. Blood lipids analysis in patients with hepatitis and hepatic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si Jianhong

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlationship between blood hepatic fibrosis markers and blood lipids levels. Methods: Serum hepatic fibrosis markers (HA, PC III, IV-C, LN) levels were determined with RIA and serum lipids (TG, TCh HDL; LDL, apoA1, apoB) were measured with biochemical methods in 98 patients with hepatitis in various stages and 50 controls. Liver biopsy was done in all the hepatitis patients. Results: Hepatic fibrosis was classified into 5 grades (S0-S4) according to the pathology shown in the biopsy specimen. The serum lipid levels decreased along with the increase of severity of fibrosis from S0 to S4. Levels in S4 patients were significantly lower than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: The serum hepatic fibrosis markers levels increased and lipids levels decreased along with the progress of hepatitis from acute to cirrhosis. (authors)

  16. Anabolic effects of leucine-rich whey protein, carbohydrate, and soy protein with and without β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) during fasting-induced catabolism: A human randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittig, Nikolaj; Bach, Ermina; Thomsen, Henrik H; Møller, Andreas B; Hansen, Jakob; Johannsen, Mogens; Jensen, Erik; Serena, Anja; Jørgensen, Jens O; Richelsen, Bjørn; Jessen, Niels; Møller, Niels

    2017-06-01

    Protein-rich beverages are widely used clinically to preserve muscle protein and improve physical performance. Beverages with high contents of leucine or its keto-metabolite β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) are especially anabolic in muscle, but it is uncertain whether this also applies to catabolic conditions such as fasting and whether common or separate intracellular signaling cascades are involved. To compare a specific leucine-rich whey protein beverage (LWH) with isocaloric carbohydrate- (CHO), soy protein (SOY), and soy protein +3 g HMB (HMB) during fasting-induced catabolic conditions. Eight healthy lean male subjects underwent four interventions (LWH, CHO, SOY, and HMB) using a randomized crossover design. Each trial included a 36 h fast and consisted of a 3 h basal fasting period and a 4 h 'sipping' period. Forearm net balances of phenylalanine (NB phe , measure of net protein loss) improved for all groups (p HMB compared with SOY (p HMB have superior anabolic effects on muscle protein kinetics after 36 h of fasting, and LWH distinctly activates the mTOR pathway. These novel findings suggest that leucine-rich whey protein and/or HMB are specifically beneficial during fasting-induced catabolic conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  17. Hepatitis C in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    positivity rates in these patients, accounting for nearly 24-. 28% of cases. .... Author. Punjab. Blood donors. 44,064. ELISA. 1.09%. Gupta et al 2004. Delhi. Voluntary blood ... contribution of hepatitis C in these disease conditions is summarized ...

  18. XTC-induced hepatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oranje, W.A.; van Pol, V.; van der Wurff, A.A.; Zeijen, R.N.; Stockbrügger, R.W.; Arends, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    XTC-induced hepatitis. Oranje WA, von Pol P, vd Wurff A, Zeijen RN, Stockbrugger RW, Arends JW. Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital, Maastricht, Netherlands. An increasing number of severe complications associated with the use of XTC is being reported. After 11 earlier case reports

  19. Management of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Wright

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic encephalopathy (HE, the neuropsychiatric presentation of liver disease, is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Reduction of plasma ammonia remains the central therapeutic strategy, but there is a need for newer novel therapies. We discuss current evidence supporting the use of interventions for both the general management of chronic HE and that necessary for more acute and advanced disease.

  20. Hepatic steatosis : metabolic consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Adriana Maria den

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis we focused on the causes and consequences of hepatic steatosis. Epidemiological studies in humans, as well as experimental studies in animal models, have shown an association between visceral obesity and dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The mechanism

  1. Immigration and viral hepatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Sharma (Suraj); M. Carballo (Manuel); J.J. Feld (Jordan J.); H.L.A. Janssen (Harry)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWHO estimates reveal that the global prevalence of viral hepatitis may be as high as 500 million, with an annual mortality rate of up to 1.3 million individuals. The majority of this global burden of disease is borne by nations of the developing world with high rates of vertical and

  2. Hepatic effects of the clomazone herbicide in both its free form and associated with chitosan-alginate nanoparticles in bullfrog tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Cristiane Ronchi; Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes; Rizzi, Gisele Miglioranza; Salla, Raquel Fernanda; Abdalla, Fábio Camargo; Costa, Monica Jones; Silva-Zacarin, Elaine Cristina Mathias

    2016-04-01

    The use of agrochemicals in agriculture is intense and most of them could be carried out to aquatic environment. Nevertheless, there are only few studies that assess the effects of these xenobiotics on amphibians. Clomazone is an herbicide widely used in rice fields, where amphibian species live. Thus, those species may be threatened by non-target exposure. However, nanoparticles are being developed to be used as a carrier system for the agrochemicals. Such nanoparticles release the herbicide in a modified way, and are considered to be more efficient and less harmful to the environment. The aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate the effect of clomazone in its free form and associated with nanoparticles, in the liver of bullfrog tadpoles (Lithobates catesbeianus) when submitted to acute exposure for 96 h. According to semi-quantitative analysis, there was an increase in the frequency of melanomacrophage centres, in the accumulation of eosinophils and in lipidosis in the liver of experimental groups exposed to clomazone - in its free form and associated with nanoparticles - in comparison with the control group, and the nanotoxicity of chitosan-alginate nanoparticles. The increase of melanomacrophage centres in all exposed groups was significant (P hepatic responses. Moreover, these results provided important data about the effect of the clomazone herbicide and organic nanoparticles, which act as carriers of agrochemicals, on the bullfrog tadpole liver. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Inositol and hepatic lipidosis. II. Effect of inositol supplementation and time from parturition on serum insulin, thyroxine and triiodothyronine and their relationship to serum and liver lipids in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerloff, B J; Herdt, T H; Wells, W W; Nachreiner, R F; Emery, R S

    1986-06-01

    Percutaneous liver biopsies and blood samples were obtained from 80 dairy cows in nine Michigan herds over the peripartum period. Thirty-nine cows were fed 17 g of supplemental inositol and 41 were fed a placebo. Liver biopsies were assayed for total myoinositol and triglyceride (TG) concentrations. Blood samples were assayed for serum dextran precipitable cholesterol, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), insulin, thyroxine (T4), free (FT4), triiodothyronine (T3) and free T3 (FT3) concentrations. Serum concentrations of insulin and the thyroid hormones decreased near parturition, with lowest concentrations occurring in the immediate postpartum period. Concentrations of T3 correlated well with T4, and the concentrations of free thyroid hormones reflected concentrations of total thyroid hormones. The percentage of hormone in the free fraction remained constant over time. Serum insulin, T3 and T4 were negatively correlated with serum NEFA and liver TG concentrations. Thyroid hormone concentrations were positively correlated with serum dextran precipitable cholesterol concentrations. Inositol supplementation was associated with reduced circulating T3 and FT3 concentrations, but not T4 and FT4 concentrations. Changes in hormone concentrations at parturition and their relationship to liver TG and serum NEFA concentrations were consistent with a metabolic adaptation by the dairy cow to the negative energy balance of early lactation.

  4. 77 FR 45895 - World Hepatitis Day, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... Proclamation Worldwide, one in twelve people is living with viral hepatitis--a disease that threatens the... ourselves to the fight against viral hepatitis. Hepatitis prevention and control begins with awareness. Though all types of viral hepatitis are associated with serious health issues, hepatitis B and C can...

  5. Hepatitis B immunisation for newborn infants of hepatitis B surface antigen-positive mothers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, C; Gong, Yanzhang; Brok, J

    2006-01-01

    Hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immunoglobulin are considered for newborn infants of HBsAg-positive mothers to prevent hepatitis B infection.......Hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immunoglobulin are considered for newborn infants of HBsAg-positive mothers to prevent hepatitis B infection....

  6. Changing Epidemiology of Hepatitis A and Hepatitis E Viruses in China, 1990-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiang; Wu, Peng; Wang, Liping; Geng, Mengjie; Zeng, Lingjia; Zhang, Jun; Xia, Ningshao; Lai, Shengjie; Dalton, Harry R; Cowling, Benjamin J; Yu, Hongjie

    2017-02-01

    We compared the epidemiology of hepatitis A and hepatitis E cases in China from 1990-2014 to better inform policy and prevention efforts. The incidence of hepatitis A cases declined dramatically, while hepatitis E incidence increased. During 2004-2014, hepatitis E mortality rates surpassed those of hepatitis A.

  7. Occult hepatitis B among Iranian hepatitis C patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad shavakhi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Occult hepatitis B is defined as presence of HBV DNA in tissue or serum without hepatitis B surface antigen. The aim of this study is to determine frequency of occult hepatitis B among hepatitis C patients in Tehran and compare the route of transmission and liver enzymes between positive and negative HBV DNA patients.
    • METHODS: In a cross sectional study, serum of 103 hepatitis C cases (79.6% men and 20.4% women were analyzed for s, x and core genes via a nested polymerase chain reaction technique.
    • RESULTS: HBV DNA was detectable in serum of 20 patients (19.4%. No significant difference in age, sex and route of transmission were seen in HBV DNA positive and negative patients. In HBV DNA positive and negative groups, mean of AST was 73, 47 (p < 0.05 and mean of ALT was 76 and 36 respectively (p < 0.05.
    • CONCLUSION: Occult hepatitis B was observed in a considerable number of hepatitis C patients in Tehran. It was associated with elevation in liver enzyme but was not related to route of transmission.
    • KEY WORD: Occult hepatitis B, hepatitis C, cirrhosis.

  8. Fulminant Hepatic Failure Secondary to Primary Hepatic Angiosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayokunle T. Abegunde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hepatic angiosarcoma is a rare and aggressive tumor that often presents at an advanced stage with nonspecific symptoms. Objective. To report a case of primary hepatic angiosarcoma in an otherwise healthy man with normal liver function tests two months prior to presenting with a short period of jaundice that progressed to fulminant hepatic failure. Methods. Case report and review of literature. Conclusion. This case illustrates the rapidity of progression to death after the onset of symptoms in a patient with hepatic angiosarcoma. Research on early diagnostic strategies and newer therapies are needed to improve prognosis in this rare and poorly understood malignancy with limited treatment options.

  9. Diagnostic performance of cytology for assessment of hepatic lipid content in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, M M; Yao, B; Ríos, C; Wong, C; Mann, S; McArt, J A A; Nydam, D V; Leal Yepes, F A; Viesselmann, L; Geick, A; Goldin, K; Jordan, A; Behling-Kelly, E

    2018-02-01

    analysis showed that cytology had better diagnostic performance than either NEFA or BHB for correctly categorizing [TG] at thresholds of 5, 10, and 15%. Hepatic lipidosis in high-producing dairy cows is of major clinical and economic importance, and this study demonstrates that cytology is an accurate means of assessing HLC. Additional work is indicated to evaluate the diagnostic utility of liver cytology. The Authors. Published by the Federation of Animal Science Societies and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

  10. Hepatitis viral aguda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Rubén Hernández Garcés

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de las hepatitis virales agudas sobre aspectos vinculados a su etiología. Se tuvieron en cuenta además algunos datos epidemiológicos, las formas clínicas más importantes, los exámenes complementarios con especial énfasis en los marcadores virales y el diagnóstico positivoA bibliographical review of acute viral hepatitis was made taking into account those aspects connected with its etiology. Some epidemiological markers, the most important clinical forms, and the complementary examinations with special emphasis on the viral markers and the positive diagnosis were also considered

  11. Congenital Hepatic Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Recinos

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Congenital hepatic cyst is a rare and nonsymptomatic condition in infants and children. Its incidence is 2.5% in the postnatal life with a much lower incidence in the prenatal period. Incidental finding on antenatal imaging is the most common presentation. We present a case of a newborn in whom fetal ultrasound detected a cyst within the fetal liver. Postnatal imaging revealed a liver cyst in the right lobe of the liver, with no other intrahepatic structure affected. Liver function tests were abnormal, but the patient was asymptomatic. Posterior follow-up imaging showed a minor decrease in size. Management of congenital hepatic cyst is usually conservative, done with periodic ultrasound monitoring. However, surgical treatment is the mainstay of treatment when hydrops, progressive enlargement, hemorrhage, torsion, or compression of adjacent structures occurs. Malignant transformation can occur, but it is extremely rare. Partial or total removal of the cyst is the preferred treatment in neonates with a large lesion.

  12. Computed tomography in hepatic trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, K.L. Jr.; Federle, M.P.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-five patients with hepatic injury from blunt upper abdominal trauma were examined by computed tomography (CT). The spectrum of CT findings was recorded, and the size of the hepatic laceration and the associated hemoperitoneum were correlated with the mode of therapy used in each case (operative vs nonoperative). While the need for surgery correlated roughly with the size of the hepatic laceration, the size of the associated hemoperitoneum was an important modifying factor. Fifteen patients with hepatic lacerations but little or no hemoperitoneum were managed nonoperatively. CT seems to have significant advantages over hepatic scintigraphy, angiography, and diagnostic peritoneal lavage. By combining inforamtion on the clinical state of the patient and CT findings, therapy of hepatic injury can be individualized and the incidence of nontherapeutic laparotomies decreased

  13. [Autoimmune hepatitis: Immunological diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahim, Imane; Brahim, Ikram; Hazime, Raja; Admou, Brahim

    2017-11-01

    Autoimmune hepatopathies (AIHT) including autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and autoimmune cholangitis (AIC), represent an impressive entities in clinical practice. Their pathogenesis is not perfectly elucidated. Several factors are involved in the initiation of hepatic autoimmune and inflammatory phenomena such as genetic predisposition, molecular mimicry and/or abnormalities of T-regulatory lymphocytes. AIHT have a wide spectrum of presentation, ranging from asymptomatic forms to severe acute liver failure. The diagnosis of AIHT is based on the presence of hyperglobulinemia, cytolysis, cholestasis, typical even specific circulating auto-antibodies, distinctive of AIH or PBC, and histological abnormalities as well as necrosis and inflammation. Anti-F actin, anti-LKM1, anti-LC1 antibodies permit to distinguish between AIH type 1 and AIH type 2. Anti-SLA/LP antibodies are rather associated to more severe hepatitis, and particularly useful for the diagnosis of seronegative AIH for other the antibodies. Due to the relevant diagnostic value of anti-M2, anti-Sp100, and anti-gp210 antibodies, the diagnosis of PBC is more affordable than that of PSC and AIC. Based on clinical data, the immunological diagnosis of AIHT takes advantage of the various specialized laboratory techniques including immunofluorescence, immunodot or blot, and the Elisa systems, provided of a closer collaboration between the biologist and the physician. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Delineation of molecular pathways that regulate hepatic PCSK9 and LDL receptor expression during fasting in normolipidemic hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Minhao; Dong, Bin; Cao, Aiqin; Li, Hai; Liu, Jingwen

    2015-01-01

    Background PCSK9 has emerged as a key regulator of serum LDL-C metabolism by promoting the degradation of hepatic LDL receptor (LDLR). In this study, we investigated the effect of fasting on serum PCSK9, LDL-C, and hepatic LDLR expression in hamsters and further delineated the molecular pathways involved in fasting-induced repression of PCSK9 transcription. Results Fasting had insignificant effects on serum total cholesterol and HDL-C levels, but reduced LDL-C, triglyceride and insulin levels. The decrease in serum LDL-C was accompanied by marked reductions of hepatic PCSK9 mRNA and serum PCSK9 protein levels with concomitant increases of hepatic LDLR protein amounts. Fasting produced a profound impact on SREBP1 expression and its transactivating activity, while having modest effects on mRNA expressions of SREBP2 target genes in hamster liver. Although PPARα mRNA levels in hamster liver were elevated by fasting, ligand-induced activation of PPARα with WY14643 compound in hamster primary hepatocytes did not affect PCSK9 mRNA or protein expressions. Further investigation on HNF1α, a critical transactivator of PCSK9, revealed that fasting did not alter its mRNA expression, however, the protein abundance of HNF1α in nuclear extracts of hamster liver was markedly reduced by prolonged fasting. Conclusion Fasting lowered serum LDL-C in hamsters by increasing hepatic LDLR protein amounts via reductions of serum PCSK9 levels. Importantly, our results suggest that attenuation of SREBP1 transactivating activity owing to decreased insulin levels during fasting is primarily responsible for compromised PCSK9 gene transcription, which was further suppressed after prolonged fasting by a reduction of nuclear HNF1α protein abundance. PMID:22954675

  15. Type B Hepatitis in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tabarestani

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B surface antigen CHBsAg was found in 1% of controls, 2.1% of professional blood donors, 2.0% of leprosy patients and 76.1% of acute hepatitis in Tehran and Mashhad, Iran. All HBsAg positive samples also possessed antibody to the hepatitis B core antigen and all were subtype ayw. Type B hepatitis and the HBsAg state aloe frequent in Iran, but most must be accounted for by u nonparenter- al" or "rnapparent'' parenteral exposure.

  16. Hepatite E Hepatitis E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymundo Paraná

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O vírus da hepatite E (VHE é o segundo vírus de transmissão fecal-oral com hepatotropismo confirmado, após o vírus da hepatite A. As grandes epidemias de hepatite das décadas de 50 e 60 na Índia foram causadas pelo VHE. Observaram-se surtos da infecção na África Central, América Latina, Oriente Médio e Repúblicas independentes da ex-União Soviética. O quadro clínico da doença assemelha-se ao de outras hepatites virais. Não há casos descritos de hepatite E crônicas. Cerca de 20% das mulheres que adquirem a doença durante a gravidez desenvolvem formas graves, com insuficiência hepática fulminante. Confirma-se o diagnóstico quando se encontra no soro anticorpos (método de ELISA das classes IgM (fase aguda e/ou IgG (curados. O imunoblot e o PCR-RNA podem ser usados quando necessário. Não há tratamento específico. O uso de imunoglobulina hiperimune tem sido aconselhado por alguns autores. A prevenção se faz pelos cuidados higiênicos e dietéticos habituais. Não há vacina eficaz contra a doença.Hepatitis E virus (HEV is the second most frequent hepatotropic virus transmitted via fecal-oral route, following closely behind hepatitis A virus. The great epidemics of hepatitis described during the 50s and 60s, in India, were caused by this virus. Epidemic bursts have also been described in Central Africa, Latin America, Middle East and in the independent Republics of the ex-Soviet Union. The clinical features of the disease do not differ from those reported for other viral hepatitides. There have been no cases of chronic hepatitis E reported. Around 20% of women infected during pregnancy develop a severe form of hepatitis which courses to liver failure. Diagnosis of hepatitis is confirmed when antibodies (using ELISA of the IgM class (acute phase and/or IgG (infected and cured are found in the serum. Immunoblot and PCR-RNA may be used as necessary. There is no specific treatment for hepatitis E. Hyperimmune serum has

  17. Prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV are common blood-borne infections unevenly distributed across regions in Nigeria. Few population-based prevalence studies have been done in Nigeria. Objective. To determine the prevalence of HBV, HCV and HIV and risk factors for infection with ...

  18. Prevention of Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Transmission ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in hemodialysis (HD) patients are associated with adverse outcomes, especially after kidney transplantation. Review: In the HD setting, cross-contamination to patients via environmental surfaces, supplies, equipment, multiple-dose medication vials ...

  19. Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus and Human Immunodeficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The epidemiology of viral hepatitis and Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during pregnancy is of great importance for health planners and program managers. However, few published data on viral hepatitis and HIV are available in Sudan especially during pregnancy. Objectives: The current study was ...

  20. Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis C and Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C viruses (HCV) are major causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. They are also among the commonest transfusiontransmissible infectious agents. Students of higher institutions are often used as voluntary unpaid donors by many ...

  1. HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth C Kapembwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : Epidemiologic data of HIV and viral hepatitis coinfection are needed in sub-Saharan Africa to guide health policy for hepatitis screening and optimized antiretroviral therapy (ART. Materials and Methods: We screened 323 HIV-infected, ART-eligible adults for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and hepatitis C antibody (HCV Ab at a tertiary hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. We collected basic demographic, medical, and laboratory data to determine predictors for coinfection. Results: Of 323 enrolled patients, 32 (9.9%; 95% CI=6.7-13.2% were HBsAg positive, while 4 (1.2%; 95% CI=0.03-2.4% were HCV Ab positive. Patients with hepatitis B coinfection were more likely to be 200 IU/L was uncommon and did not differ between the two groups (3.4% vs. 2.3%; P=0.5. We were unable to determine predictors of hepatitis C infection due to the low prevalence of disease. Conclusions: HIV and hepatitis B coinfection was common among patients initiating ART at this tertiary care facility. Routine screening for hepatitis B should be considered for HIV-infected persons in southern Africa.

  2. Aspiration sclerotherapy of hepatic cysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, T.F.M.

    2017-01-01

    Hepatic cysts are fluid-filled lesions in the liver that generally arise as congenital anomalies. Prevalence is estimated between 3 and 18%. Overall, cysts are benign and asymptomatic. However, hepatic cysts can increase to a volume of several liters as a result of continuous fluid production by the

  3. Blood transfusion and hepatitis viruses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    virus in blood donors: investigation of type-specific differences in serologic reactivity and rate of alanine aminotransferase abnormalities. Transfusion 1993;. 33: 7-13. 45. McFarlane IG, Smith HM, Johnson PJ, Bray GP, Vergani 0, Williams R. Hepatitis. C virus antibodies in chronic active hepatitis: pathogenetic factor or false-.

  4. Hepatitis B vaccination in travelers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonder, Gerard J. B.

    2008-01-01

    An increasing number of travelers travel to hepatitis B-endemic countries. In travel medicine, vaccinations should be advised according to risks. The actual incidence of hepatitis B infection in short-term tourists is very low and probably not higher than it is for people who do not travel. There is

  5. Screening of subclinical hepatic encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneweg, M; Moerland, W; Quero, J C; Hop, W C; Krabbe, P F; Schalm, S W

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Subclinical hepatic encephalopathy adversely affects daily functioning. The aim of this study was to determine which elements of daily life have predictive value for subclinical hepatic encephalopathy. METHODS: The study was performed in 179 outpatients with liver cirrhosis.

  6. Hepatitis B and skin: review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonunsanga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection and its complications have become a global health problem. The spectrum of HBV infection ranges from asymptomatic carrier state to chronic hepatitis. It is usually preceded by constitutional symptoms. It has a wide range of dermatological manifestations. This review includes the pathogenesis along with the pathophysiology with their clinical significance and overview of the treatment.

  7. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2003-01-01

    The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness.......The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness....

  8. Autoimmune hepatitis vs. pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Adamczyk-Gruszka

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH is a disease of unknown etiology. In pregnancy, it may have mild clinical course as well as can lead to liver failure, or exacerbation of clinical symptoms. In pregnant women the severity of symptoms is often observed between the second and third trimester, and in the puerperium. The disease is marked by enhanced activity of Th lymphocytes, which hepatocytes recognize as foreign antigens. This results in interleukin production activating B lymphocytes, and the production of specific antibodies attacking and destroying the hepatocytes. Case report A 35-year old patient, CII PII, 7 Hbd, with autoimmune hepatitis reported for a check-up. Her first pregnancy was 18 years ago, without history of underlying disease, carried to term without complications. The woman gave birth to a baby-son weighing 3,280g, 10 points Apgar. The delivery was spontaneous and uneventful. The patient got pregnant after an 18-year break. When she twice-tested positively for pregnancy, the treatment with azathioprine was switched to prednisolone. Over the pregnancy the patient was hospitalized 4 times, in 25, 29, 35, and 37 week of gestation due to a threat of preterm delivery, and pregnancy-related cholestasis associated with AIH. In 37 week of gestation, delivery was induced, and she gave birth to a healthy male, weighing 2,650 g, body height of 49 cm, 10 points Apgar scale. The liver function improved and stabilized after the delivery. Treatment with prednisolone has been continued, and the patient’s condition is still controlled. Pregnant patients with autoimmune hepatitis often experience exacerbation of the disease, especially in the third trimester, and in the postpartum period. This case shows that with proper care it is possible to continue and terminate pregnancy safely for the mother and her newly born baby.

  9. Acute Alcoholic Hepatitis: Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Paulina K; Lucey, Michael R

    2016-08-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) causes great morbidity and mortality in the United States and throughout the world. Advances in therapy have proven difficult. In part, this reflects challenges in diagnosis, including the distinction between AH and acute-on-chronic liver failure. Liver biopsy is the best method to clarify the cause in circumstances whereby conflicting clinical data confound the diagnosis. All treatment of AH begins with abstinence from alcohol. All patients with AH should be given sufficient nutrition. Prednisolone has become the principal agent for treating patients with severe AH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Right hepatic artery aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Astrid Del Pilar Ardila; Loures, Paulo; Calle, Juan Cristóbal Ospina; Cunha, Beatriz; Córdoba, Juan Camilo

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of an aneurysm of the right hepatic artery and its multidisciplinary management by general surgery, endoscopy and radiology services. Being a case of extremely low incidence, it is important to show its diagnostic and therapeutic approach. RESUMO Relatamos um caso de aneurisma da artéria hepática direita conduzido de forma multidisciplinar pelos Serviços de Cirurgia Geral, Endoscopia e Radiologia. Em se tratando de caso de incidência baixíssima, é importante mostrar o enfoque diagnóstico e terapêutico usado em seu manejo.

  11. HEPATITIS ALOINMUNE FETAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Álvarez C., Dr.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available La hepatitis aloinmune fetal, conocida anteriormente como hemocromatosis neonatal, ha demostrado en los últimos años ser una enfermedad completamente distinta a la hemocromatosis del adulto, tanto en su etiología como en su la fisiopatología. Este conocimiento abre nuevas perspectivas tanto en la prevención de la enfermedad en futuros embarazos, así como en el tratamiento con inmunoglobulina endovenosa en la madre durante el embarazo y eventualmente el tratamiento postnatal, en el que el trasplante de hígado juega un rol primordial.

  12. [Repeat hepatic resections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, I; Ciurea, S; Braşoveanu, V; Pietrăreanu, D; Tulbure, D; Georgescu, S; Stănescu, D; Herlea, V

    1998-01-01

    Five cases of iterative liver resections are presented, out of a total of 150 hepatectomies performed between 1.01.1995-1.01.1998. The resections were carried out for recurrent adenoma (one case), cholangiocarcinoma (two cases), hepatocellular carcinoma (one case), colo-rectal cancer metastasis (one case). Only cases with at least one major hepatic resection were included. Re-resections were more difficult than the primary resection due, first of all, to the modified vascular anatomy. Intraoperative ultrasound permitted localization of intrahepatic recurrences. Iterative liver resection appears to be the best therapeutical choice for patients with recurrent liver tumors.

  13. Current topics in autoimmune hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Luigi; Muratori, Paolo; Granito, Alessandro; Pappas, Giorgios; Cassani, Fabio; Lenzi, Marco

    2010-11-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis is a chronic liver disease of unknown aetiology characterized by interface hepatitis, hypergammaglobulinaemia and circulating autoantibodies. In the last decade a number of advancements have been made in the field of clinical and basic research: the simplified diagnostic criteria, the complete response defined as normalization of transaminase levels, the molecular identification of the antigenic targets of anti-liver cytosol antibody type 1 and anti-soluble liver antigen, the detection of anti-actin antibodies, the description of de novo autoimmune hepatitis after liver transplantation for non-autoimmune liver diseases, the characterization of autoimmune hepatitis with overlapping features of primary biliary cirrhosis or primary sclerosing cholangitis, the preliminary experience with novel treatment strategies based on cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil and budesonide, the role played by "impaired" regulatory T cells and the development of novel animal models of autoimmune hepatitis. Copyright © 2010 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Peracute Infectious Canine Hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Cheema*, I. Ahmed, G. Mustafa and A. Aslam

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Peracute infectious canine hepatitis (ICH was diagnosed in two young male dogs out of 56 dead canines presented for necropsy examination during the period of April 2009 to June 2010. These dogs were purebred, one- month old Alsatian and 5-month old Labrador. None of the dogs had received any vaccination or deworming treatment; both had died after illness lasting for six hours and twenty four hours respectively. The dogs had shown signs of depression, anorexia and fever. At necropsy, lymph nodes were swollen, edematous and congested; livers were enlarged, bright red and mottled with numerous small white foci. Petechial hemorrhages were seen in the mucosa. Excessive serosanguinous fluid was present in the abdominal cavities. Histologically, the most significant lesion was necrohemorrhagic hepatitis with single cell necrosis of hepatocytes, lacunose dilation of sinusoids filled with blood and numerous large, solid intranuclear inclusion bodies (IIBs in the hepatocytes and macrophages. Both eosinophilic and basophilic (amphophilic inclusions were seen. It has been observed that ICH is re-emerging in some endemic countries. Pet dogs should be regularly protected by effective vaccination.

  15. Perinatal hepatitis B virus detection by hepatitis B virus-DNA analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    De Virgiliis, S; Frau, F; Sanna, G; Turco, M P; Figus, A L; Cornacchia, G; Cao, A

    1985-01-01

    Maternal transmission of hepatitis B virus infection in relation to the hepatitis B e antigen/antibody system and serum hepatitis B virus-DNA were evaluated. Results indicate that hepatitis B virus-DNA analysis can identify hepatitis B serum antigen positive mothers who may transmit infection to their offspring.

  16. Hepatitis C: Information on Testing and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is a serious liver disease that results from infection with the Hepatitis C virus. Hepatitis C has been called a silent disease ... know it. Some people who get infected with Hepatitis C are able to clear, or get rid ... or lifelong, infection. Over time, chronic Hepatitis C can cause serious ...

  17. 78 FR 46247 - World Hepatitis Day, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... Hepatitis Day to bring attention to a disease that afflicts one in twelve people worldwide. Viral hepatitis... American deaths every year. Outcomes can significantly improve with treatment, but because viral hepatitis..., we raise awareness about preventing and treating viral hepatitis, and we renew our commitment to...

  18. 76 FR 46181 - World Hepatitis Day, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... Proclamation Across our Nation, millions of Americans are living with viral hepatitis. As many as three-fourths... save lives and prevent the spread of viral hepatitis. Viral hepatitis is inflammation of the liver, and.... While we have come far, work still needs to be done to prevent and treat this disease. Viral hepatitis...

  19. Liver scintigraphy of fulminant hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Nagara; Ishihara, Takashi; Mori, Toru

    1980-01-01

    The liver scintigraphies of five patients with fulminant hepatitis were examined. Scintiphotos using sup(99m)Tc-phytate were taken within two weeks after the onset. Scintiphotos of 12 normal subjects, 11 cases with acute hepatitis, 17 cases with liver cirrhosis were served as control. Their scintiphotos showed reduction of the size, well-maintained uptake, mostly homogenous RI distribution, and no left lobe enlargement, which could differentiate them from the chronic liver dysfunction. In one of the cases chronological changes in liver scintigraphy were observed. The size of the liver was reduced progressively until the 16th day and re-enlarged at the 30th day and thereafter. Three indices [S/W, (R + L)/W, and L/R] were calculated. S: area of liver, R or L: longitudinal length of the right or left lobe, W: body width. Relative size of the liver expressed by S/W or (R + L)/W showed significant reduction in fulminant hepatitis compared with acute hepatitis. However, they were not different significantly from those of normal subjects. Except for liver cirrhosis, L/R (left lobe swelling index) did not show significant differences among fulminant hepatitis, normal subjects, and acute hepatitis. These indices were also useful in follow-up study of the liver scintigraphy. The liver scintigraphy in the early phase of fulminant hepatitis seems to reflect the degree of massive hepatic necrosis. It is also useful to differentiate chronic hepatic failure. Apparant reduction in scintigraphical liver size seems to suggest poor prognosis, however, it should also kept in mind that the size of the liver in this condition might change quite rapidly and greatly. (author)

  20. Asthenia in Children with Chronic Viral Hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.S. Lembryk

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the article results of own researches concerning peculiarities of the course of asthenic syndrome in school-aged children with chronic hepatitis B, C and mixed forms are provided. It is established that chronic hepatitis C as well as a mixed hepatitis are accompanied by more evident symptoms of deadaptation and somatogenic asthenia than hepatitis B in which psychogenic manifestations prevailed. The degree of endogenous intoxication was also higher at hepatitis C.

  1. Failure to incriminate hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and hepatitis E viruses in the aetiology of fulminant non-A non-B hepatitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Mutimer, D; Shaw, J; Neuberger, J; Skidmore, S; Martin, B; Hubscher, S; McMaster, P; Elias, E

    1995-01-01

    Sporadic non-A, non-B hepatitis is the most common indication for liver transplantation in patients presenting with fulminant and subacute liver failure. This study used serological, histological, and molecular biological techniques to examine specimens from 23 consecutive patients transplanted for sporadic non-A, non-B hepatitis. No evidence was found of hepatitis C virus, hepatitis E virus, or 'cryptic' hepatitis B virus infection.

  2. Modulation of hepatic stellate cells and reversibility of hepatic fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yu, E-mail: 1293363632@QQ.com [Faculty of Graduate Studies of Guangxi University of Chinese Medicine, Nanning 530001, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (China); Deng, Xin, E-mail: Hendly@163.com [Ruikang Hospital Affiliated to Guangxi University of Chinese Medicine, 10 East China Road, Nanning 530011, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (China); Liang, Jian, E-mail: lj99669@163.com [Guangxi University of Chinese Medicine, Nanning 530001, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (China)

    2017-03-15

    Hepatic fibrosis (HF) is the pathological component of a variety of chronic liver diseases. Hepatic stellate cells (HSC) are the main collagen-producing cells in the liver and their activation promotes HF. If HSC activation and proliferation can be inhibited, HF occurrence and development can theoretically be reduced and even reversed. Over the past ten years, a number of studies have addressed this process, and here we present a review of HSC modulation and HF reversal. - Highlights: • We present a review of the modulation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) and reversibility of hepatic fibrosis (HF). • HSC are the foci of HF occurrence and development, HF could be prevented and treated by modulating HSC. • If HSC activation and proliferation can be inhibited, HF could theoretically be inhibited and even reversed. • Prevention or reversal of HSC activation, or promotion of HSC apoptosis, immune elimination, and senescence may prevent, inhibit or reverse HF.

  3. Dengue fever with hepatitis E and hepatitis A infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakoob, Javed; Jafri, Wasim; Siddiqui, Shaheer; Riaz, Mehmood

    2009-03-01

    Infection with dengue viruses produces a spectrum of clinical illness ranging from a nonspecific viral syndrome to severe and fatal haemorrhagic disease. Important risk factors include the strain and serotype of the infecting virus, as well as the age, immune status, and genetic predisposition of the patient. The teaching point in this case study was Dengue fever which occurred concomitantly with Hepatitis A and Hepatitis E virus infection.

  4. Hepatic glucose utilization in hepatic steatosis and obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Keramida, Georgia; Hunter, James; Peters, Adrien?Michael

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis is associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Whether hepatic glucose utilization rate (glucose phosphorylation rate; MRglu) is increased in steatosis and/or obesity is uncertain. Our aim was to determine the separate relationships of steatosis and obesity with MRglu. Sixty patients referred for routine PET/CT had dynamic PET imaging over the abdomen for 30?min post-injection of F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), followed by Patlak?Rutland graphical analysis of the liver us...

  5. Autoimmune hepatitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina; Vergani, Diego

    2002-08-01

    AIH, ASC, and de novo AIH after liver transplantation are childhood liver diseases of an autoimmune nature. The mode of presentation of AIH in childhood is variable, and the disease should be suspected and excluded in all children presenting with symptoms and signs of prolonged or severe acute liver disease. Although corticosteroids are effective in all types of childhood AIH, patients with LKM1 have a higher frequency of acute hepatic failure and relapse after corticosteroid withdrawal than do patients with ANA/SMA. ASC occurs commonly in the absence of inflammatory bowel disease, requires cholangiography for diagnosis, and improves during corticosteroid therapy. The development of AIH de novo in children who undergo liver transplantation for nonautoimmune liver disease may reflect interference with the maturation of T cells by immunosuppressive drugs.

  6. The epidemiology of viral hepatitis in Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bener Abdulbari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis is a major public health problem in many countries all over the world and especially in Middle East, Asia, East-Europe, and Africa. The aim of our study was to assess the incidence of viral hepatitis A, B and C in Qatar and compare it with other countries. This is a retrospective cohort study, which was conducted at Hamad General Hospital, State of Qatar from 2002-2006. Patients who were screened and diagnosed with viral hepatitis were included in this study. The diagnostic classification of definite viral hepatitis was made in accordance with criteria based on the International Classification of Disease tenth revision (ICD-10. A total of 527 cases of hepatitis C, 396 cases of hepatitis B, 162 cases of hepatitis A and 108 cases of unspecified were reported during the year 2006. Reported incidence rate per 10,000 populations during the year 2006 for hepatitis A was 1.9, hepatitis B 4.7, and Hepatitis C 6.3. The proportion of hepatitis B and C was significantly higher in male population than females across the years (2002-2006. Hepatitis A was more prevalent in children below 15 years (72.3%, hepatitis B in adults aged above 15 years, and hepatitis C in the population above 35 years of age. The incidence of hepatitis A has been declining in Qataris and increasing in expatriates. There was a significant relationship in gender and age group of the patients with hepatitis A, B and C. We conclude that hepatitis has become a national health issue in Qatar. The incidence rate of hepatitis in Qatar is comparable to its neighboring countries, United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia. There is a need for further research on hepatitis and the associated risk factors.

  7. Hepatitis E and Maternal Deaths

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Alain Labrique, assistant professor in the Department of International Health and Department of Epidemiology at the Bloomberg School of Public Health, gives us his perspective on hepatitis E and maternal deaths.

  8. Viral hepatitis vaccination during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yueyuan; Jin, Hui; Zhang, Xuefeng; Wang, Bei; Liu, Pei

    2016-04-02

    Viral hepatitis is a serious global public health problem. It is also a common cause of jaundice and gestational complications in pregnant women. Moreover, infected mothers can transmit the virus to their fetus or neonate, which may increase disease burden and decrease quality of life. To date, commercial vaccines have been developed for hepatitis A, B, and E and are available to the general population. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices currently accepts emergency vaccination against hepatitis A and B during pregnancy due to benefits that overweight the potential risks. While there are limited data from trials with limited numbers of samples that suggest the efficacy or safety of hepatitis B and E vaccines in pregnant women, additional data are necessary to provide evidence of vaccination during pregnancy.

  9. Dopamine agents for hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junker, Anders Ellekær; Als-Nielsen, Bodil; Gluud, Christian

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with hepatic encephalopathy may present with extrapyramidal symptoms and changes in basal ganglia. These changes are similar to those seen in patients with Parkinson's disease. Dopamine agents (such as bromocriptine and levodopa, used for patients with Parkinson's disease) have...... therefore been assessed as a potential treatment for patients with hepatic encephalopathy. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the beneficial and harmful effects of dopamine agents versus placebo or no intervention for patients with hepatic encephalopathy. SEARCH METHODS: Trials were identified through the Cochrane...... hepatic encephalopathy that were published during 1979 to 1982 were included. Three trials assessed levodopa, and two trials assessed bromocriptine. The mean daily dose was 4 grams for levodopa and 15 grams for bromocriptine. The median duration of treatment was 14 days (range seven to 56 days). None...

  10. APLASTIC ANEMIA AND VIRAL HEPATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cudillo

    2009-11-01

    Liver histology is characterized by T cell infiltrating the parenchyma as reported in acute hepatitis. Recently in HAA it has been demonstrated intrahepatic  and blood lymphocytes with  T cell repertoire similar to that of confirmed viral acute hepatitis. The expanded T cell clones return to a normal distribution after response to immunosuppressive treatment, suggesting the antigen or T cell clearance. Therapeutic options are the same as acquired aplastic anemia.

  11. Hepatic Complications of Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Elissa; Bakshi, Neeru; Watters, Ashlie; Rosen, Hugo R; Mehler, Philip S

    2017-11-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) has the highest mortality rate of all psychiatric illnesses due to the widespread organ dysfunction caused by the underlying severe malnutrition. Starvation causes hepatocyte injury and death leading to a rise in aminotransferases. Malnutrition-induced hepatitis is common among individuals with AN especially as body mass index decreases. Acute liver failure associated with coagulopathy and encephalopathy can rarely occur. Liver enzymes may also less commonly increase as part of the refeeding process due to hepatic steatosis and can be distinguished from starvation hepatitis by the finding of a fatty liver on ultrasonography. Individuals with AN and starvation-induced hepatitis are at increased risk of hypoglycemia due to depleted glycogen stores and impaired gluconeogenesis. Gastroenterology and hepatology consultations are often requested when patients with AN and signs of hepatitis are hospitalized. It should be noted that additional laboratory testing, imaging, or liver biopsy all have low diagnostic yield, are costly, and potentially invasive, therefore, not generally recommended for diagnostic purposes. While the hepatitis of AN can reach severe levels, a supervised increase in caloric intake and a return to a healthy body weight often quickly lead to normalization of elevated aminotransferases caused by starvation.

  12. Hepatic dimple sign on CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Kunihiko; Nakajima, Teiichi; Ishikawa, Nobuyoshi; Ebihara, Reiko; Saida, Yukihisa

    1983-06-01

    The ''Dimple sign'' has been coined by Baltaxe et al. in 1974 and was said to be useful angiographic sign of avascular tumor. Similar dimple can be seen in the margin of the liver on CT examination of the hepatic tumors. We called this hepatic dimple sign and its clinical usefulness on CT examination was studied with 133 cases of hepatic tumors. Among 133 cases, there were 68 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma, 57 cases of metastatic liver tumor, 5 cases of hemangioma of the liver and 3 cases of hepatoblastoma. Hepatic dimple sign was recognized on 2 cases of metastatic liver tumor, 1 case of hemangioma, and 1 case of carcinoma of the gallbladder with hepatic infiltration. Cases experienced in the affiliated hospitals were also studied. A case of hepatocellular carcinoma and a case of metastatic liver tumor were evaluated. These tumors were relativly large measuring over 5cm in the greatest diameter and low density areas were apparent on plain CT. Therefore, dimples in the hepatic margin seen in CT scan did not contribute to the diagnostic accuracy of the liver tumor in these cases. (author).

  13. Hepatic dimple sign on CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Kunihiko; Nakajima, Teiichi; Ishikawa, Nobuyoshi; Ebihara, Reiko; Saida, Yukihisa

    1983-01-01

    The ''Dimple sign'' has been coined by Baltaxe et al. in 1974 and was said to be useful angiographic sign of avascular tumor. Similar dimple can be seen in the margin of the liver on CT examination of the hepatic tumors. We called this hepatic dimple sign and its clinical usefulness on CT examination was studied with 133 cases of hepatic tumors. Among 133 cases, there were 68 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma, 57 cases of metastatic liver tumor, 5 cases of hemangioma of the liver and 3 cases of hepatoblastoma. Hepatic dimple sign was recognized on 2 cases of metastatic liver tumor, 1 case of hemangioma, and 1 case of carcinoma of the gallbladder with hepatic infiltration. Cases experienced in the affiliated hospitals were also studied. A case of hepatocellular carcinoma and a case of metastatic liver tumor were evaluated. These tumors were relativly large measuring over 5cm in the greatest diameter and low density areas were apparent on plain CT. Therefore, dimples in the hepatic margin seen in CT scan did not contribute to the diagnostic accuracy of the liver tumor in these cases. (author)

  14. Recent advances in hepatic encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMorrow, Sharon

    2017-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy describes the array of neurological alterations that occur during acute liver failure or chronic liver injury. While key players in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy, such as increases in brain ammonia, alterations in neurosteroid levels, and neuroinflammation, have been identified, there is still a paucity in our knowledge of the precise pathogenic mechanism. This review gives a brief overview of our understanding of the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy and then summarizes the significant recent advances made in clinical and basic research contributing to our understanding, diagnosis, and possible treatment of hepatic encephalopathy. A literature search using the PubMed database was conducted in May 2017 using “hepatic encephalopathy” as a keyword, and selected manuscripts were limited to those research articles published since May 2014. While the authors acknowledge that many significant advances have been made in the understanding of hepatic encephalopathy prior to May 2014, we have limited the scope of this review to the previous three years only. PMID:29026534

  15. Drug-induced hepatic injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Henrik; Andreasen, P B

    1992-01-01

    The Danish Committee on Adverse Drug Reactions received 1100 reports of suspected drug-induced hepatic injury during the decade 1978-1987. The causal relationship between drug and hepatic injury was classified as definite in 57 (5.2%) reports, probable in 989 (89.9%) reports, possible in 50 (4.......5%) reports and unclassifiable in four (0.4%) reports. Hepatic injuries accounted for 5.9% of all adverse drug reactions reported, and 14.7% of the lethal adverse drug reactions. A total of 47.2% were classified as acute cytotoxic, 16.2% as acute cholestatic and 26.9% as abnormal hepatic function. In 52 (4.......7%) cases the hepatic injury was lethal; only 14 (1.3%) cases were chronic. Halothane accounted for 25% of the cases. The incidence of halothane-induced hepatic injury is decreasing, and only one lethal case has been reported since 1981. Next to halothane, sulfasalazine was the drug most often suspected...

  16. The angiographic demonstration of hepatic vein obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zu Maoheng; Xu Hao; Li Guojun; Gu Yuming; Wei Ning; Wang Cheng; Xu Wei

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the angiographic feature of hepatic vein obstruction. Methods Forty-five patients (male 23, female 22, age 9-54 years) suffered from hepatic vein obstruction. The inferior vena cavography and the hepatic venography were performed in all cases. Results: IVC was free in 37 patients with hepatic vein obstruction, both IVC and HV were obstructed in 8 patients. The local or long stenosis of IVC was found in 31 inferior vena cavography. The diameter of IVC was normal in 12 patients. The sign of membranous dome was found in hepatic vein orifice in 5 cases and in accessory hepatic vein orifice in 4 cases. Intrahepatic venous collaterals were found in 45 cases. Conclusion: Hepatic vein obstruction can be reproached primarily in inferior vena cavography, the membranous dome is a direct sign of membranous obstruction of HV and AHV in inferior vena cavography. The selected hepatic venography can provide reliable evidence to diagnose hepatic vein obstruction

  17. The value of serum Hepatitis B surface antigen quantification in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The value of serum Hepatitis B surface antigen quantification in determining viralactivity in chronic Hepatitis B virus infection. ... ofCHB andalso higher in hepatitis e antigen positive patients compared to hepatitis e antigen negative patients.

  18. Hepatitis C: Questions to Ask Your Doctor about Your Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Ask Your Doctor about Your Diagnosis Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... me? Other questions you want to ask: ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ Search Hepatitis Search this website Submit Share this page Related ...

  19. Hepatitis C: Questions to Ask Your Doctor about Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Questions to Ask Your Doctor about Treatment Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... treatment? Other questions you want to ask: _______________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ Search Hepatitis Search this website Submit Share this page Related ...

  20. Counter-attack on virol hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prozesky, O.W.; Jupp, P.G.; Joubert, J.J.; Taylor, M.B.; Grabow, W.O.K.

    1985-01-01

    The most highly developed radioimmunoassay test system in medical virology is proving of exceptional value in research aimed at controlling and eventually eradicating the scourge of human hepatitis. The use of radioimmunoassay in detecting hepatitis A (HAV) and hepatitis B (HBV) viruses is discussed. The hepatitis A virus is an enterovirus which infects the gastrointestinal tract and is usually transmitted by contaminated food, milk or water. Hepatitis B spreads mainly by the parenteral rate. Bedbugs and ticks are considered as possible transmitters of HBV. Another important contribution of radioimmunoassay is the ability to monitor the immune response of persons at risk who are vaccinated against hepatitis B

  1. Treatment of hepatic neoplasm through extrahepatic collaterals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soo, C.S.; Chuang, V.P.; Wallace, S.; Charnsangavej, C.; Carrasco, H.

    1983-04-01

    Twenty-nine patients with hepatic artery occlusion were treated with additional hepatic infusion or embolization through extrahepatic collaterals. Seventeen courses of hepatic infusion were performed in 13 patients through the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery, left gastric artery, or right gastric artery. Twenty-five hepatic embolization procedures were performed in 16 patients through the right and left phrenic arteries, left and right gastric arteries, pancreaticoduodenal artery, gastroduodenal artery, or omentoepiploic artery. In one patient gastric ulcers developed following left gastric artery infusion. No complication related to the embolization procedure was observed in the embolization group. The extrahepatic collaterals are important alternative routes for continuous transcatheter management of hepatic neoplasms following hepatic artery occlusion.

  2. Treatment of hepatic neoplasm through extrahepatic collaterals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soo, C.S.; Chuang, V.P.; Wallace, S.; Charnsangavej, C.; Carrasco, H.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-nine patients with hepatic artery occlusion were treated with additional hepatic infusion or embolization through extrahepatic collaterals. Seventeen courses of hepatic infusion were performed in 13 patients through the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery, left gastric artery, or right gastric artery. Twenty-five hepatic embolization procedures were performed in 16 patients through the right and left phrenic arteries, left and right gastric arteries, pancreaticoduodenal artery, gastroduodenal artery, or omentoepiploic artery. In one patient gastric ulcers developed following left gastric artery infusion. No complication related to the embolization procedure was observed in the embolization group. The extrahepatic collaterals are important alternative routes for continuous transcatheter management of hepatic neoplasms following hepatic artery occlusion

  3. Hepatitis A Virus and Hepatitis E Virus: Emerging and Re-Emerging Enterically Transmitted Hepatitis Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon, Stanley M; Walker, Christopher M

    2018-05-07

    Over the past two decades, progress in understanding human infections with hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been eclipsed by the priority of combating persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. During that time, the global burden of liver disease caused by enteric hepatitis viruses has not abated. Because of vaccines, hepatitis A has become increasingly a disease of adults instead of early childhood in many regions of the world, resulting in an age-related shift toward more severe disease. HEV has remained endemic in many developing countries, and in well-developed, economically advanced countries it is now recognized as a cause of chronic, progressive liver disease in individuals with compromised immunity. The goal of this collection of articles is to review recent progress and to shine a bright light on gaps in our understanding of how these viruses replicate, cause disease, interact with the liver and host immune system, and are transmitted, along with prospects for improved control in human populations. Renewed efforts to study and compare HAV and HEV biology in humans and animal models have high potential to enhance our understanding of host-pathogen balance in the liver, and may contribute ultimately to the control of other infectious diseases of the liver. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  4. Severity of depression in hepatitis B and hepatitis C patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, M.O.; Khokhar, N.; Shafqat, F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess and compare the severity of depression in chronic hepatitis B (CHB), chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and healthy subjects. Study Design: Comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad from July 2011 to February 2012. Methodology:A total of 206 subjects were divided in three groups. Group-I (chronic hepatitis C, n = 95), group-II (chronic hepatitis B, n = 29) and group-III (healthy subjects, n = 82). They were matched for age, gender and socioeconomic status and were compared for frequency and severity of depression as measured by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Results: Some degree of depression was noted in all groups. Frequency of depression was 72.6% in group-I, 58.6% in group-II and 37.8% in group-III (p value < 0.001). Conclusion: Both CHC and CHB had high frequency of some degree of depression. Hepatitis C patients had more depressive features than CHB. It is worthwhile to do more close mental health observation in them. A multidisciplinary team including a psychiatric specialist can help in this approach. (author)

  5. Angiohepatogram in diffuse hepatic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aburano, Tamio; Suzuki, Yutaka; Hisada, Kinichi; Matsudaira, Masamichi.

    1975-01-01

    A region of interest angiohepatogram was obtained with intravenous injection of 10mCi of sup(99m)Tc-Sn-colloid and a data processing system. Furthermore, the ratio of hepatic arterial blood flow volume to total hepatic blood flow volume was calculated according to Ueda's method, and the correlation of this calculated ratio and the degree of extrahepatic distribution of sup(99m)Tc-Sn-colloid (spleen to liver, and bone marrow to liver activity ratio) was examined. Most cases of liver cirrhosis and Banti's syndrome showed the increased hepatic arterial blood flow ratio (liver cirrhosis: 43.5+-9.5%, Banti's syndrome 48.8+-4.9%) in contrast with 18.1+-4.6% in normal cases, and its ratio showed much higher values in the presence of portal hypertension manifestations (esophageal varix and ascites). The hepatic arterial blood flow ratio showed increased values in the case of markedly increased extrahepatic activity, e.g. liver cirrhosis, and the correlation of the ratio and extrahepatic activity degree of sup(99m)Tc-Sn-colloid was significant statistically. From these results, a region of interest angiohepatogram was supposed to be useful for the prediction of the hemodynamic change, as well as, the improvement of diagnostic accuracy with radioisotope in diffuse hepatic disease, especially liver cirrhosis. Moreover, the hemodynamic change of liver, especially the reduction of the effective hepatic blood flow volume via the portal vein was considered to be closely concerned in the mechanism of increased extrahepatic activity of RI colloid in diffuse hepatic disease. (auth.)

  6. Hepatic artery perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thrall, J.H.; Gyves, J.W.; Ziessman, H.A.; Ensminger, W.D.

    1985-01-01

    Organ and region-selective intra-arterial chemotherapy have been used for more than two decades to treat malignant neoplasms in the extremities, head and neck region, pelvis, liver, and other areas. Substantial evidence of improved response to regional chemotherapy now exists, but there are stringent requirements for successful application of the regional technique. First, the chemotherapeutic agent employed must have appropriate pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. Second, the drug must be reliably delivered to the tumor-bearing area. This typically requires an arteriographic assessment of the vascular supply of the tumor, followed by placement of a therapeutic catheter and confirmation that the ''watershed'' perfusion distribution from the catheter truly encompasses the tumor. Optimal catheter placement also minimizes perfusion of nontarget organs. Radionuclide perfusion imaging with technetium 99m-labeled particles, either microspheres or macroaggregates of albumin, has become the method of choice for making these assessments. Catheter placement itself is considered by many to represent a type of ''therapeutic'' intervention. However, once the catheter is in the hepatic artery the radionuclide perfusion technique can be used to assess adjunctive pharmacologic maneuvers designed to further exploit the regional approach to chemotherapy. This chapter presents the technetium Tc 99m macroaggregated albumin method for assessing catheter placement and the pharmacokinetic rationale for regional chemotherapy, and discusses two promising avenues for further intervention

  7. Hepatitis C and autoreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Francesco B; Muratori, Paolo; Granito, Alessandro; Pappas, Georgios; Ferri, Silvia; Muratori, Luigi

    2007-09-01

    After the discovery of HCV in 1989 a great amount of data has been produced in order to identify a possible aetiology for a number of idiopathic diseases, especially those with a suspected immune origin. Many associations have not been confirmed by prospective studies (as in the case of autoimmune hepatitis); other immune abnormalities, such as the emergence of non organ-specific autoantibodies and cryoglobulins, have been reported by many specific studies. To date, the link between HCV and autoreactivity is tentatively explained on the basis of sequence homologies shared by the HCV polyprotein and "self" proteins (such as CYP 2D6, target of anti-LKM1) (molecular mimicry mechanism); a second interpretation relies on the demonstration that the HCV - B lymphocyte interaction is able to induce a polyclonal B cell activation, an important cofactor for the development of clinically relevant B-lymphocyte autoimmune disorders. In this review we will focus on the major aspects of the autoimmune phenomena in HCV-infected patients, their clinical and therapeutical implications.

  8. [Prevention of virus hepatitis A to E].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornberg, M; Manns, M P

    2011-03-01

    Infection with hepatitis viruses can lead to acute hepatitis with the risk of developing liver failure. Chronic viral hepatitis may evolve into liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Thus, prevention of viral hepatitis and its sequels is essential. Vaccination against hepatitis A is successful in almost all individuals. Protective antibodies maintain for at least 20 years. Booster vaccinations are not necessary. Since the introduction of hepatitis A vaccines, the incidence of new HAV-infections has declined significantly. Hepatitis B vaccines are safe and highly effective. Special populations such as dialysis patients or immunocompromised patients require special vaccine schedules. New vaccines with improved adjuvants are currently being tested in clinical trials. So far there is no hepatitis C vaccine on the horizon. Prophylaxis of HCV-infections relies primarily on hygiene measures. Early therapy of acute hepatitis C can prevent chronic hepatitis C. HDV-infection can only be established if HBsAg is present. Thus, prevention of hepatitis B or elimination of HBsAg means prevention of hepatitis delta. Hepatitis E vaccines have been evaluated in phase III studies. The development of HEV vaccines becomes more relevant since chronic HEV infections have been reported in immunosuppressed individuals.

  9. Transcriptional coactivator NT-PGC-1α promotes gluconeogenic gene expression and enhances hepatic gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ji Suk; Jun, Hee-Jin; Park, Minsung

    2016-10-01

    The transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α plays a central role in hepatic gluconeogenesis. We previously reported that alternative splicing of the PGC-1α gene produces an additional transcript encoding the truncated protein NT-PGC-1α NT-PGC-1α is co-expressed with PGC-1α and highly induced by fasting in the liver. NT-PGC-1α regulates tissue-specific metabolism, but its role in the liver has not been investigated. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the role of hepatic NT-PGC-1α in the regulation of gluconeogenesis. Adenovirus-mediated expression of NT-PGC-1α in primary hepatocytes strongly stimulated the expression of key gluconeogenic enzyme genes (PEPCK and G6Pase), leading to increased glucose production. To further understand NT-PGC-1α function in hepatic gluconeogenesis in vivo, we took advantage of a previously reported FL-PGC-1α -/- mouse line that lacks full-length PGC-1α (FL-PGC-1α) but retains a slightly shorter and functionally equivalent form of NT-PGC-1α (NT-PGC-1α 254 ). In FL-PGC-1α -/- mice, NT-PGC-1α 254 was induced by fasting in the liver and recruited to the promoters of PEPCK and G6Pase genes. The enrichment of NT-PGC-1α 254 at the promoters was closely associated with fasting-induced increase in PEPCK and G6Pase gene expression and efficient production of glucose from pyruvate during a pyruvate tolerance test in FL-PGC-1α -/- mice. Moreover, FL-PGC-1α -/- primary hepatocytes showed a significant increase in gluconeogenic gene expression and glucose production after treatment with dexamethasone and forskolin, suggesting that NT-PGC-1α 254 is sufficient to stimulate the gluconeogenic program in the absence of FL-PGC-1α Collectively, our findings highlight the role of hepatic NT-PGC-1α in stimulating gluconeogenic gene expression and glucose production. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  10. How Hepatitis D Virus Can Hinder the Control of Hepatitis B Virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiridiou, M.; Borkent-Raven, B.; Hulshof, J.; Wallinga, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis D (or hepatitis delta) virus is a defective virus that relies on hepatitis B virus (HBV) for transmission; infection with hepatitis D can occur only as coinfection with HBV or superinfection of an existing HBV infection. Because of the bond between the two viruses, control

  11. Hepatitis B immunisation in persons not previously exposed to hepatitis B or with unknown exposure status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathew, Joseph L; El Dib, Regina; Mathew, Preethy J

    2008-01-01

    The benefits and harms of hepatitis B vaccination in persons not previously exposed to hepatitis B infection or with unknown exposure status have not been established.......The benefits and harms of hepatitis B vaccination in persons not previously exposed to hepatitis B infection or with unknown exposure status have not been established....

  12. Parvovirus B19 Associated Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihari, Chhagan; Rastogi, Archana; Saxena, Priyanka; Rangegowda, Devraj; Chowdhury, Ashok; Gupta, Nalini; Sarin, Shiv Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 infection can present with myriads of clinical diseases and syndromes; liver manifestations and hepatitis are examples of them. Parvovirus B19 hepatitis associated aplastic anemia and its coinfection with other hepatotropic viruses are relatively underrecognized, and there is sufficient evidence in the literature suggesting that B19 infections can cause a spectrum of liver diseases from elevation of transaminases to acute hepatitis to fulminant liver failure and even chronic hepatitis. It can also cause fatal macrophage activation syndrome and fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis. Parvovirus B19 is an erythrovirus that can only be replicate in pronormoblasts and hepatocytes, and other cells which have globosides and glycosphingolipids in their membrane can also be affected by direct virus injury due to nonstructural protein 1 persistence and indirectly by immune mediated injury. The virus infection is suspected in bone marrow aspiration in cases with sudden drop of hemoglobin and onset of transient aplastic anemia in immunosuppressed or immunocompetent patients and is confirmed either by IgM and IgG positive serology, PCR analysis, and in situ hybridization in biopsy specimens or by application of both. There is no specific treatment for parvovirus B19 related liver diseases, but triple therapy regimen may be effective consisting of immunoglobulin, dehydrohydrocortisone, and cyclosporine. PMID:24232179

  13. One Family's Struggles with Hepatitis B

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... kids infect kids labs links & resources milk thistle pediatric hepatitis report someone you know has hbv/hcv ... morrow scholarship links & resources listservs need more help? pediatric hepatitis report infection protection bioterrorism five second rule ...

  14. Hepatitis E nu ook in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pal, H. J.; Jansen, P. L.

    1992-01-01

    A case report of a male aged 31 who, after a journey to Bangladesh, returned with a disease resembling acute hepatitis A. Closer study revealed a hepatitis E infection. He recovered in slightly over two weeks

  15. Screening for Hepatitis C Infections in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Adults The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation statement on Screening for Hepatitis C Virus ...

  16. Novel therapies in hepatitis B and C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takkenberg, Bart; de Bruijne, Joep; Weegink, Christine; Jansen, Peter; Reesink, Hendrik

    2008-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B and C affect approximately 500 million people in the world, with substantial disease burden including liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. For chronic hepatitis B, two treatment strategies are currently available, both with suboptimal response and significant side

  17. One Family's Struggles with Hepatitis B

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... kids labs links & resources milk thistle pediatric hepatitis report someone you know has hbv/hcv herpes overview ... links & resources listservs need more help? pediatric hepatitis report infection protection bioterrorism five second rule germs handwashing ...

  18. One Family's Struggles with Hepatitis B

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cmv hepatitis overview current news glossary injection tips kids infect kids labs links & resources milk thistle pediatric hepatitis report ... overview links & resources families advocacy about civil rights kids' rights sample school policies school letter someone you ...

  19. One Family's Struggles with Hepatitis B

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... GETVAXED print ads go to GETVAXED.ORG cme Immunizations Hepatitis B One family's struggles with hepatitis B ... not possible without a visit to your doctor. Immunizations stop disease from spreading. Check with your family ...

  20. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and hepatic cirrhosis: Comparison with viral hepatitis-associated steatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haga, Yuki; Kanda, Tatsuo; Sasaki, Reina; Nakamura, Masato; Nakamoto, Shingo; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2015-12-14

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) including nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is globally increasing and has become a world-wide health problem. Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus (HCV) is associated with hepatic steatosis. Viral hepatitis-associated hepatic steatosis is often caused by metabolic syndrome including obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or dyslipidemia. It has been reported that HCV genotype 3 exerts direct metabolic effects that lead to hepatic steatosis. In this review, the differences between NAFLD/NASH and viral hepatitis-associated steatosis are discussed.

  1. Institute of Medicine's Report on Viral Hepatitis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-18

    In this podcast, Dr. John Ward, Director of CDC’s Division of Viral Hepatitis, discusses the 2010 report, Hepatitis and Liver Cancer: A National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B and C, from the Institute of Medicine.  Created: 5/18/2010 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 5/18/2010.

  2. Genetic determinants of hepatic steatosis in man

    OpenAIRE

    Hooper, Amanda J.; Adams, Leon A.; Burnett, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis is one of the most common liver disorders in the general population. The main cause of hepatic steatosis is nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), representing the hepatic component of the metabolic syndrome, which is characterized by type 2 diabetes, obesity, and dyslipidemia. Insulin resistance and excess adiposity are considered to play key roles in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Although the risk factors for NAFLD are well established, the genetic basis of hepatic steatos...

  3. Benzodiazepine receptor antagonists for hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, B; Gluud, L L; Gluud, C

    2004-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy may be associated with accumulation of substances that bind to a receptor-complex in the brain resulting in neural inhibition. Benzodiazepine receptor antagonists may have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy.......Hepatic encephalopathy may be associated with accumulation of substances that bind to a receptor-complex in the brain resulting in neural inhibition. Benzodiazepine receptor antagonists may have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy....

  4. Hepatite C Hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Strauss

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Estima-se que cerca de 3% da população mundial esteja infectada pelo vírus da hepatite C. Todos os que receberam transfusão de sangue ou seus componentes e os usuários de drogas podem estar infectados. Procedimentos odontológicos, médicos, tatuagem ou acupuntura também constituem fatores de risco. A infecção se cronifica em até 85% dos indivíduos, com evolução assintomática durante anos ou décadas e apresentação clínica variada. Para o diagnóstico, a determinação do anti-VHC revela-se muito sensível e a confirmação se faz pela determinação do RNA-VHC no sangue; o estadiamento da doença e a avaliação da atividade inflamatória pela biópsia hepática. O tratamento objetiva deter a progressão da doença hepática através da inibição da replicação viral. Devido à baixa eficácia terapêutica aliada a importantes efeitos colaterais do interferon e da ribavirina, esses medicamentos encontram indicações e contra-indicações específicas. Vários fatores preditivos de resposta ao tratamento, principalmente a carga viral e o genótipo do VHC, mostram-se úteis na avaliação dos pacientes.It has been estimated that 3% of the world population is infected with the hepatitis C virus. Those who are blood product recipients or have been illicit drug users are at risk. Dental and medical procedures as well as tattooing and acupuncture are also risk factors. Chronic infection occurs in up to 85% of infected cases but they may remain without symptoms during years or even decades, and clinical presentation varies. Determination of anti-HCV in sera is a fairly sensitive tool for the diagnosis, and confirmation requires the identification of HCV-RNA. Staging of the liver disease as well as definition of its present activity can be graded by liver biopsy. The aim of treatment is to stop the progression of the hepatic disease by inhibiting viral replication. Due to the low therapeutic efficacy combined with important side

  5. Biliary Stricture Following Hepatic Resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey B. Matthews

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Anatomic distortion and displacement of hilar structures due to liver lobe atrophy and hypertrophy occasionally complicates the surgical approach for biliary stricture repair. Benign biliary stricture following hepatic resection deserves special consideration in this regard because the inevitable hypertrophy of the residual liver causes marked rotation and displacement of the hepatic hilum that if not anticipated may render exposure for repair difficult and dangerous. Three patients with biliary stricture after hepatectomy illustrate the influence of hepatic regeneration on attempts at subsequent stricture repair. Following left hepatectomy, hypertrophy of the right and caudate lobes causes an anteromedial rotation and displacement of the portal structures. After right hepatectomy, the rotation is posterolateral, and a thoracoabdominal approach may be necessary for adequate exposure. Radiographs obtained in the standard anteroposterior projection may be deceptive, and lateral views are recommended to aid in operative planning.

  6. Viral hepatitis in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion, Andres F; Martin, Paul

    2012-05-01

    As life expectancy continues to rise, elderly adults represent a rapidly growing proportion of the population. The likelihood of complications of acute and chronic liver disease and overall mortality are higher in elderly populations. Several physiological changes associated with aging, greater prevalence of co-morbid conditions, and cumulative exposure to hepatotropic viruses and environmental hepatotoxins may contribute to worse outcomes of viral hepatitis in the elderly. Although pharmacotherapy for hepatitis B and C continues to evolve, the efficacy, tolerability, and side effects of these agents have not been studied extensively in elderly adults. Immunization against hepatitis A and B in naïve elderly adults is an important public health intervention that needs to be revised and broadened.

  7. Hepatic erythropoietin response in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risør, Louise M; Fenger, Mogens; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    2016-01-01

    The main function of erythropoietin (EPO) is to maintain red blood cell mass, but in recent years, increasing evidence has suggested a wider biological role not solely related to erythropoiesis, e.g. angiogenesis and tissue protection. EPO is produced in the liver during fetal life, but the main...... production shifts to the kidney after birth. The liver maintains a production capacity of up to 10% of the total EPO synthesis in healthy controls, but can be up-regulated to 90-100%. However, the hepatic EPO synthesis has been shown not to be adequate for correction of anemia in the absence of renal......, which lead to arterial hypotension, hepatic nephropathy and anemia. An increase in EPO due to renal hypoperfusion, hypoxia and anemia or an EPO-mediated hepato-protective and regenerative mechanism is plausible. However, poor hepatic synthesis capacity, a decreasing co-factor level and inflammatory...

  8. Aminoadamantanes for chronic hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamers, Mieke H; Broekman, Mark; Drenth, Joost Ph

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Around 3% of the world's population (approximately 160 million people) are chronically infected with hepatitis C virus. The proportion of infected people who develop clinical symptoms varies between 5% and 40%. Combination therapy with pegylated interferon-alpha plus ribavirin...... response in genotype 1 infected patients to at least 70%. There is therefore an unmet need for drugs that can achieve a higher proportion of sustained virological response. Aminoadamantanes are antiviral drugs used for treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C. OBJECTIVES: To assess the beneficial...... and harmful effects of aminoadamantanes for patients with chronic hepatitis C infection by conducting a systematic review with meta-analyses of randomised clinical trials, as well as trial sequential analyses. SEARCH METHODS: We conducted electronic searches of the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled...

  9. Acute Pancreatitis in acute viral hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K.C.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The association of acute viral hepatitis and acute pancreatitis is well described. This study was conducted to find out the frequency of pancreatic involvement in acute viral hepatitis in the Nepalese population. Methods: Consecutive patients of acute viral hepatitis presenting with severe abdominal pain between January 2005 and April 2010 were studied. Patients with history of significant alcohol consumption and gall stones were excluded. Acute viral hepatitis was diagnosed by clinical examination, liver function test, ultrasound examination and confirmed by viral serology. Pancreatitis was diagnosed by clinical presentation, biochemistry, ultrasound examination and CT scan. Results: Severe abdominal pain was present in 38 of 382 serologically-confirmed acute viral hepatitis patients. Twenty five patients were diagnosed to have acute pancreatitis. The pancreatitis was mild in 14 and severe in 11 patients. The etiology of pancreatitis was hepatitis E virus in 18 and hepatitis A virus in 7 patients. Two patients died of complications secondary to shock. The remaining patients recovered from both pancreatitis and hepatitis on conservative treatment. Conclusions: Acute pancreatitis occurred in 6.5 % of patients with acute viral hepatitis. Cholelithiasis and gastric ulcers are the other causes of severe abdominal pain. The majority of the patients recover with conservative management. Keywords: acute viral hepatitis, acute pancreatitis, pain abdomen, hepatitis E, hepatitis A, endemic zone

  10. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus among immunocompromised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatitis B is an infectious inflammatory illness of the liver caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) which is transmitted to a large population through blood transfusion or by exposure to other body fluids. HBV is a member of the family Hepadnaviridae and also a DNA virus. In this study, the prevalence of hepatitis B infection ...

  11. Rheumatologic manifestations associated with Hepatitis C virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection is a worldwide burden whose seroprevalence is higher in developing countries with Cameroon being the third most affected country in Africa. HCV both a hepatotropic and lymphotropic infection is responsible for a great number of hepatic and extra hepatic disorders some of ...

  12. Chinese medicinal herbs for chronic hepatitis B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, J; McIntosh, H; Lin, Haili

    2001-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B is a serious health problem worldwide. Chinese medicinal herbs are widely used for treatment of chronic hepatitis B in China and many clinical trials have been conducted. This systematic review is to assess the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicinal herbs for chronic hepatitis...

  13. One Family's Struggles with Hepatitis B

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... immunizations about immunizations current news Flu's Gonna Lose hepatitis a & b vaccines im/sq how to do kids ... cme Immunizations Hepatitis B One family's struggles with hepatitis B We provide this video in a variety of formats and lengths for use by ...

  14. Institute of Medicine's Report on Viral Hepatitis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, Dr. John Ward, Director of CDC’s Division of Viral Hepatitis, discusses the 2010 report, Hepatitis and Liver Cancer: A National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B and C, from the Institute of Medicine.

  15. Angiohepatogram in diffuse hepatic disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aburano, T; Suzuki, Y; Hisada, K [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Matsudaira, M

    1975-10-01

    A region of interest angiohepatogram was obtained with intravenous injection of 10mCi of sup(99m)Tc-Sn-colloid and a data processing system. Furthermore, the ratio of hepatic arterial blood flow volume to total hepatic blood flow volume was calculated according to Ueda's method, and the correlation of this calculated ratio and the degree of extrahepatic distribution of sup(99m)Tc-Sn-colloid (spleen to liver, and bone marrow to liver activity ratio) was examined. Most cases of liver cirrhosis and Banti's syndrome showed the increased hepatic arterial blood flow ratio (liver cirrhosis: 43.5+-9.5%, Banti's syndrome 48.8+-4.9%) in contrast with 18.1+-4.6% in normal cases, and its ratio showed much higher values in the presence of portal hypertension manifestations (esophageal varix and ascites). The hepatic arterial blood flow ratio showed increased values in the case of markedly increased extrahepatic activity, e.g. liver cirrhosis, and the correlation of the ratio and extrahepatic activity degree of sup(99m)Tc-Sn-colloid was significant statistically. From these results, a region of interest angiohepatogram was supposed to be useful for the prediction of the hemodynamic change, as well as, the improvement of diagnostic accuracy with radioisotope in diffuse hepatic disease, especially liver cirrhosis. Moreover, the hemodynamic change of liver, especially the reduction of the effectivehepatic blood flow volume via the portal vein was considered to be closely concerned in the mechanism of increased extrahepatic activity of RI colloid in diffuse hepatic disease.

  16. Current Knowledge on Hepatitis E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Gracia, María Teresa; García, Mario; Suay, Beatriz; Mateos-Lindemann, María Luisa

    2015-06-28

    Although only a single serotype of hepatitis E virus (HEV), the causative agent of hepatitis E, has been identified, there is great genetic variation among the different HEV isolates reported. There are at least four major recognized genotypes of HEV: genotypes 1 and 2 are mainly restricted to humans and linked to epidemic outbreaks in nonindustrialized countries, whereas genotypes 3 and 4 are zoonotic in both developing and industrialized countries. Besides human strains, genotype 3 and 4 strains of HEV have been genetically characterized from swine, sika deer, mongooses, sheep, and rabbits. Currently, there are approximately 11,000 human and animal sequences of HEV available at the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration. HEV is the major cause of waterborne outbreaks of hepatitis in areas of poor sanitation. Additionally, it is responsible for sporadic cases of viral hepatitis in not only endemic but industrialized countries as well. Transmission of HEV occurs predominantly by the fecal-oral route, although parenteral and perinatal routes have been reported. HEV infection develops in most individuals as a self-limiting, acute, icteric hepatitis; with mortality rates around 1%. However, some affected individuals will develop fulminant hepatic failure, a serious condition that is frequently fatal without a liver transplant. This complication is particularly common when the infection occurs in pregnant women, where mortality rates rise dramatically to up to 25%. Among the preventive measures available to avoid HEV infection, two separate subunit vaccines containing recombinant truncated capsid proteins of HEV have been shown to be highly effective in the prevention of disease. One of them, HEV 239, was approved in China, and its commercialization by Innovax began in November 2012 under the name Hecolin(®).

  17. INFEKSI VIRUS HEPATITIS B DAN HEPATITIS C PADA PENDERITA HEPATITIS KRONIS DAN HEMODIALISIS DI JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoko Yuwono

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Virus Hepatitis C dan Hepatitis B merupakan penyebab hepatitis kronik aktif yang dapat berkembang menjadi hepatoselular karsinoma. Untuk mengetahui peranan kedua jenis virus tersebut sebagai penyebab hepatoselular karsinoma, telah dilakukan pemeriksaan HbsAg, anti-VHC dan RNA-VHC pada 17 penderita hepatitis kronis. 19 Pasien hemodialisis dan 198 donor darah PMI. Pemeriksaan HbsAg dilakukan dengan RPHA Cell: pemeriksaan anti-VHC dengan dipstik anti-VHC kit diagnotik produksi NTB Mataram, Lombok. Deteksi RNA-VHC dilakukan dengan teknik RT-PCR, menggunakan primer spesifik untuk daerah 5'NCR. Hasil pemeriksaan menunjukkan bahwa pada penderita hepatitis kronis ditemukan 5 orang (23,5% positif HbsAg dan 1 orang (5,8% anti-VHC. Pada penderita hemodialisis ditemukan 14 orang (73,6% positif anti-VHC, persentase anti-VHC meningkat sesuai dengan meningkatnya frekuensi hemodialisis. Pada donor darah PMI ditemukan 5 orang (2,2% positif HbsAg dan tidak satupun ditemukan anti-VHC positif.

  18. Adipokines and Hepatic Insulin Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Waseem

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Adipose tissue is now considered to be an active endocrine organ that secretes various adipokines such as adiponectin, leptin, resistin, tumour necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6. Recent studies have shown that these factors might provide a molecular link between increased adiposity and impaired insulin sensitivity. Since hepatic insulin resistance plays the key role in the whole body insulin resistance, clarification of the regulatory processes about hepatic insulin resistance by adipokines in rodents and human would seem essential in order to understand the mechanism of type 2 diabetes and for developing novel therapeutic strategies to treat it. PMID:23762871

  19. CT manifestation of hepatic toxoplasmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Qing; Yang Yaying; Bao Yanming; He Bo; Wang Kechao; Song Guangyi; Lu Lin; Wang Xiaoli

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the CT manifestation of hepatic toxoplasmosis, and to provide image basis for its clinical diagnosis. Methods: Three patients with hepatic toxoplasmosis were examined by abdomen MSCT (pre- and post-contrast), and were confirmed by laboratory exams. The images were analyzed with information of clinical manifestation. Results: The positive appearances included the enlargement of liver, patches of multiple scattered low densities. Post-contrast lesions appearances: (1) No significant enhancement. (2) No significant occupying effection, and normal vessels inserting lesion occasionally. Conclusion: CT manifestation of hepar toxoplasmosis are some characteristic. But the diagnosis was made by a combination both clinical manifestation and laboratory exams. (authors)

  20. Hepatitis B prevalence in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, N; Hay, G; Cowan, S

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Denmark is not clear. The primary aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of chronic HBV infection in Denmark. The capture–recapture method was used to estimate the total population diagnosed with chronic HBV infection......, and the capture–recapture estimate of the total population diagnosed with chronic hepatitis B was 7,112 (95% confidence interval (CI): 6,953–10,747). Only 17% of the identified patients attended recommended clinical care according to national guidelines. Including undiagnosed patients, the current population...

  1. Attitudes and Awareness Regarding Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research | Oct-Dec 2013 | Vol 3 | Issue 4 |. 551. Address for ... and even death.[1] In South‑East Asian Region, there are .... interns, and nursing interns regarding hepatitis B and C and to compare their ...

  2. Clinical and virological improvement of hepatitis B virus-related or hepatitis C virus-related chronic hepatitis with concomitant hepatitis A virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagnelli, Evangelista; Coppola, Nicola; Pisaturo, Mariantonietta; Pisapia, Raffaella; Onofrio, Mirella; Sagnelli, Caterina; Catuogno, Antonio; Scolastico, Carlo; Piccinino, Felice; Filippini, Pietro

    2006-06-01

    We evaluated the clinical and virological characteristics of hepatitis A virus infection in persons concomitantly infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV). We enrolled 21 patients with acute hepatitis A and chronic hepatitis with no sign of liver cirrhosis, 13 patients who were positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (case B group), 8 patients who were anti-HCV positive (case C group), and 21 patients with acute hepatitis A without a preexisting liver disease (control A group). Two control groups of patients with chronic hepatitis B (control B group) or C (control C group) were also chosen. All control groups were pair-matched by age and sex with the corresponding case group. Fulminant hepatitis A was never observed, and hepatitis A had a severe course in 1 patient in the case B group and in 1 patient in the control A group. Both patients recovered. On admission, HBV DNA was detected in 1 patient in the case B group (7.7%) and in 13 patients (50%) in the control B group; HCV RNA was found in no patient in the case C group and in 16 patients (81.2%) in the control C group. Of 9 patients in the case B group who were followed up for 6 months, 3 became negative for hepatitis B surface antigen and positive for hepatitis B surface antibody, 2 remained positive for hepatitis B surface antigen and negative for HBV DNA, and 4 became positive for HBV DNA with a low viral load [corrected] Of 6 patients in the case C group who were followed up for 6 months, 3 remained negative for HCV RNA, and 3 had persistently low viral loads. Concomitant hepatitis A was always self-limited, associated with a marked inhibition of HBV and HCV genomes, and possibly had a good prognosis for the underlying chronic hepatitis.

  3. Epidemiology of hepatitis B and hepatitis C in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Rached, Antoine; Abou Kheir, Selim; Saba, Jowana; Ammar, Walid

    2016-03-01

    Hepatitis B and C are two potentially life threatening liver infections. Lebanon is ranked as a zone of moderate endemicity. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B and C in Lebanon and their distribution according to age, region and sex. This national prospective cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2011 till December 2012 in the six Lebanese Governorates in collaboration with municipalities, the Ministry of Public Health, Health Centres and dispensaries. An upcoming screening for hepatitis B and C was announced? in different districts of each Governorate. All individuals presenting to local laboratory, not known to have chronic hepatitis, were asked for a blood sample and answered a questionnaire addressing sex, age, place of birth and residence. Screening tests were "Abbots" for hepatitis B and "Human Hexagon" for hepatitis C. PCR testing was used to confirm the positivity of the previous tests. Of 31147 individuals screened, 542 had a rapid test positive for HBV (prevalence 1.74%, 95% CI 1.6-1.89) with a male to female ratio of 1.08. This prevalence was higher in the South and Nabatieh (1.9%) compared to Beirut (0.73%). Of 31,147 individuals screened, 64 had a rapid test positive for HCV (prevalence 0.21%, 95% CI 0.16-0.27) with a male to female ratio of 0.85. This prevalence was higher in Nabatieh (0.61%) compared to Mount Lebanon (0.08%). The prevalence of HBV and HCV in Lebanon is 1.74% and 0.21%, respectively with a higher prevalence in South and Nabatieh districts. These data rank Lebanon amongst countries with low endemicity for both viruses. Decrease in the prevalence of HBV is due to awareness campaign as well as success of the MOPH National Hepatitis Program in vaccinating all new born since 1998 and in screening and vaccinating high risk groups. Copyright © 2016 Arab Journal of Gastroenterology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Experimental study of CT perfusion in hepatitis, hepatic fibrosis and early stage of cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Sheng; Zhao Weidong; Zhou Kangrong; Peng Weijun; Mao Jian; Tang Feng; Wang Yong; Cao Guang; Sun Fei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of CT perfusion in the early diagnosis of hepatic diffuse disease. Methods: Fourteen male Wistar rats of control group and 14 of test group at stages of hepatitis, hepatic fibrosis, hepatic cirrhosis which were induced with diethylnitrosamine (DEN), were studied with CT perfusion respectively. CT perfusion data of different stages were compared and pathologic analysis were performed. Results: Density-time curves of CT perfusion were satisfactory and all perfusion data could be obtained. During the period of hepatitis developing into early stage of hepatic cirrhosis, hepatic artery flow (HAF) trended to increase in test group, mean transmit time (MTT) prolonged obviously, blood flow (BF) and volume (BV) declined. While in control group, HAF declined slightly, MTT, BV and BF increased. Statistic analysis showed the differences of HAF and MTT at different stages between control and test groups were significant (P<0.05 ); the differences of BV and BF between hepatitis and hepatic cirrhosis, hepatic fibrosis and early stage of hepatic cirrhosis in test group were significant (P<0.05), but no significant difference between hepatitis and hepatic fibrosis. The corresponding pathologic changes at stage of hepatitis was swelling of hepatic cells; sinusoids cap illarization and deposition of collagen in the extravascular Disse's spaces were the main changes relating to hepatic blood perfusion at stage of fibrosis and early stage of cirrhosis. Conclusion: The method of CT scan can reflect some changes of hepatic blood perfusion in rats with hepatitis, hepatic fibrosis and early stage of cirrhosis. The data of CT perfusion, especially the changes should be valuable for clinical early diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. (authors)

  5. Psychopathology and Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Gama Marques

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since Hippocrates that neuropsychiatric illness secondary to liver disease fascinates physicians, but only in the XIX century Marcel Nencki and Ivan Pavlov suggested the relation between high concentrations of ammonia and Hepatic Encephalopathy (HE. The reaction of ammonia and glutamate (origins glutamine, “the Trojan Horse of neurotoxicity of ammonia continues to be the main responsible for the neurologic lesions, recently confirmed by neurochemistry and neuroimagiology studies. Glutamine starts the inflammatory reaction at the central nervous sys- tem but other important actors seem to be manganese and the neurotransmitters systems of GABA and endocanabinoids. Nowadays there are three different etiologic big groups for HE: type A associated with acute liver failure; type B associated with portosystemic bypass; and type C associated with cirrhosis of the liver. The staging of HE is still based on classic West Haven system, but a latent Grade 0 was introduced (the so called minimal HE; remaining the aggra- vating HE from Grade 1 (subtle changes at clinical examination to Grade 4 (coma. In this work a bibliographic review was made on 30 of the most pertinent and recent papers, focusing in psychopathology, physiopathology, etiology and staging of this clinical entity transversal to Psychiatry and Gastroenterology. Alterations are described in vigility and conscience like temporal, spatial and personal disorientation. Attention, concentration and memory are impaired very early, on latent phase and can be accessed through neuropsychological tests. Mood oscillates between euphoric and depressive. Personality changes begin obviously and abruptly or in a subtle and insidious way. There can be changes in perception like visual hallucinations or even of acoustic-verbal. The thought disorders can be of delusional type, paranoid, systematized or not, but also monothematic ala Capgras Syndrome. Speech can be accelerated, slowed down or completely in

  6. Differential effect of gender on hepatic fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilsanz, Vicente; Chung, Sandra A.; Kaplowitz, Neil

    2011-01-01

    There are discrepant data on whether men or women have a higher risk for hepatic steatosis. To examine the influence of gender on hepatic adiposity in teenagers and young adults. We measured subcutaneous abdominal fat (SAF), intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and hepatic tissue density (a surrogate measure of hepatic fat) using CT in 505 healthy teenagers and young adults (254 males, 251 females; ages 15-22.9 years). Overall, compared to men, women had higher values of SAF (P 0.05). When compared to overweight and obese young women, overweight and obese young men are at greater risk for hepatic steatosis, independent of IAF. (orig.)

  7. Diagnostic value of CT on hepatic tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fan; Zhang Xuelin; Qiu Shijun; Zhang Yuzhong; Wen Ge; Zhong Qun

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess CT manifestations and diagnostic value in patients with hepatic tuberculosis. Methods: Ten cases of hepatic tuberculosis proved by hepatic biopsy or surgical specimens were analyzed retrospectively. Results: This group of hepatic tuberculosis included three types. (1) Five cases of miliary hepatic tuberculosis demonstrated that the liver swelled diffusely associated with multiple miliary low attenuations, and showed no enhancement after contrast agents administration. (2) Three cases of tubercle hepatic tuberculosis depicted multiple hypodensity areas or mixed density regions in the liver. The extension of lesions reduced in arterial phase, and a ring-like enhancement was displayed in the portal phase. (3) One case of hepatic tuberculoma illustrated solitary space occupying lesion accompanied with central necrosis. The envelope was thin and smooth which enhanced slightly after injecting Gd-DTPA. Another one was hepatic abscess and depicted fluid-fluid level inside the lesion. Conclusions: The CT manifestations of miliary hepatic tuberculosis lack of characteristics, it is hard to make the diagnosis clear-cut unless integrating the medical history and lab test. The 'powder calcification' findings of tubercle hepatic tuberculosis is propitious to draw a qualitative diagnosis. And the feature of hepatic tuberculomas with fluid- fluid level is in favor of making a differential diagnosis against parallel tumors. (authors)

  8. [Hepatitis: a longstanding companion in human history].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craxi, Lucia

    2012-03-01

    Hepatitis has gone along with human history since its origins, due to its prompt identifiability linked to jaundice as a symptom. Written evidence of outbreaks of epidemic jaundice can be tracked back a few millenniums before Christ. Unavoidable confusion arises due to the overlap of different sources possibly linked to different aetiologies, identified over time as epidemic jaundice (HAV or HEV hepatitis?) and serum hepatitis (HBV or HCV hepatitis?). The journey that brought to recognize viruses as the main cause of jaundice was long and started midway during the last century, when the infectious hypothesis, which had taken place step by step, was finally confirmed by epidemiological investigations of an outbreak occurring in the US army in 1942, after a yellow fever immunization campaign. Further research identified two clinically different types of hepatitis, called for the first time hepatitis A and hepatitis B.

  9. Management of adult blunt hepatic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozar, Rosemary A; McNutt, Michelle K

    2010-12-01

    To review the nonoperative and operative management of blunt hepatic injury in the adult trauma population. Although liver injury scale does not predict need for surgical intervention, a high-grade complex liver injury should alert the physician to a patient at increased risk of hepatic complications following nonoperative management. Blunt hepatic injury remains a frequent intraabdominal injury in the adult trauma population. The management of blunt hepatic injury has undergone a major paradigm shift from mandatory operative exploration to nonoperative management. Hemodynamic instability with a positive focused abdominal sonography for trauma and peritonitis are indications for emergent operative intervention. Although surgical intervention for blunt hepatic trauma is not as common as in years past, it is imperative that the current trauma surgeon be familiar with the surgical skill set to manage complex hepatic injuries. This study represents a review of both nonoperative and operative management of blunt hepatic injury.

  10. Hepatitis A Virus in Transplants

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-05-17

    Dr. Monique Foster, a CDC epidemiologist, discusses an unusual case of hepatitis A virus in a transplant patient.  Created: 5/17/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/17/2017.

  11. Adenosarcoma arising in hepatic endometriosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N'Senda, P.; Dahan, H.; Tubiana, J.M.; Arrive, L.; Wendum, D.; Balladur, P.

    2000-01-01

    We report a case of adenosarcoma arising in hepatic endometriosis. Both CT and MR scans demontrated a huge heterogeneous mass containing septated, thick-walled cystic lesions. After enlarged right hepatectomy, the patient was asymptomatic with no abnormalities at liver and abdominal CT scan at 2-year follow-up. (orig.)

  12. Hepatitis E epidemics in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The first well recorded epidemic was in 1955-56 here in Delhi with nearly 30000 cases. Large outbreaks occurred in 1978 in Kashmir. My interest in this disease began in 1991 during investigations into a large epidemic of hepatitis E in Kanpur that my mentor, later Prof SR Naik, and I undertook. I will use this epidemic as an ...

  13. Viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juei-Low, Sung [ed.; National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei (Republic of China Taiwan). Department of Internal Medicine; Ding-Shinn, Chen [ed.; National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei (Republic of China Taiwan). Hepatitis Research Center National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei (Republic of China Taiwan). Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine

    1990-01-01

    Two papers in this volume are in INIS scope, respectively dealing with MRI in the study of viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma, and The use of {sup 131}I-labeled Lipidol in the diagnosis of hepato-cellular carcinoma. (H.W.). refs.; figs.; tabs.

  14. Viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung Juei-Low; Chen Ding-Shinn

    1990-01-01

    Two papers in this volume are in INIS scope, respectively dealing with MRI in the study of viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma, and The use of 131 I-labeled Lipidol in the diagnosis of hepato-cellular carcinoma. (H.W.). refs.; figs.; tabs

  15. Viral hepatitis B- an overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1994-08-08

    Aug 8, 1994 ... of HBsAg.'o This excess HBsAg can be used to provide ... bound to aluminium hydroxide and thus do not produce detectable ..... formation of immune complexes or to other poorly ..... Australia-antigen-associated hepatitis.

  16. Aminoadamantanes for chronic hepatitis C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, M.H.; Broekman, M.; Drenth, J.P.H.; Gluud, C.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Around 3% of the world's population (approximately 160 million people) are chronically infected with hepatitis C virus. The proportion of infected people who develop clinical symptoms varies between 5% and 40%. Combination therapy with pegylated interferon-alpha plus ribavirin eradicates

  17. Adenosarcoma arising in hepatic endometriosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N' Senda, P.; Dahan, H.; Tubiana, J.M.; Arrive, L. [Service de Radiologie, Hopital Saint-Antoine, 75 - Paris (France); Wendum, D. [Service d' Anatomie Pathologie, Hopital Saint-Antoine, 75 - Paris (France); Balladur, P. [Service de Chirurgie Digestive et Generale, Hopital Saint-Antoine, 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-08-01

    We report a case of adenosarcoma arising in hepatic endometriosis. Both CT and MR scans demontrated a huge heterogeneous mass containing septated, thick-walled cystic lesions. After enlarged right hepatectomy, the patient was asymptomatic with no abnormalities at liver and abdominal CT scan at 2-year follow-up. (orig.)

  18. Transfusion-associated hepatitis before the screening of blood for hepatitis risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engle, Ronald E; Bukh, Jens; Alter, Harvey J

    2014-01-01

    %) with HBV alone, and one (3%) with both viruses. Overall, 100% of patients with hepatitis and 39% of those without hepatitis were infected with HBV and/or HCV; one patient was also infected with hepatitis E virus. The donor carrier rate for HBV and/or HCV was estimated to be more than 6%; contemporaneously......%) developed biochemical evidence of hepatitis; of these, 20 (67%) were infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) alone, four (13%) with hepatitis B virus (HBV) alone, and six (20%) with both viruses. Among the 36 patients who did not develop hepatitis, four (11%) were newly infected with HCV alone, nine (25...... prepared pooled normal human plasma was also contaminated with multiple hepatitis viruses. CONCLUSION: TAH virus infections were a larger problem than perceived 50 years ago and HCV was the predominant agent transmitted. All hepatitis cases could be attributed to HCV and/or HBV and hence...

  19. Diagnostic value of liver scintigraphy in fulminant hepatitis and severe acute hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiomi, Susumu; Ikeoka, Naoko; Minowa, Takami; Kuroki, Tetsuo; Harihara, Shigeyoshi; Yamamoto, Sukeo; Ochi, Hironobu; Monna, Takeyuki

    1985-01-01

    Liver scintigraphy was performed in 12 cases with fulminant hepatitis, in 8 cases with severe acute hepatitis and in 44 cases with acute hepatitis. Scintiphotoes of severe hepatitis showed reduction of liver size, marked visualization of the bone marrow and the spleen, so this pattern was useful to differentiate from acute hepatitis. Relative size of the liver calculated by A.L.I. (anterior liver index) showed significant reduction in severe hepatitis compared with that of acute hepatitis. Three of five patients with died of severe hepatitis showed high uptake in the lung and ribs, but none of fifteen patients with severe hepatitis who recovered showed the abnormal accumulation in the lung and in the ribs. (author)

  20. Does chronic hepatitis B infection affect the clinical course of acute hepatitis A?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Su Rin; Moh, In Ho; Jung, Sung Won; Kim, Jin Bae; Park, Sang Hoon; Kim, Hyoung Su; Jang, Myung Kuk; Lee, Myung Seok

    2013-01-01

    The impact of chronic hepatitis B on the clinical outcome of acute hepatitis A remains controversial. The aim of present study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of acute hepatitis A in cases with underlying chronic hepatitis B compared to cases of acute hepatitis A alone. Data on 758 patients with acute hepatitis A admitted at two university-affiliated hospitals were reviewed. Patients were classified into three groups: group A, patients with both acute hepatitis A and underlying chronic hepatitis B (n = 27); group B, patients infected by acute hepatitis A alone whose sexes and ages were matched with patients in group A (n  = 54); and group C, patients with acute hepatitis A alone (n = 731). None of the demographic features of group A were significantly different from those of group B or C, except for the proportion of males and body weight, which differed from group C. When comparing to group B, clinical symptoms were more frequent, and higher total bilirubin and lower albumin levels were observed in group A. When comparing to group C, the albumin levels were lower in group A. There were no differences in the duration of hospital stay, occurrence of acute kidney injury, acute liver failure, prolonged cholestasis, or relapsing hepatitis. This study revealed that clinical symptoms and laboratory findings were less favorable for patients with acute hepatitis A and chronic hepatitis B compared to those with acute hepatitis A alone. However, there were no differences in fatal outcomes or serious complications. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Usefulness of screening ultrasonography for hepatocellular carcinoma detection: chronic hepatitis versus hepatic cirrhosis caused by hepatitis B virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Sam Uel; Choi, Don Gil; Lim, Jae Hoon

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of screening liver ultrasonography (US) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) detection in patients with chronic hepatitis or hepatic cirrhosis caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV). A retrospective study was performed with 1,189 patients with clinical hepatopathy caused by HBV who underwent screening liver US for HCC detection at least twice. All patients were followed up with liver US examinations (mean, 8.3 times), CT, or MR for at least 3 months (range, 3-102 months; mean, 47 months) for the detection of HCC. The study population was divided into two groups: chronic hepatitis (n=492) and hepatic cirrhosis (n=697), which was further divided into two groups with (n=156) or without (n=541) evident shrinkage. The radiologic examinations that had detected HCC for the first time were analyzed and compared between the groups. Among 20 (4.1%) patients with chronic hepatitis and 132 (18.9%) patients with hepatic cirrhosis diagnosed as HCC, screening US was the modality of detection in 17 (85.0%) of 20 patients with chronic hepatitis and 76 (57.6%) of 132 patients with hepatic cirrhosis (p=0.038, Chi-square test). The detection rate of HCC on screening US between the chronic hepatitis and hepatic cirrhosis with evident shrinkage (51.4%, 19/37) showed a significant difference (p=0.027, Chi-square test). For chronic liver disease caused by HBV, screening US for HCC detection is more useful in patients with chronic hepatitis than with hepatic cirrhosis with evident shrinkage

  2. Hepatic blood flow with colloidal 198Au in the diagnosis of chronic hepatitis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marian, L.; Szantay, V.

    1975-01-01

    Tracer quantities of colloidal 198 Au were used to estimate the hepatic blood flow in normal children and in children with active or progressive chronic hepatitis and also to obtain scintigrams of the liver. In active chronic hepatitis a significant decrease in HBF values was observed, suggesting that the method may be used as a diagnostic criterion which is superior to hepatic scintigraphy. In progressive chronic hepatitis HBF values even lower than those in active hepatitis were observed. Together with more characteristic clinical findings and abnormal results of biochemical function tests, they underline the value of the method in estimating the severity and the evolution of the disease. (orig.) [de

  3. APLASTIC ANEMIA AND VIRAL HEPATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cudillo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Acquired aplastic anemia(aAA is a severe and rare disease, characterized by hematopoietic bone marrow failure and peripheral cytopenia. The pathophysiology is immune mediated in most cases, activated T1 lymphocytes have been identified as effector cells . The disease can be successfully treated with combined immunosuppressive therapy or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia (HAA  is a syndrome of bone marrow failure following the development of acute seronegative hepatitis. HAA syndrome most often affects young males who presented severe pancytopenia two to three months after an episode of acute hepatitis. The clinical course of hepatitis is more frequently benign but a fulminant severe course is also described. The bone marrow failure can be explosive and severe and it is usually fatal if untreated, no correlations have been observed between severity of hepatitis and AA.

    In none of the  studies a specific virus could be identified and most cases are seronegative for known hepatitis viruses. The clinical characteristics  and response to immunotherapy indicate a central role for immune-mediated mechanism in the pathogenesis of HAA. The initial

  4. [Latest Treatment of Viral Hepatitis--Overcoming Hepatitis C and Reactivation of Hepatitis B].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2016-02-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), discovered as causative viruses of post-transfusion hepatitis, become persistent infections, leading to chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). For HCV, recent IFN-free direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapies have increased sustained virological response (SVR) rates and reduced adverse events. IFN-based therapies, still the standard of care in Asian countries, are influenced by IL28B genetic variants and the liver fibrosis stage, but the DAA combinations obscure the influence of these factors. These new therapies can eradicate HCV and prevent HCC development. On the other hand, it is difficult to eradicate HBV completely. Although HBV infection can be prevented by vaccination, reactivation of HBV following anti-cancer chemotherapy and immunosuppressive therapy is a well-known complication. HBV reactivation has been reported to be associated with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab-containing chemotherapy and TNF-α inhibitor-containing immunosuppressive therapy in HBV-resolved patients. Our prospective observational study revealed that monthly monitoring of HBV DNA was useful for preventing HBV reactivation-related hepatitis among B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients with resolved HBV infection following rituximab-steroid-chemo, suggesting that preemptive therapy guided by serial HBV DNA monitoring should be recommended. Recently, highly sensitive HBsAg detection by Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ may be useful for several clinical applications. The sensitivity of this assay (5 mIU/mL) was approximately 10-fold higher than Abbott ARCHITECT, but still lower than HBV-DNA assays. The convenient HBsAg-HQ may be useful for detecting occult HBV infection and HBV reactivation in relatively low-risk groups except for those receiving rituximab-steroid-chemo. [

  5. Transient nephritis during resolution phase of acute virale hepatitis E

    OpenAIRE

    Arden, Amir David

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis E Virus is a causative agent of hepatitis. Viral E hepatitis is responsible for various clinical manifestations. However, immune reactions due to hepatitis E virus are rarely encountered. A case of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis associated with hepatitis E virus is reported her.

  6. Rifaximin in the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iadevaia MD

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Maddalena Diana Iadevaia, Anna Del Prete, Claudia Cesaro, Laura Gaeta, Claudio Zulli, Carmelina LoguercioDepartment of Internistica Clinica e Sperimentale, F Magrassi e A Lanzara, Hepatogastroenterology Unit, Second University of Naples, Naples, ItalyAbstract: Hepatic encephalopathy is a challenging complication in patients with advanced liver disease. It can be defined as a neuropsychiatric syndrome caused by portosystemic venous shunting, ranging from minimal to overt hepatic encephalopathy or coma. Its pathophysiology is still unclear, although increased levels of ammonia play a key role. Diagnosis of hepatic encephalopathy is currently based on specific tests evaluating the neuropsychiatric state of patients and their quality of life; the severity of hepatic encephalopathy is measured by the West Haven criteria. Treatment of hepatic encephalopathy consists of pharmacological and corrective measures, as well as nutritional interventions. Rifaximin received approval for the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy in 2010 because of its few side effects and pharmacological benefits. The aim of this work is to review the use and efficacy of rifaximin both in acute and long-term management of hepatic encephalopathy. Treatment of overt hepatic encephalopathy involves management of the acute episode as well as maintenance of remission in those patients who have previously experienced an episode, in order to improve their quality of life. The positive effect of rifaximin in reducing health care costs is also discussed.Keywords: acute hepatic encephalopathy, recurrent hepatic encephalopathy, rifaximin, lactulose, cost, health-related quality of life

  7. The functional hepatic volume assessed by 99mTc-GSA hepatic scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jin; Ishikawa, Nobuyoshi; Takeda, Tohoru; Pan, Xiao-Qing; Sato, Motohiro; Todoroki, Takeshi; Itai, Yuji; Tanaka, Yumiko; Hatakeyama, Rokurou.

    1995-01-01

    The accuracy of measurement of the functional hepatic volume by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with 99m Tc-galactosyl serum albumin ( 99m Tc-GSA) was evaluated. 99m Tc-GSA planar scintigraphic images were obtained dynamically and the hepatic SPECT imaging was then performed in 25 patients with hepatobiliary tumors. The patients were divided into 4 groups with normal hepatic function, mild, moderate and severe hepatic dysfunction. The functional hepatic volume determined by SPECT was compared with the morphological hepatic volume determined by computed tomography. The ratio of the hepatic volumes obtained by the two methods was calculated. The mean hepatic volume ratio was 96.6±2.3% in the normal hepatic function group and 95.9±2.2% in the mild dysfunction group (n.s.). In both the moderate and severe hepatic dysfunction groups, the hepatic volume ratio was smaller than that in the normal group (87.9±5.2%, p 15 (r=0.83, p 15 (r=0.74, p 15 (r=0.75, p 99m Tc-GSA faithfully reflects the functioning hepatocyte mass. 99m Tc-GSA scintigraphy and hepatic SPECT therefore provide information regarding global and regional reserve hepatic function. (author)

  8. Hepatic resection and regeneration. Past and present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatsuse, Kazuo

    2007-01-01

    Hepatic surgery has been performed on condition that the liver regenerates after hepatic resection, and the development of liver anatomy due to Glisson, Rex, and Couinaud has thrown light on hepatic surgery Understanding of feeding and drainage vessels became feasible for systemic hepatic resection; however, it seems to have been the most important problem to control the bleeding during hepatic resection. New types of devices such as cavitron ultrasonic surgical aspirator (CUSA) and Microwave coagulation were exploited to control blood loss during hepatic surgery. Pringle maneuver for exclusion feeding vessels of the liver and the decrease of central venous pressure during anesthesia enabled further decrease of blood loss. Nowadays, 3D-CT imaging may depict feeding and drainage vessels in relation to liver mass, and surgeons can simulate hepatic surgery in virtual reality before surgery, allowing hepatectomy to be performed without blood transfusion. Thus, hepatic resection has been a safe procedure, but there's been a significant research on how much of the liver can be resected without hepatic failure. A prediction scoring system based on ICGR15, resection rates, and age is mostly reliable in some criteria. Even if hepatectomy is performed with a good prediction score, the massive bleeding and associated infection may induce postoperative hepatic failure, while the criteria of postoperative hepatic failure have not yet established. Hepatic failure is supposed to be induced by the apoptosis of mature hepatocytes and necrosis originated from microcirculation disturbance of the liver. Prostaglandin E1 for the improvement of microcirculation, steroid for the inhibition of cytokines inducing apoptosis, and blood purification to exclude cytokines have been tried separately or concomitantly. New therapeutic approaches, especially hepatic regeneration from the stem cell, are expected. (author)

  9. Novel Genetic Variants of Hepatitis B Virus in Fulminant Hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Bee Chook

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fulminant hepatitis (FH is a life-threatening liver disease characterised by intense immune attack and massive liver cell death. The common precore stop codon mutation of hepatitis B virus (HBV, A1896, is frequently associated with FH, but lacks specificity. This study attempts to uncover all possible viral nucleotides that are specifically associated with FH through a compiled sequence analysis of FH and non-FH cases from acute infection. We retrieved 67 FH and 280 acute non-FH cases of hepatitis B from GenBank and applied support vector machine (SVM model to seek candidate nucleotides highly predictive of FH. Six best candidates with top predictive accuracy, 92.5%, were used to build a SVM model; they are C2129 (85.3%, T720 (83.0%, Y2131 (82.4%, T2013 (82.1%, K2048 (82.1%, and A2512 (82.1%. This model gave a high specificity (99.3%, positive predictive value (95.6%, and negative predictive value (92.1%, but only moderate sensitivity (64.2%. We successfully built a SVM model comprising six variants that are highly predictive and specific for FH: four in the core region and one each in the polymerase and the surface regions. These variants indicate that intracellular virion/core retention could play an important role in the progression to FH.

  10. Cytokine Signatures Discriminate Highly Frequent Acute Hepatitis a Virus and Hepatitis E Virus Coinfections from Monoinfections in Mexican Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realpe-Quintero, Mauricio; Copado-Villagrana, Edgar Daniel; Trujillo-Ochoa, Jorge Luis; Alvarez, Angel Hilario; Panduro, Arturo; Fierro, Nora Alma

    2017-07-01

    The frequency of hepatitis A virus and hepatitis E virus infections and their cytokine profiles were analyzed in Mexican pediatric patients with acute hepatitis. A high frequency of coinfections was found. Significant overexpression of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-12, IL-13 and interferon-gamma during hepatitis A virus monoinfections and limited secretion of cytokines in hepatitis E virus infections were observed.

  11. epidemiology of hepatitis b and hepatitis c virus infections among hiv

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    Hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infection are common in Nigeria; where they are a major cause of both acute and chronic .... for HIV counseling and testing on a daily basis. .... The Genetic and Molecular ... Among Patients with Hemophilia in.

  12. Cost-effectiveness of hepatitis A vaccination for individuals with chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapko, Michael K; Yee, Helen S; Monto, Alexander; Dominitz, Jason A

    2010-02-17

    The incidence of hepatitis A infection in the United States has decreased dramatically in recent years because of childhood immunization programs. A decision analysis of the cost-effectiveness of hepatitis A vaccination for adults with hepatitis C was conducted. No vaccination strategy is cost-effective for adults with hepatitis C using the recent lower anticipated hepatitis A incidence, private sector costs, and a cost-effectiveness criterion of $100,000/QALY. Vaccination is cost-effective only for individuals who have cleared the hepatitis C virus when Department of Veterans Affairs costs are used. The recommendation to vaccinate adults with hepatitis C against hepatitis A should be reconsidered. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Recurrent paratyphoid fever A co-infected with hepatitis A reactivated chronic hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanling; Xiong, Yujiao; Huang, Wenxiang; Jia, Bei

    2014-05-12

    We report here a case of recurrent paratyphoid fever A with hepatitis A co-infection in a patient with chronic hepatitis B. A 26-year-old male patient, who was a hepatitis B virus carrier, was co-infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A and hepatitis A virus. The recurrence of the paratyphoid fever may be ascribed to the coexistence of hepatitis B, a course of ceftriaxone plus levofloxacin that was too short and the insensitivity of paratyphoid fever A to levofloxacin. We find that an adequate course and dose of ceftriaxone is a better strategy for treating paratyphoid fever. Furthermore, the co-infection of paratyphoid fever with hepatitis A may stimulate cellular immunity and break immunotolerance. Thus, the administration of the anti-viral agent entecavir may greatly improve the prognosis of this patient with chronic hepatitis B, and the episodes of paratyphoid fever and hepatitis A infection prompt the use of timely antiviral therapy.

  14. Hepatic steatosis is associated with increased hepatic FDG uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keramida, Georgia, E-mail: G.Keramida@bsms.ac.uk [Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Brighton Sussex Medical School, Brighton (United Kingdom); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Brighton Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust, Brighton (United Kingdom); Potts, Jon [Department of Medicine, Brighton Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust, Brighton (United Kingdom); Bush, Janice [Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Brighton Sussex Medical School, Brighton (United Kingdom); Dizdarevic, Sabina; Peters, A. Michael [Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Brighton Sussex Medical School, Brighton (United Kingdom); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Brighton Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust, Brighton (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-15

    Objective: The use of liver as a reference tissue for semi-quantification of tumour FDG uptake may not be valid in hepatic steatosis (HS). Previous studies on the relation between liver FDG uptake and HS have been contradictory probably because they ignored blood glucose (BG). Because hepatocyte and blood FDG concentrations equalize, liver FDG uptake parallels BG, which must therefore be considered when studying hepatic FDG uptake. We therefore re-examined the relation between HS and liver uptake taking BG into account. Methods: This was a retrospective study of 304 patients undergoing routine PET/CT with imaging 60 min post-FDG. Average standard uptake value (SUV{sub ave}), maximum SUV (SUV{sub max}) and CT density (index of HS) were measured in a liver ROI. Blood pool SUV was based on the left ventricular cavity (SUV{sub LV}). Correlations were assessed using least squares fitting of continuous data. Patients were also divided into BG subgroups (<4, 4–5, 5–6, 6–8, 8–10 and 10+ mmol/l). Results: SUV{sub ave}, SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub LV} displayed similar relations with BG. SUV{sub max}/SUV{sub LV}, but not SUV{sub ave}/SUV{sub LV}, correlated significantly with BG. SUV{sub max}, but not SUV{sub ave}, correlated inversely with CT density before and after adjusting for BG. SUV{sub max}/SUV{sub ave} correlated more strongly with CT density than SUV{sub max}. CT density correlated inversely with SUV{sub max}/SUV{sub LV} but positively with SUV{sub ave}/SUV{sub LV}. Conclusions: Hepatic SUV is more influenced by BG than by HS. Its relation with BG renders it unsuitable as a reference tissue. Nevertheless, hepatic fat does correlate positively with liver SUV, although this is seen only with SUV{sub max} because SUV{sub ave} is ‘diluted’ by hepatic fat.

  15. Primary Hepatic Lymphoma Mimicking Cholangiocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foroogh Forghani1,

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Primary hepatic lymphoma (PHL presenting with obstructive jaundice is rare and can mimic a preoperative diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma. We should consider PHL in patients with radiological hepatic disease with normal serum alpha-fetoprotein and carcinoembryonic antigen levels, and elevated lactate dehydrogenase. We present the case of a 67-year-old male with no significant medical history presented with abdominal pain, jaundice, fever, and abnormal liver function tests. Abdominal sonography and computed tomography scan suggested a diagnosis of obstructive jaundice and cholangitis due to cholangiocarcinoma (Klatskin tumor. A subsequent liver biopsy diagnosed PHL, and the patient was treated with combination chemotherapy, including rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP. PHL should be considered in patients presenting with biliary obstruction.

  16. Prevalence of hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis D virus and hepatitis E virus as causes of acute viral hepatitis in North India: a hospital based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, P; Prakash, S; Gupta, S; Singh, K P; Shrivastava, S; Singh, D D; Singh, J; Jain, A

    2013-01-01

    Acute viral hepatitis (AVH) is a major public health problem and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The aim of the present study is to determine the prevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D virus (HDV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) as causes of AVH in a tertiary care hospital of North India. Blood samples and clinical information was collected from cases of AVH referred to the Grade I viral diagnostic laboratory over a 1-year period. Samples were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen, anti-HCV total antibodies, anti-HAV immunoglobulin M (IgM) and anti-HEV IgM by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. PCR for nucleic acid detection of HBV and HCV was also carried out. Those positive for HBV infection were tested for anti-HDV antibodies. Fisher's exact test was used and a P hepatitis cases, 62 (23.22%) patients presented as acute hepatic failure. HAV (26.96%) was identified as the most common cause of acute hepatitis followed by HEV (17.97%), HBV (16.10%) and HCV (11.98%). Co-infections with more than one virus were present in 34 cases; HAV-HEV co-infection being the most common. HEV was the most important cause of acute hepatic failure followed by co-infection with HAV and HEV. An indication towards epidemiological shift of HAV infection from children to adults with a rise in HAV prevalence was seen. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report indicating epidemiological shift of HAV in Uttar Pradesh.

  17. Genetic determinants of hepatic steatosis in man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Amanda J.; Adams, Leon A.; Burnett, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis is one of the most common liver disorders in the general population. The main cause of hepatic steatosis is nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), representing the hepatic component of the metabolic syndrome, which is characterized by type 2 diabetes, obesity, and dyslipidemia. Insulin resistance and excess adiposity are considered to play key roles in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Although the risk factors for NAFLD are well established, the genetic basis of hepatic steatosis is largely unknown. Here we review recent progress on genomic variants and their association with hepatic steatosis and discuss the potential impact of these genetic studies on clinical practice. Identifying the genetic determinants of hepatic steatosis will lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis and progression of NAFLD. PMID:21245030

  18. Auto-immune hepatitis following delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Vandana; Gupta, Mamta; Mishra, S K

    2013-05-01

    Auto-immune hepatitis first presenting in the early postpartum period is rare. Immunosuppressive effects of pregnancy result in delayed manifestation of auto-immune hepatitis, and in established cases, the spontaneous improvements are there. Auto-immune hepatitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of liver dysfunction first presenting in the early postpartum period. A case of postpartum hepatitis of auto-immune aetiology is being presented here. It is disease of unknown aetiology, characterised by inflammation of liver (as evidenced by raised serum transaminases, presence of interface hepatitis on histological examination), hypergammaglobulinaemia (> 1.5 times normal), presence of auto-antibodies [(antinuclear antibodies (ANA)], smooth muscle antibody (SMA) and antibody to liver-kidney microsome type 1 (LKM1) in the absence of viral markers ie, hepatitis B (HBsAg) and C (AntiHCV) and excellent response to corticosteroid therapy.

  19. Normal hepatic vein patterns on ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hae Jin; Chae, Yoo Soon; Park, Hea Yeoung; Park, Bok Hwan; Kim, Yang Sook

    1987-01-01

    Understanding of the anatomy of the hepatic vein is important in manipulation for transplantation of the liver, hepatectomy and the treatment of hepatic trauma with avulsion of the hepatic vein. Demonstrated of the inferior right hepatic vein (IRHV) is also important; in some cases of hepatocellular carcinoma, thrombus can be seen in the IRHV; in primary Budd-Chiari syndrome, the IRHV is main draining vein; during hepatectomy, the postero-inferior segment of the right lobe and draining IRHV can be preserved. For some 10 months ultrasound examination was done in a total of 124 patients with normal liver function with special emphasis on the hepatic vein, their branches, and the IRHV, and analysed in terms of branching pattern and relative size of the hepatic vein and the detection rate of the IRHV.

  20. Hepatitis E and Maternal Deaths

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-11-06

    Dr. Alain Labrique, assistant professor in the Department of International Health and Department of Epidemiology at the Bloomberg School of Public Health, gives us his perspective on hepatitis E and maternal deaths.  Created: 11/6/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID); National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 11/7/2012.

  1. [Treatment of autoimmune hepatic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueverov, A O

    2004-01-01

    The immunosuppresive drugs, primarily glucocorticosteroids, serve as the basis for the pathogenetic treatment of autoimmune diseases of the liver. In autoimmune hepatitis, immunosuppressive therapy induces and maintains persistent remission in most patients while in primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis, its capacities are substantially limited. Ursodeoxycholic acid is used as the basic drug in predominantly occurring intrahepatic cholestasis. The treatment of cross autoimmune syndromes generally requires the choice of a combination of drugs.

  2. How hepatitis D virus can hinder the control of hepatitis B virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Xiridou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis D (or hepatitis delta virus is a defective virus that relies on hepatitis B virus (HBV for transmission; infection with hepatitis D can occur only as coinfection with HBV or superinfection of an existing HBV infection. Because of the bond between the two viruses, control measures for HBV may have also affected the spread of hepatitis D, as evidenced by the decline of hepatitis D in recent years. Since the presence of hepatitis D is associated with suppressed HBV replication and possibly infectivity, it is reasonable to speculate that hepatitis D may facilitate the control of HBV. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We introduced a mathematical model for the transmission of HBV and hepatitis D, where individuals with dual HBV and hepatitis D infection transmit both viruses. We calculated the reproduction numbers of single HBV infections and dual HBV and hepatitis D infections and examined the endemic prevalences of the two viruses. The results show that hepatitis D virus modulates not only the severity of the HBV epidemic, but also the impact of interventions for HBV. Surprisingly we find that the presence of hepatitis D virus may hamper the eradication of HBV. Interventions that aim to reduce the basic reproduction number of HBV below one may not be sufficient to eradicate the virus, as control of HBV depends also on the reproduction numbers of dual infections. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: For populations where hepatitis D is endemic, plans for control programs ignoring the presence of hepatitis D may underestimate the HBV epidemic and produce overoptimistic results. The current HBV surveillance should be augmented with monitoring of hepatitis D, in order to improve accuracy of the monitoring and the efficacy of control measures.

  3. Hepatitis E as a Zoonosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widén, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E (HE) virus infection is not limited to spread from human to human but also occurs between animals and more importantly as zoonotic spread from animals to humans. Genotyping of strains from hepatitis E virus-infected patients has revealed that these infections are not all caused by genotypes 1 or 2 but often by genotypes 3 or 4. Therefore, it is important to understand the striking difference between the spread of genotypes 1 and 2 in countries with poor sanitary standards and the spread of genotypes 3 and 4 in countries with good sanitary standards. The number of animal species known to be infected with HEV is expanding rapidly. The finding of HEV in new host species always raises the question regarding the zoonotic potential of these newfound strains. However, as new strains are found, the complexity increases.Certain genotypes are known to have the ability of zoonotic spread from certain animal species and these animals may even constitute an infection reservoir. Some animal species may contribute to zoonotic infections albeit on a smaller scale, while others are believed to be of minor or no importance at all. This chapter reviews possible sources of zoonotic hepatitis E virus infection.

  4. [Hepatic pseudotumor in acute fascioliasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo Contreras, Ofelia Brisaida; Frisancho Velarde, Oscar

    2013-03-01

    We report a 61-year-old woman who was hospitalized because of abdominal pain in the right upper quadrant related to a liver tumor (ultrasound and tomographic findings). A collection of blood was obtained by a biopsy and there were no tumor cells. With the suspicion of acute fascioliasis (liver stage), due to severe eosinophilia and recent travel to endemic area of Fasciola hepatica, arc II and ELISA Fas 2 we carried out and were positive. Parasitological stool examinations were negative. During hospitalization a hepatic subcapsular hematoma presented as a complication and the patient developed fever because of cholangiolitic microabscesses in the left hepatic lobe. Percutaneous drainage was performed and positive cultures of secretions were obtained She received antibiotic coverage with vancomycin and imipenem. Treatment for Fasciola hepatica was initiated with nitaxozanida but it was discontinued due to oral intolerance. Later, she received a single dose of 250 mg triclabendazole with clinical and laboratory improvement. We presented this case because it is an unusual pseudotumoral presentation in acute hepatic fascioliasis. This parasitic disease is an emerging zoonosis in Perú.

  5. Hepatitis C and liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Silvia

    2018-06-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related liver disease represents the leading indication for liver transplantation (LT) in the USA and Europe and HCV recurrence is universal in recipients who are viremic at LT. Until a few years ago, pegylated-interferon in association with ribavirin was the only therapeutic strategy, usable only in compensated cirrhotic patients, in order to prevent post-LT viral recurrence. The recent advent of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) has dramatically increased the chances of curative treatment for the transplant population and the debate about which should be the best time for treating the infection is still open: whether to pursue HCV eradication 1) before LT, in order to improve liver function, delist some patients and prevent graft infection; or 2) as early as possible after LT, rather than 3) waiting for hepatitis C recurrence before starting treatment. In addition, in the DAA era, the use of HCV-positive donors may represent a potential approach to safely expanding the donor pool. As more HCV patients achieve cure with DAA regimens, the LT trend for HCV in the future would be expected to mimic the trend observed for hepatitis B virus in the past decade and in the United States, during the DAA-period 2014-2015, the rate of LT wait-listing for HCV complicated by decompensated cirrhosis has already decreased by 32%. This review summarizes the published data and emphasizes DAA treatment applicability to patients with decompensated cirrhosis and to liver transplant recipients.

  6. Urinary porphyrin excretion in hepatitis C infection

    OpenAIRE

    Vogeser, Michael; Jacob, Karl; Zachoval, Reinhart

    1999-01-01

    A high prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in porphyria cutanea tarda in some populations suggests a close link between viral hepatitis and alteration of porphyrin metabolism. Moreover, there is evidence of a role of porphyrinopathies in hepatocarcinogenesis. The aim of our study was to obtain data on the prevalence and patterns of heme metabolism alterations in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Urinary porphyrin excretion was prospectively studied in 100 consecutive ou...

  7. Fulminant hepatic failure secondary to hydroxychloroquine.

    OpenAIRE

    Makin, A J; Wendon, J; Fitt, S; Portmann, B C; Williams, R

    1994-01-01

    Hydroxychloroquine is widely used in rheumatological disease but hepatic side effects have not been reported previously. Two cases are described of fulminant hepatic failure developing after the start of hydroxychloroquine treatment for a chronic rheumatological disorder. In both cases the symptoms of liver disease developed within two weeks of starting hydroxychloroquine and rapidly progressed to fulminant hepatic failure and in neither case was there any pre-existing liver disease. One pati...

  8. Acute hepatic encephalopathy with diffuse cortical lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, S.M.; Spreer, J.; Schumacher, M. [Section of Neuroradiology, Univ. of Freiburg (Germany); Els, T. [Dept. of Neurology, University of Freiburg (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Acute hepatic encephalopathy is a poorly defined syndrome of heterogeneous aetiology. We report a 49-year-old woman with alcoholic cirrhosis and hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia who developed acute hepatic coma induced by severe gastrointestinal bleeding. Laboratory analysis revealed excessively elevated blood ammonia. MRI showed lesions compatible with chronic hepatic encephalopathy and widespread cortical signal change sparing the perirolandic and occipital cortex. The cortical lesions resembled those of hypoxic brain damage and were interpreted as acute toxic cortical laminar necrosis. (orig.)

  9. Acute hepatic encephalopathy with diffuse cortical lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, S.M.; Spreer, J.; Schumacher, M.; Els, T.

    2001-01-01

    Acute hepatic encephalopathy is a poorly defined syndrome of heterogeneous aetiology. We report a 49-year-old woman with alcoholic cirrhosis and hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia who developed acute hepatic coma induced by severe gastrointestinal bleeding. Laboratory analysis revealed excessively elevated blood ammonia. MRI showed lesions compatible with chronic hepatic encephalopathy and widespread cortical signal change sparing the perirolandic and occipital cortex. The cortical lesions resembled those of hypoxic brain damage and were interpreted as acute toxic cortical laminar necrosis. (orig.)

  10. Parvovirus B19 associated acute cholestatic hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Perrini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There are few reports in the literature of hepatitis as a manifestation of Parvovirus B19 infection. We describe a case of Parvovirus B19 associated acute cholestatic hepatitis diagnosed based on a positive serologic test (IgM and molecular detection of parvovirus B19 DNA in peripheral blood. Parvovirus B19 infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patient presenting with acute hepatitis of unknown etiology.

  11. Brief Introduction to Hepatitis B for Parents of Adopted Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brief Introduction to Hepatitis B for Parents of Adopted Children by Sarah Jane Schwarzenberg, MD What is hepatitis B? ... injury will also need careful medical management. In short, prospective par- ents of children with hepatitis B ...

  12. Hepatitis Panel: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/hepatitispanel.html Hepatitis Panel To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Hepatitis Panel? Hepatitis is a type of liver disease. ...

  13. Hepatitis A and the Vaccine (Shot) to Prevent It

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Maternal Immunization Resources Related Links Vaccines & Immunizations Hepatitis A and the Vaccine (Shot) to Prevent It ... the vaccine. Why should my child get the hepatitis A shot? The hepatitis A shot: Protects your ...

  14. Variation of hepatic artery on arteriogram and its clinical significance in interventional therapy for hepatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaodong; Yang Renjie

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the variations of hepatic artery and its extrahepatic arteries on hepatic arteriogram and to provide benefit for transhepatic arterical chemoemblization. Methods: The hepatic arteriograms of 200 cases with unresectable hepatic malignant tumor before interventional therapy were analysed. Two interventional radiologists in common reviewed the incidences of various types according to Michels' classification, the absence of proper hepatic artery, and the variations of extrahepatic arteries originating from hepatic artery. Results: The most common hepatic artery variation was Michels type III(n=17,8.5%), followed by type II(n=10,5.0%) and V(n=9,4.5%). Proper hepatic absence was found in 25 cases and appeared as 5 subtypes. 5 kinds of extrahepatic arteries were found. The most common extrahepatic artery was the right gastric artery (n=156,78.0%), followed by cystic artery (n=126,63.0%), accessory left gastric artery (n=19,9.5%), the hepatic falciform artery (n=5,2.5%), and accessory left inferior phrenic artery (n=4,2.0%). Conclusion: There are some other variations of hepatic artery beside Michels' classification,and there are many variations of extrahepatic arteries originating from hepatic artery, it is important to assure interventional therapy effect for hepatic cancer and prevent complication. (authors)

  15. Detection of occult hepatitis B virus among chronic hepatitis C patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Concurrent infections with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are increasingly recognized in patients with chronic hepatitis. In Egypt, the last decade showed a remarkable decline in HBV infection associated with remarkable rise in HCV infection. The probable impact of occult HBV in patients ...

  16. Hepatitis A seroprevalence in patients with chronic viral hepatitis in Konya, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özden, Hale T

    2016-03-01

    Hepatitis A is among the diseases that can be prevented with vaccination in our time. Acute hepatitis A progresses more severely in individuals with a liver disease. Therefore, patients with a chronic liver disease (because of hepatitis B or hepatitis C) are advised vaccination with the hepatitis A vaccine. This study is aimed to determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) antibodies in patients infected with hepatitis C virus or hepatitis B virus in Konya province of Turkey. A total of 537 patients who had chronic viral hepatitis between January 2011 and December 2014 were included in the study. Serum samples were collected from each patient and tested for anti-HAV using the chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. The overall seroprevalence of total anti-HAV IgG was 94.2%. The overall prevalence of anti-HAV IgG in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection was 97.5 and 93.6%, respectively. Anti-HAV IgG positivity was 97.4% in cirrhotic patients and 93.9% in noncirrhotic individuals. At the end of the study, being older than 40 years and living in a rural area were found to be independent risk factors for anti-HAV IgG seropositivity. In conclusion, we recommend that patients younger than 40 years and/or those living in cities and having a chronic liver disease should be vaccinated with the hepatitis A vaccine.

  17. Hepatitis A seroprevalence in patients with chronic viral hepatitis in Konya, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Aim Hepatitis A is among the diseases that can be prevented with vaccination in our time. Acute hepatitis A progresses more severely in individuals with a liver disease. Therefore, patients with a chronic liver disease (because of hepatitis B or hepatitis C) are advised vaccination with the hepatitis A vaccine. This study is aimed to determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) antibodies in patients infected with hepatitis C virus or hepatitis B virus in Konya province of Turkey. Methods A total of 537 patients who had chronic viral hepatitis between January 2011 and December 2014 were included in the study. Serum samples were collected from each patient and tested for anti-HAV using the chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Results The overall seroprevalence of total anti-HAV IgG was 94.2%. The overall prevalence of anti-HAV IgG in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection was 97.5 and 93.6%, respectively. Anti-HAV IgG positivity was 97.4% in cirrhotic patients and 93.9% in noncirrhotic individuals. Conclusion At the end of the study, being older than 40 years and living in a rural area were found to be independent risk factors for anti-HAV IgG seropositivity. In conclusion, we recommend that patients younger than 40 years and/or those living in cities and having a chronic liver disease should be vaccinated with the hepatitis A vaccine. PMID:26703930

  18. Computed tomography scans of metastatic hepatic tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takemoto, Kazumasa; Fukuda, Haruyuki; Nemoto, Yutaka [Osaka City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1984-01-01

    Computed tomography scans of 114 metastatic hepatic tumors were reviewed. Central low density was found in 82 cases (71.9%) and seems to be characteristic to metastatic hepatic tumors. Dynamic CT was performed on 34 cases, and 21 (61.8%) of these had ring enhancement at the arterial phase. Most of metastatic hepatic tumors could be differentiated from hepatocellular carcinoma. However, metastatic hepatic tumors from renal cell carcinoma, renal rhabdomyosarcoma, malignant melanoma and leiomyosarcoma could not be differentiated from hepatocellular carcinoma, even with use of dynamic study.

  19. Hepatic hypervitaminosis A: a familial observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarles, J; Scheiner, C; Sarran, M; Giraud, F

    1990-01-01

    Four siblings with hepatic fibrosis are described. The liver damage in these patients was secondary to chronic ingestion of massive doses of vitamin A for congenital ichthyosis. Although the extrahepatic manifestations were helpful in the diagnosis of hypervitaminosis A, the distinctive features of hepatic histopathology were confirmatory. The plasma concentrations of vitamin A and retinol-binding protein were misleading. The recovery from the liver damage in these patients was slow despite a complete withdrawal of the vitamin A intake. These cases show the importance of hepatic vitamin A assessment in the diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis.

  20. Autoimmune hepatitis in association with lymphocytic colitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, Edmond M

    2012-02-03

    Autoimmune hepatitis is a rare, chronic inflammatory disorder which has been associated with a number of other auto-immune conditions. However, there are no reports in the medical literature of an association with microscopic (lymphocytic) colitis. We report the case of a 53-year-old woman with several autoimmune conditions, including lymphocytic colitis, who presented with an acute hepatitis. On the basis of the clinical features, serology, and histopathology, we diagnosed autoimmune hepatitis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of autoimmune hepatitis in association with lymphocytic colitis, and lends support to the theory of an autoimmune etiology for lymphocytic colitis.

  1. Relation between laboratory test results and histological hepatitis activity in individuals positive for hepatitis B surface antigen and antibodies to hepatitis B e antigen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Borg, F.; ten Kate, F. J.; Cuypers, H. T.; Leentvaar-Kuijpers, A.; Oosting, J.; Wertheim-van Dillen, P. M.; Honkoop, P.; Rasch, M. C.; de Man, R. A.; van Hattum, J.; Chamuleau, R. A.; Reesink, H. W.; Jones, E. A.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibodies to hepatitis B e antigen (anti-HBe) commonly coexist, and laboratory tests are often requested to assess histological hepatitis activity. An optimum panel of tests has not been found and the usefulness of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA

  2. Coinfection of hepatitis E virus and other hepatitis virus in Colombia and its genotypic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peláez, Dioselina; Martínez-Vargas, Daniel; Escalante-Mora, Martha; Palacios-Vivero, Mariel; Contreras-Gómez, Lady

    2015-12-04

    Hepatitis E virus has emerged as a public health problem, particularly in developing countries. The four genotypes identified in mammals include the G3 found in indigenous hepatitis in countries and regions with high porcine population, and the G1, associated with maternal deaths.  To determine coinfection by hepatitis E virus and the circulating genotypes in Colombia in 1,097 samples using serological markers for hepatitis A, B and C.  Serum samples of 1,097 patients from different regions of Colombia stored at the Laboratorio de Virología of the Instituto Nacional de Salud were selected to detect IgG and IgM anti-hepatitis E virus antibodies. The viral genomes of positive samples were amplified by RT-PCR, and the products were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed by comparing ORF2 sequences deposited in the GenBank.  IgG anti-hepatitis E virus antibodies were found in 278 samples, IgM in 62, and both markers in 64. Hepatitis E virus and hepatitis A virus coinfection determined by IgG anti-hepatitis E virus was 33.6% and 16.1% by IgM; hepatitis E virus and hepatitis B virus coinfection was 23.4% and 8.1%, and hepatitis E virus and hepatitis C virus coinfection was 35.4% and 5.83%, respectively. Among the 52 positive samples by PCR nine were sequenced and grouped within genotype 3A of the American porcine strain.  The highest seropositivity was observed for hepatitis A and E. The incidence of hepatitis E virus coinfection with other hepatotropic viruses indicated that this pathogen is more frequent than expected. The circulation of genotype 3A implies that this disease may occur in outbreaks and as zoonosis in Colombia.

  3. Yeast-recombinant hepatitis B vaccine: efficacy with hepatitis B immune globulin in prevention of perinatal hepatitis B virus transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, C.E.; Taylor, P.E.; Tong, M.J.; Toy, P.T.; Vyas, G.N.; Nair, P.V.; Weissman, J.Y.; Krugman, S.

    1987-01-01

    A yeast-recombinant hepatitis B vaccine was licensed recently by the Food and Drug administration and is now available. To assess the efficacy of the yeast-recombinant vaccine, the authors administered the vaccine in combination with hepatitis B immune globulin to high-risk newborns. If infants whose mothers were positive for both hepatitis B surface antigen and the e antigen receive no immunoprophylaxis, 70% to 90% become infected with the virus, and almost all become chronic carriers. Among infants in this study who received hepatitis B immune globulin at birth and three 5- + g doses of yeast-recombinant hepatitis B vaccine, only 4.8% became chronic carriers, a better than 90% level of protection and a rate that is comparable with that seen with immune globulin and plasma-derived hepatitis B vaccine. Hepatitis surface antigen and antibodies were detected by radioimmunoassay. These data suggest that, in this high-risk setting, the yeast-recombinant vaccine is as effective as the plasma-derived vaccine in preventing hepatitis B virus infection and the chronic carrier state

  4. Hepatic Diacylglycerol-Associated Protein Kinase Cε Translocation Links Hepatic Steatosis to Hepatic Insulin Resistance in Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Horst, Kasper W.; Gilijamse, Pim W.; Versteeg, Ruth I.; Ackermans, Mariette T.; Nederveen, Aart J.; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Nieuwdorp, Max; Zhang, Dongyan; Samuel, Varman T.; Vatner, Daniel F.; Petersen, Kitt F.; Shulman, Gerald I.; Serlie, Mireille J.

    2017-01-01

    Hepatic lipid accumulation has been implicated in the development of insulin resistance, but translational evidence in humans is limited. We investigated the relationship between liver fat and tissue-specific insulin sensitivity in 133 obese subjects. Although the presence of hepatic steatosis in

  5. Lower doses venlafaxine-associated toxic hepatitis in a patient with chronic hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sencan, I.; Sahin, I.; Ozcetin, A.

    2003-01-01

    Toxic hepatitis is observed with high doses of Venlafaxine. But toxic hepatitis has not been yet reported at lower doses of Venlafaxine such as 37.5 mg per day. In this case report, a case of Venlafaxine associated toxic hepatitis with lower doses in patient with history of chronic hepatitis is presented. We suggest that liver function should be regularly monitored in patients with history of chronic hepatitis receiving Venlafaxine even at lower doses and even when their liver enzymes are normal. (author)

  6. Tuberculosis, hepatitis C and hepatitis B co-infections in patients with HIV in the Great Tehran Prison, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Farhoudi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a study to evaluate tuberculosis (TB, hepatitis C and hepatitis B co-infections in male patients with HIV in the Great Tehran Prison from October 2013 to May 2014. Among 85 HIV positive patients, five persons (5.9% had TB. Also, 56 new HIV-infected patients were checked for hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis C virus antibody. There were three hepatitis B surface antigen (5.4% and 50 hepatitis C virus antibody (89.3% results. This study suggests that it is necessary to investigate TB, hepatitis C and hepatitis B in HIV positive prisoners in Iran.

  7. Hepatitis E virus and fulminant hepatitis--a virus or host-specific pathology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donald B; Simmonds, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Fulminant hepatitis is a rare outcome of infection with hepatitis E virus. Several recent reports suggest that virus variation is an important determinant of disease progression. To critically examine the evidence that virus-specific factors underlie the development of fulminant hepatitis following hepatitis E virus infection. Published sequence information of hepatitis E virus isolates from patients with and without fulminant hepatitis was collected and analysed using statistical tests to identify associations between virus polymorphisms and disease outcome. Fulminant hepatitis has been reported following infection with all four hepatitis E virus genotypes that infect humans comprising multiple phylogenetic lineages within genotypes 1, 3 and 4. Analysis of virus sequences from individuals infected by a common source did not detect any common substitutions associated with progression to fulminant hepatitis. Re-analysis of previously reported associations between virus substitutions and fulminant hepatitis suggests that these were probably the result of sampling biases. Host-specific factors rather than virus genotype, variants or specific substitutions appear to be responsible for the development of fulminant hepatitis. © 2014 The Authors. Liver International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Transcription factor assisted loading and enhancer dynamics dictate the hepatic fasting response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Ido; Baek, Songjoon; Presman, Diego M.; Paakinaho, Ville; Swinstead, Erin E.; Hager, Gordon L.

    2017-01-01

    Fasting elicits transcriptional programs in hepatocytes leading to glucose and ketone production. This transcriptional program is regulated by many transcription factors (TFs). To understand how this complex network regulates the metabolic response to fasting, we aimed at isolating the enhancers and TFs dictating it. Measuring chromatin accessibility revealed that fasting massively reorganizes liver chromatin, exposing numerous fasting-induced enhancers. By utilizing computational methods in combination with dissecting enhancer features and TF cistromes, we implicated four key TFs regulating the fasting response: glucocorticoid receptor (GR), cAMP responsive element binding protein 1 (CREB1), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARA), and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (CEBPB). These TFs regulate fuel production by two distinctly operating modules, each controlling a separate metabolic pathway. The gluconeogenic module operates through assisted loading, whereby GR doubles the number of sites occupied by CREB1 as well as enhances CREB1 binding intensity and increases accessibility of CREB1 binding sites. Importantly, this GR-assisted CREB1 binding was enhancer-selective and did not affect all CREB1-bound enhancers. Single-molecule tracking revealed that GR increases the number and DNA residence time of a portion of chromatin-bound CREB1 molecules. These events collectively result in rapid synergistic gene expression and higher hepatic glucose production. Conversely, the ketogenic module operates via a GR-induced TF cascade, whereby PPARA levels are increased following GR activation, facilitating gradual enhancer maturation next to PPARA target genes and delayed ketogenic gene expression. Our findings reveal a complex network of enhancers and TFs that dynamically cooperate to restore homeostasis upon fasting. PMID:28031249

  9. percutaneous laparoscopic trocar drainage of hepatic abscess

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION. Hepatic abscesses could be pyogenic, amoebic or less frequently, fungal.1 Hepatic abscesses are uncommon in the general population (0.029 to 1.47%),2 and are even less common in sickle cell disease.3 The use of less invasive surgical modalities in sickle cell patients improves outcome. We report a ...

  10. Differential effect of gender on hepatic fat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilsanz, Vicente [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, USC, Keck School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, MS 81, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, USC, Keck School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Chung, Sandra A. [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, USC, Keck School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, MS 81, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Kaplowitz, Neil [USC, Keck School of Medicine, USC Research Center for Liver Disease, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2011-09-15

    There are discrepant data on whether men or women have a higher risk for hepatic steatosis. To examine the influence of gender on hepatic adiposity in teenagers and young adults. We measured subcutaneous abdominal fat (SAF), intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and hepatic tissue density (a surrogate measure of hepatic fat) using CT in 505 healthy teenagers and young adults (254 males, 251 females; ages 15-22.9 years). Overall, compared to men, women had higher values of SAF (P < 0.0001) but similar measures of IAF and liver tissue density (P = 0.09 and 0.92, respectively). However, when compared to overweight/obese men, overweight/obese women had strikingly similar IAF values (P = 0.85) but lower hepatic fat (P = 0.009). Multiple regression analyses indicated that, after adjusting for age and SAF, IAF independently predicted hepatic density in males (P < 0.0001) but not in females (P = 0.36). Hepatic fat increased with body mass in males from lean to overweight and obese (P < 0.0001) but not in females (P > 0.05). When compared to overweight and obese young women, overweight and obese young men are at greater risk for hepatic steatosis, independent of IAF. (orig.)

  11. [Spontaneous hepatic hematoma in twin pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesnel, Carlos; Weber, Alejandro; Mendoza, Dalila; Garteiz, Denzil

    2012-02-01

    The hepatic hematoma or rupture appear in 1 of every 100,000 pregnancies. The most common causes of hepatic hematoma in pregnancy are severe preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome; some predisposing factors are seizures, vomiting, labor, preexistent hepatic disease and trauma. A 33 year old primigravid with a normal 33 week twin pregnancy presented abdominal pain and hypovolemic shock due to spontaneous subcapsular hepatic hematoma; laparoscopy was performed to evaluate the possibility of rupture, which was not found, later emergency cesarean section was carried out followed by hepatic hematoma drainage and abdominal packaging by laparoscopy. After surgery the flow through drainage was too high additionally hemodynamic instability and consumption coagulopathy. Abdominal panangiography was performed without identifying bleeding areas. Intesive care was given to the patient evolving satisfactorily, was discharged 19 days after the event. Seven months later she had laparoscopic cholecystectomy due to acute litiasic colecistitis. We found 5 cases in literatura about hepatic hematoma during pregnancy no related to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy; these were related to hepatoma, amebian hepatic abscess, falciform cell anemia, cocaine consumption and molar pregnancy. Hepatics hematomas have high morbidity and mortality so is significant early diagnosis and multidisciplinary approach.

  12. Ny behandling af kronisk hepatitis B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ellen Sloth; Weis, Nina M

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide, 350 million people are infected with chronic hepatitis B. Over the last few years, it has been possible to treat chronic hepatitis B. Treatment very often consists of nucleos(t)ide analogs and in a few cases of pegylated alpha-interferon. In 2007, a new nucleoside analog, Telbivudine...

  13. New treatment of chronic hepatitis B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, E.S.; Weis, Nina

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide, 350 million people are infected with chronic hepatitis B. Over the last few years, it has been possible to treat chronic hepatitis B. Treatment very often consists of nucleos(t)ide analogs and in a few cases of pegylated alpha-interferon. In 2007, a new nucleoside analog, Telbivudine...

  14. Fetomaternal Outcome in Acute Hepatitis E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultana, R.; Humayun, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine fetomaternal outcome in pregnant women with acute hepatitis E in terms of pregnancy outcome and perinatal mortality. Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, Lahore, from July 2012 to March 2013. Methodology: Serum samples of 38 patients who presented with jaundice in pregnancy were collected to detect hepatitis E IgM antibodies. Demographics, pregnancy outcome and perinatal mortality was noted in hepatitis E positive cases with cause of complications. Cases with jaundice due solely to any other cause were excluded. Results: Twenty five patients had acute hepatitis E with coexistent acute hepatitis A in 1(4%) patient. Their mean age was 25 years and mean gravidity was 2. Among them, 10 (40%) patients were primigravida followed by gravida two in 7 (28%) cases. Twenty four (96%) patients presented in third trimester of pregnancy and in 1 (4%) pregnancy ended in second trimester missed miscarriage. The mean gestational age was 32 weeks. Twenty one (84%) babies were born alive, among them 18 (86%) were preterm. Perinatal mortality was 26%; contributed by intrauterine deaths and early neonatal deaths in 3 (14%) cases each. Total maternal deaths were 5 (20%), 4 (80%) in postpartum period and 1 (20%) in antepartum period due to fulminant hepatic failure in all cases. Conclusion: Prematurity in newborns and fulminant hepatic failure in mothers are major cause of poor fetomaternal outcome in acute hepatitis E in pregnancy. (author)

  15. Hepatic angiosarcoma manifested as recurrent hemoperitoneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Woo; Song, Chun-Young; Gi, Young-Hwa; Kang, Sang-Beom; Kim, Yon-Soo; Nam, Soon-Woo; Lee, Dong-Soo; Kim, Jong-Ok

    2008-01-01

    Angiosarcoma is a rare tumor that account for less than 1% of all sarcomas. Although hepatic angiosarcoma usually presents with unspecific symptoms, it rapidly progresses and has a high mortality. We report a rare case of primary hepatic angiosarcoma manifested as recurrent hemoperitoneum. PMID:18473427

  16. Hepatitis C - a South African perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    relatedness, and structural proteins of six strains of the hepatitis B virus, four of which represent two .... (MED.) Heidi Smuts, PH.O ..... HCV is present in the saliva of affected subjects97,.. and ..... The typical changes include piecemeal and spotty ...... Kotkat A. Prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis C virus in pregnant women in ...

  17. Congenital syphilitic hepatitis: a radionuclide study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, G.F.; Stanley, P.; Gwinn, J.L.; Miller, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    A two-month-old girl with congenital syphilitic hepatitis had bizarre liver scintigraphic features showing diminished hepatic uptake of a radiocolloid with accentuated pulmonary and bone marrow accumulation. These features were reversible following penicillin therapy and to our knowledge are previously undescribed manifestations of this multisystemic disease

  18. Radioimmunoassay for hepatitis B core antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagnelli, E.; Pereira, C.; Triolo, G.; Vernace, S.; Paronetto, F.

    1982-01-01

    Serum hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) is an important marker of hepatitis B virus replication. We describe an easy, sensitive radioimmunoassay for determination of HBcAg in detergent-treated serum pellets containing Dane particles. Components of a commercial kit for anticore determination are used, and HBcAG is measured by competitive inhibition of binding of 125 I-labeled antibodies to HBcAg with HBcAg-coated beads. We assayed for HBcAG in the sera of 49 patients with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive chronic hepatitis, 50 patients with HBsAg-negative chronic hepatitis, and 30 healthy volunteers. HBcAg was detected in 41% of patients with HBsAg-positive chronic hepatitis but not in patients with HBsAg-negative chronic hepatitis. Hepatitis Be antigen (an antigen closely associated with the core of Dane particles) determined in the same sera by radioimmunoassay, was not detected in 50% of HBcAg-positive sera

  19. Clinical monitoring of 'autoimmune' chronic active hepatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, Bart van

    1989-01-01

    This thesis describes the outcome- survival of a large group of 186 consecutive patients with chronic active hepatitis of variouse tiologies, and describes in detail the progress of 21 patients from this group with 'autoimmunie' chronic active hepatitis maintained on standardized immunosuppressive

  20. "Hepatitis" - Prevention and management in dental practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahiya, Parveen; Kamal, Reet; Sharma, Varun; Kaur, Saravpreet

    2015-01-01

    Today, viral hepatitis has become a silent epidemic worldwide. It is the major cause of liver cirrhosis and liver carcinoma. In a dental office, infections can be expedited through several routes, including direct or indirect contact with blood, oral fluids, droplet splatter, aerosols, etc. The aim of the present review is to increase the awareness among dental practitioners, so as to reduce the burden of hepatitis in their community. Electronic databases like PubMed, Medline, ProQuest, etc. were searched using the keywords hepatitis, dentist, liver disease, and infection control. Manual search of various journals and books was also carried out. Only highly relevant articles from English literature were considered for the present review. The results revealed that the dentists were among the high-risk groups for hepatitis, and they have little information on the factors associated with adherence to hepatitis B vaccination. A dentist can play a major role in the prevention of hepatitis by considering each and every patient as a potential carrier of hepatitis. Proper infection control, sterilization, and prophylactic vaccination protocols should be followed in order to reduce the risk of hepatitis.