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Sample records for fasting-induced hepatic lipidosis

  1. FELINE HEPATIC LIPIDOSIS

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    C. Masotti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the first description of feline hepatic lipidosis occurred in 1977, it becames the most diagnosed liver disease in cats. Several factors have been proposed as causes of disease, and obesity being a predisposing factor. The disease can be considered primary or idiopathic when its underlying cause is unknown, or secondary when there is another concomitant disease lipidosis. Cats with hepatic lipidosis have anorexia usually ranging from several days to weeks and weight loss, followed by jaundice and varying degrees of dehydration, diarrhea and vomiting episodes may occur. A worsening of the disease shows signs of hepatic encephalopathy, drooling and retroflexion of the neck. In clinical examination can be observed depression, lethargy and hepatomegaly. The definitive diagnosis of the disease can be performed by fine needle aspiration biopsy guided by ultrasound and cytology or biopsy. The treatment of hepatic lipidosis is based on stabilizing the patient by supplying water and electrolyte losses and provide adequate nutritional support. The diet is usually provided through feeding tubes for a period ranging from 4 to 6 weeks may occur depending on the patient's condition. The prognosis for cats with hepatic lipidosis is favored in cases of identification followed by intensive treatment of underlying causes and for patients receiving therapy necessary in cases of idiopathic hepatic lipidosis.

  2. Rapid development of fasting-induced hepatic lipidosis in the American mink (Neovison vison): effects of food deprivation and re-alimentation on body fat depots, tissue fatty acid profiles, hematology and endocrinology.

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    Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Conway, Rebecca; Pal, Catherine; Harris, Lora; Saarela, Seppo; Strandberg, Ursula; Nieminen, Petteri

    2010-02-01

    Hepatic lipidosis is a common pathological finding in the American mink (Neovison vison) and can be caused by nutritional imbalance due to obesity or rapid body weight loss. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the timeline and characterize the development of hepatic lipidosis in mink in response to 0-7 days of food deprivation and liver recovery after 28 days of re-feeding. We report here the effects on hematological and endocrine variables, body fat mobilization, the development of hepatic lipidosis and the alterations in the liver lipid classes and tissue fatty acid (FA) sums. Food deprivation resulted in the rapid mobilization of body fat, most notably visceral, causing elevated hepatosomatic index and increased liver triacylglycerol content. The increased absolute amounts of liver total phospholipids and phosphatidylcholine suggested endoplasmic reticulum stress. The hepatic lipid infiltration and the altered liver lipid profiles were associated with a significantly reduced proportion of n-3 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) in the livers and the decrease was more evident in the females. Likewise, re-feeding of the female mink resulted in a more pronounced recovery of the liver n-3 PUFA. The rapid decrease in the n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio in response to food deprivation could trigger an inflammatory response in the liver. This could be a key contributor to the pathophysiology of fatty liver disease in mink influencing disease progression.

  3. Metabolomic biomarkers correlating with hepatic lipidosis in dairy cows

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    Imhasly, S; Naegeli, H; Baumann, S.; von Bergen, M.; Luch, A; Jungnickel, H; Potratz, S; Gerspach, C.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatic lipidosis or fatty liver disease is a major metabolic disorder of high-producing dairy cows that compromises animal performance and, hence, causes heavy economic losses worldwide. This syndrome, occurring during the critical transition from gestation to early lactation, leads to an impaired health status, decreased milk yield, reduced fertility and shortened lifetime. Because the prevailing clinical chemistry parameters indicate advanced liver damage independently of the u...

  4. Refeeding syndrome in a cat with hepatic lipidosis.

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    Brenner, Karen; KuKanich, Kate S; Smee, Nicole M

    2011-08-01

    Refeeding syndrome is characterized by severe hypophosphatemia occurring in patients given enteral or parenteral nutrition after severe weight loss. There are few veterinary reports that describe this syndrome but it is well documented in human medicine. This report describes a case of a domestic shorthair cat diagnosed with hepatic lipidosis following a 4-week history of decreased appetite and weight loss and in whom refeeding syndrome was documented after initiation of enteral nutrition. Clinical findings, blood work abnormalities and disease progression in this patient are described from the time of diagnosis through to recovery. A review of the current literature pertinent to this clinical syndrome is included.

  5. Ultrasonographic evaluation to diagnose hepatic lipidosis in Egyptian Zaraibi goats with vitamin B12 deficiency

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    Sabry A. El-Khodery

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As little is known about the ultrasonographic features of hepatic lipidosis (white liver disease in goats, this study was undertaken to evaluate the use of ultrasound for the diagnosis of hepatic lipidosis associated with vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin deficiency in Egyptian Zaraibi goats. A total of 38 goats (28 with weight loss, diarrhoea and anaemia and 10 clinically healthy were studied. Twenty-one goats were demonstrated to have cobalt and cyanocobalamin deficiency (0.33 ± 0.12 μmol/l and 0.17 ± 0.10 μg/l, respectively. Goats were examined with a real-time ultrasound system using a 5-MHz convex transducer. Ultrasound-guided liver biopsies and blood samples were obtained from each animal at examination. Based on the histopathological findings, diseased goats were classified as having mild (n = 6, moderate (n = 6 or severe lipidosis (n = 9. Ultrasonographic-hepatic changes were recorded in 19 (90.4% out of 21 goats. Severe lipidosis showed diffuse hyper-echogenicity of hepatic parenchyma. However, focal hyper-echoic lesions with various shapes, sizes and positions were visualized in mild and moderate lipidosis. Liver size increased significantly (P < 0.05 in severely affected goats compared with the controls. Histopathologically, macrovacuolations, congestion of hepatic sinusoids and infiltration of the portal area with inflammatory cells and connective tissues were evident in moderate and severely affected cases. There were varying degrees of anaemia, hypoglycemia and hypoproteinemia with significant increases (P < 0.05 of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP in diseased animals compared with the controls. In conclusion, ultrasound may be a useful diagnostic tool in goats with suspected hepatic lipidosis associated with vitamin B12 deficiency.

  6. Polioencephalomalacia and Heart Failure Secondary to Presumptive Thiamine Deficiency, Hepatic Lipidosis, and Starvation in 2 Abandoned Siamese Cats.

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    Anholt, H; Himsworth, C; Britton, A

    2016-07-01

    Two 4-year-old spayed female Siamese cats were seized by the British Columbia Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals after confinement to an abandoned housing unit without food for 9 weeks. One cat was found dead, and the second was euthanized within 24 hours due to neurologic deterioration despite therapy. Polioencephalomalacia of the caudal colliculus, hepatic lipidosis, cachexia, and congestive heart failure with cardiomyocyte atrophy were identified in both cats through postmortem examination and attributed to a prolonged period of starvation. Brain lesions were likely the result of thiamine deficiency (Chastek paralysis), which can be associated with both malnutrition and liver disease. This case highlights the importance of thiamine supplementation during realimentation of cats with hepatic lipidosis. Heart failure resulting from cachexia may have contributed to the death of the first cat and the morbidity of the second cat.

  7. Skin fragility syndrome in a cat with feline infectious peritonitis and hepatic lipidosis.

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    Trotman, Tara K; Mauldin, Elizabeth; Hoffmann, Vickie; Del Piero, Fabio; Hess, Rebecka S

    2007-10-01

    A 6-year-old spayed female domestic shorthair cat with a 3-week history of inappetence, weight loss, and hiding was examined. A palpable abdominal fluid wave, dehydration, and a small tear on the left flank were noted during initial examination. When the cat was gently restrained for blood sampling, the skin on the dorsal neck tore, leaving a 15 cm x 7 cm flap of skin. Clinicopathological abnormalities included nonregenerative anaemia, hypoalbuminaemia, increased globulin concentration, and mildly elevated aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities. Abdominal fluid was viscous and had a total protein of 5.3 g dL(-1) with 316 cells microL(-1), consistent with a modified transudate. Cytology of the abdominal fluid revealed 86% nondegenerate neutrophils, 13% macrophages, and 1% small lymphocytes. Histopathological evaluation and indirect immunohistochemistry confirmed a diagnosis of feline infectious peritonitis, hepatic lipidosis and feline skin fragility syndrome. Feline skin fragility syndrome has not previously been reported in association with feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Its inclusion as a clinical sign associated with FIP may facilitate a diagnosis.

  8. Fatal hemorrhagic-necrotizing pancreatitis associated with pancreatic and hepatic lipidosis in an obese Asian palm civet (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bongiovanni Laura; Di Girolamo Nicola; Montani Alessandro; Della Salda Leonardo; Selleri Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Asian palm civets (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus), or toddy cats, belong to the family Viverridae. Little is known about the pathology of these animals and few articles have been published, mainly concerning their important role as wild reservoir hosts for severe infectious diseases of domestic animals and human beings. A 4-year-old, female Asian palm civet was found dead by the owner. At necropsy, large amount of adipose tissue was found in the subcutis and in the peritoneal cavity. Most of the pancreas appeared red, translucent. Hepatomegaly, discoloration of the liver were evident, with multifocal areas of degeneration, characterized by white nodular lesions. Histologically, the pancreas showed severe interstitial and perilobular necrosis and extensive haemorrhages, with separation of the interstitium, mild reactive inflammation at the periphery of the pancreatic lobules. Liver showed multifocal foci of vacuolar degeneration, lipidic accumulation, sometimes associated to hepatocyte necrosis. A diagnosis of acute severe hemorrhagic-necrotizing pancreatitis (or acute pancreatic necrosis) associated with pancreatic and hepatic lipidosis was made. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first case report of acute lethal pancreatitis in an Asian palm civet. Although the exact cause of the disease remains undetermined, a hypothesis of the cause and pathogenesis is discussed, pointing out dietary indiscretion and consequent overweight as possible important risk factors.

  9. Fatal hemorrhagic–necrotizing pancreatitis associated with pancreatic and hepatic lipidosis in an obese Asian palm civet (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus

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    Bongiovanni Laura

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Asian palm civets (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus, or toddy cats, belong to the family Viverridae. Little is known about the pathology of these animals and few articles have been published, mainly concerning their important role as wild reservoir hosts for severe infectious diseases of domestic animals and human beings. A 4-year-old, female Asian palm civet was found dead by the owner. At necropsy, large amount of adipose tissue was found in the subcutis and in the peritoneal cavity. Most of the pancreas appeared red, translucent. Hepatomegaly, discoloration of the liver were evident, with multifocal areas of degeneration, characterized by white nodular lesions. Histologically, the pancreas showed severe interstitial and perilobular necrosis and extensive haemorrhages, with separation of the interstitium, mild reactive inflammation at the periphery of the pancreatic lobules. Liver showed multifocal foci of vacuolar degeneration, lipidic accumulation, sometimes associated to hepatocyte necrosis. A diagnosis of acute severe hemorrhagic-necrotizing pancreatitis (or acute pancreatic necrosis associated with pancreatic and hepatic lipidosis was made. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first case report of acute lethal pancreatitis in an Asian palm civet. Although the exact cause of the disease remains undetermined, a hypothesis of the cause and pathogenesis is discussed, pointing out dietary indiscretion and consequent overweight as possible important risk factors.

  10. Peculiarities of One-Carbon Metabolism in the Strict Carnivorous Cat and the Role in Feline Hepatic Lipidosis

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    Marica Bakovic

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Research in various species has indicated that diets deficient in labile methyl groups (methionine, choline, betaine, folate produce fatty liver and links to steatosis and metabolic syndrome, but also provides evidence of the importance of labile methyl group balance to maintain normal liver function. Cats, being obligate carnivores, rely on nutrients in animal tissues and have, due to evolutionary pressure, developed several physiological and metabolic adaptations, including a number of peculiarities in protein and fat metabolism. This has led to specific and unique nutritional requirements. Adult cats require more dietary protein than omnivorous species, maintain a consistently high rate of protein oxidation and gluconeogenesis and are unable to adapt to reduced protein intake. Furthermore, cats have a higher requirement for essential amino acids and essential fatty acids. Hastened use coupled with an inability to conserve certain amino acids, including methionine, cysteine, taurine and arginine, necessitates a higher dietary intake for cats compared to most other species. Cats also seemingly require higher amounts of several B-vitamins compared to other species and are predisposed to depletion during prolonged inappetance. This carnivorous uniqueness makes cats more susceptible to hepatic lipidosis.

  11. Hepatic Fasting-Induced PPARα Activity Does Not Depend on Essential Fatty Acids.

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    Polizzi, Arnaud; Fouché, Edwin; Ducheix, Simon; Lasserre, Frédéric; Marmugi, Alice P; Mselli-Lakhal, Laila; Loiseau, Nicolas; Wahli, Walter; Guillou, Hervé; Montagner, Alexandra

    2016-09-24

    The liver plays a central role in the regulation of fatty acid metabolism, which is highly sensitive to transcriptional responses to nutrients and hormones. Transcription factors involved in this process include nuclear hormone receptors. One such receptor, PPARα, which is highly expressed in the liver and activated by a variety of fatty acids, is a critical regulator of hepatic fatty acid catabolism during fasting. The present study compared the influence of dietary fatty acids and fasting on hepatic PPARα-dependent responses. Pparα(-/-) male mice and their wild-type controls were fed diets containing different fatty acids for 10 weeks prior to being subjected to fasting or normal feeding. In line with the role of PPARα in sensing dietary fatty acids, changes in chronic dietary fat consumption influenced liver damage during fasting. The changes were particularly marked in mice fed diets lacking essential fatty acids. However, fasting, rather than specific dietary fatty acids, induced acute PPARα activity in the liver. Taken together, the data imply that the potent signalling involved in triggering PPARα activity during fasting does not rely on essential fatty acid-derived ligand.

  12. Fasting-induced changes in hepatic thyroid hormone metabolism in male rats are independent of autonomic nervous input to the liver.

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    de Vries, E M; Eggels, L; van Beeren, H C; Ackermans, M T; Kalsbeek, A; Fliers, E; Boelen, A

    2014-12-01

    During fasting, profound changes in the regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis occur in order to save energy and limit catabolism. In this setting, serum T3 and T4 are decreased without an appropriate TSH and TRH response reflecting central down-regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis. Hepatic thyroid hormone (TH) metabolism is also affected by fasting, because type 3 deiodinase (D3) is increased, which is mediated by serum leptin concentrations. A recent study showed that fasting-induced changes in liver TH sulfotransferases (Sults) and uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (Ugts) depend on a functional melanocortin system in the hypothalamus. However, the pathways connecting the hypothalamus and the liver that induce these changes are currently unknown. In the present study, we investigated in rats whether the fasting-induced changes in hepatic TH metabolism are regulated by the autonomic nervous system. We selectively cut either the sympathetic or the parasympathetic input to the liver. Serum and liver TH concentrations, deiodinase expression, and activity and Sult and Ugt expression were measured in rats that had been fasted for 36 hours or were fed ad libitum. Fasting decreased serum T3 and T4 concentrations, whereas intrahepatic TH concentrations remained unchanged. D3 expression and activity increased, as was the expression of constitutive androstane receptor, Sult1b1, and Ugt1a1, whereas liver D1 was unaffected. Neither sympathetic nor parasympathetic denervation affected the fasting-induced alterations. We conclude that fasting-induced changes in liver TH metabolism are not regulated via the hepatic autonomic input in a major way and more likely reflect a direct effect of humoral factors on the hepatocyte.

  13. Regulation of mouse hepatic genes in response to diet induced obesity, insulin resistance and fasting induced weight reduction

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    Mantzoros Christos

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is associated with insulin resistance that can often be improved by caloric restriction and weight reduction. Although many physiological changes accompanying insulin resistance and its treatment have been characterized, the genetic mechanisms linking obesity to insulin resistance are largely unknown. We used DNA microarrys and RT-PCR to investigate significant changes in hepatic gene transcription in insulin resistant, diet-induced obese (DIO-C57/BL/6J mice and DIO-C57/BL/6J mice fasted for 48 hours, whose weights returned to baseline levels during these conditions. Results Transcriptional profiling of hepatic mRNA revealed over 1900 genes that were significantly perturbed between control, DIO, and fasting/weight reduced DIO mice. From this set, our bioinformatics analysis identified 41 genes that rigorously discriminate these groups of mice. These genes are associated with molecular pathways involved in signal transduction, and protein metabolism and secretion. Of particular interest are genes that participate in pathways responsible for modulating insulin sensitivity. DIO altered expression of genes in directions that would be anticipated to antagonize insulin sensitivity, while fasting/ weight reduction partially or completely normalized their levels. Among these discriminatory genes, Sh3kbp1 and RGS3, may have special significance. Sh3kbp1, an endogenous inhibitor of PI-3-kinase, was upregulated by high-fat feeding, but normalized to control levels by fasting/weight reduction. Because insulin signaling occurs partially through PI-3-kinase, increased expression of Sh3kbp1 by DIO mice may contribute to hepatic insulin resistance via inhibition of PI-3-kinase. RGS3, a suppressor of G-protein coupled receptor generation of cAMP, was repressed by high-fat feeding, but partially normalized by fasting/weight reduction. Decreased expression of RGS3 may augment levels of cAMP and thereby contribute to increased, c

  14. Asprosin, a fasting-induced glucogenic protein hormone

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    Hepatic glucose release into the circulation is vital for brain function and survival during periods of fasting and is modulated by an array of hormones that precisely regulate plasma glucose levels. We have identified a fasting-induced protein hormone that modulates hepatic glucose release. It is t...

  15. Asprosin, a Fasting-Induced Glucogenic Protein Hormone.

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    Romere, Chase; Duerrschmid, Clemens; Bournat, Juan; Constable, Petra; Jain, Mahim; Xia, Fan; Saha, Pradip K; Del Solar, Maria; Zhu, Bokai; York, Brian; Sarkar, Poonam; Rendon, David A; Gaber, M Waleed; LeMaire, Scott A; Coselli, Joseph S; Milewicz, Dianna M; Sutton, V Reid; Butte, Nancy F; Moore, David D; Chopra, Atul R

    2016-04-21

    Hepatic glucose release into the circulation is vital for brain function and survival during periods of fasting and is modulated by an array of hormones that precisely regulate plasma glucose levels. We have identified a fasting-induced protein hormone that modulates hepatic glucose release. It is the C-terminal cleavage product of profibrillin, and we name it Asprosin. Asprosin is secreted by white adipose, circulates at nanomolar levels, and is recruited to the liver, where it activates the G protein-cAMP-PKA pathway, resulting in rapid glucose release into the circulation. Humans and mice with insulin resistance show pathologically elevated plasma asprosin, and its loss of function via immunologic or genetic means has a profound glucose- and insulin-lowering effect secondary to reduced hepatic glucose release. Asprosin represents a glucogenic protein hormone, and therapeutically targeting it may be beneficial in type II diabetes and metabolic syndrome.

  16. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibition aggravates fasting-induced triglyceride accumulation in the mouse liver

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    Shin-Ichi Yokota

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although fasting induces hepatic triglyceride (TG accumulation in both rodents and humans, little is known about the underlying mechanism. Because parasympathetic nervous system activity tends to attenuate the secretion of very-low-density-lipoprotein-triglyceride (VLDL-TG and increase TG stores in the liver, and serum cholinesterase activity is elevated in fatty liver disease, the inhibition of the parasympathetic neurotransmitter acetylcholinesterase (AChE may have some influence on hepatic lipid metabolism. To assess the influence of AChE inhibition on lipid metabolism, the effect of physostigmine, an AChE inhibitor, on fasting-induced increase in liver TG was investigated in mice. In comparison with ad libitum-fed mice, 30 h fasting increased liver TG accumulation accompanied by a downregulation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP-1 and liver-fatty acid binding-protein (L-FABP. Physostigmine promoted the 30 h fasting-induced increase in liver TG levels in a dose-dependent manner, accompanied by a significant fall in plasma insulin levels, without a fall in plasma TG. Furthermore, physostigmine significantly attenuated the fasting-induced decrease of both mRNA and protein levels of SREBP-1 and L-FABP, and increased IRS-2 protein levels in the liver. The muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine blocked these effects of physostigmine on liver TG, serum insulin, and hepatic protein levels of SREBP-1 and L-FABP. These results demonstrate that AChE inhibition facilitated fasting-induced TG accumulation with up regulation of the hepatic L-FABP and SREBP-1 in mice, at least in part via the activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Our studies highlight the crucial role of parasympathetic regulation in fasting-induced TG accumulation, and may be an important source of information on the mechanism of hepatic disorders of lipid metabolism.

  17. SIK2 regulates fasting-induced PPARα activity and ketogenesis through p300.

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    Zhang, Zhen-Ning; Gong, Lulu; Lv, Sihan; Li, Jian; Tai, Xiaolu; Cao, Wenqi; Peng, Bing; Qu, Shen; Li, Weida; Zhang, Chao; Luan, Bing

    2016-03-17

    Fatty acid oxidation and subsequent ketogenesis is one of the major mechanisms to maintain hepatic lipid homeostasis under fasting conditions. Fasting hormone glucagon has been shown to stimulate ketone body production through activation of PPARα; however, the signal pathway linking glucagon to PPARα is largely undiscovered. Here we report that a SIK2-p300-PPARα cascade mediates glucagon's effect on ketogenesis. p300 interacts with PPARα through a conserved LXXLL motif and enhances its transcriptional activity. SIK2 disrupts p300-PPARα interaction by direct phosphorylation of p300 at Ser89, which in turn decreases PPARα-mediated ketogenic gene expression. Moreover, SIK2 phosphorylation defective p300 (p300 S89A) shows increased interaction with PPARα and abolishes suppression of SIK2 on PPARα-mediated ketogenic gene expression in liver. Taken together, our results unveil the signal pathway that mediates fasting induced ketogenesis to maintain hepatic lipid homeostasis.

  18. [Amiodaron neuropathy: clinical and pathological study of a new drug induced lipidosis (author's transl)].

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    Dudognon, P; Hauw, J J; de Baecque, C; Derrida, J P; Escourolle, R; Nick, E J

    1979-01-01

    The authors report a case of amiodaron-induced neuropathy in a seventy one years old man. First signs appeared seventeen months after the treatment was started with 400 mg/day for one year and continued with 200 mg/day. Examination on the 29th month disclosed a severe sensory and motor deficit of the limbs with distal predominancy. Motor nerve conduction velocity was strongly impaired without modification of distal latencies. Fundi were normal. The patient improved quickly after drug withdrawal. The authors review the rare similar cases reported in the literature and attempt to describe the clinical caracteristics of amiodaron neuropathy. Qualitative and quantitative light and electron microscopical studies of nerve, muscle and skin biopsies, including teased fibers preparations were performed and they disclosed a marked reduction of the number of myelinated fibers. Wallerian degeneration predominated (31 p. 100) other segmental demyalination (25 p. 100). Numerous polymorphous lipid-laden lysosomes were present in Schwann cells, fibrocytes, pericytes, endothelial and muscle cells. These previously undescribed morphological findings are similar to those present in perhexiline maleate intoxications. We believe amiodaron neuropathy is a new neuropathy with drug-induced lipidosis.

  19. Hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930140 Hepatocyte stimulator peptide and itsclinical significance in viral hepatitis.ZHOUWeiping(周卫平),et al.Instit Viral Hepatitis,Chongqing Med Univ,630010.Chin J InternMed 1992;31(10):626-628.Hepatocyte stimulator peptide(HSP)is anewly developed hepatic stimulator substance.Its monoclonal antibodies have been obtained inour laboratory.In this study,HSP was deter-mined in the sera of 315 subjects including pa-

  20. Hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    2010349 Relationships between serum hepatitis B virus load in mothers,free maternal DNA in peripheral blood of newborns and hepatitis B virus infection of newborns. WEI Junni(魏俊妮),et al. Dept Epidemiol,Shanxi Med Univ,Taiyuan 030001. Chin J Infect Dis 2010;28(5):297-300. Objective To study the relationships between serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA level

  1. Lipidosis hepática asociada con malnutrición y preñez en dos perras

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    En algunos países latinoamericanos se observó que la ascites ocurre en diferentes momentos post parto en perras alimentadas con dietas hipoproteicas. El objetivo de este articulo fue describir 2 casos de perras con ascitis asociada a lipidosis hepática desarrollada después del parto. Las muestras de sangre evidenciaron anormarmalidades compatibles con enfermedad hepática. La paracentesis abdominal reveló un trasudado aséptico y la ultrasonografía hiperecogenicidad hepática. Se arribó al diagn...

  2. Hemimegalencephaly: foetal tauopathy with mTOR hyperactivation and neuronal lipidosis.

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    Sarnat, Harvey; Flores-Sarnat, Laura; Crino, Peter; Hader, Walter; Bello-Espinosa, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Hemimegalencephaly (HME) is a hamartomatous malformation of one cerebral hemisphere. As this is a disorder of cellular growth and lineage, we sought evidence of an early ontogenetic disturbance of microtubular assembly or function. Three male infants with HME had brain resections for refractory epilepsy. One died postoperatively at 2.5 months and an autopsy was performed. Two were isolated cases and one has Proteus syndrome. The phosphorylated form of the microtubule-associated protein tau was studied, transmission electron microscopy (EM) was performed, and activation of the mTOR pathway was defined. The hippocampus and neocortex of HME exhibited cytoarchitectural abnormalities and intense tau immunoreactivity. The post-mortem non-HME hemisphere exhibited sparse dysmorphic tau-reactive cortical neurones, intense only in the cingulate gyrus, a few isolated dysmorphic white matter neurons and none in subcortical structures. Numerous enlarged and dysmorphic cells exhibited P-4E-BP1 and phosphoribosomal P-S6 immunoreactivity, indicating mTOR activation. Control brains were negative for tau expression and mTOR activation. EM in each case showed abundant lipid in neurones and astrocytic end-feet on capillaries, and well-preserved mitochondria; oil red O in frozen sections and semi-thin sections also showed lipid storage by light microscopy. Because HME tissue exhibited enhanced levels of phosphorylated tau protein and evidence of mTOR hyperactivation, we propose that the pathogenesis of HME may involve an early defect in microtubules, likely related to the AKT3 gene. Lipidosis of neurones and glia suggests metabolic impairment of yet undetermined type and relation to tauopathy in HME. Perinatal treatment of HME with everolimus theoretically is plausible.

  3. Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... inflammation of the liver.” This inflammation can be caused by a wide variety of toxins, drugs, and metabolic diseases, as well as infection. There are at least 5 hepatitis viruses. Hepatitis A is contracted when a child eats food or drinks water that is contaminated with the virus or has ...

  4. Hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    970349 Primary structure and variability of partialsequences in nonstructural gene 5 region of hepatitis Gvirus, CHANG Jinhong(常锦红), et al. Hepatol Instis,People’s Hosp, Beijing Med Univ, Beijing, 100044. NatlMed J China 1997; 77(3): 178-182. Objective: To sequence partial genome of hepatitis G

  5. Hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    2009209 Effects of chronic hepatitis B virus infection on human hepatic cytochrome P450 2C9.ZHO Fuping(周福平),et al.Dept Infect Dis,Shanghai Changzheng Hosp,Shanghai 200003.Chin J Infect Dis,2009;27(2):94-98.

  6. Hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    920691 The determination of serum hepa-titis B virus DNA by polymerase chain rea-ction in hepatitis B patients treated withalpha-interferon. XU. Jianye(徐建业), et al.Centr Lab, Chongqing Cancer Instit, 630030.Chin J Intern Med, 1992; 31(5): 278-280. To clarify the status of HBV in serum of

  7. Molecular etiology of atherogenesis--in vitro induction of lipidosis in macrophages with a new LDL model.

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    Luis M B B Estronca

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis starts by lipid accumulation in the arterial intima and progresses into a chronic vascular inflammatory disease. A major atherogenic process is the formation of lipid-loaded macrophages in which a breakdown of the endolysomal pathway results in irreversible accumulation of cargo in the late endocytic compartments with a phenotype similar to several forms of lipidosis. Macrophages exposed to oxidized LDL exihibit this phenomenon in vitro and manifest an impaired degradation of internalized lipids and enhanced inflammatory stimulation. Identification of the specific chemical component(s causing this phenotype has been elusive because of the chemical complexity of oxidized LDL. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Lipid "core aldehydes" are formed in oxidized LDL and exist in atherosclerotic plaques. These aldehydes are slowly oxidized in situ and (much faster by intracellular aldehyde oxidizing systems to cholesteryl hemiesters. We show that a single cholesteryl hemiester incorporated into native, non-oxidized LDL induces a lipidosis phenotype with subsequent cell death in macrophages. Internalization of the cholesteryl hemiester via the native LDL vehicle induced lipid accumulation in a time- and concentration-dependent manner in "frozen" endolysosomes. Quantitative shotgun lipidomics analysis showed that internalized lipid in cholesteryl hemiester-intoxicated cells remained largely unprocessed in those lipid-rich organelles. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The principle elucidated with the present cholesteryl hemiester-containing native-LDL model, extended to other molecular components of oxidized LDL, will help in defining the molecular etiology and etiological hierarchy of atherogenic agents.

  8. Molecular Etiology of Atherogenesis – In Vitro Induction of Lipidosis in Macrophages with a New LDL Model

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    Estronca, Luis M. B. B.; Silva, Joao C. P.; Sampaio, Julio L.; Shevchenko, Andrej; Verkade, Paul; Vaz, Alfin D. N.; Vaz, Winchil L. C.; Vieira, Otilia V.

    2012-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis starts by lipid accumulation in the arterial intima and progresses into a chronic vascular inflammatory disease. A major atherogenic process is the formation of lipid-loaded macrophages in which a breakdown of the endolysomal pathway results in irreversible accumulation of cargo in the late endocytic compartments with a phenotype similar to several forms of lipidosis. Macrophages exposed to oxidized LDL exihibit this phenomenon in vitro and manifest an impaired degradation of internalized lipids and enhanced inflammatory stimulation. Identification of the specific chemical component(s) causing this phenotype has been elusive because of the chemical complexity of oxidized LDL. Methodology/Principal Findings Lipid “core aldehydes" are formed in oxidized LDL and exist in atherosclerotic plaques. These aldehydes are slowly oxidized in situ and (much faster) by intracellular aldehyde oxidizing systems to cholesteryl hemiesters. We show that a single cholesteryl hemiester incorporated into native, non-oxidized LDL induces a lipidosis phenotype with subsequent cell death in macrophages. Internalization of the cholesteryl hemiester via the native LDL vehicle induced lipid accumulation in a time- and concentration-dependent manner in “frozen" endolysosomes. Quantitative shotgun lipidomics analysis showed that internalized lipid in cholesteryl hemiester-intoxicated cells remained largely unprocessed in those lipid-rich organelles. Conclusions/Significance The principle elucidated with the present cholesteryl hemiester-containing native-LDL model, extended to other molecular components of oxidized LDL, will help in defining the molecular etiology and etiological hierarchy of atherogenic agents. PMID:22514671

  9. Hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    2005226 Characteristics of peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets in hepatitis B patients. FAN Zhen-ping(范振平),et al. Center Bio Ther, Instit Infect Dis, 302 Hosp Chin PLA, Beijing 100039. World Chin J Digestol, 2005;13(2): 194-197. Objective: To characterize the T-lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood of patients with acute and chronic hepatitis B, and to explore their relations with the disease state. Methods: Peripheral blood

  10. Hepatic capillariasis in captive ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zordan, Martin; Tirado, Marcela; López, Claudia

    2012-06-01

    A female ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) and her two cubs held in a zoo in Chile exhibited signs of severe hepatic insufficiency. In spite of supportive treatment, the three animals died a few days after the onset of signs. Postmortem examination revealed ascites and fibrotic lesions in the liver of all the individuals. Histologically, the liver of two of them showed a severe parasitic ova infection and lipidosis, the morphologic characteristics of the parasitic ovas were consistent with Capillaria hepatica (syn. Calodium hepatica) eggs. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first clinical case report of hepatic capillariasis in prosimians, and its implications are discussed.

  11. Hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008312 Impact of hepatitis B virus infection on the activity of hematopoietic stem cell.SHI Yanmei(石雁梅),et al.Dept Infect Dis,1st Clin Coll,Harbin Med Univ,Harbin 150001.Chin J Infect Dis 2008;26(4):197-201.Objective To study the impact of hepatitis B virus (HBV)infection on the activity of cord hematopoieticstem cells.Methods CD34+cells were isolated from healthy human cord blood by mini MACS.Cells were

  12. Hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008449 A cross-sectional survey of occult hepatitis B virus infection in HIV-infected patients. MA Jianxin(马建新), et al.Dept Infect Dis, Shanghai Public Health Clin Center, Shanghai 201508. Chin J Intern Med 2008;47(7):574-577. Objective To assess the prevalence of occult HBV infection in HIV-infected patients.

  13. Hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008079 Relationship of HBV genotype and bcp and pc mutations with HBV DNA rebound after lamivudine therapy. SU Minghua(苏明华), et al. Dept Infect Dis Clin Hosp, Guangxi Med Univ, Nanning 530027. World Chin J Digestol 2007;15(33):3507-3513. Objective To investigate the relationship of HBV gene mutations with HBV DNA rebound after lamivudine therapy. Methods Twenty-seven hepatitis B patients with HBV DNA rebound after

  14. Basis of aggravated hepatic lipid metabolism by chronic stress in high-fat diet-fed rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ying; Lin, Min; Wang, Xiaobin; Guo, Keke; Wang, Shanshan; Sun, Mengfei; Wang, Jiao; Han, Xiaoyu; Fu, Ting; Hu, Yang; Fu, Jihua

    2015-03-01

    Our previous study has demonstrated that long-term stress, known as chronic stress (CS), can aggravate nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed rat. In this study, we tried to figure out which lipid metabolic pathways were impacted by CS in the HFD-fed rat. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (6 weeks of age, n = 8 per group) were fed with either standard diet or HFD with or without CS exposure for 8 weeks. Hepatic lipidosis, biochemical, hormonal, and lipid profile markers in serum and liver, and enzymes involved in de novo lipogenesis (DNL) of fatty acids (FAs) and cholesterol, β-oxidation, FAs uptake, triglycerides synthesis, and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) assembly in the liver were detected. CS exposure reduced hepatic lipidosis but further elevated hepatic VLDL content with aggravated dyslipidemia in the HFD-fed rats. There was a synergism between CS and HFD on VLDL production and dyslipidemia. PCR and western blot assays showed that CS exposure significantly promoted hepatic VLDL assembly in rats, especially in the HFD-fed rats, while it had little impact on DNL, β-oxidation, FAs uptake, and triglycerides synthesis in the HFD-fed rats. This phenomenon was in accordance with elevated serum glucocorticoid level. The critical influence of CS exposure on hepatic lipid metabolism in the HFD-fed rats is VLDL assembly which might be regulated by glucocorticoid.

  15. mTORC1 controls fasting-induced ketogenesis and its modulation by ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Shomit; Peterson, Timothy R; Laplante, Mathieu; Oh, Stephanie; Sabatini, David M

    2010-12-23

    The multi-component mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) kinase is the central node of a mammalian pathway that coordinates cell growth with the availability of nutrients, energy and growth factors. Progress has been made in the identification of mTORC1 pathway components and in understanding their functions in cells, but there is relatively little known about the role of the pathway in vivo. Specifically, we have little knowledge regarding the role mTOCR1 has in liver physiology. In fasted animals, the liver performs numerous functions that maintain whole-body homeostasis, including the production of ketone bodies for peripheral tissues to use as energy sources. Here we show that mTORC1 controls ketogenesis in mice in response to fasting. We find that liver-specific loss of TSC1 (tuberous sclerosis 1), an mTORC1 inhibitor, leads to a fasting-resistant increase in liver size, and to a pronounced defect in ketone body production and ketogenic gene expression on fasting. The loss of raptor (regulatory associated protein of mTOR, complex 1) an essential mTORC1 component, has the opposite effects. In addition, we find that the inhibition of mTORC1 is required for the fasting-induced activation of PPARα (peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α), the master transcriptional activator of ketogenic genes, and that suppression of NCoR1 (nuclear receptor co-repressor 1), a co-repressor of PPARα, reactivates ketogenesis in cells and livers with hyperactive mTORC1 signalling. Like livers with activated mTORC1, livers from aged mice have a defect in ketogenesis, which correlates with an increase in mTORC1 signalling. Moreover, we show that the suppressive effects of mTORC1 activation and ageing on PPARα activity and ketone production are not additive, and that mTORC1 inhibition is sufficient to prevent the ageing-induced defect in ketogenesis. Thus, our findings reveal that mTORC1 is a key regulator of PPARα function and hepatic ketogenesis and suggest a

  16. Fasting-induced adipose factor/angiopoietin-like protein 4: a potential target for dyslipidemia?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandbergen, F.J.; Dijk, van S.; Müller, M.R.; Kersten, A.H.

    2006-01-01

    Recently, several proteins with homology to angiopoietins have been discovered. Three members of this new group, designated angiopoietin-like proteins (ANGPTLs), have been linked to regulation of energy metabolism. This review will focus on the fasting-induced adipose factor (FIAF)/ANGPTL4 as an

  17. Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Follow Us Home Health Information Liver Disease Hepatitis (Viral) Hepatitis C Related Topics English English Español Section Navigation Hepatitis (Viral) What Is Viral Hepatitis? Hepatitis A Hepatitis B ...

  18. Evaluation of hepatic steatosis in dogs with congenital portosystemic shunts using Oil Red O staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, G B; Luff, J A; Daniel, L; Van den Bergh, R

    2013-11-01

    The aims of this prospective study were to quantify steatosis in dogs with congenital portosystemic shunts (CPS) using a fat-specific stain, to compare the amount of steatosis in different lobes of the liver, and to evaluate intra- and interobserver variability in lipid point counting. Computer-assisted point counting of lipid droplets was undertaken following Oil Red O staining in 21 dogs with congenital portosystemic shunts and 9 control dogs. Dogs with congenital portosystemic shunts had significantly more small lipid droplets (dogs (P = .0013 and .0002, respectively). There was no significant difference in steatosis between liver lobes for either control dogs and CPS dogs. Significant differences were seen between observers for the number of large lipid droplets (>9 μ) and lipogranulomas per tissue point (P = .023 and .01, respectively). In conclusion, computer-assisted counting of lipid droplets following Oil Red O staining of liver biopsy samples allows objective measurement and detection of significant differences between dogs with CPS and normal dogs. This method will allow future evaluation of the relationship between different presentations of CPS (anatomy, age, breed) and lipidosis, as well as the impact of hepatic lipidosis on outcomes following surgical shunt attenuation.

  19. A fasting inducible switch modulates gluconeogenesis via activator/coactivator exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yi; Dentin, Renaud; Chen, Danica

    2008-01-01

    During early fasting, increases in skeletal muscle proteolysis liberate free amino acids for hepatic gluconeogenesis in response to pancreatic glucagon. Hepatic glucose output diminishes during the late protein-sparing phase of fasting, when ketone body production by the liver supplies compensato...

  20. Exercise attenuates the fasting-induced transcriptional activation of metabolic genes in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, A L; Neufer, P D

    2000-06-01

    Fasting elicits a progressive increase in lipid metabolism within skeletal muscle. To determine the effects of fasting on the transcriptional regulation of genes important for metabolic control in skeletal muscle composed of different fiber types, nuclei from control and fasted (24 and 72 h) rats were subjected to nuclear run-on analysis using an RT-PCR-based technique. Fasting increased (P < 0.05) transcription rate of the muscle-specific uncoupling protein-3 gene (UCP3) 14.3- to 21.1-fold in white gastrocnemius (WG; fast-twitch glycolytic) and 5.5- to 7.5-fold in red gastrocnemius (RG; fast-twitch oxidative) and plantaris (PL; mixed) muscles. No change occurred in soleus (slow-twitch oxidative) muscle. Fasting also increased transcription rate of the lipoprotein lipase (LPL), muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I), and long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCAD) genes 1.7- to 3.7-fold in WG, RG, and PL muscles. Transcription rate responses were similar after 24 and 72 h of fasting. Surprisingly, increasing metabolic demand during the initial 8 h of starvation (two 2-h bouts of treadmill running) attenuated the 24-h fasting-induced transcriptional activation of UCP3, LPL, CPT I, and LCAD in RG and PL muscles, suggesting the presence of opposing regulatory mechanisms. These data demonstrate that fasting elicits a fiber type-specific coordinate increase in the transcription rate of several genes involved in and/or required for lipid metabolism and indicate that exercise may attenuate the fasting-induced transcriptional activation of specific metabolic genes.

  1. Muscle interleukin-6 and fasting-induced PDH regulation in mouse skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiksen, Anders; Bertholdt, Laerke; Vingborg, Mikkel Birkkjaer; Hansen, Henriette Watson; Ringholm, Stine; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2017-03-01

    Fasting prompts a metabolic shift in substrate utilization from carbohydrate to predominant fat oxidation in skeletal muscle, and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) is seen as a controlling link between the competitive oxidation of carbohydrate and fat during metabolic challenges like fasting. Interleukin (IL)-6 has been proposed to be released from muscle with concomitant effects on both glucose and fat utilization. The aim was to test the hypothesis that muscle IL-6 has a regulatory impact on fasting-induced suppression of skeletal muscle PDH. Skeletal muscle-specific IL-6 knockout (IL-6 MKO) mice and floxed littermate controls (control) were either fed or fasted for 6 or 18 h. Lack of muscle IL-6 elevated the respiratory exchange ratio in the fed and early fasting state, but not with prolonged fasting. Activity of PDH in the active form (PDHa) was higher in fed and fasted IL-6 MKO than in control mice at 18 h, but not at 6 h, whereas lack of muscle IL-6 did not prevent downregulation of PDHa activity in skeletal muscle or changes in plasma and muscle substrate levels in response to 18 h of fasting. Phosphorylation of three of four sites on PDH-E1α increased with 18 h of fasting, but was lower in IL-6 MKO mice than in control. In addition, both PDK4 mRNA and protein increased with 6 and 18 h of fasting in both genotypes, but PDK4 protein was lower in IL-6 MKO than in control. In conclusion, skeletal muscle IL-6 seems to regulate whole body substrate utilization in the fed, but not fasted, state and influence skeletal muscle PDHa activity in a circadian manner. However, skeletal muscle IL-6 is not required for maintaining metabolic flexibility in response to fasting. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Reduced fasting-induced activation of hypothalamic arcuate neurons is associated with hyperleptinemia and increased leptin sensitivity in obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becskei, Csilla; Lutz, Thomas A; Riediger, Thomas

    2010-08-01

    Fasting increases c-Fos expression in neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurons of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) in lean, but not in hyperleptinemic mice with late-onset obesity (LOO). Although obesity is associated with leptin resistance, we hypothesized that under fasting conditions, leptin sensitivity might be restored and that hyperleptinemia may counteract the neuronal response to fasting. We investigated whether the reduced fasting response of ARC neurons in LOO is paralleled by an increase in leptin sensitivity, as measured by leptin-induced STAT-3 phosphorylation. To assess leptin's role in the modulation of the fasting-induced ARC activation, we investigated c-Fos responses and hormone and metabolite levels in hyperleptinemic diet-induced obese (DIO) and in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice. Leptin induced a stronger STAT-3 phosphorylation in fasted LOO and lean mice than in ad libitum-fed animals. Similar to LOO, hyperleptinemic DIO mice showed no c-Fos response after fasting, while ob/ob mice showed a stronger response than lean control mice. Mimicking hyperleptinemia by repeated leptin injections in lean mice during fasting attenuated the fasting-induced c-Fos expression. Our findings indicate that high leptin levels prevent the fasting-induced activation of ARC neurons in mice. Moreover, leptin sensitivity is dynamic in obese subjects and depends on the feeding status. During short-term increases in leptin sensitivity, e.g., during fasting, leptin signaling appears to be effective, even in hyperleptinemic obesity. As reflected by the blockade of the fasting-induced ARC activation, fasting seems to interfere with the responsiveness of the ARC to signals related to the status of energy intake.

  3. The microRNA machinery regulates fasting-induced changes in gene expression and longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogure, Akiko; Uno, Masaharu; Ikeda, Takako; Nishida, Eisuke

    2017-07-07

    Intermittent fasting (IF) is a dietary restriction regimen that extends the lifespans of Caenorhabditis elegans and mammals by inducing changes in gene expression. However, how IF induces these changes and promotes longevity remains unclear. One proposed mechanism involves gene regulation by microRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding RNAs (∼22 nucleotides) that repress gene expression and whose expression can be altered by fasting. To test this proposition, we examined the role of the miRNA machinery in fasting-induced transcriptional changes and longevity in C. elegans We revealed that fasting up-regulated the expression of the miRNA-induced silencing complex (miRISC) components, including Argonaute and GW182, and the miRNA-processing enzyme DRSH-1 (the ortholog of the Drosophila Drosha enzyme). Our lifespan measurements demonstrated that IF-induced longevity was suppressed by knock-out or knockdown of miRISC components and was completely inhibited by drsh-1 ablation. Remarkably, drsh-1 ablation inhibited the fasting-induced changes in the expression of the target genes of DAF-16, the insulin/IGF-1 signaling effector in C. elegans Fasting-induced transcriptome alterations were substantially and modestly suppressed in the drsh-1 null mutant and the null mutant of ain-1, a gene encoding GW182, respectively. Moreover, miRNA array analyses revealed that the expression levels of numerous miRNAs changed after 2 days of fasting. These results indicate that components of the miRNA machinery, especially the miRNA-processing enzyme DRSH-1, play an important role in mediating IF-induced longevity via the regulation of fasting-induced changes in gene expression. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. SIK2 regulates fasting-induced PPARα activity and ketogenesis through p300

    OpenAIRE

    Zhen-Ning Zhang; Lulu Gong; Sihan Lv; Jian Li; Xiaolu Tai; Wenqi Cao; Bing Peng; Shen Qu; Weida Li; Chao Zhang; Bing Luan

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acid oxidation and subsequent ketogenesis is one of the major mechanisms to maintain hepatic lipid homeostasis under fasting conditions. Fasting hormone glucagon has been shown to stimulate ketone body production through activation of PPARα; however, the signal pathway linking glucagon to PPARα is largely undiscovered. Here we report that a SIK2-p300-PPARα cascade mediates glucagon’s effect on ketogenesis. p300 interacts with PPARα through a conserved LXXLL motif and enhances its transc...

  5. UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase Expression in Mouse Liver Is Increased in Obesity- and Fasting-Induced Steatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jialin; Kulkarni, Supriya R.; Li, Liya

    2012-01-01

    UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (Ugt) catalyze phase II conjugation reactions with glucuronic acid, which enhances chemical polarity and the elimination from the body. Few studies have addressed whether Ugt expression and activity are affected by liver disease, such as steatosis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether steatosis induced by obesity or fasting could affect liver Ugt mRNA expression and activity. Male C57BL/6J and Lepob/ob (ob/ob) mice were fed ad libitum or food was withheld for 24 h. In steatotic livers of ob/ob mice, Ugt1a1, -1a6, -1a9, -2a3, -3a1, and -3a2 mRNA expression increased. Fasting, which also induced steatosis, increased hepatic Ugt1a1, -1a6, -1a7, -1a9, -2b1, -2b5, -2a3, -3a1, and -3a2 mRNA expression in mouse liver. Likewise, acetaminophen glucuronidation increased by 47% in hepatic microsomes from ob/ob mice compared with that in C57BL/6J mice, but not after fasting. In both steatosis models, Ugt induction was accompanied by increased aryl hydrocarbon receptor, constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α, pregnane X receptor, nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α mRNA expression. In addition, fasting increased CAR, PPAR, and Nrf2 binding activity. The work points to hepatic triglyceride concentrations corresponding with nuclear receptor and Ugt expression. The findings indicate that steatosis significantly alters hepatic Ugt expression and activity, which could have a significant impact on determining circulating hormone levels, drug efficacy, and environmental chemical clearance. PMID:22031624

  6. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase expression in mouse liver is increased in obesity- and fasting-induced steatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jialin; Kulkarni, Supriya R; Li, Liya; Slitt, Angela L

    2012-02-01

    UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (Ugt) catalyze phase II conjugation reactions with glucuronic acid, which enhances chemical polarity and the elimination from the body. Few studies have addressed whether Ugt expression and activity are affected by liver disease, such as steatosis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether steatosis induced by obesity or fasting could affect liver Ugt mRNA expression and activity. Male C57BL/6J and Lep(ob/ob) (ob/ob) mice were fed ad libitum or food was withheld for 24 h. In steatotic livers of ob/ob mice, Ugt1a1, -1a6, -1a9, -2a3, -3a1, and -3a2 mRNA expression increased. Fasting, which also induced steatosis, increased hepatic Ugt1a1, -1a6, -1a7, -1a9, -2b1, -2b5, -2a3, -3a1, and -3a2 mRNA expression in mouse liver. Likewise, acetaminophen glucuronidation increased by 47% in hepatic microsomes from ob/ob mice compared with that in C57BL/6J mice, but not after fasting. In both steatosis models, Ugt induction was accompanied by increased aryl hydrocarbon receptor, constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α, pregnane X receptor, nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α mRNA expression. In addition, fasting increased CAR, PPAR, and Nrf2 binding activity. The work points to hepatic triglyceride concentrations corresponding with nuclear receptor and Ugt expression. The findings indicate that steatosis significantly alters hepatic Ugt expression and activity, which could have a significant impact on determining circulating hormone levels, drug efficacy, and environmental chemical clearance.

  7. Hepatitis A FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Policy and Programs Resource Center Viral Hepatitis Hepatitis A Questions and Answers for the Public Recommend on ... Hepatitis C. What is the difference between Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C? Hepatitis A , Hepatitis ...

  8. Hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care, food, or sewage industry Other common hepatitis virus infections include hepatitis B and hepatitis C. Hepatitis A is the least serious and mildest of these diseases. Symptoms ... most often show up 2 to 6 weeks after being exposed to the hepatitis A virus. They are most often mild, but may last ...

  9. Keap1-knockdown decreases fasting-induced fatty liver via altered lipid metabolism and decreased fatty acid mobilization from adipose tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialin Xu

    Full Text Available AIMS: The purpose of this study was to determine whether Nrf2 activation, via Keap1-knockdown (Keap1-KD, regulates lipid metabolism and mobilization induced by food deprivation (e.g. fasting. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male C57BL/6 (WT and Keap1-KD mice were either fed ad libitum or food deprived for 24 hours. After fasting, WT mice exhibited a marked increase in hepatic lipid accumulation, but Keap1-KD mice had an attenuated increase of lipid accumulation, along with reduced expression of lipogenic genes (acetyl-coA carboxylase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, and fatty acid synthase and reduced expression of genes related to fatty acid transport, such as fatty acid translocase/CD36 (CD36 and Fatty acid transport protein (FATP 2, which may attribute to the reduced induction of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (Ppar α signaling in the liver. Additionally, enhanced Nrf2 activity by Keap1-KD increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK phosphorylation in liver. In white adipose tissue, enhanced Nrf2 activity did not change the lipolysis rate by fasting, but reduced expression of fatty acid transporters--CD36 and FATP1, via a PPARα-dependent mechanism, which impaired fatty acid transport from white adipose tissue to periphery circulation system, and resulted in increased white adipose tissue fatty acid content. Moreover, enhanced Nrf2 activity increased glucose tolerance and Akt phosphorylation levels upon insulin administration, suggesting Nrf2 signaling pathway plays a key role in regulating insulin signaling and enhanced insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle. CONCLUSION: Enhanced Nrf2 activity via Keap1-KD decreased fasting-induced steatosis, pointing to an important function of Nrf2 on lipid metabolism under the condition of nutrient deprivation.

  10. Hepatitis E

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sheets Fact files Questions & answers Features Multimedia Contacts Hepatitis E Fact sheet Updated July 2016 Key facts ... et al. Lancet 2012;380:2095-2128. World Hepatitis Day Know hepatitis - Act now Event notice Key ...

  11. Fasting induces basolateral uptake transporters of the SLC family in the liver via HNF4alpha and PGC1alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Christoph G; Martin, Ina V; Porn, Anne C; Voigt, Sebastian; Gartung, Carsten; Trautwein, Christian; Geier, Andreas

    2007-09-01

    Fasting induces numerous adaptive changes in metabolism by several central signaling pathways, the most important represented by the HNF4alpha/PGC-1alpha-pathway. Because HNF4alpha has been identified as central regulator of basolateral bile acid transporters and a previous study reports increased basolateral bile acid uptake into the liver during fasting, we hypothesized that HNF4alpha is involved in fasting-induced bile acid uptake via upregulation of basolateral bile acid transporters. In rats, mRNA of Ntcp, Oatp1, and Oatp2 were significantly increased after 48 h of fasting. Protein expression as determined by Western blot showed significant increases for all three transporters 72 h after the onset of fasting. Whereas binding activity of HNF1alpha in electrophoretic mobility shift assays remained unchanged, HNF4alpha binding activity to the Ntcp promoter was increased significantly. In line with this result, we found significantly increased mRNA expression of HNF4alpha and PGC-1alpha. Functional studies in HepG2 cells revealed an increased endogenous NTCP mRNA expression upon cotransfection with either HNF4alpha, PGC-1alpha, or a combination of both. We conclude that upregulation of the basolateral bile acid transporters Ntcp, Oatp1, and Oatp2 in fasted rats is mediated via the HNF4alpha/PGC-1alpha pathway.

  12. Hepatitis C and Incarceration

    Science.gov (United States)

    HEPATITIS C & INCARCERATION What is hepatitis? “Hepatitis” means inflammation or swelling of the liver. The liver is an important ... viral hepatitis: Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C. They are all different from each other and ...

  13. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of terms Donate Today Enroll in 123 What is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy or PSE, is a condition that causes temporary worsening of brain ...

  14. Hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis A, is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). The disease spreads through contact with ... washed in untreated water Putting into your mouth a finger or object that came into contact with ...

  15. Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... information on hepatitis, both in the context of HIV coinfection and as a separate illness. NATAP provides coverage of key conferences, maintains a selection of hepatitis articles, and features an ask-the-expert forum on ...

  16. Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... personal items (such as toothbrush, razor, and nail clippers) with a person who has the virus Were ... B virus Digestive system Aggressive hepatitis Gianotti-Crosti syndrome on the leg Hepatitis B References Kim DK, ...

  17. Changes in Leptin Signaling by SOCS3 Modulate Fasting-Induced Hyperphagia and Weight Regain in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroso, João A B; Silveira, Marina A; Lima, Leandro B; Furigo, Isadora C; Zampieri, Thais T; Ramos-Lobo, Angela M; Buonfiglio, Daniella C; Teixeira, Pryscila D S; Frazão, Renata; Donato, Jose

    2016-10-01

    Weight regain frequently follows interventions that reduce body weight, leading to a failure in long-term obesity treatment. Inhibitory proteins of the leptin signaling pathway, such as the suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), have been studied in conditions that predispose animals to obesity. However, whether SOCS3 modulates postrestriction hyperphagia and weight regain remains unknown. Mice lacking SOCS3 protein specifically in leptin receptor (LepR)-expressing cells (LepR SOCS3 knockout [KO]) were generated and studied in fasting and refeeding conditions. LepR SOCS3 KO mice exhibited increased leptin sensitivity in the hypothalamus. Notably, LepR SOCS3 KO males and females showed attenuated food intake and weight regain after 48 hours of fasting. Postrestriction hyperleptinemia was also prevented in LepR SOCS3 KO mice. Next, we studied possible mechanisms and neural circuits involved in the SOCS3 effects. SOCS3 deletion did not prevent fasting- or refeeding-induced c-Fos expression in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH) nor fasting-induced increased excitability of ARH LepR-expressing cells. On the other hand, SOCS3 ablation reduced the mRNA levels of hypothalamic orexigenic neuropeptides during fasting (neuropeptide Y, agouti-related protein, orexin, and melanin-concentrating hormone). In summary, our findings suggest that increased leptin sensitivity contributes to the maintenance of a reduced body weight after food deprivation. In addition, the attenuated postrestriction food intake observed in mutant mice was not explained by fasting-induced changes in the activity of ARH neurons but exclusively by a lower transcription of orexigenic neuropeptides during fasting. These results indicate a partial dissociation between the regulation of neuronal activity and gene expression in ARH LepR-expressing cells.

  18. Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis C, is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). It usually spreads through contact with ... childbirth. Most people who are infected with hepatitis C don't have any symptoms for years. If ...

  19. Hypoksisk hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amadid, Hanan; Schiødt, Frank Vinholt

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxic hepatitis (HH), also known as ischaemic hepatitis or shock liver, is an acute liver injury caused by hepatic hypoxia. Cardiac failure, respiratory failure and septic shock are the main underlying conditions. In each of these conditions, several haemodynamic mechanisms lead to hepatic...... hypoxia. A shock state is observed in only 50% of cases. Thus, shock liver and ischaemic hepatitis are misnomers. HH can be a diagnostic pitfall but the diagnosis can be established when three criteria are met. Prognosis is poor and prompt identification and treatment of the underlying conditions...

  20. Hepatitis A through E (Viral Hepatitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition Clinical Trials Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Wilson Disease Hepatitis (Viral) View or Print All Sections What is Viral Hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is an infection that causes liver inflammation ...

  1. The Fasting-induced Adipose Factor/Angiopoietin-like Protein 4 Is Physically Associated with Lipoproteins and Governs Plasma Lipid Levels and Adiposity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandard, S.J.; Zandbergen, F.J.; Straten, van E.; Wahli, W.; Kuipers, F.; Müller, M.R.; Kersten, A.H.

    2006-01-01

    Proteins secreted from adipose tissue are increasingly recognized to play an important role in the regulation of glucose metabolism. However, much less is known about their effect on lipid metabolism. The fasting-induced adipose factor (FIAF/angiopoietin-like protein 4/peroxisome

  2. The fasting-induced adipose factor/angiopoietin-like protein 4 is physically associated with lipoproteins and governs plasma lipid levels and adiposity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandard, S; Zandbergen, F; van Straten, E; Wahli, W; Kuipers, F; Muller, M; Kersten, S

    2006-01-01

    Proteins secreted from adipose tissue are increasingly recognized to play an important role in the regulation of glucose metabolism. However, muchless is known about their effect on lipid metabolism. The fasting-induced adipose factor (FIAF/angiopoietin-like protein 4/peroxisome

  3. [Autoimmune hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostojić, Rajko

    2003-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis is an unresolving, hepatocellular inflammation of unknown cause that is characterized by the presence of periportal hepatitis on histologic examination, tissue autoantibodies in serum, and hypergammaglobulinemia. By international consensus, the designation autoimmune hepatitis has replaced alternative terms for the condition. Three types of autoimmune hepatitis have been proposed based on immunoserologic findings. Type 1 autoimmune hepatitis is characterized by the presence of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) or smooth muscle antibodies (SMA) (or both) in serum. Seventy percent of patients with type 1 of autoimmune hepatitis are women. This type is the most common form and accounts for at least 80% of cases. Type 2 is characterized by the presence of antibodies to liver-kidney microsome type 1 (anti-LKM1) in serum. Patients with this type of autoimmune hepatitis are predominantly children. Type 3 autoimmune hepatitis is characterized by the presence of antibodies to soluble liver antigen (anti-SLA) in serum. There are no individual features that are pathognomonic of autoimmune hepatitis, and its diagnosis requires the confident exclusion of other conditions. The large majority of patients show satisfactory response to corticosteroid (usually prednisone or prednisolone) therapy. For the past 30 years it has been customary to add azathioprine as a "steroid sparing" agent to allow lower doses of steroids to be used and remission, once achieved, can be sustained in many patients with azathioprine alone after steroid withdrawal. Patients with autoimmune hepatitis who have decompensated during or after corticosteroid therapy are candidates for liver transplantation.

  4. Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and hepatitis C infections during pregnancy? • How is hepatitis B virus infection spread? • What is acute hepatitis B virus infection? • What is chronic hepatitis B virus infection? • Can ...

  5. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone Past Issues / Spring 2009 Table ... from all walks of life are affected by hepatitis, especially hepatitis C, the most common form of ...

  6. Hepatitis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of three viruses: the hepatitis A virus the hepatitis B virus the hepatitis C virus In some rare cases, ... also called serum hepatitis) is caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). HBV can cause a wide range of ...

  7. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3 - Hepatitis B Chapter 3 - Hepatitis E Hepatitis C Deborah Holtzman INFECTIOUS AGENT Hepatitis C virus (HCV), ... to child. Map 3-05. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection 1 PDF Version (printable) 1 Disease ...

  8. Hepatitis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Hepatitis KidsHealth > For Parents > Hepatitis Print A A A ... to Call the Doctor en español Hepatitis About Hepatitis The word hepatitis simply means an inflammation of ...

  9. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapter 3 - Hepatitis A Chapter 3 - Hepatitis C Hepatitis B Francisco Averhoff INFECTIOUS AGENT Hepatitis B is ... their exposures. Map 3-04. Prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus infection among adults PDF Version (printable) ...

  10. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapter 3 - Hepatitis B Chapter 3 - Hepatitis E Hepatitis C Deborah Holtzman INFECTIOUS AGENT Hepatitis C virus ( ... human blood Map 3-05. Global epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection 1 PDF Version (printable) 1 ...

  11. Fasting induced kisspeptin signaling suppression is regulated by glutamate mediated cues in adult male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamas, Shazia; Khan, Saeed-Ul-Hassan; Khan, Muhammad Yousaf; Shabbir, Nadia; Zubair, Hira; Shafqat, Saira; Wahab, Fazal; Shahab, Muhammad

    2015-08-01

    Kisspeptin signaling is suppressed by short term fasting. It has been reported that hypothalamic Kiss1 and Kiss1r mRNA expression decreased after 48h of fasting in male rhesus monkey. But the mechanism involved in the reduction of kisspeptin signaling after 48h of fasting is unknown. Recent studies have suggested the role of afferent excitatory and inhibitory pathways in the regulation of kisspeptin neurons. Therefore, this study was designed to observe the changes in the glutamate and GABA signaling during fed and 48h fasting states by performing immunofluorescence to examine the interaction of kisspeptin neurons with NR1 subunit of NMDA receptors and by performing SYBR green qRT-PCR to measure and quantify the levels of Kiss1, Kiss1r, NR1 and GAD67 mRNA in the POA and MBH of adult male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) during 48h of fasting (n=2) and fed ad libitum (n=2). Plasma testosterone (pfasting. Our results clearly showed that expression of hypothalamic Kiss1, Kiss1r and NR1 mRNA was significantly (pfasting. These observations suggest that decreased kisspeptin signaling during fasting may occur due to reduction in glutamatergic inputs to kisspeptin neurons. Our results also suggest that fasting induced suppression of kisspeptin signaling is not mediated through GABAergic neurons.

  12. Fasting induces CART down-regulation in the zebrafish nervous system in a cannabinoid receptor 1-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Shin-Ichi; Gibert, Yann; Berekelya, Liubov; Bernard, Laure; Brunet, Frédéric; Guillot, Etienne; Le Bail, Jean-Christophe; Sánchez, Juan Antonio; Galzin, Anne Marie; Triqueneaux, Gerard; Laudet, Vincent

    2012-08-01

    Central and peripheral mechanisms modulate food intake and energy balance in mammals and the precise role of the type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1) in these processes is still being explored. Using the zebrafish, Danio rerio, we show that rimonabant, a CB1-specific antagonist with an EC(50) of 5.15 × 10(-8) m, decreases embryonic yolk sac reserve use. We reveal a developmental overlap between CART genes and CB1 expression in the hypothalamus and medulla oblongata, two brain structures that play crucial roles in appetite regulation in mammals. We show that morpholino knockdown of CB1 or fasting decreases cocaine- and amphetamine-related transcript (CART)-3 expression. Strikingly, this down-regulation occurs only in regions coexpressing CB1 and CART3, reinforcing the link between CB1, CART, and appetite regulation. We show that rimonabant treatment impairs the fasting-induced down-regulation of CART expression in specific brain regions, whereas vehicle alone-treated embryos do not display this rescue of CART expression. Our data reveal that CB1 lies upstream of CART and signals the appetite through the down-regulation of CART expression. Thus, our results establish the zebrafish as a promising system to study appetite regulation.

  13. Hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... inflammation of the liver.” This inflammation can be caused by a wide variety of toxins, drugs, and metabolic diseases, as well as infection. There are at least 5 hepatitis viruses. Hepatitis A is contracted when a child eats food or drinks water that is contaminated with the virus or has ...

  14. Y2 receptor signalling in NPY neurons controls bone formation and fasting induced feeding but not spontaneous feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yue; Fu, Melissa; Herzog, Herbert

    2016-02-01

    Y2 receptors have been implicated in the development of obesity and are a potential target for obesity treatment due to their known role of inhibiting neuropeptide Y (NPY) induced feeding responses. However, the precise neuronal population on which Y2 receptors act to fulfil this role is less clear. Here we utilise a novel inducible, postnatal onset NPY neurons specific deletion model to investigate the functional consequences of loss of Y2 signalling in this population of neurons on feeding and energy homeostasis regulation. While the consequences of lack of Y2 signalling in NPY neurons are confirmed in terms of the uncoupling of suppression/increasing of NPY and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA expression in the arcuate nuclei (Arc), respectively, this lack of Y2 signalling surprisingly does not have any significant effect on spontaneous food intake. Fasting induced food intake, however, is strongly increased but only in the first 1h after re-feeding. Consequently no significant changes in body weight are being observed although body weight gain is increased in male mice after postnatal onset Y2 deletion. Importantly, another known function of central Y2 receptor signalling, the suppression of bone formation is conserved in this conditional model with whole body bone mineral content being decreased. Taken together this model confirms the critical role of Y2 signalling to control NPY and associated POMC expression in the Arc, but also highlights the possibility that others, non-NPY neuronal Y2 receptors, are also involved in controlling feeding and energy homeostasis regulation.

  15. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Symptoms to look for Caregiver Support Caregiver Stories Home › What is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Why Your Liver is ... questions about HE, one step at a time. Home About Us Ways to Give Contact Us Privacy ...

  16. Hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hepatitis A is more common in parts of Africa, Asia, Central and South America, and Eastern Europe ... la salud en español Health Statistics Healthy Moments Radio Broadcast Clinical Trials For Health Professionals Diabetes Discoveries & ...

  17. Autoimmune hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneghan, Michael A; Yeoman, Andrew D; Verma, Sumita; Smith, Alastair D; Longhi, Maria Serena

    2013-10-26

    Autoimmune hepatitis is a disease of the hepatic parenchyma that can present in acute or chronic forms. In common with many autoimmune diseases, autoimmune hepatitis is associated with non-organ-specific antibodies in the context of hepatic autoimmunity. This dichotomy has made definition of a unifying hypothesis in the pathophysiology of the disease difficult, although data from the past 8 years have drawn attention to the role of regulatory T cells. Several triggers have been identified, and the disease arises in genetically susceptible individuals. Clinical and biochemical remission is achievable in up to 85% of cases. For the remaining patients, alternative immunosuppression strategies are an option. Liver transplantation provides an excellent outcome for patients with acute liver failure or complications of end-stage liver disease, including hepatocellular carcinoma. Variant or overlapping syndromes are worthy of consideration when unexpected disease features arise.

  18. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Get Worse? How is HE Diagnosed? Prior to Treatment Who treats HE? Preparing for your Medical Appointment Hepatic Encephalopathy Treatment Options Treatment Basics Treatment Medications Importance of Adhering ...

  19. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is a condition that causes temporary worsening of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When ... travel through your body until they reach your brain, causing mental and physical symptoms of HE. Hepatic ...

  20. Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... using an infected person’s razor, toothbrush, or nail clippers You can’t get hepatitis B from being ... personal items such as toothbrushes, razors, or nail clippers using a latex or polyurethane condom during sex ...

  1. Hepatic ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or oxygen, causing injury to liver cells. Causes Low blood pressure from any condition can lead to hepatic ischemia. ... leading to reduced blood flow (vasculitis) Symptoms If low blood pressure continues for a long time, you may feel ...

  2. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Get Worse? How is HE Diagnosed? Prior to Treatment Who treats HE? Preparing for your Medical Appointment Hepatic Encephalopathy Treatment Options Treatment Basics Treatment Medications Importance of Adhering ...

  3. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the Stages of Hepatic Encephalopathy? What Triggers or Can Cause HE to Get Worse? How is HE ... liver disease. When your liver is damaged it can no longer remove toxic substances from your blood. ...

  4. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Treatment Who treats HE? Preparing for your Medical Appointment Hepatic Encephalopathy Treatment Options Treatment Basics Treatment ... treatment. Being a fully-informed participant in your medical care is an important factor in staying as ...

  5. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is a condition that causes temporary worsening of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When ... travel through your body until they reach your brain, causing mental and physical symptoms of HE. Hepatic ...

  6. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hepatic Encephalopathy so you can tell your doctor right away if you think you may have it. ... American Liver Foundation © 2017 American Liver Foundation. All rights reserved. Funding for the HE123 - Diagnosis, Treatment and ...

  7. Hepatitis autoinmune.

    OpenAIRE

    LOJA OROPEZA, David; VILCA VASQUEZ, Maricela; AVILES GONZAGA, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Three patients with autoinmune hepatitis type 1 diagnosed at the Hospital Nacional Arzobispo Loayza in Lima-Perú, between 1993 and 1995, are here reported, emphasis is made on the clinical, histological and therapeutical aspects.

  8. Hepatitis B Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... worldwide 2 Billion People have been infected with Hepatitis B Worldwide The Hepatitis B Foundation is working on ... of people living with hepatitis B. Learn About Hepatitis B in 11 Other Languages . Resource Video See More ...

  9. Hepatitis A Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Hepatitis A Testing Share this page: Was this page ... HAV-Ab total; Anti-HAV Formal name: Viral Hepatitis A Antibody Related tests: Hepatitis B Testing ; Hepatitis ...

  10. Hepatitis Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Requirements for Viral Hepatitis Liver Cancer and Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis and Young Persons Who Inject Drugs National Academies’ ... Sources for IG & HBIG About the Division of Viral Hepatitis Contact Us Anonymous Feedback File Formats Help: How ...

  11. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3 - Helminths, Soil-Transmitted Chapter 3 - Hepatitis B Hepatitis A Noele P. Nelson, Trudy V. Murphy INFECTIOUS ... hepatitis/HAV Table 3-02. Vaccines to prevent hepatitis A VACCINE TRADE NAME (MANUFACTURER) AGE (Y) DOSE ...

  12. Delta agent (Hepatitis D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatitis D virus ... Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is found only in people who carry the hepatitis B virus. HDV may make liver ... B virus but who never had symptoms. Hepatitis D infects about 15 million people worldwide. It occurs ...

  13. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis Hepatitis: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention Past Issues / Spring 2009 ... No appetite Fever Headaches Diagnosis To check for hepatitis viruses, your doctor will test your blood. You ...

  14. Hepatitis C: Diet and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Hepatitis » Daily Living: Diet and Nutrition Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... have high cholesterol and have fatty liver. How hepatitis C affects diet If you have hepatitis, you ...

  15. Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Our Accomplishments Annual Reports Our Videos What Is Hepatitis B? What Is Hepatitis B? The ABCs of Viral Hepatitis Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B Hepatitis Delta Coinfection Hepatitis C Coinfection HIV/AIDS ...

  16. Autoimmune hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Motamed

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune hepatitis is (AIH is a chronic hepatitis that occurs in children and adults of all ages. It is characterized by immunologic and autoimmune features, including circulating auto antibodies and high serum globulin concentrations. It was first described in the 1950s by term of chronic active hepatitis. It has 2 types with different auto antibodies. Diagnosis is based upon serologic and histologic findings and exclusion of other forms of chronic liver disease.   A scoring system should be used in assessment based upon: 1 Auto anti bodie titer 2 Serum IgG level  3 Liver histology 4 Absence of viral and other causes of hepatitis. Clear indications for treatment: 1   rise of aminotrasferases 2   clinical symptoms of liver disease 3   histological features in liver biopsy 4   Children with AIH initial treatment involve glucocorticoid with or without azathioprine. For patients with fulminant hepatitis liver transplantation, should be kept in mind.   Remission is defined by: 1   Resolution of symptoms 2   Normalization of serum trasaminases 3   Normalization of serum bilirubin and gamma globuline levels. 4   Improvement in liver histology 5   Treatment is continued for at least 2-5 years, glucocorticoids are with drawn first, by tapering over six weeks. Azathioprine will be with drawn.  

  17. [Chronic hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa Barrios, R

    1995-01-01

    Medical literature about chronic hepatitis is reviewed. This unresolving disease caused by viruses, drugs or unknown factors may progress to in cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma. A classification based on liver biopsy histology into chronic persistent and chronic active types has been largely abandoned and emphasis is placed on recognizing the etiology of the various types. One is associated with continuing hepatitis B virus infection; another is related to chronic hepatitis C virus infection and the third is termed autoinmune, because of the association with positive serum autoantibodies. A fourth type with similar clinical functional and morphologic features is found with some drug reactions. Long term corticoesteroid therapy is usually successful in autoinmune type. Associations between antibodies to liver-kidney microsomes and the hepatitis C virus can cause diagnostic difficulties. Antiviral treatment of chronic hepatitis B and C with interpheron alfa is employed, controlling symptoms and abnormal biochemistry and the progression to cirrhosis and liver cancer in 30 to 40% patients. Alternative therapies or combinations with interpheron are being evaluated waiting for final results.

  18. Fasting Induces Nuclear Factor E2-Related Factor 2 and ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters via Protein Kinase A and Sirtuin-1 in Mouse and Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Supriya R.; Donepudi, Ajay C.; Xu, Jialin; Wei, Wei; Cheng, Qiuqiong C.; Driscoll, Maureen V.; Johnson, Delinda A.; Johnson, Jeffrey A.; Li, Xiaoling

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine whether 3′-5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-protein kinase A (PKA) and Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) dependent mechanisms modulate ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) transport protein expression. ABC transport proteins (ABCC2–4) are essential for chemical elimination from hepatocytes and biliary excretion. Nuclear factor-E2 related-factor 2 (NRF2) is a transcription factor that mediates ABCC induction in response to chemical inducers and liver injury. However, a role for NRF2 in the regulation of transporter expression in nonchemical models of liver perturbation is largely undescribed. Results: Here we show that fasting increased NRF2 target gene expression through NRF2- and SIRT1–dependent mechanisms. In intact mouse liver, fasting induces NRF2 target gene expression by at least 1.5 to 5-fold. In mouse and human hepatocytes, treatment with 8-Bromoadenosine-cAMP, a cAMP analogue, increased NRF2 target gene expression and antioxidant response element activity, which was decreased by the PKA inhibitor, H-89. Moreover, fasting induced NRF2 target gene expression was decreased in liver and hepatocytes of SIRT1 liver-specific null mice and NRF2-null mice. Lastly, NRF2 and SIRT1 were recruited to MAREs and Antioxidant Response Elements (AREs) in the human ABCC2 promoter. Innovation: Oxidative stress mediated NRF2 activation is well described, yet the influence of basic metabolic processes on NRF2 activation is just emerging. Conclusion: The current data point toward a novel role of nutrient status in regulation of NRF2 activity and the antioxidant response, and indicates that cAMP/PKA and SIRT1 are upstream regulators for fasting-induced activation of the NRF2-ARE pathway. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 15–30. PMID:23725046

  19. Autoimmune hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassburg, Christian P

    2010-10-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the liver with a dismal prognosis when left untreated. Key for the improvement of prognosis is a timely diagnosis before cirrhosis has developed. This is reached by the exclusion of other causes of hepatitis, elevated immunoglobulin G, autoantibody profile and histological assessment. Treatment achieves remission rates in 80% of individuals and consists of immunosuppression with corticosteroids and azathioprine. A recent randomised controlled multicenter trial has added budesonide to the effective treatment options in non-cirrhotic patients and leads to a reduction of unwanted steroid side effects. Autoimmune hepatitis is an autoimmune disease of unknown aetiology. Association studies of major histocompatibility complex and other genes demonstrate an influence of immunogenetics. However, apart from the autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1, in which 10% of patients suffer from an autoantibody-positive autoimmune hepatitis linked to mutations of the autoimmune regulator gene, there is no clear evidence for a hereditary aetiology of this disease. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hepatitis A vaccine associated with autoimmune hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PA Berry; G Smith-Laing

    2007-01-01

    To describe a case of probable relapsing autoimmune hepatitis associated with vaccination against hepatitis A virus (HAV). A case report and review of literature were written concerning autoimmune hepatitis in association with hepatitis A and other hepatotropic viruses. Soon after the administration of formalin-inactivated hepatitis A vaccine, a man who had recently recovered from an uncharacterized but self-limiting hepatitic illness,experienced a severe deterioration (AST 1687 U/L, INR 1.4). Anti-nuclear antibodies were detectable, and liver biopsy was compatible with autoimmune hepatitis. The observation supports the role of HAV as a trigger of autoimmune hepatitis. Studies in helper T-cell activity and antibody expression against hepatic proteins in the context of hepatitis A infection are summarized, and the concept of molecular mimicry with regard to other forms of viral hepatitis and autoimmunity is briefly explored.

  1. Hepatic amebiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Salles

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Amebiasis can be considered the most aggressive disease of the human intestine, responsible in its invasive form for clinical syndromes, ranging from the classic dysentery of acute colitis to extra-intestinal disease, with emphasis on hepatic amebiasis, unsuitably named amebic liver abscess. Found worldwide, with a high incidence in India, tropical regions of Africa, Mexico and other areas of Central America, it has been frequently reported in Amazonia. The trophozoite reaches the liver through the portal system, provoking enzymatic focal necrosis of hepatocytes and multiple micro-abscesses that coalesce to develop a single lesion whose central cavity contains a homogeneous thick liquid, with typically reddish brown and yellow color similar to "anchovy paste". Right upper quadrant pain, fever and hepatomegaly are the predominant symptoms of hepatic amebiasis. Jaundice is reported in cases with multiple lesions or a very large abscess, and it affects the prognosis adversely. Besides chest radiography, ultrasonography and computerized tomography have brought remarkable contributions to the diagnosis of hepatic abscesses. The conclusive diagnosis is made however by the finding of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites in the pus and by the detection of serum antibodies to the amoeba. During the evolution of hepatic amebiasis, in spite of the availability of highly effective drugs, some important complications may occur with regularity and are a result of local perforation with extension into the pleural and pericardium cavities, causing pulmonary abscesses and purulent pericarditis, respectively The ruptures into the abdominal cavity may lead to subphrenic abscesses and peritonitis. The treatment of hepatic amebiasis is made by medical therapy, with metronidazole as the initial drug, followed by a luminal amebicide. In patients with large abscesses, showing signs of imminent rupture, and especially those who do not respond to medical treatment, a

  2. Hepatic Fatty Acid Oxidation Restrains Systemic Catabolism during Starvation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieun Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The liver is critical for maintaining systemic energy balance during starvation. To understand the role of hepatic fatty acid β-oxidation on this process, we generated mice with a liver-specific knockout of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 (Cpt2L−/−, an obligate step in mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid β-oxidation. Fasting induced hepatic steatosis and serum dyslipidemia with an absence of circulating ketones, while blood glucose remained normal. Systemic energy homeostasis was largely maintained in fasting Cpt2L−/− mice by adaptations in hepatic and systemic oxidative gene expression mediated in part by Pparα target genes including procatabolic hepatokines Fgf21, Gdf15, and Igfbp1. Feeding a ketogenic diet to Cpt2L−/− mice resulted in severe hepatomegaly, liver damage, and death with a complete absence of adipose triglyceride stores. These data show that hepatic fatty acid oxidation is not required for survival during acute food deprivation but essential for constraining adipocyte lipolysis and regulating systemic catabolism when glucose is limiting.

  3. Hepatic autoregulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staehr, Peter; Hother-Nielsen, Ole; Beck-Nielsen, Henning

    2007-01-01

    The effect of increased glycogenolysis, simulated by galactose's conversion to glucose, on the contribution of gluconeogenesis (GNG) to hepatic glucose production (GP) was determined. The conversion of galactose to glucose is by the same pathway as glycogen's conversion to glucose, i.e., glucose 1......-phosphate --> glucose 6-phosphate --> glucose. Healthy men (n = 7) were fasted for 44 h. At 40 h, hepatic glycogen stores were depleted. GNG then contributed approximately 90% to a GP of approximately 8 micromol.kg(-1).min(-1). Galactose, 9 g/h, was infused over the next 4 h. The contribution of GNG to GP...... declined from approximately 90% to 65%, i.e., by approximately 2 micromol.kg(-1).min(-1). The rate of galactose conversion to blood glucose, measured by labeling the infused galactose with [1-(2)H]galactose (n = 4), was also approximately 2 micromol.kg(-1).min(-1). The 41st h GP rose by approximately 1...

  4. Hepatitis C Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Hepatitis C Testing Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Hepatitis C Antibody; Anti-HCV; HCV-PCR; HCV-RNA; Hepatitis ...

  5. HIV and Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections and Coinfections HIV and Hepatitis B (Last updated 8/31/2016; last reviewed ... should be treated for both diseases. What is hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a liver disease caused ...

  6. Drug-induced hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxic hepatitis ... to get liver damage. Some drugs can cause hepatitis with small doses, even if the liver breakdown ... liver. Many different drugs can cause drug-induced hepatitis. Painkillers and fever reducers that contain acetaminophen are ...

  7. HIV and Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections and Coinfections HIV and Hepatitis C (Last updated 8/31/2016; last reviewed ... the medicines for any side effects. What is hepatitis C? Hepatitis C is a liver disease caused ...

  8. Hepatitis B Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... helpful? Also known as: HBV Tests; Hep B; anti-HBs; Hepatitis B Surface Antibody; HBsAg; Hepatitis B Surface ... including "HBV carrier" state. Hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) Detects antibody produced in response to HBV surface ...

  9. Preventing hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatitis A is inflammation (irritation and swelling) of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus. You can take several steps to ... reduce your risk of spreading or catching the hepatitis A virus: Always wash your hands thoroughly after ...

  10. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis E

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapter 3 - Hepatitis C Chapter 3 - Histoplasmosis Hepatitis E Chong-Gee Teo INFECTIOUS AGENT Infection is caused ... for infection. Map 3-06. Distribution of hepatitis E virus infection 1 PDF Version (printable) 1 Disease ...

  11. Hepatitis B virus (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatitis B is also known as serum hepatitis and is spread through blood and sexual contact. It is ... population. This photograph is an electronmicroscopic image of hepatitis B virus particles. (Image courtesy of the Centers for ...

  12. Hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharara, A I; Hunt, C M; Hamilton, J D

    1996-10-15

    To review the virology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, natural history, clinical manifestations, and current treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The MEDLINE database (1966 to 1996) was searched for English-language articles and abstracts on HCV and non-A, non-B hepatitis. Papers cited in relevant primary articles were also reviewed. More than 500 original and review articles were evaluated, and the most relevant were selected. Data were extracted and reviewed by all authors. In most patients, HCV infection results in chronic hepatitis. The disease is insidious and subclinical but may progress over decades into end-stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma, which makes HCV cirrhosis a leading indication for orthotopic liver transplantation. Current diagnostic methods are highly sensitive and specific, and quantitative assessment of viral load may help to predict and monitor response to treatment. The only available therapeutic option is interferon, and this agent is effective in only a small subset of patients. Infection with HCV is a significant public health problem that has important clinical and financial consequences. The tailoring of specific therapy according to viral load or genotype, better patient selection, and use of combination drug regimens may improve the chance of viral clearance and sustained biochemical and histologic response. Further understanding of the basic virology of HCV and the exact mechanisms of viral persistence and tissue injury is needed to help define future therapeutic and preventive strategies.

  13. [Hepatitis E].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotto, Gaetano; Bulla, Fabio; Campanale, Francesca; Tartaglia, Alessandra; Fazio, Vincenzina

    2013-09-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) represents the main aetiological agent of enteric non-A hepatitis and is the only member of a new virus, Hepevirus, belonging to the family of Hepeviridae. HEV is the single most important cause of acute clinical hepatitis among adults in many areas of the developing world, specifically the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, where it is a common cause of sporadic and epidemic waterborne outbreaks and results in a high rate of morbidity and death, especially in pregnant women. Once thought of as an infection confined to developing countries, it is now recognized as a geographically widely distributed disease. In low-endemic regions (Western countries), sporadic cases of locally-acquired HEV infection are reported, acquired possibly through zoonotic transmission from pigs, wild boars or deer. In persons with pre-existing chronic liver disease, HEV superinfection can present as acute-on-chronic liver disease. In European countries, chronic infection, which may progress to liver cirrhosis, has been reported among immunosuppressed persons. Two testing vaccines proved to be highly effective in preventing the disease; these vaccines should be of particular use in groups that are at high risk of HEV infection.

  14. Hepatic SIRT1 attenuates hepatic steatosis and controls energy balance in mice by inducing fibroblast growth factor 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Wong, Kimberly; Giles, Amber; Jiang, Jianwei; Lee, Jong Woo; Adams, Andrew C; Kharitonenkov, Alexei; Yang, Qin; Gao, Bin; Guarente, Leonard; Zang, Mengwei

    2014-02-01

    The hepatocyte-derived hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a hormone-like regulator of metabolism. The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylase SIRT1 regulates fatty acid metabolism through multiple nutrient sensors. Hepatic overexpression of SIRT1 reduces steatosis and glucose intolerance in obese mice. We investigated mechanisms by which SIRT1 controls hepatic steatosis in mice. Liver-specific SIRT1 knockout (SIRT1 LKO) mice and their wild-type littermates (controls) were divided into groups that were placed on a normal chow diet, fasted for 24 hours, or fasted for 24 hours and then fed for 6 hours. Liver tissues were collected and analyzed by histologic examination, gene expression profiling, and real-time polymerase chain reaction assays. Human HepG2 cells were incubated with pharmacologic activators of SIRT1 (resveratrol or SRT1720) and mitochondrion oxidation consumption rate and immunoblot analyses were performed. FGF21 was overexpressed in SIRT1 LKO mice using an adenoviral vector. Energy expenditure was assessed by indirect calorimetry. Prolonged fasting induced lipid deposition in livers of control mice, but severe hepatic steatosis in SIRT1 LKO mice. Gene expression analysis showed that fasting up-regulated FGF21 in livers of control mice but not in SIRT1 LKO mice. Decreased hepatic and circulating levels of FGF21 in fasted SIRT1 LKO mice were associated with reduced hepatic expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis, and increased expression of genes that control lipogenesis, compared with fasted control mice. Resveratrol or SRT1720 each increased the transcriptional activity of the FGF21 promoter (-2070/+117) and levels of FGF21 messenger RNA and protein in HepG2 cells. Surprisingly, SIRT1 LKO mice developed late-onset obesity with impaired whole-body energy expenditure. Hepatic overexpression of FGF21 in SIRT1 LKO mice increased the expression of genes that regulate fatty acid oxidation, decreased

  15. Hepatitis Information for the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Requirements for Viral Hepatitis Liver Cancer and Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis and Young Persons Who Inject Drugs National ... Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir What is Viral Hepatitis? The word "hepatitis" means inflammation of the liver . ...

  16. Hepatitis B Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a combination product containing Haemophilus influenzae type b, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis, Hepatitis B, Polio Vaccine)

  17. Prolonged acute hepatitis A mimicking autoimmune hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rintaro Mikata; Osamu Yokosuka; Fumio Imazeki; Kenichi Fukai; Tatsuo Kanda; Hiromitsu Saisho

    2005-01-01

    AIM: We report a case with a prolonged course of hepatitisA, with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) higher than 500 IU/Lfor more than 2 mo.METHODS: A middle-aged woman had an elevated IgG level of more than 2 000 mg/dL, positive arti-nudear antibodies (ANA) and anti-smooth muscle antibodies (ASMA), but no evidence of persistent hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection. Liver biopsy findings were compatible with prolonged acute hepatitis, although acute onset of autoimmune hepatitis could not be ruled out.RESULTS: It was assumed that she developed a course of hepatitis similar to autoimmune hepatitis triggered by HAV infection. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) treatment was initiated and a favorable outcome was obtained. CONCLUSION: We describe a case of a middle-aged woman who showed a prolonged course of acute hepatitis A mimicking autoimmune hepatitis. Treatment with UDCAproved to be effective.

  18. Apple Polyphenols Decrease Atherosclerosis and Hepatic Steatosis in ApoE−/− Mice through the ROS/MAPK/NF-κB Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe-Rong Xu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined the effects of apple polyphenols (APs on hyperlipidemia, atherosclerosis, hepatic steatosis and endothelial function and investigated the potential mechanisms. ApoE−/− mice were fed a western-type diet and orally treated with APs (100 mg/kg or atorvastatin (10 mg/kg for 12 weeks. Hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis in the aortic sinuses and, and hepatic lipidosis were measured. The treatment with APs or atorvastatin induced a remarkable reduction in the atherosclerotic lesions and hepatic steatosis and decreased the levels of low-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, CCL-2 and VCAM-1 levels in the plasma. Conversely, the APs significantly increased the plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol and markedly up-regulated the glutathione peroxidase (GPx, catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD levels in liver tissues. Moreover, the APs treatment modulated lipid metabolism by up-regulating the transcription of associated hepatic genes including PPARα, while down-regulating the transcription of SCAP and its downstream genes associated with lipid synthesis in the liver. Histological assessment showed that the APs treatment also reduced the macrophage infiltration in the aortic root plaque and the inflammatory cells infiltrations to the liver tissues. Moreover, we confirmed that the APs treatment greatly reduced the ox-LDL-induced endothelial dysfunction and monocyte adhesion to rat aortic endothelial cells (RAECs. Mechanistically, the APs treatment suppressed the ROS/MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway, and consequently, reduced CCL-2, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression. Our results suggest that the APs are a beneficial nutritional supplement for the attenuation of atherosclerosis.

  19. L-carnitine ameliorated fasting-induced fatigue, hunger, and metabolic abnormalities in patients with metabolic syndrome: a randomized controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jun-Jie; Wu, Zhi-bing; Cai, You-jin; Ke, Bin; Huang, Ying-juan; Qiu, Chao-ping; Yang, Yu-bing; Shi, Lan-Ying; QIN, JIAN

    2014-01-01

    Background The present study aimed to determine that whether L-carnitine infusion could ameliorate fasting-induced adverse effects and improve outcomes. Method In this 7-day, randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot study, 15 metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients (11/4 F/M; age 46.9 ± 9.14 years; body mass index [BMI] 28.2 ± 1.8 kg/m2) were in the L-carnitine group (LC) and 15 (10/5 F/M; age 46.8 ± 10.9 years; BMI 27.1 ± 2.3 kg/m2) were in the control group (CT). All participants unde...

  20. The terminology of hepatitis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    It is proposed that the diseases formerly known as “infectious hepatitis” and “serum hepatitis” be referred to as viral hepatitis type A and viral hepatitis type B, respectively. It is further recommended that the “Australia” antigen be referred to as hepatitis B antigen (HB Ag) and the corresponding antibody as hepatitis B antibody (HB Ab). PMID:4544683

  1. Hepatitis A and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C . Hepatitis A and HIV Hepatitis A is preventable with a vaccine, and ... Notice Network blog.aids.gov • locator.aids.gov • HIV/AIDS Service Locator Locator Widgets • Instructions • API Find ...

  2. Hepatitis B (HBV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Hepatitis B (HBV) KidsHealth > For Teens > Hepatitis B (HBV) Print A A A What's in this ... poisons). There are several different types of hepatitis . Hepatitis B is a type that can move from one ...

  3. Hepatitis B (HBV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Hepatitis B (HBV) KidsHealth > For Teens > Hepatitis B (HBV) A A A What's in this article? ... poisons). There are several different types of hepatitis . Hepatitis B is a type that can move from one ...

  4. Diabetes and Hepatitis B Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes and Hepatitis B Vaccination Information for Diabetes Educators What is hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a contagious liver disease that results from infection with the hepatitis B virus. When first infected, a person can develop ...

  5. Microbiological diagnostics of viral hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    HASDEMİR, Ufuk

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is an infection that primarily affects the liverbut may also have systemic clinical manifestations. The vastmajority of viral hepatitis are caused by one of five hepatotropicviruses: hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV),hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D (delta) virus (HDV), andhepatitis E virus (HEV) (Table I) [1]. HBV, HCV, and HDValso cause chronic hepatitis, whereas HAV does not. HEVcauses acute hepatitis in normal hosts but can cause protractedand chronic he...

  6. Microbiological diagnostics of viral hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    HASDEMİR, Ufuk

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is an infection that primarily affects the liverbut may also have systemic clinical manifestations. The vastmajority of viral hepatitis are caused by one of five hepatotropicviruses: hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV),hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D (delta) virus (HDV), andhepatitis E virus (HEV) (Table I) [1]. HBV, HCV, and HDValso cause chronic hepatitis, whereas HAV does not. HEVcauses acute hepatitis in normal hosts but can cause protractedand chronic he...

  7. Hepatitis C FAQs for the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Requirements for Viral Hepatitis Liver Cancer and Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis and Young Persons Who Inject Drugs National ... Hepatitis Contact Us Anonymous Feedback Quick Links to Hepatitis … A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home Statistics & ...

  8. Hepatitis B Foundation Newsletter: B Informed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Our Accomplishments Annual Reports Our Videos What Is Hepatitis B? What Is Hepatitis B? The ABCs of Viral Hepatitis Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B Hepatitis Delta Coinfection Hepatitis C Coinfection HIV/AIDS ...

  9. Hepatitis B - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care provider will perform blood tests called the hepatitis viral panel . These tests can help diagnose: A new ... 07, 2016. Jensen MK, William F, Balistreri WF. Viral hepatitis. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St Geme JW ...

  10. Hepatitis Foundation International

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... million people globally. admin / 03/17/2015 Viral Hepatitis An estimated 4.4 million Americans from all ... Events section below. EVENTS FULL CALENDAR Loading… VIRAL HEPATITIS DISPARITIES HARD TO REACH, HARD TO TREAT™ AFRICAN ...

  11. Hepatitis B Vaccination Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Hepatitis B Vaccination Protection Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a pathogenic microorganism that can cause potentially life- threatening disease in humans. HBV infection is transmitted through exposure ...

  12. Hepatitis C (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatitis C is a virus-caused liver inflammation which may cause jaundice, fever and cirrhosis. Persons who are most at risk for contracting and spreading hepatitis C are those who share needles for injecting drugs ...

  13. Hepatitis virus panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003558.htm Hepatitis virus panel To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used ...

  14. Hepatitis C and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B . Hepatitis C and HIV About 25% of people living with HIV in ... Notice Network blog.aids.gov • locator.aids.gov • HIV/AIDS Service Locator Locator Widgets • Instructions • API Find ...

  15. Hepatitis B and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hepatitis A and Hepatitis C . Hepatitis B and HIV About 10% of people living with HIV in ... Notice Network blog.aids.gov • locator.aids.gov • HIV/AIDS Service Locator Locator Widgets • Instructions • API Find ...

  16. What Is Hepatitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... عربي 中文 English Français Русский Español What is hepatitis? Online Q&A Reviewed July 2016 Q: What ... Question and answer archives Submit a question World Hepatitis Day Know hepatitis - Act now Event notice Key ...

  17. Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1- to 2-Year-Old Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel Print A A A What's in ... Is The hepatic function panel, also known as liver function tests, is a group of seven tests ...

  18. VIRAL HEPATITIS E DIAGNOSTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yu. Malinnikova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The results of clinical and epidemiological studies conducted in the M.P. Chumakov’ Research Institute of Poliomyelitis and Viral Encephalitis and in the different research institutions of the world have been summarized in the current article. Data on etiology, pathogenesis, clinical symptoms, epidemiology and prevention of hepatitis E are presented. Increasing of significance of this infection for health care system in Russia is emphasized . The actual problems of hepatitis E (autochthonic hepatitis E, hepatitis E as zoonosis, chronic hepatitis E are discussed.

  19. Pathogenesis of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Ciećko-Michalska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic encephalopathy can be a serious complication of acute liver failure and chronic liver diseases, predominantly liver cirrhosis. Hyperammonemia plays the most important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. The brain-blood barrier disturbances, changes in neurotransmission, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, GABA-ergic or benzodiazepine pathway abnormalities, manganese neurotoxicity, brain energetic disturbances, and brain blood flow abnormalities are considered to be involved in the development of hepatic encephalopathy. The influence of small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO on the induction of minimal hepatic encephalopathy is recently emphasized. The aim of this paper is to present the current views on the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy.

  20. Autophagy in Hepatic Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic fibrosis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Hepatic fibrosis is usually associated with chronic liver diseases caused by infection, drugs, metabolic disorders, or autoimmune imbalances. Effective clinical therapies are still lacking. Autophagy is a cellular process that degrades damaged organelles or protein aggregation, which participates in many pathological processes including liver diseases. Autophagy participates in hepatic fibrosis by activating hepatic stellate cells and may participate as well through influencing other fibrogenic cells. Besides that, autophagy can induce some liver diseases to develop while it may play a protective role in hepatocellular abnormal aggregates related liver diseases and reduces fibrosis. With a better understanding of the potential effects of autophagy on hepatic fibrosis, targeting autophagy might be a novel therapeutic strategy for hepatic fibrosis in the near future.

  1. Hepatitis isquémica Ischemic hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Amuchástegui (h

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available La hepatitis isquémica es una complicación sumamente infrecuente de cirugía cardiovascular. Las biopsias muestran necrosis centrolobulillar. El término de "hepatitis" fue propuesto debido al aumento de transaminasas similar a aquellas de origen infeccioso, e "isquémica" por falla en la perfusión hepática. Posteriormente se definió el término de hepatitis isquémica como cuadro de elevación aguda y reversible (dentro de las 72 horas de transaminasas de hasta 20 veces el valor normal, asociado a trastornos en la perfusión hepática, luego de haber excluido otras causas de hepatitis aguda o daño hepatocelular. Se describe el caso de un paciente de 53 años que consulta por dolor epigástrico de 12 h de evolución sin fiebre, náuseas ni vómitos, resistente a la medicación. Tenía antecedentes inmediatos de reemplazo de válvula aórtica, y estaba anticoagulado. Evolucionó con shock y fallo multiorgánico. El examen evidenció marcada ictericia y signos de taponamiento pericárdico, asociado a un aumento considerable de enzimas hepáticas. Un ecocardiograma informó signos de taponamiento cardíaco y ausencia de disección aórtica. Se decidió pericardiocentesis, extrayéndose 970 cc. de líquido sanguinolento, y hemodiálisis, con notable mejoría de su estado hemodinámico. Los valores enzimáticos disminuyeron. Los marcadores virales fueron negativos.Ischemic hepatitis is an uncommon cardiovascular surgery complication. Hepatic biopsies show centrolobulillar necrosis. The term "hepatitis" was proposed because of a raise in hepatic enzymes similar with infectious disease, and "ischemic" because of failure in hepatic perfusion. Ischemic hepatitis was then defined as an acute and reversible elevation of hepatic enzymes (within 72 h, associated with disturbance in hepatic perfusion after excluding other causes of acute hepatitis. A 53 year-old male presented complaining of a 12 h epigastric pain, without nausea or vomiting, resistant

  2. Preventing hepatitis B or C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000401.htm Preventing hepatitis B or C To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections cause irritation and swelling ...

  3. Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Kayhan Azadmanesh; Safie Amini; Seyed-Moayed Alavian; Malek Hossein Ahmadipour

    2005-01-01

    IntroductionHepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important cause of chronic liver disease. HCV causes 20% of acute hepatitis cases, 70% of all chronic hepatitis cases, 40% of all cases of liver cirrhosis, 60% of hepatocellular carcinomas, and 30% of liver transplants in Europe(1). It is also recognized as the leading cause of liver transplantation in the world(2). Only 20% of infected individuals will recover from this viral infection, while the rest become chronically infected(3). While the majorit...

  4. Cytomegalovirus Hepatitis During Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chan

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although cytomegalovirus (CMV is an uncommon cause of viral hepatitis during pregnancy, a definitive diagnosis is important because of the potential for congenital CMV. In the case reported here, a diagnosis of hepatitis caused by CMV was made after the more common viral pathogens had been ruled out.

  5. Hepatic angiosarcoma: CT findings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余日胜; 章士正; 华建明

    2003-01-01

    @@ Hepatic angiosarcoma is a rare malignant vascular tumor. Accurate preoperative diagnosis of this tumor is very difficult if the patient does not have any history of exposure to specific carcinogens including thorotrast, arsenicals and vinyl chloride monomer. We describe CT findings in two cases of hepatic angiosarcoma in combination with a review of the literature.

  6. Hepatitis E og graviditet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mannheimer, Ebba Elisabeth; Harritshøj, Lene Holm; Katzenstein, Terese Lea

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection among pregnant women is severe, often leading to fulminant hepatic failure and death, with mortality rates up to 15-25%. Studies suggest that differences in genotypes/subgenotypes, hormonal and immunological changes during pregnancy may contribute to the severe...

  7. Hepatitis G virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vasiliy Ivanovich Reshetnyak; Tatiana Igorevna Karlovich; Ljudmila Urievna Ilchenko

    2008-01-01

    A number of new hepatitis viruses (G,TT,SEN) were discovered late in the past century.We review the data available in the literature and our own findings suggesting that the new hepatitis G virus (HGV),disclosed in the late 1990s,has been rather well studied.Analysis of many studies dealing with HGV mainly suggests the lymphotropicity of this virus.HGV or GBV-C has been ascertained to influence course and prognosis in the HIV-infected patient.Until now,the frequent presence of GBV-C in coinfections,hematological diseases,and biliary pathology gives no grounds to determine it as an "accidental tourist" that is of no significance.The similarity in properties of GBV-C and hepatitis C virus (HCV) offers the possibility of using HGV,and its induced experimental infection,as a model to study hepatitis C and to develop a hepatitis C vaccine.

  8. Autoimmune hepatitis triggered by acute hepatitis A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroto Tanaka; Hiroto Tujioka; Hiroki Ueda; Hiroko Hamagami; Youhei Kida; Masakazu Ichinose

    2005-01-01

    The patient was a 57-year-old woman presenting with jaundice as the chief complaint. She began vomiting on July 10, 2003.Jaundice was noted and admitted to our hospital for thorough testing. Tests on admission indicated severe hepatitis, based on: aspartate aminotransferase (AST), 1 076 IU/L; alanine aminotransferase (ALT), 1 400 IU/L; total bilirubin (TB), 20.9 mg/dL; and prothrombin time rate (PT%), 46.9%. Acute hepatitis A (HA) was diagnosed based on negative hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis C virus RNA and positive immunoglobulin (Ig) M HA antibody, but elevation of anti-nuclear antigen (×320) and IgG (3 112 mg/dL) led to suspicion of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). Plasma exchange was performed for 3 d from July 17, and steroid pulse therapy was performed for 3 d starting on July 18, followed by oral steroid therapy. Liver biopsy was performed on August 5, and the results confirmed acute hepatitis and mild chronic inflammation. Levels of AST and ALT normalized,so dose of oral steroid was markedly reduced. Steroid therapy was terminated after 4 mo, as the patient had glaucoma. Starting 3 mo after cessation of steroid therapy,levels of AST and ALT began to increase again. Another liver biopsy was performed and AIH was diagnosed based on serum data and biopsy specimen. Oral steroid therapy was reinitiated. Levels of AST and ALT again normalized.The present case was thus considered to represent AIH triggered by acute HA.

  9. Occult hepatitis B among Iranian hepatitis C patients

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad shavakhi; Babak Norinaier; Fatomeh Esteghamat; Mohamad Seghatoleslami; Mahsa Khodadustan; Mohamad hossein Somi; Mohsen Masoodi; Mohamad reza Zali

    2009-01-01

    • BACKGROUND: Occult hepatitis B is defined as presence of HBV DNA in tissue or serum without hepatitis B surface antigen. The aim of this study is to determine frequency of occult hepatitis B among hepatitis C patients in Tehran and compare the route of transmission and liver enzymes between positive and negative HBV DNA patients.
    • METHODS: In a cross sectional study, serum of 103 hepatitis C cas...

    • [The ABC of viral hepatitis].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Van Bambeke, F

      2008-03-01

      Viral hepatitis has long been under-diagnosed. Hepatitis A is an acute disease, while patients infected by hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses are likely to develop chronical infections and severe complications (cancer, cirrhosis). The current treatment of hepatitis B and C consists in alpha interferon (preferably under its pegylated form), in combination with ribavirin for hepatitis C. The frequent and severe adverse effects of interferon-based therapy constitute, however, a major limiting factor (reactions at the injection site, flu-like syndrome, neurological disorders, ...). For hepatitis B, two alternatives are available so far, namely lamivudine and adefovir (used as a prodrug with highe oral bioavailability).

    • Feature Hepatitis: The Dangers of Hepatitis: What you should know from A to E

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis The Dangers of Hepatitis: What you should know from A to E ... drugs. In some cases, hepatitis lasts a lifetime. Hepatitis: Acute or Chronic? Acute hepatitis is the initial ...

    • Viral hepatitis and hepatitis B antigen: recent advances

      Science.gov (United States)

      Krugman, Saul

      1974-01-01

      Recent advances in hepatitis research have shed new light on the etiology, pathogenesis, epidemiology and prevention of type B hepatitis infection. The so-called ‘Dane’ particle is probably the complete hepatitis B virion; its outer coat is the hepatitis B (Australia) antigen (HB Ag) and its inner core is an immunologically distinct particle. Subtypes of HB Ag (a, d, y, w and r) are useful indices for epidemiological surveys. Concepts of epidemiology have changed: type B hepatitis is transmissible by contact as well as by inoculation. The presence of HB Ag in blood is indicative of the presence of hepatitis B virus. Tests to detect antigen and use of voluntary blood donors have played a major role in the decreased incidence of post transfusion hepatitis. A special hepatitis B gammaglobulin preparation and a heat-inactivated hepatitis B vaccine have proved to be effective in preliminary studies. PMID:4219230

    • Hepatic microcirculatory disturbances in patients with chronic hepatitis B

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      郝菁华; 石军; 任万华; 韩国庆; 朱菊人; 王书运; 谢英渤

      2002-01-01

      Objective To document morphological changes in hepatic microcirculation in liver tissue with hepatitis B and the pathogenesis of hepatic microcirculatory disturbances. Methods Liver tissue samples were obtained from patients with hepatitis B by liver biopsy. These samples were examined with a light microscope and transmission electron microscope. Results Hepatic microcirculatory disturbances existed in patients with hepatitis B, including those with normal liver function, manifested by red blood cell aggregation in sinusoids seen under light microscope and sinusoidal capillarization seen under electron microscope. Weibel-Palade bodies in sinusoidal endothelial cells were seen in 26 out of 53 cases. Intimate contacts were found between lymphocyte/Kupffer cells and sinusoidal endothelial cells. Conclusions Hepatic microcirculatory disturbances exist in patients with hepatitis B .The appearance of Weibel-Palade bodies in sinusoidal endothelial cells may be a key step in the development of hepatic microcirculatory disturbances.

    • Liver X receptor α mediates hepatic triglyceride accumulation through upregulation of G0/G1 Switch Gene 2 expression

      Science.gov (United States)

      Heckmann, Bradlee L.; Zhang, Xiaodong; Saarinen, Alicia M.; Schoiswohl, Gabriele; Kershaw, Erin E.; Zechner, Rudolf

      2017-01-01

      Liver X receptors (LXRs) are transcription factors essential for cholesterol homeostasis and lipogenesis. LXRα has been implicated in regulating hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation upon both influx of adipose-derived fatty acids (FAs) during fasting and stimulation of de novo FA synthesis by chemical agonism of LXR. However, whether or not a convergent mechanism is employed to drive deposition of FAs from these 2 different sources in TGs is undetermined. Here, we report that the G0/G1 Switch Gene 2 (G0S2), a selective inhibitor of intracellular TG hydrolysis/lipolysis, is a direct target gene of LXRα. Transcriptional activation is conferred by LXRα binding to a direct repeat 4 (DR4) motif in the G0S2 promoter. While LXRα–/– mice exhibited decreased hepatic G0S2 expression, adenoviral expression of G0S2 was sufficient to restore fasting-induced TG storage and glycogen depletion in the liver of these mice. In response to LXR agonist T0901317, G0S2 ablation prevented hepatic steatosis and hypertriglyceridemia without affecting the beneficial effects on HDL. Thus, the LXRα-G0S2 axis plays a distinct role in regulating hepatic TG during both fasting and pharmacological activation of LXR.

    • Minimal hepatic encephalopathy.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Zamora Nava, Luis Eduardo; Torre Delgadillo, Aldo

      2011-06-01

      The term minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) refers to the subtle changes in cognitive function, electrophysiological parameters, cerebral neurochemical/neurotransmitter homeostasis, cerebral blood flow, metabolism, and fluid homeostasis that can be observed in patients with cirrhosis who have no clinical evidence of hepatic encephalopathy; the prevalence is as high as 84% in patients with hepatic cirrhosis. Physician does generally not perceive cirrhosis complications, and neuropsychological tests and another especial measurement like evoked potentials and image studies like positron emission tomography can only make diagnosis. Diagnosis of minimal hepatic encephalopathy may have prognostic and therapeutic implications in cirrhotic patients. The present review pretends to explore the clinic, therapeutic, diagnosis and prognostic aspects of this complication.

    • Hepatitis A - children

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... fulminant hepatitis (liver failure) is rare in healthy children. The symptoms are often easy to manage and include: Dark urine Tiredness Loss of appetite Fever Nausea and vomiting Pale stools Abdominal pain ( ...

    • Human hereditary hepatic porphyrias.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Nordmann, Yves; Puy, Hervé

      2002-11-01

      The human hereditary hepatic porphyrias are diseases due to marked deficiencies of enzymes in the heme biosynthetic pathway. Porphyrias can be classified as either hepatic or erythroid, depending on the major production site of porphyrins or their precursors. The pathogenesis of inherited hepatic porphyrias has now been defined at the molecular level. Some gene carriers are vulnerable to a range of exogenous and endogenous factors, which may trigger neuropsychiatric and/or cutaneous symptoms. Early diagnosis is of prime importance since it makes way for counselling. In this article we present an overview of recent advances on hepatic porphyrias: 5-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase deficiency porphyria, acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT), hereditary coproporphyria (HC), and variegate porphyria (VP).

    • Imaging of hepatic infections

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Doyle, D.J. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada)]. E-mail: doyledj@hotmail.com; Hanbidge, A.E. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada); O' Malley, M.E. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada)

      2006-09-15

      Imaging plays a significant role in the detection, characterization and treatment of hepatic infections. Infectious diseases of the liver include pyogenic and amoebic abscesses and parasitic, fungal, viral and granulomatous infections. With increases in worldwide travel, immunosuppression and changing population demographics, identification of cases of hepatic infection is becoming more common in daily practice. Knowledge of the imaging features seen with hepatic infections can assist in early diagnosis and timely initiation of appropriate therapy. This review presents the imaging appearances of hepatic infections, emphasizing specific features that may contribute to the diagnosis. Examples of the imaging findings seen with pyogenic and amoebic abscesses, infection with Echinococcus granulosus (Hydatid), schistosomiasis, candidiasis and tuberculosis (TB) are presented.

    • Aggressive hepatitis (image)

      Science.gov (United States)

      Chronic active hepatitis is a liver disease caused by infection, drug ingestion, metabolic or autoimmune disorders. Necrosis (death) of liver cells, inflammation and fibrosis may lead to liver failure. Death within 5 years of onset occurs in ...

    • Pentoxifylline for alcoholic hepatitis

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Whitfield, Kate; Rambaldi, Andrea; Wetterslev, Jørn

      2009-01-01

      -cause mortality and mortality due to hepatorenal syndrome, and conversely, an increase in serious and non-serious adverse events. However, the evidence is not firm; no conclusions can be drawn regarding whether pentoxifylline has a positive, negative, or neutral effect on participants with alcoholic hepatitis....... analysis did not support this result. Data from one trial suggests that pentoxifylline may increase the occurrence of serious and non-serious adverse events compared to control. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The current available data may indicate a possible positive intervention effect of pentoxifylline on all......BACKGROUND: Alcoholic hepatitis is a life-threatening disease, with an average mortality of approximately 40%. There is no widely accepted, effective treatment for alcoholic hepatitis. Pentoxifylline is used to treat alcoholic hepatitis, but there has been no systematic review to assess its effects...

  1. Hepatitis C - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sexual contact with a person with HCV Getting tattoos or acupuncture therapy with infected needles Hepatitis C ... for chronic HCV. These medicines: Have fewer side effects Are easier to take Are taken by mouth ...

  2. Alcohol and Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... code here Enter ZIP code here Daily Living: Alcohol for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and Hepatitis: Entire Lesson Overview Alcohol is one ... related to choices you make about your lifestyle . Alcohol and fibrosis Fibrosis is the medical term for ...

  3. Hepatitis C and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Emma E; Nelson, Mark

    2016-04-01

    An outbreak of acute hepatitis C among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in the last decade has been shown to be sexually transmitted. Initially recreational drug use, in particular drug injection, was not prevalent among those becoming infected with hepatitis C. However more recently chemsex (the use of drugs to enhance sexual experience) and its associated drugs, which are not uncommonly injected, have become more frequently reported among those diagnosed with hepatitis C. It is hoped that the widespread -introduction of direct-acting antivirals and upscaling of numbers treated may have a positive impact on this epidemic. However their introduction may negatively impact on the perceived risk of acquiring hepatitis C and in conjunction with the introduction of HIV transmission prevention strategies may result in increased transmissions and spread to the HIV-negative MSM population.

  4. Hepatitis C pada Anak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusri Dianne Jurnalis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakInfeksi virus hepatitis C saat ini masih merupakan persoalan yang serius. Penularan infeksi HCV pada anak yang utama adalah melalui transfusi darah atau produk darah yang saat ini bertanggung jawab menyebabkan kasus hepatitis C kronis. Selain itu infeksi HCV pada anak dapat disebabkan oleh transmisi perinatal (vertikal. Infeksi HCV akut dapat berakhir dengan sirosis dan karsinoma hepatoselular setelah dekade ketiga (sekitar 20%, karena progresivitas infeksi HCV lebih lambat dari infeksi hepatitis B virus. Pada umumnya infeksi HCV bersifat asimptomatik termasuk pada anak. Karena tidak ada gejala yang jelas pada infeksi HCV tersebut maka diagnosis infeksi HCV hanya dapat ditegakkan dengan pemeriksaan awal laboratorium dan uji serologi, dan bila perlu dengan uji molekuler pada pasien dengan risiko tinggi. Kebijakan kuratif khusus terhadap HCV adalah terapi antivirus berupa interferon dan ribavirin yang diberikan bila diagnosis HCV sudah ditegakkanKata kunci: Hepatitis C, diagnosis and management problem, childrenAbstractHepatitis C virus infection is still a serious problem. Transmission of HCV infection in children is a major blood transfusion or blood products that are currently responsible for causing chronic hepatitis C cases. Additionally HCV infection in children can be caused by perinatal transmission (vertical. Acute HCV infection may end up with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma after the third decade (around 20%, due to a slower progression of HCV infection of hepatitis B virus infection. In most cases of HCV infection are asymptomatic, including in children. Since there are no obvious symptoms in the diagnosis of HCV infection HCV infection can only be confirmed by laboratory examinations and serologic testing early, and if necessary with molecular testing in patients at high risk. Curative policy is specific to HCV antiviral therapy such as interferon and ribavirin are given when the diagnosis of HCV has been establishedKeywords:Hepatitis

  5. Immigration and viral hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Suraj; Carballo, Manuel; Feld, Jordan J; Janssen, Harry L A

    2015-08-01

    WHO estimates reveal that the global prevalence of viral hepatitis may be as high as 500 million, with an annual mortality rate of up to 1.3 million individuals. The majority of this global burden of disease is borne by nations of the developing world with high rates of vertical and iatrogenic transmission of HBV and HCV, as well as poor access to healthcare. In 2013, 3.2% of the global population (231 million individuals) migrated into a new host nation. Migrants predominantly originate from the developing countries of the south, into the developed economies of North America and Western Europe. This mass migration of individuals from areas of high-prevalence of viral hepatitis poses a unique challenge to the healthcare systems of the host nations. Due to a lack of universal standards for screening, vaccination and treatment of viral hepatitis, the burden of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma continues to increase among migrant populations globally. Efforts to increase case identification and treatment among migrants have largely been limited to small outreach programs in urban centers, such that the majority of migrants with viral hepatitis continue to remain unaware of their infection. This review summarizes the data on prevalence of viral hepatitis and burden of chronic liver disease among migrants, current standards for screening and treatment of immigrants and refugees, and efforts to improve the identification and treatment of viral hepatitis among migrants.

  6. Hepatitis B FAQs for the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professional Resources Patient Education Resources Quick Links to Hepatitis … A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Grantees Policy and Programs Resource Center Viral Hepatitis Hepatitis B FAQs for the Public Recommend on Facebook ...

  7. Hepatic manifestations of celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh James Freeman

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Hugh James FreemanDepartment of Medicine (Gastroenterology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, CanadaAbstract: Different hepatic and biliary tract disorders may occur with celiac disease. Some have been hypothesized to share genetic or immunopathogenetic factors, such as primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and autoimmune hepatitis. Other hepatic changes in celiac disease may occur with malnutrition resulting from impaired nutrient absorption, including hepatic steatosis. In addition, celiac disease may be associated with rare hepatic complications, such as hepatic T-cell lymphoma.Keywords: celiac disease, autoimmune liver disease, primary biliary cirrhosis, fatty liver, gluten-free diet

  8. Epidemiology of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Virus infections among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infection are common in Nigeria; where they ... the epidemiology of HBV and HCV infection among HIV Counseling and Testing (HCT) ... Clients who declined to sign the consent form were excluded.

  9. Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis - United States, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Programs Resource Center Viral Hepatitis Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis – United States, 2014 Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Cases Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Discussion Hepatitis A virus Index PAGE DESCRIPTION Table 2.1 Reported ...

  10. Viral kinetics of the Hepatitis C virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.C. Bekkering (Frank)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractHepatitis A virus and hepatitis B virus were identified as the cause of infectious hepatitis and serum hepatitis respectively in the beginning of the seventies. After introduction of screening tests for hepatitis A and B 4 only 25% of the cases of post transfusion hepatitis were found to

  11. Viral kinetics of the Hepatitis C virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.C. Bekkering (Frank)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractHepatitis A virus and hepatitis B virus were identified as the cause of infectious hepatitis and serum hepatitis respectively in the beginning of the seventies. After introduction of screening tests for hepatitis A and B 4 only 25% of the cases of post transfusion hepatitis were found to

  12. HIV, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth C Kapembwa; GOLDMAN, Jason D.; Shabir Lakhi; Yolan Banda; Kasonde Bowa; Vermund, Sten H.; Joseph Mulenga; David Chama; Chi, Benjamin H.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives : Epidemiologic data of HIV and viral hepatitis coinfection are needed in sub-Saharan Africa to guide health policy for hepatitis screening and optimized antiretroviral therapy (ART). Materials and Methods: We screened 323 HIV-infected, ART-eligible adults for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis C antibody (HCV Ab) at a tertiary hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. We collected basic demographic, medical, and laboratory data to determine predictors for coinfection. Results: Of...

  13. Viral Hepatitis: Information for Gay and Bisexual Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Gay and Bisexual Men What is viral hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is an infection of the liver caused by ... the United States, the most common types of viral hepatitis are Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C. ...

  14. Mavyret Approved for Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_167618.html Mavyret Approved for Hepatitis C A chronic viral infection of the liver To ... treat adults with certain types of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV). The combination drug is the first ...

  15. FastStats: Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Viral Hepatitis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are for the U.S. Morbidity Number of new hepatitis A cases: 1,781 (2013) Number of new ...

  16. Nitazoxanide for chronic hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolova, Kristiana; Gluud, Christian; Grevstad, Berit

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C infection is a disease of the liver caused by the hepatitis C virus. The estimated number of chronically infected people with hepatitis C virus worldwide is about 150 million people. Every year, another three to four million people acquire the infection. Chronic hepatitis C......) and ribavirin was the approved standard treatment for chronic hepatitis C. In 2011, first-generation direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have been licensed, for use in combination with peginterferon and ribavirin for treating hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection. Nitazoxanide is another antiviral drug with broad...... antiviral activity and may have potential as an effective alternative, or an addition to standard treatment for the treatment of the hepatitis C virus. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of nitazoxanide in people with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. SEARCH METHODS: We searched The Cochrane...

  17. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2007-01-01

    Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness.......Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness....

  18. Pregnancy with autoimmune hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, António Costa; Vasconcelos, Carlos; Braga, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to review our experience with gestations in autoimmune hepatitis patients. Background: There are only limited data describing pregnancy in patients with autoimmune hepatitis. Patients and methods: Retrospective analysis of pregnancies with autoimmune hepatitis followed in Centro Hospitalar do Porto, Portugal in the last ten years. Results: We reported nine pregnancies in seven patients with autoimmune hepatitis. Two patients had documented liver cirrhosis prior to the pregnancy. In this study, 66.7% of patients were treated with azathioprine and 88.9% with prednisolone. Clinical improvements were observed in 11.1% of pregnancies and 22.2% exacerbations were diagnosed. There were six live births and two preterm deliveries (preterm delivery rate of 33%). We also report three first trimester miscarriages (early gestation miscarriage rate of 33%). There were no neonatal or maternal deaths. Conclusion: The favorable obstetric outcome is a realistic expectation in patients with autoimmune hepatitis. Tight monitoring and control of asymptomatic and unpredictable exacerbations, which are unrelated to the severity of the underlying disease, are essential to the prognosis of the current pregnancy. PMID:27458515

  19. Hepatitis in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-18

    In this podcast, Dr. John Ward, Director of CDC’s Division of Viral Hepatitis, discusses the different types of viral hepatitis and how they can be prevented. He also describes how hepatitis is transmitted and treated.  Created: 5/18/2010 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 5/18/2010.

  20. Hepatitis Awareness Month PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-05-11

    May is National Hepatitis Awareness Month. This 30 second PSA discusses hepatitis and encourages listners to talk to their health care professional about getting tested.  Created: 5/11/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention.   Date Released: 5/11/2011.

  1. Primary hepatic carcinoid tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Jinbo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Primary hepatic carcinoid tumor is rare and poses a challenge for diagnosis and management. We presented a case of primary hepatic carcinoid tumor in a 53-year-old female with a complaint of right upper abdominal pain. Computer tomography scans revealed a hypervascular mass in segment 4 of the liver. An ultrasonography-guided biopsy showed a carcinoid tumor. No other lesions were found by the radiological investigations. Surgery resection was performed and histopathological examination revealed a primary hepatic carcinoid tumor. Three years later, recurrence was found and transcatheter arterial chemoembolization was performed. After transcatheter arterial chemoembolization, the patient has been free of symptom and had no radiological disease progression for over 6 months. Surgical resection combination with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization is effective to offer excellent palliation.

  2. [Hepatitis E as zoonosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann-Popczyk, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The hepatitis E virus (HEV) the causative agent of hepatitis E, is a non-enveloped RNA virus. HEV is transmitted through oral consumption of contaminated food and water According to the currently knowledge now be considered as zoonosis. The main reservoir of HEV are pigs, boars and deer. For the first time HEV was isolated from animals (pigs) in 1997 in the U.S. Genetic analysis of strains isolated from pigs showed high similarity to strains HEV isolated from humans. This was the first evidence showing that HEV is a zoonosis. Further studies have shown that occupational groups e.g. veterinarians, swine breeders with close contact to pigs have an increased risk for HEV infections. The additional evidence supported the zoonotic potential of HEV were reports of acute hepatitis E after the consumption of undercooked meat from deer and wild boar. Infection of HEV in the domestic pig and wild boar population in Europe is widespread.

  3. Hepatitis viral aguda

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor Rubén Hernández Garcés; René F Espinosa Álvarez

    1998-01-01

    Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de las hepatitis virales agudas sobre aspectos vinculados a su etiología. Se tuvieron en cuenta además algunos datos epidemiológicos, las formas clínicas más importantes, los exámenes complementarios con especial énfasis en los marcadores virales y el diagnóstico positivoA bibliographical review of acute viral hepatitis was made taking into account those aspects connected with its etiology. Some epidemiological markers, the most important clinical forms, ...

  4. Hepatitis C in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashis Mukhopadhya

    2008-11-01

    Hepatitis C is an emerging infection in India and an important pathogen causing liver disease in India. The high risk of chronicity of this blood-borne infection and its association with hepatocellular carcinoma underscores its public health importance. Blood transfusion and unsafe therapeutic interventions by infected needles are two preventable modalities of spread of hepatitis C infection. In addition, risk factor modification by reducing the number of intravenous drug users will help curtail the prevalence of this infection. This review summarizes the extent, nature and implications of this relatively new pathogen in causing disease in India.

  5. Themenheft 15 "Hepatitis C"

    OpenAIRE

    Schreier, Eckart; Radun, Doris; Neuhauser, Hannelore; Stark, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    Die Hepatitis C, die durch ein auf dem Blutweg übertragenes Virus verursacht wird, hat weltweit eine große medizinische, epidemiologische und gesundheitsökonomische Bedeutung. Die Infektion mit dem Hepatitis-C-Virus (HCV) verläuft in 60 bis 80 Prozent der Fälle chronisch und kann zu schwerwiegenden Folgeerkrankungen wie Leberzirrhose und Leberzellkarzinom führen. In Deutschland leben schätzungsweise 400.000 bis 500.000 Menschen mit einer chronischen HCV-Infektion.

  6. [Recent acquisitions on viral hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resti, M; Tucci, F; Vierucci, A

    1990-01-01

    In the last years the research on viral hepatitis let to better understand the biological, molecular, immunological and epidemiologic characteristics of the viruses that are responsible for hepatitis. The first studied virus was hepatitis B virus (HBv). The scientific attention is still, today, focused on that virus since new markers of infectivity and biological importance in early diagnosis and in disease evolution have been found. The most important result in the last years in the field of viral hepatitis has been, however, the identification of agents responsible for Non-A-Non-B hepatitis. Its epidemiology and clinical importance are discussed in the present paper. Virus C is the most important parenteral agent of NANB hepatitis. Its epidemiology in at risk populations and its role in post-transfusional and cryptogenetic hepatitis are here discussed. The research of new markers of HCV infection is today considered a main goal since the role of the only marker now available is still under discussion.

  7. [The pathology of hepatitis C].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaff, Zsuzsa; Gógl, Alíz; Dóra, Réka; Halász, Tünde

    2015-05-24

    The hepatitis C virus is an RNA virus, which belongs to the genus Hepaciviruses of the family Flaviviridae. Chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and ultimately even liver cancer may develop in over 80% of infected cases. The histological features of hepatitis C and hepatitis caused by other hepatotropic viruses show many similarities, however, certain specific histological characteristics are observable. Accordingly, intense lymphocytic infiltration around the periportal areas, steatosis and biliary alterations are frequent findings. Further characteristics of hepatitis C include liver cell destruction (apoptosis, necrosis), periportal inflammation and fibrosis, the degrees of which can be determined by means of the histology activity index. Our knowledge on the hepatitis C virus genome and the mechanism of replication of the virus have established the use of modern, direct-acting antivirals in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C.

  8. Cutaneous manifestations of viral hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Ahmed; Said, Adnan

    2015-02-01

    There are several extrahepatic cutaneous manifestations associated with hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infection. Serum sickness and polyarteritis nodosa are predominantly associated with hepatitis B infection, whereas mixed cryoglobulinemia associated vasculitis and porphyria cutanea tarda are more frequently seen in hepatitis C infection. The clinico-pathogenic associations of these skin conditions are not completely defined but appear to involve activation of the host immune system including the complement system. Management of the aforementioned cutaneous manifestations of viral hepatitis is often similar to that done in cases without viral hepatitis, with control of immune activation being a key strategy. In cases associated with hepatitis B and C, control of viral replication with specific antiviral therapy is also important and associated with improvement in most of the associated clinical manifestations.

  9. Management of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Wright

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic encephalopathy (HE, the neuropsychiatric presentation of liver disease, is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Reduction of plasma ammonia remains the central therapeutic strategy, but there is a need for newer novel therapies. We discuss current evidence supporting the use of interventions for both the general management of chronic HE and that necessary for more acute and advanced disease.

  10. Immigration and viral hepatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Sharma (Suraj); M. Carballo (Manuel); J.J. Feld (Jordan J.); H.L.A. Janssen (Harry)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWHO estimates reveal that the global prevalence of viral hepatitis may be as high as 500 million, with an annual mortality rate of up to 1.3 million individuals. The majority of this global burden of disease is borne by nations of the developing world with high rates of vertical and

  11. Azathioprine induced cholestatic hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viju Moses

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of cholestatic hepatitis developed one week after exposure to azathioprine. The subsequent prolonged cholestatic phase was followed by full clinical remission. Current knowledge on pathogenesis and epidemiology and the diagnostic challenges presented by this rare complication are discussed, followed by recommendations for monitoring and management.

  12. Hepatic steatosis : metabolic consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Adriana Maria den

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis we focused on the causes and consequences of hepatic steatosis. Epidemiological studies in humans, as well as experimental studies in animal models, have shown an association between visceral obesity and dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The mechanism

  13. Hepatic steatosis : metabolic consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Adriana Maria den

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis we focused on the causes and consequences of hepatic steatosis. Epidemiological studies in humans, as well as experimental studies in animal models, have shown an association between visceral obesity and dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The mechanism unde

  14. Delineation of molecular pathways that regulate hepatic PCSK9 and LDL receptor expression during fasting in normolipidemic hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Minhao; Dong, Bin; Cao, Aiqin; Li, Hai; Liu, Jingwen

    2015-01-01

    Background PCSK9 has emerged as a key regulator of serum LDL-C metabolism by promoting the degradation of hepatic LDL receptor (LDLR). In this study, we investigated the effect of fasting on serum PCSK9, LDL-C, and hepatic LDLR expression in hamsters and further delineated the molecular pathways involved in fasting-induced repression of PCSK9 transcription. Results Fasting had insignificant effects on serum total cholesterol and HDL-C levels, but reduced LDL-C, triglyceride and insulin levels. The decrease in serum LDL-C was accompanied by marked reductions of hepatic PCSK9 mRNA and serum PCSK9 protein levels with concomitant increases of hepatic LDLR protein amounts. Fasting produced a profound impact on SREBP1 expression and its transactivating activity, while having modest effects on mRNA expressions of SREBP2 target genes in hamster liver. Although PPARα mRNA levels in hamster liver were elevated by fasting, ligand-induced activation of PPARα with WY14643 compound in hamster primary hepatocytes did not affect PCSK9 mRNA or protein expressions. Further investigation on HNF1α, a critical transactivator of PCSK9, revealed that fasting did not alter its mRNA expression, however, the protein abundance of HNF1α in nuclear extracts of hamster liver was markedly reduced by prolonged fasting. Conclusion Fasting lowered serum LDL-C in hamsters by increasing hepatic LDLR protein amounts via reductions of serum PCSK9 levels. Importantly, our results suggest that attenuation of SREBP1 transactivating activity owing to decreased insulin levels during fasting is primarily responsible for compromised PCSK9 gene transcription, which was further suppressed after prolonged fasting by a reduction of nuclear HNF1α protein abundance. PMID:22954675

  15. Lipidomics analysis reveals efficient storage of hepatic triacylglycerides enriched in unsaturated fatty acids after one bout of exercise in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiu Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endurance exercise induces lipolysis, increases circulating concentrations of free fatty acids (FFA and the uptake and oxidation of fatty acids in the working muscle. Less is known about the regulation of lipid metabolism in the liver during and post-exercise. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed an ultra fast liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS based lipidomics analysis of liver tissue samples obtained from C57Bl/6J mice immediately after a 60 min treadmill run of moderate intensity, and after 3 h of recovery. The PLS-DA scores plot for 115 quantified lipid molecular species revealed a clear separation of the hepatic lipid profile of sedentary from recovering mice, but not from mice immediately after running. 21 lipid species were considered to be most responsible for the difference in the hepatic lipid profiles, including 17 triacylglycerides (TG, one lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC and three phosphatidylcholines (PC. TG species were found to be more abundant in the recovery phase, while PC species were decreased. The degree of accumulation of individual TG species correlated well with the amount of theoretical energy stored whereas no increase was found for TG species containing only saturated or one monounsaturated fatty acid. Total liver TG content as assayed by an enzymatic method was increased to 163% in the recovery phase, while it was significantly decreased in skeletal muscle by the exercise bout and remained less in the recovery phase. Results from fasted and refed mice indicate that fasting-induced lipolysis was associated with a pronounced accumulation of hepatic TG, which is reversed by refeeding for 5 h. Thus food intake per se did not elevate hepatic TG. CONCLUSION: These data indicate that high availability of FFA induced by endurance exercise or fasting resulted in a transient hepatic TG accumulation, while muscle TG content was decreased during exercise presumably due to increased muscle fatty

  16. Hepatitis B immunisation for newborn infants of hepatitis B surface antigen-positive mothers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, C; Gong, Yanzhang; Brok, J

    2006-01-01

    Hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immunoglobulin are considered for newborn infants of HBsAg-positive mothers to prevent hepatitis B infection.......Hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immunoglobulin are considered for newborn infants of HBsAg-positive mothers to prevent hepatitis B infection....

  17. Characteristics of hepatitis viruses among Egyptian children with acute hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Ahmed; Yano, Yoshihiko; El-Sayed Zaki, Maysaa; Utsumi, Takako; Hayashi, Yoshitake

    2013-04-01

    Hepatitis viral infection is hyperendemic in Egypt, western Asia and Africa. However, little is known about the status of hepatitis viruses among rural Egyptian children. Therefore, this study sought to examine the prevalence and characteristics of hepatitis viruses among symptomatic Egyptian children. Serological and molecular analyses of hepatitis viral infection were conducted in 33 children hospitalised at Mansoura University with symptomatic hepatic dysfunction (mean ± standard deviation age, 9.7±3.4 years; alanine aminotransferase level, 130±68 IU/ml). Eleven children (33%) were positive for anti-haemagglutination-IgM and were diagnosed with acute hepatitis A. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti‑hepatitis C virus (HCV) were detected in 9 (27%) and 7 (21%) children, respectively, indicating acute-on-chronic infection with hepatitis viruses. None of the children was positive for anti‑hepatitis B core antigen-IgM. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that all HBVs belonged to genotype D (subgenotype D1) and that HCV belonged to genotypes 4a and 1g. HBV-DNA was detected in 9 children (27%) in the pre-S/S region and in 16 children (48%) in the core promoter/precore region. The Y134F amino acid mutation in the 'α' determinant region was detected in all of the patients. The A1762T/G1764A double mutation, and the T1846A and G1896A single mutations were common in children with occult HBV infection. In conclusion, hepatitis viral infection, including acute-on-chronic infection with HCV and HBV, is common in Egyptian children hospitalised with acute hepatitis.

  18. Fulminant hepatic failure secondary to primary hepatic angiosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abegunde, Ayokunle T; Aisien, Efe; Mba, Benjamin; Chennuri, Rohini; Sekosan, Marin

    2015-01-01

    Background. Hepatic angiosarcoma is a rare and aggressive tumor that often presents at an advanced stage with nonspecific symptoms. Objective. To report a case of primary hepatic angiosarcoma in an otherwise healthy man with normal liver function tests two months prior to presenting with a short period of jaundice that progressed to fulminant hepatic failure. Methods. Case report and review of literature. Conclusion. This case illustrates the rapidity of progression to death after the onset of symptoms in a patient with hepatic angiosarcoma. Research on early diagnostic strategies and newer therapies are needed to improve prognosis in this rare and poorly understood malignancy with limited treatment options.

  19. Occult hepatitis B among Iranian hepatitis C patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad shavakhi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Occult hepatitis B is defined as presence of HBV DNA in tissue or serum without hepatitis B surface antigen. The aim of this study is to determine frequency of occult hepatitis B among hepatitis C patients in Tehran and compare the route of transmission and liver enzymes between positive and negative HBV DNA patients.
    • METHODS: In a cross sectional study, serum of 103 hepatitis C cases (79.6% men and 20.4% women were analyzed for s, x and core genes via a nested polymerase chain reaction technique.
    • RESULTS: HBV DNA was detectable in serum of 20 patients (19.4%. No significant difference in age, sex and route of transmission were seen in HBV DNA positive and negative patients. In HBV DNA positive and negative groups, mean of AST was 73, 47 (p < 0.05 and mean of ALT was 76 and 36 respectively (p < 0.05.
    • CONCLUSION: Occult hepatitis B was observed in a considerable number of hepatitis C patients in Tehran. It was associated with elevation in liver enzyme but was not related to route of transmission.
    • KEY WORD: Occult hepatitis B, hepatitis C, cirrhosis.

  20. Fulminant Hepatic Failure Secondary to Primary Hepatic Angiosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayokunle T. Abegunde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hepatic angiosarcoma is a rare and aggressive tumor that often presents at an advanced stage with nonspecific symptoms. Objective. To report a case of primary hepatic angiosarcoma in an otherwise healthy man with normal liver function tests two months prior to presenting with a short period of jaundice that progressed to fulminant hepatic failure. Methods. Case report and review of literature. Conclusion. This case illustrates the rapidity of progression to death after the onset of symptoms in a patient with hepatic angiosarcoma. Research on early diagnostic strategies and newer therapies are needed to improve prognosis in this rare and poorly understood malignancy with limited treatment options.

  1. Acute hepatitis with nontyphoidal salmonella and hepatitis E virus coinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ting Kuo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A 65-year-old Taiwanese man presented with dark urine for 5 days before admission to hospital and with fever on the 2nd day of admission to hospital. Laboratory studies showed acute hepatitis with hyperbilirubinemia. Acute hepatitis with nontyphoidal salmonella and hepatitis E virus coinfection was diagnosed. The fever subsided after treatment with ceftriaxone and cefepime. His serum bilirubin reached its peak value on the 3rd week after admission to hospital and then gradually returned to the normal range. To the best of our knowledge, acute hepatitis E coinfection with nontyphoidal salmonella has not been reported previously.

  2. Primary hepatic sarcomas: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Ri-Sheng; Chen, Ying; Jiang, Biao; Wang, Liu-Hong [Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Hangzhou (China); Xu, Xiu-Fang [Zhejiang Medical College, Teaching and Research Group of Radiology, Hangzhou (China)

    2008-10-15

    Primary hepatic sarcomas are rare tumors that are difficult to diagnose clinically. Different primary hepatic sarcomas may have different clinical, morphologic, and radiological features. In this pictorial review, we summarized computed tomography (CT) findings of some relatively common types of hepatic sarcomas, including angiosarcoma, epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE), liposarcoma, undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma (UES), leiomyosarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH), and carcinosarcoma (including cystadenocarcinosarcoma). To our knowledge, hepatic cystadenocarcinosarcoma has not been described in the English literature. The CT findings in our case are similar to that of cystadenocarcinoma, a huge, multilocular cystic mass with a large mural nodule and solid portion. The advent of CT has allowed earlier detection of primary hepatic sarcomas as well as more accurate diagnosis and characterization. In addition, we briefly discuss the MRI findings and diagnostic value of primary hepatic sarcomas. (orig.)

  3. Management of covert hepatic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghray, Abhijeet; Waghray, Nisheet; Mullen, Kevin

    2015-03-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy is a reversible progressive neuropsychiatric disorder that encompasses a wide clinical spectrum. Covert hepatic encephalopathy is defined as patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy and Grade I encephalopathy by West-Haven Criteria. Terminology such as "sub-clinical", "latent", and "minimal" appear to trivialize the disease and have been replaced by the term covert. The lack of clinical signs means that covert hepatic encephalopathy is rarely recognized or treated outside of clinical trials with options for therapy based on patients with episodic hepatic encephalopathy. This review discusses the current available options for therapy in covert hepatic encephalopathy and focuses on non-absorbable disacharides (lactulose or lactitol), antibiotics (rifaximin), probiotics/synbiotics and l-ornithine-l-aspartate.

  4. Hepatitis viral aguda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Rubén Hernández Garcés

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de las hepatitis virales agudas sobre aspectos vinculados a su etiología. Se tuvieron en cuenta además algunos datos epidemiológicos, las formas clínicas más importantes, los exámenes complementarios con especial énfasis en los marcadores virales y el diagnóstico positivoA bibliographical review of acute viral hepatitis was made taking into account those aspects connected with its etiology. Some epidemiological markers, the most important clinical forms, and the complementary examinations with special emphasis on the viral markers and the positive diagnosis were also considered

  5. 13.3.Hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930316 An etiological study on fulminant viralhepatitis.ZHAO Yourong (赵有容),et al.Chongqing Med Univ,630010.Chin J Intern Med 1992;31(11):686—688.Viral markers were studied in 79 cases of vi-ral hepatitis with hepatic failure.The resultswere shown as follows:8 cases were positivefor anti—HAV IgM (10.12%);76 cases posi-tive for HBsAg or anti—HBc IgM (96.20%)and 41 cases positive for anti—HCV antibodies(51.89%).Among those with anti—HCV posi-tive,35 cases were co-infected with HBV,5cases with HAV and/or HCV,only one was in-

  6. Prevention of Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mei-Hwei; Chen, Ding-Shinn

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes life-threatening liver disease. It is transmitted through a horizontal route or a mother-to-infant route, and the latter is the major route in endemic areas. Prevention of HBV infection by immunization is the best way to eliminate HBV-related diseases. The HBV vaccine is the first human vaccine using a viral antigen from infected persons, which is safe and effective. Either passive immunization by hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) or active immunization by HBV vaccine is effective, and a combination of both yields the best efficacy in preventing HBV infection. The impact of universal HBV immunization is huge, with 90%–95% effectiveness in preventing chronic HBV infection. It is the first cancer preventive vaccine with a protective efficacy against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) of ∼70%. Nevertheless, further effort is still needed to avoid vaccine failure and to increase the global coverage rate. PMID:25732034

  7. Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M Stinton

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE is the earliest form of hepatic encephalopathy and can affect up to 80% of cirrhotic patients. By definition, it has no obvious clinical manifestation and is characterized by neurocognitive impairment in attention, vigilance and integrative function. Although often not considered to be clinically relevant and, therefore, not diagnosed or treated, MHE has been shown to affect daily functioning, quality of life, driving and overall mortality. The diagnosis of MHE has traditionally been achieved through neuropsychological examination, psychometric tests or the newer critical flicker frequency test. A new smartphone application (EncephalApp Stroop Test may serve to function as a screening tool for patients requiring further testing. In addition to physician reporting and driving restrictions, medical treatment for MHE includes non-absorbable disaccharides (eg, lactulose, probiotics or rifaximin. Liver transplantation may not result in reversal of the cognitive deficits associated with MHE.

  8. Hepatitis C Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Arthur

    2016-09-06

    This issue provides a clinical overview of hepatitis C virus, focusing on transmission, prevention, screening, diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers.

  9. Hepatic surgical anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandalakis, John E; Skandalakis, Lee J; Skandalakis, Panajiotis N; Mirilas, Petros

    2004-04-01

    The liver, the largest organ in the body, has been misunderstood at nearly all levels of organization, and there is a tendency to ignore details that do not fit the preconception. A complete presentation of the surgical anatomy of the liver includes the study of hepatic surfaces, margins, and fissures; the various classifications of lobes and segments; and the vasculature and lymphatics. A brief overview of the intrahepatic biliary tract is also presented.

  10. The right hepatic artery syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazumi Miyashita; Katsuya Shiraki; Takeshi Ito; Hiroki Taoka; Takeshi Nakano

    2005-01-01

    Various benign and malignant conditions could cause biliary obstruction. Compression of extrahepatic bile duct (EBD) by right hepatic artery was reported as a right hepatic artery syndrome but all cases were compressed EBD from stomach side. Our case compressed from dorsum was not yet reported, so it was thought to be a very rare case. We present here the first case of bile duct obstruction due to the compression of EBD from dorsum by right hepatic artery.

  11. Hepatitis-C virus (HCV)

    OpenAIRE

    Suwarso, Suwarso

    2015-01-01

    A new problem on hepatitis for Indonesian is hepatitis-C virus (HCV). This infection is endemic, majority sub-clinic and progressive in chronic. Viral transmission is primarily via a parenteral route, while other routes are still in debate.Diagnostic approach should be focused on how this virus developed.KeyWords: hepatitis-C virus molecular biology Westem-blot-HCV blood transfusion epidemiology

  12. Laboratory diagnosis of hepatitis E

    OpenAIRE

    Vojkůvková, Pavla

    2012-01-01

    This thesis in the theoretical part contains basic information about the problems of viral hepatitis E in the world and the Czech Republic. The practical part describes the methodology used to analyze samples with suspected viral hepatitis E. The first part examined the number of analyzed samples from patients suspected of being infected with hepatitis E ( HEV ). The analysis is performed according to the positivity or negativity of the results to those years , age and gender. In the second p...

  13. Natural History of Hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingala, Shilpa; Ghany, Marc G

    2015-12-01

    Hepatitis C infection is a common cause of cirrhosis and indication for liver transplantation in the United States. The incidence of chronic hepatitis C has been declining, but rates of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma are projected to increase. The outcome of chronic hepatitis C is variable. It is estimated that 20% to 25% will develop cirrhosis over a 25-year to 30-year period. The rate of disease progression is influenced by many host, viral, and environmental factors. Few can be modified.

  14. Hepatitis C and Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashik Hayat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple extrahepatic manifestations have been associated with chronic hepatitis C, the most important among them being cryoglobulinemia, glomerulonephritis, porphyria cutanea tarda, lichen planus, seronegative arthritis, and lymphoproliferative disorders as in the sudies of Bonkovsky and Mehta (2001 and El-Serag et al. (2002. We will discuss in this paper chronic hepatitis C- related kidney disease and course and management of patients with chronic hepatitis C in special circumstances like hemodialysis and kidney transplantation.

  15. Cytomegalovirus hepatitis and myopericarditis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leire Zubiaurre; Eva Zapata; Luis Bujanda; María Castillo; Igor Oyarzabal; Maria A Gutiérrez-Stampa; Angel Cosme

    2007-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in inmunocompetent hosts generally is asymptomatic or may present as a mononucleosis syndrome but rarely can lead to severe organ complications. We report a case of simultaneous hepatic and pericardic CMV infection in a 36-year old immunocompetent man. He was admitted to coronary unit with fever, chest pain radiated to shoulders,changes on electrocardiogram with diffuse ST elevation and modest laboratory elevations in the MB fraction of creatine kinase (CK-MB) of 33.77 μg/L (0.1-6.73), serum cardiac troponin T of 0.904 ng/mL (0-0.4), creatine kinase of 454 U/L (20-195) and myoglobin of 480.4 μg/L (28-72). Routine laboratory test detected an elevation of aminotransferase level: alanine aminotransferase 1445 U/L, aspartate aminotransferase 601 U/L. We ruled out other causes of hepatitis with normal results except IgM CMV. The patient was diagnosed with myopericarditis and hepatitis caused by cytomegalovirus and started symptomatic treatment with salicylic acid. In few days the laboratory findings became normal and the patient was discharged.

  16. Hepatitis viral C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A. Poma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El virus de la hepatitis C se trasmite por contacto directo con la sangre de la persona infectada. La mayoría de los pacientes no presenta síntomas en la fase aguda o crónica de la hepatitis. Dos a tres décadas después, algunos pacientes progresan a la cirrosis compensada, que también es asintomática. En un examen de sangre, los anticuerpos se presentan como una sorpresa, porque no se les relaciona con un episodio de contagio. Un embarazo ocasiona la posibilidad de efectos negativos de la infección en la madre o el niño. El tratamiento actual no ofrece la certeza de cura, dependiendo del genotipo viral, y presenta efectos adversos que pueden ser severos. La cirrosis descompensada causa la mayoría de muertes relacionadas con esta infección; algunos de estos pacientes desarrollan carcinoma hepatocelular. La reproducción viral causa partículas virales diferentes del virus original, característica que ha impedido el desarrollo de una vacuna. Actualmente, la prevención consiste en evitar el contacto con sangre infectada. Este artículo revisa la infección con el virus de la hepatitis C, incluyendo los últimos progresos en tratamiento. Es necesario educar a la comunidad acerca de los efectos de este virus en la salud pública.

  17. Interferon prophylaxis of hepatic carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voiosu, R; Dimitriu, L; Dragomir, P; Eremia, L

    1999-01-01

    The present article reveals the importance of hepatic carcinoma among the other diseases in digestive oncology, and also the importance of a correct designation of these cases. Epidemiology and actual hypothesis on the mechanisms of oncogenesis are discussed. There are reviewed some studies in the literature concerning infection with hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, coinfection (B and C viruses, B and D viruses), the role of interferon prophylaxis in such cases. Also there is present a statistics on chronic viral hepatits, cirrhosis of viral etiology and hepatic carcinoma, diagnosed in patients in "N.Gh.Lupu" Hospital, over two decades.

  18. Hepatitis E: Epidemiology and prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Teshale, Eyasu H.; Hu, Dale J.

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis E is caused by the hepatitis E virus (HEV), the major etiologic agent of enterically transmitted non-A hepatitis worldwide. HEV is responsible for major outbreaks of acute hepatitis in developing countries, especially in many parts of Africa and Asia. The HEV is a spherical, non-enveloped, single-stranded, positive sense RNA virus that is approximately 32 nm to 34 nm in diameter and is the only member in the family Hepeviridae and genus Hepevirus. There are four distinct genotypes o...

  19. Extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palekar, Nicole A; Harrison, Stephen A

    2005-10-01

    Hepatitis C affects approximately 170 million people worldwide. Extrahepatic manifestations of chronic hepatitis C infection are clinically evident in nearly 40% of patients. Much research has been done over the last decade to better understand their incidence, clinical presentation, mechanism of disease, and the role of antiviral therapy in their treatment. Of the commonly reported manifestations, cryoglobulinemia, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, and porphyria cutanea tarda remain the best understood manifestations. More recently, the association of insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus with chronic hepatitis C has been demonstrated. This paper serves to review the growing body of literature detailing the extrahepatic manifestations of chronic hepatitis C.

  20. Hepatite E Hepatitis E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymundo Paraná

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O vírus da hepatite E (VHE é o segundo vírus de transmissão fecal-oral com hepatotropismo confirmado, após o vírus da hepatite A. As grandes epidemias de hepatite das décadas de 50 e 60 na Índia foram causadas pelo VHE. Observaram-se surtos da infecção na África Central, América Latina, Oriente Médio e Repúblicas independentes da ex-União Soviética. O quadro clínico da doença assemelha-se ao de outras hepatites virais. Não há casos descritos de hepatite E crônicas. Cerca de 20% das mulheres que adquirem a doença durante a gravidez desenvolvem formas graves, com insuficiência hepática fulminante. Confirma-se o diagnóstico quando se encontra no soro anticorpos (método de ELISA das classes IgM (fase aguda e/ou IgG (curados. O imunoblot e o PCR-RNA podem ser usados quando necessário. Não há tratamento específico. O uso de imunoglobulina hiperimune tem sido aconselhado por alguns autores. A prevenção se faz pelos cuidados higiênicos e dietéticos habituais. Não há vacina eficaz contra a doença.Hepatitis E virus (HEV is the second most frequent hepatotropic virus transmitted via fecal-oral route, following closely behind hepatitis A virus. The great epidemics of hepatitis described during the 50s and 60s, in India, were caused by this virus. Epidemic bursts have also been described in Central Africa, Latin America, Middle East and in the independent Republics of the ex-Soviet Union. The clinical features of the disease do not differ from those reported for other viral hepatitides. There have been no cases of chronic hepatitis E reported. Around 20% of women infected during pregnancy develop a severe form of hepatitis which courses to liver failure. Diagnosis of hepatitis is confirmed when antibodies (using ELISA of the IgM class (acute phase and/or IgG (infected and cured are found in the serum. Immunoblot and PCR-RNA may be used as necessary. There is no specific treatment for hepatitis E. Hyperimmune serum has

  1. HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth C Kapembwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : Epidemiologic data of HIV and viral hepatitis coinfection are needed in sub-Saharan Africa to guide health policy for hepatitis screening and optimized antiretroviral therapy (ART. Materials and Methods: We screened 323 HIV-infected, ART-eligible adults for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and hepatitis C antibody (HCV Ab at a tertiary hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. We collected basic demographic, medical, and laboratory data to determine predictors for coinfection. Results: Of 323 enrolled patients, 32 (9.9%; 95% CI=6.7-13.2% were HBsAg positive, while 4 (1.2%; 95% CI=0.03-2.4% were HCV Ab positive. Patients with hepatitis B coinfection were more likely to be 200 IU/L was uncommon and did not differ between the two groups (3.4% vs. 2.3%; P=0.5. We were unable to determine predictors of hepatitis C infection due to the low prevalence of disease. Conclusions: HIV and hepatitis B coinfection was common among patients initiating ART at this tertiary care facility. Routine screening for hepatitis B should be considered for HIV-infected persons in southern Africa.

  2. Noninvasive diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Assessment of hepatic fibrosis is important for determining prognosis, guiding management decisions,and monitoring disease. Histological evaluation of liver biopsy specimens is currently considered the reference test for staging hepatic fibrosis. Since liver biopsy carries a small but significant risk, noninvasive tests to assess hepatic fibrosis are desirable. This editorial gives an overview on noninvasive methods currently available to determine hepatic fibrosis and their diagnostic accuracy for predicting significant fibrosis and cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis C. Based on available data, the performance of simple tests derived from routine laboratory parameters appears to be similar to that of more complex and expensive fibrosis panels. Transient elastography seems more accurate than blood tests for diagnosing cirrhosis.

  3. Hepatitis virus vaccines: present status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugman, S.

    1982-01-01

    During the past decade there has been extraordinary progress toward the development of vaccines for the prevention of type A and type B hepatitis. The successful propagation of hepatitis A virus in cell culture in 1979 was followed by the preparation of experimental live attenuated hepatitis A vaccines that have been shown to induce antibody in marmosets and chimpanzees and protect immunized marmosets against challenge with hepatitis A virus. The first human immunization trials will begin in mid-1982. An inactivated hepatitis B vaccine that was licensed in the United States in November 1981 has been shown to be safe, immunogenic, and effective. When this vaccine becomes available for use in July 1982, it will be recommended for persons who are considered to be at increased risk of contracting hepatitis B infection. Future generations of hepatitis B vaccines may be prepared from hepatitis B surface antigen derived from DNA recombinant technology or by in vitro synthesis of HBs Ag determinants by chemical means. PMID:6295013

  4. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2003-01-01

    The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness.......The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness....

  5. Blood transfusion and hepatitis viruses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    transplantation for patients with hepatitis B virus-related liver disease. Hepatology 1991; 13: ... and mouse liver cells by a conjugate of adenine arabinoside monophosphate with ... C virus antibody in patients with autoimmune hepatitis and other chronic liver .... to be derived·from the genome of an agent associated with.

  6. Hepatitis B and skin: review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonunsanga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection and its complications have become a global health problem. The spectrum of HBV infection ranges from asymptomatic carrier state to chronic hepatitis. It is usually preceded by constitutional symptoms. It has a wide range of dermatological manifestations. This review includes the pathogenesis along with the pathophysiology with their clinical significance and overview of the treatment.

  7. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2003-01-01

    The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness.......The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness....

  8. Screening of subclinical hepatic encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneweg, M; Moerland, W; Quero, J C; Hop, W C; Krabbe, P F; Schalm, S W

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Subclinical hepatic encephalopathy adversely affects daily functioning. The aim of this study was to determine which elements of daily life have predictive value for subclinical hepatic encephalopathy. METHODS: The study was performed in 179 outpatients with liver cirrhosis. Subclin

  9. Pediatric hepatitis B treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Ayano; Fujisawa, Tomoo

    2017-01-01

    Although the introduction of hepatitis B vaccine has been contributing to the reduction in the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers worldwide, the treatment of children with chronic HBV infection is a challenge to be addressed. HBeAg seroconversion, which induces low replication of HBV, is widely accepted as the first goal of antiviral treatment in children with chronic hepatitis B. However, spontaneous HBeAg seroconversion is highly expected in children with chronic HBV infection. Therefore, the identification of children who need antiviral treatment to induce HBeAg seroconversion is essential in the management of chronic HBV infection. Guidelines and experts’ opinion show how to identify children who should be treated and how to treat them. If decompensated cirrhosis is absent, interferon-alpha is the first-line antiviral treatment. Nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs), such as lamivudine, adefovir, entecavir and tenofovir, are also available for the treatment of children, although the approval age differs among them. If decompensated cirrhosis is present, NAs are the first-line antivirals. When the emergence of drug-resistant HBV variants is taken into consideration, entecavir (approved for age 2 years or older) and tenofovir (age 12 years or older), which have high genetic barriers, will play a central role in the treatment of HBV infection. However, the optimal duration of NA treatment and adverse events of long-term NA treatment remain unclear in children. In resource-constrained countries and regions, the financial burden of visiting hospitals, receiving routine blood examination and purchasing antiviral drugs is heavy. Moreover, there is no clear evidence that the induction of HBeAg seroconversion by antiviral treatment prevents the progression of liver disease to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in children with chronic HBV infection. It is thus imperative to clarify the clinical impact of antiviral treatment in children with HBV infection.

  10. HEPATITIS ALOINMUNE FETAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Álvarez C., Dr.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available La hepatitis aloinmune fetal, conocida anteriormente como hemocromatosis neonatal, ha demostrado en los últimos años ser una enfermedad completamente distinta a la hemocromatosis del adulto, tanto en su etiología como en su la fisiopatología. Este conocimiento abre nuevas perspectivas tanto en la prevención de la enfermedad en futuros embarazos, así como en el tratamiento con inmunoglobulina endovenosa en la madre durante el embarazo y eventualmente el tratamiento postnatal, en el que el trasplante de hígado juega un rol primordial.

  11. Perinatal hepatitis B virus detection by hepatitis B virus-DNA analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    De Virgiliis, S; Frau, F; Sanna, G; Turco, M P; Figus, A L; Cornacchia, G; Cao, A.

    1985-01-01

    Maternal transmission of hepatitis B virus infection in relation to the hepatitis B e antigen/antibody system and serum hepatitis B virus-DNA were evaluated. Results indicate that hepatitis B virus-DNA analysis can identify hepatitis B serum antigen positive mothers who may transmit infection to their offspring.

  12. Perinatal hepatitis B virus detection by hepatitis B virus-DNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Virgiliis, S; Frau, F; Sanna, G; Turco, M P; Figus, A L; Cornacchia, G; Cao, A

    1985-01-01

    Maternal transmission of hepatitis B virus infection in relation to the hepatitis B e antigen/antibody system and serum hepatitis B virus-DNA were evaluated. Results indicate that hepatitis B virus-DNA analysis can identify hepatitis B serum antigen positive mothers who may transmit infection to their offspring. Images Figure PMID:3970570

  13. Perinatal hepatitis B virus detection by hepatitis B virus-DNA analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    De Virgiliis, S; Frau, F; Sanna, G; Turco, M P; Figus, A L; Cornacchia, G; Cao, A

    1985-01-01

    Maternal transmission of hepatitis B virus infection in relation to the hepatitis B e antigen/antibody system and serum hepatitis B virus-DNA were evaluated. Results indicate that hepatitis B virus-DNA analysis can identify hepatitis B serum antigen positive mothers who may transmit infection to their offspring.

  14. 76 FR 46181 - World Hepatitis Day, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ..., millions of Americans are living with viral hepatitis. As many as three-fourths of Americans living with... viral hepatitis. Viral hepatitis is inflammation of the liver, and can cause a lifetime of health issues... to be done to prevent and treat this disease. Viral hepatitis touches Americans of all backgrounds...

  15. 77 FR 45895 - World Hepatitis Day, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... viral hepatitis--a disease that threatens the health of millions of Americans and people across the... silent epidemic, and we rededicate ourselves to the fight against viral hepatitis. Hepatitis prevention and control begins with awareness. Though all types of viral hepatitis are associated with serious...

  16. [Ischemic hepatitis. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squella, Freddy; Zapata, Rodrigo

    2003-06-01

    Ischemic hepatitis or shock liver is defined as an extensive hepatocellular necrosis associated with a decrease in hepatic perfusion due to systemic hypotension. Serum aminotransferase levels (ALAT and ASAT) increase rapidly after the ischemic episode and peak within 1 to 3 days to at least 20 times the upper normal limit. After recovery, aminotransferases return to near normal levels in 7-10 days of the initial insult. Histological it is characterized by centrolobular necrosis without inflammation. We report a 47 years old woman with a rheumatic mitral valve disease, atrial fibrillation on anticoagulation and congestive heart failure. She was admitted due to a rapid auricular arrhythmia and secondary severe hypotension. She developed rapidly progressive jaundice (bilirubin up to 8.9 mg/dl) and her aminotransferases (ALAT and ASAT) increased rapidly to levels near 100 times the upper normal limit. Other causes of liver disease were excluded. With hemodynamic support and after heart rate control she improved rapidly within the following 10 days with normalization of liver function tests and complete clinical recovery.

  17. Hepatitis B e Antigen-Negative Chronic Hepatitis B

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    IntroductionHepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global health problem. Current estimates are that 2 billion people have been infected worldwide, of these, 360 million suffer from chronic HBV infection resulting in over 520 000 deaths from acute hepatitis B and 470 000 from cirrhosis or liver cancer(1). The prevalence of hepatitis B carriers varies in different parts of the world, ranging from less than 1% to 15%. In the Middle East, the endemicity is intermittent, with a carrier rate of 2%...

  18. Severe Acute Hepatitis B Treated With Entecavir.

    OpenAIRE

    De Socio, Giuseppe Vittorio Luigi; Sgrelli, Alessio; Tosti, Andrea; Baldelli, Franco

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection constitutes a serious global health problem. Nowadays there are divergent data regarding the use of antiviral drugs to treat acute hepatitis B. We present here a case of a 62-year-old man affected by severe acute hepatitis B with progressive worsening of clinical and hepatic function. The patient was treated with entecavir without critical side effects. We observed rapid clinical and laboratory improvements and the disappearance of hepatitis B surface antigen...

  19. Hepatitis C and cutaneous alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Rita Fachinelli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available While most of those infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV are asymptomatic or only develop liver manifestations, a significant percentage evolves with autoimmune and lymphoproliferative disorders, resulting in a clinical condition called HCV syndrome. This work involving case studies of six patients with hepatitis C and varied skin manifestation aimed to report skin lesions occurring with HCV infection and its treatment. Skin manifestations in hepatitis C have been based on epidemiological studies. This justifies the need for studies that correlate HCV infection and its treatment with skin manifestations.

  20. Wilson's Disease and Hepatic Transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐荣华; 薛峥; 叶启发

    2002-01-01

    Summary: To investigate the changes in neurological symptoms and signs, as well as serum copper,serum ceruloplasmin after hepatic transplantation in patients with Wilson's disease, neurological symptoms and signs, serum copper, serum ceruloplasmin before and after hepatic transplantation in18 patients with Wilson's disease were observed, and those changes were followed up in 20 non-oper ative controls treated with penicillamine. Our results showed that the neurological symptoms and signs, serum copper and serum ceruloplasmin were improved in the operative group but deteriorated in the non-operative control group. Our study showed that hepatic transplantation is better than peni cillamine in the treatment of Wilson's disease.

  1. Fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) due to acute hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Bilal Bin; Arshad, Rozina; Khurhsid, Saima; Masood, Junaid; Nazir, Farhan; Tahira, Maham

    2015-01-01

    Acute hepatitis C (HCV) infection has been identified as an important cause of fulminant hepatic failure (FHF), characterized by rapid deterioration of liver function from massive hepatic necrosis leading to encephalopathy and multi-organ failure. We admitted a female patient at Shalamar Hospital with jaundice, fever, encephalopathy and coagulopathy of short duration with no history of any comorbidity. Her hepatitis viral screen revealed positive anti HCV. Her viral loads were also high. A diagnosis of FHF due to acute HCV infection was made. Patient was treated conservatively and improved gradually. In summary, acute HCV can cause FHF and should be ruled out in patients with FHF of unknown cause in an endemic country for HCV like Pakistan.

  2. Attitudes and Awareness Regarding Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Public Health Dentistry, Gian Sagar Dental College and Hospital, 1Department ... Sagar Dental College and Hospital, Rajpura, Punjab, 2Department of Radiology, .... HCWs are at a risk of developing hepatitis C infection owing.

  3. [Occult hepatitis B virus infection in chronic hepatitis C].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jae Young; Park, Eui Ju

    2013-09-01

    Occult HBV infection is defined as the presence of HBV DNA in the liver (with or without detectable or undetectable HBV DNA in the serum) of individuals testing negative for HBsAg. Studies on occult HBV infection in hepatitis C patients have reported highly variable prevalence, because the prevalence of occult HBV infection varies depending on the hepatitis B risk factors and methodological approaches. The most reliable diagnostic approach for detecting occult HBV detection is through examination of liver DNA extracts. HCV has been suspected to strongly suppress HBV replication up to the point where it may be directly responsible for occult HBV infection development. However, more data are needed to arrive at a definitive conclusion regarding the role of HCV in inducing occult HBV infection. Occult HBV infection in chronic hepatitis C patients is a complex biological entity with possible relevant clinical implications. Influence of occult HBV infection on the clinical outcomes of chronic hepatitis C may be considered negative. However, recent studies have shown that occult HBV infection could be associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma and contribute to the worsening of the course of chronic liver disease over time in chronic hepatitis C patients. Nevertheless, the possible role of occult HBV infection in chronic hepatitis C is still unresolved and no firm conclusion has been made up until now. It still remains unclear how occult HBV infection affects the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. Therefore, in order to resolve current controversies and understand the pathogenic role and clinical impacts of occult HBV infection in chronic hepatitis C patients, well-designed clinical studies are needed.

  4. Acute Hepatitis Induced by Alpha-Interferon in a Patient with Chronic Hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kraus

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic adverse effects occur very rarely with alpha-interferon therapy. A case of acute hepatitis induced by alpha-interferon in a 33-year-old man with chronic hepatitis C is described. The patient developed acute hepatitis with very high aminotransferase activity and jaundice. After discontinuing alpha-interferon therapy, hepatitis resolved rapidly. The immune-mediated mechanism is the most probable cause of this hepatitis.

  5. HEPATITIS A VIRAL INFECTION TRIGGERS AUTOIMMUNE HEPATITIS IN A PATIENT: A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Jakkal Darpan; Solanke Sachin

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis A virus is an infectious agent known to trigger autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). We present a case in a 40years old woman with Autoimmune hepatitis who presented 4 months after viral hepatits A infection. Diagnosis of hepatitis A virus was attributed on viral serological tests and autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) in accordance with international autoimmune hepatitis group system. [1] She is in remission with steroid therapy. The case we present is unusual with paucity ob...

  6. Acute Hepatitis Induced by Alpha-Interferon in a Patient with Chronic Hepatitis C

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Kraus; Dinko Vitezic

    2001-01-01

    Hepatic adverse effects occur very rarely with alpha-interferon therapy. A case of acute hepatitis induced by alpha-interferon in a 33-year-old man with chronic hepatitis C is described. The patient developed acute hepatitis with very high aminotransferase activity and jaundice. After discontinuing alpha-interferon therapy, hepatitis resolved rapidly. The immune-mediated mechanism is the most probable cause of this hepatitis.

  7. Update on autoimmune hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas Teufel; Peter R Galle; Stephan Kanzler

    2009-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a necroinflammatory liver disease of unknown etiology that occurs in children and adults of all ages. Characteristics are its autoimmune features, hyperglobulinemia (IgG), and the presence of circulating autoantibodies, as well as a response to immunosuppressant drugs. Current treatment consists of prednisone and azathioprine and in most patients this disease has become very treatable. Over the past 2 years, a couple of new insights into the genetic aspects, clinical course and treatment of AIH have been reported, which will be the focus of this review. In particular, we concentrate on genome-wide microsatellite analysis, a novel mouse model of AIH, the evaluation of a large AIH cohort for overlap syndromes,suggested novel criteria for the diagnosis of AIH, and the latest studies on treatment of AIH with budenoside and mycophenolate mofetil.

  8. Hepatitis B in pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guglielmo Borgia; Maria Aurora Carleo; Giovanni Battista Gaeta; Ivan Gentile

    2012-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection affects about 350 million individuals worldwide.Management of HBV infection in pregnancy is difficult because of several peculiar and somewhat controversial aspects.The aim of the present review is to provide a tool that may help physicians to correctly manage HBV infection in pregnancy.This review focuses on (1) the effect of pregnancy on HBV infection and of HBV infection on pregnancy; (2) the potential viral transmission from mother to newborn despite at-birth prophylaxis with immunoglobulin and vaccine; (3) possible prevention of mother-to-child transmission through antiviral drugs,the type of antiviral drug to use considering their efficacy and potential teratogenic effect,and the timing of their administration and discontinuation; and (4) the evidence for the use of elective caesarean section vs vaginal delivery and the possibility of breastfeeding.

  9. Hepatitis C: extrahepatic manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metts, Julius; Carmichael, Lesley; Kokor, Winfred; Scharffenberg, Robert

    2014-12-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with multiple extrahepatic manifestations (EHM) affecting various organs in the body. Approximately 40% to 75% of patients with chronic HCV infection experience at least one clinical EHM during the course of the HCV infection. Mixed cryoglobulinemia (type 2) is the most documented EHM associated with chronic HCV infection. This has been documented in up to 50% of patients. Clinically, it presents as arthralgia, weakness, and cutaneous symptoms. Morphologically, immune complex depositions are identified in small vessels and glomerular capillary walls, leading to leukocytoclastic vasculitis in the skin and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis in the kidney. In other EHMs of chronic HCV infection not related to cryoglobulinemia, such as Sjögren syndrome, lichen planus, and autoimmune thyroiditis, autoimmune processes resulting in chronic inflammatory infiltrates are thought to be the underlying mechanism.

  10. The epidemiology of viral hepatitis in Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bener Abdulbari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis is a major public health problem in many countries all over the world and especially in Middle East, Asia, East-Europe, and Africa. The aim of our study was to assess the incidence of viral hepatitis A, B and C in Qatar and compare it with other countries. This is a retrospective cohort study, which was conducted at Hamad General Hospital, State of Qatar from 2002-2006. Patients who were screened and diagnosed with viral hepatitis were included in this study. The diagnostic classification of definite viral hepatitis was made in accordance with criteria based on the International Classification of Disease tenth revision (ICD-10. A total of 527 cases of hepatitis C, 396 cases of hepatitis B, 162 cases of hepatitis A and 108 cases of unspecified were reported during the year 2006. Reported incidence rate per 10,000 populations during the year 2006 for hepatitis A was 1.9, hepatitis B 4.7, and Hepatitis C 6.3. The proportion of hepatitis B and C was significantly higher in male population than females across the years (2002-2006. Hepatitis A was more prevalent in children below 15 years (72.3%, hepatitis B in adults aged above 15 years, and hepatitis C in the population above 35 years of age. The incidence of hepatitis A has been declining in Qataris and increasing in expatriates. There was a significant relationship in gender and age group of the patients with hepatitis A, B and C. We conclude that hepatitis has become a national health issue in Qatar. The incidence rate of hepatitis in Qatar is comparable to its neighboring countries, United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia. There is a need for further research on hepatitis and the associated risk factors.

  11. Hepatitis Virus Infections in Poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yugo, Danielle M; Hauck, Ruediger; Shivaprasad, H L; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2016-09-01

    Viral hepatitis in poultry is a complex disease syndrome caused by several viruses belonging to different families including avian hepatitis E virus (HEV), duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV), duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV-1, -2, -3), duck hepatitis virus Types 2 and 3, fowl adenoviruses (FAdV), and turkey hepatitis virus (THV). While these hepatitis viruses share the same target organ, the liver, they each possess unique clinical and biological features. In this article, we aim to review the common and unique features of major poultry hepatitis viruses in an effort to identify the knowledge gaps and aid the prevention and control of poultry viral hepatitis. Avian HEV is an Orthohepevirus B in the family Hepeviridae that naturally infects chickens and consists of three distinct genotypes worldwide. Avian HEV is associated with hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome or big liver and spleen disease in chickens, although the majority of the infected birds are subclinical. Avihepadnaviruses in the family of Hepadnaviridae have been isolated from ducks, snow geese, white storks, grey herons, cranes, and parrots. DHBV evolved with the host as a noncytopathic form without clinical signs and rarely progressed to chronicity. The outcome for DHBV infection varies by the host's ability to elicit an immune response and is dose and age dependent in ducks, thus mimicking the pathogenesis of human hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections and providing an excellent animal model for human HBV. DHAV is a picornavirus that causes a highly contagious virus infection in ducks with up to 100% flock mortality in ducklings under 6 wk of age, while older birds remain unaffected. The high morbidity and mortality has an economic impact on intensive duck production farming. Duck hepatitis virus Types 2 and 3 are astroviruses in the family of Astroviridae with similarity phylogenetically to turkey astroviruses, implicating the potential for cross-species infections between strains. Duck astrovirus (DAstV) causes

  12. Dopamine agents for hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junker, Anders Ellekær; Als-Nielsen, Bodil; Gluud, Christian

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with hepatic encephalopathy may present with extrapyramidal symptoms and changes in basal ganglia. These changes are similar to those seen in patients with Parkinson's disease. Dopamine agents (such as bromocriptine and levodopa, used for patients with Parkinson's disease) have...... therefore been assessed as a potential treatment for patients with hepatic encephalopathy. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the beneficial and harmful effects of dopamine agents versus placebo or no intervention for patients with hepatic encephalopathy. SEARCH METHODS: Trials were identified through the Cochrane...... of the trials followed participants after the end of treatment. Only one trial reported adequate bias control; the remaining four trials were considered to have high risk of bias. Random-effects model meta-analyses showed that dopamine agents had no beneficial or detrimental effect on hepatic encephalopathy...

  13. RHEUMATIC MANIFESTATIONS IN VIRAL HEPATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L P Anan'eva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune reactions are of primary importance in the development of extrahepatic manifestations of viral hepatitis, among which there are rheumatic symptoms and syndromes. The incidence of clinically significant extrahepatic manifestations is shown to be relatively low, but they may be in the foreground in the clinical picture of the disease and are noted for severity. It is concluded that due to the high prevalence of hepatitis and the systemic pattern of their chronic forms, patients with extrahepatic manifestations of viral hepatitis may be encountered in the practice of a therapist and a rheumatologist. The onset of the infection caused by hepatitis viruses may be accompanied by articular lesion therefore the rheumatologist may be the first physician such a patient may resort to.

  14. RHEUMATIC MANIFESTATIONS IN VIRAL HEPATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L P Anan'eva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune reactions are of primary importance in the development of extrahepatic manifestations of viral hepatitis, among which there are rheumatic symptoms and syndromes. The incidence of clinically significant extrahepatic manifestations is shown to be relatively low, but they may be in the foreground in the clinical picture of the disease and are noted for severity. It is concluded that due to the high prevalence of hepatitis and the systemic pattern of their chronic forms, patients with extrahepatic manifestations of viral hepatitis may be encountered in the practice of a therapist and a rheumatologist. The onset of the infection caused by hepatitis viruses may be accompanied by articular lesion therefore the rheumatologist may be the first physician such a patient may resort to.

  15. Treatment strategy for hepatic trauma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu-Yong Yu; Qu-Jin Li; Jian-Ping Gong

    2016-01-01

    Liver is one of the organs with the highest injury rate,and in recent decades,the guidelines for the treatment of liver trauma have changed considerably.Now,there is a growing consensus that the most important step is diagnosis and depending upon the degree of severity,non-operative therapy is the main treatment method for hepatic trauma if conditions permit.For serious hepatic trauma patients such as those with hemodynamic instability,they should be operated upon as soon as possible.Regardless of the surgical options,doctors should control damage to patients and try to prevent complications.New therapies such as hepatic artery embolization and liver transplantation have been more and more used for the treatment of serious hepatic damage in clinics.

  16. Current Knowledge on Hepatitis E

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Gracia, María Teresa; García, Mario; Suay, Beatriz; Mateos-Lindemann, María Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Although only a single serotype of hepatitis E virus (HEV), the causative agent of hepatitis E, has been identified, there is great genetic variation among the different HEV isolates reported. There are at least four major recognized genotypes of HEV: genotypes 1 and 2 are mainly restricted to humans and linked to epidemic outbreaks in nonindustrialized countries, whereas genotypes 3 and 4 are zoonotic in both developing and industrialized countries. Besides human strains, genotype 3 and 4 st...

  17. SEROPREVALENCE OF HEPATITIS C VIRUS IN HEPATIC DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syeda Amtul

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Seroprevalence of Hepatitis C virus among hepatic disorder patients. Various hepatic disorders like Hepatitis, cirrhosis & HCC cause multi organ failure leading to death. The most important viral cause of hepatic disorders after HBV is HCV. Hence this study is conducted to aid in early detection & treatment & its prevention in community. The study is conducted on 100 confirmed hepatic disorder patients from Gastro intestinal ward of Osmania General Hospital, Hydera bad. ELISA was done at Osmania General Hospital & Osmania Medical College, Hyderabad PCR was done at Deccan College of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad. Third generation ELISA containing an antigen derived from the Non - structural NS5 region which encodes as RNA polymerase was used. Principle of the test: Sandwich principle - Enzyme immune assay. Guanidine Isothyocyanite Method (GITC of PCRELISA: Total No: of anti HCV antibody positive cases in our study were 5% &HBV +HCV cases were 1%.All positive cases were abov e the age of 40 yrs.HCV positivity ratio among Male: Female was1:1.45.HCV was detected to be maximum in HCC (20%.followed by Hepatitis (9% & then Cirrhosis (7%. PCR: All the 5 anti HCV antibody positive cases detected by ELISA were also detected to be p ositive for HCV - RNA by RT - PCR in all samples. The sample positive for HBV+HCV by ELISA also showed positive for HBV DNA by PCR and HCV RNA by RT - PCR Various hepatic disorders like CAH, Cirrhosis and HCC caused by HBV and HCV have become a major public heal th problem throughout the world.HCC is one of the ten most common cancers in the world and is the only cancer which can be prevented by vaccination.HCV infection can be transmitted by blood transmission, injectable drugs, perinatally, improperly sterilized dialysis equipment, unprotected sex with infected partner specially MSM group and with other STDs & HIV Hence this study is conducted to aid in early detection and treatment and its prevention in community Comparison of

  18. Subacute fulminant hepatic failure with intermittent fever

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cong-Xin Chen; Bo Liu; Yong Hu; Joyce E. Johnson; Yi-Wei Tang

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Viral hepatitis B accounts for over 80%of acute hepatic failures in China and the patients die mainly of its complications. A patient with hepatic failure and fever is not uncommon, whereas repeated fever is rare. METHODS:A 32-year-old female was diagnosed with subacute hepatic failure and hepatitis B viral infection because of hyperbilirubinemia, coagulopathy, hepatic encephalopathy, serum anti-HBs-positive without hepatitis B vaccination, and typical intrahepatic pathological features of chronic hepatitis B. Plasma exchange was administered twice and she awoke with hyperbilirubinemia and discontinuous fever. RESULTS:Urethritis was conifrmed and medication-induced fever and/or spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (Gram-negative bacillus infection) was suspected. The patient was treated with antibiotics, steroids and a Chinese herbal medicine, matrine, for three months and she recovered. CONCLUSION:The survival rate of patients with hepatic failure might be improved with comprehensive supporting measures and appropriate, timely management of com-plications.

  19. Hepatitis C: Questions to Ask Your Doctor about Your Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Ask Your Doctor about Your Diagnosis Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... me? Other questions you want to ask: ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ Search Hepatitis Search this website Submit Share this page Related ...

  20. Hepatitis C: Questions to Ask Your Doctor about Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Questions to Ask Your Doctor about Treatment Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... treatment? Other questions you want to ask: _______________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ Search Hepatitis Search this website Submit Share this page Related ...

  1. Seroepidemiology of hepatitis A and hepatitis B virus in Luxembourg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossong, J; Putz, L; Patiny, S; Schneider, F

    2006-08-01

    A prospective seroepidemiological survey was carried out in Luxembourg in 2000-2001 to determine the antibody status of the Luxembourg population against hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). One of the objectives of this survey was to assess the impact of the hepatitis B vaccination programme, which started in May 1996 and included a catch-up campaign for all adolescents aged 12-15 years. Venous blood from 2679 individuals was screened for the presence of antibodies to HAV antigen and antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) using an enzyme immunoassay. Samples positive for anti-HBs were tested for antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) using a chemiluminiscent microparticle immunoassay to distinguish between individuals with past exposure to vaccine or natural infection. The estimated age-standardized anti-HAV seroprevalence was 42.0% [95% confidence interval (CI) 39.8-44.1] in the population >4 years of age. Seroprevalence was age-dependent and highest in adult immigrants from Portugal and the former Yugoslavia. The age-standardized prevalence of anti-HBs and anti-HBc was estimated at 19.7% (95% CI 18.1-21.3) and 3.16% (95% CI 2.2-4.1) respectively. Anti-HBs seroprevalence exceeding 50% was found in the cohorts targeted by the routine hepatitis B vaccination programme, which started in 1996. Our study illustrates that most young people in Luxembourg are susceptible to HAV infection and that the hepatitis B vaccination programme is having a substantial impact on population immunity in children and teenagers.

  2. De Novo Hepatitis B Infection From Hepatitis B Core Antibody-Positive Donors During Hepatitis B Immunoglobulin Prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Milljae; Chang, Seong-Hwan

    2016-02-01

    De novo hepatitis B infection in patients receiving liver transplants from hepatitis B core antibody-positive donors is well known, but the effective prevention strategy has not been well established. In our hospital, recipients receive hepatitis B immunoglobulin monotherapy if they are hepatitis B surface antigen negative at the time of transplant and are receiving a liver from a hepatitis B core antibody-positive donor. Since August 2006, we have had 4 patients who were naïve to hepatitis B virus and received a hepatitis B core antibody-positive graft. Two patients died of other causes, and 2 patients, who had liver transplant in October 2006 and October 2009, developed de novo hepatitis B. Both patients were tested annually for serum hepatitis B surface antigen as part of routine visit. Tests were negative; however, both patients recently became hepatitis B surface antigen positive. Other laboratory results, including liver function test, were unremarkable, except HBsAb titer was undetectable even though hepatitis B immunoglobulin monotherapy had been administrated 2 months previously in both patients. The patients had hepatitis B virus DNA levels of 3.07E+08 copies/mL and 1.51E+08 copies/mL. We suggest that additional prophylactic therapies above hepatitis B immunoglobulin monotherapy are needed for these recipients.

  3. [Vaccination against hepatitis A].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balli, F; Di Biase, A R; Viola, L

    1996-01-01

    The epidemiology of hepatitis A, a disease endemic in various countries, is in a state of continuous change. Adults are more exposed to infection and considering the frequent absence of immunity, in contrast to children in whom the disease is almost always asymptomatic, the disease is often serious and prolonged with a mortality of up to 2.5%. The mode of transmission of HAV is predominantly the fecal-oral route; the virus is isolated during the prodromic period of the disease from the feces, blood, bile and seminal fluid. The virus can also be found in saliva (OMS '95); in addition it may also be transmitted by the maternal-fetal route. The HAV infects cells in vitro but does not cause a direct cytopathic effect. At the beginning of the acute phase of the disease the production of anti-HAV antibodies is of the IgM type followed later by IgG. Some studies have shown a potential role of cellular immunity in clearance of the virus from the hepatocytes and in the pathogenesis of the infection of HAV. The efficacy of immunoglobulin serum in the prevention of hepatitis A has been demonstrated since 1944. As regards active immunity two types of vaccinations have been prepared. One with live attenuated HAV carried by either bacteria or virus. The other, killed inactivated HAV, HAV capsule, antigenic subunit, synthetic peptides, anti-idiotypes or virosomes. The recent literature describe the vaccine produced by Merck Sharp & Dohme and by Smith Kline Beecham (SKB); both vaccines are made from HAV, grown in vitro, inactivated with formalin and adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide. The protection of the vaccine begins 14 days after administration and lasts from one month to one year. Numerous studies have been conducted which have shown that the vaccine is effective when given in 2 doses and confers protection against HAV for at least one year. The results have shown that the vaccination causes seroconversion in approximately 100% of subjects, and does not cause serious side

  4. [Prevention of virus hepatitis A to E].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornberg, M; Manns, M P

    2011-03-01

    Infection with hepatitis viruses can lead to acute hepatitis with the risk of developing liver failure. Chronic viral hepatitis may evolve into liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Thus, prevention of viral hepatitis and its sequels is essential. Vaccination against hepatitis A is successful in almost all individuals. Protective antibodies maintain for at least 20 years. Booster vaccinations are not necessary. Since the introduction of hepatitis A vaccines, the incidence of new HAV-infections has declined significantly. Hepatitis B vaccines are safe and highly effective. Special populations such as dialysis patients or immunocompromised patients require special vaccine schedules. New vaccines with improved adjuvants are currently being tested in clinical trials. So far there is no hepatitis C vaccine on the horizon. Prophylaxis of HCV-infections relies primarily on hygiene measures. Early therapy of acute hepatitis C can prevent chronic hepatitis C. HDV-infection can only be established if HBsAg is present. Thus, prevention of hepatitis B or elimination of HBsAg means prevention of hepatitis delta. Hepatitis E vaccines have been evaluated in phase III studies. The development of HEV vaccines becomes more relevant since chronic HEV infections have been reported in immunosuppressed individuals.

  5. Hepatitis C virus proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jean Dubuisson

    2007-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) encodes a single polyprotein,which is processed by cellular and viral proteases to generate 10 polypeptides. The HCV genome also contains an overlapping +1 reading frame that may lead to the synthesis of an additional protein. Until recently,studies of HCV have been hampered by the lack of a productive cell culture system. Since the identification of HCV genome approximately 17 years ago, structural,biochemical and biological information on HCV proteins has mainly been obtained with proteins produced by heterologous expression systems. In addition, some functional studies have also been confirmed with replicon systems or with retroviral particles pseudotyped with HCV envelope glycoproteins. The data that have accumulated on HCV proteins begin to provide a framework for understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the major steps of HCV life cycle. Moreover,the knowledge accumulated on HCV proteins is also leading to the development of antiviral drugs among which some are showing promising results in early-phase clinical trials. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the functions and biochemical features of HCV proteins.

  6. Hepatitis B virus morphogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) particle consists of an envelope containing three related surface proteins and probably lipid and an icosahedral nucleocapsid of approximately 30 nm diameter enclosing the viral DNA genome and DNA polymerase. The capsid is formed in the cytosol of the infected cell during packaging of an RNA pregenome replication complex by multiple copies of a 21-kDa C protein. The capsid gains the ability to bud during synthesis of the viral DNA genome by reverse transcription of the pregenome in the lumen of the particle. The three envelope proteins S,M, and L shape a complex transmembrane fold at the endoplasmic reticulum, and form disulfide-linked homoand heterodimers. The transmembrane topology of a fraction of the large envelope protein L changes posttranslationally, therefore, the N terminal domain of L (preS) finally appears on both sides of the membrane.During budding at an intracellular membrane, a short linear domain in the cytosolic preS region interacts with binding sites on the capsid surface. The virions are subsequently secreted into the blood. In addition, the surface proteins can bud in the absence of capsids and form subviral lipoprotein particles of 20 nm diameter which are also secreted.

  7. Hepatitis B virus replication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Hepadnaviruses, including human hepatitis B virus (HBV), replicate through reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate, the pregenomic RNA (pgRNA). Despite this kinship to retroviruses, there are fundamental differences beyond the fact that hepadnavirions contain DNA instead of RNA. Most peculiar is the initiation of reverse transcription: it occurs by protein-priming, is strictly committed to using an RNA hairpin on the pgRNA,ε, as template, and depends on cellular chaperones;moreover, proper replication can apparently occur only in the specialized environment of intact nucleocapsids.This complexity has hampered an in-depth mechanistic understanding. The recent successful reconstitution in the test tube of active replication initiation complexes from purified components, for duck HBV (DHBV),now allows for the analysis of the biochemistry of hepadnaviral replication at the molecular level. Here we review the current state of knowledge at all steps of the hepadnaviral genome replication cycle, with emphasis on new insights that turned up by the use of such cellfree systems. At this time, they can, unfortunately,not be complemented by three-dimensional structural information on the involved components. However, at least for the s RNA element such information is emerging,raising expectations that combining biophysics with biochemistry and genetics will soon provide a powerful integrated approach for solving the many outstanding questions. The ultimate, though most challenging goal,will be to visualize the hepadnaviral reverse transcriptase in the act of synthesizing DNA, which will also have strong implications for drug development.

  8. Hepatitis B immunisation in persons not previously exposed to hepatitis B or with unknown exposure status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathew, Joseph L; El Dib, Regina; Mathew, Preethy J

    2008-01-01

    The benefits and harms of hepatitis B vaccination in persons not previously exposed to hepatitis B infection or with unknown exposure status have not been established.......The benefits and harms of hepatitis B vaccination in persons not previously exposed to hepatitis B infection or with unknown exposure status have not been established....

  9. Effect of hepatitis B immunisation in newborn infants of mothers positive for hepatitis B surface antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Chuanfang; Gong, Yan; Brok, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of hepatitis B vaccine and immunoglobulin in newborn infants of mothers positive for hepatitis B surface antigen.......To evaluate the effects of hepatitis B vaccine and immunoglobulin in newborn infants of mothers positive for hepatitis B surface antigen....

  10. Bivalent inactivated hepatitis A and recombinant hepatitis B vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Jiri

    2007-12-01

    Hepatitis A and B remain serious global public health problems. Monovalent vaccines against hepatitis A and B have been available for many years. Since 1996, licenses have been gradually introduced for different formulations and immunization schedules of the first combined vaccines against both diseases. Twinrix Adult (with conventional and accelerated schedules) is available for the immunization of individuals aged 16 years or older in Europe and 18 years or older the USA. Twinrix Pediatric, with its three-dose schedule, and AmBirix, with its two-dose schedule, are licensed in Europe for ages 1-15 years. These vaccines offer a single injection for satisfactory protection against hepatitis A and B and an excellent safety and reactogenicity profile in comparison with monovalent vaccines. This article focuses on immunogenicity of the vaccines and proposes expert opinion and future directions in this field.

  11. Hepatic Diacylglycerol-Associated Protein Kinase Cε Translocation Links Hepatic Steatosis to Hepatic Insulin Resistance in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper W. ter Horst

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic lipid accumulation has been implicated in the development of insulin resistance, but translational evidence in humans is limited. We investigated the relationship between liver fat and tissue-specific insulin sensitivity in 133 obese subjects. Although the presence of hepatic steatosis in obese subjects was associated with hepatic, adipose tissue, and peripheral insulin resistance, we found that intrahepatic triglycerides were not strictly sufficient or essential for hepatic insulin resistance. Thus, to examine the molecular mechanisms that link hepatic steatosis to hepatic insulin resistance, we comprehensively analyzed liver biopsies from a subset of 29 subjects. Here, hepatic cytosolic diacylglycerol content, but not hepatic ceramide content, was increased in subjects with hepatic insulin resistance. Moreover, cytosolic diacylglycerols were strongly associated with hepatic PKCε activation, as reflected by PKCε translocation to the plasma membrane. These results demonstrate the relevance of hepatic diacylglycerol-induced PKCε activation in the pathogenesis of NAFLD-associated hepatic insulin resistance in humans.

  12. One Family's Struggles with Hepatitis B

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... GETVAXED print ads go to GETVAXED.ORG cme Immunizations Hepatitis B One family's struggles with hepatitis B ... not possible without a visit to your doctor. Immunizations stop disease from spreading. Check with your family ...

  13. One Family's Struggles with Hepatitis B

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... kids infect kids labs links & resources milk thistle pediatric hepatitis report someone you know has hbv/hcv ... morrow scholarship links & resources listservs need more help? pediatric hepatitis report infection protection bioterrorism five second rule ...

  14. Parvovirus B19 Associated Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihari, Chhagan; Rastogi, Archana; Saxena, Priyanka; Rangegowda, Devraj; Chowdhury, Ashok; Gupta, Nalini; Sarin, Shiv Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 infection can present with myriads of clinical diseases and syndromes; liver manifestations and hepatitis are examples of them. Parvovirus B19 hepatitis associated aplastic anemia and its coinfection with other hepatotropic viruses are relatively underrecognized, and there is sufficient evidence in the literature suggesting that B19 infections can cause a spectrum of liver diseases from elevation of transaminases to acute hepatitis to fulminant liver failure and even chronic hepatitis. It can also cause fatal macrophage activation syndrome and fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis. Parvovirus B19 is an erythrovirus that can only be replicate in pronormoblasts and hepatocytes, and other cells which have globosides and glycosphingolipids in their membrane can also be affected by direct virus injury due to nonstructural protein 1 persistence and indirectly by immune mediated injury. The virus infection is suspected in bone marrow aspiration in cases with sudden drop of hemoglobin and onset of transient aplastic anemia in immunosuppressed or immunocompetent patients and is confirmed either by IgM and IgG positive serology, PCR analysis, and in situ hybridization in biopsy specimens or by application of both. There is no specific treatment for parvovirus B19 related liver diseases, but triple therapy regimen may be effective consisting of immunoglobulin, dehydrohydrocortisone, and cyclosporine. PMID:24232179

  15. Immunological techniques in viral hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehermann, Barbara; Naoumov, Nikolai V

    2007-03-01

    The need to quantitate and monitor immune responses of large patient cohorts with standardized techniques is increasing due to the growing range of treatment options for hepatitis B and hepatitis C, the development of combination therapies, and candidate experimental vaccines for HCV. In addition, advances in immunological techniques have provided new tools for detailed phenotypic and functional analysis of cellular immune responses. At present, there is substantial variation in laboratory protocols, reagents, controls and analysis and presentation of results. Standardization of immunological assays would therefore allow better comparison of results amongst individual laboratories and patient cohorts. The EASL-sponsored and AASLD-endorsed Monothematic Conference on Clinical Immunology in Viral Hepatitis was held at the University College London, United Kingdom, Oct 7-8, 2006 to bring together investigators with research experience in clinical immunology of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections for in-depth discussion, critical evaluation and standardization of immunological assays. This report summarizes the information presented and discussed at the conference, but is not intended to represent a consensus statement. Our aim is to highlight topics and issues that were supported by general agreement and those that were controversial, as well as to provide suggestions for future work.

  16. Antiviral therapy for hepatitis B virus associated hepatic failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Ming Wang; Ying-Zi Tang

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a major global health issue, and the prognosis of patients with HBV-associated fulminant hepatic failure is extremely poor. The application of antiviral therapies has led to signiifcant improvements in patient outcomes. This article aimed to review the current strategies in antiviral treatment of HBV-associated fulminant hepatic failure. DATA SOURCES: Literature search was conducted using PubMed on the related subjects. Part of the data was from the most recent work of the authors' laboratory. RESULTS: Hepatitis B immunoglobulin in prevention of recurrent HBV infection after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) has been proven effective. However, its cost is high, and signiifcant side effects have been found to induce viral mutations. Lamivudine has a potent suppression for HBV replication and an excellent safety proifle in decompensated cirrhotic patients, but its major drawback is the high rate of drug-resistance. Adefovir is effective for lamivudine-resistance strains in the post-OLT situation, and its drug-resistance rate is relatively low. Combination therapies such as hepatitis B immunoglobulin combined with lamivudine and lamivudine combined with adefovir have been widely adopted for prophylaxis against HBV recurrence of infection after OLT. Entecavir, telbivudine, tenofovir and other newer agents have been widely used in antiviral therapy. CONCLUSIONS: The prognosis of HBV-associated ful-minant hepatic failure is being transformed by developments in antiviral therapy. However, it should be noticed that HBV is controlled but never eliminated, and drug-resistance still remains a major issue. Hopefully, newer strategies may help to solve these problems.

  17. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and hepatic cirrhosis: Comparison with viral hepatitis-associated steatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haga, Yuki; Kanda, Tatsuo; Sasaki, Reina; Nakamura, Masato; Nakamoto, Shingo; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2015-12-14

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) including nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is globally increasing and has become a world-wide health problem. Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus (HCV) is associated with hepatic steatosis. Viral hepatitis-associated hepatic steatosis is often caused by metabolic syndrome including obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or dyslipidemia. It has been reported that HCV genotype 3 exerts direct metabolic effects that lead to hepatic steatosis. In this review, the differences between NAFLD/NASH and viral hepatitis-associated steatosis are discussed.

  18. Diagnosis and Management of Hepatic Encephalopathy in Fulminant Hepatic Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodali, Sudha; McGuire, Brendan M

    2015-08-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is associated with cerebral edema (CE), increased intracranial pressure (ICP), and subsequent neurologic complications; it is the most important cause of morbidity and mortality in fulminant hepatic failure. The goal of therapy should be early diagnosis and treatment of HE with measures to reduce CE. A combination of clinical examination and diagnostic modalities can aid in prompt diagnosis. ICP monitoring and transcranial Doppler help diagnose and monitor response to treatment. Transfer to a transplant center and intensive care unit admission with airway management and reduction of CE with hypertonic saline, mannitol, hypothermia, and sedation are recommended as a bridge to liver transplantation.

  19. Severe Acute Hepatitis B Treated with Entecavir

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe Vittorio Luigi De Socio; Alessio Sgrelli; Andrea Tosti; Franco Baldelli

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection constitutes a serious global health problem. Nowadays there are divergent data regarding the use of antiviral drugs to treat acute hepatitis B. We present here a case of a 62-year-old man affected by severe acute hepatitis B with progressive worsening of clinical and hepatic function. The patient was treated with entecavir without critical side effects. We observed rapid clinical and laboratory improvements and the disappearance of surface antigen (HBsAg). Th...

  20. Pediatric knowledge about acute viral hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Franca,Rita; Silva,Luciana; Melo, Maria Clotildes; Cavalcante,Suzy; Lima, Bruno; Rocha, Anita; Gomes, Cristiana; Franca, Mônica

    2004-01-01

    p.227-235 Knowledge about hepatotropic viruses is crucial for pediatricians because of the high prevalence of viral hepatitis during childhood. The multiplicity of hepatotropic viruses, the spectrum of acute and chronic infections, and the sequels of viral hepatitis result in a need for physicians to better understand the clinical and epidemiological context of patients with viral hepatitis, as well as the importance of prevention measures for hepatitis. A descriptive cross-sectional study...

  1. Institute of Medicine's Report on Viral Hepatitis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-18

    In this podcast, Dr. John Ward, Director of CDC’s Division of Viral Hepatitis, discusses the 2010 report, Hepatitis and Liver Cancer: A National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B and C, from the Institute of Medicine.  Created: 5/18/2010 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 5/18/2010.

  2. Primary hepatic carcinosarcoma:a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王细文; 梁平; 李洪艳

    2004-01-01

    @@ Primary hepatic carcinosarcoma is defined as a malignant hepatic tumour containing both carcinomatous and sarcomatous elements. Strictly, it should be distinguished from collision tumour and carcinoma with foci of spindle-shaped epithelial cells. Primary hepatic carcinosarcoma is rare, and less than 11 adequately documented cases have been reported. In this article, a case of primary hepatic carcinosarcoma was discussed as to its potential histogenesis.

  3. Hepatitis E in Europe: Diagnosis and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a single-stranded, non-enveloped, positive-stranded RNA virus that can be classified into four genotypes with distinct geographical distributions. Several reservoirs and transmission routes have been identified. The clinical symptoms of acute hepatitis caused by the different genotypes cannot be distinguished from each other and are similar to those caused by other types of hepatitis. In developed countries, fulminant hepatitis can develop in patients with underlyin...

  4. Benzodiazepine receptor antagonists for hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, B; Gluud, L L; Gluud, C

    2004-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy may be associated with accumulation of substances that bind to a receptor-complex in the brain resulting in neural inhibition. Benzodiazepine receptor antagonists may have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy.......Hepatic encephalopathy may be associated with accumulation of substances that bind to a receptor-complex in the brain resulting in neural inhibition. Benzodiazepine receptor antagonists may have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy....

  5. Cost effectiveness of hepatitis A/B versus hepatitis B vaccination for US prison inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, R Jake; Rosenthal, Philip; Meyerhoff, Allen S

    2004-03-12

    Hepatitis B immunization is provided in many US prison systems. We examined the cost effectiveness of substituting bivalent hepatitis A/B vaccine in this setting, considering regional variation in hepatitis A risks and the potential for disease transmission by former prisoners. Where hepatitis A rates are >200, 100-200, and effectiveness would be US$ Prison-based hepatitis A/B immunization would meet accepted standards of cost effectiveness throughout the US.

  6. Direct acting antiviral therapy is curative for chronic hepatitis C/autoimmune hepatitis overlap syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farhad; Sahebjam; Cristina; H; Hajdu; Esther; Nortey; Samuel; H; Sigal

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune phenomena are common in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Management of chronic hepatitis C/autoimmune hepatitis syndrome has until recently been problematic due to the adverse effects of interferon on autoimmune processes and immunosuppression on viral replication. In this report we describe 3 patients with chronic hepatitis C/autoimmune hepatitis overlap syndrome who responded rapidly to direct acting antiviral therapy. The resolution of the autoimmune process supports a direct viral role in its pathophysiology.

  7. Hepatite C Hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Strauss

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Estima-se que cerca de 3% da população mundial esteja infectada pelo vírus da hepatite C. Todos os que receberam transfusão de sangue ou seus componentes e os usuários de drogas podem estar infectados. Procedimentos odontológicos, médicos, tatuagem ou acupuntura também constituem fatores de risco. A infecção se cronifica em até 85% dos indivíduos, com evolução assintomática durante anos ou décadas e apresentação clínica variada. Para o diagnóstico, a determinação do anti-VHC revela-se muito sensível e a confirmação se faz pela determinação do RNA-VHC no sangue; o estadiamento da doença e a avaliação da atividade inflamatória pela biópsia hepática. O tratamento objetiva deter a progressão da doença hepática através da inibição da replicação viral. Devido à baixa eficácia terapêutica aliada a importantes efeitos colaterais do interferon e da ribavirina, esses medicamentos encontram indicações e contra-indicações específicas. Vários fatores preditivos de resposta ao tratamento, principalmente a carga viral e o genótipo do VHC, mostram-se úteis na avaliação dos pacientes.It has been estimated that 3% of the world population is infected with the hepatitis C virus. Those who are blood product recipients or have been illicit drug users are at risk. Dental and medical procedures as well as tattooing and acupuncture are also risk factors. Chronic infection occurs in up to 85% of infected cases but they may remain without symptoms during years or even decades, and clinical presentation varies. Determination of anti-HCV in sera is a fairly sensitive tool for the diagnosis, and confirmation requires the identification of HCV-RNA. Staging of the liver disease as well as definition of its present activity can be graded by liver biopsy. The aim of treatment is to stop the progression of the hepatic disease by inhibiting viral replication. Due to the low therapeutic efficacy combined with important side

  8. Studies on Hepatitis B vaccination in neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. del Canho (Riwka)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractFrom 1982-1989, 705 infants born to HBsAg positive mothers entered the Dutch neonatal hepatitis B vaccination program and received passive-active hepatitis B immunization, according to 6 schedules, varying in time of onset vaccination, dose of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBlg) and type

  9. Chinese medicinal herbs for chronic hepatitis B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, J; McIntosh, H; Lin, Haili

    2001-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B is a serious health problem worldwide. Chinese medicinal herbs are widely used for treatment of chronic hepatitis B in China and many clinical trials have been conducted. This systematic review is to assess the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicinal herbs for chronic hepatitis...... B....

  10. Hepatitis E in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Hannah C; Boisson, Sophie; Ijaz, Samreen; Hewitt, Kirsten; Ngui, Siew Lin; Boxall, Elizabeth; Teo, Chong Gee; Morgan, Dilys

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, 329 cases of hepatitis E virus infection were confirmed in England and Wales; 33 were confirmed indigenous infections, and a further 67 were estimated to be indigenous infections. Hepatitis E should be considered in the investigation of patients with hepatitis even if they have no history of travel.

  11. Hepatitis Testing: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Chemistry) Hepatitis C: Information on Testing and Diagnosis (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) - PDF Hepatitis C: Why Baby Boomers Should Get Tested (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) - PDF Screening for Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Nonpregnant Adolescents and Adults (U.S. ...

  12. 78 FR 46247 - World Hepatitis Day, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... disease that afflicts one in twelve people worldwide. Viral hepatitis is a major cause of liver cancer and... significantly improve with treatment, but because viral hepatitis can be present without symptoms for decades... treating viral hepatitis, and we renew our commitment to combat this disease in all its forms. Public...

  13. Drug Use and Viral Infections (HIV, Hepatitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics Global Health Health Consequences of Drug Misuse Hepatitis (Viral) HIV/AIDS Mental Health Military Opioid Overdose Reversal ... Publications » DrugFacts » Drug Use and Viral Infections (HIV, Hepatitis) Drug Use and Viral Infections (HIV, Hepatitis) Email Facebook Twitter Revised March ...

  14. Lamivudine Treatment for Chronic Hepatitis B

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Honkoop (Pieter)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractThe hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the smallest human viruses known and belongs to the family of Hepadnaviridae; it was the first human hepatitis virus that could be characterized. Before the discovery of the virus two types of transmission of infectious hepatitis were distinguished o

  15. Studies on Hepatitis B vaccination in neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. del Canho (Riwka)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractFrom 1982-1989, 705 infants born to HBsAg positive mothers entered the Dutch neonatal hepatitis B vaccination program and received passive-active hepatitis B immunization, according to 6 schedules, varying in time of onset vaccination, dose of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBlg) and type a

  16. Clinical application of hepatic CT perfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Zhong; Wen-Jing Wang; Jian-Rong Xu

    2009-01-01

    Complicated changes occur in hemodynamics of hepatic artery and vein, and portal vein under various kinds of pathologic status because of distinct double hepatic blood supply. This article reviews the clinical application of hepatic computed tomography perfusion in some liver diseases.

  17. Hepatitis A virus infection presenting with seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cam, Sebahat; Ertem, Deniz; Koroglu, Ozge Altun; Pehlivanoglu, Ender

    2005-07-01

    Hepatitis A infection rarely causes extrahepatic manifestations. Here we present a 5-year-old patient with an initial complaint of nuchal rigidity and convulsions during the course of hepatitis A infection. Because hepatitis A virus RNA was demonstrated in the cerebrospinal fluid, it was thought that convulsions might be related to this viral infection.

  18. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus among immunocompromised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of hepatitis B virus among immunocompromised individuals attending Nnamdi ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Hepatitis B is an infectious inflammatory illness of the liver caused by the hepatitis B ... Rwanda (3); Senegal (6); Sierra Leone (1); South Africa (96); South Sudan (1); Sudan (3) ...

  19. Update on Autoimmune Hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberal, Rodrigo; Vergani, Diego; Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina

    2015-03-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), a liver disorder affecting both children and adults, is characterized by inflammatory liver histology, elevated transaminase levels, circulating nonorganspecific autoantibodies, and increased levels of immunoglobulin G, in the absence of a known etiology. Two types of AIH are recognized according to seropositivity: smooth muscle antibody and/or antinuclear antibody define AIH type 1 and antibodies to liver-kidney microsome type 1 and/or liver cytosol type 1 define AIH type 2. AIH type 1 affects both adults and children, while AIH type 2 is mainly a paediatric disease, though it does occasionally affects young adults. AIH should be considered during the diagnostic workup of any patient with increased liver enzyme levels. AIH is exquisitely responsive to immunosuppressive treatment with prednisolone with or without azathioprine, with symptom free long-term survival for the majority of patients. For those who do not respond to standard treatment, or who are difficult-to-treat, mycophenolate mofetil and, in the absence of a response, calcineurin inhibitors should be tried in addition to steroids. The pathogenesis of AIH is not fully understood, although there is mounting evidence that genetic susceptibility, molecular mimicry and impaired immunoregulatory networks contribute to the initiation and perpetuation of the autoimmune attack. Liver damage is thought to be mediated primarily by CD4 T-cells, although recent studies support the involvement of diverse populations, including Th17 cells. A deeper understanding of the pathogenesis of AIH is likely to contribute to the development of novel treatments, such as the adoptive transfer of autologous expanded antigenspecific regulatory T-cells, which ultimately aim at restoring tolerance to liver-derived antigens.

  20. Viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francque Sven M

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is one of the most common malignant tumors in the world. The incidence of HCC varies considerably with the geographic area because of differences in the major causative factors. Chronic hepatitis B and C, mostly in the cirrhotic stage, are responsible for the great majority of cases of HCC worldwide. The geographic areas at the highest risk are South-East Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, here hepatitis B is highly endemic and is the main cause of HCC. In areas with an intermediate rate of HCC such as Southern Europe and Japan, hepatitis C is the predominant cause, whereas in low rate areas such as Northern Europe and the USA, HCC is often related to other factors as alcoholic liver disease. There is a rising incidence in HCC in developed countries during the last two decades, due to the increasing rate of hepatitis C infection and improvement of the clinical management of cirrhosis. Methods This article reviews the literature on hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The Medline search was carried out using these key words and articles were selected on epidemiology, risk factors, screening, and prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma. Results Screening of patients with advanced chronic hepatitis B and C with hepatic ultrasound and determination of serum alfa-fetoprotein may improve the detection of HCC, but further studies are needed whether screening improves clinical outcome. Hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV/HCV can be implicated in the development of HCC in an indirect way, through induction of chronic inflammation, or directly by means of viral proteins or, in the case of HBV, by creation of mutations by integration into the genome of the hepatocyte. Conclusion The most effective tool to prevent HCC is avoidance of the risk factors such as viral infection. For HBV, a very effective vaccine is available. Preliminary data from Taiwan indicate a protective effect of universal vaccination on the

  1. INFEKSI VIRUS HEPATITIS B DAN HEPATITIS C PADA PENDERITA HEPATITIS KRONIS DAN HEMODIALISIS DI JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoko Yuwono

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Virus Hepatitis C dan Hepatitis B merupakan penyebab hepatitis kronik aktif yang dapat berkembang menjadi hepatoselular karsinoma. Untuk mengetahui peranan kedua jenis virus tersebut sebagai penyebab hepatoselular karsinoma, telah dilakukan pemeriksaan HbsAg, anti-VHC dan RNA-VHC pada 17 penderita hepatitis kronis. 19 Pasien hemodialisis dan 198 donor darah PMI. Pemeriksaan HbsAg dilakukan dengan RPHA Cell: pemeriksaan anti-VHC dengan dipstik anti-VHC kit diagnotik produksi NTB Mataram, Lombok. Deteksi RNA-VHC dilakukan dengan teknik RT-PCR, menggunakan primer spesifik untuk daerah 5'NCR. Hasil pemeriksaan menunjukkan bahwa pada penderita hepatitis kronis ditemukan 5 orang (23,5% positif HbsAg dan 1 orang (5,8% anti-VHC. Pada penderita hemodialisis ditemukan 14 orang (73,6% positif anti-VHC, persentase anti-VHC meningkat sesuai dengan meningkatnya frekuensi hemodialisis. Pada donor darah PMI ditemukan 5 orang (2,2% positif HbsAg dan tidak satupun ditemukan anti-VHC positif.

  2. [Clinical practice guideline for diagnosis and treatment of chronic hepatitis virus hepatitis B. Grupo Colaborativo en Hepatitis B].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This guide sets out the technical criteria for the diagnosis and treatment of chronic hepatitis secondary to viral hepatitis B. The guide intend to reduce the morbidity and mortality of this disease. The Guide give practical definitions to help understand the terminology, describe epidemiology, risk factors, and clinical aspects and the diagnosis of chronic hepatitis B. Finally the guide give recommendations for the management including special circumstances such as patients with cirrhosis, patients coinfected with HIV or coinfected with hepatitis C. The recommendations of the guide become the national guide for the management of chronic hepatitis B

  3. Characteristics of acute hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Nikola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Acute hepatitis C most frequently develops after parenteral infection of hepatitis C virus. The disease often develops into chronic infection, although it can resolve spontaneously. Interferon alpha (INF-α is used in therapy, but still without precise treatment recommendations. Objective. The aim was to present characteristics of patients with acute hepatitis C and to assess effectiveness of using recombinant INF-α in therapy. Methods. Total of 55 patients with acute hepatitis C, hospitalized at the Clinic for Infectious Diseases in Belgrade from January 2005 to December 2012 were enrolled in this study. Forty-one patients were under follow-up over six months for evaluation of the development of the disease into a chronic infection and effectiveness of treatment with INF-α. Results. Eighty percent of patients were male of average age 29.6±8.6 years; in 61.8% patients intravenous drug abuse was determined as risk factor. Thirty patients (54.1% had no symptoms and 38.2% were icteric. Acute hepatitis C spontaneously resolved in 33.3% patients, while in the treated group 79.6% of patients completely recovered (p=0.006. Treatment success was 92.9% in the group of patients who started with treatment before the 45th day of disease, while in the patients who started treatment later the success rated 58.3% (p=0.037. Conclusion. Acute hepatitis C is most common in young male adults infected via injection drug abuse. The use of INF-α is effective in the treatment of the disease, and success of the treatment is more probable if treatment is started before the 45th day.

  4. Hepatitis C, stigma and cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, Rui Tato; Barreira, David Pires

    2013-10-28

    The infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the most important global chronic viral infections worldwide. It is estimated to affect around 3% of the world population, about 170-200 million people. Great part of the infections are asymptomatic, the patient can be a chronic carrier for decades without knowing it. The most severe consequences of the chronic infection are liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, which appears in 20%-40% of the patients, leading to hepatic failure and death. The HCV was discovered 25 years ago in 1989, is a RNA virus and classified by the World Health Organization as an oncogenic one. Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most important cancers, the fifth worldwide in terms of mortality. It has been increasing in the Ocidental world, mainly due to chronic hepatitis C. Hepatitis C is not only a liver disease and a cause of cirrhosis, but also a mental, psychological, familiar, and social disease. The stigma that the infected person sometimes carries is tremendous having multiple consequences. The main cause is lack of adequate information, even in the health professionals setting. But, besides the "drama" of being infected, health professionals, family, society and the infected patients, must be aware of the chance of real cure and total and definitive elimination of the virus. The treatment for hepatitis C has begun in the last 80's with a percentage of cure of 6%. Step by step the efficacy of the therapy for hepatitis C is rapidly increasing and nowadays with the very new medications, the so called Direct Antiviral Agents-DAAs of new generation, is around 80%-90%.

  5. Current Knowledge on Hepatitis E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Gracia, María Teresa; García, Mario; Suay, Beatriz; Mateos-Lindemann, María Luisa

    2015-06-28

    Although only a single serotype of hepatitis E virus (HEV), the causative agent of hepatitis E, has been identified, there is great genetic variation among the different HEV isolates reported. There are at least four major recognized genotypes of HEV: genotypes 1 and 2 are mainly restricted to humans and linked to epidemic outbreaks in nonindustrialized countries, whereas genotypes 3 and 4 are zoonotic in both developing and industrialized countries. Besides human strains, genotype 3 and 4 strains of HEV have been genetically characterized from swine, sika deer, mongooses, sheep, and rabbits. Currently, there are approximately 11,000 human and animal sequences of HEV available at the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration. HEV is the major cause of waterborne outbreaks of hepatitis in areas of poor sanitation. Additionally, it is responsible for sporadic cases of viral hepatitis in not only endemic but industrialized countries as well. Transmission of HEV occurs predominantly by the fecal-oral route, although parenteral and perinatal routes have been reported. HEV infection develops in most individuals as a self-limiting, acute, icteric hepatitis; with mortality rates around 1%. However, some affected individuals will develop fulminant hepatic failure, a serious condition that is frequently fatal without a liver transplant. This complication is particularly common when the infection occurs in pregnant women, where mortality rates rise dramatically to up to 25%. Among the preventive measures available to avoid HEV infection, two separate subunit vaccines containing recombinant truncated capsid proteins of HEV have been shown to be highly effective in the prevention of disease. One of them, HEV 239, was approved in China, and its commercialization by Innovax began in November 2012 under the name Hecolin(®).

  6. Insulin resistance and hepatitis C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manuel Romero-Gómez

    2006-01-01

    Insulin resistance is the major feature of the metabolic syndrome and depends on insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. In chronic hepatitis C, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus are more often seen than in healthy controls or chronic hepatitis B patients.Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection promotes insulin resistance, mainly by increased TNF production together with enhancement of suppressor of cytokine (SOC-3); both events block PI3K and Akt phosphorylation. Two types of insulin resistance could be found in chronic hepatitis C patients: "viral" and "metabolic" insulin resistance. Insulin resistance in chronic hepatitis C is relevant because it promotes steatosis and fibrosis. The mechanisms by which insulin resistance promotes fibrosis progression include: (1) steatosis, (2) hyperleptinemia, (3) increased TNF production, (4) impaired expression of PPARy receptors. Lastly, insulin resistance has been found as a common denominator in patients difficult-to-treat like cirrhotics, overweight, HIV coinfected and Afro-American.Insulin resistance together with fibrosis and genotype has been found to be independently associated with impaired response rate to peginterferon plus ribavirin.Indeed, in genotype 1, the sustained response rate was twice (60%) in patients with HOMA ≤ 2 than patients with HOMA > 2. In experiments carried out on Huh-7cells transfected by full length HCVRNA, interferon alpha blocks HCV replication. However, when insulin (at doses of 128 μU/mL, similar that seen in the hyperinsulinemic state) was added to interferon, the ability to block HCV replication disappeared, and the PKR synthesis was abolished. In summary, hepatitis C promotes insulin resistance and insulin resistance induces interferon resistance,steatosis and fibrosis progression.

  7. Hepatic arterial buffer response fails to restore hepatic oxygenation after temporary liver dearterialization in canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, R J; Ribeiro, E A; Poli de Figueiredo, L F; Cantos, O R; Rocha e Silva, M

    2005-12-01

    Hepatic artery thrombosis is a rare but extremely troublesome condition after liver transplantation. Recently, urgent arterial revascularization has been used as rescue therapy, leading to improved graft and patient survivals. Hepatic artery ligation produces a progressive reduction in portal vein blood flow. Theoretically, a hyperemic response may be expected following hepatic artery reperfusion (hepatic artery buffer response, HABR). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that HABR can maintain adequate liver oxygenation after temporary liver dearterialization. Seven dogs (19.7 +/- 1.2 kg) subjected to 60 minutes of hepatic artery occlusion were observed for 120 minutes thereafter. Systemic hemodynamics was evaluated through Swan-Ganz and arterial catheters, and splanchnic perfusion by portal vein and hepatic artery blood flows (PVBF and HABF) via an ultrasonic flowprobe. Liver enzymes (ALT and LDH) and systemic and hepatic oxygen delivery (DO2hepat) were calculated using standard formulae. Hepatic artery occlusion induced a progressive reduction in PVBF and DO2hepat. A complete restoration of HABF after hepatic artery declamping was observed; however, the DO2hepat (33.3 +/- 5.9 to 16.5 +/- 5.9 mL/min) did not return to the baseline levels. Temporary hepatic artery occlusion induced a progressive decrease in portal vein blood flow during ischemia, an effect that continued during the reperfusion period. The hepatic artery blood flow was promptly restored after declamping. However, HABR was not able to restore hepatic oxygen delivery to baseline levels during the reperfusion period.

  8. Hepatitis B prevalence in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, N; Hay, G; Cowan, S

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Denmark is not clear. The primary aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of chronic HBV infection in Denmark. The capture–recapture method was used to estimate the total population diagnosed with chronic HBV infection......, and the capture–recapture estimate of the total population diagnosed with chronic hepatitis B was 7,112 (95% confidence interval (CI): 6,953–10,747). Only 17% of the identified patients attended recommended clinical care according to national guidelines. Including undiagnosed patients, the current population...

  9. Hepatitis B prevalence in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, N; Hay, G; Cowan, S;

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Denmark is not clear. The primary aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of chronic HBV infection in Denmark. The capture–recapture method was used to estimate the total population diagnosed with chronic HBV infection......, and the capture–recapture estimate of the total population diagnosed with chronic hepatitis B was 7,112 (95% confidence interval (CI): 6,953–10,747). Only 17% of the identified patients attended recommended clinical care according to national guidelines. Including undiagnosed patients, the current population...

  10. Vascular Reconstruction in Hepatic Malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berumen, Jennifer; Hemming, Alan

    2016-04-01

    With surgery for hepatic malignancy, there are poor options for chemotherapy; many patients are deemed unresectable because of vascular involvement or location of tumors. Over the past few decades, advances in surgical technique have allowed resection of these tumors with vascular reconstruction to achieve negative margins and improve chances for survival. This article reviews those reconstruction techniques and outcomes in detail, including in situ perfusion and ex vivo liver surgery, and provides a discussion of implications and operative planning for patients with hepatic malignancy in order to provide surgeons with better understanding of these complicated operations.

  11. Ceftriaxone-induced toxic hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Erdal Peker; Eren Cagan; Murat Dogan

    2009-01-01

    Toxic hepatitis or drug-induced liver injury encompasses a spectrum of clinical disease ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to acute liver failure. The advantages of a long half-life, wide spectrum, high tissue penetration rate, and a good safety profile,make ceftriaxone, a third-generation cephalosporin,a frequent choice in the treatment of childhood infections. Previous studies have reported a few cases of high aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels, along with three cases ofhepatitis caused by ceftriaxone. Here, we report a case of drug-induced toxic hepatitis in a patient who was treated with ceftriaxone for acute tonsillitis.

  12. Hepatitis C: Issues in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christine K; Jonas, Maureen M

    2015-12-01

    Hepatitis C infection is a global health problem. Most infected children have not been identified. Perinatal transmission is the most common mode of acquisition. Liver disease owing to chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection progresses slowly in individuals infected early in life. Serious complications rarely affect patients during childhood. Successful treatment of HCV in adults has improved and recommendations have changed. Treatment in children should be deferred until direct-acting antivirals and interferon-free regimens are available to this population. If treatment cannot be deferred, regimens including peginterferon and ribavirin can be given to children with compensated liver disease.

  13. Clinical and virological improvement of hepatitis B virus-related or hepatitis C virus-related chronic hepatitis with concomitant hepatitis A virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagnelli, Evangelista; Coppola, Nicola; Pisaturo, Mariantonietta; Pisapia, Raffaella; Onofrio, Mirella; Sagnelli, Caterina; Catuogno, Antonio; Scolastico, Carlo; Piccinino, Felice; Filippini, Pietro

    2006-06-01

    We evaluated the clinical and virological characteristics of hepatitis A virus infection in persons concomitantly infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV). We enrolled 21 patients with acute hepatitis A and chronic hepatitis with no sign of liver cirrhosis, 13 patients who were positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (case B group), 8 patients who were anti-HCV positive (case C group), and 21 patients with acute hepatitis A without a preexisting liver disease (control A group). Two control groups of patients with chronic hepatitis B (control B group) or C (control C group) were also chosen. All control groups were pair-matched by age and sex with the corresponding case group. Fulminant hepatitis A was never observed, and hepatitis A had a severe course in 1 patient in the case B group and in 1 patient in the control A group. Both patients recovered. On admission, HBV DNA was detected in 1 patient in the case B group (7.7%) and in 13 patients (50%) in the control B group; HCV RNA was found in no patient in the case C group and in 16 patients (81.2%) in the control C group. Of 9 patients in the case B group who were followed up for 6 months, 3 became negative for hepatitis B surface antigen and positive for hepatitis B surface antibody, 2 remained positive for hepatitis B surface antigen and negative for HBV DNA, and 4 became positive for HBV DNA with a low viral load [corrected] Of 6 patients in the case C group who were followed up for 6 months, 3 remained negative for HCV RNA, and 3 had persistently low viral loads. Concomitant hepatitis A was always self-limited, associated with a marked inhibition of HBV and HCV genomes, and possibly had a good prognosis for the underlying chronic hepatitis.

  14. Small hepatic veins Budd-Chiari syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggio, Oliviero; Marzano, Chiara; Papa, Alessia; Pasquale, Chiara; Gasperini, Maria Ludovica; Gigante, Antonietta; Valla, Dominique Charles; Plessier, Aurélie; Amoroso, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    Budd-Chiari syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by hepatic venous outflow obstruction at any level from the small hepatic veins to the atrio-caval junction, in the absence of heart failure or constrictive pericarditis. Various imaging modalities are available for investigating the gross hepatic vascular anatomy but there are rare forms of this disease where the obstruction is limited to the small intrahepatic veins, with normal appearance of the large hepatic veins at imaging. In this cases only a liver biopsy can demonstrate the presence of a small vessels outflow block. We report two cases of small hepatic veins Budd-Chiari syndrome.

  15. Current research of hepatic cirrhosis in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-Xian Yao; Shu-Lin Jiang; Dong-Mei Yao

    2005-01-01

    Hepatic cirrhosis is a common disease that poses a serious threat to public health, and is characterized by chronic,progressive and diffuse hepatic lesions preceded by hepaticfibrosis regardless of the exact etiologies. In recent years,considerable achievements have been made in China in research of the etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and especially the treatment of hepatic fibrosis, resulting in much improved prognosis of hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis. In this paper, the authors review the current status of research in hepatic fibrosis, cirrhosis and their major complications.

  16. Fibrin ring granulomas in hepatitis A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruel, M; Sevestre, H; Henry-Biabaud, E; Courouce, A M; Capron, J P; Erlinger, S

    1992-12-01

    Fibrin ring granuloma is characterized by a fibrinous ring surrounding a central fat vacuole. It has been found in the liver and bone marrow of patients with Q fever, and occasionally with visceral leishmaniasis, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, Staphylococcus epidermidis infections, Hodgkin's lymphoma, and hypersensitivity to allopurinol. We describe a case of serologically confirmed viral hepatitis A with this lesion in the liver biopsy. A false positive anti-hepatitis A virus IgM result has been excluded. This is, to our knowledge, the second reported case of type A hepatitis with hepatic fibrin ring granulomas. It confirms that hepatitis A should be included in the differential diagnosis of this lesion.

  17. Hepatitis C Infection Among Hispanics in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Catherine A; Erlyana, Erlyana; Fisher, Dennis G; Reynolds, Grace L

    2015-01-01

    Hispanics in California are more likely to be infected with hepatitis C, and those infected have had their infection detected later. A total of 1,567 Hispanic and Caucasian individuals were tested for antibodies to hepatitis C from 2000 through 2013. Interviewers administered the Risk Behavior Assessment. Hepatitis C-infected Hispanics were incarcerated longer than hepatitis C-infected Caucasians, and they used marijuana less and illicit methadone more. They were more likely to use crack, heroin, speedballs, and to have been in methadone treatment. Hispanics need hepatitis C testing linked to methadone treatment and written information in Spanish and English.

  18. Extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis E virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamar, Nassim; Marion, Olivier; Abravanel, Florence; Izopet, Jacques; Dalton, Harry R

    2016-04-01

    Hepatitis E virus can cause acute, fulminant and chronic hepatitis and has been associated with a range of extrahepatic manifestations. Guillain-Barré syndrome, neuralgic amyotrophy and encephalitis are the main neurological manifestations associated with acute and chronic hepatitis E virus infection. Renal injuries have been also reported, including membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis with or without cryoglobulinemia and membranous glomerulonephritis. Acute pancreatitis, haematological disorders and other autoimmune extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis E virus, such as myocarditis and thyroiditis, have been also reported. In this comprehensive article, we review all published reports describing hepatitis E virus-associated extrahepatic manifestations.

  19. Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayhan Azadmanesh

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionHepatitis C virus (HCV is an important cause of chronic liver disease. HCV causes 20% of acute hepatitis cases, 70% of all chronic hepatitis cases, 40% of all cases of liver cirrhosis, 60% of hepatocellular carcinomas, and 30% of liver transplants in Europe(1. It is also recognized as the leading cause of liver transplantation in the world(2. Only 20% of infected individuals will recover from this viral infection, while the rest become chronically infected(3. While the majority of chronically infected individuals never exhibit symptoms, approximately 10-30% of these patients will eventually develop cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma, both of which are associated with significant morbidity and mortality(4.More than 170 million people worldwide are chronically infected with HCV. According to WHO report in 2002, chronic liver diseases were responsible for 1.4 million deaths, including 796,000 due to cirrhosis and 616,000 due to primary liver cancer. At least 20% of these deaths are probably attributable to HCV infection- more than 280,000 deaths(5, 6. The prevalence of chronic HCV infection in general population varies greatly in different parts of the world, being estimated between 0.1 and 5%, with a peak prevalence of 20- 25% in Egypt. HCV prevalence seems to be less than 1% in Iran, which is much lower than most of the neighboring countries(7. HCV was the first virus discovered by molecular cloning method without the direct use of biologic or biophysical methods. This was accomplished by extracting, copying into cDNA, and cloning all the nucleic acid from the plasma of a chimpanzee infected with non- A, non-B hepatitis by contaminated factor XIII concentrate(8. The HCV genome is a positive-sense, singlestranded RNA genome approximately 10 kb long. It has marked similarities to those of members of the genera Pestivirus and Flavivirus. Different HCV isolates from around the world show substantial nucleotide sequence variability

  20. Psychopathology and Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Gama Marques

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since Hippocrates that neuropsychiatric illness secondary to liver disease fascinates physicians, but only in the XIX century Marcel Nencki and Ivan Pavlov suggested the relation between high concentrations of ammonia and Hepatic Encephalopathy (HE. The reaction of ammonia and glutamate (origins glutamine, “the Trojan Horse of neurotoxicity of ammonia continues to be the main responsible for the neurologic lesions, recently confirmed by neurochemistry and neuroimagiology studies. Glutamine starts the inflammatory reaction at the central nervous sys- tem but other important actors seem to be manganese and the neurotransmitters systems of GABA and endocanabinoids. Nowadays there are three different etiologic big groups for HE: type A associated with acute liver failure; type B associated with portosystemic bypass; and type C associated with cirrhosis of the liver. The staging of HE is still based on classic West Haven system, but a latent Grade 0 was introduced (the so called minimal HE; remaining the aggra- vating HE from Grade 1 (subtle changes at clinical examination to Grade 4 (coma. In this work a bibliographic review was made on 30 of the most pertinent and recent papers, focusing in psychopathology, physiopathology, etiology and staging of this clinical entity transversal to Psychiatry and Gastroenterology. Alterations are described in vigility and conscience like temporal, spatial and personal disorientation. Attention, concentration and memory are impaired very early, on latent phase and can be accessed through neuropsychological tests. Mood oscillates between euphoric and depressive. Personality changes begin obviously and abruptly or in a subtle and insidious way. There can be changes in perception like visual hallucinations or even of acoustic-verbal. The thought disorders can be of delusional type, paranoid, systematized or not, but also monothematic ala Capgras Syndrome. Speech can be accelerated, slowed down or completely in

  1. Chronic urticaria following acute hepatitis A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Paul M; Kevat, Dev A S; McCarthy, James S; Woods, Marion L

    2012-09-18

    Urticaria has a documented association with the prodromal phases of hepatitis A, B and, although still contentious, likely hepatitis C. Despite the documented association there are few actual reported cases of urticaria occurring with hepatitis A infection and in all of the cases reported so far the urticaria preceded the diagnosis of hepatitis A and was acute rather than chronic. We describe a case of urticaria occurring following acute infection with hepatitis A, which persisted beyond 6 weeks and therefore was by definition chronic. Although chronic urticaria has been reported to be associated with other forms of viral hepatitis, to the best of our knowledge this has not been reported previously with hepatitis A.

  2. Acute hepatitis C: Prospects and challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    More than 170 million people worldwide have chronic hepatitis C. Acute hepatitis C is rarely diagnosed because it is commonly asymptomatic. Most infected patients are unaware of their condition until the symptoms of chronic infection manifest. Treatment of acute hepatitis C is something of a paradox because spontaneous resolution is possible and many patients do not have symptoms.However, several factors provide a rationale for treating patients who have acute hepatitis C. Compared with acute hepatitis C, chronic hepatitis C is associated with a worse prognosis, the need for more intensive treatment,longer treatment duration, and a decrease in successful treatment outcomes. Conversely, early intervention is associated with improved viral eradication, using a regimen that is better tolerated, less expensive, more convenient, and of shorter duration than the currently approved combination therapies for chronic hepatitis C.

  3. Does chronic hepatitis B infection affect the clinical course of acute hepatitis A?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Su Rin; Moh, In Ho; Jung, Sung Won; Kim, Jin Bae; Park, Sang Hoon; Kim, Hyoung Su; Jang, Myung Kuk; Lee, Myung Seok

    2013-01-01

    The impact of chronic hepatitis B on the clinical outcome of acute hepatitis A remains controversial. The aim of present study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of acute hepatitis A in cases with underlying chronic hepatitis B compared to cases of acute hepatitis A alone. Data on 758 patients with acute hepatitis A admitted at two university-affiliated hospitals were reviewed. Patients were classified into three groups: group A, patients with both acute hepatitis A and underlying chronic hepatitis B (n = 27); group B, patients infected by acute hepatitis A alone whose sexes and ages were matched with patients in group A (n  = 54); and group C, patients with acute hepatitis A alone (n = 731). None of the demographic features of group A were significantly different from those of group B or C, except for the proportion of males and body weight, which differed from group C. When comparing to group B, clinical symptoms were more frequent, and higher total bilirubin and lower albumin levels were observed in group A. When comparing to group C, the albumin levels were lower in group A. There were no differences in the duration of hospital stay, occurrence of acute kidney injury, acute liver failure, prolonged cholestasis, or relapsing hepatitis. This study revealed that clinical symptoms and laboratory findings were less favorable for patients with acute hepatitis A and chronic hepatitis B compared to those with acute hepatitis A alone. However, there were no differences in fatal outcomes or serious complications.

  4. Drug-induced hepatic injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Henrik; Andreasen, P B

    1992-01-01

    during the last 2 years of the decade. Based on consumption data, the incidence of hepatic injury due to sulindac was estimated to be 18-fold higher than that due to ibuprofen. Paracetamol was reported to induce acute cytotoxic as well as cholestatic reactions in non-alcoholic subjects taking therapeutic...

  5. Hepatitis A Virus in Transplants

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-05-17

    Dr. Monique Foster, a CDC epidemiologist, discusses an unusual case of hepatitis A virus in a transplant patient.  Created: 5/17/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/17/2017.

  6. Studies on acute hepatic insufficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.H. de Groot (Gerrit Harmen)

    1984-01-01

    textabstractAcute hepatic failure (AHF) is one of the most dramatic situations that a clinical physician can encounter. It is also one of the most frustating since death is the result in a large majority of the cases, despite all efforts of the medical and nursing staffs. Although a wide variety of

  7. [Autoimmune hepatitis induced by isotretionine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman Rojas, Patricia; Gallegos Lopez, Roxana; Ciliotta Chehade, Alessandra; Scavino, Yolanda; Morales, Alejandro; Tagle, Martín

    2016-01-01

    We describe a case of a teenage patient with the diagnosis of drug induced autoimmune hepatitis. The patient is a 16 years old female, with the past medical history of Hashimoto’s hypothyroidism controlled with levothyroxine, who started treatment with Isotretionin (®Accutane) 20 mg q/12 hours for a total of 3 months for the treatment of severe acne. The physical examination was within normal limits and the results of the laboratory exams are: Baseline values of ALT 28 U/L, AST 28 U/L. Three months later: AST 756 U/L, ALT 1199U/L, alkaline phosphatase 114 U/L, with normal bilirrubin levels throughout the process. The serology studies were negative for all viral hepatitis; ANA titers were positive (1/160) and igG levels were also elevated. A liver biopsy was performed, and was compatible with the diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis. Corticosteroid therapy was started with Prednisone 40 mg per day one week after stopping the treatment with isotretionin, observing an improvement in the laboratory values. We describe this case and review the world literature since there are no reported cases of Isotretinoin-induced autoimmune hepatitis.

  8. patients with acute Icteric hepatitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    *S. O. Ola, J. A. Otegbayo, G. N. Odaibo, O.-D. Olaleye and O. I. Olubuyide .... in Nigerian adults patients with acute ictcric hepatitis an d healthy adult at the .... lent in the course to chronicity. .... Corwin AL, Dai TC, Due DD, Suu PI, Van NT et al.

  9. Clinical studies on inferior right hepatic veins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Xing; Hong Li; Wei-Guo Liu

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Many small veins are called accessory, short hepatic veins in addition to the right, middle and left hepatic veins. The size of these veins varied from a pinhole to 1 cm; the size of inferior right hepatic veins (IRHVs) is thicker than that of short hepatic veins or more than 1 cm occasionally. Adults have a higher incidence rate of the IRHV. DATA SOURCES:A literature search of the PubMed database was conducted and research articles were reviewed. RESULTS:The size of IRHVs is related to the size of the right hepatic vein, i.e. the larger the diameter of the right hepatic vein, the smaller the diameter of the IRHVs, and vice versa. The IRHVs are divided into superior, medial and inferior groups, separately named the superior, medial and inferior right hepatic veins according to the position of the IRHV entering the inferior vena cava. The superior right hepatic vein mainly drains the superior part of segmentⅦ, and the medial right hepatic vein drains the middle part of segmentⅦ. A thicker IRHV mainly drains segmentⅥ and the inferior part of segmentⅦ and a thinner IRHV drains the inferior part of segmentⅤ. CONCLUSIONS:The clinical signiifcance of these studies on IRHVs is varied: (1) Hepatic caudate lobe resection could be introduced after study on the veins of that lobe. (2) It is very important to identify the draining region of the IRHV for guiding hepatic segmentectomy. The postero-inferior area of the right lobe can be preserved along with the hypertrophic IRHV even if the entire main right hepatic vein is resected during segmentectomy ofⅦ andⅧwith right hepatic vein resection for patients with primary liver cancer. (3) The ligation of the major hepatic vein for the treatment of juxtahepatic vein injury is recommended because of severe hemorrhagic shock and dififculty in

  10. HEPATIC STEATOSIS: AN AETIOHISTOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauri Shrikrishna Metkar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Fatty liver disease, i.e. hepatic steatosis defined as hepatic lipid accumulation greater than 5-10% of liver weight. 1-3 has become a common health problem in both developed and developing countries. Morphologically fatty liver is of two types: microvesicular and macrovesicular. Macrovesicular steatosis is a chronic condition associated with various risk factors like alcoholism, diabetes mellitus, obesity, etc. The aim of present study was to analyse various aetiological factors associated with macrovesicular hepatic steatosis and find its correlation with the grade of steatosis. METHODOLOGY This retrospective and prospective study was conducted in histopathology laboratory of a tertiary health care centre in Mangalore, Karnataka, from 2009 to 2014; 120 cases of liver biopsies and autopsy liver tissue of adults (≥18 years showing histologically confirmed macrovesicular steatosis in >10% hepatocytes were analysed for aetiology and grade of steatosis. RESULT Hepatic steatosis was observed mainly in middle aged (31-50 years males. ALD and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH were most common causes followed by infections like TB, HCV, HBV, HIV and other causes like CPC (Chronic Passive Congestion liver and drugs. Spearmen’s correlation coefficient was used to analyse correlation between aetiology and grade of steatosis. ALD and NASH were most common causes for severe steatosis. ALD and NASH were also common causes for mild-to-moderate grade of steatosis. Mainly moderate-to-severe steatosis was found in association with TB, HCV, HBV, HIV. CPC cases predominantly showed moderate steatosis. The correlation between aetiology and grade of steatosis was found to be statistically significant. Drug induced steatosis was mostly severe grade, but the number of cases were too less to consider it statistically significant. CONCLUSION Various causes like ALD, NASH, TB, HCV, HBV and HIV infections, CPC and rarely drugs should be considered in

  11. How to Treat Pain in the Hepatic Region Due to Chronic Hepatitis?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林宗广

    2004-01-01

    @@ Chronic viral hepatitis type B and C both have the symptoms of pain in the hepatic region, asthenia, poor appetite, abdominal fullness, among which pain in the hepatic region is the most commonly seen. According to the author's clinical experience, treatment based on accurate TCM differentiation can not only eliminate pain in the hepatic region but also restore the hepatic function at the same time. Differentiation includes analysis of the nature of the hepatic pain and the accompanying symptoms, and the treatment is aimed at the differentiated symptoms. The following are methods of treatment.

  12. Is autoimmune hepatitis a frequent finding among HCV patients with intense interface hepatitis?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rosilene; G; Badiani; Vitória; Becker; Renata; M; Perez; Carla; AL; Matos; Lara; B; Lemos; Valéria; P; Lanzoni; Luis; Eduardo; C; Andrade; Alessandra; Dellavance; Antonio; Eduardo; B; Silva; Maria; Lucia; G; Ferraz

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the overlap of autoimmune hepatitis in hepatitis C virus(HCV)-infected patients with intense interface hepatitis.METHODS:Among 1759 patients with hepatitis C submitted to liver biopsy,92(5.2%) presented intense interface hepatitis.These patients were evaluated regarding the presence of antinuclear antibody(ANA),anti-smooth muscle antibody(SMA) and anti-liver/kidney microsomal antibody(LKM-1),levels of γ-globulin and histological findings related to autoimmune hepatitis(plasma cell infiltrate...

  13. Aetiopathogenesis of autoimmune hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Diego Vergani; Giorgina Mieli-Vergani

    2008-01-01

    The histological hallmark of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a dense portal mononuclear cell infiltrate that invades the surrounding parenchyma and comprises T and B lymphocytes,macrophages,and plasma cells.An unknown but powerful stimulus must be promoting the formation of this massive inflammatory cellular reaction that is likely to initiate and perpetuate liver damage.An autoimmune attack can follow different pathways to inflict damage on hepatocytes.Liver damage is likely to be orchestrated by CD4+T lymphocytes recognizing an autoantigenic liver peptide.To trigger an autoimmune response,the peptide must be embraced by an HLA class Ⅱ molecule and presented to naive CD4+T helper (Th0) cells by professional antigen presenting cells,with the co-stimulation of ligand-ligand fostering interaction between the two cells.Th0 cells become activated,differentiate into functional phenotypes according to the cytokines prevailing in the microenvironment and the nature of the antigen,and initiate a cascade of immune reactions determined by the cytokines produced by the activated T cells.Th1 cells,arising in the presence of the macrophage-derived interleukin (IL)-12,secrete mainly IL-2 and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ),which activate macrophages,enhance expression of HLA class Ⅰ (increasing liver cell vulnerability to a CD8+T cell cytotoxic attack),and induce expression of HLA class Ⅱ molecules on hepatocytes.Th2 cells,which differentiate from Th0 if the microenvironment is rich in IL-4,produce mainly IL-4,IL-10,and IL-13 which favour autoantibody production by B lymphocytes.Physiologically,Th1 and Th2 antagonize each other.Th17 cells,a recently described population,arise in the presence of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and IL-6 and appear to have an important effector role in inflammation and autoimmunity.The process of autoantigen recognition is strictly controlled by regulatory mechanisms,such as those exerted by CD4+CD25+regulatory T cells,which derive from Th0

  14. Hepatitis C: What to Expect When Getting Tested

    Science.gov (United States)

    HEPATITIS C What to Expect When Getting Tested Getting tested for Hepatitis C • A blood test, called a Hepatitis C Antibody Test, is used to find out if someone has ever been infected with Hepatitis C. • The Hepatitis C Antibody Test, sometimes called ...

  15. Hepatic involvement in dengue Fever in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadishkumar, Kalenahalli; Jain, Puja; Manjunath, Vaddambal G; Umesh, Lingappa

    2012-06-01

    Hepatic dysfunction is common in dengue infection and the degree of liver dysfunction in children varies from mild injury with elevation of transaminases to severe injury with jaundice. This study was undertaken to assess the spectrum of hepatic involvement in dengue infection. 110 children with serologically positive dengue fever aged between 2 months - 14 years were studied for their hepatic functions both clinically and biochemically after excluding malaria, enteric fever, Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B with relevant investigations. All cases were grouped into DF (Dengue fever), DHF (Dengue hemorrhagic fever) and DSS (Dengue shock syndrome) according to WHO criteria. The spectrum of hepatic manifestations included hepatomegaly (79%), hepatic tenderness (56%), jaundice (4.5%), raised levels of aspartate transaminase (AST)(93%), alanine transaminase (ALT)(78%), alkaline phosphatase (AP) (57%), prolonged prothrombin time (PT) (20%), reduced levels of serum albumin (66%) and abnormal abdomen ultrasound (65%). Hepatic dysfunction was observed more in DHF and DSS group compared to DF group. About 17.27% of children had >10 fold increase in the liver enzymes. There was no correlation between the degree of hepatic enlargement or hepatic tenderness with the abnormalities of liver functions. Any child with fever, jaundice and tender hepatomegaly in geographical areas where dengue is endemic, the diagnosis of dengue infection should be strongly considered.

  16. Experience with hepatitis A and B vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey P

    2005-10-01

    The lengthy history of efforts to understand the pathogenesis and means of preventing and controlling both hepatitis A and B is noteworthy for many exceptional scientific achievements. Among these are the development of vaccines to prevent the spread of infection through induction of active immunity to hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). The first plasma-derived hepatitis B vaccine was licensed in the United States in 1981 and was replaced by recombinant hepatitis B vaccines in 1986 and 1989. Vaccines to prevent HAV infection were licensed in the United States in 1995 and 1996. Subsequently, combination vaccines that included both hepatitis A and B vaccine components, or the hepatitis B component in combination with other commonly administered vaccines, were licensed in the United States. Despite significant reductions in hepatitis-related morbidity and mortality that have resulted from widespread use of these vaccines, vaccine-preventable morbidity and mortality still occur. The purposes of this article are to review clinical trial and other experience with hepatitis A and B vaccines in healthy individuals as well as in those with chronic liver disease, infected with the human immunodeficiency virus, or requiring hemodialysis; describe the impact that these vaccines and national recommendations for vaccination have had on reducing the incidence of HAV and HBV infection; and recommend expansion of these recommendations to include universal vaccination of adults as a means of further reducing the burden of viral hepatitis.

  17. Hepatitis A: clinical manifestations and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sook-Hyang; Lee, Hyo-Suk

    2010-01-01

    Due to improved living conditions and subsequent changes in hepatitis A epidemiology, the disease burden of hepatitis A is increasing in many regions. Recently, Korea has faced a large, community-wide outbreak of hepatitis A, which has prompted a vaccination program. The clinical spectrum of hepatitis A virus infection ranges from asymptomatic infection to fulminant hepatitis. Clinical manifestations depend on the age of the host: less than 30% of infected young children are symptomatic, while about 80% of infected adults manifest severe hepatitis with remarkably elevated serum aminotransferases. Fulminant hepatitis is rare, with a reported incidence from 0.015 to 0.5%. Atypical manifestations include relapsing hepatitis and prolonged cholestasis, and complicated cases with acute kidney injury have been reported. Extrahepatic manifestations, such as autoimmune hemolytic anemia, aplastic anemia, pure red cell aplasia, pleural or pericardial effusion, acute reactive arthritis, acute pancreatitis, acalculous cholecystitis, mononeuritis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome, have been rarely reported. Management of hepatitis A includes general supportive care, and critical decisions regarding liver transplantation await further studies on prognostic predictors. Fundamental management of hepatitis A is active vaccination. However, a vaccination program should be adapted to the regional situation, according to differing epidemiology and disease burden.

  18. [Latest Treatment of Viral Hepatitis--Overcoming Hepatitis C and Reactivation of Hepatitis B].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2016-02-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), discovered as causative viruses of post-transfusion hepatitis, become persistent infections, leading to chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). For HCV, recent IFN-free direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapies have increased sustained virological response (SVR) rates and reduced adverse events. IFN-based therapies, still the standard of care in Asian countries, are influenced by IL28B genetic variants and the liver fibrosis stage, but the DAA combinations obscure the influence of these factors. These new therapies can eradicate HCV and prevent HCC development. On the other hand, it is difficult to eradicate HBV completely. Although HBV infection can be prevented by vaccination, reactivation of HBV following anti-cancer chemotherapy and immunosuppressive therapy is a well-known complication. HBV reactivation has been reported to be associated with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab-containing chemotherapy and TNF-α inhibitor-containing immunosuppressive therapy in HBV-resolved patients. Our prospective observational study revealed that monthly monitoring of HBV DNA was useful for preventing HBV reactivation-related hepatitis among B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients with resolved HBV infection following rituximab-steroid-chemo, suggesting that preemptive therapy guided by serial HBV DNA monitoring should be recommended. Recently, highly sensitive HBsAg detection by Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ may be useful for several clinical applications. The sensitivity of this assay (5 mIU/mL) was approximately 10-fold higher than Abbott ARCHITECT, but still lower than HBV-DNA assays. The convenient HBsAg-HQ may be useful for detecting occult HBV infection and HBV reactivation in relatively low-risk groups except for those receiving rituximab-steroid-chemo. [

  19. Regulation of hepatic innate immunity by hepatitis C virus

    OpenAIRE

    Stacy M Horner; Gale, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a global public health problem involving chronic infection of the liver in over 170 million people. Chronic HCV causes liver disease and is linked with liver cancer. Viral innate immune evasion strategies and human genetic determinants underlie the transition of acute HCV infection to viral persistence and the support of chronic infection. Host genetic factors, such as sequence polymorphisms in IFNL3, a gene in the host interferon system, can influence both the outc...

  20. Cytokine Signatures Discriminate Highly Frequent Acute Hepatitis a Virus and Hepatitis E Virus Coinfections from Monoinfections in Mexican Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realpe-Quintero, Mauricio; Copado-Villagrana, Edgar Daniel; Trujillo-Ochoa, Jorge Luis; Alvarez, Angel Hilario; Panduro, Arturo; Fierro, Nora Alma

    2017-07-01

    The frequency of hepatitis A virus and hepatitis E virus infections and their cytokine profiles were analyzed in Mexican pediatric patients with acute hepatitis. A high frequency of coinfections was found. Significant overexpression of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-12, IL-13 and interferon-gamma during hepatitis A virus monoinfections and limited secretion of cytokines in hepatitis E virus infections were observed.

  1. Avian hepatitis E virus, vaccines and methods of protecting against avian hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome and mammalian hepatitis E

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel isolated avian hepatitis E virus having a nucleotide sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO:1 or its complementary strand. The invention further concerns immunogenic compositions comprising this new virus or recombinant products such as the nucleic acid and vaccines that protect an avian or mammalian species from viral infection or hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome caused by the hepatitis E virus. Also included in the scope of the invention is a method for prop...

  2. Insulin resistance, adipokine profile and hepatic expression of SOCS-3 gene in chronic hepatitis C

    OpenAIRE

    Wójcik, Kamila; Jabłonowska, Elżbieta; Omulecka, Aleksandra; Piekarska, Anna

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To analyze adipokine concentrations, insulin resistance and hepatic expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS-3) in patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 with normal body weight, glucose and lipid profile.

  3. Acute hepatitis due to dengue virus in a chronic hepatitis patient

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, L J; Coelho, J.M.C. de O.; Silva,E. J.; Abukater,M.; Almeida,F.C.R.; A. S. Fonte; L.A Souza

    2008-01-01

    We present a case of acute hepatitis caused by dengue virus, with a significant increase in aspartate transferase and alanine transferase levels in a chronic hepatitis patient attended at the Cane Sugar Planters Hospital of Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ.

  4. Recurrent paratyphoid fever A co-infected with hepatitis A reactivated chronic hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanling; Xiong, Yujiao; Huang, Wenxiang; Jia, Bei

    2014-05-12

    We report here a case of recurrent paratyphoid fever A with hepatitis A co-infection in a patient with chronic hepatitis B. A 26-year-old male patient, who was a hepatitis B virus carrier, was co-infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A and hepatitis A virus. The recurrence of the paratyphoid fever may be ascribed to the coexistence of hepatitis B, a course of ceftriaxone plus levofloxacin that was too short and the insensitivity of paratyphoid fever A to levofloxacin. We find that an adequate course and dose of ceftriaxone is a better strategy for treating paratyphoid fever. Furthermore, the co-infection of paratyphoid fever with hepatitis A may stimulate cellular immunity and break immunotolerance. Thus, the administration of the anti-viral agent entecavir may greatly improve the prognosis of this patient with chronic hepatitis B, and the episodes of paratyphoid fever and hepatitis A infection prompt the use of timely antiviral therapy.

  5. Clinical characteristics of fulminant hepatitis in pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Mao Li; Lin Ma; Yue-Bo Yang; Zhong-Jie Shi; Shui-Sheng Zhou

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the clinical characteristics of fulminant hepatitis in pregnancy.METHODS: We compared and analyzed the etiology,clinical characteristics, and laboratory examinations of 25 cases of fulminant hepatitis in pregnancy and 30 cases of fulminant hepatitis not in pregnancy.RESULTS: HBV infection and chronic fulminant hepatitis were most common both in the pregnant and in the non-pregnant groups. Jaundice, digestive tract symptoms,increase of bilirubin and thrombinogen activity were the main manifestations. The incidence of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and hepato-renal syndrome (HRS) was significantly different between the two groups. The incidence of preterm labor, dead fetus and neonatal asphyxia was high.CONCLUSION: Fulminant hepatitis is likely to occur in late pregnancy with more severe complications, which significantly influences maternity, perinatal fetus, and newborn.

  6. Scrub typhus hepatitis confirmed by immunohistochemical staining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jong-Hoon Chung; Sung-Chul Lim; Na-Ra Yun; Sung-Heui Shin; Choon-Mee Kim; Dong-Min Kim

    2012-01-01

    Scrub typhus is an acute febrile disease caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi (O.tsutsugamushi).We report herein the case of a woman who presented with fever and elevated serum levels of liver enzymes and who was definitively diagnosed with scrub typhus by histopathological examination of liver biopsy specimens,serological tests and nested polymerase chain reaction.Immunohistochemical staining using a monoclonal anti-O.tsutsugamushi antibody showed focally scattered positive immunoreactions in the cytoplasm of some hepatocytes.This case suggests that scrub typhus hepatitis causes mild focal inflammation due to direct liver damage without causing piecemeal necrosis or interface hepatitis.Thus,scrub typhus hepatitis differs from acute viral hepatitis secondary to liver damage due to host immune responses,which causes severe Iobular disarray with diffuse hepatocytic degeneration,necrosis and apoptosis as well as findings indicative of hepatic cholestasis,such as hepatic bile plugs or brown pigmentation of hepatocytes.

  7. Prevalence of hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis D virus and hepatitis E virus as causes of acute viral hepatitis in North India: a hospital based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, P; Prakash, S; Gupta, S; Singh, K P; Shrivastava, S; Singh, D D; Singh, J; Jain, A

    2013-01-01

    Acute viral hepatitis (AVH) is a major public health problem and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The aim of the present study is to determine the prevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D virus (HDV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) as causes of AVH in a tertiary care hospital of North India. Blood samples and clinical information was collected from cases of AVH referred to the Grade I viral diagnostic laboratory over a 1-year period. Samples were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen, anti-HCV total antibodies, anti-HAV immunoglobulin M (IgM) and anti-HEV IgM by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. PCR for nucleic acid detection of HBV and HCV was also carried out. Those positive for HBV infection were tested for anti-HDV antibodies. Fisher's exact test was used and a P hepatitis cases, 62 (23.22%) patients presented as acute hepatic failure. HAV (26.96%) was identified as the most common cause of acute hepatitis followed by HEV (17.97%), HBV (16.10%) and HCV (11.98%). Co-infections with more than one virus were present in 34 cases; HAV-HEV co-infection being the most common. HEV was the most important cause of acute hepatic failure followed by co-infection with HAV and HEV. An indication towards epidemiological shift of HAV infection from children to adults with a rise in HAV prevalence was seen. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report indicating epidemiological shift of HAV in Uttar Pradesh.

  8. [Microbiological diagnosis of viral hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Roberto; Aguilera, Antonio; Córdoba, Juan; Fuertes, Antonio

    2015-11-01

    Liver inflammation or hepatitis has many different causes, both infectious and non-infectious. Among the former, viral infection is responsible for at least half of all hepatitis worldwide. Different viruses have been described with primary tropism for liver tissue. These microorganisms have been successively named with letters of the alphabet: A, B, C, D, E and G. The aim of this paper is to review this heterogeneous group of viruses in its most basic aspects, including clinical implications, treatment, main control, and prophylactic measures and, of special interest, diagnostic approaches, both serological and molecular, which are used for their detection, quantification and characterization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  9. Hepatitis C and Kidney Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Marco; Cockwell, Paul; Neuberger, James

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is relatively common among patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) on dialysis and kidney transplant recipients. HCV infection in hemodialysis patients is associated with an increased mortality due to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The severity of hepatitis C-related liver disease in kidney transplant candidates may predict patient and graft survival after transplant. Liver biopsy remains the gold standard in the assessment of liver fibrosis in this setting. Kidney transplantation, not haemodialysis, seems to be the best treatment for HCV+ve patients with ESKD. Transplantation of kidneys from HCV+ve donors restricted to HCV+ve recipients is safe and associated with a reduction in the waiting time. Simultaneous kidney/liver transplantation (SKL) should be considered for kidney transplant candidates with HCV-related decompensated cirrhosis. Treatment of HCV is more complex in hemodialysis patients, whereas treatment of HCV recurrence in SLK recipients appears effective and safe. PMID:21755059

  10. Hepatitis C and Kidney Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Carbone

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is relatively common among patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD on dialysis and kidney transplant recipients. HCV infection in hemodialysis patients is associated with an increased mortality due to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The severity of hepatitis C-related liver disease in kidney transplant candidates may predict patient and graft survival after transplant. Liver biopsy remains the gold standard in the assessment of liver fibrosis in this setting. Kidney transplantation, not haemodialysis, seems to be the best treatment for HCV+ve patients with ESKD. Transplantation of kidneys from HCV+ve donors restricted to HCV+ve recipients is safe and associated with a reduction in the waiting time. Simultaneous kidney/liver transplantation (SKL should be considered for kidney transplant candidates with HCV-related decompensated cirrhosis. Treatment of HCV is more complex in hemodialysis patients, whereas treatment of HCV recurrence in SLK recipients appears effective and safe.

  11. Challenges in diagnosing hepatic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissenborn, K

    2015-02-01

    The term "hepatic encephalopathy" (HE) covers the neuropsychiatric syndrome associated with acute, chronic and acute-on-chronic liver disease (CLD). This paper deals with clinical features and diagnosis of HE in patients with liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension or porto-systemic shunts. The possible impact of concomitant disorders and the cirrhosis underlying liver disease upon brain function is described emphasizing the need of a detailed diagnostic work up of every individual case before diagnosing HE. Currently used methods for diagnosing minimal or covert hepatic encephalopathy are compared with regard to their sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing HE against the background of a multitude of concomitant disorders and diseases that could contribute to brain dysfunction.

  12. Management of acute hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Mitchell L

    2010-02-01

    Acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a common cause of acute icteric hepatitis in adults. The vast majority of these patients resolve this acute infection and develop long-lasting immunity. In contrast, the vast majority of patients who develop chronic HBV have minimal symptoms and do not develop jaundice after becoming infected with HBV. These patients will frequently remain undiagnosed for years or decades. Approximately 1% of persons with acute HBV develop acute liver failure. Preventing acute HBV with vaccination is the best treatment. Although universal vaccination is now administered to newborns in many countries, the majority of adults have not been vaccinated and remain at risk. Because the majority of patients with acute HBV resolve this infection spontaneously, treatment with an oral anti-HBV agent is not necessary. However, the use of an oral anti-HBV agent is not unreasonable to use in a patient who is developing acute liver failure from severe acute HBV.

  13. Aminoadamantanes for chronic hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamers, Mieke H; Broekman, Mark; Drenth, Joost Ph

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Around 3% of the world's population (approximately 160 million people) are chronically infected with hepatitis C virus. The proportion of infected people who develop clinical symptoms varies between 5% and 40%. Combination therapy with pegylated interferon-alpha plus ribavirin...... eradicates the virus from the blood six months after treatment (sustained virological response) in approximately 40% to 80% of infected patients, depending on the viral genotype. New antiviral agents, such as boceprevir and telaprevir, in combination with standard therapy, can increase sustained virological...... response in genotype 1 infected patients to at least 70%. There is therefore an unmet need for drugs that can achieve a higher proportion of sustained virological response. Aminoadamantanes are antiviral drugs used for treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C. OBJECTIVES: To assess the beneficial...

  14. Hepatic erythropoietin response in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risør, Louise M; Fenger, Mogens; Olsen, Niels V;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Erythropoietin (EPO) is produced in the liver during fetal life, but after birth the production shifts to the kidneys. The liver maintains a production capacity of 10% of the total EPO-production, but can be up-regulated to 100%. Previous studies have demonstrated both elevated...... and reduced concentrations of EPO in cirrhosis. Increased EPO concentrations could be expected due to anemia, hypoxia, renal hypoperfusion, or EPO-mediated hepatoprotective mechanisms. In contrast, poor hepatic production capacity may cause reduced EPO concentrations in cirrhosis. In the present paper we...... aimed to study hepatic and renal venous concentrations of EPO in relation to the severity of the disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included 24 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and eight age-matched healthy controls. All had a full catheterization performed with the determination of EPO concentrations...

  15. Pregnant woman with fulminant hepatic failure caused by hepatitis B virus infection:A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue-Bo Yang; Xiao-Mao Li; Zhong-Jie Shi; Lin Ma

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To report the experience in successfully treating pregnant women with severe hepatitis.METHODS: Comprehensive medical treatments were performed under strict monitoring.RESULTS: Pregnant woman with severe hepatitis was successfully rescued.CONCLUSION: Vital measures taken in the treatment of pregnant women with severe hepatitis include termination of the pregnancy at a proper time and control of various complications, such as disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), hepatorenal syndrome, hepatic encephalopathy and infection.

  16. Successful maternal and perinatal outcome of hepatitis E in pregnancy with fulminant hepatic failure

    OpenAIRE

    Meena N. Satia; Manali P. Shilotri

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E infection is an important cause of fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) in pregnancy in developing countries like India, with a high mortality rate. It is postulated that immunological and hormonal changes in pregnant women predispose them to developing FHF secondary to hepatitis E infection as compared to the less severe form seen in the non-pregnant population. A variation in the natural course of the disease is also seen amongst different geographical areas. Hepatitis E infection is...

  17. Autoimmune Hepatitis and PSC Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergani, Diego; Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina

    2008-02-01

    This article describes the connection between autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). The two conditions have chronicity, liver inflammation, and a positive autoimmune serology in common; they differ in terms of gender distribution and bile duct damage. There is evidence suggesting that AIH and PSC are immune-mediated diseases. PSC and AIH could lie within the spectrum of the same disease process. Future studies should determine how frequently AIH evolves to PSC.

  18. Desperately seeking hepatitis C virus

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno-Otero, Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    Spanish investigators described recently the so-called occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, emphasizing the detection of genomic and antigenomic HCV RNA strands in liver and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Therefore, the persistence of viral replication in occult HCV infection should be considered as a putative source of infection among family members and patients undergoing invasive procedures, transfusion or transplantation. Additionally, the most worrisome finding is that an occul...

  19. Hepatitis alcohólica

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis alcohólica (HA) es una entidad que forma parte de un conjunto de lesiones hepáticas producidas por la ingestión crónica de alcohol. Dichas lesiones son hígado graso, cirrosis, degeneración espumosa alcohólica (1), colestasis (2) (3), hepatitiscrónica (6), fibrosis y esclerosis perivenicular (4) (5), que en conjunto, configuran la llamada enfermedad hepática alcohólica (EHA).

  20. Hepatitis E and Maternal Deaths

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-11-06

    Dr. Alain Labrique, assistant professor in the Department of International Health and Department of Epidemiology at the Bloomberg School of Public Health, gives us his perspective on hepatitis E and maternal deaths.  Created: 11/6/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID); National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 11/7/2012.

  1. Historical reflections on autoimmune hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ian R Mackay

    2008-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH),initially known as chronic active or active chronic hepatitis (and by various other names),first came under clinical notice in the late 1940s.However,quite likely,chronic active hepatitis (CAH) had been observed prior to this and was attributed to a persistently destructive virus infection of the liver.An earlier (and controversial) designation in 1956 as lupoid hepatitis was derived from associated L.E.cell test positivity and emphasized accompanying multisystem features and immunological aberrations.Young women featured prominently in early descriptions of CAH.AIH was first applied in 1965 as a descriptive term.Disease-characteristic autoantibodies were defined from the early 1960s,notably antinuclear antibody (ANA),smooth muscle antibody (SMA) and liver-kidney microsomal (LKM) antibody.These are still widely used diagnostically but their relationship to pathogenesis is still not evident.A liver and disease specific autoantigen has long been searched for but unsuccessfully.Prolonged immunosuppressive therapy with predisolone and azathioprine in the 1960s proved beneficial and remains standard therapy today.AIH like many other autoimmune diseases is associated with particular HLA alleles especially with the "ancestral" B8,DR3 haplotype,and also with DR4.Looking forwards,AIH is one of the several enigmatic autoimmune diseases that,despite being (relatively) organ specific,are marked by autoimmune reactivities with non-organ-specific autoantigens.New paradigms are needed to explain the occurrence,expressions and pathogenesis of such diseases.

  2. Hepatitis B therapy in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbegov, Amethyst C; Sokol, Ronald J

    2009-02-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major cause of liver disease throughout the world, leading to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in many individuals. Children are more likely to develop chronic HBV infection as they demonstrate greater immunotolerance to the virus, and response to therapy in children remains disappointing. Three therapeutic agents for chronic HBV infection in children have been approved in the USA, including standard IFN-alpha, lamivudine and adefovir. IFN-alpha has been the most effective ( approximately 30% hepatitis B e antigen [HBeAg] seroconversion; 10% hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg] seroconversion), although benefits are primarily observed in children with alanine aminotransferase levels over two-times the upper limit of normal and must be weighed against significant side effects. Studies comparing the long-term outcome of chronic hepatitis B in children treated with IFN-alpha and in untreated controls show that the rate of anti-HBeAb seroconversion tends to overlap in treated and untreated patients within a few years of follow-up, suggesting that IFN-alpha simply accelerates a spontaneous event. Lamivudine's virologic response rates mirror those of IFN-alpha (23-31% HBeAg seroconversion) with easier administration and a better safety profile but lower HBsAg seroconversion (2-3%) and high rates of drug resistance. Adefovir data show low rates of resistance and a good safety profile, but virologic response was limited to adolescent patients and was lower than that of lamivudine (16% HBeAg seroconversion; therapies for adults with chronic HBV infection, are in trials for use in children. Future therapies will probably include these agents as well as combined therapies. Finally, watchful waiting of children is an option since current therapies are only 30% effective at best, although the long-term impact of therapy in childhood on rates of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma remains unknown.

  3. NUTRITIONAL SUPPORT FOR FULMINANT HEPATITIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Figueira, Estela Regina; Rocha Filho, Joel Avancini; Souto Nacif, Lucas; Carneiro D'Albuquerque, Luiz; Linetzky Waitzberg, Dan

    2015-12-01

    Introducción: la hepatitis fulminante se asocia a un exacerbado hipercatabolismo, la hipoglicemia y la hiperamonemia están acompañadas por la liberación de citocinas proinflamatorias y hormonas catabólicas en la circulación sistémica, empeorando la condición clínica del paciente. El apoyo nutricional es un elemento crucial para la recuperación de estos pacientes. Objetivos: el objetivo de esta revisión es actualizar el apoyo nutricional para la hepatitis fulminante. Métodos: la revisión se llevó a cabo mediante la búsqueda electrónica en Medline-PubMed, utilizando malla de términos. Resultados y discusión: no hay muchos datos disponibles sobre el apoyo nutricional para lahepatitis fulminante o fallo hepático agudo. Las estrategias de intervención nutricional inicial se centran en el control de los trastornos metabólicos de la hepatitis fulminante descritos anteriormente, que deben ser individualizadas de acuerdo a la gravedad de la situación clínica del paciente. Energía y proteína se pueden proporcionar en cantidades de 25‑40 kcal / kg / día y 0,8-1,2 g / kg / día, respectivamente. La terapia nutricional enteral está indicada en pacientes con encefalopatía avanzada o para aquellos que no pueden ser adecuadamente alimentados por vía oral. Se debe obtener una euglicemia y la ingesta de proteínas puede estar basada en fórmulas de BCAA. Los lípidos se pueden administrar como suplemento energético con precaución. Una terapia nutricional adecuada puede potencialmente reducir la morbilidad y la mortalidad de los pacientes con hepatitis fulminante.

  4. CT of hepatic schistosomiasis mansoni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fataar, S.; Bassiony, H.; Satyanath, S.; Rudwan, M.A.; Khaffaji, S.; El Magdy, W.; Al-Ansari, A.G.; Hanna, R.

    1985-07-01

    Schistosomal periportal fibrosis produced a typical pattern on computed tomography in five patients. Low-density periportal tissue, present throughout the liver, enhanced strongly after the administration of contrast medium. While rounded in cross section, the thickened periportal tissue produced linear and branching patterns when imaged in longitudinal section. In all cases, the sonographic features were typical of schistosomal periportal fibrosis. A lack of awareness of the distinctive features of periportal fibrosis may result in a mistaken diagnosis of hepatic metastases.

  5. Desperately seeking hepatitis C virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ricardo Moreno-Otero

    2008-01-01

    Spanish investigators described recently the so-called occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, emphasizing the detection of genomic and antigenomic HCV RNA strands in liver and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Therefore, the persistence of viral replication in occult HCV infection should be considered as a putative source of infection among family members and patients undergoing invasive procedures, transfusion or transplantation. Additionally, the most worrisome finding is that an occult HCV infection may persist in patients with sustained virological response.

  6. [Extrahepatic manifestations in hepatitis C].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risum, Malene

    2011-05-09

    Hepatitis C does not only affect the liver, but also manifests outside the liver. The skin, kidneys and nervous system are often involved due to mixed cryoglobulinaemia. Porphyria cutanea tarda, lymphoma and thyroid diseases among others can also attend a chronic infection, but the exact pathogenesis behind these manifestations is not clearly mapped. Antiviral treatment is reported to induce sustained virological response in more than half of the treated patients with a variable clinical response in the extrahepatic manifestations.

  7. Xenobiotic Exposure and Autoimmune Hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen M. Gilbert

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Although genetics contributes to the development of autoimmune diseases, it is clear that “environmental” factors are also required. These factors are thought to encompass exposure to certain drugs and environmental pollutants. This paper examines the mechanisms that normally maintain immune unresponsiveness in the liver and discusses how exposure to certain xenobiotics such as trichloroethylene may disrupt those mechanisms and promote autoimmune hepatitis.

  8. Hepatitis Infection May Raise Risk for Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... recent animal research has hinted that the gut "microbiome" -- the trillions of bacteria that dwell in the ... Health News on: Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Parkinson's Disease Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Hepatitis ...

  9. Hepatitis following famotidine: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Nishant; Patel, Chirag; Panda, Mukta

    2009-01-01

    H2 receptor antagonists can rarely cause idiosyncratic drug reactions leading to acute hepatitis. Famotidine, however, is considered a relatively safe drug with regards to hepatotoxicity. We report a case of a 47 year old male with a history of hepatitis C who developed acute hepatitis on the third day of hospitalization with a dramatic rise in his liver enzymes from normal values at the time of admission. The acute rise in liver enzymes made us consider an adverse drug reaction and famotidin...

  10. Acute hepatic encephalopathy with diffuse cortical lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, S.M.; Spreer, J.; Schumacher, M. [Section of Neuroradiology, Univ. of Freiburg (Germany); Els, T. [Dept. of Neurology, University of Freiburg (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Acute hepatic encephalopathy is a poorly defined syndrome of heterogeneous aetiology. We report a 49-year-old woman with alcoholic cirrhosis and hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia who developed acute hepatic coma induced by severe gastrointestinal bleeding. Laboratory analysis revealed excessively elevated blood ammonia. MRI showed lesions compatible with chronic hepatic encephalopathy and widespread cortical signal change sparing the perirolandic and occipital cortex. The cortical lesions resembled those of hypoxic brain damage and were interpreted as acute toxic cortical laminar necrosis. (orig.)

  11. Autophagy in intra-hepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Jing Li; Hezel, Aram F.

    2012-01-01

    Intra-hepatic cholangiocarcinoma (IHCC) is a primary cancer of the liver that shares histological features with the hepatic bile ducts from which it is thought to arise. The incidence of this disease is increasing, possibly related to increased inflammatory liver diseases such as viral hepatitis and steatohepatitis (commonly called “fatty liver”), induced by obesity, diabetes, and other metabolic derangements. Its prognosis is generally poor with early metastasis and presently there are limit...

  12. [Occult hepatitis C virus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreño García, Vicente; Nebreda, Javier Bartolomé; Aguilar, Inmaculada Castillo; Quiroga Estévez, Juan Antonio

    2011-03-01

    Occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is characterized by the detection of HCV-RNA in liver in the absence of anti-HCV and serum HCV-RNA determined by conventional techniques. The development of a new enzyme immunoassay for the detection of antibodies against a conserved epitope in the HCV core protein, together with the detection of HCV-RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and in serum after concentrating the viral particles by ultracentrifugation, allow diagnosis of more than 90% of patients with occult HCV without the need to perform a liver biopsy. Histological damage in occult HCV infection ranges from minimal changes to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, although in general this disease is less severe than classical chronic hepatitis C. A significant prevalence of occult HCV infection has been identified in risk groups such as hemodialysis patients and the family members of patients with occult hepatitis C. This occult HCV infection can also be found in subjects without clinical or biochemical evidence of liver disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España S.L. All rights reserved.

  13. [Treatment of viral hepatitis C].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassany, O

    1996-12-14

    Viral hepatitis C is a serious public health problem in France by the number of infected patients, the evolutive profile and by the lack of fully efficient therapeutics. However, the risk of developing cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma may not be so high as it has been stated until now. Interferon alpha is at the present time, the only approved drug for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. Its efficiency on criteria such as normalization of aminotransferases values or negativation of viremia is obtained in less than 25% of patients. The present recommendation is to use 3 MU of interferon alpha, 3 times per week during 12 months. While interferon leads to improvement of histologic lesions, it is not yet proved that a treatment by interferon can reduce, years after, the incidence of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. No therapeutic strategy has been defined yet for the frequent situations of "no response", relapses or presence of factors that reduce the efficacy of treatment (high initial viremia level, genotype 1b, cirrhosis). It is possible that the course of patients having low or no elevation of aminotransferases and/or minimal histologic lesions, is good without any treatment. The efficacy of interferon alone appears insufficient. Thus trials in progress concern associations of antiviral drugs such as vidarabine. In lack of vaccine, preventive treatment is essential and depends upon knowledge of conditions of transmission of the virus. Transmission through blood and intravenous drug addiction represent 60 to 70% of cases of hepatitis C.

  14. Bortezomib Induced Hepatitis B Reactivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salwa Hussain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It has recently been reported that hepatitis B (HBV reactivation often occurs after the use of rituximab and stem cell transplantation in patients with lymphoma who are hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg negative. However, clinical data on HBV reactivation in multiple myeloma (MM is limited to only a few reported cases. Bortezomib and lenalidomide have remarkable activity in MM with manageable toxicity profiles, but reactivation of viral infections may emerge as a problem. We present a case of MM that developed HBV reactivation after bortezomib and lenalidomide therapy. Case Report. A 73-year-old female with a history of marginal cell lymphoma was monitored without requiring therapy. In 2009, she developed MM, presenting as a plasmacytoma requiring vertebral decompression and focal radiation. While receiving radiation she developed renal failure and was started on bortezomib and liposomal doxorubicin. After a transient response to 5 cycles, treatment was switched to lenalidomide. Preceding therapy initiation, her serology indicated resolved infection. Serial monitoring for HBV displayed seroconversion one month after change in therapy. Conclusion. Bortezomib associated late HBV reactivation appears to be a unique event that requires further confirmation and brings to discussion whether hepatitis B core positive individuals would benefit from monitoring of HBV activation while on therapy.

  15. Novel Immunotherapies for Autoimmune Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassim, Shamir; Bilodeau, Marc; Vincent, Catherine; Lapierre, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a multifactorial autoimmune disease of unknown pathogenesis, characterized by a loss of immunological tolerance against liver autoantigens resulting in the progressive destruction of the hepatic parenchyma. Current treatments are based on non-specific immunosuppressive drugs. Although tremendous progress has been made using specific biological agents in other inflammatory diseases, progress has been slow to come for AIH patients. While current treatments are successful in the majority of patients, treatment discontinuation is difficult to achieve, and relapses are frequent. Lifelong immunosuppression is not without risks, especially in the pediatric population; 4% of patient with type 1 AIH will eventually develop hepatocellular carcinoma with a 2.9% probability after 10 years of treatment. Therefore, future treatments should aim to restore tolerance to hepatic autoantigens and induce long-term remission. Promising new immunotherapies have been tested in experimental models of AIH including T and B cell depletion and regulatory CD4+ T cells infusion. Clinical studies on limited numbers of patients have also shown encouraging results using B-cell-depleting (rituximab) and anti-TNF-α (infliximab) antibodies. A better understanding of key molecular targets in AIH combined with effective site-specific immunotherapies could lead to long-term remission without blanket immunosuppression and with minimal deleterious side effects. PMID:28184367

  16. Novel Immunotherapies for Autoimmune Hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassim, Shamir; Bilodeau, Marc; Vincent, Catherine; Lapierre, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a multifactorial autoimmune disease of unknown pathogenesis, characterized by a loss of immunological tolerance against liver autoantigens resulting in the progressive destruction of the hepatic parenchyma. Current treatments are based on non-specific immunosuppressive drugs. Although tremendous progress has been made using specific biological agents in other inflammatory diseases, progress has been slow to come for AIH patients. While current treatments are successful in the majority of patients, treatment discontinuation is difficult to achieve, and relapses are frequent. Lifelong immunosuppression is not without risks, especially in the pediatric population; 4% of patient with type 1 AIH will eventually develop hepatocellular carcinoma with a 2.9% probability after 10 years of treatment. Therefore, future treatments should aim to restore tolerance to hepatic autoantigens and induce long-term remission. Promising new immunotherapies have been tested in experimental models of AIH including T and B cell depletion and regulatory CD4(+) T cells infusion. Clinical studies on limited numbers of patients have also shown encouraging results using B-cell-depleting (rituximab) and anti-TNF-α (infliximab) antibodies. A better understanding of key molecular targets in AIH combined with effective site-specific immunotherapies could lead to long-term remission without blanket immunosuppression and with minimal deleterious side effects.

  17. Hepatitis E as a Zoonosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widén, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E (HE) virus infection is not limited to spread from human to human but also occurs between animals and more importantly as zoonotic spread from animals to humans. Genotyping of strains from hepatitis E virus-infected patients has revealed that these infections are not all caused by genotypes 1 or 2 but often by genotypes 3 or 4. Therefore, it is important to understand the striking difference between the spread of genotypes 1 and 2 in countries with poor sanitary standards and the spread of genotypes 3 and 4 in countries with good sanitary standards. The number of animal species known to be infected with HEV is expanding rapidly. The finding of HEV in new host species always raises the question regarding the zoonotic potential of these newfound strains. However, as new strains are found, the complexity increases.Certain genotypes are known to have the ability of zoonotic spread from certain animal species and these animals may even constitute an infection reservoir. Some animal species may contribute to zoonotic infections albeit on a smaller scale, while others are believed to be of minor or no importance at all. This chapter reviews possible sources of zoonotic hepatitis E virus infection.

  18. Problems in diagnosing viral hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonino, F; Colloredo Mels, G; Bellati, G; Ideo, G; Oliveri, F; Colombatto, P; Brunetto, M R

    1993-01-01

    The most reliable method of making a specific aetiological diagnosis of chronic viral hepatitis would be to identify virus specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes responsible for the killing of virus infected hepatocytes in each patient's liver. Unfortunately, this can not be proposed for routine diagnosis and surrogate tests are required. The detection of virus markers, and even of the virus itself, does not imply that liver damage is caused by virus infection. Indirect markers of the host's antiviral immunoresponse have to be used to confirm more specifically the diagnosis of viral hepatitis. IgM antibodies against viral antigens implicated in the elimination of the virus seem to be suitable alternative candidates. Significant changes in the serum values of viraemia and aminotransferases occur within a few days, while a significant variation in liver histology takes much longer. Only the kinetics of the highly variable parameters can be used for an appropriate study of the relationship between viraemia, antiviral immunoresponse, and liver cell necrosis. Quantitative and dynamic analyses of hepatitis virus markers seem the most suitable and reliable methods of monitoring the patients eligible for antiviral treatment and identifying the most appropriate time to start this. PMID:8314490

  19. Hepatitis C in hemodialysis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Smaragdi Marinaki; John N Boletis; Stratigoula Sakellariou; Ioanna K Delladetsima

    2015-01-01

    Despite reduction of hepatitis C prevalence afterrecognition of the virus and testing of blood products,hemodialysis (HD) patients still comprise a high riskgroup. The natural history of hepatitis C virus (HCV)infection in dialysis is not fully understood whilethe clinical outcome differs from that of the generalpopulation. HD patients show a milder liver diseasewith lower aminotransferase and viral levels depicted bymilder histological features on liver biopsy. Furthermore,the "silent" clinical course is consistent with a slowerdisease progression and a lower frequency of cirrhosisand hepatocellular carcinoma. Potential explanations forthe "beneficial" impact of uremia and hemodialysis onchronic HCV infection are impaired immunosurveillanceleading to a less aggressive host response to the virusand intradialytic release of "hepatoprotective" cytokinessuch as interferon (IFN)-α and hepatocyte growthfactor. However, chronic hepatitis C is associated witha higher liver disease related cardiovascular and allcausemortality of HD patients. Therapy is indicated inselected patients groups including younger patients withlow comorbidity burden and especially renal transplantcandidates, preferably after performance of a liverbiopsy. According to current recommendations, choice oftreatment is IFN or pegylated interferon with a reportedsustained viral response at 30%-40% and a withdrawalrate ranging from 17% to 30%. New data regardingcombination therapy with low doses of ribavirin whichprovide higher standard variable rates and good safetyresults, offer another therapeutic option. The newprotease inhibitors may be the future for HCV infectedHD patients, though data are still lacking.

  20. Fulminant hepatic failure from hepatitis E in a non-pregnant female traveller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris, Robert B; Keystone, Jay S

    2016-04-01

    A non-pregnant Canadian woman returning from India presented with a 1-week history of jaundice and malaise. Subsequently, she developed fulminant hepatic failure caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV). HEV can cause fulminant hepatic failure, most commonly in pregnant women and those with chronic liver disease; however, all travellers are at risk.

  1. Fulminant hepatic failure after intravenous injection of sublingual buprenorphine in a patient with hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Janine; Mujumdar, Avik; Angus, Peter; Gow, Paul

    2015-08-01

    A 20-year-old indigenous Australian male was admitted to the intensive care unit with fulminant hepatic failure secondary to intravenous use of buprenorphine, which had been prescribed sublingually for opioid dependence. Intravenous buprenorphine-induced hepatitis is well recognized, however, life-threatening fulminant hepatic failure has not previously been reported.

  2. Hepatitis A seroprevalence in patients with chronic viral hepatitis in Konya, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özden, Hale T

    2016-03-01

    Hepatitis A is among the diseases that can be prevented with vaccination in our time. Acute hepatitis A progresses more severely in individuals with a liver disease. Therefore, patients with a chronic liver disease (because of hepatitis B or hepatitis C) are advised vaccination with the hepatitis A vaccine. This study is aimed to determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) antibodies in patients infected with hepatitis C virus or hepatitis B virus in Konya province of Turkey. A total of 537 patients who had chronic viral hepatitis between January 2011 and December 2014 were included in the study. Serum samples were collected from each patient and tested for anti-HAV using the chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. The overall seroprevalence of total anti-HAV IgG was 94.2%. The overall prevalence of anti-HAV IgG in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection was 97.5 and 93.6%, respectively. Anti-HAV IgG positivity was 97.4% in cirrhotic patients and 93.9% in noncirrhotic individuals. At the end of the study, being older than 40 years and living in a rural area were found to be independent risk factors for anti-HAV IgG seropositivity. In conclusion, we recommend that patients younger than 40 years and/or those living in cities and having a chronic liver disease should be vaccinated with the hepatitis A vaccine.

  3. Hepatic segmentectomy combined with major hepatic vein resection for preser ving remnant liver lobe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Xing; Hong Li; Wei-Guo Liu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Impairment of liver function is the most serious complication that occurs after liver resection or in cirrhotic liver. Postoperative hepatic failure, which is mainly preceded by insufifcient remnant liver function and/or postoperative septic complications, is the major cause of hospital mortality. This study was undertaken to evaluate hepatic segmentectomy combined with major hepatic vein (MHV) resection for preserving the remnant liver lobe in the treatment of resectable primary liver cancer. METHODS: From 1997 to 2007, six patients with primary liver cancer underwent hepatic segmentectomy with MHV resection, and three patients with hepatic vein injury had ligation of the MHV. The remnant liver lobe was preserved after hepatic segmentectomy combined with MHV resection or ligation. RESULTS: The preserved liver lobe with normal structure could maintain hepatic function and showed no evidence of atrophy or swelling after hepatic segmentectomy combined with MHV resection or ligation. CONCLUSIONS: After the right inferior hepatic vein is conifrmed, and the MHV is occluded experimentally before hepatic segmentectomy combined with MHV resection, progressively deteriorating congestion does not occur in the preserved segment. Ligation or resection of the two MHVs must be avoided in patients with hepatic cirrhosis who have to undergo hepatic segmentectomy combined with MHV resection. Ligation of the MHV in patients with juxtahepatic vein injury is a simple and effective therapeutic modality.

  4. Prevalence of antibody to hepatitis B core antigen among hepatitis B ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of antibody to hepatitis B core antigen among hepatitis B surface antigen-negative ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... donor selection criteria and screening for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). ... Rwanda (3); Senegal (6); Sierra Leone (1); South Africa (96); South Sudan (1); Sudan (3) ...

  5. Chronic viral hepatitis : diagnosis and therapeutics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wu, George Y; Koff, Raymond S

    2001-01-01

    .... The discussion of patient management includes contributions on developing novel therapeutics, supporting patients during therapy, alternative treatments, the use of drugs in chronic viral hepatitis...

  6. Hepatitis A to E: what's new?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsen, Waled; Levy, Miriam T

    2017-04-01

    Viral hepatitis contributes to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. While acute infection may be self-limiting, unrecognised chronic infection and under-utilisation of guideline-based approaches to therapy contribute to increasing rates of cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and death. Our aim was to review the current evidence for screening, diagnosis and treatment in hepatitis A to E. Evidence for this review was sourced from international and Australian guidelines and high-quality clinical trials. MEDLINE was searched using structured key word strategy and retrieved articles were reviewed methodically to inform a brief and up-to-date synopsis of hepatitis A to E. We share some of the recent developments in viral hepatitis, specifically the new therapies for hepatitis C. Direct-acting antiviral therapies are safe, well-tolerated and effective. Subsidies allow access for all Australians with most strains of hepatitis C. We outline evidence underpinning efficacy and safety of treatment for hepatitis B, while clarifying some of the nuances in the setting of pregnancy and immunosuppression. We provide a simplified concept to facilitate understanding of the five phases of hepatitis B; practical for real-world setting. Hepatitis A to E is a broad topic, not all aspects of these viruses can be covered in this short review. We provided suggestions for evidence based guidelines, which are a suitable supplement to this article. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  7. Autoimmune hepatitis in association with lymphocytic colitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, Edmond M

    2012-02-03

    Autoimmune hepatitis is a rare, chronic inflammatory disorder which has been associated with a number of other auto-immune conditions. However, there are no reports in the medical literature of an association with microscopic (lymphocytic) colitis. We report the case of a 53-year-old woman with several autoimmune conditions, including lymphocytic colitis, who presented with an acute hepatitis. On the basis of the clinical features, serology, and histopathology, we diagnosed autoimmune hepatitis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of autoimmune hepatitis in association with lymphocytic colitis, and lends support to the theory of an autoimmune etiology for lymphocytic colitis.

  8. [Diffuse hepatic hemangiomatosis--case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalache, Carmen; Dumitrache, Dana

    2004-01-01

    Hemangiomatosis of the liver is growing in the last decades, because of the abdominal imaging progresses: brain CT scan, MRI. In the presented case, the onset was with symptoms and biochemical disorders characteristic for acute viral hepatitis, with negative serological markers for the A and B hepatitis viruses. The persistence of the clinical symptoms and of the hepatic and biliary retention tests, determined the abdominal echography; which orient the diagnosis to vascular tumour with liver metastasis. Intraoperatively was found: diffuse hemangiomatosis of the liver. The patient didn't benefit from liver transplantation and died due to subfulminant hepatic failure.

  9. Chronic hepatitis C with extrahepatic manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poantă, Laura; Albu, Adriana

    2007-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C is often asymptomatic and is mostly discovered accidentally. The natural course of viral C infection varies considerably from one person to another. Chronic hepatitis C more than other forms of hepatitis is diagnosed because of extrahepatic manifestations associated with the presence of HCV such as thyroiditis, porphyria cutanea tarda, cryoglobulinemia and glomerulonephritis, specifically membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, sicca syndrome, thrombocytopenia, lichen planus, diabetes mellitus and B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. We report here a case of a young man with hepatitis C and porphyria cutanea tarda who developed psoriasis after the beginning of systemic interferon therapy.

  10. New developments in the era of viral hepatitis vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    POYRAZ, Merve; Özdoğan, Osman Cavit

    2016-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections are major healthproblems in the world. Therefore, prevention of the transmission ofthe viral infections gets higher priority. Development of hepatitisB vaccines by recombinant technology provide higher preventionrates. However, this success could not be achieved with hepatitisC vaccine. The present review discusses recent developments forhepatitis B and C vaccines.Keywords: New vaccines, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C

  11. Immunological response to hepatitis B vaccine in polytransfused thalassemic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavian, Seyed-Moayed; Tabatabaei, Seyed-Vahid

    2010-05-01

    Hepatitis B is an important infection in thalassemia patients and prevention by vaccination is needed. Immunological response to hepatitis B vaccine in polytransfused thalassmia patients needs more attention.

  12. Transcription factor assisted loading and enhancer dynamics dictate the hepatic fasting response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Ido; Baek, Songjoon; Presman, Diego M.; Paakinaho, Ville; Swinstead, Erin E.; Hager, Gordon L.

    2017-01-01

    Fasting elicits transcriptional programs in hepatocytes leading to glucose and ketone production. This transcriptional program is regulated by many transcription factors (TFs). To understand how this complex network regulates the metabolic response to fasting, we aimed at isolating the enhancers and TFs dictating it. Measuring chromatin accessibility revealed that fasting massively reorganizes liver chromatin, exposing numerous fasting-induced enhancers. By utilizing computational methods in combination with dissecting enhancer features and TF cistromes, we implicated four key TFs regulating the fasting response: glucocorticoid receptor (GR), cAMP responsive element binding protein 1 (CREB1), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARA), and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (CEBPB). These TFs regulate fuel production by two distinctly operating modules, each controlling a separate metabolic pathway. The gluconeogenic module operates through assisted loading, whereby GR doubles the number of sites occupied by CREB1 as well as enhances CREB1 binding intensity and increases accessibility of CREB1 binding sites. Importantly, this GR-assisted CREB1 binding was enhancer-selective and did not affect all CREB1-bound enhancers. Single-molecule tracking revealed that GR increases the number and DNA residence time of a portion of chromatin-bound CREB1 molecules. These events collectively result in rapid synergistic gene expression and higher hepatic glucose production. Conversely, the ketogenic module operates via a GR-induced TF cascade, whereby PPARA levels are increased following GR activation, facilitating gradual enhancer maturation next to PPARA target genes and delayed ketogenic gene expression. Our findings reveal a complex network of enhancers and TFs that dynamically cooperate to restore homeostasis upon fasting. PMID:28031249

  13. Prevalence and severity of acute viral hepatitis and fulminant hepatitis during pregnancy: A prospective study from north india

    OpenAIRE

    Beniwal M; Kumar A; Kar P; Jilani N; Sharma J

    2003-01-01

    The present study aimed to find out the prevalence and severity of acute viral hepatitis and fulminant hepatitis during pregnancy in North India. The study was conducted on 97 consecutive pregnant patients in third trimester with acute viral hepatitis (AVH) or fulminant hepatic failure (FHF). The patients were evaluated on the basis of history, examination, liver function profile and serological markers for hepatitis A,B,C and E viruses. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) was the causative agent in 47.4...

  14. 新确诊老年糖尿病降糖过快诱发心血管疾病患者的临床分析%Clinical analysis of the newly diagnosed elderly diabetes patients with hypoglycemic fast induced cardiovascular disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蓓

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the problems of the newly diagnosed elderly diabetes patients with hypoglycemic fast induced cardiovascular disease.Methods:80 cases of newly diagnosed elderly diabetes patients were selected.The control group was given conventional drug treatment.The observation group was given individualized drug treatment.The problems of the patients with hypoglycemic fast induced cardiovascular disease were compared.Results:The observation group had no hypoglycemic fast problems;the cardiovascular disease occurrence was significantly lower than that of the control group(P<0.05).The clinical treatment effect of the observation group was significantly higher than that of the control group(P<0.05).Conclusion:The implementation of individualized drug treatment for newly diagnosed elderly diabetes patients can effectively reduce the incidence of hypoglycemic fast induced cardiovascular disease.%目的:分析新确诊老年糖尿病降糖过快诱发心血管疾病的问题。方法:收治新确诊老年糖尿病患者80例,对照组给予常规药物治疗,观察组给予个性化药物治疗,对比两组患者的降糖速度过快诱发心血管疾病的问题。结果:观察组未发生降糖速度过快问题,心血管疾病发生率显著低于对照组(P<0.05);观察组的临床治疗效果显著高于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:对新确诊老年糖尿病患者实施个性化的药物治疗,能够有效降低降糖过快诱发心血管疾病的发生率。

  15. Yeast-recombinant hepatitis B vaccine: efficacy with hepatitis B immune globulin in prevention of perinatal hepatitis B virus transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, C.E.; Taylor, P.E.; Tong, M.J.; Toy, P.T.; Vyas, G.N.; Nair, P.V.; Weissman, J.Y.; Krugman, S.

    1987-05-15

    A yeast-recombinant hepatitis B vaccine was licensed recently by the Food and Drug administration and is now available. To assess the efficacy of the yeast-recombinant vaccine, the authors administered the vaccine in combination with hepatitis B immune globulin to high-risk newborns. If infants whose mothers were positive for both hepatitis B surface antigen and the e antigen receive no immunoprophylaxis, 70% to 90% become infected with the virus, and almost all become chronic carriers. Among infants in this study who received hepatitis B immune globulin at birth and three 5-/sup +/g doses of yeast-recombinant hepatitis B vaccine, only 4.8% became chronic carriers, a better than 90% level of protection and a rate that is comparable with that seen with immune globulin and plasma-derived hepatitis B vaccine. Hepatitis surface antigen and antibodies were detected by radioimmunoassay. These data suggest that, in this high-risk setting, the yeast-recombinant vaccine is as effective as the plasma-derived vaccine in preventing hepatitis B virus infection and the chronic carrier state.

  16. Tuberculosis, hepatitis C and hepatitis B co-infections in patients with HIV in the Great Tehran Prison, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Farhoudi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a study to evaluate tuberculosis (TB, hepatitis C and hepatitis B co-infections in male patients with HIV in the Great Tehran Prison from October 2013 to May 2014. Among 85 HIV positive patients, five persons (5.9% had TB. Also, 56 new HIV-infected patients were checked for hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis C virus antibody. There were three hepatitis B surface antigen (5.4% and 50 hepatitis C virus antibody (89.3% results. This study suggests that it is necessary to investigate TB, hepatitis C and hepatitis B in HIV positive prisoners in Iran.

  17. Hepatitis B virus taxonomy and hepatitis B virus genotypes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a member of the hepadnavirus family. Hepadnaviruses can be found in both mammals (orthohepadnaviruses) and birds (avihepadnaviruses).The genetic variability of HBV is very high. There are eight genotypes of HBV and three clades of HBV isolates from apes that appear to be additional genotypes of HBV. Most genotypes are now divided into subgenotypes with distinct virological and epidemiological properties. In addition, recombination among HBV genotypes increases the variability of HBV. This review summarises current knowledge of the epidemiology of genetic variability in hepadnaviruses and, due to rapid progress in the field,updates several recent reviews on HBV genotypes and subgenotypes.

  18. Factors influencing the severity of acute viral hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joo Il; Jung, Young Kul; Kwon, Oh Sang; Kim, Yeon Suk; Ku, Yang Suh; Choi, Duck Joo; Kim, Ju Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims Most patients with acute viral hepatitis A have a favorable course, but a few of them suffer from severe forms of hepatitis such as fulminant hepatitis. This study was carried out to identify the factors influencing the severity of acute viral hepatitis A. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 713 patients with acute hepatitis A, who were divided into two groups: severe hepatitis A (N=87) and non-severe hepatitis A (N=626). Severe hepatitis was defined as fulminant hepatitis or prolongation of prothrombin time (INR≥1.5). Clinical variables were compared between the two groups. Results The incidence of fulminant hepatitis was 1.4% (10/713) in patients with acute hepatitis A. Thirty-three (4.6%) cases exhibited HBsAg positivity. In multivariate analyses, significant alcohol intake and the presence of HBsAg were significant predictive factors of fulminant hepatitis A, and significant alcohol intake and age were significant predictive factors of severe hepatitis A. HBeAg and HBV-DNA status did not affect the clinical course of hepatitis A in chronic hepatitis B carriers. Conclusions While most patients with acute hepatitis A have an uncomplicated clinical course, our data suggest that a more-severe clinical course is correlated with being older, significant alcohol intake, and chronic hepatitis-B-virus infection. PMID:20924212

  19. Measurement of hepatic tissue hypoxia using near infrared spectroscopy: comparison with hepatic vein oxygen partial pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Desoky, A E; Jiao, L R; Havlik, R; Habib, N; Davidson, B R; Seifalian, A M

    2000-01-01

    Hepatic hypoxia occurs during liver surgery and transplantation. The critical level associated with irreversible hepatocellular damage is unknown. Measurement of hepatic tissue oxygenation and hepatic vein oxygen partial pressure (HVPO(2)) reflects oxygen supply and consumption. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can be used to monitor hepatic oxyhaemoglobin (HbO(2)), deoxyhaemoglobin (Hb) and cytochrome oxidase (Cyt Ox) oxidation. This study compared regional hepatic tissue oxygenation (HbO(2), Hb and Cyt Ox) using NIRS with HVPO(2). The use of tissue oxygenation measured by NIRS and HVPO(2) as indicators of hepatic tissue hypoxia was also investigated. Large Landrace pigs (n = 5) underwent laparotomy and liver exposure. Systemic and hepatic haemodynamics were monitored continuously. NIRS probes were placed on the liver to record continuously HbO(2), Hb and Cyt Ox. Graded hypoxaemia was achieved by stepwise reduction of the fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO(2)) from 30% (baseline) to 4%. A significant decrease in hepatic arterial blood flow and total hepatic blood flow was seen with severe hypoxaemia while there was no significant change to portal vein blood flow. Oxygen partial pressures in the hepatic artery, portal vein and hepatic vein decreased progressively with all grades of hypoxaemia. There was an immediate reduction of hepatic HbO(2) and simultaneous increase in hepatic Hb with all grades of hypoxaemia. Hepatic Cyt Ox was reduced significantly only with FiO(2) oxygenation parameters measured by NIRS and HVPO(2). HVPO(2) measurement did not predict the reduction in intracellular tissue oxygenation demonstrated by NIRS with a decrease of Cyt Ox oxidation. In conclusion there was a good correlation between the tissue oxygenation parameters measured by NIRS and HVPO(2). However, the reduction of intracellular oxygenation found with severe hypoxaemia was demonstrated only by NIRS.

  20. Hepatitis C virus core protein induces hepatic steatosis via Sirt1-dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanhai; Wang, Jingjing; Zhang, Hanlin; Liu, Shunai; Lee, Hyuek Jong; Jin, Wanzhu; Cheng, Jun

    2017-09-12

    Hepatic steatosis is a common feature of patients with chronic hepatitis C. Previous reports have shown that the overexpression of hepatitis C virus core-encoding sequences (hepatitis C virus genotypes 3a and 1b) significantly induces intracellular triglyceride accumulation. However, the underlying mechanism has not yet been revealed. To investigate whether Sirt1 is involved in hepatitis C virus-mediated hepatic steatosis, the overexpression of hepatitis C virus core 1b protein and Sirt1 and the knockdown of Sirt1 in HepG2 cells were performed. To confirm the results of the cellular experiment liver-specific Sirt1 KO mice with lentivirus-mediated hepatitis C virus core 1b overexpression were studied. Our results show that hepatitis C virus core 1b protein overexpression led to the accumulation of triglycerides in HepG2 cells. Notably the expression of PPARγ2 was dramatically increased at both the mRNA and protein levels by hepatitis C virus core 1b overexpression. The protein expression of Sirt1 is an upstream regulator of PPARγ2 and was also significantly increased after core 1b overexpression. In addition, the overexpression or knockdown of Sirt1 expression alone was sufficient to modulate p300-mediated PPARγ2 deacetylation. In vivo studies showed that hepatitis C virus core protein 1b-induced hepatic steatosis was attenuated in liver-specific Sirt1 KO mice by downregulation of PPARγ2 expression. Sirt1 mediates hepatitis C virus core protein 1b-induced hepatic steatosis by regulation of PPARγ2 expression. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Differential effect of gender on hepatic fat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilsanz, Vicente [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, USC, Keck School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, MS 81, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, USC, Keck School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Chung, Sandra A. [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, USC, Keck School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, MS 81, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Kaplowitz, Neil [USC, Keck School of Medicine, USC Research Center for Liver Disease, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2011-09-15

    There are discrepant data on whether men or women have a higher risk for hepatic steatosis. To examine the influence of gender on hepatic adiposity in teenagers and young adults. We measured subcutaneous abdominal fat (SAF), intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and hepatic tissue density (a surrogate measure of hepatic fat) using CT in 505 healthy teenagers and young adults (254 males, 251 females; ages 15-22.9 years). Overall, compared to men, women had higher values of SAF (P < 0.0001) but similar measures of IAF and liver tissue density (P = 0.09 and 0.92, respectively). However, when compared to overweight/obese men, overweight/obese women had strikingly similar IAF values (P = 0.85) but lower hepatic fat (P = 0.009). Multiple regression analyses indicated that, after adjusting for age and SAF, IAF independently predicted hepatic density in males (P < 0.0001) but not in females (P = 0.36). Hepatic fat increased with body mass in males from lean to overweight and obese (P < 0.0001) but not in females (P > 0.05). When compared to overweight and obese young women, overweight and obese young men are at greater risk for hepatic steatosis, independent of IAF. (orig.)

  2. Pancreatic involvement in chronic viral hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshiki Katakura; Hiroshi Yotsuyanagi; Kiyoe Hashizume; Chiaki Okuse; Noriaki Okuse; Kohji Nishikawa; Michihiro Suzuki; Shiro Iino; Fumio Itoh

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the frequency and characteristics of pancreatic disorders in the course of chronic viral hepatitis. METHODS: We prospectively assessed the serum pancreatic enzyme levels and imaging findings in patients with chronic viral hepatitis and healthy control subjects. RESULTS: Serum amylase (t-Amy), salivary amylase (s-Amy), pancreatic amylase (p-Amy) and serum lipase levels were higher in hepatitis patients in comparison to control subjects. However, in asymptomatic viral carriers, only the serum t-Amy levels were higher than those of the controls. The levels of each enzyme rose with the progression of liver disease in patients with hepatitis B or C; whereas the levels of each enzyme within the same clinical stage of the disease did not differ between patients diagnosed with either hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus. Imaging findings demonstrated chronic pancreatitis in only 1 out of 202 patients (0.5%).CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that serum levels of pancreatic enzymes increase with the progression of liver disease in patients diagnosed with viral hepatitis. Pancreatic disease, asymptomatic in most cases, may represent an extrahepatic manifestation of chronic viral hepatitis.

  3. Hepatic infarction following abdominal interventional procedures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujiwara H

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available To clarify the incidence, background, and progress of hepatic infarction following interventional procedures, cases of hepatic infarction following interventional procedures at our department during the last decade were identified by reviewing the clinical records of 1982 abdominal angiography and interventional procedures and records of abdominal CT. Nine episodes (0.5% in 8 patients were identified as hepatic infarction following an interventional procedure. Five episodes were preceded by embolization of the hepatic or celiac artery at emergency angiography for postoperative bleeding with hemorrhagic shock. Three episodes followed the elected interventional procedure for hepatocellular carcinoma, and the remaining episode occurred after 12 months of chemoinfusion through an indwelling catheter in the hepatic artery and portal vein. Hepatic arterial occlusion in all episodes and portal venous flow abnormality in 5 episodes were observed on angiography. Four patients whose liver function was initially impaired died of hepatic infarction, although the extent of the disease on CT did not appear to be related to the mortality. Multiple risk factors, including arterial insufficiency, were observed in each patient. The incidence of hepatic infarction following interventional procedures in this series was low but sometimes fatal, and occurred most frequently in emergency embolization in hemorrhagic shock.

  4. Ribavirin monotherapy for chronic hepatitis C infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, Jesper; Gluud, Lise L; Gluud, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Adding ribavirin to interferon improves treatment response for patients with chronic hepatitis C, but the effects of ribavirin monotherapy are unclear. We conducted a systematic review to assess the benefits and harms of ribavirin monotherapy for patients with chronic hepatitis C....

  5. Ribavirin monotherapy for chronic hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, J; Gluud, L L; Gluud, C

    2005-01-01

    Hepatitis C is a major cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality. The disease progresses without symptoms for several decades. Ribavirin monotherapy may represent a treatment for some patients.......Hepatitis C is a major cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality. The disease progresses without symptoms for several decades. Ribavirin monotherapy may represent a treatment for some patients....

  6. [Spontaneous hepatic hematoma in twin pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesnel, Carlos; Weber, Alejandro; Mendoza, Dalila; Garteiz, Denzil

    2012-02-01

    The hepatic hematoma or rupture appear in 1 of every 100,000 pregnancies. The most common causes of hepatic hematoma in pregnancy are severe preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome; some predisposing factors are seizures, vomiting, labor, preexistent hepatic disease and trauma. A 33 year old primigravid with a normal 33 week twin pregnancy presented abdominal pain and hypovolemic shock due to spontaneous subcapsular hepatic hematoma; laparoscopy was performed to evaluate the possibility of rupture, which was not found, later emergency cesarean section was carried out followed by hepatic hematoma drainage and abdominal packaging by laparoscopy. After surgery the flow through drainage was too high additionally hemodynamic instability and consumption coagulopathy. Abdominal panangiography was performed without identifying bleeding areas. Intesive care was given to the patient evolving satisfactorily, was discharged 19 days after the event. Seven months later she had laparoscopic cholecystectomy due to acute litiasic colecistitis. We found 5 cases in literatura about hepatic hematoma during pregnancy no related to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy; these were related to hepatoma, amebian hepatic abscess, falciform cell anemia, cocaine consumption and molar pregnancy. Hepatics hematomas have high morbidity and mortality so is significant early diagnosis and multidisciplinary approach.

  7. Management of hepatitis B in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Feng-min; ZHUANG Hui

    2009-01-01

    @@ Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global public health problem. According to the data of World Health Organization (WHO), 2 billion people worldwide have been infected with HBV, and among them 350-400 million are chronic HBV carriers. Hepatitis B causes about 1 million deaths of HBV related liver failure, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma annually.

  8. Immunisering van pasgeborenes teen hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. W. Prozesky

    1983-03-01

    Full Text Available Endemiese hepatitis B is ’n emstige gesondheidsprobleem in KaNgwane, tuiste van Suid-Afrika se Swazi’s. Besmetting met die hepatitis B-virus (HBV is so algemeen in hierdie gemeenskap en vind alreeds so vroeg in die lewe plaas dat inenting van pasgeborenes regverdigbaar en wenslik is.

  9. Medicinal herbs for hepatitis C virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jianping; Manheimer, Eric; Tsutani, Kiichiro

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess beneficial and harmful effects of medicinal herbs for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.......The aim of this study was to assess beneficial and harmful effects of medicinal herbs for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection....

  10. Evaluation of pediatric patients with hepatitis A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetinkaya, Bilge; Tezer, Hasan; Özkaya Parlakay, Aslinur; Revide Sayli, Tulin

    2014-03-13

    Hepatitis A is the most common form of acute viral hepatitis worldwide, especially in children. The clinical severity of the hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection varies from an asymptomatic infection to a fulminant disease. In this study, we aimed to evaluate characteristics of pediatric patients diagnosed with HAV infection. Patients younger than 18 years of age admitted between January 1, 2006 and January 1, 2011 to our hospital, an important reference center located in the middle part of Turkey, diagnosed as having hepatitis A were evaluated. Of 427 patients, 49.4% were female and 50.6% were male. Hospitalization rate of the patients was 28.3%. The reason for hospitalization was vomitting in 58.7% of the patients and abdominal pain in 28%. The mean time of hospitalization was 5.2 ± 4.5 (1-40) days. There was no significant difference in hospitalization time by age. Vomiting and abdominal pain were significantly more common, and PT and aPTT levels were significantly elevated in patients with elevated AST and ALT levels over 1000 IU/L (p hepatitis, one had recurrent hepatitis, and one had fulminant hepatitis, yet no mortality was observed. Atypical courses of hepatitis A were more scarce in pediatric patients, but careful follow-up of patients with AST and ALT levels > 1000 IU/L is necessary.

  11. Hepatitis E virus and neurological injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalton, H.R.; Kamar, N.; Eijk, J.J.J. van; McLean, B.N.; Cintas, P.; Bendall, R.P.; Jacobs, B.C.

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E is hyperendemic in many developing countries in Asia and Africa, and is caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotypes 1 and 2, which are spread via the faecal-oral route by contaminated water. Recent data show that HEV infection is also endemic in developed countries. In such geographical

  12. Applications of proteomics in hepatic diseases research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN; Wei; HE; Fuchu

    2004-01-01

    Proteomics has become an important part in the leading research area and been widely used in the disease-associated study. In hepatic research field, proteomics could be applied in study of hepatic diseases including liver cancer, cirrhosis and hepatotoxicities, etc. Significant proteins could be identified as biomarkers, drug targets and clues for pathogenesis illumination.

  13. Acute pancreatitis in acute viral hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the frequency and characteristics of pancreatic involvement in the course of acute (nonfulminant) viral hepatitis.METHODS: We prospectively assessed the pancreatic involvement in patients with acute viral hepatitis who presented with severe abdomimanl pain.RESULTS: We studied 124 patients with acute viral hepatitis, of whom 24 presented with severe abdominal pain. Seven patients (5.65%) were diagnosed to have acute pancreatitis. All were young males. Five patients had pancreatitis in the first week and two in the fourth week after the onset of jaundice. The pancreatitis was mild and all had uneventful recovery from both pancreatitis and hepatitis on conservative treatment.The etiology of pancreatitis was hepatitis E virus in 4,hepatitis A virus in 2, and hepatitis B virus in 1 patient.One patient had biliary sludge along with HEV infection.The abdominal pain of remaining seventeen patients was attributed to stretching of Glisson's capsule.CONCLUSION: Acute pancreatitis occurs in 5.65% of patients with acute viral hepatitis, it is mild and recovers with conservative management.

  14. Toksisk hepatitis efter indtagelse af kosttilskuddet purshianabark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Claire; Semb, Synne; Kromann-Andersen, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Herbal medicinal products can cause toxic hepatitis. This case report presents a patient who developed severe toxic hepatitis with beginning liver failure following four weeks of consumption of the herbal medicinal product Cascara Sagrada. A similar case was reported from the United States. Cascara...

  15. Prediction of Hepatitis C Burden in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimian Zou

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the risk of hepatitis C in Canada and to predict the burden that this disease may pose to the Canadian society in the near future, expected numbers of persons at different stages of the disease currently and in the next decade were estimated by simulation using a published hepatitis C natural history model with no treatment effect being applied. Based on the estimate of 240,000 persons who are currently infected with the hepatitis C virus in Canada, the simulation analysis demonstrated that the number of hepatitis C cirrhosis cases would likely increase by 92% from 1998 to the year 2008. It was also projected that the number of liver failures and hepatocellular carcinomas related to hepatitis C would increase by 126% and 102%, respectively, in the next decade. The number of liver-related deaths associated with hepatitis C is expected to increase by 126% in 10 years. The medical and social care systems in Canada may not be ready to support these large increases. These results highlight the importance of both the control of disease progression of hepatitis C virus-infected persons and the primary prevention of hepatitis C infections in Canada.

  16. Pancreatic involvement in chronic viral hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katakura, Yoshiki; Yotsuyanagi, Hiroshi; Hashizume, Kiyoe; Okuse, Chiaki; Okuse, Noriaki; Nishikawa, Kohji; Suzuki, Michihiro; Iino, Shiro; Itoh, Fumio

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the frequency and characteristics of pancreatic disorders in the course of chronic viral hepatitis. METHODS: We prospectively assessed the serum pancreatic enzyme levels and imaging findings in patients with chronic viral hepatitis and healthy control subjects. RESULTS: Serum amylase (t-Amy), salivary amylase (s-Amy), pancreatic amylase (p-Amy) and serum lipase levels were higher in hepatitis patients in comparison to control subjects. However, in asymptomatic viral carriers, only the serum t-Amy levels were higher than those of the controls. The levels of each enzyme rose with the progression of liver disease in patients with hepatitis B or C; whereas the levels of each enzyme within the same clinical stage of the disease did not differ between patients diagnosed with either hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus. Imaging findings demonstrated chronic pancreatitis in only 1 out of 202 patients (0.5%). CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that serum levels of pancreatic enzymes increase with the progression of liver disease in patients diagnosed with viral hepatitis. Pancreatic disease, asymptomatic in most cases, may represent an extrahepatic manifestation of chronic viral hepatitis. PMID:15962364

  17. Extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zignego, Anna Linda; Craxì, Antonio

    2008-08-01

    Hepatitis C virus may cause hepatic and extrahepatic diseases. Extrahepatic manifestations range from disorders for which a significant association with viral infection is supported by epidemiologic and pathogenetic data, to anecdotal observations without clear proof of causality. This article describes the diagnosis and treatment of these diseases.

  18. Hepatitis E virus and neurological injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalton, H.R.; Kamar, N.; Eijk, J.J.J. van; McLean, B.N.; Cintas, P.; Bendall, R.P.; Jacobs, B.C.

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E is hyperendemic in many developing countries in Asia and Africa, and is caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotypes 1 and 2, which are spread via the faecal-oral route by contaminated water. Recent data show that HEV infection is also endemic in developed countries. In such geographical

  19. Chronic Hepatitis B: Individualized Antiviral Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.H.C.J. Buster (Erik)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe hepatitis B virus (HBV) was discovered in 1966 with the identification of the Australia antigen in Aboriginals by Dr. Baruch Blumberg, who received the 1976 Nobel Prize in Medicine for his work. We now know the Australia antigen as hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). HBV belongs to

  20. Hepatitis B e Antigen-Negative Chronic Hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed-Moayed Alavian

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionHepatitis B virus (HBV infection is a global health problem. Current estimates are that 2 billion people have been infected worldwide, of these, 360 million suffer from chronic HBV infection resulting in over 520 000 deaths from acute hepatitis B and 470 000 from cirrhosis or liver cancer(1. The prevalence of hepatitis B carriers varies in different parts of the world, ranging from less than 1% to 15%. In the Middle East, the endemicity is intermittent, with a carrier rate of 2% to 7% (2. It is estimated that over 35% of Iranians have been exposed to the HBV and about 3% are chronic carriers, ranging from 1.7% in Fars Province to over 5% in Sistan and Balouchestan(3. To date, eight different genotypes of the HBV have been identified (A-H. The clinical spectrum of HBV infection ranges from subclinical to acute symptomatic hepatitis or, rarely, fulminant hepatitis during the acute phase and from the inactive HBV infection and chronic hepatitis of various degrees of histologic severity to cirrhosis and its complications during the chronic phase(4,5. Thirty years ago, the diagnosis of chronic hepatitis B (CHB was thought to require the presence of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg, as a reliable and sensitive marker of hepatitis B virus (HBV replication. Individuals positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg but negative for HBeAg were considered to have non replicative HBV infection, and if their liver enzymes were normal or nearly normal they were referred to as asymptomatic or healthy HBsAg or HBV carriers. On the other hand, if they displayed elevated serum aminotransferases and liver histology indicative of chronic hepatitis, they were generally thought to be suffering from other superimposed or complicating conditions such as hepatitis D virus infection, alcohol-induced, metabolic, autoimmune, druginduced, or other forms of chronic liver disease(6. In the early 1980s it became apparent that HBV could replicate in the absence of HBe

  1. [Primary hepatic lymphoma: an infrequent cause of focal hepatic lesion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balduzzi, Carolina; Yantorno, Martin; Mosca, Iván; Apraiz, Mirta; Velázquez, María J; Puente, María del Carmen; Moragrega, Valeria; Ligorría, Regina; Ottino, Anabel; Belloni, Rodrigo; Barbero, Rodolfo; Jmelniztky, Alejandro; Chopita, Néstor

    2010-12-01

    Primary hepatic lymphoma (PHL) is confined to the liver with no evidence of extrahepatic lymphomatosis. Histopathologically, the PHL belongs to the group of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and the most common subtype is the diffise large B-cell lymphoma. We present a 72-year-old woman, with no relevant antecedents and the following symptoms: early satiety, abdominal discomfort and rapid weight loss. Liver function tests are normal, erythrocyte sedimentation rate is accelerated and LDH progressively increases during the hospitalization. Imaging studies (ultrasound, CT scan, nuclear magnetic resonance) show a multilobued mass of around 12 cm of diameter in the right hepatic lobe. Tumoral and virological markers are negative. The pathology of an echo-guided biopsy informs a massive infiltration by a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The immunohistochemical study shows CD20+, CD45+ and negative CD3, CKAE1, AE3, Hepatocyte and HMB45. The citology of pleural liquid is negative for atypia, peripheral blood smear shows no signs of leukemia, bone marrow biopsy is negative for lymphomatous infiltration, and gallium scintigraphy and body CT scan do not reveal extrahepatic lesions. The patient starts chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide and methylprednisolone but worsens and dies two weeks after beginning treatment. We conclude that our patient had a rare disease with an unresectable lesion, poor prognostic factors and high recurrence risk. Chemotherapy is the treatment of choice in these cases.

  2. Occult hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreño, Vicente; Bartolomé, Javier; Castillo, Inmaculada; Quiroga, Juan Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Occult HBV infection is a well-recognised clinical entity characterised by the detection of HBV-DNA in serum and/or in liver in the absence of detectable hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Occult HBV infection has been described not only in patients who have resolved an acute or chronic HBV infection but also in patients without any serological markers of a past HBV infection. Occult HBV infection in patients with chronic HCV infection may induce more severe liver disease and lower response rate to interferon treatment. The existence of occult HCV infections has been also reported more recently. Occult HCV infection is characterised by the presence of HCV-RNA in liver and peripheral blood mononuclear cells in the absence of detectable serum HCV-RNA. Occult HCV infection may occur under two different clinical situations: in hepatitis C antibody-(anti-HCV) negative and serum HCV-RNA-negative patients with abnormal liver function tests and in anti-HCV-positive patients who have no detectable serum HCV-RNA and who have normal liver enzymes. The clinical relevance of occult HCV infections is still under investigation.

  3. Noninvasive Monitoring of Hepatic Damage from Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Alavez-Ramírez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical model for the dynamics of the hepatitis C proposed in Avendaño et al. (2002, with four populations (healthy and unhealthy hepatocytes, the viral load of the hepatitis C virus, and T killer cells, is revised. Showing that the reduced model obtained by considering only the first three of these populations, known as basic model, has two possible equilibrium states: the uninfected one where viruses are not present in the individual, and the endemic one where viruses and infected cells are present. A threshold parameter (the basic reproductive virus number is introduced, and in terms of it, the global stability of both two possible equilibrium states is established. Other central result consists in showing, by model numerical simulations, the feasibility of monitoring liver damage caused by HCV, avoiding unnecessary biopsies and the undesirable related inconveniences/imponderables to the patient; another result gives a mathematical modelling basis to recently developed techniques for the disease assessment based essentially on viral load measurements.

  4. Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection inhealthcare workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 3 million healthcare workers per yearreceive an injury with an occupational instrument, witharound 2000000 exposures to hepatitis B virus (HBV)and 1000000 to hepatitis C virus (HCV). Although aneffective HBV vaccine has been available since theearly eighties, and despite the worldwide applicationof universal vaccination programs started in the earlynineties, HBV still remains a prominent agent of morbidityand mortality. There is no vaccine to limit thediffusion of HCV infection, which progresses to chronicityin the majority of cases and is a major cause of morbidityand mortality worldwide due to a chronic liverdisease. Healthcare workers are frequently exposed by amucosal-cutaneous or percutaneous route to accidentalcontact with human blood and other potentially infectiousbiological materials while carrying out their occupationalduties. Mucosal-cutaneous exposure occurswhen the biological material of a potentially infectedpatient accidentally comes in contact with the mucousmembranes of the eyes or mouth or with the skin of ahealthcare worker. Percutaneous exposure occurs whenan operator accidentally injures himself with a sharpcontaminated object, like a needle, blade or other sharpmedical instrument. About 75% of the total occupationalexposure is percutaneous and 25% mucosal-cutaneous,the risk of infecting a healthcare worker being higherin percutaneous than in mucosal-cutaneous exposure.All healthcare workers should be considered for HBVvaccination and should meticulously apply the universalprophylactic measures to prevent exposure to HBV andHCV.

  5. Hepatic Resection Using a Water Jet Dissector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stain, S. C.; Guastella, T.; Maddern, G. J.; Blumgart, L. H.

    1993-01-01

    The mortality and morbidity in major hepatic resection is often related to hemorrhage. A high pressure, high velocity water jet has been developed and has been utilized to assist in hepatic parenchymal transection. Sixty-seven major hepatic resections were performed for solid hepatic tumors. The tissue fracture technique was used in 51 patients (76%), and the water jet dissector was used predominantly in 16 patients (24%). The extent of hepatic resection using each technique was similar. The results showed no difference in operative duration (p = .499). The mean estimated blood loss using the water jet was 1386 ml, and tissue fracture technique 2450 ml (p = .217). Transfusion requirements were less in the water jet group (mean 2.0 units) compared to the tissue fracture group (mean 5.2 units); (p = .023). Results obtained with the new water dissector are encouraging. The preliminary results suggest that blood loss may be diminished. PMID:8387808

  6. Severe Acute Hepatitis B Treated with Entecavir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Vittorio Luigi De Socio

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection constitutes a serious global health problem. Nowadays there are divergent data regarding the use of antiviral drugs to treat acute hepatitis B. We present here a case of a 62-year-old man affected by severe acute hepatitis B with progressive worsening of clinical and hepatic function. The patient was treated with entecavir without critical side effects. We observed rapid clinical and laboratory improvements and the disappearance of surface antigen (HBsAg. The treatment with entecavir was protracted until 17th week when the antibody antiHBs (anti HBs appeared. Entecavir should be carefully considered for the treatment of severe acute hepatitis B cases.

  7. Sofosbuvir for treatment of chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattakuzhy, Sarah; Levy, Rachel; Kottilil, Shyam

    2015-04-01

    Chronic hepatitis C is a leading cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. If untreated, chronic hepatitis C can progress to advanced liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, liver failure, hepatocellular carcinoma and death. Until recently, treatment of hepatitis C predominantly constituted an immunomodulatory agent, peg-interferon-alfa and ribavirin. In 2011, the first class of directly acting antiviral agents, HCV NS3/4A serine protease inhibitors, was added to peg-interferon-alfa and ribavirin with increased efficacy. In the past year, an NS5B inhibitor, sofosbuvir, has emerged as a potent agent with pangenotypic efficacy, resulting in the first interferon-free regimen for the treatment of hepatitis C. This review summarizes the data that resulted in regulatory approval of sofosbuvir and highlights the future of hepatitis C therapy with sofosbuvir as the backbone of a highly effective antiviral regimen.

  8. Livergraftvascularvariantwith 3 extra-hepatic arteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paulo N Martins

    2010-01-01

     Vascular anatomy of the liver is varied, and the"standard"anatomy is seen in 55%-80%of cases. It is very important that extrahepatic arteries are identiifed precisely at the time of graft procurement to avoid injuries that might compromise the liver function. In the present case the liver donor had the vascular anatomy of Michels type Ⅶ, e.g. a hepatic artery originating from the celiac trunk and going to the left lobe, an accessory left hepatic artery coming from the left gastric artery, and a replaced right hepatic artery coming from the superior mesenteric artery. This pattern of vascular supply is uncommon, representing less than 5%of cases. The replaced hepatic artery was reconstructed in the back-table with polypropylene suture 7.0 by connecting it to the stump of the splenic artery, and the celiac trunk of the graft was anastomosed to the recipient common hepatic artery.

  9. Chronic hepatitis E: A brief review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arvind; R; Murali; Vikram; Kotwal; Saurabh; Chawla

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis E viral infection has traditionally been considered an acute, self-limited, water borne disease similar to hepatitis A, endemic to developing countries. However, over the past decade, zoonotic transmission and progression to chronicity in human patients has been identified, resulting in persistently elevated transaminase levels, progressive liver injury and cirrhosis. In addition to liver injury, neurological, renal and rheumatological manifestations have also been reported. Chronic hepatitis E occurs mainly in immunosuppressed individuals such as transplant recipients, human immunodeficiency virus patients with low CD4 counts and in patients with hematological malignancies receiving chemotherapy. Diagnosis is established by persistent elevation of hepatitis E virus RNA in the stool or serum. This population often requires treatment with antiviral agents, particularly ribavirin, as spontaneous clearance with reduction in immunosuppression occurs only in about a third of the patients. The purpose of this review, is to further discuss the clinical presentation, and recent advances in diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis of chronic hepatitis E.

  10. Advances in studies on hepatic stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The question whether hepatic stem cells exist or not has been debated for several decades. Current researches confirm that there are hepatic stem cells in the liver. Oval cells, putative bipotential hepatic stem cells, are probably located within canals of Hering, portal tracts or branches of biliary trees. Bone marrow is a potential source of oval cells, indicating that there exists a close relationship between liver and hematopoiesis in adulthood. Hepatic stem cells are able to proliferate in vitro and can be induced to differentiate into hepatocytes. This will provide a promising approach of cell transplantation, tissue engineering and gene therapy for liver diseases. In this review, the evidence of their presence, origin, identification, proliferation in vitro, differentiation by induction, application prospects of hepatic stem cells and future directions for the field are discussed.

  11. [Enalapril (Reniten)-associated toxic hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hürlimann, R; Binek, J; Oehlschlegel, C; Hammer, B

    1994-07-23

    A 52-year-old female was hospitalized with malaise, pruritus, jaundice, abdominal discomfort and vomiting. For 20 weeks she had been taking enalapril (Reniten) for hypertension. Serum aminotransferases and bilirubin were highly elevated with prolonged thromboplastin time. There was no evidence for extrahepatic cholestasis in ultrasonography. Serological investigations for a viral etiology of the liver failure were negative and the patient had no risk factors for viral hepatitis or exposure to hepatotoxic substances. Liver puncture revealed hepatitis of the fulminant viral hepatitis type, a picture that can be seen in a drug-induced hepatitis. The complete recovery of liver function after cessation of enalapril administration suggests acute toxic hepatitis due to enalapril. A metabolically mediated idiosyncratic reaction is the most plausible. Potential mechanisms of enalapril-induced hepatotoxicity are discussed and the current literature is surveyed.

  12. Multidetector CT of hepatic artery pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaosmanoglu, D; Erol, B; Karcaaltincaba, M

    2012-01-01

    The hepatic artery can be involved by a variety of pathology and diseases.Today MDCT enables high quality imaging of the hepatic artery using axial, MIP and volume rendered images. We illustrate MDCT findings of anatomical variations, aneurysm, dilatation, dissection, arteriovenous fistula, thrombosis and stenosis. Aneurysms can be saccular, fusiform and multiple and may develop due to atherosclerosis, vasculitis, trauma and biopsy. Dilatation of hepatic artery can be seen in portal hypertension, Osler-Weber-Rendu disease and hemangiomatosis. Hepatic artery can be occluded after trauma and transplantation. Dissection develops due to atherosclerosis, Marfan and Ehler Danlos syndromes and during pregnancy. Arteriovenous fistula can be congenital and acquired. We conclude that various hepatic artery pathologies can be confidently diagnosed by MDCT.

  13. Hepatitis disease detection using Bayesian theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maseleno, Andino; Hidayati, Rohmah Zahroh

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents hepatitis disease diagnosis using a Bayesian theory for better understanding of the theory. In this research, we used a Bayesian theory for detecting hepatitis disease and displaying the result of diagnosis process. Bayesian algorithm theory is rediscovered and perfected by Laplace, the basic idea is using of the known prior probability and conditional probability density parameter, based on Bayes theorem to calculate the corresponding posterior probability, and then obtained the posterior probability to infer and make decisions. Bayesian methods combine existing knowledge, prior probabilities, with additional knowledge derived from new data, the likelihood function. The initial symptoms of hepatitis which include malaise, fever and headache. The probability of hepatitis given the presence of malaise, fever, and headache. The result revealed that a Bayesian theory has successfully identified the existence of hepatitis disease.

  14. [Therapy of hepatitis B virus carriers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereza, N M; Petiĭ, S I

    1986-01-01

    Examination of 200 gastroenterological patients with a suspected chronic diffuse liver disease has demonstrated that only in 18.9% of the patients with chronic hepatitis, the disease was induced by the virus. Based on the experience gained with the treatment of 7 patients with chronic hepatitis B it is concluded that sanitation may be performed with levamisole. However, the data obtained in the course of the 5-year observation over sanitation of HBsAg carriers (25 subjects) do not provide any convincing evidence in favour of levamisole sanitation. The authors hold that at the blood transfusion stations the prophylaxis of serum hepatitis falls short of ideal. Selection of the donors according to CCIE does not give any guarantee against the viral hepatitis B carrier state. Like patients with viral hepatitis B, the HBsAg carriers badly need active prophylactic-and-treatment medical examination with the use of the antiviral agents.

  15. Alverine citrate induced acute hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehmet Arhan; Seyfettin K(o)klü; Aydln S K(o)ksal; (O)mer F Yolcu; Senem Koruk; Irfan Koruk; Ertugrul Kayacetin

    2004-01-01

    Alverine citrate is a commonly used smooth muscle relaxant agent. A MEDLINE search on January 2004 revealed only 1 report implicating the hepatotoxicity of this agent. A 34-year-old woman was investigated because of the finding of elevated liver function tests on biochemical screening. Other etiologies of hepatitis were appropriately ruled out and elevated enzymes were ascribed to alverine citrate treatment.Although alverine citrate hepatotoxicity was related to an immune mechanism in the first case, several features such as absence of predictable dose-dependent toxicity of alverine citrate in a previous study and absence of hypersensitivity manifestations in our patient are suggestive of a metabolic type of idiosyncratic toxicity.

  16. Hepatitis A and B immunity and vaccination in chronic hepatitis B and C patients in a large United States cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkle, Emily; Lu, Mei; Rupp, Lora B; Boscarino, Joseph A; Vijayadeva, Vinutha; Schmidt, Mark A; Gordon, Stuart C

    2015-02-15

    Hepatitis A and B vaccines are effective in preventing superinfection and sequelae in patients with chronic hepatitis B or C. We describe immunity and vaccination against hepatitis A and B in chronic hepatitis patients from the US Chronic Hepatitis Cohort Study. We identified chronic hepatitis B and C patients with healthcare utilization during 2006-2008 and 12 months of enrollment. We used electronic laboratory records to determine immunity and medical and billing records for vaccination history. Immunity against hepatitis A was defined by positive hepatitis A antibody or documented vaccination. Immunity against hepatitis B was defined as hepatitis B surface antibody level ≥10 mIU/mL or core antibody positive, or by documented vaccination. Among 1635 chronic hepatitis B patients, 978 (59.8%) were immune or vaccinated against hepatitis A, 122 (7.5%) had negative hepatitis A antibody tests, and 535 (32.7%) had no testing or vaccination record. Among 5328 chronic hepatitis C patients, 2998 (56.3%) were immune or vaccinated against hepatitis A, 659 (12.4%) had negative hepatitis A antibody tests, and 1671 (31.4%) had no testing or vaccination record. Additionally, 3150 (59.1%) chronic hepatitis C patients were immune or vaccinated against hepatitis B, 1003 (18.8%) had a negative test result, and 1175 (22.1%) were neither tested for nor vaccinated against hepatitis B. Approximately 40% of chronic hepatitis B and C patients are susceptible to or have no documented immunity or vaccination against hepatitis A or hepatitis B. Clinicians should consider antibody testing and vaccination for this vulnerable population. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Cytokine profiles and hepatic injury in occult hepatitis C versus chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, N; Eldars, W; Eldegla, H; Fouda, O; Gad, Y; Abousamra, N; Elmasry, E; Arafa, M

    2014-01-01

    Occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a new entity that should be considered when diagnosing patients with abnormal liver functions of unknown origin. This work was carried out to evaluate T-helper 1/T-helper 2 (Th1/Th2) cytokine profiles in patients with occult HCV infection versus chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection, also to investigate any association between theses cytokines and liver histological features in both groups. Serum levels of Th1 cytokines (IL-2, IFN-gamma) and Th2 (IL-4 and IL-10) were measured in 35 patients with occult HCV infection compared to 50 patients with chronic hepatitis C infection and 30 healthy controls. We have found that Th1 cytokines were significantly increased in patients with CHC infection than in both occult HCV infection and control groups (p less than 0.001). On the other hand, serum IL-4 levels were higher in occult HCV infection than in CHC and control groups (p less than 0.001). Furthermore, serum IL-10 levels were higher in both patient groups vs control group (pless than 0.001), with no significant difference between CHC and occult HCV groups. Finally, only serum IL-10 levels were significantly higher among patients with high activity (A2-A3) than those with low activity (A0-A1) in both CHC and occult HCV groups (p=0.038, p=0.025, respectively). Patients with occult HCV infection exhibited a distinct immunoregulatory cytokine pattern that is shifted towards the Th2 arm.

  18. Food and environmental routes of Hepatitis E virus transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, van der W.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Hepatitis E virus (HEV), genus Hepevirus, family hepeviridae is a main cause of epidemic hepatitis in developing countries and single cases of hepatitis in higher income countries. There are at least four HEV genotypes which have different epidemiologic and clinical features. Hepatitis E vi

  19. Food and environmental routes of Hepatitis E virus transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, van der W.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Hepatitis E virus (HEV), genus Hepevirus, family hepeviridae is a main cause of epidemic hepatitis in developing countries and single cases of hepatitis in higher income countries. There are at least four HEV genotypes which have different epidemiologic and clinical features. Hepatitis E vi

  20. Detection and characterization of the hepatitis C virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L-J. van Doorn (Leendert-Jan)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe term hepatitis literally means 'inflammation of the liver', Hepatitis can be caused by toxic substances. metabolic disorders or viral infections. Most clinical hepatitis cases have a viral etiology. Viral hepatitis appears to be an ancient disease (Deinhardt, 1991) and has

  1. Glucocorticosteroids for viral hepatitis C. Protocol for a Cochrane Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellerup, M T; Krogsgaard, K; Gluud, C

    2001-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus may cause liver inflammation and fibrosis. It is not known whether glucocorticosteroids are beneficial or harmful for patients with hepatitis C infection.......Hepatitis C virus may cause liver inflammation and fibrosis. It is not known whether glucocorticosteroids are beneficial or harmful for patients with hepatitis C infection....

  2. Detection and characterization of the hepatitis C virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L-J. van Doorn (Leendert-Jan)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe term hepatitis literally means 'inflammation of the liver', Hepatitis can be caused by toxic substances. metabolic disorders or viral infections. Most clinical hepatitis cases have a viral etiology. Viral hepatitis appears to be an ancient disease (Deinhardt, 1991) and has been recog

  3. Optimizing Interferon Alfa Based Therapy for Chronic Hepatitis C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Roomer (Robert)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe hepatitis C virus was first discovered in 1989 as the major cause of chronic non-A non-B hepatitis. The hepatitis C virus is a single stranded RNA virus that belongs to the family of flaviviruses. The primary target of the hepatitis C virus are hepatocytes where viral particles repli

  4. Vaccines for preventing hepatitis B in health-care workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Gluud, C

    2005-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes acute and chronic liver diseases. Hepatitis B vaccination is recommended for health-care workers.......Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes acute and chronic liver diseases. Hepatitis B vaccination is recommended for health-care workers....

  5. Minimal hepatic encephalopathy: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, Raffaele; Taylor, Alexandra C; Höller, Yvonne; Brigo, Francesco; Lochner, Piergiorgio; Trinka, Eugen

    2016-10-01

    Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is the earliest form of hepatic encephalopathy and can affect up to 80% of patients with liver cirrhosis. By definition, MHE is characterized by cognitive function impairment in the domains of attention, vigilance and integrative function, but obvious clinical manifestation are lacking. MHE has been shown to affect daily functioning, quality of life, driving and overall mortality. The diagnosis can be achieved through neuropsychological testing, recently developed computerized psychometric tests, such as the critical flicker frequency and the inhibitory control tests, as well as neurophysiological procedures. Event related potentials can reveal subtle changes in patients with normal neuropsychological performances. Spectral analysis of electroencephalography (EEG) and quantitative analysis of sleep EEG provide early markers of cerebral dysfunction in cirrhotic patients with MHE. Neuroimaging, in particular MRI, also increasingly reveals diffuse abnormalities in intrinsic brain activity and altered organization of functional connectivity networks. Medical treatment for MHE to date has been focused on reducing serum ammonia levels and includes non-absorbable disaccharides, probiotics or rifaximin. Liver transplantation may not reverse the cognitive deficits associated with MHE. We performed here an updated review on epidemiology, burden and quality of life, neuropsychological testing, neuroimaging, neurophysiology and therapy in subjects with MHE.

  6. Quasispecies of Hepatitis B Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun; Cheng; Min; Quan; Min; Li; Shun-ai; Liu; Qi; Wang

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus(HBV) circulates in blood and replicates in the presence of quasispecies. During HBV replication, HBV DNA polymerase lacks fidelity and proofreading function partly because its exonuclease activity is either absent or deficient. Therefore, HBV genome is mutated with unusually high frequency. And these mutations can affect more than one open reading frame due to overlapping genes. Otherwise, natural substitutions, deletions or insertions involving the Cp/ENⅡ locus in the X gene can significantly alter the extent of viral replication activity. Particular selection pressures such as host immune system and antiviral therapy readily select out escape mutants from this pre-existing quasispecies pool. Antiviral drug resistance in chronic hepatitis B(CHB) can be caused by the viral mutation frequency, the intrinsic mutability of the antiviral target site, the selective pressure exerted by the drug, the magnitude and rate of virus replication, the overall replication fitness of the mutant, the genetic barrier of the compound and the availability of replication space. Potent inhibition of HBV replication could be able to prevent the development of drug resistance because mutagenesis is replication dependent. Viral load may decline to a point where the continued production of quasispecies with the potential to resist new drug treatments no longer occurs, if viral replication can be suppressed for a sufficient length of time.

  7. Xenotransplantation and Hepatitis E virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denner, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Xenotransplantation using pig cells, tissues and organs may be associated with the transmission of porcine microorganisms to the human recipient. Some of these microorganisms may induce a zoonosis, that is an infectious disease induced by microorganisms transmitted from another species. With exception of the porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs), which are integrated in the genome of all pigs, the transmission of all other microorganisms can be prevented by specified or designated pathogen-free (spf or dpf, respectively) production of the animals. However, it is becoming clear in the last years that the hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of the viruses which are difficult to eliminate. It is important to note that there are differences between HEV of genotypes (gt) 1 and gt2 on one hand and HEV of gt3 and gt4 on the other. HEV gt1 and gt2 are human viruses, and they induce hepatitis and in the worst case fatal infections in pregnant women. In contrast, HEV gt3 and gt4 are viruses of pigs, and they may infect humans, induce commonly only mild diseases, if any, and are harmless for pregnant women. The goal of this review was to evaluate the risk posed by HEV gt3 and gt4 for xenotransplantation and to indicate ways of their elimination from pigs in order to prevent transmission to the human recipient.

  8. Structure of viral hepatitis in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Sorokman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Many current studies are devoted to the study of hepatitis caused by viral infections, which are qualified as TORCH-infection. In infants TORCH-induced lesions prevail in the structure of viral hepatitis, the largest proportion is hepatitis of cytomegalovirus etiology. The purpose was to study the structure of viral hepatitis in infants. Materials and methods. The study included sixty-two children (mean age 1.8 ± 0.9 years born in 2007–2016 treated in Chernivtsi Regional Children’s Clinical Hospital. The comparison group consisted of 36 healthy children of the same age. The pathogens of viral hepatitis B, C, TORCH infections were verified by enzyme immunoassay and polymerase chain reaction. The results of the research were analyzed using computer package Statistica StatSoft Inc. and Excel XP for Windows for a personal computer. Results. The results of the analysis of the liver diseases structure in 62 young children, according to hospital statistics, determined that the overwhelming majority (38 children; 61.3 % had viral hepatitis (VH, the other 24 (38.7 % patients were divided by the etiological structure of liver damage as follows: 8 (12.9 % patients had prolonged conjunctive jaundice, 7 (11.3 % patients had congenital metabolic disorders, 9 (14.5 % patients had congenital hepatobiliary abnomalities. 16.6 % of young children had hepatitis B and C viruses. In 5.8 % of cases VH was caused by viruses of the TORCH group of infections. Conclusions. In the structure of hepatobiliary diseases in infants, viral hepatitis (68.4 % is on the first ranked place. Among the viral hepatitis in children in the first year of life, CMV-hepatitis (68.4 % is most common, in children over 1 year old chronic hepatitis B and C. Severe obstetrical anamnesis, violations of pregnancy, placental infection are rather significant in the group of children with viral hepatitis. The main clinical signs of CMV-hepatitis are prolonged jaundice, cholestasis

  9. Fulminant hepatitis B reactivation leading to liver transplantation in a patient with chronic hepatitis C treated with simeprevir and sofosbuvir: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Ende, Alexander R.; Kim, Nina H.; Yeh, Matthew M.; Harper, Jason; Landis, Charles S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hepatitis B and C coinfection is commonly seen in clinical practice. In coinfected individuals, high levels of hepatitis C viremia are often associated with low levels of serum hepatitis B DNA. Hepatitis B reactivation in hepatitis C-infected patients treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin has been reported, but severe or fulminant reactivation is uncommon. Hepatitis C treatment-associated hepatitis B reactivation in patients with chronic hepatitis C and isolated core an...

  10. Successful treatment of severe refractory lupus hepatitis with mycophenolate mofetil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagawa, Y; Saito, T; Takada, K; Kawahata, K; Kohsaka, H

    2016-04-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus-related hepatitis, known as lupus hepatitis, is a rare manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus, and is usually subclinical with mild abnormalities of serum liver enzymes. While cases with clinically significant and refractory lupus hepatitis are uncommon, treatment options for lupus hepatitis are to be established. Here, we report the case of a 45-year-old man with progressive lupus hepatitis accompanied by autoimmune haemolytic anaemia. Lupus hepatitis of this patient was refractory to tacrolimus, azathioprine and cyclophosphamide, but was successfully treated by mycophenolate mofetil. Mycophenolate mofetil might be an effective therapeutic option for refractory lupus hepatitis.

  11. The three types of human viral hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, A. J.

    1978-01-01

    Infections with hepatitis A and B viruses are common in all parts of the world and constitute a major public health problem. The identification of specific antigenic markers of these viruses has led to the development of sensitive laboratory tests. These, in turn, have resulted in a better understanding of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, immunology, and the nature of these common infections. In the case of hepatitis type B, laboratory tests revealed a persistent carrier state of the surface antigen in some 120-175 million people and established the significance of hepatitis B virus in the pathogenesis of serious chronic liver disease, including a strong association with primary hepatocellular carcinoma in tropical and some subtropical regions. In addition, the specific diagnosis of hepatitis types A and B has revealed a previously unrecognized form of hepatitis which is clearly unrelated to either type. This new form of infection of the liver is now the most common type of hepatitis after the transfusion of blood and blood products in some areas of the world and it also appears to be an important cause of sporadic hepatitis, particularly among adults. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:78770

  12. Imaging of hepatic steatosis and fatty sparing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karcaaltincaba, Musturay [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara 06100 (Turkey)]. E-mail: musturayk@yahoo.com; Akhan, Okan [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara 06100 (Turkey)

    2007-01-15

    Radiology has gained importance in the non-invasive diagnosis of hepatic steatosis. Ultrasonography is usually the first imaging modality for the evaluation of hepatic steatosis. Unenhanced CT with or without dual kVp measurement and MRI with in and out of phase sequence can allow objective evaluation of hepatic steatosis. However, none of the imaging modalities can differentiate non-alcoholic steatohepatitis/fatty liver disease from simple steatosis. Evaluation of hepatic steatosis is important in donor evaluation before orthotopic liver transplantation and hepatic surgery. Recently, one-stop shop evaluation of potential liver donors has become possible by CT and MRI integrating vascular, parenchymal, volume and steatosis evaluation. Moreover hepatic steatosis (diffuse, multinodular, focal, subcortical, perilesional, intralesional, periportal and perivenular), hypersteatosis and sparing (geographic, nodular and perilesional or peritumoral) can cause diagnostic problems as a pseudotumor particularly in the evaluation of oncology patients. Liver MRI is used as a problem-solving tool in these patients. In this review, we discuss the current role of radiology in diagnosing, quantifying hepatic steatosis and solutions for diagnostic problems associated with fatty infiltration and sparing.

  13. Association Between Hepatitis B and Hearing Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Shayani Nasab

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Viral diseases are one of the common causes of hearing loss. The inner ear may be involved directly or by secondary reaction (e.g., polyarthritis nodosa. This study was performed to investigate the relation between positive HBS-Ag (hepatitis B disease and hearing loss.Methods: This case-study research was done on 95 hepatitis-B patients as the case group and 97 normal cases as the control group. They were selected sequentially and audiologic tests were performed on the participants. The hearing thresholds of the two groups were compared using the t-test.Results: According to audiometry results, pure tone average (mean thresholds of 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz were 22.1 dB for the left ear and 23.95 dB for the right ear in hepatitis-B group and 8.4 dB for the left ear and 8.95 dB for the right ear in the control group (HBS-Ag negative. The difference between two groups was statistically significant with p-value less than 0.05.Conclusion: The results show that hepatitis-B patients are more prone to hearing loss and that hepatitis B disease can cause hearing loss. This study suggests that hepatitis B prophylaxis is important in decreasing hepatitis-B involvement and therefore, hearing loss.

  14. Hepatic metastasis complicated by abscess formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Liao; Lihua, Qiu; Xianming, Diao; Qiyong, Gong

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic abscesses and hepatic metastasis are common diseases. However, hepatic abscesses seldom occur in patients with hepatic metastases. We describe a case of a 67-year-old female patient with abdominal pain in the right upper quadrant. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed several lesions, with the largest lesion displaying features of both hepatic pyogenic abscess and liver metastasis. These features included iso- or hypointense signaling on T1WI and T2WI, hyperintense signaling on diffusion weighted imaging of the thick wall, and mixed hyperintense signal in the center on DWI, as well as dramatic and irregular peripheral enhancement was detected on LAVA dynamic contrast scanning. Aspiration and culture of the largest lesions revealed Klebsiella pneumoniae and a pathologic diagnosis of adenocarcinoma. At this point, the patient admitted a history of colon adenocarcinoma 9 years ago treated with hemicolectomy. Therefore, this patient was considered to have a hepatic pyogenic abscesses complicated by hepatic metastasis. The patient began treatment for the responsible pathogens and underwent chemoembolization of the liver lesions. In special cases, we could attempt to pursue a more detailed search for coexistence of microorganism infection and tumor.

  15. [Hepatitis C in Poland in 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosińska, Magdalena; Stepień, Małgorzata

    2011-01-01

    In 2009 in Poland reported cases of hepatitis C we classified independently according to two case definitions. One covered cases with clinical signs or elevated liver function tests confirmed by antibody test (2005 case definition) and the other one, implemented in 2009, all laboratory confirmed cases. In 2009 there were 1,939 cases of hepatitis C (2005 definition) registered in Poland, with the incidence rate of 5.08 per 100 000. A continued decrease in incidence of hepatitis C has been observed since 2006. On the other hand 1,891 cases were reported to meet the 2009 case definition. This points to the need of improving reporting completeness and justifies temporary continuation of use of the 2005 definition for the purpose of trend monitoring, although it may not reflect well the burden of illness. There were 82 deaths due to hepatitis C in 2009 in Poland including 2 deaths of acute and 80 of chronic hepatitis C. This constituted the first important decrease in hepatitis C mortality since 1996, when hepatitis C was included as a separate entity in the census mortality data. This decrease coincided with marked improvement of the treatment accessibility and is likely related to it.

  16. Concurrent hepatic adenomatoid tumor and hepatic hemangioma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Beom Kim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A 45-year-old male with alleged asymptomatic hepatic hemangioma of 4 years duration had right upper-quadrant pain and was referred to a tertiary hospital. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans revealed a hypervascular mass of about 7 cm containing intratumoral multilobulated cysts. A preoperative liver biopsy was performed, but this failed to provide a definitive diagnosis. The patient underwent a partial hepatectomy of segments IV and VIII. The histologic findings revealed multifocal proliferation of flattened or cuboidal epithelioid cells and a highly vascular edematous stroma. Immunohistochemistry findings demonstrated that the epithelioid tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin (AE1/AE3, vimentin, calretinin, and cytokeratin 5/6, and were focally positive for CD10, and negative for WT1 and CD34, all of which support their mesothelial origin. Immunohistochemistry for a mesothelial marker should be performed for determining the presence of an adenomatoid tumor when benign epithelioid cells are seen.

  17. Hepatitis E virus coinfection with hepatotropic viruses in Egyptian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Salama, Osama Saad; Mansour, Fathy Awaad; Hossein, Shaimaa

    2008-06-01

    Major hepatotropic viruses continue to be important causes of acute viral hepatitis in developing countries. This work was carried out to detect the seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) markers in children with acute viral hepatitis due to hepatotropic viruses (A, B and C) and non-A, non-B, non-C acute hepatitis, and to ascertain the influence of HEV superinfection in individuals infected with hepatitis viruses (A, B and C). We studied prospectively 162 children with sporadic acute hepatitis who reported to our hospital. Thirteen healthy controls were also included in the study. Laboratory investigations were performed, including complete liver function tests. Complete serological profiles for hepatitis viruses A, B, C and E were evaluated. HEV immunoglobulin G was detected with highest percentage among patients with hepatitis B (56.7%), followed by patients with hepatitis C virus (52.0%), hepatitis A virus (34.1%) and combined hepatitis B and C viruses (30.0%). The detection rate among patients with non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis was 7.1%. HEV immunoglobulin M was found in 4.5% of hepatitis A virus patients and in 3.3% of hepatitis B patients. The prevalence of HEV immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M correlated with the levels of hepatic aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in patients with dual markers of infection with hepatitis E and other viruses compared to patients with acute hepatitis due to A and C viruses. HEV serological markers are common among children with acute viral hepatitis, especially from hepatitis C and B viruses. There may be increased sensitivity to HEV coinfection in association with hepatitis B and C infections. Dual infection with HEV and other hepatotropic viruses was associated with greater elevation of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases.

  18. Pharmacokinetics of Mitomycin C Following Hepatic Arterial Chemoembolization With Gelfoam

    OpenAIRE

    Jin Wen Ding; Zai de Wu; Roland Andersson; Stig Bengmark

    1992-01-01

    Twelve mongrel dogs were randomly allocated into two groups using matched paired-design. Catheters were inserted into the hepatic artery, hepatic vein and the femoral vein, respectively. In the first group, gelfoam supplemented with mitomycin C (MMC) was injected into the hepatic artery, whereas the second group received a hepatic arterial injection of MMC solution alone. Simultaneous blood sampling from the hepatic and femoral veins at regular intervals was performed. MMC concent...

  19. Pharmacokinetics of Mitomycin C Following Hepatic Arterial Chemoembolization With Gelfoam

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, J. W.; Wu, Z. D.; Andersson, R.; S. Bengmark

    1992-01-01

    Twelve mongrel dogs were randomly allocated into two groups using matched paired-design. Catheters were inserted into the hepatic artery, hepatic vein and the femoral vein, respectively. In the first group, gelfoam supplemented with mitomycin C (MMC) was injected into the hepatic artery, whereas the second group received a hepatic arterial injection of MMC solution alone. Simultaneous blood sampling from the hepatic and femoral vein at regular intervals was performed. MMC concentrations in pl...

  20. Case of acute hepatitis E with concomitant signs of autoimmunity

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Catarina Lima; Baldaia, Cilénia; Fatela, Narcisa; Ramalho,Fernando; Cardoso, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Sporadic cases of acute viral hepatitis E have been described in developed countries, despite the more common occurrence in endemic areas and developing countries. We present the case of a 58 years old Portuguese female, with no epidemiological relevant factors, admitted with acute hepatitis with positive anti-nuclear antibodies, anti-smooth muscle antibody and high serum gamma globulin (> 1.5 fold increase). Serologies for hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, Epstein-Barr...

  1. Hepatitis E: Discovery, global impact, control and cure

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad S. Khuroo; Khuroo, Mehnaaz S; Khuroo, Naira S

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E was identified as an epidemic of non-A, non-B hepatitis from Kashmir, India in 1978. Hepatitis E virus (HEV), the etiological agent is the sole member of family Hepeviridae. The virus has marked heterogeneity and infects many animals like bats, camel, chicken, deer, boar, mongoose, pigs, rats, rabbit and cutthroat trout. Hepatitis E is a disease with a major global impact and has two distinct epidemiological patterns. Hepatitis E is an imperative health issue in developing nations...

  2. The serology of hepatitis C virus in relation to post-transfusion hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A E; Dodd, R Y

    1990-01-01

    Natural history studies conducted over the past 15 years have shown that parenterally transmitted non-A non-B hepatitis infection frequently results in an indolent chronic disease with serious long-term consequences. The recent identification of nucleic acid sequences comprising the genome of hepatitis C virus (HCV) has allowed the development of a serological assay based upon recombinant viral proteins specifically associated with the major agent of non-A, non-B hepatitis infection. The HCV antibody assays have now been applied to sera from blood donors worldwide, as well as various population samples with increased hepatitis risk in the course of clinical trials conducted in both Europe and the United States. Data from these studies provide further encouragement that assays based on the hepatitis C virus recombinant proteins are highly specific for the major agent of non-A non-B hepatitis and will provide a firm basis for blood donor screening and future diagnostic tests.

  3. A comparative study of hepatitis caused by scrub typhus and viral hepatitis A in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun; Kim, Dong-Min; Yun, Na Ra; Byeon, Yu Mi; Kim, Young Dae; Park, Chan Guk; Kim, Man Woo; Han, Mi Ah

    2011-11-01

    We compared clinical features and laboratory findings of 104 patients with hepatitis A and 197 patients with scrub typhus. Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, hepatomegaly, and jaundice were common in patient with hepatitis A, and fever and headache were significantly more common in patients with scrub typhus. At presentation, an alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level ≥ 500 U/L was observed in 1% of scrub typhus patients and in 87.5% of hepatitis A patients (P hepatitis A patients. The ALT:lactate dehydrogenase ratio was ≤ 5 in 97.4% of the patients with scrub typhus and > 5 in 95.2% of those with hepatitis A (P 5, and hepatomegaly are indications of viral hepatitis A.

  4. Right hepatic artery crossing the common hepatic artery: an unusual blood supply to the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felli, Emanuele; Vennarecci, Giovanni; Santoro, Roberto; Guglielmo, Nicola; Ettorre, Giuseppe Maria

    2016-04-01

    To perform hepatic surgery a precise preoperative and intraoperative study of liver vascular supply is mandatory. Detecting vascular variations may have great importance on surgical strategy and outcome, and details of anatomy do not concern only academical knowledge but become deeply involved in practice. We present a case of unusual blood supply to the liver, the common hepatic artery was directed to the right liver and a right hepatic artery originating from the superior mesenteric artery was directed to the left liver. The right hepatic artery crossed the common hepatic artery in the proximal part of the hepatic pedicle, anterior to the portal vein. To our knowledge this type of anatomical variation has not been described before and it represents a rare finding that has to be kept in mind, especially in case of major hepatectomies and more demanding splitting liver procedures such as A.L.P.P.S., in situ split, ex situ split and living donor liver transplantation.

  5. Hepatitis E virus antibodies among patients with hemophilia, blood donors, and hepatitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaaijer, H L; Mauser-Bunschoten, E P; ten Veen, J H; Kapprell, H P; Kok, M; van den Berg, H M; Lelie, P N

    1995-07-01

    The presence of antibodies to hepatitis E virus (HEV) was studied among hemophiliacs, blood donors, and hepatitis patients. Four of 296 (1.4%) hemophiliacs and 5 of 1,275 (0.4%) donors were confirmed as positive for HEV antibodies (difference was not significant: P = 0.07). Parenteral transmission of HEV to hemophiliacs was thus rare or nonexistent. Seven of 187 hepatitis patients were found with HEV antibodies (IgG and IgM). Six persons fell ill shortly after arriving from HEV-endemic countries. The seventh patient, without a history of travel, represents a case of nontropical hepatitis E. Consequently, hepatitis E should be considered in patients suffering from acute non-ABC hepatitis, even in industrialized countries.

  6. A Comparative Study of Hepatitis Caused by Scrub Typhus and Viral Hepatitis A in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun; Kim, Dong-Min; Yun, Na Ra; Byeon, Yu Mi; Kim, Young Dae; Park, Chan Guk; Kim, Man Woo; Han, Mi Ah

    2011-01-01

    We compared clinical features and laboratory findings of 104 patients with hepatitis A and 197 patients with scrub typhus. Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, hepatomegaly, and jaundice were common in patient with hepatitis A, and fever and headache were significantly more common in patients with scrub typhus. At presentation, an alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level ≥ 500 U/L was observed in 1% of scrub typhus patients and in 87.5% of hepatitis A patients (P hepatitis A patients. The ALT:lactate dehydrogenase ratio was ≤ 5 in 97.4% of the patients with scrub typhus and > 5 in 95.2% of those with hepatitis A (P 5, and hepatomegaly are indications of viral hepatitis A. PMID:22049041

  7. Influence of occult hepatitis B virus infection in chronic hepatitis C outcomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Conrado M Fernandez-Rodriguez; Maria Luisa Gutierrez; José Luis Lledó; Maria Luisa Casas

    2011-01-01

    Persistence of hepatitis B virus-DNA in the sera, peripheral blood mononuclear cells or in the liver of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative patients with or without serological markers of previous exposure (antibodies to HBsAg and/or to HB-core antigen) defines the entity called occult hepatitis B infection (OBI). Co-infection with hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses is frequent in highly endemic areas. While this co-infection increases the risk of liver disease progression, development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma and also increases the rate of therapeutic failure to interferon-based treatments than either virus alone, a potentially negative effect of OBI on clinical outcomes and of therapeutic response to current antiviral regimes of patients with chronic hepatitis C remains inconclusive.

  8. Ny behandling af kronisk hepatitis B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ellen Sloth; Weis, Nina M

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide, 350 million people are infected with chronic hepatitis B. Over the last few years, it has been possible to treat chronic hepatitis B. Treatment very often consists of nucleos(t)ide analogs and in a few cases of pegylated alpha-interferon. In 2007, a new nucleoside analog, Telbivudine......, was approved to treat chronic hepatitis B. In phase II and ongoing phase III studies, Telbivudine has proven more effective than the nucleoside analog, Lamivudine, which was very often used up until recently. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Nov-24...

  9. New treatment of chronic hepatitis B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, E.S.; Weis, Nina

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide, 350 million people are infected with chronic hepatitis B. Over the last few years, it has been possible to treat chronic hepatitis B. Treatment very often consists of nucleos(t)ide analogs and in a few cases of pegylated alpha-interferon. In 2007, a new nucleoside analog, Telbivudine......, was approved to treat chronic hepatitis B. In phase II and ongoing phase III studies, Telbivudine has proven more effective than the nucleoside analog, Lamivudine, which was very often used up until recently Udgivelsesdato: 2008/11/24...

  10. ORAL MANIFESTATIONS OF HEPATITIS C VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir E. Panov

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is a serious public health problem. New infections continue to occur, and morbidity and mortality are increasing. The date reported that 3% of infected world population are affected.Morbidity associated with hepatitis C virus infection can involve a variety of extrahepatic conditions including the oral region. Some of the oral manifestation are oral disease like lichen planus and Sjögren-like sialadenitis , other affects the dental status, and side effect of the virus therapy. The aim of this review is to summarize the oral sings, accompanying hepatitis C virus.

  11. Hepatitis C Virus and Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masao Omata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV, a hepatotropic virus, is a single stranded-positive RNA virus of ~9,600 nt. length belonging to the Flaviviridae family. HCV infection causes acute hepatitis, chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. It has been reported that HCV-coding proteins interact with host-cell factors that are involved in cell cycle regulation, transcriptional regulation, cell proliferation and apoptosis. Severe inflammation and advanced liver fibrosis in the liver background are also associated with the incidence of HCV-related HCC. In this review, we discuss the mechanism of hepatocarcinogenesis in HCV-related liver diseases.

  12. Acute abdomen caused by brucellar hepatic abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibis, Cem; Sezer, Atakan; Batman, Ali K; Baydar, Serkan; Eker, Alper; Unlu, Ercument; Kuloglu, Figen; Cakir, Bilge; Coskun, Irfan

    2007-10-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic infection that is transmitted from animals to humans by ingestion of infected food products, direct contact with an infected animal, or aerosol inhalation. The disease is endemic in many countries, including the Mediterranean basin, the Middle East, India, Mexico, Central and South America and, central and southwest Asia. Human brucellosis is a systemic infection with a wide clinical spectrum. Although hepatic involvement is very common during the course of chronic brucellosis, hepatic abscess is a very rare complication of Brucella infection. We present a case of hepatic abscess caused by Brucella, which resembled the clinical presentation of surgical acute abdomen.

  13. Hepatitis A outbreak associated with kava drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jo-Anne; Kurien, Thomas T; Huppatz, Clare

    2014-03-31

    Hepatitis A is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV), with transmission occurring through the faecal-oral route. In May 2013, a case of hepatitis A infection was reported to a Western Australian regional public health unit, with infection acquired in Fiji. Following this, 2 further cases were linked to the index case by kava drinking and 1 further case was a household contact of a secondary case. This outbreak highlights that the preparation of kava drink and/or the use of a common drinking vessel could be a vehicle for the transmission of HAV.

  14. [Congenital hepatic fibrosis: apropos of 12 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murga, M L; Jara, P; Díaz, M C; de la Rubia, L; Arroba, M L; Larrauri, J; Vázquez, C

    1988-02-01

    Twelve patients with congenital hepatic fibrosis have been retrospectively studied and followed for 1 to 14 years. Clinical features, hepatic function tests and biopsy have been analyzed. Presence of portal hypertension and congenital malformation have been investigated. Clinical presentations varies from newborn to nine years of age without male or female predominance. Most frequent clinical form has been hypertensive type. Cholangitic type has worse prognosis. Familiar recurrence rate is 20%. Congenital malformations are associated in 92% most frequently infantile polycystic kidney disease. Hepatic biopsy has confirmed diagnosis in all patients.

  15. Transmission af hepatitis E i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Jens; Böttiger, Blenda; Norder, Heléne

    2009-01-01

    A case of acute hepatitis due to hepatitis E virus genotype 3 was diagnosed by serology and genomic sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated a strain identical to one isolated from a Swedish pig, which supports the hypothesis that swine serves as reservoirs for HEV infection. The patient did...... not have any recent travel history, had experienced no contact with animals and the origin of the infection remained unknown. We emphasize that health personnel should be aware of acute hepatitis E even among patients without a travel history. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Jun-22...

  16. Transmission af hepatitis E i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Jens; Böttiger, Blenda; Norder, Heléne

    2009-01-01

    A case of acute hepatitis due to hepatitis E virus genotype 3 was diagnosed by serology and genomic sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated a strain identical to one isolated from a Swedish pig, which supports the hypothesis that swine serves as reservoirs for HEV infection. The patient did...... not have any recent travel history, had experienced no contact with animals and the origin of the infection remained unknown. We emphasize that health personnel should be aware of acute hepatitis E even among patients without a travel history. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Jun-22...

  17. Hepatitis Delta Virus: A Peculiar Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Alves; Cristina Branco; Celso Cunha

    2013-01-01

    The hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is distributed worldwide and related to the most severe form of viral hepatitis. HDV is a satellite RNA virus dependent on hepatitis B surface antigens to assemble its envelope and thus form new virions and propagate infection. HDV has a small 1.7 Kb genome making it the smallest known human virus. This deceivingly simple virus has unique biological features and many aspects of its life cycle remain elusive. The present review endeavors to gather the available ...

  18. Hepatitis C virus infection in nephrology patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostaing, Lionel; Izopet, Jacques; Kamar, Nassim

    2013-10-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection leads to chronic liver disease, but also to extra-hepatic manifestations. Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar, Pubmed (NLM), LISTA (EBSCO) and Web of Science have been searched. Herein, we provide an overview of renal diseases related to HCV and their therapies, as well as the treatment options available for HCV (+)/RNA (+) dialysis patients. We will not mention, however, HCV infection-related complications in the post-kidney transplantation setting. Extra-hepatic manifestations of HCV infection include mixed cryoglobulinemia, lymphoproliferative disorders, and renal disease. HCV infection has been reported in association with distinct histological patterns of glomerulonephritis in native kidneys.

  19. Diagnostic criteria of autoimmune hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberal, Rodrigo; Grant, Charlotte R; Longhi, Maria Serena; Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina; Vergani, Diego

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic immune-mediated liver disorder characterised by female preponderance, elevated transaminase and immunoglobulin G levels, seropositivity for autoantibodies and interface hepatitis. Presentation is highly variable, therefore AIH should be considered during the diagnostic workup of any increase in liver enzyme levels. A set of inclusion and exclusion criteria for the diagnosis of AIH have been established by the International Autoimmune Hepatitis Group (IAIHG). There are two main types of AIH: type 1, positive for anti-nuclear (ANA) and/or anti-smooth muscle antibodies (SMAs) and type 2, defined by the presence of anti-liver kidney microsomal antibody type 1 (LKM-1) and/or anti-liver cytosol type 1 (LC-1) autoantibodies. The central role of autoantibodies in the diagnosis of AIH has led the IAIHG to produce a consensus statement detailing appropriate and effective methods for their detection. Autoantibodies should be tested by indirect immunofluorescence at an initial dilution of 1/40 in adults and 1/10 in children on a freshly prepared rodent substrate that includes kidney, liver and stomach sections to allow for the simultaneous detection of all reactivities relevant to AIH. Anti-LKM-1 is often confused with anti-mitochondrial antibody (AMA) if rodent kidney is used as the sole immunofluorescence substrate. The identification of the molecular targets of anti-LKM-1 and AMA has led to the establishment of immuno-assays based on the use of the recombinant or purified autoantigens. Perinuclear anti-nuclear neutrophil antibody (p-ANNA) is an additional marker of AIH-1; anti soluble liver antigen (SLA) antibodies are specific for autoimmune liver disease, can be present in AIH-1 and AIH-2 and are associated with a more severe clinical course. Anti-SLA are detectable by ELISA or radio-immuno-assays, but not by immunofluorescence. AIH is exquisitely responsive to immunosuppressive treatment, which should be instituted promptly to

  20. Establishment of a hepatic cirrhosis and portal hypertension model by hepatic arterial perfusion with 80% alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; He, Fu-Liang; Liu, Fu-Quan; Yue, Zhen-Dong; Zhao, Hong-Wei

    2015-08-28

    To determine the feasibility and safety of establishing a porcine hepatic cirrhosis and portal hypertension model by hepatic arterial perfusion with 80% alcohol. Twenty-one healthy Guizhou miniature pigs were randomly divided into three experimental groups and three control groups. The pigs in the three experimental groups were subjected to hepatic arterial perfusion with 7, 12 and 17 mL of 80% alcohol, respectively, while those in the three control groups underwent hepatic arterial perfusion with 7, 12 and 17 mL of saline, respectively. Hepatic arteriography and direct portal phlebography were performed on all animals before and after perfusion, and the portal venous pressure and diameter were measured before perfusion, immediately after perfusion, and at 2, 4 and 6 wk after perfusion. The following procedures were performed at different time points: routine blood sampling, blood biochemistry, blood coagulation and blood ammonia tests before surgery, and at 2, 4 and 6 wk after surgery; hepatic biopsy before surgery, within 6 h after surgery, and at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 wk after surgery; abdominal enhanced computed tomography examination before surgery and at 6 wk after surgery; autopsy and multi-point sampling of various liver lobes for histological examination at 6 wk after surgery. In experimental group 1, different degrees of hepatic fibrosis were observed, and one pig developed hepatic cirrhosis. In experimental group 2, there were cases of hepatic cirrhosis, different degrees of increased portal venous pressure, and intrahepatic portal venous bypass, but neither extrahepatic portal-systemic bypass circulation nor death occurred. In experimental group 3, two animals died and three animals developed hepatic cirrhosis, and different degrees of increased portal venous pressure and intrahepatic portal venous bypass were also observed, but there was no extrahepatic portal-systemic bypass circulation. It is feasible to establish an animal model of hepatic cirrhosis and

  1. Diffuse Hepatic Hemangiomatosis in the Adult without Extra-hepatic Involvement: An Extremely Rare Occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Alexandre; Matos, António Pedro; Neta, Jorge Oliveira E; Ramalho, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of a pathologically proven multinodular diffuse hepatic hemangiomatosis (DHH) with no extra-hepatic involvement in a 68-year-old male. Cavernous hemangioma is the most common hepatic tumor. However, DHH, which is characterized by extensive replacement of liver parenchyma with hemangiomatous lesions, has been rarely reported in adults. The etiology and clinical course are not completely understood because of its rareness, although the diagnosis might be suggested by the magnetic resonance imaging findings.

  2. Hepatic lipogranulomas in patients with chronic liver disease: Association with hepatitis C and fatty liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Henry; C; Bodenheimer; David; J; Clain; Albert; D; Min; Neil; D; Theise

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To study the significance and clinical implication of hepatic lipogranuloma in chronic liver diseases, including fatty liver disease and hepatitis C. METHODS: A total of 376 sequential, archival liver biopsy specimens were reviewed. Lipogranuloma, steatosis and steato-fibrosis were evaluated with combined hematoxylin and eosin and Masson’s trichrome staining. RESULTS: Fifty-eight (15.4%) patients had lipogranuloma, including 46 patients with hepatitis C, 14 patients with fatty liver disease, and 5 pati...

  3. Combined hepatitis A and B vaccine: providing a bright future for preventing hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewlett, Alex T

    2009-09-01

    The first combined hepatitis A and B vaccine has been available in the United States since 2001. The vaccine provides protection against viral hepatitis with rapid seroprotection and lasting immunogenicity. This review outlines the product's components, clinical efficacy and opportunities for use in special circumstances. The vaccine has a good safety profile and has good tolerability. The combined hepatitis A and B vaccine is a well studied vaccine that provides rapid seroconversion with a good safety profile.

  4. Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 90. Pawlotsky J-M. Chronic ... eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 149. Sjogren MH, Bassett JT. ...

  5. Autoimmun hepatitis forudgået af hepatitis A-infektion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Grave; Juel, Jacob; Vyberg, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis is characterized by unresolving inflammation and fibrosis of the liver, which untreated may lead to cirrhosis. The pathogenesis remains unclear and reflects a complex interaction between autoantigens, genetic predisposition, triggering factors and immune regulation. In rare...... cases, acute hepatitis A has been suspected as a triggering factor. We describe a case of a 66-year-old woman who two months after a resolving acute hepatitis A presented with fatigue, pale stools and elevated levels of transaminases. A liver biopsy showed histological changes compatible with autoimmune...... hepatitis....

  6. Doppler study of hepatic vein in cirrhotic patients: Correlation with liver dysfunction and hepatic hemodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KC Sudhamshu; Shoiichi Matsutani; Hitoshi Maruyama; Taro Akiike; Hiromitsu Saisho

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the significance of Doppler measurements of hepatic vein in cirrhotic patients and to correlate with liver dysfunction and hepatic hemodynamics.METHODS: One hundred patients with liver cirrhosis and 60 non-cirrhotic controls were studied. Doppler waveforms were obtained from right hepatic vein and flow velocity measured during quiet respiration. Doppler measurements were also obtained from portal trunk,right portal vein and proper hepatic artery.RESULTS: Hepatic vein waveforms were classified into three classical patterns. Flat waveform was uncommon.Mean hepatic vein velocity was significantly higher in cirrhotic patients (12.7 ± 6.4 vs 5.1 ± 2.1 and 6.2 ± 3.2 cm/s; P < 0.0001). The poorer the grade of cirrhosis,the higher was the mean velocity. Maximum forward velocity was never greater than 40 cm/s in controls.Degree of ascites was found to be highly correlated with mean velocity. "Very high" group (≥ 20 cm/s) presented clinically with moderate to massive ascites. Correlations between right portal flow and mean velocity was significant (P < 0.0001, r = 0.687).CONCLUSION: Doppler waveforms of hepatic vein,which is independent of liver dysfunction, should be obtained during normal respiration. Mean hepatic vein velocity reflects the change in hepatic circulation associated with progression of liver cirrhosis. It can be used as a new parameter in the assessment of liver cirrhosis.

  7. Relationship between hepatitis B virus infection and hepatic metastasis in non-small cell lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Gao; Lin Jia; Xiaobo Du; Yun Wang; Jianjun Han

    2014-01-01

    Objective:The purpose of the study was to explore the relationship between hepatitis B virus (HBV) infec-tion and hepatic metastasis in non-smal celllung cancer (NSCLC). Methods:Four hundred and eighty cases of NSCLC were retrospectively analyzed from January 2003 to January 2010, and the prevalence of hepatic metastasis of NSCLC in patients with and without hepatitis B virus infection were compared. Results:In the HBV carriers’ group, the prevalence of synchronous hepatic metastasis and metachronous hepatic metastasis were 13.2%and 5.9%, respectively. Meanwhile in the non-HBV group, those were 21.6%and 9.5%respectively. A significant dif erence between the two groups was found (P<0.05). Conclusion:The prevalence of synchronous hepatic metastasis and metachronous hepatic metastasis in non-smal celllung cancer with HBV infection are lower than those in non-HBV infection group. Hepatic metastasis is infrequent in HBV infected cases of NSCLC.

  8. Transient diffuse hepatic uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-MDP after hepatitis B vaccination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Jin; Park, Young Ha; Hwang, Seong Su; Chung, Soo Kyo [Cotholic University of Korea, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Heum [Eulji Universigy, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-02-15

    A 38-year-old female with arthralgia in right elbow joint for 6 months was referred for a bone scan which showed diffuse uptakes of {sup 99m}Tc-MDP in the liver and spleen without hepatosplenomegaly. She had a history of hepatitis B vaccination 3 days ago. These uptakes were disappeared on the follow-up bone scan after 4 months. We suggest this transient diffuse hepatic uptake after vaccination of hepatitis B might be due to aluminum component within the hepatitis B vaccine as adjuvant.

  9. Successful maternal and perinatal outcome of hepatitis E in pregnancy with fulminant hepatic failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena N. Satia

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E infection is an important cause of fulminant hepatic failure (FHF in pregnancy in developing countries like India, with a high mortality rate. It is postulated that immunological and hormonal changes in pregnant women predispose them to developing FHF secondary to hepatitis E infection as compared to the less severe form seen in the non-pregnant population. A variation in the natural course of the disease is also seen amongst different geographical areas. Hepatitis E infection is seen to be less severe in parts of the world like Egypt, Europe and the USA as against the Indian subcontinent. The mainstay of management of acute viral hepatitis (AVH and fulminant hepatic failure secondary to hepatitis E virus is supportive treatment. Since an increased severity of the disease is associated with the pregnant state, termination of pregnancy to alter its course is an option worth considering. Our case study showed promising results of induction of labour in a case of FHF (hepatic encephalopathy with disseminated intravascular coagulation caused by hepatitis E, in the third trimester of pregnancy. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(7.000: 2475-2477

  10. Modeling Hepatitis C treatment policy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuypers, Marshall A.; Lambert, Gregory Joseph; Moore, Thomas W.; Glass, Robert John,; Finley, Patrick D.; Ross, David; Chartier, Maggie

    2013-09-01

    Chronic infection with Hepatitis C virus (HCV) results in cirrhosis, liver cancer and death. As the nations largest provider of care for HCV, US Veterans Health Administration (VHA) invests extensive resources in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. This report documents modeling and analysis of HCV treatment dynamics performed for the VHA aimed at improving service delivery efficiency. System dynamics modeling of disease treatment demonstrated the benefits of early detection and the role of comorbidities in disease progress and patient mortality. Preliminary modeling showed that adherence to rigorous treatment protocols is a primary determinant of treatment success. In depth meta-analysis revealed correlations of adherence and various psycho-social factors. This initial meta-analysis indicates areas where substantial improvement in patient outcomes can potentially result from VA programs which incorporate these factors into their design.

  11. HEPATITIS C U TRANSFUZIJSKOJ MEDICINI

    OpenAIRE

    Dorić, Anka; Grahovac, Blaženka

    2007-01-01

    SAŽETAK Najnovije procjene upućuju na to da se svjetska prevalencija anti-HCV reaktivnosti kreće u široku rasponu, i to od 0,1% u razvijenim zemljama do 13,6% u sjevernoj Africi. U Europi prevalencija se kreće od 0,1% do najviše 4,9% u pojedinim zemljama istočne Europe. Epidemiološka istraživanja predviđaju da je približno 170 milijuna ljudi u svijetu kronično inficirano hepatitis C virusom (HCV). Na osnovi preliminarnih testiranja opće populacije i prema procjenama, Hrvatska je svrstana u...

  12. Hepatic sarcoidosis: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennaifer, Rym; Ayadi, Shema; Romdhane, Hayfa; Cheikh, Myriam; Nejma, Houda Ben; Bougassas, Wassila; Hadj, Najet Bel

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic non caseous granulomas disease. Liver is a common location but usually asymptomatic. Evidence based guidelines for this location treatment is lacking and the effect of corticosteroids may be inadequate. The aim of our study was to describe the clinical, biochemical, radiological and therapeutic features of seven patients with systemic sarcoidosis and liver involvement. A retrospective and descriptive monocentric study, over 3 years, including seven patients with systemic sarcoidosis and liver involvement. We included 5 women and 2 men with an average age of 43 years. Hepatic localization revealed sarcoidosis in 5 cases. Hepatomegaly was observed in all patients as well as abnormal serum liver function test reflected by anicteric cholestasis. Liver biopsy, showed in all granulomatous lesions consistent with sarcoidosis and severe fibrosis in 2 cases. Extra-hepatic manifestations were present in all patients represented mainly by pulmonary location. All patients were treated, five by corticosteroid and two with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). Complete response was observed in one case, partial response in another case and corticosteroid refractoriness in one case. In two cases, corticosteroid therapy was introduced for less than 1 month, not allowing assessment of response. Antimalarials in combination with UDCA were used successfully in a patient with steroid-resistant liver disease. Liver involvement can reveal systemic sarcoidois. Given the risk of progression to severe liver disease, it must be screened in all patients with systemic sarcoidosis. Treatment is not systematic, and still based on corticosteroid therapy. In the absence of prospective randomized controlled trials, the efficacy of UDCA need to be proven.

  13. Molecular biology of hepatitis B virus infection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seeger, Christoph; Mason, William S

    2015-01-01

    Human hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the prototype of a family of small DNA viruses that productively infect hepatocytes, the major cell of the liver, and replicate by reverse transcription of a terminally redundant viral RNA, the pregenome...

  14. Feline hepatic biotransformation and transport mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beusekom, C.D. van

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic biotransformation and drug transport mechanisms vary significantly between species. While these processes that determine largely the kinetic behavior of drugs have been studied abundantly in dogs, corresponding investigations in cats are hardly available, despite the increasing role of cats

  15. One Family's Struggles with Hepatitis B

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... spray flu caccine CDC surveillance flu FAQ flu vaccine does not cause flu no such thing as ... current news Flu's Gonna Lose hepatitis a & b vaccines im/sq how to do kids infect kids ...

  16. ER stress and hepatic lipid metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiping eZhou

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The endoplasmic reticulum (ER is an important player in regulating protein synthesis and lipid metabolism. Perturbation of ER homeostasis, referred as ER stress, has been linked to numerous pathological conditions, such as inflammation, cardiovascular diseases and metabolic disorders. The liver plays a central role in regulating nutrient and lipid metabolism. Accumulating evidence implicates that ER stress disrupts lipid metabolism and induces hepatic lipotoxicity. Here, we review the major ER stress signaling pathways, how ER stress contributes to the dysregulation of hepatic lipid metabolism, and the potential causative mechanisms of ER stress in hepatic lipotoxicity. Understanding the role of ER stress in hepatic metabolism may lead to the identification of new therapeutic targets for metabolic diseases.

  17. Vaccinations for Adults with Hepatitis C Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinations for Adults with Hepatitis C Infection This table shows which vaccinations you should have to protect your health if ... sure you and your healthcare provider keep your vaccinations up to date. Vaccine Do you need it? ...

  18. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B Virus among Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B virus ... The two groups compared well as regards age, sex, occupation and social class. However, widows has significantly higher prevalence amongst the HIV patients.

  19. One Family's Struggles with Hepatitis B

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pediatric hepatitis report infection protection bioterrorism five second rule germs handwashing why handwashing is important handwashing cartoon handwashing video for kids poster infectious disease workshop links & resources personal items standard ...

  20. Etiological role of brucellosis in autoimmune hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Colakoglu Onder; Taskiran Bengur; Adnan Kirci; Tunakan Mine; Buyrac Zafer; Unsal Belkis; Aksoz Kadir; Yorukoglu Gazi

    2005-01-01

    To show that brucellosis may trigger autoimmune hepatitis(AIH), in addition to nonspecific liver involvement and toxic hepatitis, due to a class effect of tetracycline family used for treatment. We present a female patient admitted to our hospital due to partially improved fatigue and elevated liver enzymes following doxycycline and streptomycin usage for brucellosis. Brucellosis is endemic in our country, Turkey. It may involve any organ in the body. Liver is frequently involved. Doxycycline used for treatment occasionally may lead to hepatotoxicity. AIH is a necroinflammatory disease of the liver. Certain drugs (e.g. Minocycline), toxins, and viruses (hepatitis B, hepatitis C, EBV, etc.) can trigger AIH. Only one case of AIH probably caused by doxycycline and brucellosis was reported. We discuss the relationship between brucellosis, AIH, and hepatotoxicity of doxycycline. Brucellosis may trigger AIH.