WorldWideScience

Sample records for fast track proposal

  1. Fast track-hoftealloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben Bæk; Gromov, Kirill; Kristensen, Billy B

    2017-01-01

    Fast-track surgery implies a coordinated perioperative approach aimed at reducing surgical stress and facilitating post-operative recovery. The fast-track programme has reduced post-operative length of stay and has led to shorter convalescence with more rapid functional recovery and decreased...... morbidity and mortality in total hip arthroplasty. It should now be a standard total hip arthroplasty patient pathway, but fine tuning of the multiple factors in the fast-track pathway is still needed in patients with special needs or high comorbidity burden....

  2. Fast Compressive Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaihua; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Ming-Hsuan

    2014-10-01

    It is a challenging task to develop effective and efficient appearance models for robust object tracking due to factors such as pose variation, illumination change, occlusion, and motion blur. Existing online tracking algorithms often update models with samples from observations in recent frames. Despite much success has been demonstrated, numerous issues remain to be addressed. First, while these adaptive appearance models are data-dependent, there does not exist sufficient amount of data for online algorithms to learn at the outset. Second, online tracking algorithms often encounter the drift problems. As a result of self-taught learning, misaligned samples are likely to be added and degrade the appearance models. In this paper, we propose a simple yet effective and efficient tracking algorithm with an appearance model based on features extracted from a multiscale image feature space with data-independent basis. The proposed appearance model employs non-adaptive random projections that preserve the structure of the image feature space of objects. A very sparse measurement matrix is constructed to efficiently extract the features for the appearance model. We compress sample images of the foreground target and the background using the same sparse measurement matrix. The tracking task is formulated as a binary classification via a naive Bayes classifier with online update in the compressed domain. A coarse-to-fine search strategy is adopted to further reduce the computational complexity in the detection procedure. The proposed compressive tracking algorithm runs in real-time and performs favorably against state-of-the-art methods on challenging sequences in terms of efficiency, accuracy and robustness.

  3. Fast-Track Teacher Recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Franklin Dean

    2001-01-01

    Schools need a Renaissance human-resources director to implement strategic staffing and fast-track teacher-recruitment plans. The HR director must attend to customer satisfaction, candidate supply, web-based recruitment possibilities, stabilization of newly hired staff, retention of veteran staff, utilization of retired employees, and latest…

  4. An artificial retina for fast track finding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ristori, Luciano

    2000-01-01

    A new approach is proposed for fast track finding in position-sensitive detectors. The basic working principle is modeled on what is widely believed to be the low-level mechanism used by the eye to recognize straight edges. A number of receptors are tuned such that each one responds to a different range of track orientations, each track actually fires several receptors and an estimate of the orientation is obtained through interpolation. The feasibility of a practical device based on this principle and its possible implementation using currently available digital logic is discussed

  5. ATLAS FTK Fast Track Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Iizawa, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Fast TracKer (FTK) will perform global track reconstruction after each Level-1 trigger accept signal to enable the software-based higher level trigger to have early access to tracking information. FTK is a dedicated processor based on a mixture of advanced technologies. Modern, powerful Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) form an important part of the system architecture, and the large level of computing power required for pattern recognition is provided by incorporating standard-cell ASICs named Associative Memory (AM). Motivation and the architecture of the FTK system will be presented, and the status of hardware and simulation will be following.

  6. Percentage of Fast-Track Receipts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The dataset provides the percentage of fast-track receipts by state during the reporting fiscal year. Fast-tracked cases consist of those cases identified as Quick...

  7. ATLAS FTK: Fast Track Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Volpi, Guido; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    An overview of the ATLAS Fast Tracker processor is presented, reporting the design of the system, its expected performance, and the integration status. The next LHC runs, with a significant increase in instantaneous luminosity, will provide a big challenge to the trigger and data acquisition systems of all the experiments. An intensive use of the tracking information at the trigger level will be important to keep high efficiency in interesting events, despite the increase in multiple p-p collisions per bunch crossing (pile-up). In order to increase the use of tracks within the High Level Trigger (HLT), the ATLAS experiment planned the installation of an hardware processor dedicated to tracking: the Fast TracKer (FTK) processor. The FTK is designed to perform full scan track reconstruction at every Level-1 accept. To achieve this goal, the FTK uses a fully parallel architecture, with algorithms designed to exploit the computing power of custom VLSI chips, the Associative Memory, as well as modern FPGAs. The FT...

  8. Fast liner proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, A.R.; Freeman, B.L.; Gerwin, R.A.; Jarboe, T.R.; Krakowski, R.A.; Malone, R.C.; Marshall, J.; Miller, R.L.; Suydam, B.

    1977-08-01

    This is a proposal to study, both theoretically and experimentally, the possibility of making a fusion reactor by magnetically imploding a cylindrical metallic shell on a prepared plasma. The approach is characterized by the following features: (1) the nonrotating liner would be driven by an axial current, (2) the plasma would also carry an axial current that provides an azimuthal magnetic field for thermal insulation in both the radial and longitudinal directions, (3) solid end plugs would be utilized to prevent axial loss of particles, and (4) liner speeds would be in the 10 6 cm/s range. The preliminary calculations indicate (1) that the energetics are favorable (energy inputs of about 10 MJ might produce a machine in the break-even regime), (2) that radiation and heat losses could be made tolerable, (3) that alpha-particle heating could be made very effective, and (4) that Taylor instabilities in a fast liner might be harmless because of the large viscosities at high pressures. A preliminary conceptual design of the sort of fusion reactor that might result from such an approach is discussed, as are some of the relevant reactor scaling arguments

  9. PUC fast track nips returns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    In the first of what it says will be annual cost-of-capital proceedings to set returns on equity and rates of return on rate base for electric utilities, the California Public Utilities Commission (PUC) lowered from 1989 levels the 1990 returns on common equity (ROE) and rates of return (ROR) for the state's four major investor-owned electric utilities. Under this fast-track procedure, by May 8 of every year, utilities will have to file an application for rate adjustments that reflect their projected costs of capital for the following year

  10. Fast algorithm of track detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nehrguj, B.

    1980-01-01

    A fast algorithm of variable-slope histograms is proposed, which allows a considerable reduction of computer memory size and is quite simple to carry out. Corresponding FORTRAN subprograms given a triple speed gain have been included in spiral reader data handling software

  11. Fast-track totalknæalloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromov, Kirill; Kristensen, Billy B; Jørgensen, Christoffer Calov

    2017-01-01

    patients are eligible for fast-track TKA, and hence the fast-track concept should be standard at all joint replacement facilities. Future challenges of fast-track TKA include safe introduction of outpatient protocols, acute and chronic pain after surgery and optimal utilization of post......Fast-track total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a well-established concept including optimized logistics and evidence-based treatment, focusing on minimizing surgical stress and improved post-operative recovery, thus leading to lower mortality and morbidity as well as high patient satisfaction. All...

  12. Fast-track revision knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Henrik; Otte, Niels Kristian Stahl; Kristensen, Billy B

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background and purpose Fast-track surgery has reduced the length of hospital stay (LOS), morbidity, and convalescence in primary hip and knee arthroplasty (TKA). We assessed whether patients undergoing revision TKA for non-septic indications might also benefit from fast-track surgery...

  13. Fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty aims at giving the patients the best available treatment at all times, being a dynamic entity. Fast-track combines evidence-based, clinical features with organizational optimization including a revision of traditions resulting in a streamlined pathway from...... on clinical and organizational aspects of fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty (I–IX). A detailed description of the fast-track set-up and its components is provided. Major results include identification of patient characteristics to predict length of stay and satisfaction with different aspects...... of the hospital stay (I); how to optimize analgesia by using a compression bandage in total knee arthroplasty (II); the clinical and organizational set-up facilitating or acting as barriers for early discharge (III); safety aspects following fast-track in the form of few readmissions in general (IV) and few...

  14. Fast-track revision knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Henrik; Otte, Niels Kristian Stahl; Kristensen, Billy B

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background and purpose Fast-track surgery has reduced the length of hospital stay (LOS), morbidity, and convalescence in primary hip and knee arthroplasty (TKA). We assessed whether patients undergoing revision TKA for non-septic indications might also benefit from fast-track surgery....... Methods 29 patients were operated with 30 revision arthroplasties. Median age was 67 (34-84) years. All patients followed a standardized fast-track set-up designed for primary TKA. We determined the outcome regarding LOS, morbidity, mortality, and satisfaction. Results Median LOS was 2 (1-4) days...

  15. Accelerated Leadership Development: Fast Tracking School Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earley, Peter; Jones, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    "Accelerated Leadership Development" captures and communicates the lessons learned from successful fast-track leadership programmes in the private and public sector, and provides a model which schools can follow and customize as they plan their own leadership development strategies. As large numbers of headteachers and other senior staff…

  16. FTK: a Fast Track Trigger for ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J; Auerbach, B; Blair, R; Andreani, A; Andreazza, A; Citterio, M; Annovi, A; Beretta, M; Castegnaro, A; Atkinson, M; Cavaliere, V; Chang, P; Bevacqua, V; Crescioli, F; Blazey, G; Bogdan, M; Boveia, A; Canelli, F; Cheng, Y; Cervigni, F

    2012-01-01

    We describe the design and expected performance of a the Fast Tracker Trigger (FTK) system for the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The FTK is a highly parallel hardware system designed to operate at the Level 1 trigger output rate. It is designed to provide global tracks reconstructed in the inner detector with resolution comparable to the full offline reconstruction as input of the Level 2 trigger processing. The hardware system is based on associative memories for pattern recognition and fast FPGAs for track reconstruction. The FTK is expected to dramatically improve the performance of track based isolation and b-tagging with little to no dependencies of pile-up interactions.

  17. Fast track pathway for perforated appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazee, Richard; Abernathy, Stephen; Davis, Matthew; Isbell, Travis; Regner, Justin; Smith, Randall

    2017-04-01

    Perforated appendicitis is associated with an increased morbidity and length of stay. "Fast track" protocols have demonstrated success in shortening hospitalization without increasing morbidity for a variety of surgical processes. This study evaluates a fast track pathway for perforated appendicitis. In 2013, a treatment pathway for perforated appendicitis was adopted by the Acute Care Surgery Service for patients having surgical management of perforated appendicitis. Interval appendectomy was excluded. Patients were treated initially with intravenous antibiotics and transitioned to oral antibiotics and dismissed when medically stable and tolerating oral intake. A retrospective review of patients managed on the fast track pathway was undertaken to analyze length of stay, morbidity, and readmissions. Thirty-four males and twenty-one females with an average age of 46.8 years underwent laparoscopic appendectomy for perforated appendicitis between January 2013 and December 2014. Pre-existing comorbidities included hypertension 42%, diabetes mellitus 11%, COPD 5% and heart disease 2%. No patient had conversion to open appendectomy. Average length of stay was 2.67 days and ranged from 1 to 12 days (median 2 days). Postoperative morbidity was 20% and included abscess (6 patients), prolonged ileus (3 patients), pneumonia (1 patient), and congestive heart failure (1 patient). Five patients were readmitted for abscess (3 patients), congestive heart failure (1 patient), and pneumonia (1 patient). A fast track pathway for perforated appendicitis produced shorter length of stay and acceptable postoperative morbidity and readmission. This offers the potential for significant cost savings over current national practice patterns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Delirium in fast-track colonic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurbegovic, Sorel; Andersen, Jens; Krenk, Lene

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Postoperative delirium (PD) is a common but serious problem after major surgery with a multifactorial pathogenesis including age, pain, opioid use, sleep disturbances and the surgical stress response. These factors have been minimised by the "fast-track methodology" previously...... demonstrated to enhance recovery and reduce morbidity. METHODS: Clinical symptoms of PD were routinely collected three times daily from preoperatively until discharge in a well-defined enhanced recovery program after colonic surgery in 247 consecutive patients. RESULTS: Total median length of hospital stay...... postoperative recovery program may decrease the risk and duration of PD after colonic surgery....

  19. Fast simulation of the forward tracking detector of HPLUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yapeng; Fan Ruirui; Fu Fen; Yue Ke; Yuan Xiaohua; Xu Huagen; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Yao Nan; Xu Hushan; Jin Genming; Liang Jinjie; Chen Ruofu; Sun Zhiyu; Duan Limin; Xiao Zhigang; Tsinghua Univ., Beijing

    2008-01-01

    The necessity of installing a forward tracking detector stack is discussed for the Hadron Physics Lanzhou Spectrometer(HPLUS). A local tracker is developed to solve the multi-track finding problem. The track candidates are searched iteratively via Hough Transform. The fake tracks are removed by a least square fitting process. With this tracker we have studied the feasibility of pp→pp+φ(→K + K - ), a typical physical channel proposed on HPLUS. The single track momentum resolution due to the uncertainty of the positioning in FTD is 1.3%. The multiple scattering effect contributes about 20% to the momentum resolution in the FTD coverage. The width and the signal-to-background ratio of the reconstructed φ are 1.51 MeV and 4.36, respectively, taking into account the direct Kaon channel pp→pp+K + K - as background. The geometry coverage of FTD for qb events is about 85.4%. Based on the current fast simulation and estimation, the geometrical configuration of FTD meets the physical requirement of HPLUS under the current luminosity and multiplicity conditions. The tracker is applicable in the full simulation coming next and is extendable to other tracking component of HPLUS. (authors)

  20. Standardising fast-track surgical nursing care in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjort Jakobsen, Dorthe; Rud, Kirsten; Kehlet, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    guidelines based on the principles of fast-track surgery-i.e. patient information, surgical stress reduction, effective analgesia, early mobilisation and rapid return to normal eating. Fast-track surgery was introduced systematically in Denmark by the establishment of the Unit of Perioperative Nursing (UPN...

  1. Fast-track knee arthroplasty – status and future challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, Henrik; Thienpont, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Fast-track programs have been developed for different surgical procedures leading to higher patient satisfaction and lower morbidity. This concept has been extended to knee arthroplasty in recent years. The purpose of this narrative review was to discuss the different aspects of fast-track knee...... arthroplasty....

  2. Delirium after fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Lene; Rasmussen, L S; Hansen, T B

    2012-01-01

    hospital stay and medical morbidity. No data on PD are available in fast-track surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of PD after fast-track hip (THA) and knee arthroplasty (TKA) with anticipated length of stay (LOS) of In a prospective multicentre study to evaluate postoperative...

  3. Environmental Impact Assessment of Kathmandu Terai Fast-Track

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padam Kanta Dahal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available  Road transport is dominant necessity for the overall economic development of any nation. In case of Nepal, an easy access between the Capital City and Terai, the store-house of the country and is very necessary. To facilitate this promotion of an improved core road network, Government of Nepal has launched the Kathmandu Terai Fast Track Project. Many concerned personalities and sectors had considered this project to be number one in the list of seventeen projects of national pride declared by the government. The main objective of this study was to identify the impacts of proposed project implementation on physical, biological, socio-economic and cultural environment of the project area and propose mitigation measures to avoid or mitigate such impacts. Primary information collection and secondary data review was the source of data with cross sectional descriptive study design. Data was taken purposively in the project affected area. Length of 72.6 km fast track from Kathmandu – Lalitpur – Makawanpur and up to Nijgadh in Bara district to link with the East West Highway will be of four lanes with 50 m on each side. The project was proposed to have 96 bridges big or small; 1.6 km long tunnel will be built in Thingan of Makawanpur on public-private partnership. It had projected costs of more than NRs 250 million. The impacts on land use will be on about 30km of agricultural land, 43km of forests and about 3km of other land uses, bridges etc. in the main alignment. The impacts on human life will mainly be in villages near the alignment. There are 38 villages within about 50m of the main alignment. The project can be continued with minimum of environmental degradation by applying the mitigation measures. Nation has been investing a lot of resources. Upon the completion of the fast track, the distance and time to reach the capital city from Terai will come down to only 1.5 hours and will transform the capital, eastern Terai and the country as a

  4. Bilateral simultaneous total hip arthroplasty in a fast track setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otte, Kristian S; Husted, Henrik; Ørsnes, Thue

    2011-01-01

    and low complication rates when performed in a fast-track setting. We believed it would be useful to assess hip arthroplasty in this context, and we report 50 consecutive fast-track simultaneous bilateral hip arthroplasty procedures. The median length of stay was 4 days. Mortality within 90 days was 4......% and 8% required a further operative procedure. The overall complication rate was 22%. 55% of the complications were considered to be caused by failures in surgical technique and 45% by other factors. Bilateral simultaneous hip arthroplasty may have a high complication rate in a fast-track setting...

  5. [Fast-track treatment--second revolution of colorectal surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellokumpu, Ilmo

    2012-01-01

    The fast-track treatment model can be regarded as the second revolution of colorectal surgery after the introduction of laparoscopic surgery. In the gastro-surgical unit of the Central Hospital of Central Finland, results equivalent to international studies in colorectal surgery have been achieved by using fast-track model. In a study setting, this treatment model has resulted in significant decrease of total treatment costs and speeded up discharge of the patients from the hospital. The fast-track treatment model requires both a motivated, trained medical team and a motivated patient.

  6. Short Hospital Stay after Laparoscopic Colorectal Surgery without Fast Track

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgdorf, Stefan K; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Short hospital stay and equal or reduced complication rates have been demonstrated after fast track open colonic surgery. However, fast track principles of perioperative care can be difficult to implement and often require increased nursing staff because of more concentrated nursing tasks...... care, that is, without implementing fast track principles, on length of stay after colorectal resection for cancer. Methods. Records of all patients operated for colorectal cancer from November 2004 to December 2008 in our department were reviewed. No specific patients were selected for laparoscopic...... in our department resulted in shorter hospital stay without using fast track principles for peri- and postoperative care in patients not receiving a stoma during the operation. Consequently, we aimed to reduce hospitalisation without increasing cost in nursing staff per hospital bed. Length of stay...

  7. The Danish Head and Neck Cancer fast-track program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roennegaard, Anders B.; Rosenberg, Tine; Bjørndal, Kristine

    2018-01-01

    -track clinical pathway solutions. Objectives: The objectives of this study were 1) to present the setup of the head and neck cancer (HNC) fast-track program at Odense University Hospital (OUH) as an example of the Danish model and 2) to present patient characteristics, diagnostic outcome, cancer detection rate...

  8. A blueprint for multidisciplinary fast track gastrointestinal oncology care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basta, Y.L.

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis, we have evaluated the implementation of two key concepts of the Gastro Intestinal oncology Center Amsterdam (GIOCA): multidisciplinary teams (MDT) and the fast delivery of care in fast track clinics (FTC). The first part of this thesis investigates the value of multidisciplinary

  9. Fast particle tracking with wake fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohlus, M.; Floettmann, K.; Henning, C.

    2012-01-15

    Tracking calculations of charged particles in electromagnetic fields require in principle the simultaneous solution of the equation of motion and of Maxwell's equations. In many tracking codes a simpler and more efficient approach is used: external fields like that of the accelerating structures are provided as field maps, generated in separate computations and for the calculation of self fields the model of a particle bunch in uniform motion is used. We describe how an externally computed wake function can be approximated by a table of Taylor coefficients and how the wake field kick can be calculated for the particle distribution in a tracking calculation. The integrated kick, representing the effect of a distributed structure, is applied at a discrete time. As an example, we use our approach to calculate the emittance growth of a bunch in an undulator beam pipe due to resistive wall wake field effects. (orig.)

  10. New Medical-School Programs Put Students on a Fast Track to the White Coat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    California's lieutenant governor has proposed a fast-track medical school that would shave three years off the training needed to become a physician. It is not the first time such an idea has been offered. The proposal, for a hoped-for medical school at the University of California at Merced, struck some medical educators as both unrealistic and…

  11. Sufentanil Vs Fentanyl for Fast-Track Cardiac Anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C M Deshpande

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A perioperative anaesthetic management that aims to facilitate tracheal extubation of patients within 1-6 hrs after cardiac surgery is called "fast-track′. Main advantage of ′fast-track" method is better usage of medical resources and lowering hospital costs without increasing morbidity and mortality of the patients. Standard fast-track protocols contain short acting anaesthetic agents, smaller incisions and decreased pump times without hypothermia. In this study we compared two short acting opioid drugs, fentanyl versus Sufentanil when used as a part of the balanced anaesthesia technique for fast track in cardiac surgery patients& evaluated the time taken for extubation, haemodynamic stability, analgesia requirements& incidence of awareness. The results from the study show thatboth agents provide good haemodynamic stability and postoperative analgesia. Although Sufentanil provides earlier extuba-tion, both agents reduce the ICU stay equally. In conclusion both agents can be used effectively for fasttrack cardiac anaesthesia.

  12. Fast-Track Management of Patients Undergoing Proximal Pancreatic Resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, JJ; Mansfield, SD; Jaques, K; Jaques, BC; Manas, DM; Charnley, RM

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION To avoid the risk of complications of biliary drainage, a feasibility study was carried out to determine whether it might be possible to fast-track surgical treatment, with resection before biliary drainage, in jaundiced patients with proximal pancreatic/peri-ampullary malignancy. PATIENTS AND METHODS Over an 18-month period, based on their presenting bilirubin levels and other logistical factors, all jaundiced patients who might be suitable for fast-track management were identified. Data on complications and hospital stay were compared with those patients in whom a conventional pathway (with biliary drainage) was used during the same time period. Data were also compared with a group of patients from the preceding 6 months. RESULTS Nine patients were fast-tracked and 49 patients treated in the conventional pathway. Fast-track patients mean (SD) serum bilirubin level was 265 μmol/l (81.6) at the time of the operation compared to 43 μmol/l (51.3; P ≥ 0.0001) in conventional patients. Mean (SD) of time from referral to operation, 14 days (9) versus 59 days (36.9), was significantly shorter in fast-track patients than conventional patients (P ≤ 0.0001). Length of hospital stay mean (SD) at 17 (6) days versus 22 days (19.6; P = 0.2114), surgical complications and mortality in fast-track patients were similar to conventional patients. Prior to surgery, the 49 conventional patients underwent a total of 73 biliary drainage procedures resulting in seven major complications. Comparison with the group of patients from the previous 6 months indicated that the conventional group were not disadvantaged. CONCLUSIONS Fast-track management by resection without biliary drainage of selected patients with distal biliary strictures is safe and has the potential to reduce the waiting time to surgery, overall numbers of biliary drainage procedures and the complications thereof. PMID:19220943

  13. TRACKING TESTS FOR THE SNS FAST INJECTION BUMP POWER SUPPLY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ENG, W.; CUTLER, R.; DEWAN, S.

    2004-01-01

    The tracking requirement of the SNS Fast Injection Bump power supplies is described. In addition to the usual tracking between the load current and the input reference of a power supply, these power supplies must also track between pairs of units under slightly different loads. This paper describes the use of a current-null test to measure tracking performances. For the actual tests, a single dummy magnet load was used to measure the tracking between the first two production units at the manufacturer's facility. Using the Yokogawa WE7000 waveform. PC-based measurement instrument, input and output waveforms are digitized and stored in data files. A program written for this application is then used to extract data from these files to construct, analyze the waveforms and characterize the power supply performance. Results of the measurements of two SNS Fast Injection Bump power supplies will be presented in this paper

  14. An Improved Fast Compressive Tracking Algorithm Based on Online Random Forest Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Jintao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The fast compressive tracking (FCT algorithm is a simple and efficient algorithm, which is proposed in recent years. But, it is difficult to deal with the factors such as occlusion, appearance changes, pose variation, etc in processing. The reasons are that, Firstly, even if the naive Bayes classifier is fast in training, it is not robust concerning the noise. Secondly, the parameters are required to vary with the unique environment for accurate tracking. In this paper, we propose an improved fast compressive tracking algorithm based on online random forest (FCT-ORF for robust visual tracking. Firstly, we combine ideas with the adaptive compressive sensing theory regarding the weighted random projection to exploit both local and discriminative information of the object. The second reason is the online random forest classifier for online tracking which is demonstrated with more robust to the noise adaptively and high computational efficiency. The experimental results show that the algorithm we have proposed has a better performance in the field of occlusion, appearance changes, and pose variation than the fast compressive tracking algorithm’s contribution.

  15. Fast tracking in paediatric cardiac anaesthesia : an update.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lake Carol

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A care plan in which cardiac surgical patients progress quickly through the perioperative course to hospital discharge is often referred to as a Fast Track. Such care plans have been used extensively in adult cardiac patients but are also applicable to paediatric patients. Although no randomised controlled trials are available to document a reduction in hospital costs and avoidance of iatrogenic complications with paediatric fast tracks, many healthcare administrators encourage their use. Fast Track clinical guidelines usually include same day surgery, use of short- acting anaesthetic drugs, early extubation, effective pain management, and reduced intensive care unit stays. These protocols are certainly appropriate for simple procedures such as repair of atrial or ventricular septal defects or ligation of a patent ductus arteriosus. However, many paediatric cardiac anaesthesiologists consider that all paediatric patients without significant pulmonary or residual cardiac pathology can be managed using expedited postoperative protocols. Essential components in a "fast track" protocol include use of minimally invasive surgical techniques, modified ultrafiltration during cardiopulmonary bypass, transoesophageal echocardiography to evaluate the cardiac repair, and postoperative pain control. Using such techniques, 80-90% of paediatric patients can be extubated in the operating room or within 2-4 hours postoperatively. Despite the opinions of recognised experts, an appropriately sized and powered multicentre, controlled, randomised, prospective study is still needed to conclusively document the efficiency and effectiveness of the Fast Track in paediatric cardiac patients.

  16. FAST-TRACK HIP AND KNEE ARTHROPLASTY (LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Ageenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the authors discuss the history of fast-track formation, its development and current status. Fast-track advantages in comparison to other rehabilitation options are analyzed. The focus is placed on methods of accelerated rehabilitation after total hip and knee arthroplasty in the leading European and American clinics. Fast-track protocols of surgical centers of Denmark and Hospital for special surgery in the US are described, factors that determine time of hospital stay after total hip and knee arthroplasty are considered, predictors of hospital stay and patients satisfaction after the surgery are examined. The paper reflects the results of the comparison of frequency of thromboembolic and other complications as well as readmission rate after traditional rehabilitation and after fast-track. The paper considers fast-track in bilateral total knee replacement. The authors conclude that further research on acceleration of rehabilitation and reduction of hospital stay after total hip and knee arthroplasty needs to be focused on the optimization of pain relief, especially after discharge, blood preservation techniques, supplementation of fluids loss and strengthening of muscles. Literature analysis demonstrated that the implementation of the Protocol for accelerated recovery after joint arthroplasty in Russia is at an insufficient level. Data of foreign multicenter studies during recent years indicate a high efficacy and safety of this technique in different groups of patients.

  17. FATRAS - the ATLAS Fast Track Simulation project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mechnich, J.

    2011-01-01

    The Monte Carlo simulation of the detector response is an integral component of any analysis performed with data from the LHC experiments. As these simulated data sets must be both large and precise, their production is a CPU-intensive task. ATLAS has developed full and fast detector simulation

  18. Fast-track surgery for breast cancer is possible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz, Birgitte G; Kroman, Niels; Williams, Helene

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer is common among Danish women with more than 4,100 new cases annually. In 2008 the concept of fast-track surgery was introduced at the Department of Breast Surgery at Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen. The aim of this study is to describe the new clinical pathway for breast...... to provide immediate advice and support. CONCLUSION: The results confirm that a short stay can be successfully carried out for breast cancer patients. Implementing the fast-track programme involved the introduction of a clear clinical pathway for the patients and more effective daily routines. Patients felt...... cancer patients after implementation of a fast-track surgery programme. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A clinical pathway of all involved disciplines was developed including anaesthetic, analgesics, nausea and vomiting, drain and wound management, discharge assessment and psychosocial support. RESULTS...

  19. Second Generation of a Fast-track Liver Resection Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Nicolai A; Larsen, Peter N; Klarskov, B

    2018-01-01

    was given to all patients before surgery, catheters and drains were systematically removed early, and patients were mobilized and started eating and drinking from the day of surgery. An opioid-sparing multimodal pain treatment was given for the first week. The discharge criteria were (1) pain sufficiently....... The readmission rate was 6% and the 30-day mortality zero. The LOS decreased compared to our first-generation fast-track programme with LOS 5 days. CONCLUSIONS: Fast-track principles for perioperative care and early discharge are safe even after major liver resection. The introduction of high-dose steroids...

  20. Fast-track video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbek, Bo Laksafoss; Petersen, René Horsleben; Kehlet, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To provide a short overview of fast-track video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) and to identify areas requiring further research. Design A literature search was made using key words including: fast-track, enhanced recovery, video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery, robot......-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (RATS), robotic, thoracotomy, single-incision, uniportal, natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES), chest tube, air-leak, digital drainage, pain management, analgesia, perioperative management, anaesthesia and non-intubated. References from articles were screened for further...

  1. A fast neutron detector with IP by track measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Zhengqiang; Yang Jun; Zhang Qiang; Zhao Xiangfeng; Wang Daohua

    2004-01-01

    Imaging Plate(IP) is very sensitive to electric particles, especially to heavy ions. As we know, the recoiling protons are produced while fast neutrons scattered in light material containing hydrogen. When the recoiling proton enters in the sensitive layer of IP, a track will be recorded by IP. In this paper, a fast neutron detector based on IP and (n, p) reaction is described in detail, the detector's efficiency is studied also. (authors)

  2. Fast track trigger processor for the OPAL detector at LEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Ward, D R; Heuer, R D; Jaroslawski, S; Wagner, A

    1986-09-20

    A fast hardware track trigger processor being built for the OPAL experiment is described. The processor will analyse data from the central drift chambers of OPAL to determine whether any tracks come from the interaction region, and thereby eliminate background events. The processor will find tracks over a large angular range, vertical strokecos thetavertical stroke < or approx. 0.95. The design of the processor is described, together with a brief account of its hardware implementation for OPAL. The results of feasibility studies are also presented.

  3. ATLAS Fast Tracker Status and Tracking at High luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Ilic, Nikolina; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The LHC’s increase in centre of mass energy and luminosity in 2015 makes controlling trigger rates with high efficiency challenging. The ATLAS Fast TracKer (FTK) is a hardware processor built to reconstruct tracks at a rate of up to 100 kHz and provide them to the high level trigger. The FTK reconstructs tracks by matching incoming detector hits with pre-defined track patterns stored in associative memory on custom ASICs. Inner detector hits are fit to these track patterns using modern FPGAs. This talk describes the electronics system used for the FTK’s massive parallelization. The installation, commissioning and running of the system is happening in 2016, and is detailed in this talk. Tracking at High luminosity LHC is also presented.

  4. Towards Fast Tracking of the Keyhole Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, C.; Hohenstein, R.; Schmidt, M.

    We describe a sensor principle permitting the fast online measurement of the position of the optical process emissions in deep penetration laser welding. Experiments show a strong correlation between the position of the vapour plume and the keyhole geometry, demonstrated here by varying the penetration depth of the weld. In order to achieve an absolute position measurement, the sensor was calibrated using a light source with well defined characteristics. The setup for the calibration measurements and the corresponding data evaluation methods are discussed. The precision of the calibration with a green LED is 6 μm in lateral and 55 μm in axial direction, for a working distance of 200 mm.

  5. SMEs in Energy: Are they the parallel fast track for electrification of Africa?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed

    2010-09-15

    The African continent is suffering from a chronic energy shortage that hiders its development. The conventional wisdom is to put the Mega projects under focus. However, a parallel fast track for the energy as an SME business may bring faster results to the continent. To that end, this paper presents proposed steps to promote the concept within the continent.

  6. Fast-track Orthognathic Surgery: An Evidence-based Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Joel Joshi; Detriche, Olivier; Mommaerts, Maurice Yves

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a fast-track protocol for bimaxillary orthognathic surgery (OGS). Fast-track surgery (FTS) is a multidisciplinary approach where the pre-, intra-, and postoperative management is focusing maximally on a quick patient recovery and early discharge. To enable this, the patients’ presurgical stress and postsurgical discomfort should be maximally reduced. Both referral patterns and expenses within the health-care system are positively influenced by FTS. University hospital-literature review through Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library (January 2000–July 2016) using the following words – “fast track, enhanced recovery, multimodal, and perioperative care” – to define a protocol evidence based for OGS, as well as evidenced-based medicine search of every term added to the protocol during the same period. The process has resulted in an OGS protocol that may improve the outcome of the patient through several nonoperative and operative measures such as preoperative patient education and intra/postoperative measures that should improve overall patient satisfaction, decrease morbidity such as postoperative nausea, headache, dizziness, pain, and intubation discomfort, and shorten hospital stay. A literature review allowed us to fine-tune a fast-track protocol for uncomplicated OGS that can be prospectively studied against currently applied ones. PMID:29264281

  7. Readmissions after fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Henrik; Otte, Niels Kristian Stahl; Kristensen, Billy B

    2010-01-01

    With the implementation of fast-track surgery with optimization of both logistical and clinical features, the postoperative convalescence has been reduced as functional milestones have been achieved earlier and consequently length of stay (LOS) in hospital has been reduced. However, it has been...

  8. Low manipulation prevalence following fast-track total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Henrik; Jørgensen, Christoffer C.; Gromov, Kirill

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Postoperative joint stiffness following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) may compromise the outcome and necessitate manipulation. Previous studies have not been in a fast-track setting with optimized pain treatment, early mobilization, and short length of stay (LOS), which ma...

  9. Fast-Track Cleanup at Closing DoD Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Fast-Track Cleanup program strives to make parcels available for reuse as quickly as possible by the transfer of uncontaminated or remediated parcels, the lease of contaminated parcels where cleanup is underway, or the 'early transfer' of contaminated property undergoing cleanup.

  10. Patient-reported outcome after fast-track knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian; Hansen, Torben B; Søballe, Kjeld

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to describe patient-related functional outcomes after fast-track total knee arthroplasty and unicompartmental knee arthroplasty. Furthermore, we wanted to assess physical areas where an additional need for rehabilitation could be identified, and finally, we...

  11. Fast emulation of track reconstruction in the CMS simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Komm, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Simulated samples of various physics processes are a key ingredient within analyses to unlock the physics behind LHC collision data. Samples with more and more statistics are required to keep up with the increasing amounts of recorded data. During sample generation, significant computing time is spent on the reconstruction of charged particle tracks from energy deposits which additionally scales with the pileup conditions. In CMS, the FastSimulation package is developed for providing a fast alternative to the standard simulation and reconstruction workflow. It employs various techniques to emulate track reconstruction effects in particle collision events. Several analysis groups in CMS are utilizing the package, in particular those requiring many samples to scan the parameter space of physics models (e.g. SUSY) or for the purpose of estimating systematic uncertainties. The strategies for and recent developments in this emulation are presented, including a novel, flexible implementation of tracking emulation w...

  12. Nursing care in fast-track surgery strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kozieł

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, many study results have been published confirming an improvement in the outcomes of treatment related with management of patients within the fast-track surgery programme. Early postoperative rehabilitation is possible provided there is engagement of a multi-disciplinary team, including well-educated nurses. Today, a diversion can be observed from traditional nursing on behalf of a coordinated, holistic approach, while more attention is paid to the, thus far marginalised, psychosocial aspects of care. The objective of the study is to discuss the basic assumptions of fast track surgery with respect to nursing care, with particular emphasis placed on the educational function. Modern nursing within the short-track surgery programme should focus on the provision of patients with care consisting of preliminary information concerning the perioperative period, social and psychological support, counselling in the area of home convalescence, and procedures in the case of complications.

  13. Fast-track surgery: Toward comprehensive peri-operative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanavati, Aditya J; Prabhakar, S

    2014-01-01

    Fast-track surgery is a multimodal approach to patient care using a combination of several evidence-based peri-operative interventions to expedite recovery after surgery. It is an extension of the critical pathway that integrates modalities in surgery, anesthesia, and nutrition, enforces early mobilization and feeding, and emphasizes reduction of the surgical stress response. It entails a great partnership between a surgeon and an anesthesiologist with several other specialists to form a multi-disciplinary team, which may then engage in patient care. The practice of fast-track surgery has yielded excellent results and there has been a significant reduction in hospital stay without a rise in complications or re-admissions. The effective implementation begins with the formulation of a protocol, carrying out each intervention and gathering outcome data. The care of a patient is divided into three phases: Before, during, and after surgery. Each stage needs active participation of few or all the members of the multi-disciplinary team. Other than surgical technique, anesthetic drugs, and techniques form the cornerstone in the ability of the surgeon to carry out a fast-track surgery safely. It is also the role of this team to keep abreast with the latest development in fast-track methodology and make appropriate changes to policy. In the Indian healthcare system, there is a huge benefit that may be achieved by the successful implementation of a fast-track surgery program at an institutional level. The lack of awareness regarding this concept, fear and apprehension regarding its implementation are the main barriers that need to be overcome.

  14. A fast fiducial marker tracking model for fully automatic alignment in electron tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Renmin; Zhang, Fa; Gao, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Automatic alignment, especially fiducial marker-based alignment, has become increasingly important due to the high demand of subtomogram averaging and the rapid development of large-field electron microscopy. Among the alignment steps, fiducial marker tracking is a crucial one that determines the quality of the final alignment. Yet, it is still a challenging problem to track the fiducial markers accurately and effectively in a fully automatic manner.In this paper, we propose a robust and efficient scheme for fiducial marker tracking. Firstly, we theoretically prove the upper bound of the transformation deviation of aligning the positions of fiducial markers on two micrographs by affine transformation. Secondly, we design an automatic algorithm based on the Gaussian mixture model to accelerate the procedure of fiducial marker tracking. Thirdly, we propose a divide-and-conquer strategy against lens distortions to ensure the reliability of our scheme. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt that theoretically relates the projection model with the tracking model. The real-world experimental results further support our theoretical bound and demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm. This work facilitates the fully automatic tracking for datasets with a massive number of fiducial markers.The C/C ++ source code that implements the fast fiducial marker tracking is available at https://github.com/icthrm/gmm-marker-tracking. Markerauto 1.6 version or later (also integrated in the AuTom platform at http://ear.ict.ac.cn/) offers a complete implementation for fast alignment, in which fast fiducial marker tracking is available by the

  15. A fast fiducial marker tracking model for fully automatic alignment in electron tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Renmin

    2017-10-20

    Automatic alignment, especially fiducial marker-based alignment, has become increasingly important due to the high demand of subtomogram averaging and the rapid development of large-field electron microscopy. Among the alignment steps, fiducial marker tracking is a crucial one that determines the quality of the final alignment. Yet, it is still a challenging problem to track the fiducial markers accurately and effectively in a fully automatic manner.In this paper, we propose a robust and efficient scheme for fiducial marker tracking. Firstly, we theoretically prove the upper bound of the transformation deviation of aligning the positions of fiducial markers on two micrographs by affine transformation. Secondly, we design an automatic algorithm based on the Gaussian mixture model to accelerate the procedure of fiducial marker tracking. Thirdly, we propose a divide-and-conquer strategy against lens distortions to ensure the reliability of our scheme. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt that theoretically relates the projection model with the tracking model. The real-world experimental results further support our theoretical bound and demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm. This work facilitates the fully automatic tracking for datasets with a massive number of fiducial markers.The C/C ++ source code that implements the fast fiducial marker tracking is available at https://github.com/icthrm/gmm-marker-tracking. Markerauto 1.6 version or later (also integrated in the AuTom platform at http://ear.ict.ac.cn/) offers a complete implementation for fast alignment, in which fast fiducial marker tracking is available by the

  16. Readmissions after fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Henrik; Otte, Kristian Stahl; Kristensen, Billy B

    2010-01-01

    With the implementation of fast-track surgery with optimization of both logistical and clinical features, the postoperative convalescence has been reduced as functional milestones have been achieved earlier and consequently length of stay (LOS) in hospital has been reduced. However, it has been s...... speculated that a decrease in LOS may be associated with an increase in readmissions in general, including risk of dislocation after total hip arthroplasty (THA) or manipulation after total knee arthroplasty (TKA)....

  17. Successful integration of fast track projects into turnarounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, J. Patrick; Loureiro, Ramon C. [KBC Advanced Technologies, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    Fast track projects can provide quick wins and competitive advantage. However, in most cases the implementation of these projects requires a shutdown for installing the necessary tie-ins or integration into an upcoming turnaround (TA). Depending on the nature of the project and complexity of the TA, the integration can be seamless or result in cost or duration overruns and safety incidents. The risk of such overruns and safety incidents increases with the amount of project work to be integrated into the operations, maintenance and inspection schedules to be executed during the TA. The risk further increases with TA size and other factors. If not planned and scheduled properly and in a timely fashion, capital projects, in particular fast track projects trying to take advantage of an upcoming TA, can severely impact both TA performance, and the safety and reliability of the facility until the next opportunity for eliminating the defects introduced during the TA. Successful TAs are those delivered in a safe, on time, on budget manner, and with the quality standards needed for a leak-free start-up and a safe and reliable operation over the next run cycle. This paper discusses the key elements that are required to minimize the TA risks derived from the inclusion of fast track projects and how to establish the cut off criteria to either cancel or defer the project, or delay the TA in order to balance TA scope freeze and the case for compelling economics.(author)

  18. Delirium in the fast-track surgery setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Lene; Rasmussen, Lars S; Kehlet, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Postoperative delirium (PD) and postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) are two separate syndromes of cognitive decline after major surgery, especially in the elderly. Pathogenesis is multifactorial with some common risk factors, and to reduce the risk, a multimodal approach is necessary. The ....... In conclusion, the fast-track methodology may reduce the incidence of postoperative cognitive decline after surgery........ The fast-track methodology is becoming a well-established perioperative care regime with possible preventive effects for postoperative cognitive decline, including reduced pain and use of opioids, and early mobilisation with early discharge (≤3 days) to preoperative environment after total hip....../knee arthroplasty (THA/TKA). The fast-track set-up seems to be associated with a lower frequency of PD and early POCD after THA/TKA. Thus, in a series of 225 patients ≥60 years, no cases of PD were seen and the incidence of POCD was reduced by more than 50% at 1 week postoperatively compared to previous studies...

  19. The ATLAS Fast Tracker Processing Units - track finding and fitting

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00384270; The ATLAS collaboration; Alison, John; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andreani, Alessandro; Annovi, Alberto; Beccherle, Roberto; Beretta, Matteo; Biesuz, Nicolo Vladi; Bogdan, Mircea Arghir; Bryant, Patrick; Calabro, Domenico; Citraro, Saverio; Crescioli, Francesco; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Donati, Simone; Gentsos, Christos; Giannetti, Paola; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gramling, Johanna; Greco, Virginia; Horyn, Lesya Anna; Iovene, Alessandro; Kalaitzidis, Panagiotis; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kordas, Kostantinos; Kubota, Takashi; Lanza, Agostino; Liberali, Valentino; Luciano, Pierluigi; Magnin, Betty; Sakellariou, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Saxon, James; Shojaii, Seyed Ruhollah; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Stabile, Alberto; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Volpi, Guido; Zou, Rui; Shochet, Mel

    2016-01-01

    The Fast Tracker is a hardware upgrade to the ATLAS trigger and data-acquisition system, with the goal of providing global track reconstruction by the start of the High Level Trigger starts. The Fast Tracker can process incoming data from the whole inner detector at full first level trigger rate, up to 100 kHz, using custom electronic boards. At the core of the system is a Processing Unit installed in a VMEbus crate, formed by two sets of boards: the Associative Memory Board and a powerful rear transition module called the Auxiliary card, while the second set is the Second Stage board. The associative memories perform the pattern matching looking for correlations within the incoming data, compatible with track candidates at coarse resolution. The pattern matching task is performed using custom application specific integrated circuits, called associative memory chips. The auxiliary card prepares the input and reject bad track candidates obtained from from the Associative Memory Board using the full precision a...

  20. A Midsize Tokamak As Fast Track To Burning Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzucato, E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a midsize tokamak as a fast track to the investigation of burning plasmas. It is shown that it could reach large values of energy gain ((ge) 10) with only a modest improvement in confinement over the scaling that was used for designing the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). This could be achieved by operating in a low plasma recycling regime that experiments indicate can lead to improved plasma confinement. The possibility of reaching the necessary conditions of low recycling using a more efficient magnetic divertor than those of present tokamaks is discussed.

  1. Short Hospital Stay after Laparoscopic Colorectal Surgery without Fast Track

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan K. Burgdorf

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Short hospital stay and equal or reduced complication rates have been demonstrated after fast track open colonic surgery. However, fast track principles of perioperative care can be difficult to implement and often require increased nursing staff because of more concentrated nursing tasks during the shorter hospital stay. Specific data on nursing requirements after laparoscopic surgery are lacking. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of operative technique (open versus laparoscopic operation, but without changing nurse staffing or principles for peri- or postoperative care, that is, without implementing fast track principles, on length of stay after colorectal resection for cancer. Methods. Records of all patients operated for colorectal cancer from November 2004 to December 2008 in our department were reviewed. No specific patients were selected for laparoscopic repair, which was solely dependent on the presence of two specific surgeons at the same time. Thus, the patients were not selected for laparoscopic repair based on patient-related factors, but only on the simultaneous presence of two specific surgeons on the day of the operation. Results. Of a total of 540 included patients, 213 (39% were operated by a laparoscopic approach. The median hospital stay for patients with a primary anastomosis was significantly shorter after laparoscopic than after conventional open surgery (5 versus 8 days, while there was no difference in patients receiving a stoma (10 versus 10 days, ns, with no changes in the perioperative care regimens. Furthermore there were significant lower blood loss (50 versus 200 mL, and lower complication rate (21% versus 32%, in the laparoscopic group. Conclusion. Implementing laparoscopic colorectal surgery in our department resulted in shorter hospital stay without using fast track principles for peri- and postoperative care in patients not receiving a stoma during the operation. Consequently, we

  2. A midsize tokamak as a fast track to burning plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mazzucato

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the conceptual design of a midsize tokamak as a fast track to the investigation of burning plasmas. It is shown that it could reach large values of energy gain (≥ 10 with only a modest improvement in confinement over the scaling that was used for designing the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER. This can be achieved by operating in a low plasma recycling regime that experiments indicate can lead to improved plasma confinement. The possibility of reaching the necessary conditions of low recycling using a different magnetic divertor from those currently employed in present experiments is discussed.

  3. FAST TRACK SURGERY IN TOTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY - A REVIEW.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pencho Kosev

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The number of orthopedic surgeons who are convinced in the need for significant changes in planned total knee arthroplasty (TKA is increasing slowly and steadily. A new approach to pain control has been developed over the past 10-15 years, and the introduction of techniques to reduce perioperative stress, and the use of minimally invasive surgical techniques can help limit postoperative complications and shorten recovery time. This type of optimization is regarded as Fast-track Care program, where improved healing process is particularly useful to comorbid patients.

  4. Cognitive dysfunction after fast-track hip and knee replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Lene; Kehlet, Henrik; Bæk Hansen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    to 2 weeks and 3 months postoperatively. LOS, pain, opioid use, inflammatory response, and sleep quality were recorded. The practice effect of repeated cognitive testing was gauged using data from a healthy community-dwelling control group (n = 161). RESULTS: Median LOS was 2 days (interquartile range...... this (23.6% of patients with early POCD had late onset vs 6.7% in non-POCD group; risk difference 16.9 (95% CI, -2.1% to 41.1%; P = 0.089). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of POCD early after total hip and knee replacement seems to be lower after a fast-track approach than rates previously reported...

  5. FAST: A fully asynchronous and status-tracking pattern for geoprocessing services orchestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huayi; You, Lan; Gui, Zhipeng; Gao, Shuang; Li, Zhenqiang; Yu, Jingmin

    2014-09-01

    Geoprocessing service orchestration (GSO) provides a unified and flexible way to implement cross-application, long-lived, and multi-step geoprocessing service workflows by coordinating geoprocessing services collaboratively. Usually, geoprocessing services and geoprocessing service workflows are data and/or computing intensive. The intensity feature may make the execution process of a workflow time-consuming. Since it initials an execution request without blocking other interactions on the client side, an asynchronous mechanism is especially appropriate for GSO workflows. Many critical problems remain to be solved in existing asynchronous patterns for GSO including difficulties in improving performance, status tracking, and clarifying the workflow structure. These problems are a challenge when orchestrating performance efficiency, making statuses instantly available, and constructing clearly structured GSO workflows. A Fully Asynchronous and Status-Tracking (FAST) pattern that adopts asynchronous interactions throughout the whole communication tier of a workflow is proposed for GSO. The proposed FAST pattern includes a mechanism that actively pushes the latest status to clients instantly and economically. An independent proxy was designed to isolate the status tracking logic from the geoprocessing business logic, which assists the formation of a clear GSO workflow structure. A workflow was implemented in the FAST pattern to simulate the flooding process in the Poyang Lake region. Experimental results show that the proposed FAST pattern can efficiently tackle data/computing intensive geoprocessing tasks. The performance of all collaborative partners was improved due to the asynchronous mechanism throughout communication tier. A status-tracking mechanism helps users retrieve the latest running status of a GSO workflow in an efficient and instant way. The clear structure of the GSO workflow lowers the barriers for geospatial domain experts and model designers to

  6. Anesthetic and adjunctive drugs for fast-track surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldini, G; Carli, F

    2009-08-01

    With the changes in health care dictated by economic pressure, there has been a realization that hospital stay could be shortened without compromising quality of care. Advances in surgical technology and anesthetic drugs have made an impact in the way perioperative care is delivered with some emphasis on multidisciplinary approach. From the expansion of ambulatory care, lessons were learnt how to apply same concepts to major surgery with the understanding that interventions to attenuate the surgical stress would facilitate the return to "baseline". Beside minimal invasive approach to surgery, anesthesia interventions are arranged with the intent to decrease the negative effects of surgical stress and pain, to minimize the side effects of drugs and at the same time to facilitate the recuperation which follows after surgery. Fast-track or accelerated care encompasses many aspects of anesthesia care, not only preoperative preparation and prehabilitation, but intraoperative attenuation of surgical stress and postoperative rehabilitation. The anesthesiologist is part of this team with the specific mission to use medications and techniques which have the least side effects on organ functions, provide analgesia which in turn facilitates the intake of food and mobilization out of bed. This chapter has been conceived with the intention to direct the clinician towards procedure-specific protocols where the choice of medications and techniques is based on published evidence. The success of implementing fast-track depends more on dynamic harmony amongst the various participants (surgeons, anesthesiologists, nurses, nutrtionists, physiotherapists) than on reaching an optimum level of excellence at each separate organization level.

  7. Fast regional readout CMOS Image Sensor for dynamic MLC tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zin, H.; Harris, E.; Osmond, J.; Evans, P.

    2014-03-01

    Advanced radiotherapy techniques such as volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) require verification of the complex beam delivery including tracking of multileaf collimators (MLC) and monitoring the dose rate. This work explores the feasibility of a prototype Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor Image Sensor (CIS) for tracking these complex treatments by utilising fast, region of interest (ROI) read out functionality. An automatic edge tracking algorithm was used to locate the MLC leaves edges moving at various speeds (from a moving triangle field shape) and imaged with various sensor frame rates. The CIS demonstrates successful edge detection of the dynamic MLC motion within accuracy of 1.0 mm. This demonstrates the feasibility of the sensor to verify treatment delivery involving dynamic MLC up to ~400 frames per second (equivalent to the linac pulse rate), which is superior to any current techniques such as using electronic portal imaging devices (EPID). CIS provides the basis to an essential real-time verification tool, useful in accessing accurate delivery of complex high energy radiation to the tumour and ultimately to achieve better cure rates for cancer patients.

  8. Fast regional readout CMOS image sensor for dynamic MLC tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zin, H; Harris, E; Osmond, J; Evans, P

    2014-01-01

    Advanced radiotherapy techniques such as volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) require verification of the complex beam delivery including tracking of multileaf collimators (MLC) and monitoring the dose rate. This work explores the feasibility of a prototype Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor Image Sensor (CIS) for tracking these complex treatments by utilising fast, region of interest (ROI) read out functionality. An automatic edge tracking algorithm was used to locate the MLC leaves edges moving at various speeds (from a moving triangle field shape) and imaged with various sensor frame rates. The CIS demonstrates successful edge detection of the dynamic MLC motion within accuracy of 1.0 mm. This demonstrates the feasibility of the sensor to verify treatment delivery involving dynamic MLC up to ∼400 frames per second (equivalent to the linac pulse rate), which is superior to any current techniques such as using electronic portal imaging devices (EPID). CIS provides the basis to an essential real-time verification tool, useful in accessing accurate delivery of complex high energy radiation to the tumour and ultimately to achieve better cure rates for cancer patients.

  9. Research on Precision Tracking on Fast Steering Mirror and Control Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Lin; Yi-ming, Wu; Fan, Zhu

    2018-01-01

    Fast steering mirror is a device used for controlling the beam direction precisely. Due to the short travel of the push-pull FSM, a compound fast steering mirror system driven by both limited-angle voice coil motor and push-pull FSM together is proposed. In the compound FSM system, limited-angle voice coil motor quickly swings at wide angle, while the push-pull FSM do high frequency movement in a small range, which provides the system with the high bandwidth and long travel. In the control strategy, the method of combining feed-forward control in Kalman filtering with auto-disturbance rejection control is used to improve trajectory tracking accuracy. The simulation result shows that tracking accuracy measured by the compound method can be improved by more than 5 times than that of the conventional PID.

  10. Proposed FPGA based tracking for a Level-1 track trigger at CMS for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Pozzobon, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) is expected to deliver a luminosity in excess of $5\\times10^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$/s. The high event rate places stringent requirements on the trigger system. A key component of the CMS upgrade for the HL-LHC is a track trigger system which will identify tracks with transverse momenta above 2 GeV already at the first-level trigger within 5 $\\mu$s. This presentation will discuss a proposed track finding and fitting based on the tracklet based approach implemented on FPGAs. Tracklets are formed from pairs of hits in nearby layers in the detector and used in a road search. Summary Fast pattern recognition in Silicon trackers for triggering has often made use of Associative Memories for the pattern recognition step. We propose an alternative approach to solving the pattern recognition and track fitting problem for the upgraded CMS tracker for the HL-LHC operation. We make use of the trigger primitives,stubs, from the tracker. The stubs are formed from pairs of hits in sensors separated r...

  11. Cognitive dysfunction after fast-track hip and knee replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenk, Lene; Kehlet, Henrik; Bæk Hansen, Torben; Solgaard, Søren; Soballe, Kjeld; Rasmussen, Lars Simon

    2014-05-01

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is reported to occur after major surgery in as many as 20% of patients, elderly patients may especially experience problems in the weeks and months after surgery. Recent studies vary greatly in methods of evaluation and diagnosis of POCD, and the pathogenic mechanisms are still unclear. We evaluated a large uniform cohort of elderly patients in a standardized approach, after major joint replacement surgery (total hip and knee replacement). Patients were in an optimized perioperative approach (fast track) with multimodal opioid-sparing analgesia, early mobilization, and short length of stay (LOS ≤3 days) and discharged to home. In a prospective multicenter study, we included 225 patients aged ≥60 years undergoing well-defined fast-track total hip or total knee replacement. Patients had neuropsychological testing preoperatively and 1 to 2 weeks and 3 months postoperatively. LOS, pain, opioid use, inflammatory response, and sleep quality were recorded. The practice effect of repeated cognitive testing was gauged using data from a healthy community-dwelling control group (n = 161). Median LOS was 2 days (interquartile range 2-3). The incidence of POCD at 1 to 2 weeks was 9.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.4%-13.1%) and 8.0% (95% CI, 4.5%-12.0%) at 3 months. There was no statistically significant difference between patients with and without early POCD, regarding pain, opioid use, sleep quality, or C-reactive protein response, although the CIs were wide. Patients with early POCD had a higher Mini Mental State Examination score preoperatively (difference in medians 0.5 [95% CI, -1.0% to 0.0%]; P = 0.034). If there was an association between early POCD and late POCD, the sample size was unfortunately too small to verify this (23.6% of patients with early POCD had late onset vs 6.7% in non-POCD group; risk difference 16.9 (95% CI, -2.1% to 41.1%; P = 0.089). The incidence of POCD early after total hip and knee replacement

  12. Fast Track Finding in the ILC's Silicon Detector, SiD01

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, David E.

    2007-01-01

    A fast track finder is presented which, unlike its more efficient, more computationally costly O(n3) time counterparts, tracks particles in O(n) time (for n being the number of hits). Developed as a tool for processing data from the ILC's proposed SiD detector, development of this fast track finder began with that proposed by Pablo Yepes in 1996 and adjusted to accommodate the changes in geometry of the SiD detector. First, space within the detector is voxellated, with hits assigned to voxels according to their r, φ, and η coordinates. A hit on the outermost layer is selected, and a 'sample space' is built from the hits in the selected hit's surrounding voxels. The hit in the sample space with the smallest distance to the first is then selected, and the sample space recalculated for this hit. This process continues until the list of hits becomes large enough, at which point the helical circle in the x, y plane is conformally mapped to a line in the x', y' plane, and hits are chosen from the sample spaces of the previous fit by selecting the hits which fit a line to the previously selected points with the smallest χ 2 . Track finding terminates when the innermost layer has been reached or no hit in the sample space fits those previously selected to an acceptable χ 2 . Again, a hit on the outermost layer is selected and the process repeats until no assignable hits remain. The algorithm proved to be very efficient on artificial diagnostic events, such as one hundred muons scattered at momenta of 1 GeV/c to 10 GeV/c. Unfortunately, when tracking simulated events corresponding to actual physics, the track finder's efficiency decreased drastically (mostly due to signal noise), though future data cleaning programs could noticeably increase its efficiency on these events

  13. LiTrack A Fast longitudinal phase space tracking code with graphical user interface

    CERN Document Server

    Emma, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Many linear accelerators, such as linac-based light sources and linear colliders, apply longitudinal phase space manipulations in their design, including electron bunch compression and wakefield-induced energy spread control. Several computer codes handle such issues, but most require detailed information on the transverse focusing lattice. In fact, in most linear accelerators, the transverse distributions do not significantly affect the longitudinal, and can be ignored initially. This allows the use of a fast 2D code to study longitudinal aspects without time-consuming considerations of the transverse focusing. LiTrack is based on a 15-year old code (same name) originally written by one of us (KB), which is now a MATLAB-based code with additional features, such as a graphical user interface and output plotting. The single-bunch tracking includes RF acceleration, bunch compression to 3rd order, geometric and resistive wakefields, aperture limits, synchrotron radiation, and flexible output plotting. The code w...

  14. Fast neutron detection using solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilela, E.C.

    1990-01-01

    CR-39 and Makrofol-E solid state nuclear track detectors were studied aiming their application to fast neutron detection. Optimum etching conditions of those two kinds of materials were determined the followings - the Makrofol-E detector is electrochemically etched in a PEW solution (15% KOH, 40% ethilic alcohol and 45% water) for 2 h., with an applied electric field strength of 30 kV/cm (r/m/s/) and frequency of 2 kHz, at room temperature; - the CR-39 detector is chemically pre-etched during 1 h in a 20% (w/v) NaOH solution at 70 sup(0)C, followed by 13 h electrochemical etch using the same solution at room temperature and an electric field strength of 30 kV/cm (r.m.s.) and frequency of 2 kHz.(E.G.)

  15. A Fast Track towards the `Higgs' Spin and Parity

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Sanz, Veronica; You, Tevong

    2012-01-01

    The LHC experiments ATLAS and CMS have discovered a new boson that resembles the long-sought Higgs boson: it cannot have spin one, and has couplings to other particles that increase with their masses, but the spin and parity remain to be determined. We show here that the `Higgs' + gauge boson invariant-mass distribution in `Higgs'-strahlung events at the Tevatron or the LHC would be very different under the J^P = 0+, 0- and 2+ hypotheses, and could provide a fast-track indicator of the `Higgs' spin and parity. Our analysis is based on simulations of the experimental event selections and cuts using PYTHIA and Delphes, and incorporates statistical samples of `toy' experiments.

  16. Nursing in fast-track total hip and knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, Kirsten; Kjaersgaard-Andersen, Per; Kehlet, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    must still focus on the individual patient. Nurses need to have enough education to manage the complex tasks and increased responsibility. To prevent undesirable outcomes in the future, there is a need to pay attention to the nursing quality in balance with the nursing budget. It may, therefore......AIM: To describe the increased activity in total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) from 2002 to 2012 in a single orthopaedic department, the organisation of fast-track and its consequences for nursing care. METHODS: Retrospective, descriptive design. Data collection; from...... gained tasks from surgeons and physiotherapists and thus gained more responsibility, for example, for pain management and mobilisation. Staffing levels in the ward in 2002 and 2012 were almost unchanged; 16.0 and 15.8 respectively. Nurses were undertaking more complicated tasks. CONCLUSION: Nursing care...

  17. Sleep disturbances after fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, L; Jennum, P; Kehlet, H

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: /st>Major surgery is followed by pronounced sleep disturbances after traditional perioperative care potentially leading to prolonged recovery. The aim was to evaluate the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep duration and sleep architecture before and after fast-track hip and knee replacement......, and on the fourth postoperative night at home. Sleep staging was performed according to the American Academy of Sleep Medicine manual. Opioid use, pain, and inflammatory response (C-reactive protein) were also evaluated. RESULTS: /st>The mean LOS was 1.5 (1-2) days. The mean REM sleep time decreased from a mean...... on the fourth postoperative night. There was no association between opioid use, pain scores, and inflammatory response with a disturbed sleep pattern. CONCLUSIONS: /st>Despite ultra-short LOS and provision of spinal anaesthesia with multimodal opioid-sparing analgesia, REM sleep was almost eliminated...

  18. Controlling type I error rate for fast track drug development programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Weichung J; Ouyang, Peter; Quan, Hui; Lin, Yong; Michiels, Bart; Bijnens, Luc

    2003-03-15

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Modernization Act of 1997 has a Section (No. 112) entitled 'Expediting Study and Approval of Fast Track Drugs' (the Act). In 1998, the FDA issued a 'Guidance for Industry: the Fast Track Drug Development Programs' (the FTDD programmes) to meet the requirement of the Act. The purpose of FTDD programmes is to 'facilitate the development and expedite the review of new drugs that are intended to treat serious or life-threatening conditions and that demonstrate the potential to address unmet medical needs'. Since then many health products have reached patients who suffered from AIDS, cancer, osteoporosis, and many other diseases, sooner by utilizing the Fast Track Act and the FTDD programmes. In the meantime several scientific issues have also surfaced when following the FTDD programmes. In this paper we will discuss the concept of two kinds of type I errors, namely, the 'conditional approval' and the 'final approval' type I errors, and propose statistical methods for controlling them in a new drug submission process. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Fast-Acquisition/Weak-Signal-Tracking GPS Receiver for HEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintemitz, Luke; Boegner, Greg; Sirotzky, Steve

    2004-01-01

    A report discusses the technical background and design of the Navigator Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver -- . a radiation-hardened receiver intended for use aboard spacecraft. Navigator is capable of weak signal acquisition and tracking as well as much faster acquisition of strong or weak signals with no a priori knowledge or external aiding. Weak-signal acquisition and tracking enables GPS use in high Earth orbits (HEO), and fast acquisition allows for the receiver to remain without power until needed in any orbit. Signal acquisition and signal tracking are, respectively, the processes of finding and demodulating a signal. Acquisition is the more computationally difficult process. Previous GPS receivers employ the method of sequentially searching the two-dimensional signal parameter space (code phase and Doppler). Navigator exploits properties of the Fourier transform in a massively parallel search for the GPS signal. This method results in far faster acquisition times [in the lab, 12 GPS satellites have been acquired with no a priori knowledge in a Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) scenario in less than one second]. Modeling has shown that Navigator will be capable of acquiring signals down to 25 dB-Hz, appropriate for HEO missions. Navigator is built using the radiation-hardened ColdFire microprocessor and housing the most computationally intense functions in dedicated field-programmable gate arrays. The high performance of the algorithm and of the receiver as a whole are made possible by optimizing computational efficiency and carefully weighing tradeoffs among the sampling rate, data format, and data-path bit width.

  20. Fast and Accurate Rat Head Motion Tracking With Point Sources for Awake Brain PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Alan; Staelens, Steven; Stroobants, Sigrid; Verhaeghe, Jeroen

    2017-07-01

    To avoid the confounding effects of anesthesia and immobilization stress in rat brain positron emission tomography (PET), motion tracking-based unrestrained awake rat brain imaging is being developed. In this paper, we propose a fast and accurate rat headmotion tracking method based on small PET point sources. PET point sources (3-4) attached to the rat's head are tracked in image space using 15-32-ms time frames. Our point source tracking (PST) method was validated using a manually moved microDerenzo phantom that was simultaneously tracked with an optical tracker (OT) for comparison. The PST method was further validated in three awake [ 18 F]FDG rat brain scans. Compared with the OT, the PST-based correction at the same frame rate (31.2 Hz) reduced the reconstructed FWHM by 0.39-0.66 mm for the different tested rod sizes of the microDerenzo phantom. The FWHM could be further reduced by another 0.07-0.13 mm when increasing the PST frame rate (66.7 Hz). Regional brain [ 18 F]FDG uptake in the motion corrected scan was strongly correlated ( ) with that of the anesthetized reference scan for all three cases ( ). The proposed PST method allowed excellent and reproducible motion correction in awake in vivo experiments. In addition, there is no need of specialized tracking equipment or additional calibrations to be performed, the point sources are practically imperceptible to the rat, and PST is ideally suitable for small bore scanners, where optical tracking might be challenging.

  1. Proposal for a semiconductor high resolution tracking detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, P.

    1983-01-01

    A 'new' concept for detection and tracking of charged particles in high energy physics experiments is proposed. It combines a well known high purity semiconductor diode detector (HPSDD) with a heterojunction structure (HJ) and a negative electron affinity (NEA) surface. The detector should be capable of providing a two dimensional view (few cm 2 ) of multi-track events with the following properties: a) position resolution down to a few μm (10 8 position elements); b) high density of information (10 2 -10 3 dots per mm of minimum ionizing track); c) high rate capabilities (few MHz); d) live operation with options to be triggered and/or the information from the detector can be used as an input for the decision to record an event. (orig.)

  2. Cardiac surgery fast-track treatment in a postanesthetic care unit: six-month results of the Leipzig fast-track concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ender, Joerg; Borger, Michael Andrew; Scholz, Markus; Funkat, Anne-Kathrin; Anwar, Nadeem; Sommer, Marcus; Mohr, Friedrich Wilhelm; Fassl, Jens

    2008-07-01

    The authors compared the safety and efficacy of a newly developed fast-track concept at their center, including implementation of a direct admission postanesthetic care unit, to standard perioperative management. All fast-track patients treated within the first 6 months of implementation of our direct admission postanesthetic care unit were matched via propensity scores and compared with a historical control group of patients who underwent cardiac surgery prior to fast-track implementation. A total of 421 fast-track patients were matched successfully to 421 control patients. The two groups of patients had a similar age (64 +/- 13 vs. 64 +/- 12 yr for fast-track vs. control, P = 0.45) and European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation-predicted risk of mortality (4.8 +/- 6.1% vs. 4.6 +/- 5.1%, P = 0.97). Fast-track patients had significantly shorter times to extubation (75 min [45-110] vs. 900 min [600-1140]), as well as shorter lengths of stay in the postanesthetic or intensive care unit (4 h [3.0-5] vs. 20 h [16-25]), intermediate care unit (21 h [17-39] vs. 26 h [19-49]), and hospital (10 days [8-12] vs. 11 days [9-14]) (expressed as median and interquartile range, all P operations.

  3. Improving the quality of pretreatment staging in patients with esophageal carcinoma - a fast track study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Didden, Paul; Spaander, Manon C. W.; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Bruno, Marco J. (Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)), E-mail: v.spaander@erasmusmc.nl; Wijnhoven, Bas P. L. (Department of Surgery, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands))

    2012-03-15

    Background: Current guidelines for esophageal cancer recommend series of diagnostic investigations to determine pretreatment TNM stage. When investigations are done sequentially, diagnostic work-up time may be prolonged considerably. Aim of the study was to determine the feasibility and efficacy of a fast track staging strategy within five days after the first consultation. Material and methods: Between 2007 and 2010 all patients presenting with esophageal cancer at the Department of Gastroenterology in a tertiary referral center were prospectively analyzed. At Day 1 all patients underwent computed tomography (CT), endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and ultrasonography of the neck (United States). Results and treatment implications were discussed within a multidisciplinary meeting. This fast track strategy was considered completed successfully if pre-treatment TNM classification was achieved and therapy was proposed to the patient at the outpatient clinic at Day five. In those cases where staging period time was prolonged, the number and type of additional tests were documented including the ensuing time delay. Results: In 111 patients CT, EUS and US were performed in 100%, 88.3% and 97.3% respectively. A final TNM stage and treatment proposal was reached at Day 5 in 60% of the patients. Additional tests were diverse and mainly used to prove local irresectability or presence of distant metastasis. Multivariate analysis identified presence of lymphadenopathy (HR 0.25 p 0.03) and metastasis (HR 0.27 p = 0.03) as significant predictors of not completing the staging period within five days. In 18% of patients overuse of at least one test occurred, most commonly because CT already revealed distant metastasis. Conclusion: Employment of a fast track five day staging strategy in patients with esophageal carcinoma is feasible. Definite TNM stage and treatment proposal can be achieved in 60% of cases, but comes at the expense of test overuse in about one fifth of patients

  4. "Fast Track" and "Traditional Path" Coaches: Affordances, Agency and Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rynne, Steven

    2014-01-01

    A recent development in large-scale coach accreditation (certification) structures has been the "fast tracking" of former elite athletes. Former elite athletes are often exempted from entry-level qualifications and are generally granted access to fast track courses that are shortened versions of the accreditation courses undertaken by…

  5. Care principles at four fast-track arthroplasty departments in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Henrik; Solgaard, Søren; Hansen, Torben B

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to describe the logistic and clinical set-up at four Danish arthroplasty departments offering fast-track surgery.......The goal of this study was to describe the logistic and clinical set-up at four Danish arthroplasty departments offering fast-track surgery....

  6. Which fast track elements predict early recovery after colon cancer surgery?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlug, M. S.; Bartels, S. A. L.; Wind, J.; Ubbink, D. T.; Hollmann, M. W.; Bemelman, W. A.; Sprangers, Mirjam; Preckel, Benedikt; Bossuyt, Patrick; Gouma, Dirk; van Berge Henegouwen, Mark; Fuhring, Jan; Lenthe, Ineke Picard-van; Bakker, Chris; King-Kalimanis, Bellinda; Hofland, Jan; Dejong, Cornelis; van Dam, Ronald; Cuesta, Miguel; van der Peet, Donald; van Zalingen, Edith; Noordhuis, Astrid; de Jong, Dick; Engel, Alexander; Goei, T. Hauwy; de Stoppelaar, Erica; van den Dongen, Marjon; van Wagensveld, Bart; van Tets, Willem; van den Elsen, Maarten; Swart, Annemiek; Gerhards, Michael; de Wit, Laurens; Siepel, Muriel; Molly, Glaresa; Gasthuis, Onze Lieve Vrouwe; van Geloven, Anna; Juttmann, Jan; Clevers, Wilfred; Bieleman, Andrea; van der Zaag, Edwin; Coenen, Ludo; Bonekamp, Elly; Cense, Huib; van Abeelen, Jacobus; van Iterson-de Jong, Diana; Krombeen, Margriet

    2012-01-01

    Aim It is questioned whether all separate fast track elements are essential for enhanced postoperative recovery. We aimed to determine which baseline characteristics and which fast track elements are independent predictors of faster postoperative recovery in patients undergoing resection for colon

  7. Implementation of the scientific evidence into daily practice - example from fast-track colonic cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, J.; Harling, H.; Wille-Jorgensen, P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To report the implementation and results of fast-track surgery for colonic cancer in the daily routine. Method A total of 131 consecutive patients scheduled for elective colonic cancer resections entered a fast-track perioperative course after thorough information. The regimen contained...

  8. The role of pain for early rehabilitation in fast track total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kristensen, Morten Tange; Myhrmann, Lis

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between early functional mobility and pain intensity in a fast track program after total knee arthroplasty (TKA).......To investigate the relationship between early functional mobility and pain intensity in a fast track program after total knee arthroplasty (TKA)....

  9. Fast and Practical Head Tracking in Brain Imaging with Time-of-Flight Camera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilm, Jakob; Olesen, Oline Vinter; Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl

    2013-01-01

    scanners. Particularly in MRI and PET, the newest generation of TOF cameras could become a method of tracking small and large scale patient movement in a fast and user friendly way required in clinical environments. We present a novel methodology for fast tracking from TOF point clouds without the need...

  10. Evidence Basis for Regional Anesthesia in Multidisciplinary Fast-Track Surgical Care Pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carli, Francesco; Kehlet, Henrik; Baldini, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    Fast-track programs have been developed with the aim to reduce perioperative surgical stress and facilitate patient's recovery after surgery. Potentially, regional anesthesia and analgesia techniques may offer physiological advantages to support fast-track methodologies in different type...... of surgeries. The aim of this article was to identify and discuss potential advantages offerred by regional anesthesia and analgesia techniques to fast-track programs. In the first section, the impact of regional anesthesia on the main elements of fast-track surgery is addressed. In the second section......, procedure-specific fast-track programs for colorectal, hernia, esophageal, cardiac, vascular, and orthopedic surgeries are presented. For each, regional anesthesia and analgesia techniques more frequently used are discussed. Furthermore, clinical studies, which included regional techniques as elements...

  11. Multiphase Interface Tracking with Fast Semi-Lagrangian Contouring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaosheng; He, Xiaowei; Liu, Xuehui; Zhang, Jian J; Liu, Baoquan; Wu, Enhua

    2016-08-01

    We propose a semi-Lagrangian method for multiphase interface tracking. In contrast to previous methods, our method maintains an explicit polygonal mesh, which is reconstructed from an unsigned distance function and an indicator function, to track the interface of arbitrary number of phases. The surface mesh is reconstructed at each step using an efficient multiphase polygonization procedure with precomputed stencils while the distance and indicator function are updated with an accurate semi-Lagrangian path tracing from the meshes of the last step. Furthermore, we provide an adaptive data structure, multiphase distance tree, to accelerate the updating of both the distance function and the indicator function. In addition, the adaptive structure also enables us to contour the distance tree accurately with simple bisection techniques. The major advantage of our method is that it can easily handle topological changes without ambiguities and preserve both the sharp features and the volume well. We will evaluate its efficiency, accuracy and robustness in the results part with several examples.

  12. Fast-track aquifer characterization and bioremediation of groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, S.B.; Erskine, J.A.; Adkisson, C.

    1995-01-01

    A short duration step-drawdown pumping test has been used to characterize a highly permeable aquifer contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons in support of an in situ, closed loop extraction and reinjection bioremediation system for groundwater. The short-term pumping test produces a manageable quantity of contaminated groundwater while yielding a range of values for transmissivity and specific yield parameters. This range of aquifer coefficients is used in an analytical model to estimate a range of groundwater extraction rates that provide a suitable radius of influence for the extraction and reinjection system. A multi-enzyme complex catalyzed bioremediation process has been used to aerobically degrade petroleum hydrocarbons. Enzymes, amino acids, and biosurfactants are supplied to the extracted groundwater to significantly speed up the degradation by naturally occurring bacteria. During the process, amino acids promote the rapid growth of the microbial population while enzymes and bacteria attach to hydrocarbons forming a transformation state complex that degrades to fatty acids, carbon dioxide, and water. This paper presents a case study of a fast-track bioremediation using pumping test data, analytical modeling, and an enzyme technology

  13. LiTrack: A Fast Longitudinal Phase Space Tracking Code with Graphical User Interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bane, K.L.F.

    2005-01-01

    Linac-based light sources and linear colliders typically apply longitudinal phase space manipulations in their design, including electron bunch compression and wakefield-induced energy spread control. Several computer codes handle such issues, but most also require detailed information on the transverse focusing lattice. In fact, in most linear accelerators, the transverse distributions do not significantly affect the longitudinal, and can be ignored initially. This allows the use of a fast 2D code to study longitudinal aspects without time-consuming considerations of the transverse focusing. LiTrack is based on a 15-year old code (same name) originally written by one of us (KB), which is now a Matlab [1] code with additional features, such as graphical user interface, prompt output plotting, and functional call within a script. This single-bunch tracking code includes RF acceleration, bunch compression to 3rd order, geometric and resistive short-range wakefields, aperture limits, synchrotron radiation, and flexible output plotting. The code was used to design both the LCLS [2] and the SPPS [3] projects at SLAC and typically runs 10 5 particles in < 1 minute. We describe the features, show some examples, and provide free access to the code

  14. Orchestrating care through the fast-track perspective: A qualitative content analysis of the provision of individualised nursing care in orthopaedic fast-track programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2017-02-01

    The lack of individualised care in orthopaedic regimes is often explained by the extended use of patient pathways and clinical guidelines. The aim of this study was to illuminate orthopaedic nurses' perceptions and experiences of providing individual nursing care for older patients in standardised fast-track programmes after total hip or knee replacement. Ten semi-structured interviews were conducted with orthopaedic nurses in orthopaedic wards at three Danish hospitals between April and June of 2015. Data were analysed using manifest and latent content analysis according to Graneheim and Lundman. The main theme of the overall interpretation was Orchestrating care through the fast-track perspective, accompanied by three sub-themes: Identifying and legitimising relevant individual care in the fast-track programme, Struggling to fit all patients in the fast-track programme and Justifying individualised care-related actions in the fast-track programme. The study concluded that, even though the nurses struggled to comply with the programme, they still found themselves compromising their nursing care and ethics to follow the standardised regime. There is a need to establish more specific inclusion criteria to maintain the effective elements in the programme and to facilitate nurses' opportunities to offer individual care, thereby ensuring that fragile patients have access to other possibilities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. PREDICTING A FAST-TRACK MARITIME CAREER: CHARACTERISTICS OF SUCCESSFUL OFFICERS DURING TEENAGE YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Joaquín Fernández González

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Fast-track maritime career is a topical question worldwide due to the shortage of seafarers in maritime industry. Assuming that the fast-track career officers’ relevant common characteristics in adolescence could predict future maritime career speed, the research questions of this research are: What were the common characteristics of fast-track career officers when they were 16-18? Were there any statistically significant differences between the fast-track career groups and the officers with a slower career at that age? A questionnaire survey involving 175 maritime officers was conducted in Latvia in January – October 2016, regarding officers’ family context, school achievement, involvement in sports, and personality traits when they were 16-18. Fast-track career officers perceived themselves as more conscientious, calm and more leadership oriented than the whole group in adolescence. Statistically significant differences among career-speed groups were found regarding family socioeconomic status, family atmosphere and family career support at that age. Based on those communalities among maritime officers with a fast-track carrier when they were 16-18, maritime education and training institutions could better find and give appropriate career guidance to prospective maritime officers. Even if maritime career speed is a very individualized phenomenon, family characteristics could be studied further as a potential good predictor of fast-track maritime career.

  16. Evidence Basis for Regional Anesthesia in Multidisciplinary Fast-Track Surgical Care Pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carli, Francesco; Kehlet, Henrik; Baldini, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    Fast-track programs have been developed with the aim to reduce perioperative surgical stress and facilitate patient's recovery after surgery. Potentially, regional anesthesia and analgesia techniques may offer physiological advantages to support fast-track methodologies in different type of surge......Fast-track programs have been developed with the aim to reduce perioperative surgical stress and facilitate patient's recovery after surgery. Potentially, regional anesthesia and analgesia techniques may offer physiological advantages to support fast-track methodologies in different type...... of surgeries. The aim of this article was to identify and discuss potential advantages offerred by regional anesthesia and analgesia techniques to fast-track programs. In the first section, the impact of regional anesthesia on the main elements of fast-track surgery is addressed. In the second section......, procedure-specific fast-track programs for colorectal, hernia, esophageal, cardiac, vascular, and orthopedic surgeries are presented. For each, regional anesthesia and analgesia techniques more frequently used are discussed. Furthermore, clinical studies, which included regional techniques as elements...

  17. Organizing and implementing a multidisciplinary fast track oncology clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basta, Y L; Tytgat, K M A J; Greuter, H H; Klinkenbijl, J H G; Fockens, P; Strikwerda, J

    2017-11-01

    Patients with gastrointestinal malignancies often need multiple appointments with different medical specialists, causing waiting times to accrue. In our hospital, care is organized in a sequential manner, causing long waiting times. To reduce this, a fast track outpatient clinic (FTC) was implemented. The FTC was organized within the hospital's existing structure. Patient centered care was achieved by ensuring that the medical specialists visit the patient, implementing nurse coordinators and considering patient wishes and co-morbidities when formulating a treatment plan. A mandate from the board (Top-down), ensured cooperation between different medical departments and a change in resource allocation (i.e. medical staff); a horizontal clinic across a vertical departmental structure. Brainstorm sessions between the departments led by two physicians who were going to work at the FTC (Bottom-up), assured a swift implementation of the FTC. Since implementation in 2009, patient influx has tripled. Waiting time for an appointment and start of treatment was reduced from 2-4 weeks to 6 working days and from 12-14 weeks to 17 working days, respectively. This was achieved by re-allocating recourses, but without increasing existing resources. The combination of a top-down and bottom-up strategy ensured participation from all involved departments, a strong foundation and a shared vision on patient centered care. The FTC facilitates sharing information between different medical specialists through both proximity and a shared electronic patient record. The implementation of the FTC comprises a change in organization, but not a change in structure. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  18. Research on Fast Track Surgery Application in Lung Cancer Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiyun YANG

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Fast track surgery (FTS is a systematical method to accelerate the recovery of surgical patients by reducing the physical and mental trauma stress of them. The research is to investigate the feasibility of FTS application in lung cancer surgery. Methods A total of 80 cases of lung cancer patients with single leaf lobotomy resection were randomized into two groups. While the experimental group was treated with the conception of FTS, and the control group was treated with the traditional methods. The incident rate of post-operation pain degrees, telecasts, pleural effusion, the post-operation time stay in hospital time and the total cost during hospitalization in two groups were compared respectively. Results In FTS group: the VAS score of post-operation pain at 1 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h and 48 h all significantly decreased compared to the traditional therapy group. The incidence rate of telecast was 10.53%. The incidence rate of pleural effusion was 26.31%. The length of stay after operation was (4±1 d and the total cost was RMB 15 600±7 600. In the control group, the above values were 77.78%, 33.33%, 22.22%, (9±1 d, RMB 23 600±5 400, respectively. The post operation pain (VAS method of FTS group was remarkablely below the control group. There has significant difference of the incident rate of telecasts, stay time in hospital and the total cast in two groups (P < 0.05. No significant difference was observed in the incident rate of pleural effusion. Conclusion The new methods of FTS can apparently accelerates recovery after lung cancer resection, reduces complications, shorten timestay in hospital and cut down the total cost.

  19. Serious renal and urological complications in fast-track primary total hip and knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lars S; Jorgensen, Christoffer C; Kehlet, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    of stay > 4 days or 30-day readmissions after fast-track THA and TKA, we conducted a detailed observational study based upon prospectively collected pre-operative data and a complete 30-day follow-up on complications and re-admissions in a unselected cohort of 8,804 consecutive fast-track THAs and TKAs......BACKGROUND: Overall medical complications have been reduced after fast-track total hip (THA) and knee arthroplasty (TKA), but data on specific renal and urological (RU) complications are limited. METHODS: To describe the incidence and consequences of serious RU complications resulting in length...

  20. Fast-track surgery-an update on physiological care principles to enhance recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The concept of fast-track surgery (enhanced recovery programs) has been evolved and been documented to be successful by decreasing length of stay, morbidity and convalescence across procedures. FUTURE STRATEGIES: However, there are several possibilities for further improvement of mo...... of the components of fast-track surgery, where surgical stress, fluid and pain management are key factors. There is an urgent need for better design of studies, especially in minimal invasive surgery to achieve maximal outcome effects when integrated into the fast-track methodology....

  1. The risk of manipulation under anesthesia due to unsatisfactory knee flexion after fast-track total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wied, Christian; Thomsen, Morten G; Kallemose, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fast-track TKA has significantly shortened the time available for physiotherapists to optimize knee ROM before discharge. Safety aspects concerning knee stiffness and the need for manipulation in a fast-track setting need to be illuminated. The study aims were to analyze if fast-track...

  2. When is it optimal to delegate: the theory of fast-track authority

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Celik, Levent; Karabay, B.; McLaren, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 3 (2015), s. 347-389 ISSN 1945-7669 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : fast-track authority * free trade * protectionist rents Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.359, year: 2015

  3. L0 Confirmation with fast, Tsa based tracking in the T-stations

    CERN Document Server

    Albrecht, J; Terrier, H

    2007-01-01

    A fast tracking algorithm to confirm the high $p_T$ L0 trigger objects with tracks from the T-stations is presented. The L0 trigger candidate is used to define a search window to a potential track. Using this, a seeded track search is performed. The track finding algorithm is based on the \\textit{TsaSeeding} algorithm~\\cite{bib:Tsa}. The efficiency to confirm a true L0 trigger signal is around 96\\%, the momentum can be measured up to $\\Delta p/p$=3\\%.

  4. Comparison of fast neutron-induced tracks in plastics using the electrochemical etching method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotter, S.J.; Gammage, R.B.; Thorngate, J.H.; Ziemer, P.L.

    1979-01-01

    Four plastics were examined by the electrochemical etching method for their suitability in registering fast neutron-induced recoil particle tracks. The plastics were cellulose acetate, cellulose triacetate, cellulose acetobutyrate and polycarbonate. Cellulose acetate and triacetate displayed high levels of water absorptivity during etching while the acetobutyrate foils cracked due to electromechanical stresses at high frequencies (>500 Hz). The clarity of the etched track was superior in the polycarbonate foils, suggesting the latter as the generally preferred dosimeter for fast neutrons. (author)

  5. After colonic surgery: The lived experience of participating in a fast-track programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norlyk, Annelise; Harder, Ingegerd

    2009-01-01

    Postoperative recovery can be accelerated and hospitalization reduced through fast-track programmes. However, documented knowledge is limited and primarily focusing on a medical perspective whereas the patients' perspective lacks documentation. This study describes the lived experience of partici......Postoperative recovery can be accelerated and hospitalization reduced through fast-track programmes. However, documented knowledge is limited and primarily focusing on a medical perspective whereas the patients' perspective lacks documentation. This study describes the lived experience...

  6. Restoring integrity--A grounded theory of coping with a fast track surgery programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Lene Bastrup; Fridlund, Bengt

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to generate a theory conceptualizing and explaining behavioural processes involved in coping in order to identify the predominant coping types and coping type-specific features. Patients undergoing fast track procedures do not experience a higher risk of complications, readmission, or mortality. However, such programmes presuppose an increasing degree of patient involvement, placing high educational, physical, and mental demands on the patients. There is a lack of knowledge about how patients understand and cope with fast track programmes. The study design used classical grounded theory. The study used a multimodal approach with qualitative and quantitative data sets from 14 patients. Four predominant types of coping, with distinct physiological, cognitive, affective, and psychosocial features, existed among patients going through a fast track total hip replacement programme. These patients' main concern was to restore their physical and psychosocial integrity, which had been compromised by reduced function and mobility in daily life. To restore integrity they economized their mental resources, while striving to fulfil the expectations of the fast track programme. This goal was achieved by being mentally proactive and physically active. Three out of the four predominant types of coping matched the expectations expressed in the fast track programme. The non-matching behaviour was seen among the most nervous patients, who claimed the right to diverge from the programme. In theory, four predominant types of coping with distinct physiological, cognitive, affective, and psychosocial features occur among patients going through a fast track total hip arthroplasty programme.

  7. Fast algorithm of track reconstruction for the Delphy TPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillard, J.

    1984-01-01

    We describe a simple geometrical method (polar inversion) to reconstruct tracks. When the magnetic field is constant in magnitude and direction. This method uses geometrical properties of the trajectories. In the case of the DELPHI apparatus, the track reconstruction is done using TPC informations. After explaining the algorithm, we give results on ''GEANT'' simulated events using the ''Lund'' generator. Today we get a computer time of the order of 1.2 milliseconds on a CDC 7600 and an efficiency of 98% [fr

  8. Time-driven Activity-based Cost of Fast-Track Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Signe E; Holm, Henriette B; Jørgensen, Mira

    2017-01-01

    this between 2 departments with different logistical set-ups. METHODS: Prospective data collection was analyzed using the time-driven activity-based costing method (TDABC) on time consumed by different staff members involved in patient treatment in the perioperative period of fast-track THA and TKA in 2 Danish...... orthopedic departments with standardized fast-track settings, but different logistical set-ups. RESULTS: Length of stay was median 2 days in both departments. TDABC revealed minor differences in the perioperative settings between departments, but the total cost excluding the prosthesis was similar at USD......-track methodology, the result could be a more cost-effective pathway altogether. As THA and TKA are potentially costly procedures and the numbers are increasing in an economical limited environment, the aim of this study is to present baseline detailed economical calculations of fast-track THA and TKA and compare...

  9. Fast symplectic map tracking for the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan T. Abell

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Tracking simulations remain the essential tool for evaluating how multipolar imperfections in ring magnets restrict the domain of stable phase-space motion. In the Large Hadron Collider (LHC at CERN, particles circulate at the injection energy, when multipole errors are most significant, for more than 10^{7} turns, but systematic tracking studies are limited to a small fraction of this total time—even on modern computers. A considerable speedup is expected by replacing element-by-element tracking with the use of a symplectified one-turn map. We have applied this method to the realistic LHC lattice, version 6, and report here our results for various map orders, with special emphasis on precision and speed.

  10. Safety of fast track surgery in pancreaticoduodenectomy: a Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Weinan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the safety and clinical effect of fast track surgery in pancreaticoduodenectomy, one of the most complex surgeries in general surgery. MethodsThe Chinese and foreign databases were searched for articles on the application of fast tract surgery in pancreaticoduodenectomy published from January 1994 to April 2016. Two researchers evaluated the quality of the articles which met the inclusion criteria and extracted related data. Stata 12.0 software was used to analyze the overall incidence rate of complications and the incidence rates of pancreatic leakage and gastrointestinal emptying disorder, and the Begg rank correlation test and Egger linear regression method were used to investigate publication bias. ResultsThe fast track surgery group had a significantly lower overall incidence rate of complications than the conventional group (RR=0.748, 95%CI: 0.680-0.824, P<0.001. There was no significant difference in the incidence rate of pancreatic leakage between the two groups (RR=0.894, 95%CI:0.734-1.089, P=0.266. The fast track surgery group had a significantly lower incidence rate of gastrointestinal emptying disorder than the conventional group (RR=0.520, 95%CI:0.400-0.670, P<0.001. ConclusionFast track surgery is safe and effective in pancreaticoduodenectomy, but the application of some measures in fast track surgery still needs more medical evidence.

  11. The Fleet Application for Scheduling and Tracking (FAST) Management Website

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero-Perez, Radames J.

    2014-01-01

    The FAST application was designed to replace the paper and pen method of checking out and checking in GSA Vehicles at KSC. By innovating from a paper and pen based checkout system to a fully digital one, not only the resources wasted by printing the checkout forms have been reduced, but it also reduces significantly the time that users and fleet managers need to interact with the system as well as improving the record accuracy for each vehicle. The vehicle information is pulled from a centralized database server in the SPSDL. In an attempt to add a new feature to the FAST application, the author of this report (alongside the FAST developers) has been designing and developing the FAST Management Website. The GSA fleet managers had to rely on the FAST developers in order to add new vehicles, edit vehicles and previous transactions, or for generating vehicles reports. By providing an easy-to-use FAST Management Website portal, the GSA fleet managers are now able to easily move vehicles, edit records, and print reports.

  12. Study of hardware implementations of fast tracking algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Z.; Huang, G.; Wang, D.; Lentdecker, G. De; Dong, J.; Léonard, A.; Robert, F.; Yang, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Real-time track reconstruction at high event rates is a major challenge for future experiments in high energy physics. To perform pattern-recognition and track fitting, artificial retina or Hough transformation methods have been introduced in the field which have to be implemented in FPGA firmware. In this note we report on a case study of a possible FPGA hardware implementation approach of the retina algorithm based on a Floating-Point core. Detailed measurements with this algorithm are investigated. Retina performance and capabilities of the FPGA are discussed along with perspectives for further optimization and applications.

  13. Fast neural-net based fake track rejection in the LHCb reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    De Cian, Michel; Seyfert, Paul; Stahl, Sascha

    2017-01-01

    A neural-network based algorithm to identify fake tracks in the LHCb pattern recognition is presented. This algorithm, called ghost probability, retains more than 99 % of well reconstructed tracks while reducing the number of fake tracks by 60 %. It is fast enough to fit into the CPU time budget of the software trigger farm and thus reduces the combinatorics of the decay reconstructions, as well as the number of tracks that need to be processed by the particle identification algorithms. As a result, it strongly contributes to the achievement of having the same reconstruction online and offline in the LHCb experiment in Run II of the LHC.

  14. Auger processes in tracks of fast multicharged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katin, V.V.; Martynenko, Yu.V.; Yavlinskij, Yu.N.

    1992-01-01

    The fast multicharged ion spends about 40% of energy losses on vacancy creation in the inner electron shells. This energy is transferred to the kinetic energy of electrons due to the cascade of Auger processes during ∼ 10 -14 s whereas the primary excited electrons receive the energy in ∼10 -16 s. (author)

  15. 4D tracking with ultra-fast silicon detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    F-W Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Seiden, Abraham; Cartiglia, Nicolò

    2018-02-01

    The evolution of particle detectors has always pushed the technological limit in order to provide enabling technologies to researchers in all fields of science. One archetypal example is the evolution of silicon detectors, from a system with a few channels 30 years ago, to the tens of millions of independent pixels currently used to track charged particles in all major particle physics experiments. Nowadays, silicon detectors are ubiquitous not only in research laboratories but in almost every high-tech apparatus, from portable phones to hospitals. In this contribution, we present a new direction in the evolution of silicon detectors for charge particle tracking, namely the inclusion of very accurate timing information. This enhancement of the present silicon detector paradigm is enabled by the inclusion of controlled low gain in the detector response, therefore increasing the detector output signal sufficiently to make timing measurement possible. After providing a short overview of the advantage of this new technology, we present the necessary conditions that need to be met for both sensor and readout electronics in order to achieve 4D tracking. In the last section, we present the experimental results, demonstrating the validity of our research path.

  16. Development of Ultra-Fast Silicon Detectors for 4D tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiano, A.; Arcidiacono, R.; Boscardin, M.; Dalla Betta, G. F.; Cartiglia, N.; Cenna, F.; Ferrero, M.; Ficorella, F.; Mandurrino, M.; Obertino, M.; Pancheri, L.; Paternoster, G.; Sola, V.

    2017-12-01

    In this contribution we review the progress towards the development of a novel type of silicon detectors suited for tracking with a picosecond timing resolution, the so called Ultra-Fast Silicon Detectors. The goal is to create a new family of particle detectors merging excellent position and timing resolution with GHz counting capabilities, very low material budget, radiation resistance, fine granularity, low power, insensitivity to magnetic field, and affordability. We aim to achieve concurrent precisions of ~ 10 ps and ~ 10 μm with a 50 μm thick sensor. Ultra-Fast Silicon Detectors are based on the concept of Low-Gain Avalanche Detectors, which are silicon detectors with an internal multiplication mechanism so that they generate a signal which is factor ~10 larger than standard silicon detectors. The basic design of UFSD consists of a thin silicon sensor with moderate internal gain and pixelated electrodes coupled to full custom VLSI chip. An overview of test beam data on time resolution and the impact on this measurement of radiation doses at the level of those expected at HL-LHC is presented. First I-V and C-V measurements on a new FBK sensor production of UFSD, 50 μm thick, with B and Ga, activated at two diffusion temperatures, with and without C co-implantation (in Low and High concentrations), and with different effective doping concentrations in the Gain layer, are shown. Perspectives on current use of UFSD in HEP experiments (UFSD detectors have been installed in the CMS-TOTEM Precision Protons Spectrometer for the forward physics tracking, and are currently taking data) and proposed applications for a MIP timing layer in the HL-LHC upgrade are briefly discussed.

  17. Note: Fast neutron efficiency in CR-39 nuclear track detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavallaro, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia,Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia 44, 95123 Catania, Italy and INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 42, 95123 Catania (Italy)

    2015-03-15

    CR-39 samples are commonly employed for fast neutron detection in fusion reactors and in inertial confinement fusion experiments. The literature reported efficiencies are strongly depending on experimental conditions and, in some cases, highly dispersed. The present note analyses the dependence of efficiency as a function of various parameters and experimental conditions in both the radiator-assisted and the stand-alone CR-39 configurations. Comparisons of literature experimental data with Monte Carlo calculations and optimized efficiency values are shown and discussed.

  18. Fast pattern recognition with the ATLAS L1 track trigger for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Martensson, Mikael; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    A fast hardware based track trigger for high luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (HL- LHC) is being developed in ATLAS. The goal is to achieve trigger levels in high pileup collisions that are similar or even better than those achieved at low pile-up running of LHC by adding tracking information to the ATLAS hardware trigger which is currently based on information from calorimeters and muon trigger chambers only. Two methods for fast pattern recognition are investigated. The first is based on matching tracker hits to pattern banks of simulated high momentum tracks which are stored in a custom made Associative Memory (AM) ASIC. The second is based on the Hough transform where detector hits are transformed into 2D Hough space with one variable related to track pt and one to track direction. Hits found by pattern recognition will be sent to a track fitting step which calculates the track parameters . The speed and precision of the track fitting depends on the quality of the hits selected by the patte...

  19. Evidence-based surgical care and the evolution of fast-track surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, H.; Wilmore, D.W.

    2008-01-01

    , randomized studies, and meta-analyses, the concept of the "fast-track methodology" has uniformly provided a major enhancement in recovery leading to decreased hospital stay and with an apparent reduction in medical morbidity but unaltered "surgery-specific" morbidity in a variety of procedures. However......BACKGROUND: Optimization of postoperative outcome requires the application of evidence-based principles of care carefully integrated into a multimodal rehabilitation program. OBJECTIVE: To assess, synthesize, and discuss implementation of "fast-track" recovery programs. DATA SOURCES: Medline MBASE...... (January 1966-May 2007) and the Cochrane library (January 1966-May 2007) were searched using the following keywords: fast-track, enhanced recovery, accelerated rehabilitation, and multimodal and perioperative care. In addition, the synthesis on the many specific interventions and organizational...

  20. Postoperative morbidity after fast-track laparoscopic resection of rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stottmeier, S; Harling, H; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer Anders

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Analysis was carried out of the nature and chronological order of early complications after fast-track laparoscopic rectal surgery with a view to optimize the short-time outcome of rectal cancer surgery. Method: 102 consecutive patients who underwent elective fast-track laparoscopic rectal......: Postoperative morbidity remains a significant problem even in the fast-track era, even in experienced surgical hands. Our results suggest that besides improvement of surgical technique further improvement of outcome lies in early recognition and proper treatment of complications and the perioperative...... cancer surgery were analysed prospectively from the Danish Colorectal Cancer Database supplemented by data from the medical records. We studied in detail the nature and chronological order of postoperative morbidity and reason for prolonged stay (>5 days). Results: Twenty-five patients (25 per cent) had...

  1. Trevino Project: a fast-track approach for a small construction project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schick, C.J.; Lynn, N.S.

    1982-01-01

    The approach to a construction project can vary according to the size, location, and degree of difficulty associated with the project. This paper deals with one approach that can be taken to a small construction project, the fast-track approach. A small construction project can be defined as a project having less than $20 million capital cost or a project with a low degree of difficulty. This approach is very applicable to in-situ leaching uranium projects, small precious metal operations, etc. The approach to the small project is that of fast-tracking the project in order to minimize the time over which capital expenditure occurs and also to reduce the indirect costs of field expense, construction supplies, construction equipment, etc. In order to fast-track a project it is necessary to do a very precise job on the preliminary phases of the project such as preliminary engineering, plant site location, environmental permits, etc. 2 figures, 2 tables

  2. Comparison of remifentanil and low-dose fentanyl for fast-track cardiac anesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khanykin, Boris; Siddiqi, Rizwan; Jensen, Per F

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Different anesthetic techniques have been used for fast tracking in cardiac anesthesia. Remifentanil, with its unique pharmacokinetic profile, could be an ideal drug for fast tracking. Possible limitations of remifentanil are rapid onset of postoperative pain after discontinuation...... of the drug infusion, which may increase the risk of an ischemic event. We conducted this randomized study to compare the efficacy of remifentanil versus low doses of fentanyl in fast-track cardiac anesthesia. It has been hypothesized that remifentanil would provide a safe anesthesia with no impact...... anesthesia. The study was designed as a prospective randomized study. The primary outcomes were changes in the cardiac index and creatine kinase MB fraction (CKMB), extubation times, mobilization times, and lengths of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) and the hospital. Frequency of myocardial infarction...

  3. Design of a Hardware Track Finder (Fast Tracker) for the ATLAS Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00010976; Albicocco, P.; Alison, J.; Ancu, L.S.; Anderson, J.; Andari, N.; Andreani, A.; Andreazza, A.; Annovi, A.; Antonelli, M.; Asbah, N.; Atkinson, M.; Baines, J.; Barberio, E.; Beccherle, R.; Beretta, M.; Bertolucci, F.; Biesuz, N.V.; Blair, R.; Bogdan, M.; Boveia, A.; Britzger, D.; Bryant, P.; Burghgrave, B.; Calderini, G.; Camplani, A.; Cavasinni, V.; Chakraborty, D.; Chang, P.; Cheng, Y.; Citraro, S.; Citterio, M.; Crescioli, F.; Dawe, N.; Dell'Orso, M.; Donati, S.; Dondero, P.; Drake, G.; Gadomski, S.; Gatta, M.; Gentsos, C.; Giannetti, P.; Gkaitatzis, S.; Gramling, J.; Howarth, J.W.; Iizawa, T.; Ilic, N.; Jiang, Z.; Kaji, T.; Kasten, M.; Kawaguchi, Y.; Kim, Y.K.; Kimura, N.; Klimkovich, T.; Kolb, M.; Kordas, K.; Krizka, K.; Kubota, T.; Lanza, A.; Li, H.L.; Liberali, V.; Lisovyi, M.; Liu, L.; Love, J.; Luciano, P.; Luongo, C.; Magalotti, D.; Maznas, I.; Meroni, C.; Mitani, T.; Nasimi, H.; Negri, A.; Neroutsos, P.; Neubauer, M.; Nikolaidis, S.; Okumura, Y.; Pandini, C.; Petridou, C.; Piendibene, M.; Proudfoot, J.; Rados, P.; Roda, C.; Rossi, E.; Sakurai, Y.; Sampsonidis, D.; Saxon, J.; Schmitt, S.; Schoening, A.; Shochet, M.; Shojaii, S.; Soltveit, H.; Sotiropoulou, C.L.; Stabile, A.; Swiatlowski, M.; Tang, F.; Taylor, P.T.; Testa, M.; Tompkins, L.; Vercesi, V.; Volpi, G.; Wang, R.; Watari, R.; Webster, J.; Wu, X.; Yorita, K.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zeng, J.C.; Zhang, J.; Zou, R.

    2016-01-01

    The use of tracking information at the trigger level in the LHC Run II period is crucial for the trigger an data acquisition (TDAQ) system and will be even more so as contemporary collisions that occur at every bunch crossing will increase in Run III. The Fast TracKer (FTK) is part of the ATLAS trigger upgrade project; it is a hardware processor that will provide every Level-1 accepted event (100 kHz) and within 100$\\mu$s, full tracking information for tracks with momentum as low as 1 GeV. Providing fast, extensive access to tracking information, with resolution comparable to the offline reconstruction, FTK will help in precise detection of the primary and secondary vertices to ensure robust selections and improve the trigger performance.

  4. Restoring integrity—A grounded theory of coping with a fast track surgery programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lene Bastrup Jørgensen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and objectives: The aim of this study was to generate a theory conceptualizing and explaining behavioural processes involved in coping in order to identify the predominant coping types and coping type-specific features. Background: Patients undergoing fast track procedures do not experience a higher risk of complications, readmission, or mortality. However, such programmes presuppose an increasing degree of patient involvement, placing high educational, physical, and mental demands on the patients. There is a lack of knowledge about how patients understand and cope with fast track programmes. Design: The study design used classical grounded theory. Methods: The study used a multimodal approach with qualitative and quantitative data sets from 14 patients. Results: Four predominant types of coping, with distinct physiological, cognitive, affective, and psychosocial features, existed among patients going through a fast track total hip replacement programme. These patients’ main concern was to restore their physical and psychosocial integrity, which had been compromised by reduced function and mobility in daily life. To restore integrity they economized their mental resources, while striving to fulfil the expectations of the fast track programme. This goal was achieved by being mentally proactive and physically active. Three out of the four predominant types of coping matched the expectations expressed in the fast track programme. The non-matching behaviour was seen among the most nervous patients, who claimed the right to diverge from the programme. Conclusion: In theory, four predominant types of coping with distinct physiological, cognitive, affective, and psychosocial features occur among patients going through a fast track total hip arthroplasty programme.

  5. Restoring integrity—A grounded theory of coping with a fast track surgery programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Lene Bastrup; Fridlund, Bengt

    2016-01-01

    Aims and objectives The aim of this study was to generate a theory conceptualizing and explaining behavioural processes involved in coping in order to identify the predominant coping types and coping type-specific features. Background Patients undergoing fast track procedures do not experience a higher risk of complications, readmission, or mortality. However, such programmes presuppose an increasing degree of patient involvement, placing high educational, physical, and mental demands on the patients. There is a lack of knowledge about how patients understand and cope with fast track programmes. Design The study design used classical grounded theory. Methods The study used a multimodal approach with qualitative and quantitative data sets from 14 patients. Results Four predominant types of coping, with distinct physiological, cognitive, affective, and psychosocial features, existed among patients going through a fast track total hip replacement programme. These patients’ main concern was to restore their physical and psychosocial integrity, which had been compromised by reduced function and mobility in daily life. To restore integrity they economized their mental resources, while striving to fulfil the expectations of the fast track programme. This goal was achieved by being mentally proactive and physically active. Three out of the four predominant types of coping matched the expectations expressed in the fast track programme. The non-matching behaviour was seen among the most nervous patients, who claimed the right to diverge from the programme. Conclusion In theory, four predominant types of coping with distinct physiological, cognitive, affective, and psychosocial features occur among patients going through a fast track total hip arthroplasty programme. PMID:26751199

  6. Interactive and automated systems for nuclear track measurements with applications to fast neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J.H.; Gold, R.; McNeece, J.P.; Preston, C.C.; Ruddy, F.H.

    1983-12-01

    Interactive and automatic track measuring systems have been developed primarily for fast neutron dosimetry in and around reactors. The interactive system is used for proton recoil measurements in nuclear research emulsions and the automatic systems for counting fission fragment tracks in Muscovite mica. The status of these systems, along with illustrative applications, are presented, particularly with regard to their relationship to neutron personnel dosimetry. 16 references, 12 figures

  7. Effect of an Emergency Department Fast Track on Press-Ganey Patient Satisfaction Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang, Calvin E.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mandated patient surveys have become an integral part of Medicare remuneration, putting hundreds of millions of dollars in funding at risk. The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS recently announced a patient experience survey for the emergency department (ED. Development of an ED Fast Track, where lower acuity patients are rapidly seen, has been shown to improve many of the metrics that CMS examines. This is the first study examining if ED Fast Track implementation affects Press-Ganey scores of patient satisfaction. Methods: We analyzed returned Press-Ganey questionnaires from all ESI 4 and 5 patients seen 11AM - 11PM, August-December 2011 (pre-fast track, and during the identical hours of fast track, August-December 2012. Raw ordinal scores were converted to continuous scores for paired student t-test analysis. We calculated an odds ratio with 100% satisfaction considered a positive response. Results: An academic ED with 52,000 annual visits had 140 pre-fast track and 85 fast track respondents. Implementation of a fast track significantly increased patient satisfaction with the following: wait times (68% satisfaction to 88%, OR 4.13, 95% CI [2.32-7.33], doctor courtesy (90% to 95%, OR 1.97, 95% CI [1.04-3.73], nurse courtesy (87% to 95%, OR 2.75, 95% CI [1.46-5.15], pain control (79% to 87%, OR 2.13, 95% CI [1.16-3.92], likelihood to recommend (81% to 90%, OR 2.62, 95% CI [1.42-4.83], staff caring (82% to 91%, OR 2.82, 95% CI [1.54-5.19], and staying informed about delays (66% to 83%, OR 3.00, 95% CI [1.65-5.44]. Conclusion: Implementation of an ED Fast Track more than doubled the odds of significant improvements in Press-Ganey patient satisfaction metrics and may play an important role in improving ED performance on CMS benchmarks. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(1:34–38.

  8. Why still in hospital after fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Henrik; Lunn, Troels H; Troelsen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose Length of stay (LOS) following total hip and knee arthroplasty (THA and TKA) has been reduced to about 3 days in fast-track setups with functional discharge criteria. Earlier studies have identified patient characteristics predicting LOS, but little is known about specific...... reasons for being hospitalized following fast-track THA and TKA. Patients and methods To determine clinical and logistical factors that keep patients in hospital for the first postoperative 24-72 hours, we performed a cohort study of consecutive, unselected patients undergoing unilateral primary THA (n...

  9. Pathogenesis of morbidity after fast-track laparoscopic colonic cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stottmeier, S; Harling, H; Wille-Jørgensen, P

    2011-01-01

    AIM: Analysis of the nature and time course of early complications after laparoscopic colonic surgery is required to allow rational strategies for their prevention and management. METHOD: One hundred and four consecutive patients who underwent elective fast-track laparoscopic colonic cancer surgery...... occurred in 14 patients, of which four were preceded by medical complications. Three patients had only medical complications. Median length of stay was 3 days (range 1-44). CONCLUSION: Further improvement of outcomes after fast-track laparoscopic colonic surgery might be obtained by improved surgical...

  10. Convalescence after colonic resection with fast-track versus conventional care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjort Jakobsen, D; Sonne, E; Basse, L

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multi-modal rehabilitation programmes may improve early postoperative body composition, pulmonary function, exercise capacity, and reduce hospital stay. So far, no data are available on convalescence after discharge. AIM: The objectives were to compare convalescence data (fatigue, sleep...... vs. 8 days in the fast-track vs. conventional care group, respectively (p sleep were increased in the conventional care group when compared with the fast-track group (p ... results in earlier resumption of normal activities with reduced fatigue and need for sleep postoperatively compared to conventional care, and without increased need for nursing care or visits to general practitioners. However, readmissions may occur more frequently....

  11. A fast track trigger processor for the OPAL detector at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, A.A.; Jaroslawski, S.; Wagner, A.

    1986-01-01

    A fast hardware track trigger processor being built for the OPAL experiment is described. The processor will analyse data from the central drift chambers of OPAL to determine whether any tracks come from the interaction region, and thereby eliminate background events. The processor will find tracks over a large angular range, vertical strokecos thetavertical stroke < or approx. 0.95. The design of the processor is described, together with a brief account of its hardware implementation for OPAL. The results of feasibility studies are also presented. (orig.)

  12. L1Track: A fast Level 1 track trigger for the ATLAS high luminosity upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerri, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    With the planned high-luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC), the ATLAS detector will see its collision rate increase by approximately a factor of 5 with respect to the current LHC operation. The earliest hardware-based ATLAS trigger stage (“Level 1”) will have to provide a higher rejection factor in a more difficult environment: a new improved Level 1 trigger architecture is under study, which includes the possibility of extracting with low latency and high accuracy tracking information in time for the decision taking process. In this context, the feasibility of potential approaches aimed at providing low-latency high-quality tracking at Level 1 is discussed. - Highlights: • HL-LH requires highly performing event selection. • ATLAS is studying the implementation of tracking at the very first trigger level. • Low latency and high-quality seem to be achievable with dedicated hardware and adequate detector readout architecture.

  13. Fast motion-including dose error reconstruction for VMAT with and without MLC tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravkilde, Thomas; Keall, Paul J.; Grau, Cai

    2014-01-01

    of the algorithm for reconstruction of dose and motion-induced dose errors throughout the tracking and non-tracking beam deliveries was quantified. Doses were reconstructed with a mean dose difference relative to the measurements of -0.5% (5.5% standard deviation) for cumulative dose. More importantly, the root...... validate a simple model for fast motion-including dose error reconstruction applicable to intrafractional QA of MLC tracking treatments of moving targets. MLC tracking experiments were performed on a standard linear accelerator with prototype MLC tracking software guided by an electromagnetic transponder......-mean-square deviation between reconstructed and measured motion-induced 3%/3 mm γ failure rates (dose error) was 2.6%. The mean computation time for each calculation of dose and dose error was 295 ms. The motion-including dose reconstruction allows accurate temporal and spatial pinpointing of errors in absorbed dose...

  14. The ATLAS Fast Tracker and Tracking at the High-Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00236423; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The LHC’s increase in centre of mass energy and luminosity in 2015 makes controlling trigger rates with high efficiency challenging. The ATLAS Fast TracKer (FTK) is a hardware processor built to reconstruct tracks at a rate of up to 100 kHz and provide them to the high level trigger. The FTK reconstructs tracks by matching incoming detector hits with pre-defined track patterns stored in associative memory on custom ASICs. Inner detector hits are fit to these track patterns using modern FPGAs. These procedings describe the electronics system used for the FTK’s massive parallelization. An overview of the installation, commissioning and running of the system is given. The ATLAS upgrades planned to enable tracking at the High Luminosity LHC are also discussed.

  15. Fast Flux Test Facility Asbestos Location Tracking Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    REYNOLDS, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    Procedure Number HNF-PRO-408, revision 0, paragraph 1.0, ''Purpose,'' and paragraph 2.0, ''Requirements for Facility Management of Asbestos,'' relate building inspection and requirements for documentation of existing asbestos-containing building material (ACBM) per each building assessment. This documentation shall be available to all personnel (including contractor personnel) entering the facility at their request. Corrective action was required by 400 Area Integrated Annual Appraisal/Audit for Fiscal Year 1992 (IAA-92-0007) to provide this notification documentation. No formal method had been developed to communicate the location and nature of ACBM to maintenance personnel in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) 400 Area. The scope of this Data Package Document is to locate and evaluate any ACBM found at FFTF which constitutes a baseline. This includes all buildings within the protected area. These findings are compiled from earlier reports, numerous work packages and engineering evaluations of employee findings

  16. Fast Neutron Dosimetry Using CR-39 Nuclear Track Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZAKI, M.; ABDEL-NABY, A.; MORSY, A.

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of the neutron dose in and around the neutron sources is important for the purpose of personnel and environmental neutron dosimetry. In the present study, a method for the measurement of neutron dose using the UV-Vis spectra of CR-39 plastic track detector was investigated. A set of CR-39 plastic detectors was exposed to 252 Cf neutron source, which had the yield of 0.68x10 8 /s, and neutron dose equivalent rate 1m apart from the source is equal to 3.8 mrem/h. The samples were etched for 10 h in 6.25 N NaOH at 70 o C. The absorbance of the etched samples was measured using UV-visible spectrophotometer as a function of neutron dose. It was observed that there was a linear relationship between the optical absorption of these detectors and neutron dose. This means that the exposure dose of neutron can be determined by knowing the optical absorption of the sample. These results were compared with previous study. It was found that there was a matching and good agreement with their investigations.

  17. Fast track surgery at the University Teaching Hospital of Kigali: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Fast Track Surgery is synonymous with Enhanced Recovery after Surgery. It was started in the 1990's initially for colorectal surgery, but later became applicable to other aspects of surgery. Its core elements include epidural or regional anaesthesia, perioperative fluid management, minimally invasive surgical ...

  18. A process model for design team communication within fast-track building projects using project websites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otter, den A.F.H.J.; Reymen, I.M.M.J.

    2008-01-01

    The factor time within building projects is on high pressure because of the increasing need for faster delivery of buildings. Within fast track, complex building projects the design process is an important key. Through case analyses offart-hack design processes it became obvious that process and

  19. The Effects of the Fast Track Preventive Intervention on the Development of Conduct Disorder across Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Development, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The impact of the Fast Track intervention on externalizing disorders across childhood was examined. Eight hundred-ninety-one early-starting children (69% male; 51% African American) were randomly assigned by matched sets of schools to intervention or control conditions. The 10-year intervention addressed parent behavior-management, child social…

  20. Design of a 300-Watt Isolated Power Supply for Ultra-Fast Tracking Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen-Duy, Khiem; Ouyang, Ziwei; Petersen, Lars Press

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a medium-powerrating isolated power supply for ultra-fast tracking converters and MOS-gate driver circuits in medium and high voltage applications. The key feature of the design is its very low circuit input-to-output parasitic capacitance, which maximizes its...

  1. Hardware realization of a fast neural network algorithm for real-time tracking in HEP experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leimgruber, F.R.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Steinacher, M.; Tauscher, L.; Vlachos, S.; Wendler, H.

    1995-01-01

    A fast pattern recognition system for HEP experiments, based on artificial neural network algorithms (ANN), has been realized with standard electronics. The multiplicity and location of tracks in an event are determined in less than 75 ns. Hardware modules of this first level trigger were extensively tested for performance and reliability with data from the CPLEAR experiment. (orig.)

  2. Families' Divided: The place of the Family in Zimbabwe's Fast Track ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The political history and the political economy continue to mould the quality of life for most families in significant ways. Human beings have always lived in families from the beginning of time. The family is a pillar of society as it influences the way society is structured, organized and functions, yet the Fast Track Land Reform ...

  3. "Joined up" Thinking? Unsupported "Fast-Track" Transitions in the Context of Parental Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sarah; Cunningham-Burley, Sarah; Bancroft, Angus; Backett-Milburn, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    Recent policy responses to the risks entailed in "fast-track" school-work transitions have targeted careleavers and young people identified as "not in education, employment or training" (NEET). However, this approach has been criticised as diverting attention away from the fragile circumstances of others who may receive little…

  4. Subacute pain and function after fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lasse Østergaard; Gaarn-Larsen, L; Kristensen, B B

    2009-01-01

    In a well-defined fast-track setup for total hip and knee arthroplasty, with a multimodal analgesic regimen consisting of intra-operative local anaesthetic infiltration and oral celecoxib, gabapentin and paracetamol for 6 days postoperatively, we conducted a prospective, consecutive, observationa...

  5. Role of patient characteristics for fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, C.; Jacobsen, M; Søballe, Kjeld

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: /st>Patient age and comorbidity have been found to increase the length of hospital stay (LOS), readmissions, and mortality after surgery, including in elective primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Whether the same applies in fast-track THA and TKA...

  6. When is it optimal to delegate: the theory of fast-track authority

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Celik, Levent; Karabay, Bilgehan; McLaren, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 3 (2015), s. 347-389 ISSN 1945-7669 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP402/12/0666 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : fast-track authority * free trade * protectionist rents Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.359, year: 2015

  7. Evaluation of a fast-track programme for patients undergoing liver resection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Nicolai A.; Larsen, Peter Nørgaard; Klarskov, Birthe Michaelsen

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent developments in perioperative pathophysiology and care have documented evidence-based, multimodal rehabilitation (fast-track) to hasten recovery and to decrease morbidity and hospital stay for several major surgical procedures. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect...

  8. Time course and reasons for 90-day mortality in fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, C C; Kehlet, H

    2017-01-01

    : Prospective observational study in 13,775 consecutive THA/TKAs with similar fast-track protocols and a median length of stay of 2 days. Complete 90-days follow-up through national registries, followed by review of medical records and death certificates. Relation between mortality and surgically induced organ...

  9. A proposal to study a tracking/preshower detector for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Munday, D J; Anghinolfi, Francis; Bonino, R; Campbell, M; Fassò, A; Gildemeister, O; Heijne, Erik H M; Jarron, Pierre; Mapelli, Livio P; Pentney, J M; Poppleton, Alan; Stevenson, Graham Roger; Gössling, C; Pollmann, D; Sondermann, V; Tsesmelis, E; Clark, A G; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Martin, M; Rosselet, L; Fretwurst, E; Lindström, G; Reich, V; Bardos, R A; Gorfine, G W; Taylor, G; Tovey, Stuart N; Stapnes, Steinar; Weidberg, A R; Lubrano, P; Pepé, M; Grayer, Geoffrey H; Sharp, P; Bakich, A M; Peak, L S; CERN. Geneva. Detector Research and Development Committee

    1990-01-01

    We describe a program of studies aimed at determining whether the track stub/preshower technique of electron identification can be used at the highest operating luminosities of the proposed LHC collider. The proposal covers detector and electronics developments required for the construction of a track-stub and preshower detector preceding the electromagnetic calorimeter of an LHC experiment.

  10. Fast-track protocols in devascularization for cirrhotic portal hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Fei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary Introduction/objective: fast-tract surgery (FTS has been rapidly embraced by surgeons as a mechanism for improving patient care and driving down complications and costs. The aim of this study was to determine if any improvement in outcomes occurred after FTS protocol for selective double portazygous disconnection with preserving vagus (SDPDPV compared with non-FTS postoperative care. Methods: patients eligible for SDPDPV in the period January 2012-April 2014 were randomly selected for the FTS group or non-FTS group. A designed protocol was used in the FTS group with emphasis on an interdisciplinary approach. The non-FTS group was treated using previously established standard procedures. The number of postoperative complications, time of functional recovery and duration of hospital stay were recorded. Results: patients in the FTS group (n=59 and non-FTS group (n=57 did not differ in terms of preoperative data and operative details (p>0.05. The FTS procedure led to significantly better control and faster restoration of gastrointestinal functions, food tolerance, rehabilitation and hospital discharge (p<0.05. Postoperative complications, including nausea/vomiting, severe ascites, wound infection, urinary tract infection and pulmonary infection were all significantly lower in the FTS group (p<0.05. According to the postoperative morbidity classification used by Clavien, overall complications and grade I complications were both significantly lower in the FTS group compared with the non-FTS group (p<0.05. Conclusion: adopting the FTS protocol helped to recover gastrointestinal functions, to reduce frequency of postoperative complications and to reduce hospital stay. The FTS strategy is safe and effective in improving postoperative outcomes.

  11. Fast pattern recognition with the ATLAS L1Track trigger for HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00530554; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    A fast hardware based track trigger is being developed in ATLAS for the High Luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider. The goal is to achieve trigger levels in the high pile-up conditions of the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider that are similar or better than those achieved at low pile-up conditions by adding tracking information to the ATLAS hardware trigger. A method for fast pattern recognition using the Hough transform is investigated. In this method, detector hits are mapped onto a 2D parameter space with one parameter related to the transverse momentum and one to the initial track direction. The performance of the Hough transform is studied at different pile-up values. It is also compared, using full event simulation of events with average pile-up of 200, with a method based on matching detector hits to pattern banks of simulated tracks stored in a custom made Associative Memory ASICs. The pattern recognition is followed by a track fitting step which calculates the track parameters. The spee...

  12. Hardware-based Tracking at Trigger Level for ATLAS: The Fast TracKer (FTK) Project

    CERN Document Server

    Gramling, Johanna; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Physics collisions at 13 TeV are expected at the LHC with an average of 40-50 proton-proton collisions per bunch crossing. Tracking at trigger level is an essential tool to control the rate in high-pileup conditions while maintaining a good efficiency for relevant physics processes. The Fast TracKer (FTK) is an integral part of the trigger upgrade for the ATLAS detector. For every event passing the Level 1 trigger (at a maximum rate of 100 kHz) the FTK receives data from the 80 million channels of the silicon detectors, providing tracking information to the High Level Trigger in order to ensure a selection robust against pile-up. The FTK performs a hardware- based track reconstruction, using associative memory (AM) that is based on the use of a custom chip, designed to perform pattern matching at very high speed. It finds track candidates at low resolution (roads) that seed a full-resolution track fitting done by FPGAs. Narrow roads permit a fast track fitting but need many patterns stored in the AM to ensure...

  13. Hardware-based tracking at trigger level for ATLAS: The Fast Tracker (FTK) Project

    CERN Document Server

    Gramling, Johanna; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Physics collisions at 13 TeV are expected at the LHC with an average of 40-50 proton-proton collisions per bunch crossing. Tracking at trigger level is an essential tool to control the rate in high-pileup conditions while maintaining a good efficiency for relevant physics processes. The Fast TracKer (FTK) is an integral part of the trigger upgrade for the ATLAS detector. For every event passing the Level 1 trigger (at a maximum rate of 100 kHz) the FTK receives data from the 80 million channels of the silicon detectors, providing tracking information to the High Level Trigger in order to ensure a selection robust against pile-up. The FTK performs a hardware-based track reconstruction, using associative memory (AM) that is based on the use of a custom chip, designed to perform pattern matching at very high speed. It finds track candidates at low resolution (roads) that seed a full-resolution track fitting done by FPGAs. Narrow roads permit a fast track fitting but need many patterns stored in the AM to ensure ...

  14. A modified fast-track program for pancreatic surgery: a prospective single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Sebastiano, Pierluigi; Festa, Leonardina; De Bonis, Antonio; Ciuffreda, Andrea; Valvano, Maria Rosa; Andriulli, Angelo; di Mola, F Francesco

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of a fast-track protocol in a high-volume center for patients with pancreatic disorders. The concept of fast-track surgery allowing accelerated postoperative recovery is accepted in colorectal surgery, but efficacy data are only preliminary for patients undergoing major pancreatic surgery. We aimed to evaluate the impact of a modified fast-track protocol in a high-volume center for patients with pancreatic disorders. Between February 2005 and January 2010, 145 subjects had resective pancreatic surgery and were enrolled in the program. Essential features of the program were no preanaesthetic medication, upper and lower air-warming device, avoidance of excessive i.v. fluids perioperatively, effective control of pain, early reinstitution of oral feeding, and immediate mobilization and restoration of bowel function following surgery. Outcome measures were postoperative complications such as pancreatic fistula, delayed gastric emptying, biliary leak, intra-abdominal abscess, post-pancreatectomy hemorrhage, acute pancreatitis, wound infection, 30-day mortality, postoperative hospital stay, and readmission rates. On average, patients were discharged on postoperative day 10 (range 6-69), with a 30-day readmission rate of 6.2%. Percentage of patients with at least one complication was 38.6%. Pancreatic anastomotic leakage occurred in seven of 101 pancreatico-jejunostomies, and biliary leak in three of 109 biliary jejunostomies. Postoperative hemorrhage occurred in ten (6.9%) patients and wound infection in nine (6.2%) cases. In-hospital mortality was 2.7%. Fast-track parameters, such as normal food and first stool, correlated significantly with early discharge (jaundice, and resumption of normal diet by the 5th postoperative day were independent factors of early discharge. Fast-track programs are feasible, easy, and also applicable for patients undergoing a major surgery such as pancreatic resection.

  15. Fast Track Extubation In Adult Patients On Pump Open Heart Surgery At A Tertiary Care Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Mohammad Irfan; Sharif, Hasanat; Hamid, Mohammad; Samad, Khalid; Khan, Fazal Hameed

    2016-01-01

    Fast-track cardiac surgery programs have been established as the standard of cardiac surgical care. Studies have shown that early extubation in elective cardiac surgery patients, including coronary and non-coronary open-heart surgery patients does not increase perioperative morbidity and mortality. The objective of this observational study was to determine the success and failure profile of fast track extubation (FTE) practice in adult open-heart surgical patients. The study was conducted at cardiac operating room and Cardiac Intensive Care Unit (CICU) of a tertiary care hospital for a period of nine months, i.e., from Oct 2014 to June-2015. All on pump elective adult cardiac surgery patients including isolated CABG, isolated Valve replacements, combined procedures and aortic root replacements were enrolled in the study. Standardized anesthetic technique was adopted. Surgical and bypass techniques were tailored according to the procedure. Success of Fast track extubation was defined as extubation within 6 hours of arrival in CICU. A total of 290 patients were recruited. The average age of the patients was 56.3±10.5 years. There were 77.6% male and 22.4% female patients. Overall success rate was 51.9% and failure rate was 48.1%. The peri-operative renal insufficiency, cross clamp time and CICU stay (hours) were significantly lower in success group. Re-intubation rate was 0.74%. The perioperative parameters were significantly better in success group and the safety was also demonstrated in the patients who were fast tracked successfully. To implement the practice in its full capacity and benefit, a fast track protocol needs to be devised to standardize the current practices and to disseminate the strategy among junior anaesthesiologists, perfusionists and nursing staff.

  16. The yield of colorectal cancer among fast track patients with normocytic and microcytic anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotopoulou, I G; Fitzrol, D; Parker, R A; Kuzhively, J; Luscombe, N; Wells, A D; Menon, M; Bajwa, F M; Watson, M A

    2014-05-01

    We receive fast track referrals on the basis of iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) for patients with normocytic anaemia or for patients with no iron studies. This study examined the yield of colorectal cancer (CRC) among fast track patients to ascertain whether awaiting confirmation of IDA is necessary prior to performing bowel investigations. A review was undertaken of 321 and 930 consecutive fast track referrals from Centre A and Centre B respectively. Contingency tables were analysed using Fisher's exact test. Logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate significant predictors of CRC. Overall, 229 patients were included from Centre A and 689 from Centre B. The odds ratio for microcytic anaemia versus normocytic anaemia in the outcome of CRC was 1.3 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.5-3.9) for Centre A and 1.6 (95% CI: 0.8-3.3) for Centre B. In a logistic regression analysis (Centre B only), no significant difference in CRC rates was seen between microcytic and normocytic anaemia (adjusted odds ratio: 1.9, 95% CI: 0.9-3.9). There was no statistically significant difference in the yield of CRC between microcytic and normocytic anaemia (p=0.515, Fisher's exact test) in patients with anaemia only and no colorectal symptoms. Finally, CRC cases were seen in both microcytic and normocytic groups with or without low ferritin. There is no significant difference in the yield of CRC between fast track patients with microcytic and normocytic anaemia. This study provides insufficient evidence to support awaiting confirmation of IDA in fast track patients with normocytic anaemia prior to requesting bowel investigations.

  17. Fast tracking in adult cardiac surgery at Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, N.; Khan, F.; Zahoor, M.; Rafique, M.; Faisal, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Early extubation after cardiac operation is an important aspect of fast-track cardiac anaesthesia. The length of stay in ICU limits utilisation of operation theatre in cardiac surgery. Increasing cost, limited resources, and newer surgical strategies have stimulated effectiveness of all routines in cardiac surgery, anaesthesia, and intensive care. Aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of fast-tracking in adult cardiac surgery and its effects on post operative recovery in our setup. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted over 14 months between Jul 16, 2007 to Sep 16, 2008. All the open heart cases were included unless absolute contraindications were there. We applied the rapid recovery protocol adopted from Oslo Hospital Norway in an attempt to achieve fast-tracking in our setup. Results: Two-hundred-seventy-four consecutive cases out of 400 operated cases were included in this study. Mean age was 47.69 +- 15.11 years, 27.7% were females, 5.8% were emergency cases, 5.1% were COPD, 11.1% were atrial fibrillation, and 6.9% were NYHA class-III cases. CABG was done in 66.1% cases and mean CPB-time was 75.92 +- 16.20 min. Mean Ventilation-time was 4.47+-4.48 hrs., 86% patients were fast-tracked to be extubated within 6 hours, and 85.4% patients remained free of post-op complications. Six (2.2%) re-intubatIions, 2.6% arrhythmias, 6.6% pleural effusions and 2.2% consolidation were observed post-operatively. Mean ICU stay was 2.49 +- 0.95 days and in-hospital mortality was 2.2%. Conclusion: Fast-tracking with extubation within 6 hours is feasible approach which minimises the post-operative complications significantly in adult cardiac surgical patients. (author)

  18. Proposed fuel cycle for the Integral Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burris, L.; Walters, L.C.

    1985-01-01

    One of the key features of ANL's Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept is a close-coupled fuel cycle. The proposed fuel cycle is similar to that demonstrated over the first five to six years of operation of EBR-II, when a fuel cycle facility adjacent to EBR-II was operated to reprocess and refabricate rapidly fuel discharged from the EBR-II. Locating the IFR and its fuel cycle facility on the same site makes the IFR a self-contained system. Because the reactor fuel and the uranium blanket are metals, pyrometallurgical processes (shortned to ''pyroprocesses'') have been chosen. The objectives of the IFR processes for the reactor fuel and blanket materials are to (1) recover fissionable materials in high yield; (2) remove fission products adequately from the reactor fuel, e.g., a decontamination factor of 10 to 100; and (3) upgrade the concentration of plutonium in uranium sufficiently to replenish the fissile-material content of the reactor fuel. After the fuel has been reconstituted, new fuel elements will be fabricated for recycle to the reactor

  19. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION A DFT + DMFT approach for nanosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkowski, Volodymyr; Kabir, Alamgir; Nayyar, Neha; Rahman, Talat S.

    2010-11-01

    We propose a combined density-functional-theory-dynamical-mean-field-theory (DFT + DMFT) approach for reliable inclusion of electron-electron correlation effects in nanosystems. Compared with the widely used DFT + U approach, this method has several advantages, the most important of which is that it takes into account dynamical correlation effects. The formalism is illustrated through different calculations of the magnetic properties of a set of small iron clusters (number of atoms 2 <= N <= 5). It is shown that the inclusion of dynamical effects leads to a reduction in the cluster magnetization (as compared to results from DFT + U) and that, even for such small clusters, the magnetization values agree well with experimental estimations. These results justify confidence in the ability of the method to accurately describe the magnetic properties of clusters of interest to nanoscience.

  20. Prototypdetektoren für das geplante Upgradeprojekt 'Muon Track Fast Tag' am CMS-Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Weingarten, Simon; Stahl, Achim

    Upgrading the muon system will be one of the major challenges for the CMS experiment atthe projected high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) with an expected instantaneous luminosityof L = 1035 /(cm2 · s). Most importantly, the muon trigger rate has to be reduced inorder to keep the level 1 trigger rate inside the reserved bandwidth. Another concernthat has to be dealt with is the rising number of ambiguities in the muon chambers dueto simultaneously traversing muons, so-called ghost hits. With the Muon Track fast Tag(MTT), a new detector subsystem between the CMS solenoid and the first muon stationis proposed to solve these problems. An implementation of the MTT system based on fastplastic scintillators read out by silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) is under development atthe Physics Institute III of RWTH Aachen University.In this thesis, results of prototype detectors with 100 × 100 × 5 mm3 scintillator-tilesand dual SiPM-readout are presented. All studies have been done with cosmic muons andfocus on parameter optimi...

  1. The Fast Tracker Real Time Processor: high quality real-time tracking at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Stabile, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    As the LHC luminosity is ramped up to the design level of 1x1034 cm−2 s−1 and beyond, the high rates, multiplicities, and energies of particles seen by the detectors will pose a unique challenge. Only a tiny fraction of the produced collisions can be stored on tape and immense real-time data reduction is needed. An effective trigger system must maintain high trigger efficiencies for the most important physics and at the same time suppress the enormous QCD backgrounds. This requires massive computing power to minimize the online execution time of complex algorithms. A multi-level trigger is an effective solution for an otherwise impossible problem. The Fast Tracker (FTK)[1], [2] is a proposed upgrade to the current ATLAS trigger system that will operate at full Level-1 output rates and provide high quality tracks reconstructed over the entire detector by the start of processing in Level-2. FTK is a dedicated Super Computer based on a mixture of advanced technologies. The architecture broadly employs powerf...

  2. Fast-track program vs traditional care in surgery for gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Xing; Liu, Ae-Huey Jennifer; Cen, Ying

    2014-01-14

    To systematically review the evidence for the effectiveness of fast-track program vs traditional care in laparoscopic or open surgery for gastric cancer. PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane library databases were electronically searched for published studies between January 1995 and April 2013, and only randomized trials were included. The references of relevant studies were manually searched for further studies that may have been missed. Search terms included "gastric cancer", "fast track" and "enhanced recovery". Five outcome variables were considered most suitable for analysis: postoperative hospital stay, medical cost, duration to first flatus, C-reactive protein (CRP) level and complications. Postoperative hospital stay was calculated from the date of operation to the date of discharge. Fixed effects model was used for meta-analysis. Compared with traditional care, fast-track program could significantly decrease the postoperative hospital stay [weighted mean difference (WMD) = -1.19, 95%CI: -1.79--0.60, P = 0.0001, fixed model], duration to first flatus (WMD = -6.82, 95%CI: -11.51--2.13, P = 0.004), medical costs (WMD = -2590, 95%CI: -4054--1126, P = 0.001), and the level of CRP (WMD = -17.78, 95%CI: -32.22--3.35, P = 0.0001) in laparoscopic surgery for gastric cancer. In open surgery for gastric cancer, fast-track program could also significantly decrease the postoperative hospital stay (WMD = -1.99, 95%CI: -2.09--1.89, P = 0.0001), duration to first flatus (WMD = -12.0, 95%CI: -18.89--5.11, P = 0.001), medical cost (WMD = -3674, 95%CI: -5025--2323, P = 0.0001), and the level of CRP (WMD = -27.34, 95%CI: -35.42--19.26, P = 0.0001). Furthermore, fast-track program did not significantly increase the incidence of complication (RR = 1.39, 95%CI: 0.77-2.51, P = 0.27, for laparoscopic surgery; and RR = 1.52, 95%CI: 0.90-2.56, P = 0.12, for open surgery). Our overall results suggested that compared with traditional care, fast-track program could result in shorter

  3. Proposal of a fast gas-cooled reactor using transuranics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macedo, Anderson Altair Pinheiro de

    2016-01-01

    In the last two decades, nations that have invested in research and energy generation through nuclear source have devoted part of their efforts in developing new technologies for nuclear reactors. Part of this investment focuses on new material testing, particularly regarding new fuels. In a world view that breaths sustainability, the reprocess and reuse of spent fuel from conventional reactors comes alive in nuclear technology, presenting itself as a real alternative of energy source for the latest generation of reactors. Different concepts of fourth generation reactors have been proposed and must meet some basic requirements, such as: extended burnup, improvement of passive safety, better radioactive waste management, possibility to use reprocessed fuel and proliferation resistance. In this context, the GFR (Gas-cooled Fast Reactor) is one of the future promises, presenting satisfactory neutronic results on the use of type of fuel (U, Pu) C. In the present work, the fuel of a traditional GFR reactor that uses (U, Pu)C was sub was replaced by a transuranic reprocessed fuel (TRU), obtained by non-proliferation reprocessing technology. The UO 2 fuel initially enriched by 3.1% was burned in a standard PWR, with full burn of 33,000 MWd/T. Afterward it was left in a pool for 5 years and finally reprocessed by UREX + method. Two fuels were studied and evaluated, one diluted with depleted uranium (U, TRU)C, and the other diluted in thorium (Th, TRU)C. Assessments were done in steady state and as well as during burning and were compared with results obtained using the standard fuel, (U, Pu) C. The outcome shows that the use of TRU as a fuel, in GFR type reactors, is a real possibility. The research was done using the SCALE 6.0 code modules. (author)

  4. Implementation and Performance of FPGA based track fitting for the Atlas Fast TracKer

    CERN Document Server

    Zou, Rui; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The Fast TracKer (FTK) within the ATLAS trigger system provides global track reconstruction for all events passing the ATLAS Level 1 trigger by dividing the detector into parallel processing pipelines that implement pattern matching in custom integrated circuits and data routing, reduction, and parameter extraction in FPGAs. In this presentation we will describe the implementation of a critical component of the system which does partial track fitting using a method based on a principal component analysis at a rate of greater than 1 fit per 10 ps, system-wide, to reduce the output of the pattern matching. Firmware design, timing performance and preliminary results will be discussed.

  5. Fast neutron dosimetry by means of different solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurny, F.; Turek, K.

    1977-01-01

    The comparative study of three different types of fast neutron dosimeters based on solid state nuclear track detectors is presented; the dosimeters studied were: - microscopic soda glass in contact with 232 Th; - polycarbonate Makrofol E; and - cellulose nitrate Kodak LR 115. All detectors were evaluated by visual counting in a microscope. The authors have studied such properties as the background, angular as well as energetical dependences of detectors. The results obtained show that all studied detectors are suitable for fast neutron dosimetry; their application depends however on the concrete experimental conditions (neutron spectrum, fluence etc.). Both advantages and disadvantages of each of them are presented. (Auth.)

  6. Most patients regain prefracture basic mobility after hip fracture surgery in a fast-track programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten Tange; Kehlet, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of patients with hip fracture has improved over the past decade. Still, some patients do not regain independent mobility within their primary hospital stay even if they follow a multimodal fast-track surgical programme. The aim of the present article was to examine the validity of the p......Treatment of patients with hip fracture has improved over the past decade. Still, some patients do not regain independent mobility within their primary hospital stay even if they follow a multimodal fast-track surgical programme. The aim of the present article was to examine the validity...... of the preliminary prefracture New Mobility Score (NMS), age and fracture type as independent predictors of in-hospital outcome after hip fracture surgery....

  7. Orthostatic intolerance during early mobilization after fast-track hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jans, O; Bundgaard-Nielsen, M; Solgaard, S

    2012-01-01

    has not been established after THA. This study evaluated the cardiovascular response and tissue oxygenation to mobilization before and after surgery in relation to OI in fast-track THA patients. METHODS: /st>OI and the cardiovascular response to standing were evaluated with a standardized mobilization......BACKGROUND: /st>Early postoperative mobilization is a cornerstone in fast-track total hip arthroplasty (THA), but postoperative orthostatic intolerance (OI) may delay early recovery or lead to fainting, falls, and prosthesis dislocation or fracture. However, the prevalence and pathophysiology of OI...... protocol, before, 6, and 24 h after surgery in 26 patients undergoing THA with spinal anaesthesia and an opioid-sparing analgesic regime. Haemoglobin, fluid balance, and opioid use were recorded. Systolic (SAP) and diastolic (DAP) arterial pressure, heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO...

  8. Fast track diagnosis as a means of reducing diagnostic delay in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Bach; Vedsted, Peter; Olesen, Frede

    of cancer and expanded services to the general practitioners. Objective: To investigate the diagnostic delay of cancer, patient and provider satisfaction and health economic aspects in two Danish regions with special emphasis on the possible benefits of fast track diagnosis. Methods: The study......Background: Denmark has the highest morbidity and mortality from cancer in Western Europe, and studies suggest that Danish cancer patients are diagnosed at a later stage than patients in the other Nordic countries. To address this issue a Danish hospital has introduced fast track diagnosis...... will be designed as a cross-sectional study with the construction of a clinical database of all incident cancers in two Danish regions within a year (12,000 patients). Data will be collected from general practitioners, patients and national registers. In the first part of the analysis the general variation...

  9. How Does the Fast Track Intervention Prevent Adverse Outcomes in Young Adulthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Lucy C; Dodge, Kenneth A

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that childhood interventions can foster improved outcomes in adulthood. Less well understood is precisely how-that is, through which developmental pathways-these interventions work. This study assesses mechanisms by which the Fast Track project (n = 891), a randomized intervention in the early 1990s for high-risk children in four communities (Durham, NC; Nashville, TN; rural PA; and Seattle, WA), reduced delinquency, arrests, and general and mental health service utilization in adolescence through young adulthood (ages 12-20). A decomposition of treatment effects indicates that about a third of Fast Track's impact on later crime outcomes can be accounted for by improvements in social and self-regulation skills during childhood (ages 6-11), such as prosocial behavior, emotion regulation, and problem solving. These skills proved less valuable for the prevention of general and mental health problems. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  10. High patient satisfaction in 445 patients who underwent fast-track hip or knee replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, Kirsten; Kjaersgaard-Andersen, Per; Kehlet, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Patient satisfaction is important in fast-track total hip and knee replacement (THR, TKR). We assessed: (1) how satisfied patients were with the treatment; (2) factors related to overall satisfaction; and (3) whether there was a difference between THR and TKR regarding...... length of stay (LOS) and patient satisfaction. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this follow-up study, a consecutive series of 445 patients undergoing THR and TKR completed a questionnaire 2 weeks after discharge. LOS and short-term patient satisfaction with the fast-track management were measured. Patient...... satisfaction was measured using a numerical rating scale (NRS; 0-10). RESULTS: For THR, the median satisfaction score was 9-10 and for TKR it was 8.5-10 in all parameters. Older THR patients had higher overall satisfaction. No association was found between overall satisfaction following THR or TKR and sex...

  11. A fast track path improves access to palliative care for people with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitington, Jane; Ma, Peng

    People with learning disabilities often experience inequalities in accessing general health services. This group, their families and carers need access to effective palliative care when facing a life limiting illness. This article describes the development and implementation of a fast track referral pathway for people with learning disabilities at St Francis Hospice in Essex. Our aim is to share this pathway so others can replicate the collaborative working to improve access to palliative care services for this group.

  12. Patient-reported outcome after fast-track hip arthroplasty: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansen Torben B

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A fast-track intervention with a short preoperative optimization period and short postoperative hospitalization has a potential for reduced convalescence and thereby a reduced need for postoperative rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to describe patient-related outcomes, the need for additional rehabilitation after a fast-track total hip arthroplasty (THA, and the association between generic and disease specific outcomes. Methods The study consisted of 196 consecutive patients of which none received additional rehabilitation beyond an instructional exercise plan at discharge, which was adjusted at one in-patient visit. The patients filled in 3 questionnaires to measure health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL and hip specific function (EQ-5 D, SF36, and Harris Hip Score (HHS at 2 time points pre- and 2 time points postoperatively. The observed results were compared to normative population data for EQ-5 D, SF36, and HHS. Results 3-months postoperatively patients had reached a HRQOL level of 0.84 (SD, 0.14, which was similar to the population norm (P = 0.33, whereas they exceeded the population norm at 12 months postoperatively (P P P = 0.35. For HHS, patients never reached the population norm within 12 months postoperatively. Generic and disease specific outcomes were strongly associated. Conclusions If HRQOL is considered the primary outcome after THA, the need for additional postoperative rehabilitation for all THA patients following a fast-track intervention is questionable. However, a pre- or early postoperative physical intervention seems relevant if the PF of the population norm should be reached at 3 months. If disease specific outcome is considered the primary outcome after fast-track THA, clear goals for the rehabilitation must be established before patient selection, intervention type and timing of intervention can be made.

  13. The Effects of the Fast Track Preventive Intervention on the Development of Conduct Disorder Across Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The impact of the Fast Track intervention on externalizing disorders across childhood was examined. Eight hundred-ninety-one early-starting children (69% male; 51% African American) were randomly assigned by matched sets of schools to intervention or control conditions. The 10-year intervention addressed parent behavior-management, child social cognitive skills, reading, home visiting, mentoring, and classroom curricula. Outcomes included psychiatric diagnoses after grades 3, 6, 9, and 12 for...

  14. Preoperative prediction of potentially preventable morbidity after fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christoffer C; Petersen, Morten Aa; Kehlet, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    . DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Elective primary unilateral total hip and knee arthroplasty with prospectively collected preoperative patient characteristics; similar standardised fast-track protocols; evaluation of complications through discharge and medical records; and complete 90...... days follow-up through nationwide databases. PARTICIPANTS: 8373 consecutive unselected total hip arthroplasty (THA) and knee arthroplasty from January 2010 to November 2012. RESULTS: There were 557 procedures (6.4%) followed by potentially preventable complications resulting in hospitalisation >4 days...

  15. Maintaining Unity - relatives in older patients' fast-track treatment programmes. A grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher; Lindhardt, Tove; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2014-12-01

    To generate a substantive grounded theory of relatives' pattern of behaviour in older patients' fast-track treatment programmes during total hip or knee replacement. Fast-track treatment programmes are designed to make total hip and knee replacements more efficient through recovery improvements. The support of relatives during older patients' trajectory is important. However, knowledge is needed on the relatives' pattern of behaviour to strengthen their involvement in fast-track treatment programmes. We used a Glaserian grounded theory approach based on a systematic generation of theory from data to explain the latent pattern of behaviour of relatives. Data were collected from 2010-2011 in orthopaedic wards at two Danish university hospitals and consisted of 14 non-participant observations, 14 postobservational interviews and five interviews. Seven relatives of patients over 70 years of age participated. The constant comparative method was the guiding principle for simultaneous data collection, data analysis and coding, while theoretically sampling and writing memos. Maintaining Unity emerged as the relatives' pattern of behaviour through which they resolved their main concern: preventing the patients from feeling alone. The relatives resolved their main concern through three interchangeable behavioural modes: Protecting Mode, by providing loving and respectful support; Substituting Mode, with practical and cognitive support; and an Adapting Mode, by trying to fit in with the patients' and health professionals' requirements. The substantive theory of Maintaining Unity offers knowledge of relatives' strong desire to provide compassionate and loving support for the older patients during fast-track treatment programmes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Fast-track rehabilitation in elective colorectal surgery patients: a prospective clinical and immunological single-centre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, Matthias W; Eben, Ricarda; Angele, Martin K; Brandenburg, Franzis; Goetz, Alwin E; Jauch, Karl-Walter

    2007-07-01

    Recent clinical data indicate that fast-track surgery (multimodal rehabilitation) leads to shorter postoperative length of hospital stay, faster recovery of gastrointestinal function as well as reduced morbidity and mortality rates. To date, no study has focused on the effects of fast-track surgery on postoperative immune function. This study was initiated to determine whether fast-track rehabilitation results in improved clinical and immunological outcome of patients undergoing colorectal surgery. Forty patients underwent either conventional or fast-track rehabilitation after colorectal surgery. In addition to clinical parameters (return of gastrointestinal function, food intake, pain score, complication rates and postoperative length of stay), we determined parameters of perioperative immunity by flow cytometry (lymphocyte subgroups) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (interleukin-6). Our findings indicate a better-preserved cell-mediated immune function (T cells, T-helper cells, natural killer cells) after fast-track rehabilitation, whereas the pro-inflammatory response (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6) was unchanged in both study groups. Furthermore, we detected a significantly faster return of gastrointestinal function (first bowel movement P<0.001, food intake P<0.05), significantly reduced pain scores in the postoperative course (P < 0.05) and a significantly shorter length of postoperative stay (P<0.001) in patients undergoing fast-track rehabilitation. Fast-track rehabilitation after colorectal surgery results in better-preserved cell-mediated immunity when compared with conventional postoperative care. Furthermore, patients undergoing fast-track rehabilitation suffer from less pain and have a faster return of gastrointestinal function in the postoperative course. In addition, postoperative length of hospital stay was significantly shorter in fast-track patients.

  17. A proposed defect tracking model for classifying the inserted defect reports to enhance software quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Torky; Khedr, Ayman E; Sayed, Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    NONE DECLARED Defect tracking systems play an important role in the software development organizations as they can store historical information about defects. There are many research in defect tracking models and systems to enhance their capabilities to be more specifically tracking, and were adopted with new technology. Furthermore, there are different studies in classifying bugs in a step by step method to have clear perception and applicable method in detecting such bugs. This paper shows a new proposed defect tracking model for the purpose of classifying the inserted defects reports in a step by step method for more enhancement of the software quality.

  18. Electrochemical etching amplification of low-let recoil particle tracks in polymers for fast neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohrabi, M.; Morgan, K.Z.

    1975-11-01

    An electrochemical etching method for the amplification of fast-neutron-induced recoil particle tracks in polymers was investigated. The technique gave superior results over those obtained by conventional etching methods especially when polycarbonate foils were used for recoil particle track amplification. Electrochemical etching systems capable of multi-foil processing were designed and constructed to demonstrate the feasibility of the techniques for large-scale neutron dosimetry. Electrochemical etching parameters were studied including the nature or type of the polymer foil used, foil thickness and its effect on etching time, the applied voltage and its frequency, the chemical composition, concentration, and temperature of the etchant, distance and angle between the electrodes, and the type of particles such as recoil particles including protons. Recoil particle track density, mean track diameter, and optical density as functions of the mentioned parameters were determined. Each parameter was found to have a distinct effect on the etching results in terms of the measured responses. Several new characteristics of this fast neutron dosimetry method were studied especially for personnel dosimetry using various radiation sources such as nuclear reactors, medical cyclotrons, and isotopic neutron sources. The dose range, neutron energy dependence, directional response, fading characteristics, neutron threshold energy, etc. were investigated

  19. Serious renal and urological complications in fast-track primary total hip and knee arthroplasty; a detailed observational cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lars S; Jorgensen, Christoffer C; Kehlet, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    of stay > 4 days or 30-day readmissions after fast-track THA and TKA, we conducted a detailed observational study based upon prospectively collected pre-operative data and a complete 30-day follow-up on complications and re-admissions in a unselected cohort of 8,804 consecutive fast-track THAs and TKAs......BACKGROUND: Overall medical complications have been reduced after fast-track total hip (THA) and knee arthroplasty (TKA), but data on specific renal and urological (RU) complications are limited. METHODS: To describe the incidence and consequences of serious RU complications resulting in length...

  20. Slovakia: Proposal of movable reflector for fast reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrban, B.

    2015-01-01

    In fast reactors a larger migration area leading to a significant leak of neutrons can be observed because especially the transport cross-sections are in general smaller as compared to light water reactors. The utilization of a moveable reflector system in conjunction with dedicated safety control rods can increase the ability of accident managing due to enhanced escaping neutrons which otherwise would be reflected back into the fuel zone. The paper demonstrates the possibility of better controlling the transient reactor by additionally moving selected reflector subassemblies equipped with the neutron trap. The main purpose of the analysis of the Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) presented in the full paper is investigation of the kinetic parameters and of the control and reflector rod worth, as well as optimization of the parts used for partial reflector withdrawal. The results found in this study may serve for future design improvements of other designs such as the liquid metal cooled fast reactors

  1. Orchestrating care through the fast-track perspective: Orthopaedic nurses’ perceptions and experiences of providing individualised nursing care in older patients’ standardised fast-track programmes after total hip or knee replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøttcher Berthelsen, Connie; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    The lack of individualised care in orthopaedic regimes is often explained by the extended use of patient pathways and clinical guidelines. The aim of this study was to illuminate orthopaedic nurses' perceptions and experiences of providing individual nursing care for older patients in standardised...... fast-track programmes after total hip or knee replacement. Ten semi-structured interviews were conducted with orthopaedic nurses in orthopaedic wards at three Danish hospitals between April and June of 2015. Data were analysed using manifest and latent content analysis according to Graneheim...... and Lundman. The main theme of the overall interpretation was Orchestrating care through the fast-track perspective, accompanied by three sub-themes: Identifying and legitimising relevant individual care in the fast-track programme, Struggling to fit all patients in the fast-track programme and Justifying...

  2. International collaborative project to compare and track the nutritional composition of fast foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic diseases are the leading cause of premature death and disability in the world with over-nutrition a primary cause of diet-related ill health. Excess quantities of energy, saturated fat, sugar and salt derived from fast foods contribute importantly to this disease burden. Our objective is to collate and compare nutrient composition data for fast foods as a means of supporting improvements in product formulation. Methods/design Surveys of fast foods will be done in each participating country each year. Information on the nutrient composition for each product will be sought either through direct chemical analysis, from fast food companies, in-store materials or from company websites. Foods will be categorized into major groups for the primary analyses which will compare mean levels of saturated fat, sugar, sodium, energy and serving size at baseline and over time. Countries currently involved include Australia, New Zealand, France, UK, USA, India, Spain, China and Canada, with more anticipated to follow. Discussion This collaborative approach to the collation and sharing of data will enable low-cost tracking of fast food composition around the world. This project represents a significant step forward in the objective and transparent monitoring of industry and government commitments to improve the quality of fast foods.

  3. International collaborative project to compare and track the nutritional composition of fast foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    Chronic diseases are the leading cause of premature death and disability in the world with over-nutrition a primary cause of diet-related ill health. Excess quantities of energy, saturated fat, sugar and salt derived from fast foods contribute importantly to this disease burden. Our objective is to collate and compare nutrient composition data for fast foods as a means of supporting improvements in product formulation. Surveys of fast foods will be done in each participating country each year. Information on the nutrient composition for each product will be sought either through direct chemical analysis, from fast food companies, in-store materials or from company websites. Foods will be categorized into major groups for the primary analyses which will compare mean levels of saturated fat, sugar, sodium, energy and serving size at baseline and over time. Countries currently involved include Australia, New Zealand, France, UK, USA, India, Spain, China and Canada, with more anticipated to follow. This collaborative approach to the collation and sharing of data will enable low-cost tracking of fast food composition around the world. This project represents a significant step forward in the objective and transparent monitoring of industry and government commitments to improve the quality of fast foods.

  4. Fast parallel tracking algorithm for the muon detector of the CBM experiment at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, A.; Hoehne, C.; Kisel', I.; Ososkov, G.

    2010-01-01

    Particle trajectory recognition is an important and challenging task in the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at the future FAIR accelerator at Darmstadt. The tracking algorithms have to process terabytes of input data produced in particle collisions. Therefore, the speed of the tracking software is extremely important for data analysis. In this contribution, a fast parallel track reconstruction algorithm, which uses available features of modern processors is presented. These features comprise a SIMD instruction set (SSE) and multithreading. The first allows one to pack several data items into one register and to operate on all of them in parallel thus achieving more operations per cycle. The second feature enables the routines to exploit all available CPU cores and hardware threads. This parallel version of the tracking algorithm has been compared to the initial serial scalar version which uses a similar approach for tracking. A speed-upfactor of 487 was achieved (from 730 to 1.5 ms/event) for a computer with 2 x Intel Core 17 processors at 2.66 GHz

  5. Hardware-based Tracking at Trigger Level for ATLAS the Fast TracKer (FTK) Project

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00245767

    2015-01-01

    Physics collisions at 13 TeV are expected at the LHC with an average of 40-50 proton-proton collisions per bunch crossing under nominal conditions. Tracking at trigger level is an essential tool to control the rate in high-pileup conditions while maintaining a good efficiency for relevant physics processes. The Fast TracKer is an integral part of the trigger upgrade for the ATLAS detector. For every event passing the Level-1 trigger (at a maximum rate of 100 kHz) the FTK receives data from all the channels of the silicon detectors, providing tracking information to the High Level Trigger in order to ensure a selection robust against pile-up. The FTK performs a hardware-based track reconstruction, using associative memory that is based on the use of a custom chip, designed to perform pattern matching at very high speed. It finds track candidates at low resolution (roads) that seed a full-resolution track fitting done by FPGAs. An overview of the FTK system with focus on the pattern matching procedure will be p...

  6. A fast track approach to commercializing the sodium cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, C.E.; Hui, Marvin; Carroll, Douglas

    1999-01-01

    As a result of more than 50 years of Liquid Metal Reactor design and development work the basic technology is well understood. However, commercialization of the Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) has been delayed while various approaches to achieving competitive plant and fuel cycle costs are explored, developed, and demonstrated in prototype systems. Most designers have elected to take advantage of the economy of scale but are burdened by the cost and risk associated with the need for incremental scale up through the design, construction, and operation of multiple demonstration plants. An alternative commercialization path developed by GE would utilize a modular plant design to reduce the plant construction, R and D, and economic risk associated with the need to build multiple demonstration plants to reach a competitive size'. The key question is can a modular FBR compete with alternative electrical generation systems? Recently completed studies indicate that the answer to this question is yes if the modular plant designers keep the design simple by incorporating passive safety features and optimizing the manner in which supporting service systems are shared. (author)

  7. Proposed hardware architectures of particle filter for object tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Halym, Howida A.; Mahmoud, Imbaby Ismail; Habib, SED

    2012-12-01

    In this article, efficient hardware architectures for particle filter (PF) are presented. We propose three different architectures for Sequential Importance Resampling Filter (SIRF) implementation. The first architecture is a two-step sequential PF machine, where particle sampling, weight, and output calculations are carried out in parallel during the first step followed by sequential resampling in the second step. For the weight computation step, a piecewise linear function is used instead of the classical exponential function. This decreases the complexity of the architecture without degrading the results. The second architecture speeds up the resampling step via a parallel, rather than a serial, architecture. This second architecture targets a balance between hardware resources and the speed of operation. The third architecture implements the SIRF as a distributed PF composed of several processing elements and central unit. All the proposed architectures are captured using VHDL synthesized using Xilinx environment, and verified using the ModelSim simulator. Synthesis results confirmed the resource reduction and speed up advantages of our architectures.

  8. Faster recovery of gastrointestinal transit after laparoscopy and fast-track care in patients undergoing colonic surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bree, Sjoerd; Vlug, Malaika; Bemelman, Willem; Hollmann, Markus; Ubbink, Dirk; Zwinderman, Koos; de Jonge, Wouter; Snoek, Susanne; Bolhuis, Karen; van der Zanden, Esmerij; The, Frans; Bennink, Roel; Boeckxstaens, Guy

    2011-01-01

    Postoperative ileus is characterized by delayed gastrointestinal (GI) transit and is a major determinant of recovery after colorectal surgery. Both laparoscopic surgery and fast-track multimodal perioperative care have been reported to improve clinical recovery. However, objective measures

  9. Proposed University of California Berkeley fast pulsar search machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, S.R.; Backer, D.C.; Werthimer, D.; Heiles, C.

    1984-01-01

    With the discovery of 1937+21 by Backer et al. (1982) there is much renewed interest in an all sky survey for fast pulsars. University of California Berkeley has designed and is in the process of building an innovative and powerful, stand-alone, real-time, digital signal-processor to conduct an all sky survey for pulsars with rotation rates as high as 2000 Hz and dispersion measures less than 120 cm -3 pc at 800 MHz. The machine is anticipated to be completed in the Fall of 1985. The search technique consists of obtaining a 2-dimensional Fourier transform of the microwave signal. The transform is effected in two stages: a 64-channel, 3-level digital autocorrelator provides the radio frequency to delay transform and a fast 128K-point array processor effects the time to intensity fluctuation frequency transform. The use of a digital correlator allows flexibility in the choice of the observing radio frequency. Besides, the bandwidth is not fixed as in a multi-channel filter bank. In the machine, bandwidths can range from less than a MHz to 40 MHz. In the transform plane, the signature of a pulsar consists of harmonically related peaks which lie on a straight line which passes through the origin. The increased computational demand of a fast pulsar survey will be met by a combination of multi-CPU processing and pipeline design which involves a fast array processor and five commercial 68,000-based micro-processors. 6 references, 3 figures

  10. Vibrational energy relaxation: proposed pathway of fast local chromatin denaturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harder, D.; Greinert, R.

    2002-01-01

    The molecular mechanism responsible for the a component of exchange-type chromosome aberrations, of chromosome fragmentation and of reproductive cell death is one of the unsolved issues of radiation biology. Under review is whether vibrational energy relaxation in the constitutive biopolymers of chromatin, induced by inelastic energy deposition events and mediated via highly excited vibrational states, may provide a pathway of fast local chromatin denaturation, thereby producing the severe DNA lesion able to interact chemically with other, non-damaged chromatin. (author)

  11. Fast Track Open Partial Nephrectomy: Reduced Postoperative Length of Stay with a Goal-Directed Pathway Does Not Compromise Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Chughtai

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this study is to examine the feasibility of reducing postoperative hospital stay following open partial nephrectomy through the implementation of a goal directed clinical management pathway. Materials and Methods. A fast track clinical pathway for open partial nephrectomy was introduced in July 2006 at our institution. The pathway has daily goals and targets discharge for all patients on the 3rd postoperative day (POD. Defined goals are (1 ambulation and liquid diet on the evening of the operative day; (2 out of bed (OOB at least 4 times on POD 1; (3 removal of Foley catheter on the morning of POD 2; (4 removal of Jackson Pratt drain on the afternoon of POD 2; (4 discharge to home on POD 3. Patients and family are instructed in the fast track protocol preoperatively. Demographic data, tumor size, length of stay, and complications were captured in a prospective database, and compared to a control group managed consecutively immediately preceding the institution of the fast track clinical pathway. Results. Data on 33 consecutive patients managed on the fast track clinical pathway was compared to that of 25 control patients. Twenty two (61% out of 36 fast track patients and 4 (16% out of 25 control patients achieved discharge on POD 3. Overall, fast track patients had a shorter hospital stay than controls (median, 3 versus 4 days; P = .012. Age (median, 55 versus 57 years, tumor size (median, 2.5 versus 2.5 cm, readmission within 30 days (5.5% versus 5.1%, and complications (10.2% versus 13.8% were similar in the fast track patients and control, respectively. Conclusions. In the present series, a fast track clinical pathway after open partial nephrectomy reduced the postoperative length of hospital stay and did not appear to increase the postoperative complication rate.

  12. An innovative strategy to increase a professional workforce: the fast track initiative for health visitors in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayer, Lynn; Barriball, K Louise; Bliss, Julie; Bakhshi, Savita; While, Alison E

    2016-04-01

    Fast tracking is one strategy that organizations use to ameliorate workforce shortfalls by attracting new recruits, and accelerating their skills development and experience. In response to the Government's target of rapidly expanding the number of health visitors in England's National Health Service, the fast track initiative was launched to recruit newly qualified (fast track) as well as experienced (standard entry) nurses and midwives onto health visiting programmes. This paper evaluates the fast track initiative, from the perspective of fast track and standard entry students, practice teachers and health visitor managers. A mixed methods design was used comprising a questionnaire survey (n = 71 students), semi-structured interviews (n = 37 students), telephone interviews (n = 13 managers) and six focus groups (n = 24 practice teachers). Data were collected between April 2012 and July 2013. Descriptive statistics, t-tests and the Pearson Chi-square test were used to analyse the quantitative data. The qualitative data were analysed thematically. Motivations for health visiting as a career choice were similar for fast track and standard entry students, with career progression and interest in health promotion being key motivators. There was consensus that personal qualities and characteristics were more important than experience or qualifications. However, fast track students were significantly less confident about their public health competencies in leadership and management (p communication (p  0.5). Fast tracking offers a useful recruitment strategy in order to expand the health visitor workforce, but longitudinal research is needed to confirm benefits such as retention and career trajectories. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Fast neutron dosimetry using CR-39 track detectors with polyethylene as radiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, F.; Espinosa, G.; Golzarri, J.I.; Osorio, D.; Rangel, J.; Reyes, P.G.; Herrera, J.J.E.

    2013-01-01

    The chemical etching parameters (etching time, temperature, normality of etchant, etc.) for the use of CR-39 (allyl diglycol carbonate – Lantrack ® ) as a fast neutron dosimeter have been optimized. The CR-39 chips, placed under a 1.5 mm polyethylene radiator, were exposed for calibration to an 241 Am-Be source at different time intervals for a given neutron fluence. After several chemical etching processes of the detectors with different conditions, the optimum characteristics for the chemical etching were found at 6N KOH solution, 60 ± 1 °C, for 12 h. An accurate relationship between the dose and fluence calculations was obtained as a function of the track density. - Highlights: ► Optimum etching time for fast neutron irradiated CR-39 track detectors is found. ► Relationship between dose and fluence obtained as a function of the track density. ► Results are consistent with those reported elsewhere, and extend the dose range

  14. Physiotherapy Exercise After Fast-Track Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty: Time for Reconsideration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandholm, Thomas; Kehlet, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Bandholm T, Kehlet H. Physiotherapy exercise after fast-track total hip and knee arthroplasty: time for reconsideration? Major surgery, including total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA), is followed by a convalescence period, during which the loss of muscle strength......-track methodology or enhanced recovery programs. It is the nature of this methodology to systematically and scientifically optimize all perioperative care components, with the overall goal of enhancing recovery. This is also the case for the care component "physiotherapy exercise" after THA and TKA. The 2 latest...... meta-analyses on the effectiveness of physiotherapy exercise after THA and TKA generally conclude that physiotherapy exercise after THA and TKA either does not work or is not very effective. The reason for this may be that the "pill" of physiotherapy exercise typically offered after THA and TKA does...

  15. Fast neutron detection by means of an organic solid state track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerschel, B.; Streubel, G.

    1980-01-01

    Solid state track detectors consisting of cellulose triacetate foils are appropriate for measuring the fast neutron fluence without applying external radiators. Detector sensitivity has been determined as a function of neutron energy by performing irradiations with various neutron sources and monoenergetic neutrons of different energies. A comparison with theoretical results given in the literature for a simple model of track recording has shown sufficient agreement. The measuring errors and the influence of spectral changes in the neutron field on detector response are discussed for the studied method of fluence measurement. By means of these errors the measuring range has been determined for well defined irradiation conditions, taking into account spectral changes in the neutron field. (author)

  16. Fast Tracker: A Hardware Real Time Track Finder for the ATLAS Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Kimura, N; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Fast Tracker (FTK) is an integral part of the trigger upgrade program for the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). As the LHC luminosity approaches its design level of 10^34cm^−2s^−1, the combinatorial problem posed by charged particle tracking becomes increasingly difficult due to the swelling of multiple interactions per bunch crossing (pile-up). The FTK is a highly-parallel hardware system intended to provide high-quality tracks with transverse momentum above 1 GeV/c in real time for online trigger system. The FTK system’s design, based on a mixture of advanced technologies, and expected physics performance will be presented.

  17. Perioperative strategy in colonic surgery; LAparoscopy and/or FAst track multimodal management versus standard care (LAFA trial).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wind, J.; Hofland, J.; Preckel, B.; Hollman, M.W.; Bossuyt, P.M.M.; Gouma, D.J.; Berge Henegouwen, M.I.; Fuhring, J.W.; Dejong, C.H.C.; Dam, R.M. van; Cuesta, M.A.; Noordhuis, A.; Jong, D. de; Zalingen, E. van; Engel, A.F.; Goei, T.H.; Stoppelaar, I.E. de; Tets, W.F. van; Wagensveld, B.A. van; Swart, A.; Elsen, M.J.L.J. van den; Gerhards, M.F.; Wit, L.Th. De; Siepel, M.A.M.; Geloven, A.A.W. van; Juttmann, J.-W.; Clevers, J.C.; Bemelman, W.A.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent developments in large bowel surgery are the introduction of laparoscopic surgery and the implementation of multimodal fast track recovery programs. Both focus on a faster recovery and shorter hospital stay.The randomized controlled multicenter LAFA-trial (LAparoscopy and/or FAst

  18. Perioperative strategy in colonic surgery; LAparoscopy and/or FAst track multimodal management versus standard care (LAFA trial)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wind, Jan; Hofland, Jan; Preckel, Benedikt; Hollmann, Markus W.; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Gouma, Dirk J.; van Berge Henegouwen, Mark I.; Fuhring, Jan Willem; Dejong, Cornelis H. C.; van Dam, Ronald M.; Cuesta, Miguel A.; Noordhuis, Astrid; de Jong, Dick; van Zalingen, Edith; Engel, Alexander F.; Goei, T. Hauwy; de Stoppelaar, I. Erica; van Tets, Willem F.; van Wagensveld, Bart A.; Swart, Annemiek; van den Elsen, Maarten J. L. J.; Gerhards, Michael F.; de Wit, Laurens Th; Siepel, Muriel A. M.; van Geloven, Anna A. W.; Juttmann, Jan-Willem; Clevers, Wilfred; Bemelman, Willem A.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent developments in large bowel surgery are the introduction of laparoscopic surgery and the implementation of multimodal fast track recovery programs. Both focus on a faster recovery and shorter hospital stay.The randomized controlled multicenter LAFA-trial (LAparoscopy and/or FAst

  19. Early Progressive Strength Training to Enhance Recovery After Fast-Track Total Knee Arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Thomas Linding; Kehlet, Henrik; Husted, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    different interventions: 7 weeks of supervised physical rehabilitation with PST (PST group) and without PST (CON group) commenced early after fast-track TKA. The primary outcome was the maximal distance walked in 6 minutes (6-minute walk test). Secondary outcomes were lower extremity strength and power......, knee joint effusion and range of motion, knee pain, and self-reported disability and quality of life. All outcome measures were assessed before TKA (baseline) and 4, 8, and 26 weeks after TKA. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between the PST and CON groups in the change score...

  20. Fast-track surgery: A new concept of perioperative management of surgical patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past few decades, surgery has advanced greatly because of an improved understanding of perioperative pathophysiology, development of minimally invasive operative techniques and advanced anaesthetic techniques. Fewer operations are requiring extended periods of hospital stay and a growing number of procedures are performed on an ambulatory basis. The pressure on medical systems is continuously growing as a result of economic constraints, increasing numbers of patients undergoing surgical procedures and greater patient autonomy. Patient awareness is steadily increasing along with their participation in their own care, leading to expectations of a higher standard of care. This has led to the development of a new concept of fast-track surgery.

  1. Fast Track to the Cloud: Design Patterns for 12-Factor Earth Sciences Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawloski, Andrew; McLaughlin, Brett; Lynnes, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    As expanding service offerings and decreasing prices make the cloud increasingly attractive to Earth Science applications, there are nontrivial practical considerations which can hinder its meaningful use. In this talk, we will discuss architectural recommendations and lessons learned while working on EOSDIS' cloud efforts, particularly the NASA-compliant General Application Platform (NGAP) and its associated applications. Prominent in our findings is the importance of 12-factor design patterns and the powerful "wins" they enable in the cloud. We will share our strategies for "fast-tracking" applications to the cloud --whether they be legacy, planned for the future, or somewhere in between.

  2. Improving the ATLAS physics potential with the Fast Track Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Cavaliere, Viviana; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Fast TracKer (FTK) is a custom electronics system that will operate at the full Level-1 accept rate, 100 kHz, to provide high quality tracks as input to the High-Level Trigger. The event reconstruction is performed in hardware, thanks to the massive parallelism of associative memories (AM) and FPGAs. We present the advantages for the physics goals of the ATLAS experiment and the recent results on the design, technological advancements and testing of some of the core components used in the processor.

  3. Fast track segment finding in the Monitored Drift Tubes of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer using a Legendre transform algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Ntekas, Konstantinos; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The upgrade of the ATLAS first-level muon trigger for High- Luminosity LHC foresees incorporating the precise tracking of the Monitored Drift Tubes in the current system based on Resistive Plate Chambers and Thin Gap Chambers to improve the accuracy in the transverse momentum measurement and control the single muon trigger rate by suppressing low quality fake triggers. The core of the MDT trigger algorithm is the segment identification and reconstruction which is performed per MDT chamber. The reconstructed segment positions and directions are then combined to extract the muon candidate’s transverse momentum. A fast pattern recognition segment finding algorithm, called the Legendre transform, is proposed to be used for the MDT trigger, implemented in a FPGA housed on a ATCA blade.

  4. Perioperative strategy in colonic surgery; LAparoscopy and/or FAst track multimodal management versus standard care (LAFA trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swart Annemiek

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent developments in large bowel surgery are the introduction of laparoscopic surgery and the implementation of multimodal fast track recovery programs. Both focus on a faster recovery and shorter hospital stay. The randomized controlled multicenter LAFA-trial (LAparoscopy and/or FAst track multimodal management versus standard care was conceived to determine whether laparoscopic surgery, fast track perioperative care or a combination of both is to be preferred over open surgery with standard care in patients having segmental colectomy for malignant disease. Methods/design The LAFA-trial is a double blinded, multicenter trial with a 2 × 2 balanced factorial design. Patients eligible for segmental colectomy for malignant colorectal disease i.e. right and left colectomy and anterior resection will be randomized to either open or laparoscopic colectomy, and to either standard care or the fast track program. This factorial design produces four treatment groups; open colectomy with standard care (a, open colectomy with fast track program (b, laparoscopic colectomy with standard care (c, and laparoscopic surgery with fast track program (d. Primary outcome parameter is postoperative hospital length of stay including readmission within 30 days. Secondary outcome parameters are quality of life two and four weeks after surgery, overall hospital costs, morbidity, patient satisfaction and readmission rate. Based on a mean postoperative hospital stay of 9 +/- 2.5 days a group size of 400 patients (100 each arm can reliably detect a minimum difference of 1 day between the four arms (alfa = 0.95, beta = 0.8. With 100 patients in each arm a difference of 10% in subscales of the Short Form 36 (SF-36 questionnaire and social functioning can be detected. Discussion The LAFA-trial is a randomized controlled multicenter trial that will provide evidence on the merits of fast track perioperative care and laparoscopic colorectal surgery in

  5. A proposed method for fast determination of plasma parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braams, B.J.; Lackner, K.

    1984-09-01

    The method of function parametrization, developed and applied by H. Wind for fast data evaluation in high energy physics, is presented in the context of controlled fusion research. This method relies on statistical analysis of a data base of simulated experiments in order to obtain a functional representation for the intrinsic physical parameters of a system in terms of the values of the measurements. Some variations on Wind's original procedure are suggested. A specific application for tokamak experiments would be the determination of certain global parameters of the plasma, characterizing the current profile, shape of the cross-section, plasma pressure, and the internal inductance. The relevant measurements for this application include values of the poloidal field and flux external to the plasma, and a diamagnetic measurement. These may be combined with other diagnostics, such as electron-cyclotron emission and laser interferometry, in order to obtain also density and temperature profiles. There appears to be a capability for on-line determination of basic physical parameters, in a millisecond timescale on a minicomputer instead of in seconds on a large mainframe. (orig.)

  6. Caustic meso-optical confocal microscope for vertical particle tracks. Proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soroko, L.M.

    1995-01-01

    The principal of the proposed caustic meso-optical microscope for vertical particle tracks in the nuclear photoemulsion is explained. The results of the experiments performed to illustrate the main features of this new meso-optical microscope are given. The proposed caustic meso-optical microscope for vertical particle tracks in the nuclear photoemulsion can be effectively used in the experimental investigation of such rare processes as ν μ - ν τ oscillations and of the Pb-Pb interactions. 2 refs., 7 figs

  7. Does BMI influence hospital stay and morbidity after fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Henrik; Jørgensen, Christoffer C; Gromov, Kirill

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose - Body mass index (BMI) outside the normal range possibly affects the perioperative morbidity and mortality following total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in traditional care programs. We determined perioperative morbidity and mortality in such pat......Background and purpose - Body mass index (BMI) outside the normal range possibly affects the perioperative morbidity and mortality following total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in traditional care programs. We determined perioperative morbidity and mortality...... in such patients who were operated with the fast-track methodology and compared the levels with those in patients with normal BMI. Patients and methods - This was a prospective observational study involving 13,730 procedures (7,194 THA and 6,536 TKA operations) performed in a standardized fast-track setting....... Complete 90-day follow-up was achieved using national registries and review of medical records. Patients were grouped according to BMI as being underweight, of normal weight, overweight, obese, very obese, and morbidly obese. Results - Median length of stay (LOS) was 2 (IQR: 2-3) days in all BMI groups. 30...

  8. A Fast Track approach to deal with the temporal dimension of crop water footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuninetti, Marta; Tamea, Stefania; Laio, Francesco; Ridolfi, Luca

    2017-07-01

    Population growth, socio-economic development and climate changes are placing increasing pressure on water resources. Crop water footprint is a key indicator in the quantification of such pressure. It is determined by crop evapotranspiration and crop yield, which can be highly variable in space and time. While the spatial variability of crop water footprint has been the objective of several investigations, the temporal variability remains poorly studied. In particular, some studies approached this issue by associating the time variability of crop water footprint only to yield changes, while considering evapotranspiration patterns as marginal. Validation of this Fast Track approach has yet to be provided. In this Letter we demonstrate its feasibility through a comprehensive validation, an assessment of its uncertainty, and an example of application. Our results show that the water footprint changes are mainly driven by yield trends, while evapotranspiration plays a minor role. The error due to considering constant evapotranspiration is three times smaller than the uncertainty of the model used to compute the crop water footprint. These results confirm the suitability of the Fast Track approach and enable a simple, yet appropriate, evaluation of time-varying crop water footprint.

  9. The use of a break-even analysis: financial analysis of a fast-track program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saywell, R M; Cordell, W H; Nyhuis, A W; Giles, B K; Culler, S D; Woods, J R; Chu, D K; McKinzie, J P; Rodman, G H

    1995-08-01

    To calculate the financial break-even point and illustrate how changes in third-party reimbursement and eligibility could affect a program's fiscal standing. Demographic, clinical, and financial data were collected retrospectively for 446 patients treated in a fast-track program during June 1993. The fast-track program is located within the confines of the emergency medicine and trauma center at a 1,050-bed tertiary care Midwestern teaching hospital and provides urgent treatment to minimally ill patients. A financial break-even analysis was performed to determine the point where the program generated enough revenue to cover its total variable and fixed costs, both direct and indirect. Given the relatively low average collection rate (62%) and high percentage of uninsured patients (31%), the analysis showed that the program's revenues covered its direct costs but not all of the indirect costs. Examining collection rates or payer class mix without examining both costs and revenues may lead to an erroneous conclusion about a program's fiscal viability. Sensitivity analysis also shows that relatively small changes in third-party coverage or eligibility (income) requirements can have a large impact on the program's financial solvency and break-even volumes.

  10. Fast-track program in laparoscopic liver surgery: Theory or fact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pérez, Belinda; Aranda-Narváez, José Manuel; Suárez-Muñoz, Miguel Angel; Eladel-Delfresno, Moises; Fernández-Aguilar, José Luis; Pérez-Daga, Jose Antonio; Pulido-Roa, Ysabel; Santoyo-Santoyo, Julio

    2012-11-27

    To analyze our results after the introduction of a fast-track (FT) program after laparoscopic liver surgery in our Hepatobiliarypancreatic Unit. All patients (43) undergoing laparoscopic liver surgery between March 2004 and March 2010 were included and divided into two consecutive groups: Control group (CG) from March 2004 until December 2006 with traditional perioperative cares (17 patients) and fast-track group (FTG) from January 2007 until March 2010 with FT program cares (26 patients). Primary endpoint was the influence of the program on the postoperative stay, the amount of re-admissions, morbidity and mortality. Secondarily we considered duration of surgery, use of drains, conversion to open surgery, intensive cares needs and transfusion. Both groups were homogeneous in age and sex. No differences in technique, time of surgery or conversion to open surgery were found, but more malignant diseases were operated in the FTG, and then transfusions were higher in FTG. Readmissions and morbidity were similar in both groups, without mortality. Postoperative stay was similar, with a median of 3 for CG vs 2.5 for FTG. However, the 80.8% of patients from FTG left the hospital within the first 3 d after surgery (58.8% for CG). The introduction of a FT program after laparoscopic liver surgery improves the recovery of patients without increasing complications or re-admissions, which leads to a reduction of the stay and costs.

  11. Proposed neutral-beam diagnostics for fast confined alpha particles in a burning plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlachter, A.S.; Cooper, W.S.

    1986-10-01

    Diagnostic methods for fast confined alpha particles are essential for a burning plasma experiment. Several methods which use energetic neutral beams have been proposed. We review these methods and discuss system considerations for their implementation

  12. Signal predictions for a proposed fast neutron interrogation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sale, K.E.

    1992-12-01

    We have applied the Monte Carlo radiation transport code COG) to assess the utility of a proposed explosives detection scheme based on neutron emission. In this scheme a pulsed neutron beam is generated by an approximately seven MeV deuteron beam incident on a thick Be target. A scintillation detector operating in the current mode measures the neutrons transmitted through the object as a function of time. The flight time of unscattered neutrons from the source to the detector is simply related to the neutron energy. This information along with neutron cross section excitation functions is used to infer the densities of H, C, N and O in the volume sampled. The code we have chosen to use enables us to create very detailed and realistic models of the geometrical configuration of the system, the neutron source and of the detector response. By calculating the signals that will be observed for several configurations and compositions of interrogated object we can investigate and begin to understand how a system that could actually be fielded will perform. Using this modeling capability many early on with substantial savings in time and cost and with improvements in performance. We will present our signal predictions for simple single element test cases and for explosive compositions. From these studies it is dear that the interpretation of the signals from such an explosives identification system will pose a substantial challenge

  13. Technical Meeting on Existing and Proposed Experimental Facilities for Fast Neutron Systems. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the TM on “Existing and proposed experimental facilities for fast neutron systems” was threefold: 1) presenting and exchanging information about existing and planned experimental facilities in support of the development of innovative fast neutron systems; 2) allow creating a catalogue of existing and planned experimental facilities currently operated/developed within national or international fast reactors programmes; 3) once a clear picture of the existing experimental infrastructures is defined, new experimental facilities are discussed and proposed, on the basis of the identified R&D needs

  14. Technical Meeting on Existing and Proposed Experimental Facilities for Fast Neutron Systems. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the TM on “Existing and proposed experimental facilities for fast neutron systems” is threefold: first, it is intended for presenting and exchanging information about existing and planned experimental facilities in support of the development of innovative fast neutron systems; second, it will allow to create a catalogue of existing and planned experimental facilities currently operated/developed within national or international fast reactors programmes; third, once a clear picture of the existing experimental infrastructures is defined, new experimental facilities will be discussed and proposed, on the basis of the identified R&D needs

  15. Fast reactor primary cover gas system proposals for CDFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, L.M.T.

    1987-01-01

    A primary sodium gas cover has been designed for CDFR, it comprises plant to maintain and control; cover gas pressure for all reactor operating at fault conditions, cover gas purity by both blowdown and by a special clean-up facility and the clean argon supply for the failed fuel detection system and the primary pump seal purge. The design philosophy is to devise a cover gas system that can be specified for any LMFBR where only features like vessel and pipework size need to be altered to suit different design and operating conditions. The choice of full power and shutdown operating pressures is derived and the method chosen to control these values is described. A part active/part passive system is proposed for this duty, a surge volume of 250 m 3 gives passive control between full power and hot shutdown. Pressure control operation criteria is presented for various reactor operating conditions. A design for a sodium aerosol filter, based on that used on PFR is presented, it is specifically designed so that it can be fitted with an etched disc type particulate filter and maintenance is minimised. Two methods that maintain cover gas purity are described. The first, used during normal reactor operation with a small impurities ingress, utilises the continuous blowdown associated with the inevitable clean argon purge through the various reactor component seals. The second method physically removes the impurities xenon and krypton from the cover gas by their adsorption, at cryogenic temperature, onto a bed of activated carbon. The equipment required for these two duties and their mode of operation is described with the aid of a system flow diagram. The primary pump seals requires a gas purge to suppress aerosol migration. A system where the argon used for this task is recirculated and partially purified is described. (author)

  16. Readmission rates after a planned hospital stay of 2 versus 3 days in fast-track colonic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens; Hjort-Jakobsen, Dorthe; Christiansen, P. S.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Initial programmes of fast-track open colonic surgery with a planned 2-day postoperative hospital stay have had a high readmission rate (about 20 per cent). The aim of this large, consecutive series was to compare readmission rates after a fast-track open colonic surgery programme....... There was no difference in type and incidence of morbidity between the two periods. CONCLUSION: Readmission after fast-track open colonic resection was reduced by planning discharge 3 instead of 2 days after surgery, with the same discharge criteria. Copyright (c) 2007 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published...... from August 2004. All patients were examined 8 and 30 days after surgery. RESULTS: Readmission rates fell from 20.1 per cent in 408 patients with a planned 2-day hospital stay (period 1) to 11.3 per cent in 133 patients with a planned 3-day hospital stay (period 2) (P

  17. Fast-track, ambulatory ultrasound-guided Tru-Cut liver biopsy is feasible and cost-efficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chenxi; Lorentzen, Torben; Skjoldbye, Bjørn

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Most institutions perform percutaneous liver biopsy with a post-biopsy patient observation period lasting up to eight hours, which is resource-demanding. This study aimed to evaluate the safety of liver biopsy performed in a fast-track set-up with an only one-hour post......-biopsy observation time. METHODS: Patients referred to our institution underwent fast-track ultrasound-guided 18-gauge Tru-Cut liver biopsy procedures. Each single biopsy procedure was followed by a post-procedure observational period of one hour and an additional focused assessment with sonography for trauma before...... safely discharged from our institution. No fatality or long-term complications were found during this study. CONCLUSION: The fast-track approach reported herein is a feasible option when adequate patient information is given. Besides the obvious, positive effect on patient logistics and departmental...

  18. Laparoscopic surgery contributes more to nutritional and immunologic recovery than fast-track care in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dong; Li, Jun; Song, Yongmao; Zhou, Jiaojiao; Sun, Fangfang; Wang, Jianwei; Duan, Yin; Hu, Yeting; Liu, Yue; Wang, Xiaochen; Sun, Lifeng; Wu, Linshan; Ding, Kefeng

    2015-02-04

    Many clinical trials had repeatedly shown that fast-track perioperative care and laparoscopic surgery are both preferred in the treatment of colorectal cancer. But few studies were designed to explore the diverse biochemical impacts of the two counterparts on human immunologic and nutritional status. Ninety-two cases of colorectal cancer patients meeting the inclusion criteria were randomized to four groups: laparoscopy with fast-track treatment (LAFT); open surgery with fast-track treatment (OSFT); laparoscopy with conventional treatment (LAC); open surgery with conventional treatment (OSC). Peripheral blood tests including nutritional factors (albumin, prealbumin, and transferrin), humoral immunologic factors (IgG, IgM, and IgA), and cellular immunologic factors (T and NK cells) were evaluated. Blood samples were collected preoperatively (baseline) and 12 and 96 h after surgery (indicated as POH12 and POH96, respectively). Albumin, transferrin, prealbumin, and IgG levels were the highest in the LAFT group for both POH12 and POH96 time intervals. Repeated measures (two-way ANOVA) indicated that the difference of albumin, transferrin, and IgG level were attributed to surgery type (P  0.05). Only in the laparoscopy-included groups, the relative albumin and IgG levels of POH96 were obviously higher than that of POH12. Laparoscopic surgery accelerated postoperative nutrition and immune levels rising again while fast-track treatment retarded the drop of postoperative nutrition and immune levels. Laparoscopic surgery might play a more important role than fast-track treatment in the earlier postoperative recovery of nutritional and immunologic status. Combined laparoscopic surgery with fast-track treatment provided best postoperative recovery of nutrition and immune status. These results should be further compared with the clinical outcomes of our FTMDT trial (clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01080547).

  19. [Laparoscopic "fast-track" sigmoidectomy for diverticulitis disease in Germany. Results of a prospective quality assurance program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsilimparis, N; Haase, O; Wendling, P; Kipfmüller, K; Schmid, M; Engemann, R; Schwenk, W

    2010-09-01

    The natural course of sigmoid colon diverticulitis during conservative therapy and the assessment of the perioperative morbidity after sigmoid colon resection are differently evaluated by surgeons and gastroenterologists. The "fast-track" rehabilitation accelerates the reconvalescence and reduces the rate of postoperative general complications after colorectal surgery. The results of the laparoscopic "Fast-track" sigmoidectomy should be examined within a quality assurance program to better evaluate the perioperative risks following surgical management of diverticulitis. A prospective data collection within the voluntary quality assurance program "fast-track" Kolon II was performed. All participating clinics agreed on a multimodal, evidence-based standard perioperative treatment in terms of a "fast-track" rehabilitation for elective operations for sigmoid diverticulitis. Data from 846 patients undergoing laparoscopic "fast-track" sigmoid colon resection in 23 surgical departments in Germany were collected and evaluated. The mean age of the patients was 63 years (range 23 - 91). 203 patients (24 %) had severe co-morbidities (ASA classification III - IV). A conversion to conventional open surgery was necessary in 51 cases (6 %). Complications occurred in 93 patients (11 %). 76 patients suffered a surgical complication (8.9 %) and 32 patients (3.8 %) a general complication. Two patients died postoperatively due to multi-organ failure following anastomotic leaks. The patients took solid food in median on day 1 after surgery (range, 0 - 5) and passed stool on day 2 (range, 0 - 22). Predefined discharge criteria (free of pain on oral medication, normal oral feeding, stool) were met on day 4 (range, 1 - 58) and the patients were discharged on day 7 (range, 3 - 72). The 30-day re-admission rate was 3.9 %. Patients undergoing laparoscopic "fast-track" sigmoidectomy had a low rate of general complications and had a rapid reconvalescence with a short postoperative in

  20. [Shortened hospital stay for elective cesarean section after initiation of a fast-track program and midwifery home-care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsdottir, Johanna; Bjornsdottir, Thorbjörg Edda; Halldorsson, Thorhallur Ingi; Halldorsdottir, Gudrun; Geirsson, Reynir Tomas

    2011-07-01

    To audit whether hospital stay shortened without increasing readmissions after implementation of fast-track methodology for elective cesarean section and characterize what influences length of stay. A fast-track program was initiated in November 2008, with a one year clinical audit and satisfaction survey. Discharge criteria were predefined and midwife home visits included if discharge was within 48 hours. Hospital stay by parity for women with elective section for singleton pregnancy between 1.11. 2008 - 31.10. 2009 (n=213, fast-track 182) was compared to 2003 (n=199) and 2007 (n=183). Readmissions and outpatient visits 2007 and 2008-9 were counted. Reasons for longer stay were recorded in fast-track, and body mass index. Median hospital stay decreased significantly from 81 to 52 hours between 2007 and 2008-9. Readmissions were four in each period and outpatient visit rates similar. In 2008-9, 66% of all women were discharged within 48 hours. Women in the fast-track program were satisfied with early discharge. Hospital stay for parous women was shorter in 2007 compared to 2003, but unchanged for nulliparas. Parity had a minimal influence on length of stay in 2008-9, although nulliparous women ≤ 25 years were more likely to stay >48 hours. Body mass index did not correlate with length of stay. Pain was rarely the reason for a longer stay in the fast-track program and 90% were satisfied with pain-medication after discharge. Most healthy women can be discharged early after singleton birth by elective cesarean, without increasing readmissions.

  1. Fast cine-magnetic resonance imaging point tracking for prostate cancer radiation therapy planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowling, J; Chandra, S; Dang, K; Fox, Chris D; Gill, Suki; Kron, T; Pham, D; Foroudi, F

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of intra-fraction organ motion is important for improving the precision of radiation therapy treatment delivery. One method to quantify this motion is for one or more observers to manually identify anatomic points of interest (POIs) on each slice of a cine-MRI sequence. However this is labour intensive and inter- and intra- observer variation can introduce uncertainty. In this paper a fast method for non-rigid registration based point tracking in cine-MRI sagittal and coronal series is described which identifies POIs in 0.98 seconds per sagittal slice and 1.35 seconds per coronal slice. The manual and automatic points were highly correlated (r>0.99, p<0.001) for all organs and the difference generally less than 1mm. For prostate planning peristalsis and rectal gas can result in unpredictable out of plane motion, suggesting the results may require manual verification.

  2. Post-discharge symptoms following fast-track colonic cancer surgery: a phenomenological hermeneutic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard, Marianne; Dreyer, Pia; Egerod, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To obtain knowledge of patients' experiences of postoperative symptoms during the initial two weeks following fast-track colonic cancer surgery. METHOD: Semi-structured in-depth interviews with seven colonic cancer patients two weeks post hospital discharge. Analysis was performed using...... a phenomenological hermeneutical approach. RESULTS: During the first two weeks after discharge the patients experienced unfamiliar symptoms that affected their everyday lives. Despite distressing symptoms, they applied a "wait-and-see" strategy, and only reacted when symptoms became intolerable. The patients failed...... to shorter hospitalisation and improved physical performance, post-colonic surgery patients experience various symptoms after discharge. Healthcare professionals need to address symptoms that might have immediate and long-term consequences on patients' everyday life. Follow-up studies are encouraged...

  3. Health preemption behind closed doors: trade agreements and fast-track authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosbie, Eric; Gonzalez, Mariaelena; Glantz, Stanton A

    2014-09-01

    Noncommunicable diseases result from consuming unhealthy products, including tobacco, which are promoted by transnational corporations. The tobacco industry uses preemption to block or reverse tobacco control policies. Preemption removes authority from jurisdictions where tobacco companies' influence is weak and transfers it to jurisdictions where they have an advantage. International trade agreements relocate decisions about tobacco control policy to venues where there is little opportunity for public scrutiny, participation, and debate. Tobacco companies are using these agreements to preempt domestic authority over tobacco policy. Other transnational corporations that profit by promoting unhealthy foods could do the same. "Fast-track authority," in which Congress cedes ongoing oversight authority to the President, further distances the public from the debate. With international agreements binding governments to prioritize trade over health, transparency and public oversight of the trade negotiation process is necessary to safeguard public health interests.

  4. Health Preemption Behind Closed Doors: Trade Agreements and Fast-Track Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosbie, Eric; Gonzalez, Mariaelena

    2014-01-01

    Noncommunicable diseases result from consuming unhealthy products, including tobacco, which are promoted by transnational corporations. The tobacco industry uses preemption to block or reverse tobacco control policies. Preemption removes authority from jurisdictions where tobacco companies’ influence is weak and transfers it to jurisdictions where they have an advantage. International trade agreements relocate decisions about tobacco control policy to venues where there is little opportunity for public scrutiny, participation, and debate. Tobacco companies are using these agreements to preempt domestic authority over tobacco policy. Other transnational corporations that profit by promoting unhealthy foods could do the same. “Fast-track authority,” in which Congress cedes ongoing oversight authority to the President, further distances the public from the debate. With international agreements binding governments to prioritize trade over health, transparency and public oversight of the trade negotiation process is necessary to safeguard public health interests. PMID:25033124

  5. Postoperative anemia and early functional outcomes after fast-track hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jans, Øivind; Bandholm, Thomas; Kurbegovic, Sorel

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Postoperative anemia is prevalent in fast-track hip arthroplasty (THA) where patients are mobilized and discharged early, but whether anemia impairs functional recovery after discharge has not been adequately evaluated previously. This study aimed to evaluate whether postoperative...... anemia influenced recovery of mobility and quality of life (Qol) during the first 2 weeks after discharge from THA. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a prospective observational study in 122 THA patients more than 65 years of age. Mobility and Qol were assessed pre- and postoperatively by the 6-minute...... walk test (6MWT; primary outcome), the timed up-and-go test, and the FACT-anemia subscale. Twenty-four-hour mobility at home was assessed by activity monitoring on Days 1 to 6 after discharge. Hemoglobin (Hb) at discharge (HbD) and the Hb decrease from preoperatively (ΔHb) were compared to mobility...

  6. Postoperative Urinary Catheterization Thresholds of 500 versus 800 ml after Fast-track Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lars Stryhn; Hornum, Ulla Marianne; Troldborg, C.

    2016-01-01

    arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA). METHODS: This was a randomized, controlled, open-label trial that included patients greater than or equal to 18 yr who underwent THA or TKA in three Danish, fast-track, orthopedic departments. Consenting patients were eligible if they were cooperative......BACKGROUND: No evidence-based threshold exists for postoperative urinary bladder catheterization. The authors hypothesized that a catheterization threshold of 800 ml was superior to 500 ml in reducing postoperative urinary catheterization and urological complications after fast-track total hip...

  7. Fast-track remediation case study: Southern California refined fuel distributor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubier, T.W.; Felix, P.R.

    1993-01-01

    Successful environmental remediation projects have three requirements in common: (1) an adequate data base that defines the extent and severity of the problem; (2) a detailed understanding of the actual performance of the remediation technologies being considered; and (3) good communication with the regulatory agencies to assure them that the health and safety of the community and workers will not be jeopardized. In a fast-track remediation project, these requirements are key issues in the critical path. The case study involves soil and groundwater remediation of a 16-acre bulk fuel storage and distribution facility. The facility was in operation for approximately 75 years and contained 20 large aboveground tanks with a total capacity in excess of 20 million gallons. Activities at the facility included receipt, storage, and distribution of refined fuel products, such as kerosene, gasoline, diesel, and bunker fuel. A harbor-widening project was undertaken to increase the level of safety for larger ships when passing through the port. Because of the critical need for harbor-widening, the environmental cleanup needed to be completed as quickly as possible. The following steps were taken during the fast-track remediation case study to meet the above-listed requirements: (1) New Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) were identified for the project; (2) Potentially applicable remedial technologies were evaluated and tested; and (3) An agency task force was developed to enhance communication with the regulatory agencies. This paper discusses these steps and presents examples of how each step was implemented during the remediation case study

  8. [Effects of a nutritional intervention in a fast-track program for a colorectal cancer surgery: systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanden-Berghe, Carmina; Sanz-Valero, Javier; Arroyo-Sebastián, Antonio; Cheikh-Moussa, Kamila; Moya-Forcen, Pedro

    2016-07-19

    Introducción: Preoperative nutritional status (NS) has consequences on postoperative (POSTOP) recovery. Our aim was to systematically review the nutritional interventions (NI) in Fast-Track protocols for colorectal cancer surgery and assess morbidity-mortality and patient´s recovery. Systematic review of scientific literature after consulting bibliographic databases: Medline, The Cochrane Library, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, Institute for Scientific Information, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature, The Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. MeSH Descriptors: "Colorectal Surgery", "Fast-Track", "Perioperative Care", "Nutrition Therapy" and "Enhanced recovery programme". Filters: "Humans", Adult (19+ years) and "Clinical Trial". Variables POSTOP outcomes: bowel recovery (BR), hospital stay (HS), complications and death. Selected studies, 27, had good or excellent methodological quality. From 25 to 597 patients were included. Aged between 16-94 years, men were predominant in 66.6%. NS was evaluated in 13 studies; 7 by Body Mass Index while one by Subjective Global Assessment. One presented POSTOP data. Fast-Track groups had solids, liquids or supplements (SS) in prior 2-8 hours. SS were high in carbohydrates, immune-nutrients and non-residue. Free liquids, solids and SS intake was allowed in POSTOP. Half traditional groups fasted between 3-12 hours and resumed POSTOP food intake progressively. Fast-Track groups had early BR (p Nutritional status must be assessed for a higher acknowledgement of NI impact.

  9. Clinical evidence of traditional vs fast track recovery methodologies after total arthroplasty for osteoarthritic knee treatment. A retrospective observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castorina, Sergio; Guglielmino, Claudia; Castrogiovanni, Paola; Szychlinska, Marta Anna; Ioppolo, Francesco; Massimino, Paolo; Leonardi, Pietro; Maci, Christian; Iannuzzi, Maurizio; Di Giunta, Angelo; Musumeci, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background During the last years, programs to enhance postoperative recovery and decrease morbidity after total knee arthroplasty, have been developed across a variety of surgical procedures and referred to as “Fast-Track Surgery”. In this study we aimed to find some answers in the management of osteoarthritic patients subjected to total knee arthroplasty, by using the Fast-Track methodology. To this purpose we evaluated parameters such as early mobilization of patients, better pain management, bleeding, possible complications, reduced hospitalization time, an overall improved recovery and patient satisfaction. Methods 132 patients were selected, of which, 95 treated with “Fast Track” method and 37 treated with traditional method (control group). All the patients were hospitalized and underwent the same rehabilitation program for the first three days after surgery. Results In both groups, the parameters of pain and deformity demonstrated the most rapid improvement, while those of function and movement were normalized as gradual and progressive improvement over the next 2 months. The different functional test used (Barthel, MRC, VAS) showed that the mean values were significantly greater in Fast Track group when compared to the control. Conclusion The results of the study confirm that the application of the Fast Track protocol in orthopaedics after total knee replacement results in rapid post-surgery recovery. Level of evidence IV. Case series, low-quality cohort or case-control studies. PMID:29387645

  10. Measured and calculated absorptance of tracks of fast heavy ions in Ilford G5 nuclear emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, M.; Mathiesen, O.

    1975-04-01

    A modified form of the delta-ray theory of track formation developed by Katz and coworkers has been used to calculate the absorptance of tracks of fast heavy ions in Ilford G5 nuclear emulsion. The theoretical data have been compared with results of different photometrical investigations reported in the literature. In most cases the theoretical predictions are found to be in good agreement with experiments. This suggests that the theory can be used in the planning and execution of future experiments, i.e. to optimize the geometry of the photometer and to obtain an absolute charge calibration of the detector. It is shown that the basic photometrical properties of an emulsion stack can be described by a single quantity which can be determined from measurements. Knowing this quantity it is possible to predict the response of the emulsion stack for different types of photometers. The practical limits of the use of the modified theory at high and low levels of energy dose are discussed. (Auth.)

  11. Measured and calculated absorptance of tracks of fast heavy ions in Ilford G5 nuclear emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, M.; Mathiesen, O.

    1976-01-01

    A modified form of the delta-ray theory of track formation developed by Katz and coworkers has been used to calculate the absorptance of tracks of fast heavy ions in Ilford G5 nuclear emulsion. The theoretical data have been compared with results of different photometrical investigations reported in the literature. In most cases the theoretical predictions are found to be in good agreement with experiments. This suggests that the theory can be used in the planning and execution of future experiments, i.e. to optimize the geometry of the photometer and to obtain an absolute charge calibration of the detector. It is shown that the basic photometrical properties of an emulsion stack can be described by a single quantity which can be determined from measurements. Knowing this quantity it is possible to predict the response of the detector system, for different types of photometers. The practical limits of the use of the modified theory at high and low levels of energy dose are discussed. (Auth.)

  12. Measurements of fast deuterons from plasma accelerator by means of PM-355 track detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skladnik-Sadowska, E. [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (IPJ), 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Malinowski, K., E-mail: k.malinowski@ipj.gov.p [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (IPJ), 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Sadowski, M.J.; Czaus, K. [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (IPJ), 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    2009-10-15

    This paper reports on studies of fast ions (mostly deuterons) emitted from an RPI (Rod-Plasma-Injector) plasma accelerator. The first aim was the verification of applicability of PM-355 track detectors for dosimetry of lower-energy (<200 KeV) deuterons. The second aim was information about energy spectra of deuterons from RPI-IBIS device in different operational modes. Mass- and energy spectra of ions were investigated with a Thomson-analyzer and PM-355 detectors. On the recorded deuteron-parabolas we chose points, and from numbers of tracks we determined the deuteron energy distribution. In the slow-mode the energy distribution peak was observed at about 40 keV, while the maximum energy amounted to about 150 keV. Those measurements confirmed an influence of the initial gas-conditions on energy distributions of the deuteron streams. The results are of importance for plasma-physics and applications. Another result was the confirmation that PM-355 detectors might be used for accurate measurements of low-energy (<200 keV) deuterons.

  13. Fast Tracker : A Hardware Real Time Track Finder for the ATLAS Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Kimura, N; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) after the 2013-­‐2014 shutdown period is expected to improve the yet impressive performance obtained up to this year: collisions’ energy will increase to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosity will reach and then overcome 10^34 cm‐2s‐1, with a bunch crossing period of 25 ns. The LHC experiments will need to adapt to the more crowded events, maintaining the physics output and the quality of the final results. The pileup higher than the LHC run 1, with peaks expected to reach 50 or more, will make more difficult to have efficient online selection of rare events based mostly on calorimeters and muon detectors as it is done now. A more extensive use of the information collected by the tracking detector will allow building more robust selections, limiting the degradation effects due to the high pileup. We report on the development of the Fast Tracker (FTK) processor for the ATLAS experiment, devoted to reconstruct tracks with transverse momentum above 1 GeV in the whole detect...

  14. Detection of a faint fast-moving near-Earth asteroid using the synthetic tracking technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Chengxing; Shao, Michael; Nemati, Bijan; Werne, Thomas; Zhou, Hanying; Turyshev, Slava G.; Sandhu, Jagmit [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Hallinan, Gregg; Harding, Leon K., E-mail: chengxing.zhai@jpl.nasa.gov [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    We report a detection of a faint near-Earth asteroid (NEA) using our synthetic tracking technique and the CHIMERA instrument on the Palomar 200 inch telescope. With an apparent magnitude of 23 (H = 29, assuming detection at 20 lunar distances), the asteroid was moving at 6.°32 day{sup –1} and was detected at a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 15 using 30 s of data taken at a 16.7 Hz frame rate. The detection was confirmed by a second observation 77 minutes later at the same S/N. Because of its high proper motion, the NEA moved 7 arcsec over the 30 s of observation. Synthetic tracking avoided image degradation due to trailing loss that affects conventional techniques relying on 30 s exposures; the trailing loss would have degraded the surface brightness of the NEA image on the CCD down to an approximate magnitude of 25 making the object undetectable. This detection was a result of our 12 hr blind search conducted on the Palomar 200 inch telescope over two nights, scanning twice over six (5.°3 × 0.°046) fields. Detecting only one asteroid is consistent with Harris's estimates for the distribution of the asteroid population, which was used to predict a detection of 1.2 NEAs in the H-magnitude range 28-31 for the two nights. The experimental design, data analysis methods, and algorithms are presented. We also demonstrate milliarcsecond-level astrometry using observations of two known bright asteroids on the same system with synthetic tracking. We conclude by discussing strategies for scheduling observations to detect and characterize small and fast-moving NEAs using the new technique.

  15. Outcomes in smokers and alcohol users after fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, C C; Kehlet, Henrik; Hansen, Torben Bæk

    2013-01-01

    and knee arthroplasty. RESULTS: In 3041 consecutive patients, 458 reported smoking and 216 drinking > 2 drinks a day, of which 66 did both. Smokers/alcohol users were younger than non-users (mean age: 64.3 vs. 68.0 years, P  4 days and smoking (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], P) (1.34 [0.92-1.95], 0......BACKGROUND: Smoking and alcohol use impair post-operative outcomes. However, no studies include fast-track surgery, which is a multimodal-enhanced recovery programme demonstrated to improve outcome. We hypothesised that outcome is similar in smokers and alcohol users as in non-users after fast.......127) or alcohol use (0.59 [0.30-1.16], 0.127). Thirty- and ninety-day readmission rate was 6.6% (n = 201) and 9.4% (n = 285). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed an increased risk of readmissions in smokers at 30 (1.60 [1.05-2.44], 0.028) but not 90-day follow-up (1.17 [0.80-1.73], 0.419). No increased...

  16. Fast Tracker (FTK): A Hardware Track Finder for the ATLAS Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Mitani, Takashi; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    During the 2010-2012 run of Large Hadron Collider experiment, the ATLAS trigger system was successfully operated and it contributed to several important results such as observation of Higgs boson with a mass of about 125 GeV. From 2015, collision energy will increase to 13-14 TeV and its instantaneous luminosity will reach $1$-$2\\times10^{34}$cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ with a 25 ns bunch crossing period. Due to the energy increase, the cross sections for SM processes are expected to get much larger. Additionally, the number of overlapping proton-proton interactions per bunch crossing, which is refereed to as pile-up, is expected to increase significantly up to about 80. Therefore it will be challenging to control trigger rates while keeping good efficiency for interesting physics events. This document summarizes the development of Fast Tracker and its tracking performance for the ATLAS experiment. The Fast Tracker is a custom electronics system that will operate at the full Level 1 accepted rate of 100 kHz and provide...

  17. Role of preoperative pain, muscle function, and activity level in discharge readiness after fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Bandholm, Thomas; Lunn, Troels Haxholdt

    2014-01-01

    therefore investigated the role of preoperative pain and functional characteristics in discharge readiness and actual LOS in fast-track THA and TKA. METHODS: Before surgery, hip pain (THA) or knee pain (TKA), lower-extremity muscle power, functional performance, and physical activity were assessed...

  18. Fast-track, ambulatory ultrasound-guided Tru-Cut liver biopsy is feasible and cost-efficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chenxi; Lorentzen, Torben; Skjoldbye, Bjørn

    2015-01-01

    safely discharged from our institution. No fatality or long-term complications were found during this study. CONCLUSION: The fast-track approach reported herein is a feasible option when adequate patient information is given. Besides the obvious, positive effect on patient logistics and departmental...

  19. Ultra-Fast Tracking Power Supply with 4th order Output Filter and Fixed-Frequency Hysteretic Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyerby, Mikkel Christian Wendelboe; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2008-01-01

    A practical solution is presented for the design of a non-isolated DC/DC power converter with very low output ripple voltage and very fast output voltage step response. The converter is intended for use as an envelope tracking power supply for an RFPA (Radio Frequency Power Amplifier) in a Tetra2...

  20. Fast track land reform, tenure security and investments in soil conservation: Micro-evidence from Mazowe district in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zikhali, P.

    2010-01-01

    The government of Zimbabwe launched the Fast Track Land Reform Programme (FTLRP) in 2000 as part of its ongoing land reform and resettlement programme which aims to address a racially skewed land distribution. Its goal has been to accelerate both land acquisition and redistribution, targeting at

  1. Fall-related admissions after fast-track total hip and knee arthroplasty - cause of concern or consequence of success?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christoffer Calov; Kehlet, Henrik; Hip, Lundbeck Foundation Centre for Fast-track

    2013-01-01

    Total hip (THA) and knee arthroplasty (TKA) are common procedures in elderly persons, who are at potential increased risk of postoperative fall due to loss of muscle strength and impaired balance. Fast-track surgery with early mobilization and opioid-sparing analgesia have improved outcomes after...

  2. Implementing large scale fast track diagnostics in a comprehensive cancer center, pre- and post-measurement data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Harten, W H; Goedbloed, N; Boekhout, A H; Heintzbergen, S

    2018-02-07

    In general, patients with a cancer suspicion visit the hospital multiple times before diagnosis is completed. Using various "operations management" techniques a few fast track diagnostic services were implemented in the Netherlands Cancer Institute (NKI) in 2006. Growing patient numbers and increasing process complexity, led to diminished service levels. To decrease the amount of patient visits and to extend these services beyond the (obvious) breast cancer services, fast track diagnostics is now implemented for all 18 cancer types that present with a frequency of minimally one per week. The throughput time (first visit to diagnosis conversation) was measured before, and after implementation of fast track diagnostics. The process was redesigned closely involving the multidisciplinary teams. In an eclectic approach elements from lean management, theory of constraints and mathematical analysis were used to organize slots per tumor type for MRI, CT, PET and echography. A post measurement was performed after 3 and 6 months. In pre measurement access time was calculated to be 10 to 15 workdays, mean throughput time was 6.0 workdays. It proved possible to design the process of 18 tumors as a fast track, of which 7 as "one stop shop" (diagnosis completed in one visit). Involvement of clinical- and board leadership, massive communication efforts and commitment of physicians to reschedule their work proved decisive. After 3 and 6 months of implementation, the mean access time was 8.2 and 8.7 workdays respectively and mean throughput time was 3.4 and 3.3 workdays respectively. Throughput- and access time were considerably shortened after implementation of fast track diagnostics for 18 cancer types. The involvement of physicians in reorganizing their work and rapid responding to their needs during the implementation phase were a crucial success factor.

  3. Fast Poisson Solvers for Self-Consistent Beam-Beam and Space-Charge Field Computation in Multiparticle Tracking Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Florio, Adrien; Pieloni, Tatiana; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2015-01-01

    We present two different approaches to solve the 2-dimensional electrostatic problem with open boundary conditions to be used in fast tracking codes for beam-beam and space charge simulations in high energy accelerators. We compare a fast multipoles method with a hybrid Poisson solver based on the fast Fourier transform and finite differences in polar coordinates. We show that the latter outperforms the first in terms of execution time and precision, allowing for a reduction of the noise in the tracking simulation. Furthermore the new algorithm is shown to scale linearly on parallel architectures with shared memory. We conclude by effectively replacing the HFMM by the new Poisson solver in the COMBI code.

  4. Surgical Stress Response and Postoperative Immune Function After Laparoscopy or Open Surgery With Fast Track or Standard Perioperative Care A Randomized Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, A. A. F. A.; Vlug, M. S.; van der Pas, M. H. G. M.; Sietses, C.; van der Peet, D. L.; de Lange-de Klerk, E. S. M.; Bonjer, H. J.; Bemelman, W. A.; Cuesta, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of laparoscopic or open colectomy with fast track or standard perioperative care on patient's immune status and stress response after surgery. Methods: Patients with nonmetastasized colon cancer were randomized to laparoscopic or open colectomy with fast track or

  5. The bipolar silicon microstrip detector: A proposal for a novel precision tracking device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horisberger, R.

    1990-01-01

    It is proposed to combine the technology of fully depleted microstrip detectors fabricated on n doped high resistivity silicon with the concept of the bipolar transistor. This is done by adding a n ++ doped region inside the normal p + implanted region of the reverse biased p + n diode. The resulting structure has amplifying properties and is referred to as bipaolar pixel transistor. The simplest readout scheme of a bipolar pixel array by an aluminium strip bus leads to the bipolar microstrip detector. The bipolar pixel structure is expected to give a better signal-to-noise performance for the detection of minimum ionizing charged particle tracks than the normal silicon diode strip detector and therefore should allow in future the fabrication of thinner silicon detectors for precision tracking. (orig.)

  6. Experience with "Fast track" postoperative care after deep brain stimulation surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Nuria; Valero, Ricard; Hurtado, Paola; Gracia, Isabel; Fernández, Carla; Rumià, Jordi; Valldeoriola, Francesc; Carrero, Enrique J; Tercero, Francisco Javier; de Riva, Nicolás; Fàbregas, Neus

    A 24-h-stay in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) is a common postoperative procedure after deep brain stimulation surgery (DBS). We evaluated the impact of a fast-track (FT) postoperative care protocol. An analysis was performed on all patients who underwent DBS in 2 periods: 2006, overnight monitored care (OMC group), and 2007-2013, FT care (FT group). The study included 19 patients in OMC and 95 patients in FT. Intraoperative complications occurred in 26.3% patients in OMC vs. 35.8% in FT. Post-operatively, one patient in OMC developed hemiparesis, and agitation in 2 patients. In FT, two patients with intraoperative hemiparesis were transferred to the ICU. While on the ward, 3 patients from the FT developed hemiparesis, two of them 48h after the procedure. Thirty eight percent of FT had an MRI scan, while the remaining 62% and all patients of OMC had a CT-scan performed on their transfer to the ward. One patient in OMC had a subthalamic hematoma. Two patients in FT had a pallidal hematoma, and 3 a bleeding along the electrode. A FT discharge protocol is a safe postoperative care after DBS. There are a small percentage of complications after DBS, which mainly occur within the first 6h. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Fertility and the fast-track: Continued childbearing among professionals in Sweden, 1991-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Stanfors

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: During recent decades women have made considerable advances in education and the labor market, even in fast-track professions such as law, medicine, and academia. While women have entered high-status professions, the career paths of some jobs have changed little and are still inflexible, which implies that professional gains may be offset by familial losses. Objective: We investigate continued childbearing, focusing on the relationship between occupation and second and third births, among highly educated men and women in three high-status professions. Methods: We analyze the determinants of having a second or a third birth using longitudinal data from population registers in Sweden, 1991-2009. We use descriptive statistics and logistic models. Results: Net of demographic and socioeconomic controls, medical doctors are more likely to continue childbearing than lawyers and academics, irrespective of parity and gender. The patterns that emerge are independent of income. Public sector work is conducive to continued childbearing, especially for women. Conclusions: Although there are more opportunities to combine career and family in Sweden than in many other countries, this does not hold equally for all. The results indicate that working conditions and career structures contribute to making it easier for some groups than others to combine a professional career and children. Patterns that emerge reflect that women and men are not equally sensitive to career structures that imply a tradeoff between career and children at an early stage of the career. This puts policies promoting work and family for all into perspective.

  8. Application of fast track surgery in elderly patients during perioperative period of laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Yong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the safety and superiority of fast track surgery (FTS in elderly patients during the perioperative period of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC. MethodsThe clinical data of 124 elderly patients who underwent LC at the Department of General Surgery in our institution between January 2010 and March 2014 were assessed, with 62 cases assigned to FTS group and 62 cases to conventional method group. Anal exhaust time, feeding time, off-bed activity time, and length of hospital stay were compared between the two groups, and postoperative results and adverse reactions were recorded. Continuous data were analyzed using the independent-samples t test, and categorical data were compared using the chi-square test. Results Compared with the control method group, patients in the FTS group showed earlier postoperative anal exhaust, feeding, and off-bed activity, a shorter length of hospital stay, and a lower incidence of postoperative cardiovascular and cerebrovascular complications (P<0.05. ConclusionFTS is an effective approach to accelerate rehabilitation in elderly patients after LC.

  9. Possibilities of fast track surgery principles in the treatment of congenital urological anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bižić Marta R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Urogenital congenital anomalies are among the most common congenital anomalies and very frequent pathology in paediatric urology. Health care systems strive to shorten the duration and reduce the costs of hospitalization, while maintaining treatment effectiveness. Objective. To evaluate the duration of hospital stay of surgically treated patients with congenital urogenital anomalies and estimate the possibility of using fast track surgery principles in paediatric urology in the local settings of a developing country. Methods. Retrospective non-randomized study included 552 patients who had been surgically treated at the Urology Department of the University Children’s Hospital, during 2010. In line with their congenital anomalies, all patients were classified in one of four groups: I - upper urinary tract anomalies (252 patients; II - genital anomalies (164 patients; III - testicular anomalies (76 patients and IV - associated anomalies (60 patients. We analyzed the total duration of stay as well as preand post-operative stay in the hospital. Results. The average duration of hospitalization was 4.7±4.0 days. Patients with testicular anomalies stayed for the shortest period (2.3±1.9 days (p<0.01 and patients with associated anomalies stayed in the hospital the longest (6.5±4.7 days (p<0.01. Conclusion. Modern methods of surgical treatment allow reduction of hospitalization, financial savings to the healthcare system and greater comfort for patients. Our results showed that this is also possible to apply in our environment.

  10. Mass tracking and material accounting in the integral fast reactor (IFR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orechwa, Y.; Adams, C.H.; White, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) which is a generic advanced liquid metal cooled reactor concept being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. There are a number of technical features of the IFR which contribute to its potential as a next-generation reactor. These are associated with large safety margins with regard to off-normal events involving the heat transport system, and the use of metallic fuel which makes possible the utilization of innovative fuel cycle processes. The latter feature permits fuel cycle closure with compact, low-cost reprocessing facilities, collocated with the reactor plant. These primary features are being demonstrated in the facilities at ANL-West, utilizing Experimental Breeder Reactor II and the associated Fuel Cycle Facility (FCF) as an IFR prototype. The demonstration of this IFR prototype includes the design and implementation of the Mass-tracking System (MTG). In this system, data from the operations of the FCF, including weights and batch-process parameters, are collected and maintained by the MTG running on distributed workstations

  11. The Mass Tracking System for the Integral Fast Reactor fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, C.H.; Beitel, J.C.; Birgersson, G.; Bucher, R.G.; Carrico, C.B.; Daly, T.A.; Keyes, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    As part of the Fuel Cycle Facility (FCF) of Argonne National Laboratory's Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) demonstration, a computer-based Mass-Tracking (MTG) System has been developed. The MTG System collects, stores, retrieves and processes data on all operations which directly affect the flow of process material through FCF and supports such activities as process modeling, compliance with operating limits (e.g., criticality safety), material control and accountability and operational information services. Its architecture is client/server, with input and output connections to operator's equipment-control stations on the floor of FCF as well as to terminal sessions. Its heterogeneous database includes a relational-database manager as well as both binary and ASCII data files. The design of the database, and the software that supports it, is based on a model of discrete accountable items distributed in space and time and constitutes a complete historical record of the material processed in FCF. Although still under development, much of the MTG System has been qualified and is in production use

  12. Anesthesia and fast-track in video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS): from evidence to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umari, Marzia; Falini, Stefano; Segat, Matteo; Zuliani, Michele; Crisman, Marco; Comuzzi, Lucia; Pagos, Francesco; Lovadina, Stefano; Lucangelo, Umberto

    2018-03-01

    In thoracic surgery, the introduction of video-assisted thoracoscopic techniques has allowed the development of fast-track protocols, with shorter hospital lengths of stay and improved outcomes. The perioperative management needs to be optimized accordingly, with the goal of reducing postoperative complications and speeding recovery times. Premedication performed in the operative room should be wisely administered because often linked to late discharge from the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU). Inhalatory anesthesia, when possible, should be preferred based on protective effects on postoperative lung inflammation. Deep neuromuscular blockade should be pursued and carefully monitored, and an appropriate reversal administered before extubation. Management of one-lung ventilation (OLV) needs to be optimized to prevent not only intraoperative hypoxemia but also postoperative acute lung injury (ALI): protective ventilation strategies are therefore to be implemented. Locoregional techniques should be favored over intravenous analgesia: the thoracic epidural, the paravertebral block (PVB), the intercostal nerve block (ICNB), and the serratus anterior plane block (SAPB) are thoroughly reviewed and the most common dosages are reported. Fluid therapy needs to be administered critically, to avoid both overload and cardiovascular compromisation. All these practices are analyzed singularly with the aid of the most recent evidences aimed at the best patient care. Finally, a few notes on some of the latest trends in research are presented, such as non-intubated video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) and intravenous lidocaine.

  13. Mass tracking and material accounting in the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orechwa, Y.; Adams, C.H.; White, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is a generic advanced liquid metal cooled reactor concept being developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). There are a number of technical features of the IFR which contribute to its potential as a next-generation reactor. These are associated with large safety margins with regard to off-normal events involving the heat transport system, and the use of metallic fuel which makes possible the utilization of innovative fuel cycle processes. The latter feature permits fuel cycle closure the compact, low-cost reprocessing facilities, collocated with the reactor plant. These primary features are being demonstrated in the facilities at ANL-West, utilizing Experimental Breeder Reactor 2 and the associated Fuel Cycle Facility (FCF) as an IFR prototype. The demonstration of this IFR prototype includes the design and implementation of the Mass-Tracking System (MTG). In this system, data from the operations of the FCF, including weights and batch-process parameters, are collected and maintained by the MTG running on distributed workstations. The components of the MTG System include: (1) an Oracle database manager with a Fortran interface, (2) a set of MTG ''Tasks'' which collect, manipulate and report data, (3) a set of MTG ''Terminal Sessions'' which provide some interactive control of the Tasks, and (4) a set of servers which manage the Tasks and which provide the communications link between the MTG System and Operator Control Stations, which control process equipment and monitoring devices within the FCF

  14. Analysis of etchants behavior on the electrochemical etching amplification of fast-neutron-induced recoil particle tracks in polycarbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masnadi Shirazi Nezhad, K.

    1979-08-01

    The composition, concentration, and temperature of etchant are important parameters controlling electrochemical etching (ECE) amplification of charged particle tracks in polymers. These parameters were further studied for sohralir polycarbonate neutron dosimeter (Sohrabi 1974), using potassium hydroxide (KOH) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions, and a mixture of potassium hydroxide, ethanol, and water (PEW solution), at different concentrations applying a field strength of 32KV/cm at 2KHz frequency using 250 μ thick polycarbonate exposed to fast neutrons. The recoal track density per rad of neutrons, in general, was found to increase by increasing the etchant concentration reaching a semi-platean after which it increases again. This increase is up to a concentration at which a track removing process occurs and no tracks have been amplified anymore. This track removing process occurred at about 11 normality in both KOH (50% by weight) and NaOH (30% by weight) solution at 25degC. The mean track diameter, in general, passed through a cyclic variation having a maximun and a minimum. For NaOH solution, the track removing process occurred at the minimum point. In the three regions of the track diameter curve the tracks appear in different shapes especially in KOH solution. The PEW solution at its optimum conditions was more effective in terms of both sensitivity, track diameter and a shorter period of etching. The chemical mechanism of etching process may be explained to be a ''saponification'' process. These studies further support the adequacy of Sohrabi dosimeter for routing health physics and radiation research applications. The above parameters are further discussed and the results as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the above etchants are given. (author)

  15. A Comparative Study of Analog Voltage-mode Control Methods for Ultra-Fast Tracking Power Supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyerby, Mikkel Christian Wendelboe; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical and experimental comparison of the standard PWM/PID voltage-mode control method for single-phase buck converters with two highperformance self-oscillating (a.k.a. sliding mode) control methods. The application considered is ultra-fast tracking power supplies...... (UFTPSs) for RF power amplifiers, where the switching converter needs to track a varying reference voltage precisely and quickly while maintaining low output impedance. The small-signal analyses performed on the different controllers show that the hysteretic-type controller can achieve the highest loop...

  16. Proposed pyrometallurgical process for rapid recycle of discharged fuel materials from the integral fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burris, L.; Steindler, M.; Miller, W.

    1984-01-01

    The pool-type Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept developed by Argonne National Laboratory includes on-site recycle of discharged core and blanket fuel materials. The process and fabrication steps will be demonstrated in the EBR-II Fuel Cycle Facility with IFR fuel irradiated in EBR-II and the Fast Flux Test Facility. The proposed process consists of two major steps: a halide slagging step and an electrorefining step. The fuel is maintained in the metallic form to yield directly a metal product sufficiently decontaminated to allow recycle to the reactor as new fuel. The process is further described and available information to support its feasibility is presented

  17. A proposed pyrometallurgical process for rapid recycle of discharged fuel materials from the Integral Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burris, L.; Steindler, M.; Miller, W.

    1984-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept developed by Argonne National Laboratory includes on-site recycle of discharged core and blanket fuel materials. The process and fabrication steps will be demonstrated in the EBR-II Fuel Cycle Facility with IFR fuel irradiated in EBR-II and the Fast Flux Test Facility. The proposed process consists of two major steps -- a halide slagging step and an electrorefining step. The fuel is maintained in the metallic form to yield directly a metal product sufficiently decontaminated to allow recycle to the reactor as new fuel. The process is further described and available information to support its feasibility is presented

  18. What Is Required to End the AIDS Epidemic as a Public Health Threat by 2030? The Cost and Impact of the Fast-Track Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Stover

    Full Text Available In 2011 a new Investment Framework was proposed that described how the scale-up of key HIV interventions could dramatically reduce new HIV infections and AIDS-related deaths in low and middle income countries by 2015. This framework included ambitious coverage goals for prevention and treatment services for 2015, resulting in a reduction of new HIV infections by more than half, in line with the goals of the declaration of the UN High Level Meeting in June 2011. However, the approach suggested a leveling in the number of new infections at about 1 million annually-far from the UNAIDS goal of ending AIDS by 2030. In response, UNAIDS has developed the Fast-Track approach that is intended to provide a roadmap to the actions required to achieve this goal. The Fast-Track approach is predicated on a rapid scale-up of focused, effective prevention and treatment services over the next 5 years and then maintaining a high level of programme implementation until 2030. Fast-Track aims to reduce new infections and AIDS-related deaths by 90% from 2010 to 2030 and proposes a set of biomedical, behavioral and enabling intervention targets for 2020 and 2030 to achieve that goal, including the rapid scale-up initiative for antiretroviral treatment known as 90-90-90. Compared to a counterfactual scenario of constant coverage for all services at early-2015 levels, the Fast-Track approach would avert 18 million HIV infections and 11 million deaths from 2016 to 2030 globally. This paper describes the analysis that produced these targets and the estimated resources needed to achieve them in low- and middle-income countries. It indicates that it is possible to achieve these goals with a significant push to achieve rapid scale-up of key interventions between now and 2020. The annual resources required from all sources would rise to US$7.4Bn in low-income countries, US$8.2Bn in lower middle-income countries and US$10.5Bn in upper-middle-income-countries by 2020 before

  19. Opportune acquisition and tracking time for the fast-moving targets in a ground-based telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Wang, Jianli; Chen, Tao

    2004-10-01

    Acquisition is defined as identification for a fixed target in the related field of sight (FOS), while tracking means the sway of the telescope's axis of sight (AOS). The automatic acquisition and tracking is a process in which the operating way of the telescope should be switched from guiding to automatic tracking. There are some kinds of method to improve the acquisition and tracking ability for fast moving targets: to extend the acquisition and tracking FOS with memory and storage information of the sensor system; the multimode control to improve the dynamic property of the servo system; to choose an opportune time for acquisition and tracking; to select the control regulator parameter in every working states. If the processor of the CCD sensor can temporarily remember and save the information of the target before it moves out of the FOS, correspondingly, the FOS may be extended. The data forecast technology is used to store the target information. The automatic interception experiments are carried out to verify the control strategy.

  20. A "package solution" fast track program can reduce the diagnostic waiting time in head and neck cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Roed; Johansen, Jørgen; Gano, Lars

    2014-01-01

    and Neck Surgery during three comparable time intervals 2006-2007, 2007-2008, and 2011-2012 (groups 1-3) were investigated. We recorded the time from patient referral, to first consultation and final diagnosis. The first interval was before initiation of the "package solution", the second just after......In 2007, a fast track program for patients with suspicion of head and neck cancer (HNC) was introduced in Denmark to reduce unnecessary waiting time. The program was based on so called "package solutions" including pre-booked slots for outpatient evaluation, imaging, and diagnostic surgical...... procedures. The purpose of this study is to present a model for fast track handling of patients suspicious of cancer in the head and neck region and to evaluate the effect of implementation on the diagnostic work up time. Patients with suspicion of HNC referred to the same university department of ENT Head...

  1. Relatives in older patients' fast-track treatment programme during total hip or knee replacement. A grounded theory study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher

    and considerate support in concern for the patients; Substituting mode, with practical and cognitive support; and Adapting mode, by trying to fit in with the patients’ and health professionals’ requirements. Study II: 16 patients aged 70 to 94 were included and data was collected through 15 non......The aim of this Ph.D.-dissertation was to generate grounded theories of relatives, patients, and health professionals’ pattern of behaviour, respectively, in relation to the relatives of older patients’ fast-track treatment programmes during total hip or knee replacement. The dissertation includes...... to the older patients’ self-determination of being autonomous and how they adapt and are perceived in the health professionals’ environment. This may be useful to the health professionals in orthopaedic fast-track treatment programmes and their future collaboration with older patients and their relatives....

  2. Role of preoperative anemia for risk of transfusion and postoperative morbidity in fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jans, Øivind; Jørgensen, Christoffer; Kehlet, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preoperative anemia has been associated with increased risk of allogeneic blood transfusion and postoperative morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of preoperative anemia and its association with postoperative outcomes has not previously been reported in relation to fast......-track elective total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of preoperative anemia in elective fast-track THA and TKA and its association with risk of perioperative transfusion, prolonged length of hospital stay (LOS), and postoperative readmission. STUDY...... national databases and patient charts. Adjusted risk estimates for transfusion, prolonged LOS, and all-cause readmission according to preoperative anemia status were obtained by multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 5.165 THA or TKA procedures were included with a mean patient age of 67...

  3. Early Removal of Drainage Tube after Fast-Track Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaoyun; Xu, Bin; Huang, Qiang; Yao, Huan; Xie, Jinwei; Pei, Fuxing

    2017-07-01

    There is no consensus as to whether drainage tube should be used and how long it should remain in use after primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). As fast-track (FT) program has been implemented in TKA, whether drainage tube could be removed early, and the ideal timing for removal after FT primary TKA has been a new topic. The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of early removal of drainage tube when FT program was implemented in primary TKA. A total of 101 patients undergoing FT primary TKA were prospectively allocated into three groups. Patients in group A (31 patients) indwelled wound drainage tube for 6 hours after surgery while group B (34 patients) for 12 hours and group C (36 patients) for 18 hours. The knee circumference, resting and moving visual analogue score (VAS), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit, white blood count (WBC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), the volume of blood loss and drainage, and postoperative length of stay (LOS) among three groups were recorded and compared. There was no statistically significant difference in the volume of total and hidden blood loss among three groups ( p  > 0.05), but as the time of drainage prolonged, total volume of drainage and dominant blood loss increased gradually ( p   0.05), the decrease of Hb in the perioperative period and postoperative LOS as well. Early removal of wound drainage tube could drain the hematocele and reduce the risk of infection, and it doesn't increase the sense of pain, inflammatory reaction, limb swelling, and total blood loss. It's safe and feasible to remove the drainage tube within 6 to 12 hours after FT primary TKA. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  4. Getting on the fast track, or how to get an MLIS through distance education, with a specialization in medical librarianship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detlefsen, Ellen G

    2004-01-01

    The article describes an innovation in MLIS education for medical librarianship, with an introduction to the FastTrack, the distance education program at the University of Pittsburgh's library and information science school, together with an overview of a model program linking the biomedical library at Vanderbilt University with the School of Information Sciences in Pittsburgh. Admissions requirements and specific curriculum for the distance education master's degree are detailed in an FAQ format.

  5. Variation in 'fast-track' referrals for suspected cancer by patient characteristic and cancer diagnosis: evidence from 670 000 patients with cancers of 35 different sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y; Mendonca, S C; Abel, G A; Hamilton, W; Walter, F M; Johnson, S; Shelton, J; Elliss-Brookes, L; McPhail, S; Lyratzopoulos, G

    2018-01-01

    In England, 'fast-track' (also known as 'two-week wait') general practitioner referrals for suspected cancer in symptomatic patients are used to shorten diagnostic intervals and are supported by clinical guidelines. However, the use of the fast-track pathway may vary for different patient groups. We examined data from 669 220 patients with 35 cancers diagnosed in 2006-2010 following either fast-track or 'routine' primary-to-secondary care referrals using 'Routes to Diagnosis' data. We estimated the proportion of fast-track referrals by sociodemographic characteristic and cancer site and used logistic regression to estimate respective crude and adjusted odds ratios. We additionally explored whether sociodemographic associations varied by cancer. There were large variations in the odds of fast-track referral by cancer (P<0.001). Patients with testicular and breast cancer were most likely to have been diagnosed after a fast-track referral (adjusted odds ratios 2.73 and 2.35, respectively, using rectal cancer as reference); whereas patients with brain cancer and leukaemias least likely (adjusted odds ratios 0.05 and 0.09, respectively, for brain cancer and acute myeloid leukaemia). There were sex, age and deprivation differences in the odds of fast-track referral (P<0.013) that varied in their size and direction for patients with different cancers (P<0.001). For example, fast-track referrals were least likely in younger women with endometrial cancer and in older men with testicular cancer. Fast-track referrals are less likely for cancers characterised by nonspecific presenting symptoms and patients belonging to low cancer incidence demographic groups. Interventions beyond clinical guidelines for 'alarm' symptoms are needed to improve diagnostic timeliness.

  6. Real-time tracking and fast retrieval of persons in multiple surveillance cameras of a shopping mall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouma, Henri; Baan, Jan; Landsmeer, Sander; Kruszynski, Chris; van Antwerpen, Gert; Dijk, Judith

    2013-05-01

    The capability to track individuals in CCTV cameras is important for e.g. surveillance applications at large areas such as train stations, airports and shopping centers. However, it is laborious to track and trace people over multiple cameras. In this paper, we present a system for real-time tracking and fast interactive retrieval of persons in video streams from multiple static surveillance cameras. This system is demonstrated in a shopping mall, where the cameras are positioned without overlapping fields-of-view and have different lighting conditions. The results show that the system allows an operator to find the origin or destination of a person more efficiently. The misses are reduced with 37%, which is a significant improvement.

  7. Thigh and knee circumference, knee-extension strength, and functional performance after fast-track total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kristensen, Morten Tange; Husted, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To (1) quantify changes in knee-extension strength and functional-performance at discharge after fast-track total hip arthroplasty (THA) and (2) investigate whether these changes correlate to changes in thigh and knee circumference (ie, swelling) or pain. DESIGN: A prospective, descrip......OBJECTIVE: To (1) quantify changes in knee-extension strength and functional-performance at discharge after fast-track total hip arthroplasty (THA) and (2) investigate whether these changes correlate to changes in thigh and knee circumference (ie, swelling) or pain. DESIGN: A prospective......, descriptive, hypothesis-generating study. SETTING: A special unit for fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty operations at a university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-four patients (20 women and 4 men; ages 69 ± 6.1 years) scheduled for primary unilateral THA. METHODS: All patients were evaluated before surgery......, except for hip pain. The average loss in knee-extension strength after surgery (32%, P = .01) did not correlate with increased thigh circumference (6%, P

  8. Influencing Factor of Postoperation Fast-track Recovery and in Hospital Cost after Lobctomy for Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua SU

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective It is unknown that the postoperation fast-track recovery and in hospital cost of the lobectomy in lung cancer, we explored the influencing factor of postoperative fast-track recovery and in hospital cost after undergoing lobectomy for lung cancer. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients (n=176 who underwent lobectomy for lung cancer between January 2010 and November 2011 by a thoracic surgeon. Results The hospital costs of video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS lobectomy (47,308.21 ¥ is significantly higher than open lobectomy (45,664.31 ¥(P=0.007. The hospital costs of body mass index (BMI ≥ 24 kg/m2 (51,186.99 ¥ is significantly higher than BMI < 24 kg/m2 (41,701.64 ¥(P=0.032. The hospital stay of VATS lobectomy (5.70 d is significantly less than open lobectomy (7.10 d(P<0.001. Conclusion These findings indicate that preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation and VATS lobectomy is contributed to fast-track recovery for patients who undergo lobectomy, but increase the hospital costs.

  9. Safeguarding Self-Governance: A Grounded Theory of Older Patients’ Pattern of Behavior in Relation to their Relatives in Fast-track Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Connie B.; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Lindhardt Damsgaard, Tove

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to generate a grounded theory of older patients’ pattern of behavior in relation to their relatives’ involvement in fast-track programs during total joint replacement. Sixteen patients were recruited in orthopedic wards. Data collection included 11 interviews......, shielding, distancing, and masking. Keywords: Fast-track program, grounded theory, older patients, relatives, total joint replacement.......-governance emerged in the analysis as the core category of our theory and pattern of behavior of the older patients in relation to their relatives. The older patients’ main concern was to complete the fast-track program while maintaining autonomy, which they resolved through four strategies of actions: embracing...

  10. Assessment of fast and thermal neutron ambient dose equivalents around the KFUPM neutron source storage area using nuclear track detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazal-ur-Rehman [Physics Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)]. E-mail: fazalr@kfupm.edu.sa; Al-Jarallah, M.I. [Physics Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Abu-Jarad, F. [Radiation Protection Unit, Environmental Protection Department, Saudi Aramco, P. O. Box 13027, Dhahran 31311 (Saudi Arabia); Qureshi, M.A. [Center for Applied Physical Sciences, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2005-11-15

    A set of five {sup 241}Am-Be neutron sources are utilized in research and teaching at King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM). Three of these sources have an activity of 16Ci each and the other two are of 5Ci each. A well-shielded storage area was designed for these sources. The aim of the study is to check the effectiveness of shielding of the KFUPM neutron source storage area. Poly allyl diglycol carbonate (PADC) Nuclear track detectors (NTDs) based fast and thermal neutron area passive dosimeters have been utilized side by side for 33 days to assess accumulated low ambient dose equivalents of fast and thermal neutrons at 30 different locations around the source storage area and adjacent rooms. Fast neutron measurements have been carried out using bare NTDs, which register fast neutrons through recoils of protons, in the detector material. NTDs were mounted with lithium tetra borate (Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}) converters on their surfaces for thermal neutron detection via B10(n,{alpha})Li6 and Li6(n,{alpha})H3 nuclear reactions. The calibration factors of NTD both for fast and thermal neutron area passive dosimeters were determined using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) with and without a polyethylene moderator. The calibration factors for fast and thermal neutron area passive dosimeters were found to be 1.33 proton tracks cm{sup -2}{mu}Sv{sup -1} and 31.5 alpha tracks cm{sup -2}{mu}Sv{sup -1}, respectively. The results show variations of accumulated dose with the locations around the storage area. The fast neutron dose equivalents rates varied from as low as 182nSvh{sup -1} up to 10.4{mu}Svh{sup -1} whereas those for thermal neutron ranged from as low as 7nSvh{sup -1} up to 9.3{mu}Svh{sup -1}. The study indicates that the area passive neutron dosimeter was able to detect dose rates as low as 7 and 182nSvh{sup -1} from accumulated dose for thermal and fast neutrons, respectively, which were not possible to detect with the available active neutron

  11. Design and DSP implementation of star image acquisition and star point fast acquiring and tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guohui; Wang, Xiaodong; Hao, Zhihang

    2006-02-01

    Star sensor is a special high accuracy photoelectric sensor. Attitude acquisition time is an important function index of star sensor. In this paper, the design target is to acquire 10 samples per second dynamic performance. On the basis of analyzing CCD signals timing and star image processing, a new design and a special parallel architecture for improving star image processing are presented in this paper. In the design, the operation moving the data in expanded windows including the star to the on-chip memory of DSP is arranged in the invalid period of CCD frame signal. During the CCD saving the star image to memory, DSP processes the data in the on-chip memory. This parallelism greatly improves the efficiency of processing. The scheme proposed here results in enormous savings of memory normally required. In the scheme, DSP HOLD mode and CPLD technology are used to make a shared memory between CCD and DSP. The efficiency of processing is discussed in numerical tests. Only in 3.5ms is acquired the five lightest stars in the star acquisition stage. In 43us, the data in five expanded windows including stars are moved into the internal memory of DSP, and in 1.6ms, five star coordinates are achieved in the star tracking stage.

  12. Fast tracking detector with fiber scintillators and a position sensitive photomultiplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomon, M.; Li, V.; Smith, G.; Wu, Y.S.

    1988-11-01

    We have studied the properties of a tracking detector composed of 32 fiber scintillators coupled to a multianode photomultiplier placed in a pion beam at TRIUMF. We measured the efficiency of the detector, as well as its tracking capabilities and double hit resolution

  13. A Fast-Track Path to DEMO Enabled by ITER and FNSF-AT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garofalo, A. M.; Choi, M.; Humphreys, D. A.; Kinsey, J. E.; Lao, L. L.; Snyder, P. B.; John, H. E.St.; Turnbull, A. D.; Taylor, T.S., E-mail: garofalo@fusion.gat.com [General Atomics, San Diego (United States); Chan, V. S.; Canik, J. M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge (United States); Sawan, M. E. [University of Wisconsin, Madison (United States); Stangeby, P. C. [University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies, Toronto (Canada)

    2012-09-15

    Full text: A Fusion Nuclear Science Facility based on the Advanced Tokamak concept (FNSF-AT) [1] is a key element of a fast track plan to a commercially attractive fusion DEMO. The next step forward on the path towards fusion commercialization must be a device that complements ITER in addressing the community identified science and technology gaps to DEMO, and that enables a DEMO construction decision triggered by the achievement of Q = 10 in ITER, presently scheduled for the year 2030. This paper elucidates the logic flow leading to the FNSF-AT approach for such a next step forward, and presents the results of recent analysis resolving key physics and engineering issues. A FNSF-AT will show fusion can make its own fuel, provide a materials irradiation facility, show fusion can produce high-grade process heat and electricity. In order to accomplish these goals, the FNSF has to operate steady-state with significant duty cycle and significant neutron fluence. In FNSF-AT, advanced tokamak physics enables steady-state burning plasmas with the high fluence required for FNSF's nuclear science development objective, in the compact size required to demonstrate Tritium fuel self-sufficiency using only a moderate quantity of the limited supply of Tritium. Physics based integrated modeling has found a steady-state baseline equilibrium with good stability and controllability properties. 2-D analysis assuming ITER heat and particle diffusion coefficients in the SOL predicts peak heat flux < 10 MW/m{sup 2} at the outer divertor targets. High fidelity and high-resolution 3D neutronics calculations have also been carried out, showing acceptable cumulative end-of-life organic insulator dose levels in all the device coils, and TBR > 1 for two blanket concepts considered. This FNSF-AT baseline plasma scenario has significant margin to meet the FNSF nuclear science mission. Moreover, the facility allows the development of more advanced scenarios to close the physics gaps to DEMO

  14. Contrast agent bolus tracking with a fixed threshold or a manual fast start for coronary CT angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenzel, Fabian; Rief, Matthias; Zimmermann, Elke; Greupner, Johannes; Richter, Felicitas; Dewey, Marc [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-06-15

    Comparison of bolus tracking with a fixed threshold versus a manual fast start for coronary CT angiography. We retrospectively analysed 320-row coronary CT angiography of 50 patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease. Twenty-five examinations were initiated by a bolus tracking method (group 1), 25 examinations with a manual fast surestart (group 2). Mean attenuation values in the ascending aorta were 519 ± 111 Hounsfield units (HU) in group 1 and 476 ± 65 HU in group 2 (p = 0.10). Assessable vessel lengths were 171 ± 44 mm vs 172 ± 29 mm for the right coronary artery (p = 0.91), 11 ± 4 mm vs 12 ± 4 mm for the left main (p = 0.9), 163 ± 28 mm vs 151 ± 26 mm for the left anterior descending coronary artery (p = 0.11) and 125 ± 41 mm vs 110 ± 37 mm for the left circumflex coronary artery (p = 0.18). Image quality for all coronary arteries was not significantly different between the groups (p > 0.41). The attenuation ratio between the left and right ventricle was 2.8 ± 0.7 vs 3.6 ± 1.0 (p = 0.003). Significantly less contrast agent was used in group 2 (64 ± 6 ml vs 80 ± 0 ml; p < 0.001). Bolus tracking with a fixed threshold and with a manual fast start are both suitable methods; the fast start allowed a reduction of contrast agent volumes. (orig.)

  15. Radiation-hardened fast acquisition/weak signal tracking system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winternitz, Luke (Inventor); Boegner, Gregory J. (Inventor); Sirotzky, Steve (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A global positioning system (GPS) receiver and method of acquiring and tracking GPS signals comprises an antenna adapted to receive GPS signals; an analog radio frequency device operatively connected to the antenna and adapted to convert the GPS signals from an analog format to a digital format; a plurality of GPS signal tracking correlators operatively connected to the analog RF device; a GPS signal acquisition component operatively connected to the analog RF device and the plurality of GPS signal tracking correlators, wherein the GPS signal acquisition component is adapted to calculate a maximum vector on a databit correlation grid; and a microprocessor operatively connected to the plurality of GPS signal tracking correlators and the GPS signal acquisition component, wherein the microprocessor is adapted to compare the maximum vector with a predetermined correlation threshold to allow the GPS signal to be fully acquired and tracked.

  16. First results of the silicon telescope using an 'artificial retina' for fast track finding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neri, N. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - INFN, Sezione di Milano, Milano (Italy); Abba, A.; Caponio, F.; Geraci, A.; Grizzuti, M.; Lusardi, N. [INFN Milano and Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); Citterio, M.; Coelli, S.; Fu, J.; Monti, M.; Petruzzo, M. [INFN Milano, Milano (Italy); Bedeschi, F.; Ninci, D.; Piucci, A.; Spinella, F.; Walsh, J. [INFN Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Cenci, R.; Marino, P.; Morello, M. J.; Stracka, S. [INFN Pisa and Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Punzi, G. [INFN Pisa and Universita di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Tonelli, D. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Ristori, L. [INFN Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois (United States)

    2015-07-01

    We present the first results of the prototype of a silicon tracker with trigger capabilities based on a novel approach for fast track finding. The working principle of the 'artificial retina' is inspired by the processing of visual images by the brain and it is based on extensive parallelization of data distribution and pattern recognition. The algorithm has been implemented in commercial FPGAs in three main logic modules: a switch for the routing of the detector hits, a pool of engines for the digital processing of the hits, and a block for the calculation of the track parameters. The architecture is fully pipelined and allows the reconstruction of real-time tracks with a latency less then 100 clock cycles, corresponding to 0.25 microsecond at 400 MHz clock. The silicon telescope consists of 8 layers of single-sided silicon strip detectors with 512 strips each. The detector size is about 10 cm x 10 cm and the strip pitch is 183 μm. The detectors are read out by the Beetle chip, a custom ASICs developed for LHCb, which provides the measurement of the hit position and pulse height of 128 channels. The 'artificial retina' algorithm has been implemented on custom data acquisition boards based on FPGAs Xilinx Kintex 7 lx160. The parameters of the tracks detected are finally transferred to host PC via USB 3.0. The boards manage the read-out ASICs and the sampling of the analog channels. The read-out is performed at 40 MHz on 4 channels for each ASIC that corresponds to a decoding of the telescope information at 1.1 MHz. We report on the first results of the fast tracking device and compare with simulations. (authors)

  17. Laparoscopy in combination with fast track multimodal management is the best perioperative strategy in patients undergoing colonic surgery: a randomized clinical trial (LAFA-study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlug, Malaika S.; Wind, Jan; Hollmann, Markus W.; Ubbink, Dirk T.; Cense, Huib A.; Engel, Alexander F.; Gerhards, Michael F.; van Wagensveld, Bart A.; van der Zaag, Edwin S.; van Geloven, Anna A. W.; Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.; Cuesta, Miguel A.; Bemelman, Willem A.; Preckel, Benedikt; Bossuyt, Patrick; Gouma, Dirk; van Berge Henegouwen, Mark; Fuhring, Jan; van Lenthe, Ineke Picard; Bakker, Chris; King-Kalimanis, Bellinda; Hofland, Jan; Dejong, Cornelis; van Dam, Ronald; van der Peet, Donald; van Zalingen, Edith; Noordhuis, Astrid; de Jong, Dick; Goei, T. Hauwy; de Stoppelaar, Erica; van den Dongen, Marjon; van Tets, Willem; van den Elsen, Maarten; Swart, Annemiek; deWit, Laurens; Siepel, Muriel; Molly, Glaresa; Juttmann, Jan; Clevers, Wilfred; Bieleman, Andrea; Coenen, Ludo; Bonekamp, Elly; van Abeelen, Jacobus; van Iterson-de Jong, Diana; Krombeen, Margriet

    2011-01-01

    To investigate which perioperative treatment, ie, laparoscopic or open surgery combined with fast track (FT) or standard care, is the optimal approach for patients undergoing segmental resection for colon cancer. Important developments in elective colorectal surgery are the introduction of

  18. Fast track multi-discipline treatment (FTMDT trial versus conventional treatment in colorectal cancer--the design of a prospective randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jiao-Jiao

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laparoscopy-assisted surgery, fast-track perioperative treatment are both increasingly used in colorectal cancer treatment, for their short-time benefits of enhanced recovery and short hospital stays. However, the benefits of the integration of the Laparoscopy-assisted surgery, fast-track perioperative treatment, and even with the Xelox chemotherapy, are still unknown. In this study, the three treatments integration is defined as "Fast Track Multi-Discipline Treatment Model" for colorectal cancer and this model extends the benefits to the whole treatment process of colorectal cancer. The main purpose of the study is to explore the feasibility of "Fast Track Multi-Discipline Treatment" model in treatment of colorectal cancer. Methods The trial is a prospective randomized controlled study with 2 × 2 balanced factorial design. Patients eligible for the study will be randomized to 4 groups: (I Laparoscopic surgery with fast track perioperative treatment and Xelox chemotherapy; (II Open surgery with fast track perioperative treatment and Xelox chemotherapy; (III Laparoscopic surgery with conventional perioperative treatment and mFolfox6 chemotherapy; (IV Open surgery with conventional perioperative treatment and mFolfox6 chemotherapy. The primary endpoint of this study is the hospital stays. The secondary endpoints are the quality of life, chemotherapy related adverse events, surgical complications and hospitalization costs. Totally, 340 patients will be enrolled with 85 patients in each group. Conclusions The study initiates a new treatment model "Fast Track Multi-Discipline Treatment" for colorectal cancer, and will provide feasibility evidence on the new model "Fast Track Multi-Discipline Treatment" for patients with colorectal cancer. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01080547

  19. Surgery-induced changes and early recovery of hip-muscle strength, leg-press power, and functional performance after fast-track total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Thorborg, Kristian; Husted, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    By measuring very early changes in muscle strength and functional performance after fast-track total hip arthroplasty (THA), post-operative rehabilitation, introduced soon after surgery, can be designed to specifically target identified deficits.......By measuring very early changes in muscle strength and functional performance after fast-track total hip arthroplasty (THA), post-operative rehabilitation, introduced soon after surgery, can be designed to specifically target identified deficits....

  20. Fast track in total hip and knee arthroplasty--experiences from Hvidovre University Hospital, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Henrik; Holm, Gitte

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated whether unselected patients operated on with total hip arthroplasty (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA) could accomplish a self-developed accelerated track, ANORAK-HH, with a planned length of stay (LOS) of maximum 5 days and patient satisfaction at all parts of the track...... and a planned LOS of maximum 5 days. 22 patient characteristics and 11 satisfaction parameters were registered as well as readmissions within 3 months. 95% of patients had a LOS of maximum 5 days with a mean of 3.9 days. Median and mean values of satisfaction for the entire track were 10 and 9.4 out of 10...

  1. Particle tracking at 4K: The Fast Annihilation Cryogenic Tracking (FACT) detector for the AEgIS antimatter gravity experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Storey, J; Ahlén, O; Amsler, C; Ariga, A; Ariga, T; Belov, A.S; Bonomi, G; Bräunig, P; Bremer, J; Brusa, R.S; Burghart, G; Cabaret, L; Canali, C; Carante, M; Caravita, R; Castelli, F; Cerchiari, G; Cialdi, S; Comparat, D; Consolati, G; Dassa, L; Di Domizio, S; Di Noto, L; Doser, M; Dudarev, A; Ereditato, A; Ferragut, R; Fontana, A; Genova, P; Giammarchi, M; Gligorova, A; Gninenko, S.N; Haider, S; Hogan, S.D; Huse, T; Jordan, E; Jørgensen, L.V; Kaltenbacher, T; Kawada, J; Kellerbauer, A; Kimura, M; Knecht, A; Krasnický, D; Lagomarsino, V; Magnani, A; Mariazzi, S; Matveev, V.A; Merkt, F; Moia, F; Nebbia, G; Nédélec, P; Oberthaler, M.K; Pacifico, N; Petrácek, V; Pistillo, C; Prelz, F; Prevedelli, M; Regenfus, C; Riccardi, C; Røhne, O; Rotondi, A; Sandaker, H; Scampoli, P; Spacek, M; Subieta Vasquez, M.A; Testera, G; Trezzi, D; Vaccarone, R; Zavatarelli, S

    2013-01-01

    The AEgIS experiment is an international collaboration with the main goal of performing the fi rst direct measurement of the Earth ' s gravitational acceleration on antimatter. Critical to the success of AEgIS is the production of cold antihydrogen ( H) atoms. The FACT detector is used to measure the production and temperature of the H atoms and for establishing the formation of a H beam. The operating requirements for this detector are very challenging: it must be able to identify each of the thousand or so annihilations in the 1 ms period of pulsed H production, operate at 4 K inside a 1 T solenoidal fi eld and not produce more than 10 W of heat. The FACT detector consists of two concentric cylindrical layers of 400 scintillator fi bres with a 1 mm diameter and a 0.6 mm pitch. The scintillating fi bres are coupled to clear fi bres which transport the scintillation light to 800 silicon photomultipliers. Each silicon photomultiplier signal is connected to a linear ampli fi er and a fast discriminator, the out...

  2. Simple and fast system for analysis of charged particle tracks in multiplane hodoscopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuter, J P [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire

    1977-01-15

    A digital-analog system is described, which performs in less than 400 ns the recognition of a linear relation between three 10-bit-coded digital coordinates, giving a 10/sup -3/ precision on track location.

  3. A PROPOSAL FOR MAKING A RISK MAP OF ROCKFALL BY EVALUATING THE INFLUENCE TO RAILWAY TRACK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukata, Takahiro; Mori, Taiki; Shibuya, Satoru

    An incident of rockfall may trigger serious damage to the safety as well as the after-the-event maintenance of railway transportation. In an attempt to minimize such damage caused by rockfall incident, the railway companies regularly in spect the concerned slopes along the railway, and take necessary measures. In the current practice, however, it is very difficult to make a full control of slopes in danger spreading over the wide area due to the limited human and financial resources. Accordingly, it is urgently needed for the railway firms to establish cost-effective as well as reliable system for the slope management. A risk map based on the impact statement of rockfall to railway track is of great use for not only enhancing the efficiency of slope inspection, but also planning the disaster prevention of railway. In this paper, a methodology for establishing a risk map by considering the impact statement to railway truck in a quantitative manner is proposed. In so doing, the rockfall movement on a slope was numerically simulated in match with each categorized type of slopes. The applicability of this proposed method for the slope management practice is examined based on a number of case histories.

  4. A method for the measurement of fission rates in fast neutron fields using solid state track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, W.; Vogel, W.

    1984-04-01

    Solid state track detectors (SSTDs) are increasingly used for the registration of radiation in different fields of nuclear physics. Because of their small sizes and masses and the absence of any electronics during exposure SSTDs do not cause distortions in the system to be investigated and are useful for measurements at such places being difficult of access. The elaboration of a method is described for fission rate measurements in fast neutron fields applying SSTDs and different fissionable isotopes which were electrodeposited on stainless steel backings. Experiences of the electrodeposition and results of quality checks are presented. The evaluation of the etched tracks is performed with spark counter technique. The dependence of the counting result on essential influence parameters is discussed. (author)

  5. The design and simulated performance of a fast Level 1 track trigger for the ATLAS High Luminosity Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Martensson, Mikael; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the High Luminosity LHC will face a fivefold increase in the number of interactions per bunch crossing relative to the ongoing Run 2. This will require a proportional improvement in rejection power at the earliest levels of the detector trigger system, while preserving good signal efficiency. One critical aspect of this improvement will be the implementation of precise track reconstruction, through which sharper trigger turn-on curves can be achieved, and b-tagging and tau-tagging techniques can in principle be implemented. The challenge of such a project comes in the development of a fast, custom electronic device integrated in the hardware based first trigger level of the experiment. This article will discuss the requirements, architecture and projected performance of the system in terms of tracking, timing and physics, based on detailed simulations. Studies are carried out using data from the strip subsystem only or both strip and pixel subsystems.

  6. Particle tracking at 4 K: The Fast Annihilation Cryogenic Tracking (FACT) detector for the AEgIS antimatter gravity experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storey, J., E-mail: james.storey@cern.ch [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Laboratory for High Energy Physics, University of Bern, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Canali, C. [University of Zurich, Physics Institute, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Aghion, S. [Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez. di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Ahlén, O. [European Organisation for Nuclear Research, Physics Department, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Amsler, C.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T. [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Laboratory for High Energy Physics, University of Bern, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Belov, A.S. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Bonomi, G. [University of Brescia, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Via Branze 38, 25133 Brescia (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez. di Pavia, Via Agostino Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Bräunig, P. [University of Heidelberg, Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, Im Neuenheimer Feld 227, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Bremer, J. [European Organisation for Nuclear Research, Physics Department, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Brusa, R.S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Trento and INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Trento, Via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Burghart, G. [European Organisation for Nuclear Research, Physics Department, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Cabaret, L. [Laboratoire Aimé Cotton, CNRS, Université Paris Sud, ENS Cachan, Bâtiment 505, Campus d' Orsay, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Carante, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez. di Pavia, Via Agostino Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Caravita, R. [University of Milano, Department of Physics, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); and others

    2013-12-21

    The AEgIS experiment is an international collaboration with the main goal of performing the first direct measurement of the Earth's gravitational acceleration on antimatter. Critical to the success of AEgIS is the production of cold antihydrogen (H{sup ¯}) atoms. The FACT detector is used to measure the production and temperature of the H{sup ¯} atoms and for establishing the formation of a H{sup ¯} beam. The operating requirements for this detector are very challenging: it must be able to identify each of the thousand or so annihilations in the 1 ms period of pulsed H{sup ¯} production, operate at 4 K inside a 1 T solenoidal field and not produce more than 10 W of heat. The FACT detector consists of two concentric cylindrical layers of 400 scintillator fibres with a 1 mm diameter and a 0.6 mm pitch. The scintillating fibres are coupled to clear fibres which transport the scintillation light to 800 silicon photomultipliers. Each silicon photomultiplier signal is connected to a linear amplifier and a fast discriminator, the outputs of which are sampled continuously by Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). In the course of the developments for the FACT detector we have established the performance of scintillating fibres at 4 K by means of a cosmic-ray tracker operating in a liquid helium cryostat. The FACT detector was installed in the AEgIS apparatus in December 2012 and will be used to study the H{sup ¯} formation when the low energy antiproton physics programs resume at CERN in the Summer of 2014. This paper presents the design requirements and construction methods of the FACT detector and provides the first results of the detector commissioning.

  7. Particle tracking at 4 K: The Fast Annihilation Cryogenic Tracking (FACT) detector for the AEgIS antimatter gravity experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storey, J.; Canali, C.; Aghion, S.; Ahlén, O.; Amsler, C.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Belov, A.S.; Bonomi, G.; Bräunig, P.; Bremer, J.; Brusa, R.S.; Burghart, G.; Cabaret, L.; Carante, M.; Caravita, R.

    2013-01-01

    The AEgIS experiment is an international collaboration with the main goal of performing the first direct measurement of the Earth's gravitational acceleration on antimatter. Critical to the success of AEgIS is the production of cold antihydrogen (H ¯ ) atoms. The FACT detector is used to measure the production and temperature of the H ¯ atoms and for establishing the formation of a H ¯ beam. The operating requirements for this detector are very challenging: it must be able to identify each of the thousand or so annihilations in the 1 ms period of pulsed H ¯ production, operate at 4 K inside a 1 T solenoidal field and not produce more than 10 W of heat. The FACT detector consists of two concentric cylindrical layers of 400 scintillator fibres with a 1 mm diameter and a 0.6 mm pitch. The scintillating fibres are coupled to clear fibres which transport the scintillation light to 800 silicon photomultipliers. Each silicon photomultiplier signal is connected to a linear amplifier and a fast discriminator, the outputs of which are sampled continuously by Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). In the course of the developments for the FACT detector we have established the performance of scintillating fibres at 4 K by means of a cosmic-ray tracker operating in a liquid helium cryostat. The FACT detector was installed in the AEgIS apparatus in December 2012 and will be used to study the H ¯ formation when the low energy antiproton physics programs resume at CERN in the Summer of 2014. This paper presents the design requirements and construction methods of the FACT detector and provides the first results of the detector commissioning

  8. MANAJEMEN RISIKO PADA PROYEK KONSTRUKSI DENGAN METODE FAST TRACK STUDI KASUS PROYEK QUNCI VILLAS DAN PUTRI NAGA KOMODO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ketut Wirawan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The rapid economic development such as now day, it need a construction method that may provide a facility faster and less cost. Therefore, fast track method has been widely applied in project management as happened in Qunci Villas Project at Lombok and Putri Naga Komodo Project at Loh Liang of Komodo Island. Fast track construction method has potential risks that can interfere the success of the project. This study aims to identify the risks, especially the mayor risk, to formulate the mitigation action, and to determine the risk ownership. This study was conducted using qualitative descriptive method by identifying the risks arising during the implementation of the fast track method on Qunci Villas and Putri Naga Komodo Projects through the study of literature, brainstorming, interview using questionnaires to those who knew or were involved in the project. So the frequency and magnitude of the consequences of each risk can be known. Then the risk assessment can be conducted to determine the mayor risk and the minor risk. Then determining mitigation action for the mayor risk to reduce the negative impact that may arise. Then allocating the risk ownership in other to the mitigation action can be handled properly. The risk identified totaled 25 risks consisting of : 1 risk (4% which was medium risk rating,  6 risks (24% which were high risk rating, and 18 risks (72% which were extreme risk rating. The mayor risk amounted to 24 risks (96%. The mayor risk which were high risk rating consisting of : 1 planning risk, 3 technical risks, 1 project risk and 1 criminal risk. While mayor risk which were extreme risk rating consisting of : 5 technical risks, 10 project risks, 2 financial risks, and 1 human risk. Mitigation action were handled by reducing likelihood and consequence. The most risks ownership were allocated to the contractor.

  9. Impact of fast-track concept elements in the classical pancreatic head resection (Kausch-Whipple procedure).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastinger, Ingo; Meyer, Frank; Lembcke, Thomas; Schmidt, Uwe; Ptok, Henry; Lippert, Hans

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the study was to determine statistically significant factors with an impact on the early postoperative surgical outcome. The influence of applied fast-track components on surgical results and early postoperative outcome in 143 consecutive Kausch-Whipple procedure patients was evaluated in a single-center retrospective analysis of a prospective collection of patient-associated pre-, peri- and postoperative data from 1997-2006. The in-hospital mortality rate was 2.8% (n=4). Fast-track measures were shown to have no effect on the morbidity rate in the multi-variate analysis. Over the study period, a decrease of intraoperative infusion volume from 14.2 mL/kg body weight/h in the first year to 10.7 mL/kg body weight/h in the last year was accompanied by an increase in patients requiring intraoperative catecholamines, up from 17% to 95%. The administration of ropivacain/sufentanil via thoracic peri-dural catheter injection initiated in 2000 and now considered the leading analgesic method, was used in 95% of the cases in 2006. Early extubation rate rose from 16.6% to 57.9%. Fast-track aspects in the perioperative management have become more important in several surgical procedure even in those with a greater invasiveness such as Kausch-Whipple. However, such techniques used in peri-operative management of Kausch-Whipple pancreatic-head resections had no impact on the morbidity rate. In addition, the low in-hospital mortality rate was particularly attributed to surgical competence.

  10. Effect of fast track surgery on anxiety index and stress indices in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LU Xia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the effect of fast track surgery (FTS on anxiety index and stress indices in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. MethodsThe patients who were hospitalized in Department of General Surgery, The Second People′s Hospital of Lanzhou, from March 2015 to July 2016 and underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy were enrolled and randomly divided into FTS group and conventional treatment group, with 200 patients in each group. The patients in the FTS group were given FTS in the perioperative period, and those in the conventional treatment group were given conventional treatment. The C-reactive protein (CRP level, white blood cell count (WBC, and interleukin-6 (IL-6 level were measured on admission, at 1 hour before surgery, and at 24 and 48 hours after surgery, as well as the anxiety index in Hamilton anxiety scale (HAMA. The t-test was used for comparison of continuous data between groups, and the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. ResultsThere was no significant difference in anxiety index between the FTS group and the conventional treatment group on admission (P>0.05; at 1 hour before surgery and at 24 and 48 hours after surgery, there were significant differences in anxiety index between the two groups (χ2=12.73, 13.17, and 14.12, all P<0.05. On admission and at 1 hour before surgery, there were no significant differences in the CRP level, WBC, and IL-6 level between the FTS group and the conventional treatment group (all P>0.05; at 24 and 48 hours after surgery, there were significant differences in the CRP level, WBC, and IL-6 level between the two groups [CRP24h: 8.47±0.78 mg/L vs 17.56±1.31 mg/L, t=17.63, P<0.05; WBC24h: (8.3±3.4×109/L vs (10.2±3.8×109/L, t=21.62, P<0.05; IL-624h: 127.43±37.46 ng/L vs 146.25±42.56 ng/L, t=2632, P<0.05; CRP48h:(6.57±1.27 mg/L vs (10.76±1.25 mg/L,t=19.25,P<0.05;WBC48h:(7.1±2.3×109/L vs (9.3±2.4×109/L

  11. Application of fast track surgery strategy in perioperative period of primary suture of laparoscopic choledocholithotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Jinheng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the clinical application value of fast track surgery strategy (EARS in the perioperative period of primary suture of laparoscopy in the treatment of common bile duct stones. MethodsA total of 64 patients with gallstones complicated by common bile duct stones who were hospitalized in Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery in The Second People′s Hospital of Chengdu from October 2015 to February 2016 were enrolled, and according to the treatment in the perioperative period, the patients were divided into EARS group (32 patients and control group (32 patients. Clinical indices and complications were compared between the two groups. The t-test was used for comparison of continuous data between groups, and the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. ResultsCompared with the control group, the ERAS group had significantly shortened time of extraction of drainage tube (1.6±0.9 d vs 2.7±1.0 d, t=-5.675, P<0.01 and length of hospital stay (5.1±1.0 d vs 6.8±1.1 d, t=-5.910, P<0.01, significantly shorter time to first ambulation (1.0±0.3 d vs 1.6±0.7 d, t=-4.313, P<0.01 and time to intestinal functional recovery (1.1±0.4 d vs 1.8±0.6 d, t=-4.842, P<0.01, a significantly shortened time to stopping infusion after surgery (3.8±1.0 d vs 4.9±1.2 d, t=-3.923, P<0.01, significantly reduced total hospital costs (17 433.5±1411.3 ten thousand yuan vs 26 651.6±2945.8 ten thousand yuan, t=-15.942, P<0.001, a significantly lower proportion of patients who experienced pain after surgery [4 (12.5% vs 13 (40.6%, χ2=6.490, P=0.011], and significantly lower levels of alanine aminotransferase (105.25±35.34 U/L vs 179.00±48.64 U/L, t=-5.973, P<0.05 and total bilirubin (50.78±12.60 μmol/L vs 79.70±18.56 μmol/L, t=-7.090, P<0.05 after surgery. ConclusionEARS is highly practical in the perioperative period of laparoscopic surgery and can promote patients′ rapid recovery. Therefore

  12. Fast TPC Online Tracking on GPUs and Asynchronous Data Processing in the ALICE HLT to facilitate Online Calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohr, David; Gorbunov, Sergey; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Breitner, Timo; Kretz, Matthias; Lindenstruth, Volker

    2015-01-01

    ALICE (A Large Heavy Ion Experiment) is one of the four major experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, which is today the most powerful particle accelerator worldwide. The High Level Trigger (HLT) is an online compute farm of about 200 nodes, which reconstructs events measured by the ALICE detector in real-time. The HLT uses a custom online data-transport framework to distribute data and workload among the compute nodes.ALICE employs several calibration-sensitive subdetectors, e.g. the TPC (Time Projection Chamber). For a precise reconstruction, the HLT has to perform the calibration online. Online- calibration can make certain Offline calibration steps obsolete and can thus speed up Offline analysis. Looking forward to ALICE Run III starting in 2020, online calibration becomes a necessity.The main detector used for track reconstruction is the TPC. Reconstructing the trajectories in the TPC is the most compute-intense step during event reconstruction. Therefore, a fast tracking implementation is of great importance. Reconstructed TPC tracks build the basis for the calibration making a fast online-tracking mandatory.We present several components developed for the ALICE High Level Trigger to perform fast event reconstruction and to provide features required for online calibration.As first topic, we present our TPC tracker, which employs GPUs to speed up the processing, and which bases on a Cellular Automaton and on the Kalman filter. Our TPC tracking algorithm has been successfully used in 2011 and 2012 in the lead-lead and the proton-lead runs. We have improved it to leverage features of newer GPUs and we have ported it to support OpenCL, CUDA, and CPUs with a single common source code. This makes us vendor independent.As second topic, we present framework extensions required for online calibration. The extensions, however, are generic and can be used for other purposes as well. We have extended the framework to support asynchronous compute chains

  13. Cyclo-oxygenase 2 inhibitors and the risk of anastomotic leakage after fast-track colonic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, K; Andersen, Jens; Jakobsen, D Hjort

    2009-01-01

    -oxygenase inhibitor for postoperative analgesia. METHODS: Patients with anastomotic leakage following a standard fast-track procotol between April 1997 and May 2006 were identified from a prospective, consecutive database. During this period there were two changes in perioperative management: cessation......BACKGROUND: Anastomotic leakage occurs after 3-6 per cent of colonic resections. The influence of analgesic agents is largely unknown. This study determined the rate of anastomotic leakage in a series of patients who had colonic surgery over a 9-year period with or without use of a cyclo...

  14. Avoiding ICU Admission by Using a Fast-Track Protocol Is Safe in Selected Adult-to-Adult Live Donor Liver Transplant Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Echeverri, MD

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. We evaluated patient characteristics of live donor liver transplant (LDLT recipients undergoing a fast-track protocol without intensive care unit (ICU admission versus LDLT patients receiving posttransplant ICU care. Methods. Of the 153 LDLT recipients, 46 patients were included in our fast-track protocol without ICU admission. Both, fast-tracked patients and ICU-admitted patients were compared regarding donor and patient characteristics, perioperative characteristics, and postoperative outcomes and complications. In a subgroup analysis, we compared fast-tracked patients with patients who were admitted in the ICU for less than 24 hours. Results. Fast-tracked versus ICU patients had a lower model for end-stage liver disease score (13 ± 4 vs 18 ± 7; P < 0.0001, lower preoperative bilirubin levels (51 ± 50 μmol/L vs 119.4 ± 137.3 μmol/L; P < 0.001, required fewer units of packed red blood cells (1.7 ± 1.78 vs 4.4 ± 4; P < 0.0001, and less fresh-frozen plasma (2.7 ± 2 vs 5.8 ± 5; P < 0.0001 during transplantation. Regarding postoperative outcomes, fast-tracked patients presented fewer bacterial infections within 30 days (6.5% [3] vs 29% [28]; P = 0.002, no episodes of pneumonia (0% vs 11.3% [11]; P = 0.02, and less biliary complications within the first year (6% [3] vs 26% [25]; P = 0.001. Also, fast-tracked patients had a shorter posttransplant hospital stay (10.8 ± 5 vs 21.3 ± 29; P = 0.002. In the subgroup analysis, fast-tracked vs ICU patients admitted for less than 24 hours had lower requirements of packed red blood cells (1.7 ± 1.78 vs 3.9 ± 4; P = 0.001 and fresh-frozen plasma (2.7 ± 2 vs 5.8 ± 4.5; P = 0.0001. Conclusions. Fast-track of selected patients after LDLT is safe and feasible. An objective score to perioperatively select LDLT recipients amenable to fast track is yet to be determined.

  15. Nanostructured Material for Accurate and Fast Tracking of Cryogenic Temperatures, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The use of cryogenic propellants in next-generation launch vehicles and rockets relies to a great extent on the availability of rugged, high accuracy (0.2%), fast...

  16. Imaging of fast-neutron sources using solid-state track-recorder pinhole radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruddy, F.H.; Gold, R.; Roberts, J.H.; Kaiser, B.J.; Preston, C.C.

    1983-08-01

    Pinhole imaging methods are being developed and tested for potential future use in imaging the intense neutron source of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility. Previously reported, extensive calibration measurements of the proton, neutron, and alpha particle response characteristics of CR-39 polymer solid state track recorders (SSTRs) are being used to interpret the results of imaging experiments using both charged particle and neutron pinhole collimators. High resolution, neutron pinhole images of a 252 Cf source have been obtained in the form of neutron induced proton recoil tracks in CR-39 polymer SSTR. These imaging experiments are described as well as their potential future applications to FMIT

  17. Fast region-based object detection and tracking using correlation of features

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Senekal, F

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available and track a target object (or objects) over a series of digital images. Visual target tracking can be accomplished by feature-based or region-based approaches. In feature-based approaches, interest points are calculated in a digital image, and a local...-time performance based on the computational power that is available on a specific platform. To further reduce the computational requirements, process- ing is restricted to the region of interest (ROI). The region of interest is provided as an input parameter...

  18. Mathematical framework for fast and rigorous track fit for the ZEUS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiridonov, Alexander

    2008-12-15

    In this note we present a mathematical framework for a rigorous approach to a common track fit for trackers located in the inner region of the ZEUS detector. The approach makes use of the Kalman filter and offers a rigorous treatment of magnetic field inhomogeneity, multiple scattering and energy loss. We describe mathematical details of the implementation of the Kalman filter technique with a reduced amount of computations for a cylindrical drift chamber, barrel and forward silicon strip detectors and a forward straw drift chamber. Options with homogeneous and inhomogeneous field are discussed. The fitting of tracks in one ZEUS event takes about of 20ms on standard PC. (orig.)

  19. Readmission rates after a planned hospital stay of 2 versus 3 days in fast-track colonic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens; Hjort-Jakobsen, Dorthe; Christiansen, P. S.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Initial programmes of fast-track open colonic surgery with a planned 2-day postoperative hospital stay have had a high readmission rate (about 20 per cent). The aim of this large, consecutive series was to compare readmission rates after a fast-track open colonic surgery programme...... from August 2004. All patients were examined 8 and 30 days after surgery. RESULTS: Readmission rates fell from 20.1 per cent in 408 patients with a planned 2-day hospital stay (period 1) to 11.3 per cent in 133 patients with a planned 3-day hospital stay (period 2) (P ... hospital stay was 2 and 3 days, median stay after readmission was 5 and 5.5 days, and median (mean) total stay was 3 (5.6) and 3 (5.7) days in periods 1 and 2 respectively. The readmission rate in period 2 was lower because there were fewer readmissions for short-term observation or social reasons...

  20. Evaluation of the influence of pulmonary hypertension in ultra-fast-track anesthesia technique in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio da Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate the influence of pulmonary hypertension in the ultra-fast-track anesthesia technique in adult cardiac surgery. Methods: A retrospective study. They were included 40 patients divided into two groups: GI (without pulmonary hypertension and GII (with pulmonary hypertension. Based on data obtained by transthoracic echocardiography. We considered as the absence of pulmonary hypertension: a pulmonary artery systolic pressure (sPAP 40 mmHg associated with additional echocardiographic signs of PH. It was established as influence of pulmonary hypertension: the impossibility of extubation in the operating room, the increase in the time interval for extubation and reintubation the first 24 hours postoperatively. Univariate and multivariate analyzes were performed when necessary. Considered significant a P value <0.05. Results: The GI was composed of 21 patients and GII for 19. All patients (100% were extubated in the operating room in a medium time interval of 17.58±8.06 min with a median of 18 min in GII and 17 min in GI. PH did not increase the time interval for extubation (P=0.397. It required reintubation of 2 patients in GII (5% of the total, without statistically significant as compared to GI (P=0.488. Conclusion: In this study, pulmonary hypertension did not influence on ultra-fast-track anesthesia in adult cardiac surgery.

  1. 'Fast-track' colonic surgery in Austria and Germany--results from the survey on patterns in current perioperative practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenberg, T; Keese, M; Längle, F; Reibenwein, B; Schindler, K; Herold, A; Beck, G; Post, S; Jauch, K W; Spies, C; Schwenk, W; Shang, E

    2009-02-01

    'Fast-track' rehabilitation has been shown to accelerate recovery, reduce general morbidity and decrease hospital stay after elective colonic surgery. Despite this evidence, there is no information on the acceptance and utilization of these concepts among the entirety of Austrian and German surgeons. In 2006, a questionnaire concerning perioperative routines in elective, open colonic resection was sent to the chief surgeons of 1270 German and 120 Austrian surgical centres. The response rate was 63% in Austria (76 centres) and 30% in Germany (385 centres). Mechanical bowel preparation is used by the majority (Austria, 91%; Germany, 94%); the vertical incision is the standard method of approach to the abdomen in Austria (79%) and Germany (83%), nasogastric decompression tubes are rarely used, one-third of the questioned surgeons in both countries use intra-abdominal drains. Half of the surgical centres allow the intake of clear fluids on the day of surgery and one-fifth offer solid food on that day. Epidural analgesia is used in three-fourths of the institutions. Although there is an evident benefit of fast-track management, the survey shows that they are not yet widely used as a routine in Austria and Germany.

  2. Fast track in total hip and knee arthroplasty--experiences from Hvidovre University Hospital, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Henrik; Holm, Gitte

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated whether unselected patients operated on with total hip arthroplasty (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA) could accomplish a self-developed accelerated track, ANORAK-HH, with a planned length of stay (LOS) of maximum 5 days and patient satisfaction at all parts of the tra...

  3. Energy loss and online directional track visualization of fast electrons with the pixel detector Timepix

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Granja, C.; Krist, Pavel; Chvátil, David; Šolc, J.; Pospíšil, S.; Jakubek, J.; Opalka, L.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 59, DEC (2013), s. 245-261 ISSN 1350-4487 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : interaction of radiation with matter * dE/dx detectors * particle tracking detectors * hybrid pixel detectors * active nuclear emulsion * energy loss Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.140, year: 2013

  4. Effect of fast-track cardiac anesthesia on myocardial oxidative damage, inflammation and nerve related peptides of patients undergoing cardiac operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-Tao Cai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of fast-track cardiac anesthesia on myocardial oxidative damage, inflammation and nerve related peptides of patients undergoing cardiac operation. Methods: Sixty patients with rheumatic heart disease undergoing heart valve surgery were randomly divided into the fast track group (n=30 and conventional group (n=30. Then myocardial injury indicators, mitochondrial oxidative stress indicators, inflammation indicators and nerverelated peptides of both groups were analyzed. Results: cTnI contents at T2-T4 points in time of both groups showed an increasing trend and the increasing trend of fast track group was weaker than that of conventional group; SOD contents as well as mitochondrial tristate respiratory function, respiratory control ratios and phosphorus oxygen ratios in myocardial tissue of fast track group were higher than those of conventional group, and MDA contents was lower than those of conventional group; plasma TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, NSE, S100β and Aβ contents of fast track group were lower than those of conventional group. Conclusions: Fasttrack cardiac anesthesia can protect myocardial cells, reduce mitochondrial oxidative stress, relieve inflammation and improve nerve function; it is an ideal anesthesia method for cardiac operation.

  5. A new approach for the screening of carotid lesions: a 'fast-track' method with the use of new generation hand-held ultrasound devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboyans, V; Lacroix, P; Jeannicot, A; Guilloux, J; Bertin, F; Laskar, M

    2004-09-01

    We assessed the usefulness of fast-track neck sonography with a new-generation hand-held ultrasound scanner in the detection of > or =60% carotid stenosis. Patients with a past history of atherosclerotic disease or presence of risk factors were enrolled. All had fast-track carotid screening with a hand-held ultrasound scanner. Initial assessment was performed with our quick imaging protocol. A second examiner performed a conventional complete carotid duplex as gold-standard. We enrolled 197 consecutive patients with a mean age of 67 years (range 35-94). A carotid stenosis >60% was detected in 13 cases (6%). The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of fast-track sonography was 100%, 64%, 17% and 100%, respectively. Concomitant power Doppler imaging during the fast-track method did not improve accuracy. The use of a fast-track method with a hand-held ultrasound device can reduce the number of unnecessary carotid Duplex and enhance the screening efficiency without missing significant carotid stenoses.

  6. AUTOMATIC FAST VIDEO OBJECT DETECTION AND TRACKING ON VIDEO SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Arunachalam

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the advance techniques for object detection and tracking in video. Most visual surveillance systems start with motion detection. Motion detection methods attempt to locate connected regions of pixels that represent the moving objects within the scene; different approaches include frame-to-frame difference, background subtraction and motion analysis. The motion detection can be achieved by Principle Component Analysis (PCA and then separate an objects from background using background subtraction. The detected object can be segmented. Segmentation consists of two schemes: one for spatial segmentation and the other for temporal segmentation. Tracking approach can be done in each frame of detected Object. Pixel label problem can be alleviated by the MAP (Maximum a Posteriori technique.

  7. Fast neutron irradiation effects on CR-39 nuclear track detector for dosimetric applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kader, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of neutron irradiation on the dosimetric properties of CR-39 solid-state nuclear track detector have been investigated. CR-39 samples were irradiated with neutrons of energies follow a Maxwellian distribution centered about 2 MeV. These samples were irradiated with different doses in the range 0.1-1 Sv. The background and track density were measured as a function of etching time. In addition, the dependence of sensitivity of CR-39 detector on the neutrons dose has been investigated. The results show that the Sensitivity started to increase at 0.4 Sv neutrons dose, so this sample were chosen to be a subject for further study to investigate the effect of gamma dose on its properties. The sample irradiated with 0.4 Sv were exposed to different doses of gamma rays at levels between 10 and 80 kGy. The effect of gamma doses on the bulk etching rate VB, the track diameter and the sensitivity of the CR-39 samples was investigated. The results show that the dosimetric properties of CR-39 SSNTD are greatly affected by both neutron and gamma irradiation

  8. The FastTrack Real Time Processor and Its Impact on Muon Isolation, Tau and b-Jet Online Selections at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Crescioli, F; The ATLAS collaboration; Zhang, J; Boveia, A; Bevacqua, V; Cheng, Y; Canelli, F; Bogdan, M; Dell'Orso, M; Bossini, E; Citterio, M; Dunford, M; Drake, G; Beretta, M; Genat, JF; Annovi, A; Kim, YK; Kimura, N; Andreazza, A; Kapliy, A; Kasten, M; Piendibene, M; Negri, A; Meroni, C; Giannetti, P; Melachrinos, C; Hoff, J; Liberali, V; McCarn, A; Neubauer, M; Tang, F; Shochet, M; Stabile, A; Sartori, L; Sabatini, F; Proudfoot, J; Riva, M; Liu, T; Punzi, G; Vercesi, V; Tuggle, J; Todri, A; Tripiccione, R; Lanza, A; Wu, J; Yorita, K; Volpi, G; Vitullo, R.A; Sacco, I

    2010-01-01

    As the LHC luminosity is ramped up to 31034 cm−2 s−1 and beyond, the high rates, multiplicities, and energies of particles seen by the detectors will pose a unique challenge. Only a tiny fraction of the produced collisions can be stored on tape and immense real-time data reduction is needed. An effective trigger system must maintain high trigger efficiencies for the physics we are most interested in, and at the same time suppress the enormous QCD backgrounds. This requires massive computing power to minimize the online execution time of complex algorithms. A multi-level trigger is an effective solution for an otherwise impossible problem. The Fast Tracker (FTK) is a proposed upgrade to the current ATLAS trigger system that will operate at full Level-1 output rates and provide high quality tracks reconstructed over the entire detector by the start of processing in Level-2. FTK solves the combinatorial challenge inherent to tracking by exploiting massive parallelism of associative memories that can compa...

  9. Fast leaf-fitting with generalized underdose/overdose constraints for real-time MLC tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Douglas; Sawant, Amit; Ruan, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Real-time multileaf collimator (MLC) tracking is a promising approach to the management of intrafractional tumor motion during thoracic and abdominal radiotherapy. MLC tracking is typically performed in two steps: transforming a planned MLC aperture in response to patient motion and refitting the leaves to the newly generated aperture. One of the challenges of this approach is the inability to faithfully reproduce the desired motion-adapted aperture. This work presents an optimization-based framework with which to solve this leaf-fitting problem in real-time. Methods: This optimization framework is designed to facilitate the determination of leaf positions in real-time while accounting for the trade-off between coverage of the PTV and avoidance of organs at risk (OARs). Derived within this framework, an algorithm is presented that can account for general linear transformations of the planned MLC aperture, particularly 3D translations and in-plane rotations. This algorithm, together with algorithms presented in Sawant et al. [“Management of three-dimensional intrafraction motion through real-time DMLC tracking,” Med. Phys. 35, 2050–2061 (2008)] and Ruan and Keall [Presented at the 2011 IEEE Power Engineering and Automation Conference (PEAM) (2011) (unpublished)], was applied to apertures derived from eight lung intensity modulated radiotherapy plans subjected to six-degree-of-freedom motion traces acquired from lung cancer patients using the kilovoltage intrafraction monitoring system developed at the University of Sydney. A quality-of-fit metric was defined, and each algorithm was evaluated in terms of quality-of-fit and computation time. Results: This algorithm is shown to perform leaf-fittings of apertures, each with 80 leaf pairs, in 0.226 ms on average as compared to 0.082 and 64.2 ms for the algorithms of Sawant et al., Ruan, and Keall, respectively. The algorithm shows approximately 12% improvement in quality-of-fit over the Sawant et al

  10. Fast track-finding trigger processor for the SLAC/LBL Mark II Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brafman, H.; Breidenbach, M.; Hettel, R.; Himel, T.; Horelick, D.

    1977-10-01

    The SLAC/LBL Mark II Magnetic Detector consists of various particle detectors arranged in cylindrical symmetry located in and around an axial magnetic field. A versatile, programmable secondary trigger processor was designed and built to find curved tracks in the detector. The system operates at a 10 MHz clock rate with a total processing time of 34 μsec and is used to ''trigger'' the data processing computer, thereby rejecting background and greatly improving the data acquisition aspects of the detector-computer combination

  11. Fast leaf-fitting with generalized underdose/overdose constraints for real-time MLC tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Douglas, E-mail: douglas.moore@utsouthwestern.edu; Sawant, Amit [Department of Radiation Oncology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390 (United States); Ruan, Dan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: Real-time multileaf collimator (MLC) tracking is a promising approach to the management of intrafractional tumor motion during thoracic and abdominal radiotherapy. MLC tracking is typically performed in two steps: transforming a planned MLC aperture in response to patient motion and refitting the leaves to the newly generated aperture. One of the challenges of this approach is the inability to faithfully reproduce the desired motion-adapted aperture. This work presents an optimization-based framework with which to solve this leaf-fitting problem in real-time. Methods: This optimization framework is designed to facilitate the determination of leaf positions in real-time while accounting for the trade-off between coverage of the PTV and avoidance of organs at risk (OARs). Derived within this framework, an algorithm is presented that can account for general linear transformations of the planned MLC aperture, particularly 3D translations and in-plane rotations. This algorithm, together with algorithms presented in Sawant et al. [“Management of three-dimensional intrafraction motion through real-time DMLC tracking,” Med. Phys. 35, 2050–2061 (2008)] and Ruan and Keall [Presented at the 2011 IEEE Power Engineering and Automation Conference (PEAM) (2011) (unpublished)], was applied to apertures derived from eight lung intensity modulated radiotherapy plans subjected to six-degree-of-freedom motion traces acquired from lung cancer patients using the kilovoltage intrafraction monitoring system developed at the University of Sydney. A quality-of-fit metric was defined, and each algorithm was evaluated in terms of quality-of-fit and computation time. Results: This algorithm is shown to perform leaf-fittings of apertures, each with 80 leaf pairs, in 0.226 ms on average as compared to 0.082 and 64.2 ms for the algorithms of Sawant et al., Ruan, and Keall, respectively. The algorithm shows approximately 12% improvement in quality-of-fit over the Sawant et al

  12. Indirect Effects of the Fast Track Intervention on Conduct Disorder Symptoms and Callous-Unemotional Traits: Distinct Pathways Involving Discipline and Warmth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasalich, Dave S; Witkiewitz, Katie; McMahon, Robert J; Pinderhughes, Ellen E

    2016-04-01

    Little is known about intervening processes that explain how prevention programs improve particular youth antisocial outcomes. We examined whether parental harsh discipline and warmth in childhood differentially account for Fast Track intervention effects on conduct disorder (CD) symptoms and callous-unemotional (CU) traits in early adolescence. Participants included 891 high-risk kindergarteners (69% male; 51% African American) from urban and rural United States communities who were randomized into either the Fast Track intervention (n = 445) or non-intervention control (n = 446) groups. The 10-year intervention included parent management training and other services (e.g., social skills training, universal classroom curriculum) targeting various risk factors for the development of conduct problems. Harsh discipline (Grades 1 to 3) and warmth (Grades 1 and 2) were measured using parent responses to vignettes and direct observations of parent-child interaction, respectively. Parents reported on children's CD symptoms in Grade 6 and CU traits in Grade 7. Results demonstrated indirect effects of the Fast Track intervention on reducing risk for youth antisocial outcomes. That is, Fast Track was associated with lower scores on harsh discipline, which in turn predicted decreased levels of CD symptoms. In addition, Fast Track was associated with higher scores on warmth, which in turn predicted reduced levels of CU traits. Our findings inform developmental and intervention models of youth antisocial behavior by providing evidence for the differential role of harsh discipline and warmth in accounting for indirect effects of Fast Track on CD symptoms versus CU traits, respectively.

  13. A reengineering success story: process improvement in emergency department x-ray cycle time, leading to breakthrough performance in the ED ambulatory care (Fast Track) process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, J A; Treiber, P M; Kosnik, L

    1997-01-01

    This article describes the journey of a multidisciplinary reengineering team, which worked to reduce a critical, high-leverage process in an emergency department setting. The process selected was emergency department radiology services. This process was selected on a rational basis. The team knew tht 60 percent of our emergency department patients were truly ambulatory, and that most could be seen in a "fast track" process as part of our emergency department's core mission. However, we knew from customer satisfaction data, that patients would like to be "in and out" of emergency department Fast Track in less than an hour. Over half of our Fast Track patients require x-rays. For most, this was their sole reason for seeking emergency care. Our state, at the start of the project, included an average x-ray cycle time of over 60 minutes. The associated Fast-Track cycle time was over 90 minutes median. It was clear to the emergency department leadership, as well as to members of the Fast-Track management team, that a cycle time of 30 minutes or less for x-ray service was needed as a necessary condition to an hour or less Fast Track cycle time. It was also felt that a more rapid x-ray cycle time would allow for more rapid turn over of ED rooms, leading to a virtual greater capacity to the ED. It was hoped that this would lead to a reduction in the time from arrival to treatment by the emergency physician for all patients.

  14. IODA - a fast, automated and flexible system for ion track analysis on film detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guth, H.; Hellmann, A.

    1995-02-01

    The IODA System (Ion Density Analysis) is used to analyse detector films, resulting from experiments at the pulse power generator KALIF (Karlsruhe Light Ion Facility). The system consists of evaluation software and a microcomputer, which controls a microscope, a video interface, and a multiprocessor subsystem. The segmentation of ion tracks is done automatically by means of digital image processing and pattern recognition. After defining an evaluation range and selecting a suitable analysis method, the film is scanned by the microscope for counting the impacts of the underlying image. According to the appearance of the ion tracks on the film, different methods can be selected. The evaluation results representing the ion density are stored in a matrix. The time needed for an evaluation at a high resolution can be shortened by shipping time consuming pattern recognition calculations to the multiprocessor subsystem. The bottlenecks of the system are the data transfer and the speed of the microscope stage. Simple handling of the system even on alphanumeric terminals had been an important design issue. This was implemented by a logically structured menue system including online help features. This report can be used a s a manual to support the user with system operation. (orig.) [de

  15. Fast front-end electronics for semiconductor tracking detectors: Trends and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivetti, Angelo

    2014-11-21

    In the past few years, extensive research efforts pursued by both the industry and the academia have lead to major improvements in the performance of Analog to Digital Converters (ADCs) and Time to Digital Converters (TDCs). ADCs achieving 8–10 bit resolution, 50–100 MHz conversion frequency and less than 1 mW power consumption are the today's standard, while TDCs have reached sub-picosecond time resolution. These results have been made possible by architectural upgrades combined with the use of ultra deep submicron CMOS technologies with minimum feature size of 130 nm or smaller. Front-end ASICs in which a prompt digitization is followed by signal conditioning in the digital domain can now be envisaged also within the tight power budget typically available in high density tracking systems. Furthermore, tracking detectors embedding high resolution timing capabilities are gaining interest. In the paper, ADC's and TDC's developments which are of particular relevance for the design front-end electronics for semiconductor trackers are discussed along with the benefits and challenges of exploiting such high performance building blocks in implementing the next generation of ASICs for high granularity particle detectors.

  16. Incidence of and risk factors for postoperative urinary retention in fast-track total hip and knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lars; Bogø, Stina; Raaschou, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Postoperative urinary retention (POUR) is a clinical challenge, but there is no scientific evidence for treatment principles. We describe the incidence of and predictive factors for POUR in fast-track total hip (THA) and knee arthroplasty (TKA). PATIENTS AND METHODS......, and preoperative international prostate symptom score (IPSS) were compared between catheterized and non-catheterized patients. RESULTS: The incidence of POUR was 40% (range between departments: 30-55%). Median bladder volume evacuated by catheterization was 0.6 (0.1-1.9) L. Spinal anesthesia increased the risk...... was 40%, with spinal anesthesia and increased IPSS in males as predictive factors. The large variation in perioperative bladder management and in bladder volumes evacuated by catheterization calls for randomized studies to define evidence-based principles for treatment of POUR in the future....

  17. Concept of fast-track surgery and its application in perioperative period of hepatectomy for liver cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAN Wei

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fast-track surgery (FTS is widely used in the field of hepatopancreatobiliary surgery and has achieved a great success in the perioperative period of liver cancer. It has been recognized by clinical doctors and patients. This article introduces the concept of FTS, reviews its development, summarizes the detailed measures of FTS in the perioperative period of liver cancer and long-term application experience of FTS, and analyzes the current status of its clinical application. It is pointed out that when applied in the perioperative period of hepatectomy for liver cancer, FTS can reduce stress, lower the incidence of postoperative complications, shorten the length of hospital stay, and bring true benefits to patients.

  18. Nopea toipuminen lihavuusleikkauksen jälkeen : Fast track- toimintamallin mukainen potilasohjausvihko lihavuusleikkauspotilaalle Oulun yliopistollisen sairaalan osastolle yhdeksän

    OpenAIRE

    Niskala, Jenni; Nevala, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Oulun yliopistollisen sairaalan osastolla yhdeksän oli tarve saada Fast track -toimintamallin mukainen potilasohjausvihko lihavuusleikkauspotilaille. Opinnäytetyön tekijät valitsivat opinnäytetyön aiheen perioperatiivisen suuntautumisvaihtoehdon mukaan. Tämä opinnäytetyö toteutettiin projektityönä. Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli tehdä Fast track- toimintamallin mukainen potilasohjausvihko Oulun Yliopistollisen sairaalan osasto yhdeksän käyttöön. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli edesauttaa ...

  19. The impact of a fast track area on quality and effectiveness outcomes: a Middle Eastern emergency department perspective.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Devkaran, Subashnie

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Emergency department (ED) overcrowding is a ubiquitous problem with serious public health implications. The fast track area is a novel method which aims to reduce waiting time, patient dissatisfaction and morbidity. |The study objective was to determine the impact of a fast track area (FTA) on both effectiveness measures (i.e. waiting times [WT] and length of stay [LOS]) and quality measures (i.e. LWBS rates and mortality rates) in non-urgent patients. The secondary objective was to assess if a FTA negatively impacted on urgent patients entering the ED. METHODS: The study took place in a 500 bed, urban, tertiary care hospital in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. This was a quasi-experimental, which examined the impact of a FTA on a pre-intervention control group (January 2005) (n = 4,779) versus a post-intervention study group (January 2006) (n = 5,706). RESULTS: Mean WTs of Canadian Triage Acuity Scale (CTAS) 4 patients decreased by 22 min (95% CI 21 min to 24 min, P < 0.001). Similarly, mean WTs of CTAS 5 patients decreased by 28 min (95% CI 19 min to 37 min, P < 0.001) post FTA. The mean WTs of urgent patients (CTAS 2\\/3) were also significantly reduced after the FTA was opened (P < 0.001). The LWBS rate was reduced from 4.7% to 0.7% (95% CI 3.37 to 4.64; P < 0.001). Opening a FTA had no significant impact on mortality rates (P = 0.88). CONCLUSION: The FTA improved ED effectiveness (WTs and LOS) and quality measures (LWBS rates) whereas mortality rate remained unchanged.

  20. Fast-track surgery protocol in elderly patients undergoing laparoscopic radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu G

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Guozheng Liu,1 Fengguo Jian,2 Xiuqin Wang,2 Lin Chen1 1Department of General Surgery, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Second Department of General Surgery, Changyi People’s Hospital, Shandong, People’s Republic of China Aim: To study the efficacy of the fast-track surgery (FTS program combined with laparoscopic radical gastrectomy for elderly gastric cancer (GC patients.Methods: Eighty-four elderly patients diagnosed with GC between September 2014 and August 2015 were recruited to participate in this study and were divided into four groups randomly based on the random number table as follows: FTS + laparoscopic group (Group A, n=21, FTS + laparotomy group (Group B, n=21, conventional perioperative care (CC + laparoscopic group (Group C, n=21, and CC + laparotomy group (Group D, n=21. Observation indicators include intrasurgery indicators, postoperative recovery indicators, nutritional status indicators, and systemic stress response indicators.Results: Preoperative and intraoperative baseline characteristics showed no significant differences between patients in each group (P>0.05. There were no significant differences between each group in nausea and vomiting, intestinal obstruction, urinary retention, incision infection, pulmonary infection, and urinary tract infection after operation (P>0.05. Time of first flatus and postoperative hospital stay time of FTS Group A were the shortest, and total medical cost of this group was the lowest. For all groups, serum albumin, prealbumin, and transferrin significantly decreased, while CRP and interleukin 6 were significantly increased postoperative day 1. From postoperative day 4–7, all indicators of the four groups gradually recovered, but compared with other three groups, those of Group A recovered fastest.Conclusion: FTS combined with laparoscopic surgery can promote faster postoperative recovery, improve early postoperative nutritional status, and more

  1. The design and simulated performance of a fast Level 1 track trigger for the ATLAS High Luminosity Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Martensson, Mikael; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the high-luminosity LHC will face a five-fold increase in the number of interactions per collision relative to the ongoing Run 2. This will require a proportional improvement in rejection power at the earliest levels of the detector trigger system, while preserving good signal efficiency. One critical aspect of this improvement will be the implementation of precise track reconstruction, through which sharper trigger turn-on curves can be achieved, and b-tagging and tau-tagging techniques can in principle be implemented. The challenge of such a project comes in the development of a fast, custom electronic device integrated in the hardware-based first trigger level of the experiment, with repercussions propagating as far as the detector read-out philosophy. This talk will discuss the requirements, architecture and projected performance of the system in terms of tracking, timing and physics, based on detailed simulations. Studies are carried out comparing two detector geometries and using...

  2. Beam dynamics analysis of dielectric laser acceleration using a fast 6D tracking scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Niedermayer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A six-dimensional symplectic tracking approach exploiting the periodicity properties of dielectric laser acceleration (DLA gratings is presented. The longitudinal kick is obtained from the spatial Fourier harmonics of the laser field within the structure, and the transverse kicks are obtained using the Panofsky-Wenzel theorem. Additionally to the usual, strictly longitudinally periodic gratings, our approach is also applicable to periodicity chirped (subrelativistic and tilted (deflection gratings. In the limit of small kicks and short periods we obtain the 6D Hamiltonian, which allows, for example, to obtain matched beam distributions in DLAs. The scheme is applied to beam and grating parameters similar to recently performed experiments. The paper concludes with an outlook to laser based focusing schemes, which are promising to overcome fundamental interaction length limitations, in order to build an entire microchip-sized laser driven accelerator.

  3. An energy and direction independent fast neutron dosemeter based on electrochemically etched CR-39 nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, K.; Matiullah; Durrani, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    A computer-based model is presented, which simulates the dose equivalent response of electrochemically etched CR-39 to fast neutrons of various energies and angles of incidence. Most previous calculations of the response of CR-39 have neglected the production of recoiling oxygen and carbon nuclei as well as α particles in the CR-39. We calculate that these 'heavy recoils' and α particles are the major source of electrochemically etchable tracks in bare CR-39 at neutron energies above approx. 2 MeV under typical etching conditions. Our calculations have been extended to predict the response of CR-39 used in conjunction with various combinations of polymeric front radiators and we have determined the radiator stack configuration with produces the most energy independent response. Again, the heavy recoils and α particles cannot be neglected and, for energies above approx. 2 MeV, these produce typically about 20% of the total response of our optimum stack. This type of fast neutron dosemeter is, however, strongly direction dependent. We have integrated the response over all appropriate angles to predict the dose equivalent response for two representative neutron fields, and we suggest a method for minimising the angular dependence. (author)

  4. Open LED Illuminator: A Simple and Inexpensive LED Illuminator for Fast Multicolor Particle Tracking in Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, Jens B.; Tanneti, Nikhila S.; Hogue, Ian B.; Enquist, Lynn W.

    2015-01-01

    Dual-color live cell fluorescence microscopy of fast intracellular trafficking processes, such as axonal transport, requires rapid switching of illumination channels. Typical broad-spectrum sources necessitate the use of mechanical filter switching, which introduces delays between acquisition of different fluorescence channels, impeding the interpretation and quantification of highly dynamic processes. Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs), however, allow modulation of excitation light in microseconds. Here we provide a step-by-step protocol to enable any scientist to build a research-grade LED illuminator for live cell microscopy, even without prior experience with electronics or optics. We quantify and compare components, discuss our design considerations, and demonstrate the performance of our LED illuminator by imaging axonal transport of herpes virus particles with high temporal resolution. PMID:26600461

  5. Open LED Illuminator: A Simple and Inexpensive LED Illuminator for Fast Multicolor Particle Tracking in Neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens B Bosse

    Full Text Available Dual-color live cell fluorescence microscopy of fast intracellular trafficking processes, such as axonal transport, requires rapid switching of illumination channels. Typical broad-spectrum sources necessitate the use of mechanical filter switching, which introduces delays between acquisition of different fluorescence channels, impeding the interpretation and quantification of highly dynamic processes. Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs, however, allow modulation of excitation light in microseconds. Here we provide a step-by-step protocol to enable any scientist to build a research-grade LED illuminator for live cell microscopy, even without prior experience with electronics or optics. We quantify and compare components, discuss our design considerations, and demonstrate the performance of our LED illuminator by imaging axonal transport of herpes virus particles with high temporal resolution.

  6. 78 FR 71621 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Eye Tracking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... advertising can be distracting. However, the effects of this kind of distraction during the major statement of... attention to and processing of information in the ad. We plan to collect descriptive eye tracking data on participants' attention to (1) the superimposed text during the major statement of risk information and (2) the...

  7. Multiple feature fusion via covariance matrix for visual tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zefenfen; Hou, Zhiqiang; Yu, Wangsheng; Wang, Xin; Sun, Hui

    2018-04-01

    Aiming at the problem of complicated dynamic scenes in visual target tracking, a multi-feature fusion tracking algorithm based on covariance matrix is proposed to improve the robustness of the tracking algorithm. In the frame-work of quantum genetic algorithm, this paper uses the region covariance descriptor to fuse the color, edge and texture features. It also uses a fast covariance intersection algorithm to update the model. The low dimension of region covariance descriptor, the fast convergence speed and strong global optimization ability of quantum genetic algorithm, and the fast computation of fast covariance intersection algorithm are used to improve the computational efficiency of fusion, matching, and updating process, so that the algorithm achieves a fast and effective multi-feature fusion tracking. The experiments prove that the proposed algorithm can not only achieve fast and robust tracking but also effectively handle interference of occlusion, rotation, deformation, motion blur and so on.

  8. Fast neutron incineration as an alternative to geologic disposal: the Rubbia proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varley, James.

    1997-01-01

    The Energy Amplifier is a ''fast neutron non-critical device'' conceived by Professor Carlo Rubbia and is described as the outcome of a mature cross-fertilisation between modern accelerators and nuclear power. In its currently proposed manifestation it uses thorium and actinite waste as fuel and molten lead for cooling. The lead also acts as a built-in spallation neutron source in the reactor core. Protons from the accelerator are beamed into the spallation region of the core where they produce large numbers of neutrons. These generate heat by nuclear cascades rather than by the self-sustaining chain reaction of a conventional nuclear reactor and the amount of power produced is controlled by the beam current. The basic principle was demonstrated in an experiment at CERN in 1994. The Energy Amplifier has passive safety features, relying only on natural convection for the lead coolant and with cut-off of the proton beam by overflowing lead should the system overheat. A recent discovery has shown that in addition to incinerating transuranic elements and generating a large amount of energy, the system has the potential to transmute long-lived radioactive products from LWRs. This could virtually eliminate the need for geological disposal repositories. The Energy Amplifier would draw on a number of research strands and technologies from around the world. Funding is now being sought to build a 100 MWt prototype. (UK)

  9. The design of a fast Level-1 track trigger for the high luminosity upgrade of ATLAS.

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00413032; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The high/luminosity upgrade of the LHC will increase the rate of the proton-proton collisions by approximately a factor of 5 with respect to the initial LHC-design. The ATLAS experiment will upgrade consequently, increasing its robustness and selectivity in the expected high radiation environment. In particular, the earliest, hardware based, ATLAS trigger stage ("Level 1") will require higher rejection power, still maintaining efficient selection on many various physics signatures. The key ingredient is the possibility of extracting tracking information from the brand new full-silicon detector and use it for the process. While fascinating, this solution poses a big challenge in the choice of the architecture, due to the reduced latency available at this trigger level (few tens of micro-seconds) and the high expected working rates (order of MHz). In this paper, we review the design possibilities of such a system in a potential new trigger and readout architecture, and present the performance resulting from a d...

  10.  MULTIMODAL ANALGESIA IN FAST TRACK HIP AND KNEE ARTHROPLASTY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Bak, Mikkel; Kristensen, Billy Bjarne

    underwent the "Timed Up & Go" test, a test for functional mobility. Patients were discharged according to criteria mentioned above and were asked to evaluate the quality of the hospital stay. EVALUATION: LOS was decreased for the THA patients from an already accelerated track of 3.8 days to 3.1 days...... to 2.5 for THA, and for TKA from 5.0 to 3.6. Gait VAS mean score for THA was 2.8 at day one, reduced to 1.9 at discharge, and for TKA from 5.2 to 2.4. The TUG test for THA showed a mean value of 27.4 sec. at day two, reduced at discharge to 21.0 sec. For TKA from 31.3 to 22.0 sec. At discharge patients......-up after rehabilitation are needed. IMPLICATIONS: Due to the short LOS goals and guidelines for outpatients physiotherapy treatment including functional tests and outcome measurements are needed....

  11. FAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuidmeer-Jongejan, Laurian; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The FAST project (Food Allergy Specific Immunotherapy) aims at the development of safe and effective treatment of food allergies, targeting prevalent, persistent and severe allergy to fish and peach. Classical allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), using subcutaneous injections with aqu...

  12. The Fast Track Trade Agreement: Help or Hurt for the U.S.-Mexico Border Environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lynda

    1992-01-01

    Reviews the environmental and labor problems associated with the proposed North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) between the United States, Mexico, and Canada. A joint environmental plan between the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and SEDUE (Mexico's EPA equivalent) does not adequately address the problems. Offers recommendations for…

  13. Spouses’ involvement in older patients’ fast-track programmes during total hip replacement using case management intervention. A study protocol of the SICAM-trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher; Kristensson, Jimmie

    2015-01-01

    Aim To present the protocol of a two-group quasi-experimental study of spouses’ involvement through case management (The SICAM-trial) in older patients’ fast-track programmes during total hip replacement. Background Patients in fast-track programmes are required to take an active part in their tr......Aim To present the protocol of a two-group quasi-experimental study of spouses’ involvement through case management (The SICAM-trial) in older patients’ fast-track programmes during total hip replacement. Background Patients in fast-track programmes are required to take an active part...... in their treatment and rehabilitation. Spouses of older patients can often provide valued practical and emotional support, reducing stress, pain and length of stay – yet they are seldom invited to participate in a supporting role. Design A two-group quasi-experimental design with pre-test and repeated post...... and subsequently include the intervention group to avoid contamination of the control group. A case manager will be recruited to perform the case management intervention. Data will be collected from both groups at baseline, 2 weeks and 3 months after surgery. Outcome measures for patients include: functional...

  14. 171. Funcionamiento y resultados del programa de fast-track en el tratamiento de la tetralogía de fallot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Orrit Palacios

    2010-01-01

    Conclusiones: La corrección completa de la tetralogía de Fallot con el programa de fast-track de anestesia disminuye la ventilación mecánica, la estancia en cuidados intensivos y el tiempo de hospitalización. Asimismo se reducen los costes económicos del tratamiento.

  15. Improvements in fast-response flood modeling: desktop parallel computing and domain tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judi, David R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcpherson, Timothy N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Burian, Steven J [UNIV. OF UTAH

    2009-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly important to have the ability to accurately forecast flooding, as flooding accounts for the most losses due to natural disasters in the world and the United States. Flood inundation modeling has been dominated by one-dimensional approaches. These models are computationally efficient and are considered by many engineers to produce reasonably accurate water surface profiles. However, because the profiles estimated in these models must be superimposed on digital elevation data to create a two-dimensional map, the result may be sensitive to the ability of the elevation data to capture relevant features (e.g. dikes/levees, roads, walls, etc...). Moreover, one-dimensional models do not explicitly represent the complex flow processes present in floodplains and urban environments and because two-dimensional models based on the shallow water equations have significantly greater ability to determine flow velocity and direction, the National Research Council (NRC) has recommended that two-dimensional models be used over one-dimensional models for flood inundation studies. This paper has shown that two-dimensional flood modeling computational time can be greatly reduced through the use of Java multithreading on multi-core computers which effectively provides a means for parallel computing on a desktop computer. In addition, this paper has shown that when desktop parallel computing is coupled with a domain tracking algorithm, significant computation time can be eliminated when computations are completed only on inundated cells. The drastic reduction in computational time shown here enhances the ability of two-dimensional flood inundation models to be used as a near-real time flood forecasting tool, engineering, design tool, or planning tool. Perhaps even of greater significance, the reduction in computation time makes the incorporation of risk and uncertainty/ensemble forecasting more feasible for flood inundation modeling (NRC 2000; Sayers et al

  16. High rate particle tracking and ultra-fast timing with a thin hybrid silicon pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Carassiti, V.; Ceccucci, A.; Cortina Gil, E.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Dellacasa, G.; Garbolino, S.; Jarron, P.; Kaplon, J.; Kluge, A.; Marchetto, F.; Mapelli, A.; Martin, E.; Mazza, G.; Morel, M.; Noy, M.; Nuessle, G.; Perktold, L.; Petagna, P.; Petrucci, F.; Poltorak, K.; Riedler, P.; Rivetti, A.; Statera, M.; Velghe, B.

    2013-08-01

    The Gigatracker (GTK) is a hybrid silicon pixel detector designed for the NA62 experiment at CERN. The beam spectrometer, made of three GTK stations, has to sustain high and non-uniform particle rate (∼ 1 GHz in total) and measure momentum and angles of each beam track with a combined time resolution of 150 ps. In order to reduce multiple scattering and hadronic interactions of beam particles, the material budget of a single GTK station has been fixed to 0.5% X0. The expected fluence for 100 days of running is 2 ×1014 1 MeV neq /cm2, comparable to the one foreseen in the inner trackers of LHC detectors during 10 years of operation. To comply with these requirements, an efficient and very low-mass (< 0.15 %X0) cooling system is being constructed, using a novel microchannel cooling silicon plate. Two complementary read-out architectures have been produced as small-scale prototypes: one is based on a Time-over-Threshold circuit followed by a TDC shared by a group of pixels, while the other makes use of a constant-fraction discriminator followed by an on-pixel TDC. The read-out ASICs are produced in 130 nm IBM CMOS technology and will be thinned down to 100 μm or less. An overview of the Gigatracker detector system will be presented. Experimental results from laboratory and beam tests of prototype bump-bonded assemblies will be described as well. These results show a time resolution of about 170 ps for single hits from minimum ionizing particles, using 200 μm thick silicon sensors.

  17. PROPOSAL FOR AN UNIFORM DATA STANDARD FOR ICHNOLOGICAL 3D TRACKING AND POST-PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCO PETRUZZELLI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrate fossil tracks have been studied through 3D modelling techniques during the last two decades to improve tracking procedures. Different laser scanners and software have been used during field investigation and this differentiation caused incompatibility between many analysis programs. Post processing procedures are not standardized among scientists and file precision give different results in additionally constrain comparison. The starting point to find a solution to the problem is to point out the main technologies used to collect data in the field. The resulting protocol does not oblige to uniform hardware but it does suggest combining different laser scanners with a minimum post processing to optimize the result. Important inkling would be to use 2D relief as a reference to organize 3D tracking procedures. Saving formats during post processing are improved by setting fixed landmarks integrated in the 3D model in a multitask file. The D.I.C.O.M. medical standard (*.cdm format and the 3D printing international standard (*.stl format when combined, may be a good solution for uniform the format. This approach might be the first step for the standardization of source and derived files and the creation of a worldwide 3D ichnological catalogue. This will allow creating a scientific improvement in terms of reproducibility and comparison of the experience. 

  18. Measuring the radial density distribution of light emission around the track of fast ions in nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibach, T.

    1983-01-01

    For analysing the emission and stopping of ionization electrons (σ-electrons) emitted by fast ions passing through a gas, the radial density distribution of the light emission of the (0,0) transition of two optical bands in nitrogen have been measured. The systems selected for the epxeriments are the 2nd positive system (2.PS) at 337.1 nm primarily excited by low-energy electrons of about 20 eV, and the first negative system (1.NS) at 391.4 nm excited by faster electrons and simultaneous ionization. The equipment developed for the experiments records the light emission with a telescope-type optical arrangement including interference filters, allowing high local resolution and dynamics of the measured range. The measurements have been carried out at pressures between 0.133 and 13.3 mbar, using photons of energies ranging from 270 keV to 2.8 MeV, helium 3 beams of 270 keV/u and 500 keV/u, and neon beams of 270 keV/u. Abel's inversion applied to the distance functions allows calculation of the spatial light emission density which is normalized for a gas density of 1 g/cm 3 . The profiles of the two bands indicate that the σ-electron spectrum gets harder in outward direction. Next to the beam the impact density decreases faster with increasing ion energy than the stopping power (increasing interaction range of the σ-electrons). With photon beams, about half of the whole light emission in the 1. NS, and of the ionization, is induced by primary interactions of the ion beam. This proportion decreases at constant energy per nucleon with increasing atomic number of the ions as compared with the σ-electrons. The primary σ-emission gets harder with higher atomic numbers. (orig./HP) [de

  19. Fast, automatic, and accurate catheter reconstruction in HDR brachytherapy using an electromagnetic 3D tracking system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulin, Eric; Racine, Emmanuel; Beaulieu, Luc, E-mail: Luc.Beaulieu@phy.ulaval.ca [Département de physique, de génie physique et d’optique et Centre de recherche sur le cancer de l’Université Laval, Université Laval, Québec, Québec G1V 0A6, Canada and Département de radio-oncologie et Axe Oncologie du Centre de recherche du CHU de Québec, CHU de Québec, 11 Côte du Palais, Québec, Québec G1R 2J6 (Canada); Binnekamp, Dirk [Integrated Clinical Solutions and Marketing, Philips Healthcare, Veenpluis 4-6, Best 5680 DA (Netherlands)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: In high dose rate brachytherapy (HDR-B), current catheter reconstruction protocols are relatively slow and error prone. The purpose of this technical note is to evaluate the accuracy and the robustness of an electromagnetic (EM) tracking system for automated and real-time catheter reconstruction. Methods: For this preclinical study, a total of ten catheters were inserted in gelatin phantoms with different trajectories. Catheters were reconstructed using a 18G biopsy needle, used as an EM stylet and equipped with a miniaturized sensor, and the second generation Aurora{sup ®} Planar Field Generator from Northern Digital Inc. The Aurora EM system provides position and orientation value with precisions of 0.7 mm and 0.2°, respectively. Phantoms were also scanned using a μCT (GE Healthcare) and Philips Big Bore clinical computed tomography (CT) system with a spatial resolution of 89 μm and 2 mm, respectively. Reconstructions using the EM stylet were compared to μCT and CT. To assess the robustness of the EM reconstruction, five catheters were reconstructed twice and compared. Results: Reconstruction time for one catheter was 10 s, leading to a total reconstruction time inferior to 3 min for a typical 17-catheter implant. When compared to the μCT, the mean EM tip identification error was 0.69 ± 0.29 mm while the CT error was 1.08 ± 0.67 mm. The mean 3D distance error was found to be 0.66 ± 0.33 mm and 1.08 ± 0.72 mm for the EM and CT, respectively. EM 3D catheter trajectories were found to be more accurate. A maximum difference of less than 0.6 mm was found between successive EM reconstructions. Conclusions: The EM reconstruction was found to be more accurate and precise than the conventional methods used for catheter reconstruction in HDR-B. This approach can be applied to any type of catheters and applicators.

  20. Fast, automatic, and accurate catheter reconstruction in HDR brachytherapy using an electromagnetic 3D tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulin, Eric; Racine, Emmanuel; Beaulieu, Luc; Binnekamp, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In high dose rate brachytherapy (HDR-B), current catheter reconstruction protocols are relatively slow and error prone. The purpose of this technical note is to evaluate the accuracy and the robustness of an electromagnetic (EM) tracking system for automated and real-time catheter reconstruction. Methods: For this preclinical study, a total of ten catheters were inserted in gelatin phantoms with different trajectories. Catheters were reconstructed using a 18G biopsy needle, used as an EM stylet and equipped with a miniaturized sensor, and the second generation Aurora ® Planar Field Generator from Northern Digital Inc. The Aurora EM system provides position and orientation value with precisions of 0.7 mm and 0.2°, respectively. Phantoms were also scanned using a μCT (GE Healthcare) and Philips Big Bore clinical computed tomography (CT) system with a spatial resolution of 89 μm and 2 mm, respectively. Reconstructions using the EM stylet were compared to μCT and CT. To assess the robustness of the EM reconstruction, five catheters were reconstructed twice and compared. Results: Reconstruction time for one catheter was 10 s, leading to a total reconstruction time inferior to 3 min for a typical 17-catheter implant. When compared to the μCT, the mean EM tip identification error was 0.69 ± 0.29 mm while the CT error was 1.08 ± 0.67 mm. The mean 3D distance error was found to be 0.66 ± 0.33 mm and 1.08 ± 0.72 mm for the EM and CT, respectively. EM 3D catheter trajectories were found to be more accurate. A maximum difference of less than 0.6 mm was found between successive EM reconstructions. Conclusions: The EM reconstruction was found to be more accurate and precise than the conventional methods used for catheter reconstruction in HDR-B. This approach can be applied to any type of catheters and applicators

  1. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Eight-logic memory cell based on multiferroic junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Feng; Zhou, Y. C.; Tang, M. H.; Liu, Fen; Ma, Ying; Zheng, X. J.; Zhao, W. F.; Xu, H. Y.; Sun, Z. H.

    2009-04-01

    A model is proposed for a device combining a multiferroic tunnel junction with a magnetoelectric (ME) film in which the magnetic configuration is controlled by the electric field. Calculations embodying the Green's function approach show that the magnetic polarization can be switched on and off by an electric field in the ME film due to the effect of elastic coupling interaction. Using a model including the spin-filter effect and screening of polarization charges, we have produced eight logic states of tunnelling resistance in the tunnel junction and have obtained corresponding laws that control them. The results provide some insights into the realization of an eight-logic memory cell.

  2. A Fusion Nuclear Science Facility for a fast-track path to DEMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garofalo, A.M., E-mail: garofalo@fusion.gat.com [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Abdou, M.A. [University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Canik, J.M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chan, V.S.; Hyatt, A.W. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Hill, D.N. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Morley, N.B. [University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Navratil, G.A. [Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Sawan, M.E. [University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Taylor, T.S.; Wong, C.P.C.; Wu, W. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Ying, A. [University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • A FNSF is needed to reduce the knowledge gaps to a fusion DEMO and accelerate progress toward fusion energy. • FNSF will test and qualify first-wall/blanket components and materials in a DEMO-relevant fusion environment. • The Advanced Tokamak approach enables reduced size and risks, and is on a direct path to an attractive target power plant. • Near term research focus on specific tasks can enable starting FNSF construction within the next ten years. - Abstract: An accelerated fusion energy development program, a “fast-track” approach, requires proceeding with a nuclear and materials testing program in parallel with research on burning plasmas, ITER. A Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) would address many of the key issues that need to be addressed prior to DEMO, including breeding tritium and completing the fuel cycle, qualifying nuclear materials for high fluence, developing suitable materials for the plasma-boundary interface, and demonstrating power extraction. The Advanced Tokamak (AT) is a strong candidate for an FNSF as a consequence of its mature physics base, capability to address the key issues, and the direct relevance to an attractive target power plant. The standard aspect ratio provides space for a solenoid, assuring robust plasma current initiation, and for an inboard blanket, assuring robust tritium breeding ratio (TBR) >1 for FNSF tritium self-sufficiency and building of inventory needed to start up DEMO. An example design point gives a moderate sized Cu-coil device with R/a = 2.7 m/0.77 m, κ = 2.3, B{sub T} = 5.4 T, I{sub P} = 6.6 MA, β{sub N} = 2.75, P{sub fus} = 127 MW. The modest bootstrap fraction of ƒ{sub BS} = 0.55 provides an opportunity to develop steady state with sufficient current drive for adequate control. Proceeding with a FNSF in parallel with ITER provides a strong basis to begin construction of DEMO upon the achievement of Q ∼ 10 in ITER.

  3. Automatic detection of recoil-proton tracks and background rejection criteria in liquid scintillator-micro-capillary-array fast neutron spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor, Ilan; Vartsky, David; Dangendorf, Volker; Tittelmeier, Kai.; Weierganz, Mathias; Goldberg, Mark Benjamin; Bar, Doron; Brandis, Michal

    2018-06-01

    We describe an analysis procedure for automatic unambiguous detection of fast-neutron-induced recoil proton tracks in a micro-capillary array filled with organic liquid scintillator. The detector is viewed by an intensified CCD camera. This imaging neutron detector possesses the capability to perform high position-resolution (few tens of μm), energy-dispersive transmission-imaging using ns-pulsed beams. However, when operated with CW or DC beams, it also features medium-quality spectroscopic capabilities for incident neutrons in the energy range 2-20 MeV. In addition to the recoil proton events which display a continuous extended track structure, the raw images exhibit complex ion-tracks from nuclear interactions of fast-neutrons in the scintillator, capillaries quartz-matrix and CCD. Moreover, as expected, one also observes a multitude of isolated scintillation spots of varying intensity (henceforth denoted "blobs") that originate from several different sources, such as: fragmented proton tracks, gamma-rays, heavy-ion reactions as well as events and noise that occur in the image-intensifier and CCD. In order to identify the continuous-track recoil proton events and distinguish them from all these background events, a rapid, computerized and automatic track-recognition-procedure was developed. Based on an appropriately weighted analysis of track parameters such as: length, width, area and overall light intensity, the method is capable of distinguishing a single continuous-track recoil proton from typically surrounding several thousands of background events that are found in each CCD frame.

  4. Fast track segment finding in the Monitored Drift Tubes (MDT) of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer using a Legendre transform algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Ntekas, Konstantinos; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Many of the physics goals of ATLAS in the High Luminosity LHC era, including precision studies of the Higgs boson, require an unprescaled single muon trigger with a 20 GeV threshold. The selectivity of the current ATLAS first-level muon trigger is limited by the moderate spatial resolution of the muon trigger chambers. By incorporating the precise tracking of the MDT, the muon transverse momentum can be measured with an accuracy close to that of the offline reconstruction at the trigger level, sharpening the trigger turn-on curves and reducing the single muon trigger rate. A novel algorithm is proposed which reconstructs segments from MDT hits in an FPGA and find tracks within the tight latency constraints of the ATLAS first-level muon trigger. The algorithm represents MDT drift circles as curves in the Legendre space and returns one or more segment lines tangent to the maximum possible number of drift circles.  This algorithm is implemented without the need of resource and time consuming hit position calcul...

  5. A fast-track preliminary thermo-mechanical design of oil export pipelines from P-56 platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solano, Rafael F.; Mendonca, Salete M. de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Franco, Luciano D.; Walker, Alastair; El-Gebaly, Sherif H. [INTECSEA, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    The oil export pipelines of Marlim Sul field Module 3, Campus Basin, offshore Brazil, will operate in high pressure and temperature conditions, and will be laid on seabed crossing ten previously laid pipelines along the routes. In terms of thermo-mechanical design, these conditions turn out to be great challenges. In order to obtain initial results and recommendations for detail design, a preliminary thermo-mechanical design of pipelines was carried out as a fast-track design before the bid. This way, PETROBRAS can assess and emphasize the susceptibility of these lines to lateral buckling and pipeline walking behavior. Therefore, PETROBRAS can present a preliminary mitigation strategy for lateral buckling showing solutions based on displacement controlled criteria and by introducing buckle initiation along the pipeline using distribution buoyancy. Besides that, axial displacements and loads at the pipeline ends can be furnished also in order to provide a basis for the detailed design. The work reported in this paper follows the SAFEBUCK JIP methodology and recommendation, which were used to determine the allowable strain and maximum allowable VAS (Virtual Anchor Spacing) considered in the buckling mitigation strategy. The paper presents also the formation of uncontrolled buckles on the seabed and the propensity for pipeline walking in its sections between buckles. The buckling mitigation strategy established in this preliminary design confirms that the oil pipeline specifications are adequate to maintain integrity during design life. (author)

  6. Application of fast-track surgery concept in perioperative patients with biliary calculi and liver cirrhosis: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Hua

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the advantage and safety of the concept of fast-track surgery (FTS applied in perioperative patients with biliary calculi and liver cirrhosis. MethodsFifty-two patients undergoing operation for biliary calculi and liver cirrhosis from January 2011 to September 2013 were included in this study. These patients were randomly divided into FTS group (n = 30 and control group (n = 22. Patients in the FTS group received perioperative care measures guided by FTS concept, while patients in the control group received traditional perioperative management measures. The intraoperative situation of patients, time to postoperative recovery of intestinal function, length of postoperative hospital stay, total medical expenses during hospitalization, and postoperative complications were compared between the two groups. Continuous data and categorical data were compared by t-test and χ2 test, respectively. ResultsAs compared with the control group, the FTS group had significantly time to postoperative recovery of intestinal function (t = 2.239, P = 0.045, a significantly shortened length of postoperative stay (t = 4.246, P = 0.038, and significantly reduced total medical expenses during hospitalization (t = 3.045, P = 0.033. No significant difference in postoperative complications was observed between the two groups (P>0.05. ConclusionThe concept of FTS can be safely and effectively applied in perioperative patients with biliary calculi and liver cirrhosis, which can accelerate rehabilitation without increasing the risk of surgery.

  7. Application Effect of Fast Track Surgery for Patients with Lung Cancer: 
A Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan XIA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Fast track surgery (FTS can accelerate rehabilitation and reduce postoperative hospital stay. It has been effectively applied to several surgical diseases. However, the safety and effectiveness of FTS for patients with lung cancer in China is unclear. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the effect of FTS undergoing lung cancer surgery in China. Methods Using home and abroad databases to search all documents required. The deadline of retrieval was January 31, 2016. Then the studies were screened according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data were analyzed by RevMan 5.3 software. Results 8 randomized controlled trials (RCTs and 5 clinical controlled trials (CCTs with 1,241 patients were eligible for analysis. Compared with control group, FTS group can significantly shorten postoperative hospital time (MD=-3.61, 95%CI: -5.05--2.16, P<0.000,01 and chest tube duration (MD=-2.62, 95%CI: -3.07-2.17, P<0.000,01, reduce incidence of postoperative complications (OR=0.30, 95%CI: 0.19-0.47, P<0.000,01 and hospitalization costs (MD=-0.92, 95%CI: -1.19--0.65, P<0.000,01. Conclusion FTS can safely and effectively accelerate the recovery of patients with lung cancer in China, it exhibits important clinical values.

  8. A Belated Green Revolution for Cannabis: Virtual Genetic Resources to Fast-Track Cultivar Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welling, Matthew T; Shapter, Tim; Rose, Terry J; Liu, Lei; Stanger, Rhia; King, Graham J

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis is a predominantly diecious phenotypically diverse domesticated genus with few if any extant natural populations. International narcotics conventions and associated legislation have constrained the establishment, characterization, and use of Cannabis genetic resource collections. This has resulted in the underutilization of genepool variability in cultivar development and has limited the inclusion of secondary genepools associated with genetic improvement strategies of the Green Revolution. The structured screening of ex situ germplasm and the exploitation of locally-adapted intraspecific traits is expected to facilitate the genetic improvement of Cannabis. However, limited attempts have been made to establish the full extent of genetic resources available for pre-breeding. We present a thorough critical review of Cannabis ex situ genetic resources, and discuss recommendations for conservation, pre-breeding characterization, and genetic analysis that will underpin future cultivar development. We consider East Asian germplasm to be a priority for conservation based on the prolonged historical cultivation of Cannabis in this region over a range of latitudes, along with the apparent high levels of genetic diversity and relatively low representation in published genetic resource collections. Seed cryopreservation could improve conservation by reducing hybridization and genetic drift that may occur during Cannabis germplasm regeneration. Given the unique legal status of Cannabis, we propose the establishment of a global virtual core collection based on the collation of consistent and comprehensive provenance meta-data and the adoption of high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies. This would enable representative core collections to be used for systematic phenotyping, and so underpin breeding strategies for the genetic improvement of Cannabis.

  9. Fast tracking the design of theory-based KT interventions through a consensus process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussières, André E; Al Zoubi, Fadi; Quon, Jeffrey A; Ahmed, Sara; Thomas, Aliki; Stuber, Kent; Sajko, Sandy; French, Simon

    2015-02-11

    techniques to key theoretical domains and identified relevant KT strategies and modes of delivery to increase the use of multimodal care among chiropractors. A multifaceted KT educational intervention targeting chiropractors' management of neck pain was developed. The KT intervention consisted of an online education webinar series, clinical vignettes and a video underpinned by the Brief Action Planning model. The intervention was designed to reflect key theoretical domains, behaviour change techniques and intervention components. The effectiveness of the proposed intervention remains to be tested.

  10. Service quality and customer satisfaction in Chinese fast food sector: A proposal for CFFRSERV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Tan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates customer’s perception of Chinese fast food restaurant service quality and its relationship with customer satisfaction. Employing modified DINESERV scale, the study uses both quantitative and qualitative research approaches. Qualitative data collection consisted of face-to-face interviews and group discussion. A questionnaire was developed using three sources: interview responses of the customers, the restaurant’s survey and the literature. A total of 205 completed questionnaires were used in the analysis. The new measurement scale, Chinese Fast Food Restaurants Service Quality Scale (CFFRSERV, contained 28 items across six dimensions: assurance and empathy, food, cleanliness, responsiveness, reliability and tangibles. The findings from the study revealed that service quality variables have positive influence on customer satisfaction except reliability dimension. The findings provided a useful tool for service quality improvement in Chinese fast food restaurants. Validating the scale in other restaurants in various cities in China is an area for further research.

  11. A proposed DT-seeded Muon Track Trigger for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The LHC program after the observation of the candidate SM Higgs boson will continue with collisions at 13 and 14 TeV, which will help clarify future subjects of study and shape the tools needed to carry them on. Any upgrade of the LHC experiments for unprecedented luminosities, such as the HL-LHC ones, must then maintain the acceptance on electroweak processes that can lead to a detailed study of the properties of the candidate Higgs boson. The acceptance of the key leptonic, photonic and hadronic trigger objects should be kept such that the overall physics acceptance, in particular for low-mass scale processes, can be the same as the one the experiments featured in 2012. In such a scenario, a new approach to early trigger implementation is needed. One of the major steps to be taken is the exploitation of high-granularity tracking sub-detectors, such as the CMS Silicon Tracker, in taking the early trigger decision. Their inclusion into the trigger chain can be crucial in several tasks, including the confirmat...

  12. Inhibiting Interference - a grounded theory of health professionals' pattern of behaviour related to the relatives of older patients in fast-track treatment programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher; Lindhardt, Tove; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To generate a grounded theory explaining health professionals' pattern of behaviour and experience related to the relatives of older patients in fast-track treatment programmes during total joint replacement. BACKGROUND: Health professionals uphold standardised care for patients, and effect...... on quality is seen when relatives support patients during total joint replacement. Since health professionals often have problematic relationships with relatives, knowledge is needed of the health professionals' pattern of behaviour in relation to relatives of older patients in fast-track treatment programme....... DESIGN: Grounded theory according to Glaser's methodology was used to generate substantive theory of health professionals' pattern of behaviour. METHODS: Data were collected from 2010 to 2011 by 44 health professionals in orthopaedic wards at two Danish hospitals. Data from nonparticipant observations...

  13. Predictors of length of stay and patient satisfaction after hip and knee replacement surgery: fast-track experience in 712 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Henrik; Holm, Gitte; Jacobsen, Steffen

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Very few studies have focused on patient characteristics that influence length of stay (LOS) in fast-track total hip (THR) and knee arthroplasty (TKR). The aim of this prospective study was to identify patient characteristics associated with LOS and patient satisfaction...... aids, pre- and postoperative hemoglobin levels, the need for blood transfusion, ASA score, and time between surgery and mobilization, were all found to influence postoperative outcome in general, and LOS and patient satisfaction in particular. INTERPRETATION: We identified several patient...... characteristics that influence postoperative outcome, LOS, and patient satisfaction in our series of consecutive fast-track joint replacement patients, enabling further attention to be paid to certain aspects of surgery and rehabilitation....

  14. Direct hospital costs of total laparoscopic hysterectomy compared with fast-track open hysterectomy at a tertiary hospital: a retrospective case-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhou, Yoon J J; Pather, Selvan; Loadsman, John A; Campbell, Neil; Philp, Shannon; Carter, Jonathan

    2015-12-01

    To assess the direct intraoperative and postoperative costs in women undergoing total laparoscopic hysterectomy and fast-track open hysterectomy. A retrospective review of the direct hospital-related costs in a matched cohort of women undergoing total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH) and fast-track open hysterectomy (FTOH) at a tertiary hospital. All costs were calculated, including the cost of advanced high-energy laparoscopic devices. The effect of the learning curve on cost in laparoscopic hysterectomy was also assessed, as was the hospital case-weighted cost, which was compared with the actual cost. Fifty women were included in each arm of the study. TLH had a higher intraoperative cost, but a lower postoperative cost than FTOH (AUD$3877 vs AUD$2776 P funding model in our hospital is inaccurate when compared to directly calculated hospital costs. © 2013 The Authors ANZJOG © 2013 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  15. Predictors of length of stay and patient satisfaction after hip and knee replacement surgery: fast-track experience in 712 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Henrik; Holm, Gitte; Jacobsen, Steffen

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Very few studies have focused on patient characteristics that influence length of stay (LOS) in fast-track total hip (THR) and knee arthroplasty (TKR). The aim of this prospective study was to identify patient characteristics associated with LOS and patient satisfaction...... after total hip and knee replacement surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between September 2003 and December 2005, 712 consecutive, unselected patients (440 women) with a mean age of 69 (31-91) years were admitted for hip and knee replacement surgery at our specialized fast-track joint replacement unit....... Epidemiological, physical, and perioperative parameters were registered and correlated to LOS and patient satisfaction. RESULTS: 92% of the patients were discharged directly to their homes within 5 days, and 41% were discharged within 3 days. Age, sex, marital status, co-morbidity, preoperative use of walking...

  16. Implementing a Comprehensive Program for the Prevention of Conduct Problems in Rural Communities: The Fast Track Experience1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierman, Karen L.

    2012-01-01

    Childhood conduct problems are predictive of a number of serious long-term difficulties (e.g., school failure, delinquent behavior, and mental health problems), making the design of effective prevention programs a priority. The Fast Track Program is a demonstration project currently underway in four demographically diverse areas of the United States, testing the feasibility and effectiveness of a comprehensive, multicomponent prevention program targeting children at risk for conduct disorders. This paper describes some lessons learned about the implementation of this program in a rural area. Although there are many areas of commonality in terms of program needs, program design, and implementation issues in rural and urban sites, rural areas differ from urban areas along the dimensions of geographical dispersion and regionalism, and community stability and insularity. Rural programs must cover a broad geographical area and must be sensitive to the multiple, small and regional communities that constitute their service area. Small schools, homogeneous populations, traditional values, limited recreational, educational and mental health services, and politically conservative climates are all more likely to emerge as characteristics of rural rather than urban sites (Sherman, 1992). These characteristics may both pose particular challenges to the implementation of prevention programs in rural areas, as well as offer particular benefits. Three aspects of program implementation are described in detail: (a) community entry and program initiation in rural areas, (b) the adaptation of program components and service delivery to meet the needs of rural families and schools, and (c) issues in administrative organization of a broadly dispersed tricounty rural prevention program. PMID:9338956

  17. Safety and efficacy of fast-track surgery in perioperative nursing for biliary calculi surgery: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Qinan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo systematically review the efficacy and safety of fast-track surgery (FTS in perioperative nursing for biliary calculi surgery. MethodsOnline databases of PubMed, Cochrane Library, CBM, CNKI, VIP, and Wanfang Data were comprehensively searched for relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs. Potential bias was evaluated by Cochrane tools and data were analyzed by RevMan 5.3. ResultsA total of 11 RCTs with 1455 patients were included (738 cases in FTS group and 717 cases in control group. The results of meta-analysis showed that FTS significantly reduced the length of postoperative hospital stay (MD=-4.10, 95% CI: -5.68 to -2.52, P<0.000 01 and hospital costs (MD=-0.47, 95%CI: -0.60 to -0.34, P<0.000 01; meanwhile, FTS shortened the time to gastrointestinal recovery (SMD=-2.05, 95%CI: -2.84 to -1.27, P<0.000 01, as well as the time to first defecation (SMD=-1.27, 95% CI: -2.08 to -0.46, P<0.000 01. As for safety, FTS significantly reduced the total complications of choledocholithiasis (RR=0.53, 95%CI: 0.43-0.65, P<0.000 01 and hepatolithiasis (RR=0.52, 95% CI: 0.35-0.77, P=0.001. ConclusionFTS is effective and safe in perioperative nursing for biliary calculi surgery. It can significantly reduce the length of postoperative hospital stay, enhance gastrointestinal recovery, shorten the time to first defecation, and reduce total complications.

  18. Beyond trend analysis: How a modified breakpoint analysis enhances knowledge of agricultural production after Zimbabwe's fast track land reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentze, Konrad; Thonfeld, Frank; Menz, Gunter

    2017-10-01

    In the discourse on land reform assessments, a significant lack of spatial and time-series data has been identified, especially with respect to Zimbabwe's ;Fast-Track Land Reform Programme; (FTLRP). At the same time, interest persists among land use change scientists to evaluate causes of land use change and therefore to increase the explanatory power of remote sensing products. This study recognizes these demands and aims to provide input on both levels: Evaluating the potential of satellite remote sensing time-series to answer questions which evolved after intensive land redistribution efforts in Zimbabwe; and investigating how time-series analysis of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) can be enhanced to provide information on land reform induced land use change. To achieve this, two time-series methods are applied to MODIS NDVI data: Seasonal Trend Analysis (STA) and Breakpoint Analysis for Additive Season and Trend (BFAST). In our first analysis, a link of agricultural productivity trends to different land tenure regimes shows that regional clustering of trends is more dominant than a relationship between tenure and trend with a slightly negative slope for all regimes. We demonstrate that clusters of strong negative and positive productivity trends are results of changing irrigation patterns. To locate emerging and fallow irrigation schemes in semi-arid Zimbabwe, a new multi-method approach is developed which allows to map changes from bimodal seasonal phenological patterns to unimodal and vice versa. With an enhanced breakpoint analysis through the combination of STA and BFAST, we are able to provide a technique that can be applied on large scale to map status and development of highly productive cropping systems, which are key for food production, national export and local employment. We therefore conclude that the combination of existing and accessible time-series analysis methods: is able to achieve both: overcoming demonstrated limitations of

  19. Comparison of two modes of ventilation after fast-track cardiac surgery: Adaptive support ventilation versus synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghadavoudi, O.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: There is substantial debate regarding the appropriate protocol for ventilatory management in fast-track cardiac anesthesia (FTCA). This study was carried out to assess and compare the risks and benefits of respiratory weaning based on adaptive support ventilation (ASV) and synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV) after uncomplicated cardiac surgery. Methodology: In a randomized clinical trial, after receiving approval of the Department Research Committee and informed consent from study subjects, 100 patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were enrolled during a 4-month period at a university-based hospital. After surgery and admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), patients were randomized to ASV and SIMV groups. Arterial blood gas (ABG) and hemodynamic variables, respiratory and ventilator characteristics including lung compliance, rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI), tidal volume (TV), respiratory rate (RR), peak inspiratory pressure (P peak), mean airway pressure (p mean), Pao2/FIo2, duration of mechanical ventilation and tracheal intubation, and length of ICU stay were recorded and compared between the two groups. The data were analyzed in 82 patients after considering the exclusion criteria. Results: There were no differences between ASV and SIMV groups in demographics and preoperative characteristics. The duration of tracheal intubation and the length of ICU stay were similar in both groups. There were no statistically and clinically relevant differences between the two groups in ABG, hemodynamic changes, and respiratory and ventilator characteristics during ICU stay. Conclusion: Although ASV may facilitate postoperative respiratory management in FTCA, both ASV and SIMV provide similarly safe and practicable respiratory weaning in the cardiac ICU. The evaluation of potential advantages in patient outcomes and resource utilization of respiratory weaning based on ASV

  20. Nurse Practitioners' attitude to nutritional challenges dealing with the patients' nutritional needs and ability to care for themselves in a fast track program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graarup, Jytte; Pedersen, Preben Ulrich; Bjerrum, Merete

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nutrition plays an important role to the success of fast track programs, but under nutrition are still reported. Nutritional care seems to be a low priority among nurses even though it is well-known that insufficient nutrition has severe consequences for the patients. The aim is to re......Background: Nutrition plays an important role to the success of fast track programs, but under nutrition are still reported. Nutritional care seems to be a low priority among nurses even though it is well-known that insufficient nutrition has severe consequences for the patients. The aim...... is to report to what extent a training program has made Nutritional Nurse Practitioners aware of the nutritional care for short-term hospitalized patients, and how they deal with patients’ nutritional needs and ability to provide self-care in the context of a fast track program. Methods: Deductive content...... analysis was used to analyse data from four focus group interviews. Sixteen Nutritional Nurse Practitioners from either medical or surgery wards participated. The Nutritional Nurse Practitioners were interviewed twice. The interviews were recorded and verbally transcribed. Results: In the Nutritional Nurse...

  1. Service quality and customer satisfaction in Chinese fast food sector: A proposal for CFFRSERV

    OpenAIRE

    Qingqing Tan; Ade Oriade; Paul Fallon

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates customer’s perception of Chinese fast food restaurant service quality and its relationship with customer satisfaction. Employing modified DINESERV scale, the study uses both quantitative and qualitative research approaches. Qualitative data collection consisted of face-to-face interviews and group discussion. A questionnaire was developed using three sources: interview responses of the customers, the restaurant’s survey and the literature. A total of 205 completed q...

  2. Proposed design for a fast (parallel) preprocessor for the spin spectrometer and other eventful albatrosses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensley, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    Because devices like the Spin Spectrometer described in a previous paper to this conference can produce an extremely fast but fairly simple-to-process data stream, it seems reasonable to consider front-end preprocessors having special characteristics. In general, the kinds of transformations being considered do not require floating point calculations or extensive calculations. In order to be somewhat specific, the particular data acquisition/processing problems posed by the Spin Spectrometer at the Holifield Heavy Ion Facility will be discussed

  3. A proposed adaptive step size perturbation and observation maximum power point tracking algorithm based on photovoltaic system modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu

    Solar energy becomes one of the major alternative renewable energy options for its huge abundance and accessibility. Due to the intermittent nature, the high demand of Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) techniques exists when a Photovoltaic (PV) system is used to extract energy from the sunlight. This thesis proposed an advanced Perturbation and Observation (P&O) algorithm aiming for relatively practical circumstances. Firstly, a practical PV system model is studied with determining the series and shunt resistances which are neglected in some research. Moreover, in this proposed algorithm, the duty ratio of a boost DC-DC converter is the object of the perturbation deploying input impedance conversion to achieve working voltage adjustment. Based on the control strategy, the adaptive duty ratio step size P&O algorithm is proposed with major modifications made for sharp insolation change as well as low insolation scenarios. Matlab/Simulink simulation for PV model, boost converter control strategy and various MPPT process is conducted step by step. The proposed adaptive P&O algorithm is validated by the simulation results and detail analysis of sharp insolation changes, low insolation condition and continuous insolation variation.

  4. Proposed patient motion monitoring system using feature point tracking with a web camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Hideharu; Ozawa, Shuichi; Matsuura, Takaaki; Yamada, Kiyoshi; Nagata, Yasushi

    2017-12-01

    Patient motion monitoring systems play an important role in providing accurate treatment dose delivery. We propose a system that utilizes a web camera (frame rate up to 30 fps, maximum resolution of 640 × 480 pixels) and an in-house image processing software (developed using Microsoft Visual C++ and OpenCV). This system is simple to use and convenient to set up. The pyramidal Lucas-Kanade method was applied to calculate motions for each feature point by analysing two consecutive frames. The image processing software employs a color scheme where the defined feature points are blue under stable (no movement) conditions and turn red along with a warning message and an audio signal (beeping alarm) for large patient movements. The initial position of the marker was used by the program to determine the marker positions in all the frames. The software generates a text file that contains the calculated motion for each frame and saves it as a compressed audio video interleave (AVI) file. We proposed a patient motion monitoring system using a web camera, which is simple and convenient to set up, to increase the safety of treatment delivery.

  5. Remote removal of an obstruction from FFTF [Fast Flux Test Facility] in-service inspection camera track

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, P.W.

    1990-11-01

    Remote techniques and special equipment were used to clear the path of a closed-circuit television camera system that travels on a monorail track around the reactor vessel support arm structure. A tangle of wire-wrapped instrumentation tubing had been inadvertently inserted through a dislocated guide-tube expansion joint and into the camera track area. An externally driven auger device, mounted on the track ahead of the camera to view the procedure, was used to retrieve the tubing. 6 figs

  6. Solid electrolyte batteries and fast ion conducting glasses, factors affecting a proposed merger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhlmann, D R; Tuller, H L; Button, D P; Valez, M [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge (USA). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1983-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with advanced battery systems employing glass as a solid electrolyte. After an initial discussion of battery systems employing solid electrolytes, and of the attractive features offered by glass electrolytes, consideration is given to batteries fabricated with such electrolytes and to their performance characteristics. Subsequent discussion is directed to the two principal characteristics of glasses which are critical to their use as solid electrolytes - viz., their electrical conductivity and resistance to corrosive attack. The present state of knowledge in each of these areas is summarized, with particular focus on glasses with exceptionally high ionic conductivities - so-called fast ion conductors or FIC's.

  7. Fast Temporal Activity Proposals for Efficient Detection of Human Actions in Untrimmed Videos

    KAUST Repository

    Heilbron, Fabian Caba; Niebles, Juan Carlos; Ghanem, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    In many large-scale video analysis scenarios, one is interested in localizing and recognizing human activities that occur in short temporal intervals within long untrimmed videos. Current approaches for activity detection still struggle to handle large-scale video collections and the task remains relatively unexplored. This is in part due to the computational complexity of current action recognition approaches and the lack of a method that proposes fewer intervals in the video, where activity processing can be focused. In this paper, we introduce a proposal method that aims to recover temporal segments containing actions in untrimmed videos. Building on techniques for learning sparse dictionaries, we introduce a learning framework to represent and retrieve activity proposals. We demonstrate the capabilities of our method in not only producing high quality proposals but also in its efficiency. Finally, we show the positive impact our method has on recognition performance when it is used for action detection, while running at 10FPS.

  8. Fast Temporal Activity Proposals for Efficient Detection of Human Actions in Untrimmed Videos

    KAUST Repository

    Heilbron, Fabian Caba

    2016-12-13

    In many large-scale video analysis scenarios, one is interested in localizing and recognizing human activities that occur in short temporal intervals within long untrimmed videos. Current approaches for activity detection still struggle to handle large-scale video collections and the task remains relatively unexplored. This is in part due to the computational complexity of current action recognition approaches and the lack of a method that proposes fewer intervals in the video, where activity processing can be focused. In this paper, we introduce a proposal method that aims to recover temporal segments containing actions in untrimmed videos. Building on techniques for learning sparse dictionaries, we introduce a learning framework to represent and retrieve activity proposals. We demonstrate the capabilities of our method in not only producing high quality proposals but also in its efficiency. Finally, we show the positive impact our method has on recognition performance when it is used for action detection, while running at 10FPS.

  9. Real-time tracking and fast retrieval of persons in multiple surveillance cameras of a shopping mall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, H.; Baan, J.; Landsmeer, S.; Kruszynski, K.J.; Antwerpen, G. van; Dijk, J.

    2013-01-01

    The capability to track individuals in CCTV cameras is important for e.g. surveillance applications at large areas such as train stations, airports and shopping centers. However, it is laborious to track and trace people over multiple cameras. In this paper, we present a system for real-time

  10. Comparison of granisetron, metoclopramide and gastric decompression for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting after fast track cardiac anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Aghadavoudi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Different methods have been suggested to prevent postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV, but the efficacy of these methods has not been fully studied in fast track cardiac anesthesia (FTCA.
    • METHODS: In a randomized double blind clinical trial study, 120 patients aged 18-70 years with ASA II or III, undergoing elective cardiac surgery, were selected. They were divided randomly into four groups. In group M, group G and group P, intravenous (IV metoclopramide (0.1 mg/kg, granisetron (0.01 mg/kg, and normal saline were administered, respectively, about thirty minutes before extubation in the intensive care unit (ICU. In group N, a nasogastric (NG tube was inserted after tracheal intubation in the operating room and removed about thirty minutes before extubation in the ICU. The incidence and severity of nausea and the episodes of vomiting were recorded by a blinded investigator at the time of extubation and performed regularly for a maximum of 24 hours. Assessment of severity of nausea was scored using a visual analogue scale (VAS device. Data were analyzed by using ANOVA, chi-squared and Kruskal- Wallis and repeated measures tests.
    • RESULTS: Overall the 24-h incidence of PONV was significantly lower in the G and M groups than in the P and N groups (10% and 16.7% vs. 33.3% and 40%, respectively; P < 0.02. Postoperative rescue medication was significantly less required in the G and M groups compared to the other two groups (P < 0.01. Less satisfaction, according to PONV status, was observed in the P and N groups (P < 0.01.
    • CONCLUSIONS: According to this study, metoclopramide and granisetron, but not gastric decompression, are effective regimens for preventing PONV after FTCA. Given the economics and a considerable background incidence in patients exhibiting PONV, we suggest metoclopramide as a routine prophylactic antiemetic in FTCA

    • FAST, the Fusion Advanced Studies Torus, a proposal for a facility in support of the development of fusion energy

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Pizzuto, A.; Crisanti, F.; Zonca, F.

      2008-01-01

      FAST is a new machine proposed to support ITER experimental exploitation as well as to anticipate DEMO relevant physics and technology. FAST is aimed at studying, in burning plasma relevant conditions, fast particle physics, plasma operations and plasma wall interaction in an integrated way. FAST has the capability to approach all the ITER scenarios significantly closer than present day experiments by using Deuterium plasmas. The necessity of achieving ITER relevant performance with a moderate cost has led to conceiving a compact Tokamak (R=1.82 m, a= 0.64 m) with high toroidal field (BT up to 8.5 T) and plasma current (Ip up to 8 MA). In order to study fast particle behaviours in conditions similar to those of ITER, the project has been provided with a dominant Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating System (ICRH; 30 MW on the plasma). Moreover, the experiment foresees the use of 6 MW of Lower Hybrid (LHCD), essentially for plasma control and for non-inductive Current Drive, and of Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH, 4MW) for localized electron heating and plasma control. The ports have been designed to accommodate up to 10 MW of negative beams (NNBI) in the energy range of 0.5-1 MeV. The total power input will be in the 30-40 MW range in the different plasma scenarios with a wall power load comparable with that of ITER (P/R∼22 MW/m). All the ITER scenarios will be studied: from the reference H-mode, with plasma edge and ELMs characteristics similar to the ITER ones (Q up to ≅ 2.5), to a full current drive scenario, lasting around 170 s. The first wall as well as the divertor plates will be of Tungsten in order to ensure reactor relevant operation regimes. The divertor itself is designed to be completely removable by remote handling. This will allow studying (in view of DEMO) the behaviour of innovative divertor concepts, such as those based on liquid Lithium. FAST is capable of operations with very long pulses, up to 170 s, despite that it is a copper machine

    • Technical Meeting on Existing and Proposed Experimental Facilities for Fast Neutron Systems. Working Material

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      2013-01-01

      The discussion which followed the different presentations highlighted the following points: • All the Member States representatives participating in the technical meeting welcomed this IAEA initiative and expressed their potential interest in contributing to the catalogue; • Not all the countries with a fast reactor programme were represented at the meeting. In particular, it was noted that there was no participation from China, the Russian Federation and the USA. Even contribution from Sweden and Spain would be beneficial. It will be a task of the IAEA Secretariat to try involving also these countries in the preparation of the catalogue; • The catalogue will focus only on experimental facilities supporting development of liquid metal cooled fast reactors (Sodium, Lead and Lead-Bismuth). For the time being, facilities in support of GFR and MSR research will not be included; • As for countries involved in HLM technology research, only European countries were participating at the meeting, i.e. Belgium, France, Italy and Germany. In order to avoid duplication of the work performed within the European project ADRIANA, representatives from these countries underlined that a condition for their contribution to the IAEA catalogue is the involvement of non-European countries with HLM research programmes; • The advice from the Member States is fundamental to clearly define scope, objectives and content of the catalogue. The plan for its drafting has also to be further discussed with Member States representatives; • The catalogue is also intended to identify gaps and future needs that require further R&D initiatives; • The catalogue will be a useful tool to set up international collaboration

    • Proposal for Definitive Survey for Fast Radio Bursts at the Allen Telescope Array

      Science.gov (United States)

      Harp, Gerald; Tarter, J. C.; Welch, W. J.; Allen Telescope Array Team

      2014-01-01

      The Allen Telescope Array, a 42-dish radio interferometer in Northern California is now being upgraded with new, more sensitive receivers covering 0.9-18 GHz continuously. Leveraging this frequency coverage and wide field of view, the ATA is a unique and ideal instrument for the discovery and characterization of fast radio bursts (FRBs, discovered at Parkes and Arecibo) and other short-time domain radio phenomena. The field of view (nearly 10 sq. deg. at 1 GHz) allows for a rapid search of 3π steradians with many lookbacks over a period of 2.5 years. The instantaneous wide-frequency range of the upgraded ATA receivers allows sensitive observations at 4 simultaneous frequency ranges (for example, 0.9 - 1.5 GHz, 1.6-2.2 GHz, 2.5-3.1 GHz, and 4.6-5.2 GHz, full Stokes); something not possible at any other major telescope. This enables very accurate dispersion measure and spectral index characterization of ms-timescale bursts (or other time-variable activity) with a localization accuracy ~20" for SNR > 10 (all FRBs discovered to date would meet this criterium). We discuss the new digital processing system required to perform this survey, with a plan to capture ~400 FRB events during the survey period of performance , based on current event-rate estimates of 10^4 events/sky/day.

    • In-pile experiments and test facilities proposed for fast reactor safety

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Grolmes, M.A.; Avery, R.; Goldman, A.J.; Fauske, H.K.; Marchaterre, J.F.; Rose, D.; Wright, A.E.

      1976-01-01

      The role of in-pile experiments in support of the resolution of fast breeder reactor safety and licensing issues has been re-examined, with emphasis on key safety issues. Experiment needs have been related to the specific characteristics of these safety issues and to realistic requirements for additional test facility capabilities which can be achieved and utilized within the next ten years. It is found that those safety issues related to the energetics of core disruptive accidents have the largest impact on new facility requirements. However, utilization of existing facilities with modifications can provide for a continuing increase in experiment capability and experiment results on a timely bases. Emphasis has been placed upon maximum utilization of existing facilities and minimum requirements for new facilities. This evaluation has concluded that a new Safety Test Facility, STF, along with major modifications to the EBR II facility, improvement in TREAT capabilities, the existing Sodium Loop Safety Facility and corresponding Support Facilities provide the essential elements of the Safety Research Experiment Facilities (SAREF) required for resolution of key issues

    • The performance of the γ-ray tracking array GRETINA for γ-ray spectroscopy with fast beams of rare isotopes

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Weisshaar, D.; Bazin, D.; Bender, P.C.; Campbell, C.M.; Recchia, F.; Bader, V.; Baugher, T.; Belarge, J.; Carpenter, M.P.; Crawford, H.L.; Cromaz, M.; Elman, B.; Fallon, P.; Forney, A.; Gade, A.

      2017-01-01

      The γ-ray tracking array GRETINA was coupled to the S800 magnetic spectrometer for spectroscopy with fast beams of rare isotopes at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory on the campus of Michigan State University. We describe the technical details of this powerful setup and report on GRETINA's performance achieved with source and in-beam measurements. The γ-ray multiplicity encountered in experiments with fast beams is usually low, allowing for a simplified and efficient treatment of the data in the γ-ray analysis in terms of Doppler reconstruction and spectral quality. The results reported in this work were obtained from GRETINA consisting of 8 detector modules hosting four high-purity germanium crystals each. Currently, GRETINA consists of 10 detector modules.

    • Diagnostic methods for fast-track identification of endometrial cancer in women with postmenopausal bleeding and endometrial thickness greater than 5 mm

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Dueholm, Margit; Marinowskij, Edvard; Hansen, Estrid Stæhr

      2015-01-01

      efficiency (area under the curve) for malignancy diagnosis (ES, 0.90; TVS, 0.88; GIS, 0.92; HYpattern, 0.91). When insufficient samples were incorporated, ES was less efficient than the other techniques. ES was not more efficient in the subgroup of women without localized lesions than in the subgroup...... of women with localized lesions. MRI and HYpattern added limited efficiency, whereas hysteroscopy with biopsy was most efficient. CONCLUSIONS: As a first-line technique, pattern recognition on TVS, GIS, and HYpattern correctly identifies 9 of 10 women with malignancy and is superior to pattern recognition...... on ES when insufficient samples are included. Endometrial pattern evaluated with TVS and GIS is a fast and efficient first-line diagnostic tool that outperforms ES in women with or without localized lesions. Malignant patterns on TVS/GIS should warrant fast-track evaluation, whereas women with benign...

    • The performance of the γ-ray tracking array GRETINA for γ-ray spectroscopy with fast beams of rare isotopes

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Weisshaar, D., E-mail: weisshaar@nscl.msu.edu [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Bazin, D. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Bender, P.C. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Campbell, C.M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Recchia, F. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Bader, V.; Baugher, T. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Belarge, J. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Carpenter, M.P. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Crawford, H.L.; Cromaz, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Elman, B. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Fallon, P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Forney, A. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Gade, A. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); and others

      2017-03-01

      The γ-ray tracking array GRETINA was coupled to the S800 magnetic spectrometer for spectroscopy with fast beams of rare isotopes at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory on the campus of Michigan State University. We describe the technical details of this powerful setup and report on GRETINA's performance achieved with source and in-beam measurements. The γ-ray multiplicity encountered in experiments with fast beams is usually low, allowing for a simplified and efficient treatment of the data in the γ-ray analysis in terms of Doppler reconstruction and spectral quality. The results reported in this work were obtained from GRETINA consisting of 8 detector modules hosting four high-purity germanium crystals each. Currently, GRETINA consists of 10 detector modules.

    • Characterization of plastic nuclear track detectors on solid state, CR-39 and LR-115 and its possibilities application on thermal and fast neutron dosimetry

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Vallejo Delgado, L.R.

      1989-01-01

      This work is an study about the use feasibility of plastic nuclear track detectors, LR 115, II-B (of Eastmann Kodak Co) and CR-39 (of American Acrylics and Plastics), for thermal and fast neutron dosimetry, respectively. The LR-115 with converter (n, alpha) was exposed to thermal neutrons with energy of 0,046 e V, proceeding from nuclear reactor RECH-1 of Nuclear Energy Chilean Commission. The irradiated films were submited to a chemical etching with NaOH, plus a washing and brushing. The CR-39 with polyethylene irradiator, was exposed to fast neutrons proceeding of calibrated sources of Am-Se. The irradiated plates were submited to a chemical pre-etching with KOH and a electrochemical post-etching. (author)

    • 76 FR 13647 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request-Interactive Diet and Activity Tracking in AARP (iDATA...

      Science.gov (United States)

      2011-03-14

      ... Request--Interactive Diet and Activity Tracking in AARP (iDATA): Biomarker Based Validation Study Summary... Collection: Title: Interactive Diet and Activity Tracking in AARP (iDATA): Biomarker Based Validation Study... Food Record 742 2 60/60 (1.0) 1,485 (Attachment 17). Diet History 742 2 45/60 (.75) 1,114 Questionnaire...

    • A prospective cohort study to investigate cost-minimisation, of Traditional open, open fAst track recovery and laParoscopic fASt track multimodal management, for surgical patients with colon carcinomas (TAPAS study).

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Reurings, J.C.; Spanjersberg, W.R.; Oostvogel, H.J.M.; Buskens, E.; Maring, J.; Kruijt, F.; Rosman, C.; Duivendijk, P. van; Dejong, C.H.; Laarhoven, C.J.H.M. van

      2010-01-01

      BACKGROUND: The present developments in colon surgery are characterized by two innovations: the introduction of the laparoscopic operation technique and fast recovery programs such as the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) recovery program. The Tapas-study was conceived to determine which of the

  1. Proposed Application of Fast Fourier Transform in Near Infra Red Based Non Invasive Blood Glucose Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenie, R. P.; Iskandar, J.; Kurniawan, A.; Rustami, E.; Syafutra, H.; Nurdin, N. M.; Handoyo, T.; Prabowo, J.; Febryarto, R.; Rahayu, M. S. K.; Damayanthi, E.; Rimbawan; Sukandar, D.; Suryana, Y.; Irzaman; Alatas, H.

    2017-03-01

    Worldwide emergence of glycaemic status related health disorders, such as diabetes and metabolic syndrome, is growing in alarming rate. The objective was to propose new methods for non invasive blood glucose level measurement system, based on implementation of Fast Fourier Transform methods. This was an initial-lab-scale-research. Data on non invasive blood glucose measurement are referred from Scopus, Medline, and Google Scholar, from 2011 until 2016, and was used as design references, combined with in house verification. System was developed in modular fashion, based on aforementioned compiled references. Several preliminary tests to understand relationship between LED and photo-diode responses have been done. Several references were used as non invasive blood glucose measurement tools design basis. Solution is developed in modular fashion. we have proven different sensor responses to water and glucose. Human test for non invasive blood glucose level measurement system is needed.

  2. Decontaminate feature for tracking: adaptive tracking via evolutionary feature subset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiaoyuan; Wang, Yuru; Yin, Minghao; Ren, Jinchang; Li, Ruizhi

    2017-11-01

    Although various visual tracking algorithms have been proposed in the last 2-3 decades, it remains a challenging problem for effective tracking with fast motion, deformation, occlusion, etc. Under complex tracking conditions, most tracking models are not discriminative and adaptive enough. When the combined feature vectors are inputted to the visual models, this may lead to redundancy causing low efficiency and ambiguity causing poor performance. An effective tracking algorithm is proposed to decontaminate features for each video sequence adaptively, where the visual modeling is treated as an optimization problem from the perspective of evolution. Every feature vector is compared to a biological individual and then decontaminated via classical evolutionary algorithms. With the optimized subsets of features, the "curse of dimensionality" has been avoided while the accuracy of the visual model has been improved. The proposed algorithm has been tested on several publicly available datasets with various tracking challenges and benchmarked with a number of state-of-the-art approaches. The comprehensive experiments have demonstrated the efficacy of the proposed methodology.

  3. Present status of fast neutron personnel dosimetry system based on CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Rupali; Sathian, Deepa; Jayalakshmi, V.; Bakshi, A.K.; Chougaonkar, M.P.; Mayya, Y.S.; Kumar, Valli; Babu, Rajesh; Kar, S.; Joshi, V.M.

    2011-08-01

    Neutron sources are of different types depending upon the method of production such as nuclear reactors, particle accelerators and laboratory sources. Neutron sources depending upon their energy, flux, size etc. are used for variety of applications in basic and applied sciences, neutron scattering experiments and in industry such as oil well - digging, coal mining and processing, ore processing etc. Personnel working in nuclear installations such as reactors, accelerators, spent fuel processing plants, nuclear fuel cycle operations and those working in various industries such as oil refining, oil well-digging, coal mining and processing, ore processing, etc. need to be monitored for neutron exposures, if any. Neutron monitoring is especially necessary in view of the fact that the radiation weighting factor for neutron is much higher than gamma rays and also it varies with energy. Radiological Physics and Advisory Division is involved in monitoring of personnel working in neutron fields. Around 2100 workers from 70 institutions (DAE and Non-DAE) are monitored on a quarterly basis. Neutron personnel monitoring, carried out in the country is based on Solid State Nuclear Track Detection (SSNTD) technique. In this technique, neutrons interact with hydrogen in CR-39 polymer to produce recoil protons. These protons create damages in the polymer, which are enlarged and appear as tracks when subjected to electrochemical etching (ECE). These tracks are counted in an optical system to evaluate the neutron dose. The neutron dosimetry system based on SSNTD has undergone a significant development, since it was started in 1990. The development includes upgradation of image analysis system for counting tracks, introduction of chemical etching (CE) at elevated temperatures for evaluation of dose equivalents above 10 mSv and use of carbon laser for cutting of CR-39 detectors. The entire dose evaluation process has been standardized, which includes calibration and performance tests

  4. Fast and high-energy neutron detection with nuclear track detectors: Results of the European joint experiments 1992/93

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schraube, H. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg GmbH, Oberschleissheim (Germany); Alberts, W.G. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); Weeks, A.R. [comps.] [Nuclear Electric plc, Berkeley (United Kingdom). Berkeley Technology Centre

    1997-12-31

    Under the auspices of EURADOS, the European radiation dosimetry group, seventeen recognised laboratories engaged in the field of individual neutron dosimetry with passive track detectors participated in an international comparative experiment. A number of twenty-seven detector systems, predominantly etched track detectors with the material PADC (poly allyl diglycol carbonate), were employed by the participating laboratories. Quasi-monoenergetic neutrons were provided for irradiations free-in-air and on front of a PMMA phantom by the GSF (Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Neuherberg, Germany) and by the PTB (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig, Germany). High energy irradiations were conducted by the PSI (Paul-Scherrer Institut, Villigen, Switzerland). The results of the on-phantom irradiations were used to derive energy and angular responses of the track detectors, those of the free-in-air irradiations to obtain data for the linearity characteristics of the response with dose. The report contains a short description and the original data of the participating laboratories, displays the irradiation and reference conditions, and provides an over-all evaluation. Emphasis is placed on the quantitative evaluation of the background characteristics and of the non-linearity observed with most of the systems employed which limits their useful dose-range of application. (orig.)

  5. Applications of solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) for fast ion and fusion reaction product measurements in TEXTOR experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szydlowski, A.; Malinowski, K.; Malinowska, A. [Association EURTOM-IPPLM Warsaw, The Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Wassenhove, G. Van [EURATOM-Belgium State Association, LPP, ERM/KMS, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Schweer, B. [Association EURATOM-FZJ, Institutte of Plasma Physicx, Juelich (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The paper reports on measurements of fusion reaction protons which were performed on TEXTOR facility in January 2009. The basic experimental scheme was similar to that applied in the previous measurements [1, 2]. The main experimental tool equipment was a small ion pinhole camera which was equipped with a PM-355 detector sample and was attached to a water cooled manipulator. The camera was placed below the plasma ring in the direction of ion drifts, at a distance of 4.4 cm from LCFS. However, in the described experiment it was aligned at an angle to the mayor TEXTOR radius (contrary to previous experiments), so that the input pinhole was oriented first at {gamma} = 45 degrees (shots 108799 - 108818) and then {gamma} = 600 (shots 108832 - 108847). The discharges were executed with one neutral beam of the total power 0.6 - 1.0 MW. In the first series (Nos 108799 - 108818) the plasma was additionally heated by ICRH of frequency 38 MHz. The irradiated detector samples were subjected to the same interrupted etching procedure as the samples used in the CR-39/PM-355 detector calibration measurements [1, 2]. After that, track density distributions and track diameter histograms were measured under an optical microscope. By the use of the calibration curves, it was possible to distinguish craters produced by protons from other craters and to convert the obtained histograms into proton energy spectra. The craters induced by lower energy ions appeared to be concentrated in narrower areas, whereas higher energy ions were registered in a more diffused detector fields. The paper shows again that the CR-39/PM-355 detector is an useful diagnostic tool for tokamak experiments, for measurement of charged ions. References: [1] A. Szydlowski, A. Malinowska, M. Jaskola, A. Korman, M.J. Sadowski, G. Van Wassenhove, B. Schweer and the TEXTOR team, A. Galkowski, 'Application of Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors in TEXTOR Experiment for Measurements

  6. Thromboembolic and major bleeding events in relation to perioperative bridging of vitamin K antagonists in 649 fast-track total hip and knee arthroplasties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christoffer C.; Kehlet, Henrik; Husted, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Background - The benefit of preoperative bridging in surgical patients with continuous anticoagulant therapy is debatable, and drawing of meaningful conclusions may have been limited by mixed procedures with different thromboembolic and bleeding risks in most published studies.  Patients and meth......Background - The benefit of preoperative bridging in surgical patients with continuous anticoagulant therapy is debatable, and drawing of meaningful conclusions may have been limited by mixed procedures with different thromboembolic and bleeding risks in most published studies.  Patients...... and methods - This was an observational cohort treatment study in consecutive primary unilateral total hip and knee arthroplasty patients between January 2010 and November 2013 in 8 Danish fast-track departments. Data were collected prospectively on preoperative comorbidity and anticoagulants in patients...

  7. A self seeded first level track trigger for ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schöning, A

    2012-01-01

    For the planned high luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider, aiming to increase the instantaneous luminosity to 5 × 10 34 cm −2 s −1 , the implementation of a first level track trigger has been proposed. This trigger could be installed in the year ∼ 2021 along with the complete renewal of the ATLAS inner detector. The fast readout of the hit information from the Inner Detector is considered as the main challenge of such a track trigger. Different concepts for the implementation of a first level trigger are currently studied within the ATLAS collaboration. The so called 'Self Seeded' track trigger concept exploits fast frontend filtering algorithms based on cluster size reconstruction and fast vector tracking to select hits associated to high momentum tracks. Simulation studies have been performed and results on efficiencies, purities and trigger rates are presented for different layouts.

  8. Latent tracks in polymeric etched track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Tomoya

    2013-01-01

    Track registration properties in polymeric track detectors, including Poly(allyl diglycol carbonate), Bispenol A polycarbonate, Poly(ethylen terephtarate), and Polyimide, have been investigated by means of Fourie transform Infararede FT-IR spectrometry. Chemical criterion on the track formation threshold has been proposes, in stead of the conventional physical track registration models. (author)

  9. Single-photon sensitive fast ebCMOS camera system for multiple-target tracking of single fluorophores: application to nano-biophotonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cajgfinger, Thomas; Chabanat, Eric; Dominjon, Agnes; Doan, Quang T.; Guerin, Cyrille; Houles, Julien; Barbier, Remi

    2011-03-01

    Nano-biophotonics applications will benefit from new fluorescent microscopy methods based essentially on super-resolution techniques (beyond the diffraction limit) on large biological structures (membranes) with fast frame rate (1000 Hz). This trend tends to push the photon detectors to the single-photon counting regime and the camera acquisition system to real time dynamic multiple-target tracing. The LUSIPHER prototype presented in this paper aims to give a different approach than those of Electron Multiplied CCD (EMCCD) technology and try to answer to the stringent demands of the new nano-biophotonics imaging techniques. The electron bombarded CMOS (ebCMOS) device has the potential to respond to this challenge, thanks to the linear gain of the accelerating high voltage of the photo-cathode, to the possible ultra fast frame rate of CMOS sensors and to the single-photon sensitivity. We produced a camera system based on a 640 kPixels ebCMOS with its acquisition system. The proof of concept for single-photon based tracking for multiple single-emitters is the main result of this paper.

  10. Normalized knee-extension strength or leg-press power after fast-track total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalund, Peter K; Larsen, Kristian; Hansen, Torben Bæk

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: (s): To investigate which of the two muscle-impairment measures for the operated leg, normalized knee extension strength or leg press power, is more closely associated to performance-based and self-reported measures of function shortly following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). DESIGN...... and dynamic leg presses to determine their body-mass normalized knee extension strength and leg press power, respectively. The 10-m fast speed walking and 30-s chair stand tests were used to determine performance-based function, while the Western Ontario McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC......) and Oxford Knee scores were used to determine self-reported function. RESULTS: Normalized leg press power was more closely associated to both performance-based (r=.82, P...

  11. Delirium after fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty – a cohort study of 6331 elderly patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, P. B.; Jørgensen, C. C.; Kehlet, H.

    2017-01-01

    without PD (P delirium symptoms contributing to LOS > 4 days in fast......Background: Postoperative delirium (PD) is a well-known complication among elderly surgical patients and associated with increased morbidity, mortality and length of stay (LOS). In elective orthopedic surgery, including hip and knee arthroplasty (THA/TKA), most studies report incidences between 5...... to November 2013. Results: We identified 43 (0.7%) cases of PD symptoms mentioned as a reason for LOS > 4 days among the 789 patients with LOS > 4 days (12.5% of all THA and TKA). PD patients had a mean age of 80.7 [[95% CI] 79.3–82.1] years, being 4.0 [[95% CI] 2.5–5.5] years older compared to patients...

  12. A prospective cohort study to investigate cost-minimisation, of Traditional open, open fAst track recovery and laParoscopic fASt track multimodal management, for surgical patients with colon carcinomas (TAPAS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Duivendijk Peter

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present developments in colon surgery are characterized by two innovations: the introduction of the laparoscopic operation technique and fast recovery programs such as the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS recovery program. The Tapas-study was conceived to determine which of the three treatment programs: open conventional surgery, open 'ERAS' surgery or laparoscopic 'ERAS' surgery for patients with colon carcinomas is most cost minimizing? Method/design The Tapas-study is a three-arm multicenter prospective cohort study. All patients with colon carcinoma, eligible for surgical treatment within the study period in four general teaching hospitals and one university hospital will be included. This design produces three cohorts: Conventional open surgery is the control exposure (cohort 1. Open surgery with ERAS recovery (cohort 2 and laparoscopic surgery with ERAS recovery (cohort 3 are the alternative exposures. Three separate time periods are used in order to prevent attrition bias. Primary outcome parameters are the two main cost factors: direct medical costs (real cost price calculation and the indirect non medical costs (friction method. Secondary outcome parameters are mortality, complications, surgical-oncological resection margins, hospital stay, readmission rates, time back to work/recovery, health status and quality of life. Based on an estimated difference in direct medical costs (highest cost factor of 38% between open and laparoscopic surgery (alfa = 0.01, beta = 0.05, a group size of 3×40 = 120 patients is calculated. Discussion The Tapas-study is three-arm multicenter cohort study that will provide a cost evaluation of three treatment programs for patients with colon carcinoma, which may serve as a guideline for choice of treatment and investment strategies in hospitals. Trial registration ISRCTN44649165.

  13. The ALICE TPC, a large 3-dimensional tracking device with fast readout for ultra-high multiplicity events

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00249819; Appelshauser, H.; Bablok, S.; Bialas, N.; Bolgen, R.; Bonnes, U.; Bramm, R.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Campagnolo, R.; Christiansen, P.; Dobrin, A.; Engster, C.; Fehlker, D.; Foka, Y.; Frankenfeld, U.; Gaardhoje, J.J.; Garabatos, C.; Glassel, P.; Gonzalez Gutierrez, C.; Gros, P.; Gustafsson, H.A.; Helstrup, H.; Hoch, M.; Ivanov, M.; Janik, R.; Junique, A.; Kalweit, A.; Keidel, R.; Kniege, S.; Kowalski, M.; Larsen, D.T.; Lesenechal, Y.; Lenoir, P.; Lindegaard, N.; Lippmann, C.; Mager, M.; Mast, M.; Matyja, A.; Munkejord, M.; Musa, L.; Nielsen, B.S.; Nikolic, V.; Oeschler, H.; Olsen, E.K.; Oskarsson, A.; Osterman, L.; Pikna, M.; Rehman, A.; Renault, G.; Renfordt, R.; Rossegger, S.; Rohrich, D.; Roed, K.; Richter, M.; Rueshmann, G.; Rybicki, A.; Sann, H.; Schmidt, H.R.; Siska, M.; Sitar, B.; Soegaard, C.; Soltveit, H.K.; Soyk, D.; Stachel, J.; Stelzer, H.; Stenlund, E.; Stock, R.; Strmen, P.; Szarka, I.; Ullaland, K.; Vranic, D.; Veenhof, R.; Westergaard, J.; Wiechula, J.; Windelband, B.

    2010-01-01

    The design, construction, and commissioning of the ALICE Time-Projection Chamber (TPC) is described. It is the main device for pattern recognition, tracking, and identification of charged particles in the ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC. The TPC is cylindrical in shape with a volume close to 90 m^3 and is operated in a 0.5 T solenoidal magnetic field parallel to its axis. In this paper we describe in detail the design considerations for this detector for operation in the extreme multiplicity environment of central Pb--Pb collisions at LHC energy. The implementation of the resulting requirements into hardware (field cage, read-out chambers, electronics), infrastructure (gas and cooling system, laser-calibration system), and software led to many technical innovations which are described along with a presentation of all the major components of the detector, as currently realized. We also report on the performance achieved after completion of the first round of stand-alone calibration runs and demonstrate result...

  14. Fast and accurate global multiphase arrival tracking: the irregular shortest-path method in a 3-D spherical earth model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guo-Jiao; Bai, Chao-Ying; Greenhalgh, Stewart

    2013-09-01

    The traditional grid/cell-based wavefront expansion algorithms, such as the shortest path algorithm, can only find the first arrivals or multiply reflected (or mode converted) waves transmitted from subsurface interfaces, but cannot calculate the other later reflections/conversions having a minimax time path. In order to overcome the above limitations, we introduce the concept of a stationary minimax time path of Fermat's Principle into the multistage irregular shortest path method. Here we extend it from Cartesian coordinates for a flat earth model to global ray tracing of multiple phases in a 3-D complex spherical earth model. The ray tracing results for 49 different kinds of crustal, mantle and core phases show that the maximum absolute traveltime error is less than 0.12 s and the average absolute traveltime error is within 0.09 s when compared with the AK135 theoretical traveltime tables for a 1-D reference model. Numerical tests in terms of computational accuracy and CPU time consumption indicate that the new scheme is an accurate, efficient and a practical way to perform 3-D multiphase arrival tracking in regional or global traveltime tomography.

  15. Object Tracking via 2DPCA and l2-Regularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijun Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a fast and robust object tracking algorithm by using 2DPCA and l2-regularization in a Bayesian inference framework. Firstly, we model the challenging appearance of the tracked object using 2DPCA bases, which exploit the strength of subspace representation. Secondly, we adopt the l2-regularization to solve the proposed presentation model and remove the trivial templates from the sparse tracking method which can provide a more fast tracking performance. Finally, we present a novel likelihood function that considers the reconstruction error, which is concluded from the orthogonal left-projection matrix and the orthogonal right-projection matrix. Experimental results on several challenging image sequences demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve more favorable performance against state-of-the-art tracking algorithms.

  16. Tracking the Iron Kα line and the Ultra Fast Outflow in NGC 2992 at different accretion states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinucci, A.; Bianchi, S.; Braito, V.; Matt, G.; Nardini, E.; Reeves, J.

    2018-06-01

    The Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 2992 has been monitored eight times by XMM-Newton in 2010 and then observed again in 2013, while in 2015 it was simultaneously targeted by Swift and NuSTAR. XMM-Newton always caught the source in a faint state (2-10 keV fluxes ranging from 0.3 to 1.6× 10-11 erg cm-2 s-1) but NuSTAR showed an increase in the 2-10 keV flux up to 6× 10-11 erg cm-2 s-1. We find possible evidence of an Ultra Fast Outflow with velocity v1 = 0.21 ± 0.01c (detected at about 99% confidence level) in such a flux state. The UFO in NGC 2992 is consistent with being ejected at a few tens of gravitational radii only at accretion rates greater than 2% of the Eddington luminosity. The analysis of the low flux 2010/2013 XMM data allowed us to determine that the Iron Kα emission line complex in this object is likely the sum of three distinct components: a constant, narrow one due to reflection from cold, distant material (likely the molecular torus); a narrow, but variable one which is more intense in brighter observations and a broad relativistic one emitted in the innermost regions of the accretion disk, which has been detected only in the 2003 XMM observation.

  17. A New Track Reconstruction Algorithm suitable for Parallel Processing based on Hit Triplets and Broken Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schöning André

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Track reconstruction in high track multiplicity environments at current and future high rate particle physics experiments is a big challenge and very time consuming. The search for track seeds and the fitting of track candidates are usually the most time consuming steps in the track reconstruction. Here, a new and fast track reconstruction method based on hit triplets is proposed which exploits a three-dimensional fit model including multiple scattering and hit uncertainties from the very start, including the search for track seeds. The hit triplet based reconstruction method assumes a homogeneous magnetic field which allows to give an analytical solutions for the triplet fit result. This method is highly parallelizable, needs fewer operations than other standard track reconstruction methods and is therefore ideal for the implementation on parallel computing architectures. The proposed track reconstruction algorithm has been studied in the context of the Mu3e-experiment and a typical LHC experiment.

  18. Study Protocol: Phase III single-blinded fast-track pragmatic randomised controlled trial of a complex intervention for breathlessness in advanced disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brafman-Kennedy Barbara

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breathlessness in advanced disease causes significant distress to patients and carers and presents management challenges to health care professionals. The Breathlessness Intervention Service (BIS seeks to improve the care of breathless patients with advanced disease (regardless of cause through the use of evidence-based practice and working with other healthcare providers. BIS delivers a complex intervention (of non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatments via a multi-professional team. BIS is being continuously developed and its impact evaluated using the MRC's framework for complex interventions (PreClinical, Phase I and Phase II completed. This paper presents the protocol for Phase III. Methods/Design Phase III comprises a pragmatic, fast-track, single-blind randomised controlled trial of BIS versus standard care. Due to differing disease trajectories, the service uses two broad service models: one for patients with malignant disease (intervention delivered over two weeks and one for patients with non-malignant disease (intervention delivered over four weeks. The Phase III trial therefore consists of two sub-protocols: one for patients with malignant conditions (four week protocol and one for patients with non-malignant conditions (eight week protocol. Mixed method interviews are conducted with patients and their lay carers at three to five measurement points depending on randomisation and sub-protocol. Qualitative interviews are conducted with referring and non-referring health care professionals (malignant disease protocol only. The primary outcome measure is 'patient distress due to breathlessness' measured on a numerical rating scale (0-10. The trial includes economic evaluation. Analysis will be on an intention to treat basis. Discussion This is the first evaluation of a breathlessness intervention for advanced disease to have followed the MRC framework and one of the first palliative care trials to use fast

  19. An Integral Model for Target Tracking Based on the Use of a WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Manzoni

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of wireless sensor networks (WSN in tracking applications is growing at a fast pace. In these applications, the sensor nodes discover, monitor and track an event or target object. A significant number of proposals relating the use of WSNs for target tracking have been published to date. However, they either focus on the tracking algorithm or on the communication protocol, and none of them address the problem integrally. In this paper, a comprehensive proposal for target detection and tracking is discussed. We introduce a tracking algorithm to detect and estimate a target location. Moreover, we introduce a low-overhead routing protocol to be used along with our tracking algorithm. The proposed algorithm has low computational complexity and has been designed considering the use of a mobile sink while generating minimal delay and packet loss. We also discuss the results of the evaluation of the proposed algorithms.

  20. Large Area Silicon Tracking Detectors with Fast Signal Readout for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Köstner, S

    2005-01-01

    The Standard Model of elementary particles, which is summarized briefly in the second chapter, incorporates a number of successful theories to explain the nature and consistency of matter. However not all building blocks of this model could yet be tested by experiment. To confirm existing theories and to improve nowadays understanding of matter a new machine is currently being built at CERN, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), described in the third chapter. LHC is a proton-proton collider which will reach unprecedented luminosities and center of mass energies. Five experiments are attached to it to give answers to questions like the existence of the Higgs meson, which allows to explain the mass content of matter, and the origin of CP-violation, which plays an important role in the baryogenesis of the universe. Supersymmetric theories, proposing a bosonic superpartner for each fermion and vice versa, will be tested. By colliding heavy ions, high energy and particle densities can be achieved and probed. This stat...

  1. A fast-track anaemia clinic in the Emergency Department: cost-analysis of intravenous iron administration for treating iron-deficiency anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana-Díaz, Manuel; Muñoz-Romo, Raúl; Gómez-Ramírez, Susana; Pavía, José; Borobia, Alberto M; García-Erce, José A; Muñoz, Manuel

    2017-09-01

    A fast-track anaemia clinic (FTAC) for the management of moderate-to-severe iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA) was established in our Emergency Department in 2010. In this FTAC, the replacement of packed red cell transfusion by ferric carboxymaltose administration was proven to be safe and effective. The aim of this study was a cost-analysis of IDA management in the FTAC, comparing this management with the previous standard care pathway consisting of packed red cell transfusion, if needed, and referral to outpatient specialised care. A cost study was performed for patients with IDA who were at risk of requiring transfusion (haemoglobin costs in the FTAC were compared to those theoretically incurred if these patients had been managed using the standard care pathway. In addition, a sensitivity analysis considering variations of up to ±30% in ferric carboxymaltose and packed red cell acquisition costs was performed (49 possible scenarios). Between 2012 and 2015, 238 IDA patients were treated in the FTAC. The average treatment cost was € 594±337/patient in the FTAC group and € 672±301/patient in the standard care pathway group, with a saving of € 78±28/patient (95% CI, 22-133; pcosts in the FTAC (€ 480-722/patient), compared with those of the standard care pathway (€ 550-794/patient), resulted in significant cost-savings for all studied scenarios (€ 51-104/patient; pcost-saving compared with the standard care pathway.

  2. A Fast-Track Referral System for Skin Lesions Suspicious of Melanoma: Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study from a Plastic Surgery Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem Dina Jarjis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. To minimize delay between presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of cutaneous melanoma (CM, a national fast-track referral system (FTRS was implemented in Denmark. The aim of this study was to analyze the referral patterns to our department of skin lesions suspicious of melanoma in the FTRS. Methods. Patients referred to the Department of Plastic Surgery and Breast Surgery in Zealand University Hospital were registered prospectively over a 1-year period in 2014. A cross-sectional study was performed analyzing referral patterns, including patient and tumor characteristics. Results. A total of 556 patients were registered as referred to the center in the FTRS for skin lesions suspicious of melanoma. Among these, a total of 312 patients (56.1% were diagnosed with CM. Additionally, 41 (7.4% of the referred patients were diagnosed with in situ melanoma. Conclusion. In total, 353 (63.5% patients had a malignant or premalignant melanocytic skin lesion. When only considering patients who where referred without a biopsy, the diagnostic accuracy for GPs and dermatologists was 29% and 45%, respectively. We suggest that efforts of adequate training for the referring physicians in diagnosing melanocytic skin lesions will increase diagnostic accuracy, leading to larger capacity in secondary care for the required treatment of malignant skin lesions.

  3. China's challenging fast track. Far more energy will have to be produced - and conserved - to power the expanding economy and protect the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Zhihong

    2004-01-01

    China's economy is on a fast track, with growth projected to quadruple in the first two decades of this century. A mix of clean and affordable energy sources will be needed to fuel and sustain development. Since China opened to outside markets in the 1980s, the national economy has expanded steadily, with an average annual growth rate of 9.6% in gross domestic product (GDP) from 1980 to 2000. Development has stayed strong in this century, and GDP grew 9.1% in 2003, the highest rate in the past six years. For the first time, per capita GDP topped $1000, reaching $1090 last year. How to best manage and sustain growth is driving energy decisions. Analyses show that China has entered a stage of manufacturing, chemical, and heavy industrial development that is energy intensive. At the same time, demands for energy at home and in businesses are growing among China's population of 1.3 billion people. As consumption grows, so do concerns about air, water, and land pollution in the context of sustainable energy development

  4. A stochastic frontier analysis of technical efficiency in smallholder maize production in Zimbabwe: The post-fast-track land reform outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Mango

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the technical efficiency of maize production in Zimbabwe’s smallholder farming communities following the fast-track land reform of the year 2000 with a view of highlighting key entry points for policy. Using a randomly selected sample of 522 smallholder maize producers, a stochastic frontier production model was applied, using a linearised Cobb–Douglas production function to determine the production elasticity coefficients of inputs, technical efficiency and the determinants of efficiency. The study finds that maize output responds positively to increases in inorganic fertilisers, seed quantity, the use of labour and the area planted. The technical efficiency analysis suggests that about 90% of farmers in the sample are between 60 and 75% efficient, with an average efficiency in the sample of 65%. The significant determinants of technical efficiency were the gender of the household head, household size, frequency of extension visits, farm size and the farming region. The results imply that the average efficiency of maize production could be improved by 35% through better use of existing resources and technology. The results highlight the need for government and private sector assistance in improving efficiency by promoting access to productive resources and ensuring better and more reliable agricultural extension services.

  5. Proposal for a fast, zero suppressing circuit for the digitization of analog pulses over long memory times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgeois, F.

    1984-01-01

    This report describes the design principles of a fast (100 MHz) time and pulse height digitizer that can record up to 15 analog pulses over 10-80 μs memory times. Unlike other triggered circuits prepulse samples are recorded without the help of an analog delay line. The low power requirements of the circuit as well as its fast read-out characteristics make it very attractive for detectors with many digitizing channels. Conventional circuits are described as a reference for the evaluation of this new design. An ECL 10 K implementation of the circuit is presented in the third section. (orig.)

  6. A proposed Drift Tubes-seeded muon track trigger for the CMS experiment at the High Luminosity-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2070813; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Vanini, Sara; Zotto, Pierluigi

    2016-01-01

    The LHC program at 13 and 14 TeV, after the observation of the candidate SM Higgs boson, will help clarify future subjects of study and shape the needed tools. Any upgrade of the LHC experiments for unprecedented luminosities, such as the High Luminosity-LHC ones, must then maintain the acceptance on electroweak processes that can lead to a detailed study of the properties of the candidate Higgs boson. The acceptance of the key lepton, photon and hadron triggers should be kept such that the overall physics acceptance, in particular for low-mass scale processes, can be the same as the one the experiments featured in 2012.In such a scenario, a new approach to early trigger implementation is needed. One of the major steps will be the inclusion of high-granularity tracking sub-detectors, such as the CMS Silicon Tracker, in taking the early trigger decision. This contribution can be crucial in several tasks, including the confirmation of triggers in other subsystems, and the improvement of the on-line momentum mea...

  7. Proposals for in-service inspection and monitoring of selected components located within or part of the primary containment of sodium cooled fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolt, P.R.

    1976-01-01

    Design and operational experience of CEGB gas cooled reactors and certain overseas reactor plant is reviewed in relation to in-service inspection and monitoring capabilities. Design guidelines and preliminary proposals are given for in-service inspection and monitoring of selected components located within or part of the primary containment of sodium cooled fast reactors. Specific comments are made on the items of further design and development work believed to be necessary

  8. On a proposal of superluminal communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, GianCarlo; Romano, Raffaele

    2012-01-01

    Recently, various new proposals of superluminal transmission of information have been suggested in the literature. Since the proposals make systematic use of recent formal and practical improvements in quantum mechanics, the old theorems proving the impossibility of such a performance must be adapted to the new scenario. In this communication, we consider some of the most challenging proposals of this kind and we show why they cannot work. (fast track communication)

  9. Relationship between self-reported pain sensitivity and pain after total knee arthroplasty: a prospective study of 71 patients 8 weeks after a standardized fast-track

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeberg BT

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Berit T Valeberg,1 Lise H Høvik,2 Kari H Gjeilo3–6 1Faculty of Nursing, Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Oslo, 2Clinic of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, 3Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, 4Department of Cardiology, 5National Competence Centre for Complex Symptom Disorders, St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, 6Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway Background and purpose: This was a prospective cohort study assessing data from 71 adult patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA following a standardized fast-track program between January and July 2013. The objective was to examine the relationship between self-rated pain sensitivity, as measured by the Pain Sensitivity Questionnaire (PSQ, and postoperative pain after TKA. Methods: The baseline questionnaires, PSQ and Brief Pain Inventory, were given to the patients for self-administration at the presurgical evaluation (1–2 weeks prior to surgery. The follow-up questionnaire, Brief Pain Inventory, was administered at the first follow-up, 8 weeks after surgery. Results: A statistically significant association was found between average preoperative pain and average pain 8 weeks after surgery (P=0.001. The PSQ-minor was statistically significantly associated with average pain only for patients younger than 70 years (P=0.03. Interpretation: This is the first study to examine the relationship between pain sensitivity measured by PSQ and postoperative pain in patients after TKA. We found that a lower score on the PSQ-minor was statistically significantly associated with patients’ pain 8 weeks after TKA surgery, but only for younger patients. Further research is needed to explore whether the PSQ could be a useful screening tool for patients’ pain sensitivity in clinical settings. Keywords

  10. Prehospital fast track care for patients with hip fracture: Impact on time to surgery, hospital stay, post-operative complications and mortality a randomised, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Glenn; Strömberg, Rn Ulf; Rogmark, Cecilia; Nilsdotter, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Ambulance organisations in Sweden have introduced prehospital fast track care (PFTC) for patients with suspected hip fracture. This means that the ambulance nurse starts the pre-operative procedure otherwise implemented at the accident & emergency ward (A&E) and transports the patient directly to the radiology department instead of A&E. If the diagnosis is confirmed, the patient is transported directly to the orthopaedic ward. No previous randomised, controlled studies have analysed PFTC to describe its possible advantages. The aim of this study is to examine whether PFTC has any impact on outcomes such as time to surgery, length of stay, post-operative complications and mortality. The design of this study is a prehospital randomised, controlled study, powered to include 400 patients. The patients were randomised into PFTC or the traditional care pathway (A&E group). Time from arrival to start for X-ray was faster for PFTC (mean, 28 vs. 145 min; pstart of X-ray to start of surgery (mean 18.40 h in both groups). No significant differences between the groups were observed with regard to: time from arrival to start of surgery (p=0.07); proportion operated within 24h (79% PFTC, 75% A&E; p=0.34); length of stay (p=0.34); post-operative complications (p=0.75); and 4 month mortality (18% PFTC, 15% A&E p=0.58). PFTC improved time to X-ray and admission to a ward, as expected, but did not significantly affect time to start of surgery, length of stay, post-operative complications or mortality. These outcomes were probably affected by other factors at the hospital. Patients with either possible life-threatening conditions or life-threatening conditions prehospital were excluded. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Forward tracking detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Forward tracking is an essential part of a detector at the international linear collider (ILC). The requirements for forward tracking are explained and the proposed solutions in the detector concepts are shown.

  12. A fast and robust kinematic model for a 12 DoF hyper-redundant robot positioning: An optimization proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, José; Pereira, Ana I.; Costa, Paulo; Pinto, Andry; Costa, Pedro

    2017-07-01

    This paper describes an optimization procedure for a robot with 12 degrees of freedom avoiding the inverse kinematics problem, which is a hard task for this type of robot manipulator. This robot can be used to pick and place tasks in complex designs. Combining an accurate and fast direct kinematics model with optimization strategies, it is possible to achieve the joints angles for a desired end-effector position and orientation. The optimization methods stretched simulated annealing algorithm and genetic algorithm were used. The solutions found were validated using data originated by a real and by a simulated robot formed by 12 servomotors with a gripper.

  13. SU-F-J-142: Proposed Method to Broaden Inclusion Potential of Patients Able to Use the Calypso Tracking System in Prostate Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedler, D; Kuo, H; Bodner, W; Tome, W [Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To introduce a non-standard method of patient setup, using BellyBoard immobilization, to better utilize the localization and tracking potential of an RF-beacon system with EBRT for prostate cancer. Methods: An RF-beacon phantom was imaged using a wide bore CT scanner, both in a standard level position and with a known rotation (4° pitch and 7.5° yaw). A commercial treatment planning system (TPS) was used to determine positional coordinates of each beacon, and the centroid of the three beacons for both setups. For each setup at the Linac, kV AP and Rt Lateral images were obtained. A full characterization of the RF-beacon system in clinical mode was completed for various beacons’ array-to-centroid distances, which includes vertical, lateral, and longitudinal offset data, as well as pitch and yaw offset measurements for the tilted phantom. For the single patient who has been setup using the proposed BellyBoard method, a supine simulation was first obtained. When abdominal protrusion was found to be exceeding the limits of the RF-Beacon system through distance-based analysis in the TPS, the patient is re-simulated prone with the BellyBoard. Array to centroid distance is measured again in the TPS, and if found to be within the localization or tracking region it is applied. Results: Characterization of limitations for the RF-beacon system in clinical mode showed acceptable consistency of offset determination for phantom setup accuracy. The nonstandard patient setup method reduced the beacons’ centroid-to-array distance by 8.32cm, from 25.13cm to 16.81cm; completely out of tracking range (greater than 20cm) to within setup tracking range (less than 20cm). Conclusion: Using the RF-beacon system in combination with this novel patient setup can allow patients who would otherwise not be candidates for beacon enhanced EBRT to now be able to benefit from the reduced PTV margins of this treatment method.

  14. SU-F-J-142: Proposed Method to Broaden Inclusion Potential of Patients Able to Use the Calypso Tracking System in Prostate Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiedler, D; Kuo, H; Bodner, W; Tome, W

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To introduce a non-standard method of patient setup, using BellyBoard immobilization, to better utilize the localization and tracking potential of an RF-beacon system with EBRT for prostate cancer. Methods: An RF-beacon phantom was imaged using a wide bore CT scanner, both in a standard level position and with a known rotation (4° pitch and 7.5° yaw). A commercial treatment planning system (TPS) was used to determine positional coordinates of each beacon, and the centroid of the three beacons for both setups. For each setup at the Linac, kV AP and Rt Lateral images were obtained. A full characterization of the RF-beacon system in clinical mode was completed for various beacons’ array-to-centroid distances, which includes vertical, lateral, and longitudinal offset data, as well as pitch and yaw offset measurements for the tilted phantom. For the single patient who has been setup using the proposed BellyBoard method, a supine simulation was first obtained. When abdominal protrusion was found to be exceeding the limits of the RF-Beacon system through distance-based analysis in the TPS, the patient is re-simulated prone with the BellyBoard. Array to centroid distance is measured again in the TPS, and if found to be within the localization or tracking region it is applied. Results: Characterization of limitations for the RF-beacon system in clinical mode showed acceptable consistency of offset determination for phantom setup accuracy. The nonstandard patient setup method reduced the beacons’ centroid-to-array distance by 8.32cm, from 25.13cm to 16.81cm; completely out of tracking range (greater than 20cm) to within setup tracking range (less than 20cm). Conclusion: Using the RF-beacon system in combination with this novel patient setup can allow patients who would otherwise not be candidates for beacon enhanced EBRT to now be able to benefit from the reduced PTV margins of this treatment method.

  15. The Fusion Advanced Studies Torus (FAST): a Proposal for an ITER Satellite Facility in Support of the Development of Fusion Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizzuto, A.

    2008-01-01

    FAST is the conceptual design for a new machine proposed to support ITER experimental exploitation as well as to anticipate DEMO relevant physics and technology. FAST is aimed at integrated investigations of fast particle physics, plasma operations and plasma wall interaction in burning plasma relevant conditions. In Deuterium plasma operations, FAST has the capability to simultaneously approach relevant dimensionless physical parameters in all the ITER scenarios. The necessity of achieving ITER relevant power densities and performance with moderate cost has led to a compact Tokamak design (R=1.82 m , a= 0.64 m), with a high toroidal field (BT up to 8.5 T) and plasma current (Ip up to 8 MA). In order to study fast particle behaviours with dimensionless parameters similar to ITER, the project is based on a dominant Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating system (ICRH; 30 MW coupled to the plasma). Moreover, the experiment foresees 6 MW of Lower Hybrid (LH), essentially for plasma control and for non-inductive current drive, and of Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH; 4MW) for localized electron heating and plasma control. Ports have been designed to also accommodate up to 10 MW of negative neutral beam injection (NNBI) in the energy range of 0.5-1 MeV. The total power input is in the 30-40 MW range in the different plasma scenarios, with a wall power load comparable with that of ITER (P/R∼22 MW/m). All ITER scenarios can be studied: starting from the reference H-mode, with plasma edge and ELMs characteristics similar to those of ITER (Q up to ∼ 2.5), and arriving to full non-inductive current drive scenarios lasting ∼ 160 s, Under these conditions, first wall as well as divertor plates will be made of tungsten. The divertor itself is designed to be completely removable by remote handling. This will allow studying, in view of DEMO, the behaviour of innovative divertor concepts, such as those foreseeing the use of liquid lithium. FAST is capable to operate with

  16. Development, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a new out-patient Breathlessness Support Service: study protocol of a phase III fast-track randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bausewein Claudia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breathlessness is a common and distressing symptom affecting many patients with advanced disease both from malignant and non-malignant origin. A combination of pharmacological and non-pharmacological measures is necessary to treat this symptom successfully. Breathlessness services in various compositions aim to provide comprehensive care for patients and their carers by a multiprofessional team but their effectiveness and cost-effectiveness have not yet been proven. The Breathlessness Support Service (BSS is a newly created multiprofessional and interdisciplinary outpatient service at a large university hospital in South East London. The aim of this study is to develop and evaluate the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of this multidisciplinary out–patient BSS for the palliation of breathlessness, in advanced malignant and non-malignant disease. Methods The BSS was modelled based on the results of qualitative and quantitative studies, and systematic literature reviews. A randomised controlled fast track trial (RCT comprising two groups: 1 intervention (immediate access to BSS in addition to standard care; 2 control group (standard best practice and access to BSS after a waiting time of six weeks. Patients are included if suffering from breathlessness on exertion or at rest due to advanced disease such as cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, chronic heart failure (CHF, interstitial lung disease (ILD or motor neurone disease (MND that is refractory to maximal optimised medical management. Both quantitative and qualitative outcomes are assessed in face to-face interviews at baseline, after 6 and 12 weeks. The primary outcome is patients' improvement of mastery of breathlessness after six weeks assessed on the Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire (CRQ. Secondary outcomes for patients include breathlessness severity, symptom burden, palliative care needs, service use, and respiratory measures (spirometry

  17. Proposed method of the modeling and simulation of corrosion product behavior in the primary cooling system of fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matuo, Youichirou; Miyahara, Shinya; Izumi, Yoshinobu

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive corrosion products (CP) are main cause of personal radiation exposure during maintenance without fuel failure in FBR plants. In order to establish the techniques of radiation dose estimation for worker in radiation-controlled area, Program SYstem for Corrosion Hazard Evaluation code 'PSYCHE' has been developed. The PSYCHE is based on the Solution-Precipitation model. The CP transfer calculation using the Solution-Precipitation model needs a fitting factor for the calculation of the precipitation of CP. This fitting factor must be determined based on the measured values in reactors that have operating experience. For this reason, the inability to make accurate predictions for reactor without measured values is a major issue. In this study, in addition to existing Solution-Precipitation model in PSYCHE, a transfer-model of CP species in particle form was applied to calculations of CP behavior in the primary cooling system of fast breeder reactor MONJU. Based on the calculated results, we estimated the contribution of CP deposition in the particle-form. It was suggested that the improved model including transfer-model of CP species in particle-form could be used for evaluation of CP transfer and radiation-source distribution in place of conventional Solution-Precipitation model with fitting factor in the PSYCHE. Moreover, it was predicted that CP particles would tend to be deposited in region with high-flow rate of coolant. (author)

  18. Visual object tracking by correlation filters and online learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Xia, Gui-Song; Lu, Qikai; Shen, Weiming; Zhang, Liangpei

    2018-06-01

    Due to the complexity of background scenarios and the variation of target appearance, it is difficult to achieve high accuracy and fast speed for object tracking. Currently, correlation filters based trackers (CFTs) show promising performance in object tracking. The CFTs estimate the target's position by correlation filters with different kinds of features. However, most of CFTs can hardly re-detect the target in the case of long-term tracking drifts. In this paper, a feature integration object tracker named correlation filters and online learning (CFOL) is proposed. CFOL estimates the target's position and its corresponding correlation score using the same discriminative correlation filter with multi-features. To reduce tracking drifts, a new sampling and updating strategy for online learning is proposed. Experiments conducted on 51 image sequences demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is superior to the state-of-the-art approaches.

  19. Super-resolution imaging applied to moving object tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swalaganata, Galandaru; Ratna Sulistyaningrum, Dwi; Setiyono, Budi

    2017-10-01

    Moving object tracking in a video is a method used to detect and analyze changes that occur in an object that being observed. Visual quality and the precision of the tracked target are highly wished in modern tracking system. The fact that the tracked object does not always seem clear causes the tracking result less precise. The reasons are low quality video, system noise, small object, and other factors. In order to improve the precision of the tracked object especially for small object, we propose a two step solution that integrates a super-resolution technique into tracking approach. First step is super-resolution imaging applied into frame sequences. This step was done by cropping the frame in several frame or all of frame. Second step is tracking the result of super-resolution images. Super-resolution image is a technique to obtain high-resolution images from low-resolution images. In this research single frame super-resolution technique is proposed for tracking approach. Single frame super-resolution was a kind of super-resolution that it has the advantage of fast computation time. The method used for tracking is Camshift. The advantages of Camshift was simple calculation based on HSV color that use its histogram for some condition and color of the object varies. The computational complexity and large memory requirements required for the implementation of super-resolution and tracking were reduced and the precision of the tracked target was good. Experiment showed that integrate a super-resolution imaging into tracking technique can track the object precisely with various background, shape changes of the object, and in a good light conditions.

  20. Environmental impact assessment relating to the proposed siting of the European Demonstration Fast Reactor Fuel Reprocessing Plant (EDRP) at Dounreay, Caithness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    This Report assesses the likely environmental impact of the European Demonstration Fast Reactor Fuel Reprocessing Plant (EDRP) which the United Kingdom Atomic Authority (UKAEA) and British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) are proposing to build at the Dounreay Nuclear Power Development Establishment (DNE), Caithness and for which they have sought outline planning permission. The format of the report has been designed to meet the guidelines set out in the European Economic Community's Directive (85/337/EEC) concerning the assessment of the environmental effects of certain public and private projects. The Report is presented in four parts: Part A gives information on the present environment at DNE and explains in detail the environmental monitoring which has been carried out there since 1956. Part B describes the proposed development. Part C assesses the likely effects of the proposed development on the environment. Part D lists all the references quoted in this Report together with a bibliography of other sources of information relevant to the proposed development.

  1. Ultra-fast silicon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadrozinski, H. F.-W., E-mail: hartmut@scipp.ucsc.edu [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, UC Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Ely, S.; Fadeyev, V.; Galloway, Z.; Ngo, J.; Parker, C.; Petersen, B.; Seiden, A.; Zatserklyaniy, A. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, UC Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Cartiglia, N.; Marchetto, F. [INFN Torino, Torino (Italy); Bruzzi, M.; Mori, R.; Scaringella, M.; Vinattieri, A. [University of Florence, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy)

    2013-12-01

    We propose to develop a fast, thin silicon sensor with gain capable to concurrently measure with high precision the space (∼10 μm) and time (∼10 ps) coordinates of a particle. This will open up new application of silicon detector systems in many fields. Our analysis of detector properties indicates that it is possible to improve the timing characteristics of silicon-based tracking sensors, which already have sufficient position resolution, to achieve four-dimensional high-precision measurements. The basic sensor characteristics and the expected performance are listed, the wide field of applications are mentioned and the required R and D topics are discussed. -- Highlights: •We are proposing thin pixel silicon sensors with 10's of picoseconds time resolution. •Fast charge collection is coupled with internal charge multiplication. •The truly 4-D sensors will revolutionize imaging and particle counting in many applications.

  2. From the "little brain" gastrointestinal infection to the "big brain" neuroinflammation: a proposed fast axonal transport pathway involved in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deretzi, Georgia; Kountouras, Jannis; Grigoriadis, Nikolaos; Zavos, Christos; Chatzigeorgiou, Stavros; Koutlas, Evangelos; Tsiptsios, Iakovos

    2009-11-01

    The human central nervous system (CNS) is targeted by different pathogens which, apart from pathogens' intranasal inoculation or trafficking into the brain through infected blood cells, may use a distinct pathway to bypass the blood-brain barrier by using the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) retrograde axonal transport through sensory or motor fibres. The recent findings regarding the enteric nervous system (often called the "little brain") similarities with CNS and GIT axonal transport of infections resulting in CNS neuroinflammation are mainly reviewed in this article. We herein propose that the GIT is the vulnerable area through which pathogens (such as Helicobacter pylori) may influence the brain and induce multiple sclerosis pathologies, mainly via the fast axonal transport by the afferent neurones connecting the GIT to brain.

  3. 头部多角度人脸快速跟踪算法DSP实现%Fast face tracking algorithm of head multi-position based on DSP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜俊金; 王增才; 朱淑亮

    2012-01-01

    针对传统驾驶员疲劳检测人脸跟踪算法复杂,DSP实现时实时性不强,不能有效地实现多角度人脸跟踪的问题,提出了一种快速人脸跟踪算法.该算法通过对YCbCr肤色模型进行图像预处理、肤色检测,提取人脸区域,通过对亮度信号Y进行统计运算,判断人脸边界,再进行相似度判断,从而实现人脸区域的跟踪.实验结果表明,该方法简单、鲁棒性强,能够快速地实现彩色图像人脸多角度跟踪.%In the field of real-time human face tracking for driver fatigue detection, the classic algorithms are so complex that the DSP system can not track the face in multi-angle state quickly and exactly, so a new face tracking algorithm is presented. In YCbCr human face color model, the image is preprocessed first, then the face region is extracted through the face color detec-tion. Through calculating the brightness signal Y, the face edge can be detected. Then a symmetry similarity measure is used to check the factuality of the face tracking. In this way, the face region can be tracked Experimental results indicate that this algo-rithm is so simple and can realize the tracking of face in multi-angle of color image.

  4. Automated Real-Time Needle-Guide Tracking for Fast 3-T MR-guided Transrectal Prostate Biopsy: A Feasibility Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zamecnik, P.; Schouten, M.G.; Krafft, A.J.; Maier, F.; Schlemmer, H.-P.; Barentsz, J.O.; Bock, M. de; Futterer, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess the feasibility of automatic needle-guide tracking by using a real-time phase-only cross correlation (POCC) algorithm-based sequence for transrectal 3-T in-bore magnetic resonance (MR)-guided prostate biopsies. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the ethics review

  5. Hard Ware Implementation of Diamond Search Algorithm for Motion Estimation and Object Tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimaa, S.M.; Mahmoud, I.I.; Elazm, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    Object tracking is very important task in computer vision. Fast search algorithms emerged as important search technique to achieve real time tracking results. To enhance the performance of these algorithms, we advocate the hardware implementation of such algorithms. Diamond search block matching motion estimation has been proposed recently to reduce the complexity of motion estimation. In this paper we selected the diamond search algorithm (DS) for implementation using FPGA. This is due to its fundamental role in all fast search patterns. The proposed architecture is simulated and synthesized using Xilinix and modelsim soft wares. The results agree with the algorithm implementation in Matlab environment.

  6. A critical evaluation of fasted state simulating gastric fluid (FaSSGF) that contains sodium lauryl sulfate and proposal of a modified recipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aburub, Aktham; Risley, Donald S; Mishra, Dinesh

    2008-01-22

    The aim of this work is to evaluate one of the most commonly used fasted state simulating gastric fluids (FaSSGFs), which contains sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) (FaSSGF(SLS)), and propose a more appropriate surfactant concentration. Surface tension studies clearly show that the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of SLS in the relevant media (a media whose pH and sodium chloride concentration are representative of physiological conditions) is significantly lower (p<0.05) than 8.67 mM, which is the SLS concentration in FaSSGF(SLS). The CMC of SLS in the relevant media was determined to be 1.75 mM. Based on this a modified recipe is proposed in which the concentration of SLS is sufficient to achieve a surface tension similar to that in vivo without causing artificial micellar solubilization. Solubility, intrinsic dissolution, and GastroPlus modeling studies are presented to support and give rationale for the modified recipe. In addition, a comparison between the modified recipe and other FaSSGFs reported in the literature is made.

  7. Dual linear structured support vector machine tracking method via scale correlation filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weisheng; Chen, Yanquan; Xiao, Bin; Feng, Chen

    2018-01-01

    Adaptive tracking-by-detection methods based on structured support vector machine (SVM) performed well on recent visual tracking benchmarks. However, these methods did not adopt an effective strategy of object scale estimation, which limits the overall tracking performance. We present a tracking method based on a dual linear structured support vector machine (DLSSVM) with a discriminative scale correlation filter. The collaborative tracker comprised of a DLSSVM model and a scale correlation filter obtains good results in tracking target position and scale estimation. The fast Fourier transform is applied for detection. Extensive experiments show that our tracking approach outperforms many popular top-ranking trackers. On a benchmark including 100 challenging video sequences, the average precision of the proposed method is 82.8%.

  8. L1 track triggering with associative memory for the CMS HL-LHC tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabes, D.

    2014-01-01

    One of the proposed solutions currently under study in Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) collaboration [1] to reconstruct tracks at the first level trigger (L1) for the High Luminosity - Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) is based on the usage of Associative Memory [2] (AM) chips. The tracker information is first reduced to suppress low p T tracks and sent to boards equipped with AM chips. Each AM compares the tracker information with pre-calculated expectations (pattern matching) in a very short time (order of a μs), therefore providing a solution to the challenging computational problem of pattern recognition in a very busy environment. Associated to fast track fit methods, like the Hough transform, the AM approach should be able to fulfil the very demanding requirements of L1 tracking. The proposed architecture for the AM-based L1 track reconstruction system will be presented, together with the latest results obtained using a complete software emulation of this system

  9. Loss Performance Analysis of an Isolated Power Supply for Ultrafast Tracking Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen-Duy, Khiem; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the loss performance analysis of an isolated power supply that is designed for ultra-fast tracking converters. The results of the analysis provide insights into the operation of the proposed power supply, how each physical component contributes to the total loss, and how its...

  10. Proposal of balloon and satellite observations of MeV gammas using Electron Tracking Compton Camera for reaching a high sensitivity of 1 mCrab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Atsushi; Tanimori, Toru

    2016-04-01

    ETCC with a gas Time Projection Chamber (TPC) and pixel GSO scintillators, by measuring electron tracks precisely, provides both a strong background rejection by dE/dx of the track and well-defined 2-dimensional Point Spread Function (PDF) with better than several degrees by adding the arc direction of incident gammas (SPD: Scatter Plane Deviation) with the ARM (angular Resolution Measure) direction measured in standard Compton Camera (CC). In 2006 its background rejection was revealed by SMILE-I balloon experiment with 10cm-cubic ETCC using the dE/dx of tracks. In 2013, 30cm-cube-ETCC has been developed to catch gammas from Crab in next SMILE-II balloon with >5sigma detection for 4 hrs. Now its sensitivity has been improved to 10sigma by attaining the angular resolution of the track (SPD angle) to that determined by multiple scattering of the gas. Thus, we show the ability of ETCC to give a better significance by a factor of 10 than that of standard CCs having same detection area by electron tracking?and we have found that SPD is an essential to define the PSF of Compton imaging quantitatively. Such a well-defined PSF is, for the first time, able to provide reliable sensitivity in Compton imaging without assuming the use of optimization algorithm. These studies uncover the uncertainties of CCs from both points of view of the intense background and the difficulty of the definition of the PSF, and overcome the above problems. Based on this technology, SMILE-II with 3atm CF4 gas is expected to provide a 5times better sensitivity than COMPTEL in one month balloon, and 4modules of 50cm-cube ETCCs would exceed over 10^-12 erg/cm^2s^1 (1mCrab) in satellite. Here we summarize the performance of the ETCC and new astrophysics opened in near future by high sensitive observation of MeV gamma-rays.

  11. Retrospective Evaluation of Two Fast-track Strategies to Rule Out Acute Coronary Syndrome in a Real-life Chest Pain Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schønemann-Lund, Martin; Schoos, Mikkel Malby; Iversen, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guideline on non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (N-STE ACS) proposed a new ACS rule-out protocol. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate this new tool, which uses diagnostic levels of high-sensitivity troponin T (hs-TnT; > 14 ng/L) in a slightly modifie...

  12. WE-A-17A-10: Fast, Automatic and Accurate Catheter Reconstruction in HDR Brachytherapy Using An Electromagnetic 3D Tracking System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulin, E; Racine, E; Beaulieu, L [CHU de Quebec - Universite Laval, Quebec, Quebec (Canada); Binnekamp, D [Integrated Clinical Solutions and Marketing, Philips Healthcare, Best, DA (Netherlands)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: In high dose rate brachytherapy (HDR-B), actual catheter reconstruction protocols are slow and errors prompt. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and robustness of an electromagnetic (EM) tracking system for improved catheter reconstruction in HDR-B protocols. Methods: For this proof-of-principle, a total of 10 catheters were inserted in gelatin phantoms with different trajectories. Catheters were reconstructed using a Philips-design 18G biopsy needle (used as an EM stylet) and the second generation Aurora Planar Field Generator from Northern Digital Inc. The Aurora EM system exploits alternating current technology and generates 3D points at 40 Hz. Phantoms were also scanned using a μCT (GE Healthcare) and Philips Big Bore clinical CT system with a resolution of 0.089 mm and 2 mm, respectively. Reconstructions using the EM stylet were compared to μCT and CT. To assess the robustness of the EM reconstruction, 5 catheters were reconstructed twice and compared. Results: Reconstruction time for one catheter was 10 seconds or less. This would imply that for a typical clinical implant of 17 catheters, the total reconstruction time would be less than 3 minutes. When compared to the μCT, the mean EM tip identification error was 0.69 ± 0.29 mm while the CT error was 1.08 ± 0.67 mm. The mean 3D distance error was found to be 0.92 ± 0.37 mm and 1.74 ± 1.39 mm for the EM and CT, respectively. EM 3D catheter trajectories were found to be significantly more accurate (unpaired t-test, p < 0.05). A mean difference of less than 0.5 mm was found between successive EM reconstructions. Conclusion: The EM reconstruction was found to be faster, more accurate and more robust than the conventional methods used for catheter reconstruction in HDR-B. This approach can be applied to any type of catheters and applicators. We would like to disclose that the equipments, used in this study, is coming from a collaboration with Philips Medical.

  13. WE-A-17A-10: Fast, Automatic and Accurate Catheter Reconstruction in HDR Brachytherapy Using An Electromagnetic 3D Tracking System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulin, E; Racine, E; Beaulieu, L; Binnekamp, D

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In high dose rate brachytherapy (HDR-B), actual catheter reconstruction protocols are slow and errors prompt. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and robustness of an electromagnetic (EM) tracking system for improved catheter reconstruction in HDR-B protocols. Methods: For this proof-of-principle, a total of 10 catheters were inserted in gelatin phantoms with different trajectories. Catheters were reconstructed using a Philips-design 18G biopsy needle (used as an EM stylet) and the second generation Aurora Planar Field Generator from Northern Digital Inc. The Aurora EM system exploits alternating current technology and generates 3D points at 40 Hz. Phantoms were also scanned using a μCT (GE Healthcare) and Philips Big Bore clinical CT system with a resolution of 0.089 mm and 2 mm, respectively. Reconstructions using the EM stylet were compared to μCT and CT. To assess the robustness of the EM reconstruction, 5 catheters were reconstructed twice and compared. Results: Reconstruction time for one catheter was 10 seconds or less. This would imply that for a typical clinical implant of 17 catheters, the total reconstruction time would be less than 3 minutes. When compared to the μCT, the mean EM tip identification error was 0.69 ± 0.29 mm while the CT error was 1.08 ± 0.67 mm. The mean 3D distance error was found to be 0.92 ± 0.37 mm and 1.74 ± 1.39 mm for the EM and CT, respectively. EM 3D catheter trajectories were found to be significantly more accurate (unpaired t-test, p < 0.05). A mean difference of less than 0.5 mm was found between successive EM reconstructions. Conclusion: The EM reconstruction was found to be faster, more accurate and more robust than the conventional methods used for catheter reconstruction in HDR-B. This approach can be applied to any type of catheters and applicators. We would like to disclose that the equipments, used in this study, is coming from a collaboration with Philips Medical

  14. Tracking by Machine Learning Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Jofrehei, Arash

    2015-01-01

    Current track reconstructing methods start with two points and then for each layer loop through all possible hits to find proper hits to add to that track. Another idea would be to use this large number of already reconstructed events and/or simulated data and train a machine on this data to find tracks given hit pixels. Training time could be long but real time tracking is really fast Simulation might not be as realistic as real data but tacking has been done for that with 100 percent efficiency while by using real data we would probably be limited to current efficiency.

  15. Fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasile, A.

    2001-01-01

    Fast reactors have capacities to spare uranium natural resources by their breeding property and to propose solutions to the management of radioactive wastes by limiting the inventory of heavy nuclei. This article highlights the role that fast reactors could play for reducing the radiotoxicity of wastes. The conversion of 238 U into 239 Pu by neutron capture is more efficient in fast reactors than in light water reactors. In fast reactors multi-recycling of U + Pu leads to fissioning up to 95% of the initial fuel ( 238 U + 235 U). 2 strategies have been studied to burn actinides: - the multi-recycling of heavy nuclei is made inside the fuel element (homogeneous option); - the unique recycling is made in special irradiation targets placed inside the core or at its surroundings (heterogeneous option). Simulations have shown that, for the same amount of energy produced (400 TWhe), the mass of transuranium elements (Pu + Np + Am + Cm) sent to waste disposal is 60,9 Kg in the homogeneous option and 204.4 Kg in the heterogeneous option. Experimental programs are carried out in Phenix and BOR60 reactors in order to study the feasibility of such strategies. (A.C.)

  16. Gravitational-wave bursts from the nuclei of distant galaxies and quasars: proposal for detection using Doppler tracking of interplanetary spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, K.S.; Braginsky, V.B.

    1976-01-01

    It is likely that supermassive black holes (Mapprox. =10 6 to 10 10 M/sub sun/) exist in the nuclei of many quasars and galaxies. The collapse which forms these holes and subsequent collisions between them should produce strong, broad-band bursts of gravitational waves: for a source of mass M at the Hubble distance of approx.10 10 light-years, the dimensionless amplitude would be h approx. 2 x 10 -17 x (M/10 6 M/sub sun/), and the duration of the burst would be tauapprox. (90 s) x (M/10 6 M/sub sun/). Such bursts might arrive at Earth as often as 50 times per year: or as rarely as once each 300 years. The detection of such bursts may be possible within the next few years using dual-frequency Doppler tracking of interplanetary spacecraft

  17. A study of television imaging system for fast neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Koji

    1992-01-01

    The neutron radiography with fast neutron beam is a very useful imaging technique for thicker objects, especially those composed of hydrogen-rich materials which are sometimes difficult to image by thermal neutron radiography. The fast neutron radiography has not been studied so much as the thermal neutron radiography. The fast neutron radiography has been studied at the fast neutron source reactor 'Yayoi' of the University of Tokyo built in Tokai-mura. The average neutron energy of the Yayoi is about 1 MeV, and the peak neutron flux at the core center is 0.8 x 10 12 at the maximum operating power of 2 kW. In the experiment on fast neutron radiography, a CR39 nuclear track detector has been used successfully. But in the Yayoi radiography procedure, about 24 hours were required for obtaining an imaging result. To get a prompt imaging result and a real-time imaging result, it is necessary to develop a fast neutron television system, and in this paper, a new fast neutron TV system is proposed. The main difference is the converter material sensitive to fast neutrons. The study on the fast neutron TV system was carried out by using the Baby Cyclotron of Japan Steel Works, and the good images were realized. (K.I.)

  18. Tracking Politics with POWER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Silvio; Batista, David S.; Carvalho, Paula; Couto, Francisco M.; Silva, Mario J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: POWER is an ontology of political processes and entities. It is designed for tracking politicians, political organizations and elections, both in mainstream and social media. The aim of this paper is to propose a data model to describe political agents and their relations over time. Design/methodology/approach: The authors propose a data…

  19. Persistent Aerial Tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Mueller, Matthias

    2016-04-13

    In this thesis, we propose a new aerial video dataset and benchmark for low altitude UAV target tracking, as well as, a photo-realistic UAV simulator that can be coupled with tracking methods. Our benchmark provides the rst evaluation of many state of-the-art and popular trackers on 123 new and fully annotated HD video sequences captured from a low-altitude aerial perspective. Among the compared trackers, we determine which ones are the most suitable for UAV tracking both in terms of tracking accuracy and run-time. We also present a simulator that can be used to evaluate tracking algorithms in real-time scenarios before they are deployed on a UAV "in the field", as well as, generate synthetic but photo-realistic tracking datasets with free ground truth annotations to easily extend existing real-world datasets. Both the benchmark and simulator will be made publicly available to the vision community to further research in the area of object tracking from UAVs. Additionally, we propose a persistent, robust and autonomous object tracking system for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) called Persistent Aerial Tracking (PAT). A computer vision and control strategy is applied to a diverse set of moving objects (e.g. humans, animals, cars, boats, etc.) integrating multiple UAVs with a stabilized RGB camera. A novel strategy is employed to successfully track objects over a long period, by \\'handing over the camera\\' from one UAV to another. We integrate the complete system into an off-the-shelf UAV, and obtain promising results showing the robustness of our solution in real-world aerial scenarios.

  20. Robustness-tracking control based on sliding mode and H∞ theory for linear servo system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yan-feng; GUO Qing-ding

    2005-01-01

    A robustness-tracking control scheme based on combining H∞ robust control and sliding mode control is proposed for a direct drive AC permanent-magnet linear motor servo system to solve the conflict between tracking and robustness of the linear servo system. The sliding mode tracking controller is designed to ensure the system has a fast tracking characteristic to the command, and the H∞ robustness controller suppresses the disturbances well within the close loop( including the load and the end effect force of linear motor etc. ) and effectively minimizes the chattering of sliding mode control which influences the steady state performance of the system. Simulation results show that this control scheme enhances the track-command-ability and the robustness of the linear servo system, and in addition, it has a strong robustness to parameter variations and resistance disturbances.

  1. Comparative Evaluation of Pain, Stress, Neuropeptide Y, ACTH, and Cortisol Levels Between a Conventional Postoperative Care Protocol and a Fast-Track Recovery Program in Patients Undergoing Major Abdominal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapritsou, Maria; Papathanassoglou, Elizabeth D; Bozas, Evangelos; Korkolis, Dimitrios P; Konstantinou, Evangelos A; Kaklamanos, Ioannis; Giannakopoulou, Margarita

    2017-03-01

    Fast-track (FT) postoperative protocol in oncological patients after major abdominal surgery reduces complications and length of postoperative stay compared to the conventional (CON) protocol. However, stress and pain responses have not been compared between the two protocols. To compare stress, pain, and related neuropeptidic responses (adrenocorticotropic hormone [ACTH], cortisol, and neuropeptide Y [NPY]) between FT and CON protocols. A clinical trial with repeated measurements was conducted (May 2012 to May 2014) with a sample of 63 hepatectomized or pancreatectomized patients randomized into two groups: FT ( n = 29) or CON ( n = 34). Demographic and clinical data were collected, and pain (Visual Analog Scale [VAS] and Behavioral Pain Scale [BPS]) and stress responses (3 self-report questions) assessed. NPY, ACTH, and cortisol plasma levels were measured at T1 = day of admission, T2 = day of surgery, and T3 = prior to discharge. ACTH T1 and ACTH T2 levels were positively correlated with self-reported stress levels (ρ = .43 and ρ = .45, respectively, p .05). Neuropeptidic levels were higher in the FT group. Future research should evaluate this association further, as these biomarkers might serve as objective indicators of postoperative pain and stress.

  2. Proposal for the development of 3D Vertically Integrated Pattern Recognition Associative Memory (VIPRAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deptuch, Gregory; Hoff, Jim; Kwan, Simon; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Ted; Ramberg, Erik; Todri, Aida; Yarema, Ray; /Fermilab; Demarteua, Marcel,; Drake, Gary; Weerts, Harry; /Argonne /Chicago U. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua

    2010-10-01

    Future particle physics experiments looking for rare processes will have no choice but to address the demanding challenges of fast pattern recognition in triggering as detector hit density becomes significantly higher due to the high luminosity required to produce the rare process. The authors propose to develop a 3D Vertically Integrated Pattern Recognition Associative Memory (VIPRAM) chip for HEP applications, to advance the state-of-the-art for pattern recognition and track reconstruction for fast triggering.

  3. Fast-track services for all? The preferences of Chinese-, Korean-, and Thai-speaking women attending a sexual health service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lynne; Knight, Vickie; Read, Phillip J; McNulty, Anna

    2013-12-01

    Sydney Sexual Health Centre (SSHC) Xpress clinic has significantly reduced the length of stay and waiting time for clients at SSHC but is currently only available to clients who can read and understand a high level of English. This reduces access for culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) clients. This study sought to determine the acceptability of 4 proposed components of an express clinic model among CALD clients: computer-assisted self-interview (CASI), self-collection of swabs/urine specimens, not having a physical examination, and consultation with a health promotion officer rather than with a clinician. Differences in acceptability based on language group, new or return client status, sex worker status, clinic visited status, and age were analyzed. A cross-sectional, anonymous questionnaire was offered to all female Chinese, Thai, and Korean clients attending SSHC between March and November 2012. Multivariate regression and Pearson χ statistical analyses were conducted using STATA 12 software. A total of 366 questionnaires were returned from 149 Thai, 145 Chinese, and 72 Korean participants. After multivariate analysis, the only predictor of willingness to use an express model of service provision was language group: overall, 67% Thai (odds ratio, 3.74: confidence interval [CI], 2.03-6.89; P Korean (odds ratio, 3.58; CI, 1.77-7.25, P Korean (8.5%) (P Korean (40.9%) were happier with self-swabbing than Chinese women (23.9%, P Korean (11.1%; P < 0.001). This research shows that the components of an express model used at SSHC are not favorable to our CALD client base. Despite a CALD express clinic having the potential to reduce waiting times, most clients did not favor reduced waiting time over being physically examined or using a CASI.

  4. Joint polarization tracking and channel equalization based on radius-directed linear Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qun; Yang, Yanfu; Zhong, Kangping; Liu, Jie; Wu, Xiong; Yao, Yong

    2018-01-01

    We propose a joint polarization tracking and channel equalization scheme based on radius-directed linear Kalman filter (RD-LKF) by introducing the butterfly finite-impulse-response (FIR) filter in our previously proposed RD-LKF method. Along with the fast polarization tracking, it can also simultaneously compensate the inter-symbol interference (ISI) effects including residual chromatic dispersion and polarization mode dispersion. Compared with the conventional radius-directed equalizer (RDE) algorithm, it is demonstrated experimentally that three times faster convergence speed, one order of magnitude better tracking capability, and better BER performance is obtained in polarization division multiplexing 16 quadrature amplitude modulation system. Besides, the influences of the algorithm parameters on the convergence and the tracking performance are investigated by numerical simulation.

  5. Terminal Sliding Mode Tracking Controller Design for Automatic Guided Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongbin

    2018-03-01

    Based on sliding mode variable structure control theory, the path tracking problem of automatic guided vehicle is studied, proposed a controller design method based on the terminal sliding mode. First of all, through analyzing the characteristics of the automatic guided vehicle movement, the kinematics model is presented. Then to improve the traditional expression of terminal sliding mode, design a nonlinear sliding mode which the convergence speed is faster than the former, verified by theoretical analysis, the design of sliding mode is steady and fast convergence in the limited time. Finally combining Lyapunov method to design the tracking control law of automatic guided vehicle, the controller can make the automatic guided vehicle track the desired trajectory in the global sense as well as in finite time. The simulation results verify the correctness and effectiveness of the control law.

  6. High Dynamic Optimized Carrier Loop Improvement for Tracking Doppler Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirhossein Fereidountabar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical analysis and optimization of a carrier tracking loop are presented. Due to fast changing of the carrier frequency in some satellite systems, such as Low Earth Orbit (LEO or Global Positioning System (GPS, or some planes like Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs, high dynamic tracking loops play a very important role. In this paper an optimized tracking loop consisting of a third-order Phase Locked Loop (PLL assisted by a second-order Frequency Locked Loop (FLL for UAVs is proposed and discussed. Based on this structure an optimal loop has been designed. The main advantages of this approach are the reduction of the computation complexity and smaller phase error. The paper shows the simulation results, comparing them with a previous work.

  7. Leadership in Australian Rural Schools: Bush Track, Fast Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Lorraine; Paterson, David; Miller, Judith

    2008-01-01

    Due to the difficulties inherent in staffing rural schools it is increasingly common for beginning teachers to fill school leadership roles early in their careers. The accelerated progression of some teachers impacts on the overall nature of leadership in rural schools and creates unique pathways, generally different from those available to…

  8. Economic Analysis of Symbiotic Light Water Reactor/Fast Burner Reactor Fuel Cycles Proposed as Part of the U.S. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Kent Alan; Shropshire, David E.

    2009-01-01

    A spreadsheet-based 'static equilibrium' economic analysis was performed for three nuclear fuel cycle scenarios, each designed for 100 GWe-years of electrical generation annually: (1) a 'once-through' fuel cycle based on 100% LWRs fueled by standard UO2 fuel assemblies with all used fuel destined for geologic repository emplacement, (2) a 'single-tier recycle' scenario involving multiple fast burner reactors (37% of generation) accepting actinides (Pu,Np,Am,Cm) from the reprocessing of used fuel from the uranium-fueled LWR fleet (63% of generation), and (3) a 'two-tier' 'thermal+fast' recycle scenario where co-extracted U,Pu from the reprocessing of used fuel from the uranium-fueled part of the LWR fleet (66% of generation) is recycled once as full-core LWR MOX fuel (8% of generation), with the LWR MOX used fuel being reprocessed and all actinide products from both UO2 and MOX used fuel reprocessing being introduced into the closed fast burner reactor (26% of generation) fuel cycle. The latter two 'closed' fuel cycles, which involve symbiotic use of both thermal and fast reactors, have the advantages of lower natural uranium requirements per kilowatt-hour generated and less geologic repository space per kilowatt-hour as compared to the 'once-through' cycle. The overall fuel cycle cost in terms of $ per megawatt-hr of generation, however, for the closed cycles is 15% (single tier) to 29% (two-tier) higher than for the once-through cycle, based on 'expected values' from an uncertainty analysis using triangular distributions for the unit costs for each required step of the fuel cycle. (The fuel cycle cost does not include the levelized reactor life cycle costs.) Since fuel cycle costs are a relatively small percentage (10 to 20%) of the overall busbar cost (LUEC or 'levelized unit electricity cost') of nuclear power generation, this fuel cycle cost increase should not have a highly deleterious effect on the competitiveness of nuclear power. If the reactor life cycle

  9. Particle tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mais, H.; Ripken, G.; Wrulich, A.; Schmidt, F.

    1986-02-01

    After a brief description of typical applications of particle tracking in storage rings and after a short discussion of some limitations and problems related with tracking we summarize some concepts and methods developed in the qualitative theory of dynamical systems. We show how these concepts can be applied to the proton ring HERA. (orig.)

  10. Timber tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Düdder, Boris; Ross, Omry

    2017-01-01

    Managing and verifying forest products in a value chain is often reliant on easily manipulated document or digital tracking methods - Chain of Custody Systems. We aim to create a new means of tracking timber by developing a tamper proof digital system based on Blockchain technology. Blockchain...

  11. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Graphene based quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H. G.; Hu, H.; Pan, Y.; Mao, J. H.; Gao, M.; Guo, H. M.; Du, S. X.; Greber, T.; Gao, H.-J.

    2010-08-01

    Laterally localized electronic states are identified on a single layer of graphene on ruthenium by low temperature scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS). The individual states are separated by 3 nm and comprise regions of about 90 carbon atoms. This constitutes a highly regular quantum dot-array with molecular precision. It is evidenced by quantum well resonances (QWRs) with energies that relate to the corrugation of the graphene layer. The dI/dV conductance spectra are modeled by a layer height dependent potential-well with a delta-function potential that describes the barrier for electron penetration into graphene. The resulting QWRs are strongest and lowest in energy on the isolated 'hill' regions with a diameter of 2 nm, where the graphene is decoupled from the surface.

  12. Grid - a fast threshold tracking procedure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fereczkowski, Michal; Dau, Torsten; MacDonald, Ewen

    2016-01-01

    A new procedure, called “grid”, is evaluated that allows rapid acquisition of threshold curves for psychophysics and, in particular, psychoacoustic, experiments. In this method, the parameterresponse space is sampled in two dimensions within a single run. This allows the procedure to focus more e...

  13. What is the fast track to future energy systems with lower CO2 emissions? Main findings and recommendations from Workshop on Future Energy Systems, Technical University of Denmark, 19 - 20 November 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soenderberg Petersen, L.; Larsen, Hans (eds.)

    2009-04-15

    As part of the DTU Climate Change Technologies programme, DTU arranges a series of workshops and conferences on climate change technology focusing on assessment of and adaptation to climate changes as well as on mitigation of green house gasses (GHG). Each workshop target a specific problem area. This workshop focuses on the challenges for the future energy system from a Danish perspective as well as world wide with regard to both technology needs and policy measures with particular focus on identifying a fast track to energy systems with lower CO{sub 2} emissions. In the coming years, energy systems will be changed to consist of a combination of central units and smaller decentralized units - to a large extent based on renewable energy. At the same time there will be close links between the supply of energy and the individual end user of energy. These links will be based on extensive use of information and communication technology. This will allow end users to respond adequately to price signals and use the electricity for loading electric cars, laundry etc. while the electricity prices are low due to for example surplus of wind generated electricity. The workshop assessed the perspectives for a rapid development of energy systems with more renewable energy in order to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Furthermore, the workshop gives recommendations for the implementation of such energy systems. The recommendations are targeted at the research community, industry and public authorities. The recommendations include opportunities for synergy between the research community, the government and the energy industry as well as public authorities. This report presents summary and recommendations from the workshop. (au)

  14. Maximum power point tracking for PV systems under partial shading conditions using current sweeping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, K.M.; Chan, W.L.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel approach for tracking the maximum power point of photovoltaic systems. • Able to handle both the uniform insolation and partial shading conditions. • Maximum power point tracking based on current sweeping. - Abstract: Partial shading on photovoltaic (PV) arrays causes multiple peaks on the output power–voltage characteristic curve and local searching technique such as perturb and observe (P&O) method could easily fail in searching for the global maximum. Moreover, existing global searching techniques are still not very satisfactory in terms of speed and implementation complexity. In this paper, a fast global maximum power point (MPPT) tracking method which is using current sweeping for photovoltaic arrays under partial shading conditions is proposed. Unlike conventional approach, the proposed method is current based rather than voltage based. The initial maximum power point will be derived based on a current sweeping test and the maximum power point can be enhanced by a finer local search. The speed of the global search is mainly governed by the apparent time constant of the PV array and the generation of a fast current sweeping test. The fast current sweeping test can easily be realized by a DC/DC boost converter with a very fast current control loop. Experimental results are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed global searching scheme

  15. A Single Phase Doubly Grounded Semi-Z-Source Inverter for Photovoltaic (PV Systems with Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tofael Ahmed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a single phase doubly grounded semi-Z-source inverter with maximum power point tracking (MPPT is proposed for photovoltaic (PV systems. This proposed system utilizes a single-ended primary inductor (SEPIC converter as DC-DC converter to implement the MPPT algorithm for tracking the maximum power from a PV array and a single phase semi-Z-source inverter for integrating the PV with AC power utilities. The MPPT controller utilizes a fast-converging algorithm to track the maximum power point (MPP and the semi-Z-source inverter utilizes a nonlinear SPWM to produce sinusoidal voltage at the output. The proposed system is able to track the MPP of PV arrays and produce an AC voltage at its output by utilizing only three switches. Experimental results show that the fast-converging MPPT algorithm has fast tracking response with appreciable MPP efficiency. In addition, the inverter shows the minimization of common mode leakage current with its ground sharing feature and reduction of the THD as well as DC current components at the output during DC-AC conversion.

  16. R&D proposal to DRDC fast EM calorimeter with excellent photon angular resolution and energy resolution using scintillating noble liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, M; Sumorok, K; Zhang, X; Gaudreau, M P J; Akimov, D Y; Bolozdynya, A I; Churakov, D; Chernyshov, V; Koutchenkov, A; Kovalenko, A; Kuzichev, V F; Lamkov, V A; Lebedenko, V; Gusev, L; Safronov, G A; Sheinkman, V A; Smirnov, G; Krasnokutsky, R N; Shuvalov, R S; Fedyakin, N N; Sushkov, V V; Akopyan, M V; Gougas, Andreas; Pevsner, A; CERN. Geneva. Detector Research and Development Committee

    1993-01-01

    Recent test beam data have shown fast and large signals for LKr, mixed with >1% LXe. Excellent uniformity in LKr and LXe was achieved over a 37 cm long cell. CsI cathode works well inside LKr/LXe with O(1%) resolution at 5 MeV. Precision calibration in-situ has been demonstrated. Scintillating LKr/LXe detectors are sufficiently radiation hard for LHC environment. These new developments simplify the construction of prototype LKr calorimeter, to demonstrate the superior e/gamma energy resolution and the determination of photon direction using longitudinal and transverse segmentations, which are vital for the detection of the multi-photon states. The constant term in the energy resolution is small, the electronics noise is negligible due to the large signal size. The overall pion/electron suppression is expected to be better than 10-4.

  17. Making tracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1986-10-15

    In many modern tracking chambers, the sense wires, rather than being lined up uniformly, are grouped into clusters to facilitate the pattern recognition process. However, with higher energy machines providing collisions richer in secondary particles, event reconstruction becomes more complicated. A Caltech / Illinois / SLAC / Washington group developed an ingenious track finding and fitting approach for the Mark III detector used at the SPEAR electron-positron ring at SLAC (Stanford). This capitalizes on the detector's triggering, which uses programmable logic circuits operating in parallel, each 'knowing' the cell patterns for all tracks passing through a specific portion of the tracker (drift chamber)

  18. The CDF II eXtremely fast tracker upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abulencia, A.; Azzurri, P.; Cochran, E.; Dittmann, J.; Donati, S.; Efron, J.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, D.; Fedorko, I.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; /Illinois U., Urbana

    2006-09-01

    The CDF II Extremely Fast Tracker is the trigger track processor which reconstructs charged particle tracks in the transverse plane of the CDF II central outer tracking chamber. The system is now being upgraded to perform a three dimensional track reconstruction. A review of the upgrade is presented here.

  19. Why tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchart, J.; Kral, J.

    1979-01-01

    A comparison is made of two methods of determining the age of rocks, ie., the krypton-argon method and the fission tracks method. The former method is more accurate but is dependent on the temperature and on the grain size of the investigated rocks (apatites, biotites, muscovites). As for the method of fission tracks, the determination is not dependent on grain size. This method allows dating and the determination of uranium concentration and distribution in rocks. (H.S.)

  20. FastSim: A Fast Simulation for the SuperB Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreassen, R; Sokoloff, M; Arnaud, N; Burmistrov, L; Brown, D N; Carlson, J; Gaponenko, I; Suzuki, A; Cheng, C-h; Simone, A Di; Manoni, E; Perez, A; Walsh, J; Rama, M; Roberts, D; Rotondo, M; Simi, G

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a parameterized (fast) simulation for detector optimization and physics reach studies of the proposed SuperB Flavor Factory in Italy. Detector components are modeled as thin sections of planes, cylinders, disks or cones. Particle-material interactions are modeled using simplified cross-sections and formulas. Active detectors are modeled using parameterized response functions. Geometry and response parameters are configured using xml files with a custom-designed schema. Reconstruction algorithms adapted from BaBar are used to build tracks and clusters. Multiple sources of background signals can be merged with primary signals. Pattern recognition errors are modeled statistically by randomly misassigning nearby tracking hits. Standard BaBar analysis tuples are used as an event output. Hadronic B meson pair events can be simulated at roughly 10Hz.

  1. FastSim: A Fast Simulation for the SuperB Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, R.; Arnaud, N.; Brown, D. N.; Burmistrov, L.; Carlson, J.; Cheng, C.-h.; Di Simone, A.; Gaponenko, I.; Manoni, E.; Perez, A.; Rama, M.; Roberts, D.; Rotondo, M.; Simi, G.; Sokoloff, M.; Suzuki, A.; Walsh, J.

    2011-12-01

    We have developed a parameterized (fast) simulation for detector optimization and physics reach studies of the proposed SuperB Flavor Factory in Italy. Detector components are modeled as thin sections of planes, cylinders, disks or cones. Particle-material interactions are modeled using simplified cross-sections and formulas. Active detectors are modeled using parameterized response functions. Geometry and response parameters are configured using xml files with a custom-designed schema. Reconstruction algorithms adapted from BaBar are used to build tracks and clusters. Multiple sources of background signals can be merged with primary signals. Pattern recognition errors are modeled statistically by randomly misassigning nearby tracking hits. Standard BaBar analysis tuples are used as an event output. Hadronic B meson pair events can be simulated at roughly 10Hz.

  2. Deformable Models for Eye Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester-Christensen, Martin; Leimberg, Denis; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2005-01-01

    A deformable template method for eye tracking on full face images is presented. The strengths of the method are that it is fast and retains accuracy independently of the resolution. We compare the me\\$\\backslash\\$-thod with a state of the art active contour approach, showing that the heuristic...

  3. Proposed Advanced Reactor Adaptation of the Standard Review Plan NUREG-0800 Chapter 4 (Reactor) for Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors and Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belles, Randy [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Poore, III, Willis P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, Nicholas R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Flanagan, George F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Holbrook, Mark [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Moe, Wayne [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sofu, Tanju [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-03-01

    This report proposes adaptation of the previous regulatory gap analysis in Chapter 4 (Reactor) of NUREG 0800, Standard Review Plan (SRP) for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants: LWR [Light Water Reactor] Edition. The proposed adaptation would result in a Chapter 4 review plan applicable to certain advanced reactors. This report addresses two technologies: the sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) and the modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (mHTGR). SRP Chapter 4, which addresses reactor components, was selected for adaptation because of the possible significant differences in advanced non-light water reactor (non-LWR) technologies compared with the current LWR-based description in Chapter 4. SFR and mHTGR technologies were chosen for this gap analysis because of their diverse designs and the availability of significant historical design detail.

  4. Multi-month prescriptions, fast-track refills, and community ART groups: results from a process evaluation in Malawi on using differentiated models of care to achieve national HIV treatment goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prust, Margaret L; Banda, Clement K; Nyirenda, Rose; Chimbwandira, Frank; Kalua, Thokozani; Jahn, Andreas; Eliya, Michael; Callahan, Katie; Ehrenkranz, Peter; Prescott, Marta R; McCarthy, Elizabeth A; Tagar, Elya; Gunda, Andrews

    2017-07-21

    In order to facilitate scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Malawi, innovative and pragmatic models have been developed to optimize the efficiency of HIV service delivery. In particular, three models of differentiated care have emerged for stable patients: adjusted appointment spacing through multi-month scripting (MMS); fast-track drug refills (FTRs) on alternating visits; and community ART groups (CAGs) where group members rotate in collecting medications at the facility for all members. This study aimed to assess the extent to which ART patients in Malawi are differentiated based on clinical stability and describe the characteristics and costs associated with the models of differentiated care offered. A mixed methods process evaluation was conducted from 30 purposefully selected ART facilities. Cross-sectional data for this evaluation was collected between February and May 2016. The following forms of data collection are reported here: structured surveys with 136 health care workers; reviews of 75,364 patient clinical records; 714 observations of visit time and flow; and 30 questionnaires on facility characteristics. Among ART patients, 77.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 74.1-80.6) were eligible for differentiated models of care based on criteria for clinical stability from national guidelines. Across all facilities, 69% of patients were receiving MMS. In facilities offering FTRs and CAGs, 67% and 6% of patients were enrolled in the models, respectively. However, eligibility criteria were used inconsistently: 72.9% (95% CI 66.3-78.6) of eligible patients and 42.3% (95% CI 33.1-52.0) ineligible patients received MMS. Results indicated that patient travel and time costs were reduced by 67%, and the unit costs of ART service delivery through the MMS, FTR and CAG models were similar, representing a reduction of approximately 10% in the annual unit cost of providing care to stable patients that receive no model. MMS is being implemented nationally and has

  5. Surgery-induced changes and early recovery of hip-muscle strength, leg-press power, and functional performance after fast-track total hip arthroplasty: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bente Holm

    Full Text Available By measuring very early changes in muscle strength and functional performance after fast-track total hip arthroplasty (THA, post-operative rehabilitation, introduced soon after surgery, can be designed to specifically target identified deficits.Firstly, to quantify changes (compared to pre-operative values in hip muscle strength, leg-press power, and functional performance in the first week after THA, and secondly, to explore relationships between the muscle strength changes, and changes in hip pain, systemic inflammation, and thigh swelling.Prospective, cohort study.Convenience sample of patients receiving a THA at Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark, between March and December 2011.Thirty-five patients (65.9 ± 7.2 years undergoing THA.Hip muscle strength, leg-press power, performance-based function, and self-reported disability were determined prior to, and 2 and 8 days after, THA (Day 2 and 8, respectively. Hip pain, thigh swelling, and C-Reactive Protein were also determined.Five patients were lost to follow-up. Hip muscle strength and leg press power were substantially reduced at Day 2 (range of reductions: 41-58%, P<0.001, but less pronounced at Day 8 (range of reductions: 23-31%, P<0.017. Self-reported symptoms and function (HOOS: Pain, Symptoms, and ADL improved at Day 8 (P<0.014. Changes in hip pain, C-Reactive Protein, and thigh swelling were not related to the muscle strength and power losses.Hip muscle strength and leg-press power decreased substantially in the first week after THA - especially at Day 2 - with some recovery at Day 8. The muscle strength loss and power loss were not related to changes in hip pain, systemic inflammation, or thigh swelling. In contrast, self-reported symptoms and function improved. These data on surgery-induced changes in muscle strength may help design impairment-directed, post-operative rehabilitation to be introduced soon after surgery.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01246674.

  6. ATLAS FTK: The Fast Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    T, Iizawa; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Fast TracKer (FTK) will perform global track reconstruction after each Level-1 trigger accept to enable the software-based High Level Trigger to have early access to tracking information. FTK is a dedicated processor based on a mixture of advanced technologies. Modern, powerful Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) form an important part of the system architecture, and the large level of computing power required for pattern recognition is provided by incorporating standard-cell ASICs named Associative Memory (AM). FTK provides global track reconstruction in the full inner silicon detector in approximately 100 microseconds with resolution comparable to the offline algorithms. It allows a fast and precise detection of the primary and secondary vertex information. The track and vertex information is then used by the High Level Trigger algorithms, allowing highly improved trigger performance for the important signatures such as b-jets. In this paper, the architecture and the hardware development status of FT...

  7. TH-AB-207A-07: Radiation Dose Simulation for a Newly Proposed Dynamic Bowtie Filters for CT Using Fast Monte Carlo Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, T; Lin, H; Gao, Y; Caracappa, P; Wang, G; Cong, W; Xu, X [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Dynamic bowtie filter is an innovative design capable of modulating the X-ray and balancing the flux in the detectors, and it introduces a new way of patient-specific CT scan optimizations. This study demonstrates the feasibility of performing fast Monte Carlo dose calculation for a type of dynamic bowtie filter for cone-beam CT (Liu et al. 2014 9(7) PloS one) using MIC coprocessors. Methods: The dynamic bowtie filter in question consists of a highly attenuating bowtie component (HB) and a weakly attenuating bowtie (WB). The HB is filled with CeCl3 solution and its surface is defined by a transcendental equation. The WB is an elliptical cylinder filled with air and immersed in the HB. As the scanner rotates, the orientation of WB remains the same with the static patient. In our Monte Carlo simulation, the HB was approximated by 576 boxes. The phantom was a voxelized elliptical cylinder composed of PMMA and surrounded by air (44cm×44cm×40cm, 1000×1000×1 voxels). The dose to the PMMA phantom was tallied with 0.15% statistical uncertainty under 100 kVp source. Two Monte Carlo codes ARCHER and MCNP-6.1 were compared. Both used double-precision. Compiler flags that may trade accuracy for speed were avoided. Results: The wall time of the simulation was 25.4 seconds by ARCHER on a 5110P MIC, 40 seconds on a X5650 CPU, and 523 seconds by the multithreaded MCNP on the same CPU. The high performance of ARCHER is attributed to the parameterized geometry and vectorization of the program hotspots. Conclusion: The dynamic bowtie filter modeled in this study is able to effectively reduce the dynamic range of the detected signals for the photon-counting detectors. With appropriate software optimization methods, the accelerator-based (MIC and GPU) Monte Carlo dose engines have shown good performance and can contribute to patient-specific CT scan optimizations.

  8. Fast Harmonic Chirp Summation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Jensen, Jesper Rindom

    2017-01-01

    -robust to noise, or very computationally inten- sive. In this paper, we propose a fast algorithm for the harmonic chirp summation method which has been demonstrated in the liter- ature to be accurate and robust to noise. The proposed algorithm is orders of magnitudes faster than previous algorithms which is also...

  9. Robust online face tracking-by-detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comaschi, F.; Stuijk, S.; Basten, T.; Corporaal, H.

    2016-01-01

    The problem of online face tracking from unconstrained videos is still unresolved. Challenges range from coping with severe online appearance variations to coping with occlusion. We propose RFTD (Robust Face Tracking-by-Detection), a system which combines tracking and detection into a single

  10. Group of Hexagonal Search Patterns for Motion Estimation and Object Tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elazm, A.A.; Mahmoud, I.I; Hashima, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a group of fast block matching algorithms based on the hexagon pattern search .A new predicted one point hexagon (POPHEX) algorithm is proposed and compared with other well known algorithms. The comparison of these algorithms and our proposed one is performed for both motion estimation and object tracking. Test video sequences are used to demonstrate the behavior of studied algorithms. All algorithms are implemented in MATLAB environment .Experimental results showed that the proposed algorithm posses less number of search points however its computational overhead is little increased due to prediction procedure.

  11. Online Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can disable blocking on those sites. Tagged with: computer security , cookies , Do Not Track , personal information , privacy June ... email Looking for business guidance on privacy and ... The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is the nation’s consumer protection agency. The FTC works to prevent fraudulent, deceptive ...

  12. A simplified Track Assembler I/O for the Muon Trigger Track Finder

    CERN Document Server

    Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Genchev, Vladimir; Grandi, Claudio; Neumeister, Norbert; Porth, Paul; Rohringer, Herbert

    1998-01-01

    One of the architectural concerns in the present design of the Muon Trigger Track Finder ( MTTF) is the large number of inputs to the Track Assembler ( TA). In the TA block, input track segment pairs from many Extrapolation Units ( EU) are associated into tracks. The relative contribution of these inputs to the assembled tracks is studied with simulated track patterns for low and high pt muons over the entire eta, phi acceptance of the CMS barrel. A pruning of the EUs is proposed which does not alter the performance of the Track Finder and minimizes the interconnections between azimuthal wedges.

  13. Studies of avalanche photodiodes for scintillating fibre tracking readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenker, H.; Thomas, J.

    1993-01-01

    Avalanche Photodiodes (APDs) operating in ''Geiger Mode'' have been studied in a fibre tracking readout environment. A fast recharge circuit has been developed for high rate data taking, and results obtained from a model fibre tracker in the test beam at Brookhaven National Laboratory are presented. A high rate calibrated light source has been developed using a commercially available laser diode and has been used to measure the efficiency of the devices. The transmission of the light from a 1mm fibre onto a 0.5mm diameter APD surface has been identified as the main problem in the use of these particular devices for scintillating fibre tracking in the Superconducting Supercollider environment. Solutions to this problem are proposed

  14. Holographic processing of track chamber data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bykovsky, Y A; Larkin, A I; Markilov, A A; Starikov, S N [Moskovskij Fiziko-Tekhnicheskij Inst. (USSR)

    1975-12-01

    The holographic pattern recognition method was applied for processing of track chamber photographs. Experiments on detection of such events as a definitely directed track, an angle formed by two tracks, a three-pronged star, a definitely curved track were performed by using models. It is proposed to recognize these events in a filmshot by the shape of correlation signals. The experiment to recognize the event in a real bubble chamber filmshot was realized; requirements to the processing films were determined.

  15. Structural Sparse Tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Tianzhu

    2015-06-01

    Sparse representation has been applied to visual tracking by finding the best target candidate with minimal reconstruction error by use of target templates. However, most sparse representation based trackers only consider holistic or local representations and do not make full use of the intrinsic structure among and inside target candidates, thereby making the representation less effective when similar objects appear or under occlusion. In this paper, we propose a novel Structural Sparse Tracking (SST) algorithm, which not only exploits the intrinsic relationship among target candidates and their local patches to learn their sparse representations jointly, but also preserves the spatial layout structure among the local patches inside each target candidate. We show that our SST algorithm accommodates most existing sparse trackers with the respective merits. Both qualitative and quantitative evaluations on challenging benchmark image sequences demonstrate that the proposed SST algorithm performs favorably against several state-of-the-art methods.

  16. A novel approach to Hough Transform for implementation in fast triggers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozzobon, Nicola, E-mail: nicola.pozzobon@pd.infn.it [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, via F. Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia “G. Galilei”, Università degli Studi di Padova, via F. Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Montecassiano, Fabio [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, via F. Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Zotto, Pierluigi [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, via F. Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia “G. Galilei”, Università degli Studi di Padova, via F. Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2016-10-21

    Telescopes of position sensitive detectors are common layouts in charged particles tracking, and programmable logic devices, such as FPGAs, represent a viable choice for the real-time reconstruction of track segments in such detector arrays. A compact implementation of the Hough Transform for fast triggers in High Energy Physics, exploiting a parameter reduction method, is proposed, targeting the reduction of the needed storage or computing resources in current, or next future, state-of-the-art FPGA devices, while retaining high resolution over a wide range of track parameters. The proposed approach is compared to a Standard Hough Transform with particular emphasis on their application to muon detectors. In both cases, an original readout implementation is modeled.

  17. A novel approach to Hough Transform for implementation in fast triggers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozzobon, Nicola; Montecassiano, Fabio; Zotto, Pierluigi

    2016-01-01

    Telescopes of position sensitive detectors are common layouts in charged particles tracking, and programmable logic devices, such as FPGAs, represent a viable choice for the real-time reconstruction of track segments in such detector arrays. A compact implementation of the Hough Transform for fast triggers in High Energy Physics, exploiting a parameter reduction method, is proposed, targeting the reduction of the needed storage or computing resources in current, or next future, state-of-the-art FPGA devices, while retaining high resolution over a wide range of track parameters. The proposed approach is compared to a Standard Hough Transform with particular emphasis on their application to muon detectors. In both cases, an original readout implementation is modeled.

  18. Online track reconstruction at hadron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amerio, Silvia; Bettini, Marco; Nicoletto, Marino; Crescioli, Francesco; Bucciantonio, Martina; DELL'ORSO, Mauro; Piendibene, Marco; VOLPI, Guido; Annovi, Alberto; Catastini, Pierluigi; Giannetti, Paola; Lucchesi, Donatella

    2010-01-01

    Real time event reconstruction plays a fundamental role in High Energy Physics experiments. Reducing the rate of data to be saved on tape from millions to hundreds per second is critical. In order to increase the purity of the collected samples, rate reduction has to be coupled with the capability to simultaneously perform a first selection of the most interesting events. A fast and efficient online track reconstruction is important to effectively trigger on leptons and/or displaced tracks from b-quark decays. This talk will be an overview of online tracking techniques in different HEP environments: we will show how H1 experiment at HERA faced the challenges of online track reconstruction implementing pattern matching and track linking algorithms on CAMs and FPGAs in the Fast Track Processor (FTT). The pattern recognition technique is also at the basis of the Silicon Vertex Trigger (SVT) at the CDF experiment at Tevatron: coupled to a very fast fitting phase, SVT allows to trigger on displaced tracks, thus greatly increasing the efficiency for the hadronic B decay modes. A recent upgrade of the SVT track fitter, the Giga-fitter, can perform more than 1 fit/ns and further improves the CDF online trigger capabilities at high luminosity. At SLHC, where luminosities will be 2 orders of magnitude greater than Tevatron, online tracking will be much more challenging: we will describe CMS future plans for a Level-1 track trigger and the Fast Tracker (FTK) processor at the ATLAS experiment, based on the Giga-fitter architecture and designed to provide high quality tracks reconstructed over the entire detector in time for a Level-2 trigger decision.luminosity. At SLHC, where luminosities will be 2 orders of magnitude greater than Tevatron, online tracking will be much more challenging: we will describe CMS future plans for a Level-1 track trigger and the Fast Tracker (FTK) processor at the Atlas experiment, based on the Giga-fitter architecture and designed to provide high

  19. Particle Filter Tracking without Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Ortegon-Aguilar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available People tracking is an interesting topic in computer vision. It has applications in industrial areas such as surveillance or human-machine interaction. Particle Filters is a common algorithm for people tracking; challenging situations occur when the target's motion is poorly modelled or with unexpected motions. In this paper, an alternative to address people tracking is presented. The proposed algorithm is based in particle filters, but instead of using a dynamical model, it uses background subtraction to predict future locations of particles. The algorithm is able to track people in omnidirectional sequences with a low frame rate (one or two frames per second. Our approach can tackle unexpected discontinuities and changes in the direction of the motion. The main goal of the paper is to track people from laboratories, but it has applications in surveillance, mainly in controlled environments.

  20. Target tracking using DMLC for volumetric modulated arc therapy: A simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Baozhou; Rangaraj, Dharanipathy; Papiez, Lech; Oddiraju, Swetha; Yang Deshan; Li, H. Harold [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Washington University, 4921 Parkview Place, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Southwestern Medical Center, University of Texas, Dallas, Texas 75390 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Washington University, 4921 Parkview Place, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Purpose: Target tracking using dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) is a promising approach for intrafraction motion management in radiation therapy. The purpose of this work is to develop a DMLC tracking algorithm capable of delivering volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) to the targets that experience two-dimensional (2D) rigid motion in the beam's eye view. Methods: The problem of VMAT delivery to moving targets is formulated as a control problem with constraints. The relationships between gantry speed, gantry acceleration, MLC leaf-velocity, dose rate, and target motion are derived. An iterative search algorithm is developed to find numerical solutions for efficient delivery of a specific VMAT plan to the moving target using 2D DMLC tracking. The delivery of five VMAT lung plans is simulated. The planned and delivered fluence maps in the target-reference frame are calculated and compared. Results: The simulation demonstrates that the 2D tracking algorithm is capable of delivering the VMAT plan to a moving target fast and accurately without violating the machine constraints and the integrity of the treatment plan. The average delivery time is only 29 s longer than that of no-tracking delivery, 101 versus 72 s, respectively. The fluence maps are normalized to 200 MU and the average root-mean-square error between the desired and the delivered fluence is 2.1 MU, compared to 14.8 MU for no-tracking and 3.6 MU for one-dimensional tracking. Conclusions: A locally optimal MLC tracking algorithm for VMAT delivery is proposed, aiming at shortest delivery time while maintaining treatment plan invariant. The inconsequential increase of treatment time due to DMLC tracking is clinically desirable, which makes VMAT with DMLC tracking attractive in treating moving tumors.

  1. Pyrometer with tracking balancing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarev, D. B.; Zakharenko, V. A.; Shkaev, A. G.

    2018-04-01

    Currently, one of the main metrological noncontact temperature measurement challenges is the emissivity uncertainty. This paper describes a pyrometer with emissivity effect diminishing through the use of a measuring scheme with tracking balancing in which the radiation receiver is a null-indicator. In this paper the results of the prototype pyrometer absolute error study in surfaces temperature measurement of aluminum and nickel samples are presented. There is absolute error calculated values comparison considering the emissivity table values with errors on the results of experimental measurements by the proposed method. The practical implementation of the proposed technical solution has allowed two times to reduce the error due to the emissivity uncertainty.

  2. A methodology for calculating photovoltaic field output and effect of solar tracking strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Yeguang; Yao, Yingxue

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new methodology for calculating PV field output is proposed. • The reduction of diffuse radiation and albedo due to shading is considered. • The shadow behavior is accurately analyzed at a cell level. • Several simplified measures are taken to reduce the calculation work. • The field outputs with different solar tracking strategies are compared. - Abstract: This paper proposes an effective methodology for calculating the photovoltaic field output. A combination of two methods is first presented for optical performance calculation: point projection method for direction radiation, and Monte Carlo ray-tracing method for both diffuse radiation and albedo radiation. Based on the optical calculation, an accurate output of the photovoltaic field can be obtained through a cell-level simulation of PV system. Several simplified measures are taken to reduce the large amount of calculation work. The proposed methodology has been validated for accurate and fast calculation of field output. With the help of the developed code, this paper deals with the performance comparison between four typical tracking strategies. Through the comparative analysis, the field output is proved to be related to the tracking strategy. For a regular photovoltaic field, the equatorial and elevation-rolling tracking show the superior performance in annual field output to the azimuth-elevation and rolling-elevation tracking. A reasonable explanation for this difference has been presented in this paper.

  3. The ATLAS Fast Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Volpi, Guido; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The use of tracking information at the trigger level in the LHC Run II period is crucial for the trigger an data acquisition (TDAQ) system. The tracking precision is in fact important to identify specific decay products of the Higgs boson or new phenomena, a well as to distinguish the contributions coming from many contemporary collisions that occur at every bunch crossing. However, the track reconstruction is among the most demanding tasks performed by the TDAQ computing farm; in fact, full reconstruction at full Level-1 trigger accept rate (100 KHz) is not possible. In order to overcome this limitation, the ATLAS experiment is planning the installation of a specific processor: the Fast Tracker (FTK), which is aimed at achieving this goal. The FTK is a pipeline of high performance electronic, based on custom and commercial devices, which is expected to reconstruct, with high resolution, the trajectories of charged tracks with a transverse momentum above 1 GeV, using the ATLAS inner tracker information. Patte...

  4. Maximum power tracking in WECS (Wind energy conversion systems) via numerical and stochastic approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elnaggar, M.; Abdel Fattah, H.A.; Elshafei, A.L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a complete design of a two-level control system to capture maximum power in wind energy conversion systems. The upper level of the proposed control system adopts a modified line search optimization algorithm to determine a setpoint for the wind turbine speed. The calculated speed setpoint corresponds to the maximum power point at given operating conditions. The speed setpoint is fed to a generalized predictive controller at the lower level of the control system. A different formulation, that treats the aerodynamic torque as a disturbance, is postulated to derive the control law. The objective is to accurately track the setpoint while keeping the control action free from unacceptably fast or frequent variations. Simulation results based on a realistic model of a 1.5 MW wind turbine confirm the superiority of the proposed control scheme to the conventional ones. - Highlights: • The structure of a MPPT (maximum power point tracking) scheme is presented. • The scheme is divided into the optimization algorithm and the tracking controller. • The optimization algorithm is based on an online line search numerical algorithm. • The tracking controller is treating the aerodynamics torque as a loop disturbance. • The control technique is simulated with stochastic wind speed by Simulink and FAST

  5. Human tracking in thermal images using adaptive particle filters with online random forest learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Byoung Chul; Kwak, Joon-Young; Nam, Jae-Yeal

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a fast and robust human tracking method to use in a moving long-wave infrared thermal camera under poor illumination with the existence of shadows and cluttered backgrounds. To improve the human tracking performance while minimizing the computation time, this study proposes an online learning of classifiers based on particle filters and combination of a local intensity distribution (LID) with oriented center-symmetric local binary patterns (OCS-LBP). Specifically, we design a real-time random forest (RF), which is the ensemble of decision trees for confidence estimation, and confidences of the RF are converted into a likelihood function of the target state. First, the target model is selected by the user and particles are sampled. Then, RFs are generated using the positive and negative examples with LID and OCS-LBP features by online learning. The learned RF classifiers are used to detect the most likely target position in the subsequent frame in the next stage. Then, the RFs are learned again by means of fast retraining with the tracked object and background appearance in the new frame. The proposed algorithm is successfully applied to various thermal videos as tests and its tracking performance is better than those of other methods.

  6. Adaptive integral backstepping sliding mode control for opto-electronic tracking system based on modified LuGre friction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Fengfa; Li, Xingfei; Chen, Cheng; Tan, Wenbin

    2017-12-01

    In order to improve the control accuracy and stability of opto-electronic tracking system fixed on reef or airport under friction and external disturbance conditions, adaptive integral backstepping sliding mode control approach with friction compensation is developed to achieve accurate and stable tracking for fast moving target. The nonlinear observer and slide mode controller based on modified LuGre model with friction compensation can effectively reduce the influence of nonlinear friction and disturbance of this servo system. The stability of the closed-loop system is guaranteed by Lyapunov theory. The steady-state error of the system is eliminated by integral action. The adaptive integral backstepping sliding mode controller and its performance are validated by a nonlinear modified LuGre dynamic model of the opto-electronic tracking system in simulation and practical experiments. The experiment results demonstrate that the proposed controller can effectively realise the accuracy and stability control of opto-electronic tracking system.

  7. An improved maximum power point tracking method for a photovoltaic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouoba, David; Fakkar, Abderrahim; El Kouari, Youssef; Dkhichi, Fayrouz; Oukarfi, Benyounes

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, an improved auto-scaling variable step-size Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) method for photovoltaic (PV) system was proposed. To achieve simultaneously a fast dynamic response and stable steady-state power, a first improvement was made on the step-size scaling function of the duty cycle that controls the converter. An algorithm was secondly proposed to address wrong decision that may be made at an abrupt change of the irradiation. The proposed auto-scaling variable step-size approach was compared to some various other approaches from the literature such as: classical fixed step-size, variable step-size and a recent auto-scaling variable step-size maximum power point tracking approaches. The simulation results obtained by MATLAB/SIMULINK were given and discussed for validation.

  8. Towards a Level-1 tracking trigger for the ATLAS experiment at the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, T A D; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    At the high luminosity HL-LHC, upwards of 160 individual proton-proton interactions (pileup) are expected per bunch-crossing at luminosities of around $5\\times10^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$. A proposal by the ATLAS collaboration to split the ATLAS first level trigger in to two stages is briefly detailed. The use of fast track finding in the new first level trigger is explored as a method to provide the discrimination required to reduce the event rate to acceptable levels for the read out system while maintaining high efficiency on the selection of the decay products of electroweak bosons at HL-LHC luminosities. It is shown that available bandwidth in the proposed new strip tracker is sufficiency for a region of interest based track trigger given certain optimisations, further methods for improving upon the proposal are discussed.

  9. Continuous Tracking of RFID Tagged Radioactive Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broide, A.; Marcus, E.; Gabay, Y.; Miron, E.; Seif, R.; Wengrowicz, U.; Kadmon, Y.; Tirosh, D.

    2008-01-01

    The prevention of radiation hazards due to radioisotopes is one of the concerns of the Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). In a series of international conferences held in the last five years) this issue was discussed thoroughly. One of the conclusions was that strict management of radioactive sources is essential. The management of radioactive sources would help to prevent transference of radioactive materials to unauthorized personal. For this purpose, states should make a concerted effort to follow the principles of the Code of Conduct on the Security of Radioactive Sources(2). In this context, the identification of roles and responsibilities of governments, licensees and international organizations is vital(3). The referred activities are primarily related to control over radioactive sources and enhance the tracking ability of radiation sources . In this paper, a proposed Radioactive Sources Tracking System is presented. This system facilitates real time monitoring capability of fixed and mobile radiation sources. The system provides the location of the source and indication whether the source is inside or outside the shielding container. The information about the sources location and condition can be used to coordinate a fast response in case of any attempt to steal or tamper with a source. These goals are achieved by using GPS (Global Positioning System), RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) and control and management software

  10. On-demand calibration and evaluation for electromagnetically tracked laparoscope in augmented reality visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinyang; Plishker, William; Zaki, George; Kang, Sukryool; Kane, Timothy D; Shekhar, Raj

    2016-06-01

    Common camera calibration methods employed in current laparoscopic augmented reality systems require the acquisition of multiple images of an entire checkerboard pattern from various poses. This lengthy procedure prevents performing laparoscope calibration in the operating room (OR). The purpose of this work was to develop a fast calibration method for electromagnetically (EM) tracked laparoscopes, such that the calibration can be performed in the OR on demand. We designed a mechanical tracking mount to uniquely and snugly position an EM sensor to an appropriate location on a conventional laparoscope. A tool named fCalib was developed to calibrate intrinsic camera parameters, distortion coefficients, and extrinsic parameters (transformation between the scope lens coordinate system and the EM sensor coordinate system) using a single image that shows an arbitrary portion of a special target pattern. For quick evaluation of calibration results in the OR, we integrated a tube phantom with fCalib prototype and overlaid a virtual representation of the tube on the live video scene. We compared spatial target registration error between the common OpenCV method and the fCalib method in a laboratory setting. In addition, we compared the calibration re-projection error between the EM tracking-based fCalib and the optical tracking-based fCalib in a clinical setting. Our results suggest that the proposed method is comparable to the OpenCV method. However, changing the environment, e.g., inserting or removing surgical tools, might affect re-projection accuracy for the EM tracking-based approach. Computational time of the fCalib method averaged 14.0 s (range 3.5 s-22.7 s). We developed and validated a prototype for fast calibration and evaluation of EM tracked conventional (forward viewing) laparoscopes. The calibration method achieved acceptable accuracy and was relatively fast and easy to be performed in the OR on demand.

  11. Dynamic modelling and adaptive robust tracking control of a space robot with two-link flexible manipulators under unknown disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinxin; Ge, Shuzhi Sam; He, Wei

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, both the closed-form dynamics and adaptive robust tracking control of a space robot with two-link flexible manipulators under unknown disturbances are developed. The dynamic model of the system is described with assumed modes approach and Lagrangian method. The flexible manipulators are represented as Euler-Bernoulli beams. Based on singular perturbation technique, the displacements/joint angles and flexible modes are modelled as slow and fast variables, respectively. A sliding mode control is designed for trajectories tracking of the slow subsystem under unknown but bounded disturbances, and an adaptive sliding mode control is derived for slow subsystem under unknown slowly time-varying disturbances. An optimal linear quadratic regulator method is proposed for the fast subsystem to damp out the vibrations of the flexible manipulators. Theoretical analysis validates the stability of the proposed composite controller. Numerical simulation results demonstrate the performance of the closed-loop flexible space robot system.

  12. Tracking telecommuting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stastny, P.

    2007-03-15

    Many employees are now choosing to work from home using laptops and telephones. Employers in the oil and gas industry are now reaping a number of benefits from their telecommuting employees, including increased productivity; higher levels of employee satisfaction, and less absenteeism. Providing a telecommunication option can prove to be advantageous for employers wishing to hire or retain employees. Telecommuting may also help to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This article provided details of Teletrips Inc., a company that aids in the production of corporate social responsibility reports. Teletrips provides reports that document employee savings in time, vehicle depreciation maintenance, and gasoline costs. Teletrips currently tracks 12 companies in Calgary, and plans to grow through the development of key technology partnerships. The company is also working with the federal government to provide their clients with emission trading credits, and has forged a memorandum of understanding with the British Columbia government for tracking emissions. Calgary now openly supports telecommuting and is encouraging businesses in the city to adopt telecommuting on a larger scale. It was concluded that the expanding needs for road infrastructure and the energy used by cars to move workers in and out of the city are a massive burden to the city's tax base. 1 fig.

  13. INNER TRACKING

    CERN Document Server

    P. Sharp

    The CMS Inner Tracking Detector continues to make good progress. The Objective for 2006 was to complete all of the CMS Tracker sub-detectors and to start the integration of the sub-detectors into the Tracker Support Tube (TST). The Objective for 2007 is to deliver to CMS a completed, installed, commissioned and calibrated Tracking System (Silicon Strip and Pixels) aligned to < 100µ in April 2008 ready for the first physics collisions at LHC. In November 2006 all of the sub-detectors had been delivered to the Tracker Integration facility (TIF) at CERN and the tests and QA procedures to be carried out on each sub-detector before integration had been established. In December 2006, TIB/TID+ was integrated into TOB+, TIB/TID- was being prepared for integration, and TEC+ was undergoing tests at the final tracker operating temperature (-100 C) in the Lyon cold room. In February 2007, TIB/TID- has been integrated into TOB-, and the installation of the pixel support tube and the services for TI...

  14. Fast Filter Central Drift Chamber Program. MAC Note 404

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, W.T.

    1979-01-01

    A fast filter of the central detector tracking program was developed and tested. The search for tracks is conducted as in the full linking program - from the outermost layer hit to the next layer in. Any hit is accepted within a road centered which is large enough to allow for stero displacement and any curvature. With the fast filter, this is continued to the innermost layer, with five or more hits accepted as a track

  15. Bellcord: a multilevel fast preprocessor for 1024 ECL channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerns, C.R.

    1978-01-01

    To provide a fast decision trigger on multiple tracks passing through multiwire proportional chambers, a high-speed (arriving at an answer in 60 ns) track counting system was developed at Fermilab. The circuit is capable of selecting the track multiplicities utilizing a coaxial cable ''Bus'' (the Bellcord) on which fast pulses are summed. Up to 16 Bellcord coax cables, each having 64 inputs, are fanned into a central ''Hub'' processor where the trigger level decision is made. 7 figures

  16. Sampling strong tracking nonlinear unscented Kalman filter and its application in eye tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zu-Tao, Zhang; Jia-Shu, Zhang

    2010-01-01

    The unscented Kalman filter is a developed well-known method for nonlinear motion estimation and tracking. However, the standard unscented Kalman filter has the inherent drawbacks, such as numerical instability and much more time spent on calculation in practical applications. In this paper, we present a novel sampling strong tracking nonlinear unscented Kalman filter, aiming to overcome the difficulty in nonlinear eye tracking. In the above proposed filter, the simplified unscented transform sampling strategy with n + 2 sigma points leads to the computational efficiency, and suboptimal fading factor of strong tracking filtering is introduced to improve robustness and accuracy of eye tracking. Compared with the related unscented Kalman filter for eye tracking, the proposed filter has potential advantages in robustness, convergence speed, and tracking accuracy. The final experimental results show the validity of our method for eye tracking under realistic conditions. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  17. Electromagnetic servoing-a new tracking paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichl, Tobias; Gardiazabal, José; Navab, Nassir

    2013-08-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) tracking is highly relevant for many computer assisted interventions. This is in particular due to the fact that the scientific community has not yet developed a general solution for tracking of flexible instruments within the human body. Electromagnetic tracking solutions are highly attractive for minimally invasive procedures, since they do not require line of sight. However, a major problem with EM tracking solutions is that they do not provide uniform accuracy throughout the tracking volume and the desired, highest accuracy is often only achieved close to the center of tracking volume. In this paper, we present a solution to the tracking problem, by mounting an EM field generator onto a robot arm. Proposing a new tracking paradigm, we take advantage of the electromagnetic tracking to detect the sensor within a specific sub-volume, with known and optimal accuracy. We then use the more accurate and robust robot positioning for obtaining uniform accuracy throughout the tracking volume. Such an EM servoing methodology guarantees optimal and uniform accuracy, by allowing us to always keep the tracked sensor close to the center of the tracking volume. In this paper, both dynamic accuracy and accuracy distribution within the tracking volume are evaluated using optical tracking as ground truth. In repeated evaluations, the proposed method was able to reduce the overall error from 6.64±7.86 mm to a significantly improved accuracy of 3.83±6.43 mm. In addition, the combined system provides a larger tracking volume, which is only limited by the reach of the robot and not the much smaller tracking volume defined by the magnetic field generator.

  18. Target Response Adaptation for Correlation Filter Tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Bibi, Adel Aamer

    2016-09-16

    Most correlation filter (CF) based trackers utilize the circulant structure of the training data to learn a linear filter that best regresses this data to a hand-crafted target response. These circularly shifted patches are only approximations to actual translations in the image, which become unreliable in many realistic tracking scenarios including fast motion, occlusion, etc. In these cases, the traditional use of a single centered Gaussian as the target response impedes tracker performance and can lead to unrecoverable drift. To circumvent this major drawback, we propose a generic framework that can adaptively change the target response from frame to frame, so that the tracker is less sensitive to the cases where circular shifts do not reliably approximate translations. To do that, we reformulate the underlying optimization to solve for both the filter and target response jointly, where the latter is regularized by measurements made using actual translations. This joint problem has a closed form solution and thus allows for multiple templates, kernels, and multi-dimensional features. Extensive experiments on the popular OTB100 benchmark show that our target adaptive framework can be combined with many CF trackers to realize significant overall performance improvement (ranging from 3 %-13.5% in precision and 3.2 %-13% in accuracy), especially in categories where this adaptation is necessary (e.g. fast motion, motion blur, etc.). © Springer International Publishing AG 2016.

  19. An efficient and accurate 3D displacements tracking strategy for digital volume correlation

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Bing

    2014-07-01

    Owing to its inherent computational complexity, practical implementation of digital volume correlation (DVC) for internal displacement and strain mapping faces important challenges in improving its computational efficiency. In this work, an efficient and accurate 3D displacement tracking strategy is proposed for fast DVC calculation. The efficiency advantage is achieved by using three improvements. First, to eliminate the need of updating Hessian matrix in each iteration, an efficient 3D inverse compositional Gauss-Newton (3D IC-GN) algorithm is introduced to replace existing forward additive algorithms for accurate sub-voxel displacement registration. Second, to ensure the 3D IC-GN algorithm that converges accurately and rapidly and avoid time-consuming integer-voxel displacement searching, a generalized reliability-guided displacement tracking strategy is designed to transfer accurate and complete initial guess of deformation for each calculation point from its computed neighbors. Third, to avoid the repeated computation of sub-voxel intensity interpolation coefficients, an interpolation coefficient lookup table is established for tricubic interpolation. The computational complexity of the proposed fast DVC and the existing typical DVC algorithms are first analyzed quantitatively according to necessary arithmetic operations. Then, numerical tests are performed to verify the performance of the fast DVC algorithm in terms of measurement accuracy and computational efficiency. The experimental results indicate that, compared with the existing DVC algorithm, the presented fast DVC algorithm produces similar precision and slightly higher accuracy at a substantially reduced computational cost. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. An efficient and accurate 3D displacements tracking strategy for digital volume correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Bing; Wang, Bo; Wu, Dafang; Lubineau, Gilles

    2014-07-01

    Owing to its inherent computational complexity, practical implementation of digital volume correlation (DVC) for internal displacement and strain mapping faces important challenges in improving its computational efficiency. In this work, an efficient and accurate 3D displacement tracking strategy is proposed for fast DVC calculation. The efficiency advantage is achieved by using three improvements. First, to eliminate the need of updating Hessian matrix in each iteration, an efficient 3D inverse compositional Gauss-Newton (3D IC-GN) algorithm is introduced to replace existing forward additive algorithms for accurate sub-voxel displacement registration. Second, to ensure the 3D IC-GN algorithm that converges accurately and rapidly and avoid time-consuming integer-voxel displacement searching, a generalized reliability-guided displacement tracking strategy is designed to transfer accurate and complete initial guess of deformation for each calculation point from its computed neighbors. Third, to avoid the repeated computation of sub-voxel intensity interpolation coefficients, an interpolation coefficient lookup table is established for tricubic interpolation. The computational complexity of the proposed fast DVC and the existing typical DVC algorithms are first analyzed quantitatively according to necessary arithmetic operations. Then, numerical tests are performed to verify the performance of the fast DVC algorithm in terms of measurement accuracy and computational efficiency. The experimental results indicate that, compared with the existing DVC algorithm, the presented fast DVC algorithm produces similar precision and slightly higher accuracy at a substantially reduced computational cost.