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Sample records for fast spin-echo t2-weighted

  1. Application of fast spin-echo T2-weighted imaging for examination of the neurocranium. Comparison with the conventional T2-weighted spin-echo sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siewert, C.; Hosten, N.; Felix, R.

    1994-01-01

    T 2 -weighted spin-echo imaging is the standard screening procedure in MR imaging of the neutrocranium. We evaluated fast spin-echo T 2 -weighted imaging (TT 2 ) of the neurocranium in comparison to conventional spin-echo T 2 -weighted imaging (T 2 ). Signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratio of normal brain tissues (basal ganglia, grey and white matter, CSF fluid) and different pathologies were calculated. Signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio were significantly higher than TT 2 than in T 2 (with the exception of grey-to-white matter contrast). Tissues with increased content of water protons (mobile protons) showed the highest contrast to surrounding tissues. The increased signal intensity of fat must be given due attention in fatty lesions. Because the contrast-to-noise ratio between white matter and basal ganglia is less in TT 2 , Parkinson patients have to be examined by conventional T 2 . If these limitations are taken into account, fast spin-echo T 2 -weighted imaging is well appropriate for MR imaging of the neurocranium, resulting in heavy T 2 -weighting achieved in a short acquisition time. (orig.) [de

  2. Fast FLAIR MR imaging finidngs of cerebral infarction : comparison with T2-weighted spin echo imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Keun Young; Choi, Woo Suk; Kim, Eui Jong

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the utility of FLAIR(Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery) MR imaging in cerebral infarction by comparing its results with those of T2-weighted spin-echo imaging. We retrospectively evaluated fast FLAIR images and conventional spin echo images of 82 patients (47 men and 20 women ; median age 60.9 years) with cerebral infarction. MR imaging used a 1.5T MR unit with conventional T2(TR 3900, TE 90) and fast FLAIR sequence (TR 8000, TE 105, TI 2400). We analysed the size of the main lesion and number of lesions, and discrimination between old and new lesions and between small infarction and perivascular space. When T2-weighted and FLAIR imaging were compared, the latter showed that the main lesion was larger in 38 cases (46%), similar in 38 (46%), and smaller in six (7%). The number of lesions was greater in 23 cases(28%), similar in 52 (63%), and fewer in seven (9%). FLAIR images discriminated between old and new lesions in 31 cases ; perivascular space and small infarotion were differentiated in eight cases, and CSF inflowing artifact was observed in 66 (80%). In the diagnosis of cerebral infaretion, fast FLAIR provides images that are equal or superior to T2-weighted images. The fast FLAIR sequence may therefore be used as a part of routine MR brain study in the diagnosis of cerebral infarction

  3. Evaluation with fat-suppression fast spin-echo T2-weighted images for bone and soft tissue disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakitsubata, Yousuke; Watanabe, Katsushi; Kakitsubata, Sachiko; Shimizu, Tokiyoshi.

    1997-01-01

    One hundred and sixty-four magnetic resonance (MR) studies of bone or soft tissue disorders were evaluated with T2-weighted fast spin echo (FSE) imaging and T2-weighted fat-suppressed FSE (FS-FSE) imaging. Fifty-two patients with bone contusion of the knee were also evaluated with conventional T2-weighted SE imaging and T2-weighted FS-FSE imaging. In 50 of 71 patients (70.4%), areas of high signal intensity in bone marrow were more clearly demonstrated on T2-weighted FS-FSE images than on T2-weighted FSE image. Edema or inflammation of soft tissues were also clearly revealed on T2-weighted FS-FSE images. In 27 of 32 patients (84%), bone contusions were more apparently shown on T2-weighted FS-FSE images than on conventional T2-weighted SE image. T2-weighted FS-FSE imaging is a sensitive method of evaluating the long T2 lesions of bone or soft tissue disorders. (author)

  4. T2-weighted fast spin-echo MR imaging of the pelvis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, I.R.; Steiner, R.M.; Herfkens, R.J.; Jain, K.; Glover, G.H.

    1991-01-01

    A fast Se (FSE) sequence capable of acquiring SE images with a wide range of TRs and TEs in short imaging times has been recently introduced. I this paper, the authors evaluated the value of this technique compared with standard T2-weighted SE imaging. Twenty-five patients were evaluated with T2-weighted SE and FSE images on a 1.5-T GE Signa imager. Imaging times ranged from 3 to 5 minutes for the FSE acquisition and from 12 to 15 minutes for the SE images. Three observers performed a comparison by using a 10-point scale for organ definition and lesion conspicuity, with differences settled by consensus reading. Pelvic organ definition was superior and pelvic tumors and free fluid were also more conspicuous on FSE images. In 2/25 patients ringing artifacts were present

  5. Fast spin-echo T2-weighted MR imaging of tongue cancer; the value of fat-suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Zu Byoung; Na, Dong Gyu; Ryoo, Jae Wook; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Byun, Hong Sik; Baek, Chung Whan; Son, Yong Ik

    2000-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic efficacy of fast spin-echo (FSE) T2-weighted MR imaging with and without fat suppression. Twelve patients (7 men and 5 women; mean age, 48 years) with pathologically proven cancer of the tongue were included in this study. In all of these, FSE T2-weighted MR images with and without fat suppression were obtained in the same imaging planes before surgery or biopsy. Two radiologists visually compared the images thus obtained in terms of detection, extent, and conspicuity of the tumor, and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of each tumor was also calculated. In all patients, both imaging modalities were equal in terms of tumor detection. In 4 of 12(33%), the extent of the tumor was greater with fat suppression, while in eight (67%), it was almost the same both with and without. In ten patients (83%), the tumor was more conspicuous with fat suppression, and percentage CNRs were significantly higher with fat suppression than without (180±70% and 113±61%, respectively; p=0.02). For the evaluation of patients with tongue cancer, fat-suppressed FSE T2-weighted MR imaging is superior to its conventional equivalent

  6. The Usefulness of Fast-Spin-Echo T2-Weighted MR Imaging in Nutcracker Syndrome: a Case Report

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    Wong, Heong Leng; Chen, Matt Chiung Yu; Wu, Cgek Siung; Fu, Kuo An; Lin, Cheng Hao [Yuan' s General Hospital, Kaohsiung (China); Weng, Mei Jui; Liang, Huei Lung; Pan, Huay Ben [National Yang-Ming University, Taipei (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    Nutcracker syndrome occurs when the left renal vein (LRV) is compressed between the superior mesenteric artery and the aorta, and this syndrome is often characterized by venous hypertension and related pathologies. However, invasive studies such as phlebography and measuring the reno-caval pressure gradient should be performed to identify venous hypertension. Here we present a case of Nutcracker syndrome where the LRV and intra-renal varicosities appeared homogeneously hyperintense on magnetic resonance (MR) fast-spin-echo T2- weighted imaging, which suggested markedly stagnant intravenous blood flow and the presence of venous hypertension. The patient was diagnosed and treated without obtaining the reno-caval pressure gradient. The discomfort of the patient lessened after treatment. Furthermore, on follow-up evaluation, the LRV displayed a signal void, and this was suggestive of a restoration of the normal LRV flow and a decrease in LRV pressure.

  7. MRI of acute cerebral infarction: a comparison of FLAIR and T2-weighted fast spin-echo imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, K.; Ogawa, T.; Inugami, A.; Fujita, H.; Hatazawa, J.; Shimosegawa, E.; Okudera, T.; Uemura, K.; Seto, H.

    1997-01-01

    Fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) sequences have been reported to provide high sensitivity to a wide range of central nervous system diseases. To our knowledge, however, FLAIR sequences have not been used to study patients with acute cerebral infarcts. We evaluated the usefulness of FLAIR sequences in this context. FLAIR sequences were acquired on a 0.5 T superconducting unit within 8 h of the onset in 19 patients (aged 26-80 years) with a total of 23 ischaemic lesions. The images were reviewed retrospectively by three neuroradiologists, and the FLAIR images were compared with T2-weighted fast spin-echo images. All but one of the ischaemic lesions involving grey matter was clearly demonstrated on FLAIR images as increased signal intensity in cortical or central grey matter. FLAIR images were particularly useful for detecting the hyperacute cortical infarcts within 3 h of onset, which were not readily detected on the spin-echo images. In 9 of 11 patients with complete proximal occlusion, the distal portion of the cerebral artery was visible as an area of high signal intensity on FLAIR images. (orig.). With 4 figs., 1 tab

  8. 3D isotropic T2-weighted fast spin echo (VISTA) versus 2D T2-weighted fast spin echo in evaluation of the calcaneofibular ligament in the oblique coronal plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H J; Lee, S Y; Choi, Y J; Hong, H P; Park, S J; Park, J H; Kim, E

    2017-02-01

    To investigate whether the image quality of three-dimensional (3D) volume isotropic fast spin echo acquisition (VISTA) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the calcaneofibular ligament (CFL) view is comparable to that of 2D fast spin echo T2-weighted images (2D T2 FSE) for the evaluation of the CFL, and whether 3D VISTA can replace 2D T2 FSE for the evaluation of CFL injuries. This retrospective study included 76 patients who underwent ankle MRI with CFL views of both 2D T2 FSE MRI and 3D VISTA. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of both techniques were measured. The anatomical identification score and diagnostic performances were evaluated by two readers independently. The diagnostic performances of 3D VISTA and 2D T2 FSE were analysed by sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for diagnosing CFL injury with reference standards of surgically or clinically confirmed diagnoses. Surgical correlation was performed in 29% of the patients, and clinical examination was used in those who did not have surgery (71%). The SNRs and CNRs of 3D VISTA were significantly higher than those of 2D T2 FSE. The anatomical identification scores on 3D VISTA were inferior to those on 2D T2 FSE, and the differences were statistically significant (pT2 FSE for the anatomical evaluation of CFL, 3D VISTA has a diagnostic performance comparable to that of 2D T2 FSE for the diagnosis of CFL injuries. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 3D Fast Spin Echo T2-weighted Contrast for Imaging the Female Cervix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Sanchez, Andrea Fernanda

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) with T2-weighted contrast is the preferred modality for treatment planning and monitoring of cervical cancer. Current clinical protocols image the volume of interest multiple times with two dimensional (2D) T2-weighted MRI techniques. It is of interest to replace these multiple 2D acquisitions with a single three dimensional (3D) MRI acquisition to save time. However, at present the image contrast of standard 3D MRI does not distinguish cervical healthy tissue from cancerous tissue. The purpose of this thesis is to better understand the underlying factors that govern the contrast of 3D MRI and exploit this understanding via sequence modifications to improve the contrast. Numerical simulations are developed to predict observed contrast alterations and to propose an improvement. Improvements of image contrast are shown in simulation and with healthy volunteers. Reported results are only preliminary but a promising start to establish definitively 3D MRI for cervical cancer applications.

  10. Utility of single shot fast spin echo technique in evaluating pancreaticobiliary diseases: T2-weighted image and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Byoung Wook; Kim, Myeong Jin; Chung, Jae Bok; Ko, Heung Kyu; Kim, Dong Joon; Kim, Joo Hee; Chung, Jae Joon; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Lee, Jong Tae

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of T2-weighted imaging an MR cholangiopancreatography using the single shot fast spin-echo technique for evaluating pancreaticobiliary disease. Between March and July 1997, axial and coronal T2-weighted images(TE: 80-200 msec) and MR cholangiopancreatograms (TE: 800-1200 msec) were obtained in two ways [single slab (thickness: 30-50 mm) and multislice acquisition under chemical fat saturation] using SSFSE pulse sequencing in 131 cases of suspected pancreati-cobiliary disease. The accuracy of SSFSE MR imaging was assessed in 89 lesions of 74 patients [male, 48; female, 26; age range, 30-86 (mean, 59) years] confirmed surgicopathologically (50 lesions in 39 patients) and clinically (39 lesions in 35 patients). Two radiologists reviewed the MR images and diagnosis was determined by consensus. Correct diagnosis was confirmed in 84 of 89 lesions (94%). Seven lesions were falsely interpreted, false positive and false negative results accounting for two and five cases, respectively. Two pancreatic cancers were misdiagnosed as pancreatitis and a cancer of the proximal common bile duct(CBD) was interpreted as a distal CBD cancer. The sensitivity of SSFSE MR imaging for malignancy was 93 %. One CBD stone revealed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) was not detected on MR images. In contrast, a stone in the CBD seen on MR images was not apparent on subsequent ERCP. Sensitivity and specificity for calculous disease were 96% and 99.7%, respectively. A benign stricture of the ampulla of Vater was falsely interpreted as normal, and correct diagnosis was possible in two falsely diagnosed cases when MR images were reviewed retrospectively. The combination of T2-weighted and cholangiographic images using SSFSE is an accurate method for diagnosing pancreatcobiliary diseases

  11. Comparison of single-shot fast spin-echo sequence and T2-weighted fast spin-echo sequence in MR imaging of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Sung Ho; Seo, Jeong Jin; Jeong, Gwang Woo; Kim, Jae Kyu; Kim, Yun Hyeon; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Kang, Heoung Keun; Oh, Hee Yeon; Yoon, Jong Hoon

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the single-shot fast spinecho (SS-FSE) sequence in comparison with the T2-weighted fast spin-echo (T2-FSE) sequence in brain MR imaging. In 41 patients aged 15-75 years with intracranial lesion, both SS-FSE and T2-FES images were obtained using a 1.5-T MR system. Lesions included cerebral ischemia or infarcts (n=3D23), tumors (n=3D10), hemorrhages (n=3D3), inflammatory diseases (n=3D2), arachnoid cysts(n=3D2), and vascular disease (n=3D1), and the MR images were retrospectively evaluated. To calculate contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), percentage contrast, and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)-and thus make a quantitative comparison-the mean signal intensities of lesions, normal brain tissue, and noise out-side the patient were measured. For qualitative comparison, the visibility, margin, and extent of the lesions were rated using a five-grade system, and the degree of MR artifacts was also evaluated. Wilcoxon's signed ranks test was used for statistical analysis. The mean CNR of lesions was significantly higher on SS-FSE (31.3) than on T2-FSE images (27.5) (p=3D0.0131). Mean percentage contrast was also higher on SS-FSE (159.0) than on T2-FSE images (108.5) (p=3D0.0222), but mean SNR was higher on T2-FSE (80.3) than on SS-FSE images (53.5) (p=3D0.0000). No significant differences in lesion visibility were observed between the two imaging sequences, though margin and extent of the lesion were worse on SS-FSE images. For MR artifacts, no significant differences were demonstrated. For the evaluation of most intracranial lesions, MR imaging using the SS-FSE sequence appears to be slightly inferior to the T2-FSE sequence, but may be useful where patients are ill or uncooperative, or where children require sedation.=20

  12. Comparison of two-dimensional fast spin echo T2 weighted sequences and three-dimensional volume isotropic T2 weighted fast spin echo (VISTA) MRI in the evaluation of triangular fibrocartilage of the wrist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hee Jin; Lee, So Yeon; Kang, Kyung A; Kim, Eun Young; Shin, Hun Kyu; Park, Se Jin; Park, Jai Hyung; Kim, Eugene

    2018-04-01

    To compare image quality of three-dimensional volume isotropic T 2 weighted fast spin echo (3D VISTA) and two-dimensional (2D) T 2 weighted images (T2WI) for evaluation of triangular fibrocartilage (TFC) and to investigate whether 3D VISTA can replace 2D T 2 WI in evaluating TFC injury. This retrospective study included 69 patients who received wrist MRIs using both 2D T 2 WI and 3D VISTA techniques for assessment of wrist pathology, including TFC injury. Two radiologists measured the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the two sequences. The anatomical identification score and diagnostic performance were independently assessed by two interpreters. The diagnostic abilities of 3D VISTA and 2D T 2 WI were analysed by sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for diagnosing TFC injury using surgically or clinically confirmed diagnostic reference standards. 17 cases (25%) were classified as having TFC injury. 2 cases (12%) were diagnosed surgically, and 15 cases (88%) were diagnosed by physical examination. 52 cases (75%) were diagnosed as having intact TFC. 8 of these cases (15%) were surgically confirmed, while the others were diagnosed by physical examination and clinical findings. The 3D VISTA images had significantly higher SNR and CNR values for the TFC than 2D T 2 WI images. The scores of 3D VISTA's total length, full width and sharpness were similar to those of 2D T 2 WI. We were unable to find a significant difference between 3D VISTA and 2D T 2 WI in the ability to diagnose TFC injury. 3D VISTA image quality is similar to that of 2D T 2 WI for TFC evaluation and is also excellent for tissue contrast. 3D VISTA can replace 2D images in TFC injury assessment. Advances in knowledge: 3D VISTA image quality is similar to that of 2D T 2 WI for TFC evaluation and is also excellent for tissue contrast. 3D VISTA can replace 2D images in TFC injury assessment.

  13. Comparison of fast spin echo, fast multiplanner spoiled gradient recalled and conventional T1 and T2 weighted imaging for experimentally induced hepatic tumors in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myeong Jin; Lee, Jong Tae; Suh, Jin Suk; Choi, Pil Sik; Lee, Yeon Hee; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Kim, Ki Whang [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-10-15

    To compare the ability of tumor detection and the lesion conspicuity between T1- and T2-weighted fast scanning sequence and T1- and T2-weighted conventional spin echo techniques in MR imaging of hepatic tumors. Hepatic tumors were induced on 13 male Sprague-Dawley rats by feeding 3'-methyl-dimethylethyl aminoazobenzene mixed with Miller's III formula for 12 weeks. MR images were obtained with 1.5 T magnet with dual TMJ coil(Sigma, GE Medical systems, Milwaukee, USA). Animals were anesthetized with 150 mg/kg of ketamine hydrochloride. T2 weighted fast spin echo(FSE), conventional spin echo(CSE) T2- and T1WI, fast multiplanner spoiled gradient recalled(FMPSPGR) imaging were obtained. Number of detected tumors and contrast-to-noise ratio of the tumors were compared for each sequence. Overall 110 tumors were developed. 75% of the tumors were detected on FSE. 65% on FMPSPGR, 41% on conventional T2WI, and 41% on T1WI images. For tumors more than 5 mm in diameter, sensitivity was 88% on FMPSPGR, 65% on conventional T2WI, and 81% on T1WI images respectively. CNR of the tumor was 28.94 {+-} 21.6 on FSE, 13.57 {+-} 8.64 on FMPSPGR, 12.62 {+-} 10.65 on CSE T2WI, and 9.47 {+-} 8.05 on CSE T1WI images, which was significantly high on FSE(p<0.05). Fast spin echo T2WI shows highest sensitivity and tumor-to-liver contrast. FMPSPGR imaging is also favorably comparable with conventional T1WI. Therefore, these two pulse sequences can be useful in clinical condition for hepatic MR imaging.

  14. Application of three-dimensional fast spin-echo T2-weighted image in lesions of the inner ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xian Junfang; Wang Zhenchang; Yan Fei; Niu Yantao; Zhu Ye; Wang Yan; Tian Qichang; Lan Baosen

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the advantage of three-dimensional fast spin-echo T 2 -weighted image (3D FSE T 2 WI) in depicting normal structures and lesions of the inner ear. Methods: 3D FSE T 2 WI and 2D FSE T 2 WI were performed in 10 healthy volunteers and 20 cases with inner ear diseases. Advantages and disadvantages of the two techniques were compared. CT was performed in 6 cases with enlarged endo-lymphatic sac and 1 cases of Mondini malformation. Results: 3D FSE T 2 WI enabled visualization of detailed anatomic structures. Enlarged endo-lymphatic sacs were clearly revealed in 9 cases on 16 sides by 3D FSE T 2 WI, while only a part but not the whole of the enlarged endo-lymphatic sac could be shown on 2D FSE T 2 WI. In 6 cases, 3D FSE T 2 WI displayed enlarged endo-lymphatic sac on 11 sides and normal on 1 side; however, CT revealed enlarged vestibular aqueduct on all 12 sides. One case with small acoustic neuroma (only 4 mm in diameter) was clearly demonstrated on 3D FSE T 2 WI but not well shown on 2D FSE T 2 WI. One case with cochlear Mondini malformation associated with dysplasia of vestibule and semicircular canals was displayed more clearly on 3D FSE T 2 WI than on 2D FSE T 2 WI. Conclusions: 3D FSE T 2 WI can clearly display normal structures and lesions of the inner ear

  15. Moderately T2-weighted images obtained with the single-shot fast spin-echo technique. Differentiating between malignant and benign urinary obstructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obuchi, Masao; Sugimoto, Hideharu; Kubota, Hayato; Yamamoto, Wakako; Kinebuchi, Yuko; Honda, Minoru; Takahara, Taro

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a distinction could be made between benign and malignant urinary obstructions in moderately T 2 -weighted images obtained with the single-shot fast spin-echo technique. Forty-four lesions in 39 patients with urinary obstruction were evaluated with the single-shot fast spin-echo (SSFSE) technique with an effective TE of 90-100 ms and without fat saturation. Benign and malignant lesions were compared for the presence of ureteral wall thickening and a signal intensity relative to the proximal ureteral wall. Statistically significant differences were found between benign and malignant lesions in both morphologic change (P 2 -weighted SSFSE technique without fat saturation can accurately distinguish between benign and malignant urinary obstructions. (author)

  16. Fat-suppressed fast spin-echo mid-TE (TE[effective]=34) MR images: comparison with fast spin-echo T2-weighted images for the diagnosis of tears and anatomic variants of the glenoid labrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuite, M J [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Wisconsin School of Medicine, Madison (United States); University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics, Dept. of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); Shinners, T J; Hollister, M C [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Wisconsin School of Medicine, Madison (United States); Orwin, J F [Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine, Madison (United States)

    1999-12-01

    Objective. To compare the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of fat-suppressed fast spin-echo (FSE) mid-TE (TE[effective]=34) images with fat-suppressed FSE T2-weighted images for the diagnosis of labral abnormalities.Design and patients. The study included 27 consecutive patients who had axial fat-suppressed FSE T2-weighted and fat-suppressed FSE mid-TE MR images, and had labral abnormalities diagnosed at arthroscopy. The acquisition time was about 5 min for each sequence, but the mid-TE sequence allowed a higher spatial resolution than the T2-weighted images (256 x 256 versus 256 x 192). Twenty-eight age-matched patients with arthroscopically normal labra were included as a control group. The labrum was graded on the MR images as normal or abnormal separately by two musculoskeletal radiologists who were masked to the history and arthroscopic results. The surgical findings were used as the gold standard for calculating the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for interpreting the correct location of a labral abnormality. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the two sequences were compared with a McNemar test, and significance defined as P<0.05.Results. For observer 1, the sensitivity for labral abnormalities was 0.59 on the T2-weighted images, and 0.78 on the mid-TE images (P=0.12). The specificity was 0.54 for the T2-weighted, and 0.64 for the mid-TE images (P=0.51). The accuracy was 0.56 for the T2-weighted, and 0.71 for the mid-TE images (P=0.08). For observer 2, the sensitivity/specificity/accuracy was 0.67/0.93/0.80 for the T2-weighted, and 0.70/0.86/0.78 for the mid-TE images (all P>0.5).Conclusion. In this small study there is no statistically significant difference for demonstrating labral abnormalities between FSE T2-weighted images, and higher-resolution fat-suppressed FSE mid-TE (TE[effective]=34) images obtained with a similar acquisition time. Although there was a general trend toward higher sensitivity and accuracy with the mid

  17. [The use of the T2-weighted turbo-spin-echo sequence in studying the neurocranium. A comparison with the conventional T2-weighted spin-echo sequence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewert, C; Hosten, N; Felix, R

    1994-07-01

    T2-weighted spin-echo imaging is the standard screening procedure in MR imaging of the neurocranium. We evaluated fast spin-echo T2-weighted imaging (TT2) of the neurocranium in comparison to conventional spin-echo T2-weighted imaging (T2). Signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratio of normal brain tissues (basal ganglia, grey and white matter, CSF fluid) and different pathologies were calculated. Signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio were significantly higher in TT2 than in T2 (with the exception of gray-to-white matter contrast). Tissues with increased content of water protons (mobile protons) showed the highest contrast to surrounding tissues. The increased signal intensity of fat must be given due attention in fatty lesions. Because the contrast-to-noise ratio between white matter and basal ganglia is less in TT2, Parkinson patients have to be examined by conventional T2. If these limitations are taken into account, fast spin-echo T2-weighted imaging is well appropriate for MR imaging of the neurocranium, resulting in heavy T2-weighting achieved in a short acquisition time.

  18. Comparison between FLAIR images and T2-weighted fast spin-echo images of cerebral territory and lacunar infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paeng, Mi Hye; Choi, Hye-Young; Lim, Soo Mee; Lee, Jung Sik

    2003-01-01

    To assess the significance of fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the diagnosis of intracranial infarctions and to find out differential points between central lacunar infarctions and perivascular spaces. We consecutively selected 25 cases of territorial infarction in 20 patients, 37 cases of central infarction in 40 patients, and 30 patients with perivascular space. Signal intensity and lesion conspicuity were analyzed and compared between FLAIR and FSE T2-weighted images, and differences in signal intensity between central infarction and perivascular spaces were determined. Lesion conspicuity for FLAIR was better than for T2-weighted images in 12 and 15, worse in 4 and 24, and similar in 9 and 16 of territorial and central infarctions, respectively. In nine cases of territorial and one case of central infarction, there was associated hemorrhage. At FLAIR imaging, perivascular spaces showed a fine round low signal without a peripheral high signal rim in 17 patients but no demonstrable signals in 15. Differential diagnosis of perivascular spaces and central infarction was thus not difficult. FLAIR MRI was useful in the diagnosis of infarctions and in differentiating between central small lacular infarctions and perivascular spaces

  19. SPAMM, cine phase contrast imaging and fast spin-echo T2-weighted imaging in the study of intracranial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, S.E.J.; O'Gorman, R.; Summers, P.; Simmons, A.; Moore, E.M.; Chandler, C.; Jarosz, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To compare the qualitative assessment of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow using a SPAMM (spatial modulation of magnetization) technique with cine phase contrast images (cine PC) and fast spin echo (FSE) T2-weighted images. MATERIALS AND METHODS: SPAMM, PC and T2-weighted sequences were performed on 22 occasions in 19 patients. Eleven of the studies were performed following a neuroendoscopic third ventriculostomy (NTV), and in these cases, the success of the NTV was determined by clinical follow-up. Two observers used consensus to grade the presence of CSF flow at nine different sites for each study. RESULTS: At 14 of the 178 matched sites, which could be assessed by both SPAMM and cine PC, SPAMM CSF flow grade was higher than that of cine PC. At a further 14/178 matched sites, the cine PC grade was higher than that of SPAMM. There was definite CSF flow at 113/182 (62%) of all the cine PC sites assessed, and 110/181 (61%) of all SPAMM sites assessed whilst 108/198 (54%) of FSE T2-weighted image sites demonstrated flow voids. Cine PC grades were higher than SPAMM at the cerebral aqueduct (P < 0.05, Wilcoxon sign rank test). Definite CSF flow within the anterior third ventricle was present in 4/5 (SPAMM) and 3/5 (cine PC) successful NTVs, 0/2 (SPAMM and cine PC) unsuccessful NTVs and 1/10 (SPAMM and cine PC) patients without NTV. CONCLUSION: SPAMM provides a comparable assessment of intracranial CSF flow to that of cine phase contrast imaging at all CSF sites except the cerebral aqueduct. Connor, S.E.J. et al. (2001)

  20. MR Imaging of the Spine at 3.0T with T2-Weighted IDEAL Fast Recovery Fast Spin-Echo Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Ai Jun; Guo, Yong; Tian, Shu Ping; Shi, Li Jing; Huang, Min Hua

    2012-01-01

    To compare the iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and the least-squares estimation (IDEAL) method with a fat-saturated T2-weighted (T2W) fast recovery fast spin-echo (FRFSE) imaging of the spine. Images acquired at 3.0 Tesla (T) in 35 patients with different spine lesions using fat-saturated T2W FRFSE imaging were compared with T2W IDEAL FRFSE images. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)-efficiencies measurements were made in the vertebral bodies and spinal cord in the mid-sagittal plane or nearest to the mid-sagittal plane. Images were scored with the consensus of two experienced radiologists on a four-point grading scale for fat suppression and overall image quality. Statistical analysis of SNR-efficiency, fat suppression and image quality scores was performed with a paired Student's t test and Wilcoxon's signed rank test. Signal-to-noise ratio-efficiency for both vertebral body and spinal cord was higher with T2W IDEAL FRFSE imaging (p < 0.05) than with T2W FRFSE imaging. T2W IDEAL FRFSE demonstrated superior fat suppression (p < 0.01) and image quality (p < 0.01) compared to fat-saturated T2W FRFSE. As compared with fat-saturated T2W FRFSE, IDEAL can provide a higher image quality, higher SNR-efficiency, and consistent, robust and uniform fat suppression. T2W IDEAL FRFSE is a promising technique for MR imaging of the spine at 3.0T.

  1. High-resolution T2-weighted MR imaging of the inner ear using a long echo-train-length 3D fast spin-echo sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naganawa, S.; Yamakawa, K.; Fukatsu, H.; Ishigaki, T.; Nakashima, T.; Sugimoto, H.; Aoki, I.; Miyazaki, M.; Takai, H.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the value of a long echo-train-length 3D fast spin-echo (3D-FSE) sequence in visualizing the inner ear structures. Ten normal ears and 50 patient ears were imaged on a 1.5T MR unit using a head coil. Axial high-resolution T2-weighted images of the inner ear and the internal auditory canal (IAC) were obtained in 15 min. In normal ears the reliability of the visualization for the inner ear structures was evaluated on original images and the targeted maximum intensity projection (MIP) images of the labyrinth. In ten normal ears, 3D surface display (3D) images were also created and compared with MIP images. On the original images the cochlear aqueduct, the vessels in the vicinity of the IAC, and more than three branches of the cranial nerves were visualized in the IAC in all the ears. The visibility of the endolympathic duct was 80%. On the MIP images the visibility of the three semicircular canals, anterior and posterior ampulla, and of more than two turns of the cochlea was 100%. The MIP images and 3D images were almost comparable. The visibility of the endolymphatic duct was 80% in normal ears and 0% in the affected ears of the patients with Meniere's disease (p<0.001). In one patient ear a small intracanalicular tumor was depicted clearly. In conclusion, the long echo train length T2-weighted 3D-FSE sequence enables the detailed visualization of the tiny structures of the inner ear and the IAC within a clinically acceptable scan time. Furthermore, obtaining a high contrast between the soft/bony tissue and the cerebrospinal/endolymph/perilymph fluid would be of significant value in the diagnosis of the pathologic conditions around the labyrinth and the IAC. (orig.)

  2. BLADE acquisition method improves T2-weighted MR images of the female pelvis compared with a standard fast spin-echo sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Koji; Koyama, Takashi; Tamai, Ken; Morisawa, Nobuko; Okada, Tomohisa; Togashi, Kaori

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate feasibility of the periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction (PROPELLER or BLADE) T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) of the female pelvis by comparing it with standard fast spin-echo T2WI (STD-T2WI). Materials and methods: Sagittal STD-T2WI and BLADE-T2WI of the female pelvis were performed with (36 patients) or without (15 patients) administration of butylscopolamine on a 1.5 T MR unit. Two radiologists independently rated depiction of the uterus, ovary, intestines, bladder, gynecological lesions, overall quality, and artifacts using a four-point scale. Results were compared between STD-T2WI vs. BLADE-T2WI either with (B+) or without (B−) administration of butylscopolamine, BLADE-T2WI (B−) vs. BLADE-T2WI (B+), and STD-T2WI (B+) vs. BLADE-T2WI (B−). Results: When butylscopolamine was administrated, depiction of the uterus, ovary, intestines, gynecological lesions, and overall image quality was rated higher and artifacts were rated fewer for BLADE-T2WI with significance compared with STD-T2WI. When the drug was not administrated, significant difference was observed in depiction of the lesion, overall quality, and artifacts. Depiction of the uterus, gynecological lesion, and overall quality was rated significantly higher and artifacts were fewer in BLADE-T2WI (B+) than in BLADE-T2WI (B−). Conclusion: BLADE method was feasible for female pelvic MRI, with best image quality in BLADE-T2WI (B+).

  3. 3D hybrid profile order technique in a single breath-hold 3D T2-weighted fast spin-echo sequence: Usefulness in diagnosis of small liver lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Kenichiro; Nakaura, Takeshi; Okuaki, Tomoyuki; Tsuda, Noriko; Taguchi, Narumi; Oda, Seitaro; Utsunomiya, Daisuke; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

    2018-01-01

    We compared the efficacy of three-dimensional (3D) isotropic T2-weighted fast spin-echo imaging using a 3D hybrid profile order technique with a single-breath-hold (3D-Hybrid BH) with a two-dimensional (2D) T2-weighted fast spin-echo conventional respiratory-gated (2D-Conventional RG) technique for visualising small liver lesions. This study was approved by our institutional review board. The requirement to obtain written informed consent was waived. Fifty patients with small (≤15mm) hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) (n=26), or benign cysts (n=24), had undergone hepatic MRI including both 2D-Conventional RG and 3D-Hybrid BH. We calculated the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and tumour-to-liver contrast (TLC). The diagnostic performance of the two protocols was analysed. The image acquisition time was 89% shorter with the 3D-Hybrid BH than with 2D-Conventional RG. There was no significant difference in the SNR between the two protocols. The area under the curve (AUC) of the TLC was significantly higher on 3D-Hybrid BH than on 2D-Conventional RG. The 3D-Hybrid BH sequence significantly improved diagnostic performance for small liver lesions with a shorter image acquisition time without sacrificing accuracy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Fast spin-echo imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, K.; Zoarski, G.; Bentson, J.R.; Lufkin, R.B.; Melki, P.; Jolesz, F.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a partial radio-frequency (RF) echo-planar pulse sequence called contiguous slice fast spin echo (CSFSE) which is undergoing clinical trials for spine MR imaging. In this variation of rapid acquisition relaxation enhanced (RARE) spin-echo imaging, rapid 180 degrees RF pulse generated refocused echoes, producing T2-weighted images in about one-third the time of conventional double-echo technique. Forty patients with suspected pathology of the spine were imaged with conventional double-echo and closely matched CSFSE techniques on a GE Signa 1.5-T Advantage system. Cases were reviewed by two board-certified neuroradiologists. In all cases the CSFSE images were of equal or superior quality compared with those obtained with the conventional double-echo technique. Pathologic processes that were imaged consisted of inflammatory, neoplastic, posttraumatic, and degenerative conditions

  5. Assessment of diagnosing metastatic bone tumor on T2*-weighted images. Comparison between turbo spin echo (TSE) method and gradient echo (GE) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Takahiko; Sugiyama, Akira; Katayama, Motoyuki

    1996-01-01

    We examined the usefulness of T2 * weighted gradient field echo images for diagnosis for metastatic bone tumors in comparison with T2 weighted turbo spin echo (fast spin echo) images. In T2 * weighted gradient field echo sequence to obtain maximum contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), we experimentally manipulated flip angle (FA) (5deg-90deg), repetition time (TR) (400, 700 msec), and echo time (TE) (10-50 msec). The best CNR was 16.4 in fast low angle shot (FLASH) (TE: 24 msec, TR: 700 msec, FA: 40deg). Magnetic resonance imaging was carried out in 28 patients with metastatic bone tumors. In addition to conventional T1 weighted spin echo images, T2 weighted turbo spin echo (fast spin echo images) and T2 * weighted gradient field echo images were obtained. T2 * weighted gradient field echo images were superior to T2 weighted turbo spin echo (fast spin echo) images in delineating the tumors, adjacent fat tissues, and bone marrow. (author)

  6. MRI of the anterior talofibular ligament, talar cartilage and os subfibulare: Comparison of isotropic resolution 3D and conventional 2D T2-weighted fast spin-echo sequences at 3.0 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Jisook; Cha, Jang Gyu [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Department of Radiology, Wonmi-gu, Bucheon-si (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Koo [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Department of Orthopedics, Wonmi-gu, Bucheon-si (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Bo Ra [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Department of Biomedical Statistics, Wonmi-gu, Bucheon-si (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Chan Hong [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Wonmi-gu, Bucheon-si (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    To determine the accuracy of a three-dimensional (3D) T2-weighted fast spin-echo (FSE) magnetic resonance (MR) sequence compared with two-dimensional (2D) sequence for diagnosing anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) tears, chondral lesion of the talus (CLT) and os subfibulare/avulsion fracture of the distal fibula (OSF). Thirty-five patients were included, who had undergone ankle MRI with 3D T2-weighted FSE and 2D T2-weighted FSE sequences, as well as subsequent ankle arthroscopy, between November 2013 and July 2014. Each MR imaging sequence was independently scored by two readers retrospectively for the presence of ATFL tears, CLT and OSF. The area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) was compared to determine the discriminatory power of the two image sequences. Interobserver agreement was expressed as unweighted kappa value. Arthroscopic findings confirmed 21 complete tears of the ATFL, 14 partial tears of the ATFL, 17 CLTs and 7 OSFs. There were no significant differences in the diagnoses of ATFL tears (p = 0.074-0.501), CLT (p = 0.090-0.450) and OSF (p = 0.317) obtained from the 2D and 3D sequences by either reader. The interobserver agreement rates between two readers using the 3D T2-weighted FSE sequence versus those obtained with the 2D sequence were substantial (κ = 0.659) versus moderate (κ = 0.553) for ATFL tears, moderate (κ = 0.499) versus substantial (κ = 0.676) for CLT and substantial (κ = 0.621) versus substantial (κ = 0.689) for OSF. Three-dimensional isotropic T2-weighted FSE MRI of the ankle resulted in no statistically significant difference in diagnostic performance compared to two-dimensional T2-weighted FSE MRI in the evaluation of ATFL tears, CLTs and OSFs. (orig.)

  7. MRI of the anterior talofibular ligament, talar cartilage and os subfibulare: Comparison of isotropic resolution 3D and conventional 2D T2-weighted fast spin-echo sequences at 3.0 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Jisook; Cha, Jang Gyu; Lee, Young Koo; Lee, Bo Ra; Jeon, Chan Hong

    2016-01-01

    To determine the accuracy of a three-dimensional (3D) T2-weighted fast spin-echo (FSE) magnetic resonance (MR) sequence compared with two-dimensional (2D) sequence for diagnosing anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) tears, chondral lesion of the talus (CLT) and os subfibulare/avulsion fracture of the distal fibula (OSF). Thirty-five patients were included, who had undergone ankle MRI with 3D T2-weighted FSE and 2D T2-weighted FSE sequences, as well as subsequent ankle arthroscopy, between November 2013 and July 2014. Each MR imaging sequence was independently scored by two readers retrospectively for the presence of ATFL tears, CLT and OSF. The area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) was compared to determine the discriminatory power of the two image sequences. Interobserver agreement was expressed as unweighted kappa value. Arthroscopic findings confirmed 21 complete tears of the ATFL, 14 partial tears of the ATFL, 17 CLTs and 7 OSFs. There were no significant differences in the diagnoses of ATFL tears (p = 0.074-0.501), CLT (p = 0.090-0.450) and OSF (p = 0.317) obtained from the 2D and 3D sequences by either reader. The interobserver agreement rates between two readers using the 3D T2-weighted FSE sequence versus those obtained with the 2D sequence were substantial (κ = 0.659) versus moderate (κ = 0.553) for ATFL tears, moderate (κ = 0.499) versus substantial (κ = 0.676) for CLT and substantial (κ = 0.621) versus substantial (κ = 0.689) for OSF. Three-dimensional isotropic T2-weighted FSE MRI of the ankle resulted in no statistically significant difference in diagnostic performance compared to two-dimensional T2-weighted FSE MRI in the evaluation of ATFL tears, CLTs and OSFs. (orig.)

  8. Semicircular canal dehiscence: comparison of T2-weighted turbo spin-echo MRI and CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krombach, G.A.; Schmitz-Rode, T.; Haage, P.; Guenther, R.W.; DiMartino, E.; Prescher, A.; Kinzel, S.

    2004-01-01

    We assessed the value of MRI for delineation of dehiscence of the superior or posterior semicircular canal, as compared with CT, the current standard study for this entity. We reviewed heavily T2-weighted fast spin-echo images and high-resolution CT of the temporal bones of 185 patients independently semicircular canal dehiscence and its extent. In 30 patients (19 men, 11 women) we identified dehiscence of the bone over the superior and/or posterior semicircular canal on MRI. In 27 of these cases CT also showed circumscribed bone defects. In one patient dehiscence of the superior semicircular canal was initially overlooked on MRI, but seen on CT. MRI imaging thus had a sensitivity of 96% and specificity of 98%. Knowledge of the appearances of this entity on MRI may contribute to early diagnosis in patients with vertigo due to semicircular canal dehiscence. (orig.)

  9. Semicircular canal dehiscence: comparison of T2-weighted turbo spin-echo MRI and CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krombach, G.A.; Schmitz-Rode, T.; Haage, P.; Guenther, R.W. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); DiMartino, E. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); Prescher, A. [Department of Anatomy, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); Kinzel, S. [Department of Experimental Veterinary Medicine, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany)

    2004-04-01

    We assessed the value of MRI for delineation of dehiscence of the superior or posterior semicircular canal, as compared with CT, the current standard study for this entity. We reviewed heavily T2-weighted fast spin-echo images and high-resolution CT of the temporal bones of 185 patients independently semicircular canal dehiscence and its extent. In 30 patients (19 men, 11 women) we identified dehiscence of the bone over the superior and/or posterior semicircular canal on MRI. In 27 of these cases CT also showed circumscribed bone defects. In one patient dehiscence of the superior semicircular canal was initially overlooked on MRI, but seen on CT. MRI imaging thus had a sensitivity of 96% and specificity of 98%. Knowledge of the appearances of this entity on MRI may contribute to early diagnosis in patients with vertigo due to semicircular canal dehiscence. (orig.)

  10. Analysis of artefacts and detail resolution of lung MRI with breath-hold T1-weighted gradient-echo and T2-weighted fast spin-echo sequences with respiratory triggering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biederer, J.; Reuter, M.; Both, M.; Grimm, J.; Heller, M.; Muhle, C.; Graessner, J.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate feasibility and limitations of two MR sequences for imaging of the lung using a semi-quantitative rating scale. Ten healthy volunteers were assessed with a breath-hold T1-weighted gradient-recalled-echo (TR/TE=129/2.2 ms, matrix 173 x 256) and a T2-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE) sequence with respiratory triggering (TR/TE=3000-5000/120 ms, matrix 270 x 512) in axial 6-mm slices. The T1-weighted GRE protocol included a pre-saturation pulse over the mediastinal structures. Artefacts and resolution of vessel/airway structures in each lung segment were evaluated by two observers (10 volunteers, 180 segments). Cardiac and vessel pulsation artefacts predominated on T1-weighted GRE, respiration artefacts on T2-weighted TSE (lingula and middle lobe). Pre-saturation of the mediastinum reduced pulsation artefacts on T1-weighted GRE. T1-weighted GRE images were improved by bright flow signal of vessels, whereas image quality of T2-weighted TSE was reduced by black-blood effects in central parts of the lung. Delineation of lung periphery and the mediastinum was superior with T2-weighted TSE. Segmental/sub-segmental vessels (up to fourth/fifth order) and bronchi (up to third order) were identified. All 180 lung segments were imaged in diagnostic quality with at least one of the two sequences (T1-weighted GRE not diagnostic in 9 of 180, T2-weighted TSE in 4 of 180). Both sequences were found to be complementary: superior identification of gross lung anatomy with T1-weighted GRE and higher detail resolution in the periphery and the mediastinum with T2-weighted TSE. (orig.)

  11. Optimal MR pulse sequences for hepatic hemangiomas : comparison of T2-weighted turbo-spin-echo, T2-weighted breath-hold turbo-spin-echo, and T1-weighted FLASH dynamic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wen Chao; Choi, Byung Ihn; Han, Joon Koo; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Cho, Soon Gu

    1997-01-01

    To optimize MR imaging pulse sequences in the imaging of hepatic hemangioma and to evaluate on dynamic MR imaging the enhancing characteristics of the lesions. Twenty patients with 35 hemangiomas were studied by using Turbo-spin-echo (TSE) sequence (T2-weighted, T2- and heavily T2-weighted breath-hold) and T1-weighted FLASH imaging acquired before, immediately on, and 1, 3 and 5 minutes after injection of a bolus of Gd-DTPA (0.1mmol/kg). Phased-array multicoil was employed. Images were quantitatively analyzed for lesion-to-liver signal difference to noise ratios (SD/Ns), and lesion-to-liver signal ratios (H/Ls), and qualitatively analyzed for lesion conspicuity. The enhancing characteristics of the hemangiomas were described by measuring the change of signal intensity as a curve in T1-weighted FLASH dynamic imaging. For T2-weighted images, breath-hold T2-weighted TSE had a slightly higher SD/N than other pulse sequences, but there was no statistical difference in three fast pulse sequences (p=0.211). For lesion conspicuity, heavily T2-weighted breath-hold TSE images was superior to T2-weighted breath-hold or non-breath-hold TSE (H/L, 5.75, 3.81, 2.87, respectively, p<0.05). T2-weighted breath-hold TSE imaging was more effective than T2-weighted TSE imaging in removing lesion blurring or lack of sharpness, and there was a 12-fold decrease in acquisition time (20sec versus 245 sec). T1-weighted FLASH dynamic images of normal liver showed peak enhancement at less than 1 minute, and of hemangioma at more than 3 minutes;the degree of enhancement for hemangioma decreased after a 3 minute delay. T2-weighed breath-hold TSE imaging and Gd-DTPA enhanced FLASH dynamic imaging with 5 minutes delay are sufficient for imaging hepatic hemangiomas

  12. MR imaging findings of diffuse axonal injury: comparison of T2-weighted gradient images and T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seo Young; Lee, Ghi Jai; Kim, Jeong Seok; Shim, Jae Chan; Kim, Ho Kyun [Inje Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-10-01

    To compare T2-weighted images with spin-echo T1- and turbo spin-echo (TSE) T2-weighted images in patients with diffuse axonal injury(DAI). Using a 1.0T MR unit, SE T1-, TSE T2-, and and FLASH T2-weighted images were obtained from 69 patients with a history of head trauma. In 18MR images of 17 patients with imaging findings of DAI, T2-weighted images were retrospectively compared with SE T1- and TSE T2-weighted images. The interval between trauma and MR scan varied from 5 days to 24(mean, 11) months. Focusing on the number of lesions, and their location and signal intensity, as weel as associated findings, three images were simultaueously evaluated. In 18 MR images of 17 patients with MR imaging findings of DAI, 21 lesions were detected on T1-weighted images, 28 on TSE T2-weighted images, and 70 on T2-weighted images;the last of these revealed all lesions detected on the other two. Most lesions were hypointense on T1-weighted images(17/21), hyperintense on TSE T2-weighted (21/28), and hypointense on T2-weighted (63/70). Common locations for DAI were the frontal lobe (n=3D35) and corpus callosum (n=3D22). Associated brain injuries were cortical contusion (n=3D5), brainstem injury (n=3D3), deep gray matter injury (n=3D2), and subdural hematoma(n=3D1). In patients with DAI. T2-weighted images can detect more lesions and associated petechial hemorrhage than can TSE T2-weighted images. This modality is thus useful for the evaluation of patients with head trauma.=20.

  13. T2-Weighted Dixon Turbo Spin Echo for Accelerated Simultaneous Grading of Whole-Body Skeletal Muscle Fat Infiltration and Edema in Patients With Neuromuscular Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaeger, Sarah; Klupp, Elisabeth; Weidlich, Dominik; Cervantes, Barbara; Foreman, Sarah C; Deschauer, Marcus; Schoser, Benedikt; Katemann, Christoph; Kooijman, Hendrik; Rummeny, Ernst J; Zimmer, Claus; Kirschke, Jan S; Karampinos, Dimitrios C

    2018-04-02

    The assessment of fatty infiltration and edema in the musculature of patients with neuromuscular diseases (NMDs) typically requires the separate performance of T1-weighted and fat-suppressed T2-weighted sequences. T2-weighted Dixon turbo spin echo (TSE) enables the generation of T2-weighted fat- and water-separated images, which can be used to assess both pathologies simultaneously. The present study examines the diagnostic performance of T2-weighted Dixon TSE compared with the standard sequences in 10 patients with NMDs and 10 healthy subjects. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging was performed including T1-weighted Dixon fast field echo, T2-weighted short-tau inversion recovery, and T2-weighted Dixon TSE. Fatty infiltration and intramuscular edema were rated by 2 radiologists using visual semiquantitative rating scales. To assess intermethod and interrater agreement, weighted Cohen's κ coefficients were calculated. The ratings of fatty infiltration showed high intermethod and high interrater agreement (T1-weighted Dixon fast field echo vs T2-weighted Dixon TSE fat image). The evaluation of edematous changes showed high intermethod and good interrater agreement (T2-weighted short-tau inversion recovery vs T2-weighted Dixon TSE water image). T2-weighted Dixon TSE imaging is an alternative for accelerated simultaneous grading of whole-body skeletal muscle fat infiltration and edema in patients with NMDs.

  14. Clinical utility of partial flip angle T2-weighted spin-echo imaging of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, K.H.; Yi, J.G.; Han, M.H.; Han, M.C.; Kim, C.W.; Cho, M.H.; Cho, Z.H.

    1990-01-01

    To assess the clinical usefulness of partial flip angle (PFA) spin-echo (SE) brain imaging, a total of eighty patients were examined with both conventional double echo T2-weighted SE (2500/30, 80/90deg/one excitation) and PFA double echo SE (1200/30, 70/45deg/two excitations) on 2.0T system. Two comparative studies were performed: (1) In 65 patients PFA SE technique was compared with conventional SE without flow compensating gradients, and (2) in 15 patients the former was compared with the latter with flow compensating gradients. Imaging time was nearly identical in each sequence. In both studies we found that PFA T2-weighted SE images were almost identical to those obtained with the conventional SE technique in the contrast characteristics and the detection rate of the abnormalities (100%, 85/85 lesions), and more importantly, PFA SE revealed few flow artifacts in the brain stem, temporal lobes and basal ganglia which were frequently seen on conventional SE without flow compensating gradients. Additionally, PFA SE images demonstrated no suppression of CSF flow void in the aqueduct which was commonly seen on conventional SE with flow compensating gradients. In overall image quality, the PFA SE images, particularly the second echo images, were almost comparable with those of conventional SE with flow compensating gradients. A flip angle of 45deg seems to be close to Ernst angle, the angle at which maximum signal occurs, for a given TR of 1200 msec for CSF and most of the abnormalities containing higher water content. In conclusion, PFA SE sequence (i.e. 1200/30, 70/45deg/2) appears to be useful as a primary or an adjunctive technique in certain clinical circumstances, particularly in imaging of hydrocephalic patients for assessing aqueductal patency. (orig.)

  15. Imaging of the brain using the fast-spin-echo and gradient-spin-echo techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umek, W.; Ba-Ssalamah, A.; Prokesch, R.; Mallek, R.; Heimberger, K.; Hittmair, K.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of our study was to compare gradient-spin-echo (GRASE) to fast-spin-echo (FSE) sequences for fast T2-weighted MR imaging of the brain. Thirty-one patients with high-signal-intensity lesions on T2-weighted images were examined on a 1.5-T MR system. The FSE and GRASE sequences with identical sequence parameters were obtained and compared side by side. Image assessment criteria included lesion conspicuity, contrast between different types of normal tissue, and image artifacts. In addition, signal-to-noise, contrast-to-noise, and contrast ratios and were determined. The FSE technique demonstrated more lesions than GRASE and with generally better conspicuity. Smaller lesions in particular were better demonstrated on FSE because of lower image noise and slightly weaker image artifacts. Gray-white differentiation was better on FSE. Ferritin and hemosiderin depositions appeared darker on GRASE, which resulted in better contrast. Fatty tissue was less bright on GRASE. With current standard hardware equipment, the FSE technique seems preferable to GRASE for fast T2-weighted routine MR imaging of the brain. For the assessment of hemosiderin or ferritin depositions, GRASE might be considered. (orig.)

  16. Usefulness of fluid attenuated inversion recovery(FLAIR) image in mesial temporal sclerosis : comparison with turbo spin-echo T2-weighted image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Seok Hyun; Chang, Seung Kuk; Eun, Choong Ki [Pusan Paik Hospital, Inje Univ. College of Medicine, Kimhae (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-01

    To determine the usefulness of fluid attenuated inversion recovery(FLAIR) imaging for the in detection of high signal intensity of hippocampus or amygdala in mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS), compared with that of turbo spin-echo T2-weighted imaging. Two neuroradiologists independently analyzed randomly mixed MR images of 20 lesions of 17 patients in whom MTS had been diagnosed, and ten normal controls. All subjects underwent both who performed both FLAIR and turbo spin-echo T2-weighted imaging, in a blind fashion. In order to determine hippocampal morphology, oblique coronal images perpendicular to the long axis of the hippocampus were obtained. The detection rate of high signal intensity in hippocampus or amygdala, the radiologists' preferred imaging sequence, and intersubject consistency of detection were evaluated. Signal intensity in hippocampus or amygdala was considered high if substantially higher than signal intensity in the cortex of adjacent temporo-parietal lobe. In all normal controls, FLAIR and spin-echo T2-weighted images showed normal signal intensity in hippocampus or amygdala. In MTS, the mean detection rate of high signal intensity in hippocampus or amygdala, as seen on FLAIR images was 93%, compared with 43% on spin-echo T2-weighted images. In all cases in which signal intensity on FLAIR images was normal, signal intensity on spin-echo T2-weighted images was also normal. The radiologists preferred the contrast properties of FLAIR to those of spin-echo T2-weighted images. In the diagnosis of MTS using MRI, FLAIR images are more useful for the detection of high signal intensity of hippocampus or amygdala than are spin-echo T2-weighted images. In the diagnosis of MTS, FLAIR imaging is therefore a suitable alternative to spin-echo T2-weighted imaging.

  17. Usefulness of fluid attenuated inversion recovery(FLAIR) image in mesial temporal sclerosis : comparison with turbo spin-echo T2-weighted image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Seok Hyun; Chang, Seung Kuk; Eun, Choong Ki

    1999-01-01

    To determine the usefulness of fluid attenuated inversion recovery(FLAIR) imaging for the in detection of high signal intensity of hippocampus or amygdala in mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS), compared with that of turbo spin-echo T2-weighted imaging. Two neuroradiologists independently analyzed randomly mixed MR images of 20 lesions of 17 patients in whom MTS had been diagnosed, and ten normal controls. All subjects underwent both who performed both FLAIR and turbo spin-echo T2-weighted imaging, in a blind fashion. In order to determine hippocampal morphology, oblique coronal images perpendicular to the long axis of the hippocampus were obtained. The detection rate of high signal intensity in hippocampus or amygdala, the radiologists' preferred imaging sequence, and intersubject consistency of detection were evaluated. Signal intensity in hippocampus or amygdala was considered high if substantially higher than signal intensity in the cortex of adjacent temporo-parietal lobe. In all normal controls, FLAIR and spin-echo T2-weighted images showed normal signal intensity in hippocampus or amygdala. In MTS, the mean detection rate of high signal intensity in hippocampus or amygdala, as seen on FLAIR images was 93%, compared with 43% on spin-echo T2-weighted images. In all cases in which signal intensity on FLAIR images was normal, signal intensity on spin-echo T2-weighted images was also normal. The radiologists preferred the contrast properties of FLAIR to those of spin-echo T2-weighted images. In the diagnosis of MTS using MRI, FLAIR images are more useful for the detection of high signal intensity of hippocampus or amygdala than are spin-echo T2-weighted images. In the diagnosis of MTS, FLAIR imaging is therefore a suitable alternative to spin-echo T2-weighted imaging

  18. Fast spin-echo MR imaging of the eye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosten, N.; Lemke, A.J.; Bornfeld, N.; Wassmuth, R.; Schweiger, U.; Terstegge, K.; Felix, R.

    1996-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging of the eye usually includes T2-weighted images both for screening purposes and for characterization of melanoma. Conventional T2-weighted spin-echo (SE) imaging suffers both from long acquisition times and incomplete recovery of the virteous' signal. A fast SE sequence was therefore compared prospectively with conventional sequences in 29 consecutive patients with lesions of the eye. Fast SE images delineated melanoma and other lesions of the eye from vitreous better than conventional T2-weighted images. Image quality and lesion conspicuity were improved on the fast sequence. Whereas melanoma appeared hypointense to vitreous on both types of images, subretinal effusion was hypointense on fast images and hyperintense on conventional T2-weighted images. Ghosting of the globe, which, however, did not decrease diagnostic value, was more pronounced on fast images. Conventional T2-weighted images may be replaced by fast SE images in MR studies of the eye with a gain in lesion conspicuity and significant time saving. (orig.)

  19. Differentiation between cavernous hemangiomas and untreated malignant neoplasms of the liver with free-breathing diffusion-weighted MR imaging: Comparison with T2-weighted fast spin-echo MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soyer, Philippe; Corno, Lucie; Boudiaf, Mourad; Aout, Mounir; Sirol, Marc; Place, Vinciane; Duchat, Florent; Guerrache, Youcef; Fargeaudou, Yann; Vicaut, Eric; Pocard, Marc; Hamzi, Lounis

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To test interobserver variability of ADC measurements and compare the diagnostic performances of free-breathing diffusion-weighted (FBDW) with that of T2-weighted FSE (T2WFSE) MR imaging for differentiating between cavernous hemangiomas and untreated malignant hepatic neoplasms. Materials and methods: Thirty-five patients with cavernous hemangiomas and 35 with untreated hepatic malignant neoplasms had FBDW and T2WFSE MR imaging. Hepatic lesions were characterized with ADC measurement and visual evaluation. Interobserver agreement for ADC measurement was calculated. Association between ADC value and lesion type was assessed using univariate analysis. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of ADC values and visual evaluation of MR images for the diagnosis of untreated malignant hepatic neoplasm were compared. Results: ADC measurements showed excellent interobserver correlation (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.980). Malignant neoplasms had lower ADC values than hemangiomas for the two observers (1.11 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s ± .21 x 10 -3 vs. 1.77 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s ± .29 x 10 -3 for observer 1 and 1.11 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s ± .19 x 10 -3 vs. 1.79 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s ± .32 x 10 -3 for observer 2) and univariate analysis found significant correlations between lesion type and ADC values. Depending on ADC threshold value, accuracy for the diagnosis of malignant neoplasm varied from 82.9% to 94.3%. Using visual evaluation, FBDW showed better specificity and accuracy than T2WFSE MR images for the diagnosis of malignant neoplasm (97.1% vs. 77.1% and 94.3% vs. 62.9%, respectively). Conclusion: FBDW imaging provides reproducible quantitative information and surpasses the value of T2WFSE MR imaging for differentiating between cavernous hemangiomas and untreated malignant hepatic neoplasms.

  20. MR contrast of ferritin and hemosiderin in the brain: comparison among gradient-echo, conventional spin-echo and fast spin-echo sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haque, Tabassum Laz; Miki, Yukio; Kanagaki, Mitsunori; Takahashi, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Akira; Konishi, Junya; Nozaki, Kazuhiko; Hashimoto, Nobuo; Konishi, Junji

    2003-12-01

    Objective: To compare the magnetic resonance image contrasts due to ferritin and hemosiderin in the brain tissue among different pulse sequences. Materials and methods: Fourteen patients with cavernous hemangioma in the brain prospectively underwent MR imaging with T2*-weighted gradient-echo (GRE), T2-weighted conventional spin-echo (SE) and fast spin-echo (FSE) sequences. The relative contrast ratios (CRs) of the hypointense part of cavernous hemangioma, globus pallidus and putamen to the deep frontal white matter were measured on each pulse sequence and statistically analyzed using analysis of variance followed by paired t-test. Results: In the hypointense part of cavernous hemangioma, relative CRs were significantly lower on T2*-weighted GRE than on T2-weighted SE images (P=0.0001), and on T2-weighted SE than on T2-weighted FSE images (P=0.0001). In the globus pallidus, relative CRs were significantly lower on T2-weighted SE than on T2*-weighted GRE images (P=0.002), and on T2*-weighted GRE than on T2-weighted FSE images (P=0.0002). In the putamen, relative CRs were significantly lower on T2-weighted SE than on T2*-weighted GRE images (P=0.001), and there was no significant difference between CRs on T2-weighted FSE and T2*-weighted GRE images (P=0.90). Conclusion: Hemosiderin showed best image contrast on T2*-weighted GRE images but ferritin showed more prominent image contrast on T2-weighted SE than on T2*-weighted GRE images, which may help to determine an appropriate pulse sequence in neurological diseases associated with excessive ferritin accumulation.

  1. MR contrast of ferritin and hemosiderin in the brain: comparison among gradient-echo, conventional spin-echo and fast spin-echo sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, Tabassum Laz; Miki, Yukio; Kanagaki, Mitsunori; Takahashi, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Akira; Konishi, Junya; Nozaki, Kazuhiko; Hashimoto, Nobuo; Konishi, Junji

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To compare the magnetic resonance image contrasts due to ferritin and hemosiderin in the brain tissue among different pulse sequences. Materials and methods: Fourteen patients with cavernous hemangioma in the brain prospectively underwent MR imaging with T2*-weighted gradient-echo (GRE), T2-weighted conventional spin-echo (SE) and fast spin-echo (FSE) sequences. The relative contrast ratios (CRs) of the hypointense part of cavernous hemangioma, globus pallidus and putamen to the deep frontal white matter were measured on each pulse sequence and statistically analyzed using analysis of variance followed by paired t-test. Results: In the hypointense part of cavernous hemangioma, relative CRs were significantly lower on T2*-weighted GRE than on T2-weighted SE images (P=0.0001), and on T2-weighted SE than on T2-weighted FSE images (P=0.0001). In the globus pallidus, relative CRs were significantly lower on T2-weighted SE than on T2*-weighted GRE images (P=0.002), and on T2*-weighted GRE than on T2-weighted FSE images (P=0.0002). In the putamen, relative CRs were significantly lower on T2-weighted SE than on T2*-weighted GRE images (P=0.001), and there was no significant difference between CRs on T2-weighted FSE and T2*-weighted GRE images (P=0.90). Conclusion: Hemosiderin showed best image contrast on T2*-weighted GRE images but ferritin showed more prominent image contrast on T2-weighted SE than on T2*-weighted GRE images, which may help to determine an appropriate pulse sequence in neurological diseases associated with excessive ferritin accumulation

  2. Fast spin echo MRI techniques. Contrast characteristics and clinical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melki, P.; Mulkern, R.V.; Dacher, J.N.; Helenon, O.; Higuchi, N.; Oshio, K.; Jolesz, F.; Pourcelot, L.; Einstein, S.

    1993-01-01

    Based on partial RF echo planar principles, Fast Spin Echo techniques (FSE) were implemented on high field systems. These methods produce image quality and contrast which resemble to conventional spin echo (SE) techniques. By reducing acquisition times by factors between 1.4 and 16 over SE methods, FSE allows for several imaging options usually prohibitive with conventional spin echo (SE) sequences. These include fast scans (especially breathold acquisitions); improved T2 contrast with longer TR intervals; increased spatial resolution with the use of larger image matrices and/or smaller fields of view; and 3D volume imaging with a 3D multislab FSE technique. Contrast features of FSE techniques are directly comparable to those of multiple echo SE sequences using the same echo spacing than FSE methods. However, essential contrast differences existing between the FSE sequences and their routine asymmetric dual SE counterpart can be identified. Decreased magnetic susceptibility effects and increased fat signal present within T2 weighted images compared to conventional dual SE images are due to the use of shorter echo spacings employed in FSE sequences. Off-resonance irradiation inherent to the use of a large number of radio frequency pulses in shown to results in dramatic magnetization contrast transfer effects in FSE images acquired in multislice mode

  3. T2-weighted MR imaging of liver lesions: a prospective evaluation comparing turbo spin-echo, breath-hold turbo spin-echo and half-Fourier turbo spin-echo (HASTE) sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.; Villajos, M.; Oses, M. J.; Veintemillas, M.; Rue, M.; Puig, J.; Sentis, M.

    2000-01-01

    To compare turbo spin-echo (TSE), breath-hold TSE and half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo (HASTE) sequences quantitatively and qualitatively in T2-weighted images of liver lesions. The authors evaluated prospectively 89 liver lesions in 73 patients using a 1.0-T magnetic resonance system to compare TSE, breath-hold TSE and HASTE sequences. The quantitative parameters were: lesion-to-liver contrast and lesion-to-liver contrast-to-noise ratio. The qualitative analysis was performed by two observers in consensus who examined four parameters: respiratory artifacts, lesion edge definition, intrahepatic vessel definition and image quality. Repeated measures analysis of variance was utilized to compare the quantitative variables and Friedman's nonparametric test for the qualitative parameters. In quantitative terms, the lesion-to-liver contrast was similar in TSE and breath-hold TSE sequences (2.45±1.44 versus 2.60±1.66), both of which were significantly better than the HASTE sequence (1.12±0.72; p<0.001). The lesion-to-liver contrast-to-noise ratio was significantly higher in the TSE sequence (62.60±46.40 versus 40.22±25.35 versus 50.90±32.10 for TSE, breath-hold TSE and HASTE sequences, respectively; p<0.001). In the qualitative comparisons, the HASTE sequence was significantly better than the TSE and breath-hold TSE sequences (p<0.001) in terms of artifacts and definition of lesion edge and intrahepatic vessels. Image quality was also significantly greater in the HASTE sequence (p<0.001). In quantitative terms, the TSE sequence is better than the breath-hold TSE and HASTE sequences, but there are no movement artifacts in the HASTE sequence, which is also significantly superior to TSE and breath-hold TSE sequences in qualitative terms and, thus, can be employed for T2-weighted images in liver studies. (Author) 17 refs

  4. MRI of normal pancreas : comparison of T2-weighted pulse sequences using turbo spin echo, turbo spin echo with fat suppression, HASTE and HASTE with fat suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyoung Ho; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Jang, Hyun Jung; Kim, Young Hoon; Han, Sang Wook; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn

    1998-01-01

    To compare various breath-hold T2 weighted sequences in imaging normal pancreas with a phased-array coil. HASTE showed higher SD/N than TSE or FS-HASTE (p<0.01). TSE was superior to TSE in the delineation of pancreatic duct (p<0.001). TSE showed more artifacts than FS-TSE (p<0.001): HASTE and FS-HASTE showed no artifact. TSE is better than HASTE for the delineation of pancreatic margin but HASTE shows less artifacts and a more conspicuous pancreatic duct. Fat suppression decreases artifacts but makes the pancreatic margin indistinct. (author). 19 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  5. Assessment of the image quality and tumor detectability of breath-hold T2-weighted imaging of liver tumors using a fast gradient MR system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kotaro; Suto, Yuji; Sugihara, Shuji; Tokuda, Yukiko

    1996-01-01

    Fourteen patients with various types of focal liver tumors were imaged with turbo spin-echo (TSE), breath-hold TSE (BH-TSE) and half-Fourier single-shot TSE (HASTE) pulse sequences using a fast gradient magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system. We compared the T2-weighted images of the liver with the TSE, BH-TSE, HASTE and conventional spin-echo (SE) pulse sequences in order to determine whether those fast T2-weighted images, including fat suppressed images, could replace SE images. In quantitative and qualitative analysis, the fast T2-weighted images were slightly superior to the SE images, but they were inferior in the conspicuousness of liver tumor to the SE images. These findings suggest that the fast T2-weighted images can shorten the examination time of the liver MRI, but cannot replace the T2-weighted SE images because of the low conspicuousness. (author)

  6. Carcinoma of the uterine cervix. High-resolution turbo spin-echo MR imaging with contrast-enhanced dynamic scanning and T2-weighting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Y.; Yamashita, Y.; Namimoto, T.; Takahashi, M.; Katabuchi, H.; Tanaka, N.; Okamura, H.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To compare high-resolution contrast-enhanced (Gd-DTPA) dynamic MR imaging with T2-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE) imaging in the evaluation of uterine cervical carcinoma. Material and Methods: Thirty-two patients with cervical carcinoma underwent MR imaging on a 1.5 T superconductive unit to have the extension of the disease assessed before treatment. A phased-array coil was used in all patients. In 25 patients, surgical confirmation of the diagnosis was obtained after imaging. Radiation therapy was selected for the remaining 7 patients with advanced carcinoma. Qualitative and quantitative image analyses were also performed. Results: The cervical carcinomas showed maximum contrast in the cervical stroma and myometrium in the early dynamic phase. The tumor/cervical-stroma contrast in the early dynamic phase obtained with the T1-weighted TSE technique (contrast-to-noise ratio 22.6) was significantly higher than that obtained in T2-weighted TSE imaging (contrast-to-noise ratio 4.3). In the evaluation of parametrial invasion, the accuracy of T2-weighted imaging was 71.8% and contrast-enhanced dynamic imaging 81.2%. Conclusion: High-resolution contrast-enhanced (Gd-DTPA) dynamic MR imaging in cervical cancer offers improved tumor/cervical-stroma contrast and provides useful information on parametrial invasion. (orig.)

  7. T2-weighted MR imaging of the liver: Qualitative and quantitative comparison of SPACE MR imaging with turbo spin-echo MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohan, Anthony, E-mail: anthony.dohan@lrb.aphp.fr [Department of Body and Interventional Imaging, Hôpital Lariboisière, AP-HP, 2 Rue Ambroise Paré, 75475 Paris Cedex 10 (France); Université Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 10 Rue de Verdun, 75010 Paris (France); UMR INSERM 965, Hôpital Lariboisière, 2 Rue Amboise Paré, 75010 Paris (France); Gavini, Jean-Philippe, E-mail: jpgavini@gmail.com [Department of Body and Interventional Imaging, Hôpital Lariboisière, AP-HP, 2 Rue Ambroise Paré, 75475 Paris Cedex 10 (France); Université Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 10 Rue de Verdun, 75010 Paris (France); Placé, Vinciane, E-mail: vinciane.place@gmail.com [Department of Body and Interventional Imaging, Hôpital Lariboisière, AP-HP, 2 Rue Ambroise Paré, 75475 Paris Cedex 10 (France); Sebbag, Delphine, E-mail: delphinesebbag@gmail.com [Department of Body and Interventional Imaging, Hôpital Lariboisière, AP-HP, 2 Rue Ambroise Paré, 75475 Paris Cedex 10 (France); Université Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 10 Rue de Verdun, 75010 Paris (France); Vignaud, Alexandre, E-mail: alexandre.vignaud@cea.fr [LRMN, Neurospin, CEA-SACLAY, Bâtiment 145, 91 191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); and others

    2013-11-01

    Objective: To qualitatively and quantitatively compare T2-weighted MR imaging of the liver using volumetric spin-echo with sampling perfection with application-optimized contrast using different flip angle evolutions (SPACE) with conventional turbo spin-echo (TSE) sequence for fat-suppressed T2-weighted MR imaging of the liver. Materials and methods: Thirty-three patients with suspected focal liver lesions had SPACE MR imaging and conventional fat-suppressed TSE MR imaging. Images were analyzed quantitatively by measuring the lesion-to-liver contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of main focal hepatic lesions, hepatic and splenic parenchyma and qualitatively by evaluating the presence of vascular, respiratory motion and cardiac artifacts. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to search for differences between the two sequences. Results: SPACE MR imaging showed significantly greater CNR for focal liver lesions (median = 22.82) than TSE MR imaging (median = 14.15) (P < .001). No differences were found for SNR of hepatic parenchyma (P = .097), main focal hepatic lesions (P = .35), and splenic parenchyma (P = .25). SPACE sequence showed less artifacts than TSE sequence (vascular, P < .001; respiratory motion, P < .001; cardiac, P < .001) but needed a longer acquisition time (228.4 vs. 162.1 s; P < .001). Conclusion: SPACE MR imaging provides a significantly increased CNR for focal liver lesions and less artifacts by comparison with the conventional TSE sequence. These results should stimulate further clinical studies with a surgical standard of reference to compare the two techniques in terms of sensitivity for malignant lesions.

  8. Fast spin echo MRI techniques. Contrast characteristics and clinical potential. Techniques d'IRM en fast spin echo. Caracteristiques de contraste et potentiels cliniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melki, P.; Mulkern, R.V.; Dacher, J.N.; Helenon, O.; Higuchi, N. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)); Oshio, K.; Jolesz, F. (Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan)); Pourcelot, L. (Hopital Bretonneau, 37 - Tours (France)); Einstein, S. (General Electric Medical System, Milwaukee, WI (United States))

    1993-03-01

    Based on partial RF echo planar principles, Fast Spin Echo techniques (FSE) were implemented on high field systems. These methods produce image quality and contrast which resemble to conventional spin echo (SE) techniques. By reducing acquisition times by factors between 1.4 and 16 over SE methods, FSE allows for several imaging options usually prohibitive with conventional spin echo (SE) sequences. These include fast scans (especially breathold acquisitions); improved T2 contrast with longer TR intervals; increased spatial resolution with the use of larger image matrices and/or smaller fields of view; and 3D volume imaging with a 3D multislab FSE technique. Contrast features of FSE techniques are directly comparable to those of multiple echo SE sequences using the same echo spacing than FSE methods. However, essential contrast differences existing between the FSE sequences and their routine asymmetric dual SE counterpart can be identified. Decreased magnetic susceptibility effects and increased fat signal present within T2 weighted images compared to conventional dual SE images are due to the use of shorter echo spacings employed in FSE sequences. Off-resonance irradiation inherent to the use of a large number of radio frequency pulses in shown to results in dramatic magnetization contrast transfer effects in FSE images acquired in multislice mode.

  9. MRT versus CT in the diagnosis of pneumonia. Evaluation of a T2-weighted utrafast turbo-spin-echo sequence (UTSE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leutner, C.; Lutterbey, G.; Kuhl, C.K.; Flacke, S.; Schild, H.H.; Glasmacher, A.; Theisen, A.; Wardelmann, E.; Grohe, C.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a T 2 -weighted URSE sequence for the assessment of pulmonary infiltrations in comparison to CT. Methods: 28 MRT scans of 22 patients with confirmed pneumonia were recorded on a 1.5 Tesla apparatus with an expiratory and diastolic triggered, T 2 -weighted ultrafast-spin-echo sequence in axial slice mode with the following parameters: TR eff /T E /Turbofactor 2000-4000/90 ms/21-23; slice thickness/separation 6/0.6 mm; FOV 360 mm; 24 slices. 24 spiral CTs (sice thickness/table advance: 1-2 mm/10 mm) were available for comparison. The separate evaluation of MRTs and CTs was performed by three radiologists in a consensus procedure with regard to pulmonary lesions (e.g., infiltration, round foci, net patterns) and image quality of the MRTs (4-step scale). Results: In 71% of the cases the CTs and MRTs agreed with the diagnosis and representation of the lesions, in 25% MRT was superior. MRT was better for the detection of pulmonary abscesses. In 93% the image quality of the MRT was very good to good. Conclusions: MRT in the technique presented here is in most cases equal to CT for the detection of pneumonia. Diagnosis of pulmonary abscesses seems to be better with MRT. (orig.) [de

  10. Can a single-shot black-blood T2-weighted spin-echo echo-planar imaging sequence with sensitivity encoding replace the respiratory-triggered turbo spin-echo sequence for the liver? An optimization and feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Shahid M; De Becker, Jan; Hop, Wim C J; Dwarkasing, Soendersing; Wielopolski, Piotr A

    2005-03-01

    To optimize and assess the feasibility of a single-shot black-blood T2-weighted spin-echo echo-planar imaging (SSBB-EPI) sequence for MRI of the liver using sensitivity encoding (SENSE), and compare the results with those obtained with a T2-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE) sequence. Six volunteers and 16 patients were scanned at 1.5T (Philips Intera). In the volunteer study, we optimized the SSBB-EPI sequence by interactively changing the parameters (i.e., the resolution, echo time (TE), diffusion weighting with low b-values, and polarity of the phase-encoding gradient) with regard to distortion, suppression of the blood signal, and sensitivity to motion. The influence of each change was assessed. The optimized SSBB-EPI sequence was applied in patients (N = 16). A number of items, including the overall image quality (on a scale of 1-5), were used for graded evaluation. In addition, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the liver was calculated. Statistical analysis was carried out with the use of Wilcoxon's signed rank test for comparison of the SSBB-EPI and TSE sequences, with P = 0.05 considered the limit for significance. The SSBB-EPI sequence was improved by the following steps: 1) less frequency points than phase-encoding steps, 2) a b-factor of 20, and 3) a reversed polarity of the phase-encoding gradient. In patients, the mean overall image quality score for the optimized SSBB-EPI (3.5 (range: 1-4)) and TSE (3.6 (range: 3-4)), and the SNR of the liver on SSBB-EPI (mean +/- SD = 7.6 +/- 4.0) and TSE (8.9 +/- 4.6) were not significantly different (P > .05). Optimized SSBB-EPI with SENSE proved to be feasible in patients, and the overall image quality and SNR of the liver were comparable to those achieved with the standard respiratory-triggered T2-weighted TSE sequence. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. High signal intensity of fat on fast spin echo imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Akio; Yamazaki, Masaru; Hongoh, Takaharu; Inoue, Hiroshi; Ishikuro, Akihiro

    2000-01-01

    The fast spin echo (FSE) technique of producing T 2 -weighted images in greatly reduced imaging times has recently been used for routine clinical study. FSE images show contrast that is very similar in most tissues to that of conventional SE images. However, fat shows a high signal intensity that is influenced by j-coupling and the magnetization transfer effect. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the higher signal intensity of fat is different among MRI systems and to examine the effects of j-coupling and magnetization transfer on the high signal intensity of fat on FSE. The contrast in signal intensity between fat and water was measured for various echo train lengths (ETL) with and without multislicing on FSE using a contrast phantom. Measurements were obtained with four different MRI systems. In addition, the effective T 2 values of fat were calculated for the above conditions. Results indicated that contrast for fat and water was reduced with increased ETL and by using multislicing and was different among the four MRI systems. The effective T 2 values of fat were extended for increased ETL and were not dependent on multislicing. They also differed among the four MRI systems. The extent of effective T 2 values was affected by j-coupling. In this study, it was indicated that the degree of the high signal intensity of fat on FSE differed for different MRI systems. In addition, the reasons for the high signal intensity of fat on FSE were related to the effects of j-coupling and magnetization transfer. (author)

  12. Characteristics of spondylotic myelopathy on 3D driven-equilibrium fast spin echo and 2D fast spin echo magnetic resonance imaging: a retrospective cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulhadi, Mike A; Perno, Joseph R; Melhem, Elias R; Nucifora, Paolo G P

    2014-01-01

    In patients with spinal stenosis, magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine can be improved by using 3D driven-equilibrium fast spin echo sequences to provide a high-resolution assessment of osseous and ligamentous structures. However, it is not yet clear whether 3D driven-equilibrium fast spin echo sequences adequately evaluate the spinal cord itself. As a result, they are generally supplemented by additional 2D fast spin echo sequences, adding time to the examination and potential discomfort to the patient. Here we investigate the hypothesis that in patients with spinal stenosis and spondylotic myelopathy, 3D driven-equilibrium fast spin echo sequences can characterize cord lesions equally well as 2D fast spin echo sequences. We performed a retrospective analysis of 30 adult patients with spondylotic myelopathy who had been examined with both 3D driven-equilibrium fast spin echo sequences and 2D fast spin echo sequences at the same scanning session. The two sequences were inspected separately for each patient, and visible cord lesions were manually traced. We found no significant differences between 3D driven-equilibrium fast spin echo and 2D fast spin echo sequences in the mean number, mean area, or mean transverse dimensions of spondylotic cord lesions. Nevertheless, the mean contrast-to-noise ratio of cord lesions was decreased on 3D driven-equilibrium fast spin echo sequences compared to 2D fast spin echo sequences. These findings suggest that 3D driven-equilibrium fast spin echo sequences do not need supplemental 2D fast spin echo sequences for the diagnosis of spondylotic myelopathy, but they may be less well suited for quantitative signal measurements in the spinal cord.

  13. Comparative study of image quality between axial T2-weighted BLADE and turbo spin-echo MRI of the upper abdomen on 3.0 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Tian, ChunMei; Wang, PeiYuan; Chen, Liang; Mao, XiJin; Wang, ShanShan; Wang, Xu; Dong, JingMin; Wang, Bin

    2015-09-01

    To compare image quality of turbo spin-echo (TSE) with BLADE [which is also named periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction (PROPELLER)] on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for upper abdomen. This study involved the retrospective evaluation of 103 patients (63 males, 40 females; age range 19-76 years; median age 53.8 years) who underwent 3.0 T MRI with both conventional TSE T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) and BLADE TSE T2WI. Two radiologists assessed respiratory motion, gastrointestinal peristalsis, and vascular pulsation artifacts, as well as the sharpness of the liver and pancreas edges. Scores for all magnetic resonance (MR) images were recorded. Wilcoxon's rank test was used to compare hierarchical data. Cohen's kappa coefficient was adopted to analyze interobserver consistency. Compared to TSE T2WI, BLADE TSE T2WI reduced all of the examined motion artifacts and increased the sharpness of the liver and pancreas edges (all P image quality.

  14. MR cholangiography using a fast spin-echo technique: prospective evaluation in 20 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rondeau, Y.; Meduri, B.; Spelle, L.; Gouhiri, M.; Aubert, A.; Scherrer, A.; Soyer, Ph.; Rymer, R.

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate a MR cholangiographic technique using a non breath-hold fast spin-echo technique in patients with suspected bile duct obstruction. Twenty patients with suspected bile duct obstruction were prospectively investigated with MR cholangiography using a T2-weighted non breath-hold fast spin-echo technique (TR 8000-9000 msec, effective TE 120-266 msec, ETL = 16-32, acquisition time = 1-3 min) with a body coil. Results of MR cholangiography were compared to those obtained with endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (n = 20 patients) and endoscopic sonography (n 12 patients) that were considered as reference. MR cholangiography provided high-quality images in 19 out of 20 cases (95 %). MR cholangiography had 100 % sensitivity, 100 % specificity and 73 % accuracy in the diagnosis of bile duct obstruction. MR cholangiography failed to depict small stones (< 3 mm) of the main bile duct in 4 cases in which no bile duct dilation was found. MR cholangiography using a non breath-hold fast spin-echo technique depicts bile duct dilatation with a degree of accuracy comparable to that achieved with endoscopic examination. In the absence of bile duct dilatation, small stones of the main bile duct may be undetected with MR cholangiography. (author)

  15. The evaluation of fat saturation fast spin-echo T2W1 for patients with acute spinal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Gyu; Lee, Chang Jun; Lee, Myung Joon; Kang, Ik Won; Yoo, Jeong Hyun

    2002-01-01

    To determine the usefulness of fat saturation fast spin-echo T2W1 for patients with mild acute trauma of the spine. Between July 1998 and June 2002, 36 patients with acute spinal trauma underwent MRI within four months of injury. One, whose clinal symptoms indicated neurological paralysis, was excluded form our study. A superconductive 1.0-T MRI scanner was used, and conventional T1W1, T2W1, and additional fat-saturation fast spin-echo T2W1 were performed. Two radiologists compared conventional T2-weighted sagittal imaging and fat-saturation T2-weighted sagittal imaging in terms of the extension of increased high signal intensities in soft tissue and vertebral bodies, bone marrow signal change, disk herniation, and signal change of the disk. The detection rate of focal high signal intensities in soft tissue and bone marrow was significantly higher at fat-saturation fast spin-echo T2W1 than at conventional T2W1. Fat-saturation fast spin-echo T2W1 is useful for the evaluation of patients with mild acute spinal trauma without neurological impairment

  16. The evaluation of fat saturation fast spin-echo T2WI for patients with acute spinal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Gyu; Lee, Chang Jun; Lee, Myung Joon; Kang, Ik Won; Yoo, Jeong Hyun

    2002-01-01

    To determine the usefulness of fat saturation fast spin-echo T2WI for patients with mild acute trauma of the spine. Between July 1998 and June 2002, 36 patients with acute spinal trauma underwent MRI within four months of injury. One, whose clinal symptoms indicated neurological paralysis, was excluded form our study. A superconductive 1.0-T MRI scanner was used, and conventional T1W1, T2W1, and additional fat-saturation fast spin-echo T2W1 were performed. Two radiologists compared conventional T2-weighted sagittal imaging and fat-saturation T2-weighted sagittal imaging in terms of the extension of increased high signal intensities in soft tissue and vertebral bodies, bone marrow signal change, disk herniation, and signal change of the disk. The detection rate of focal high signal intensities in soft tissue and bone marrow was significantly higher at fat-saturation fast spin-echo T2W1 is useful the evaluation of patients with mild acute spinal trauma without neurological impairment

  17. Detection of renal arteries with fast spin-echo magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tello, R.; Mitchell, P.J.; Witte, D.J.; Thomson, K.R. [University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC (Australia). Department of Radiology

    1998-08-01

    With the increasing use of non-invasive imaging with MR and volumetric CT to evaluate renal arteries, the ability to accurately detect the number and state of native renal arteries becomes critical if conventional angiography is to be supplanted in these settings. The present study evaluated the utility of a fast spin-echo (FSE) T2-weighted sequence to detect the number and course of renal arteries and their ostia compared to conventional angiography. Ten patients underwent conventional catheter angiography either for renal artery stenosis evaluation or as potential renal donors. Each patient then had an MR study of the renal arteries and kidneys with FSE MR (TR = 4000 ms, TE = 102 ms, eight- echo train length, 5-mm-thick interleaved 128 phase encodes, superior and inferior saturation pulses, number of excitations (NEX) = 4, on a 1.5-T superconducting magnet). Images were reviewed by two `blinded` radiologists and renal arteries were counted and their ostia were evaluated. Results were compared with angiography and inter- and intra-observer statistics were calculated. All 10 patients underwent MR successfully, nine for renal artery stenosis (RAS) evaluation and one was a renal donor. A total of 24 renal arteries were imaged in 19 kidneys. Fast spin-echo MR is 95% accurate (95%CI: 88-100%) in detection of renal arteries, with no statistical difference between FSE MR and catheter angiography (McNemar P = 0.0). Inter- and intra-observer statistics demonstrate good-to-excellent agreement in renal artery detection (kappa: 0.63-0.90). In one case of RAS evaluation an incidental adrenal mass was detected as the aetiology of the patient`s hypertension. Fast spin-echo MR can be a useful adjunct as part of the imaging for renal arteries with MRI. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd 16 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Detection of renal arteries with fast spin-echo magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tello, R.; Mitchell, P.J.; Witte, D.J.; Thomson, K.R.

    1998-01-01

    With the increasing use of non-invasive imaging with MR and volumetric CT to evaluate renal arteries, the ability to accurately detect the number and state of native renal arteries becomes critical if conventional angiography is to be supplanted in these settings. The present study evaluated the utility of a fast spin-echo (FSE) T2-weighted sequence to detect the number and course of renal arteries and their ostia compared to conventional angiography. Ten patients underwent conventional catheter angiography either for renal artery stenosis evaluation or as potential renal donors. Each patient then had an MR study of the renal arteries and kidneys with FSE MR (TR = 4000 ms, TE = 102 ms, eight- echo train length, 5-mm-thick interleaved 128 phase encodes, superior and inferior saturation pulses, number of excitations (NEX) = 4, on a 1.5-T superconducting magnet. Images were reviewed by two 'blinded' radiologists and renal arteries were counted and their ostia were evaluated. Results were compared with angiography and inter- and intra-observer statistics were calculated. All 10 patients underwent MR successfully, nine for renal artery stenosis (RAS) evaluation and one was a renal donor. A total of 24 renal arteries were imaged in 19 kidneys. Fast spin-echo MR is 95% accurate (95%CI: 88-100%) in detection of renal arteries, with no statistical difference between FSE MR and catheter angiography (McNemar P = 0.0). Inter- and intra-observer statistics demonstrate good-to-excellent agreement in renal artery detection (kappa: 0.63-0.90). In one case of RAS evaluation an incidental adrenal mass was detected as the aetiology of the patient's hypertension. Fast spin-echo MR can be a useful adjunct as part of the imaging for renal arteries with MRI. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  19. A comparison between fast and conventional spin-echo in the detection of multiple sclerosis lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorpe, J.W.; Halpin, S.F.; MacManus, D.G.; Barker, G.J.; Kendall, B.E.; Miller, D.H.

    1994-01-01

    Long repetition time (TR) spin-echo (SE) with T 2 - or proton density weighting is the sequence of choice to detect the brain lesions of multiple sclerosis (MS). Fast spin-echo (FSE) permits the generation of T 2 -weighted images with similar contrast to SE but in a fraction of the time. We compared the sensitivity of FSE and SE in the detection of the brain lesions of MS. Six patients with clinically definite MS underwent brain imaging with both dual echo (long TR, long and short echo time (TE) SE and dual echo FSE. The SE and FSE images were first reviewed independently and then compared. A total of 404 lesions was detected on SE and 398 on FSE. Slightly more periventricular lesions were detected using SE than FSE (145 vs 127), whereas more posterior cranial fossa lesions were detected by FSE (77 vs 57). With both SE and FSE the short TE images revealed more lesions than the long echo. These results suggest that FSE could replace SE as the long TR sequence of choice in the investigation of MS. (orig.)

  20. Proton T2 relaxation effect of superparamagnetic iron oxide. Comparison between fast spin echo and conventional spin echo sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimoto, Akihiro; Satoh, Yoshinori; Higuchi, Nobuya; Izutsu, Mutsumu; Yuasa, Yuji; Hiramatsu, Kyoichi

    1995-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) particles have been known to show a great T 2 relaxation effect in the liver, which contributes to significant liver signal decrease and detection of hepatic neoplasms. Recently, fast spin echo (FSE) sequence with less scanning time than conventional spin echo (SE) sequence has been rapidly introduced in clinical MR imaging. To investigate whether SPIO would show decreased T 2 relaxation effect on FSE, we obtained T 2 relaxivity (R2) of SPIO in vitro and liver signal decrease caused by SPIO in vivo. SPIO showed 20% less R2 on Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) sequence than on SE. Relative liver signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) decrease caused by SPIO was significantly smaller (p 2 relaxation effect on FSE than on SE. However, further studies will be required to assess the diagnostic capability of SPIO on FSE, in the detection of hepatic neoplasms. (author)

  1. 3D Ultrashort TE MRI for Evaluation of Cartilaginous Endplate of Cervical Disk In Vivo: Feasibility and Correlation With Disk Degeneration in T2-Weighted Spin-Echo Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeo Ju; Cha, Jang Gyu; Shin, Yoon Sang; Chaudhari, Akshay S; Suh, Young Ju; Hwan Yoon, Seung; Gold, Garry E

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of 3D ultrashort TE (UTE) MRI in depicting the cartilaginous endplate (CEP) and its abnormalities and to investigate the association between CEP abnormalities and disk degeneration on T2-weighted spin-echo (SE) MR images in cervical disks in vivo. Eight healthy volunteers and 70 patients were examined using 3-T MRI with the 3D UTE cones trajectory technique (TR/TE, 16.1/0.032, 6.6). In the volunteer study, quantitative and qualitative assessments of CEP depiction were conducted for the 3D UTE and T2-weighted SE imaging. In the patient study, CEP abnormalities were analyzed. Intersequence agreement between the images obtained with the first-echo 3D UTE sequence and the images created by subtracting the second-echo from the first-echo 3D UTE sequence (subtracted 3D UTE) and the intraobserver and interobserver agreements for 3D UTE overall were also tested. The CEP abnormalities on the 3D UTE images correlated with the Miyazaki grading of the T2-weighted SE images. In the volunteer study, the CEP was well visualized on 3D UTE images but not on T2-weighted SE images (p evaluation of CEP abnormalities, intersequence agreements were substantial to almost perfect, intraobserver agreements were substantial to almost perfect, and interobserver agreements were moderate to substantial (p T2-weighted SE MRI.

  2. Utility of dual echo T2-weighted turbo spin echo MR imaging for differentiation of solid, malignant hepatic lesions from nonsolid, benign hepatic lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Dal Mo; Yoon, Myung Hwan; Kim, Hak Soo; Lee, Eun Joo; Kim, Jong Ho; Kim, Hyung Sik; Chung, Jin Woo

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the additive value of multiphasic contrast-enhanced dynamic MR imaging as a supplement to dual-echo T2-weighted TSE MR imaging for the differentiation of solid, malignant hepatic lesions from nonsolid, benign hepatic lesions. Two radiologists retrospectively reviewed dual-echo T2-weighted TSE MR images and gadolinium-enhanced MR images in 51 patients with hepatic lesions (28 malignant, 69 benign). For the differentiation of malignant from benign lesions, as seen on dual-echo T2-weighted TSE MR images, we evaluated sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy, and compared with the results with those for dual echo T2-weighted MR images plus multiphasic contrast-enhanced dynamic MR images. In addition, Az values for dual echo T2-weighted MR images were compared with those for dual echo T2-weighted MR images plus multiphasic contrast-enhanced dynamic MR images. For the differentiation of malignant from benign hepatic lesions, as seen on dual-echo T2-weighted TSE images, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 80.0%, 97.5%, and 93.9%, respectively, for lesions less than 3cm in diameter, and 92.3%, 95.0%, and 93.5%, respectively, for those that were 3cm or larger. The results for dual-echo T2-weighted MR imaging plus multiphasic contrast-enhanced dynamic MR imaging were 86.7%, 100.0%, and 97.3%, respectively, for lesions less than 3cm, and 92.3%, 100.0%, and 95.7%, respectively for those that were 3cm or larger. There were no significant differences in sensitivity, specificity, or accuracy between the results obtained using dual-echo T2-weighted MR imaging and those obtained with dual-echo T2-weighted MR imaging plus multiphasic contrast-enhanced dynamic MR imaging. Nor were these statistically significant differences in Az values between the two groups. For the differentiation of solid, malignant hepatic lesions from nonsolid, benign hepatic lesions, there is no difference in accuracy between dual-echo T2-weighted TSE MR imaging and the additional use of

  3. Uterine cervical carcinoma: a comparison of two- and three-dimensional T2-weighted turbo spin-echo MR imaging at 3.0 T for image quality and local-regional staging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Y.R. [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, 222, Banpo-daero, Seocho-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, Incheon St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, Bupyeong 6-dong, Bupyeong-gu, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Rha, S.E.; Choi, B.G.; Oh, S.N.; Park, M.Y.; Byun, J.Y. [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, 222, Banpo-daero, Seocho-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    To compare three-dimensional (3D) T2-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE) with multiplanar two-dimensional (2D) T2-weighted TSE for the evaluation of invasive cervical carcinoma. Seventy-five patients with cervical carcinoma underwent MRI of the pelvis at 3.0 T, using both 5-mm-thick multiplanar 2D (total acquisition time = 12 min 25 s) and 1-mm-thick coronal 3D T2-weighted TSE sequences (7 min 20 s). Quantitative analysis of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and qualitative analysis of image quality were performed. Local-regional staging was performed in 45 patients who underwent radical hysterectomy. The estimated SNR of cervical carcinoma and the relative tumour contrast were significantly higher on 3D imaging (P < 0.0001). Tumour conspicuity was better with the 3D sequence, but the sharpness of tumour margin was better with the 2D sequence. No significant difference in overall image quality was noted between the two sequences (P = 0.38). There were no significant differences in terms of the diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of parametrial invasion, vaginal invasion, and lymph node metastases. Multiplanar reconstruction 3D T2-weighted imaging is largely equivalent to 2D T2-weighted imaging for overall image quality and staging accuracy of cervical carcinoma with a shorter MR data acquisition, but has limitations with regard to the sharpness of the tumour margin. circle 3D T2-weighted MR sequence is equivalent to 2D for cervical carcinoma staging. (orig.)

  4. Three-dimensional fast recovery fast spin-echo imaging of the inner ear and the vestibulocochlear nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakashima, K.; Morikawa, M.; Ishimaru, H.; Ochi, M.; Hayashi, K. [Department of Radiology, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, 1-7-1 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8501 (Japan); Kabasawa, H. [GE Yokogawa Medical Systems, Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the performance of three-dimensional fast recovery fast spin-echo (3DFRFSE) for imaging of the inner ear as well as the facial and vestibulocochlear nerves. We evaluated 3DFRFSE sequences, comparing it with 3D fast spin-echo (3DFSE) in a water phantom and in 12 normal volunteers. We also examined 66 patients using 3DFRFSE sequence and assessed the visualization of their pathologies. In a water phantom study, signal intensity (SI) on 3DFRFSE was higher than that on 3DFSE at the same TR ranging from 1500 to 6000 ms. In normal volunteers, 3DFRFSE with TR of 2800 ms showed comparable SI, and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) superior to those on 3DFSE with TR of 5000 ms. In clinical setting, 3DFRFSE was useful in demonstrating anatomic details in the labyrinth and pathologic findings of inner ear. The 3DFRFSE can provide high-resolution heavily T2-weighted images (T2WI) with shorter scan time than 3DFSE without significant disadvantage. The 3DFRFSE is a beneficial technique for evaluation of lesions in the inner ear as well as the facial and vestibulocochlear nerves. (orig.)

  5. Fast fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery MR image in the intracranial tumors: comparison with fast spin-echo image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hye Young; Kwang, Hyoen Joo; Baek, Seoung Yeon; Lee, Sun Wha

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the significance of fluid-attenuated inversion recovery(FLAIR) magnetic resonance(MR) images for the diagnosis of intracranial tumors. MR imaging was used to study 15 patients with various intracranial tumors and were compared the findings according to fast spin echo and fast FLAIR images. In 12 of 15 patients, tumor signal intensities on FLAIR images were consistent with those shown on T2-weighted(T2W) images. In seven of eight patients who had cystic or necrotic components within the mass, FLAIR images showed isosignal intensity and in the other patient, high signal intensity was seen. There was variation in the signal intensity from cerebrospinal fluid(CSF). In 12 of 13 patients in whom edema was associated with tumor, FLAIR images were clearer than T2W images as their signal intensity was brighter. In eight patients, however, FLAIR and T2W images provided a similar definition of the margin between edema and tumor. In six patients with intratumoral hemorrhage except the chronic cystic stage. We concluded that in the diagnosis of intracranial tumors, FLAIR images can supplement conventional spin-echo images

  6. Subjective and objective image qualities: a comparison of sagittal T2 weighted spin-echo and turbo-spin-eco sequences in magnetic resonance imaging of the spine by use of a subjective ranking system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerres, G. [Institut fuer diagnostische Radiologie, Departement Radiologie, Universitaetskliniken, Kantonsspital Basel (Switzerland); Mader, I. [Radiologische Gemeinschaftspraxis Dres. Siems, Grossmann, Bayreuth (Germany); Proske, M. [Klinikum Rosenheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie

    1998-12-31

    We evaluated the subjective image impression of two different magnetic resonance (MR) sequences by using a subjective ranking system. This ranking system was based on 20 criteria describing several tissue characteristics such as the signal intensity of normal anatomical structures and the changes of signal intensities and shape of lesions as well as artefacts. MR of the vertebral spine was performed in 48 female and 52 male patients (mean age 44.8 years) referred consecutively for investigation of a back problem. Ninety-six pathologies were found in 82 patients. Sagittal and axial T1 weighted spin-echo before and after administration of Gadolinium (Gd-DOTA), and sagittal T2 weighted spin-echo (T2wSE) and Turbo-spin-echo (TSE) sequences were performed by means of surface coils. Using the subjective ranking system the sagittal T2wSE and sagittal TSE were compared. Both sequences were suitable for identification of normal anatomy and pathologic changes and there was no trend for increased detection of disease by one imaging sequence over the other. We found that sagittal TSE sequences can replace sagittal T2wSE sequences in spinal MR and that artefacts at the cervical and lumbar spine are less frequent using TSE, thus confirming previous studies. In this study, our ranking system reveiled, that there are differences between the subjective judgement of image qualities and objective measurement of SNR. However, this approach may not be helpful to compare two different MR sequences as it is limited to the anatomical area investigated and is time consuming. The subjective image impression, i.e. the quality of images, may not always be represented by physical parameters such as a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), radiologists should try to define influences of image quality also by subjective parameters. (orig.)

  7. Endometrial cancer: preoperative staging using three-dimensional T2-weighted turbo spin-echo and diffusion-weighted MR imaging at 3.0 T: a prospective comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hori, Masatoshi; Kim, Tonsok; Onishi, Hiromitsu; Nakamoto, Atsushi; Tomiyama, Noriyuki [Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Imaoka, Izumi; Kagawa, Yuki; Murakami, Takamichi [Kinki University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Osaka (Japan); Ueguchi, Takashi; Tatsumi, Mitsuaki [Osaka University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Osaka (Japan); Enomoto, Takayuki [Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Osaka (Japan); Niigata University School of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Niigata (Japan); Kimura, Tadashi [Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Osaka (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    To prospectively assess the efficacy of 3-T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging using the three-dimensional turbo spin-echo T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted technique (3D-TSE/DW) compared with that of conventional imaging using the two-dimensional turbo spin-echo T2-weighted and dynamic contrast-enhanced technique (2D-TSE/DCE) for the preoperative staging of endometrial cancer, with pathological analysis as the reference standard. Seventy-one women with endometrial cancer underwent MR imaging using 3D-TSE/DW (b = 1,000 s/mm{sup 2}) and 2D-TSE/DCE. Two radiologists independently assessed the two imaging sets. Accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for staging were analysed with the McNemar test; the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Az) were compared with a univariate z-score test. The results for assessing deep myometrial invasion, accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and Az, respectively, were as follows: 3D-TSE/DW - observer 1, 87 %, 95 %, 85 % and 0.96; observer 2, 92 %, 84 %, 94 % and 0.95; 2D-TSE/DCE - observer 1, 80 %, 79 %, 81 % and 0.89; observer 2, 86 %, 84 %, 87 % and 0.86. Most of the values were higher with 3D-TSE/DW without significant differences (P > 0.12). For assessing cervical stromal invasion, there were no significant differences in those values for both observers (P > 0.6). Accuracy of 3D-TSE/DW was at least equivalent to that of the conventional technique for the preoperative assessment of endometrial cancer. (orig.)

  8. Spatial resolution properties in 3D fast spin-echo using variable refocusing flip angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Masanori; Mizukami, Shinya; Hata, Hirofumi; Sato, Mayumi; Komi, Syotaro; Miyati, Tosiaki; Nozaki, Atsushi

    2011-01-01

    A new 3-dimensional fast spin-echo (3D FSE) method that uses a variable refocusing flip angle technique has recently been applied to imaging. The imaging pulse sequence can inhibit T 2 decay by varying the refocusing flip angle. Use of a long echo train length allows acquisition of 3D T 2 -weighted images with less blurring in a short scan time. The smaller refocusing flip angle in the new 3D FSE method than in the conventional method can reduce the specific absorption rate. However, T 2 decay differs between the new and conventional 3D FSE methods, so the resolution properties of the 2 methods may differ. We investigated the resolution properties of the new 3D FSE method using a variable refocusing flip angle technique. Varying the refocusing flip angle resulted in different resolution properties for the new 3D FSE method compared to the conventional method, a difference particularly noticeable when the imaging parameters were set for obtaining proton density weighted images. (author)

  9. Reticuloendothelial negative contrast media for hepatocellular carcinoma. Initial comparison of chondroitin sulfate iron colloid and Ferrixan in fast T2-weighted MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugihara, Shuji; Suto, Yuji; Kamba, Masayuki; Yoshida, Kotaro

    1996-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate iron colloid (CSIC), a paramagnetic substance, and Ferrixan (SHU555A), a superparamagnetic substance, were administered to 20 patients with 26 nodules of hepatocellular carcinoma, and the visualization of the lesions by fast T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was quantitatively evaluated. Conventional spin-echo (CSE), turbo spin-echo (TSE), and turbo gradient spin-echo (TGSE) sequences were performed in all patients before and after the administration of the iron colloid preparations. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the liver decreased significantly after administration of iron colloid preparations by all sequences and at all doses. A reduction in SNR in the liver similar to that obtained with SHU555A could be obtained by increasing the dose of CSIC, which has a weaker T2-shortening effect. In the TSE sequence with a weaker susceptibility effect, the decrease in SNR in the liver tended to be equalized to those in the CSE or TGSE sequences by high dose administration of the iron colloid preparation. We think perhaps that the imaging ability for hepatocellular carcinoma, similar to that of superparamagnetic contrast media, can be obtained with paramagnetic CSIC by administering it at a higher dose. (author)

  10. Reticuloendothelial negative contrast media for hepatocellular carcinoma. Initial comparison of chondroitin sulfate iron colloid and Ferrixan in fast T2-weighted MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugihara, Shuji; Suto, Yuji; Kamba, Masayuki; Yoshida, Kotaro [Tottori Univ., Yonago (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1996-11-01

    Chondroitin sulfate iron colloid (CSIC), a paramagnetic substance, and Ferrixan (SHU555A), a superparamagnetic substance, were administered to 20 patients with 26 nodules of hepatocellular carcinoma, and the visualization of the lesions by fast T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was quantitatively evaluated. Conventional spin-echo (CSE), turbo spin-echo (TSE), and turbo gradient spin-echo (TGSE) sequences were performed in all patients before and after the administration of the iron colloid preparations. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the liver decreased significantly after administration of iron colloid preparations by all sequences and at all doses. A reduction in SNR in the liver similar to that obtained with SHU555A could be obtained by increasing the dose of CSIC, which has a weaker T2-shortening effect. In the TSE sequence with a weaker susceptibility effect, the decrease in SNR in the liver tended to be equalized to those in the CSE or TGSE sequences by high dose administration of the iron colloid preparation. We think perhaps that the imaging ability for hepatocellular carcinoma, similar to that of superparamagnetic contrast media, can be obtained with paramagnetic CSIC by administering it at a higher dose. (author)

  11. Role of EPI in diagnosing cavernous hemangioma and small HCC : comparison with fast T2-weighted MR Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Suk; Lee, Jun Woo; Kim, Chang Won; Jung, Hyun Woo; Choi, Sang Yoel; Lee, Suck Hong; Kim, Byung Soo

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare single-shot echo-planar MR imaging (EPI) with breath-hold fast T2-weighted imaging (HASTE or Turbo spin-echo T2WI) for evaluation of the role of EPI in distinguishing small hepatocellular carcinoma from cavernous hemangioma. We retrospectively evaluated MR images of 35 patients (21 cases of small HCC and 14 cases of cavernous hemangioma). EPI and breath-hold fast T2WI images were obtained and compared on the basis of lesion detection sensitivity, lesion-to-liver signal intensity ratio (SIR), contrast ratio (CR), and lesion-to-liver contrast to noise ratio (CNR). For the detection of small HCC, the sensitivity of EPI and breath-hold fast T2WI were equal in 14 of 21 cases (71.4%). The detection sensitivity of cavernous hemangioma with EPI and breath-hold fast T2WI was 100 % (14/14). Mean SIR on breath-hold fast T2WI was 2.02 ± 0.45 for small HCC and 3.65 ± 0.97 for cavernous hemangioma; on EPI, the corresponding figures were 2.91 ± 0.57 for cavernous hemangioma; On EPI, the figures obtained were 2.27 ± 0.52 and 6.26 ± 2.19, respectively. Mean CNR on breath-hold fast T2WI was 14.24 ± 4.098 for small HCC and 50.28 ± 10.96 for cavernous hemangioma, while on EPI, the corresponding figures were 13.84 ± 3.02 and 45.44 ± 11.21. In detecting focal hepatic mass, the sensitivity of EPI and breath-hold fast T2WI are comparable for the diagnosis of small HCC and cavernous hemangioma, EPI can provided additional information. (author). 20 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  12. Evaluation of the Subscapularis Tendon Tears on 3T Magnetic Resonance Arthrography: Comparison of Diagnostic Performance of T1-Weighted Spectral Presaturation with Inversion-Recovery and T2-Weighted Turbo Spin-Echo Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hoseok; Ahn, Joong Mo; Kang, Yusuhn; Oh, Joo Han; Lee, Eugene; Lee, Joon Woo; Kang, Heung Sik

    2018-01-01

    To compare the T1-weighted spectral presaturation with inversion-recovery sequences (T1 SPIR) with T2-weighted turbo spin-echo sequences (T2 TSE) on 3T magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) in the evaluation of the subscapularis (SSC) tendon tear with arthroscopic findings as the reference standard. This retrospective study included 120 consecutive patients who had undergone MRA within 3 months between April and December 2015. Two musculoskeletal radiologists blinded to the arthroscopic results evaluated T1 SPIR and T2 TSE images in separate sessions for the integrity of the SSC tendon, examining normal/articular-surface partial-thickness tear (PTTa)/full-thickness tear (FTT). Diagnostic performance of T1 SPIR and T2 TSE was calculated with arthroscopic results as the reference standard, and sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were compared using the McNemar test. Interobserver agreement was measured with kappa (κ) statistics. There were 74 SSC tendon tears (36 PTTa and 38 FTT) confirmed by arthroscopy. Significant differences were found in the sensitivity and accuracy between T1 SPIR and T2 TSE using the McNemar test, with respective rates of 95.9-94.6% vs. 71.6-75.7% and 90.8-91.7% vs. 79.2-83.3% for detecting tear; 55.3% vs. 31.6-34.2% and 85.8% vs. 78.3-79.2%, respectively, for FTT; and 91.7-97.2% vs. 58.3-61.1% and 89% vs. 78-79.3%, respectively, for PTTa. Interobserver agreement for T1 SPIR was almost perfect for T1 SPIR (κ = 0.839) and substantial for T2 TSE (κ = 0.769). T1-weighted spectral presaturation with inversion-recovery sequences is more sensitive and accurate compared to T2 TSE in detecting SSC tendon tear on 3T MRA.

  13. Diagnosis of nerve root compromise of the lumbar spine: Evaluation of the performance of three-dimensional isotropic T2-weighted turbo spin-echo SPACE sequence at 3T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Jin Kyeong; Jee, Won Hee; Jung, Joon Yong; Jang, Jin Hee; Kim, Jin Sung; Kim, Young Hoon; Ha, Kee Yong [Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    To explore the performance of three-dimensional (3D) isotropic T2-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE) sampling perfection with application optimized contrasts using different flip angle evolution (SPACE) sequence on a 3T system, for the evaluation of nerve root compromise by disc herniation or stenosis from central to extraforaminal location of the lumbar spine, when used alone or in combination with conventional two-dimensional (2D) TSE sequence. Thirty-seven patients who had undergone 3T spine MRI including 2D and 3D sequences, and had subsequent spine surgery for nerve root compromise at a total of 39 nerve levels, were analyzed. A total of 78 nerve roots (48 symptomatic and 30 asymptomatic sites) were graded (0 to 3) using different MRI sets of 2D, 3D (axial plus sagittal), 3D (all planes), and combination of 2D and 3D sequences, with respect to the nerve root compromise caused by posterior disc herniations, lateral recess stenoses, neural foraminal stenoses, or extraforaminal disc herniations; grading was done independently by two readers. Diagnostic performance was compared between different imaging sets using the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis. There were no statistically significant differences (p = 0.203 to > 0.999) in the ROC curve area between the imaging sets for both readers 1 and 2, except for combined 2D and 3D (0.843) vs. 2D (0.802) for reader 1 (p = 0.035), and combined 2D and 3D (0.820) vs. 3D including all planes (0.765) for reader 2 (p = 0.049). The performance of 3D isotropic T2-weighted TSE sequence of the lumbar spine, whether axial plus sagittal images, or all planes of images, was not significantly different from that of 2D TSE sequences, for the evaluation of nerve root compromise of the lumbar spine. Combining 2D and 3D might possibly improve the diagnostic accuracy compared with either one.

  14. Isotropic three-dimensional fast spin-echo Cube magnetic resonance dacryocystography: comparison with the three-dimensional fast-recovery fast spin-echo technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jing; Chen, Lang; Wang, Qiu-Xia; Zhu, Wen-Zhen; Luo, Xin; Peng, Li [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Department of Radiology, Tongji Hospital, Wuhan (China); Liu, Rong [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Department of Ophthalmology, Tongji Hospital, Wuhan (China); Xiong, Wei [GE Healthcare China Wuhan Office, Wuhan (China)

    2015-04-01

    Three-dimensional fast spin-echo Cube (3D-FSE-Cube) uses modulated refocusing flip angles and autocalibrates two dimensional (2D)-accelerated parallel and nonlinear view ordering to produce high-quality volumetric image sets with high-spatial resolution. Furthermore, 3D-FSE-Cube with topical instillation of fluid can also be used for magnetic resonance dacryocystography (MRD) with good soft tissue contrast. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the technical quality and visualization of the lacrimal drainage system (LDS) when using the 3D-FSE-Cube sequence and the 3D fast-recovery fast spin-echo (FRFSE) sequence. In total, 75 patients with primary LDS outflow impairment or postsurgical recurrent epiphora underwent 3D-FSE-Cube MRD and 3D-FRFSE MRD at 3.0 T after topical administration of compound sodium chloride eye drops. Two radiologists graded the images from either of the two sequences in a blinded fashion, and appropriate statistical tests were used to assess differences in technical quality, visibility of ductal segments, and number of segments visualized per LDS. Obstructions were confirmed in 90 of the 150 LDSs assessed. The technical quality of 3D-FSE-Cube MRD and 3D-FRFSE MRD was statistically equivalent (P = 0.871). However, compared with 3D-FRFSE MRD, 3D-FSE-Cube MRD improved the overall visibility and the visibility of the upper drainage segments in normal and obstructed LDSs (P < 0.001). There was a corresponding increase in the number of segments visualized per LDS in both groups (P < 0.001). Compared with 3D-FRFSE MRD, 3D-FSE-Cube MRD potentially improves the visibility of the LDS. (orig.)

  15. MRI in multiple sclerosis of the spinal cord: evaluation of fast short-tan inversion-recovery and spin-echo sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietemann, J.L.; Thibaut-Menard, A.; Neugroschl, C.; Gillis, C.; Abu Eid, M.; Bogorin, A.; Warter, J.M.; Tranchant, C.

    2000-01-01

    We compared the sensitivity of T2-weighted spin-echo (FSE) and fast short-tau inversion-recovery (fSTIR) sequences in detection of multiple sclerosis of the spinal cord in 100 consecutive patients with clinically confirmed multiple sclerosis (MS); 86 patients underwent also brain MRI. In all, 310 focal lesions were detected on fSTIR and 212 on T2-weighted FSE, spinal cord lesions were seen better on fSTIR images, with a higher contrast between the lesion and the normal spinal cord. In 24 patients in whom cord plaques were shown with both sequences, the cranial study was normal or inconclusive. Assessment of spinal plaques can be particularly important when MRI of the brain is inconclusive, and in there situations fSTIR can be helpful. (orig.)

  16. T2-weighted MR imaging of liver lesions: a prospective evaluation comparing turbo spin-echo, breath-hold turbo spin-echo and half-Fourier turbo spin-echo (HASTE) sequences; Estudio de lesiones hepaticas con imagenes de resonancia magnetica potenciadas en T2: evaluacion prospectiva comparando secuencias turbo eco del espin, turbo eco del espin con respiracion sostenida y half-Fourier turbo eco del espin (HASTE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J.; Villajos, M.; Oses, M. J.; Veintemillas, M.; Rue, M.; Puig, J.; Sentis, M. [Fundacion Parc Tauli. Sabadell (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    To compare turbo spin-echo (TSE), breath-hold TSE and half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo (HASTE) sequences quantitatively and qualitatively in T2-weighted images of liver lesions. The authors evaluated prospectively 89 liver lesions in 73 patients using a 1.0-T magnetic resonance system to compare TSE, breath-hold TSE and HASTE sequences. The quantitative parameters were: lesion-to-liver contrast and lesion-to-liver contrast-to-noise ratio. The qualitative analysis was performed by two observers in consensus who examined four parameters: respiratory artifacts, lesion edge definition, intrahepatic vessel definition and image quality. Repeated measures analysis of variance was utilized to compare the quantitative variables and Friedman's nonparametric test for the qualitative parameters. In quantitative terms, the lesion-to-liver contrast was similar in TSE and breath-hold TSE sequences (2.45{+-}1.44 versus 2.60{+-}1.66), both of which were significantly better than the HASTE sequence (1.12{+-}0.72; p<0.001). The lesion-to-liver contrast-to-noise ratio was significantly higher in the TSE sequence (62.60{+-}46.40 versus 40.22{+-}25.35 versus 50.90{+-}32.10 for TSE, breath-hold TSE and HASTE sequences, respectively; p<0.001). In the qualitative comparisons, the HASTE sequence was significantly better than the TSE and breath-hold TSE sequences (p<0.001) in terms of artifacts and definition of lesion edge and intrahepatic vessels. Image quality was also significantly greater in the HASTE sequence (p<0.001). In quantitative terms, the TSE sequence is better than the breath-hold TSE and HASTE sequences, but there are no movement artifacts in the HASTE sequence, which is also significantly superior to TSE and breath-hold TSE sequences in qualitative terms and, thus, can be employed for T2-weighted images in liver studies. (Author) 17 refs.

  17. Fast triple-spin-echo Dixon (FTSED) sequence for water and fat imaging

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kořínek, Radim; Bartušek, Karel; Starčuk jr., Zenon

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 37, APR (2017), s. 164-170 ISSN 0730-725X R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : fast triple-spin-echo Dixon * sequence * MRI * fat fraction * water-fat * ultra-high field * 9.4 T * FTSED Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Radiology, nuclear medicine and medical imaging Impact factor: 2.225, year: 2016

  18. Diagnostic equivalence of conventional and fast spin echo magnetic resonance imaging of the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munk, P.L.; Hilborn, M.D.; Vellet, A.D.; University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta,; Romano, C.C.; University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta,

    1997-01-01

    Many techniques and pulse sequences have been devised for the assessment of the anterior cruciate ligament. The present study compares fast spin echo (FSE) imaging to conventional spin echo imaging at a field strength of 1.5 T in an effort to determine if these sequences are diagnostically equivalent. Where available, arthroscopy was also done. A total of 52 patients were imaged using both FSE and conventional spin echo sequences. Eight volunteers were used as controls. Arthroscopy was performed on 10 patients. The anterior cruciate ligament was assessed in a blinded fashion by three radiologists. The Kappa statistic was then used to determine the percentage agreement between FSE and conventional spin echo imaging. Fast spin echo sequencing demonstrated a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 94.8% and an accuracy of 96.3% when compared to arthroscopy. Conventional spin echo imaging and arthroscopy had a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 84.6% and an accuracy of 88.9%. The remaining 34 patients who did not undergo arthroscopy were followed clinically because clinical and imaging findings were not suggestive of ACL tears. These demonstrated 72% agreement between FSE and conventional spin echo imaging using the Kappa statistic, with regards to calling ACL normal or having only a low-grade partial tear. Fast spin echo imaging produces images of the anterior cruciate ligament that have similar diagnostic accuracy to conventional spin echo images (P<0.05) within a much shorter scan time. These results however, require further validation in a larger group, preferably with arthroscopic correlation. (author)

  19. Contrast-enhanced dynamic MR imaging of parasellar tumor using fast spin-echo sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusunoki, Katsusuke; Ohue, Shiro; Ichikawa, Haruhisa; Saito, Masahiro; Sadamoto, Kazuhiko; Sakaki, Saburo; Miki, Hitoshi.

    1995-01-01

    We have applied a new dynamic MRI technique that uses a fast spin-echo sequence to parasellar tumors. This sequence has less susceptible effect and better spatial resolution than a gradient echo sequence, providing faster images than a short spin-echo sequence does. Image was obtained in the coronal or sagittal plane using a 1.5T clinical MRI system, and then, dynamic MR images were acquired every 10 to 20 sec after administration of Gd-DTPA (0.1 mmol/kg). The subjects were 12 patients (5 microadenomas, 5 macroadenomas and 2 Rathke's cleft cysts) and 5 normal volunteers. As for volunteers, the cavernous sinus, pituitary stalk and posterior pituitary gland were contrasted on the first image, followed by visualization of the proximal portion adjacent to the junction of the infundibulum and the anterior pituitary gland, and finally by contrasting the distal portion of the anterior pituitary gland. There was a difference with respect to tumor contrast between microadenomas and macroadenomas. In the case of the macroadenomas, the tumor was contrasted at the same time as, or faster than the anterior pituitary gland, while with the microadenomas the tumor was enhanced later than the anterior pituitary gland. No enhancement with contrast medium was seen in Rathke's cleft cysts. In addition, it was possible to differentiate a recurrent tumor from a piece of muscle placed at surgery since the images obtained by the fast spin-echo sequence were clearer than those obtained by gradient echo sequence. (author)

  20. Comparison of respiratory-triggered 3-D fast spin-echo and single-shot fast spin-echo radial slab MR cholangiopancreatography images in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavhan, Govind B.; Almehdar, Abeer; Gupta, Sumeet [The Hospital for Sick Children and University of Toronto, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada); Moineddin, Rahim [University of Toronto, Department of Family and Community Medicine, Toronto (Canada); Babyn, Paul S. [Royal University Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Saskatoon (Canada)

    2013-09-15

    The two most commonly performed magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) sequences, 3-D fast spin-echo (3-D FSE) and single-shot fast spin-echo radial slabs (radial slabs), have not been compared in children. The purpose of this study was to compare 3-D FSE and radial slabs MRCP sequences on a 3-T scanner to determine their ability to show various segments of pancreaticobiliary tree and presence of artifacts in children. We reviewed 79 consecutive MRCPs performed in 74 children on a 3-T scanner. We noted visibility of major ducts on 3-D FSE and radial slabs. We noted the order of branching of ducts in the right and left hepatic ducts and the degree of visibility of the pancreatic duct. Statistical analysis was performed using McNemar and signed rank tests. There was no significant difference in the visibility of major bile ducts and the order of branching in the right hepatic lobe between sequences. A higher order of branching in the left lobe was seen on radial slabs than 3-D FSE (mean order of branching 2.82 versus 2.27; P-value = 0.0002). The visibility of pancreatic duct was better on radial slabs as compared to 3-D FSE (mean value of 1.53 vs. 0.90; P-value < 0.0001). 3-D FSE sequence was artifact-free in 25/79 (31.6%) MRCP exams as compared to radial slabs, which were artifact-free in 18/79 (22.8%) MRCP exams (P-value = 0.0001). There is no significant difference in the visibility of major bile ducts between 3-D FSE and radial slab MRCP sequences at 3-T in children. However, radial slab MRCP shows a higher order of branching in the left hepatic lobe and superior visibility of the pancreatic duct than 3-D FSE. (orig.)

  1. Fast method of NMR imaging based on trains of spin echoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennel, F.

    1993-01-01

    A theoretical introduction to Fourier NMR imaging and a discussion of fast methods are presented. Then an application of the method of echo-planar imaging (EPI) with spin echoes in a micro-imaging system is described together with introduced modifications of the sequence. A new technique for the measurement of flow profiles in liquids which results from a modification of x-pulsed EPI is presented. The development of new software for a NMR micro-imaging system is described, too. 51 refs, 29 refs

  2. Application of fast spin-echo T[sub 2]-weighted imaging for examination of the neurocranium. Comparison with the conventional T[sub 2]-weighted spin-echo sequence. Die Anwendung der T[sub 2]-gewichteten Turbo-Spin-Echo-Sequenz zur Untersuchung des Neurokraniums. Vergleich mit der konventionellen T[sub 2]-gewichteten Spin-Echo-Sequenz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siewert, C. (Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Universitaets-Klinikum Rudolf Virchow, Standort Wedding, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany)); Hosten, N. (Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Universitaets-Klinikum Rudolf Virchow, Standort Wedding, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany)); Felix, R. (Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Universitaets-Klinikum Rudolf Virchow, Standort Wedding, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany))

    1994-07-01

    T[sub 2]-weighted spin-echo imaging is the standard screening procedure in MR imaging of the neutrocranium. We evaluated fast spin-echo T[sub 2]-weighted imaging (TT[sub 2]) of the neurocranium in comparison to conventional spin-echo T[sub 2]-weighted imaging (T[sub 2]). Signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratio of normal brain tissues (basal ganglia, grey and white matter, CSF fluid) and different pathologies were calculated. Signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio were significantly higher than TT[sub 2] than in T[sub 2] (with the exception of grey-to-white matter contrast). Tissues with increased content of water protons (mobile protons) showed the highest contrast to surrounding tissues. The increased signal intensity of fat must be given due attention in fatty lesions. Because the contrast-to-noise ratio between white matter and basal ganglia is less in TT[sub 2], Parkinson patients have to be examined by conventional T[sub 2]. If these limitations are taken into account, fast spin-echo T[sub 2]-weighted imaging is well appropriate for MR imaging of the neurocranium, resulting in heavy T[sub 2]-weighting achieved in a short acquisition time. (orig.)

  3. Anteroinferior tears of the glenoid labrum: fat-suppressed fast spin-echo T2 versus gradient-recalled echo MR images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuite, M J [Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics, 600 Highland Avenue, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); De Smet, A A [Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics, 600 Highland Avenue, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); Norris, M A [Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics, 600 Highland Avenue, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); Orwin, J F [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics, 600 Highland Avenue, Madison, WI 53792 (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Objective. To compare fat-suppressed fast spin-echo (FSE) T2-weighted images with gradient-recalled echo (GRE) T2*-weighted images in the evaluation of anteroinferior labral tears. Design. MR images were retrospectively reviewed by two radiologists masked to the history and arthroscopic findings. They separately interpreted the anteroinferior labrum as torn or intact, first on one pulse sequence and then, 4 weeks later, on the other sequence. The MR interpretations were correlated with the arthroscopic findings. Patients. Nine patients with anteroinferior labral tears, and nine similarly-aged patients with normal, labra were studied. Results and conclusions. Observer 1 had a sensitivity of 0.56 on the GRE images and 0.67 on the FSE images (P>0.5), with a specificity of 1.0 for both sequences. Observer 2 had a sensitivity of 0.78 and a specificity of 0.89 for both sequences. In this small study there is no significant difference between GRE and fat-suppressed FSE images in their ability to diagnose anteroinferior labral tears. When evaluating the labrum with conventional MRI, axial fat-suppressed FSE T2-weighted images can be used in place of GRE images without a loss of accuracy. (orig.). With 3 figs., 1 tab.

  4. High-spatial-resolution isotropic three-dimensional fast-recovery fast spin-echo magnetic resonance dacryocystography combined with topical administration of sterile saline solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing, Zhang; Lang, Chen; Qiu-Xia, Wang; Rong, Liu; Xin, Luo; Wen-Zhen, Zhu; Li-Ming, Xia; Jian-Pin, Qi; He, Wang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to investigate the clinical performance of three-dimensional (3D) fast-recovery fast spin-echo (FRFSE) magnetic resonance dacryocystography (MRD) with topical administration of sterile saline solution for the assessment of the lacrimal drainage system (LDS). Methods: A total of 13 healthy volunteers underwent both 3D-FRFSE MRD and two-dimensional (2D)-impulse recovery (IR)-single-shot fast spin-echo (SSFSE) MRD after topical administration of sterile saline solution, and 31 patients affected by primary LDS outflow impairment or postsurgical recurrent epiphora underwent 3D-FRFSE MRD and conventional T1- and T2-weighted sequences. All patients underwent lacrimal endoscopy or surgery, which served as a standard of reference for confirming the MRD findings. Results: 3D-FRFSE MRD detected more visualized superior and inferior canaliculi and nasolacrimal duct than 2D-IR-SSFSE MRD. Compared with 2D-IR-SSFSE MRD, 3D-FRFSE MRD showed more visualized segments per LDS, although the difference was not statistically significant. Significant improvements in the inferior canaliculus and nasolacrimal duct visibility grades were achieved using 3D-FRFSE MRD. 3D-FRFSE MRD had 100% sensitivity and 63.6% specificity for detecting LDS obstruction. In 51 out of the 62 LDSs that were assessed, a 90% agreement was noted between the findings of 3D-FRFSE MRD and lacrimal endoscopy in detecting the obstruction level. Conclusion: 3D-FRFSE MRD combined with topical administration of sterile saline solution is a simple and noninvasive method of obtaining detailed morphological and functional information on the LDS. Overall, 3D-FRFSE MRD could be used as a reliable diagnostic method in many patients with epiphora prior to surgery

  5. Comparison of spin echo T1-weighted sequences versus fast spin-echo proton density-weighted sequences for evaluation of meniscal tears at 1.5 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, Andrew B.; Pesce, Lorenzo L.; Wu, Jim S.; Smart, L.R.; Medvecky, Michael J.; Haims, Andrew H.

    2009-01-01

    At our institution, fast spin-echo (FSE) proton density (PD) imaging is used to evaluate articular cartilage, while conventional spin-echo (CSE) T1-weighted sequences have been traditionally used to characterize meniscal pathology. We sought to determine if FSE PD-weighted sequences are equivalent to CSE T1-weighted sequences in the detection of meniscal tears, obviating the need to perform both sequences. We retrospectively reviewed the records of knee arthroscopies performed by two arthroscopy-focused surgeons from an academic medical center over a 2-year period. The preoperative MRI images were interpreted independently by two fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologists who graded the sagittal CSE T1 and FSE PD sequences at different sittings with grades 1-5, where 1 = normal meniscus, 2 = probable normal meniscus, 3 indeterminate, 4 = probable torn meniscus, and 5 = torn meniscus. Each meniscus was divided into an anterior and posterior half, and these halves were graded separately. Operative findings provided the gold standard. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to compare the two sequences. There were 131 tears in 504 meniscal halves. Using ROC analysis, the reader 1 area under curve for FSE PD was significantly better than CSE T1 (0.939 vs. 0.902, >95% confidence). For reader 2, the difference met good criteria for statistical non-inferiority but not superiority (0.913 for FSE PD and 0.908 for CSE T1; >95% non-inferiority for difference at most of -0.027). FSE PD-weighted sequences, using our institutional protocol, are not inferior to CSE T1-weighted sequences for the detection of meniscal tears and may be superior. (orig.)

  6. Meniscal tear evaluation. Comparison of a conventional spin-echo proton density sequence with a fast spin-echo sequence utilizing a 512x358 matrix size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopper, M.A.; Robinson, P.; Grainger, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To determine the sensitivities, specificities, and receiver-operating characteristics (ROCs) for sagittal conventional spin-echo proton density (SE-PD) and fast spin-echo proton density (FSE-PD) sequences in the diagnosis of meniscal tears when compared to arthroscopic findings utilizing increased FSE matrix acquisition size. Method and materials: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of 97 knees (194 menisci) were independently and prospectively interpreted by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists over four separate readings at least 3 weeks apart. Readings 1 and 2 included images in all three planes in accordance with the standard protocol with either a SE or FSE sagittal PD, at readings 3 and 4 just the SE or FSE sagittal PD sequences were reported. The FSE sequence was acquired with an increased matrix size, compared to the SE sequence, to provide increased resolution. Menisci were graded for the presence of a tear and statistical analysis to calculate sensitivity and specificity was performed comparing to arthroscopy as the reference standard. ROC analysis for the diagnosis of meniscal tears on the SE and FSE sagittal sequences was also evaluated. Reader concordance for the SE and FSE sequences was calculated. Results: Sixty-seven tears were noted at arthroscopy; 60 were detected on SE and 56 on FSE. The sensitivity and specificity for SE was 90 and 90%, and for FSE was 84 and 94%, respectively, with no significant difference. ROC analysis showed no significant difference between the two sequences and kappa values demonstrated a higher level of reader agreement for the FSE than for the SE reading. Conclusion: Use of a FSE sagittal PD sequence with an increased matrix size provides comparable performance to conventional SE sagittal PD when evaluating meniscal disease with a modern system. The present study indicates an increased level of concordance between readers for the FSE sagittal sequence compared to the conventional SE.

  7. Meniscal tear evaluation. Comparison of a conventional spin-echo proton density sequence with a fast spin-echo sequence utilizing a 512x358 matrix size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopper, M.A.; Robinson, P. [Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Leeds (United Kingdom); Grainger, A.J., E-mail: andrew.grainger@leedsth.nhs.u [Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-15

    Aim: To determine the sensitivities, specificities, and receiver-operating characteristics (ROCs) for sagittal conventional spin-echo proton density (SE-PD) and fast spin-echo proton density (FSE-PD) sequences in the diagnosis of meniscal tears when compared to arthroscopic findings utilizing increased FSE matrix acquisition size. Method and materials: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of 97 knees (194 menisci) were independently and prospectively interpreted by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists over four separate readings at least 3 weeks apart. Readings 1 and 2 included images in all three planes in accordance with the standard protocol with either a SE or FSE sagittal PD, at readings 3 and 4 just the SE or FSE sagittal PD sequences were reported. The FSE sequence was acquired with an increased matrix size, compared to the SE sequence, to provide increased resolution. Menisci were graded for the presence of a tear and statistical analysis to calculate sensitivity and specificity was performed comparing to arthroscopy as the reference standard. ROC analysis for the diagnosis of meniscal tears on the SE and FSE sagittal sequences was also evaluated. Reader concordance for the SE and FSE sequences was calculated. Results: Sixty-seven tears were noted at arthroscopy; 60 were detected on SE and 56 on FSE. The sensitivity and specificity for SE was 90 and 90%, and for FSE was 84 and 94%, respectively, with no significant difference. ROC analysis showed no significant difference between the two sequences and kappa values demonstrated a higher level of reader agreement for the FSE than for the SE reading. Conclusion: Use of a FSE sagittal PD sequence with an increased matrix size provides comparable performance to conventional SE sagittal PD when evaluating meniscal disease with a modern system. The present study indicates an increased level of concordance between readers for the FSE sagittal sequence compared to the conventional SE.

  8. Kinematic MRI using short TR single shot fast spin echo (SSFSE) in evaluating swallowing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isogai, Satoshi; Takehara, Yasuo; Isoda, Haruo; Kodaira, Nami; Masunaga, Hatsuko; Ozawa, Fukujirou; Kaneko, Masao [Hamamatsu Univ. School of Medicine, Shizuoka (Japan); Nozaki, Atsushi; Kabasawa, Hiroyuki

    1999-03-01

    The utility of short TR single shot fast spin echo (SSFSE) MR imaging for evaluating swallowing was determined. Five healthy volunteers underwent kinematic MR imaging of swallowing with a 1.5 T MR scanner using the short TR (300 ms) SSFSE sequence. Twenty phases of sagittal sections were acquired within 6 sec, where the temporal resolution was 300 ms. For oral contrast medium, we used prune yogurt juice with Fe added. The image contrast of short TR SSFSE was found to be somewhere like that of T1-weighted images. In all cases, both the buccal and pharyngeal stages of swallowing were successfully depicted. The Fe-added prune yogurt juice performed as a positive contrast medium and helped determine anatomical structures in the buccal stage. Short TR (300 ms) SSFSE was useful in evaluating swallowing. The combined use of Fe-added prune yogurt juice was helpful in enhancing the surface of the oropharynx. (author)

  9. Kinematic MRI using short TR single shot fast spin echo (SSFSE) in evaluating swallowing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isogai, Satoshi; Takehara, Yasuo; Isoda, Haruo; Kodaira, Nami; Masunaga, Hatsuko; Ozawa, Fukujirou; Kaneko, Masao; Nozaki, Atsushi; Kabasawa, Hiroyuki

    1999-01-01

    The utility of short TR single shot fast spin echo (SSFSE) MR imaging for evaluating swallowing was determined. Five healthy volunteers underwent kinematic MR imaging of swallowing with a 1.5 T MR scanner using the short TR (300 ms) SSFSE sequence. Twenty phases of sagittal sections were acquired within 6 sec, where the temporal resolution was 300 ms. For oral contrast medium, we used prune yogurt juice with Fe added. The image contrast of short TR SSFSE was found to be somewhere like that of T1-weighted images. In all cases, both the buccal and pharyngeal stages of swallowing were successfully depicted. The Fe-added prune yogurt juice performed as a positive contrast medium and helped determine anatomical structures in the buccal stage. Short TR (300 ms) SSFSE was useful in evaluating swallowing. The combined use of Fe-added prune yogurt juice was helpful in enhancing the surface of the oropharynx. (author)

  10. Fast T1- and T2-weighted pulmonary MR-imaging in patients with bronchial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both, M.; Schultze, J.; Reuter, M.; Bewig, B.; Hubner, R.; Bobis, I.; Noth, R.; Heller, M.; Biederer, J.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: A prospective study to evaluate the diagnostic potential and limitations of three fast MRI sequences in patients with bronchial carcinoma based on the comparison with spiral CT. Material and methods: Three fast chest MRI sequences from 20 patients with central or peripheral bronchial carcinoma were evaluated by two observers for relation of tumour to adjacent structures, lymph node enlargement, additional pulmonary lesions and artefacts. The information from MR-imaging was compared with the results from spiral CT. MRI comprised a T1-3D-GRE breath-hold examination ('VIBE', TR/TE 4.5/1.9 ms, flip-angle 12 deg., matrix 502 x 512, 2.5 mm coronal slices), a breath-hold, T2-HASTE sequence (TR/TE 2000/43 ms, matrix 192 x 256, 10 mm coronal slices) and a respiration-triggered T2-TSE sequence (TR/TE 3000-6000/120 ms, matrix 270 x 512, 6 mm transverse slices). The FOV was adapted individually (380-480 mm). Results: The presence of the primary bronchial carcinoma and infiltration of thoracic structures by tumour tissue could be demonstrated by all sequences. VIBE sequence was more suitable for detecting small pulmonary nodules than the other MRI examinations, but compared to CT still 20% of these lesions were missed. Contrary to VIBE and T2-weighted TSE scans, HASTE sequence was limited in imaging mediastinal lymph nodes due to missing relevant findings in 2/20 patients. HASTE images significantly provided the lowest rate of artefacts in imaging lung parenchyma (P < 0.001 in peripheral parenchyma), but spatial resolution was limited in this sequence. Concerning the differentiation between tumour and adjacent atelectasis (n = 8), T2-weighted TSE imaging was superior to CT and VIBE in all cases and to HASTE sequence in 4/8 patients. Conclusion: The combination of VIBE and HASTE sequence allows for an adequate imaging of thoracic processes in patients with bronchial carcinoma, limited only in visualizing small pulmonary nodules. To obtain more detail resolution and to

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cranial nerves in the posterior fossa: a comparative study of t2-weighted spin-echo sequences at 1.5 and 3.0 tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbach, F; Müller, M; Bruhn, H

    2008-04-01

    High-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 3.0 Tesla (T) is rapidly gaining clinical acceptance. Whether doubling of the field strength of 1.5T and the subsequent increase in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) leads to a significant improvement of image quality is not automatically given. To evaluate the depiction of fine anatomic detail in the posterior fossa, focusing on brain nerves, on T2-weighted imaging, and to define the potential advantage of imaging at 3.0T versus 1.5T. In total, 10 brainstem nerve pairs of 12 volunteers were identified on T2-weighted MR images of 2- and 5-mm section thickness acquired at 1.5T and 3.0T. The MR images were compared for each subject at both field strengths by three independent readers who rated image quality according to depiction of anatomic detail and contrast by using a rating scale. In general, MR images at 3.0T were considered more conspicuous and less noisy than images at 1.5T. The SNR value measured was almost doubled. With respect to structural identification and contrast according to the rating scale, observer scores were significantly improved both for standard imaging with 5-mm sections and high-resolution imaging with 2-mm sections at 3.0T. Direct comparison revealed a significant increase for evaluated image quality criteria and the number of nerves detected. The comparison revealed a clear advantage in favor of T2-weighted MRI at 3.0T vs. 1.5T in depicting the roots and course of brain nerves in the posterior fossa.

  12. MR cisternography with three-dimensional fast advanced spin-echo (FASE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohgi, Kazuyuki; Yamamoto, Hidefumi; Yokote, Hiroyuki

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of MR cisternography (MRC) combined with various postprocessing techniques and three-dimensional (3D) time-of-flight (TOF) MR angiography, MR cisternograms in 212 patients with various cranial nerve symptoms were retrospectively evaluated. MR examinations were performed with a 1.5 T MR imager using a 3D fast advanced spin-echo (FASE) sequence. Maximum intensity projection (MIP) had the advantage of demonstrating fluid-filled structures such as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-internal auditory canal (IAC) and Meckel's cave. Minimum intensity projection (Min IP) was especially useful in delineating neurovascular structures (NVS) in wide CSF space. Addition provided the most well-balanced images of NVS, and was superior to Min IP in the depiction of NVS in narrow CSF space. Virtual endoscopy and volume rendering had the potential to provide additional information in the evaluation of the three-dimensional relationships of NVS. Combination of 3D TOF MRA with MRC was helpful in differentiating arteries, veins, and nerves. With the judicious use of various postprocessing techniques and combined MRA, the value of MRC in the evaluation of patients with various cranial nerve symptoms can be further strengthened. (author)

  13. Magnetic resonance cisternography using the fast spin echo method for the evaluation of vestibular schwannoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishizawa, Shigeru; Yokoyama, Tetsuo; Uemura, Kenichi [Hamamatsu Univ. School of Medicine, Shizuoka (Japan)

    1999-04-01

    Neuroimaging of vestibular schwannoma was performed with the fat-suppression spoiled gradient recalled acquisition in the steady state (SPGR) method and magnetic resonance (MR) cisternography, which is a fast spin echo method using a long echo train length, for the preoperative evaluation of the lateral extension of the tumor in the internal auditory canal, and the anatomical identification of the posterior semicircular canal and the nerves in the canal distal to the tumor. The SPGR method overestimated the lateral extension in eight cases, probably because of enhancement of the nerves adjacent to the tumor in the canal. The posterior semicircular canal could not be clearly identified, and the cranial nerves in the canal were shown only as a nerve bundle. In contrast, MR cisternography showed clear images of the lateral extension of the tumor and the facial and cochlear nerves adjacent to the tumor in the internal auditory canal. The anatomical location of the posterior semicircular canal was also clearly shown. These preoperative findings are very useful to plan the extent to which the internal auditory canal can be opened, and for intraoperative identification of the nerves in the canal. MR cisternography is less invasive since no contrast material or radiation is required, as with thin-slice high-resolution computed tomography (CT). MR cisternography should replace high-resolution CT for the preoperative neuroradiological evaluation of vestibular schwannoma. (author)

  14. MR cisternography with three-dimensional fast advanced spin-echo (FASE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohgi, Kazuyuki; Yamamoto, Hidefumi; Yokote, Hiroyuki [Japanese Red-Cross Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan)] [and others

    2000-06-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of MR cisternography (MRC) combined with various postprocessing techniques and three-dimensional (3D) time-of-flight (TOF) MR angiography, MR cisternograms in 212 patients with various cranial nerve symptoms were retrospectively evaluated. MR examinations were performed with a 1.5 T MR imager using a 3D fast advanced spin-echo (FASE) sequence. Maximum intensity projection (MIP) had the advantage of demonstrating fluid-filled structures such as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-internal auditory canal (IAC) and Meckel's cave. Minimum intensity projection (Min IP) was especially useful in delineating neurovascular structures (NVS) in wide CSF space. Addition provided the most well-balanced images of NVS, and was superior to Min IP in the depiction of NVS in narrow CSF space. Virtual endoscopy and volume rendering had the potential to provide additional information in the evaluation of the three-dimensional relationships of NVS. Combination of 3D TOF MRA with MRC was helpful in differentiating arteries, veins, and nerves. With the judicious use of various postprocessing techniques and combined MRA, the value of MRC in the evaluation of patients with various cranial nerve symptoms can be further strengthened. (author)

  15. Fast spin-echo MR assessment of patients with poor outcome following spinal cervical surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, W.; Thuomas, K.AA.; Hedlund, R.; Leszniewski, W.; Vavruch, L.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to evaluate poor outcome following spinal cervical surgery. A total of 146 consecutive patients operated with anterior discectomy and fusion (ADF) with the Cloward technique were investigated. Clinical notes, plain radiography, CT, and fast spin-echo (FSE) images were retrospectively evaluated. Some 30% of the patients had unsatisfactory clinical results within 12 months after surgery; 13% had initial improvement followed by deterioration of the preoperative symptoms, while 14.4% were not improved or worsened. Disc herniation and bony stenosis above, below, or at the fused level were the most common findings. In 45% of patients, surgery failed to decompress the spinal canal. In only 4 patients was no cause of remaining myelopathy and/or radiculopathy found. FSE demonstrated a large variety of pathological findings in the patients with poor clinical outcome after ADF. Postoperatively, patients with good clinical outcome had a lower incidence of pathological changes. FSE is considered the primary imaging modality for the cervical spine. However, CT is a useful complement in the axial projection to visualize bone changes. (orig.)

  16. Utility of two types of MR cisternography for patency evaluation of aqueduct and third ventriculostomy site: Three dimentsional sagittal fast spin echo sequence and steady-state coherent fast gradient echo sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jung Hyun; Kim, Eun Hee; Park, Jong Bin; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Choi, Byung Se; Jung, Cheol Kyu; Bae, Yun Jung; Lee, Kyung Mi [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    We aimed to evaluate the utility of two types of MR cisternography [fast spin echo sequence and steady-state coherent gradient echo (GRE) sequence] in addition to phase contrast-cine imaging (PC-cine), for assessing patency at the aqueduct and third ventriculostomy site. 43 patients (35 patients with suspected aqueductal stenosis and 8 patients with third ventriculostomy) were retrospectively analyzed. PC-cine, 3 dimensional sagittal fast spin echo sequence [driven-equilibrium imaging (DRIVE) or volumetric isotrophic T2-weighted acquisition (T2 VISTA)] and steady-state coherent fast GRE sequence (balanced turbo field echo; bTFE) imaging were performed in all patients. The patency of the aqueduct or third ventriculostomy site was scored. Some pitfalls of each sequence were also analyzed in individual cases. 93% of all cases showed consistent scores in PC-cine, DRIVE/T2 VISTA, and bTFE imaging. DRIVE/T2 VISTA imaging provided functional information of cerebrospinal fluid flow with flow-related artifacts, while bTFE imaging allowed direct visualization of the aqueduct or ventriculostomy site. However, evaluation of anatomical structures was difficult in three cases with strong flow-related artifacts on DRIVE/T2 VISTA and in 2 cases with susceptibility artifacts on bTFE. Both DRIVE/T2 VISTA and bTFE imaging have complementary roles in evaluating the patency of the aqueduct and 3rd ventriculostomy site.

  17. Utility of two types of MR cisternography for patency evaluation of aqueduct and third ventriculostomy site: Three dimentsional sagittal fast spin echo sequence and steady-state coherent fast gradient echo sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jung Hyun; Kim, Eun Hee; Park, Jong Bin; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Choi, Byung Se; Jung, Cheol Kyu; Bae, Yun Jung; Lee, Kyung Mi

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the utility of two types of MR cisternography [fast spin echo sequence and steady-state coherent gradient echo (GRE) sequence] in addition to phase contrast-cine imaging (PC-cine), for assessing patency at the aqueduct and third ventriculostomy site. 43 patients (35 patients with suspected aqueductal stenosis and 8 patients with third ventriculostomy) were retrospectively analyzed. PC-cine, 3 dimensional sagittal fast spin echo sequence [driven-equilibrium imaging (DRIVE) or volumetric isotrophic T2-weighted acquisition (T2 VISTA)] and steady-state coherent fast GRE sequence (balanced turbo field echo; bTFE) imaging were performed in all patients. The patency of the aqueduct or third ventriculostomy site was scored. Some pitfalls of each sequence were also analyzed in individual cases. 93% of all cases showed consistent scores in PC-cine, DRIVE/T2 VISTA, and bTFE imaging. DRIVE/T2 VISTA imaging provided functional information of cerebrospinal fluid flow with flow-related artifacts, while bTFE imaging allowed direct visualization of the aqueduct or ventriculostomy site. However, evaluation of anatomical structures was difficult in three cases with strong flow-related artifacts on DRIVE/T2 VISTA and in 2 cases with susceptibility artifacts on bTFE. Both DRIVE/T2 VISTA and bTFE imaging have complementary roles in evaluating the patency of the aqueduct and 3rd ventriculostomy site

  18. Comparison of dynamic dual spin-echo and fast-gradient-echo techniques in the evaluation of cardiac diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettigrew, R.I.; Eisner, R.L.; Groen, J.P.; Baron, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    To determine the relative roles of a dynamic spin-echo method and a fast acquisition with multiphase excitations (FAME) technique, ten patients with myocardial infarction (MI), five with myocardial masses, and five healthy patients were studied with both methods. The dynamic dual-spin-echo (DSE) technique allows acquisition of each of seven sections at 14 cardiac phases in 20 minutes. Wall motion abnormalities were seen equally well with both techniques, but FAME usually required a shorter study time (10 minutes). DSE, however, was superior for evaluating cardiac masses and provided superior wall blood contrast. Thus, these techniques are complementary, and both are now a routine part of the authors' study of cardiac patients

  19. Self-Calibrating Wave-Encoded Variable-Density Single-Shot Fast Spin Echo Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feiyu; Taviani, Valentina; Tamir, Jonathan I; Cheng, Joseph Y; Zhang, Tao; Song, Qiong; Hargreaves, Brian A; Pauly, John M; Vasanawala, Shreyas S

    2018-04-01

    It is highly desirable in clinical abdominal MR scans to accelerate single-shot fast spin echo (SSFSE) imaging and reduce blurring due to T 2 decay and partial-Fourier acquisition. To develop and investigate the clinical feasibility of wave-encoded variable-density SSFSE imaging for improved image quality and scan time reduction. Prospective controlled clinical trial. With Institutional Review Board approval and informed consent, the proposed method was assessed on 20 consecutive adult patients (10 male, 10 female, range, 24-84 years). A wave-encoded variable-density SSFSE sequence was developed for clinical 3.0T abdominal scans to enable high acceleration (3.5×) with full-Fourier acquisitions by: 1) introducing wave encoding with self-refocusing gradient waveforms to improve acquisition efficiency; 2) developing self-calibrated estimation of wave-encoding point-spread function and coil sensitivity to improve motion robustness; and 3) incorporating a parallel imaging and compressed sensing reconstruction to reconstruct highly accelerated datasets. Image quality was compared pairwise with standard Cartesian acquisition independently and blindly by two radiologists on a scale from -2 to 2 for noise, contrast, confidence, sharpness, and artifacts. The average ratio of scan time between these two approaches was also compared. A Wilcoxon signed-rank tests with a P value under 0.05 considered statistically significant. Wave-encoded variable-density SSFSE significantly reduced the perceived noise level and improved the sharpness of the abdominal wall and the kidneys compared with standard acquisition (mean scores 0.8, 1.2, and 0.8, respectively, P variable-density sampling SSFSE achieves improved image quality with clinically relevant echo time and reduced scan time, thus providing a fast and robust approach for clinical SSFSE imaging. 1 Technical Efficacy: Stage 6 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018;47:954-966. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  20. Bilateral mesial temporal sclerosis: MRI with high-resolution fast spin-echo and fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oppenheim, C.; Dormont, D.; Lehericy, S.; Marsault, C. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Groupe Hospitalier Pite-Salpetriere, Paris (France); Hasboun, D. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Groupe Hospitalier Pite-Salpetriere, Paris (France)]|[Dept. of Neurology, Paris VI Univ. (France); Bazin, B.; Samson, S.; Baulac, M. [Dept. of Neurology, Paris VI Univ. (France)

    1999-07-01

    We report a retrospective analysis of MRI in 206 patients with intractable seizures and describe the findings in bilateral mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) on fast spin-echo (FSE) and fast fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (fFLAIR) sequences. Criteria for MTS were atrophy, signal change and loss of the digitations of the head of the hippocampus. In patients with bilateral MRI signs of MTS, correlation with clinical electro, volumetric MRI data and neuropsychological tests, when available, was performed. Bilateral MTS was observed in seven patients. Bilateral loss of the digitations and signal change of fFLAIR was seen in all seven. In three, bilateral atrophy was obvious. In two patients, mild bilateral atrophy was observed and in two others, the hippocampi were: asymmetrical, with obvious atrophy on only one side. Volumetric data confirmed bilateral symmetrical atrophy in five patients, and volumes were at the lowest of the normal range in other two. The EEG showed temporal abnormalities in all patients, unilateral in five and bilateral in two. All patients had memory impairment and neuropsychological data confirmed visual and verbal memory deficits; two patients failed the Wada test on both sides. High-resolution T2-weighted FSE and fFLAIR sequences allow diagnosis of bilateral MTS, which has important therapeutic and prognostic implications. (orig.)

  1. Bilateral mesial temporal sclerosis: MRI with high-resolution fast spin-echo and fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oppenheim, C.; Dormont, D.; Lehericy, S.; Marsault, C.; Hasboun, D.; Bazin, B.; Samson, S.; Baulac, M.

    1999-01-01

    We report a retrospective analysis of MRI in 206 patients with intractable seizures and describe the findings in bilateral mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) on fast spin-echo (FSE) and fast fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (fFLAIR) sequences. Criteria for MTS were atrophy, signal change and loss of the digitations of the head of the hippocampus. In patients with bilateral MRI signs of MTS, correlation with clinical electro, volumetric MRI data and neuropsychological tests, when available, was performed. Bilateral MTS was observed in seven patients. Bilateral loss of the digitations and signal change of fFLAIR was seen in all seven. In three, bilateral atrophy was obvious. In two patients, mild bilateral atrophy was observed and in two others, the hippocampi were: asymmetrical, with obvious atrophy on only one side. Volumetric data confirmed bilateral symmetrical atrophy in five patients, and volumes were at the lowest of the normal range in other two. The EEG showed temporal abnormalities in all patients, unilateral in five and bilateral in two. All patients had memory impairment and neuropsychological data confirmed visual and verbal memory deficits; two patients failed the Wada test on both sides. High-resolution T2-weighted FSE and fFLAIR sequences allow diagnosis of bilateral MTS, which has important therapeutic and prognostic implications. (orig.)

  2. Evaluation of chondromalacia of the patella with axial inversion recovery-fast spin-echo imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S H; Suh, J S; Cho, J; Kim, S J; Kim, S J

    2001-03-01

    The purpose of our study was to assess the accuracy of inversion recovery-fast spin-echo (IR-FSE) imaging for the evaluation of chondromalacia of the patella. Eighty-six patients were included, they underwent magnetic resonance (MR) examination and subsequent knee arthroscopy. Medial and lateral facets of the patella were evaluated separately. Axial images were obtained by using IR-FSE (TR/TE/TI = 3000/25/150 msec; echo train length, 8; 4-mm thickness; 12-cm field of view; 512 x 256 matrix; two, number of excitations) with a 1.5-T MR machine. MR interpretation of chondromalacia was made on the basis of the arthroscopic grading system. Of a total of 172 facets graded, arthroscopy revealed chondromalacia in 14 facets with various grades (G0, 158; G1, 1; G2, 3; G3, 6; G4, 4). Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy in the chondromalacia grades were 57.1%, 93.0%, and 90.1%, respectively. There was one false-negative case (G4) and 11 false-positive cases (G1, eight; G2, two; G3, one). Sensitivity and specificity corrected by one grade difference were improved to 85.7% and 98.1%, respectively. When cartilage changes were grouped into early (corresponding to grade 1 and 2) and advanced (grade 3 and 4) diseases, sensitivity and specificity of the early and advanced diseases were 75% and 94% and 80% and 99%, respectively. IR-FSE imaging of the knee revealed high specificity but low sensitivity for the evaluation of chondromalacia of the patella.

  3. A fast random walk algorithm for computing the pulsed-gradient spin-echo signal in multiscale porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenkov, Denis S

    2011-02-01

    A new method for computing the signal attenuation due to restricted diffusion in a linear magnetic field gradient is proposed. A fast random walk (FRW) algorithm for simulating random trajectories of diffusing spin-bearing particles is combined with gradient encoding. As random moves of a FRW are continuously adapted to local geometrical length scales, the method is efficient for simulating pulsed-gradient spin-echo experiments in hierarchical or multiscale porous media such as concrete, sandstones, sedimentary rocks and, potentially, brain or lungs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cardiac T2-mapping using a fast gradient echo spin echo sequence - first in vitro and in vivo experience

    OpenAIRE

    Baessler, Bettina; Schaarschmidt, Frank; Stehning, Christian; Schnackenburg, Bernhard; Maintz, David; Bunck, Alexander C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was the evaluation of a fast Gradient Spin Echo Technique (GraSE) for cardiac T2-mapping, combining a robust estimation of T2 relaxation times with short acquisition times. The sequence was compared against two previously introduced T2-mapping techniques in a phantom and in vivo. Methods: Phantom experiments were performed at 1.5 T using a commercially available cylindrical gel phantom. Three different T2-mapping techniques were compared: a Multi Echo Spin Ec...

  5. Volumetric fat-water separated T2-weighted MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasanawala, Shreyas S.; Sonik, Arvind; Madhuranthakam, Ananth J.; Venkatesan, Ramesh; Lai, Peng; Brau, Anja C.S.

    2011-01-01

    Pediatric body MRI exams often cover multiple body parts, making the development of broadly applicable protocols and obtaining uniform fat suppression a challenge. Volumetric T2 imaging with Dixon-type fat-water separation might address this challenge, but it is a lengthy process. We develop and evaluate a faster two-echo approach to volumetric T2 imaging with fat-water separation. A volumetric spin-echo sequence was modified to include a second shifted echo so two image sets are acquired. A region-growing reconstruction approach was developed to decompose separate water and fat images. Twenty-six children were recruited with IRB approval and informed consent. Fat-suppression quality was graded by two pediatric radiologists and compared against conventional fat-suppressed fast spin-echo T2-W images. Additionally, the value of in- and opposed-phase images was evaluated. Fat suppression on volumetric images had high quality in 96% of cases (95% confidence interval of 80-100%) and were preferred over or considered equivalent to conventional two-dimensional fat-suppressed FSE T2 imaging in 96% of cases (95% confidence interval of 78-100%). In- and opposed-phase images had definite value in 12% of cases. Volumetric fat-water separated T2-weighted MRI is feasible and is likely to yield improved fat suppression over conventional fat-suppressed T2-weighted imaging. (orig.)

  6. Fat-suppressed MRI of musculoskeletal infection: fast T2-weighted techniques versus gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, T.T.; Randolph, D.A. Jr.; Staron, R.B.; Feldman, F.; Cushin, S.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate gadolinium's role in imaging musculoskeletal infection by comparing the conspicuity and extent of inflammatory changes demonstrated on gadolinium-enhanced fat-suppressed T1-weighted images versus fat-suppressed fast T2-weighted sequences. Design. Eighteen patients with infection were imaged in a 1.5-T unit, using frequency-selective and/or inversion recovery fat-suppressed fast T2-weighted images (T2WI) and gadolinium-enhanced frequency-selective fat-suppressed T1-weighted images (T1WI). Thirty-four imaging planes with both a fat-suppressed gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted sequence and a fat-suppressed T2-weighted sequence were obtained. Comparison of the extent and conspicuity of signal intensity changes was made for both bone and soft tissue in each plane. Results. In bone, inflammatory change was equal in extent and conspicuity on fat-suppressed T2WI and fat-suppressed T1WI with gadolinium in 19 planes, more extensive or conspicuous on T2WI in three planes, and less so on T2WI in two planes. Marrow was normal on all three sequences in 10 cases. In soft tissue, inflammatory change was seen equally well in 20 instances, more extensively or conspicuously on the T2WI in 11 instances, and less so on T2WI in 2 instances. One case had no soft tissue involvement on any of the sequences. Five abscesses and three joint effusions were present, all more conspicuously delineated from surrounding inflammatory change on the fat-saturated T1WI with gadolinium. The average imaging time for the fat-saturated T1WI with gadolinium was 6.75 min, while that of the T2-weighted sequences was 5.75 min. Conclusion. Routine use of gadolinium is not warranted. Instead, gadolinium should be reserved for clinically suspected infection in or around a joint, and in cases refractory to medical or surgical treatment due to possible abscess formation. (orig.)

  7. Lesion discrimination in optic neuritis using high-resolution fat-suppressed fast spin-echo MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gass, A.; Moseley, I.F.; Barker, G.J.; Jones, S.; MacManus, D.; McDonald, W.I.; Miller, D.H.

    1996-01-01

    Fast spin-echo (FSE) is a new sequence with acquisition times currently down to one-sixteenth of those obtained with conventional spin-echo sequences, which allows high-resolution (512 x 512 matrix) images to be acquired in an acceptable time. We compared the higher resolution of FSE with the medium resolution of a short inversion-time inversion-recovery (STIR) sequence in depicting the optic nerves of healthy controls and patients with optic neuritis. Optic nerve MRI examinations were performed in 18 patients with optic neuritis and 10 normal controls. Two sequences were obtained coronally: fat-suppressed FSE (FSE TR 3250 ms/TEef 68 ms, echo-train length 16, 4 excitations, 24 cm rectangular field of view, 3 mm interleaved contiguous slices, in-plane resolution 0.5 x 0.5 mm) and STIR (TR 2000 ms/TE 50 ms/TI 175 ms, in-plane resolution 0.8 x 0.8 mm, slice thickness 5 mm). FSE demonstrated much more anatomical detail than STIR, e. g. distinction of optic nerve and sheath. Lesions were seen in 20 of 21 symptomatic nerves using FSE and in 18 of 21 using STIR. Nerve swelling or partial cross-sectional lesions of the optic nerve were each seen only on FSE in 3 cases. Fat-suppressed FSE imaging of the optic nerve improves anatomical definition and increases lesion detection in optic neuritis. (orig.). With 5 figs

  8. Comparative study between the Spin-echo and 3-D fast imaging techniques in the Knee evaluation with magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oleaga Zufiria, L.; Ibanez Zubiarrain, A.; Grande Icaran, J.; Vela Martin, A.C.; Cintora Leon, E.; Grau Garcia, M.; Grande Icaran, D.

    1993-01-01

    We have carried out a retrospective analysis of the results of magnetic resonance (MR) studies in 20 patients, comparing two different sequences. We compared a 2-D spin-echo (SE2D) sequence with a 3-D fast imaging with steady-state precession (FISP3D) sequence in the attempt to compare the reliability of each in the detection of knee injuries. Arthroscopy was employed as a control technique. Our study revealed no statistically significant difference between the two sequences, although the overall sensitivity for the detection of meniscal lesions was slightly greater with the FISP3D sequence; however, the reliability in the detection of ruptures of the posterior cruciate ligament is less with this sequence than with the SE2D sequence. Both sequences showed very low sensitivity in the detection of hyaline cartilage injuries. (Author) 14 refs

  9. Evaluation of the chondromalacia patella using a microscopy coil: comparison of the two-dimensional fast spin echo techniques and the three-dimensional fast field echo techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-joo; Lee, Sang Hoon; Kang, Chang Ho; Ryu, Jeong Ah; Shin, Myung Jin; Cho, Kyung-Ja; Cho, Woo Shin

    2011-01-01

    We wanted to compare the two-dimensional (2D) fast spin echo (FSE) techniques and the three-dimensional (3D) fast field echo techniques for the evaluation of the chondromalacia patella using a microscopy coil. Twenty five patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty were included in this study. Preoperative MRI evaluation of the patella was performed using a microscopy coil (47 mm). The proton density-weighted fast spin echo images (PD), the fat-suppressed PD images (FS-PD), the intermediate weighted-fat suppressed fast spin echo images (iw-FS-FSE), the 3D balanced-fast field echo images (B-FFE), the 3D water selective cartilage scan (WATS-c) and the 3D water selective fluid scan (WATS-f) were obtained on a 1.5T MRI scanner. The patellar cartilage was evaluated in nine areas: the superior, middle and the inferior portions that were subdivided into the medial, central and lateral facets in a total of 215 areas. Employing the Noyes grading system, the MRI grade 0-I, II and III lesions were compared using the gross and microscopic findings. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were evaluated for each sequence. The significance of the differences for the individual sequences was calculated using the McNemar test. The gross and microscopic findings demonstrated 167 grade 0-I lesions, 40 grade II lesions and eight grade III lesions. Iw-FS-FSE had the highest accuracy (sensitivity/specificity/accuracy = 88%/98%/96%), followed by FS-PD (78%/98%/93%, respectively), PD (76%/98%/93%, respectively), B-FFE (71%/100%/93%, respectively), WATS-c (67%/100%/92%, respectively) and WATS-f (58%/99%/89%, respectively). There were statistically significant differences for the iw-FS-FSE and WATS-f and for the PD-FS and WATS-f (p chondromalacia patella.

  10. MR imaging of the gastrointestinal tract with half-fourier single-shot fast spin echo (SSFSE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boku, Houjun; Takehara, Yasuo; Isoda, Haruo; Isogai, Satoshi; Kaneko, Masao

    1999-01-01

    Our objective was to implement a non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique combined with concentrated milk ingestion for depicting the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and detecting gastrointestinal motility and transit. The half-Fourier SSFSE (single-shot fast spin echo) sequence was optimized on the basis of a phantom study. In order to determine the feasibility of milk ingestion as a substitute for contrast medium, ten human volunteers were examined with SSFSE after two types of liquid ingestion (i.e., milk and water). The snapshot images provided subsecond data acquisition for each coronal plane, allowing visualization of peristalsis in the gastrointestinal tract in an almost real-time fashion, without motion-related image degradation, as would normally be seen using conventional MRI. There was no significant difference between concentrated milk and water in terms of depiction of the upper gastrointestinal tract; however, 10 min and 30 min after ingestion, concentrated milk showed better delineation of the intestine than that observed after water ingestion (p<0.01). MR gastrointestinal imaging is a non-invasive method that allows gastrointestinal depiction as well as analysis of motility and passage. Especially with concentrated milk ingestion, the distal intestines were well depicted with adequate contrast filling and distention. (author)

  11. Paradoxical signal pattern of mediastinal cysts on T2-weighted MR imaging: phantom and clinical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Ken, E-mail: k-ueda@radiol.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita-city, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Yanagawa, Masahiro [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita-city, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ueguchi, Takashi [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita-city, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Satoh, Yukihisa; Kawai, Misa; Gyobu, Tomoko; Sumikawa, Hiromitsu; Honda, Osamu; Tomiyama, Noriyuki [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita-city, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the intracystic MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) signal intensity of mediastinal cystic masses on T2-weighted images. Materials and methods: A phantom study was performed to evaluate the signal intensity of a mediastinal cystic mass phantom (rubber balloon containing water) adjacent to a cardiac phantom pulsing at the rate of 60/min. T2-weighted images (sequence, fast spin echo [FSE] and single shot fast spin echo [SSFSE]) were acquired for the mediastinal cystic mass phantom. Further, a clinical study was performed in 33 patients (16 men, 17 women; age range, 19-85 years; mean, 65years) with thymic cysts or pericardial cysts. In all patients, T2-weighted images (FSE and SSFSE) were acquired. The signal intensity of cystic lesion was evaluated and was compared with that of muscle. A region of interest (ROI) was positioned on the standard MR console, and signal intensity of the cystic mass (cSI), that of the muscle (mSI), and the rate of absolute value of cSI–mSI to standard deviation (SD) of background noise (|cSI–mSI|/SD = CNR [contrast-to-noise ratio]) were measured. Results: The phantom study demonstrated that the rate phantom-ROI/saline-ROI was higher in SSFSE (0.36) than in FSE (0.19). In clinical cases, the degree of the signal intensity was higher in SSFSE than in FSE. The CNR was significantly higher in SSFSE (mean ± standard deviation, 111.0 ± 47.6) than in FSE (72.8 ± 36.6) (p < 0.001, Wilcoxon signed-rank test). Conclusions: Anterior mediastinal cysts often show lower signal intensity than the original signal intensity of water on T2-weighted images. SSFSE sequence reduces this paradoxical signal pattern on T2-weighted images, which may otherwise cause misinterpretation when assessing cystic lesions.

  12. Paradoxical signal pattern of mediastinal cysts on T2-weighted MR imaging: phantom and clinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Ken; Yanagawa, Masahiro; Ueguchi, Takashi; Satoh, Yukihisa; Kawai, Misa; Gyobu, Tomoko; Sumikawa, Hiromitsu; Honda, Osamu; Tomiyama, Noriyuki

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the intracystic MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) signal intensity of mediastinal cystic masses on T2-weighted images. Materials and methods: A phantom study was performed to evaluate the signal intensity of a mediastinal cystic mass phantom (rubber balloon containing water) adjacent to a cardiac phantom pulsing at the rate of 60/min. T2-weighted images (sequence, fast spin echo [FSE] and single shot fast spin echo [SSFSE]) were acquired for the mediastinal cystic mass phantom. Further, a clinical study was performed in 33 patients (16 men, 17 women; age range, 19-85 years; mean, 65years) with thymic cysts or pericardial cysts. In all patients, T2-weighted images (FSE and SSFSE) were acquired. The signal intensity of cystic lesion was evaluated and was compared with that of muscle. A region of interest (ROI) was positioned on the standard MR console, and signal intensity of the cystic mass (cSI), that of the muscle (mSI), and the rate of absolute value of cSI–mSI to standard deviation (SD) of background noise (|cSI–mSI|/SD = CNR [contrast-to-noise ratio]) were measured. Results: The phantom study demonstrated that the rate phantom-ROI/saline-ROI was higher in SSFSE (0.36) than in FSE (0.19). In clinical cases, the degree of the signal intensity was higher in SSFSE than in FSE. The CNR was significantly higher in SSFSE (mean ± standard deviation, 111.0 ± 47.6) than in FSE (72.8 ± 36.6) (p < 0.001, Wilcoxon signed-rank test). Conclusions: Anterior mediastinal cysts often show lower signal intensity than the original signal intensity of water on T2-weighted images. SSFSE sequence reduces this paradoxical signal pattern on T2-weighted images, which may otherwise cause misinterpretation when assessing cystic lesions

  13. Proton T2 Relaxation effect of superparamagnetic iron oxide on fast spin echo sequence. Influence of echo number (even or odd) of effective TE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchihashi, Toshio; Maki, Toshio; Kitagawa, Matsuo; Suzuki, Takeshi; Fujita, Isao

    1999-01-01

    The T 2 relaxation effect of the fast spin echo sequence (FSE) was investigated using superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) particles. When even echoes were used as the effective TE of FSE, the signal intensity ratio [signal intensity of FSE/signal intensity of conventional spin echo sequence (CSE)] of FSE and CSE increased, whereas the T 2 relaxation effect of SPIO with FSE was reduced. However, when odd echoes were used, neither signal intensity changed, and weakening of the T 2 relaxation effect, considered a problem with FSE, was reduced. This phenomenon was not observed when the refocusing flip angle was changed to 30 and 60 degrees. However, it was observed when the refocusing flip angle was 120 and 150 degrees. Thus, this phenomenon can be considered to be related to oscillation in longitudinal magnetization when using the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) technique. (author)

  14. Hemodynamic analysis of bladder tumors using T1-dynamic contrast-enhanced fast spin-echo MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazawa, Yuki; Miyati, Tosiaki; Sato, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the hemodynamics of bladder tumors, we developed a method to calculate change in R 1 value (ΔR 1 ) from T 1 -dynamic contrast-enhanced fast spin-echo magnetic resonance imaging (T 1 DCE-FSE-MRI). Materials and methods: On a 1.5-T MR system, T 1 DCE-FSE-MRI was performed. This study was applied to 12 patients with urinary bladder tumor, i.e. urothelial carcinoma. We compared ΔR 1 –time and ΔSI–time between a peak in the ΔR 1 –time and ΔSI–time curve occurred during the first pass within 60 s. Next, we assessed the slope of increase for 180 s after CA injection (Slope 0–180 ). Results: The mean slope of the first pass was significantly higher for bladder tumors on both the ΔR 1 –time and the ΔSI–time curve compared with normal bladder walls. Moreover, a significant difference was apparent between bladder tumors and normal bladder walls on the mean Slope 0–180 in the ΔR 1 -time curve. However, no significant difference in the mean Slope 0–180 was observed on the ΔSI-time curve between bladder tumors and normal bladder walls. Conclusion: T 1 DCE-FSE-MRI offers three advantages: quantitative analysis; high-quality (i.e., artifact-free) images; and high temporal resolution even for SE images. Use of ΔR 1 analysis with T 1 DCE-FSE-MRI allows more detailed information on the hemodynamics of bladder tumors to be obtained and assists in differentiation between bladder tumors and the normal bladder wall.

  15. Accelerated whole brain intracranial vessel wall imaging using black blood fast spin echo with compressed sensing (CS-SPACE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chengcheng; Tian, Bing; Chen, Luguang; Eisenmenger, Laura; Raithel, Esther; Forman, Christoph; Ahn, Sinyeob; Laub, Gerhard; Liu, Qi; Lu, Jianping; Liu, Jing; Hess, Christopher; Saloner, David

    2018-06-01

    Develop and optimize an accelerated, high-resolution (0.5 mm isotropic) 3D black blood MRI technique to reduce scan time for whole-brain intracranial vessel wall imaging. A 3D accelerated T 1 -weighted fast-spin-echo prototype sequence using compressed sensing (CS-SPACE) was developed at 3T. Both the acquisition [echo train length (ETL), under-sampling factor] and reconstruction parameters (regularization parameter, number of iterations) were first optimized in 5 healthy volunteers. Ten patients with a variety of intracranial vascular disease presentations (aneurysm, atherosclerosis, dissection, vasculitis) were imaged with SPACE and optimized CS-SPACE, pre and post Gd contrast. Lumen/wall area, wall-to-lumen contrast ratio (CR), enhancement ratio (ER), sharpness, and qualitative scores (1-4) by two radiologists were recorded. The optimized CS-SPACE protocol has ETL 60, 20% k-space under-sampling, 0.002 regularization factor with 20 iterations. In patient studies, CS-SPACE and conventional SPACE had comparable image scores both pre- (3.35 ± 0.85 vs. 3.54 ± 0.65, p = 0.13) and post-contrast (3.72 ± 0.58 vs. 3.53 ± 0.57, p = 0.15), but the CS-SPACE acquisition was 37% faster (6:48 vs. 10:50). CS-SPACE agreed with SPACE for lumen/wall area, ER measurements and sharpness, but marginally reduced the CR. In the evaluation of intracranial vascular disease, CS-SPACE provides a substantial reduction in scan time compared to conventional T 1 -weighted SPACE while maintaining good image quality.

  16. Detection of cerebrospinal fluid leakage: initial experience with three-dimensional fast spin-echo magnetic resonance myelography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomoda, Y; Korogi, Y; Aoki, T; Morioka, T; Takahashi, H; Ohno, M; Takeshita, I

    2008-03-01

    The pathogenesis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypovolemia is supposed to be caused by CSF leakage through small dural defects. To compare source three-dimensional (3D) fast spin-echo (FSE) images of magnetic resonance (MR) myelography with radionuclide cisternography findings, and to evaluate the feasibility of MR myelography in the detection of CSF leakage. A total of 67 patients who were clinically suspected of CSF hypovolemia underwent indium-111 radionuclide cisternography, and 27 of those who had direct findings of CSF leakage were selected for evaluation. MR myelography with 3D FSE sequences (TR/TE 6000/203 ms) was performed at the lumbar spine for all patients. We evaluated source images and maximum intensity projection (MIP) images of MR myelography, and the findings were correlated with radionuclide cisternography findings. MR myelography of five healthy volunteers was used as a reference. The MR visibility of the CSF leakage was graded as definite (leakage clearly visible), possible (leakage poorly seen), or absent (not shown). CSF leakage was identified with source 3D FSE images in 22 (81.5%) of 27 patients. Of the 22 patients, 16 were graded as definite and six were graded as possible. For the definite cases, 3D FSE images clearly showed the extent of the leaked CSF in the paraspinal structures. In the remaining five patients with absent findings, radionuclide cisternography showed only slight radionuclide activity out of the arachnoid space. Source 3D FSE images of MR myelography seem useful in the detection of CSF leakage. Invasive radionuclide cisternography may be reserved for equivocal cases only.

  17. Evaluation of the Chondromalacia Patella Using a Microscopy Coil: Comparison of the Two-Dimensional Fast Spin Echo Techniques and the Three-Dimensional Fast Field Echo Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Joo; Lee, Sang Hoon; Kang, Chang Ho; Ryu, Jeong Ah; Shin, Myung Jin; Cho, Kyung Ja; Cho, Woo Shin

    2011-01-01

    We wanted to compare the two-dimensional (2D) fast spin echo (FSE) techniques and the three-dimensional (3D) fast field echo techniques for the evaluation of the chondromalacia patella using a microscopy coil. Twenty five patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty were included in this study. Preoperative MRI evaluation of the patella was performed using a microscopy coil (47 mm). The proton density-weighted fast spin echo images (PD), the fat-suppressed PD images (FS-PD), the intermediate weighted-fat suppressed fast spin echo images (iw-FS-FSE), the 3D balanced-fast fi eld echo images (B-FFE), the 3D water selective cartilage scan (WATS-c) and the 3D water selective fluid scan (WATS-f) were obtained on a 1.5T MRI scanner. The patellar cartilage was evaluated in nine areas: the superior, middle and the inferior portions that were subdivided into the medial, central and lateral facets in a total of 215 areas. Employing the Noyes grading system, the MRI grade 0-I, II and III lesions were compared using the gross and microscopic findings. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were evaluated for each sequence. The significance of the differences for the individual sequences was calculated using the McNemar test. The gross and microscopic findings demonstrated 167 grade 0-I lesions, 40 grade II lesions and eight grade III lesions. Iw-FS-FSE had the highest accuracy (sensitivity/specificity/accuracy = 88%/98%/96%), followed by FSPD (78%/98%/93%, respectively), PD (76%/98%/93%, respectively), B-FFE (71%/100%/93%, respectively), WATS-c (67%/100%/92%, respectively) and WATS-f (58%/99%/89%, respectively). There were statistically significant differences for the iw-FS-FSE and WATS-f and for the PD-FS and WATS-f (p < 0.01). The iw-FS-FSE images obtained with a microscopy coil show best diagnostic performance among the 2D and 3D GRE images for evaluating the chondromalacia patella

  18. Evaluation of the Chondromalacia Patella Using a Microscopy Coil: Comparison of the Two-Dimensional Fast Spin Echo Techniques and the Three-Dimensional Fast Field Echo Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Joo; Lee, Sang Hoon; Kang, Chang Ho; Ryu, Jeong Ah; Shin, Myung Jin; Cho, Kyung Ja; Cho, Woo Shin [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    We wanted to compare the two-dimensional (2D) fast spin echo (FSE) techniques and the three-dimensional (3D) fast field echo techniques for the evaluation of the chondromalacia patella using a microscopy coil. Twenty five patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty were included in this study. Preoperative MRI evaluation of the patella was performed using a microscopy coil (47 mm). The proton density-weighted fast spin echo images (PD), the fat-suppressed PD images (FS-PD), the intermediate weighted-fat suppressed fast spin echo images (iw-FS-FSE), the 3D balanced-fast fi eld echo images (B-FFE), the 3D water selective cartilage scan (WATS-c) and the 3D water selective fluid scan (WATS-f) were obtained on a 1.5T MRI scanner. The patellar cartilage was evaluated in nine areas: the superior, middle and the inferior portions that were subdivided into the medial, central and lateral facets in a total of 215 areas. Employing the Noyes grading system, the MRI grade 0-I, II and III lesions were compared using the gross and microscopic findings. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were evaluated for each sequence. The significance of the differences for the individual sequences was calculated using the McNemar test. The gross and microscopic findings demonstrated 167 grade 0-I lesions, 40 grade II lesions and eight grade III lesions. Iw-FS-FSE had the highest accuracy (sensitivity/specificity/accuracy = 88%/98%/96%), followed by FSPD (78%/98%/93%, respectively), PD (76%/98%/93%, respectively), B-FFE (71%/100%/93%, respectively), WATS-c (67%/100%/92%, respectively) and WATS-f (58%/99%/89%, respectively). There were statistically significant differences for the iw-FS-FSE and WATS-f and for the PD-FS and WATS-f (p < 0.01). The iw-FS-FSE images obtained with a microscopy coil show best diagnostic performance among the 2D and 3D GRE images for evaluating the chondromalacia patella

  19. Comparative study of fast T 2-weighted images using respiratory triggered, breath-hold, fat suppression and phased array multi coil for liver evaluation by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbehusen, Cristiane L.; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe; Palacio, Glaucia A.S.; Szejnfeld, Jacob

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare both qualitatively and quantitatively six T 2-weighted turbo spin-echo sequences varying the respiratory compensation technique, associating or not fat tissue suppression and using different types of coils. We performed a prospective study of 71 consecutive patients that were submitted to MRI of the liver using a 1.5 T magnet. The six following pulse sequences were used: fat-suppressed respiratory triggered with conventional body coil; breath-hold fat-suppressed with conventional body coil; non-suppressed respiratory triggered with conventional body coil; breath-hold non fat-suppressed with conventional body coil; fat-suppressed respiratory triggered with phased-array multi coil; breath-hold fat-suppressed with phased-array multi coil. Images were analyzed quantitatively by measuring the signal-to-noise ratios and qualitatively by evaluating the sharpness of hepatic contours, visibility of intrahepatic vessels and other segmental landmarks, and the presence of artifacts. Results: the qualitative analysis showed that the mean values obtained with the six sequences were 7.8, 4.6, 7.9, 5.2, 6.7 and 4.6 respectively. The respiratory-triggered sequences were better than the breath-hold sequences in both qualitative and quantitative analysis (p < 0.001). No significant differences in the values of signal-to-noise ratios and in overall image quality were found between the sequences with and without fat suppression (p . 0.05). The sequences using the body coil were similar in terms of image quality (p . 0.05) and better regarding signal-to-noise ratios than those obtained with the phased=array multi coil (p ,0.001). Our qualitative and quantitative results suggest that the best MRI sequences for the valuation of the liver are the sequences with respiratory triggering using a conventional body coil, with or without fat suppression. (author)

  20. Comparing an accelerated 3D fast spin-echo sequence (CS-SPACE) for knee 3-T magnetic resonance imaging with traditional 3D fast spin-echo (SPACE) and routine 2D sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altahawi, Faysal F.; Blount, Kevin J.; Omar, Imran M. [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); Morley, Nicholas P. [Marshfield Clinic, Department of Radiology, Marshfield, WI (United States); Raithel, Esther [Siemens Healthcare GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)

    2017-01-15

    To compare a faster, new, high-resolution accelerated 3D-fast-spin-echo (3D-FSE) acquisition sequence (CS-SPACE) to traditional 2D and high-resolution 3D sequences for knee 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Twenty patients received knee MRIs that included routine 2D (T1, PD ± FS, T2-FS; 0.5 x 0.5 x 3 mm{sup 3}; ∝10 min), traditional 3D FSE (SPACE-PD-FS; 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.5 mm{sup 3}; ∝7.5 min), and accelerated 3D-FSE prototype (CS-SPACE-PD-FS; 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.5 mm{sup 3}; ∝5 min) acquisitions on a 3-T MRI system (Siemens MAGNETOM Skyra). Three musculoskeletal radiologists (MSKRs) prospectively and independently reviewed the studies with graded surveys comparing image and diagnostic quality. Tissue-specific signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) were also compared. MSKR-perceived diagnostic quality of cartilage was significantly higher for CS-SPACE than for SPACE and 2D sequences (p < 0.001). Assessment of diagnostic quality of menisci and synovial fluid was higher for CS-SPACE than for SPACE (p < 0.001). CS-SPACE was not significantly different from SPACE but had lower assessments than 2D sequences for evaluation of bones, ligaments, muscles, and fat (p ≤ 0.004). 3D sequences had higher spatial resolution, but lower overall assessed contrast (p < 0.001). Overall image quality from CS-SPACE was assessed as higher than SPACE (p = 0.007), but lower than 2D sequences (p < 0.001). Compared to SPACE, CS-SPACE had higher fluid SNR and CNR against all other tissues (all p < 0.001). The CS-SPACE prototype allows for faster isotropic acquisitions of knee MRIs over currently used protocols. High fluid-to-cartilage CNR and higher spatial resolution over routine 2D sequences may present a valuable role for CS-SPACE in the evaluation of cartilage and menisci. (orig.)

  1. Diagnostic performance of dark-blood T2-weighted CMR for evaluation of acute myocardial injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srichai, Monvadi B; Lim, Ruth P; Lath, Narayan; Babb, James; Axel, Leon; Kim, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    We compared the image quality and diagnostic performance of 2 fat-suppression methods for black-blood T2-weighted fast spin-echo (FSE), which are as follows: (a) short T1 inversion recovery (STIR; FSE-STIR) and (b) spectral adiabatic inversion recovery (SPAIR; FSE-SPAIR), for detection of acute myocardial injury. Edema-sensitive T2-weighted FSE cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is useful in detecting acute myocardial injury but may experience reduced myocardial signal and signal dropout. The SPAIR pulse aims to eliminate artifacts associated with the STIR pulse. A total of 65 consecutive patients referred for CMR evaluation of myocardial structure and function underwent FSE-STIR and FSE-SPAIR, in addition to cine and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) CMR. T2-weighted FSE images were independently evaluated by 2 readers for image quality and artifacts (Likert scale of 1-5; best-worst) and presence of increased myocardial signal suggestive of edema. In addition, clinical CMR interpretation, incorporating all CMR sequences available, was recorded for comparison. Diagnostic performance of each T2-weighted sequence was measured using recent (T2, and wall motion. There was a statistically significant difference in sensitivity between the clinical interpretation and each of the T2-weighted sequences but not between each T2-weighted sequence. Although FSE-SPAIR demonstrated significantly improved image quality and decreased artifacts, isolated interpretations of each T2-weighted technique demonstrated high specificity but overall low sensitivity for the detection of myocardial injury, with no difference in accuracy between the techniques. However, real-world interpretation in combination with cine and LGE CMR methods significantly improves the overall sensitivity and diagnostic performance.

  2. Diagnostic performance of the three-dimensional fast spin echo-Cube sequence in comparison with a conventional imaging protocol in evaluation of the lachrymal drainage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jing; Chen, Lang; Wang, Qiu-Xia; Zhu, Wen-Zhen; Luo, Xin; Peng, Li; Liu, Rong; Xiong, Wei

    2015-01-01

    To compare the three-dimensional (3D)-fast spin-echo (FSE)-Cube with a conventional imaging protocol in evaluation of dacryostenosis. Thirty-three patients with epiphora underwent examinations using Cube magnetic resonance dacryocystography (MRD) and a conventional protocol, which included 3D fast-recovery fast spin-echo (FRFSE) MRD and two-dimensional (2D)-FSE sequences at 3.0 T. Using lachrymal endoscopic findings as the reference standard, we calculated the sensitivity and specificity of both protocols for detecting lachrymal drainage system (LDS) obstruction and their accuracies in depicting the level of obstruction. Comparable coronal and axial images were selected for bot sequences. Two neuroradiologists graded paired images for blurring, artefacts, anatomic details, and overall image quality. The two methods showed no significant difference in sensitivity (89.5 % vs. 94.7 %; p =0.674), specificity (64.3 %; p =1) or accuracy (86.8 %; p =1) in detecting or depicting LDS obstruction. Blurring and artefacts were significantly better on 2D-FSE images (p 0.05). In comparison with the conventional protocol, Cube MRD demonstrates satisfactory image quality and similar diagnostic capability for cases of possible LDS disease. (orig.)

  3. SNR-optimized phase-sensitive dual-acquisition turbo spin echo imaging: a fast alternative to FLAIR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunyeol; Park, Jaeseok

    2013-07-01

    Phase-sensitive dual-acquisition single-slab three-dimensional turbo spin echo imaging was recently introduced, producing high-resolution isotropic cerebrospinal fluid attenuated brain images without long inversion recovery preparation. Despite the advantages, the weighted-averaging-based technique suffers from noise amplification resulting from different levels of cerebrospinal fluid signal modulations over the two acquisitions. The purpose of this work is to develop a signal-to-noise ratio-optimized version of the phase-sensitive dual-acquisition single-slab three-dimensional turbo spin echo. Variable refocusing flip angles in the first acquisition are calculated using a three-step prescribed signal evolution while those in the second acquisition are calculated using a two-step pseudo-steady state signal transition with a high flip-angle pseudo-steady state at a later portion of the echo train, balancing the levels of cerebrospinal fluid signals in both the acquisitions. Low spatial frequency signals are sampled during the high flip-angle pseudo-steady state to further suppress noise. Numerical simulations of the Bloch equations were performed to evaluate signal evolutions of brain tissues along the echo train and optimize imaging parameters. In vivo studies demonstrate that compared with conventional phase-sensitive dual-acquisition single-slab three-dimensional turbo spin echo, the proposed optimization yields 74% increase in apparent signal-to-noise ratio for gray matter and 32% decrease in imaging time. The proposed method can be a potential alternative to conventional fluid-attenuated imaging. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Comparison of a conventional cardiac-triggered dual spin-echo and a fast STIR sequence in detection of spinal cord lesions in multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bot, J.C.J.; Barkhof, F.; Lycklama a Nijeholt, G.J.; Bergers, E.; Castelijns, J.A.; Polman, C.H.; Ader, H.J.

    2000-01-01

    The current optimal imaging protocol in spinal cord MR imaging in patients with multiple sclerosis includes a long TR conventional spin-echo (CSE) sequence, requiring long acquisition times. Using short tau inversion recovery fast spin-echo (fast STIR) sequences both acquisition time can be shortened and sensitivity in the detection of multiple sclerosis (MS) abnormalities can be increased. This study compares both sequences for the potential to detect both focal and diffuse spinal abnormalities. Spinal cords of 5 volunteers and 20 MS patients were studied at 1.0 T. Magnetic resonance imaging included cardiac-gated sagittal dual-echo CSE and a cardiac-gated fast STIR sequence. Images were scored regarding number, size, and location of focal lesions, diffuse abnormalities and presence/hindrance of artifacts by two experienced radiologists. Examinations were scored as being definitely normal, indeterminate, or definitely abnormal. Interobserver agreement regarding focal lesions was higher for CSE (κ=0.67) than for fast STIR (κ=0.57) but did not differ significantly. Of all focal lesions scored in consensus, 47 % were scored on both sequences, 31 % were only detected by fast STIR, and 22 % only by dual-echo CSE (n. s.). Interobserver agreement for diffuse abnormalities was lower with fast STIR (κ=0.48) than dual-echo CSE (κ=0.65; n. s.). After consensus, fast STIR showed in 10 patients diffuse abnormalities and dual-echo CSE in 3. After consensus, in 19 of 20 patients dual-echo CSE scans were considered as definitely abnormal compared with 17 for fast STIR. The fast STIR sequence is a useful adjunct to dual-echo CSE in detecting focal abnormalities and is helpful in detecting diffuse MS abnormalities in the spinal cord. Due to the frequent occurrence of artifacts and the lower observer concordance, fast STIR cannot be used alone. (orig.)

  5. Variable-flip-angle spin-echo imaging (VFSE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Toshifumi; Sugimura, Kazuro; Kawamitsu, Hideaki; Yasui, Kiyoshi; Ishida, Tetsuya; Tsukamoto, Tetsuji.

    1990-01-01

    T 2 weighted imaging provides images with high object contrast for pathologic conditions in which the water content of tissues is increased. The authors predicted theoretical analysis of the effects of changing flip angle, and analyzed the effects in MR imaging of both phantoms and humans. Variable flip angle spin echo MR imaging (VFSE) with a 1,000/80 (repetition time msec/echo time msec) can obtain T 2 weighted image when flip angle is smaller than 80 degrees. VFSE with 40 to 60 degrees flip angle have higher contrast than other flip angle images. Signal to noise ratio (S/N) of VFSE are 55% at a 30 degree, 76% at a 45 degree, 92% at a 60 degree respectively as compared with conventional spin echo image (2000/80, flip angle 90 degree). VFSE is applicable to obtain T 2 weighted image reduced imaging time. (author)

  6. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of wrist MRI at 3.0T - Comparison between isotropic 3D turbo spin echo and isotropic 3D fast field echo and 2D turbo spin echo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jee Young; Yoon, Young Cheol; Jung, Jin Young; Choe, Bong-Keun

    2013-01-01

    Background: Isotropic three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been applied to various joints. However, comparison for image quality between isotropic 3D MRI and two-dimensional (2D) turbo spin echo (TSE) sequence of the wrist at a 3T MR system has not been investigated. Purpose: To compare the image quality of isotropic 3D MRI including TSE intermediate-weighted (VISTA) sequence and fast field echo (FFE) sequence with 2D TSE intermediate-weighted sequence of the wrist joint at 3.0 T. Material and Methods: MRI was performed in 10 wrists of 10 healthy volunteers with isotropic 3D sequences (VISTA and FFE) and 2D TSE intermediate-weighted sequences at 3.0 T. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was obtained by imaging phantom and noise-only image. Contrast ratios (CRs) were calculated between fluid and cartilage, triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC), and the scapholunate ligament. Two radiologists independently assessed the visibility of TFCC, carpal ligaments, cartilage, tendons and nerves with a four-point grading scale. Statistical analysis to compare CRs (one way ANOVA with a Tukey test) and grades of visibility (Kruskal-Wallis test) between three sequences and those for inter-observer agreement (kappa analysis) were performed. Results: The SNR of 2D TSE (46.26) was higher than those of VISTA (23.34) and 3D FFE (19.41). CRs were superior in 2D TSE than VISTA (P = 0.02) for fluid-cartilage and in 2D TSE than 3D FFE (P < 0.01) for fluid-TFCC. The visibility was best in 2D TSE (P < 0.01) for TFCC and in VISTA (P = 0.01) for scapholunate ligament. The visibility was better in 2D TSE and 3D FFE (P 0.04) for cartilage and in VISTA than 3D FFE (P < 0.01) for TFCC. The inter-observer agreement for the visibility of anatomic structures was moderate or substantial. Conclusion: Image quality of 2D TSE was superior to isotropic 3D MR imaging for cartilage, and TFCC. 3D FFE has better visibility for cartilage than VISTA and VISTA has superior visibility for

  7. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of wrist MRI at 3.0T - Comparison between isotropic 3D turbo spin echo and isotropic 3D fast field echo and 2D turbo spin echo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jee Young [Dept. of Radiology, Chungang Univ. Hospital, School of Medicine, Chungang Univ. (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Young Cheol [Dept. of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, School of Medicine, Sungkyunkwan Univ. (Korea, Republic of)], e-mail: ycyoon@skku.edu; Jung, Jin Young [Dept. of Radiology, Saint Paul' s Hospital, The Catholic Univ. (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Bong-Keun [Dept. of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    Background: Isotropic three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been applied to various joints. However, comparison for image quality between isotropic 3D MRI and two-dimensional (2D) turbo spin echo (TSE) sequence of the wrist at a 3T MR system has not been investigated. Purpose: To compare the image quality of isotropic 3D MRI including TSE intermediate-weighted (VISTA) sequence and fast field echo (FFE) sequence with 2D TSE intermediate-weighted sequence of the wrist joint at 3.0 T. Material and Methods: MRI was performed in 10 wrists of 10 healthy volunteers with isotropic 3D sequences (VISTA and FFE) and 2D TSE intermediate-weighted sequences at 3.0 T. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was obtained by imaging phantom and noise-only image. Contrast ratios (CRs) were calculated between fluid and cartilage, triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC), and the scapholunate ligament. Two radiologists independently assessed the visibility of TFCC, carpal ligaments, cartilage, tendons and nerves with a four-point grading scale. Statistical analysis to compare CRs (one way ANOVA with a Tukey test) and grades of visibility (Kruskal-Wallis test) between three sequences and those for inter-observer agreement (kappa analysis) were performed. Results: The SNR of 2D TSE (46.26) was higher than those of VISTA (23.34) and 3D FFE (19.41). CRs were superior in 2D TSE than VISTA (P = 0.02) for fluid-cartilage and in 2D TSE than 3D FFE (P < 0.01) for fluid-TFCC. The visibility was best in 2D TSE (P < 0.01) for TFCC and in VISTA (P = 0.01) for scapholunate ligament. The visibility was better in 2D TSE and 3D FFE (P 0.04) for cartilage and in VISTA than 3D FFE (P < 0.01) for TFCC. The inter-observer agreement for the visibility of anatomic structures was moderate or substantial. Conclusion: Image quality of 2D TSE was superior to isotropic 3D MR imaging for cartilage, and TFCC. 3D FFE has better visibility for cartilage than VISTA and VISTA has superior visibility for

  8. Inter- and intra-rater reliability of patellofemoral kinematic and contact area quantification by fast spin echo MRI and correlation with cartilage health by quantitative T1ρ MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Brian C; Thuillier, Daniel U; Pedoia, Valentina; Chen, Ellison Y; Zhang, Zhihong; Feeley, Brian T; Souza, Richard B

    2016-01-01

    Patellar maltracking is a leading cause of patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). The aim of this study was to determine the inter- and intra-rater reliability of a semi-automated program for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based patellofemoral kinematics. Sixteen subjects (10 with PFPS [mean age 32.3; SD 5.2; eight females] and six controls without PFPS 19 [mean age 28.6; SD 2.8; three females]) participated in the study. One set of T2-weighted, fat-saturated fast spin-echo (FSE) MRIs were acquired from each subject in full extension and 30° of knee flexion. MRI including axial T1ρ relaxation time mapping sequences was also performed on each knee. Following image acquisitions, regions of interest for kinematic MRI, and patellar and trochlear cartilage were segmented and quantified with in-house designed spline- based MATLAB semi-automated software. Intraclass Correlations Coefficients (ICC) of calculated kinematic parameters were good to excellent, ICC > 0.8 in patellar flexion, rotation, tilt, and translation (anterior -posterior, medial -lateral, and superior -inferior), and contact area translation. Only patellar tilt in the flexed position and motion from extended to flexed state was significantly different between PFPS and control patients (p=0.002 and p=0.006, respectively). No significant correlations were identified between patellofemoral kinematics and contact area with T1ρ relaxation times. A semi-automated, spline-based kinematic MRI technique for patellofemoral kinematic and contact area quantification is highly reproducible with the potential to help better understand the role of patellofemoral maltracking in PFPS and other knee disorders. Level IV. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Inter- and intra-rater reliability of patellofemoral kinematic and contact area quantification by fast spin echo MRI and correlation with cartilage health by quantitative T1ρ MRI☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Brian C.; Thuillier, Daniel U.; Pedoia, Valentina; Chen, Ellison Y.; Zhang, Zhihong; Feeley, Brian T.; Souza, Richard B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Patellar maltracking is a leading cause of patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). The aim of this study was to determine the inter- and intra-rater reliability of a semi-automated program for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based patellofemoral kinematics. Methods Sixteen subjects (10 with PFPS [mean age 32.3; SD 5.2; eight females] and six controls without PFPS 19 [mean age 28.6; SD 2.8; three females]) participated in the study. One set of T2-weighted, fat-saturated fast spin-echo (FSE) MRIs were acquired from each subject in full extension and 30° of knee flexion. MRI including axial T1ρ relaxation time mapping sequences was also performed on each knee. Following image acquisitions, regions of interest for kinematic MRI, and patellar and trochlear cartilage were segmented and quantified with in-house designed spline- based MATLAB semi-automated software. Results Intraclass Correlations Coefficients (ICC) of calculated kinematic parameters were good to excellent, ICC > 0.8 in patellar flexion, rotation, tilt, and translation (anterior -posterior, medial -lateral, and superior -inferior), and contact area translation. Only patellar tilt in the flexed position and motion from extended to flexed state was significantly different between PFPS and control patients (p = 0.002 and p = 0.006, respectively). No significant correlations were identified between patellofemoral kinematics and contact area with T1ρ relaxation times. Conclusions A semi-automated, spline-based kinematic MRI technique for patellofemoral kinematic and contact area quantification is highly reproducible with the potential to help better understand the role of patellofemoral maltracking in PFPS and other knee disorders. PMID:26746045

  10. Visualization of cranial nerves I-XII: value of 3D CISS and T2-weighted FSE sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousry, I.; Camelio, S.; Wiesmann, M.; Brueckmann, H.; Yousry, T.A. [Department of Neuroradiology, Klinikum Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Marchioninistrasse 15, D-81377 Munich (Germany); Schmid, U.D. [Neurosurgical Unit, Klinik im Park, 8000 Zurich (Switzerland); Horsfield, M.A. [Department of Medical Physics, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 5WW (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of the three-dimensional constructive interference of steady state (3D CISS) sequence (slice thickness 0.7 mm) and that of the T2-weighted fast spin echo (T2-weighted FSE) sequence (slice thickness 3 mm) for the visualization of all cranial nerves in their cisternal course. Twenty healthy volunteers were examined using the T2-weighted FSE and the 3D CISS sequences. Three observers evaluated independently the cranial nerves NI-NXII in their cisternal course. The rates for successful visualization of each nerve for 3D CISS (and for T2-weighted FSE in parentheses) were as follows: NI, NII, NV, NVII, NVIII 40 of 40 (40 of 40), NIII 40 of 40 (18 of 40), NIV 19 of 40 (3 of 40), NVI 39 of 40 (5 of 40), NIX, X, XI 40 of 40 (29 of 40), and NXII 40 of 40 (4 of 40). Most of the cranial nerves can be reliably assessed when using the 3D CISS and the T2-weighted FSE sequences. Increasing the spatial resolution when using the 3D CISS sequence increases the reliability of the identification of the cranial nerves NIII-NXII. (orig.)

  11. Visualization of cranial nerves I-XII: value of 3D CISS and T2-weighted FSE sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousry, I.; Camelio, S.; Wiesmann, M.; Brueckmann, H.; Yousry, T.A.; Schmid, U.D.; Horsfield, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of the three-dimensional constructive interference of steady state (3D CISS) sequence (slice thickness 0.7 mm) and that of the T2-weighted fast spin echo (T2-weighted FSE) sequence (slice thickness 3 mm) for the visualization of all cranial nerves in their cisternal course. Twenty healthy volunteers were examined using the T2-weighted FSE and the 3D CISS sequences. Three observers evaluated independently the cranial nerves NI-NXII in their cisternal course. The rates for successful visualization of each nerve for 3D CISS (and for T2-weighted FSE in parentheses) were as follows: NI, NII, NV, NVII, NVIII 40 of 40 (40 of 40), NIII 40 of 40 (18 of 40), NIV 19 of 40 (3 of 40), NVI 39 of 40 (5 of 40), NIX, X, XI 40 of 40 (29 of 40), and NXII 40 of 40 (4 of 40). Most of the cranial nerves can be reliably assessed when using the 3D CISS and the T2-weighted FSE sequences. Increasing the spatial resolution when using the 3D CISS sequence increases the reliability of the identification of the cranial nerves NIII-NXII. (orig.)

  12. Comparison of 3D vs. 2D fast spin echo imaging for evaluation of articular cartilage in the knee on a 3 T system scientific research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milewski, Matthew D.; Smitaman, Edward; Moukaddam, Hicham; Katz, Lee D.; Essig, David A.; Medvecky, Michael J.; Haims, Andrew H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Compared 3D to 2D MR sequences for articular cartilage in the knee. ► 3D imaging acquired in a single plane, 2D acquired in 3 separate planes. ► No significant difference in accuracy between 3D and 2D sequences. - Abstract: Purpose: We sought to retrospectively compare the accuracy of a three-dimensional fat-suppressed, fast spin-echo sequences acquired in the sagittal plane, with multiplanar reconstructions to that of two-dimensional fat-suppressed, fast spin echo sequences acquired in three planes on a 3 T MR system for the evaluation of articular cartilage in the knee. Materials and methods: Our study group consisted of all patients (N = 34) that underwent 3 T MR imaging of the knee at our institution with subsequent arthroscopy over an 18-month period. There were 21 males and 13 females with an average age of 36 years. MR images were reviewed by 3 musculoskeletal radiologists, blinded to operative results. 3D and 2D sequences were reviewed at different sittings separated by 4 weeks to prevent bias. Six cartilage surfaces were evaluated both with MR imaging and arthroscopically with a modified Noyes scoring system and arthroscopic results were used as the gold standard. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were calculated for each reader along with Fleiss Kappa assessment agreement between the readers. Accuracies for each articular surface were compared using a difference in proportions test with a 95% confidence interval and statistical significance was calculated using a Fisher's Exact Test. Results: Two hundred and four articular surfaces were evaluated and 49 articular cartilage lesions were present at arthroscopy. For the patellofemoral surfaces, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 76.5%, 83%, and 78.2% for the 3D sequences and were 82.3%, 76%, and 82% respectively for the 2D sequences. For the medial compartment surfaces, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 81.1%, 65.1%, and 78.5% for the 3D sequences and were

  13. Three-dimensional-fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition and T2-weighted fast spin-echo magnetic resonance sequences on visualization of cranial nerves Ⅲ-Ⅻ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Because of the small diameter and complex anatomic course of the cranial nerves except for the optic nerve,mgeminal nerve,facial nerve,and cochlear and vestibular nerve,other cranial nerves are difficult to be visualized in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning with conventional thickness (5-10 mm).

  14. Rotary spin echoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, I. [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, BP2, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1959-07-01

    Torrey has observed the free precession of nuclear spins around an r-f field H{sub 1}, fixed in a frame rotating at the Larmor frequency ω{sub 0} = γH{sub 0} around a large d-c magnetic field H{sub 0}. He showed that for an H{sub 1}, much larger than inhomogeneity of H{sub 0}, the latter has a negligible effect on the decay of the spin magnetization which is mainly due to the inhomogeneity of H{sub 1}. We report here on a method of overcoming the inhomogeneity of H{sub 1}, by production of echoes in the rotating frame ('rotary echoes'). These echoes are obtained by a 180 deg. phase shift at t = τ on the r-f field so that H{sub 1}, is suddenly reversed, producing a re-focussing of the magnetization vectors at the time t = 2 τ. The rotary echoes so obtained are very similar to the usual spin-echoes with, however some specific features that make them particularly suitable for the measurement of long relaxation times. Reprint of a paper published in Physical Review Letters, vol. 2, no. 7, Apr 1959, p. 301-302.

  15. Rotary spin echoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, I.

    1959-01-01

    Torrey has observed the free precession of nuclear spins around an r-f field H 1 , fixed in a frame rotating at the Larmor frequency ω 0 = γH 0 around a large d-c magnetic field H 0 . He showed that for an H 1 , much larger than inhomogeneity of H 0 , the latter has a negligible effect on the decay of the spin magnetization which is mainly due to the inhomogeneity of H 1 . We report here on a method of overcoming the inhomogeneity of H 1 , by production of echoes in the rotating frame ('rotary echoes'). These echoes are obtained by a 180 deg. phase shift at t = τ on the r-f field so that H 1 , is suddenly reversed, producing a re-focussing of the magnetization vectors at the time t = 2 τ. The rotary echoes so obtained are very similar to the usual spin-echoes with, however some specific features that make them particularly suitable for the measurement of long relaxation times. Reprint of a paper published in Physical Review Letters, vol. 2, no. 7, Apr 1959, p. 301-302

  16. Free-breathing black-blood CINE fast-spin echo imaging for measuring abdominal aortic wall distensibility: a feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jyh-Miin; Patterson, Andrew J.; Chao, Tzu-Cheng; Zhu, Chengcheng; Chang, Hing-Chiu; Mendes, Jason; Chung, Hsiao-Wen; Gillard, Jonathan H.; Graves, Martin J.

    2017-05-01

    The paper reports a free-breathing black-blood CINE fast-spin echo (FSE) technique for measuring abdominal aortic wall motion. The free-breathing CINE FSE includes the following MR techniques: (1) variable-density sampling with fast iterative reconstruction; (2) inner-volume imaging; and (3) a blood-suppression preparation pulse. The proposed technique was evaluated in eight healthy subjects. The inner-volume imaging significantly reduced the intraluminal artifacts of respiratory motion (p  =  0.015). The quantitative measurements were a diameter of 16.3  ±  2.8 mm and wall distensibility of 2.0  ±  0.4 mm (12.5  ±  3.4%) and 0.7  ±  0.3 mm (4.1  ±  1.0%) for the anterior and posterior walls, respectively. The cyclic cross-sectional distensibility was 35  ±  15% greater in the systolic phase than in the diastolic phase. In conclusion, we developed a feasible CINE FSE method to measure the motion of the abdominal aortic wall, which will enable clinical scientists to study the elasticity of the abdominal aorta.

  17. Importance of T2*-weighted gradient-echo MRI for diagnosis of cortical vein thrombosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellner, Franz A. [Institut fuer Radiologie, Landes-Nervenklinik Wagner Jauregg, Linz (Austria) and Zentrales Radiologie Institut, Allgemeines Krankenhaus der Stadt Linz, Krankenhausstr. 9, 4020 Linz (Austria)]. E-mail: franz.fellner@akh.linz.at; Fellner, Claudia [Institut fuer Radiologie, Landes-Nervenklinik Wagner Jauregg, Linz (Austria); Aichner, Franz T. [Abteilung fuer Neurologie, Landes-Nervenklinik Wagner-Jauregg, Linz (Austria); Moelzer, Guenther [Institut fuer Radiologie, Landes-Nervenklinik Wagner Jauregg, Linz (Austria)

    2005-11-01

    We examined six patients with isolated venous thrombosis (n = 2), or venous thrombosis combined with sinus thrombosis (n = 4) (CVT). The clinical symptoms were non-specific (acute cephalea, paresis, epileptic seizure, progressive speech disorder). All examinations were performed on a 1.5 T system (Magnetom Symphony, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany), maximum gradient field strength 30 mT/m, minimal gradient rise time 450 {mu}s, according to the following protocol: Transverse T2-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE), fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), T1-weighted spin-echo (SE), before and after administration of contrast medium, T2*-weighted conventional gradient-echo (GRE), T2*-weighted spin-echo echo planar imaging (SE EPI), both without and with diffusion weighting as well as two-dimensional (2D) venous time-of-flight (TOF) MRA. The venous thromboses were best detectable in the T2*-weighted conventional GRE sequence in all patients. In two patients, the CVT was discernible only in this sequence. The sinus thrombosis was well discernible only in the T2*-weighted GRE sequence in only one case; in the remaining cases it was detectable only with difficulty. For these cases, other sequences such as SE, diffusion-weighted, or 2D-TOF-MRA sequence were superior. The T2*-weighted conventional GRE sequence was superior to the T2*-weighted SE EPI sequence in all patients. To sum up, it can be concluded, that T2*-weighted conventional GRE sequences are possibly the best method of detection of acute cortical vein thromboses. Therefore, it seems to be of benefit to integrate a T2*-weighted conventional GRE sequence into the MR-protocol for the diagnosis of isolated cortical vein thrombosis.

  18. Importance of T2*-weighted gradient-echo MRI for diagnosis of cortical vein thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellner, Franz A.; Fellner, Claudia; Aichner, Franz T.; Moelzer, Guenther

    2005-01-01

    We examined six patients with isolated venous thrombosis (n = 2), or venous thrombosis combined with sinus thrombosis (n = 4) (CVT). The clinical symptoms were non-specific (acute cephalea, paresis, epileptic seizure, progressive speech disorder). All examinations were performed on a 1.5 T system (Magnetom Symphony, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany), maximum gradient field strength 30 mT/m, minimal gradient rise time 450 μs, according to the following protocol: Transverse T2-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE), fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), T1-weighted spin-echo (SE), before and after administration of contrast medium, T2*-weighted conventional gradient-echo (GRE), T2*-weighted spin-echo echo planar imaging (SE EPI), both without and with diffusion weighting as well as two-dimensional (2D) venous time-of-flight (TOF) MRA. The venous thromboses were best detectable in the T2*-weighted conventional GRE sequence in all patients. In two patients, the CVT was discernible only in this sequence. The sinus thrombosis was well discernible only in the T2*-weighted GRE sequence in only one case; in the remaining cases it was detectable only with difficulty. For these cases, other sequences such as SE, diffusion-weighted, or 2D-TOF-MRA sequence were superior. The T2*-weighted conventional GRE sequence was superior to the T2*-weighted SE EPI sequence in all patients. To sum up, it can be concluded, that T2*-weighted conventional GRE sequences are possibly the best method of detection of acute cortical vein thromboses. Therefore, it seems to be of benefit to integrate a T2*-weighted conventional GRE sequence into the MR-protocol for the diagnosis of isolated cortical vein thrombosis

  19. Visual discrimination among patients with depression and schizophrenia and healthy individuals using semiquantitative color-coded fast spin-echo T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Makoto; Kudo, Kohsuke; Narumi, Shinsuke [Iwate Medical University, Advanced Medical Research Center, Morioka (Japan); Shibata, Eri; Ohtsuka, Kotaro; Endoh, Jin; Sakai, Akio [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neuropsychiatry, Morioka (Japan)

    2010-02-15

    Fast spin-echo (FSE) T1-weighted (T1W) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 3T, which is sensitive to neuromelanin-related contrast, can quantitatively detect signal alterations in the locus ceruleus (LC) and the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) of depressive and schizophrenic patients; however, its qualitative diagnostic performance remains unknown. We investigated whether visual interpretation of semiquantitative color maps can be used for discriminating between depressive and schizophrenic patients and healthy individuals. We retrospectively examined 23 patients with major depression, 23 patients with schizophrenia, and 23 age-matched healthy controls by using a FSE-T1W MRI technique. Semiquantitative color maps of sections through the LC and SNc were visually interpreted by nine raters using a continuous confidence rating scale for receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The area under the ROC curve (Az), which reflects the performance in differentiating between depressive patients and controls, was 0.88, and the sensitivity and specificity at the maximum likelihood were 76% and 83%, respectively. In contrast, the Az value, sensitivity, and specificity values between schizophrenics and controls and between depressives and schizophrenics were 0.66 and 0.69, 42% and 48%, and 82% and 84%, respectively. Semiquantitative, color-coded FSE-T1W MRI at 3T can be used for visually differentiating depressive patients from healthy individuals with a substantially high likelihood, but this technique cannot be applied to distinguish schizophrenic patients from the other two groups. (orig.)

  20. Visual discrimination among patients with depression and schizophrenia and healthy individuals using semiquantitative color-coded fast spin-echo T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Makoto; Kudo, Kohsuke; Narumi, Shinsuke; Shibata, Eri; Ohtsuka, Kotaro; Endoh, Jin; Sakai, Akio

    2010-01-01

    Fast spin-echo (FSE) T1-weighted (T1W) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 3T, which is sensitive to neuromelanin-related contrast, can quantitatively detect signal alterations in the locus ceruleus (LC) and the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) of depressive and schizophrenic patients; however, its qualitative diagnostic performance remains unknown. We investigated whether visual interpretation of semiquantitative color maps can be used for discriminating between depressive and schizophrenic patients and healthy individuals. We retrospectively examined 23 patients with major depression, 23 patients with schizophrenia, and 23 age-matched healthy controls by using a FSE-T1W MRI technique. Semiquantitative color maps of sections through the LC and SNc were visually interpreted by nine raters using a continuous confidence rating scale for receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The area under the ROC curve (Az), which reflects the performance in differentiating between depressive patients and controls, was 0.88, and the sensitivity and specificity at the maximum likelihood were 76% and 83%, respectively. In contrast, the Az value, sensitivity, and specificity values between schizophrenics and controls and between depressives and schizophrenics were 0.66 and 0.69, 42% and 48%, and 82% and 84%, respectively. Semiquantitative, color-coded FSE-T1W MRI at 3T can be used for visually differentiating depressive patients from healthy individuals with a substantially high likelihood, but this technique cannot be applied to distinguish schizophrenic patients from the other two groups. (orig.)

  1. Differential diagnosis of pituitary adenomas and Rathke's cleft cysts by diffusion-weighted MRI using single-shot fast spin echo technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Takumi; Izumiyama, Hitoshi; Fukuda, Ataru; Tanioka, Daisuke; Kunii, Norihiko; Komatsu, Daisuke; Fujita, Shogo; Ukisu, Ryutaro; Moritani, Toshio

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to prospectively evaluate the diagnostic ability of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) using single-shot fast spin echo (SSFSE) technique to discriminate pituitary adenomas from Rathke's cleft cysts. DWIs were obtained from 40 patients with pathologically proven pituitary macroadenomas and 15 patients with proven Rathke's cleft cysts. Pituitary adenomas were divided into 27 cases with solid components alone, five with non-hemorrhagic large cysts, and eight with intratumoral hemorrhage. On SSFSE DWI, solid components of pituitary adenomas revealed iso or slightly increased intensity and intratumoral hemorrhage showed higher intensity than normal brain parenchyma, whereas Rathke's cleft cysts and intratumoral cysts demonstrated very low intensity. SSFSE DWI did not display the susceptibility artifacts that are seen close to the skull base and sinonasal cavities on echo planar diffusion imaging. On the basis of our preliminary findings, DWI may enable us to differentiate pituitary adenomas with only solid components and hemorrhagic pituitary adenomas appearing hyperintense on T1-weighted images from Rathke's cleft cysts without administration of gadolinium-DTPA. SSFSE DWI appears to be a useful technique for characterizing pituitary diseases without the susceptibility artifacts. Our study is the first report to demonstrate the identification of pituitary disorders on SSFSE DWI. (author)

  2. Differential diagnosis of pituitary adenomas and Rathke's cleft cysts by diffusion-weighted MRI using single-shot fast spin echo technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Takumi; Izumiyama, Hitoshi; Fukuda, Ataru; Tanioka, Daisuke; Kunii, Norihiko; Komatsu, Daisuke; Fujita, Shogo; Ukisu, Ryutaro; Moritani, Toshio [Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to prospectively evaluate the diagnostic ability of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) using single-shot fast spin echo (SSFSE) technique to discriminate pituitary adenomas from Rathke's cleft cysts. DWIs were obtained from 40 patients with pathologically proven pituitary macroadenomas and 15 patients with proven Rathke's cleft cysts. Pituitary adenomas were divided into 27 cases with solid components alone, five with non-hemorrhagic large cysts, and eight with intratumoral hemorrhage. On SSFSE DWI, solid components of pituitary adenomas revealed iso or slightly increased intensity and intratumoral hemorrhage showed higher intensity than normal brain parenchyma, whereas Rathke's cleft cysts and intratumoral cysts demonstrated very low intensity. SSFSE DWI did not display the susceptibility artifacts that are seen close to the skull base and sinonasal cavities on echo planar diffusion imaging. On the basis of our preliminary findings, DWI may enable us to differentiate pituitary adenomas with only solid components and hemorrhagic pituitary adenomas appearing hyperintense on T1-weighted images from Rathke's cleft cysts without administration of gadolinium-DTPA. SSFSE DWI appears to be a useful technique for characterizing pituitary diseases without the susceptibility artifacts. Our study is the first report to demonstrate the identification of pituitary disorders on SSFSE DWI. (author)

  3. Faster pediatric 3-T abdominal magnetic resonance imaging: comparison between conventional and variable refocusing flip-angle single-shot fast spin-echo sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruangwattanapaisarn, Nichanan [Mahidol University, Department of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Radiology, Ramathibodi Hospital, Bangkok (Thailand); Stanford University, LPCH Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Loening, Andreas M.; Saranathan, Manojkumar; Vasanawala, Shreyas S. [Stanford University, LPCH Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Litwiller, Daniel V. [GE Healthcare, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Single-shot fast spin echo (SSFSE) is particularly appealing in pediatric patients because of its motion robustness. However radiofrequency energy deposition at 3 tesla forces long pauses between slices, leading to longer scans, longer breath-holds and more between-slice motion. We sought to learn whether modulation of the SSFSE refocusing flip-angle train could reduce radiofrequency energy deposition without degrading image quality, thereby reducing inter-slice pauses and overall scan times. We modulated the refocusing flip-angle train for SSFSE to minimize energy deposition while minimizing blurring and motion-related signal loss. In a cohort of 50 consecutive patients (25 boys, mean age 5.5 years, range 1 month to 17 years) referred for abdominal MRI we obtained standard SSFSE and variable refocusing flip-angle (vrfSSFSE) images and recorded sequence scan times. Two readers independently scored the images in blinded, randomized order for noise, tissue contrast, sharpness, artifacts and left lobe hepatic signal uniformity on a four-point scale. The null hypothesis of no difference between SSFSE and vrfSSFSE image-quality was assessed with a Mann-Whitney U test, and the null hypothesis of no scan time difference was assessed with the paired t-test. SSFSE and vrfSSFSE mean acquisition times were 54.3 and 26.2 s, respectively (P-value <0.0001). For each reader, SSFSE and vrfSSFSE noise, tissue contrast, sharpness and artifacts were not significantly different (P-values 0.18-0.86). However, SSFSE had better left lobe hepatic signal uniformity (P < 0.01, both readers). vrfSSFSE is twice as fast as SSFSE, with equivalent image quality with the exception of left hepatic lobe signal heterogeneity. (orig.)

  4. Usefulness of IDEAL T2-weighted FSE and SPGR imaging in reducing metallic artifacts in the postoperative ankles with metallic hardware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Bin; Cha, Jang Gyu; Lee, Min Hee; Lee, Eun Hye; Lee, Young Koo; Jeon, Chan Hong

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to prospectively compare the effectiveness of iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least-squares estimation (IDEAL), T2-weighted fast spin-echo (FSE), and spoiled gradient-echo (SPGR) MR imaging to frequency selective fat suppression (FSFS) protocols for minimizing metallic artifacts in postoperative ankles with metallic hardware. The T2-weighted and SPGR imaging with IDEAL and FSFS were performed on 21 ankles of 21 patients with metallic hardware. Two musculoskeletal radiologists independently analyzed techniques for visualization of ankle ligaments and articular cartilage, uniformity of fat saturation, and relative size of the metallic artifacts. A paired t test was used for statistical comparisons of MR images between IDEAL and FSFS groups. IDEAL T2-weighted FSE and SPGR images enabled significantly improved visualization of articular cartilage (p < 0.05), the size of metallic artifact (p < 0.05), and the uniformity of fat saturation (p < 0.05). However, no significant improvement was found in the visibility of ligaments. IDEAL T2-weighted FSE and SPGR imaging effectively reduces the degree of tissue-obscuring artifacts produced by fixation hardware in ankle joints and improves image quality compared to FSFS T2-weighted FSE and SPGR imaging. However, visibility of ligaments was not improved using IDEAL imaging. (orig.)

  5. Comparison of T1-weighted fast spin-echo and T1-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images of the lumbar spine at 3.0 Tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavdas, Eleftherios; Vlychou, Marianna; Arikidis, Nikos; Kapsalaki, Eftychia; Roka, Violetta; Fezoulidis, Ioannis V.

    2010-01-01

    Background: T1-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence has been reported to provide improved contrast between lesions and normal anatomical structures compared to T1-weighted fast spin-echo (FSE) imaging at 1.5T regarding imaging of the lumbar spine. Purpose: To compare T1-weighted FSE and fast T1-weighted FLAIR imaging in normal anatomic structures and degenerative and metastatic lesions of the lumbar spine at 3.0T. Material and Methods: Thirty-two consecutive patients (19 females, 13 males; mean age 44 years, range 30-67 years) with lesions of the lumbar spine were prospectively evaluated. Sagittal images of the lumbar spine were obtained using T1-weighted FSE and fast T1-weighted FLAIR sequences. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses measuring the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and relative contrast (ReCon) between degenerative and metastatic lesions and normal anatomic structures were conducted, comparing these sequences. Results: On quantitative evaluation, SNRs of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), nerve root, and fat around the root of fast T1-weighted FLAIR imaging were significantly lower than those of T1-weighted FSE images (P<0.001). CNRs of normal spinal cord/CSF and disc herniation/ CSF for fast T1-weighted FLAIR images were significantly higher than those for T1-weighted FSE images (P<0.001). ReCon of normal spinal cord/CSF, disc herniation/CSF, and vertebral lesions/CSF for fast T1-weighted FLAIR images were significantly higher than those for T1-weighted FSE images (P<0.001). On qualitative evaluation, it was found that CSF nulling and contrast at the spinal cord (cauda equina)/CSF interface for T1-weighted FLAIR images were significantly superior compared to those for T1-weighted FSE images (P<0.001), and the disc/spinal cord (cauda equina) interface was better for T1-weighted FLAIR images (P<0.05). Conclusion: The T1-weighted FLAIR sequence may be considered as the preferred lumbar spine imaging

  6. Three-dimensional isotropic T2-weighted cervical MRI at 3 T: Comparison with two-dimensional T2-weighted sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, J.W.; Yoon, Y.C.; Choi, S.-H.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To compare three-dimensional (3D) isotropic T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences and reformation with two-dimensional (2D) T2-weighted sequences regarding image quality of the cervical spine at 3 T. Materials and methods: A phantom study was performed using a water-filled cylinder. The signal-to-noise and image homogeneity were evaluated. Fourteen (n = 14) volunteers were examined at 3 T using 3D isotropic T2-weighted sagittal and conventional 2D T2-weighted sagittal, axial, and oblique sagittal MRI. Multiplanar reformation (MPR) of the 3D T2-weighted sagittal dataset was performed simultaneously with image evaluation. In addition to artefact assessment, the visibility of anatomical structures in the 3D and 2D sequences was qualitatively assessed by two radiologists independently. Cohen’s kappa and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used for the statistical analysis. Result: The 3D isotropic T2-weighted sequence resulted in the highest signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and lowest non-uniformity (NU) among the sequences in the phantom study. Quantitative evaluation revealed lower NU values of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and muscles in 2D T2-weighted sagittal sequences compared to the 3D volume isotropic turbo spin-echo acquisition (VISTA) sequence. The other NU values revealed no statistically significant difference between the 2D turbo spin-echo (TSE) and 3D VISTA sequences (0.059 < p < 0.959). 3D VISTA images showed significantly fewer CSF flow artefacts (p < 0.001) and better delineated intradural nerve rootlets (p = 0.001) and neural foramina (p = 0.016) compared to 2D sequences. Conclusion: A 3D T2 weighted sequence is superior to conventional 2D sequences for the delineation of intradural nerve rootlets and neural foramina and is less affected by CSF flow artefacts.

  7. T1-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and T1-weighted fast spin-echo contrast-enhanced imaging: a comparison in 20 patients with brain lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Saeed, O.; Athyal, R. P.; Ismail, M.; Rudwan, M.; Khafajee, S.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Tl-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence is a relatively new pulse sequence for intracranial MR imaging. This study was performed to compare the image quality of Tl-weighted FLAIR with the Tl-weighted FSE sequence. Twenty patients with brain lesions underwent Tl-weighted fast spin-echo (FSE) and Tl-weighted FLAIR during the same imaging session. Four quantitative and three qualitative criteria were used to compare the two sequences after contrast. Two of four quantitative criteria pertained to lesion characteristics: lesion to white matter (WM) contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and lesion to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) CNR, and two related to signals from normal tissue: grey matter to WM CNR and WM to CSF CNR. The three qualitative criteria were conspicuousness of the lesion, the presence of image artefacts and the overall image contrast. Both Tl-weighted FSE and FLAIR images were effective in demonstrating lesions. Image contrast was superior in Tl-weighted FLAIR images with significantly improved grey matter-WM CNRs and CSF-WM CNRs. The overall image contrast was judged to be superior on Tl-weighted FLAIR images compared with Tl-weighted FSE images by all neuroradiologists. Two of three reviewers considered that the FLAIR images had slightly increased imaging artefacts that, however, did not interfere with image interpretation. Tl-weighted FLAIR imaging provides improved lesion-to-background and grey to WM contrast-to-noise ratios. Superior conspicuity of lesions and overall image contrast is obtained in comparable acquisition times. These indicate an important role for Tl-weighted FLAIR in intracranial imaging and highlight its advantage over the more widely practiced Tl-weighted FSE sequence

  8. Optimization image of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T2 fast spin echo (FSE) with variation echo train length (ETL) on the rupture tendon achilles case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muzamil, Akhmad; Firmansyah, Achmad Haries

    2017-01-01

    The research was done the optimization image of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) T2 Fast Spin Echo (FSE) with variation Echo Train Length (ETL) on the Rupture Tendon Achilles case. This study aims to find the variations Echo Train Length (ETL) from the results of ankle’s MRI image and find out how the value of Echo Train Length (ETL) works on the MRI ankle to produce optimal image. In this research, the used ETL variations were 12 and 20 with the interval 2 on weighting T2 FSE sagittal. The study obtained the influence of Echo Train Length (ETL) on the quality of ankle MRI image sagittal using T2 FSE weighting and analyzed in 25 images of five patients. The data analysis has done quantitatively with the Region of Interest (ROI) directly on computer MRI image planes which conducted statistical tests Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and Contras to Noise Ratio (CNR). The Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) was the highest finding on fat tissue, while the Contras to Noise Ratio (CNR) on the Tendon-Fat tissue with ETL 12 found in two patients. The statistics test showed the significant SNR value of the 0.007 (p<0.05) of Tendon tissue, 0.364 (p>0.05) of the Fat, 0.912 (p>0.05) of the Fibula, and 0.436 (p>0.05) of the Heel Bone. For the contrast to noise ratio (CNR) of the Tendon-FAT tissue was about 0.041 (p>0.05). The results of the study showed that ETL variation with T2 FSE sagittal weighting had difference at Tendon tissue and Tendon-Fat tissue for MRI imaging quality. SNR and CNR were an important aspect on imaging optimization process to give the diagnose information. (paper)

  9. Evaluation of the menisci of the knee joint using three-dimensional isotropic resolution fast spin-echo imaging: diagnostic performance in 250 patients with surgical correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kijowski, Richard; Davis, Kirkland W.; Blankenbaker, Donna G.; Woods, Michael A.; De Smet, Arthur A. [University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); Munoz del Rio, Alejandro [University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Statistics, Madison, WI (United States)

    2012-02-15

    To compare the diagnostic performance of FSE-Cube, a three-dimensional isotropic resolution intermediate-weighted fast spin-echo sequence, with a routine magnetic resonance (MR) protocol at 3.0 T for detecting surgically confirmed meniscal tears of the knee joint in a large patient population. FSE-Cube was added to a routine MR protocol performed at 3.0 T on 250 patients who underwent subsequent knee arthroscopy. Three radiologists independently used FSE-Cube during one review and the routine MR protocol during a second review to detect medial and lateral meniscal tears. Using arthroscopy as the reference standard, the sensitivity and specificity of FSE-Cube and the routine MR protocol for detecting meniscal tears were determined for all readers combined. McNemar's tests were used to compare diagnostic performance between FSE-Cube and the routine MR protocol. FSE-cube and the routine MR protocol had similar sensitivity (95.5%/95.3% respectively, P=0.94) and similar specificity (69.8%/74.0% respectively, P=0.10) for detecting 156 medial meniscal tears. FSE-Cube had significantly lower sensitivity than the routine MR protocol (79.4%/85.0% respectively, P < 0.05) but similar specificity (83.9%/82.2% respectively, P=0.37) for detecting 89 lateral mensical tears. For lateral meniscal tears, FSE-Cube had significantly lower sensitivity (P < 0.05) than the routine MR protocol for detecting 19 root tears but similar sensitivity (P=0.17-1.00) for detecting all other tear locations and types. FSE-Cube had diagnostic performance similar to a routine MR protocol for detecting meniscal tears except for a significantly lower sensitivity for detecting lateral meniscal tears, which was mainly attributed to decreased ability to identify lateral meniscus root tears. (orig.)

  10. Evaluation of the menisci of the knee joint using three-dimensional isotropic resolution fast spin-echo imaging: diagnostic performance in 250 patients with surgical correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kijowski, Richard; Davis, Kirkland W.; Blankenbaker, Donna G.; Woods, Michael A.; De Smet, Arthur A.; Munoz del Rio, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic performance of FSE-Cube, a three-dimensional isotropic resolution intermediate-weighted fast spin-echo sequence, with a routine magnetic resonance (MR) protocol at 3.0 T for detecting surgically confirmed meniscal tears of the knee joint in a large patient population. FSE-Cube was added to a routine MR protocol performed at 3.0 T on 250 patients who underwent subsequent knee arthroscopy. Three radiologists independently used FSE-Cube during one review and the routine MR protocol during a second review to detect medial and lateral meniscal tears. Using arthroscopy as the reference standard, the sensitivity and specificity of FSE-Cube and the routine MR protocol for detecting meniscal tears were determined for all readers combined. McNemar's tests were used to compare diagnostic performance between FSE-Cube and the routine MR protocol. FSE-cube and the routine MR protocol had similar sensitivity (95.5%/95.3% respectively, P=0.94) and similar specificity (69.8%/74.0% respectively, P=0.10) for detecting 156 medial meniscal tears. FSE-Cube had significantly lower sensitivity than the routine MR protocol (79.4%/85.0% respectively, P < 0.05) but similar specificity (83.9%/82.2% respectively, P=0.37) for detecting 89 lateral mensical tears. For lateral meniscal tears, FSE-Cube had significantly lower sensitivity (P < 0.05) than the routine MR protocol for detecting 19 root tears but similar sensitivity (P=0.17-1.00) for detecting all other tear locations and types. FSE-Cube had diagnostic performance similar to a routine MR protocol for detecting meniscal tears except for a significantly lower sensitivity for detecting lateral meniscal tears, which was mainly attributed to decreased ability to identify lateral meniscus root tears. (orig.)

  11. Ultrafast T2-weighted single shot spin-echo sequences: applications on abdominal and pelvic pathologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.; Martin, C.; Falco, J.; Esteban, L.

    1999-01-01

    The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences that obtain all the data using a sole excitation pulse of 90 degree centigrade, filling the K space in a single repetition time (TR) is known as snap shot or single shot (SS). The SS sequence based on the rapid acquisition with relaxation enhancement (SS-RARE) method, designed by Hening (1) and a variation of it with a half-Fourier reconstruction (SS-HF-RARE (HASTEL)) (2, 3) are capable of obtaining high contrast images in T2, in very short times, that oscillate between one to several seconds. The clinical application of these sequences to abdominal and pelvic pathologies is increasing, providing and improvement in the contrast resolution, but also in the spatial resolution, with a high relation signal/noise ratio, high contrast and absence of movement artifacts. (Author)

  12. A fundamental study of non-contrast enhanced MR angiography using ECG gated-3D fast spin echo at 3.0 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakato, Kengo; Hiai, Yasuhiro; Tomiguchi, Seiji

    2010-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) is frequently performed in body and extremity studies because of its superior ability to detect the vascular stenosis. However, nephrotoxicity of the contrast medium has been emphasized in recent years. Non-contrast MRA using the three-dimensional electrocardiogram-synchronized fast spin echo method (fresh blood imaging (FBI), non-contrast MRA of arteries and veins (NATIVE) and triggered acquisition non contrast enhancement MRA (TRANCE)) is recommended as a substitute for CE-MRA. There are a few reports in the literature that evaluate the detectability of vascular stenosis using non-contrast MRA on 3.0 T MRI. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the detectability of vascular stenosis using non-contrast MRA at 3.0 T with an original vascular phantom. The vascular phantom consisted of silicon tubes. 30% and 70% stenosis of luminal diameter were made. Each silicon tube connected a pump producing a pulsatile flow. A flowing material to was used in this study to show the similarity of the intensity to blood on MRI. MRA without a contrast medium (NATIVE sequence) were performed in the vascular phantom by changing the image matrix, static magnetic field strength and flow velocity. In addition, the NATIVE sequence was used with or without flow compensation. Vascular stenosis was quantitatively estimated by measurement of the signal intensities in non-contrast MRA images. MRA with NATIVE sequence demonstrated an accurate estimation of 30% vascular stenosis at slow flow velocity. However, 30% stenosis was overestimated in cases of high flow velocity. Estimation was improved by using a flow compensation sequence. 70% stenosis was overestimated on MRA with NATIVE sequence. Estimation of 70% stenosis was improved by using a flow compensation sequence. Accurate estimation of vascular stenosis in MRA with a NATIVE sequence is improved by using the flow compensation technique. MRA with NATIVE sequence is considered to

  13. Selection of TI for Suppression Fat Tissue of SPAIR and Comparative Study of SPAIR and STIR of Brain Fast SE T2 Weighted Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hoo Min; Kim, Ham Gyum; Kong, Seok Kyo

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to seek SPAIR's reversal time (TI) which satisfies two conditions ; maintaining the suppression ability of fat tissue and simultaneously minimizing the inhomogeneity of fat tissue in T2 high-speed spin echo 3.0T magnetic resonance image (MRI) of the brain, and to compare SPAIR with STIR which is fat-suppression technique. The reversal times (TI) of SPAIR protocol are set to 1/2, 1/3, 1/6 and 1/12 of SPAIR TR (420 msec), namely 210 msec (8 people), 140 msec (26 people), 70 msec (26 people) and 35 msec (18 people) and STIR TI is set with 250 msec (26 people). With these parameter sets, we acquired the axis direction 104 images of the brain. In ROI (50 mm 2 ) of output image, signal intensities of the fatty tissue, the muscular tissue, and the background were measured and the CNRs of fatty tissue and the muscular tissue were calculated. The inhomogeneity of the fatty tissue is SD/mean, where SD is the standard deviation and 'mean' is a average fatty tissue signal. Consequently, SPAIR TI is determined on either 1/3 or 1/6 of TR (420 ms) ; 140 ms or 70 ms. Because the difference of statistics in fat-suppression ability and inhomogeneity of fatty tissue is very small (p < 0.001), Selecting 140 ms seems to be better choice for the image quality. Meanwhile, Comparing SPAIR (TI : 140 ms) with STIR, the fat-suppression is not able to be considered statistically (p < 0.252), but the image quality is able to be considered statistically (p < 0.01). In conclusion, SPAIR is better than STIR in the image quality.

  14. CISS MR imaging findings of epidermoid tumor : comparison with spin-echo images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Woo; Kim, Hak Jin; Choi, Sang Yoel; Heo, Jin Sam; Jung, Hoon Sik; Lee, Suck Hong; Kim, Byung Soo [Pusan National Univ. College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Wha [Ulsan Univ. Hospital, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-01

    To evaluate CISS MR imaging findings of epidermoid tumor in comparison with conventional spin-echo images. We studied 6 cases of epidermoid tumor in the subarachnoid space. We used a 1.5T MR unit to obtain CISS images(TR/TE/FA ; 12.3msec/5.9 msec/700) and T1- and T2- weighted spin-echo images. CISS MR imaging findings were evaluated with respect to tumor's signal intensity , contour, and relation with adjacent structures. Conspicuity of the tumor was compared between CISS and spin-echo images. A quantitative analysis was performed by measuring tumor to CSF contrast. In qualitative analysis, three radiologists independently compared CISS image and conventional spin-echo images for visibility of the tumor and graded them into three categories( poor, good, and excellent). Epidermoid tumors were located in the cerebellopontine angle in 4 cases, the prepontine cisstern in 1 case, and the cerebellopontine angle-prepontine cistern in 1 case. The tumors were hyperintense relative to brain parenchyma and hypointense relative to CSF on CISS images, were lobulated, encased adjacent cranial nerve and vessels, and invaginated into brain parenchyma. In qualitative analysis, CISS images showed clear demarcation between tumor and CSF, exact tumor extension, and tumor's relation with cranial nerves and vessels better than conventional spin-echo images. In quantitative analysis, the mean contrast values of tumor to CSF on T1-, T2-weighted images, and CISS images were 0.12, 0.06, and 0.52, respectively. The contrast value for CISS images was significantly higher than that for T1-and T2-weighted images(p<0.05). Epidermoid tumors in the subarachnoid space are better demonstrated on CISS images than on conventional spin-echo images. This special MR sequence can be added as a routine protocol in the diagnosis of subarachnoid epidermoid tumor.

  15. The usefulness of T2-weighted MR urography and contrast enhanced MR urography in the evaluation of obstructive uropathy: comparisonal study with antegrade pyelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Chang Hoon; Lee, Jeong Min; Jin, Kong Yong; Chung, Gyung Ho; Cho, Seung Il; Lee, Sang Hun; Kim, Young Kon; Oh, Gyung Jae

    2002-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of contrast-enhanced and T2-weighted magnetic resonance urography (MRU) for the depiction of obstruction and evaluation of the causes of obstructive uropathy with that of antegrade pyelography. Twenty-five patients with obstructive uropathy who underwent percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN) and antegrade pyelography( AGP) were included in the study. We performed MR urography, comprising half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo (HASTE) T2- weighted imaging and 3-D fast imaging with steady state precession (3-D FISP) T1-weighted imaging after gadolinium enhancement and compared the quality of the images of both the HASTE and 3-D FISP MRU technique in terms of their depiction of the dilated pelvocalyceal system, and the level, type, and causes of obstruction. In terms of anatomical depiction of the pelvocalyceal system (p=0.002) and the causes of obstruction (p=0.003). T1-weighted MRU using 3D-FISP was significantly better than T2-weighted MRU using the HASTE sequence. Regarding level of obstruction, T2-weighted MRU using the HASTE sequence and contrast enhanced T1-weighted MRU using 3D-FISP showed an accuracy of 76% (19/25) and 84% (21/25), respectively. In terms of type of obstruction, the accuracy of T2-weighted MRU and T1-weighted CEMRU was 72% (18/25) and 88% (22/25), respectively. T2-weighted MRU and Ta-weighted CEMRU provided both anatomical information and that relating to impaired renal function. The two modelities played a complementary role and their use could decrease the unnecessary use of invasive diagnostic examination for the evaluation of obstructive uropathy

  16. “Hot cross bun” sign in multiple system atrophy with predominant cerebellar ataxia: A comparison between proton density-weighted imaging and T2-weighted imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasahara, Seiko, E-mail: nuun077@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoin-Kawaharacho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Miki, Yukio, E-mail: yukio.miki@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoin-Kawaharacho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Department of Radiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545–8585 (Japan); Kanagaki, Mitsunori, E-mail: mitsuk@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoin-Kawaharacho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Kondo, Takayuki, E-mail: kondotak@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Neurology, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoin-Kawaharacho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Yamamoto, Akira, E-mail: yakira@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoin-Kawaharacho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Morimoto, Emiko, E-mail: foresta@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoin-Kawaharacho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Okada, Tomohisa, E-mail: tomokada@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoin-Kawaharacho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Ito, Hidefumi, E-mail: itohid@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Neurology, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoin-Kawaharacho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Takahashi, Ryosuke, E-mail: ryosuket@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Neurology, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoin-Kawaharacho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); and others

    2012-10-15

    Objective: To investigate whether proton density-weighted imaging can detect the “hot cross bun” sign in the pons in multiple system atrophy with predominant cerebellar ataxia significantly better than T2-weighted imaging at 3 T. Methods: Sixteen consecutive patients with multiple system atrophy with predominant cerebellar ataxia according to the Consensus Criteria were reviewed. Axial unenhanced proton density-weighted imaging and T2-weighted imaging were obtained using a dual-echo fast spin-echo sequence at 3 T. Two neuroradiologists independently evaluated visualisation of the abnormal pontine signal using a 4-point visual grade from Grade 0 (no “hot cross bun” sign) to Grade 3 (prominent “hot cross bun” sign on two or more sequential slices). Differences in grade between proton density-weighted imaging and T2-weighted imaging were statistically analysed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results: In 11 patients (69%), a higher grade was given for proton density-weighted imaging than T2-weighted imaging. In 1 patient (6%), grades were the same (Grade 3) on both images. In the remaining 4 patients (25%), signal abnormalities were not detected on either image (Grade 0). The “hot cross bun” sign was thus observed significantly better on proton density-weighted imaging than on T2-weighted imaging (P = 0.001). Conclusions: The “hot cross bun” sign considered diagnostic for multiple system atrophy with predominant cerebellar ataxia is significantly better visualised on proton density-weighted imaging than on T2-weighted imaging at 3 T.

  17. Relationship between levels of serum creatinine and perirenal hyperintensity on heavily T2-weighted MR images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erden, Ayse, E-mail: ayse.erden@medicine.ankara.edu.tr [Ankara University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Talatpasa Bulvari, Sihhiye, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Sahin, Burcu Savran, E-mail: bsavrans@hotmail.com [Ankara University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Talatpasa Bulvari, Sihhiye, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Orgodol, Horolsuren, E-mail: hoogii99@yahoo.com [Ankara University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Talatpasa Bulvari, Sihhiye, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Erden, Ilhan, E-mail: erden@medicine.ankara.edu.tr [Ankara University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Talatpasa Bulvari, Sihhiye, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Biyikli, Zeynep, E-mail: zeynep.biyikli@gmail.com [Ankara University, School of Medicine, Department of Biostatistics, Talatpasa Bulvari, Sihhiye, 06100 Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-11-15

    Objective: To determine the frequency of perirenal hyperintensity on heavily T2-weighted images and to evaluate its relationship with serum creatinine levels. Subjects and methods: Axial and coronal single-shot fast spin-echo images which have been originally obtained for MR cholangiopancreatography in 150 subjects were examined by two observers individually for the presence of perirenal hyperintensity. The morphologic properties of perirenal hyperintensity (peripheral rim-like, discontinuous, polar) were recorded. Chi square test was used to test whether the frequencies of bilateral perirenal hyperintensity differ significantly in subjects with high serum creatinine levels and those with normal creatinine levels. This test was also used to compare the frequencies of perirenal hyperintensity in patients with and without renal cysts and in patients with and without corticomedullary differentiation. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: The perirenal hyperintensity was identified in 40 of 150 cases (26.6%) on heavily T2-weighted image. Serum creatinine levels were high in 18 of 150 cases (12%). The perirenal hyperintensity was present in 11 of 18 subjects (61%) with high serum creatinine levels and 26 of 132 subjects (19.7%) with normal creatinine levels. The difference of rates in two groups was statistically significant. Odds ratio was 6407 (95% confidence interval 2264-18,129). The frequency of perirenal hyperintensity was also significantly higher in subjects with renal cyst or cysts in whom serum creatinine levels were normal (p < 0.05) (37.5% vs. 11.8%). Conclusion: Perirenal hyperintensities are more frequent in patients with high serum creatinine levels. They are also more common in patients with simple renal cysts.

  18. Relationship between levels of serum creatinine and perirenal hyperintensity on heavily T2-weighted MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erden, Ayse; Sahin, Burcu Savran; Orgodol, Horolsuren; Erden, Ilhan; Biyikli, Zeynep

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of perirenal hyperintensity on heavily T2-weighted images and to evaluate its relationship with serum creatinine levels. Subjects and methods: Axial and coronal single-shot fast spin-echo images which have been originally obtained for MR cholangiopancreatography in 150 subjects were examined by two observers individually for the presence of perirenal hyperintensity. The morphologic properties of perirenal hyperintensity (peripheral rim-like, discontinuous, polar) were recorded. Chi square test was used to test whether the frequencies of bilateral perirenal hyperintensity differ significantly in subjects with high serum creatinine levels and those with normal creatinine levels. This test was also used to compare the frequencies of perirenal hyperintensity in patients with and without renal cysts and in patients with and without corticomedullary differentiation. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: The perirenal hyperintensity was identified in 40 of 150 cases (26.6%) on heavily T2-weighted image. Serum creatinine levels were high in 18 of 150 cases (12%). The perirenal hyperintensity was present in 11 of 18 subjects (61%) with high serum creatinine levels and 26 of 132 subjects (19.7%) with normal creatinine levels. The difference of rates in two groups was statistically significant. Odds ratio was 6407 (95% confidence interval 2264-18,129). The frequency of perirenal hyperintensity was also significantly higher in subjects with renal cyst or cysts in whom serum creatinine levels were normal (p < 0.05) (37.5% vs. 11.8%). Conclusion: Perirenal hyperintensities are more frequent in patients with high serum creatinine levels. They are also more common in patients with simple renal cysts.

  19. Performance of PROPELLER relative to standard FSE T2-weighted imaging in pediatric brain MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vertinsky, A.T. [Vancouver General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vancouver (Canada); University of British Columbia, Department of Radiology, Vancouver (Canada); Rubesova, Erika; Bammer, Sabine; White, Allan; Barnes, Patrick D. [Stanford University Medical Center, Lucile Salter Packard Children' s Hospital, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Krasnokutsky, Michael V. [Madigan Army Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Tacoma, WA (United States); Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences, Department of Radiology, Bethesda, MD (United States); Rosenberg, Jarrett; Bammer, Roland [Lucas Center, Stanford University, Department of Radiology, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2009-10-15

    T2-weighted fast spin-echo imaging (T2-W FSE) is frequently degraded by motion in pediatric patients. MR imaging with periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction (PROPELLER) employs alternate sampling of k-space to achieve motion reduction. To compare T2-W PROPELLER FSE (T2-W PROP) with conventional T2-W FSE for: (1) image quality; (2) presence of artefacts; and (3) ability to detect lesions. Ninety-five pediatric patients undergoing brain MRI (1.5 T) were evaluated with T2-W FSE and T2-W PROP. Three independent radiologists rated T2-W FSE and T2-W PROP, assessing image quality, presence of artefacts, and diagnostic confidence. Chi-square analysis and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used to assess the radiologists' responses. Compared with T2-W FSE, T2-W PROP demonstrated better image quality and reduced motion artefacts, with the greatest benefit in children younger than 6 months. Although detection rates were comparable for the two sequences, blood products were more conspicuous on T2-W FSE. Diagnostic confidence was higher using T2-W PROP in children younger than 6 months. Average inter-rater agreement was 87%. T2-W PROP showed reduced motion artefacts and improved diagnostic confidence in children younger than 6 months. Thus, use of T2-W PROP rather than T2-W FSE should be considered in routine imaging of this age group, with caution required in identifying blood products. (orig.)

  20. Performance of PROPELLER relative to standard FSE T2-weighted imaging in pediatric brain MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertinsky, A.T.; Rubesova, Erika; Bammer, Sabine; White, Allan; Barnes, Patrick D.; Krasnokutsky, Michael V.; Rosenberg, Jarrett; Bammer, Roland

    2009-01-01

    T2-weighted fast spin-echo imaging (T2-W FSE) is frequently degraded by motion in pediatric patients. MR imaging with periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction (PROPELLER) employs alternate sampling of k-space to achieve motion reduction. To compare T2-W PROPELLER FSE (T2-W PROP) with conventional T2-W FSE for: (1) image quality; (2) presence of artefacts; and (3) ability to detect lesions. Ninety-five pediatric patients undergoing brain MRI (1.5 T) were evaluated with T2-W FSE and T2-W PROP. Three independent radiologists rated T2-W FSE and T2-W PROP, assessing image quality, presence of artefacts, and diagnostic confidence. Chi-square analysis and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used to assess the radiologists' responses. Compared with T2-W FSE, T2-W PROP demonstrated better image quality and reduced motion artefacts, with the greatest benefit in children younger than 6 months. Although detection rates were comparable for the two sequences, blood products were more conspicuous on T2-W FSE. Diagnostic confidence was higher using T2-W PROP in children younger than 6 months. Average inter-rater agreement was 87%. T2-W PROP showed reduced motion artefacts and improved diagnostic confidence in children younger than 6 months. Thus, use of T2-W PROP rather than T2-W FSE should be considered in routine imaging of this age group, with caution required in identifying blood products. (orig.)

  1. High-field spin-echo MR imaging of superficial and subependymal siderosis secondary to neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomori, J.M.; Grossman, R.I.; Goldberg, H.I.; Zimmerman, R.A.; Bilaniuk, L.T.

    1987-01-01

    Two cases of superficial siderosis with subependymal siderosis, secondary to neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage, are presented. High-field spin-echo MR imaging (1.5 Tesla) showed marginal hypointensity of the ventricular walls as well as of the subpial regions. These findings were most evident on T 2 weighted images, characteristic of hemosiderotic deposits. (orig.)

  2. Diagnosis of partial and complete rotator cuff tears using combined gradient echo and spin echo imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuite, M.J.; Yandow, D.R.; DeSmet, A.A.; Orwin, J.F.; Quintana, F.A.

    1994-01-01

    Most magnetic resonance (MR) studies evaluating the rotator cuff for tears have used T2-weighted imaging in the coronal oblique and sagittal oblique planes. T2 * -weighted gradient echo imaging, however, has advantages over spin echo imaging, including contiguous slices without cross-talk, high contrast around the cuff, and intrinsically shorter imaging times which can be used to increase the number of signals averaged and thus improve the signal-to-noise ratio. We reviewed the shoulder MR scans of 87 consecutive patients who underwent both a MR scan and a shoulder arthroscopy during which the size of tears, if present, was graded. The reviewers were blinded as to the history and arthroscopic results. The MR scans included oblique coronal T2 * -weighted gradient echo and oblique sagittal T2-weighted spin echo images. MR cuff grades were correlated with arthroscopic findings. For complete tears, the sensitivity of MR was 0.91 and the specificity 0.95. For partial tears, the sensitivity was 0.74 and the specificity 0.87. This accuracy is similar to two-plane T2-weighted imaging as previously reported in the literature. There was a statistically significant correlation (p < 0.0005) between the cuff grade as determined by MR and the arthroscopic findings. (orig.)

  3. Spin echo SPI methods for quantitative analysis of fluids in porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linqing; Han, Hui; Balcom, Bruce J

    2009-06-01

    Fluid density imaging is highly desirable in a wide variety of porous media measurements. The SPRITE class of MRI methods has proven to be robust and general in their ability to generate density images in porous media, however the short encoding times required, with correspondingly high magnetic field gradient strengths and filter widths, and low flip angle RF pulses, yield sub-optimal S/N images, especially at low static field strength. This paper explores two implementations of pure phase encode spin echo 1D imaging, with application to a proposed new petroleum reservoir core analysis measurement. In the first implementation of the pulse sequence, we modify the spin echo single point imaging (SE-SPI) technique to acquire the k-space origin data point, with a near zero evolution time, from the free induction decay (FID) following a 90 degrees excitation pulse. Subsequent k-space data points are acquired by separately phase encoding individual echoes in a multi-echo acquisition. T(2) attenuation of the echo train yields an image convolution which causes blurring. The T(2) blur effect is moderate for porous media with T(2) lifetime distributions longer than 5 ms. As a robust, high S/N, and fast 1D imaging method, this method will be highly complementary to SPRITE techniques for the quantitative analysis of fluid content in porous media. In the second implementation of the SE-SPI pulse sequence, modification of the basic measurement permits fast determination of spatially resolved T(2) distributions in porous media through separately phase encoding each echo in a multi-echo CPMG pulse train. An individual T(2) weighted image may be acquired from each echo. The echo time (TE) of each T(2) weighted image may be reduced to 500 micros or less. These profiles can be fit to extract a T(2) distribution from each pixel employing a variety of standard inverse Laplace transform methods. Fluid content 1D images are produced as an essential by product of determining the

  4. Value of MR cisternography using three-dimensional half-fourier single-shot fast spin-echo sequences in the diagnosis of diseases related to cranial nerves VII and VIII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamakami, Norio [Kyorin Univ., Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1999-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the value of MR cisternography using three-dimensional half-Fourier single-shot fast spin-echo sequences in the diagnosis of diseasea related to cranial nerves VII and VIII. With a 0.5-T imager, the most appropriate setting of echo time and section thickness was first assessed in five volunteers. This resulted in echo time of 250 msec and section thickness of 2 mm as the most effective parameters. Second, using echo time of 120 msec and section thickness of 1.5 mm that were available from the beginning of this study, the demonstration of four nerves within the audistory canal was assessed in seven volunteers. In all of the volunteers, the facial, cochlear, and vestibular nerves were determined with demonstration of each of superior and inferior vestibular nerves in four of them. Next, MR cisternography using the same echo time and section thickness was applied in 368 patients with suspicion of acoustic neurinoma and 14 with hemifacial spasm. In 28 of the 368 patients, MR cisternograms depicted an acoustic neurinoma that was confirmed on postcontrast T1-weighted images. Meanwhile, in five of the 14 patients with hemifacial spasm, MR cisternograms revealed a vessel compressing the root exit zone of the affected facial nerve. It is concluded that MR cisternography using three-dimensional half-Fourier single-shot fast spin-echo sequences can be a useful means for demonstrating nerves within the auditory nerve as well as for the screening of acoustic neurionoma. (author)

  5. Value of MR cisternography using three-dimensional half-fourier single-shot fast spin-echo sequences in the diagnosis of diseases related to cranial nerves VII and VIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakami, Norio

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the value of MR cisternography using three-dimensional half-Fourier single-shot fast spin-echo sequences in the diagnosis of diseasea related to cranial nerves VII and VIII. With a 0.5-T imager, the most appropriate setting of echo time and section thickness was first assessed in five volunteers. This resulted in echo time of 250 msec and section thickness of 2 mm as the most effective parameters. Second, using echo time of 120 msec and section thickness of 1.5 mm that were available from the beginning of this study, the demonstration of four nerves within the audistory canal was assessed in seven volunteers. In all of the volunteers, the facial, cochlear, and vestibular nerves were determined with demonstration of each of superior and inferior vestibular nerves in four of them. Next, MR cisternography using the same echo time and section thickness was applied in 368 patients with suspicion of acoustic neurinoma and 14 with hemifacial spasm. In 28 of the 368 patients, MR cisternograms depicted an acoustic neurinoma that was confirmed on postcontrast T1-weighted images. Meanwhile, in five of the 14 patients with hemifacial spasm, MR cisternograms revealed a vessel compressing the root exit zone of the affected facial nerve. It is concluded that MR cisternography using three-dimensional half-Fourier single-shot fast spin-echo sequences can be a useful means for demonstrating nerves within the auditory nerve as well as for the screening of acoustic neurionoma. (author)

  6. The time window of MRI of murine atherosclerotic plaques after administration of CB2 receptor targeted micelles: inter-scan variability and relation between plaque signal intensity increase and gadolinium content of inversion recovery prepared versus non-prepared fast spin echo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Boekhorst, B. C. M.; Bovens, S. M.; van de Kolk, C. W. A.; Cramer, M. J. M.; Doevendans, P. A. F. M.; ten Hove, M.; van der Weerd, L.; Poelmann, R.; Strijkers, G. J.; Pasterkamp, G.; van Echteld, C. J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Single fast spin echo scans covering limited time frames are mostly used for contrast-enhanced MRI of atherosclerotic plaque biomarkers. Knowledge on inter-scan variability of the normalized enhancement ratio of plaque (NER(plaque)) and relation between NER(plaque) and gadolinium content for

  7. Basic evaluation of the new pulse sequence for simultaneous acquisition of T1- and T2-weighted images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurose, Atsunari; Takahashi, Tohru; Ohishi, Tae; Ishikawa, Akihiro

    2006-01-01

    A novel pulse sequence that enables simultaneous acquisition of T1-weighted (T1W) and T2-weighted (T2W) images is presented. In this new technique, the inversion recovery (IR) pulse of conventional fast inversion recovery (Fast IR) is replaced with a pulse train that consists of a fast spin echo (FSE) and 180(y)+90(x) for driven inversion (DI). By using a shorter T1 and independent k-space ordering, the first part of the sequence provides T2W images and the second part provides T1W images, thereby enabling simultaneous acquisition in a single scan time comparable to that of Fast IR. Signal simulation also was conducted, and this was compared with conventional scanning techniques using normal volunteers. In the human studies, both T1W and T2W images showed the same image quality as conventional images, suggesting the potential for this technique to replace the combination of Fast IR and T2W FSE for scan-time reduction. (author)

  8. Performance of a fast and high-resolution multi-echo spin-echo sequence for prostate T2 mapping across multiple systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Houdt, Petra J; Agarwal, Harsh K; van Buuren, Laurens D; Heijmink, Stijn W T P J; Haack, Søren; van der Poel, Henk G; Ghobadi, Ghazaleh; Pos, Floris J; Peeters, Johannes M; Choyke, Peter L; van der Heide, Uulke A

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate the performance of a multi-echo spin-echo sequence with k-t undersampling scheme (k-t T 2 ) in prostate cancer. Phantom experiments were performed at five systems to estimate the bias, short-term repeatability, and reproducibility across all systems expressed with the within-subject coefficient of variation (wCV). Monthly measurements were performed on two systems for long-term repeatability estimation. To evaluate clinical repeatability, two T 2 maps (voxel size 0.8 × 0.8 × 3 mm 3 ; 5 min) were acquired at separate visits on one system for 13 prostate cancer patients. Repeatability was assessed per patient in relation to spatial resolution. T 2 values were compared for tumor, peripheral zone, and transition zone. Phantom measurements showed a small bias (median = -0.9 ms) and good short-term repeatability (median wCV = 0.5%). Long-term repeatability was 0.9 and 1.1% and reproducibility between systems was 1.7%. The median bias observed in patients was -1.1 ms. At voxel level, the median wCV was 15%, dropping to 4% for structures of 0.5 cm 3 . The median tumor T 2 values (79 ms) were significantly lower (P < 0.001) than in the peripheral zone (149 ms), but overlapped with the transition zone (91 ms). Reproducible T 2 mapping of the prostate is feasible with good spatial resolution in a clinically reasonable scan time, allowing reliable measurement of T 2 in structures as small as 0.5 cm 3 . Magn Reson Med 79:1586-1594, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  9. T2-weighted imaging of the heart—A pictorial review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirakhur, Anirudh; Anca, Nicoleta; Mikami, Yoko; Merchant, Naeem

    2013-01-01

    Spin-Echo techniques in cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) have been used for decades, primarily to image cardiac anatomy. More recently, T2-weighted (T2W) imaging has seen an increased role in CMR protocols, especially in tissue characterization in acute myocardial processes. This article will review current methodologies of cardiac T2W acquisition and their limitations, as well as approach to both semi-quantitative and quantitative analyses. The appearance and utility of T2W imaging in a myriad of pathologic myocardial processes such as acute myocardial infarction, acute viral myocarditis, reversible stress-related cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and cardiac sarcoidosis, will also be discussed

  10. Fast FLAIR MR images of intracranial hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Eun Ju; Choi, Hye Young; Cho, Young A; Kim, Wha Young

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the signal characteristics of intracranial hemorrhage, as seen on fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MR imaging according to various stages, and to compare FLAIR imaging with spin-echo T1- and T2-weighted MR imaging. We retrospectively evaluated fast FLAIR images along with spin-echo T1- and T2 weighted MR images of 32 lesions in 25 patients (12 males and 14 females, aged 3 - 84 yrs) with intracranial hemorrhagic lesions. For imaging, 1.5 T unit was used, and the nature of the lesions was found to be as follows : intracranial hemorrhage (n=15); tumor (n=9); infarction (n=4); arteriovenous malformation (n=3); and arachnoid cyst with hemorrhage (n=1). On the basis of spin-echo MR imaging, lesions were classified as acute, early subacute, late subacute, early chronic, or late chronic stage. The signal characteristics of intracranial hemorrhage were analysed in accordance with each staging, as seen on MR FLAIR imaging, and compared to the staging seen on spin-echo T1- and T-2 weighted MR imaging. The signal intensity of intracranial hemorrhage, as seen on FLAIR imaging, was not characteristic; it was similar to that of T2WI during the acute and subacute stages, and similiar to that of T1WI during the chronic stage. When used together with spin-echo T1- and T2-weighted MR imaging, however, FLAIR imaging may be useful for the classification of chronic intracranial hemorrhage as either early or late stage. (author). 20 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs

  11. Degenerative disc disease of the lumbar spine: a prospective comparison of fast T1-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and T1-weighted turbo spin echo MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdem, L. Oktay; Erdem, C. Zuhal; Acikgoz, Bektas; Gundogdu, Sadi

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To compare fast T1-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and T1-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE) imaging of the degenerative disc disease of the lumbar spine. Materials and methods: Thirty-five consecutive patients (19 females, 16 males; mean age 41 years, range 31-67 years) with suspected degenerative disc disease of the lumbar spine were prospectively evaluated. Sagittal images of the lumbar spine were obtained using T1-weighted TSE and fast T1-weighted FLAIR sequences. Two radiologists compared these sequences both qualitatively and quantitatively. Results: On qualitative evaluation, CSF nulling, contrast at the disc-CSF interface, the disc-spinal cord (cauda equina) interface, and the spinal cord (cauda equina)-CSF interface of fast T1-weighted FLAIR images were significantly higher than those for T1-weighted TSE images (P < 0.001). On quantitative evaluation of the first 15 patients, signal-to-noise ratios of cerebrospinal fluid of fast T1-weighted FLAIR imaging were significantly lower than those for T1-weighted TSE images (P < 0.05). Contrast-to-noise ratios of spinal cord/CSF and normal bone marrow/disc for fast T1-weighted FLAIR images were significantly higher than those for T1-weighted TSE images (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Results in our study have shown that fast T1-weighted FLAIR imaging may be a valuable imaging modality in the armamentarium of lumbar spinal T1-weighted MR imaging, because the former technique has definite superior advantages such as CSF nulling, conspicuousness of the normal anatomic structures and changes in the lumbar spinal discogenic disease and image contrast and also almost equally acquisition times

  12. Degenerative disc disease of the lumbar spine: a prospective comparison of fast T1-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and T1-weighted turbo spin echo MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdem, L. Oktay [Department of Radiology, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, School of Medicine, 6700 Kozlu, Zonguldak (Turkey)]. E-mail: sunarerdem@yahoo.com; Erdem, C. Zuhal [Department of Radiology, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, School of Medicine, 6700 Kozlu, Zonguldak (Turkey); Acikgoz, Bektas [Department of Neurosurgery, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, School of Medicine, Zonguldak (Turkey); Gundogdu, Sadi [Department of Radiology, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, School of Medicine, 6700 Kozlu, Zonguldak (Turkey)

    2005-08-01

    Objective: To compare fast T1-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and T1-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE) imaging of the degenerative disc disease of the lumbar spine. Materials and methods: Thirty-five consecutive patients (19 females, 16 males; mean age 41 years, range 31-67 years) with suspected degenerative disc disease of the lumbar spine were prospectively evaluated. Sagittal images of the lumbar spine were obtained using T1-weighted TSE and fast T1-weighted FLAIR sequences. Two radiologists compared these sequences both qualitatively and quantitatively. Results: On qualitative evaluation, CSF nulling, contrast at the disc-CSF interface, the disc-spinal cord (cauda equina) interface, and the spinal cord (cauda equina)-CSF interface of fast T1-weighted FLAIR images were significantly higher than those for T1-weighted TSE images (P < 0.001). On quantitative evaluation of the first 15 patients, signal-to-noise ratios of cerebrospinal fluid of fast T1-weighted FLAIR imaging were significantly lower than those for T1-weighted TSE images (P < 0.05). Contrast-to-noise ratios of spinal cord/CSF and normal bone marrow/disc for fast T1-weighted FLAIR images were significantly higher than those for T1-weighted TSE images (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Results in our study have shown that fast T1-weighted FLAIR imaging may be a valuable imaging modality in the armamentarium of lumbar spinal T1-weighted MR imaging, because the former technique has definite superior advantages such as CSF nulling, conspicuousness of the normal anatomic structures and changes in the lumbar spinal discogenic disease and image contrast and also almost equally acquisition times.

  13. J-NSE: Neutron spin echo spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Holderer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Neutron Spin-Echo (NSE spectroscopy is well known as the only neutron scattering technique that achieves energy resolution of several neV. By using the spin precession of polarized neutrons in magnetic field one can measure tiny velocity changes of the individual neutron during the scattering process. Contrary to other inelastic neutron scattering techniques, NSE measures the intermediate scattering function S(Q,t in reciprocal space and time directly. The Neutron Spin-Echo spectrometer J-NSE, operated by JCNS, Forschungszentrum Jülich at the Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ in Garching, covers a time range (2 ps to 200 ns on length scales accessible by small angle scattering technique. Along with conventional NSE spectroscopy that allows bulk measurements in transmission mode, J-NSE offers a new possibility - gracing incidence spin echo spectroscopy (GINSENS, developed to be used as "push-button" option in order to resolve the depth dependent near surface dynamics.

  14. A prospective comparison study of fast T1 weighted fluid attenuation inversion recovery and T1 weighted turbo spin echo sequence at 3 T in degenerative disease of the cervical spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, K; Bydder, G M

    2014-09-01

    This study compared T1 fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) and T1 turbo spin echo (TSE) sequences for evaluation of cervical spine degenerative disease at 3 T. 72 patients (44 males and 28 females; mean age of 39 years; age range, 27-75 years) with suspected cervical spine degenerative disease were prospectively evaluated. Sagittal images of the spine were obtained using T1 FLAIR and T1 TSE sequences. Two experienced neuroradiologists compared the sequences qualitatively and quantitatively. On qualitative evaluation, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) nulling and contrast at cord-CSF, disc-CSF and disc-cord interfaces were significantly higher on fast T1 FLAIR images than on T1 TSE images (p degenerative disease, owing to higher cord-CSF, disc-cord and disc-CSF contrast. However, intrinsic cord contrast is low on T1 FLAIR images. T1 FLAIR is more promising and sensitive than T1 TSE for evaluation of degenerative spondyloarthropathy and may provide a foundation for development of MR protocols for early detection of degenerative and neoplastic diseases.

  15. T2-weighted four dimensional magnetic resonance imaging with result-driven phase sorting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yilin; Yin, Fang-Fang; Cai, Jing; Czito, Brian G.; Bashir, Mustafa R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: T2-weighted MRI provides excellent tumor-to-tissue contrast for target volume delineation in radiation therapy treatment planning. This study aims at developing a novel T2-weighted retrospective four dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (4D-MRI) phase sorting technique for imaging organ/tumor respiratory motion. Methods: A 2D fast T2-weighted half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo MR sequence was used for image acquisition of 4D-MRI, with a frame rate of 2–3 frames/s. Respiratory motion was measured using an external breathing monitoring device. A phase sorting method was developed to sort the images by their corresponding respiratory phases. Besides, a result-driven strategy was applied to effectively utilize redundant images in the case when multiple images were allocated to a bin. This strategy, selecting the image with minimal amplitude error, will generate the most representative 4D-MRI. Since we are using a different image acquisition mode for 4D imaging (the sequential image acquisition scheme) with the conventionally used cine or helical image acquisition scheme, the 4D dataset sufficient condition was not obviously and directly predictable. An important challenge of the proposed technique was to determine the number of repeated scans (N_R) required to obtain sufficient phase information at each slice position. To tackle this challenge, the authors first conducted computer simulations using real-time position management respiratory signals of the 29 cancer patients under an IRB-approved retrospective study to derive the relationships between N_R and the following factors: number of slices (N_S), number of 4D-MRI respiratory bins (N_B), and starting phase at image acquisition (P_0). To validate the authors’ technique, 4D-MRI acquisition and reconstruction were simulated on a 4D digital extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) human phantom using simulation derived parameters. Twelve healthy volunteers were involved in an IRB-approved study

  16. Optimizing T2-weighted magnetic resonance sequences for surface coil microimaging of the eye with regard to lid, eyeball and head moving artifacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obata, Takayuki; Uemura, Koji; Nonaka, Hiroi; Tamura, Mitsuru; Tanada, Shuji; Ikehira, Hiroo

    2006-01-01

    To acquire high-resolution magnetic resonance (MR) images, we developed a new blinking artifact reduced pulse (BARP) sequence with a surface coil specialized for microscopic imaging (47 mm in diameter). To reduce eye movement, we ascertained that the subjects' eyes were kept open and fixated to the target in the 1.5-T MR gantry. To reduce motion artifacts from blinking, we inserted rest periods for blinking (1.5 s within every 5 s) during MR scanning (T2-weighted fast spin echo; repetition time, 5 s; echo time, 100 ms; echo train, 11; matrix, 256 x 128; field of view, 5 cm; 1-mm thickness x 30 slices). Three scans (100 s x 3) were performed for each normal subject, and they were added together after automatic adjustment for location to reduce quality loss caused by head motion. T2-weighted MR images were acquired with a high resolution and a high signal-to-noise ratio. Motion artifacts were reduced with BARP, as compared with those with random blinking. Intraocular structures such as the iris and ciliary muscles were clearly visualized. Because the whole eye can be covered with a 1-mm thickness by this method, three-dimensional maps can easily be generated from the obtained images. The application of BARP with a surface coil of the human eye might become a useful and widely adopted procedure for MR microimaging.

  17. Diagnosis of partial and complete rotator cuff tears using combined gradient echo and spin echo imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuite, M J [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Yandow, D R [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); DeSmet, A A [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Orwin, J F [Div. of Orthopedic Surgery, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Quintana, F A [Dept. of Biostatistics, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1994-10-01

    Most magnetic resonance (MR) studies evaluating the rotator cuff for tears have used T2-weighted imaging in the coronal oblique and sagittal oblique planes. T2{sup *}-weighted gradient echo imaging, however, has advantages over spin echo imaging, including contiguous slices without cross-talk, high contrast around the cuff, and intrinsically shorter imaging times which can be used to increase the number of signals averaged and thus improve the signal-to-noise ratio. We reviewed the shoulder MR scans of 87 consecutive patients who underwent both a MR scan and a shoulder arthroscopy during which the size of tears, if present, was graded. The reviewers were blinded as to the history and arthroscopic results. The MR scans included oblique coronal T2{sup *}-weighted gradient echo and oblique sagittal T2-weighted spin echo images. MR cuff grades were correlated with arthroscopic findings. For complete tears, the sensitivity of MR was 0.91 and the specificity 0.95. For partial tears, the sensitivity was 0.74 and the specificity 0.87. This accuracy is similar to two-plane T2-weighted imaging as previously reported in the literature. There was a statistically significant correlation (p < 0.0005) between the cuff grade as determined by MR and the arthroscopic findings. (orig.)

  18. Bilateral Pulvinar Signal Intensity Decrease on T2-Weighted Images in Patients with Aspartylglucosaminuria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autti, T.; Loennqvist, T.; Joensuu, R.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Aspartylglucosaminuria (AGU) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal disease caused by deficiency of aspartylglucosaminidase. A thalamic T2 signal intensity decrease is associated with lysosomal diseases. Purpose: To investigate thalamic signal intensity in AGU by performing a retrospective review of brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies of AGU patients. Material and Methods: A total of 25 MR examinations were available for 11 patients aged between 3 and 32 years (four patients underwent bone marrow transplantation). Of these, 13 examinations were performed after bone marrow transplantation. Five patients had from two to six examinations, and six patients had one examination each. In every patient, the diagnosis of AGU was confirmed by blood and urine tests. Eighteen examinations were performed with a 1.0T imager including dual spin-echo T2 and proton density (PD) axial and coronal images, and 10 examinations also included T1-weighted images. Seven examinations were performed with a 1.5T imager including turbo spin-echo axial and coronal T2-weighted images and axial fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images; three examinations included T1-weighted three-dimensional magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition gradient-echo (3D MPRAGE) images. The signal intensity of the thalamus and pulvinar in every sequence was compared to that of the putamina. Results: In AGU, thalamic alterations were first detectable on T2-weighted images (25 examinations in 11 patients) from the age of 3 years 6 months, showing decreased signal intensity in 21 of 24 examinations. T1-weighted images (13 examinations) showed slightly increased thalamic signal intensity in five out of seven examinations from the age of 7 years, and PD images (19 examinations) showed decreased signal intensity from the age of 16 years (three examinations). The pulvinar showed decreased signal intensity on spin-echo T2-weighted images for 14 of 18 examinations or on FLAIR sequences for seven

  19. MR STIR imaging versus spin-echo imaging of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zobel, B.B.; Tella, S.; Patrizio, G.; Confalone, D.; D'Archivio, C.; Passariello, R.

    1989-01-01

    A valid tissue characterization of human breast diseases with conventional spin-echo (SE) sequences has not been achieved yet. In spite of experimental works showing that fibroadenomas have a small but significant difference in T1 relaxation time, T1- and T2-weighted SE sequences are not always able to differentiate them. We tried to solve the problem employing two different short T1 inversion-recovery (STIR) sequences with T1 values adequate to nullify the signal of glandular and fatty tissues. This paper reports on twenty-five nodules, including cysts, fibroadenomas, phylloids, and adenocarcinomas, examined with both STIR sequences performed on a superconductive 0.5-T unit

  20. Usefulness of turbo spin-echo MR imaging in meniscal tears of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Gun Young; Choi, Chang Lak; Chung, Jin Young; Han, Tae Il; Jang, Hong Im; Kim, Ji Min; Han, Hyun Young; Song, Mun Kab; Yang, Chang Kyu

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness and diagnostic accuracy of turbo spin-echo(TSE) proton-density and T2-weighted images of meniscal tears of the knee. We retrospectively evaluated the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of TSE proton density and T2-weighted images of meniscal tears confirmed arthroscopically or surgically in 47 patients(98 menisci). The routine TSE parameters used in all patients were the dual echo sequence with sagittal proton density and T2-weighed images(4000/16, 90/5/2 [TR/effectiveTE/ETL/NEX]), and fat-suppressed coronal proton density and T2-weighted images. The chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of TSE proton density images for the detection of meniscal tears were 93.9%, 93.8%, and 93.9%, respectively, in the medial meniscus, and 92.9%, 91.4%, and 91.8% in the lateral. On T2-weighted images the corresponding figures were 87.9%, 8%, and 89.8%, respectively, in the medial meniscus, and 64.3%, 91.4%, and 83.7% in the lateral. With regard to sensitivity and accuracy, TSE proton density images of meniscal tears were superior to TSE T2-weighted images.=20

  1. Workshop on neutron spin-echo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aynajian, P.; Habicht, K.; Keller, Th.; Keimer, B.; Mezei, F.; Monkenbusch, M.; Allgaier, J.; Richter, D.; Fetters, L.J.; Muller, K.; Kreiling, S.; Dehnicke, K.; Greiner, A.; Ehlers, G.; Arbe, A.; Colmenero, J.; Richter, D.; Farago, B.; Monkenbusch, M.; Ohl, M.; Butzek, M.; Kozielewski, T.; Monkenbusch, M.; Richter, D.; Pappas, C.; Hillier, A.; Manuel, P.; Cywinski, R.; Bentley, P.; Alba, M.; Mezei, F.; Campbell, I.A.; Zimmermann, U.; Ellis, J.; Jobic, H.; Pickup, R.M.; Pappas, C.; Farago, B.; Cywinski, R.; Haussler, W.; Holderer, O.; Frielinghaus, H.; Byelov, D.; Monkenbusch, M.; Allgaier, J.; Richter, D.; Egger, H.; Hellweg, Th.; Malikova, N.; Cadene, A.; Marry, V.; Dubois, E.; Turq, P.; Gardner, J.S.; Ehlers, G.; Bramwell, St.S.; Grigoriev, S.; Kraan, W.; Rekveldt, T.; Bouwman, W.; Van Dijk, N.; Falus, P.; Vorobiev, A.; Major, J.; Felcher, G.P.; Te-velthuis, S.; Dosch, H.; Vorobiev, A.; Dridi, M.H.; Major, J.; Dosch, H.; Falus, P.; Felcher, G.P.; Te Velthuis, S.G.E.; Bleuel, M.; Broell, M.; Lang, E.; Littrell, K.; Gahler, R.; Lal, J.; Lauter, H.; Toperverg, B.; Lauter, V.; Jernenkov, M.; Stueber, S.; Enderle, M.; Janoschek, M.; Keller, Th.; Klimko, S.; Boeni, P.; Nagao, M.; Yamada, N.; Kawabata, Y.; Seto, H.; Takeda, T.; Yoshizawa, H.; Yoshida, K.; Yamaguchi, T.; Bellissent-Funel, M.C.; Longeville, St

    2005-07-01

    This document gathers the abstracts of most papers presented at the workshop. Neutron spin-echo (NSE) spectroscopy is a well established technique with a growing expert user community, the aim of the meeting was to discuss the latest achievements in neutron spin-echo science and instrumentation. One of the applications presented is the investigation on the microscopic scale of the dynamics of water in montmorillonite clays with Na{sup +} and Cs{sup +} ions in monolayer and bilayer states. The NSE technique has been used in the normal and resonance modes. NSE results show consistently slower dynamics (higher relaxation times) than both time-of-flight technique (TOF) and classical molecular dynamics simulations (MD). In the present TOF and NSE experiments, anisotropy of the water motion in the interlayer is almost impossible to detect, due to the use of powder samples and insufficient resolution. (A.C.)

  2. Slow flow and mural thrombus in aortic diseases: Spin-echo MR findings and their differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Jin Wook; Park, Jae Hyung; Han, Man Chung

    1993-01-01

    In order to evaluate the ability of spin-echo MR imaging to differentiate slow flow from mural thrombus in aortic diseases, we reviewed the spin-echo MR images of 13 patients with intraaortic thrombus documented by CT (N=11) or aortography (N=2). Six patients had aortic aneurysms and seven had aortic dissections. Intraaortic mural thrombi were accompanied by flow-related intraluminal signal of various pattern and extents in all 13 patients. On 10 gated MR studies, slow flow regions showed ever-echo rephasing phenomenon (N=8), interslice variation of signal intensities of the intraluminal signal (N=7) and flow-related ghost artifact (N=2). However, these MR flow phenomena were obscured on two of three non-gated studies. Seven of 13 intraaortic thrombi remained hyperintense on T2-weighted second-echo images. In these circumstance, a hypointense boundary layer between slow flow and mural thrombus, which was caused by either ' boundary layer dephasing phenomenon' of slow flow or 'paramagnetic T2 shortening' of fresh clot at the edge of mural thrombus, was very useful in discriminating the area of slow flow from that of mural thrombus. Proper interpretation of spin-echo MR images may obviate the need for phase display imaging or gradient-echo imaging in differentiating slow flow and mural thrombus

  3. Advantages of T2 reversed fast spin-echo image and enhanced three-dimensional surface MR angiography for the diagnosis of cerebral arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Sumiyoshi; Honmou, Osamu; Minamida, Yoshihiro; Hashi, Kazuo

    2001-01-01

    Although the anatomical investigation of cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) with conventional neuro-imagings considerably supports the preoperative evaluation, it is still hard to dissect the detailed anatomical conformations of AVMs such as location of nidus, identification of feeding arteries or draining veins, and the three-dimensional configuration of nidus in sulci or gyri. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of enhanced three-dimensional surface MR angiography (surface MRA) and T2 reversed image (T2R image) in the diagnosis and surgical planning for cerebral AVMs. The diagnostic accuracy was studied in twelve AVMs: four AVMs closed to motor area, one to Broca area, one to Wernicke area, four in temporal lobe, and two in occipital lobe. Images were obtained with a SIGNA HORIZON LX 1.5T VER 8.2. To construct T2R, the brain is scanned by fast SE method with long TR and was displayed with the reversed gray scale, which seemed similar to T1WI. Surface MRA is a fusion image of MRA and surface image in the workstation. The original data was obtained by enhanced 3D-SPGR method. MRA image was reconstructed with MIP method, and surface image was manipulated with a volume rendering method. T2R images demonstrated seven sulcal AVMs, three gyral AVMs, and two sulco-gyral AVMs; five AVMs located on cortex, four extended to subcortex, and three to paraventricular brain. The images clearly showed six AVMs had hypervascular network such as modja-modja vascular formation. Surface MRA represented nidus adjacent to eloquent area. They were present in central sulcus, precentral sulcus, intraparietal sulcus, inferior frontal sulcus, sylvian fissure, superior temporal sulcus, inferior temporal sulcus, superior temporal gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, medial temporal gyrus, premotor area and superior frontal sulcus, precuneus and parieto-occipital sulcus. It was easy to identify the point of feeding arteries going down into the sulcus and the junction-point of nidus

  4. Advantages of T2 reversed fast spin-echo image and enhanced three-dimensional surface MR angiography for the diagnosis of cerebral arteriovenous malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanabe, Sumiyoshi; Honmou, Osamu; Minamida, Yoshihiro; Hashi, Kazuo [Sapporo Medical Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2001-09-01

    Although the anatomical investigation of cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) with conventional neuro-imagings considerably supports the preoperative evaluation, it is still hard to dissect the detailed anatomical conformations of AVMs such as location of nidus, identification of feeding arteries or draining veins, and the three-dimensional configuration of nidus in sulci or gyri. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of enhanced three-dimensional surface MR angiography (surface MRA) and T2 reversed image (T2R image) in the diagnosis and surgical planning for cerebral AVMs. The diagnostic accuracy was studied in twelve AVMs: four AVMs closed to motor area, one to Broca area, one to Wernicke area, four in temporal lobe, and two in occipital lobe. Images were obtained with a SIGNA HORIZON LX 1.5T VER 8.2. To construct T2R, the brain is scanned by fast SE method with long TR and was displayed with the reversed gray scale, which seemed similar to T1WI. Surface MRA is a fusion image of MRA and surface image in the workstation. The original data was obtained by enhanced 3D-SPGR method. MRA image was reconstructed with MIP method, and surface image was manipulated with a volume rendering method. T2R images demonstrated seven sulcal AVMs, three gyral AVMs, and two sulco-gyral AVMs; five AVMs located on cortex, four extended to subcortex, and three to paraventricular brain. The images clearly showed six AVMs had hypervascular network such as modja-modja vascular formation. Surface MRA represented nidus adjacent to eloquent area. They were present in central sulcus, precentral sulcus, intraparietal sulcus, inferior frontal sulcus, sylvian fissure, superior temporal sulcus, inferior temporal sulcus, superior temporal gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, medial temporal gyrus, premotor area and superior frontal sulcus, precuneus and parieto-occipital sulcus. It was easy to identify the point of feeding arteries going down into the sulcus and the junction-point of nidus

  5. Bone marrow lesions: evaluation with fat-suppression turbo spin echo MR imaging at 0.5T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrysikopoulos, H.; Papazoglou, A.; Roussakis, A.; Andreou, J.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was the assessment of the diagnostic value of fat-suppression T2-weighted images for a variety of bone marrow lesions. We performed 40 studies of the axial or appendicular skeleton in 33 patients (age range 4-80 years) with neoplastic, inflammatory or traumatic lesions with a 0.5 T system (Gyroscan T5, Philips Medical Systems, Best, The Netherlands). Fat-suppression T2-weighted images [turbo spin echo (TSE) with spectral presaturation with inversion recovery (SPIR)] were obtained in addition to the routine T1-weighted SE and T2-weighted TSE sequences. Fat-suppression TSE T2-weighted images were better than standard TSE T2-weighted images in 25 studies. In 11 of them demonstration and characterization of the lesions (known from T1-weighted images) was possible only after fat suppression. In the other 14 patients demonstration of the full extent of the lesion especially to the nearby soft tissues was possible only after fat suppression. In 13 studies no advantage was conferred by SPIR, whereas in two instances T2-weighted images were better. Fat-suppression T2-weighted images are diagnostically useful in a variety of lesions of the musculoskeletal system, but their limitations should be known. (orig.)

  6. SU-F-I-16: Short Breast MRI with High-Resolution T2-Weighted and Dynamic Contrast Enhanced T1-Weighted Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, J; Son, J; Arun, B; Hazle, J; Hwang, K; Madewell, J; Yang, W; Dogan, B; Wang, K; Bayram, E

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and demonstrate a short breast (sb) MRI protocol that acquires both T2-weighted and dynamic contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images in approximately ten minutes. Methods: The sb-MRI protocol consists of two novel pulse sequences. The first is a flexible fast spin-echo triple-echo Dixon (FTED) sequence for high-resolution fat-suppressed T2-weighted imaging, and the second is a 3D fast dual-echo spoiled gradient sequence (FLEX) for volumetric fat-suppressed T1-weighted imaging before and post contrast agent injection. The flexible FTED sequence replaces each single readout during every echo-spacing period of FSE with three fast-switching bipolar readouts to produce three raw images in a single acquisition. These three raw images are then post-processed using a Dixon algorithm to generate separate water-only and fat-only images. The FLEX sequence acquires two echoes using dual-echo readout after each RF excitation and the corresponding images are post-processed using a similar Dixon algorithm to yield water-only and fat-only images. The sb-MRI protocol was implemented on a 3T MRI scanner and used for patients who had undergone concurrent clinical MRI for breast cancer screening. Results: With the same scan parameters (eg, spatial coverage, field of view, spatial and temporal resolution) as the clinical protocol, the total scan-time of the sb-MRI protocol (including the localizer, bilateral T2-weighted, and dynamic contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images) was 11 minutes. In comparison, the clinical breast MRI protocol took 43 minutes. Uniform fat suppression and high image quality were consistently achieved by sb-MRI. Conclusion: We demonstrated a sb-MRI protocol comprising both T2-weighted and dynamic contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images can be performed in approximately ten minutes. The spatial and temporal resolution of the images easily satisfies the current breast MRI accreditation guidelines by the American College of Radiology. The protocol has the

  7. SU-F-I-16: Short Breast MRI with High-Resolution T2-Weighted and Dynamic Contrast Enhanced T1-Weighted Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, J; Son, J; Arun, B; Hazle, J; Hwang, K; Madewell, J; Yang, W; Dogan, B [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Wang, K; Bayram, E [GE Healthcare Technologies, Waukesha, Wisconsin (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop and demonstrate a short breast (sb) MRI protocol that acquires both T2-weighted and dynamic contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images in approximately ten minutes. Methods: The sb-MRI protocol consists of two novel pulse sequences. The first is a flexible fast spin-echo triple-echo Dixon (FTED) sequence for high-resolution fat-suppressed T2-weighted imaging, and the second is a 3D fast dual-echo spoiled gradient sequence (FLEX) for volumetric fat-suppressed T1-weighted imaging before and post contrast agent injection. The flexible FTED sequence replaces each single readout during every echo-spacing period of FSE with three fast-switching bipolar readouts to produce three raw images in a single acquisition. These three raw images are then post-processed using a Dixon algorithm to generate separate water-only and fat-only images. The FLEX sequence acquires two echoes using dual-echo readout after each RF excitation and the corresponding images are post-processed using a similar Dixon algorithm to yield water-only and fat-only images. The sb-MRI protocol was implemented on a 3T MRI scanner and used for patients who had undergone concurrent clinical MRI for breast cancer screening. Results: With the same scan parameters (eg, spatial coverage, field of view, spatial and temporal resolution) as the clinical protocol, the total scan-time of the sb-MRI protocol (including the localizer, bilateral T2-weighted, and dynamic contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images) was 11 minutes. In comparison, the clinical breast MRI protocol took 43 minutes. Uniform fat suppression and high image quality were consistently achieved by sb-MRI. Conclusion: We demonstrated a sb-MRI protocol comprising both T2-weighted and dynamic contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images can be performed in approximately ten minutes. The spatial and temporal resolution of the images easily satisfies the current breast MRI accreditation guidelines by the American College of Radiology. The protocol has the

  8. Magnetic resonance enteroclysis in patients with Crohn's disease: fat saturated T2-weighted sequences for evaluation of inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieser, Christian; Denecke, Timm; Steffen, Ingo G; Werner, Scarlett; Kröncke, Thomas; Guckelberger, Olaf; Pape, Ulrich-Frank; Meier, Johannes; Thiel, Regina; Kivelitz, Dietmar; Sturm, Andreas; Hamm, Bernd; Röttgen, Rainer

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate fat saturated (fs) T2-weighted (w) fast relaxation fast spin echo (FRFSE)-sequences compared to the standard protocol with contrast agent for the evaluation of inflammatory activity in patients with Crohn's Disease (CD). Fourty-eight patients (male, 17; female, 33; mean age, 37 years) with suspicion of inflammatory activity in proven CD who underwent MR enteroclysis (MRE) at 1.5T (GE Healthcare) were retrospectively included. Two blinded radiologists analyzed MRE images for presence and extent of CD lesions and degree of local inflammation for fsT2-w FRFSE and contrast enhanced T1-w images (T2-activity; T1-activity; score, 1-4) in consensus. Furthermore, mural signal intensity (SI) ratios (T2-ratio; T1-ratio) were recorded. Patient based MRE findings were correlated with endoscopic (45 patients), surgical (6 patients), histopathological, and clinical data (CDAI) as a surrogate reference standard. In total, 24 of 48 eligible patients presented with acute inflammatory activity with 123 affected bowel segments. ROC analysis of the total inflammatory score presented an AUC of 0.93 (pT2-activity (T1-activity, AUC 0.63; p=0.019). ROC analysis revealed an AUC of 0.76 (pT2-ratio (T1-ratio, AUC 0.51; p=0.93). General linear regression model revealed T2-activity (p=0.001) and age (p=0.024) as predictive factors of acute bowel inflammation. T2-w FRFSE-sequences can depict CD lesions and help to assess the inflammation activity, even with improved accuracy as compared to contrast-enhanced T1-w sequences. Copyright © 2011 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of shoulder pathology: three-dimensional enhanced T1 high-resolution isotropic volume excitation MR vs two-dimensional fast spin echo T2 fat saturation MR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H J; Lee, S Y; Kim, M S; Choi, S H; Chung, E C; Kook, S H; Kim, E

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of three-dimensional (3D) enhanced T1 high-resolution isotropic volume excitation (eTHRIVE) shoulder MR for the detection of rotator cuff tears, labral lesions and calcific tendonitis of the rotator cuff in comparison with two-dimensional (2D) fast spin echo T2 fat saturation (FS) MR. This retrospective study included 73 patients who underwent shoulder MRI using the eTHRIVE technique. Shoulder MR images were interpreted separately by two radiologists. They evaluated anatomic identification and image quality of the shoulder joint on routine MRI sequences (axial and oblique coronal T2 FS images) and compared them with the reformatted eTHRIVE images. The images were scored on a four-point scale (0, poor; 1, questionable; 2, adequate; 3, excellent) according to the degree of homogeneous and sufficient fat saturation to penetrate bone and soft tissue, visualization of the glenoid labrum and distinction of the supraspinatus tendon (SST). The diagnostic accuracy of eTHRIVE images compared with routine MRI sequences was evaluated in the setting of rotator cuff tears, glenoid labral injuries and calcific tendonitis of the SST. Fat saturation scores for eTHRIVE were significantly higher than those of the T2 FS for both radiologists. The sensitivity and accuracy of the T2 FS in diagnosing rotor cuff tears were >90%, whereas sensitivity and accuracy of the eTHRIVE method were significantly lower. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of both images in diagnosing labral injuries and calcific tendonitis were similar and showed no significant differences. The specificity of both images for the diagnosis of labral injuries and calcific tendonitis was higher than the sensitivities. The accuracy of 3D eTHRIVE imaging was comparable to that of 2D FSE T2 FS for the diagnosis of glenoid labral injury and calcific tendonitis of SST. The 3D eTHRIVE technique was superior to 2D FSE T2 FS in terms of fat saturation. Overall, 3D eTHRIVE was inferior

  10. Comparative study of fast T 2-weighted images using respiratory triggered, breath-hold, fat suppression and phased array multi coil for liver evaluation by magnetic resonance imaging; Estudo comparativo das sequencias rapidas ponderadas em T2, utilizando-se sincronizacao respiratoria, apneia, supressao de gordura, bobina de corpo e bobina de sinergia para a avaliacao do figado pela ressonancia magnetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbehusen, Cristiane L.; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe; Palacio, Glaucia A.S.; Szejnfeld, Jacob [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina (EPM). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: cabbehusen@hotmail.com

    2003-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare both qualitatively and quantitatively six T 2-weighted turbo spin-echo sequences varying the respiratory compensation technique, associating or not fat tissue suppression and using different types of coils. We performed a prospective study of 71 consecutive patients that were submitted to MRI of the liver using a 1.5 T magnet. The six following pulse sequences were used: fat-suppressed respiratory triggered with conventional body coil; breath-hold fat-suppressed with conventional body coil; non-suppressed respiratory triggered with conventional body coil; breath-hold non fat-suppressed with conventional body coil; fat-suppressed respiratory triggered with phased-array multi coil; breath-hold fat-suppressed with phased-array multi coil. Images were analyzed quantitatively by measuring the signal-to-noise ratios and qualitatively by evaluating the sharpness of hepatic contours, visibility of intrahepatic vessels and other segmental landmarks, and the presence of artifacts. Results: the qualitative analysis showed that the mean values obtained with the six sequences were 7.8, 4.6, 7.9, 5.2, 6.7 and 4.6 respectively. The respiratory-triggered sequences were better than the breath-hold sequences in both qualitative and quantitative analysis (p < 0.001). No significant differences in the values of signal-to-noise ratios and in overall image quality were found between the sequences with and without fat suppression (p . 0.05). The sequences using the body coil were similar in terms of image quality (p . 0.05) and better regarding signal-to-noise ratios than those obtained with the phased=array multi coil (p ,0.001). Our qualitative and quantitative results suggest that the best MRI sequences for the valuation of the liver are the sequences with respiratory triggering using a conventional body coil, with or without fat suppression. (author)

  11. Neutron spin echo scattering angle measurement (SESAME)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pynn, R.; Fitzsimmons, M.R.; Fritzsche, H.; Gierlings, M.; Major, J.; Jason, A.

    2005-01-01

    We describe experiments in which the neutron spin echo technique is used to measure neutron scattering angles. We have implemented the technique, dubbed spin echo scattering angle measurement (SESAME), using thin films of Permalloy electrodeposited on silicon wafers as sources of the magnetic fields within which neutron spins precess. With 30-μm-thick films we resolve neutron scattering angles to about 0.02 deg. with neutrons of 4.66 A wavelength. This allows us to probe correlation lengths up to 200 nm in an application to small angle neutron scattering. We also demonstrate that SESAME can be used to separate specular and diffuse neutron reflection from surfaces at grazing incidence. In both of these cases, SESAME can make measurements at higher neutron intensity than is available with conventional methods because the angular resolution achieved is independent of the divergence of the neutron beam. Finally, we discuss the conditions under which SESAME might be used to probe in-plane structure in thin films and show that the method has advantages for incident neutron angles close to the critical angle because multiple scattering is automatically accounted for

  12. The appearances of oesophageal carcinoma demonstrated on high-resolution, T2-weighted MRI, with histopathological correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riddell, A.M.; Allum, W.H.; Thompson, J.N.; Wotherspoon, A.C.; Richardson, C.; Brown, G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the spectrum of imaging features of oesophageal adenocarcinoma seen using high-resolution T2-weighted (T2W) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Thirty-nine patients with biopsy-proven oesophageal adenocarcinoma were scanned using an external surface coil. A sagittal T2W sequence was used to localise the tumour and to plan axial images perpendicular to the tumour. Fast spin-echo (FSE) T2W axial sequence parameters were: TR/TE, 3,300-5,000 ms/120-80 ms; field of view (FOV) 225 mm, matrix 176 x 512(reconstructed) mm to 256 x 224 mm, giving an in-plane resolution of between 1.28 x 0.44 mm and 0.88 x 1.00 mm, with 3-mm slice thickness. Thirty-three patients underwent resection and the MR images were compared with the histological whole-mount sections. There were four T1, 12 T2, and 17 T3 tumours. The T2W high-resolution MRI sequences produced detailed images of the oesophageal wall and surrounding structures. Analysis of the imaging appearances for different tumour T stages enabled the development of imaging criteria for local staging of oesophageal cancer using high-resolution MRI. Our study illustrates the spectrum of appearances of oesophageal cancer on T2W high-resolution MRI, and using the criteria established in this study, demonstrates the potential of this technique as an alternative non-invasive method for local staging for oesophageal cancer. (orig.)

  13. Diagnostic accuracy of dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging of renal masses with rapid-acquisition spin-echo technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eilenberg, S.S.; Lee, J.K.T.; Brown, J.J.; Heiken, J.P.; Mirowitz, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper compares the diagnostic accuracy of Gd-DTPA-enhanced rapid-acquisition spin-echo (RASE) imaging with standard spin-echo techniques for detecting renal cysts and solid renal neoplasms. RASE imaging combines a short TR (275 msec)/short TE (10 msec), single excitation pulse sequence with half-Fourier data sampling. Eighteen patients with CT evidence of renal masses were first evaluated with standard T1-and T2-weighted SE sequences. Pre- and serial postcontrast (Cd-DTPA, 0.1 mmol./kg) RASE sequences were then performed during suspended respiration. A final set of postcontrast images was obtained with the standard T1-weighted SE sequence. Each set of MR images was first reviewed separately (ie, T1, T2, pre- and post-contrast RASE, etc)

  14. Challenges in neutron spin echo spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pappas, C., E-mail: c.pappas@tudelft.n [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin for Materials and Energy, Glienicker Str. 100, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands); Lelievre-Berna, E.; Falus, P.; Farago, B. [Institut Laue Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Bentley, P. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin for Materials and Energy, Glienicker Str. 100, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Institut Laue Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Moskvin, E. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin for Materials and Energy, Glienicker Str. 100, 14109 Berlin (Germany); PNPI, 188300 Gatchina, Leningrad District (Russian Federation); Krist, Th. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin for Materials and Energy, Glienicker Str. 100, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Grigoriev, S. [PNPI, 188300 Gatchina, Leningrad District (Russian Federation)

    2009-09-01

    With the new brilliant neutron sources and the developments of novel optical elements, neutron spin echo (NSE) spectroscopy evolves to tackle new problems and scientific fields. The new developments pave the way to complex experimental set-ups such as the intensity modulated variant of NSE (IMNSE), a powerful technique which was introduced some 20 years ago but found limited use up to now. With the new compact supermirror or He{sup 3} polarizers IMNSE becomes attractive for a broad range of applications in magnetism, soft matter and biology. A novel development along this line is the polarimetric NSE technique, which combines IMNSE and the zero-field polarimeter Cryopad to access components of the scattered polarization that are transverse to the incoming polarization. Polarimetric NSE is the method of choice for studying chiral fluctuations, as illustrated by new results on the reference helimagnet MnSi.

  15. Theory of electron spin echoes in solids

    CERN Document Server

    Asadullina, N Y; Asadullin, Y Y

    2002-01-01

    We propose modified Bloch equations (MBEs) with specific power-dependent relaxation and dispersion parameters characteristic for two-pulse excitation and when the magnetic dipole-dipole interactions in the electron spin system control the dephasing. We discriminate between the 'active' (excited by both pulses) and 'passive' (excited by the second pulse only) spins: it is shown that the 'active' spins participate in a new effect, an active spin frequency modulation effect giving rise to the power-dependent dispersion and multiple electron spin echoes (ESEs); the 'passive' spins contribute to the power-dependent relaxation. The MBEs are solved and a general expression for the two-pulse ESEs is obtained. Detailed numerical analysis of this expression gives results in good quantitative agreement with the recent experiments on the two-pulse ESEs at conventional low applied fields. The developed theory is applied also to high field ESEs, which are promising for future investigations. On the basis of published resul...

  16. The basics of neutron spin echo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farago, B.

    1999-01-01

    Until 1974 inelastic neutron scattering consisted of producing by some means a neutron beam of known speed and measuring the final speed of the neutrons after the scattering event. The smaller the energy change was, the better the neutron speed had to be defined. As the neutrons come form a reactor with an approximately Maxwell distribution, an infinitely good energy resolution can be achieved only at the expense of infinitely low count rate. This introduces a practical resolution limit around 0.1 μeV on back-scattering instruments. In 1972 F. Mezei discovered the method of Neutron Spin Echo. This method decouples the energy resolution from intensity loss. The basics of this method is presented. (author)

  17. Evaluation of turbo spin echo sequences for MRI of focal liver lesions at 0.5 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreft, B.; Layer, G.; Steudel, A.; Spiller, L.; Heuck, A.; Mueller, A.; Gieseke, J.; Reiser, M.F.

    1994-01-01

    To determine whether turbo spin echo (TSE) sequences can replace conventional T2-weighted spin echo (SE) sequences in MRI of the liver, 40 patients with focal liver lesions were imaged at 0.5 T. A T2-weighted SE sequence (TR/TE 1800/90 ms, number of signals averaged [NEX] = 2, scan time 7:16 min), a TSE sequence (TR/TE 1800/90 ms, NEX = 4, number of echos per excitation = 13, echo spacing = 12.9 ms, scan time = 4:16 min) and a T1-weighted SE sequence (TR/TE 350/15 ms, NEX = 2, scan time = 4:21 min) were obtained and image quality, lesion detectability and lesion differentiation were evaluated qualitatively by subjective assessment using scores and quantitatively by lesion-liver contrast-to-noise (CNR) and tumour/liver signal intensity (SI) ratios. The image quality of the TSE sequence was substantially better compared with the T2-weighted SE sequence due to a reduction in motion artefacts and better delineation of anatomical details. Of a total of 158 visible lesions the T1-weighted SE, TSE and T2-weighted SE sequences showed 91 %, 81 % and 65 % of the lesions, respectively. Thus the TSE sequence depicted 24 % (P < 0.001) more lesions than the T2-weighted SE sequence. In all types of pathology the lesion-liver CNR of the TSE sequence was significantly (P < 0.001) higher compared to the CNR of the T2-weighted SE sequence ( +55-65 %), indicating superior lesion conspicuity. Lesion characterization was equally good on the two T2-weighted sequences with no difference in the tumour/liver SI ratio. Using a criterion of tumour/liver SI ratio equal to or higher than 2, haemangiomas larger than 1 cm in diameter could be differentiated from other lesions with a sensitivity and specificity of 95 % and 96 %, respectively. Our results indicate that the TSE sequence is suitable for replacing the conventional T2-weighted SE sequence in MRI of focal liver lesions. (orig.)

  18. Magnetic resonance findings in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis using a spin echo magnetization transfer sequence: preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROCHA ANTÔNIO JOSÉ DA

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the magnetic resonance (MR findings of five patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS using a spin-echo sequence with an additional magnetization transfer (MT pulse on T1-weighted images (T1 SE/MT. These findings were absent in the control group and consisted of hyperintensity of the corticospinal tract. Moreover we discuss the principles and the use of this fast but simple MR technique in the diagnosis of ALS

  19. T2*-weighted image/T2-weighted image fusion in postimplant dosimetry of prostate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Norihisa; Takemoto, Mitsuhiro; Yoshio, Kotaro

    2011-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) fusion is considered to be the best method for postimplant dosimetry of permanent prostate brachytherapy; however, it is inconvenient and costly. In T2 * -weighted image (T2 * -WI), seeds can be easily detected without the use of an intravenous contrast material. We present a novel method for postimplant dosimetry using T2 * -WI/T2-weighted image (T2-WI) fusion. We compared the outcomes of T2 * -WI/T2-WI fusion-based and CT/T2-WI fusion-based postimplant dosimetry. Between April 2008 and July 2009, 50 consecutive prostate cancer patients underwent brachytherapy. All the patients were treated with 144 Gy of brachytherapy alone. Dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters (prostate D90, prostate V100, prostate V150, urethral D10, and rectal D2cc) were prospectively compared between T2 * -WI/T2-WI fusion-based and CT/T2-WI fusion-based dosimetry. All the DVH parameters estimated by T2 * -WI/T2-WI fusion-based dosimetry strongly correlated to those estimated by CT/T2-WI fusion-based dosimetry (0.77≤ R ≤0.91). No significant difference was observed in these parameters between the two methods, except for prostate V150 (p=0.04). These results show that T2 * -WI/T2-WI fusion-based dosimetry is comparable or superior to MRI-based dosimetry as previously reported, because no intravenous contrast material is required. For some patients, rather large differences were observed in the value between the 2 methods. We thought these large differences were a result of seed miscounts in T2 * -WI and shifts in fusion. Improving the image quality of T2 * -WI and the image acquisition speed of T2 * -WI and T2-WI may decrease seed miscounts and fusion shifts. Therefore, in the future, T2 * -WI/T2-WI fusion may be more useful for postimplant dosimetry of prostate brachytherapy. (author)

  20. Comparative study between the Spin-echo and 3-D fast imaging techniques in the Knee evaluation with magnetic resonance. Estudio comparativo entre las tecnicas de Spin-Eco ecogradiente 3D, en la evaluacion de la rodilla con resonancia magnetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oleaga Zufiria, L.; Ibaez Zubiarrain, A.; Grande Icaran, J.; Vela Martin, A.C.; Cintora Leon, E.; Grau Garcia, M.; Grande Icaran, D. (Hospital Civil de Bilbao. Servicio de Radiodiagnostico. Bilbao (Spain))

    1993-01-01

    We have carried out a retrospective analysis of the results of magnetic resonance (MR) studies in 20 patients, comparing two different sequences. We compared a 2-D spin-echo (SE2D) sequence with a 3-D fast imaging with steady-state precession (FISP3D) sequence in the attempt to compare the reliability of each in the detection of knee injuries. Arthroscopy was employed as a control technique. Our study revealed no statistically significant difference between the two sequences, although the overall sensitivity for the detection of meniscal lesions was slightly greater with the FISP3D sequence; however, the reliability in the detection of ruptures of the posterior cruciate ligament is less with this sequence than with the SE2D sequence. Both sequences showed very low sensitivity in the detection of hyaline cartilage injuries. (Author) 14 refs.

  1. Visual analysis of serial T2-weighted MRI in multiple sclerosis: intra- and interobserver reproducibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molyneux, P.D.; Miller, D.H.; Filippi, M.; Yousry, T.A.; Radue, E.W.; Ader, H.J.; Barkhof, F.

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of consensus formation and training on the agreement between observers in scoring the number of new and enlarging multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions on serial T2-weighted MRI studies. The baseline and month 9 MRI studies of 16 patients with a range of MRI activity were used (dual-echo conventional spin-echo sequence, TR 2000, TE 34 and 90 ms, 5 mm contiguous slices, in-plane resolution 1 mm). First, the serial studies were visually analysed for the presence of new and enlarging lesions, on two occasions, by five experienced observers, without adopting any consensus strategy and in isolation. Next, the observers met to identify the common sources of inconsistencies in reporting between observers and formulate consensus rules. Finally, a further independent reading session was performed on the same MRI dataset, this time applying the consensus rules. Agreement between observers was assessed using kappa scores. Without the consensus rules, interobserver kappa scores for the first and second reading sessions for new lesions were only 0.51 and 0.39 respectively; agreement for enlarging lesions was even worse. The mean intraobserver kappa score for new lesions was higher at 0.72, reflecting the fact that the observers were consistently applying their individual assessment strategies. Application of the consensus rules did not lead to a significant improvement in inter observer kappas; the kappa scores adopting the guidelines were 0.46 and 0.21 for new and enlarging lesions respectively. Consensus guidelines thus did not improve the reproducibility of visual analysis of serial T2-weighted MRI, and the level of agreement between observers remained only moderate. Suboptimal repositioning is likely to be a major source of residual variability and this suggests a future role for image registration strategies; until then, a single observer, or pair of observers working in consensus, should be used in MS studies. (orig.)

  2. SU-E-J-157: Improving the Quality of T2-Weighted 4D Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Clinical Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, D; Mutic, S; Hu, Y; Caruthers, S; Glide-Hurst, C; Low, D

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop an imaging technique that enables us to acquire T2- weighted 4D Magnetic Resonance Imaging (4DMRI) with sufficient spatial coverage, temporal resolution and spatial resolution for clinical evaluation. Methods: T2-weighed 4DMRI images were acquired from a healthy volunteer using a respiratory amplitude triggered T2-weighted Turbo Spin Echo sequence. 10 respiratory states were used to equally sample the respiratory range based on amplitude (0%, 20%i, 40%i, 60%i, 80%i, 100%, 80%e, 60%e, 40%e and 20%e). To avoid frequent scanning halts, a methodology was devised that split 10 respiratory states into two packages in an interleaved manner and packages were acquired separately. Sixty 3mm sagittal slices at 1.5mm in-plane spatial resolution were acquired to offer good spatial coverage and reasonable spatial resolution. The in-plane field of view was 375mm × 260mm with nominal scan time of 3 minutes 42 seconds. Acquired 2D images at the same respiratory state were combined to form the 3D image set corresponding to that respiratory state and reconstructed in the coronal view to evaluate whether all slices were at the same respiratory state. 3D image sets of 10 respiratory states represented a complete 4D MRI image set. Results: T2-weighted 4DMRI image were acquired in 10 minutes which was within clinical acceptable range. Qualitatively, the acquired MRI images had good image quality for delineation purposes. There were no abrupt position changes in reconstructed coronal images which confirmed that all sagittal slices were in the same respiratory state. Conclusion: We demonstrated it was feasible to acquire T2-weighted 4DMRI image set within a practical amount of time (10 minutes) that had good temporal resolution (10 respiratory states), spatial resolution (1.5mm × 1.5mm × 3.0mm) and spatial coverage (60 slices) for future clinical evaluation

  3. Are T2-weighted images necessary in renal mass characterization?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dann, Phoebe; Thakur, Ravi; Chin, Deanne; Krinsky, Glenn; Israel, Gary M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine what role T2-weighted images play in characterizing renal masses. Methods: Forty-four pathologically proven renal masses (34 renal cell carcinomas, 8 oncocytomas, 1 metanephric adenoma, 1 angiomyolipoma without macroscopic fat) and 38 simple renal cysts were evaluated with T1- and T2-weighted images at 1.5 T. Two independent and blinded readers initially characterized all masses using only the T1-weighed images (in- and opposed-phase chemical shift, unenhanced frequency-selective fat-suppressed, gadolinium-enhanced frequency-selective fat-suppressed and subtraction images) and placed each mass into one of three categories: nonsurgical, in need of follow-up, or surgical. The masses were then re-evaluated with the addition of the T2-weighted images. It was determined if the T2-weighted images changed the initial classification. Results: Forty-three of the 44 (98%) pathologically proven renal masses were characterized as a surgical mass using only the T1-weighted images. The remaining renal mass (a renal cell carcinoma) was characterized as a mass in which follow-up exams would be suggested. Thirty-eight of 38 (100%) simple renal cysts were correctly characterized using only the T1-weighted images. The T2-weighted images did not change the initial interpretation of the T1-weighted images in any of the cases. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that T2-weighted images are not necessary in the evaluation of all renal masses and are specifically not necessary in the differentiation of solid and cystic renal neoplasms from simple renal cysts

  4. Characterization of trehalose aqueous solutions by neutron spin echo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branca, C.; Faraone, A.; Magazu' , S.; Maisano, G.; Mangione, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFM, Universita di Messina, PO Box 55, 98166 Messina (Italy); Pappas, C.; Triolo, A. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut, BENSC (NI), Glienicker Strasse, 14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    The present work reports neutron spin-echo (NSE) results on aqueous mixtures of trehalose, a naturally occurring disaccharide of glucose, which shows an extraordinary bioprotective effectiveness against dehydration and freezing. The aim of the work is to furnish new results on the dynamics of the trehalose/water system on the nano- and picosecond scales. (orig.)

  5. Spin-Echo Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uca, O.

    2003-01-01

    Spin-Echo Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SESANS) instrument is a novel SANS technique which enables one to characterize distances from a few nanometers up to the micron range. The most striking difference between normal SANS and SESANS is that in SESANS one gets information in real space, whereas

  6. Characterization of trehalose aqueous solutions by neutron spin echo

    CERN Document Server

    Branca, C; Magazù, S; Maisano, G; Mangione, A; Pappas, C; Triolo, A

    2002-01-01

    The present work reports neutron spin-echo (NSE) results on aqueous mixtures of trehalose, a naturally occurring disaccharide of glucose, which shows an extraordinary bioprotective effectiveness against dehydration and freezing. The aim of the work is to furnish new results on the dynamics of the trehalose/water system on the nano- and picosecond scales. (orig.)

  7. High-resolution heavily T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of the pituitary stalk in children with ectopic neurohypophysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanharawi, Imane El; Tzarouchi, Loukia [Hopital Robert Debre, APHP, Service de Radiologie Pediatrique, Paris (France); Cardoen, Liesbeth [Hopital Robert Debre, APHP, Service de Radiologie Pediatrique, Paris (France); Universite Paris Diderot, Paris (France); Martinerie, Laetitia; Leger, Juliane; Carel, Jean-Claude [Universite Paris Diderot, Paris (France); Inserm U1141, DHU PROTECT, Paris (France); Hopital Robert Debre, APHP, Service d' Endocrinologie Pediatrique, Paris (France); Elmaleh-Berges, Monique [Hopital Robert Debre, APHP, Service de Radiologie Pediatrique, Paris (France); Inserm U1141, DHU PROTECT, Paris (France); Alison, Marianne [Hopital Robert Debre, APHP, Service de Radiologie Pediatrique, Paris (France); Universite Paris Diderot, Paris (France); Inserm U1141, DHU PROTECT, Paris (France)

    2017-05-15

    In anterior pituitary deficiency, patients with non visible pituitary stalk have more often multiple deficiencies and persistent deficiency than patients with visible pituitary stalk. To compare the diagnostic value of a high-resolution heavily T2-weighted sequence to 1.5-mm-thick unenhanced and contrast-enhanced sagittal T1-weighted sequences to assess the presence of the pituitary stalk in children with ectopic posterior pituitary gland. We retrospectively evaluated the MRI data of 14 children diagnosed with ectopic posterior pituitary gland between 2010 and 2014. We evaluated the presence of a pituitary stalk using a sagittal high-resolution heavily T2-weighted sequence and a 1.5-mm sagittal T1-weighted turbo spin-echo sequence before and after contrast medium administration. A pituitary stalk was present on at least one of the sequences in 10 of the 14 children (71%). T2-weighted sequence depicted the pituitary stalk in all 10 children, whereas the 1.5-mm-thick T1-weighted sequence depicted 2/10 (20%) before contrast injection and 8/10 (80%) after contrast injection (P=0.007). Compared with 1.5-mm-thick contrast-enhanced T1-weighted sequences, high-resolution heavily T2-weighted sequence demonstrates better sensitivity in detecting the pituitary stalk in children with ectopic posterior pituitary gland, suggesting that contrast injection is unnecessary to assess the presence of a pituitary stalk in this setting. (orig.)

  8. High-resolution heavily T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of the pituitary stalk in children with ectopic neurohypophysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sanharawi, Imane; Tzarouchi, Loukia; Cardoen, Liesbeth; Martinerie, Laetitia; Leger, Juliane; Carel, Jean-Claude; Elmaleh-Berges, Monique; Alison, Marianne

    2017-05-01

    In anterior pituitary deficiency, patients with non visible pituitary stalk have more often multiple deficiencies and persistent deficiency than patients with visible pituitary stalk. To compare the diagnostic value of a high-resolution heavily T2-weighted sequence to 1.5-mm-thick unenhanced and contrast-enhanced sagittal T1-weighted sequences to assess the presence of the pituitary stalk in children with ectopic posterior pituitary gland. We retrospectively evaluated the MRI data of 14 children diagnosed with ectopic posterior pituitary gland between 2010 and 2014. We evaluated the presence of a pituitary stalk using a sagittal high-resolution heavily T2-weighted sequence and a 1.5-mm sagittal T1-weighted turbo spin-echo sequence before and after contrast medium administration. A pituitary stalk was present on at least one of the sequences in 10 of the 14 children (71%). T2-weighted sequence depicted the pituitary stalk in all 10 children, whereas the 1.5-mm-thick T1-weighted sequence depicted 2/10 (20%) before contrast injection and 8/10 (80%) after contrast injection (P=0.007). Compared with 1.5-mm-thick contrast-enhanced T1-weighted sequences, high-resolution heavily T2-weighted sequence demonstrates better sensitivity in detecting the pituitary stalk in children with ectopic posterior pituitary gland, suggesting that contrast injection is unnecessary to assess the presence of a pituitary stalk in this setting.

  9. Differentiation between hepatic haemangiomas and cysts with an inversion recovery single-shot turbo spin-echo (SSTSE) sequence using the TI nulling value of hepatic haemangioma with sensitivity encoding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katada, Yoshiaki; Nozaki, Miwako; Yasumoto, Mayumi; Ishii, Chikako; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Nakamoto, Kazuya; Ohashi, Isamu

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the additional value of inversion recovery (IR) single-shot turbo spin-echo (SSTSE) imaging with sensitivity encoding (SENSE) using the inversion time (TI) value of hepatic haemangioma as a supplement to conventional T2-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE) imaging for the discrimination of hepatic haemangiomas and cysts. A total of 134 lesions (77 hepatic haemangiomas, 57 hepatic cysts) in 59 patients were evaluated. Three readers evaluated these images and used a five-point scale to evaluate the lesion status. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and 2 x 2 table analysis were used. The ROC analysis for all the readers and all the cases revealed a significantly higher area under the curve (AUC) for the combination of moderately and heavily T2-weighted TSE with IR-SSTSE images (0.945) than for moderately and heavily T2-weighted TSE images alone (0.894) (P < 0.001). For the combination of T2-weighted TSE with IR-SSTSE versus T2-weighted TSE alone, the 2 x 2 table analysis revealed a higher true-positive rate; this difference was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). The introduction of IR-SSTSE with SENSE sequences significantly improves the diagnostic accuracy of the differentiation of hepatic haemangioma and cysts while increasing the time required for routine abdominal imaging by only 20 s. (orig.)

  10. MRI of the lumbar spine: comparison of 3D isotropic turbo spin-echo SPACE sequence versus conventional 2D sequences at 3.0 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungwon; Jee, Won-Hee; Jung, Joon-Yong; Lee, So-Yeon; Ryu, Kyeung-Sik; Ha, Kee-Yong

    2015-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) fast spin-echo sequence with variable flip-angle refocusing pulse allows retrospective alignments of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in any desired plane. To compare isotropic 3D T2-weighted (T2W) turbo spin-echo sequence (TSE-SPACE) with standard two-dimensional (2D) T2W TSE imaging for evaluating lumbar spine pathology at 3.0 T MRI. Forty-two patients who had spine surgery for disk herniation and had 3.0 T spine MRI were included in this study. In addition to standard 2D T2W TSE imaging, sagittal 3D T2W TSE-SPACE was obtained to produce multiplanar (MPR) images. Each set of MR images from 3D T2W TSE and 2D TSE-SPACE were independently scored for the degree of lumbar neural foraminal stenosis, central spinal stenosis, and nerve compression by two reviewers. These scores were compared with operative findings and the sensitivities were evaluated by McNemar test. Inter-observer agreements and the correlation with symptoms laterality were assessed with kappa statistics. The 3D T2W TSE and 2D TSE-SPACE had similar sensitivity in detecting foraminal stenosis (78.9% versus 78.9% in 32 foramen levels), spinal stenosis (100% versus 100% in 42 spinal levels), and nerve compression (92.9% versus 81.8% in 59 spinal nerves). The inter-observer agreements (κ = 0.849 vs. 0.451 for foraminal stenosis, κ = 0.809 vs. 0.503 for spinal stenosis, and κ = 0.681 vs. 0.429 for nerve compression) and symptoms correlation (κ = 0.449 vs. κ = 0.242) were better in 3D TSE-SPACE compared to 2D TSE. 3D TSE-SPACE with oblique coronal MPR images demonstrated better inter-observer agreements compared to 3D TSE-SPACE without oblique coronal MPR images (κ = 0.930 vs. κ = 0.681). Isotropic 3D T2W TSE-SPACE at 3.0 T was comparable to 2D T2W TSE for detecting foraminal stenosis, central spinal stenosis, and nerve compression with better inter-observer agreements and symptom correlation. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2014 Reprints and

  11. Quantification of liver iron concentration with magnetic resonance imaging by combining T1-, T2-weighted spin echo sequences and a gradient echo sequence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreeftenberg, HG; Mooyaart, EL; Sluiter, WJ; Kreeftenberg, HG; Huizenga, Reint

    Background: The aim of the study was to quantify hepatic iron by MRI for practical use. Methods: In twenty-three patients with various degrees of iron overload, measurements were carried out with a 1.5 Tesla MR unit. A combination of pulse sequences (T1, T2 and gradient echo) enabled us to quantify

  12. Evaluation of patellar chondromalacia with MR: comparison between T2-weighted FSE SPIR and GE MTC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macarini, Luca; Perrone, Alessandra; Murrone, Mario; Marini, Stefania; Stefanelli, Michele

    2004-09-01

    To compare two different MR sequences to tissue signal suppression in the study of patellar cartilage abnormalities. We examined 26 patients with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging: sequences included spectral presaturation with inversion recovery (SPIR), with fat suppression and T2-weighted images, magnetization transfer contrast (MTC) sequences, T1-weighted and T2-weighted spin-echo sequences. All patients underwent conventional knee arthroscopy and in all patients a hyaline cartilage lesion was assessed in three articular zones: the patellar medial facet, the lateral facet and the patellar crista. Was assessed 78 articular facets. The lesions were classified using a standard arthroscopic grading system adapted to MR imaging: normal cartilage that corresponds to the grade 0 according to the Noyes grading system, low grade lesions that correspond to the grade I e IIa and high grade lesions that correspond to grades IIb and III. The arthroscopic results were compared with MR images. We assessed the MR diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and MR positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the two sequences taking into consideration total lesions, and high-grade and low grade lesions separately. Twenty-four low grade lesions (16 grade I e 8 grade IIa) and 18 high grade lesions (10 grade IIb e 8 grade III) were diagnosed by arthroscopy. Regarding low grade and high-grade lesions together, the accuracy was 77% for MTC sequences and 90% for SPIR sequences. In identifying low-grade lesions, the sensitivity was 88% for SPIR sequence and 42% for MTC sequences. Specificity for the detection of all lesions was 89% for the SPIR sequences and 94% for the MTC sequences. The SPIR sequence visualised water content abnormalities in degenerating cartilage, which are representative of low-grade lesions. The sensitivity of the sequence enabled us to obtain improved contrast for detecting cartilage surface irregularities. The MTC sequences allowed us to grade high

  13. Sub-Millimeter T2 Weighted fMRI at 7 T: Comparison of 3D-GRASE and 2D SE-EPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin G. Kemper

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI allows studying human brain function non-invasively up to the spatial resolution of cortical columns and layers. Most fMRI acquisitions rely on the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD contrast employing T2* weighted 2D multi-slice echo-planar imaging (EPI. At ultra-high magnetic field (i.e. 7 T and above, it has been shown experimentally and by simulation, that T2 weighted acquisitions yield a signal that is spatially more specific to the site of neuronal activity at the cost of functional sensitivity. This study compared two T2 weighted imaging sequences, inner-volume 3D Gradient-and-Spin-Echo (3D-GRASE and 2D Spin-Echo EPI (SE-EPI, with evaluation of their imaging point-spread function, functional specificity, and functional sensitivity at sub-millimeter resolution. Simulations and measurements of the imaging point-spread function revealed that the strongest anisotropic blurring in 3D-GRASE (along the second phase-encoding direction was about 60 % higher than the strongest anisotropic blurring in 2D SE-EPI (along the phase-encoding direction In a visual paradigm, the BOLD sensitivity of 3D-GRASE was found to be superior due to its higher temporal signal-to-noise ratio. High resolution cortical depth profiles suggested that the contrast mechanisms are similar between the two sequences, however, 2D SE-EPI had a higher surface bias owing to the higher T2* contribution of the longer in-plane EPI echo-train for full field of view compared to the reduced field of view of zoomed 3D-GRASE.

  14. Nanosecond time-resolved EPR in pulse radiolysis via the spin echo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trifunac, A.D.; Norris, J.R.; Lawler, R.G.

    1979-01-01

    The design and operation of a time-resolved electron spin echo spectrometer suitable for detecting transient radicals produced by 3 MeV electron radiolysis is described. Two modes of operation are available: Field swept mode which generates a normal EPR spectrum and kinetic mode in which the time dependence of a single EPR line is monitored. Techniques which may be used to minimize the effects of nonideal microwave pulses and overlapping sample tube signals are described. The principal advantages of the spin echo method over other time-resolved EPR methods are: (1) Improved time resolution (presently approx.30--50 nsec) allows monitoring of fast changes in EPR signals of transient radicals, (2) Lower susceptibility to interference between the EPR signal and the electron beam pulse at short times, and (3) Lack of dependence of transient signals on microwave field amplitude or static field inhomogeneity at short times. The performance of the instrument is illustrated using CIDEP from acetate radical formed in pulsed radiolysis of aqueous solutions of potassium acetate. The relaxation time and CIDEP enhancement factor obtained for this radical using the spin echo method compare favorably with previous determinations using direct detection EPR. Radical decay rates yield estimates of initial radical concentrations of 10 -4 10 -3 M per electron pulse. The Bloch equations are solved to give an expression for the echo signal for samples exhibiting CIDEP using arbitrary microwave pulse widths and distributions of Larmor frequencies. Conditions are discussed under which the time-dependent signal would be distorted by deviations from an ideal nonselective 90 0 --tau--180 0 pulse sequence

  15. MR imaging of articular cartilage : comparison of magnetization transfer contrast and fat-suppression in multiplanar and 3D gradient-echo, spin-echo, turbo spin-echo techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Joon; Joo, Eun Young; Eun, Choong Ki

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of magnetization transfer contrast(MTC) and fat-suppression(FS) in variable spin-echo and gradient-echo sequences for articular cartilage imaging and to determine the optimal pulse sequences. Using variable 7-pulse sequences, the knees of 15 pigs were imaged Axial images were obtained using proton density and T2-weighted spin-echo (PDWSE and T2WSE), turbo spin-echo (TSE), multiplanar gradient-echo (MPGR), and 3D steady-state gradient-echo (3DGRE) sequences, and the same pulse sequences were then repeated using MTC. Also T1-weighted spin-echo(T1WSE) and 3D spoiled gradient-echo(3DSPGR) images of knees were also acquired, and the procedure was repeated using FS. For each knee, a total of 14 axial images were acquired, and using a 6-band scoring system, the visibility of and the visibilities of the the articular cartilage was analyzed. The visual effect of MTC and FS was scored using a 4-band scale. For each image, the signal intensities of articular cartilage, subchondral bone, muscles, and saline were measured, and signal-to-noise ratios(SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratios(CNR) were also calculated. Visibility of the cartilage was best when 3DSPGR and T1WSE sequences were used. MTC imaging increased the negative contrast between cartilage and saline, but FS imaging provided more positive contrast. CNR between cartilage and saline was highest when using TSE with FS(-351.1±15.3), though CNR between cartilage and bone then fell to -14.7±10.8. In MTC imaging using MPGR showed the greatest increase of negative contrast between cartilage and saline(CNR change=-74.7); the next highest was when 3DGRE was used(CNR change=-34.3). CNR between cartilage and bone was highest with MPGR(161.9±17.7), but with MTC, the greatest CNR decrease(-81.8) was observed. The greatest CNR increase between cartilage and bone was noted in T1WSE with FS. In all scans, FS provided a cartilage-only positive contrast image, though the absolute

  16. Stimulated nuclear spin echos and spectral diffusion in glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, N.M.; Engelsberg, M.

    1984-01-01

    Experimental results of stimulated nuclear spin echos decay in glasses are presented. The measurements were performed in B 2 O 3 glasses, at the 23Na and 11 B resonance lines. The data analysis allows the study of Spectral diffusion at an inhomogeneous nuclear magnetic (NMR) resonance line, broadened for a desordered system of nuclear spins. A model is proposed to explain the time constants, and the particular form of the decay. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  17. Polarimetric neutron spin echo: Feasibility and first results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pappas, C. [Hahn-Meitner Institut Berlin, Glienickerstr. 100, 14109 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: pappas@hmi.de; Lelievre-Berna, E. [Institut Laue-Langevin, 6, Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Bentley, P. [Hahn-Meitner Institut Berlin, Glienickerstr. 100, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Bourgeat-Lami, E. [Institut Laue-Langevin, 6, Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Moskvin, E. [Hahn-Meitner Institut Berlin, Glienickerstr. 100, 14109 Berlin (Germany); PNPI, 188300 Gatchina, Leningrad District (Russian Federation); Thomas, M. [Institut Laue-Langevin, 6, Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Grigoriev, S.; Dyadkin, V. [PNPI, 188300 Gatchina, Leningrad District (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-21

    Neutron Spin Echo (NSE) spectroscopy uses polarized neutrons and accordingly polarization analysis is an intrinsic feature of NSE. However, the multifaceted dynamics of antiferromagnets and helimagnets require more than the classical NSE set-up. Here we present the feasibility test and first results of a new and powerful technique: Polarimetric NSE, obtained by combining the wide angle NSE spectrometer SPAN, developed at HMI with the zero-field polarimeter Cryopad developed at ILL.

  18. Polarimetric neutron spin echo: Feasibility and first results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pappas, C.; Lelievre-Berna, E.; Bentley, P.; Bourgeat-Lami, E.; Moskvin, E.; Thomas, M.; Grigoriev, S.; Dyadkin, V.

    2008-01-01

    Neutron Spin Echo (NSE) spectroscopy uses polarized neutrons and accordingly polarization analysis is an intrinsic feature of NSE. However, the multifaceted dynamics of antiferromagnets and helimagnets require more than the classical NSE set-up. Here we present the feasibility test and first results of a new and powerful technique: Polarimetric NSE, obtained by combining the wide angle NSE spectrometer SPAN, developed at HMI with the zero-field polarimeter Cryopad developed at ILL

  19. Comparison between two.magnetic resonance sequences (spin-echo and gradient-echo) in the analysis of lesions of the knee joint meniscus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marti-Bonati, L.; Casillas, C.

    1999-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic reliability, the proportion of common diagnoses and the degree of agreement between the results of two magnetic resonance (MR) sequences in the diagnosis of lesions of the meniscus of the knee. One hundred consecutive patients were studied prospectively by MR (1,5 Teslas). All of them underwent T1-weighted spin-echo and T1 and T2-weighted gradient-echo sequences. The final diagnosis was based on the combined results of four imaging sequences. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive (NPV) in terms of the final diagnosis were calculated for each meniscus and MR technique. The chi.squared test and kappa test were employed for the statistical analysis. There were discrepancies between the final diagnosis and the spin-echo sequence in 4 cases and between the final diagnosis and the gradient-echo sequences in 5 Both spin-echo and gradient-echo sequences showed the same diagnostic reliabilities: sensitivity of 0.98, specificity of 0.99, PPV of 0.98 and NPV of 0.99. The correlation between the two sequences was highly significant (chi-squared, p < 0.001) with a very high rate of agreement (kappa=0.84). The two sequences can be considered equally reliable in the study of meniscal lesions. (Author) 7 refs

  20. Improved visualization of collateral ligaments of the ankle: multiplanar reconstructions based on standard 2D turbo spin-echo MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duc, Sylvain R.; Mengiardi, Bernard; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Hodler, Juerg; Zanetti, Marco

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the visualization of the collateral ankle ligaments on multiplanar reconstructions (MPR) based on standard 2D turbo spin-echo images. Coronal and axial T2-weighted turbo spin-echo and MPR angled parallel to the course of the ligaments of 15 asymptomatic and 15 symptomatic ankles were separately analyzed by two musculoskeletal radiologists. Image quality was assessed in the asymptomatic ankles qualitatively. In the symptomatic ankles interobserver agreement and reader confidence was determined for each ligament. On MPR the tibionavicular and calcaneofibular ligaments were more commonly demonstrated on a single image than on standard MR images (reader 1: 13 versus 0, P=0.002; reader 2: 14 versus 1, P=0.001 and reader 1: 13 versus 2, P=0.001; reader 2: 14 versus 0, P<0.001). The tibionavicular ligament was considered to be better delineated on MPR by reader 1 (12 versus 3, P=0.031). In the symptomatic ankles, reader confidence was greater with MPR for all ligaments except for the tibiocalcanear ligament (both readers) and the anterior and posterior talofibular ligaments (for reader 2). Interobserver agreement was increased with MPR for the tibionavicular ligament. Multiplanar reconstructions of 2D turbo spin-echo images improve the visualization of the tibionavicular and calcaneofibular ligaments and strengthen diagnostic confidence for these ligaments. (orig.)

  1. Driven equilibrium (drive) MR imaging of the cranial nerves V-VIII: comparison with the T2-weighted 3D TSE sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciftci, E. E-mail: eciftcis7@hotmail.com; Anik, Yonca; Arslan, Arzu; Akansel, Gur; Sarisoy, Tahsin; Demirci, Ali

    2004-09-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of the driven equilibrium radio frequency reset pulse (DRIVE) on image quality and nerve detection when used in adjunction with T2-weighted 3D turbo spin-echo (TSE) sequence. Materials and methods: Forty-five patients with cranial nerve symptoms referable to the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) were examined using a T2-weighted 3D TSE pulse sequence with and without DRIVE. MR imaging was performed on a 1.5-T MRI scanner. In addition to the axial resource images, reformatted oblique sagittal, oblique coronal and maximum intensity projection (MIP) images of the inner ear were evaluated. The nerve identification and image quality were graded for the cranial nerves V-VIII as well as inner ear structures. These structures were chosen because fluid-solid interfaces existed due to the CSF around (the cranial nerves V-VIII) or the endolymph within (the inner ear structures). Statistical analysis was performed using the Wilcoxon test. P<0.05 was considered significant. Results: The addition of the DRIVE pulse shortens the scan time by 25%. T2-weighted 3D TSE sequence with DRIVE performed slightly better than the T2-weighted 3D TSE sequence without DRIVE in identifying the individual nerves. The image quality was also slightly better with DRIVE. Conclusion: The addition of the DRIVE pulse to the T2-weighted 3D TSE sequence is preferable when imaging the cranial nerves surrounded by the CSF, or fluid-filled structures because of shorter scan time and better image quality due to reduced flow artifacts.

  2. Driven equilibrium (drive) MR imaging of the cranial nerves V-VIII: comparison with the T2-weighted 3D TSE sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciftci, E.; Anik, Yonca; Arslan, Arzu; Akansel, Gur; Sarisoy, Tahsin; Demirci, Ali

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of the driven equilibrium radio frequency reset pulse (DRIVE) on image quality and nerve detection when used in adjunction with T2-weighted 3D turbo spin-echo (TSE) sequence. Materials and methods: Forty-five patients with cranial nerve symptoms referable to the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) were examined using a T2-weighted 3D TSE pulse sequence with and without DRIVE. MR imaging was performed on a 1.5-T MRI scanner. In addition to the axial resource images, reformatted oblique sagittal, oblique coronal and maximum intensity projection (MIP) images of the inner ear were evaluated. The nerve identification and image quality were graded for the cranial nerves V-VIII as well as inner ear structures. These structures were chosen because fluid-solid interfaces existed due to the CSF around (the cranial nerves V-VIII) or the endolymph within (the inner ear structures). Statistical analysis was performed using the Wilcoxon test. P<0.05 was considered significant. Results: The addition of the DRIVE pulse shortens the scan time by 25%. T2-weighted 3D TSE sequence with DRIVE performed slightly better than the T2-weighted 3D TSE sequence without DRIVE in identifying the individual nerves. The image quality was also slightly better with DRIVE. Conclusion: The addition of the DRIVE pulse to the T2-weighted 3D TSE sequence is preferable when imaging the cranial nerves surrounded by the CSF, or fluid-filled structures because of shorter scan time and better image quality due to reduced flow artifacts

  3. Methods of fetal MR: beyond T2-weighted imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Integrative Morphology Group, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerstrasse 13, 1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: peter.brugger@meduniwien.ac.at; Stuhr, Fritz [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Lindner, Christian [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    The present work reviews the basic methods of performing fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Since fetal MRI differs in many respects from a postnatal study, several factors have to be taken into account to achieve satisfying image quality. Image quality depends on adequate positioning of the pregnant woman in the magnet, use of appropriate coils and the selection of sequences. Ultrafast T2-weighted sequences are regarded as the mainstay of fetal MR-imaging. However, additional sequences, such as T1-weighted images, diffusion-weighted images, echoplanar imaging may provide further information, especially in extra- central-nervous system regions of the fetal body.

  4. Methods of fetal MR: beyond T2-weighted imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugger, Peter C.; Stuhr, Fritz; Lindner, Christian; Prayer, Daniela

    2006-01-01

    The present work reviews the basic methods of performing fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Since fetal MRI differs in many respects from a postnatal study, several factors have to be taken into account to achieve satisfying image quality. Image quality depends on adequate positioning of the pregnant woman in the magnet, use of appropriate coils and the selection of sequences. Ultrafast T2-weighted sequences are regarded as the mainstay of fetal MR-imaging. However, additional sequences, such as T1-weighted images, diffusion-weighted images, echoplanar imaging may provide further information, especially in extra- central-nervous system regions of the fetal body

  5. Comparison between T2*- and T2-weighted images in diagnosing rotator cuff tears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Hideo; Ito, Hisao; Kubo, Atsushi.

    1995-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the merits of T2 * -weighted images in diagnosing rotator cuff tear, compared with T2-weighted images. T2- and T2 * -weighted images were obtained in 10 asymptomatic volunteers and 94 patients with symptoms referable to the rotator cuff. The increased signal with full thickness of the rotator cuff was not shown on either T2- or T2 * -weighted images in the volunteers. These findings on T2-weighted images and on T2 * -weighted images were observed in 33 and 58 of 94 patients with symptoms, respectively. Every patient who showed these abnormal findings on T2-weighted images had the abnormal findings on T2 * -weighted images. These findings on T2 * -weighted images were wider than those on T2-weighted images in 20 of 33 patients. Surgical findings were available in 21 of 94 patients. Rotator cuff tears were surgically confirmed in 20 patients whose MR images showed increased signal lesions on both T2- and T2 * -weighted images. On the other hand, one patient who did not have rotator cuff tear showed increased signal lesion with full thickness on T2 * -weighted images, but not on T2-weighted images. We think increased signal lesions on T2-weighted images may strongly suggest rotator cuff tear, whereas those on T2 * -weighted images are not specific. (author)

  6. Low intensity areas observed T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the cerebral cortex in various neurological diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imon, Yukari [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1996-02-01

    We retrospectively studied magnetic resonance images of the brain in 158 patients (8 cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, 16 cases of Alzheimer`s disease, 8 cases of Parkinson`s disease, 53 cases of multiple cerebral infarct, 20 cases of other central nervous system (CNS) diseases, and 53 cases without any CNS disease) to examine the appearance of T2-weighted low signal intensity areas (LIA) in the cerebral cortex. The age of subjects ranged from 36 to 85 years with the mean 65.0 and SD 9.9 years. LIA in the motor and sensory cortices, and brain atrophy were evaluated visually on axial images of the spin-echo sequence obtained with a 1.5 tesla system. The incidence of LIA in the motor cortex was significantly higher in all CNS diseases than in cases without any CNS disease, but not significantly different among CNS diseases. LIA in the motor cortex showed a correlation with age, temporal and parietal atrophy. The appearance of LIA in the sensory cortex correlated with that of LIA in the motor cortex, and parietal atrophy. These results suggest that LIA may appear according to age and be associated with the accumulation of nonheme iron in the cortex, especially in patients with CNS diseases. (author)

  7. Neutron optics using transverse field neutron spin echo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achiwa, Norio; Hino, Masahiro; Yamauchi, Yoshihiro; Takakura, Hiroyuki; Tasaki, Seiji; Akiyoshi, Tsunekazu; Ebisawa, Toru.

    1993-01-01

    A neutron spin echo (NSE) spectrometer with perpendicular magnetic field to the neutron scattering plane, using an iron yoke type electro-magnet has been developed. A combination of cold neutron guider, supermirror neutron polarizer of double reflection type and supermirror neutron analyser was adopted for the spectrometer. The first application of the NSE spectrometer to neutron optics by passing Larmor precessing neutrons through gas, solid and liquid materials of several different lengths which are inserted in one of the precession field have been examined. Preliminary NSE spectra of this sample geometry are discussed. (author)

  8. Magnetic resonance, especially spin echo, in spinor Bose-Einstein condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasunaga, Masashi; Tsubota, Makoto

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic resonance, especially NMR and ESR, has been studied in magnetic materials for a long time, having been used in various fields. Spin echo is typical phenomenon in magnetic resonance. The magnetic resonance should be applied to spinor Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs). We numerically study spin echo of a spinor BEC in a gradient magnetic field by calculating the spin-1 two-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equations, obtaining the recovery of the signal of the spins, which is called spin echo. We will discuss the relation between the spin echo and the Stern-Gelrach separation in the system.

  9. Comparison between T2-weighted MR and contrast-enhanced MR cholangiography in the evaluation of biliary anatomy in liver transplant donor candidates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hong; Mu Xuetao; Wu Chunnan; Dong Yuru; Dong Yue; Zhang Huiqing; Zang Yunjin

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To compare conventional T 2 -weighted MR cholangiography (T 2 WI-MRC) with gadobenate dimeglumine enhanced T 1 -weighted MR cholangiography(CE-MRC) for evalution of biliary anatomy in liver transplant donor candidates. Methods: Thirty-two healthy liver transplant donor candidates were examined with two MR cholangiographic methods. For T 2 WI-MRC, a three-dimensional turbo spin-echo sequence and oblique coronal heavily T 2 -weighted thick-slab turbo spin-echo imaging sequence were performed. For CE-MRC, three-dimensional fat-suppressed spoiled gradient-echo sequences were performed, with a time delay of 60 minutes following the administration of gadobenate dimeglumine. To compare the depiction of biliary duct anatomy and the artifact caused by intestinal liquid and breathing between the two methods. Intraoperative cholangiography was the reference-standard examination. Results: The both methods depicted the biliary anatomy correctly in all 9 cases. The both methods showed the third branches of intrahepatic biliary duct clearly. T 2 WI-MRC showed interhepatic biliary duct before the third branches in 28 cases (87.5%), CE-MRC showed the same finding in 14 eases (43.8%). T 2 WI-MRC showed common bile ducts intermitantly in 2 cases, which were normal in CE-MRC and intraoperative cholangiography. Intestinal liquid affected the image quality of biliary duct in 6 cases (18.8%) performed with T 2 WI-MRC, but none with CE-MRC. The artifacts caused by breathing were not obvious in the either method. Conclusion: T 2 WI-MRC and CE-MRC both can be used to evaluate biliary anatomy of liver transplant donor candidates, but CE-MRC appears to be more accurate than T 2 WI-MRC. (authors)

  10. Water imaging (hydrography) in the fetus: the value of a heavily T2-weighted sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline-Fath, Beth M.; Calvo-Garcia, Maria A.; O' Hara, Sara M.; Racadio, Judy M. [University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2007-02-15

    Since the development of fast imaging sequences, MR has proved to be a helpful tool in the evaluation of fetal pathology. Because of the high water content of fetal tissues and pathology, hydrography imaging (MR fetography) can provide additional diagnostic information. To demonstrate the benefit of MR fetography in fetal imaging. From 2004 to 2005, 126 fetal MR examinations were performed for evaluation of an abnormality depicted on an antenatal sonogram. Single-shot fast spin-echo MR imaging and MR fetography were performed through the area of fetal pathology. The two studies were retrospectively compared. The primary diagnosis was not changed with the addition of MR fetography. New findings, particularly in the kidneys and spine, were identified in 9% of the patients. When fetal pathology was of high water content (80% patients), the MR fetography imaging increased diagnostic confidence. In 11% of the patients, those with cardiovascular or low water pathology, the MR fetography was not beneficial. The mainstay of fetal imaging is currently the HASTE and SSFSE sequences. However, MR fetography is an excellent adjunct that highlights fetal pathology by reinforcing the diagnosis, identifying additional findings, and providing high-contrast high-resolution images that are helpful when counseling clinicians and patients. (orig.)

  11. Confidence in Assessment of Lumbar Spondylolysis Using Three-Dimensional Volumetric T2-Weighted MRI Compared With Limited Field of View, Decreased-Dose CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavan, Joshua Adam; Stence, Nicholas V; Mirsky, David M; Gralla, Jane; Fadell, Michael F

    2016-07-01

    Limited z-axis-coverage computed tomography (CT) to evaluate for pediatric lumbar spondylolysis, altering the technique such that the dose to the patient is comparable or lower than radiographs, is currently used at our institution. The objective of the study was to determine whether volumetric 3-dimensional fast spin echo magnetic resonance imaging (3D MRI) can provide equal or greater diagnostic accuracy compared with limited CT in the diagnosis of pediatric lumbar spondylolysis without ionizing radiation. Volumetric 3D MRI can provide equal or greater diagnostic accuracy compared with low-dose CT for pediatric lumbar spondylolysis without ionizing radiation. Clinical review. Level 2. Three pediatric neuroradiologists evaluated 2-dimensional (2D) MRI, 2D + 3D MRI, and limited CT examinations in 42 pediatric patients who obtained imaging for low back pain and suspected spondylolysis. As there is no gold standard for the diagnosis of spondylolysis besides surgery, interobserver agreement and degree of confidence were compared to determine which modality is preferable. Decreased-dose CT provided a greater level of agreement than 2D MRI and 2D + 3D MRI. The kappa for rater agreement with 2D MRI, 2D + 3D MRI, and CT was 0.19, 0.32, and 1.0, respectively. All raters agreed in 31%, 40%, and 100% of cases with 2D MRI, 2D + 3D MRI, and CT. Lack of confidence was significantly lower with CT (0%) than with 2D MRI (30%) and 2D + 3D MRI (25%). For diagnosing spondylolysis, radiologist agreement and confidence trended toward improvement with the addition of a volumetric 3D MRI sequence to standard 2D MRI sequences compared with 2D MRI alone; however, agreement and confidence remain significantly greater using decreased-dose CT when compared with either MRI acquisition. Decreased-dose CT of the lumbar spine remains the optimal examination to confirm a high suspicion of spondylolysis, with dose essentially equivalent to radiographs. If clinical symptoms are not classic for

  12. Fast STIR (Short TI Inversion Recovery) imaging of the spine. The assessment of the role for the depiction of intramedullary spinal cord lesions and the usefulness of the additional transverse images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Ryosuke; Kan, Tomoko; Hirose, Tomohiro; Hara, Tadashi; Shibata, Toyomichi; Ueno, Makoto; Takagi, Takehisa; Kohno, Shigene

    2002-01-01

    It is known that the fast STIR images of the spine achieve more excellent lesion contrast than the usual fast spin echo (FSE) T2-weighted images, because the elongation of T1 and T2 relaxation time of the lesion additively contribute to the contrast. The fast STIR images showed advantages in the depiction of acute and chronic lesion of multiple sclerosis and tolerable disadvantages in the depiction of other lesions, such as spondylotic myelopathy or syringomyelia. Transverse images showed less usefulness than sagittal images except for their superior gray-to-white matter contrast. Fast STIR imaging can replace FSE T2-weighted imaging in the study of restricted patients' population. (author)

  13. Inversion recovery RARE: Clinical application of T2-weighted CSF-suppressed rapid sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetz, G.F.; Hennig, J.; Ziyeh, S.

    1995-01-01

    Inversion-Recovery RARE is a strongly T 2 -weighted fast sequence in which the CSF appears dark. This sequence was used in more than 100 patients. Retrospective analysis of 80 patients with cerebrovascular and inflammatory disease was carried out. The IR-RARE sequence proved to be particularly suitable for identifying small lesions in the neighbourhood of the subarachnoid space. We illustrate the typical contrast provided by this sequence, and describe its characteristics, exemplifying the advantages it offers for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis, cerebral microangiopathy and brain infarction. (orig.) [de

  14. A conception of a new neutron spin echo reflectometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kali, Gy.

    1999-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The tilted field technique in the neutron spin echo (NSE) spectroscopy came into the centre of attention in the recent few years. The method was first proposed by F. Mezei and R. Pynn in 1980. A real measurement for high resolution small angle scattering (SANS) on their resonance spin-echo spectrometer was published by Keller et al. [1]. A conception of a new instrument was proposed by M.T. Rekveldt [2] for SANS and reflectometry, using dc field perpendicular to the neutron beam. By further developing these ideas, the setup of a multitask instrument using the traditional way (dc field parallel to the beam) is discussed. This spectrometer may be best applicable in liquid surface reflectometry combining NSE by separating specular and nonspecular reflection. This instrument setup uses wide wavelength band and/or non-collimated neutron beam. (author) [1] T. Keller et al, Neutron News 6, no 3 (1995) 16.; [2] M.T. Rekveldt, Nuc. Inst. and Meth. in Physics Res. B 114 (1996) 366

  15. Experimental separation of a frequency spin echo signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bun'kov, Yu.M.; Dmitriev, V.V.

    1981-01-01

    To study systems with bound nuclear-electron precession CsMnF 2 antiferromagnetic light-plane monocrystal was investigated. Crystal orientation was carried out by roentgenoscopy. Measurements were performed at helium temperatures in the 500-700 MHz frequency range. A NMR pulsed spectrometer with generators of both resonance and doubled frequency was used to produce an echo signal (to study by the parametric echo method). It was shown that the theory of the formation of a frequency modulated echo (FM echo) did not fully describe the properties of the echo signals in systems with dynamic frequency shift (DFS). An intense spin echo signal, which formation was apparently connected with other nonlinear properties of the systems with nuclear-electron precession, was observed. The spin echo signal in magnetics with DFS, which properties correspond to notions of the frequency mechanism of echo formation, was experimentally separated. As a result of the investigations it had been possible to settle contradictions between the theory of FM echo formation and the experimental results for the last 9 years. It turned out that the mechanism of FM echo formation in the magnetics with bound nuclear-electron precession was effective only at large delay times between the pulses. In the range of small delays the FM echo is ''jammed'' by a gigantic echo signal of a nature different from that of the traditional FM signal. The constant of gigantic echo intensity drop at increasing delay between the pulses weakly depends on spin-spin relaxation time [ru

  16. Usefulness of dual echo volumetric isotropic turbo spin echo acquisition (VISTA) in MR imaging of the temporomandibular joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimori, Yuko; Tanaka, Shigeko; Naito, Yukari; Nishimura, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Akira; Miki, Yukio; Ohfuji, Satoko; Katsumata, Yasutomo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the ability to detect the articular disk and joint effusion of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) of a method of dual echo volumetric isotropic turbo spin echo acquisition (DE-VISTA) additional fusion images (AFI). DE-VISTA was performed in the 26 TMJ of 13 volunteers and 26 TMJ of 13 patients. Two-dimensional (2D) dual echo turbo spin echo was performed in the 26 TMJ of 13 volunteers. On a workstation, we added proton density-weighted images (PDWI) and T 2 weighted images (T 2 WI) of the DE-VISTA per voxel to reconstruct DE-VISTA-AFI. Two radiologists reviewed these images visually and quantitatively. Visual evaluation of the articular disk was equivalent between DE-VISTA-AFI and 2D-PDWI. The sliding thin-slab multiplanar reformation (MPR) method of DE-VISTA-AFI could detect all articular disks. The ratio of contrast (CR) of adipose tissue by the articular disk to that of the articular disk itself was significantly higher in DE-VISTA-AFI than DE-VISTA-PDWI (P 2 WI but in only 3 of those joints in 2D-T 2 WI. The CR of joint effusion to adipose tissue on DE-VISTA-AFI did not differ significantly from that on DE-VISTA-PDWI. However, using DE-VISTA-T 2 WI in addition to DE-VISTA-PDWI, we could visually identify joint effusion on DE-VISTA-AFI that could not be identified on DE-VISTA-PDWI alone. DE-VISTA-AFI can depict the articular disk and a small amount of joint effusion by the required plane of MPR using the sliding thin-slab MPR method. (author)

  17. Investigations on resolution enhancement in EPR by means of electron spin echoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merks, R.P.J.

    1979-01-01

    The electron spin echo technique has been applied in four types of experiments: the measurement of electric field induced shifts of the EPR line; the detection of electron spin echo ENDOR; a relaxation measurement and the measurement of hyperfine interactions via the nuclear modulation effect. (Auth.)

  18. Depolarization of neutron spin echo by magnetic fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achiwa, N.; Sirozu, G.; Nishioka, T.; Ebisawa, T.; Hino, M.; Tasaki, S.; Kawai, T.; Yamazaki, D.

    2001-01-01

    A new method to study the fluctuations of magnetization in magnetic fluids by measuring relations between the phase shift of Larmor precession and the visibility of the neutron spin echo caused by the change of flight path length is studied. Magnetic fluid in which fine particles of magnetite of about 10 nm diameters coated with oleic acid and suspended in water was used. Thickness of the sample was 2 mm. In the dynamics of magnetic fluids, Brownian motions of colloids and the thermal fluctuations of magnetization known as the superparamagnetism are dominant. Isolated ferromagnetic particles of the present size are superparamagnetic but they aggregate to form clusters in a weak magnetic field in the sample of 40% weight density. When neutrons pass the sample, spins process in the magnetic flux density of the clusters fluctuating in time and space. Consequently the Larmor precession phases become distributed and the quantization axes are fluctuated. The result is observed as a decrease of the visibility of the spin echo signals. The change of magnetic flux density in the magnetic fluid is measured from the change of echo visibility of the neutrons, vice versa. In the present experiment, echo was measured at q=0. It is observed that the phase shift changes as a quadratic function of the sample angle reflecting the change of the path length through the sample. Since the number of Larmor precession is proportional to the product of the magnetic field and the length of the flight path, mean flux density in the magnetic fluid is calculated from the phase shift. On the other hand, the decrease of the spin echo amplitude as the function of the sample angle reflects the time and space fluctuations of the flux density in the sample. If the direction of the magnetic flux density vector (quantization axis) changes slowly enough compared to the Larmor precession period while a neutron passes one magnetic domain, the neutron spin rotation in the domain is given by the spin

  19. Four-wave neutron-resonance spin echo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoriev, S.V.; Kraan, W.H.; Rekveldt, M.Th.

    2004-01-01

    We develop a technique of scattering from many-body systems. It is based on the principle of the neutron spin echo (SE), where a neutron wave in the magnetic field splits into two waves, which are separated in space or in time after propagation in this field. The neutron thus prepared as a probe passes through the sample to test its properties on a space R or time t scale. This separation in space or in time can be measured using coherence of these two waves as a phase shift φ between them. These two waves are collected or focused and compensated by the SE technique in order to compare their phases after interaction with the sample. In this way one studies interference between these waves and thus can directly measure the pair-correlation function in space or in time. Instead of two-wave SE we propose to realize the four-wave neutron-resonance spin-echo (NRSE). In our experiments, spin precession produced by a couple of the neutron-resonance coils in one arm is compensated by an identical couple of other NR coils in a second arm of a spin-echo machine. The neutron spin-flip probability ρ in the resonance coils is a key parameter of the NRSE arm. The limiting cases, ρ=0 and ρ=1, provide, in quantum terms, a two-level-two-wave k splitting of the neutron and result in the separation of the split waves into two different lengths in space (R 1 ,R 2 ) or in time (t 1 ,t 2 ). These two cases correspond to Larmor precession with phase φ 1 in the static magnetic fields of the NR flippers or to NRSE precession with φ 2 , respectively. The intermediate case, 0 1 ,R 2 ,R 3 ) or in time (t 1 ,t 2 ,t 3 ). The interference of each pair of waves after compensation results in three different echos with phases φ 1 , φ 2 , and φ 3 =(φ 1 +φ 2 )/2. Focusing or compensating all four waves into a single point of the phase-of-waves diagram produces quantum interference of all newly created waves. This task of focusing is experimentally performed. Different options for the

  20. A spin echo study of A15 intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoep, G.K.

    1976-01-01

    This thesis mainly concerns the measurement of spin-lattice relaxation times in intermetallic compounds of the bcc lattice structure, having the formula V 3 X (C = Pt, Ir, Os, Pd, Rh, Ni, Co, Au). When, in a spin echo experiment, a two-pulse sequence was applied, several quadrupolar echoes were observed. Special attention is given to the 'forbidden' echoes (absol.(Δm')GT1) in V 3 Au and V 3 Co. In relation to the V 3 X compounds, several characteristics are discussed including temperature dependence and concentration dependence of spin relaxation times, superconductivity and the importance of d-state electrons in determination of the spin relaxation times. Finally, the above characteristics were determined for 6 different samples of the vanadium-gold alloy, V 3 Au, specifically

  1. Neutron spin echo and high resolution inelastic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezei, F.; Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest. Central Research Inst. for Physics)

    1982-01-01

    The principles of neutrons spin echo (NSE) technique are considered. It is shown that the basis of NSE principle is a single step measurement of the change of the neutron velocity in the scattering process. The backscattering soectroscopy and the NSE techniques are compared. The NSF spectrometer is described. It is shown that 0.5 MeV energy resolution achieved in the NSE experiment is about 40 times superior to those achieved by the other techniques. The NSE technique has the unique feature that provides high resolution in neutron energy change independently of the monochromatization of the beam. The NSE instrument not only covers a wider dynamic range on a pulsed source that on a continuous one, but also collects data more efficiently

  2. Neutron spin-echo spectroscopy for diffusion in crystalline solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaisermayr, M.; Rennhofer, M.; Vogl, G.; Pappas, C.; Longeville, S.

    2002-01-01

    Neutron spin-echo spectroscopy (NSE) offers unprecedented opportunities in the investigation of diffusion in crystalline systems due to its outstanding energy resolution. NSE not only enables measurements at lower diffusivities than the established techniques of neutron spectroscopy, but it also gives a very immediate access to the different time scales involved in the diffusion process. This is demonstrated in detail on the example of the binary alloy NiGa where the Ni atoms hop between regular sites on the Ni sublattice and anti-sites on the Ga sublattice. Experiments on two different NSE instruments are compared to measurements using neutron backscattering spectroscopy. The potential of NSE for the investigation of jump diffusion and experimental requirements are discussed

  3. Neutron spin echo spectrometer at JRR-3M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Takayoshi; Komura, Shigehiro; Seto, Hideki; Nagai, Michihiro; Kobayashi, Hideki; Yokoi, Eiji; Ebisawa, Tooru; Tasaki, Seiji.

    1993-01-01

    We have designed and have been constructing at C 2-2 cold neutron guide port of JRR-3M, JAERI, a neutron spin echo spectrometer (NSE) which is equipped with two optimized magnets for neutron spin precession, a position sensitive detector (PSD), a converging polarizer and a wide area analyzer. The dynamic range of scattering vector Q covers from 0.01 A -1 to 0.3 A -1 and that of energy E from 30neV to 0.1meV. This spectrometer makes it possible to study a mesoscopic spatial structure of the order of 1-100nm combined with a nanosecond temporal structure of the order of 0.1-100ns corresponding to dynamical behavior of large molecules such as polymer. A test experiment shows that the homogeneity condition of the precession magnet is loosened by means of PSD. (author)

  4. Improved imaging of cochlear nerve hypoplasia using a 3-Tesla variable flip-angle turbo spin-echo sequence and a 7-cm surface coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesemann, Anja M; Raab, Peter; Lyutenski, Stefan; Dettmer, Sabine; Bültmann, Eva; Frömke, Cornelia; Lenarz, Thomas; Lanfermann, Heinrich; Goetz, Friedrich

    2014-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging of the temporal bone has an important role in decision making with regard to cochlea implantation, especially in children with cochlear nerve deficiency. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the combination of an advanced high-resolution T2-weighted sequence with a surface coil in a 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner in cases of suspected cochlear nerve aplasia. Prospective study. Seven patients with cochlear nerve hypoplasia or aplasia were prospectively examined using a high-resolution three-dimensional variable flip-angle turbo spin-echo sequence using a surface coil, and the images were compared with the same sequence in standard resolution using a standard head coil. Three neuroradiologists evaluated the magnetic resonance images independently, rating the visibility of the nerves in diagnosing hypoplasia or aplasia. Eight ears in seven patients with hypoplasia or aplasia of the cochlear nerve were examined. The average age was 2.7 years (range, 9 months-5 years). Seven ears had accompanying malformations. The inter-rater reliability in diagnosing hypoplasia or aplasia was greater using the high-resolution three-dimensional variable flip-angle turbo spin-echo sequence (fixed-marginal kappa: 0.64) than with the same sequence in lower resolution (fixed-marginal kappa: 0.06). Examining cases of suspected cochlear nerve aplasia using the high-resolution three-dimensional variable flip-angle turbo spin-echo sequence in combination with a surface coil shows significant improvement over standard methods. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  5. Effectiveness of a Rapid Lumbar Spine MRI Protocol Using 3D T2-Weighted SPACE Imaging Versus a Standard Protocol for Evaluation of Degenerative Changes of the Lumbar Spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayah, Anousheh; Jay, Ann K; Toaff, Jacob S; Makariou, Erini V; Berkowitz, Frank

    2016-09-01

    Reducing lumbar spine MRI scanning time while retaining diagnostic accuracy can benefit patients and reduce health care costs. This study compares the effectiveness of a rapid lumbar MRI protocol using 3D T2-weighted sampling perfection with application-optimized contrast with different flip-angle evolutions (SPACE) sequences with a standard MRI protocol for evaluation of lumbar spondylosis. Two hundred fifty consecutive unenhanced lumbar MRI examinations performed at 1.5 T were retrospectively reviewed. Full, rapid, and complete versions of each examination were interpreted for spondylotic changes at each lumbar level, including herniations and neural compromise. The full examination consisted of sagittal T1-weighted, T2-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE), and STIR sequences; and axial T1- and T2-weighted TSE sequences (time, 18 minutes 40 seconds). The rapid examination consisted of sagittal T1- and T2-weighted SPACE sequences, with axial SPACE reformations (time, 8 minutes 46 seconds). The complete examination consisted of the full examination plus the T2-weighted SPACE sequence. Sensitivities and specificities of the full and rapid examinations were calculated using the complete study as the reference standard. The rapid and full studies had sensitivities of 76.0% and 69.3%, with specificities of 97.2% and 97.9%, respectively, for all degenerative processes. Rapid and full sensitivities were 68.7% and 66.3% for disk herniation, 85.2% and 81.5% for canal compromise, 82.9% and 69.1% for lateral recess compromise, and 76.9% and 69.7% for foraminal compromise, respectively. Isotropic SPACE T2-weighted imaging provides high-quality imaging of lumbar spondylosis, with multiplanar reformatting capability. Our SPACE-based rapid protocol had sensitivities and specificities for herniations and neural compromise comparable to those of the protocol without SPACE. This protocol fits within a 15-minute slot, potentially reducing costs and discomfort for a large subgroup of

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging in Parkinson's disease; The evaluation of the width of pars compacta on T2 weighted image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriwaka, Fumio; Tashiro, Kunio; Itoh, Kazunori; Miyasaka, Kazuo [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine; Hamada, Takeshi

    1992-01-01

    The width of substantia nigra (SN) in 59 cases of idiopathic Parkinson's disease as well as 21 normal controls was analyzed by T2 weighted image (T2WI) of 1.5 Tesla high-field magnetic resonance image (MRI). All patients and controls underwent MRI with the spin-echo sequences used TR/TE: 3000/30 (short TE), and TR/TE: 3000/80 (long TE), in 5-mm-thick volumes. The width between the red nucleus and the cerebral peduncle showing low signal intensity areas was measured as that of SN and its ratio to the distance from the aqueduct to the midline of the cerebral peduncle was also measured. The calculated values of the width of SN and its ratio were analyzed by Mann-Whitney test. The significant reduction in the width of SN and its ratio in Parkinson's disease were disclosed below: the mean calculated values of the width of SN were 2.95{+-}0.51 mm in controls, 2.68{+-}0.99 mm in Parkinson's disase on long TE images (P<0.01), and the mean ratio of the width of SN were 13.58{+-}4.21% in controls, 10.52{+-}3.07% in Parkinson's disease on long TE images (P=0.0002). The narrowing of SN in Parkinson's disease was more prominent in men, and advanced cases with Yahr stage III and IV. Considering that the pars reticulata, which is normally containing iron, shows low signal intensity on long TE images, the width of pars compacta could be measured more precisely on this sequences. The evaluation of the ratio of SN in midbrain on long TE images seemed to be more sensitive than the calculated values in detecting the narrowing of SN and pars compacta in Parkinson's disease. (author).

  7. Decrease in the cortical intensity on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging with aging in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imon, Yukari; Murata, Yoshio; Kajima, Toshio; Nakamura, Shigenobu; Yamaguchi, Shinya

    1997-01-01

    We reported previously that Low T 2 intensity areas (LIAs) are more common in patients with central nervous system (CNS) diseases than in those with no such diseases, and that the occurrence of LIAs increases with aging. To determine a relationship between the intensity changes and aging, we investigated the intensity of the cerebral cortex in 26 normal Japanese individuals. Measurements of brain MRIs were performed with a Signa Advantage apparatus at 1.5 tesla. T 2 -weighted images were obtained using the spin-echo pulse sequences. On our laboratory console, we measured signal intensities in the regions of interest in the prefrontal, motor, sensory, parietal, temporal, or occipital cortex, and in the frontal white matter. To remove the effect of the system gain settings on signal intensity, that of cerebrospinal fluid was used as reference according to the method of Pujol et al. The average intensity in the temporal and prefrontal cortices was the highest, followed in order by the parietal, sensory, motor, and occipital cortices. The intensity in the temporal and parietal cortices decreased significantly with aging, and that in the motor and sensory cortices had a tendency to decrease with aging. The intensity in the motor and sensory cortices of the elderly subjects and that in the occipital cortex throughout all ages were lower than that in the prefrontal white matter, which would result in the appearance of LIAs. The average intensity of each cerebral cortex was inversely related to the non-heme iron content previously reported. It is likely that the difference in intensity among the cortices reflects variations of the non-heme iron content, and that the change in intensity with aging could be due to the increase in such cortical senile changes as that of microglia, astroglia, and senile plaques, which contain iron or iron-related proteins. The temporal cortex is most susceptible to senile changes. (K.H.)

  8. T2-Weighted 4D Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Application in Magnetic Resonance–Guided Radiotherapy Treatment Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Joshua N.; Collins, David J.; Bainbridge, Hannah; Rank, Christopher M.; Nill, Simeon; Kachelrieß, Marc; Oelfke, Uwe; Leach, Martin O.; Wetscherek, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to develop and verify a method to obtain good temporal resolution T2-weighted 4-dimensional (4D-T2w) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by using motion information from T1-weighted 4D (4D-T1w) MRI, to support treatment planning in MR-guided radiotherapy. Materials and Methods Ten patients with primary non–small cell lung cancer were scanned at 1.5 T axially with a volumetric T2-weighted turbo spin echo sequence gated to exhalation and a volumetric T1-weighted stack-of-stars spoiled gradient echo sequence with golden angle spacing acquired in free breathing. From the latter, 20 respiratory phases were reconstructed using the recently developed 4D joint MoCo-HDTV algorithm based on the self-gating signal obtained from the k-space center. Motion vector fields describing the respiratory cycle were obtained by deformable image registration between the respiratory phases and projected onto the T2-weighted image volume. The resulting 4D-T2w volumes were verified against the 4D-T1w volumes: an edge-detection method was used to measure the diaphragm positions; the locations of anatomical landmarks delineated by a radiation oncologist were compared and normalized mutual information was calculated to evaluate volumetric image similarity. Results High-resolution 4D-T2w MRI was obtained. Respiratory motion was preserved on calculated 4D-T2w MRI, with median diaphragm positions being consistent with less than 6.6 mm (2 voxels) for all patients and less than 3.3 mm (1 voxel) for 9 of 10 patients. Geometrical positions were coherent between 4D-T1w and 4D-T2w MRI as Euclidean distances between all corresponding anatomical landmarks agreed to within 7.6 mm (Euclidean distance of 2 voxels) and were below 3.8 mm (Euclidean distance of 1 voxel) for 355 of 470 pairs of anatomical landmarks. Volumetric image similarity was commensurate between 4D-T1w and 4D-T2w MRI, as mean percentage differences in normalized mutual information (calculated over all

  9. T2-Weighted 4D Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Application in Magnetic Resonance-Guided Radiotherapy Treatment Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Joshua N; Collins, David J; Bainbridge, Hannah; Rank, Christopher M; Nill, Simeon; Kachelrieß, Marc; Oelfke, Uwe; Leach, Martin O; Wetscherek, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and verify a method to obtain good temporal resolution T2-weighted 4-dimensional (4D-T2w) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by using motion information from T1-weighted 4D (4D-T1w) MRI, to support treatment planning in MR-guided radiotherapy. Ten patients with primary non-small cell lung cancer were scanned at 1.5 T axially with a volumetric T2-weighted turbo spin echo sequence gated to exhalation and a volumetric T1-weighted stack-of-stars spoiled gradient echo sequence with golden angle spacing acquired in free breathing. From the latter, 20 respiratory phases were reconstructed using the recently developed 4D joint MoCo-HDTV algorithm based on the self-gating signal obtained from the k-space center. Motion vector fields describing the respiratory cycle were obtained by deformable image registration between the respiratory phases and projected onto the T2-weighted image volume. The resulting 4D-T2w volumes were verified against the 4D-T1w volumes: an edge-detection method was used to measure the diaphragm positions; the locations of anatomical landmarks delineated by a radiation oncologist were compared and normalized mutual information was calculated to evaluate volumetric image similarity. High-resolution 4D-T2w MRI was obtained. Respiratory motion was preserved on calculated 4D-T2w MRI, with median diaphragm positions being consistent with less than 6.6 mm (2 voxels) for all patients and less than 3.3 mm (1 voxel) for 9 of 10 patients. Geometrical positions were coherent between 4D-T1w and 4D-T2w MRI as Euclidean distances between all corresponding anatomical landmarks agreed to within 7.6 mm (Euclidean distance of 2 voxels) and were below 3.8 mm (Euclidean distance of 1 voxel) for 355 of 470 pairs of anatomical landmarks. Volumetric image similarity was commensurate between 4D-T1w and 4D-T2w MRI, as mean percentage differences in normalized mutual information (calculated over all respiratory phases and patients), between

  10. Fast MR imaging and ultrafast MR imaging of fetal central nervous system abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakudo, Miyuki; Manabe, Takao; Murata, Katsuko; Matsuo, Ryoichi; Oda, Junro [Osaka City General Hospital (Japan); Inoue, Yuichi; Mochizuki, Kunizo; Yamada, Ryusaku

    2001-12-01

    The aims of this study were two: to compare the efficacy of fast MRI (breath-hold fast spin-echo T2-weighted and fast gradient-echo T1-weighted sequence) and ultrafast MRI (half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo sequence) in evaluation of fetal central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities at late gestational age, and to compare the capability of fast MRI and ultrafast MRI to assess fetal CNS abnormalities with that of prenatal ultrasonography (US). Forty-nine women with fetuses at gestational ages of 26-39 weeks underwent fast MRI (29 patients) or ultrafast MRI (20 patients). In detection of motion artifact, visualization of the lateral and 4th ventricles, and differentiation between gray and white matter in cerebral hemispheres, ultrafast MRI was significantly superior to fast MRI (p<0.0001, Mann-Whitney U test). In 25 of 43 cases, US and MR diagnoses were the same and consistent with postnatal diagnosis. In 10 of 43 cases, MRI demonstrated findings additional to or different from those of US, and MR findings were confirmed postnatally. MRI, particularly ultrafast MRI, is useful for demonstrating CNS abnormalities in situations in which US is suggestive but not definitive. (author)

  11. Spin-Echo Small Angle Neutron Scattering analysis of liposomes and bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heijkamp, Léon F.; Sevcenco, Ana-Maria; Abou, Diane; van Luik, Remko; Krijger, Gerard C.; Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon; de Schepper, Ignatz M.; Wolterbeek, Bert; Koning, Gerben A.; Bouwman, Wim G.

    2010-10-01

    Two types of liposomes, commonly used in drug delivery studies, and E. coli bacteria, all prepared in H2O, were resuspended in D2O and measured with Small Angle Spin-Echo Neutron Scattering (SESANS). Modeling was performed using correlation functions for solid spheres and hollow spheres. The signal strength and curve shape were more indicative of hollow particles, indicating that the H2O-D2O exchange occurred too fast to be observed with the available time resolution. Fitting the particle diameter and membrane thickness of the hollow sphere model to the data, gave results which were in good agreement with Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) data and literature, showing as a proof-of-principle that SESANS is able to investigate such systems. SESANS may become a good alternative to conventional tritium studies or a tool with which to study intracellular vesicle transport phenomena, with possible in vivo applications. Calculations show that a substantial change in numbers of a mixed system of small and large biological particles should be observable. A possible application is the destruction by external means of great numbers of liposomes in the presence of tumor cells for triggered drug release in cancer treatment. Since SESANS is both non-invasive and non-destructive and can handle relatively thick samples, it could be a useful addition to more conventional techniques.

  12. High signals in the uterine cervix on T2-weighted MRI sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graef, De M.; Karam, R.; Daclin, P.Y.; Rouanet, J.P.; Juhan, V.; Maubon, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this pictorial review was to illustrate the normal cervix appearance on T2-weighted images, and give a review of common or less common disorders of the uterine cervix that appear as high signal intensity lesions on T2-weighted sequences. Numerous aetiologies dominated by cervical cancer are reviewed and discussed. This gamut is obviously incomplete; however, radiologists who perform MR women's imaging should perform T2-weighted sequences in the sagittal plane regardless of the indication for pelvic MR. Those sequences will diagnose some previously unknown cervical cancers as well as many other unknown cervical or uterine lesions. (orig.)

  13. Ultra-fast low-angle rapid acquisition and relaxation enhancement (UFLARE) in patients with epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, S.H.; Symms, M.R.; Woermann, F.G.; Kendall, B.; Stevens, J.M.; Stepney, A.; Barker, G.J.; Niendorf, T.

    2001-01-01

    MRI is an important diagnostic tool in patients with epilepsy, but patient motion during long scans may result in image artefacts. We studied the utility of an ultra-fast MR sequence in patients with epilepsy. Ultra-fast low-angle rapid acquisition and relaxation enhancement (UFLARE) images were acquired for 100 consecutive patients and nine control subjects. Scans were compared with routine T2-weighted spin echo images for signal-to-noise ratio, contrast, and conspicuity, followed by a blind review of lesion detectability. UFLARE scans were also acquired for 15 patients who moved during conventional scans. All UFLARE scans had lower signal-to-noise ratios and lower contrast than the T2-weighted images. Compared with T1- and T2-weighted, PD and FLAIR images, 86% of hippocampal sclerosis (HS), 92% of large but only 24% of small white-matter lesions were detected on the blind review of the UFLARE images. Reduced motion artefacts were seen on the UFLARE images in all 15 patients who moved during the conventional scans, and in three patients UFLARE was the only sequence we were able to obtain. Despite the lower lesion detectability for smaller lesions, the use of an ultra-fast MRI sequence such as UFLARE may be very useful in patients who are not able to co-operate during conventional MRI examinations, if a general anaesthetic is to be avoided. (orig.)

  14. Clinical application of Half Fourier Acquisition Single Shot Turbo Spin Echo (HASTE) imaging accelerated by simultaneous multi-slice acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Jenni; P Marques, José; Ter Telgte, Annemieke; van Dorst, Anouk; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik; Meijer, Frederick J A; Norris, David G

    2018-01-01

    As a single-shot sequence with a long train of refocusing pulses, Half-Fourier Acquisition Single-Shot Turbo-Spin-Echo (HASTE) suffers from high power deposition limiting use at high resolutions and high field strengths, particularly if combined with acceleration techniques such as simultaneous multi-slice (SMS) imaging. Using a combination of multiband (MB)-excitation and PINS-refocusing pulses will effectively accelerate the acquisition time while staying within the SAR limitations. In particular, uncooperative and young patients will profit from the speed of the MB-PINS HASTE sequence, as clinical diagnosis can be possible without sedation. Materials and MethodsMB-excitation and PINS-refocusing pulses were incorporated into a HASTE-sequence with blipped CAIPIRINHA and TRAPS including an internal FLASH reference scan for online reconstruction. Whole brain MB-PINS HASTE data were acquired on a Siemens 3T-Prisma system from 10 individuals and compared to a clinical HASTE protocol. ResultsThe proposed MB-PINS HASTE protocol accelerates the acquisition by about a factor 2 compared to the clinical HASTE. The diagnostic image quality proved to be comparable for both sequences for the evaluation of the overall aspect of the brain, the detection of white matter changes and areas of tissue loss, and for the evaluation of the CSF spaces although artifacts were more frequently encountered with MB-PINS HASTE. ConclusionsMB-PINS HASTE enables acquisition of slice accelerated highly T2-weighted images and provides good diagnostic image quality while reducing acquisition time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessment of T2-Weighted Coronal Magnetic Resonance Images in the Investigation of Pituitary Lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuksekkaya, Ruken; Aggunlu, Levent; Oner, Yusuf; Celik, Halil; Akpek, Sergin; Celikyay, Fatih

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is the most important diagnostic method in the investigation of the pituitary lesions. Our aim is to determine whether T2-weighted coronal images may be helpful in the evaluation of the pituitary gland with suspected pituitary adenomas. One hundred and sixty-seven patients were examined prospectively with T2-weighted coronal and T1-weighted coronal images enhanced with intravenous contrast material. The images were evaluated for the presence, the size, the location, and the ancillary signs including sellar floor erosion or ballooning, infindibulary deviation, convexity of the superior border of the gland, diffuse enlargement of the gland, and the invasion of the cavenous sinuses on both images. In forty-six (28%) patients lesions were revealed on both sequences. In twenty-one (12%) patients the lesions that were revealed on the T1-weighted images were not detected on the T2-weighted images. Positive predictive value, negative predictive value, sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy rates of T2-weighted coronal images on the detection of the presence of lesions were 100%, 17.4%, 68.7%, 100%, and 87.4%, respectively. Both T2-weighted coronal and T1-weighted coronal images enhanced with intravenous gadolinium-based contrast material are important in the diagnosis of pituitary adenomas. T2-weighted coronal images could be used as a screening tool for the primary evaluation of the pituitary gland

  16. Development of Instrumentation for Spin-Echo Induced Spatial Beam Modulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sales, Morten

    Spin-Echo Modulated Small Angle Neutron Scattering in Time-of-Flight mode (ToF SEMSANS) is an emerging technique extending the measurable phase space covered by neutron scattering. Using inclined magnetic field surfaces, (very) small angle scattering from a sample can be mapped into the spin...... orientation of the neutron as it has been shown in Spin-Echo Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SESANS). Taking this technique further we have shown that it is possible to perform quantitative Dark-Field Imaging, where the small angle scattering signal of individual areas in a neutron image can be obtained...

  17. Design and experimental tests of a novel neutron spin analyzer for wide angle spin echo spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouquet, Peter; Farago, Bela; Andersen, Ken H.; Bentley, Phillip M.; Pastrello, Gilles; Sutton, Iain; Thaveron, Eric; Thomas, Frederic [Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Moskvin, Evgeny [Helmholtzzentrum Berlin, Glienicker Strasse 100, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Pappas, Catherine [Helmholtzzentrum Berlin, Glienicker Strasse 100, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands)

    2009-09-15

    This paper describes the design and experimental tests of a novel neutron spin analyzer optimized for wide angle spin echo spectrometers. The new design is based on nonremanent magnetic supermirrors, which are magnetized by vertical magnetic fields created by NdFeB high field permanent magnets. The solution presented here gives stable performance at moderate costs in contrast to designs invoking remanent supermirrors. In the experimental part of this paper we demonstrate that the new design performs well in terms of polarization, transmission, and that high quality neutron spin echo spectra can be measured.

  18. Application of MSS-neutron spin echo spectrometer to pulsed neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasaki, S.; Ebisawa, T.; Hino, M.; Kawai, T.

    2001-01-01

    A multilayer spin splitter (MSS) is a neutron device that gives phase difference between field-parallel and -antiparallel spin component of a superposing state. Since the phase difference is equivalent to the Larmor precession angle, MSS enables us to construct a new type of neutron spin echo (NSE) spectrometer. The new NSE spectrometer has its properties that 1. since the phase shift is neutron flight path length, the spectrometer can be drastically small, 2. the neutron spin echo time is proportional to the neutron wavelength. (author)

  19. Electron spin echo studies of the internal motion of radicals in crystals: Phase memory vs correlation time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kispert, L.D.; Bowman, M.K.; Norris, J.R.; Brown, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    An electron spin echo (ESE) study of the internal motion of the CH 2 protons in irradiated zinc acetate dihydrate crystals shows that quantitative measurements of the motional correlation time can be obtained quite directly from pulsed measurements. In the slow motional limit, the motional correlation time is equal to the phase memory time determined by ESE. In the fast motional limit, the motional correlation time is proportional to the no motion spectral second moment divided by the ESE phase memory time. ESE offers a convenient method of studying motion, electron transfer, conductivity, etc. in a variety of systems too complicated for study by ordinary EPR. New systems for study by ESE include biological samples, organic polymers, liquid solutions of radicals with unresolved hyperfine, etc. When motion modulates large anisotropic hyperfine couplings, ESE measurements of the phase memory time are sensitive to modulation of pseudosecular hyperfine interactions

  20. Neutron spin-echo studies on dynamic and static fluctuations in two types of poly(vinyl alcohol) gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanaya, T.; Takahashi, N.; Nishida, K.; Seto, H.; Nagao, M.; Takeda, T.

    2005-01-01

    We report neutron spin-echo measurements on two types of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) gels. The first is PVA gel in a mixture of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and water with volume ratio 60/40, and the second is PVA gel in an aqueous borax solution. The observed normalized intermediate scattering functions I(Q,t)/I(Q,0) are very different between them. The former I(Q,t)/I(Q,0) shows a nondecaying component in addition to a fast decay, but the latter does not have the nondecaying one. This clearly indicates that the fluctuations in the former PVA gel consist of static and dynamic fluctuations whereas the latter PVA gel does include only the dynamic fluctuations. The dynamic fluctuations of the former and latter gels have been analyzed in terms of a restricted motion in the network and Zimm motion, respectively, and the origins of these motions will be discussed

  1. Assessment of Myocardial Fibrosis in Mice Using a T2*-Weighted 3D Radial Magnetic Resonance Imaging Sequence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastiaan J van Nierop

    Full Text Available Myocardial fibrosis is a common hallmark of many diseases of the heart. Late gadolinium enhanced MRI is a powerful tool to image replacement fibrosis after myocardial infarction (MI. Interstitial fibrosis can be assessed indirectly from an extracellular volume fraction measurement using contrast-enhanced T1 mapping. Detection of short T2* species resulting from fibrotic tissue may provide an attractive non-contrast-enhanced alternative to directly visualize the presence of both replacement and interstitial fibrosis.To goal of this paper was to explore the use of a T2*-weighted radial sequence for the visualization of fibrosis in mouse heart.C57BL/6 mice were studied with MI (n = 20, replacement fibrosis, transverse aortic constriction (TAC (n = 18, diffuse fibrosis, and as control (n = 10. 3D center-out radial T2*-weighted images with varying TE were acquired in vivo and ex vivo (TE = 21 μs-4 ms. Ex vivo T2*-weighted signal decay with TE was analyzed using a 3-component model. Subtraction of short- and long-TE images was used to highlight fibrotic tissue with short T2*. The presence of fibrosis was validated using histology and correlated to MRI findings.Detailed ex vivo T2*-weighted signal analysis revealed a fast (T2*fast, slow (T2*slow and lipid (T2*lipid pool. T2*fast remained essentially constant. Infarct T2*slow decreased significantly, while a moderate decrease was observed in remote tissue in post-MI hearts and in TAC hearts. T2*slow correlated with the presence of diffuse fibrosis in TAC hearts (r = 0.82, P = 0.01. Ex vivo and in vivo subtraction images depicted a positive contrast in the infarct co-localizing with the scar. Infarct volumes from histology and subtraction images linearly correlated (r = 0.94, P<0.001. Region-of-interest analysis in the in vivo post-MI and TAC hearts revealed significant T2* shortening due to fibrosis, in agreement with the ex vivo results. However, in vivo contrast on subtraction images was rather poor

  2. TOF-SEMSANS—Time-of-flight spin-echo modulated small-angle neutron scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strobl, M.; Tremsin, A.S.; Hilger, A.; Wieder, F.; Kardjilov, N.; Manke, I.; Bouwman, W.G.; Plomp, J.

    2012-01-01

    We report on measurements of spatial beam modulation of a polarized neutron beam induced by triangular precession regions in time-of-flight mode and the application of this novel technique spin-echo modulated small-angle neutron scattering (SEMSANS) to small-angle neutron scattering in the very

  3. IN15 ultra-high-resolution spin-echo project. First experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleger, P; Hayes, C [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France); Kollmar, A [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    1997-04-01

    The IN15 project is a collaboration between the ILL, HMI (Berlin), and FZ (Juelich) to construct a spin-echo spectrometer with a fourier time-range surpassing half a microsecond. Three different operational modes are possible: normal, with neutron focusing, and time-of-flight. Present status of the project is described. (author). 3 refs.

  4. Magnetic field mapping around metal implants using an asymmetric spin-echo sequence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartušek, Karel; Dokoupil, Zdeněk; Gescheidtová, E.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 12 (2006), s. 3293-3300 ISSN 0957-0233 R&D Projects: GA MZd NR8110 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : nuclear magnetic resonance * spin echo * MRI * B0 mapping * dental material Subject RIV: FS - Medical Facilities ; Equipment Impact factor: 1.228, year: 2006

  5. The neutron spin-echo spectrometer: a new high resolution technique in neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, L.K.

    1981-01-01

    The neutron spin-echo (NSE) spectrometer provides the highest energy resolution available in neutron scattering experiments. The article describes the principles behind the first NSE spectrometer (at the Institute Laue-Langevin, Grenoble, France) and, as an example of one of its applications, some recent results on polymer chain dynamics are presented. (author)

  6. Optimal control design of turbo spin-echo sequences with applications to parallel-transmit systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sbrizzi, Alessandro; Hoogduin, Hans; Hajnal, Joseph V; van den Berg, CAT; Luijten, Peter R; Malik, Shaihan J

    PURPOSE: The design of turbo spin-echo sequences is modeled as a dynamic optimization problem which includes the case of inhomogeneous transmit radiofrequency fields. This problem is efficiently solved by optimal control techniques making it possible to design patient-specific sequences online.

  7. Signs of patellar chondromalacia on sagittal T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Smet, A.A.; Monu, J.U.; Fisher, D.R.; Keene, J.S.; Graf, B.K.

    1992-01-01

    We incidentally noted distinctive high signal defects or fissures in the patellar articular cartilage on sagittal T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images in 4 patients. At subsequent arthroscopy all 4 patients were found to have patellar chondromalacia. To determine the reliabilty of these signs, we retrospectively evaluated, in a blinded manner, sagittal T2-weighted MR images of the knee in 75 patients who were undergoing arthroscopic assessment of their patellar articular cartilage. We indentified high signal defects of fissures in the patellar cartilage of 5 patients. Patellar chondromalacia was noted at arthroscopy in all 5 patients. Arthroscopy demonstrated patellar chondromalacia in an additional 21 patients with normal MR images. We conclude that high signal defects or fissures on sagittal T2-weighted images are usefull signs of patellar chondromalacia. This single imaging sequence will, however, detect only a small number of the cartilage lesions that may be present. (orig.)

  8. Signs of patellar chondromalacia on sagittal T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Smet, A.A.; Monu, J.U.; Fisher, D.R. (Univ. of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics, Dept. of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States)); Keene, J.S.; Graf, B.K. (Univ. of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics, Div. of Orthopedic Surgery, Madison, WI (United States))

    1992-02-01

    We incidentally noted distinctive high signal defects or fissures in the patellar articular cartilage on sagittal T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images in 4 patients. At subsequent arthroscopy all 4 patients were found to have patellar chondromalacia. To determine the reliabilty of these signs, we retrospectively evaluated, in a blinded manner, sagittal T2-weighted MR images of the knee in 75 patients who were undergoing arthroscopic assessment of their patellar articular cartilage. We indentified high signal defects of fissures in the patellar cartilage of 5 patients. Patellar chondromalacia was noted at arthroscopy in all 5 patients. Arthroscopy demonstrated patellar chondromalacia in an additional 21 patients with normal MR images. We conclude that high signal defects or fissures on sagittal T2-weighted images are usefull signs of patellar chondromalacia. This single imaging sequence will, however, detect only a small number of the cartilage lesions that may be present. (orig.).

  9. T2-weighted MRI-derived textural features reflect prostate cancer aggressiveness: preliminary results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nketiah, G.; Elschot, M.; Kim, E.; Teruel, J.R.; Scheenen, T.W.J.; Bathen, T.F.; Selnaes, K.M.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the diagnostic relevance of T2-weighted (T2W) MRI-derived textural features relative to quantitative physiological parameters derived from diffusion-weighted (DW) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI in Gleason score (GS) 3+4 and 4+3 prostate cancers. MATERIALS AND METHODS:

  10. Differentiating benign and malignant breast lesions with T2*-weighted first pass perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvistad, K.A.; Smenes, E.; Haraldseth, O.; Lundgren, S.; Fjoesne, H.E.; Smethurst, H.B.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: Invasive breast carcinomas and fibroadenomas are often difficult to differentiate in dynamic contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MR imaging of the breast, because both tumors can enhance strongly after contrast injection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the addition of T2*-weighted first pass perfusion imaging can increase the differentiation of malignant from benign lesions. Material and Methods: Nine patients with invasive carcinomas and 10 patients with contrast enhancing fibroadenomas were examined by a dynamic contrast-enhanced T1-weighted 3D sequence immediately followed by a single slice T2*-weighted first pass perfusion sequence positioned in the contrast-enhancing lesion. Results: The carcinomas and the fibroadenomas were impossible to differentiate based on the contrast enhancement characteristics in the T1-weighted sequence. The signal loss in the T2*-weighted perfusion sequence was significantly stronger in the carcinomas than in the fibroadenomas (p=0.0004). Conclusion: Addition of a T2*-weighted first pass perfusion sequence with a high temporal resolution can probably increase the differentiation of fibroadenomas from invasive carcinomas in contrast-enhanced MR imaging of the breast. (orig.)

  11. Improved fat-suppression homogeneity with mDIXON turbo spin echo (TSE) in pediatric spine imaging at 3.0 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorney, Amber L; Chia, Jonathan M; Pfeifer, Cory M; Miller, Jeffrey H; Hu, Houchun H

    2017-11-01

    Background Robust fat suppression remains essential in clinical MRI to improve tissue signal contrast, minimize fat-related artifacts, and enhance image quality. Purpose To compare fat suppression between mDIXON turbo spin echo (TSE) and conventional frequency-selective and inversion-recovery methods in pediatric spine MRI. Material and Methods Images from T1-weighted (T1W) and T2-weighted (T2W) TSE sequences coupled with conventional methods and the mDIXON technique were compared in 36 patients (5.8 ± 5.4 years) at 3.0 T. Images from 42 pairs of T1W (n = 16) and T2W (n = 26) scans were acquired. Two radiologists reviewed the data and rated images using a three-point scale in two categories, including the uniformity of fat suppression and overall diagnostic image quality. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to compare the scores. Results The Cohen's kappa coefficient for inter-rater agreement was 0.69 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.56-0.83). Images from mDIXON TSE were considered superior in fat suppression ( P 3.0 T and should be considered as a permanent replacement of traditional methods, in particular frequency-selective techniques.

  12. Design of universal parallel-transmit refocusing kT -point pulses and application to 3D T2 -weighted imaging at 7T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras, Vincent; Mauconduit, Franck; Vignaud, Alexandre; Amadon, Alexis; Le Bihan, Denis; Stöcker, Tony; Boulant, Nicolas

    2018-07-01

    T 2 -weighted sequences are particularly sensitive to the radiofrequency (RF) field inhomogeneity problem at ultra-high-field because of the errors accumulated by the imperfections of the train of refocusing pulses. As parallel transmission (pTx) has proved particularly useful to counteract RF heterogeneities, universal pulses were recently demonstrated to save precious time and computational efforts by skipping B 1 calibration and online RF pulse tailoring. Here, we report a universal RF pulse design for non-selective refocusing pulses to mitigate the RF inhomogeneity problem at 7T in turbo spin-echo sequences with variable flip angles. Average Hamiltonian theory was used to synthetize a single non-selective refocusing pulse with pTx while optimizing its scaling properties in the presence of static field offsets. The design was performed under explicit power and specific absorption rate constraints on a database of 10 subjects using a 8Tx-32Rx commercial coil at 7T. To validate the proposed design, the RF pulses were tested in simulation and applied in vivo on 5 additional test subjects. The root-mean-square rotation angle error (RA-NRMSE) evaluation and experimental data demonstrated great improvement with the proposed universal pulses (RA-NRMSE ∼8%) compared to the standard circularly polarized mode of excitation (RA-NRMSE ∼26%). This work further completes the spectrum of 3D universal pulses to mitigate RF field inhomogeneity throughout all 3D MRI sequences without any pTx calibration. The approach returns a single pulse that can be scaled to match the desired flip angle train, thereby increasing the modularity of the proposed plug and play approach. Magn Reson Med 80:53-65, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  13. Revised PROPELLER for T2-weighted imaging of the prostate at 3 Tesla: impact on lesion detection and PI-RADS classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier-Schroers, Michael; Marx, Christian; Schmeel, Frederic Carsten; Wolter, Karsten; Block, Wolfgang; Sprinkart, Alois Martin; Traeber, Frank; Schild, Hans Heinz; Kukuk, Guido Matthias [University Hospital Bonn, Department of Radiology, Bonn (Germany); Gieseke, Juergen [Philips Healthcare Germany, Hamburg (Germany); Willinek, Winfried [Hospital of Barmherzige Brueder, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology, Sonography and Nuclear Medicine, Trier (Germany)

    2018-01-15

    To evaluate revised PROPELLER (RevPROP) for T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) of the prostate as a substitute for turbo spin echo (TSE). Three-Tesla MR images of 50 patients with 55 cancer-suspicious lesions were prospectively evaluated. Findings were correlated with histopathology after MRI-guided biopsy. T2 RevPROP, T2 TSE, diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast enhancement, and MR-spectroscopy were acquired. RevPROP was compared to TSE concerning PI-RADS scores, lesion size, lesion signal-intensity, lesion contrast, artefacts, and image quality. There were 41 carcinomas in 55 cancer-suspicious lesions. RevPROP detected 41 of 41 carcinomas (100%) and 54 of 55 lesions (98.2%). TSE detected 39 of 41 carcinomas (95.1%) and 51 of 55 lesions (92.7%). RevPROP showed fewer artefacts and higher image quality (each p < 0.001). No differences were observed between single and overall PI-RADS scores based on RevPROP or TSE (p = 0.106 and p = 0.107). Lesion size was not different (p = 0.105). T2-signal intensity of lesions was higher and T2-contrast of lesions was lower on RevPROP (each p < 0.001). For prostate cancer detection RevPROP is superior to TSE with respect to motion robustness, image quality and detection rates of lesions. Therefore, RevPROP might be used as a substitute for T2WI. (orig.)

  14. Revised PROPELLER for T2-weighted imaging of the prostate at 3 Tesla: impact on lesion detection and PI-RADS classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier-Schroers, Michael; Marx, Christian; Schmeel, Frederic Carsten; Wolter, Karsten; Block, Wolfgang; Sprinkart, Alois Martin; Traeber, Frank; Schild, Hans Heinz; Kukuk, Guido Matthias; Gieseke, Juergen; Willinek, Winfried

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate revised PROPELLER (RevPROP) for T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) of the prostate as a substitute for turbo spin echo (TSE). Three-Tesla MR images of 50 patients with 55 cancer-suspicious lesions were prospectively evaluated. Findings were correlated with histopathology after MRI-guided biopsy. T2 RevPROP, T2 TSE, diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast enhancement, and MR-spectroscopy were acquired. RevPROP was compared to TSE concerning PI-RADS scores, lesion size, lesion signal-intensity, lesion contrast, artefacts, and image quality. There were 41 carcinomas in 55 cancer-suspicious lesions. RevPROP detected 41 of 41 carcinomas (100%) and 54 of 55 lesions (98.2%). TSE detected 39 of 41 carcinomas (95.1%) and 51 of 55 lesions (92.7%). RevPROP showed fewer artefacts and higher image quality (each p < 0.001). No differences were observed between single and overall PI-RADS scores based on RevPROP or TSE (p = 0.106 and p = 0.107). Lesion size was not different (p = 0.105). T2-signal intensity of lesions was higher and T2-contrast of lesions was lower on RevPROP (each p < 0.001). For prostate cancer detection RevPROP is superior to TSE with respect to motion robustness, image quality and detection rates of lesions. Therefore, RevPROP might be used as a substitute for T2WI. (orig.)

  15. Magnetic resonance tomography (MR) of intracranial tumours: Contrast versus T2-weighted tomograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoerner, W.; Laniado, M.; Claussen, C.; Kazner, E.; Niendorf, H.P.; Felix, R.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance tomography was performed on 38 patients with intracranial tumours, before and after the administration of contrast, using a 0.35 T Magnetom. The MR examinations included various plain spin-echo sequences (SE 400/35, 800/35, 1600/35, 1600/70, 1600/105, 1600/120) as well as examinations after the iv-administration of gadolinium-DTPA (SE 800/35). On all occasions, the abnormalities were visible without contrast. Differentiation of tumour and its surroundings was possible in 19 out of 38 cases without contrast. Delineation of expansively growing tumours (eg. meningiomas) was possible in twelve out of 14 cases, but in only seven out of 24 cases with infiltrating tumours (eg. glioblastomas). On the other hand, clear differentiation between tumour and adjacent edema and normal brain, respectively, was possible in 35 out of 38 cases after Gadolinium-DTPA. (orig.) [de

  16. New spoiled spin-echo technique for three-dimensional MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darrasse, L.; Mao, L.; Saint-Jalmes, H.

    1989-01-01

    For 3D MR imaging within a convenient scanning time, the authors propose an improved spin-echo technique that permits the use of TRs shorter than 100 msec. They use a two-pulse RF sequence (α-π echo). The echo is read with conventional 3DFT encoding. To avoid steady-state signal refocusing before either α or (imperfect) π pulses, we apply randomized gradient spoilers both before each α pulse and on each side of the π pulse. So the sequence works like standard spin- echo sequences, with the z-magnetization recovery being adjusted by means of α rather than TR. The authors have investigated the method on a new 0.1-T Magnetom system dedicated for 3D MR imaging

  17. Neutron spin quantum precession using multilayer spin splitters and a phase-spin echo interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebisawa, Toru; Tasaki, Seiji; Kawai, Takeshi; Hino, Masahiro; Akiyoshi, Tsunekazu; Achiwa, Norio; Otake, Yoshie; Funahashi, Haruhiko.

    1996-01-01

    Neutron spin quantum precession by multilayer spin splitter has been demonstrated using a new spin interferometer. The multilayer spin splitter consists of a magnetic multilayer mirror on top, followed by a gap layer and a non magnetic multilayer mirror which are evaporated on a silicon substrate. Using the multilayer spin splitter, a polarized neutron wave in a magnetic field perpendicular to the polarization is split into two spin eigenstates with a phase shift in the direction of the magnetic field. The spin quantum precession is equal to the phase shift, which depends on the effective thickness of the gap layer. The demonstration experiments verify the multilayer spin splitter as a neutron spin precession device as well as the coherent superposition principle of the two spin eigenstates. We have developed a new phase-spin echo interferometer using the multilayer spin splitters. We present successful performance tests of the multilayer spin splitter and the phase-spin echo interferometer. (author)

  18. A quasi-elastic neutron scattering and neutron spin-echo study of hydrogen bonded system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branca, C.; Faraone, A.; Magazu, S.; Maisano, G.; Mangione, A

    2004-07-15

    This work reports neutron spin echo results on aqueous solutions of trehalose, a naturally occurring disaccharide of glucose, showing an extraordinary bioprotective effectiveness against dehydration and freezing. We collected data using the SPAN spectrometer (BENSC, Berlin) on trehalose aqueous solutions at different temperature values. The obtained findings are compared with quasi-elastic neutron scattering results in order to furnish new results on the dynamics of the trehalose/water system on the nano and picoseconds scale.

  19. Dynamical scaling in polymer solutions investigated by the neutron spin echo technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, D.; Ewen, B.

    1979-01-01

    Chain dynamics in polymer solutions was investigated by means of the recently developed neutron spin echo spectroscopy. - By this technique, it was possible for the first time to verify unambiguously the scaling predictions of the Zimm model in the case of single chain behaviour and to observe the cross over to many chain behaviour. The segmental diffusion of single chains exhibits deviations from a simple exponential law, indicating the importance of memory effects. (orig.) [de

  20. Spin echo dynamics under an applied drift field in graphene nanoribbon superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhakar, Sanjay, E-mail: sprabhakar@wlu.ca [M 2NeT Laboratory, Wilfrid Laurier University, 75 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3C5 (Canada); Melnik, Roderick [M 2NeT Laboratory, Wilfrid Laurier University, 75 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3C5 (Canada); Gregorio Millan Institute, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Spain); Bonilla, Luis L. [Gregorio Millan Institute, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Spain); Raynolds, James E. [Drinker Biddle and Reath LLP, Washington, DC 20005 (United States)

    2013-12-02

    We investigate the evolution of spin dynamics in graphene nanoribbon superlattices (GNSLs) with armchair and zigzag edges in the presence of a drift field. We determine the exact evolution operator and show that it exhibits spin echo phenomena due to rapid oscillations of the quantum states along the ribbon. The evolution of the spin polarization is accompanied by strong beating patterns. We also provide detailed analysis of the band structure of GNSLs with armchair and zigzag edges.

  1. Spin echo dynamics under an applied drift field in graphene nanoribbon superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhakar, Sanjay; Melnik, Roderick; Bonilla, Luis L.; Raynolds, James E.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of spin dynamics in graphene nanoribbon superlattices (GNSLs) with armchair and zigzag edges in the presence of a drift field. We determine the exact evolution operator and show that it exhibits spin echo phenomena due to rapid oscillations of the quantum states along the ribbon. The evolution of the spin polarization is accompanied by strong beating patterns. We also provide detailed analysis of the band structure of GNSLs with armchair and zigzag edges

  2. Selectivity of alkyl radical formation from branched alkanes studied by electron spin resonance and electron spin echo spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuneki, Ichikawa; Hiroshi, Yoshida

    1992-01-01

    Alkyl radicals generated from branched alkanes by γ radiation are being measuring by electron spin resonance and electron spin echo spectroscopy. This research is being conducted to determine the mechanism of selective alkyl radical formation in low-temperature solids

  3. Determination of the amounts of C, CH, CH/sub 2/, and CH fragments by the spin echo method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polonov, V.M.; Kalabin, G.A.; Kushnarev, D.F.; Latyshev, V.P.

    1984-01-01

    A new method has been developed for the quantitative determination of the amounts of primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary carbon atoms in soluble products of coal origin which is based on pulsed sequence of /sup 13/C NMR spin echo.

  4. The image evaluation of iterative motion correction reconstruction algorithm PROPELLER T2-weighted imaging compared with MultiVane T2-weighted imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suk-Jun; Yu, Seung-Man

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness and clinical applications of MultiVaneXD which was applying iterative motion correction reconstruction algorithm T2-weighted images compared with MultiVane images taken with a 3T MRI. A total of 20 patients with suspected pathologies of the liver and pancreatic-biliary system based on clinical and laboratory findings underwent upper abdominal MRI, acquired using the MultiVane and MultiVaneXD techniques. Two reviewers analyzed the MultiVane and MultiVaneXD T2-weighted images qualitatively and quantitatively. Each reviewer evaluated vessel conspicuity by observing motion artifacts and the sharpness of the portal vein, hepatic vein, and upper organs. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated by one reviewer for quantitative analysis. The interclass correlation coefficient was evaluated to measure inter-observer reliability. There were significant differences between MultiVane and MultiVaneXD in motion artifact evaluation. Furthermore, MultiVane was given a better score than MultiVaneXD in abdominal organ sharpness and vessel conspicuity, but the difference was insignificant. The reliability coefficient values were over 0.8 in every evaluation. MultiVaneXD (2.12) showed a higher value than did MultiVane (1.98), but the difference was insignificant ( p = 0.135). MultiVaneXD is a motion correction method that is more advanced than MultiVane, and it produced an increased SNR, resulting in a greater ability to detect focal abdominal lesions.

  5. MRI detection of hypointense brain lesions in patients with multiple sclerosis: T1 spin-echo vs. gradient-echo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupuy, Sheena L.; Tauhid, Shahamat; Kim, Gloria; Chu, Renxin; Tummala, Subhash [Departments of Neurology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Laboratory for Neuroimaging Research, Partners MS Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Hurwitz, Shelley [Departments of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Bakshi, Rohit, E-mail: rbakshi@bwh.harvard.edu [Departments of Neurology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Laboratory for Neuroimaging Research, Partners MS Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Departments of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Compared T1SE and T1GE in detecting hypointense brain lesions in MS patients. • T1GE detected a higher cerebral lesion volume and number than T1SE. • T1SE correlated significantly with disability, while T1GE did not. • Hypointense lesions on T1SE and T1GE are not interchangeable in patients with MS. - Abstract: Objective: Compare T1 spin-echo (T1SE) and T1 gradient-echo (T1GE) sequences in detecting hypointense brain lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS). Background: Chronic hypointense lesions on T1SE MRI scans are a surrogate of severe demyelination and axonal loss in MS. The role of T1GE images in the detection of such lesions has not been clarified. Design/methods: In 45 patients with MS [Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score (mean ± SD) 3.5 ± 2.0; 37 relapsing-remitting (RR); 8 secondary progressive (SP)], cerebral T1SE, T1GE, and T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) images were acquired on a 1.5 T MRI scanner. Images were re-sampled to axial 5 mm slices before directly comparing lesion detectability using Jim (v.7, Xinapse Systems). Statistical methods included Wilcoxon signed rank tests to compare sequences and Spearman correlations to test associations. Results: Considering the entire cohort, T1GE detected a higher lesion volume (5.90 ± 6.21 vs. 4.17 ± 4.84 ml, p < 0.0001) and higher lesion number (27.82 ± 20.66 vs. 25.20 ± 20.43, p < 0.05) than T1SE. Lesion volume differences persisted when considering RR and SP patients separately (both p < 0.01). A higher lesion number by T1GE was seen only in the RR group (p < 0.05). When comparing correlations between lesion volume and overall neurologic disability (EDSS score), T1SE correlated with EDSS (Spearman r = 0.29, p < 0.05) while T1GE (r = 0.23, p = 0.13) and FLAIR (r = 0.24, p = 0.12) did not. Conclusion: Our data suggest that hypointense lesions on T1SE and T1GE are not interchangeable in patients with MS. Based on these results, we hypothesize that T1GE

  6. MRI detection of hypointense brain lesions in patients with multiple sclerosis: T1 spin-echo vs. gradient-echo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuy, Sheena L.; Tauhid, Shahamat; Kim, Gloria; Chu, Renxin; Tummala, Subhash; Hurwitz, Shelley; Bakshi, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Compared T1SE and T1GE in detecting hypointense brain lesions in MS patients. • T1GE detected a higher cerebral lesion volume and number than T1SE. • T1SE correlated significantly with disability, while T1GE did not. • Hypointense lesions on T1SE and T1GE are not interchangeable in patients with MS. - Abstract: Objective: Compare T1 spin-echo (T1SE) and T1 gradient-echo (T1GE) sequences in detecting hypointense brain lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS). Background: Chronic hypointense lesions on T1SE MRI scans are a surrogate of severe demyelination and axonal loss in MS. The role of T1GE images in the detection of such lesions has not been clarified. Design/methods: In 45 patients with MS [Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score (mean ± SD) 3.5 ± 2.0; 37 relapsing-remitting (RR); 8 secondary progressive (SP)], cerebral T1SE, T1GE, and T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) images were acquired on a 1.5 T MRI scanner. Images were re-sampled to axial 5 mm slices before directly comparing lesion detectability using Jim (v.7, Xinapse Systems). Statistical methods included Wilcoxon signed rank tests to compare sequences and Spearman correlations to test associations. Results: Considering the entire cohort, T1GE detected a higher lesion volume (5.90 ± 6.21 vs. 4.17 ± 4.84 ml, p < 0.0001) and higher lesion number (27.82 ± 20.66 vs. 25.20 ± 20.43, p < 0.05) than T1SE. Lesion volume differences persisted when considering RR and SP patients separately (both p < 0.01). A higher lesion number by T1GE was seen only in the RR group (p < 0.05). When comparing correlations between lesion volume and overall neurologic disability (EDSS score), T1SE correlated with EDSS (Spearman r = 0.29, p < 0.05) while T1GE (r = 0.23, p = 0.13) and FLAIR (r = 0.24, p = 0.12) did not. Conclusion: Our data suggest that hypointense lesions on T1SE and T1GE are not interchangeable in patients with MS. Based on these results, we hypothesize that T1GE

  7. MR imaging pulse sequence rationale: SD-, T1-, and T2-weighted images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sax, S.; Weathers, S.W.; Schneiders, N.J.; Horowitz, B.L.; Mawad, M.E.; Sandlin, M.E.; Blackwell, R.; Bryan, R.N.

    1986-01-01

    Over 500 patients have been examined with a pulse sequence designed to provide spin-density (SD)-weighted images (TR=3 sec, TE=35 msec), T1-weighted images (TR=0.3 sec, TE=35msec), and T2-weighted images (TR=3 sec, TE=105 msec) from which calculated ''synthesized'' images and SD, T1, and T2 calculated images could be obtained. Each image contributes unique information. SD-weighted images optimally display anatomy and often best highlight pathology. T1-weighted images are critical in assessing cerebral hemorrhages. T2-weighted images best display most lesions, but yield incomplete information in 35% of cases. All three types of ''weighted'' images are necessary to optimally display anatomy and fully characterize a lesion. Computerized calculations and simulations suggest that no other combination of pulse sequences yields equal information for a given examination time

  8. T2-weighted endorectal magnetic resonance imaging of prostate cancer after external beam radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphalen, Antonio C.; Kurhanewicz, John; Cunha, Rui M.G.; Hsu, I-Chow; Kornak, John; Zhao, Shoujun; Coakley, Fergus V.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively determine the accuracy of T2-weighted endorectal MR imaging in the detection of prostate cancer after external beam radiation therapy and to investigate the relationship between imaging accuracy and time since therapy. Materials and Methods: Institutional review board approval was obtained and the study was HIPPA compliant. We identified 59 patients who underwent 1.5 Tesla endorectal MR imaging of the prostate between 1999 and 2006 after definitive external beam radiation therapy for biopsy-proven prostate cancer. Two readers recorded the presence or absence of tumor on T2-weighted images. Logistic regression and Fisher's exact tests for 2x2 tables were used to determine the accuracy of imaging and investigate if accuracy differed between those imaged within 3 years of therapy (n = 25) and those imaged more than 3 years after therapy (n = 34). Transrectal biopsy was used as the standard of reference for the presence or absence of recurrent cancer. Results: Thirty-four of 59 patients (58%) had recurrent prostate cancer detected on biopsy. The overall accuracy of T2-weighted MR imaging in the detection cancer after external beam radiation therapy was 63% (37/59) for reader 1 and 71% for reader 2 (42/59). For both readers, logistic regression showed no difference in accuracy between those imaged within 3 years of therapy and those imaged more than 3 years after therapy (p = 0.86 for reader 1 and 0.44 for reader 2). Conclusion: T2-weighted endorectal MR imaging has low accuracy in the detection of prostate cancer after external beam radiation therapy, irrespective of the time since therapy. (author)

  9. Fat-suppressed T2-weighted MRI appearance of subchondral insufficiency fracture of the femoral head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonoda, Kazuhiko; Yamamoto, Takuaki; Motomura, Goro; Karasuyama, Kazuyuki; Kubo, Yusuke; Iwamoto, Yukihide [Kyushu University, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    Our aims were to investigate the imaging appearance of subchondral insufficiency fracture (SIF) of the femoral head based on fat-suppressed T2-weighted MRI, and evaluate its correlation with the clinical outcomes following conservative treatment. We retrospectively evaluated 40 hips in 37 patients with SIF of the femoral head (12 males and 25 females; mean age 55.8 years, range 22-78 years). MRI examinations were performed within 3 months after the onset of hip pain. Using fat-suppressed T2-weighted imaging, we evaluated the hips for the intensity of the subchondral bone (corresponding to the area superior to the low intensity band on T1-weighted images) as well as bone marrow edema, joint effusion, and presence of the band lesion. We then correlated the intensity of the subchondral bone with clinical outcomes. The hips were classified into three types based on subchondral intensity on fat-suppressed T2-weighted images: type 1 (21 hips) showed high intensity, type 2 (eight hips) showed heterogeneous intensity, and type 3 (11 hips) showed low intensity. The mean period between pain onset and MRI examination was significantly longer for type 2 hips than for type 1. Healing rates were 86 % for type 1, 75 % for type 2, and 18 % for type 3. SIF cases were classified into three types based on subchondral intensity on fat-suppressed T2-weighted imaging performed within 3 months after pain onset. Type 3 SIF tended to be intractable to conservative treatment compared to type 1 and type 2. (orig.)

  10. Difference between T1 and T2 weighted MR images in avascular necrosis of the femoral head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokubo, Takashi; Yoshikawa, Koki; Itai, Yuzo; Iio, Masahiro; Takatori, Yoshio; Kamogawa, Morihide; Ninomiya, Setsuo

    1990-01-01

    T 1 and T 2 weighted MR images were compared in 32 hips with avascular necrosis, and the difference between them was discussed. In 27 of 32 hips, abnormal low intensity area in the affected femoral head is smaller in T 2 weighted images than in T 1 weighted images. The area of low intensity on T 1 weighted image and high on T 2 weighted image might be granuloma in reactive tissue and surrounding hyperemia. The difference between T 1 and T 2 weighted images must be taken into consideration especially in determination of the border of affected bone. (author)

  11. A neurotological study of patients with pontine hyperintense lesions on T2 weighted MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Toru; Tominaga, Satoru; Yukimasa, Akiko; Oku, Masaya; Sakagami, Masafumi

    2002-01-01

    Pontine hyperintense lesions seen on T2-weighted MRI were thought to be related to disequilibrium. Some of these lesions have a low signal on T1-weighted imaging, while others have an iso-signal. The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between neurological findings and pontine lesions detected by MRI. The subjects were 11 patients (6 males, 5 females; age range: 30 to 83 years [mean: 64.1 years]) with pontine hyperintense lesions identified on T2-weighted MRI. We compared the clinical signs and the MRI findings. Six of the patients had low-intensity areas on T1-weighted images, and the other 5 had iso-intensity areas. Six patients complained of vertigo, and 5 complained of dizziness. Eight complained of positionaly evoked disequilibrium. Positional nystagmus was seen in 4 patients. In 9 patients, abnormalities were found on the ENG test, including the saccadic eye movement test, ETT, and OKP. Numbness on the lips occurred in 2 patients, and cerebellar signs were present in 4. None of the patients had facial paralysis. Disequilibrium originating in the central nervous system was suggested in 10 patients. Clinical examinations revealed similar findings in patients with a low signal on T1-weighted MRI and those with an iso-signal. Our results indicate that pontine lesions identified by T2-weighted MRI cause vertigo or dizziness, and, in most cases, these lesions cause abnormal neurological or neurological abnormalities. (author)

  12. A neurotological study of patients with pontine hyperintense lesions on T2 weighted MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Toru; Tominaga, Satoru; Yukimasa, Akiko; Oku, Masaya; Sakagami, Masafumi [Hyogo Coll. of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan)

    2002-03-01

    Pontine hyperintense lesions seen on T2-weighted MRI were thought to be related to disequilibrium. Some of these lesions have a low signal on T1-weighted imaging, while others have an iso-signal. The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between neurological findings and pontine lesions detected by MRI. The subjects were 11 patients (6 males, 5 females; age range: 30 to 83 years [mean: 64.1 years]) with pontine hyperintense lesions identified on T2-weighted MRI. We compared the clinical signs and the MRI findings. Six of the patients had low-intensity areas on T1-weighted images, and the other 5 had iso-intensity areas. Six patients complained of vertigo, and 5 complained of dizziness. Eight complained of positionaly evoked disequilibrium. Positional nystagmus was seen in 4 patients. In 9 patients, abnormalities were found on the ENG test, including the saccadic eye movement test, ETT, and OKP. Numbness on the lips occurred in 2 patients, and cerebellar signs were present in 4. None of the patients had facial paralysis. Disequilibrium originating in the central nervous system was suggested in 10 patients. Clinical examinations revealed similar findings in patients with a low signal on T1-weighted MRI and those with an iso-signal. Our results indicate that pontine lesions identified by T2-weighted MRI cause vertigo or dizziness, and, in most cases, these lesions cause abnormal neurological or neurological abnormalities. (author)

  13. A new look at the fetus: Thick-slab T2-weighted sequences in fetal MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugger, Peter C.; Mittermayer, Christoph; Prayer, Daniela

    2006-01-01

    Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the fetus is considered an established adjunct to fetal ultrasound, stacks of images alone cannot provide an overall impression of the fetus. The present study evaluates the use of thick-slab T2-weighted MR images to obtain a three-dimensional impression of the fetus using MRI. A thick-slab T2-weighted sequence was added to the routine protocol in 100 fetal MRIs obtained for various indications (19th to 37th gestational weeks) on a 1.5 T magnet using a five-element phased-array surface coil. Slice thickness adapted to fetal size and uterine geometry varied between 25 and 50 mm, as did the field of view (250-350 mm). Acquisition of one image took less than 1 s. The pictorial essay shows that these images visualize fetal anatomy in a more comprehensive way than is possible with a series of 3-4 mm thick slices. These thick-slab images facilitate the assessment of the whole fetus, fetal proportions, surface structures, and extremities. Fetal pathology may be captured in one image. Thick-slab T2-weighted images provide additional information that cannot be gathered from a series of images and are considered a valuable adjunct to conventional 2D MR images

  14. A new look at the fetus: Thick-slab T2-weighted sequences in fetal MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Integrative Morphology Group, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: peter.brugger@meduniwien.ac.at; Mittermayer, Christoph [Department of Neonatology and Intensive Care, University Hospital of Vienna (Austria); Prayer, Daniela [Department of Neuroradiology, University Clinics of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the fetus is considered an established adjunct to fetal ultrasound, stacks of images alone cannot provide an overall impression of the fetus. The present study evaluates the use of thick-slab T2-weighted MR images to obtain a three-dimensional impression of the fetus using MRI. A thick-slab T2-weighted sequence was added to the routine protocol in 100 fetal MRIs obtained for various indications (19th to 37th gestational weeks) on a 1.5 T magnet using a five-element phased-array surface coil. Slice thickness adapted to fetal size and uterine geometry varied between 25 and 50 mm, as did the field of view (250-350 mm). Acquisition of one image took less than 1 s. The pictorial essay shows that these images visualize fetal anatomy in a more comprehensive way than is possible with a series of 3-4 mm thick slices. These thick-slab images facilitate the assessment of the whole fetus, fetal proportions, surface structures, and extremities. Fetal pathology may be captured in one image. Thick-slab T2-weighted images provide additional information that cannot be gathered from a series of images and are considered a valuable adjunct to conventional 2D MR images.

  15. Semi-automatic segmentation of myocardium at risk in T2-weighted cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjögren Jane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background T2-weighted cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR has been shown to be a promising technique for determination of ischemic myocardium, referred to as myocardium at risk (MaR, after an acute coronary event. Quantification of MaR in T2-weighted CMR has been proposed to be performed by manual delineation or the threshold methods of two standard deviations from remote (2SD, full width half maximum intensity (FWHM or Otsu. However, manual delineation is subjective and threshold methods have inherent limitations related to threshold definition and lack of a priori information about cardiac anatomy and physiology. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop an automatic segmentation algorithm for quantification of MaR using anatomical a priori information. Methods Forty-seven patients with first-time acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction underwent T2-weighted CMR within 1 week after admission. Endocardial and epicardial borders of the left ventricle, as well as the hyper enhanced MaR regions were manually delineated by experienced observers and used as reference method. A new automatic segmentation algorithm, called Segment MaR, defines the MaR region as the continuous region most probable of being MaR, by estimating the intensities of normal myocardium and MaR with an expectation maximization algorithm and restricting the MaR region by an a priori model of the maximal extent for the user defined culprit artery. The segmentation by Segment MaR was compared against inter observer variability of manual delineation and the threshold methods of 2SD, FWHM and Otsu. Results MaR was 32.9 ± 10.9% of left ventricular mass (LVM when assessed by the reference observer and 31.0 ± 8.8% of LVM assessed by Segment MaR. The bias and correlation was, -1.9 ± 6.4% of LVM, R = 0.81 (p Conclusions There is a good agreement between automatic Segment MaR and manually assessed MaR in T2-weighted CMR. Thus, the proposed algorithm seems to be a

  16. Semi-automatic segmentation of myocardium at risk in T2-weighted cardiovascular magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjögren, Jane; Ubachs, Joey F A; Engblom, Henrik; Carlsson, Marcus; Arheden, Håkan; Heiberg, Einar

    2012-01-31

    T2-weighted cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has been shown to be a promising technique for determination of ischemic myocardium, referred to as myocardium at risk (MaR), after an acute coronary event. Quantification of MaR in T2-weighted CMR has been proposed to be performed by manual delineation or the threshold methods of two standard deviations from remote (2SD), full width half maximum intensity (FWHM) or Otsu. However, manual delineation is subjective and threshold methods have inherent limitations related to threshold definition and lack of a priori information about cardiac anatomy and physiology. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop an automatic segmentation algorithm for quantification of MaR using anatomical a priori information. Forty-seven patients with first-time acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction underwent T2-weighted CMR within 1 week after admission. Endocardial and epicardial borders of the left ventricle, as well as the hyper enhanced MaR regions were manually delineated by experienced observers and used as reference method. A new automatic segmentation algorithm, called Segment MaR, defines the MaR region as the continuous region most probable of being MaR, by estimating the intensities of normal myocardium and MaR with an expectation maximization algorithm and restricting the MaR region by an a priori model of the maximal extent for the user defined culprit artery. The segmentation by Segment MaR was compared against inter observer variability of manual delineation and the threshold methods of 2SD, FWHM and Otsu. MaR was 32.9 ± 10.9% of left ventricular mass (LVM) when assessed by the reference observer and 31.0 ± 8.8% of LVM assessed by Segment MaR. The bias and correlation was, -1.9 ± 6.4% of LVM, R = 0.81 (p Segment MaR, -2.3 ± 4.9%, R = 0.91 (p Segment MaR and manually assessed MaR in T2-weighted CMR. Thus, the proposed algorithm seems to be a promising, objective method for standardized MaR quantification in T2

  17. Geometrically undistorted MRI in the presence of field inhomogeneities using compressed sensing accelerated broadband 3D phase encoded turbo spin-echo imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Gorp, Jetse S; Bakker, Chris J G; Bouwman, Job G; Zijlstra, Frank; Seevinck, Peter R; Smink, Jouke

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we explore the potential of compressed sensing (CS) accelerated broadband 3D phase-encoded turbo spin-echo (3D-PE-TSE) for the purpose of geometrically undistorted imaging in the presence of field inhomogeneities. To achieve this goal 3D-PE-SE and 3D-PE-TSE sequences with broadband rf pulses and dedicated undersampling patterns were implemented on a clinical scanner. Additionally, a 3D multi-spectral spin-echo (ms3D-SE) sequence was implemented for reference purposes. First, we demonstrated the influence of susceptibility induced off-resonance effects on the spatial encoding of broadband 3D-SE, ms3D-SE, 3D-PE-SE and 3D-PE-TSE using a grid phantom containing a titanium implant (Δχ = 182 ppm) with x-ray CT as a gold standard. These experiments showed that the spatial encoding of 3D-PE-(T)SE was unaffected by susceptibility induced off-resonance effects, which caused geometrical distortions and/or signal hyper-intensities in broadband 3D-SE and, to a lesser extent, in ms3D-SE frequency encoded methods. Additionally, an SNR analysis was performed and the temporally resolved signal of 3D-PE-(T)SE sequences was exploited to retrospectively decrease the acquisition bandwidth and obtain field offset maps. The feasibility of CS acceleration was studied retrospectively and prospectively for the 3D-PE-SE sequence using an existing CS algorithm adapted for the reconstruction of 3D data with undersampling in all three phase encoded dimensions. CS was combined with turbo-acceleration by variable density undersampling and spherical stepwise T 2 weighting by randomly sorting consecutive echoes in predefined spherical k-space layers. The CS-TSE combination resulted in an overall acceleration factor of 60, decreasing the original 3D-PE-SE scan time from 7 h to 7 min. Finally, CS accelerated 3D-PE-TSE in vivo images of a titanium screw were obtained within 10 min using a micro-coil demonstrating the feasibility of geometrically undistorted MRI near severe

  18. Primary biliary cirrhosis: Evaluation with T2-weighted MR imaging and MR cholangiopancreatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haliloglu, Nuray; Erden, Ayse; Erden, Ilhan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate the role of T2-weighted MR imaging (MRI) and MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) findings in the diagnosis of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). Materials and methods: The following T2-weighted MRI and MRCP findings: segmental hepatic atrophy/hypertrophy, irregular liver surface, parenchymal lace-like fibrosis, rounded low signal intensity lesions centering portal vein branches (periportal halo sign), periportal hyperintensity (cuffing), splenomegaly, ascites, lymphadenopathy, venous collaterals, and the configuration of intrahepatic biliary ducts were reviewed for their diagnostic significance by two observers in 13 female patients (mean age: 49 years) with PBC. Discordant readings of the observers were resolved at consensus. Results: When parenchymal lace-like fibrosis and periportal halo sign were seen together the sensitivity of T2-weighted MR images was 69%. In six cases periportal hyperintensity (cuffing) and periportal halo sign were seen together. Segmental hypertrophy was present in nine patients and hepatic surface irregularity due to regenerative nodules were present in 10 patients. Lymphadenopathy was seen in 10, splenomegaly was seen in 5, collateral vascular structures were seen in 2 and minimal perihepatic free fluid was seen in 2 patients. MRCP images revealed various mild irregularity in the intrahepatic bile ducts in 8 patients and focal narrowing at the common bile duct level in 1 patient. Conclusion: MRI and MRCP may support the clinical and laboratory findings of PBC even in the early stages of the disease. MRI can also be a choice of method for the recommended prolonged follow up.

  19. Primary biliary cirrhosis: Evaluation with T2-weighted MR imaging and MR cholangiopancreatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haliloglu, Nuray [Ankara University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ibni Sina Hospital, 06100 Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: nurayunsal2@hotmail.com; Erden, Ayse; Erden, Ilhan [Ankara University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ibni Sina Hospital, 06100 Ankara (Turkey)

    2009-03-15

    Purpose: The aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate the role of T2-weighted MR imaging (MRI) and MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) findings in the diagnosis of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). Materials and methods: The following T2-weighted MRI and MRCP findings: segmental hepatic atrophy/hypertrophy, irregular liver surface, parenchymal lace-like fibrosis, rounded low signal intensity lesions centering portal vein branches (periportal halo sign), periportal hyperintensity (cuffing), splenomegaly, ascites, lymphadenopathy, venous collaterals, and the configuration of intrahepatic biliary ducts were reviewed for their diagnostic significance by two observers in 13 female patients (mean age: 49 years) with PBC. Discordant readings of the observers were resolved at consensus. Results: When parenchymal lace-like fibrosis and periportal halo sign were seen together the sensitivity of T2-weighted MR images was 69%. In six cases periportal hyperintensity (cuffing) and periportal halo sign were seen together. Segmental hypertrophy was present in nine patients and hepatic surface irregularity due to regenerative nodules were present in 10 patients. Lymphadenopathy was seen in 10, splenomegaly was seen in 5, collateral vascular structures were seen in 2 and minimal perihepatic free fluid was seen in 2 patients. MRCP images revealed various mild irregularity in the intrahepatic bile ducts in 8 patients and focal narrowing at the common bile duct level in 1 patient. Conclusion: MRI and MRCP may support the clinical and laboratory findings of PBC even in the early stages of the disease. MRI can also be a choice of method for the recommended prolonged follow up.

  20. Development of new neutron spin echo spectrometer using multi-layer film spin splitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasaki, Seiji; Ebisawa, Toru; Hino, Masahiro; Achiwa, Norio

    2001-01-01

    Neutron spin echo spectrometry is a method using neutron Larmor precession motion in magnetic field, for the measurement of velocity change before and after quasi-elastic scattering of neutron by a sample, such as macromolecules, with high accuracy. The neutron spin echo spectrometer is an interferometer in quantum mechanics, which a neutron is arranged with a parallel or an antiparallel state against magnetic field direction. Intensities of neutron interaction with matters are measured by the superposition of the both spin state components. The contrast losses of interference fringes caused from velocity diversion of incident neutrons are protected by spin echo method, in which a phase shift between the parallel and anti-parallel state neutrons is reduced by reversion of the spin state on the way of neutron path. Neutron beam of high intensity can be measured with a high energy resolution. Strong magnetic field is usually needed to introduce the phase shift between the both spin state components. A multi-layer film spin splitter (MSS) is developed for introducing the phase shift instead of the strong magnetic fields. The MSS consists of three layers, non-magnetic mirror of Ni/Ti, gap layer of Ti (∼1 μm), and magnetic mirror of Permalloy/Ge. Surface roughness of the gap layer leads to diversions of the phase shift, because that the fluctuation of thickness of gap layer is proportional to the phase shift. Characteristics of the MSS are tested as follow: (1) reflectivity of polarized neutron, (2) function check of the MSS, (3) uniformity check of the gap layer, (4) evaluation of the gap layer-thickness. (Suetake, M.)

  1. Imaging method of brain surface anatomy structures using conventional T2-weighted MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatanaka, Masahiko; Machida, Yoshio; Yoshida, Tadatoki; Katada, Kazuhiro.

    1992-01-01

    As a non-invasive technique for visualizing the brain surface structure by MRI, surface anatomy scanning (SAS) and the multislice SAS methods have been developed. Both techniques require additional MRI scanning to obtain images for the brain surface. In this paper, we report an alternative method to obtain the brain surface image using conventional T2-weighted multislice images without any additional scanning. The power calculation of the image pixel values, which is incorporated in the routine processing, has been applied in order to enhance the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contrast. We think that this method is one of practical approaches for imaging the surface anatomy of the brain. (author)

  2. 3D T2-weighted imaging to shorten multiparametric prostate MRI protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanec, Stephan H; Lazar, Mathias; Wengert, Georg J; Bickel, Hubert; Spick, Claudio; Susani, Martin; Shariat, Shahrokh; Clauser, Paola; Baltzer, Pascal A T

    2018-04-01

    To determine whether 3D acquisitions provide equivalent image quality, lesion delineation quality and PI-RADS v2 performance compared to 2D acquisitions in T2-weighted imaging of the prostate at 3 T. This IRB-approved, prospective study included 150 consecutive patients (mean age 63.7 years, 35-84 years; mean PSA 7.2 ng/ml, 0.4-31.1 ng/ml). Two uroradiologists (R1, R2) independently rated image quality and lesion delineation quality using a five-point ordinal scale and assigned a PI-RADS score for 2D and 3D T2-weighted image data sets. Data were compared using visual grading characteristics (VGC) and receiver operating characteristics (ROC)/area under the curve (AUC) analysis. Image quality was similarly good to excellent for 2D T2w (mean score R1, 4.3 ± 0.81; R2, 4.7 ± 0.83) and 3D T2w (mean score R1, 4.3 ± 0.82; R2, 4.7 ± 0.69), p = 0.269. Lesion delineation was rated good to excellent for 2D (mean score R1, 4.16 ± 0.81; R2, 4.19 ± 0.92) and 3D T2w (R1, 4.19 ± 0.94; R2, 4.27 ± 0.94) without significant differences (p = 0.785). ROC analysis showed an equivalent performance for 2D (AUC 0.580-0.623) and 3D (AUC 0.576-0.629) T2w (p > 0.05, respectively). Three-dimensional acquisitions demonstrated equivalent image and lesion delineation quality, and PI-RADS v2 performance, compared to 2D in T2-weighted imaging of the prostate. Three-dimensional T2-weighted imaging could be used to considerably shorten prostate MRI protocols in clinical practice. • 3D shows equivalent image quality and lesion delineation compared to 2D T2w. • 3D T2w and 2D T2w image acquisition demonstrated comparable diagnostic performance. • Using a single 3D T2w acquisition may shorten the protocol by 40%. • Combined with short DCE, multiparametric protocols of 10 min are feasible.

  3. An intracranial aspergilloma with low signal on T2-weighted images corresponding to iron accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, K. [Dept. of Radiology, Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan); Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore MD (United States); Zoarski, G.H.; Rothman, M.I.; Zagardo, M.T. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore MD (United States); Nishimura, T. [Dept. of Radiology, Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan); Sun, C.C.J. [Dept. of Pathology, Univ. of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore MD (United States)

    2001-07-01

    We present a case of cerebral aspergillosis in an immunocompetent patient. The MRI signal characteristics were compared with the histologic findings. Irregular low-signal zones were demonstrated between the wall of the abscess and the central necrosis on T2-weighted images; the pathology specimen revealed concentrated iron in these transitional zones but no hemosiderin. Iron is an essential element for the growth of fungal hyphae. The low-signal zones may represent the areas where there was active proliferation of aspergillus, and the unique location of the low signal may be a helpful imaging characteristic for the diagnosis of an aspergillus abscess. (orig.)

  4. Neutron spin echo: A new concept in polarized thermal neutron techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezei, F.

    1980-01-01

    A simple method to change and keep track of neutron beam polarization non-parallel to the magnetic field is described. It makes possible the establishment of a new focusing effect we call neutron spin echo. The technique developed and tested experimentally can be applied in several novel ways, e.g. for neutron spin flipper of superior characteristics, for a very high resolution spectrometer for direct determination of the Fourier transform of the scattering function, for generalised polarization analysis and for the measurement of neutron particle properties with significantly improved precision. (orig.)

  5. Neutron spin echo studies of the effects of temperature and pressure in a ternary microemulsion

    CERN Document Server

    Kawabata, Y; Seto, H; Takeda, T; Komura, S; Schwahn, D

    2002-01-01

    In order to clarify the self-assembling mechanisms in complex fluids involving amphiphiles, we have investigated dynamic features of amphiphilic membranes and droplets at high temperature and at high pressure in a ternary microemulsion, consisting of AOT, water, and n-decane. A high-pressure cell for neutron spin echo (NSE) experiments has been improved, and the static and dynamic features of droplets are observed in detail by means of small angle neutron scattering and NSE. It is found that the size fluctuation and the diffusion of droplets are enhanced by increasing temperature, while they are suppressed by increasing pressure. (orig.)

  6. Observation of undulation motion of lipid bilayers by neutron spin echo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Norifumi L.; Seto, Hideki; Hishida, Mafumi

    2010-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of synthesized phospholipids have been well investigated as model biomembranes. These lipids usually self-assemble into regular stacks of bilayers with a characteristic repeat distance on the order of nm, whereas real biomembrane exist as single bilayers. The key phenomenon in understanding the formation of single isolated bilayers in 'unbinding' of lipid bilayers, in which the inter-bilayer distance of lipid bilayers diverges by the steric interaction due to the membrane undulation. In this paper, we show some results of neutron spin-echo (NSE) experiments to investigate the effect of the steric interaction on unbinding and related phenomena. (author)

  7. Fullerene-containing polymeric stars in bulk and solution by neutron spin-echo

    CERN Document Server

    Lebedev, V T; Toeroek, G; Cser, L; Bershtein, V A; Zgonnik, V N; Melenevskaya, E Y; Vinogradova, L V

    2002-01-01

    Stars with C sub 6 sub 0 fullerene core and poly (styrene) (PS) arms have been studied in benzene and in the bulk by neutron spin echo (NSE). Behaviours of stars (six arms, each with a mass M=5.10 sup 3) at momentum transfer q=0.2-0.6 nm sup - sup 1 in the time range t=0.01-20 ns at temperatures T=20-60 C were compared with dynamics of free PS chains. Displaying depressed molecular mobility, the stars did not obey the usual dynamic Zimm or Rouse model. The fullerene polymer interaction at a specific molecular architecture results in oscillating dynamics. (orig.)

  8. Dynamics of polymers in elongational flow studied by the neutron spin-echo technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rheinstaedter, Maikel C.; Sattler, Rainer; Haeussler, Wolfgang; Wagner, Christian

    2010-01-01

    The nanoscale fluctuation dynamics of semidilute high molecular weight polymer solutions of polyethylenoxide (PEO) in D 2 O under non-equilibrium flow conditions were studied by the neutron spin-echo technique. The sample cell was in contraction flow geometry and provided a pressure driven flow with a high elongational component that stretched the polymers most efficiently. Neutron scattering experiments in dilute polymer solutions are challenging because of the low polymer concentration and corresponding small quasi-elastic signals. A relaxation process with relaxation times of about 10 ps was observed, which shows anisotropic dynamics with applied flow.

  9. T2-weighted liver MRI using the multiVane technique at 3T: Comparison with conventional T2-weighted MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Kyung A [Dept. of Radiology, Myongji Hospital, Seonam University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Kon; Jeong, Woo Kyoung; Choi, Dong Il; Lee, Won Jae [Dept. of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun Ju [Philips Healthcare Korea, Philips, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Sin Ho; Baek, Sun Young [Biostatistics and Clinical Epidemiology Center, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    To assess the value of applying MultiVane to liver T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) compared with conventional T2WIs with emphasis on detection of focal liver lesions. Seventy-eight patients (43 men and 35 women) with 86 hepatic lesions and 20 pancreatico-biliary diseases underwent MRI including T2WIs acquired using breath-hold (BH), respiratory-triggered (RT), and MultiVane technique at 3T. Two reviewers evaluated each T2WI with respect to artefacts, organ sharpness, and conspicuity of intrahepatic vessels, hilar duct, and main lesion using five-point scales, and made pairwise comparisons between T2WI sequences for these categories. Diagnostic accuracy (Az) and sensitivity for hepatic lesion detection were evaluated using alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic analysis. MultiVane T2WI was significantly better than BH-T2WI or RT-T2WI for organ sharpness and conspicuity of intrahepatic vessels and main lesion in both separate reviews and pairwise comparisons (p < 0.001). With regard to motion artefacts, MultiVane T2WI or BH-T2WI was better than RT-T2WI (p < 0.001). Conspicuity of hilar duct was better with BH-T2WI than with MultiVane T2WI (p = 0.030) or RT-T2WI (p < 0.001). For detection of 86 hepatic lesions, sensitivity (mean, 97.7%) of MultiVane T2WI was significantly higher than that of BH-T2WI (mean, 89.5%) (p = 0.008) or RT-T2WI (mean, 84.9%) (p = 0.001). Applying the MultiVane technique to T2WI of the liver is a promising approach to improving image quality that results in increased detection of focal liver lesions compared with conventional T2WI.

  10. Low flip angle spin-echo MR imaging to obtain better Gd-DTPA enhanced imaging with ECG gating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimura, Kazuro; Kawamitsu, Hideaki; Yoshikawa, Kazuaki; Kasai, Toshifumi; Yuasa, Koji; Ishida, Tetsuya

    1992-01-01

    ECG-gated spin-echo imaging (ECG-SE) can reduce physiological motion artifact. However, ECG-SE does not provide strong T1-weighted images because repetition time (TR) depends on heart rate (HR). We investigated the usefulness of low flip angle spin-echo imaging (LFSE) in obtaining more T1-dependent contrast with ECG gating. In computer simulation, the predicted image contrast and single-to-noise ratio (SNR) obtained for each flip angle (0-180deg) and each TR (300 msec-1200 msec) were compared with those obtained by conventional T1-weighted spin-echo imaging (CSE: TR=500 msec, TE=20 msec). In clinical evaluation, tissue contrast [contrast index (CI): (SI of lesion-SI of muslce) 2* 100/SI of muscle] obtained by CSE and LFSE were compared in 17 patients. At a TR of 1,000 msec, T1-dependent contrast increased with decreasing flip angle and that at 38deg was identical to that with T1-weighted spin-echo. SNR increased with the flip angle until 100deg, and that at 53deg was identical to that with T1-weighted spin-echo. CI on LFSE (74.0±52.0) was significantly higher than CI on CSE (40.9±35.9). ECG-gated LFSE imaging provides better T1-dependent contrast than conventional ECG-SE. This method was especially useful for Gd-DTPA enhanced MR imaging. (author)

  11. Histological evaluation of lung cancer with T2-weighted magnetic resonance images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Takashi; Matsuura, Yoshifumi; Shioya, Sumie; Ohta, Yasuyo

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the differences in signal intensity of lung cancer tissue and non-cancerous lung tissues on T 2 -weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images. MR images were obtained from patients with squamous cell carcinoma (n=6), adenocarcinoma (n=5), small cell carcinoma (n=5), and large cell carcinoma (n=1). To compare the MR signal intensity between tissues, we calculated the signal intensity ratios for tumor/skeletal muscle and lung/skeletal muscle. The MR signal intensity for each tissue was measured with a densitometer and T 2 -weighted MR images with a similar window and a center. The value of the signal intensity ratio for squamous cell carcinoma (3.26±0.76) was greater than those for adenocarcinoma (1.99±0.50, p<0.05), small cell carcinoma (2.35±0.60), large cell carcinoma (2.46), and non-cancerous lung tissues (1.70±0.68, p<0.02). The values of the MR signal intensity ratio for non-cancerous lung tissues were 2.00 for a collapsed lung, 0.93 for a fibrotic lung, and 2.18 for a fibrotic lung with obstructive pneumonia. The results suggest that the MR signal intensity ratio for pathologic tissues/normal skeletal muscle can be a useful indicator for qualitative and quantitative MR imaging diagnosis. (author)

  12. Artifact free T2*-weighted imaging at high spatial resolution using segmented EPI sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiler, Patrick Michael; Schad, Lothar Rudi; Schmitter, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was the development of novel measurement techniques that acquire high resolution T2 * -weighted datasets in measurement times as short as possible without suffering from noticeable blurring and ghosting artifacts. Therefore, two new measurement techniques were developed that acquire a smoother k-space than generic multi shot echo planar imaging sequences. One is based on the principle of echo train shifting, the other on the reversed gradient method. Simulations and phantom measurements demonstrate that echo train shifting works properly and reduces artifacts in multi shot echo planar imaging. For maximum SNR-efficiency this technique was further improved by adding a second contrast. Both contrasts can be acquired within a prolongation in measurement time by a factor of 1.5, leading to an SNR increase by approximately √2. Furthermore it is demonstrated that the reversed gradient method remarkably reduces artifacts caused by a discontinuous k-space weighting. Assuming sequence parameters as feasible for fMRI experiments, artifact free T2 * -weighted images with a matrix size of 256 x 256 leading to an in-plane resolution in the submillimeter range can be obtained in about 2 s per slice. (orig.)

  13. Computer-aided detection of prostate cancer in T2-weighted MRI within the peripheral zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampun, Andrik; Zheng, Ling; Malcolm, Paul; Tiddeman, Bernie; Zwiggelaar, Reyer

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we propose a prostate cancer computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system and suggest a set of discriminant texture descriptors extracted from T2-weighted MRI data which can be used as a good basis for a multimodality system. For this purpose, 215 texture descriptors were extracted and eleven different classifiers were employed to achieve the best possible results. The proposed method was tested based on 418 T2-weighted MR images taken from 45 patients and evaluated using 9-fold cross validation with five patients in each fold. The results demonstrated comparable results to existing CAD systems using multimodality MRI. We achieved an area under the receiver operating curve (A z ) values equal to 90.0%+/- 7.6% , 89.5%+/- 8.9% , 87.9%+/- 9.3% and 87.4%+/- 9.2% for Bayesian networks, ADTree, random forest and multilayer perceptron classifiers, respectively, while a meta-voting classifier using average probability as a combination rule achieved 92.7%+/- 7.4% .

  14. Neutron spin echo spectroscopy. Its application to the study of the dynamics of polymers in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papoular, Robert

    1992-06-01

    This work focuses on Neutron Spin Echo (NSE) spectroscopy and on the NSE spectrometer MESS, which we have built at the L.L.B. (CE Saclay). After analyzing in detail the classical and quantum principles of this type of instrument, and illustrated them with optical analogies, we expound a simple formalism for the interpretation of polarized neutron experiments of the most general type. In a second part, we describe the MESS spectrometer extensively; its characteristics and performances as well as the first results obtained with this instrument. In particular, we include two papers showing how the neutron depolarization, spin rotation and echoes can be used to investigate high-Tc superconductors. The last part deals with the dynamics of Polymer-Polymer-Solvent ternary solutions and demonstrates how the Neutron Spin Echo technique becomes a privileged tool for such physico-chemical studies thanks to the joint use of NSE and contrast variation methods, coupled with the adequate ranges of time and scattering vectors accessible. Finally, we describe the specific case of partially deuterated polydimethyl-siloxane (PDMS) in semi-dilute solution in Toluene. We have experimentally and separately evidenced the cooperative and inter-diffusive diffusion modes predicted by the theory of Akcasu, Benoit, Benmouna et al. These results, obtained at the L.L.B. (CE Saclay) are the subject matter of the last paper included in this work. (author) [fr

  15. STIR imaging of lymphadenopathy: Advantages over conventional spin-echo techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, B.A.; Neumann, E.B.; Olson, D.O.; Nyberg, D.A.; Teefy, S.A.; Shields, A.F.

    1987-01-01

    Spin-echo (SE) imaging of lymphadenopathy has been limited by the high signal of surrounding fat. With short TI Inversion Recovery (STIR), fat is cancelled (black), T1 and T2 contrast are additive, and pathologic nodes are white. STIR images (repetition time, 1,400 - 2,400; echo time, 36 or 40; inversion time, 100 or 125) of 69 patients with malignant adenopathy were compared with T1-weighted spin-echo (T1 SE) or intermediate SE and some T2 SE sequences at 0.15 T. Signal-intensity measurements of nodes versus adjacent tissues were used as a measure of contrast. Ratios of these values ranged from 2.5- to more than 17-fold greater for STIR versus T1 or intermediate SE sequences and to more than 40:1 for STIR versus T2 SE images. Some nodes detected on STIR were only identifiable in retrospection CT or T1 SE. In two cases, STIR detected minimally enlarged nodes not detected on CT; biopsy confirmed malignancy. Normal nodes have lower signal than malignant nodes; inflammatory nodes may mimic neoplasm. The authors replaced T2 SE with a combination of T1 SE and STIR, shortening imaging time and enhancing detection of lymphadenopathy

  16. On the dynamics of polymers in dense systems - Results of neutron spin echo spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, D.

    1997-01-01

    One of the basic problems in the dynamics of polymers concerns the importance of geometrical or topological interactions which are directly related to the large scale molecular structures. In the famous reptation model these constraints are pictured in terms of a tube of localization following the average chain profile and confining the chain motion to the curve-linear tube. Recently studying the dynamic structure factor of a single labeled chain in a polymer melt by means of neutron spin echo spectroscopy (NSE) led to a direct observation of these tube constraints. Here I shall summarize these neutron spin echo experiments. I shall address the NSE technique, present results on the entropy driven segmental chain dynamics, discuss the dynamics of single chains in the melt where the chain length is increased through the transition to 'reptation' dynamics and display NSE measurements on long chain systems which revealed the molecular existence of the entanglement distance. Their magnitudes agree very well with tube diameters derived from dynamical mechanical measurements on the basis of the reptation model proving thereby the basic assumption of this Nobel Price winning concept

  17. Observation of Gravitationally Induced Vertical Striation of Polarized Ultracold Neutrons by Spin-Echo Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afach, S; Ayres, N J; Ban, G; Bison, G; Bodek, K; Chowdhuri, Z; Daum, M; Fertl, M; Franke, B; Griffith, W C; Grujić, Z D; Harris, P G; Heil, W; Hélaine, V; Kasprzak, M; Kermaidic, Y; Kirch, K; Knowles, P; Koch, H-C; Komposch, S; Kozela, A; Krempel, J; Lauss, B; Lefort, T; Lemière, Y; Mtchedlishvili, A; Musgrave, M; Naviliat-Cuncic, O; Pendlebury, J M; Piegsa, F M; Pignol, G; Plonka-Spehr, C; Prashanth, P N; Quéméner, G; Rawlik, M; Rebreyend, D; Ries, D; Roccia, S; Rozpedzik, D; Schmidt-Wellenburg, P; Severijns, N; Thorne, J A; Weis, A; Wursten, E; Wyszynski, G; Zejma, J; Zenner, J; Zsigmond, G

    2015-10-16

    We describe a spin-echo method for ultracold neutrons (UCNs) confined in a precession chamber and exposed to a |B0|=1  μT magnetic field. We have demonstrated that the analysis of UCN spin-echo resonance signals in combination with knowledge of the ambient magnetic field provides an excellent method by which to reconstruct the energy spectrum of a confined ensemble of neutrons. The method takes advantage of the relative dephasing of spins arising from a gravitationally induced striation of stored UCNs of different energies, and also permits an improved determination of the vertical magnetic-field gradient with an exceptional accuracy of 1.1  pT/cm. This novel combination of a well-known nuclear resonance method and gravitationally induced vertical striation is unique in the realm of nuclear and particle physics and should prove to be invaluable for the assessment of systematic effects in precision experiments such as searches for an electric dipole moment of the neutron or the measurement of the neutron lifetime.

  18. Diagnosis of spinal dural arteriovenous fistula using 3D T2-weighted imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kralik, Stephen F.; Murph, Daniel; Mehta, Peter; O' Neill, Darren P. [Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2017-10-15

    To evaluate spinal MRIs without and with 3D T2W imaging among patients without and with spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (SDAVF) confirmed by spinal digital subtraction angiography (DSA). A retrospective case-control study was performed among patients without and with SDAVF who had both spinal MRIs and gold standard spinal DSA. Two neuroradiologists independently reviewed spinal MRIs that were performed with either sagittal T2W turbo spin echo (2D group) or sagittal 3D T2W sampling perfection with application-optimized contrasts using different flip-angle evolutions (SPACE) (3D group) and documented the presence or absence of SDAVF. Using spinal DSA diagnosis as a gold standard, the sensitivity, specificity, and interobserver agreement for the 2D-group and 3D-group MRI diagnosis were calculated. The 2D group consisted of 21 patients and the 3D group consisted of 16 patients. For both radiologists, the 2D group demonstrated a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 100%. Interobserver agreement in the 2D group was perfect (k = 1.0). For both radiologists, the 3D group demonstrated sensitivity of 100.0% and specificity of 92.3%. Interobserver agreement in the 3D group was perfect (k = 1.0). While flow voids were considered more conspicuous, spinal cord signal abnormality was considered less conspicuous with 3D T2W SPACE compared with conventional 2D STIR sequence. 3D T2W SPACE should be used in conjunction with 2D T2W sequences to more accurately detect abnormal cord signal and determine when perimedullary flow voids are pathologically abnormal for the radiologic diagnosis of SDAVF. (orig.)

  19. High-Quality T2-Weighted 4-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Radiation Therapy Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Dongsu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri (United States); Caruthers, Shelton D. [Philips Healthcare, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Glide-Hurst, Carri [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Low, Daniel A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States); Li, H. Harold; Mutic, Sasa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri (United States); Hu, Yanle, E-mail: Hu.Yanle@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic in Arizona, Phoenix, Arizona (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to improve triggering efficiency of the prospective respiratory amplitude-triggered 4-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (4DMRI) method and to develop a 4DMRI imaging protocol that could offer T2 weighting for better tumor visualization, good spatial coverage and spatial resolution, and respiratory motion sampling within a reasonable amount of time for radiation therapy applications. Methods and Materials: The respiratory state splitting (RSS) and multi-shot acquisition (MSA) methods were analytically compared and validated in a simulation study by using the respiratory signals from 10 healthy human subjects. The RSS method was more effective in improving triggering efficiency. It was implemented in prospective respiratory amplitude-triggered 4DMRI. 4DMRI image datasets were acquired from 5 healthy human subjects. Liver motion was estimated using the acquired 4DMRI image datasets. Results: The simulation study showed the RSS method was more effective for improving triggering efficiency than the MSA method. The average reductions in 4DMRI acquisition times were 36% and 10% for the RSS and MSA methods, respectively. The human subject study showed that T2-weighted 4DMRI with 10 respiratory states, 60 slices at a spatial resolution of 1.5 × 1.5 × 3.0 mm{sup 3} could be acquired in 9 to 18 minutes, depending on the individual's breath pattern. Based on the acquired 4DMRI image datasets, the ranges of peak-to-peak liver displacements among 5 human subjects were 9.0 to 12.9 mm, 2.5 to 3.9 mm, and 0.5 to 2.3 mm in superior-inferior, anterior-posterior, and left-right directions, respectively. Conclusions: We demonstrated that with the RSS method, it was feasible to acquire high-quality T2-weighted 4DMRI within a reasonable amount of time for radiation therapy applications.

  20. Spin-echo observation of radio frequency induced flux lattice annealing (RIFLA) in a type-II superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, W.G.; Hanson, M.E.; Wong, W.H.

    1999-01-01

    We report the annealing of a strained flux line lattice (FLL) in 10 μm diameter type-II superconducting NbTi filaments by an RF magnetic field at 4.2 K in a magnetic field of 1 T. The strained FLL is prepared by slowly changing the direction of the applied magnetic field. When the RF magnetic field used to generate a 93 Nb NMR spin echo anneals the FLL, there is a corresponding reduction in the amplitude of the spin echo. Starting from an annealed condition, a rotation threshold of 3 mr is needed to produce enough FLL strain to be observed in these measurements. (orig.)

  1. Significance of periventricular hyperintensity in T2 weighted MRI on memory dysfunction and depression after stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokura, Hirokazu; Kobayashi, Shotai; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Yamashita, Kazuya; Koide, Hiromi

    1994-01-01

    We studied the effect of periventricular hyperintensity (PVH) in T2 weighted MRI on memory function and post-stroke depression in 159 patients with cerebrovacular disease. Memory function was assessed with Hasegawa's scale, and depressive state was estimated with Zung's self-rating depression scale. Patients showing diffusely distributed PVH had significantly low scores in memory function tests. Localized PVH around the anterior horns of the laterals ventricle was also associated with impaired memory function when the area of PVH was large. The incidence of post-stroke depression was high in patients with large PVH around the anterior horn in comparison with patients with PVH around the posterior horn. The severity of PVH around the posterior horn did not affect memory function and post-stroke depression. These findings suggest that memory dysfunction and post-stroke depression were accelerated by the diffusely or anteriorly distributed PVH. (author)

  2. A method for quantifying intervertebral disc signal intensity on T2-weighted imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagashima, Masaki; Abe, Hitoshi; Amaya, Kenji; Matsumoto, Hideo; Yanaihara, Hisashi; Nishiwaki, Yuji; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Matsumoto, Morio

    2012-01-01

    Background Quantification of intervertebral disc degeneration based on intensity of the nucleus pulposus in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) often uses the mean intensity of the region of interest (ROI) within the nucleus pulposus. However, the location and size of ROI have varied in different reports, and none of the reported methods can be considered fully objective. Purpose To develop a more objective method of establishing ROIs for quantitative evaluation of signal intensity in the nucleus pulposus using T2-weighted MRI. Material and Methods A 1.5-T scanner was used to obtain T2-weighted mid-sagittal images. A total of 288 intervertebral discs from 48 patients (25 men, 23 women) were analyzed. Mean age was 47.4 years (range, 17-69 years). All discs were classified into five grades according to Pfirrmann et al. Discs in grades I and II were defined as bright discs, and discs in grades IV and V were defined as dark discs. Eight candidate methods of ROI determination were devised. The method offering the highest degree of discrimination between bright and dark discs was investigated among these eight methods. Results The method with the greatest degree of discrimination was as follows. The quadrangle formed by anterior and posterior edges of the upper and lower end plates in contact with the intervertebral disc to be measured was defined as the intervertebral area. A shape similar to the intervertebral area but with one-quarter the area was drawn. The geometrical center of the shape was matched to the center of intensity, and this shape was then used as the ROI. Satisfactory validity and reproducibility were obtained using this method. Conclusion The present method offers adequate discrimination and could be useful for longitudinal tracking of intervertebral disc degeneration with sufficient reproducibility

  3. Magnetization transfer on T2-weighted image : magnetization Transfer ratios in normal brain and cerebral lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Myung Kwan; Roh, Hong Gee; Suh, Chang Hae; Cho, Young Kook; Kim, Hyung Jin; Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Sung Tae; Choi, Sung Kyu [Inha Univ. College of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-07-01

    To evaluate the magnetization transfer ratio(MTR) of various normal structures and pathologic lesions, as seen on magnetization transfer T2-weighted images (MT+T2WI). Materials and Methods : In ten normal volunteers, T2-weighted images without MT (MT-T2WI) and with MT(MT+T2WI) were obtained. Off-set pulses used in MT+T2WI were 400, 600, 1000, 1500, and 2000Hz. In 60 clinical cases infarction(n=10), brain tumors(n=5), traumatic hematomas(n=5), other hematomas(n=3) vascular malformation(n=2) white matter disease(n=2) normal(n=31) and others(n=2), both MT-T2WI and MT+T2WI images were obtained using an off-set pulse of 600 Hz. In all volunteers and patients, MTR in various normal brain parenchyma and abnormal areas was measured. Results : The MTRs of white and gray matter were 48% and 45% respectively at 400 Hz, 26% and 22% at 600Hz, 12% and 11% of 1000Hz, 10% and 9% 1500HZ, and 9% and 8% at 2000Hz of RF. The MTR of CSF was 43% at 400 Hz of off-resonance RF, while the contrast resolution of T2WI was poor. An off-resonance of 600Hz appeared to be the optimal frequency. In diseased areas,MTRs varied but were usually similar to or lower than those of brain parenchyma. Conclusion : The optimal off-resonance RF on MT+T2WI appears to be 600 Hz for relatively high MTR of brain parenchyma and low MTR of CSF,in which MTRs of white and gray matter were 26% and 22%, respectively, of 600Hz off-set pulse. The MTRs of cerebral lesions varied and further studies of various cerebral lesions are needed.

  4. Focal liver lesions segmentation and classification in nonenhanced T2-weighted MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatos, Ilias; Tsantis, Stavros; Karamesini, Maria; Spiliopoulos, Stavros; Karnabatidis, Dimitris; Hazle, John D; Kagadis, George C

    2017-07-01

    To automatically segment and classify focal liver lesions (FLLs) on nonenhanced T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans using a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) algorithm. 71 FLLs (30 benign lesions, 19 hepatocellular carcinomas, and 22 metastases) on T2-weighted MRI scans were delineated by the proposed CAD scheme. The FLL segmentation procedure involved wavelet multiscale analysis to extract accurate edge information and mean intensity values for consecutive edges computed using horizontal and vertical analysis that were fed into the subsequent fuzzy C-means algorithm for final FLL border extraction. Texture information for each extracted lesion was derived using 42 first- and second-order textural features from grayscale value histogram, co-occurrence, and run-length matrices. Twelve morphological features were also extracted to capture any shape differentiation between classes. Feature selection was performed with stepwise multilinear regression analysis that led to a reduced feature subset. A multiclass Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) classifier was then designed and used for lesion classification. PNN model evaluation was performed using the leave-one-out (LOO) method and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The mean overlap between the automatically segmented FLLs and the manual segmentations performed by radiologists was 0.91 ± 0.12. The highest classification accuracies in the PNN model for the benign, hepatocellular carcinoma, and metastatic FLLs were 94.1%, 91.4%, and 94.1%, respectively, with sensitivity/specificity values of 90%/97.3%, 89.5%/92.2%, and 90.9%/95.6% respectively. The overall classification accuracy for the proposed system was 90.1%. Our diagnostic system using sophisticated FLL segmentation and classification algorithms is a powerful tool for routine clinical MRI-based liver evaluation and can be a supplement to contrast-enhanced MRI to prevent unnecessary invasive procedures. © 2017 American

  5. A method for quantifying intervertebral disc signal intensity on T2-weighted imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagashima, Masaki [Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Keio Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kitasato Univ. Kitasato Inst. Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Abe, Hitoshi [Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kitasato Univ. Kitasato Inst. Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)], E-mail: hit-abe@insti.kitasato-u.ac.jp; Amaya, Kenji [Graduate School of Information Science and Engineering, Tokyo Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Matsumoto, Hideo [Inst. for Integrated Sports Medicine, Keio Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Yanaihara, Hisashi [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Kitasato Univ. Kitasato Inst. Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Nishiwaki, Yuji [Dept. of Environmental and Occupational Health, Toho Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Toyama, Yoshiaki; Matsumoto, Morio [Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Keio Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-11-15

    Background Quantification of intervertebral disc degeneration based on intensity of the nucleus pulposus in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) often uses the mean intensity of the region of interest (ROI) within the nucleus pulposus. However, the location and size of ROI have varied in different reports, and none of the reported methods can be considered fully objective. Purpose To develop a more objective method of establishing ROIs for quantitative evaluation of signal intensity in the nucleus pulposus using T2-weighted MRI. Material and Methods A 1.5-T scanner was used to obtain T2-weighted mid-sagittal images. A total of 288 intervertebral discs from 48 patients (25 men, 23 women) were analyzed. Mean age was 47.4 years (range, 17-69 years). All discs were classified into five grades according to Pfirrmann et al. Discs in grades I and II were defined as bright discs, and discs in grades IV and V were defined as dark discs. Eight candidate methods of ROI determination were devised. The method offering the highest degree of discrimination between bright and dark discs was investigated among these eight methods. Results The method with the greatest degree of discrimination was as follows. The quadrangle formed by anterior and posterior edges of the upper and lower end plates in contact with the intervertebral disc to be measured was defined as the intervertebral area. A shape similar to the intervertebral area but with one-quarter the area was drawn. The geometrical center of the shape was matched to the center of intensity, and this shape was then used as the ROI. Satisfactory validity and reproducibility were obtained using this method. Conclusion The present method offers adequate discrimination and could be useful for longitudinal tracking of intervertebral disc degeneration with sufficient reproducibility.

  6. High incidence of microbleeds in hemodialysis patients detected by T2*-weighted gradient-echo magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Shunichi; Uomizu, Kenji; Kajiya, Yoriko; Tajitsu, Kenichiro; Kusumoto, Kazuhiro; Hirano, Hirofumi

    2005-01-01

    The incidence and characteristics of microbleeds in hemodialysis (HD) patients were investigated to elucidate the clinical significance with T 2 * -weighted gradient-echo magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The 57 patients with chronic renal failure maintained by HD had no previous history of stroke. The control group consisted of 53 patients without previous history of stroke or chronic renal failure. The incidence and the number of microbleeds were assessed in the HD and control groups. The findings of microbleeds with T 2 * -weighted gradient-echo MR imaging were compared with those of T 1 - and T 2 -weighted MR imaging in HD patients. The incidence of microbleeds was significantly greater in the HD patients compared with the control patients. T 2 * -weighted gradient-echo imaging revealed a total of 44 microbleeds in 11 HD patients. T 2 -weighted imaging demonstrated 13 of 44 microbleeds as hyperintensity, whereas T 1 -weighted imaging demonstrated 12 lesions as hypointensity. T 2 - and T 1 -weighted imagings did not demonstrate any findings in 31 and 32 lesions, respectively. T 2 * -weighted gradient-echo MR imaging is effective to detect microbleeds which may be a predictor of intracerebral hemorrhage in HD patients and should be included in the protocol for the study of cerebrovascular disease, because T 2 - and T 1 -weighted MR imaging recognizes microbleeds as lacunar infarction. (author)

  7. Neutron spin-echo investigation of the microemulsion dynamics. in bicontinuous lamellar and droplet phases

    CERN Document Server

    Mihailescu, M; Endo, H; Allgaier, J; Gompper, G; Stellbrink, J; Richter, D; Jakobs, B; Sottmann, T; Faragó, B

    2002-01-01

    Using neutron spin-echo (NSE) spectroscopy in combination with dynamic light scattering (DLS), we performed an extensive investigation of the bicontinuous phase in ternary water-surfactant-oil microemulsions, with extension to lamellar and droplet phases. The dynamical behavior of surfactant monolayers of decyl-polyglycol-ether (C sub 1 sub 0 E sub 4) molecules, or mixtures of surfactant with long amphiphilic block-copolymers of type poly-ethylene propylene/poly-ethylene oxide (PEP-PEO) was studied, under comparable conditions. The investigation techniques provide access to different length scales relative to the characteristic periodicity length of the microemulsion structure. Information on the elastic bending modulus is obtained from the local scale dynamics in view of existing theoretical descriptions and is found to be in accordance with small angle neutron scattering (SANS) studies. Evidence for the modified elastic properties and additional interaction of the amphiphilic layers due to the polymer is mo...

  8. Differential diagnosis of extra-axial intracranial tumours by dynamic spin-echo MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Y.G.; Korogi, Y.; Hirai, T.; Sakamoto, Y.; Sumi, M.; Takahashi, M.; Ushio, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Dynamic MRI was performed on 22 patients with extra-axial intracranial tumours. Serial images were obtained every 30 s for 3 min using a spin-echo sequence (TR 200, TE 15 ms) after rapid injection of Gd-DTPA, 0.1 mmol/kg body weight. The contrast medium enhancement ratio (CER) was correlated with the histology of the tumours. Meningiomas and extra-axial metastases showed a sharp rise, then a gradual decline. Although both had a definite early peak of CER, metastases showed a more rapid decline. Neuromas and extra-axial lymphoma showed a slow, steady increase with no peak within 180 s. This study indicates that the CER is helpful in the differentiation of extra-axial tumours. (orig.)

  9. Numerical calculation of spin echo amplitude in pulsed NMR: effects of quadrupole interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobral, R.R.

    1986-01-01

    The spin echo obtained by nuclear magnetic resonance, in systems which atomic nuclei interact with magnetic fields and electric field gradients, present oscillations in function of the time interval between two excitations pulses. Using the density matrix formalism, the amplitudes of these echo is calculated, analytically. In this work, echo amplitudes obtained under different excitation conditions for nuclei of different nuclear spin values are calculated. The numerical results are compared with disposable analytical solutions. Applications of this method to the case of electric field gradient without axial symmetry were studied. Within the used approximation limits, an expression for attnuation of oscillatory behaviour of echo amplitude in function of the time interval between experimentally observed pulses was obtained. (M.C.K.) [pt

  10. MRI in neuro-Behcet's syndrome: comparison of conventional spin-echo and FLAIR pulse sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, H.R.; Albrecht, T.; Curati-Alasonatti, W.L.; Williams, E.J.; Haskard, D.O.

    1999-01-01

    We compared the sensitivity of a fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) sequence with that of a conventional dual-echo spin-echo (SE) sequence to brain lesions in 20 patients with Behcet's syndrome. They underwent 25 MRI examinations. The images were independently analysed for the number, type and anatomical location of lesions shown. There were 18 abnormal studies (13 initial and 5 follow-up). The FLAIR sequence detected significantly more lesions than the SE TE 80 (P < 0.05) and SE TE 20 (P < 0.01) sequences. It was particularly useful for demonstrating lesions in the juxtacortical white matter, which accounted for over half the lesions detected on the FLAIR images. Of patients presenting with nonspecific symptoms such as headache, seven had normal and five had abnormal studies. All patients presenting with focal neurological signs had abnormal imaging. We found supratentorial and, in particular, juxtacortical lesions to be more frequent than previously described. (orig.)

  11. Optimal Configuration for Relaxation Times Estimation in Complex Spin Echo Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Baselice

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many pathologies can be identified by evaluating differences raised in the physical parameters of involved tissues. In a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI framework, spin-lattice T1 and spin-spin T2 relaxation time parameters play a major role in such an identification. In this manuscript, a theoretical study related to the evaluation of the achievable performances in the estimation of relaxation times in MRI is proposed. After a discussion about the considered acquisition model, an analysis on the ideal imaging acquisition parameters in the case of spin echo sequences, i.e., echo and repetition times, is conducted. In particular, the aim of the manuscript consists in providing an empirical rule for optimal imaging parameter identification with respect to the tissues under investigation. Theoretical results are validated on different datasets in order to show the effectiveness of the presented study and of the proposed methodology.

  12. Spin-echo small-angle neutron scattering study of the structure organization of the chromatin in biological cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iashina, E.G.; Bouwman, W.G.; Duif, C.P.; Filatov, M.V.; Grigoriev, S. V.

    2017-01-01

    Spin-echo small-angle scattering (SESANS) technique is a method to measure the structure of materials from nano- to micrmeter length scales. This method could be important for studying the packaging of DNA in the eukaryotic cell. We measured the SESANS function from chicken erythrocyte nuclei

  13. Whole brain, high resolution spin-echo resting state fMRI using PINS multiplexing at 7 T

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, P.J.; Boyacioglu, R.; Barth, M.; Norris, David Gordon

    2012-01-01

    This article demonstrates the application of spin-echo EPI for resting state fMRI at 7 T. A short repetition time of 1860 ms was made possible by the use of slice multiplexing which permitted whole brain coverage at high spatial resolution (84 slices of 1.6 mm thickness). Radiofrequency power

  14. Ultrafast bold fMRI using single-shot spin-echo echo planar imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boujraf Said

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The choice of imaging parameters for functional MRI can have an impact on the accuracy of functional localization by affecting the image quality and the degree of blood oxygenation-dependent (BOLD contrast achieved. By improving sampling efficiency, parallel acquisition techniques such as sensitivity encoding (SENSE have been used to shorten readout trains in single-shot (SS echo planar imaging (EPI. This has been applied to susceptibility artifact reduction and improving spatial resolution. SENSE together with single-shot spin-echo (SS-SE imaging may also reduce off-resonance artifacts. The goal of this work was to investigate the BOLD response of a SENSE-adapted SE-EPI on a three Tesla scanner. Whole-brain fMRI studies of seven healthy right hand-dominant volunteers were carried out in a three Tesla scanner. fMRI was performed using an SS-SE EPI sequence with SENSE. The data was processed using statistical parametric mapping. Both, group and individual subject data analyses were performed. Individual average percentage and maximal percentage signal changes attributed to the BOLD effect in M1 were calculated for all the subjects as a function of echo time. Corresponding activation maps and the sizes of the activated clusters were also calculated. Our results show that susceptibility artifacts were reduced with the use of SENSE; and the acquired BOLD images were free of the typical quadrature artifacts of SS-EPI. Such measures are crucial at high field strengths. SS SE-EPI with SENSE offers further benefits in this regard and is more specific for oxygenation changes in the microvasculature bed. Functional brain activity can be investigated with the help of single-shot spin echo EPI using SENSE at high magnetic fields.

  15. A Prospective Evaluation of T2-Weighted First-Pass Perfusion MR Imaging In Diagnosing Breast Neoplasms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaoJuanUu; RenyouZhai; TaoJiang; LiWang

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare the results from breast cancer patients who undergo T2-weighted first-pass perfusion imaging after dynamic contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging during the same examination,and to evaluate if T2-weighted imaging can provide additional diagnostic information over that obtained with Tl-weiahted imaaina.METHODS Twenty-nine patients with breast lesions verified by pathology (benign 12, malignant 17) underwent MR imaging with dynamic contrast-enhanced Tl-weighted imaging of the entire breasts,immediately followed by 6-sections of T2-weighted first-pass perfusion imaging of the lesions. The diagnostic indices were acquired by individual 3D Tl-weighted enhancement rate criterion and the T2 signalintensity loss rate criterion. The sensitivity and specificity were calculated and the 2 methods were compared.RESULTS With the dynamic contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging there was a significant differences breast lesions (t=2.563, P=0.016)overlap between the signal intensitybetween the benign and malignant However we found a considerable increase in the carcinomas and thatin the benign lesions, for a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 25%.With T2-weighted first-pass perfusion imaging, there was a very significant difference between the benign and malignant breast lesions(t=4.777,P<0.001), and the overlap between the signal intensity decrease in the carcinomas and that of the benign lesions on the T2-weighted images was less pronounced than the overlap in the T1-weighted images, for a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 75%.CONCLUSION T2-weighted first-pass perfusion imaging may help differentiate between benign and malignant breast lesions with a higher level of specificity. The combination of T1-weighted and T2-weighted imaging is feasible in a single patient examination and may improve breast MR imaging.

  16. Diagnostic value of the fast-FLAIR sequence in MR imaging of intracranial tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husstedt, H.W.; Sickert, M.; Koestler, H.; Haubitz, B.; Becker, H.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify imaging characteristics of fast fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence in brain tumors compared with T1-postcontrast- and T2-sequences. Fast-FLAIR-, T2 fast spin echo (FSE)-, and T1 SE postcontrast images of 74 patients with intracranial neoplasms were analyzed. Four neuroradiologists rated signal intensity and inhomogeneity of the tumor, rendering of cystic parts, demarcation of the tumor vs brain, of the tumor vs edema and of brain vs edema, as well as the presence of motion and of other artifacts. Data analysis was performed for histologically proven astrocytomas, glioblastomas, and meningiomas, for tumors with poor contrast enhancement, and for all patients pooled. Only for tumors with poor contrast enhancement (n = 12) did fast FLAIR provide additional information about the lesion. In these cases, signal intensity, demarcation of the tumor vs brain, and differentiation of the tumor vs edema were best using fast FLAIR. In all cases, rendering of the tumor's inner structure was poor. For all other tumor types, fast FLAIR did not give clinically relevant information, the only exception being a better demarcation of the edema from brain tissue. Artifacts rarely interfered with evaluation of fast-FLAIR images. Thus, fast FLAIR cannot replace T2-weighted series. It provides additional information only in tumors with poor contrast enhancement. It is helpful for defining the exact extent of the edema of any tumor but gives little information about their inner structure. (orig.)

  17. Diagnostic value of the fast-FLAIR sequence in MR imaging of intracranial tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husstedt, H W; Sickert, M; Köstler, H; Haubitz, B; Becker, H

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify imaging characteristics of fast fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence in brain tumors compared with T1-postcontrast- and T2-sequences. Fast-FLAIR-, T2 fast spin echo (FSE)-, and T1 SE postcontrast images of 74 patients with intracranial neoplasms were analyzed. Four neuroradiologists rated signal intensity and inhomogeneity of the tumor, rendering of cystic parts, demarcation of the tumor vs brain, of the tumor vs edema and of brain vs edema, as well as the presence of motion and of other artifacts. Data analysis was performed for histologically proven astrocytomas, glioblastomas, and meningiomas, for tumors with poor contrast enhancement, and for all patients pooled. Only for tumors with poor contrast enhancement (n = 12) did fast FLAIR provide additional information about the lesion. In these cases, signal intensity, demarcation of the tumor vs brain, and differentiation of the tumor vs edema were best using fast FLAIR. In all cases, rendering of the tumor's inner structure was poor. For all other tumor types, fast FLAIR did not give clinically relevant information, the only exception being a better demarcation of the edema from brain tissue. Artifacts rarely interfered with evaluation of fast-FLAIR images. Thus, fast FLAIR cannot replace T2-weighted series. It provides additional information only in tumors with poor contrast enhancement. It is helpful for defining the exact extent of the edema of any tumor but gives little information about their inner structure.

  18. Stability of polyelectrolyte-coated iron nanoparticles for T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Andrew J.; Dolan, Ciaran; Cheong, Soshan; Herman, David A. J.; Naysmith, Briar; Zong, Fangrong; Galvosas, Petrik; Farrand, Kathryn J.; Hermans, Ian F.; Brimble, Margaret; Williams, David E.; Jin, Jianyong; Tilley, Richard D.

    2017-10-01

    Iron nanoparticles are highly-effective magnetic nanoparticles for T2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, the stability of their magnetic properties is dependent on good protection of the iron core from oxidation in aqueous media. Here we report the synthesis of custom-synthesized phosphonate-grafted polyelectrolytes (PolyM3) of various chain lengths, for efficient coating of iron nanoparticles with a native iron oxide shell. The size of the nanoparticle-polyelectrolyte assemblies was investigated by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering, while surface attachment was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Low cytotoxicity was observed for each of the nanoparticle-polyelectrolyte ("Fe-PolyM3") assemblies, with good cell viability (>80%) remaining up to 100 μg mL-1 Fe in HeLa cells. When applied in T2-weighted MRI, corresponding T2 relaxivities (r2) of the Fe-PolyM3 assemblies were found to be dependent on the chain length of the polyelectrolyte. A significant increase in contrast was observed when polyelectrolyte chain length was increased from 6 to 65 repeating units, implying a critical chain length required for stabilization of the α-Fe nanoparticle core.

  19. Heavily T2-weighted MR myelography vs CT myelography in spontaneous intracranial hypotension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y-F; Lirng, J-F; Fuh, J-L; Hseu, S-S; Wang, S-J

    2009-12-01

    To assess the diagnostic accuracy of heavily T2-weighted magnetic resonance myelography (MRM) in patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH). Patients with SIH were recruited prospectively, and first underwent MRM and then computed tomographic myelography (CTM). The results of MRM were validated with the gold standard, CTM, focusing on 1) CSF leaks along the nerve roots, 2) epidural CSF collections, and 3) high-cervical (C1-3) retrospinal CSF collections. Comparisons of these 3 findings between the 2 studies were made by kappa statistics and agreement rates. Targeted epidural blood patches (EBPs) were placed at the levels of CSF leaks if supportive treatment failed. Nineteen patients (6 men and 13 women, mean age 37.9 +/- 8.6 years) with SIH completed the study. MRM did not differ from CTM in the detection rates of CSF leaks along the nerve roots (84% vs 74%, p = 0.23), high-cervical retrospinal CSF collections (32% vs 16%, p = 0.13), and epidural CSF collections (89% vs 79%, p = 0.20). MRM demonstrated more spinal levels of CSF leaks (2.2 +/- 1.7 vs 1.5 +/- 1.5, p = 0.011) and epidural collections (12.2 +/- 5.9 vs 7.1 +/- 5.8, p localizing CSF leaks for patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension. This noninvasive technique may be an alternative to computed tomographic myelography before targeted epidural blood patches.

  20. Child dermoid cyst mimicking a craniopharyngioma: the benefit of MRI T2-weighted diffusion sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelot, Aymeric; Borha, Alin; Calmon, Raphael; Barbet, Patrick; Puget, Stephanie

    2018-02-01

    Brain dermoid cysts are very rare lesions. Although benign, these cysts may be associated with devastating complications due to mass effect or meningitis. The discovery of completely asymptomatic dermoid cysts in the pediatric population is exceedingly rare. Despite the advances in imaging modalities, it sometimes remains difficult to exclude the differential diagnosis of craniopharyngioma. We describe a 12-year-old boy addressed for suspicion of craniopharyngioma diagnosed by decreased visual acuity, bitemporal hemianopia and a CT scan showing a large hypodense suprasellar lesion with intralesional calcifications. Despite the unusual localization and size of this lesion, the absence of dermal sinus commonly found, and before visualizing a hyperintense mass on MRI-diffusion, the diagnosis of craniopharyngioma was ruled out in favor of a dermoid cyst. Radical excision was performed. In the suprasellar area, craniopharyngioma and dermoid cyst may have very similar radiological aspects: low density masses on CT scan and a hyperintense signal on T1-weighted MRI sequences with a variable signal on T2-weighted sequences. Hitherto, only two cases in literature have described suprasellar dermoid cyst. Their initial diagnosis was facilitated by the presence of a dermal sinus.

  1. T2-weighted MRI-derived textural features reflect prostate cancer aggressiveness: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nketiah, Gabriel; Elschot, Mattijs; Kim, Eugene; Teruel, Jose R. [NTNU, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging, Faculty of Medicine, Trondheim (Norway); Scheenen, Tom W. [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Bathen, Tone F.; Selnaes, Kirsten M. [NTNU, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging, Faculty of Medicine, Trondheim (Norway); St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim (Norway)

    2017-07-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic relevance of T2-weighted (T2W) MRI-derived textural features relative to quantitative physiological parameters derived from diffusion-weighted (DW) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI in Gleason score (GS) 3+4 and 4+3 prostate cancers. 3T multiparametric-MRI was performed on 23 prostate cancer patients prior to prostatectomy. Textural features [angular second moment (ASM), contrast, correlation, entropy], apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and DCE pharmacokinetic parameters (K{sup trans} and V{sub e}) were calculated from index tumours delineated on the T2W, DW, and DCE images, respectively. The association between the textural features and prostatectomy GS and the MRI-derived parameters, and the utility of the parameters in differentiating between GS 3+4 and 4+3 prostate cancers were assessed statistically. ASM and entropy correlated significantly (p < 0.05) with both GS and median ADC. Contrast correlated moderately with median ADC. The textural features correlated insignificantly with K{sup trans} and V{sub e}. GS 4+3 cancers had significantly lower ASM and higher entropy than 3+4 cancers, but insignificant differences in median ADC, K{sup trans}, and V{sub e}. The combined texture-MRI parameters yielded higher classification accuracy (91%) than the individual parameter sets. T2W MRI-derived textural features could serve as potential diagnostic markers, sensitive to the pathological differences in prostate cancers. (orig.)

  2. T2-weighted vs. intrathecal contrast-enhanced MR cisternography in the evaluation of CSF rhinorrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecin, Gaye; Oner, A. Yusuf; Tokgoz, Nil; Ucar, Murat; Tali, Turgut; Aykol, Sukru

    2013-01-01

    Background: Endoscopic surgical approach is being more widely used in the treatment of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea. Accurate localization of CSF fistulas prior to surgery is essential in increasing the success of dural repair and in decreasing negative or recurrent explorations. Purpose: To evaluate and compare intrathecal contrast medium-enhanced magnetic resonance cisternography (CEMRC) with T2-weighted MR cisternography (T2MRC) in identifying the presence and site of CSF rhinorrhea. Material and Methods: Sixty patients with suspected CSF rhinorrhea underwent MR cisternography including intrathecally enhanced fat-suppressed T1WI in three orthogonal planes and T2WI in the coronal plane. Both set of images were reviewed by two blinded radiologists for the presence and location of CSF leakage. Imaging data were compared with surgical findings and/or beta-2 transferrin testing. Results: With surgery proven CSF leakage in 20 instances as reference, CEMRC detected 18 (90%), whereas T2MRC reported only 13 (65%) correctly. Overall, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value in detecting CSF fistulas were 92%, 80%, 76%, and 93% for CEMRC, and 56%, 77%, 64%, and 71% for T2MRC, respectively. Conclusion: The minimally invasive CEMRC is an effective method with higher sensitivity and specificity than T2MRC in the evaluation of CSF fistulas

  3. Role of T2 weighted magnetic resonance image in chronic phase of head injured patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzura, Masahiko; Taguchi, Yoshio; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Chiba, Syunmei; Matsuzawa, Motoshi

    2002-01-01

    In neuroimaging studies of head injury, addition of echo planar imaging (EPI) T2-weighted images (WI) to routine MR images has been useful in demonstrating small hemorrhagic lesions as magnetic susceptibility artifacts (MSAs). MSAs are often found in the acute or subacute phases of head injured patients with diffuse axonal injury. We studied MSAs in follow-up MR images of patients with diffuse brain injury and discuss the role of EPI T2-WI in patients with chronic phase of head injured patients. This series consisted of 20 patients with diffuse brain injury diagnosed clinically. Their head CT findings were classified into Diffuse Injury I or II according to the CT classification of Marshall et al. All patients underwent long-term follow-up MR examinations. MR findings in chronic phase were divided into three categories in terms of MSAs: group A, MSAs remaining even after disappearance of small traumatic lesions in both T2-WI and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images (11 cases); group B, MSA (s) that disappeared in association with disappearance of small traumatic lesions (4 cases); and group C, MSAs that remained but could not be differentiated from non-traumatic lesions such as hemorrhagic lacunae or cavernoma (5 cases). Adding EPI T2-WI to routine MR images can provide useful information in visualizing old traumatic lesions of the brain in patients with diffuse brain injury even if no neuroimaging studies in acute or subacute phase. (author)

  4. Evaluation of renal function with dynamic MRI-T2-weighted gradient echo technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Katsuya

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of dynamic MRI of kidneys in healthy volunteers and patients with different 24-hour creatinine clearance (Ccr) levels, a dynamic study that employed the T2 weighted gradient echo technique (FLASH: TR/TE=34/25 msec, flip angle= 20 degrees) with single images during breathhold was performed on 10 healthy volunteers and 35 patients, all examined for the Ccr and suspected of having renal parenchymal disease after a phantom study. T1-weighted and dynamic MR imagings were obtained with a 1.5T imager. I analyzed the time-intensity curve of renal cortex and medulla, and defined a cortex decreased ratio (CDR) and medulla decreased ratio (MDR) in comparison with the Ccr. The cortico-medullary difference ratio (CMDR) of T1WI was also compared with the Ccr. The parameters of the T2 dynamic MRI study (CDR, MDR) better correlated with the Ccr than CMDR. Renal function can be quantitatively evaluated with the T2 dynamic MRI and there is a possibility that we can qualitatively evaluate the renal dysfunction and estimate its cause. (author)

  5. Intensity of prolactinoma on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging: towards another gender difference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreutz, Julie [University Hospital Sart-Tilman, Department of Radiology, Liege (Belgium); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Liege, Domaine Universitaire du Sart Tilman, Service d' Imagerie Medicale, Liege (Belgium); Vroonen, Laurent; Petrossians, Patrick; Rostomyan, Liliya; Beckers, Albert [University Hospital Sart-Tilman, Department of Endocrinology, Liege (Belgium); Cattin, Francoise [University Hospital Besancon, Department of Radiology, Besancon (France); Thiry, Albert [University Hospital Sart-Tilman, Department of Pathology, Liege (Belgium); Tshibanda, Luaba [University Hospital Sart-Tilman, Department of Radiology, Liege (Belgium); Bonneville, Jean-Francois [University Hospital Sart-Tilman, Department of Radiology, Liege (Belgium); University Hospital Sart-Tilman, Department of Endocrinology, Liege (Belgium)

    2015-07-15

    Clinical presentations of prolactinomas are quite different between genders. In comparison with women's prolactinoma, those in men showed predominance of large tumors with high prolactin (PRL) levels. This preponderance could be attributed to a greater proliferative potential of the tumors. Differences in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal at diagnosis have not been yet clearly evaluated. We conduct a retrospective study comparing MRI signal intensity (SI) on T2-weighted images (T2-WI) between 41 men and 41 women to investigate whether or not men prolactinoma present specific features. In addition to the size of the adenoma and PRL levels (P < 0001), prolactinomas in men also exhibit differences from those in women in signal on T2-WI on MRI (P < 0001). Women's prolactinomas are mostly of high SI on T2-WI while men's prolactinomas exhibit a more heterogeneous pattern of SI on T2-WI. Prolactinomas presenting with low SI on T2-WI are almost exclusively encountered in men. Presence of T2-WI hypointensities in pituitary adenoma can be predictive of a different subtype of prolactinoma almost encountered in men and possibly translate the presence of spherical amyloid deposits, in agreement with the literature. (orig.)

  6. Intensity of prolactinoma on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging: towards another gender difference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreutz, Julie; Vroonen, Laurent; Petrossians, Patrick; Rostomyan, Liliya; Beckers, Albert; Cattin, Francoise; Thiry, Albert; Tshibanda, Luaba; Bonneville, Jean-Francois

    2015-01-01

    Clinical presentations of prolactinomas are quite different between genders. In comparison with women's prolactinoma, those in men showed predominance of large tumors with high prolactin (PRL) levels. This preponderance could be attributed to a greater proliferative potential of the tumors. Differences in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal at diagnosis have not been yet clearly evaluated. We conduct a retrospective study comparing MRI signal intensity (SI) on T2-weighted images (T2-WI) between 41 men and 41 women to investigate whether or not men prolactinoma present specific features. In addition to the size of the adenoma and PRL levels (P < 0001), prolactinomas in men also exhibit differences from those in women in signal on T2-WI on MRI (P < 0001). Women's prolactinomas are mostly of high SI on T2-WI while men's prolactinomas exhibit a more heterogeneous pattern of SI on T2-WI. Prolactinomas presenting with low SI on T2-WI are almost exclusively encountered in men. Presence of T2-WI hypointensities in pituitary adenoma can be predictive of a different subtype of prolactinoma almost encountered in men and possibly translate the presence of spherical amyloid deposits, in agreement with the literature. (orig.)

  7. High-intensity facial nerve lesions on T2-weighted images in chronic persistent facial nerve palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, T. [Dept. of Radiology, Sendai City Hospital, Sendai (Japan); Dept. of Radiology, Tottori Univ. (Japan); Ishii, K. [Dept. of Radiology, Sendai City Hospital, Sendai (Japan); Okitsu, T. [Dept. of Otolaryngology, Sendai City Hospital (Japan); Ogawa, T. [Dept. of Radiology, Tottori Univ. (Japan); Okudera, T. [Dept. of Radiology, Research Inst. of Brain and Blood Vessels-Akita, Akita (Japan)

    2001-05-01

    Our aim was to estimate the value of MRI in detecting irreversibly paralysed facial nerves. We examined 95 consecutive patients with a facial nerve palsy (14 with a persistent palsy, and 81 with good recovery), using a 1.0 T unit, with T2-weighted and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images. The geniculate ganglion and tympanic segment had gave high signal on T2-weighted images in the chronic stage of persistent palsy, but not in acute palsy. The enhancement pattern of the facial nerve in the chronic persistent facial nerve palsy is similar to that in the acute palsy with good recovery. These findings suggest that T2-weighted MRI can be used to show severely damaged facial nerves. (orig.)

  8. MR imaging of skeletal muscle injury in rabbit : comparison between diffusion and T2-weighted MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Jun; Lee, Sung Yong; Lee, Jae Hee; Kwon Oh Han; Lee, Jae Mun; Lim, Yeon Soo

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply the diffusion-weighted MR imaging technique to the early detection of skeletal muscle injury and to evaluate the usefulness of this imaging sequence. Thirty rabbits, divided into two groups, were included in this study . Skeletal muscle injury was experimentally induced in the right thigh muscles of each rabbit by clamping with a hemostat for one minute. Four-stage clamping was applied to the rabbits in group I, but for group II there was only one stage. Diffusion and T2-weighted MR images were obtained using a 1.5T MR unit. Serial 5-and 30-minute, and 2-, 24-, and 48- hour delayed images were obtained after injury. The initial time of signal intensity change was recorded and the signal intensities of the injured sites and corresponding normal sites were measured and compared. On 5-minute delayed images in group I, diffusion-weighted MR images showed signal intensity changes in injured muscle in all 15 cases, but on T2-weighted images, change was not detected in three cases. In group II, 5-minute delayed T2-weighted images failed to depict the lesion in six cases, but on diffusion-weighted images, all lesions were detected. In addition, one lesion was not detected on 30-minute delayed T2-weighted images. In group II, the sensitivity of lesion detection was significantly higher on diffusion-weighted than on T2-weighted images (p=3D0.0169). Diffusion-weighted MR imaging was shown to be more sensitive than T2-weighted imaging for the detection of signal intensity changes immediately after artificial injury, especially when this was of a lesser degree. These results suggest that diffusion-weighted MR imaging may be useful for the detection of early stage skeletal muscle injury. (author)

  9. Uterine Artery Embolization for Symptomatic Fibroids with High Signal Intensity on T2-Weighted MR Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Suyon; Kim, Man Deuk; Lee, Myung Su; Lee, Mu Sook; Park, Sung Il; Won, Jong Yun; Lee, Do Yun; Lee, Kwang Hun [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    To evaluate the effectiveness of uterine artery embolization (UAE) for treating symptomatic fibroids with high signal intensity (SI) on magnetic resonance (MR) T2-weighted imaging (T2WI). A total of 537 cases, consisting of 14 patients with high SI fibroids on T2WI (T2 high group), were retrospectively included and compared with 28 randomly selected patients with low SI fibroids on T2WI (control group). High SI of a predominant fibroid on T2WI was defined as having the same or higher SI than the myometrium. Patient ages ranged from 28 to 52 years (mean, 38.1 years). All patients underwent MRI before and after UAE. Predominant fibroid and uterine volumes were calculated with MR images. Symptom status in terms of menorrhagia and dysmenorrhea was scored on a scale of 0-10, with 0 being no symptoms and 10 being the baseline, or initial symptoms. Of the patients in the T2 high group, 13 out of 14 (92.9%) patients demonstrated complete necrosis of the predominant fibroids. The mean volume reduction rates of the predominant fibroids in the T2 high group was 61.7% at three months after UAE, which was significantly higher than the volume reduction rates of 42.1% noted in the control group (p < 0.05). Changes in symptom scores for menorrhagia and dysmenorrhea after UAE (baseline score minus follow-up score) were 4.9 and 7.5 in T2 high group and they were 5.0 and 7.7 in control group, suggesting a significant resolution of symptoms (p < 0.01) in both groups but no significant difference between the two groups. UAE is effective for uttering fibroids showing high SI on T2WI. The mean volume reduction rate of the predominant fibroids three months after UAE was greater in the T2 high group than in the control group.

  10. Uterine Artery Embolization for Symptomatic Fibroids with High Signal Intensity on T2-Weighted MR Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Suyon; Kim, Man Deuk; Lee, Myung Su; Lee, Mu Sook; Park, Sung Il; Won, Jong Yun; Lee, Do Yun; Lee, Kwang Hun

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of uterine artery embolization (UAE) for treating symptomatic fibroids with high signal intensity (SI) on magnetic resonance (MR) T2-weighted imaging (T2WI). A total of 537 cases, consisting of 14 patients with high SI fibroids on T2WI (T2 high group), were retrospectively included and compared with 28 randomly selected patients with low SI fibroids on T2WI (control group). High SI of a predominant fibroid on T2WI was defined as having the same or higher SI than the myometrium. Patient ages ranged from 28 to 52 years (mean, 38.1 years). All patients underwent MRI before and after UAE. Predominant fibroid and uterine volumes were calculated with MR images. Symptom status in terms of menorrhagia and dysmenorrhea was scored on a scale of 0-10, with 0 being no symptoms and 10 being the baseline, or initial symptoms. Of the patients in the T2 high group, 13 out of 14 (92.9%) patients demonstrated complete necrosis of the predominant fibroids. The mean volume reduction rates of the predominant fibroids in the T2 high group was 61.7% at three months after UAE, which was significantly higher than the volume reduction rates of 42.1% noted in the control group (p < 0.05). Changes in symptom scores for menorrhagia and dysmenorrhea after UAE (baseline score minus follow-up score) were 4.9 and 7.5 in T2 high group and they were 5.0 and 7.7 in control group, suggesting a significant resolution of symptoms (p < 0.01) in both groups but no significant difference between the two groups. UAE is effective for uttering fibroids showing high SI on T2WI. The mean volume reduction rate of the predominant fibroids three months after UAE was greater in the T2 high group than in the control group.

  11. Evaluation of neonatal brain myelination using the T1- and T2-weighted MRI ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soun, Jennifer E; Liu, Michael Z; Cauley, Keith A; Grinband, Jack

    2017-09-01

    To validate the T1- and T2-weighted (T1w/T2w) MRI ratio technique in evaluating myelin in the neonatal brain. T1w and T2w MR images of 10 term neonates with normal-appearing brain parenchyma were obtained from a single 1.5 Tesla MRI and retrospectively analyzed. T1w/T2w ratio images were created with a postprocessing pipeline and qualitatively compared with standard clinical sequences (T1w, T2w, and apparent diffusion coefficient [ADC]). Quantitative assessment was also performed to assess the ratio technique in detecting areas of known myelination (e.g., posterior limb of the internal capsule) and very low myelination (e.g., optic radiations) using linear regression analysis and the Michelson Contrast equation, a measure of luminance contrast intensity. The ratio image provided qualitative improvements in the ability to visualize regional variation in myelin content of neonates. Linear regression analysis demonstrated a significant inverse relationship between the ratio intensity values and ADC values in the posterior limb of the internal capsule and the optic radiations (R 2  = 0.96 and P ratio images were 1.6 times higher than T1w, 2.6 times higher than T2w, and 1.8 times higher than ADC (all P ratio improved visualization of the corticospinal tract, one of the earliest myelinated pathways. The T1w/T2w ratio accentuates contrast between myelinated and less myelinated structures and may enhance our diagnostic ability to detect myelination patterns in the neonatal brain. 2 Technical Efficacy: Stage2 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2017;46:690-696. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  12. The reliability of identifying the Omega sign using axial T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Hesham Mostafa; Massa, Peter Joseph; Smith, Richard L; Moharram, Tarek Hazem; Corrigan, John; Lee, Ian; Schultz, Lonni; Hu, Jianhui; Patel, Suresh; Griffith, Brent

    2018-01-01

    Preoperative identification of the eloquent brain is important for neurosurgical planning. One common method of finding the motor cortex is by localizing "the Omega sign." No studies have tested the reliability of imaging to identify the Omega sign. We identified 40 recent and consecutive patients who had undergone preoperative functional magnetic resonance imaging for identification of the hand motor area prior to tumor resection. We recruited 11 neurosurgical residents of various levels of training and one board-certified neurosurgeon to identify the hand motor cortex Omega. Testees were given axial images of T2-weighted MRI and placed marks where they expected to find the Omega. Two board-certified radiologists graded and quantified the localization attempts. Inter-rater reliability was assessed using the kappa statistic, and Rao-Scott chi-square tests were used to examine the relationship between clinical factors and testees' experience with correct identification of the Omega sign. The overall correct identification rate was 69.9% (95% CI = 63.4-75.7), ranging from 36.6% to 92.7% among all raters for the tumor side and from 46.2% to 97.4% for the non-tumor side. Anatomic distortion greatly affected correct identification ( p Omega than junior residents ( p Omega sign is poor, with a Fleiss kappa of 0.23. We concluded that correct identification of the Omega sign is affected by tumor distortion and experience but overall is not reliable. This underscores the limitations of anatomic landmarks and the importance of utilizing multiple scanning planes and preoperative fMRI for appropriate localization.

  13. T2-weighted MRI-derived textural features reflect prostate cancer aggressiveness: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nketiah, Gabriel; Elschot, Mattijs; Kim, Eugene; Teruel, Jose R; Scheenen, Tom W; Bathen, Tone F; Selnæs, Kirsten M

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic relevance of T2-weighted (T2W) MRI-derived textural features relative to quantitative physiological parameters derived from diffusion-weighted (DW) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI in Gleason score (GS) 3+4 and 4+3 prostate cancers. 3T multiparametric-MRI was performed on 23 prostate cancer patients prior to prostatectomy. Textural features [angular second moment (ASM), contrast, correlation, entropy], apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and DCE pharmacokinetic parameters (K trans and V e ) were calculated from index tumours delineated on the T2W, DW, and DCE images, respectively. The association between the textural features and prostatectomy GS and the MRI-derived parameters, and the utility of the parameters in differentiating between GS 3+4 and 4+3 prostate cancers were assessed statistically. ASM and entropy correlated significantly (p textural features correlated insignificantly with K trans and V e . GS 4+3 cancers had significantly lower ASM and higher entropy than 3+4 cancers, but insignificant differences in median ADC, K trans , and V e . The combined texture-MRI parameters yielded higher classification accuracy (91%) than the individual parameter sets. T2W MRI-derived textural features could serve as potential diagnostic markers, sensitive to the pathological differences in prostate cancers. • T2W MRI-derived textural features correlate significantly with Gleason score and ADC. • T2W MRI-derived textural features differentiate Gleason score 3+4 from 4+3 cancers. • T2W image textural features could augment tumour characterization.

  14. Optimization of T2-weighted imaging for shoulder magnetic resonance arthrography by synthetic magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Hyun; Lee, Young Han; Hahn, Seok; Yang, Jaemoon; Song, Ho-Taek; Suh, Jin-Suck

    2017-01-01

    Background Synthetic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows reformatting of various synthetic images by adjustment of scanning parameters such as repetition time (TR) and echo time (TE). Optimized MR images can be reformatted from T1, T2, and proton density (PD) values to achieve maximum tissue contrast between joint fluid and adjacent soft tissue. Purpose To demonstrate the method for optimization of TR and TE by synthetic MRI and to validate the optimized images by comparison with conventional shoulder MR arthrography (MRA) images. Material and Methods Thirty-seven shoulder MRA images acquired by synthetic MRI were retrospectively evaluated for PD, T1, and T2 values at the joint fluid and glenoid labrum. Differences in signal intensity between the fluid and labrum were observed between TR of 500-6000 ms and TE of 80-300 ms in T2-weighted (T2W) images. Conventional T2W and synthetic images were analyzed for diagnostic agreement of supraspinatus tendon abnormalities (kappa statistics) and image quality scores (one-way analysis of variance with post-hoc analysis). Results Optimized mean values of TR and TE were 2724.7 ± 1634.7 and 80.1 ± 0.4, respectively. Diagnostic agreement for supraspinatus tendon abnormalities between conventional and synthetic MR images was excellent (κ = 0.882). The mean image quality score of the joint space in optimized synthetic images was significantly higher compared with those in conventional and synthetic images (2.861 ± 0.351 vs. 2.556 ± 0.607 vs. 2.750 ± 0.439; P optimized TR and TE for shoulder MRA enables optimization of soft-tissue contrast.

  15. Automated image quality evaluation of T2 -weighted liver MRI utilizing deep learning architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esses, Steven J; Lu, Xiaoguang; Zhao, Tiejun; Shanbhogue, Krishna; Dane, Bari; Bruno, Mary; Chandarana, Hersh

    2018-03-01

    To develop and test a deep learning approach named Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) for automated screening of T 2 -weighted (T 2 WI) liver acquisitions for nondiagnostic images, and compare this automated approach to evaluation by two radiologists. We evaluated 522 liver magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) exams performed at 1.5T and 3T at our institution between November 2014 and May 2016 for CNN training and validation. The CNN consisted of an input layer, convolutional layer, fully connected layer, and output layer. 351 T 2 WI were anonymized for training. Each case was annotated with a label of being diagnostic or nondiagnostic for detecting lesions and assessing liver morphology. Another independently collected 171 cases were sequestered for a blind test. These 171 T 2 WI were assessed independently by two radiologists and annotated as being diagnostic or nondiagnostic. These 171 T 2 WI were presented to the CNN algorithm and image quality (IQ) output of the algorithm was compared to that of two radiologists. There was concordance in IQ label between Reader 1 and CNN in 79% of cases and between Reader 2 and CNN in 73%. The sensitivity and the specificity of the CNN algorithm in identifying nondiagnostic IQ was 67% and 81% with respect to Reader 1 and 47% and 80% with respect to Reader 2. The negative predictive value of the algorithm for identifying nondiagnostic IQ was 94% and 86% (relative to Readers 1 and 2). We demonstrate a CNN algorithm that yields a high negative predictive value when screening for nondiagnostic T 2 WI of the liver. 2 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018;47:723-728. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  16. Spin-echo and STIR MR imaging of sports-related muscle injuries at 1.5 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greco, A.; McNamara, M.T.; Escher, R.M.B.; Trifilio, G.; Parienti, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper assesses the value of T2-weighted and short T1 inversion recovery (Stir 1,800,170,27) sequences in the MR diagnosis and follow-up of muscle strain injuries. Fifty-six athletes with clinically diagnosed traumatic muscular damage were studied at 1.5 T with SE T1-weighted, double T2-weighted, and STIR techniques. Images were evaluated in order to detect the presence of muscle tear with associated edema, muscle hemorrhage (focal or diffuse), and perimuscular hemorrhage. The relative conspicuity of muscle injuries on T2-weighted and STIR images was assessed. All acute and subacute muscle injuries were detected on both SE T2-weighted and STIR images, muscle edema and subacute hemorrhage appearing hyperintense to normal muscle. Acute hemorrhage could appear hypointense on T2-weighted images but was always hyperintense on STIR images

  17. Fogging on T2-weighted MR after acute ischaemic stroke: how often might this occur and what are the implications?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, P.; Sellar, R.J.; Wardlaw, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    ''Fogging'' is the temporary loss of visibility of an infarct on CT which occurs in the subacute phase at about 2 weeks after stroke. It occurs in up to 40% of medium to large infarcts on CT. It is unclear whether or how often fogging occurs on T2-weighted MR, but if it does occur, it can cause underestimation of true infarct size. This study examined the possible frequency and time scale of ''fogging'' on T2-weighted MR. We conducted a blinded, independent review of prospectively collected MR scans from patients with symptoms of cortical ischaemic stroke, scanned sequentially up to 7 weeks after stroke. On each scan maximum infarct area was measured, and the infarct extent and swelling were coded on a validated scale. ''Fogging'' was suggested by reduced infarct extent between initial and subsequent scans. In 30 patients (with 74 scans) there was some apparent ''fogging'' in 50% of patients between 6 and 36 days (median 10 days) after stroke. Reduction in infarct extent on T2-weighted MR which may be attributed to ''fogging'' occurs in a significant proportion of patients with cortical infarcts. This may lead to an underestimation of true final infarct extent. This suggests that true infarct extent on T2-weighted MR can probably only be assessed on scans obtained beyond 7 weeks after stroke. (orig.)

  18. High signal in the spinal cord on T2-weighted images in rapidly progressive tropical spastic paraparesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, M.; Hara, A.; Murakami, T.; Ando, Y.; Uyama, E.; Mita, S.; Uchino, M. [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Yamashita, T. [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Dept. of Neurology, Kumamoto Univ. (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    We report a 59-year-old woman with human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type-I (HTLV-I) associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis who showed high signal in the cervical and thoracic spinal cord on T2-weighted and contrast enhancement on T1-weighted images. (orig.)

  19. Image quality and cancer visibility of T2-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the prostate at 7 Tesla

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, E.K.; Lagemaat, M.W.; Barentsz, J.O.; Futterer, J.J.; Zamecnik, P.; Roozen, H.; Orzada, S.; Bitz, A.K.; Maas, M.C.; Scheenen, T.W.J.

    2014-01-01

    To assess the image quality of T2-weighted (T2w) magnetic resonance imaging of the prostate and the visibility of prostate cancer at 7 Tesla (T).Seventeen prostate cancer patients underwent T2w imaging at 7T with only an external transmit/receive array coil. Three radiologists independently scored

  20. Value of T2-weighted MR imaging in differentiating low-fat renal angiomyolipomas from other renal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hyuck Jae; Kim, Jeong Kon; Kim, Mi-Hyun; Cho, Kyoung-Sik; Ahn, Hanjong; Kim, Choung-Soo

    2011-01-01

    Background: Accurate preoperative diagnosis of fat scanty angiomyolipomas is an important clinical issue. By evaluating the low signal intensity of angiomyolipomas in MR T2-weighted images the diagnostic accuracy can be elevated. Purpose: To retrospectively assess the usefulness of T2-weighted MR imaging for differentiating low-fat angiomyolipomas (AMLs) from other renal tumors. Material and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 71 patients with surgically proven renal masses (10 AMLs, 57 renal cell carcinomas [RCCs], and four oncocytomas), all of which showed no visible fat as well as gradual enhancement patterns on contrast-enhanced CT. Signal intensity was measured in each renal mass and in the spleen on T2-weighted images, and each signal intensity ratio (SIR) was calculated; SIR values were then compared in the AML and non-AML groups. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the two parameters for differentiating the two groups. Results: The SIR values (77 ± 24% vs. 162 ± 79%, p = 0.002) were significantly lower in the AML than in the non-AML group. The area under the ROC curve was 0.926 for SIR. The sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of AMLs were 90% and 90.2%, using SIR cut-off of 92.5%. Conclusion: Signal intensity measurements on T2-weighted MR images can differentiate AML from non-AML in the kidney

  1. On the analysis of time-of-flight spin-echo modulated dark-field imaging data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sales, Morten; Plomp, Jeroen; Bouwman, Wim G.

    2017-01-01

    Spin-Echo Modulated Small Angle Neutron Scattering with spatial resolution, i.e. quantitative Spin-Echo Dark Field Imaging, is an emerging technique coupling neutron imaging with spatially resolved quantitative small angle scattering information. However, the currently achieved relatively large...... modulation periods of the order of millimeters are superimposed to the images of the samples. So far this required an independent reduction and analyses of the image and scattering information encoded in the measured data and is involving extensive curve fitting routines. Apart from requiring a priori...... decisions potentially limiting the information content that is extractable also a straightforward judgment of the data quality and information content is hindered. In contrast we propose a significantly simplified routine directly applied to the measured data, which does not only allow an immediate first...

  2. Neutron spin echo investigation of elementary excitations in superfluid 4He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezei, F.

    1980-01-01

    The present work represents the first experimental evidence for the application of Neutron Spin Echo (NSE) in high resolution study of both optical-like (non dispersive) and dispersive elementary excitations. The results obtained proved to be relevant contributions concerning the temperature dependence of the energy and linewidth of the roton excitation between 0.96 and 1.4 K; the temperature dependence of the linewidth of the 1.1 A -1 and 1.72 A -1 phonons and the suggested onset of three-phonon decay between 2.1 A -1 and 2.4 A -1 . The energy transfer resolution achieved in this work was 10-40 times superiour to those in previous similar neutron scattering experiments. In this paper most of the attention will be paid to the experimental aspects. In the first section the details of the NSE experiment are described, with particular emphasis on the first demonstration of the general scheme of NSE focussing, which involves the tuning of both the ratio of the precession fields H 0 /H 1 and their geometrical assymetry ('tilt angle'). The second section gives the experimental results without, however, a detailed discussion of their significance for the understanding of superfluid 4 He, which will be published elsewhere. (orig.)

  3. Gaussian-approximation formalism for evaluating decay of NMR spin echoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recchia, C.H.; Gorny, K.; Pennington, C.H.

    1996-01-01

    We present a formalism for evaluating the amplitude of the NMR spin echo and stimulated echo as a function of pulse spacings, for situations in which the nuclear spins experience an effective longitudinal magnetic field h z (t) resulting from an arbitrary number of independent sources, each characterized by its own arbitrary time correlation function. The distribution of accumulated phase angles for the ensemble of nuclear spins at the time of the echo is approximated as a Gaussian. The development of the formalism is motivated by the need to understand the transverse relaxation of 89 Y in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 , in which the 89 Y experiences 63,65 Cu dipolar fields which fluctuate due to 63,65 Cu T 1 processes. The formalism is applied successfully to this example, and to the case of nuclei diffusing in a spatially varying magnetic field. Then we examine a situation in which the approximation fails emdash the classic problem of chemical exchange in dimethylformamide, where the methyl protons experience a chemical shift which fluctuates between two discrete values. In this case the Gaussian approximation yields a monotonic decay of the echo amplitude with increasing pulse spacing, while the exact solution yields distinct open-quote open-quote beats close-quote close-quote in the echo height, which we confirm experimentally. In light of this final example the limits of validity of the approximation are discussed. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  4. Evaluation of crosstalk effect on spin-echo images at 1.5 and 3 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajisako, Masaaki; Taniguchi, Masahiro; Koizumi, Koji; Hiraga, Akira; Miyati, Tosiaki; Syakudo, Yuko; Miki, Yukio

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the crosstalk effect on spin-echo (SE) images at 1.5 and 3 T MRI. We examined the influence of crosstalk by comparing the full width at half-maximum (FWHM) and slice profile of images of a wedge-shaped phantom for various slice gaps. We also assessed crosstalk effect in the brain by comparing image contrast among healthy volunteers (n=8). Among the subjects, the shapes of the slice profiles at 1.5 T were similar to those at 3 T for long repetition times (TRs); however, at shorter TRs, differences in slice profiles were observed among the subjects and were more apparent at 3 than at 1.5 T. The relative contrast between white matter and gray matter on T 1 -weighted images was lower at 3 than at 1.5 T. The crosstalk effect was strongest when the TR of the excitation pulse was short. The influence of the adjacent excitation pulse is important in the process of T 1 relaxation because T 1 values are greater at 3 T. In conclusion, the influence of crosstalk on SE T 1 -weighted images is greater at 3 than at 1.5 T. (author)

  5. Elucidation of spin echo small angle neutron scattering correlation functions through model studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shew, Chwen-Yang; Chen, Wei-Ren

    2012-02-14

    Several single-modal Debye correlation functions to approximate part of the overall Debey correlation function of liquids are closely examined for elucidating their behavior in the corresponding spin echo small angle neutron scattering (SESANS) correlation functions. We find that the maximum length scale of a Debye correlation function is identical to that of its SESANS correlation function. For discrete Debye correlation functions, the peak of SESANS correlation function emerges at their first discrete point, whereas for continuous Debye correlation functions with greater width, the peak position shifts to a greater value. In both cases, the intensity and shape of the peak of the SESANS correlation function are determined by the width of the Debye correlation functions. Furthermore, we mimic the intramolecular and intermolecular Debye correlation functions of liquids composed of interacting particles based on a simple model to elucidate their competition in the SESANS correlation function. Our calculations show that the first local minimum of a SESANS correlation function can be negative and positive. By adjusting the spatial distribution of the intermolecular Debye function in the model, the calculated SESANS spectra exhibit the profile consistent with that of hard-sphere and sticky-hard-sphere liquids predicted by more sophisticated liquid state theory and computer simulation. © 2012 American Institute of Physics

  6. Size Distribution Imaging by Non-Uniform Oscillating-Gradient Spin Echo (NOGSE MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noam Shemesh

    Full Text Available Objects making up complex porous systems in Nature usually span a range of sizes. These size distributions play fundamental roles in defining the physicochemical, biophysical and physiological properties of a wide variety of systems - ranging from advanced catalytic materials to Central Nervous System diseases. Accurate and noninvasive measurements of size distributions in opaque, three-dimensional objects, have thus remained long-standing and important challenges. Herein we describe how a recently introduced diffusion-based magnetic resonance methodology, Non-Uniform-Oscillating-Gradient-Spin-Echo (NOGSE, can determine such distributions noninvasively. The method relies on its ability to probe confining lengths with a (length6 parametric sensitivity, in a constant-time, constant-number-of-gradients fashion; combined, these attributes provide sufficient sensitivity for characterizing the underlying distributions in μm-scaled cellular systems. Theoretical derivations and simulations are presented to verify NOGSE's ability to faithfully reconstruct size distributions through suitable modeling of their distribution parameters. Experiments in yeast cell suspensions - where the ground truth can be determined from ancillary microscopy - corroborate these trends experimentally. Finally, by appending to the NOGSE protocol an imaging acquisition, novel MRI maps of cellular size distributions were collected from a mouse brain. The ensuing micro-architectural contrasts successfully delineated distinctive hallmark anatomical sub-structures, in both white matter and gray matter tissues, in a non-invasive manner. Such findings highlight NOGSE's potential for characterizing aberrations in cellular size distributions upon disease, or during normal processes such as development.

  7. A neutron spin echo spectrometer with two optimal field shape coils for neutron spin precession

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, T.; Ebisawa, T.; Tasaki, S.; Ito, Y.; Takahashi, S.; Yoshizawa, H.

    1995-01-01

    We have designed and have been constructing at the C 2-2 cold neutron guide port of JRR-3M, JAERI, a neutron spin echo spectrometer (NSE) which is equipped with two optimal field shape (OFS) coils for neutron spin precession with the maximum field integral of 0.22 T m, an assembly of position sensitive detectors (PSD), a converging polarizer and a wide area analyzer. The dynamic range of scattering vector Q covers from 0.005 A -1 to 0.2 A -1 and that of energy hω from 10 neV to 30 μeV. Performance tests of the OFS coils show that the inhomogeneity of the magnetic field integral in the OFS coils with the spiral coils is so small that the NSE signal amplitude decreases little even for the neutron cross section of 30 mm diameter as the Fourier time t increases up to 25 ns, though the precession coils are close to iron covers of the neighboring neutron guide. This verifies that the OFS precession coils are appropriate for this NSE spectrometer. Another test experiment shows that the homogeneity condition of the precession magnet is loosened by use of PSD. (orig.)

  8. Spherical neutron polarimetry applied to spin-echo and time-of-flight spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lelievre-Berna, E., E-mail: lelievre@ill.e [Institut Laue Langevin (ILL), 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Bentley, P.; Bourgeat-Lami, E.; Thomas, M. [Institut Laue Langevin (ILL), 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Pappas, C. [Helmholtz Centre Berlin for Materials and Energy (HCB), Glienickerstr. 100, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands); Kischnik, R.; Moskvin, E. [Helmholtz Centre Berlin for Materials and Energy (HCB), Glienickerstr. 100, 14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2009-09-01

    The changes in direction of the neutron spin that take place on scattering by a magnetic interaction vector are highly dependent on their relative directions. In some circumstances, without zero-field polarimeter, it is impossible to distinguish between a simple depolarisation and a rotation of the polarisation vector. Motivated by the investigation of chiral magnetic fluctuations, we have implemented the third-generation zero-field polarimeter Cryopad on the neutron spin-echo spectrometer SPAN at the Helmholtz Centre Berlin (HCB). We present the method and the limitations of this novel technique that is now available on IN15 at the ILL. The huge progress accomplished with {sup 3}He neutron spin filters/flippers are going to facilitate the exploitation of polarised beams at spallation sources. Zero-field polarimeters like Cryopad are used routinely at several steady-state sources but their design would be inefficient at a pulse source. We have investigated the possibility to implement a zero-field polarimeter on a time-of-flight spectrometer. We propose a design that would lead to a better efficiency and present the finite element calculations.

  9. Acoustic noise reduction in T 1- and proton-density-weighted turbo spin-echo imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Martin; Blaimer, Martin; Breuer, Felix; Grodzki, David; Heismann, Björn; Jakob, Peter

    2016-02-01

    To reduce acoustic noise levels in T 1-weighted and proton-density-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE) sequences, which typically reach acoustic noise levels up to 100 dB(A) in clinical practice. Five acoustic noise reduction strategies were combined: (1) gradient ramps and shapes were changed from trapezoidal to triangular, (2) variable-encoding-time imaging was implemented to relax the phase-encoding gradient timing, (3) RF pulses were adapted to avoid the need for reversing the polarity of the slice-rewinding gradient, (4) readout bandwidth was increased to provide more time for gradient activity on other axes, (5) the number of slices per TR was reduced to limit the total gradient activity per unit time. We evaluated the influence of each measure on the acoustic noise level, and conducted in vivo measurements on a healthy volunteer. Sound recordings were taken for comparison. An overall acoustic noise reduction of up to 16.8 dB(A) was obtained by the proposed strategies (1-4) and the acquisition of half the number of slices per TR only. Image quality in terms of SNR and CNR was found to be preserved. The proposed measures in this study allowed a threefold reduction in the acoustic perception of T 1-weighted and proton-density-weighted TSE sequences compared to a standard TSE-acquisition. This could be achieved without visible degradation of image quality, showing the potential to improve patient comfort and scan acceptability.

  10. Neutron spin echo measurements of monolayer and capillary condensed water in MCM-41 at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, K; Yamaguchi, T; Kittaka, S; Bellissent-Funel, M-C; Fouquet, P

    2012-01-01

    Neutron spin echo measurements of monolayer and capillary condensed heavy water (D 2 O) confined in MCM-41 C10 (pore diameter 2.10 nm) were performed in a temperature range of 190-298 K. The intermediate scattering functions were analyzed by the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts stretched exponential function. The relaxation times of confined D 2 O in the capillary condensed state follow remarkably well the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation between 298 and 220 K, whereas below 220 K they show an Arrhenius type behavior. That is, the fragile-to-strong (FTS) dynamic crossover occurs, which has never been seen in experiments on bulk water. On the other hand, for monolayer D 2 O, the FTS dynamic crossover was not observed in the temperature range measured. The FTS dynamic crossover observed in capillary condensed water would take place in the central region of the pore, not near the pore surface. Because the tetrahedral-like water structure in the central region of the pore is more preserved than that near the pore surface, the FTS dynamic crossover would be concerned with the tetrahedral-like water structure. (paper)

  11. Self-diffusion imaging by spin echo in Earth's magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohoric, A; Stepisnik, J; Kos, M; Planinsi

    1999-01-01

    The NMR of the Earth's magnetic field is used for diffusion-weighted imaging of phantoms. Due to a weak Larmor field, care needs to be taken regarding the use of the usual high field assumption in calculating the effect of the applied inhomogeneous magnetic field. The usual definition of the magnetic field gradient must be replaced by a generalized formula valid when the strength of a nonuniform magnetic field and a Larmor field are comparable (J. Stepisnik, Z. Phys. Chem. 190, 51-62 (1995)). It turns out that the expression for spin echo attenuation is identical to the well-known Torrey formula only when the applied nonuniform field has a proper symmetry. This kind of problem may occur in a strong Larmor field as well as when the slow diffusion rate of particles needs an extremely strong gradient to be applied. The measurements of the geomagnetic field NMR demonstrate the usefulness of the method for diffusion and flow-weighted imaging. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  12. Liver iron content determined by MRI. Spin-echo vs. gradient-echo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juchems, M.S.; Wunderlich, A.P. [Universitaetskliniken Ulm (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Cario, H. [Universitaetskliniken Ulm (Germany). Klinik fuer Kinder- und Jugendmedizin; Schmid, M. [Stadtspital Triemli, Zuerich (Switzerland). Medizinische Onkologie und Haematologie

    2012-05-15

    Purpose: Liver iron content (LIC) measurement plays a central role in the management of patients with transfusional iron overload. Calculating the LIC with data obtained from standardized MRI sequences represents an attractive alternative diagnostic possibility. The purpose of this study was to compare the LIC measurement obtained with gradient-echo (GRE) sequences to the mean liver proton transverse relaxation (R2) acquired with SE sequences. Materials and Methods: 68 patients with iron overload (median age: 24, range: 3 - 88) underwent 1.5 T MRI for liver iron content measurement. All patients received spin-echo (SE) and gradient-echo (GRE) sequences. Results: The two MRI methods revealed different liver iron content results although a significant correlation was found (r = 0.85, p < 0.001). Values evaluated using GRE sequences (median: 260 {mu}mol/g dry weight [d.w.], range: 6 - 732) were generally higher than those obtained by SE examinations (median: 161 {mu}mol /g d.w., range: 5 - 830). Conclusion: In conclusion, our study revealed different results for both MRI measurements, which could lead to different decisions concerning the management of chelation therapy in individual patients. (orig.)

  13. Clustering Effects on Dynamics in Ionomer Solutions: A Neutron Spin Echo Insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perahia, Dvora; Wijesinghe, Sidath; Senanayake, Manjula; Wickramasinghe, Anuradhi; Mohottalalage, Supun S.; Ohl, Michael

    Ionizable blocks in ionomers associate into aggregates serving as physical cross-links and concurrently form transport pathways. The dynamics of ionomers underline their functionality. Incorporating small numbers of ionic groups into polymers significantly constraint their dynamics. Recent computational studies demonstrated a direct correlation between ionic cluster morphology and polymer dynamics. Here using neutron spin echo, we probe the segmental dynamics of polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) as the degree of sulfonation of the PSS and the solution dielectrics are varied. Specifically, 20Wt% PSS of 11,000 g/mol with polydispersity of 1.02 with 3% and 9% sulfonation were studies in toluene (dielectric constant ɛ = 2.8), a good solvent for polystyrene, and with 5Wt% of ethanol (ɛ = 24.3l) added. The dynamic structure factor S(q,t) was analyzed with a single exponential except for a limited q range where two time constants associated with constraint and mobile segments were detected. S(q,t) exhibits several distinctive time and length scales for the dynamics with a crossover appearing at the length scale of the ionic clusters. NSF DMR 1611136.

  14. Electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) reveals water and phosphate interactions with the KcsA potassium channel

    OpenAIRE

    Cieslak, John A.; Focia, Pamela J.; Gross, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Electron spin-echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) spectroscopy is a well-established technique for the study of naturally occurring paramagnetic metal centers. The technique has been used to study copper complexes, hemes, enzyme mechanisms, micellar water content, and water permeation profiles in membranes, among other applications. In the present study, we combine ESEEM spectroscopy with site-directed spin labeling (SDSL) and X-ray crystallography in order to evaluate the technique's potential ...

  15. Determination of the amounts of C, CH, CH/sub 2/ and CH/sub 3/ fragments by the spin echo method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polonov, V.M.; Kalabin, G.A.; Kushnarev, D.F.; Latyshev, V.P.

    1984-01-01

    A new method is presented for the quantitative determination of primary, secondary, tertiary and quarternary carbon atoms in soluble coal products. The method is based on pulsed spin echo of /sup 13/C nuclear magnetic resonance.

  16. Utility of re-windowing for MR T2-weighted images in differentiating between benign tumors and cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, A.; Nishikawa, K.; Otonari-Yamamoto, M.; Sano, T.

    2009-01-01

    Both benign tumors and cysts in the oral and maxillofacial region show clear borders and homogeneously high signal intensity on magnetic resonance (MR T2-weighted images, making differentiation difficult without contrast enhancement. Windowing for brightness and contrast adjustment may be helpful in interpreting relative signal intensities on MR images. This study was performed to determine whether re-windowing against targeted lesions on T2-weighted images was a useful procedure that would enhance differentiation without invasive contrast enhancement. Twenty-six lesions (13 benign tumors, 13 cysts) that showed clear borders and homogeneously high signal intensity on T2-weighted images were examined. The windowing parameters of axial images were readjusted to emphasize contrast only inside the lesions using automatic density adjustment. Re-windowed images were reviewed by three experienced oral radiologists and categorized based on the internal homogeneity of the lesion into four grades: 0, heterogeneous; 1, slightly heterogeneous; 2, slightly homogeneous; 3, homogeneous. Re-windowing was then evaluated for its usefulness in differentiating between benign tumors and cysts. For cysts, the rates of homogeneous (grades 3 and 2) and heterogeneous intensity (grades 1 and 0) were 66.7 (26/39) and 33.3% (13/39), respectively. For benign tumors, these rates were 33.3 (13/39) and 66.7% (26/39), respectively. Cysts showed a higher rate of homogeneous intensity, while the opposite was true for benign tumors. A significant difference in distribution was observed between cysts and benign tumors (P 2 test). Re-windowing for T2-weighted images is helpful in differentiating between benign tumors and cysts with clear borders and homogeneously high signal intensity on T2-weighted images. (author)

  17. On the analysis of time-of-flight spin-echo modulated dark-field imaging data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Morten; Plomp, Jeroen; Bouwman, Wim G.; Tremsin, Anton S.; Habicht, Klaus; Strobl, Markus

    2017-06-01

    Spin-Echo Modulated Small Angle Neutron Scattering with spatial resolution, i.e. quantitative Spin-Echo Dark Field Imaging, is an emerging technique coupling neutron imaging with spatially resolved quantitative small angle scattering information. However, the currently achieved relatively large modulation periods of the order of millimeters are superimposed to the images of the samples. So far this required an independent reduction and analyses of the image and scattering information encoded in the measured data and is involving extensive curve fitting routines. Apart from requiring a priori decisions potentially limiting the information content that is extractable also a straightforward judgment of the data quality and information content is hindered. In contrast we propose a significantly simplified routine directly applied to the measured data, which does not only allow an immediate first assessment of data quality and delaying decisions on potentially information content limiting further reduction steps to a later and better informed state, but also, as results suggest, generally better analyses. In addition the method enables to drop the spatial resolution detector requirement for non-spatially resolved Spin-Echo Modulated Small Angle Neutron Scattering.

  18. On the analysis of time-of-flight spin-echo modulated dark-field imaging data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sales, Morten; Strobl, Markus; Plomp, Jeroen; Bouwman, Wim G.; Tremsin, Anton S.; Habicht, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Spin-Echo Modulated Small Angle Neutron Scattering with spatial resolution, i.e. quantitative Spin-Echo Dark Field Imaging, is an emerging technique coupling neutron imaging with spatially resolved quantitative small angle scattering information. However, the currently achieved relatively large modulation periods of the order of millimeters are superimposed to the images of the samples. So far this required an independent reduction and analyses of the image and scattering information encoded in the measured data and is involving extensive curve fitting routines. Apart from requiring a priori decisions potentially limiting the information content that is extractable also a straightforward judgment of the data quality and information content is hindered. In contrast we propose a significantly simplified routine directly applied to the measured data, which does not only allow an immediate first assessment of data quality and delaying decisions on potentially information content limiting further reduction steps to a later and better informed state, but also, as results suggest, generally better analyses. In addition the method enables to drop the spatial resolution detector requirement for non-spatially resolved Spin-Echo Modulated Small Angle Neutron Scattering. (paper)

  19. Non magnetic neutron spin quantum precession using multilayer spin splitter and a phase-spin echo interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebisawa, T.; Tasaki, S.; Kawai, T.; Akiyoshi, T. [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.; Achiwa, N.; Hino, M.; Otake, Y.; Funahashi, H.

    1996-08-01

    The authors have developed cold neutron optics and interferometry using multilayer mirrors. The advantages of the multilayer mirrors are their applicability to long wavelength neutrons and a great variety of the mirror performance. The idea of the present spin interferometry is based on nonmagnetic neutron spin quantum precession using multilayer spin splitters. The equation for polarized neutrons means that the polarized neutrons are equivalent to the coherent superposition of two parallel spin eigenstates. The structure and principle of a multilayer spin splitter are explained, and the nonmagnetic gap layer of the multilayer spin splitter gives rise to neutron spin quantum precession. The performance test of the multilayer spin splitter were made with a new spin interferometer, which is analogous optically to a spin echo system with vertical precession field. The spin interferometers were installed at Kyoto University research reactor and the JRR-3. The testing method and the results are reported. The performance tests on a new phase-spin echo interferometer are described, and its applications to the development of a high resolution spin echo system and a Jamin type cold neutron interferometer are proposed. (K.I.)

  20. Fat-saturated, contrast-enhanced spin echo sequences in magnetic resonance tomographic diagnosis of peritoneal carcinosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricke, J.; Hosten, N.; Stroszczynski, C.; Amthauer, H.; Felix, R.; Sehouli, J.; Buchmann, E.; Rieger, J.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate contrast-enhanced, fat-saturated spin echo sequences for the detection of peritoneal carcinosis with MRI. Material and Methods: 61 patients, 35 with and 26 without peritoneal carcinosis, were examined with abdominal MRI. Fat-saturated, T 1 -weighted spin echo sequences were performed before and after administration of Gd-DTPA. In addition, 22 patients with peritoneal carcinosis were examined with contrast-enhanced abdominal CT. Results: 32 of 35 patients with peritoneal carcinosis demonstrated contrast enhancement of the visceral and 30 to 35 enhancement of the parietal peritoneum (91 and 86%, respectively). Wall thickening of the intestine or parietal peritoneum were noted in 21 and 20 of 35 patients (60 and 57%, respectively), ascites in 18 of 35 patients (51%). False positive contrast enhancement of the peritoneum was noted in 4 of 26 patients (15%). In the direct comparison of MRI and CT, 22 of 22 patients versus 7 of 22 patients showed contrast enhancement of the visceral peritoneum (100 and 32%, respectively). For other signs of peritoneal carcinosis (e.g., ascites, peritoneal seedings), no differences in diagnostic reliability were demonstrated. Conclusions: The use of fat-saturated, spin echo sequences facilitates the diagnosis of peritoneal carcinosis by artifact reduction and improved detection of peritoneal contrast enhancement. MRI with fat-saturated sequences was superior to CT. (orig.) [de

  1. Evaluation of aqueductal patency in patients with hydrocephalus: Three-dimensional high-sampling efficiency technique(SPACE) versus two-dimensional turbo spin echo at 3 Tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ucar, Murat; Guryildirim, Melike; Tokgoz, Nil; Kilic, Koray; Borcek, Alp; Oner, Yusuf; Akkan, Koray; Tali, Turgut

    2014-01-01

    To compare the accuracy of diagnosing aqueductal patency and image quality between high spatial resolution three-dimensional (3D) high-sampling-efficiency technique (sampling perfection with application optimized contrast using different flip angle evolutions [SPACE]) and T2-weighted (T2W) two-dimensional (2D) turbo spin echo (TSE) at 3-T in patients with hydrocephalus. This retrospective study included 99 patients diagnosed with hydrocephalus. T2W 3D-SPACE was added to the routine sequences which consisted of T2W 2D-TSE, 3D-constructive interference steady state (CISS), and cine phase-contrast MRI (PC-MRI). Two radiologists evaluated independently the patency of cerebral aqueduct and image quality on the T2W 2D-TSE and T2W 3D-SPACE. PC-MRI and 3D-CISS were used as the reference for aqueductal patency and image quality, respectively. Inter-observer agreement was calculated using kappa statistics. The evaluation of the aqueductal patency by T2W 3D-SPACE and T2W 2D-TSE were in agreement with PC-MRI in 100% (99/99; sensitivity, 100% [83/83]; specificity, 100% [16/16]) and 83.8% (83/99; sensitivity, 100% [67/83]; specificity, 100% [16/16]), respectively (p < 0.001). No significant difference in image quality between T2W 2D-TSE and T2W 3D-SPACE (p = 0.056) occurred. The kappa values for inter-observer agreement were 0.714 for T2W 2D-TSE and 0.899 for T2W 3D-SPACE. Three-dimensional-SPACE is superior to 2D-TSE for the evaluation of aqueductal patency in hydrocephalus. T2W 3D-SPACE may hold promise as a highly accurate alternative treatment to PC-MRI for the physiological and morphological evaluation of aqueductal patency.

  2. Evaluation of aqueductal patency in patients with hydrocephalus: Three-dimensional high-sampling efficiency technique(SPACE) versus two-dimensional turbo spin echo at 3 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ucar, Murat; Guryildirim, Melike; Tokgoz, Nil; Kilic, Koray; Borcek, Alp; Oner, Yusuf; Akkan, Koray; Tali, Turgut [School of Medicine, Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey)

    2014-12-15

    To compare the accuracy of diagnosing aqueductal patency and image quality between high spatial resolution three-dimensional (3D) high-sampling-efficiency technique (sampling perfection with application optimized contrast using different flip angle evolutions [SPACE]) and T2-weighted (T2W) two-dimensional (2D) turbo spin echo (TSE) at 3-T in patients with hydrocephalus. This retrospective study included 99 patients diagnosed with hydrocephalus. T2W 3D-SPACE was added to the routine sequences which consisted of T2W 2D-TSE, 3D-constructive interference steady state (CISS), and cine phase-contrast MRI (PC-MRI). Two radiologists evaluated independently the patency of cerebral aqueduct and image quality on the T2W 2D-TSE and T2W 3D-SPACE. PC-MRI and 3D-CISS were used as the reference for aqueductal patency and image quality, respectively. Inter-observer agreement was calculated using kappa statistics. The evaluation of the aqueductal patency by T2W 3D-SPACE and T2W 2D-TSE were in agreement with PC-MRI in 100% (99/99; sensitivity, 100% [83/83]; specificity, 100% [16/16]) and 83.8% (83/99; sensitivity, 100% [67/83]; specificity, 100% [16/16]), respectively (p < 0.001). No significant difference in image quality between T2W 2D-TSE and T2W 3D-SPACE (p = 0.056) occurred. The kappa values for inter-observer agreement were 0.714 for T2W 2D-TSE and 0.899 for T2W 3D-SPACE. Three-dimensional-SPACE is superior to 2D-TSE for the evaluation of aqueductal patency in hydrocephalus. T2W 3D-SPACE may hold promise as a highly accurate alternative treatment to PC-MRI for the physiological and morphological evaluation of aqueductal patency.

  3. Isotropic resolution diffusion tensor imaging of lumbosacral and sciatic nerves using a phase-corrected diffusion-prepared 3D turbo spin echo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Barbara; Van, Anh T; Weidlich, Dominik; Kooijman, Hendrick; Hock, Andreas; Rummeny, Ernst J; Gersing, Alexandra; Kirschke, Jan S; Karampinos, Dimitrios C

    2018-08-01

    To perform in vivo isotropic-resolution diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of lumbosacral and sciatic nerves with a phase-navigated diffusion-prepared (DP) 3D turbo spin echo (TSE) acquisition and modified reconstruction incorporating intershot phase-error correction and to investigate the improvement on image quality and diffusion quantification with the proposed phase correction. Phase-navigated DP 3D TSE included magnitude stabilizers to minimize motion and eddy-current effects on the signal magnitude. Phase navigation of motion-induced phase errors was introduced before readout in 3D TSE. DTI of lower back nerves was performed in vivo using 3D TSE and single-shot echo planar imaging (ss-EPI) in 13 subjects. Diffusion data were phase-corrected per k z plane with respect to T 2 -weighted data. The effects of motion-induced phase errors on DTI quantification was assessed for 3D TSE and compared with ss-EPI. Non-phase-corrected 3D TSE resulted in artifacts in diffusion-weighted images and overestimated DTI parameters in the sciatic nerve (mean diffusivity [MD] = 2.06 ± 0.45). Phase correction of 3D TSE DTI data resulted in reductions in all DTI parameters (MD = 1.73 ± 0.26) of statistical significance (P ≤ 0.001) and in closer agreement with ss-EPI DTI parameters (MD = 1.62 ± 0.21). DP 3D TSE with phase correction allows distortion-free isotropic diffusion imaging of lower back nerves with robustness to motion-induced artifacts and DTI quantification errors. Magn Reson Med 80:609-618, 2018. © 2018 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes. © 2018 The Authors Magnetic Resonance

  4. Physiological noise in murine solid tumours using T2*-weighted gradient-echo imaging: a marker of tumour acute hypoxia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudelet, Christine; Ansiaux, Reginald; Jordan, Benedicte F; Havaux, Xavier; Macq, Benoit; Gallez, Bernard

    2004-01-01

    T2*-weighted gradient-echo magnetic resonance imaging (T2*-weighted GRE MRI) was used to investigate spontaneous fluctuations in tumour vasculature non-invasively. FSa fibrosarcomas, implanted intramuscularly (i.m.) in the legs of mice, were imaged at 4.7 T, over a 30 min or 1 h sampling period. On a voxel-by-voxel basis, time courses of signal intensity were analysed using a power spectrum density (PSD) analysis to isolate voxels for which signal changes did not originate from Gaussian white noise or linear drift. Under baseline conditions, the tumours exhibited spontaneous signal fluctuations showing spatial and temporal heterogeneity over the tumour. Statistically significant fluctuations occurred at frequencies ranging from 1 cycle/3 min to 1 cycle/h. The fluctuations were independent of the scanner instabilities. Two categories of signal fluctuations were reported: (i) true fluctuations (TFV), i.e., sequential signal increase and decrease, and (ii) profound drop in signal intensity with no apparent signal recovery (SDV). No temporal correlation between tumour and contralateral muscle fluctuations was observed. Furthermore, treatments aimed at decreasing perfusion-limited hypoxia, such as carbogen combined with nicotinamide and flunarizine, decreased the incidence of tumour T2*-weighted GRE fluctuations. We also tracked dynamic changes in T2* using multiple GRE imaging. Fluctuations of T2* were observed; however, fluctuation maps using PSD analysis could not be generated reliably. An echo-time dependency of the signal fluctuations was observed, which is typical to physiological noise. Finally, at the end of T2*-weighted GRE MRI acquisition, a dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI was performed to characterize the microenvironment in which tumour signal fluctuations occurred in terms of vessel functionality, vascularity and microvascular permeability. Our data showed that TFV were predominantly located in regions with functional vessels, whereas SDV occurred in regions

  5. Clinical characteristics in normal healthy adults with microbleeds on echo-planar gradient-echo T2*-weighted MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Wakoh; Ide, Michiru; Ohnuki, Tomohide; Takagi, Shigeharu; Shinohara, Yukito

    2004-01-01

    The gradient-echo T 2 * -weighted sequence in magnetic resonance imaging is known to be useful for detecting microbleeds (MBs) in patients with intracranial hemorrhage or lacunar stroke. We investigated the characteristics of apparently healthy adults with MBs but without stroke, employing echo-planar gradient-echo T 2 * -weighted MRI. The subjects were recruited from among 3,537 participants who underwent brain check-ups at the HIMEDIC Imaging Center. Of the 3,537 participants, 3,296 (mean age, 55±11 years) without any history of cerebrovascular disease or apparent focal neurological manifestations were selected for the present study. MBs on echo-planar gradient-echo T 2 * -weighted MRI were observed in 74 (2.2%) of the 3,296 subjects. Of a total of 133 lesions found in these 74 persons, 31 were located in the basal ganglia or cortico-subcortical regions. Thirty were in the deep white matter, 19 in the thalamus, 16 in the cerebellum, and 6 in the brain stem. The subjects with MBs were significantly older than the subjects without MBs, and the mean values for their systolic and diastolic blood pressures were higher than those in the subjects without MBs. Asymptomatic cerebral infarction, periventricular hyperintensity, and deep and subcortical white matter hyperintensity on T 1 - and T 2 -weighted MRI were more frequent in the subjects with MBs, as compared with those without MBs. Asymptomatic cerebral infarction, periventricular hyperintensity, and deep and subcortical white matter hyperintensity on T 1 - and T 2 -weighted MRI were more frequent in the subjects with MBs of the basal ganglia or thalamus than in those with MBs in other regions. MBs on echo-planar gradient-echo T 2 * -weighted MRI were thus relatively rare in apparently healthy adults. However, MBs in the basal ganglia or thalamus are suggested to be closely related to intracerebral microangiopathy. Persons with MBs in such regions should therefore be carefully checked for cerebrovascular risk

  6. Usefulness of magnetic resonance cholangiography and additional T2-weighted axial image in evaluating focaI intrahepatic ductal dilatation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yeong Mi; Cha, Sung Sook; Lee, Jong Yuk

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the value of MR cholangiography (MRC) and MRC with additional T2-weighted axial imaging for evaluating the cause and determining the therapeutic plan in patients with a focal dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts(IHBD). Forty nine patients (male, 27; female, 22; age range, 12-72 (mean, 51) years) with a focal intrahepatic ductal dilatation confirmed surgically and pathologically (lobectomy, 34; biopsy, 7; surgical finding and T-tube cholangiography, 7; percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage with bile cytology, 1) underwent MRC and T2-weighted axial imaging. The MRC were obtained in one of two ways (a single slab or multislice acquisition under chemical fat saturation) using RARE (31 patients, source images and single slice images), or TSE (18 patients, source images and MIP reconstruction images). Two radiologists reviewed the MRC images alone, and the MRC images with the T2-weighted axial images. A diagnosis was determined by consensus. In 37 out of 49 patients, the causes of a bile duct dilation were benign diseases (IHBD stones in 33 cases, liver abscesses with IHBD stones in three cases, one inflammatory pseudotumor). Twelve patients had cholangiocarcinomas (mass-forming type in seven cases, intraductal type in three cases, and periductaI infiltrating type in two cases). A correct diagnosis was confirmed in 47 out of 49 cases(96.0%), i.e. all the 37 benign lesions and 10 out of 12 malignant lesions. The addition of the T2-weighted axial image to the MRC did not alter the diagnosis of the causes of the focal intrahepatic ductal dilatation, but was helpful in 10 cases (20.4%). Nine cases (7 cholangiocarcinomas and 2 abscesses), in which MRC showed masses, were visualized more definitely on the additional T2-weighted axial images to the MRC than on the MRC alone. The remaining cases were hepatolithiasis, where stones could be easily differentiated from air by the air-fluid level on the axial images. MRC is a good diagnostic modality for

  7. Magnetic resonance urography in pediatrics: utilization of ultrafast single-shot spin echo sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, C.; Martin, J.; Duran, C.; Rigol, S.; Rojo, J. C.

    1999-01-01

    To determine the value of magnetic resonance urography (MRU) using ultrafast single-shot (SS) rapid acquisition with relaxation enhancement (RARE) and half-Fourier (HF) SS-RARE (SS-HF-RARE or HASTE) in the evaluation of congenital urinary tract anomalies in pediatric patients, and their possible application as alternatives to intravenous urography (IVU). Eighteen children (11 boys and 7 girls) aged 2 months to 15 years (mean: 5 years) with a total of 19 congenital urinary tract anomalies were studies by MU using SS-RARE and HASTE sequences in a 1 Tesla scanner. All the patients had previously been studies by ultrasound (US) and IVU. Twelve patients required anesthesia. The images were acquired by means of a HASTE sequence with multisection technique (TR, infinite; TE e f, 87 msec; echo train, 128; interval between echoes, 10.9 msec; total acquisition time, 13 sections/12 seconds), and SS-RARE (TR, infinite; TE e f, 1.100 msec; echo train, 240, and acquisition time, 7 seconds). Four radiologists evaluated the images independently; two who reviewed the IV images in consensus and two who reviewed the MRU images in consensus. The images were evaluated to assess the dilatation of the urinary tract and their utility in detecting the level and cause of the obstruction. MRU images revealed the urinary tract dilation, the level of the obstruction and the type of anomaly in 18 patients (100%), while IVU provided this information in only 10 [ sensitivity, 53%, 95% confidence interval (29%, 76%)]. The mean time required for MRU was 20 minutes (range: 7 to 30 minutes), while that of IVU was 1,242 minutes (range: 45 to 1,440 minutes). MRU using ultrafast single-short spin echo sequences is a rapid and effective technique that permits and excellent evaluation of congenital urinary tract anomalies in pediatric patients and does not require the administration of contrast media or ionizing radiation. (Author) 10 refs

  8. Partial flip angle spin-echo imaging to obtain T1 weighted images with electrocardiographic gating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamitsu, Hideaki; Sugimura, Kazuro; Kasai, Toshifumi; Kimino, Katsuji

    1993-01-01

    ECG-gated spin-echo (SE) imaging can reduce physiologic motion artifact. However, it does not provide strong T 1 -weighted images, because the repetition time (TR) depends on heart rate (HR). For odd-echo SE imaging, T 1 contrast can be maximized by using a smaller flip angle (FA) of initial excitation RF pulses. We investigated the usefulness of partial FA SE imaging in order to obtain more T 1 -dependent contrast with ECG gating and determined the optimal FA at each heart rate. In computer simulation and phantom study, the predicted image contrast and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) obtained for each FA (0∼180deg) and each HR (55∼90 beats per minute (bpm)) were compared with those obtained with conventional T 1 -weighted SE imaging (TR=500 ms, TE=20 ms, FA=90deg). The optimal FA was decreased by reducing HR. The FA needed to obtain T 1 -dependent contrast identical to that with T 1 -weighted SE imaging was 43deg at a HR of 65 bpm, 53deg at 70 bpm, 60deg at 75 bpm. This predicted FA were in excellent agreement with that obtained with clinical evaluation. The predicted SNR was decreased by reducing FA. The SNR of partial FA SE imaging at HR of 65 bpm (FA=43deg) was 80% of that with conventional T 1 -weighted SE imaging. However, this imaging method presented no marked clinical problem. ECG-gated partial FA SE imaging provides better T 1 -dependent contrast than conventional ECG-gated SE imaging, especially for Gd-DTPA enhanced imaging. (author)

  9. High signal of the striatum in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: sequential change on T2-weighted MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uemura, A.; O'uchi, T.; Sakamoto, T.; Yashiro, N.

    2002-01-01

    The object of this study is to describe the sequential change of high signal of the striatum on T2-weighted MRI in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Three cases of autopsy-proven sporadic CJD and a total of 18 serial MR images are included in this study. The degree of high signal of the striatum on T2-weighted MRI was evaluated by two neuroradiologists and divided into four grades by mutual agreement. Initial MRI of all three cases showed a slightly high signal of the bilateral striatum, and the conspicuity of the high signal became more prominent as the disease progressed. In each case the pathological change of striatum and globus pallidus was compared with the high signal on the last MR image. (orig.)

  10. High signal of the striatum in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: sequential change on T2-weighted MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uemura, A.; O' uchi, T.; Sakamoto, T.; Yashiro, N. [Department of Radiology, Kameda Medical Center, Kamogawa, Chiba (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    The object of this study is to describe the sequential change of high signal of the striatum on T2-weighted MRI in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Three cases of autopsy-proven sporadic CJD and a total of 18 serial MR images are included in this study. The degree of high signal of the striatum on T2-weighted MRI was evaluated by two neuroradiologists and divided into four grades by mutual agreement. Initial MRI of all three cases showed a slightly high signal of the bilateral striatum, and the conspicuity of the high signal became more prominent as the disease progressed. In each case the pathological change of striatum and globus pallidus was compared with the high signal on the last MR image. (orig.)

  11. Unenhanced breast MRI (STIR, T2-weighted TSE, DWIBS): An accurate and alternative strategy for detecting and differentiating breast lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telegrafo, Michele; Rella, Leonarda; Stabile Ianora, Amato Antonio; Angelelli, Giuseppe; Moschetta, Marco

    2015-10-01

    To assess the role of STIR, T2-weighted TSE and DWIBS sequences for detecting and characterizing breast lesions and to compare unenhanced (UE)-MRI results with contrast-enhanced (CE)-MRI and histological findings, having the latter as the reference standard. Two hundred eighty consecutive patients (age range, 27-73 years; mean age±standard deviation (SD), 48.8±9.8years) underwent MR examination with a diagnostic protocol including STIR, T2-weighted TSE, THRIVE and DWIBS sequences. Two radiologists blinded to both dynamic sequences and histological findings evaluated in consensus STIR, T2-weighted TSE and DWIBS sequences and after two weeks CE-MRI images searching for breast lesions. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and diagnostic accuracy for UE-MRI and CE-MRI were calculated. UE-MRI results were also compared with CE- MRI. UE-MRI sequences obtained sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic accuracy, PPV and NPV values of 94%, 79%, 86%, 79% and 94%, respectively. CE-MRI sequences obtained sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic accuracy, PPV and NPV values of 98%, 83%, 90%, 84% and 98%, respectively. No statistically significant difference between UE-MRI and CE-MRI was found. Breast UE-MRI could represent an accurate diagnostic tool and a valid alternative to CE-MRI for evaluating breast lesions. STIR and DWIBS sequences allow to detect breast lesions while T2-weighted TSE sequences and ADC values could be useful for lesion characterization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Texture analysis of ultrahigh field T2*-weighted MR images of the brain: application to Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Nhat Trung; van den Bogaard, Simon J A; Dumas, Eve M; Webb, Andrew G; van Buchem, Mark A; Roos, Raymund A C; van der Grond, Jeroen; Reiber, Johan H C; Milles, Julien

    2014-03-01

    To develop a framework for quantitative detection of between-group textural differences in ultrahigh field T2*-weighted MR images of the brain. MR images were acquired using a three-dimensional (3D) T2*-weighted gradient echo sequence on a 7 Tesla MRI system. The phase images were high-pass filtered to remove phase wraps. Thirteen textural features were computed for both the magnitude and phase images of a region of interest based on 3D Gray-Level Co-occurrence Matrix, and subsequently evaluated to detect between-group differences using a Mann-Whitney U-test. We applied the framework to study textural differences in subcortical structures between premanifest Huntington's disease (HD), manifest HD patients, and controls. In premanifest HD, four phase-based features showed a difference in the caudate nucleus. In manifest HD, 7 magnitude-based features showed a difference in the pallidum, 6 phase-based features in the caudate nucleus, and 10 phase-based features in the putamen. After multiple comparison correction, significant differences were shown in the putamen in manifest HD by two phase-based features (both adjusted P values=0.04). This study provides the first evidence of textural heterogeneity of subcortical structures in HD. Texture analysis of ultrahigh field T2*-weighted MR images can be useful for noninvasive monitoring of neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Relative signal intensity changes of frontal and occipital white matters on T 2 weighted axial MR image : correlation with age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, You Me; Kim, Seung Cheol

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess relative signal intensity changes in frontal and occipital white matter with age, as seen on T 2 weighted axial MR images. Thirty eight normal adults (20-29 years old) and 114 children (0-11 years old) were investigated. All had nonspecific neurologic symptoms and their MR images, obtained using a 1.5 T system (Signa, GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, U.S.A.), appeared to be normal. The signal intensities of frontal and occipital white matter were evaluated on T2 weighted axial images at the level of the foramen of Monro. When the signal intensity of white matter was higher than that of gray matter, grade 0 was assigned; when the opposite situation pertained, this was graded I - III. Grade I indicated that the signal intensity of occipital white matter was lower than that of frontal white matter; grade II, that the signal intensity of white matter of both lobes was similar. When the signal intensity of frontal white matter was lower than that of occipital age, and by one year after 2 years of age, and then determined grade according to age, age distribution according to grade, and the ages at which signal intensities were similar to those of adults. On T2-weighted MR images, the signal intensity of frontal white matter ultimately shows a lower signal intensity than that of occipital white matter. (author). 11 refs., 6 figs

  14. Seminal vesicle invasion in prostate cancer: prediction with combined T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Jing; Huan, Yi; Ge, YaLi; Chang, YingJuan; Yin, Hong; Sun, LiJun; Wang, He

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in detecting seminal vesicle invasion (SVI). A total of 283 patients underwent conventional MRI and DWI before prostate cancer surgery. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of all PCa foci, SVI and seminal vesicle were measured. T2 images alone and then T2 images combined with DWI were scored for the likelihood of SVI. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to assess accuracy. Statistical significance was inferred at P<0.05. On pathological analysis, 39 patients had SVI. The ADC values of SVI were significantly lower than those of SV. The AUC for T2-weighted imaging plus DW imaging (0.897) was significantly larger (P<0.05) than that for T2-weighted imaging alone (0.779). T2 images combined with DWI shows significantly higher accuracy than T2-weighted imaging alone in the detection of SVI. (orig.)

  15. TU-EF-BRA-03: Free Induction Decay (without the Decay) and Spin-Echo Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.

    2015-01-01

    NMR, and Proton Density MRI of the 1D Patient - Anthony Wolbarst Net Voxel Magnetization, m(x,t). T1-MRI; The MRI Device - Lisa Lemen ‘Classical’ NMR; FID Imaging in 1D via k-Space - Nathan Yanasak Spin-Echo; S-E/Spin Warp in a 2D Slice - Ronald Price Magnetic resonance imaging not only reveals the structural, anatomic details of the body, as does CT, but also it can provide information on the physiological status and pathologies of its tissues, like nuclear medicine. It can display high-quality slice and 3D images of organs and vessels viewed from any perspective, with resolution better than 1 mm. MRI is perhaps most extraordinary and notable for the plethora of ways in which it can create unique forms of image contrast, reflective of fundamentally different biophysical phenomena. As with ultrasound, there is no risk from ionizing radiation to the patient or staff, since no X-rays or radioactive nuclei are involved. Instead, MRI harnesses magnetic fields and radio waves to probe the stable nuclei of the ordinary hydrogen atoms (isolated protons) occurring in water and lipid molecules within and around cells. MRI consists, in essence, of creating spatial maps of the electromagnetic environments around these hydrogen nuclei. Spatial variations in the proton milieus can be related to clinical differences in the biochemical and physiological properties and conditions of the associated tissues. Imaging of proton density (PD), and of the tissue proton spin relaxation times known as T1 and T2, all can reveal important clinical information, but they do so with approaches so dissimilar from one another that each is chosen for only certain clinical situations. T1 and T2 in a voxel are determined by different aspects of the rotations and other motions of the water and lipid molecules involved, as constrained by the local biophysical surroundings within and between its cells – and they, in turn, depend on the type of tissue and its state of health. Three other common

  16. TU-EF-BRA-03: Free Induction Decay (without the Decay) and Spin-Echo Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, R. [Vanderbilt Medical Center (United States)

    2015-06-15

    NMR, and Proton Density MRI of the 1D Patient - Anthony Wolbarst Net Voxel Magnetization, m(x,t). T1-MRI; The MRI Device - Lisa Lemen ‘Classical’ NMR; FID Imaging in 1D via k-Space - Nathan Yanasak Spin-Echo; S-E/Spin Warp in a 2D Slice - Ronald Price Magnetic resonance imaging not only reveals the structural, anatomic details of the body, as does CT, but also it can provide information on the physiological status and pathologies of its tissues, like nuclear medicine. It can display high-quality slice and 3D images of organs and vessels viewed from any perspective, with resolution better than 1 mm. MRI is perhaps most extraordinary and notable for the plethora of ways in which it can create unique forms of image contrast, reflective of fundamentally different biophysical phenomena. As with ultrasound, there is no risk from ionizing radiation to the patient or staff, since no X-rays or radioactive nuclei are involved. Instead, MRI harnesses magnetic fields and radio waves to probe the stable nuclei of the ordinary hydrogen atoms (isolated protons) occurring in water and lipid molecules within and around cells. MRI consists, in essence, of creating spatial maps of the electromagnetic environments around these hydrogen nuclei. Spatial variations in the proton milieus can be related to clinical differences in the biochemical and physiological properties and conditions of the associated tissues. Imaging of proton density (PD), and of the tissue proton spin relaxation times known as T1 and T2, all can reveal important clinical information, but they do so with approaches so dissimilar from one another that each is chosen for only certain clinical situations. T1 and T2 in a voxel are determined by different aspects of the rotations and other motions of the water and lipid molecules involved, as constrained by the local biophysical surroundings within and between its cells – and they, in turn, depend on the type of tissue and its state of health. Three other common

  17. SU-F-R-35: Repeatability of Texture Features in T1- and T2-Weighted MR Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahon, R; Weiss, E; Karki, K; Hugo, G; Ford, J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate repeatability of lung tumor texture features from inspiration/expiration MR image pairs for potential use in patient specific care models and applications. Repeatability is a desirable and necessary characteristic of features included in such models. Methods: T1-weighted Volumetric Interpolation Breath-Hold Examination (VIBE) and/or T2-weighted MRI scans were acquired for 15 patients with non-small cell lung cancer before and during radiotherapy for a total of 32 and 34 same session inspiration-expiration breath-hold image pairs respectively. Bias correction was applied to the VIBE (VIBE-BC) and T2-weighted (T2-BC) images. Fifty-nine texture features at five wavelet decomposition ratios were extracted from the delineated primary tumor including: histogram(HIST), gray level co-occurrence matrix(GLCM), gray level run length matrix(GLRLM), gray level size zone matrix(GLSZM), and neighborhood gray tone different matrix (NGTDM) based features. Repeatability of the texture features for VIBE, VIBE-BC, T2-weighted, and T2-BC image pairs was evaluated by the concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) between corresponding image pairs, with a value greater than 0.90 indicating repeatability. Results: For the VIBE image pairs, the percentage of repeatable texture features by wavelet ratio was between 20% and 24% of the 59 extracted features; the T2-weighted image pairs exhibited repeatability in the range of 44–49%. The percentage dropped to 10–20% for the VIBE-BC images, and 12–14% for the T2-BC images. In addition, five texture features were found to be repeatable in all four image sets including two GLRLM, two GLZSM, and one NGTDN features. No single texture feature category was repeatable among all three image types; however, certain categories performed more consistently on a per image type basis. Conclusion: We identified repeatable texture features on T1- and T2-weighted MRI scans. These texture features should be further investigated for use

  18. SU-F-R-35: Repeatability of Texture Features in T1- and T2-Weighted MR Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahon, R; Weiss, E; Karki, K; Hugo, G [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Ford, J [University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate repeatability of lung tumor texture features from inspiration/expiration MR image pairs for potential use in patient specific care models and applications. Repeatability is a desirable and necessary characteristic of features included in such models. Methods: T1-weighted Volumetric Interpolation Breath-Hold Examination (VIBE) and/or T2-weighted MRI scans were acquired for 15 patients with non-small cell lung cancer before and during radiotherapy for a total of 32 and 34 same session inspiration-expiration breath-hold image pairs respectively. Bias correction was applied to the VIBE (VIBE-BC) and T2-weighted (T2-BC) images. Fifty-nine texture features at five wavelet decomposition ratios were extracted from the delineated primary tumor including: histogram(HIST), gray level co-occurrence matrix(GLCM), gray level run length matrix(GLRLM), gray level size zone matrix(GLSZM), and neighborhood gray tone different matrix (NGTDM) based features. Repeatability of the texture features for VIBE, VIBE-BC, T2-weighted, and T2-BC image pairs was evaluated by the concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) between corresponding image pairs, with a value greater than 0.90 indicating repeatability. Results: For the VIBE image pairs, the percentage of repeatable texture features by wavelet ratio was between 20% and 24% of the 59 extracted features; the T2-weighted image pairs exhibited repeatability in the range of 44–49%. The percentage dropped to 10–20% for the VIBE-BC images, and 12–14% for the T2-BC images. In addition, five texture features were found to be repeatable in all four image sets including two GLRLM, two GLZSM, and one NGTDN features. No single texture feature category was repeatable among all three image types; however, certain categories performed more consistently on a per image type basis. Conclusion: We identified repeatable texture features on T1- and T2-weighted MRI scans. These texture features should be further investigated for use

  19. Diffusional behavior of n-paraffins with various chain lengths in urea adduct channels by pulsed field-gradient spin-echo NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sunmi; Kuroki, Shigeki; Ando, Isao

    2006-01-01

    The diffusion coefficients (D) of n-paraffin molecules (n-C n H 2n+2 ) with various chain-lengths (n = 8, 12, 21, 26, 28 and 32) in the long channels of a deuterated urea-d 4 adduct have been measured at 25 deg. C by means of pulsed field-gradient spin-echo 1 H NMR method. The aim is to clarify diffusional behavior of the n-paraffin molecules in the urea adduct channels. From the experimental results, it is found that n-paraffin molecules are diffusing in the long channels and have two kinds of diffusion components, namely a fast (D ∼ 10 -10 m 2 /s) and a slow diffusion component (D ∼ 10 -11 m 2 /s). The diffusing-time (Δ) dependence of the diffusion coefficients of the n-paraffins shows some likely evidence of restricted diffusion since the n-paraffin molecules are confined in the urea channel. The diffusion coefficients (D) decrease as the carbon number increases from 8 to 28, and very slowly decreases as the carbon number increases from 28 to 32

  20. Measurement of vortex motion in a type-II superconductor: A novel use of the neutron spin-echo technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgan; Kealey; Johnson; Pautrat; Simon; Lee; Aegerter; Cubitt; Farago; Schleger

    2000-10-16

    We have used the neutron spin-echo technique to measure the small energy change of neutrons which are diffracted by a moving vortex lattice in a low-pinning Nb-Ta superconducting sample. A transport current was passed in the mixed state to cause flux line movement. In the case of uniform motion, the flux velocity v(L) was given as expected by the values of electric and magnetic fields, via E = -v(L)wedgeB. We show that with a nonuniformly moving vortex lattice, one can measure the dispersion of the velocities, opening up new possibilities for investigating moving vortex lines.

  1. Rabi oscillation and electron-spin-echo envelope modulation of the photoexcited triplet spin system in silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Waseem; Sekiguchi, Takeharu; Itahashi, Tatsumasa; Filidou, Vasileia; Morton, John J. L.; Vlasenko, Leonid; Itoh, Kohei M.

    2012-09-01

    We report on a pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study of the photoexcited triplet state (S=1) of oxygen-vacancy centers in silicon. Rabi oscillations between the triplet sublevels are observed using coherent manipulation with a resonant microwave pulse. The Hahn echo and stimulated echo decay profiles are superimposed with strong modulations known as electron-spin-echo envelope modulation (ESEEM). The ESEEM spectra reveal a weak but anisotropic hyperfine coupling between the triplet electron spin and a 29Si nuclear spin (I=1/2) residing at a nearby lattice site, that cannot be resolved in conventional field-swept EPR spectra.

  2. Electron spin echo study of the E'-center phase relaxation in γ-irradiated quartz glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudkin, V.I.; Petrun'kin, V.Yu.; Rubinov, S.V.; Uspenskij, L.I.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental studies of phase relaxation of E'-centres in γ-irradiated quartz glass are conducted by the method of electron spin echo (ESE) for different concentrations of paramagnetic centres. Contribution of mechanisms of spectral and prompt diffusion to kinetics of amplitude drop of echo signal is proved to reduce with growth of delay time between exciting microwave pulse that results in increase of phase memory time at large delays. The mentioned property can be used in electric controlled delay lines on the base of ESE

  3. A case of Marchiafava-Bignami disease: MRI findings on spin-echo and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Takashi; Ashikaga, Ryuichiro; Araki, Yutaka; Nishimura, Yasumasa

    2000-01-01

    Marchiafava-Bignami disease (MBD) was diagnosed in a 56-year-old man. Spin-echo (SE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at the acute phase showed normal signal areas in the central layer of the corpus callosum (CC), although the intensity of these areas revealed abnormal hyperintensity on fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR). On follow-up SE MRI at the late phase, the central layer of the CC showed fluid-like intensity. On FLAIR MRI, the lesions of the CC turned into hypointense cores surrounded by hyperintense rims indicating central necrosis and peripheral demyelination. Degenerative changes of the CC in MBD were clearly demonstrated by FLAIR MRI

  4. Whole heart cine MR imaging of pulmonary veins in patients with congenital heart disease. Comparison with Spin Echo MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsui, Hideaki; Saito, Haruo; Ishibashi, Tadashi; Takahashi, Shoki; Zuguchi, Masayuki; Yamada, Shogo

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated the accuracy of Whole Heart Cine (WHC) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the depiction of pulmonary veins (PVs) in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) compared to that of spin echo (SE) MR imaging. Among our 35 patients, 4 patients had anomalous PV return. Detectability of four PVs on each MR examination images were evaluated. MR imaging is an effective modality for the clarification of PVs, and WHC MR imaging is more useful in delineating PV anomalies than SE MR imaging. (author)

  5. Optimized T1- and T2-weighted volumetric brain imaging as a diagnostic tool in very preterm neonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nossin-Manor, Revital; Chung, Andrew D.; Morris, Drew; Thomas, Bejoy; Shroff, Manohar M.; Soares-Fernandes, Joao P.; Cheng, Hai-Ling M.; Whyte, Hilary E.A.; Taylor, Margot J.; Sled, John G.

    2011-01-01

    T1- and T2-W MR sequences used for obtaining diagnostic information and morphometric measurements in the neonatal brain are frequently acquired using different imaging protocols. Optimizing one protocol for obtaining both kinds of information is valuable. To determine whether high-resolution T1- and T2-W volumetric sequences optimized for preterm brain imaging could provide both diagnostic and morphometric value. Thirty preterm neonates born between 24 and 32 weeks' gestational age were scanned during the first 2 weeks after birth. T1- and T2-W high-resolution sequences were optimized in terms of signal-to-noise ratio, contrast-to-noise ratio and scan time and compared to conventional spin-echo-based sequences. No differences were found between conventional and high-resolution T1-W sequences for diagnostic confidence, image quality and motion artifacts. A preference for conventional over high-resolution T2-W sequences for image quality was observed. High-resolution T1 images provided better delineation of thalamic myelination and the superior temporal sulcus. No differences were found for detection of myelination and sulcation using conventional and high-resolution T2-W images. High-resolution T1- and T2-W volumetric sequences can be used in clinical MRI in the very preterm brain to provide both diagnostic and morphometric information. (orig.)

  6. Feasibility of ultrasound-guided high intensity focused ultrasound ablating uterine fibroids with hyperintense on T2-weighted MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Wen-Peng; Chen, Jin-Yun; Zhang, Lian; Li, Quan; Qin, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively investigate whether uterine fibroids with hyperintense on pretreatment T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could be treated with ultrasound-guided high intensity focused ultrasound (USgHIFU). Materials and methods: 282 patients with 282 symptomatic uterine fibroids who underwent USgHIFU treatment were retrospectively analyzed. Based on the signal intensity of T2-weighted MRI, uterine fibroids were classified as hypointense, isointense and hyperintense. Hyperintense fibroids were subjectively further subdivided into heterogeneous hyperintense, slightly homogeneous hyperintense and markedly homogeneous hyperintense based on the signal intensity of fibroid relative to myometrium and endometrium on T2-weighted MRI. Enhanced MRI was performed within one month after HIFU treatment. Non-perfused volume (NPV, indicative of successful ablation) ratio, treatment time, treatment efficiency, energy effect ratio and adverse events were recorded. Results: The median volume of uterine fibroids was 70.3 cm 3 (interquartile range, 41.1–132.5 cm 3 ). The average NPV ratio, defined as non-perfused volume divided by the fibroid volume after HIFU treatment, was 76.8 ± 19.0% (range, 0–100%) in the 282 patients. It was 86.3 ± 11.9% (range, 40.9–100.0%) in the group with hypointense fibroids, 77.1 ± 16.5% (range, 32.2–100.0%) in isointense fibroids, and 67.6 ± 23.9% (range, 0–100.0%) in hyperintense fibroids. The lowest NPV ratio, lowest treatment efficiency, more treatment time, more sonication energy and pain scores were observed in the slightly homogeneous hyperintense fibroids, and the NPV ratio was 55.8 ± 26.7% (range, 0–83.9%) in this subgroup. Conclusion: Based on our results, the heterogeneous and markedly homogeneous hyperintense fibroids were suitable for USgHIFU, and only the slightly homogeneous hyperintense fibroids should be excluded

  7. Fast magnetic resonance imaging of the knee using a parallel acquisition technique (mSENSE): a prospective performance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreitner, K.F.; Romaneehsen, Bernd; Oberholzer, Katja; Dueber, Christoph; Krummenauer, Frank; Mueller, L.P.

    2006-01-01

    The performance of a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging strategy that uses multiple receiver coil elements and integrated parallel imaging techniques (iPAT) in traumatic and degenerative disorders of the knee and to compare this technique with a standard MR imaging protocol was evaluated. Ninety patients with suspected internal derangements of the knee joint prospectively underwent MR imaging at 1.5 T. For signal detection, a 6-channel array coil was used. All patients were investigated with a standard imaging protocol consisting of different turbo spin-echo sequences proton density (PD), T 2 -weighted turbo spin echo (TSE) with and without fat suppression in three imaging planes. All sequences were repeated with an integrated parallel acquisition technique (iPAT) using the modified sensitivity encoding (mSENSE) algorithm with an acceleration factor of 2. Two radiologists independently evaluated and scored all images with regard to overall image quality, artefacts and pathologic findings. Agreement of the parallel ratings between readers and imaging techniques, respectively, was evaluated by means of pairwise kappa coefficients that were stratified for the area of evaluation. Agreement between the parallel readers for both the iPAT imaging and the conventional technique, respectively, as well as between imaging techniques was found encouraging with inter-observer kappa values ranging between 0.78 and 0.98 for both imaging techniques, and the inter-method kappa values ranging between 0.88 and 1.00 for both clinical readers. All pathological findings (e.g. occult fractures, meniscal and cruciate ligament tears, torn and interpositioned Hoffa's cleft, cartilage damage) were detected by both techniques with comparable performance. The use of iPAT lead to a 48% reduction of acquisition time compared with standard technique. Parallel imaging using mSENSE proved to be an efficient and economic tool for fast musculoskeletal MR imaging of the knee joint with comparable

  8. Fusion of High b-valve diffusion-weighted and T2-weighted MR images improves identification of lymph nodes in the pelvis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir, N.; Sohaib, S.A.; Collins, D.; Koh, D.M.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Accurate identification of lymph nodes facilities nodal assessment by size, morphological or MR lymphographic criteria. We compared the MR detection of lymph nodes in patients with pelvic cancers using T2-weighted imaging, and fusion of diffusion-weighted imaging (OWl) and T2-weighted imaging. Twenty patients with pelvic tumours underwent 5-mm axial T2-weighted and OWl (b-values 0-750 s/mm 2 ) on a L 5T system. Fusion images of b = 750 s/mm 2 diffusion-weighted MR and T2-weighted images were created. Two radiologists evaluated in consensus the T2-weighted images and fusion images independently. For each image set, the location and diameter of pelvic nodes were recorded, and nodal visibility was scored using a 4-point scale (0-3). Nodal visualisation was compared using Relative to an Identified Distribution (RIDIT) analysis. The mean RIDIT score describes the probability that a randomly selected node will be better visualised relative to the other image set. One hundred fourteen pelvic nodes (mean 5.9 mm; 2-10 mm) were identified on T2-weighted images and 161 nodes (mean 4.3 mm; 2-10 mm) on fusion images. Using fusion images, 47 additional nodes were detected compared with T2-weighted images alone (eight external iliac, 24 inguinal, 12 obturator, two peri-rectal, one presacral). Nodes detected only on fusion images were 2-9 mm (mean 3.7 mm). Nodal visualisation was better using fusion images compared with T2-weighted images (mean RIDIT score 0.689 vs 0.302). Fusion of diffusion-weighted MR with T2-weighted images improves identification of pelvic lymph nodes compared with T2-weighted images alone. The improved nodal identification may aid treatment planning and further nodal characterisation.

  9. Hippocampal Microbleed on a Post-Mortem T2*-Weighted Gradient-Echo 7.0-Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. De Reuck

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The present post-mortem study of a brain from an Alzheimer patient showed on a T2*-weighted gradient-echo 7.0-T MRI of a coronal brain section a hyposignal in the hippocampus, suggesting a microbleed. On the corresponding histological examination, only iron deposits around the granular cellular layer and in blood vessel walls of the hippocampus were observed without evidence of a bleeding. This case report illustrates that the detection of microbleeds on MRI has to be interpreted with caution.

  10. Spectral narrowing and spin echo for localized carriers with heavy-tailed L evy distribution of hopping times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue, Z. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Mkhitaryan, Vagharsh [Ames Lab. and Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Raikh, M. E. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2016-02-02

    We study analytically the free induction decay and the spin echo decay originating from the localized carriers moving between the sites which host random magnetic fields. Due to disorder in the site positions and energies, the on-site residence times, , are widely spread according to the L evy distribution. The power-law tail ∝ τ-1-∝ in the distribution of does not affect the conventional spectral narrowing for α > 2, but leads to a dramatic acceleration of the free induction decay in the domain 2 > α > 1. The next abrupt acceleration of the decay takes place as becomes smaller than 1. In the latter domain the decay does not follow a simple-exponent law. To capture the behavior of the average spin in this domain, we solve the evolution equation for the average spin using the approach different from the conventional approach based on the Laplace transform. Unlike the free induction decay, the tail in the distribution of the residence times leads to the slow decay of the spin echo. The echo is dominated by realizations of the carrier motion for which the number of sites, visited by the carrier, is minimal.

  11. Comparison of Diffusion-Weighted Imaging in the Human Brain Using Readout-Segmented EPI and PROPELLER Turbo Spin Echo With Single-Shot EPI at 7 T MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, Ikuhiro; Ueguchi, Takashi; Matsuoka, Yuichiro; Zhou, Kun; Stemmer, Alto; Porter, David

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction-type turbo spin echo diffusion-weighted imaging (pTSE-DWI) and readout-segmented echo planar imaging (rsEPI-DWI) with single-shot echo planar imaging (ssEPI-DWI) in a 7 T human MR system. We evaluated the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), image distortion, and apparent diffusion coefficient values in the human brain. Six healthy volunteers were included in this study. The study protocol was approved by our institutional review board. All measurements were performed at 7 T using pTSE-DWI, rsEPI-DWI, and ssEPI-DWI sequences. The spatial resolution was 1.2 × 1.2 mm in-plane with a 3-mm slice thickness. Signal-to-noise ratio was measured using 2 scans. The ssEPI-DWI sequence showed significant image blurring, whereas pTSE-DWI and rsEPI-DWI sequences demonstrated high image quality with low geometrical distortion compared with reference T2-weighted, turbo spin echo images. Signal loss in ventral regions near the air-filled paranasal sinus/nasal cavity was found in ssEPI-DWI and rsEPI-DWI but not pTSE-DWI. The apparent diffusion coefficient values for ssEPI-DWI were 824 ± 17 × 10 and 749 ± 25 × 10 mm/s in the gray matter and white matter, respectively; the values obtained for pTSE-DWI were 798 ± 21 × 10 and 865 ± 40 × 10 mm/s; and the values obtained for rsEPI-DWI were 730 ± 12 × 10 and 722 ± 25 × 10 mm/s. The pTSE-DWI images showed no additional distortion comparison to the T2-weighted images, but had a lower SNR than ssEPI-DWI and rsEPI-DWI. The rsEPI-DWI sequence provided high-quality images with minor distortion and a similar SNR to ssEPI-DWI. Our results suggest that the benefits of the rsEPI-DWI and pTSE-DWI sequences, in terms of SNR, image quality, and image distortion, appear to outweigh those of ssEPI-DWI. Thus, pTSE-DWI and rsEPI-DWI at 7 T have great potential use for clinical diagnoses. However, it is noteworthy that both

  12. Hepatocellular carcinoma with marginal superparamagnetic iron oxide uptake on T2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging: Histopathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishigami, Kousei; Tajima, Tsuyoshi; Fujita, Nobuhiro; Nishie, Akihiro; Asayama, Yoshiki; Kakihara, Daisuke; Nakayama, Tomohiro; Okamoto, Daisuke; Taketomi, Akinobu; Shirabe, Ken; Honda, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the characteristics of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) with marginal superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) uptake on T2*-weighted MRI. Materials and methods: The study group consisted of 73 patients with 83 surgically resected HCCs. Preoperative SPIO-enhanced MRI studies were retrospectively reviewed. Marginal SPIO uptake was considered positive if a rim-like or band-like low intensity area was present on SPIO-enhanced T2*-weighted images. The prevalence of marginal SPIO uptake was evaluated. Pathological specimens with hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemical staining of CD68 were reviewed in HCCs with marginal SPIO uptake and 33 HCCs without marginal SPIO uptake (control group). Results: Ten of 83 (12%) HCCs showed marginal SPIO uptake. All HCCs were hypervascular, and only one nodule showed a nodule-in-nodule appearance on imaging findings. The pathology specimens suggested possible causes of marginal SPIO uptake, including marginal macrophage infiltration in moderately or poorly differentiated HCC (n = 4), residual normal hepatic tissue at the marginal area of confluent multinodular or single nodular with extranodular growth type HCC (n = 3), and a well-differentiated HCC component in nodule-in-nodule type HCC (n = 3). Marginal macrophage infiltration was not seen in the control group. Conclusion: SPIO-enhanced MRI may be able to demonstrate marginal macrophage infiltration in HCC.

  13. Efficacy of T2*-Weighted Gradient-Echo MRI in Early Diagnosis of Cerebral Venous Thrombosis with Unilateral Thalamic Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingo Mitaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT is an uncommon cause of stroke with diverse etiologies and varied clinical presentations. Because of variability in clinical presentation and neuroimaging, CVT remains a diagnostic challenge. Recently, some studies have highlighted the value of T2*-weighted gradient-echo MRI (T2*WI in the diagnosis of CVT. We report the case of a 79-year-old woman with CVT due to a hypercoagulable state associated with cancer. On the initial T2-weighted image (T2WI, there was a diffuse high-intensity lesion in the right thalamus, extending into the posterior limb of the internal capsule and midbrain. T2*WI showed diminished signal and enlargement of the right basilar vein and the vein of Galen. Even though there is a wide range of differential diagnoses in unilateral thalamic lesions, and a single thalamus lesion is a rare entity of CVT, based on T2*WI findings we could make an early diagnosis and perform treatment. Our case report suggests that T2*WI could detect thrombosed veins and be a useful method of early diagnosis in CVT.

  14. Radiation-induced liver injury showing low intensity on T2-weighted images noted in Budd-Chiari syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Harushi [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine; Yoshioka, Hiroshi; Saida, Yukihisa; Itai, Yuji [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Clinical Medicine; Mori, Kensaku [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Hospital; Ahmadi, T. [Shahid Beheshti Univ. of Medical Sciences, Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Okumura, Toshiyuki [Ibaraki Prefectural Central Hospital, Tomobe (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    Although it is documented that radiation can cause density or intensity changes on computed tomography or MR imaging in the irradiated hepatic parenchyma, few researchers have reported or understood the MR presentation of changes in hepatic parenchyma following radiotherapy in the patient with Budd-Chiari syndrome. The purpose of this study was to investigate the MR appearance of hepatic radiation injury in Budd-Chiari syndrome and to consider the underlying pathophysiology. The MR examinations of two patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome was compared with those of 11 patients without Budd-Chiari syndrome. The two groups, both of which suffered from hepatocellular carcinoma, underwent 50-72 Gy of proton-beam irradiation during a period of 14-43 days. Examinations including T1- and T2-weighted imaging, superparamagnetic iron oxide-enhanced imaging, and dynamic study were performed 3-10 weeks after the end of irradiation. Radiation-induced hepatic injury was observed as a low-intensity area on T2-weighted images and on delayed phase images of dynamic study in the Budd-Chiari patients, and as iso- or high-intensity areas on both images in the patients without Budd-Chiari syndrome. US-guided needle biopsy from the irradiated area in one patient with Budd-Chiari syndrome revealed mostly necrotic tissue and fibrous tissue. These MR features of hepatic radiation injury in Budd-Chiari syndrome were considered to be due to severe hepatic fibrosis. (author)

  15. Analysis of high signal intensities of nontumorous conditions of corpus callosum on magnetic resonance T2-weighted images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Moo Song; Kim, Chul Min; Chung, Chun Phil

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate high signal intensity of nontumorous conditions of corpus callosum on T2-weighted MR images. Forty nine patients with nontumorous high signal intensities involving corpus callosum on sagittal T2-weighted image were retrospectively analyzed. Nontumorous condition of corpus callosum were diffuse axonal injury (DAI, 19 cases), cerebral infarctions (16 cases), multiple sclerosis (MS, 5 cases), Wilson's disease (2 cases) and hydrocephalus (7 cases) that were diagnosed by clinical and MR findings. Numbers, configuration, involved thickness and sites of high signal intensities of corpus callosum were analyzed. DAI and infarctions showed either single or multiple lesions. MS and hydrocephalus showed multiple lesions, but Wilson's diseases showed single lesion. In DAI, infarctions and MS the lesions involved any part of corpus callosum, splenium in Wilson's disease, and all parts of corpus callosum in hydrocephalus. Wilson's disease showed only partial thickness involvement, and others involved partial or full thickness of corpus callosum. Configuration of high signal intensity was linear in most cases of hydrocephalus, and oval in Wilson's disease, and oval and confluent in MS, and variable in DAI and infarctions. High signal intensities of nontumorous conditions of corpus callosum revealed variable findings, and therefore, analysis of nontumorous high signal intensities of corpus callosum is not made by only MR findings but by conjuction with clinical aspects

  16. Detection of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury with 3D-enhanced T2* weighted angiography (ESWAN) imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gang, QiangQiang, E-mail: rousikang@163.com; Zhang, Jianing, E-mail: 1325916060@qq.com; Hao, Peng, E-mail: 1043600590@qq.com; Xu, Yikai, E-mail: yikaivip@163.com

    2013-11-01

    Objective: To demonstrate the use of 3D-enhanced T2* weighted angiography (ESWAN) imaging for the observation and quantification of the evolution of brain injury induced by a recently developed model of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HI/R) in neonatal piglets. Methods: For these experiments, newborn piglets were subjected to HI/R injury, during which ESWAN scanning was performed, followed by H and E staining and immunohistochemistry of AQP-4 expression. Results: In the striatum, values from T2* weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) increased and reached their highest level at 3 days post injury, whereas T2* values increased and peaked at 24 h in the subcortical region. The change in T2* values was concordant with brain edema. Phase values in the subcortical border region were not dependent on time post-injury. Magnitude values were significantly different from the control group, and increased gradually over time in the subcortical border region. Susceptibility-weighted images (SWI) indicated small petechial hemorrhages in the striatum and thalamus, as well as dilated intramedullary veins. Conclusion: SWI images can be used to detect white and gray matter microhemorrhages and dilated intramedullary veins. The T2*, phase, and magnitude map can also reflect the development of brain injury. Our data illustrate that ESWAN imaging can increase the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of MRI in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

  17. Detection of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury with 3D-enhanced T2* weighted angiography (ESWAN) imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gang, QiangQiang; Zhang, Jianing; Hao, Peng; Xu, Yikai

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate the use of 3D-enhanced T2* weighted angiography (ESWAN) imaging for the observation and quantification of the evolution of brain injury induced by a recently developed model of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HI/R) in neonatal piglets. Methods: For these experiments, newborn piglets were subjected to HI/R injury, during which ESWAN scanning was performed, followed by H and E staining and immunohistochemistry of AQP-4 expression. Results: In the striatum, values from T2* weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) increased and reached their highest level at 3 days post injury, whereas T2* values increased and peaked at 24 h in the subcortical region. The change in T2* values was concordant with brain edema. Phase values in the subcortical border region were not dependent on time post-injury. Magnitude values were significantly different from the control group, and increased gradually over time in the subcortical border region. Susceptibility-weighted images (SWI) indicated small petechial hemorrhages in the striatum and thalamus, as well as dilated intramedullary veins. Conclusion: SWI images can be used to detect white and gray matter microhemorrhages and dilated intramedullary veins. The T2*, phase, and magnitude map can also reflect the development of brain injury. Our data illustrate that ESWAN imaging can increase the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of MRI in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy

  18. Gadolinium-Enhanced Three-Dimensional Magnetization - Prepared Rapid Gradient-Echo (3D MP-RAGE) Imaging is Superior to Spin-Echo Imaging in Delineating Brain Metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, T.; Takeda, A.; Nagaoka, T.; Kunieda, E.; Takemasa, K.; Watanabe, M.; Hatou, T.; Oguro, S.; Katayama, M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Precisely defining the number and location of brain metastases is very important for establishing a treatment strategy for malignancies. Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is now considered the best modality, various improvements in sequences are still being made. Purpose: To prospectively compare the diagnostic ability of three-dimensional, magnetization-prepared rapid gradient-echo (3D MP-RAGE) imaging in detecting metastatic brain tumors, with that of two-dimensional spin-echo (2D SE) T1-weighted imaging. Material and Methods: A total of 123 examinations were included in this study, and 119 examinations from 88 patients with known malignancies were analyzed. All patients underwent T1- and T2-weighted 2D SE transverse imaging, followed by gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted transverse and coronal 2D SE imaging and 3D MP-RAGE transverse imaging. Four radiologists interpreted the images to compare the accuracy and the time required for interpretation for each imaging. Results: 3D MP-RAGE imaging was significantly better than 2D SE imaging for detecting metastatic brain lesions, regardless of the readers' experience. The sensitivities of the 3D MP-RAGE and 2D SE imaging for all observers were 0.81 vs. 0.80 (P>0.05), specificities were 0.93 vs. 0.87 (P 0.05), and accuracies were 0.84 vs. 0.78 (P<0.05), respectively. There was no significant difference in the time required for image interpretation between the two modalities (15.6±4.0 vs. 15.4±4.1 min). Conclusion: 3D MP-RAGE imaging proved superior to 2D SE imaging in the detection of brain metastases

  19. Mesencephalic substantia nigra and Parkinson's disease: spin-echo and inversion-recovery MRI evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaux, Ruben P.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To comparatively assess the images of the mesencephalic substantia nigra (mSN) obtained with FSE (PD and T2) and IR (STIR; T1; WMS and GMS) sequences in patients with Parkinson's disease (PKD) and normal volunteers. Methods: We studied 8 normal volunteers (N group) and 8 patients (PKD groups) of similar age, both men and women, with a clinical diagnosis of PKD. We obtained axial oblique images of the mesencephalon with FSE PD and T2 sequences; Inversion-Recovery (IR) with a short inversion time (STIR); T1 weighted (IR-T1 phase reconstruction) with white matter signal suppression (IR-WMS) and gray matter signal suppression (IR-GMS). Average values were measured for: a) normalized signal intensity; b) thickness; and c) area of the mSN in each sequence and group. A statistical analysis of the values obtained for each of the variables was performed for both groups (Student and Welch correlation tests), comparing the results of the intra an inter-group sequences. A p value 0.05). Images obtained with IR-WMS and GMS sequences showed significant differences between the three variables assessed, particularly thickness and area (p<0.01), and also showed a posterolateral-anteromedial gradient in the mSN alteration in patients with PKD or recent onset and chronic evolution. Conclusions: The T2 weighted FSE sequences are not useful for the assessment of mSN, whereas PD, STIR and IR-T1 sequences allow to delineate it more accurately, without morphological differences (thickness and area), or signal intensity differences among the groups assessed. The WMS and GMS sequences showed statistically significant differences in the assessment of thickness, area and the signal intensity of the mSN, and may hence be useful for diagnosis. (author)

  20. Assessment of the characteristics of MRI coils in terms of RF non-homogeneity using routine spin echo sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oghabian, M. A.; Mehdipour, Sh.; RiahicAlam, N.; Rafie, B.; Ghanaati, H.

    2005-01-01

    One of the major causes of image non-uniformity in MRI is due to the existence of non-homogeneity in RF receive and transmit. This can be the most effective source of error in quantitative studies in MRI imaging. Part of this non-homogeneity demonstrates the characteristics of RF coil and part of it is due to the interaction of RF field with the material being imaged. In this study, RF field non-homogeneity of surface and volume coils is measured using an oil phantom. The method employed in this work is based on a routine Spin Echo based sequence as proposed by this group previously. Materials and Methods: For the determination of RF non-uniformity, a method based on Spin Echo sequence (8θ-180) was used as reported previously by the same author. In this method, several images were obtained from one slice using different flip angles while keeping all other imaging parameters constant. Then, signal intensity at a ROI from all of these images were measured and fitted to the MRI defined mathematical model. Since this mathematical model describes the relation between signal intensity and flip angle in a (8θ-180) Spin Echo sequence, it is possible to obtain the variation in receive and transmit sensitivity in terms of the variation of signal intensity from the actual expected values. Since surface coils are functioning as only receiver (RF transmission is done by Body coil), first the results of receive coil homogeneity is measured, then characteristic of transmit coil (for the body coil) is evaluated Results: The coefficient of variation (C.V.) found for T(r) value obtained from images using head coils was in the order of 0.6%. Since the head coil is functioning as both transmitter and receiver, any non-uniformity in either transmit or receive stage can lead to non-homogeneity in RF field. A part from the surface coils, the amount of non-homogeneity due to receive coil was less than that of the transmit coil. In the case of the surface coils the variation in receive