WorldWideScience

Sample records for fast radiochemical separation

  1. Innovation in metrology: fast automated radiochemical separation and measurement for strontium 89 and 90

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augeray, C.; Galliez, K.; Mouton, M.; Tarlette, L.; Loyen, J.; Fayolle, C.; Gleizes, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN (France)

    2014-07-01

    Measuring radioactivity in the food and for radiological monitoring of the environment around Nuclear Facilities or mining sites requires the quantification of the radioactive isotopes present in the different compartments (liquids or solids), especially of the beta emitters. Strontium 89 and 90, both pure beta emitters are radioactive isotopes of interest. Because of their toxicity and the similarity of their chemical and physical behavior with calcium, these elements may be found through the food chain. After the Fukushima accident, the necessity of quantifying quickly radioactive isotopes such as strontium 89 and 90 appeared. The technique we are going to present concerns the determination of the activity concentration of strontium 89 and 90 in water, according to the {sup 89}Sr/{sup 90}Sr ratio. It consists of two stages: the chemical separation by ionic chromatography and the measurement of the activity concentration of strontium 89 and 90 by Cerenkov Effect. The automated separation has been developed and allows isolating the isotopes of strontium in particular the radioactive ones: strontium 89 and 90. The separation can be done within one hour. It was realized from the adaptation of existing analytical chemistry equipments with on-line couplings. The protocol of separation is based on the use of ions exchange columns of Ionic chromatography not as a separation and measurement technique of the cation but only as a separation technique. At the release time of the ion to be quantified, a fraction collector allows its recovery. The test portion is then analyzed with a liquid scintillation counter (LSC). The activity concentration is measured by Cerenkov Effect on a quenched sample. The quenching is realized by applying a thin colored film on the sample vial. This color quench is used to make strontium 90 counts disappear on the LS spectrum. This way, only yttrium 90 ingrowth and strontium 89 decay are measured (E{sup 90}Sr < E{sup 89}Sr < E{sup 90}Y

  2. Radiochemistry and radiochemical separations. A current bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujdoso, E.

    1999-01-01

    A current bibliography for years 1993-1996 with 159 references was compiled on radiochemistry and radiochemical separations based on the INIS Atomindex. The references are arranged in alphabetical order of first authors. (N.T.)

  3. Radiochemical separation of cadmium-109

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egamediev, S.; Mukhtarov, A.; Nurbaeva, D.; Rakhmanov, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Cadmium-109 has a half-life of 461.9 days and decays by electron capture to 109 Ag with the emission of 88 keV γ-ray (3.79%) along with the characteristic X-ray from the K level of Ag, with energy of 22.5 keV. This radionuclide has found widespread use as a photon source in x-ray fluorescence analysis devices employed in industry for numerous applications such as the direct determination of gold in ores, the analysis of metals and identification of steels. Other applications range from its use as an electron source for measurement of densities of air-pollution samples, to tracer studies in mushrooms and mice and rats. In the nuclear medicine field there is growing interest in employing 109 Cd in a 109 Cd/ 109mA g generator, as an alternative to other biomedical generators of ultra short-lived gamma emitters. There are several methods for the production of 109 Cd in literature: 1. Bombardment of silver cyclotron target via 109 Ag(d,2n) 109 Cd reaction with 16 MeV deuterons. 2. Bombardment of natural silver target via 109 Ag(p,n) 109 Cd reaction with 14 MeV protons. 3. Proton bombardment of natural indium target with 96 MeV protons. 4. Irradiation of enriched 107 Ag target in high-flux nuclear reactor at neutron flux 2x10 15 n·cm -2 ·s -1 via 107 Ag(n,γ) 108 Ag → 108 Cd (n,γ) 109 Cd reaction. 5. Irradiation of enriched 108 Cd target in nuclear reactor at neutron flux 1x10 14 n·cm -2 ·s -1 via 108 Cd (n,γ) 109 Cd reaction. The production of 109 Cd with proton beam via 109 Ag(p,n) 109 Cd reaction is ideal for the cyclotron U-150, since it is not required the change of the regime for the machine functioning. Because of its relatively long half-life the time required for separation is also not an important factor, but its use as an X-ray source requires a very high radiochemical purity. In the present work we studied two methods for separation of 109 Cd from model solution of silver targets. First method is based on precipitation of silver as

  4. Development of Radiochemical Separation Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eil Hee; Kim, K. W.; Yang, H. B. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    This project of the second phase was aimed at the development of basic unit technologies for advanced partitioning, and the application tests of pre-developed partitioning technologies for separation of actinides by using a simulated multi-component radioactive waste containing Am, Np, Tc, U and so on. The goals for recovery yield of TRU, and for purity of Tc are high than 99% and about 99%, respectively. The work scopes and contents were as follows. 1). For the development of basic unit technologies for advanced partitioning. 1. Development of technologies for co-removal of TRU and for mutual separation of U and TRU with a reduction-complexation reaction. 2. Development of extraction system for high-acidity co-separation of An(+3) and Ln(+3) and its radiolytic evaluation. 3. Synthesis of extractants for the selective separation of An(+3) and its relevant extraction system development. 4. Development of a hybrid system for the recovery of noble metals and its continuous separation tests. 5. Development of electrolytic system for the decompositions of N-NO3 and N-NH3 compounds to nitrogen gas. 2). For the application test of pre-developed partitioning technologies for the separation of actinide elements in a simulated multi-component solution equivalent to HLW level. 1. Co-separation of Tc, Np and U by a (TBP-TOA)/NDD system. 2. Mutual-separation of Am, Cm and RE elements by a (Zr-DEHPA)/NDD system. All results will be used as the fundamental data for the development of advanced partitioning process in the future.

  5. Rapid radiochemical separation of zirconium-95 and niobium-95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downey, D.M.; McLaughlin, C.L.

    1983-01-01

    A rapid method for the quantitative separation of 95 Zr and 95 Nb has been developed. The method is based on the ion flotation of cationic zirconium complex ions with sodium lauryl sulfate (NaLS) from niobium which is masked with hydrogen peroxide. The separation was applied to mixtures of 95 Zr and 95 Nb initially in oxalic acid solution and quantitative recoveries of the radiochemically pure radioisotopes were obtained. (orig.)

  6. Rapid radiochemical separation of zirconium-95 and niobium-95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downey, D.M.; McLaughlin, C.L.

    1983-01-01

    A rapid method for the quantitative separation of /sup 95/Zr and /sup 95/Nb has been developed. The method is based on the ion flotation of cationic zirconium complex ions with sodium lauryl sulfate (NaLS) from niobium which is masked with hydrogen peroxide. The separation was applied to mixtures of /sup 95/Zr and /sup 95/Nb initially in oxalic acid solution and quantitative recoveries of the radiochemically pure radioisotopes were obtained.

  7. Radiochemical separation and their application to neutron activation analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turel, Z.R.

    2013-01-01

    The present paper discusses the development of some new, rapid and selective method for the radiochemical separation and estimation of elements such as, Co(II) 2-3 , Ir(III) 4 , Au(III) 5 , Pt(IV), Pd(II), Os(IV) 6 , Cu(II), Ag(I), Mo(VI), Ni(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), Hg(II), Cs(I), Sb(III), La(III), Sc(III) etc. using various reagents. Various parameters such as pH, time of equilibrium, effect of anions and cations, effect of reagent etc. has been determined employing tracers of the elements under consideration and will be discussed. The method is made highly selective by the use of appropriate masking agent. The stoichiometry of metal reagent is determined by the substoichiometric method. Some examples of multielemental radiochemical separation methods thus developed which have been applied in determining the elements by radiochemical thermal neutron activation analysis will be presented and discussed. The implications of the results on the reference system will also be accounted. Statistical evaluation with reference to accuracy, precision and sensitivity will also be presented

  8. Radiochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    In this catalogue those radioactive chemicals for research are listed which are produced by the Radiochemical Centre Amersham and our laboratories at Brunswick. The dates given for each product can understandably only be limited within the framework of such a catalogue. Additional dates and references to application technique can be obtained from us any time. Our programme is continually updated by new products. If a compound not listed in the catalogue should be required we ask for inquiry. Our working team for special syntheses will try to produce it according to our possibilities and our requirements. (orig.) [de

  9. Quantitative radio-chemical separation of calcium, strontium and barium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuis, M.C.; Dupuis, M.; Le Nagard, M.; Michot, H.

    1965-01-01

    A method for separation of Ca 45 , Sr 89 and Ba 140 has been developed for the radiochemical determination of these isotopes in a solution of fission with a large concentration of mineral salts. After removal of most fission products by solvent extraction (TTA-MIBK) at different pH, the alkaline earths are extracted from the aqueous phase at pH 9. After recovery with diluted hydrochloric acid, the three elements are adsorbed on cationic resin Dowex 50 and eluted sequentially with ammonium α - Hydroxy iso-butyrate using gradient concentration and pH. Ca 45 and Sr 89 are measured by β - counting and Ba 140 by γ spectrometry. The chemical yield approximates 80 per cent for calcium, and 70 per cent for strontium and barium. The decontamination factor is 10 5 for most fission products. Four separations can be performed in twenty hours. (authors) [fr

  10. ESOL facility for the generation and radiochemical separation of short half-life fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrke, R.J.; Meikrantz, D.H.; Baker, J.D.; Anderl, R.A.; Novick, V.J.; Greenwood, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    A facility has been developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the generation and rapid radiochemical separation of short half-life mixed fission products. This facility, referred to as the Idaho Elemental Separation On Line (ESOL), consists of electro-plated sources of spontaneously fissioning 252 Cf with a helium jet transport arrangement to continuously deliver short half-life, mixed fission products to the radiochemistry laboratory for rapid, computer controlled, radiochemical separations. 18 refs., 13 figs

  11. Mercury determination in geological samples using radiochemical separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, Cristina; Favaro, Deborah I.T.

    1997-01-01

    In this work, a radiochemical procedure is presented to increase the neutron activation analysis sensitivity. After irradiation, geological reference materials - Buffalo River Sediment (BRS- - NIST SRM 2704), Lake Sediment (BCR - CRM 280) and GXR-5 (USGS - AEG) - were leached with aqua regia in a Parr bomb placed in a domestic microwave oven and then bismuth diethyl dithiocarbamate was used to pre concentrate mercury by solvent extraction. This procedure eliminates the interference from 279 keV Se-75 photopeak and background radiation from 511 keV Cu-64 photopeak. (author). 15 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  12. Use of reference materials for quality control of elemental analysis by neutron activation with radiochemical separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woittiez, J.R.W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the use of certified reference materials to monitor the long-term quality of radiochemical separations. The practical limitations which determine the actual design of the quality control are discussed. The hypothesis that the high yield of the radiochemical separation will be constant with time has been checked and validated for the elements Zn, Fe, Co, Cd, Mo and to a lesser extent for W and Th using NBS SRM 1577A, BCR CRM 274 and IAEA RM A-11. This validation could not be made for the elements Cr, Au, and Ag. Especially for Cr there is a serious lack of appropiate certified reference materials. (orig.)

  13. Use of ethyl-α-isonitrosoacetoacetate in the rapid estimation and radiochemical separation of gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawant, A.D.; Haldar, B.C.

    1978-01-01

    The use of ethyl-α-isonitrosoacetoacetate in the rapid estimation and radiochemical separation of gold is reported. As low as 5.00 mg of Au can be estimated with an accuracy better than 1%. Decontamination values against platinum metals and other metals usually associated with Au are greater than 10 5 . Isotopes and results are tabulated. The time required for radiochemical separation is around 20 min and the recovery of Au is better than 80%. γ-activities were measured with a single channel analyser and NaI(Tl) detector. β-activities were counted on a thin end-window type GM counter. (T.I.)

  14. Radiochemical separation of Tb-149 after tandem accelerator production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, S.R.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: Terbium-149 is produced by the heavy ion induced reaction of the type 142 Nd( 12 C,5n) 149 Dy→ 149 Tb. This work concerns the separation of terbium from neodymium target, and other lanthanides produced by secondary reactions on neodymium target. Firstly, anion-exchange separation is carried out at room temperature using acid-alcohol media (90% methanol-10% 5M nitric acid) as eluent. But the separation is not satisfactory. To achieve satisfactory separation, cation exchange separation is performed under pressure at room temperature using 0.1 6M α-hydroxyisobutyric acid of pH 5 as eluent. The pressure is exerted from a nitrogen gas cylinder. The simplicity and efficacy of this method for the separation of terbium are discussed in comparison with the commercially available high performance liquid chromatography system

  15. Fast analysis procedure of radiochemical coordinat uptake for methotrexate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caston, J.D.; Kamen, B.A.

    1976-01-01

    Under this invention, a radio-chemical analysis is submitted to determine the concentration of methotrexate or its equivalents in analysis in a biological medium. The amounts taken up of the labelled compound and the known concentrations of the unlabelled compound to be determined are radio-isotopically related to a first system containing a pre-determined amount of the labelled compound and a pre-determined amount of the unlabelled compound. In a second system, identical to the first, save that the sample of the biological medium to be analyzed takes the place of the unlabelled compound, the amount of labelled compound taken up is determined radio-isotopically. The concentration of the compound in the sample is then determined by correlation of the labelled compound uptake determined in the second system with the relation determined in the first system. The radio-isotopic relations and determinations may be made by direct and sequential analytical techniques [fr

  16. Radiochemical determination and separation or total radium, 226Ra and 224Ra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, J. A.; Gonzalez, J. A.; Pablo, M. A. de

    1987-01-01

    Radiochemical purification and separation of radium has been carried out and the determination of total radium solubilized in aqueous samples has been studied assuming that all the alpha emitters of the sample have their origin in the 226Ra and elements of its desintegration chain. Also, the activities of 22Ra and 226 Ra have been evaluated separately doing a measurement after the chemical separation of the radium and another one 10 days after. (Author) 9 refs

  17. Radiochemical separation and alpha-spectrometric determination of Americium in different matrixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radenkovic, M.; Joksic, J.; Paligoric, D.

    2009-01-01

    A method of separation and alpha-spectrometric determination of americium, developed in VINCA Institute of Nuclear Sciences is described in the paper. The procedure is convenient to be used for 241 Am determination in environmental matrixes as well as samples of human origin if a very small concentrations are expected, using 243 Am as a tracer for radiochemical yield recovery. (author) [sr

  18. Investigation of quantitative separation of thorium, uranium, neptunium and plutonium from complex radiochemical mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushatskij, V.N.; Preobrazhenskaya, L.D.; Kolychev, V.B.; Gugel', E.S.

    1979-01-01

    Quantitative separation of actinides and their radiochemical purification with the aid of TBP with subsequent separation of thorium and quantitative separation of U, Np and Pu with the aid of D2EHPA have been studied. The method has been developed for quantitative extraction-chromatographic separation and radiochemical purification of nanogram amounts of U, Pu and microgram amounts of Th and Np from complex radiochemical mixtures containing both fragment radioisotopes and non-radioactive macrocomponents ( Fe,Al,Mg,Mn, Na and others). The method calls for application of one-extraction-chromatographic column with TBP and one column with D2EHPA. Thorium is separated at the first stage since it does not form complexes in a chloride solution during washing of the sorption column with 6. OM HCl. Npsup((4)) and Pusup((3)) required for separation are stabilized with the aid of hydrazine and hydroxylamine mixture. The yield of each of the above-cited actinide elements during the complete two-stage separation and at the stage of their separation varies within the range of 98.5-99.3%

  19. Application of radiochemical separation procedures to environmental and biological materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eakins, J D [UKAEA Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell. Environmental and Medical Sciences Div.

    1984-06-15

    The measurement of low levels of radionuclides in environmental and biological materials often depends on separation of the nuclide of interest from a bulky matrix containing interfering radioelements. In such case, however sophisticated and elegant the counting technique, the quality of the final data will

  20. Radiochemical separation of mostly short-lived neutron activation products

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučera, Jan; Kameník, Jan; Povinec, P. P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 311, č. 2 (2017), s. 1299-1307 ISSN 0236-5731. [1st International Conference on Radioanalytical and Nuclear chemistry (RANC). Budapest, 10.04.2016-15.04.2016] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : determination * Vanadium * Iodine * Manganese * Silicon * Mercury * Selenium * Th-232 anad U-238 * SuperNEMO experiment Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 1.282, year: 2016

  1. Use of tetracycline as complexing agent in radiochemical separations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, M.; Nastasi, M.J.C.; Lima, F.W.

    1981-01-01

    The use of the antibiotic agent tetracycline (TC) for analytical purposes in solvent extraction procedures is presented. Individual extraction curves for the lanthanides, zinc, scandium, uranium, thorium, neptunium and protactinium were obtained. Separation of those elements from one another, and of uranium from selenium, bromine, antimony, barium, tantalum and tungsten was carried out. In all cases benzyl alcohol was the diluent used to dissolve tetracycline hydrochloride. Sodium chloride was used as supporting electrolyte for the lanthanide separations and sodium perchlorate for the other elements mentioned. Stability or formation constants for the lanthanide complexes as well as for thorium complex with tetracycline were determined by using the methods of average number of ligands, the limiting value (for thorium), the two parameters and the weighted least squares. For the lanthanides, the stability constants of the complexes Ln(TC) 3 go from 9.35+-0.22 for lanthanum up to 10.84+-0.11 for lutetium. For the Th(TC) 4 complex the formation constant is equal to 24.6+-0.3. Radioisotopes of the respective elements were used as tracers for the determinations. (author)

  2. Ultratrace determination of platinum in biological materials via neutron activation and radiochemical separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeisler, R.; Greenberg, R.R.

    1982-01-01

    A neutron activation analysis scheme based upon a radiochemical separation of the activation products has been developed. The method utilizes the inherent sensitivity of the activation reaction 198 Pt(n,ν) 199 Pt and counting of the daughter nuclide 199 Au. This nuclide is radiochemically separated from interfering activities by homogeneous precipitation as elemental gold. The remaining interference of the secondary reaction 197 Au(n,ν) 198 Au(n,ν) 199 Au from gold in the samples is quantitatively assessed and corrected. During this process accurate gold concentrations in the samples are obtained at ultratrace levels. The analysis scheme is applied to gold and platinum determinations in biological Standard Reference Materials and human liver specimens. Gold and platinum are determined at concentrations of 5x10 - 11 g/g, and at higher levels. (author)

  3. Radiochemical separation of actinides for their determination in environmental samples and waste products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleisberg, B [Nuclear Engineering and Analytics Rossendorf, Inc. (VKTA), Dresden (Germany)

    1997-03-01

    The determination of low level activities of actinides in environmental samples and waste products makes high demands on radiochemical separation methods. Artificial and natural actinides were analyzed in samples form the surrounding areas of NPP and of uranium mines, incorporation samples, solutions containing radioactive fuel, solutions and solids resutling from the process, and in wastes. The activities are measured by {alpha}-spectrometry and {gamma}-spectrometry. (DG)

  4. Rapid radiochemical separation of short-lived radionuclides in neutron-activated samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fardy, J.

    1985-11-01

    Radiochemical separation procedures based on the removal of metal ions by columns of C 18 -bonded silica gel after selective complexation are examined and the simplicity of the method demonstrated by its application to determination of Mn, Cu and Zn in neutron-activated biological material from the following solutions (pH 0-10, sulphate concentration 0,18M and 1,44M SO 4 ): 8-hydroxyquinoline (oxine), ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC), cupferron (CUP), 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN), 1-(2'-thiazolylazo)-2-naphthol (TAN), 4-(2-pyridylazo) resorcinol (PAR), diethylammonium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC), potassium ethyl xanthate (PEX), acetylacetone (AcAc) or thenoyltrifluoracetone (TTA). The method is rapid and reliable and readily adaptable in all radiochemical laboratories

  5. Some problems concenrning the use of automated radiochemical separation systems in destructive neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, L.G.; Toeroek, G.

    1977-01-01

    The present state of a long term program is reviewed. It was started to elaborate a remote controlled automated radiochemical processing system for the neutron activation analysis of biological materials. The system is based on wet ashing of the sample followed by reactive desorption of some volatile components. The distillation residue is passed through a series of columns filled with selective ion screening materials to remove the matrix activity. The solution is thus ''stripped'' from the interfering radioions, and it is processed to single-elements through group separations using ion-exchange chromatographic techniques. Some special problems concerning this system are treated. (a) General aspects of the construction of a (semi)automated radiochemical processing system are discussed. (b) Comparison is made between various technical realizations of the same basic concept. (c) Some problems concerning the ''reconstruction'' of an already published processing system are outlined. (T.G.)

  6. Radiochemical separation of {sup 231}Pa from siliceous cake prior to its determination by gamma ray spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalvi, Aditi A. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Analytical Chemistry Div.; Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai (India); Verma, Rakesh

    2017-07-01

    A simple and fast radiochemical method for the separation of protactinium ({sup 231}Pa) from siliceous cake for its determination by gamma ray spectrometry is described. The method involves (a) a novel approach, the fusion of the siliceous cake with sodium peroxide, (b) the dissolution of the fused mass in nitric acid and (c) the co-precipitation of {sup 231}Pa with manganese dioxide formed in-situ by the addition of solid manganous sulfate and potassium permanganate to the solution. The fusion, effected in a single step, is simpler and highly effective in comparison to methods reported hitherto in literature. The radiochemical yield of {sup 231}Pa, determined using 311.9 keV gamma ray of {sup 233}Pa radiotracer is quantitative (∝90%). The decontamination factors calculated using gamma ray spectrometry and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence measurements show that the separation from the interfering radionuclides is high whereas separation from major and minor elements is good. Separation by ion-exchange method in hydrochloric acid, hydrofluoric acid and oxalic acid media have comparatively much lower yields. The concentration of {sup 231}Pa in the siliceous cake measured using interference-free 283.6 keV gamma ray was found to be (6.4 ± 0.33) μg kg{sup -1}. The measured concentration of {sup 231}Pa was well above the limit of quantitation whereas the coefficient of variation was ∝5%. The improvement in the limit of detection was due to the reduction in spectral background. Systematic evaluation of various uncertainty parameters showed that the major contributors to the combined uncertainty were efficiency of the high purity germanium detector and the counting statistics. The present sample decomposition and separation methods are robust, simple to perform and can be effectively used for the determination and hence source prospecting of protactinium.

  7. Development of radiochemical separation method for determination of toxic elements in biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maihara, V.A.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Favaro, D.I.T.; Armelin, M.J.A.

    1990-01-01

    In order to determine Hg, Sb, As and Se in biological materials by neutron activation analysis, a radiochemical separation was developed. The chemical separation procedure used was based on the digestion of the irradiated sample in a mixture of H NO 3 and H 2 SO 4 in a teflon bomb, at 130 0 C for 1 to 4 hours. After the dissolution of organic matter, Hg and Sb were retained by a Dowex 2-X8 resin column in 6 M HCl. The effluent was passed through a TDO, tin dioxide column which retains As and Se in 3 M HCl medium. Radioactive tracers of these elements were used to determine the yields of the separation process. Certified reference materials were analyzed to check the precision and accuracy of the method. (author)

  8. Development of a radiochemical separation method for toxic elements determination from biologic samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malhara, V.A.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Favaro, D.I.T.; Armelin, M.J.A.

    1990-01-01

    In order to determine Hg, Sb, As and Se in biological materials by neutron activation analysis, a radiochemical separation was developed. The chemical separation procedure used was based on the digestion of the irradiated sample in a mixture of HNO 3 and H 2 SO 4 in a teflon bomb, at 130 0 C for 1 to 4 hours. After the dissolution of organic matter, Hg and Sb were retained by a Dowex 2-XB resin column in 6M HCI. The efluent was passed through a TDO, tin dioxide column which retains As and Se in 3M HCI medium. Radioactive tracers of these elements were used to determine the yields of the separation process. Certified reference materials were analyzed to check the precision and accuracy of the method. (author)

  9. The study of radiochemical separation methods on gaseous Fission product krypton-88

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhihong; Zhang Shengdong; Yang Lei; Ding Youqian; Sun Hongqing; Ma Peng

    2012-01-01

    Half-life of krypton-88 is 2.84 hours, high fission yields and a relatively large gamma branching ratio is had. The gas is short-lived fission products in burnup measurements. Only New fission products can extract from extraction in gas of fissile irradiation target. But krypton-88 with krypton-85, krypton-87, xenon -135, and xenon-138 is coexisted together, thus radiochemical separation must quickly taken. selected the irradiation time is 1-2 hours and cooling time is best 2 hours for sample preparation, krypton and xenon were separated using activated carbon adsorption, the ratio of krypton and xenon were measured by gamma spectroscopy. Then according to the ratio of krypton-85 and xenon-125 count rate coefficient around separation were calculated yield of krypton and decontamination factor of xenon and the final the yield of krypton-85 is calculated. (authors)

  10. Cyclotron production, radiochemical separation and quality control of platinum radiotracers for toxicological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonardi, M.; Birattari, C.; Groppi, F.; Arginelli, D.; Gini, L.; Gallorini, M.

    1998-01-01

    The increasing concentration of Pt, Pd and Rh in the environment is mainly due to the release of these elements from the catalytic converters of the motorvehicles. This situation makes it necessary to carry out metallotoxicological experiments on both cell cultures and laboratory animals, in order to assess their impact on living organisms after a Long Term and Low Level Exposure (LLE). Both nuclear reactions nat Ir(p,xn) and nat Os(α,xn) were investigated in the energy range up to 45 MeV for protons and 38 MeV for alpha-particles, in order to optimize the irradiation parameters for the production of 188,189,191 Pt. Several sets of thin- and thick-target excitation functions were determined experimentally by cyclotron irradiation at both Milano and Ispra cyclotrons. This paper reports the irradiation parameters studied and adopted and two radiochemical procedures for the separation of radio-Pt from an Os target, as well as from ruthenium, iridium and gold impurities. These procedures were used to obtain very high specific activity Pt radionuclides in No Carrier Added (NCA) form. Radionuclidic, radiochemical and chemical purity measurements were carried out by the use of several techniques like γ-spectrometry, ion-exchange radio-chromatography, atomic absorption spectrometry and neutron activation analysis. (author)

  11. Determination of gold and platinum in biological materials by radiochemical neutron activation analysis using electrolytic separation of gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitz, B.; Heydorn, K.

    1993-01-01

    A new method is presented for the determination of Au and Pt in biological materials based on neutron activation analysis with radiochemical separation of gold. Separation of gold by electrolytic deposition on a niobium cathode ascertains thee highest radiochemical purity without any interference from calcium or other major elements. With 199 Au as indicator for platinum the gold content of the sample not only strongly affects the limit of detection, but also causes interference by double neutron capture. Replicate analyses of BCR Certified Reference Materials No. 184, 185 and 186 were carried out. (author) 18 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  12. Radiochemical separation and effective dose estimation due to ingestion of 90Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilic, Z.; Vidic, A.; Deljkic, D.; Sirko, D.; Zovko, E.; Samek, D.

    2009-01-01

    Since 2007. Institute for Public Health of Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina-Radiation Protection Centre, within the framework of monitoring of radioactivity of environment carried out measurement of specific activity of 90 Sr content in selected food and water samples. The paper described the methods of measurement and radiochemical separation. Presented results, as average values of specific activity of 90 Sr, were used for estimation of effective dose due to ingestion of 90 Sr for 2007. and 2008. Estimated effective dose for 2007. due to ingestion of 90 Sr for adults was 1,36 μSv and 2,03 μSv for children (10 year old), and for 2008. 0,67 μSv (adults) and 1,01 μSv (children 10 year old). Estimated effective doses for 2007. and 2008. are varied because of different average specific activity radionuclide 90 Sr in selected samples of food, their number, species and origin. (author) [sr

  13. Automation of column-based radiochemical separations. A comparison of fluidic, robotic, and hybrid architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grate, J.W.; O' Hara, M.J.; Farawila, A.F.; Ozanich, R.M.; Owsley, S.L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Two automated systems have been developed to perform column-based radiochemical separation procedures. These new systems are compared with past fluidic column separation architectures, with emphasis on using disposable components so that no sample contacts any surface that any other sample has contacted, and setting up samples and columns in parallel for subsequent automated processing. In the first new approach, a general purpose liquid handling robot has been modified and programmed to perform anion exchange separations using 2 mL bed columns in 6 mL plastic disposable column bodies. In the second new approach, a fluidic system has been developed to deliver clean reagents through disposable manual valves to six disposable columns, with a mechanized fraction collector that positions one of four rows of six vials below the columns. The samples are delivered to each column via a manual 3-port disposable valve from disposable syringes. This second approach, a hybrid of fluidic and mechanized components, is a simpler more efficient approach for performing anion exchange procedures for the recovery and purification of plutonium from samples. The automation architectures described can also be adapted to column-based extraction chromatography separations. (orig.)

  14. Fast radiochemical procedure to measure neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium in environmental samples for application in environmental monitoring and in radioecology research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimpel, M.; Schuettelkopf, H.

    1984-01-01

    A radiochemical method is described by which Np, Pu, Am and Cm in environmental samples can be determined. The transuranium elements are dissolved with acids out of the ashed material. Np/Pu is separated from Am/Cm by sequential extraction using TOPO/cyclohexane. The two fractions are radiochemically purified. Np-237, Pu-239+240, Pu-238 and Pu-236 as well as Am-243, Am-241, Cm-244 and Cm-242 are measured by alpha spectrometery. Pu-236, Am-243 and Np-239 are used to determine the respective yields. A fast method of Np-239 preparation is described. The chemical yields range from 60 to 90%. The detection limit attained per nuclide is 10 fCi/sample. 20 reference, 1 table

  15. Radiochemical procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, W.S.

    1982-01-01

    The modern counting instrumentation has largely obviated the need for separation processes in the radiochemical analysis but problems in low-level radioactivity measurement, environmental-type analyses, and special situations caused in the last years a renaissance of the need for separation techniques. Most of the radiochemical procedures, based on the classic works of the Manhattan Project chemists of the 1940's, were published in the National Nuclear Energy Series (NNES). Improvements such as new solvent extraction and ion exchange separations have been added to these methods throughout the years. Recently the Los Alamos Group have reissued their collected Radiochemical Procedures containing a short summary and review of basic inorganic chemistry - 'Chemistry of the Elements on the Basis of Electronic Configuration'. (A.L.)

  16. Obtention process of phosphorus 32 starting from commercial sulfur and design and construction of the radiochemical separation prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte A, C.; Alanis M, J.; Gutierrez R, C.

    2002-01-01

    In this work an obtention process of phosphorus 32 ( 32 P) in orthophosphoric acid form (H 3 32 PO 4 ) is described starting from commercial sulfur. Also the design and construction of the experimental prototype used in the radiochemical separation and their results in three tests carried out is reported. (Author)

  17. Radiochemical separations of hafnium, tantalum, and germanium from tungsten and selenium irradiated by 14 MeV neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blachot, J.; Benabed, A.; Herment, J.; Monnand, E.

    1968-01-01

    Radiochemical separations of Hf, Ta and Ge from W and Se respectively, after 14 MeV-neutron irradiation. A new isotope: 79 Ge with a half-live of 50 ± 5 s and emitter of a 230 keV γ transition is observed. (authors) [fr

  18. Radiochemical studies on the separation of iodine-131 and radioiodination of some organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, M.A.I.

    2010-01-01

    its retardation factor (R f ). The second technique is the purification of the labeled compounds by means of high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). On the reverse phase RP-18, column eluted with an appropriate solvent where each compound is identified by its retention time (R t ).Chapter III :It deals with the idea of separation of iodine-131 from tellurium targets using the dry distillation method. The factors affecting the production and separation of 131 I were studied such as the oven temperature; the distillation time and the sodium hydroxide concentration, the following flow sheet summarizes the production process. The quality control tests were carried out on the final product (Na 131 I). They were 99.9%, 98.7% for radionuclidic purity and radiochemical purity, respectively and the chemical purity of Te in the final radioiodine was 0.8μg/ml.

  19. Comparison of alkali fusion and acid digestion methods for radiochemical separation of Uranium from dietary samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamesh Viswanathan, B.; Arunachalam, Kantha D.; Sathesh Kumar, A.; Jayakrishana, K.; Shanmugamsundaram, H.; Rao, D.D.

    2014-01-01

    Several methods exist for separation and measurement of uranium in dietary samples such as neutron activation analysis (NAA), alpha spectrometric determination, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and fluorimetry. For qualitative determination of activity, NAA and alpha spectrometry are said to be superior to evaluate the isotopes of uranium ( 238 U, 234 U and 235 U). In case of alpha spectrometry, the samples have to undergo radiochemical analysis for separation from other elements for uranium detection. In our studies, uranium was determined in food matrices by acid digestion (AD) and alkali fusion (AF) methods. The recovery yield of uranium in food matrices was compared in order to get consistent yield. The average activity levels of 238 U and 234 U in food samples were calculated based on recovery yield of 232 U in the samples. The average recovery of 232 U in AD method was 22 ± 8% and in AF method, it was 14.9 ± 1.3%. The spread is more in AD method than the AF method from their mean. The lowest recovery of 232 U was found in AF method. This is due to the interference of other elements in the sample during electroplating. Experimental results showed that the uranium separation by AD method has better recovery than the AF method. The consistency in recovery of 232 U was better for AF method, which was lower than the AD method. However, overall for both the methods, the recovery can be termed as poor and need rigorous follow up studies for consistently higher recoveries (>50%) in these type of biological samples. There are reports indicating satisfactory recoveries of around 80% with 232 U as tracer in the food matrices

  20. Radiochemical Separation and Quantification of Tritium in Metallic Radwastes Generated from CANDU Type NPP - 13279

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, H.J.; Choi, K.C.; Choi, K.S.; Park, T.H.; Park, Y.J.; Song, K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, P.O. Box 105, Yuseong, Daejeon, 305-330 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    As a destructive quantification method of {sup 3}H in low and intermediate level radwastes, bomb oxidation, sample oxidation, and wet oxidation methods have been introduced. These methods have some merits and demerits in the radiochemical separation of {sup 3}H radionuclides. That is, since the bomb oxidation and sample oxidation methods are techniques using heating at high temperature, the separation methods of the radionuclides are relatively simple. However, since {sup 3}H radionuclide has a property of being diffused deeply into the inside of metals, {sup 3}H which is distributed on the surface of the metals can only be extracted if the methods are applied. As an another separation method, the wet oxidation method makes {sup 3}H oxidized with an acidic solution, and extracted completely to an oxidized HTO compound. However, incomplete oxidized {sup 3}H compounds, which are produced by reactions of acidic solutions and metallic radwastes, can be released into the air. Thus, in this study, a wet oxidation method to extract and quantify the {sup 3}H radionuclide from metallic radwastes was established. In particular, a complete extraction method and complete oxidation method of incomplete chemical compounds of {sup 3}H using a Pt catalyst were studied. The radioactivity of {sup 3}H in metallic radwastes is extracted and measured using a wet oxidation method and liquid scintillation counter. Considering the surface dose rate of the sample, the appropriate size of the sample was determined and weighed, and a mixture of oxidants was added to a 200 ml round flask with 3 tubes. The flask was quickly connected to the distilling apparatus. 20 mL of 16 wt% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} was given into the 200-ml round flask through a dropping funnel while under stirring and refluxing. After dropping, the temperature of the mixture was raised to 96 deg. C and the sample was leached and oxidized by refluxing for 3 hours. At that time, the incomplete oxidized {sup 3}H compounds were

  1. Cadmium determination in biological samples using neutron activation analysis with radiochemical separations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz A, Luis; Gras R, Nuri

    2005-01-01

    Chile has 7500 km of coastline on the Southern Pacific ocean,with about 4500 km of continental coastline that contains a variety of different geographical zones.This variety means that there is a great diversity of marine resources such as fish, shellfish and seaweeds. The utilization of these resources has been increasing in recent years making this sector an economically important one. The catch as of May 2002 came to 1.9 million tons and exports of the different species amounted to US$611.5 million as of April.But this important economic resource is being threatened by the technical demands imposed by importing countries, mainly the specific requirements for sanitary certification for fishery export products, depending on the markets of destination. The chemical element cadmium is one of the most strictly controlled elements due some shellfish accumulate a large amount of this element and to its high toxicity. The Chilean standard's analytical procedures for cadmium determination in hydro biological products, which must be met by laboratories that certify and control these products for export, are now being evaluated. Through its Chemical Metrology Unit, the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission is strongly supporting this sector by preparing the secondary reference or control materials, and it has developed and implemented nuclear analytical methods for the certification of these materials, which will be used mostly in collaborative studies. This work describes the methodology developed for the determination of cadmium in biological samples, particularly in shellfish and fish. The method is based on neutron activation analysis with radiochemical separations, using the radioisotopes 115 Cd and 115m In, generated in the samples by bombarding with neutrons in a nuclear reactor. The samples were digested at 110 o C with H 2 SO 4 and H 2 O 2 and then the radioactive cadmium element was separated from the other elements present in the samples using a Bio Rad AG 2-X8

  2. Fast Monaural Separation of Speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Niels Henrik; Dyrholm, Mads

    2003-01-01

    a Factorial Hidden Markov Model, with non-stationary assumptions on the source autocorrelations modelled through the Factorial Hidden Markov Model, leads to separation in the monaural case. By extending Hansens work we find that Roweis' assumptions are necessary for monaural speech separation. Furthermore we...

  3. A Fast Radiochemical Method for the Determination of Some Essential Trace Elements in Biology and Medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samsahl, K

    1966-02-15

    An anion-exchange method based on fast selective sorption steps from mixtures of sulfuric, hydrobromic, and hydrochloric acid solutions has been developed for the separation of five different groups of radioactive trace elements in neutron-irradiated biological material. The separations are performed automatically with a simple proportioning pump apparatus. The apparatus allows the exact adjustment of influent solutions to the series of ion-exchange columns. The practical application of the method is described in detail. The successful use of the method is practically independent on the level of Na activity present in the sample.

  4. A Fast Radiochemical Method for the Determination of Some Essential Trace Elements in Biology and Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsahl, K.

    1964-12-01

    A method has been developed for the determination with neutron-activation analysis of the following trace elements in soft biological tissues: Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, P, Sr and Zn. The method consists in performing a short-term irradiation of the samples with a high thermal neutron flux, followed by fast chemical separations and gamma-spectrometric measurements. The chemical separations and the measurements of short-lived nuclides from a run are finished within 70 min, after the end of irradiation

  5. A Fast Radiochemical Method for the Determination of Some Essential Trace Elements in Biology and Medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samsahl, K

    1964-12-15

    A method has been developed for the determination with neutron-activation analysis of the following trace elements in soft biological tissues: Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, P, Sr and Zn. The method consists in performing a short-term irradiation of the samples with a high thermal neutron flux, followed by fast chemical separations and gamma-spectrometric measurements. The chemical separations and the measurements of short-lived nuclides from a run are finished within 70 min, after the end of irradiation.

  6. Utility of reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography for on-line yield determination of radiochemical separations: Studies with cobalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, S.; Woittiez, J.R.W.

    1993-01-01

    This article indicates the potentials of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as a radiochemical technique for multielement separation of neutron irradiated samples. The focus lies on the convenience to use the detector signal of the eluted components to indicate the chemical yield of the analyte, which has often proved to be a crucial step in radiochemical separations. Two signals have been utilized. The UV signal of the metal-ligand complexes separated by reversed phase HPLC and the radioactive response as a result of sample irradiation of carrier-tracer addition. Change in ratio is discussed between the two signals, if any, for a specific sample. Losses of metal as much as 65% were simulated and corrected using the individual UV response. The method promises improved accuracy for elemental analysis despite losses suffered during the various chemical steps. The procedure omits the necessity of additional analytical steps for yield determination. The present article aims at the chromatographic part of the study. Cobalt as cobalt diethyldithiocarbamate has been used to demonstrate the viability of the concept. The separation was developed on c C18 reverse phase analytical column and optimized on a semi preparative one

  7. Evolution and applications of radiochemical procedures. From Marie Curie to Darleane Hoffman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contis, E. T.; Rengan, K.

    1996-01-01

    Marie Curie carried out the first radiochemical separations which eventually lead to the discovery of polonium and radium, two new elements. Nearly a century later Darleane Hoffman and her collaborators are devising new radiochemical separation procedures for studying the chemical properties of newly discovered transactinide elements. Safety requirements as well as changes necessitated by fast decaying radionuclides have transformed the nature of radiochemical separations. Further, applications in a wide variety of areas such as analysis of trace elements in food to radioimmunoassay have broadened the use of radiochemical separations. Examples of some early, historically important, radiochemical separations are described in this article. In addition, recent trends in the use of radiochemical separations in neutron activation analysis, in dating applications, in fission product studies and in the study of transactinide elements are briefly described with specific examples. (author). 52 refs

  8. Development of a rapid radiochemical procedure for the separation of /sup 235m/U from 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attrep, M. Jr.; Efurd, D.W.; Roensch, F.R.

    1987-01-01

    We have developed a rapid radiochemical procedure for the isolation and purification of /sup 235m/U (t/sub 1/2/ = 26 minutes) from 239 Pu samples up to 250 mg. Purpose of developing the procedure was to measure the thermal neutron fission cross section of the isomeric meta state of 235 U. We used rapid small-scale anion exchange columns that absorbed uranium in concentrated HBr but did not absorb plutonium. Uranium was easily eluted with very dilute HF. The separation time required 25 to 35 minutes. We were able to attain a separation factor of uranium from plutonium of approximately 1 x 10 10 with samples ranging from 1 x 10 10 to 3 x 10 11 . The ratio of the fission cross sections for the meta to ground state was measured to be 1.42. 4 figs., 1 tab

  9. Separation procedure for the determination of Ag, Cd, Hg and Zn in biological material by radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, H F; Krivan, V

    1986-05-01

    A simple separation procedure for the determination of Ag, Au, Cd, Hg and Zn in biological material by radiochemical neutron activation analysis was developed. It enables the separation of the indicator radionuclides sup(110m)Ag, /sup 198/Au, /sup 115/Cd, /sup 203/Hg and /sup 65/Zn in a group with yields >99% and is well suited for the separation of /sup 203/Hg from /sup 75/Se and /sup 65/Zn from /sup 46/Sc. The separation of these radionuclides is often necessary because of the occurrence of instrumental interferences in the instrumental neutron activation analysis. Simultaneously, the limits of detection for Ag, Au and Cd can significantly be improved. The method is based on the decomposition of the sample in the mixture of HNO/sub 3//HCl/H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ and on the separation of Ag, Au, Cd, Hg and Zn on Dowex 1X8 from a sample solution being 1.5 M with HCl. The applicability of this method is demonstrated by the analysis of lichens and several kinds of fungi. For the experimental conditions used, the limits of detection are of the order of magnitude of 10 ng/g.

  10. Determination of Sr, Ba, Rb, and Cs in biological reference materials using a radiochemical NAA group separation procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizera, J.; Randa, Z.

    2008-01-01

    Strontium, barium, rubidium, and cesium in selected, predominantly biological, reference materials (NIST 1515, 1547, 1549, 1566a, 1571, 1577b, 2704, CTA-OTL-1, and Bowen's Kale) were determined using neutron activation analysis (NAA) in two different analytical modes - instrumental NAA with epithermal neutrons (ENAA), and NAA with radiochemical group separation of Sr-Ba and Rb-Cs (RNAA). The ENAA mode was based on long-term (5 h) irradiation of samples in a Cd shielding. The RNAA procedure was based on long-term (20 h) irradiation of samples, their decomposition / dissolution by alkaline-oxidative fusion, and precipitation of Sr and Ba sulfates, and sorption of Rb and Cs onto ammonium phosphomolybdate (APM). Both methods provided element contents in the analyzed reference materials consistent with certified and/or literature values. (author)

  11. Radiochemical determination and separation or total radium, 226Ra and 224Ra; Analisis Radioquimico de Radio total, Radio-226 y Radio-224

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, J A; Gonzalez, J A; Pablo, M A. de

    1987-07-01

    Radiochemical purification and separation of radium has been carried out and the determination of total radium solubilized in aqueous samples has been studied assuming that all the alpha emitters of the sample have their origin in the 226Ra and elements of its desintegration chain. Also, the activities of 22Ra and 226 Ra have been evaluated separately doing a measurement after the chemical separation of the radium and another one 10 days after. (Author) 9 refs.

  12. Studies on the radiochemical separation of Ga(III) from Zn(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirayil, Viju; Vimalnath, K.V.; Jagadeesan, K.C.; Thakare, S.V.; Dhami, P.S.; Jagesia, Poonam; Dakshinamoorthy, A.

    2007-01-01

    The 67 Ga, produced in cyclotron from zinc target is widely used in tumor imaging in the form of gallium citrate. A method to separate gallium from zinc is developed using cation exchange chromatography. Reactor produced 65 Zn and 72 Ga were used to study the separation characteristics for further applicability in cyclotron production of 67 Ga. Zinc forms a stable cationic complex with NH 3 , whereas, Gallium forms anionic gallate (Ga(OH) 4 )- at pH 9.3. Zinc is quantitatively taken up by the cation exchange resin (Tulsion T-42) in NH 4 + form, thus effecting a simple rapid one step separation between Zn and Ga. (author)

  13. Rapid radiochemical ion-exchange separation of iodine from tellurium: a novel radioiodine-132 generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrao, A

    1975-01-01

    Tellurium ions form a soluble cationic complex with thiourea in acid medium. The cationic tellurium-thiourea species is strongly absorbed on a cationic ion exchanger. The retention of tellurium on the resin enables many interesting separation schemes for tellurium from various ions. With special interest, the separation of iodine from tellurium was studied. An efficient and convenient iodine-132 generator is described, in which the radio-iodine is eluted with water or 9 g/1 NaCl, when desired.

  14. A rapid radiochemical ion-exchange separation of iodine from tellurium: a novel radioiodine-132 generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrao, A.

    1975-01-01

    Tellurium ions form a soluble cationic complex with thiourea in acid medium. The cationic tellurium-thiourea species is strongly absorbed on a cationic ion exchanger. The retention of tellurium on the resin enables many interesting separation schemes for tellurium from various ions. With special interest, the separation of iodine from tellurium was studied. An efficient and convenient iodine-132 generator is described, in which the radio-iodine is eluted with water or 9 g/1 NaCL, when desired

  15. Automated ion-exchange system for the radiochemical separation of the noble metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parry, S.J.

    1980-01-01

    Ion-exchange separation is particularly suitable for mechanisation and automated ion exchange has been applied to the activation analysis of biological and environmental samples. In this work a system has been designed for experimental studies, which can be adapted for different modes of operation. The equipment is based on a large-volume sampler for the automatic presentation of 500 ml of liquid to a sampling probe. The sample is delivered to the ion-exchange column by means of a peristaltic pump. The purpose of this work was to automate a procedure for separating the noble metals from irradiated geological samples, for neutron-activation analysis. The process of digesting the rock sample is carried out manually in 30 min and is not suited to unattended operation. The volume of the resulting liquid sample may be 100 ml and so the manual separation step may take as long as 1.25 h per sample. The reason for automating this part of the procedure is to reduce the separation time for a group of five samples and consequently to improve the sensitivity of the analysis for radionuclides with short half-lives. This paper describes the automatic ion-exchange system and the ways in which it can be used. The mode of operation for the separation of the noble metals is given in detail. The reproducibility of the system has been assessed by repeated measurements on a standard reference matte. (author)

  16. Effects of colchicine on the intestinal transport of endogenous lipid. Ultrastructural, biochemical, and radiochemical studies in fasting rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavelka, M.; Gangl, A.

    1983-01-01

    The involvement of microtubules in the transepithelial transport of exogenous lipid in intestinal absorptive cells has been suggested. Using electronmicroscopic, biochemical, and radiochemical methods, researchers have studied the effects of the antimicrotubular agent colchicine on the intestinal mucosa and on the intestinal transport of endogenous lipid of rats in the fasting state. After colchicine treatment, the concentration of triglycerides in intestinal mucosa of rats fasted for 24 h doubled, and electron microscopic studies showed a striking accumulation of lipid particles in absorptive epithelial cells of the tips of jejunal villi. These findings suggest that colchicine interferes with the intestinal transepithelial transport of endogenous lipoproteins. Additional studies, using an intraduodenal pulse injection of [ 14 C]linoleic acid, showed that colchicine does not affect the uptake of fatty acids by intestinal mucosa. However, it had divergent effects on fatty acid esterification, enhancing their incorporation into triglycerides relative to phospholipids, and caused a significant accumulation of endogenous diglycerides, triglycerides, and cholesterol esters within the absorptive intestinal epithelium. Detailed ultrastructural and morphometric studies revealed a decrease of visible microtubules, and a displacement of the smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. Furthermore, it is shown that after colchicine treatment, microvilli appear at the lateral plasma membrane of intestinal absorptive cells, a change not previously reported to our knowledge. Thus, our study shows that colchicine causes significant changes in enterocyte ultrastructure and colchicine perturbs the reesterification of absorbed endogenous fatty acids and their secretion in the form of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins from the enterocyte

  17. Radiochemical studies of the separation of some chloro-complexes of tin, antimony, cadmium and indium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramamoorthy, N.; Mani, R.S.

    1976-01-01

    Radioisotopes of tin, antimony, cadmium and indium such as tin-113, antimony-124, antimony-125, cadmium-109, cadmium-115, indium-113m and indium-111 find extensive applications as tracers in various fields. These isotopes are produced by irradiation of targets in a reactor or a cyclotron. It is usually observed that in addition to the nuclear reactions giving rise to the desired isotopes, side reactions also take place giving rise to radionuclidic contaminants. Thus, antimony-125, indium-114m and indium-114 will be present in the cyclotron produced indium-111. The authors have studied column chromatography over hydrous zirconia for the separation of antimony from tin and indium, and cadmium from indium. These studies have thrown light on the role and behaviour of antimony-125 present as an impurity in tin-113 during the preparation of tin-113-indium-113m generators and have indicated methods for the preparation of 115 Cd-sup(115m)In generators and for separation of 111 In from proton irradiated cadmium targets. (Authors)

  18. Study of the isotopic exchange associated with ionic exchange for the radiochemical separation of 233-Th

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepulveda Munita, C.J.A.

    1983-01-01

    The isotopic ion exchange procedure is applied in order to establish an analytical method for the determination of thorium by means of the 233 Th activity, when the presence of interfering elements does not allow a direct non-destructive activation analysis. The separation is based on the retention of 233 Th by a thorium saturated resin, due to the isotopic exchange effect, and subsequent elution of the interfering radioisotopes with a solution of thorium in diluted hydrochloric acid. The interfering elements were those which either present a great affinity for the resin or emit gamma rays with energies close to that of 233 Th (86.6 KeV), when a NaI(Tl) detector is used to obtain the gama-ray spectra of the irradiated samples. The equilibrium time for the thorium isotopic ion exchange and the distribution coefficients for the interfering elements were determined by using Bio-Rad AG 50W resins (100-200 mesh), with 4% to 8% of divinylbenzene. The best separation conditions were established in terms of the thorium and hydrochloric acid concentrations in the solution, the resin cross-linking degree, and the solution flow through the resin. The analytical method was applied to the determination of thorium in samples of ammonium diuranate as well in standard rock samples from the United States Geological Survey. The sensitivity, precision and accuracy of the method are also discussed. (Author) [pt

  19. Radiochemical Means of Investigating Delayed Neutron Precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmol, P. del

    1968-01-01

    Fast radiochemical methods used now for the determination of delayed neutron precursors are classified and reviewed: precipitations, solvent extractions, range experiments, milking, gas sweeping, isotopic and ion exchange, hot atom reactions and diffusion loss. Advantages and limitations of irradiation systems with respect to fast separations are discussed: external beams which allow faster separations only have low neutron fluxes, internal beams which are mostly fit for gaseous reactions; and rabbits for solution irradiations. Future prospects of radiochemical procedures are presented; among these, studies should be mostly oriented towards gaseous reactions which offer possibilities of isolating very short-lived delayed neutron precursors. Chemical procedures for delayed neutron precursor detection are compared with mass spectrometric and isotope separator techniques; it is concluded that the methods are complementary. (author)

  20. Radiochemical Means of Investigating Delayed Neutron Precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmol, P. del

    1968-01-01

    Fast radiochemical methods used now for the determination of delayed neutron precursors are classified and reviewed: precipitations, solvent extractions, range experiments, milking, gas sweeping, isotopic and ion exchange, hot-atom reactions and diffusion loss. Advantages and limitations of irradiation systems with respect to fast separations are discussed: external beams which allow faster separations only have low neutron fluxes, internal beams which are mostly fit for gaseous reactions; and rabbits for solution irradiations. Future prospects of radiochemical procedures are presented; among these, studies should be mostly oriented towards gaseous reactions which offer possibilities of isolating very short-lived delayed neutron precursors. Chemical procedures for delayed neutron precursor detection are compared with mass spectrometric and isotope-separator techniques; it is concluded that the methods are complementary. (author)

  1. Radiochemical separation from111In from Cd and Cu by Ion exchange chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavari, R.; Khanchi, A. R.; Rafii, H.; Maragheh, M. G.; Farajzadeh, M. A.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, during the nuclear reaction of nat Cd (p, xn) 111 In, the irradiated cadmium target was dissolved in 3 M nitric acid. It was passed through a cation exchange column, containing 4 g. of AG 5OW-X8, and then was separated from cadmium and copper impurities by using a simple two stage procedure. At the first stage, cadmium was eluted with acetone-water-hydrobromic acid solution. At the second stage, indium was eluted with acetone-water-hydrochloric acid solution. The effluent was evaporated to dry and the residue was dissolved in 0.01M hydrochloric acid. The overall yield of the procedure was 95 ± 1 percent and the amount of cadmium and copper contamination were 0.3 and 0.1 ppm, respectively

  2. Production and radiochemical separation of 203Pb radioisotope for nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szuecs, Z.; Takacs, S.; Andrasi, D.; Kovacs, B.

    2012-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The heavy metal pollution due to their industrial production, waste repository or accident as the cyanide spill in river Tisza in 2002, increase the scientific interest for using an ideal trace isotope for monitoring these type of events. The lead is one of the most toxic and commonly used heavy metal, its poisoning is often deadly because very difficult to recognize and identify. The neuro-scientific study of biodegradation effect of lead could be an impressive scientific field of application of 203 Pb radioisotope. However the targeted radionuclide therapy especially the α-emitting radioisotope therapy is also strongly interested to find an ideal tracer for the 213 Bi and 212 Pb therapy. Therefore the 203 Pb is a potential radioisotope for this role due to its radiation behaviour and as heavy metal element. The 203 Tl(p,n) 203 Pb nuclear reaction was chosen for the production. The irradiation was done at the compact cyclotron of Atomki with proton beam 14.5 MeV energy and beam current of 7 μAs. The thickness of the target material was 840 μm, the irradiation time was 3 hours and the produced activity was 40 MBq at EOB. It corresponds to 1.87 MBq/μAh physical yield of the reaction which correlating with the cross section curve. A new technique was developed for target preparation. The metal Tl was pressed into a copper backing and covered with a HAWAR foil with thickness of 11 μm. The covering foil saved the surface of the Tl from the oxidation and also transferred the dissipating heat to the cooling He gas. The back side of the target was cooled with pressured cold water. The irradiated Tl target was pressed out from the copper backing, which had only the thickness of 0.2 mm. Then the Thallium was dissolved in nitric acid. The excess acid was evaporated slowly. The nitrate form was transferred to chloride form by 8 mol/dm 3 HCl and the Thallium was kept in 3+ oxidation stage by hydrogen peroxide. The separation was

  3. Green methods for the radiochemical separations of no-carrier-added 61Cu, 62Zn from 7Li irradiated cobalt target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moumita Maiti; Kaustab Ghosh; Susanta Lahiri

    2015-01-01

    A nat Co target was irradiated with 47 MeV 7 Li beam to produce no-carrier-added 61 Cu, 62 Zn in the target matrix. Two new green radiochemical methods were developed for separation of 61 Cu and 62 Zn from the target matrix, (i) liquid-liquid extraction (LLX) technique using room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C 4 mim][PF 6 ]) and ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC) (ii) adsorption on calcium alginate beads. (author)

  4. Investigation of the 168Hf electron capture decay using fast radiochemical separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trubert, D.; Hussonnois, M.; Brillard, L.; Barci, V.; Ardisson, G.; Szeglowski, Z.; Constantinescu, O.

    1995-01-01

    The (EC + β + ) decay of 168 Hf, produced by the 156 Gd ( 16 O,4n) reaction, has been studied, with high efficiency HPGe coaxial detectors, using on-line measurements carried out with the RACHEL setup, built to investigate the chemical properties of transactinide elements. Off-line measurements were also carried out using catcher collection technique. Energies and intensities of 119 γ-lines are reported among which only two were known in the earlier study of Chu and Reednick. The 168 Lu level scheme built on the basis of single and γ-γ coincidence measurements, allows the interpretation of more than 79 γ-transitions, between 38 excited states reported for the first time. (orig.)

  5. Determination of trace amounts of uranium in silicate materials by means of neutron activation analysis involving rapid radiochemical separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebihara, M.; Tomura, Kenji; Masutani, M.

    1987-01-01

    Uranium is determined in silicate materials such as standard rocks and a meteorite by radiochemical neutron activation analysis. The gamma-ray intensity of 239 U was measured with a planar type pure germanium detector system. The obtained data are mostly consistent with the literature values. Compared with a non-destructive method, the present method was found to improve the sensitivity by at least a factor of ten. Several errors which might be involved in the authors' RNAA procedures were examined and their degrees were evaluated. (author)

  6. Automation of radiochemical analysis by flow injection techniques. Am-Pu separation using TRU-resinTM sorbent extraction column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, O.; Washington Univ., Seattle, WA; Grate, J.W.; Ruzicka, J.

    1998-01-01

    A rapid automated flow injection analysis (FIA) procedure was developed for efficient separation of Am and Pu from each other and from interfering matrix and radionuclide components using a TRU-resin TM column. Selective Pu elution is enabled via on-column reduction. The separation was developed using on-line radioactivity detection. After the separation had been developed, fraction collection was used to obtain the separated fractions. In this manner, a FIA instrument functions as an automated separation workstation capable of unattended operation. (author)

  7. Radiochemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geary, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    This little volume is one of an extended series of basic textbooks on analytical chemistry produced by the Analytical Chemistry by Open Learning project in the UK. Prefatory sections explain its mission, and how to use the Open Learning format. Seventeen specific sections organized into five chaptrs begin with a general discussion of nuclear properties, types, and laws of nuclear decay and proceeds to specific discussions of three published papers (reproduced in their entirety) giving examples of radiochemical methods which were discussed in the previous chapter. Each section begins with an overview, contains one or more practical problems (called self-assessment questions or SAQ's), and concludes with a summary and a list of objectives for the student. Following the main body are answers to the SAQ's, and several tables of physical constants, SI prefixes, etc. A periodic table graces the inside back cover

  8. ARCA II - a new apparatus for fast, repetitive HPLC separations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaedel, M.; Bruechle, W.; Jaeger, E.; Schimpf, E.; Kratz, J.V.; Scherer, U.W.; Zimmermann, H.P.

    1989-04-01

    The microcomputer controlled Automated Rapid Chemistry Apparatus, ARCA, is described in its newly designed version for the study of chemical properties of element 105 in aqueous solutions. This improved version, ARCA II, is adapted to the needs of fast and repetitive separations to be carried out in a chemically inert automated micro high performance liquid chromatography system. As an example, the separation of several group IIIB, IVB, and VB elements in the system triisooctylamine/hydrochloric acid within 30 s is demonstrated. Furthermore, a new method for the fast preparation of samples for α-particle spectroscopy by evaporation of the aqueous effluent with an intense light source is presented. (orig.)

  9. Radiochemical separation and ICP-AES determination of some common metallic elements in ThO2 matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adya, V.C.; Hon, N.S.; Bangia, T.R.; Sastry, M.D.; Iyer, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    Radioactive tracer and also ICP-AES studies have been carried out to determine Al, Cd, Ca, Cr, Co, Cu, Mn, Mo and Pd in ThO 2 matrix after chemical separation. Di-2-ethyl-hexyl phosphoric acid/xylene/HNO 3 extraction system was used for quantitative separation of thorium. The recovery of elements as determined by tracers and ICP-AES was found to be quantitative within experimental error. (author). 3 refs., 1 tab

  10. Obtention process of phosphorus 32 starting from commercial sulfur and design and construction of the radiochemical separation prototype; Proceso de obtencion de fosforo-32 a partir de azufre comercial y diseno y construccion del prototipo de separacion radioquimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte A, C.; Alanis M, J.; Gutierrez R, C. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    In this work an obtention process of phosphorus 32 ({sup 32} P) in orthophosphoric acid form (H{sub 3}{sup 32}PO{sub 4}) is described starting from commercial sulfur. Also the design and construction of the experimental prototype used in the radiochemical separation and their results in three tests carried out is reported. (Author)

  11. A Simple Apparatus for Fast Ion Exchange Separations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsahl, K.

    1964-09-01

    An apparatus suitable for very fast ion exchange group separations in radiochemistry has been elaborated. The apparatus which consists of a system of glass tubes with pistons driven by the same force, allows the exact adjustment of influent solutions to a long series of ion-exchange columns. The practical application of the apparatus to the simultaneous separation of six groups of trace elements in the neutron activation analysis of biological material is described

  12. A Simple Apparatus for Fast Ion Exchange Separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samsahl, K

    1964-09-15

    An apparatus suitable for very fast ion exchange group separations in radiochemistry has been elaborated. The apparatus which consists of a system of glass tubes with pistons driven by the same force, allows the exact adjustment of influent solutions to a long series of ion-exchange columns. The practical application of the apparatus to the simultaneous separation of six groups of trace elements in the neutron activation analysis of biological material is described.

  13. Radiochemical studies in chemical separation and spectrographic determination of rare earths in thorium oxide matrix (Preprint No. RA.06)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adya, V.C.; Dhawale, B.A.; Rajeshwari, B.; Bangia, T.R.; Sastry, M.D.

    1989-01-01

    A chemical separation procedure was standardised for the separation of traces of rare earths from ThO 2 matrix using HDEHP (Di 2-ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid). The studies were carried out using both nitric acid and hydrochloric acid medium in different concentrations. The extraction studies were also carried out using radioactive isotopes of rare earths viz. 141 Ce, 152-154 Eu, 153 Gd, 170 Tm etc. The extraction was effective in both media. In 0.1 M HDEHP/xylene and 3 M HNO 3 , Ce was partially extracted into organic phase. So HCl/xylene medium was chosen for extraction purposes. The recovery was confirmed by both gamma counting and emission spectropgraphic method. It was found to be quantitative within experimental error. The separation procedure development here was used for determination of rare earths in thorium oxide matrix by emission spectrographic method. (author)

  14. Comparison of the radiochemical separation procedures od plutonium applied for its determination in the environmental samples using alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komosa, A.; Michalik, S.

    2006-01-01

    Alpha spectrometry of the plutonium isotopes can be performed only after the perfect plutonium separation from other components of the matrix. So, till now numerous procedures have been elaborated and tested. The communication presents comparison of the plutonium content determination in soil, bones, eggshells and in the reference materials obtained by alpha spectrometry combined with two different separation procedures. The samples were mineralized in the concentrated HCl or HF prior to plutonium electrodeposition or coprecipitation with NdF 3 . Some other details were also tested in various variants. Quality of the spectra is discussed in terms of all these pre-treatment methods

  15. Blind speech separation system for humanoid robot with FastICA for audio filtering and separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiharto, Widodo; Santoso Gunawan, Alexander Agung

    2016-07-01

    Nowadays, there are many developments in building intelligent humanoid robot, mainly in order to handle voice and image. In this research, we propose blind speech separation system using FastICA for audio filtering and separation that can be used in education or entertainment. Our main problem is to separate the multi speech sources and also to filter irrelevant noises. After speech separation step, the results will be integrated with our previous speech and face recognition system which is based on Bioloid GP robot and Raspberry Pi 2 as controller. The experimental results show the accuracy of our blind speech separation system is about 88% in command and query recognition cases.

  16. A radiochemical separation of spallogenic 88Zr in the carrier-free state for radioisotopic photoneutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whipple, R.E.; Grant, P.M.; Daniels, R.J.; Daniels, W.R.; O'Brien, H.A.Jr.

    1976-01-01

    As the precursor of its 88 Y daughter, 88 Zr could be advantageously included in the active component of the 88 Y-Be photoneutron source for several reasons. The spallation of Mo targets with medium-energy protons at LAMPF procedure has been developed to separate radiozirconium from the target material and various spallogenic impurities. 88 Zr can consequently be obtained carrier-free and in quantitative yield. (author)

  17. Separation of plutonium on the anion exchanger BIO-RAD 1-X2 and its application to radiochemical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajo, S.; Gann, C.; Eikenberg, J.; Wyer, L.; Beer, H.; Ruethi, M.; Jaeggi, M.; Zumsteg, I

    2007-12-15

    The element Pu (Z = 94) is a member of the actinide series of the elements (Z = 89 -103). The actinides have similar chemical properties and are also similar to the lanthanides (Z = 57 -71). Sixteen isotopes of Pu have been synthesized, all of which are radioactive. The Pu present in the environment originates from the atmospheric nuclear tests from 1950 to 1963, which produced the so-called 'global fallout'. As a result, 6.5 {center_dot} 10{sup 15} Bq {sup 239}Pu (2.8 tons), 4.4 {center_dot} 10{sup 15} Bq {sup 240}Pu (0.52 tons), and 3.7 {center_dot} 10{sup 4} Bq {sup 241}Pu (0.04 tons) were dispersed over the world. A contribution also to the global fallout was the ignition of the satellite SWAP 9A in the atmosphere in 1964, equipped with a battery powered by 6.3 {center_dot} 10{sup 14} Bq (1 kg) of {sup 238}Pu. In addition to these sources, nuclear reactors, reprocessing plants and radioactive waste facilities may contribute with their emissions to increase locally the Pu concentration in their environment. In the PSI laboratory, we are confronted with the determination of traces of {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu in environmental and biological materials. Because of the low quantity of Pu in the analyzed samples, which is usually below 100 mBq, it is mandatory to separate the Pu from all other accompanying elements. The separated Pu is then measured by alpha spectrometry. In this work, the anion exchanger BIO-RAD AG 1 is extensively used for the separation of Pu from different matrices. This exchanger is superior when only Pu is determined in the sample. In addition, it is also very suitable when other actinides, such as Am and Cm, are also determined. No preconcentration step is necessary for the Pu separation. The resins introduced by the company Eichrom Industries in the 90's, which allow the separation of the actinides from the major environmental elements and from each other, requires relatively small volumes of sample solution

  18. Separation of plutonium on the anion exchanger BIO-RAD 1-X2 and its application to radiochemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajo, S.; Gann, C.; Eikenberg, J.; Wyer, L.; Beer, H.; Ruethi, M.; Jaeggi, M.; Zumsteg, I.

    2007-12-01

    The element Pu (Z = 94) is a member of the actinide series of the elements (Z = 89 -103). The actinides have similar chemical properties and are also similar to the lanthanides (Z = 57 -71). Sixteen isotopes of Pu have been synthesized, all of which are radioactive. The Pu present in the environment originates from the atmospheric nuclear tests from 1950 to 1963, which produced the so-called 'global fallout'. As a result, 6.5 · 10 15 Bq 239 Pu (2.8 tons), 4.4 · 10 15 Bq 240 Pu (0.52 tons), and 3.7 · 10 4 Bq 241 Pu (0.04 tons) were dispersed over the world. A contribution also to the global fallout was the ignition of the satellite SWAP 9A in the atmosphere in 1964, equipped with a battery powered by 6.3 · 10 14 Bq (1 kg) of 238 Pu. In addition to these sources, nuclear reactors, reprocessing plants and radioactive waste facilities may contribute with their emissions to increase locally the Pu concentration in their environment. In the PSI laboratory, we are confronted with the determination of traces of 238 Pu, 239 Pu and 240 Pu in environmental and biological materials. Because of the low quantity of Pu in the analyzed samples, which is usually below 100 mBq, it is mandatory to separate the Pu from all other accompanying elements. The separated Pu is then measured by alpha spectrometry. In this work, the anion exchanger BIO-RAD AG 1 is extensively used for the separation of Pu from different matrices. This exchanger is superior when only Pu is determined in the sample. In addition, it is also very suitable when other actinides, such as Am and Cm, are also determined. No preconcentration step is necessary for the Pu separation. The resins introduced by the company Eichrom Industries in the 90's, which allow the separation of the actinides from the major environmental elements and from each other, requires relatively small volumes of sample solution. This report describes the extensive utilization of the classical anion exchanger BIO-RAD 1-X2 in 8 molar nitric

  19. Determination of 63Ni and 55Fe in nuclear waste samples using radiochemical separation and liquid scintillation counting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Frøsig Østergaard, L.; Nielsen, S.P.

    2005-01-01

    An analytical method for the determination of Ni-63 and Fe-55 in nuclear waste samples such as graphite, heavy concrete, aluminium and lead was developed. Different decomposition methods (i.e. ashing, acid digestion and alkali fusion) were investigated for the decomposition of the samples...... by extraction chromatography. The purified Ni-63 and Fe-55 was then measured by liquid scintillation counting. The chemical yields of the separation procedures for Fe-55 and Ni-63 are above 90% and the decontamination factors for all interfering radionuclides are more than 10(5). The detection limits...

  20. Zirconium-titanium-phosphate nanoparticles. Triton X-100 based size modification, characterization and application in radiochemical separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, R.; Sen, B.; Chattopadhyay, P. [Burdwan Univ. (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    2014-07-01

    Zirconium-titanium-phosphate nanoparticles (ZTP) of different sizes were synthesized using tritron X-100 (polyethylene glycol-p-isooctylphenyl ether) surfactant. The materials were characterized by FTIR and powdered X-ray diffraction (XRD). The structural and morphological details of the material were obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The SEM study was followed by energy dispersive spectroscopic analysis (EDS) for elemental analysis of the sample. The important peaks of the XRD spectra were analyzed to determine the probable composition of the material. The particle sizes were determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS) method. Ion exchange capacity was measured for different metal ions with sizes of the ZTP nanoparticles and size-dependent ion exchange property of the material was investigated thoroughly. The nanomaterial of the smallest size of around 5 nm was employed to separate carrier-free {sup 137m}Ba from {sup 137}Cs in column chromatographic technique using 1.0 M HNO{sub 3} as eluting agent at pH = 5. (orig.)

  1. 11th radiochemical conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasil, Z.

    1987-01-01

    The conference met in four sesions which discussed: Separation methods, Radioanalytical methods, Labelled compounds and Miscellaneous. The first session discussed extraction methods, ion exchange and chromatographic separation of radioisotopes. The second session heard papers on the application of these methods, e.g., in geochemistry, on the use of radioactive tracers in radiochemical analysis and the use of activation analysis in the determination of trace elements. The third session heard papers on the preparation of labelled organic compounds with isotopes 3 H, 14 C, radioiodine and 32 P, on the preparation of RIA kits and on the chemistry and radiopharmacology of technetium compounds. The other contributions which could not be heard in any of the three sessions discussed, e.g., the preparation of elements on the cyclotron and microtron, the production of a new 99m Tc-generator, the participation of the IAEA in processing low- and medium-level radioactive wastes, etc. (E.S.)

  2. Ga2O for target, solvent extraction for radiochemical separation and SnO2 for the preparation of a 68Ge/68Ga generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aardaneh, K.; Walt, T.N. van der

    2006-01-01

    The target for the production of 68 Ge consists of a disc of gallium suboxide, Ga 2 O, with a 19 mm diameter. The suboxide was primarily prepared by repeatedly mixing metallic Ga and Ga 2 O 3 at 700 deg C. The target (2.4 g) was quite stable under a long-time irradiation with a 34 MeV proton beam at a current of ∼80 μA. The dissolution of the target was performed using 12M sulphuric acid solution, assisted with the dropwise addition of 30% H 2 O 2 solution, and took less than 4 hours. A solvent extraction method, using a 9M H 2 SO 4 - 0.3M HCl/CCl 4 system, was employed for the radiochemical separation of 68 Ge from Ga and Zn radionuclides, while 0.05M HCl was used for the back extraction of 68 Ge from the organic phase. The 68 Ge obtained in the dilute HCl was directly loaded onto a column containing either a hydrous tin dioxide or a crystalline tin dioxide, obtained by calcinations of the hydrous oxide at 450, 700, and 900 deg C. The calcinated hydrous tin dioxide at 900 deg C showed the highest crystallinity and highest 68 Ga elution yield and was selected for use in the generator. The 68 Ga elution from the column generator packed with 2 g of tin dioxide, using 3 ml of 1M HCl, and yielded an average of 65%. The breakthrough of 68 Ge was 6.1 x 10 -4 %. (author)

  3. Fast Mechanically Driven Daughter Cell Separation Is Widespread in Actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoxue; Halladin, David K; Theriot, Julie A

    2016-08-30

    Dividing cells of the coccoid Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus undergo extremely rapid (millisecond) daughter cell separation (DCS) driven by mechanical crack propagation, a strategy that is very distinct from the gradual, enzymatically driven cell wall remodeling process that has been well described in several rod-shaped model bacteria. To determine if other bacteria, especially those in the same phylum (Firmicutes) or with similar coccoid shapes as S. aureus, might use a similar mechanically driven strategy for DCS, we used high-resolution video microscopy to examine cytokinesis in a phylogenetically wide range of species with various cell shapes and sizes. We found that fast mechanically driven DCS is rather rare in the Firmicutes (low G+C Gram positives), observed only in Staphylococcus and its closest coccoid relatives in the Macrococcus genus, and we did not observe this division strategy among the Gram-negative Proteobacteria In contrast, several members of the high-G+C Gram-positive phylum Actinobacteria (Micrococcus luteus, Brachybacterium faecium, Corynebacterium glutamicum, and Mycobacterium smegmatis) with diverse shapes ranging from coccoid to rod all undergo fast mechanical DCS during cell division. Most intriguingly, similar fast mechanical DCS was also observed during the sporulation of the actinobacterium Streptomyces venezuelae Much of our knowledge on bacterial cytokinesis comes from studying rod-shaped model organisms such as Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis Less is known about variations in this process among different bacterial species. While cell division in many bacteria has been characterized to some extent genetically or biochemically, few species have been examined using video microscopy to uncover the kinetics of cytokinesis and daughter cell separation (DCS). In this work, we found that fast (millisecond) DCS is exhibited by species in two independent clades of Gram-positive bacteria and is particularly prevalent

  4. Fast Mechanically Driven Daughter Cell Separation Is Widespread in Actinobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxue Zhou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Dividing cells of the coccoid Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus undergo extremely rapid (millisecond daughter cell separation (DCS driven by mechanical crack propagation, a strategy that is very distinct from the gradual, enzymatically driven cell wall remodeling process that has been well described in several rod-shaped model bacteria. To determine if other bacteria, especially those in the same phylum (Firmicutes or with similar coccoid shapes as S. aureus, might use a similar mechanically driven strategy for DCS, we used high-resolution video microscopy to examine cytokinesis in a phylogenetically wide range of species with various cell shapes and sizes. We found that fast mechanically driven DCS is rather rare in the Firmicutes (low G+C Gram positives, observed only in Staphylococcus and its closest coccoid relatives in the Macrococcus genus, and we did not observe this division strategy among the Gram-negative Proteobacteria. In contrast, several members of the high-G+C Gram-positive phylum Actinobacteria (Micrococcus luteus, Brachybacterium faecium, Corynebacterium glutamicum, and Mycobacterium smegmatis with diverse shapes ranging from coccoid to rod all undergo fast mechanical DCS during cell division. Most intriguingly, similar fast mechanical DCS was also observed during the sporulation of the actinobacterium Streptomyces venezuelae.

  5. Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL)�is a scientific facility funded by DOE to create and implement innovative processes for environmental clean-up and...

  6. Radiochemical procedures and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, K.

    1975-04-01

    A summary is presented of the radiochemical procedures and techniques currently in use by the Chemistry Division Nuclear Chemistry Group at Argonne National Laboratory for the analysis of radioactive samples. (U.S.)

  7. Radiochemical analysis of phosphorus in milk samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, R.M. de; Cunha, I.I.L.

    1991-01-01

    The determination of phosphorus in milk samples by thermal neutron activation analysis employing radiochemical separation is described. The radiochemical separation consists of the simultaneous irradiation of samples and standards, dissolution of the milk samples in a perchloric acid and nitric acid mixture, addition of zinc hold-back carrier, precipitation of phosphorus as ammonium phospho molybdate (A.M.P.) and sample counting in a Geiger-Mueller detector. The analysis sources of error were studied and the established method was applied to phosphorus analyses in commercial milk samples. (author)

  8. Radiochemical trace analysis methods: Development and application of a fast and very sensitive procedure to determine long-living neutron activation products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schupfner, R [Environmental Radioactivity Lab., Regensburg Univ. (Germany); Koenig, W [Environmental Radioactivity Lab., Regensburg Univ. (Germany); Scheuerer, C [Environmental Radioactivity Lab., Regensburg Univ. (Germany); Schuettelkopf, H [Environmental Radioactivity Lab., Regensburg Univ. (Germany)

    1997-03-01

    The first purification step is a preconcentration of Fe-55 or Ni-63/59 respectively using the chelaing resin column CHELEX 100. This chelating resin is composed of a styrene-divinyl-benzene polymer as a carrier of the iminoacetic groups. In the past CHELEX 100 has been used for reconcentrating heavy metal ions in sea water or spring water. At low pH values this chelating resin is able to preconcentrate Fe-55 or Ni-63/59 respectively. Undesireable ions from the sample material e.g. Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, SiO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} are completely removed. Because of its not jet sufficient selectivity various highly selective and fast purification steps including anion exchange to separate Co-60 and liquid-liquid extraction with diisopropylether for Fe-55 and chloroform for Ni-63/59 are applied to obtain a diluted sulfuric acided solution which can be mixed with a suitable scintillation cocktail and measured by means of liquid scintillation counting (LSC). (orig./DG)

  9. Separated Representations and Fast Algorithms for Materials Science

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beylkin, Gregory; Monzon, Lucas; Perez, Fernando

    2007-01-01

    ...) and to develop and test algorithms for computing multiparticle wave functions both based on representing operators and functions of many variables as short sums of separable functions the so-called...

  10. Fast response system for vacuum volume emergency separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubrienko, K.I.; Lastochkin, Yu.A.

    1982-01-01

    A system which allows to separate vacuum systems of the magnetic-optic beam channels connected with the accelerator has been worked out for case of emergency environment break through the extraction ''window''. The system, consisting of two valve - gate devices and a control unit, allows one in the emergency case to separate more than 20 m long volume from the accelerator without any pressure changes in the latter one

  11. Radiochemical separations of target-like reaction products from Au-, Pt-, and Th-targets after irradiation with GeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szweryn, B.; Bruechle, W.; Schausten, B.; Schaedel, M.

    1988-08-01

    Chemical separation procedures for separations of reaction products after spallation reactions with 2.6 GeV protons and heavy element targets are presented. To determine independent cross sections of individual isotopes the elements Au, Pt, Ir, Os, Re, W, Ta, Hf, (Lu, Yb, Tm, Er), (Gd, Eu, Sm), were separated from gold targets, Pt, Ir, Os, W, Ta, Hf, (Lu, Yb, Tm, Er), (Gd, Eu, Sm) from a platinum target and Au, Tl from a thorium target. (orig.)

  12. Fast synthesis and separation of the arsenoglutathione complexes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petry-Podgorska, Inga; Balcarová, B.; Matoušek, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 5 (2016), s. 192-192 ISSN 2336-7202. [Sjezd chemických společností /68./. 04.09.2016-07.09.2016, Praha] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH15174 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : ICP-MS * HPLC * arsenoglutathione complexes Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  13. Advantage of chromatographic resin over the conventional nitrate radiochemical separation for 89,90Sr in milk in case of radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehenderge, S.T.; Sudheendran, V.; Rao, D.D.; Hegde, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents the comparative evaluation of both the methods. Sr-spec was used for analysing 24 milk powder samples and 15 milk powder samples were analysed using by conventional separation method in an IAEA method validation study

  14. Radiochemical solar neutrino experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rich, R.; Spiro, M.

    1993-01-01

    This review covers the three presently running radiochemical solar neutrino experiments, namely the Chlorine, SAGE, and GALLEX experiments. The focus of the review is on a discussion of statistical consistency checks of the available data. The chlorine radiochemical experiment is conceptually simple and shows no strong indication of any statistical anomalies. It still forms the basis of the solar neutrino problem. Each of the two gallium experiments show internal statistical consistency. SAGE's recent preliminary results are consistent with the published GALLEX results. If this convergence is confirmed by a more definitive analysis, this would suggest that the combined result of the two gallium experiments, SAGE and GALLEX, be used for comparisons with theoretical expectations. 5 refs., 15 figs

  15. Radiochemical Study on the Separation of Chromium-51 from the Irradiated Target by Using Commercial and/or Synthesized Ion Exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydia, M.I.M.M.

    2012-01-01

    This work involves the following steps:1- Preparation of Triton X-100 Cerium(IV) Phosphate (TX-100CeP) as a surface active ion exchanger or organometallic molecules. 2- Characterization of the TX-100CeP by different methods (i.e. IR, TGA/DTA X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and elemental analysis). 3- Development a method for separation and quantification of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) by using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). 4- Separation of 51 Cr(III) from Cr(VI) in the target of K 2 CrO 4 on TX-100CeP and Permutit as a commercial ion exchanger. 5- Quality control on the separated 51 Cr(III).

  16. Determination of plutonium isotopes (238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu) in environmental samples using radiochemical separation combined with radiometric and mass spectrometric measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yihong; Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin; Pan, Shaoming; Roos, Per

    2014-02-01

    This paper reports an analytical method for the determination of plutonium isotopes ((238)Pu, (239)Pu, (240)Pu, (241)Pu) in environmental samples using anion exchange chromatography in combination with extraction chromatography for chemical separation of Pu. Both radiometric methods (liquid scintillation counting and alpha spectrometry) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were applied for the measurement of plutonium isotopes. The decontamination factors for uranium were significantly improved up to 7.5 × 10(5) for 20 g soil compared to the level reported in the literature, this is critical for the measurement of plutonium isotopes using mass spectrometric technique. Although the chemical yield of Pu in the entire procedure is about 55%, the analytical results of IAEA soil 6 and IAEA-367 in this work are in a good agreement with the values reported in the literature or reference values, revealing that the developed method for plutonium determination in environmental samples is reliable. The measurement results of (239+240)Pu by alpha spectrometry agreed very well with the sum of (239)Pu and (240)Pu measured by ICP-MS. ICP-MS can not only measure (239)Pu and (240)Pu separately but also (241)Pu. However, it is impossible to measure (238)Pu using ICP-MS in environmental samples even a decontamination factor as high as 10(6) for uranium was obtained by chemical separation. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Procedural and developmental aspects of a multielement automatic radiochemical machine, applied to neutron irradiated biomedical samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyengar, G.V.

    1976-06-01

    This report is intended to serve as a practical guide, elaborately describing the working details and some developmental work connected with an automatic multielement radiochemical machine based on thermal neutron activation analysis using ion exchange and partition chromatography. Some of the practical aspects and personal observations after much experience with this versatile multielement method, applied to investigate the elemental composition of different biomedical matrices, are summarized. Standard reference materials are analyzed, and the data are presented with a set of gamma-spectra obtained before and after chemical separation into convenient groups suitable for gamma spectroscopy. The samples analyzed included various human and animal tissues, body fluids, IAEA biological standard reference materials, and samples from the WHO/IAEA project on 'Trace elements in relation to cardiovascular diseases'. Simplified modifications of the radiochemical processing, suitable for fast and routine analysis of clinical samples have also been discussed. (orig.) [de

  18. Isotopic exchange between 232Th and 234Th using ion exchange resins and its application for the radiochemical separation of thorium and europium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepulveda Munita, C.J.A.; Atalla, L.T.

    1980-01-01

    The determination of thorium via the measurement of 233 Th activity (obtained by irradiating natural thorium with neutrons) may suffer the interference of various radioisotopes which may be also formed during irradiation, if their parent isotopes are present in the sample. Taking into account this possibility, another technique was chosen for the determination of thorium, based on isotopic exchange associated with ionic exchange. Conditions for the isotopic exchange between 234 Th in solution and 232 Th in the resin were optimized. It was verified that the behaviour of 233 Th and 234 Th is the same regarding isotopic exchange with 232 Th. 234 Th was chosen for the experiments since it has a longer half-life (24.1 days) than 233 Th (22.3 min), thus facilitating the performance of the work. As the major objective of this work is to separate thorium and europium isotopes, the behaviour of 152-154 Eu was studied in the same system used for thorium, envisaging a minimum retention of these radioisotopes in the resin. In order to establish the best conditions for separating 234-Th and 152/154-Eu, the following parameters were considered: the thorium concentration in the solution; the hydrochloric acid concentration in solution; the concentration of other elements in solution; the degree of cross-linking of the resin; the flow rate of the solution through the column. The other elements added to the elutant solution were: uranium, molybdenum, lanthanum, europium, ytterbium, bromine, cobalt, barium, manganese, indium, cesium and selenium. Europium was added so to dilute the 152/154-Eu tracer and avoid the retention of the latter in the resin. The other elements were added because they give rise to radioisotopes which interfere in the activation analysis of thorium when 233-Th activity is used and, the separation of these elements from thorium will also be subsequently studied by the method used in the present work. (C.L.B.) [pt

  19. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis of gold in geochemical samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilliacus, R.

    1983-01-01

    A fast method for the radiochemical neutron activation analysis of gold in geochemical samples is described. The method is intended for samples having background concentrations of gold. The method is based on the dissolution of samples with hydrofluoric acid and aqua regia followed by the dissolution of the fluorides with boric acid and hydrochloric acid. Gold is then adsorbed on activated carbon by filtrating the solution through a thin carbon layer. The activity measurements are carried out using a Ge(Li)-detector and a multichannel analyzer. The chemical yields of the separation determined by reirradiation vary between 60 and 90%. The detection limit of the method is 0.2 ng/g gold in rock samples. USGS standard rocks and exploration reference materials are analyzed and the results are presented and compared with literature data. (author)

  20. Radiochemical analysis of military nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayramov, A.A.; Bayramova, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Full text : Radiochemical Analysis is a branch of analytical chemistry comprising an aggregate of methods for qualitatively determining the composition and content of radioisotopes in the products of transformations. Safety and minimization of radiation impact on human and environment are important demand of operation of Military Nuclear Facilities (MNF). In accordance of recommendations of International Commission on Radiological Protection there are next objects of radiochemical analysis: 1) potential sources of radiochemical pollution; 2) environment (objects of environment, human environment including buildings, agricultural production, water, air et al.); 3) human himself (determination of dose from external and internal radiation, chemical poisoning). The chemical analysis can be carried out using, for example, the Gas Chromatography instrument whish separates chemical mixtures and identifies the components at a molecular level. It is one of the most accurate tools for analyzing environmental samples. The Gas Chromatography works on the principle that a mixture will separate into individual substances when heated. The heated gases are carried through a column with an inert gas (such as helium). As the separated substances emerge from the column opening, they flow into the Mass Spectrometry. Mass spectrometry identifies compounds by the mass of the analyte molecule. Newly developed portable Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry are techniques that can be used to separate volatile organic compounds and pesticides. Other uses of Gas Chromatography, combined with other separation and analytical techniques, have been developed for radionuclides, explosive compounds such as royal demolition explosive and trinitrotoluene, and metals. So, based on the many years experience of operation of dangerous MNF, in concordance with norms of radiation and chemical safety it was considered that the tasks of the radiochemical analysis of Military Nuclear Facilities include

  1. Radiochemicals in biomedical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, E.A.; Oldham, K.G.

    1988-01-01

    This volume describes the role of radiochemicals in biomedical research, as tracers in the development of new drugs, their interaction and function with receptor proteins, with the kinetics of binding of hormone - receptor interactions, and their use in cancer research and clinical oncology. The book also aims to identify future trends in this research, the main objective of which is to provide information leading to improvements in the quality of life, and to give readers a basic understanding of the development of new drugs, how they function in relation to receptor proteins and lead to a better understanding of the diagnosis and treatment of cancers. (author)

  2. Collected radiochemical and geochemical procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinberg, J [comp.

    1990-05-01

    This revision of LA-1721, 4th Ed., Collected Radiochemical Procedures, reflects the activities of two groups in the Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory: INC-11, Nuclear and radiochemistry; and INC-7, Isotope Geochemistry. The procedures fall into five categories: I. Separation of Radionuclides from Uranium, Fission-Product Solutions, and Nuclear Debris; II. Separation of Products from Irradiated Targets; III. Preparation of Samples for Mass Spectrometric Analysis; IV. Dissolution Procedures; and V. Geochemical Procedures. With one exception, the first category of procedures is ordered by the positions of the elements in the Periodic Table, with separate parts on the Representative Elements (the A groups); the d-Transition Elements (the B groups and the Transition Triads); and the Lanthanides (Rare Earths) and Actinides (the 4f- and 5f-Transition Elements). The members of Group IIIB-- scandium, yttrium, and lanthanum--are included with the lanthanides, elements they resemble closely in chemistry and with which they occur in nature. The procedures dealing with the isolation of products from irradiated targets are arranged by target element.

  3. 14th radiochemical conference. Booklet of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-03-01

    The contributions dealt with the following topics: Radionuclides in the environment, radioecology; Nuclear analytical methods; Chemistry of actinide and trans-actinide elements; Ionizing radiation in science, technology, and arts and cultural heritage preservation; Production and application of radionuclides; Separation methods, speciation; Chemistry of nuclear fuel cycle, radiochemical problems in nuclear waste management; and Nuclear methods in medicine, radiopharmaceuticals, and radiodiagnostics, labelled compounds. Of the verbal and poster presentation, 192 have been input to INIS. (P.A.)

  4. Radiochemical studies of some preparation methods for phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loos-Neskovic, C.; Fedoroff, M.

    1983-01-01

    Various methods of radiochemical separation were tested for the determination of phosphorus in metals and alloys by neutron activation analysis. Classical methods of separation revealed some defects when they were applied to this problem. Methods using liquid extraction gave low yields and were not reproducible. Methods based on precipitation gave better results, but were not selective enough in most cases. Retention on alumina was not possible without preliminary separations. Authors studied a new radiochemical separation based on the extraction of elemental phosphorus in the gaseous phase after reduction at high temperature with carbon. Measurements with radioactive phosphorus showed that the extraction yield is better than 99%. (author)

  5. Radiochemical analysis of chlorine-36

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, M.; Pina, G.; Lara, E.

    2006-01-01

    The radioactive chlorine isotope, 36 Cl, decays with a half-life of 3x10 5 years by emitting a beta particle (98 %) and by electron capture. The aim of this paper is to propose a radiochemical separation method of 36 Cl from the other beta-gamma emitters present in low and medium radioactive wastes such as spent ion exchange resins and evaporator concentrates, that arise from Nuclear Power Plants and particularly in the wastes that come from decommissioning activities of graphite reactors, in order to provide data for 36 Cl inventory calculations. The separation method proposed is based on an oxidation technique where chlorine is trapped by NaOH. 36 Cl beta emissions are measured by liquid scintillation counting by the dual label technique in order to avoid the contamination produced by 14 C which is also trapped by NaOH and which is the main contaminant present in graphite samples. The sensitivity of this method is sufficient to achieve the needed thresholds for the radiological characterization of the radioactive materials to which this method can be applied. (author)

  6. Radiochemical synthesis of etomoxir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, Hafiz G. [Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Oncology (INMOL), New Campus Road, Lahore (Pakistan); Yunus, M. [University of the Punjab, New Campus Road, Lahore (Pakistan); Feinendegen, Ludwig E., E-mail: feinendegen@gmx.ne [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Heinrich-Heine University Duesseldorf, Wannental 45, 88131 Lindau (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    Sodium 2-{l_brace}6-(4-chlorophenoxy)hexyl{r_brace}oxirane-2-carboxylate (Etomoxir) inhibits transport of fatty acids via the carnitine shuttle into mitochondria of muscle cells and prevents long chain fatty acids from providing energy through {beta}-oxidation especially for muscle contraction. The objective of this synthesis is to develop a method for radioiodination of Etomoxir in order to explore its potential in diagnostic metabolic studies and molecular imaging. Thus, a method is described for the radiochemical synthesis and purification of ethyl 2-{l_brace}6-(4-[{sup 131}I]iodophenoxy)hexyl{r_brace}oxirane-2-carboxylate (3) and 2-{l_brace}6-(4-[{sup 131}I]iodo-phenoxy)hexyl{r_brace}oxirane-2-carboxylic acid (4). For the synthesis of these new agents, ethyl 2-{l_brace}6-(4-bromophenoxy)hexyl{r_brace}oxirane-2-carboxylate (1) and 2-{l_brace}6-(4-bromophenoxy)hexyl{r_brace}oxirane-2-carboxylic acid (2) were refluxed with [{sup 131}I]NaI in the presence of anhydrous acetone at a temperature of 80 {sup o}C and 90 {sup o}C for a period of 3-4 hours, respectively. The method of radiolabeling, based on the nucleophilic exchange reaction, resulted in a radiochemical yield of 43% and 67% for compounds 3 and 4, respectively. This paper reports on the labeling of etomoxir with radioiodine as {sup 124}I labeled etomoxir may be of great importance in molecular imaging.

  7. The magnetic monopole and the separation between fast and slow magnetic degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegrowe, J-E; Olive, E

    2016-01-01

    The Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert (LLG) equation that describes the dynamics of a macroscopic magnetic moment finds its limit of validity at very short times. The reason for this limit is well understood in terms of separation of the characteristic time scales between slow degrees of freedom (the magnetization) and fast degrees of freedom. The fast degrees of freedom are introduced as the variation of the angular momentum responsible for the inertia. In order to study the effect of the fast degrees of freedom on the precession, we calculate the geometric phase of the magnetization (i.e. the Hannay angle) and the corresponding magnetic monopole. In the case of the pure precession (the slow manifold), a simple expression of the magnetic monopole is given as a function of the slowness parameter, i.e. as a function of the ratio of the slow over the fast characteristic times. (paper)

  8. The magnetic monopole and the separation between fast and slow magnetic degrees of freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegrowe, J-E; Olive, E

    2016-03-16

    The Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation that describes the dynamics of a macroscopic magnetic moment finds its limit of validity at very short times. The reason for this limit is well understood in terms of separation of the characteristic time scales between slow degrees of freedom (the magnetization) and fast degrees of freedom. The fast degrees of freedom are introduced as the variation of the angular momentum responsible for the inertia. In order to study the effect of the fast degrees of freedom on the precession, we calculate the geometric phase of the magnetization (i.e. the Hannay angle) and the corresponding magnetic monopole. In the case of the pure precession (the slow manifold), a simple expression of the magnetic monopole is given as a function of the slowness parameter, i.e. as a function of the ratio of the slow over the fast characteristic times.

  9. Hanford radiochemical site decommissioning demonstration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.C.

    1971-01-01

    A program is proposed for the innovation, development, and demonstration of technologies necessary to decommission the Hanford radiochemical plant area to the extent that the sites can have unrestricted public access. The five tasks selected for development and demonstration of restoration techniques were restoration of a burial ground, decommissioning of a separations plant, restoration of a separations plant waste interim storage tank farm, restoration of a liquid disposal area, and disposal of large contaminated equipment. Process development requirements are tabulated and discussed. A proposed schedule and estimated costs are given

  10. Evaluation of radiochemical data usability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paar, J.G.; Porterfield, D.R.

    1997-04-01

    This procedure provides a framework for implementation of radiochemical data verification and validation for environmental remediation activities. It has been developed through participation of many individuals currently involved in analytical radiochemistry, radiochemical validation, and validation program development throughout the DOE complex. It should be regarded as a guidance to use in developing an implementable radiochemical validation strategy. This procedure provides specifications for developing and implementing a radiochemical validation methodology flexible enough to allow evaluation of data useability for project-specific Data Quality Objectives (DQO). Data produced by analytical methods for which this procedure provides limited guidance are classified as open-quotes non-routineclose quotes radionuclides and methods, and analyses by these methods may necessitate adoption of modified criteria from this procedure

  11. Rapid Radiochemical Methods for Asphalt Paving Material ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical Brief Validated rapid radiochemical methods for alpha and beta emitters in solid matrices that are commonly encountered in urban environments were previously unavailable for public use by responding laboratories. A lack of tested rapid methods would delay the quick determination of contamination levels and the assessment of acceptable site-specific exposure levels. Of special concern are matrices with rough and porous surfaces, which allow the movement of radioactive material deep into the building material making it difficult to detect. This research focuses on methods that address preparation, radiochemical separation, and analysis of asphalt paving materials and asphalt roofing shingles. These matrices, common to outdoor environments, challenge the capability and capacity of very experienced radiochemistry laboratories. Generally, routine sample preparation and dissolution techniques produce liquid samples (representative of the original sample material) that can be processed using available radiochemical methods. The asphalt materials are especially difficult because they do not readily lend themselves to these routine sample preparation and dissolution techniques. The HSRP and ORIA coordinate radiological reference laboratory priorities and activities in conjunction with HSRP’s Partner Process. As part of the collaboration, the HSRP worked with ORIA to publish rapid radioanalytical methods for selected radionuclides in building material matrice

  12. Radiochemical methods to enhance efficiency of α-spectral measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silkina, G.P.; Artem'ev, O.I.

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes possible ways to improve a plutonium radiochemical separation technique developed in the Khlopin Radium Institute and modify it to account for the site-specific features of samples from the former Semipalatinsk test site (STS) and enhance the alpha spectrometry efficiency.The paper describes possible ways to improve a plutonium radiochemical separation technique developed in the Khlopin Radium Institute and modify it to account for the site-specific features of samples from the former Semipalatinsk test site (STS) and enhance the alpha spectrometry efficiency. (author)

  13. 13th Radiochemical Conference. Booklet of Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The Conference included the following sessions: (i) Opening plenary presentations (6 contributions); (ii) Chemistry of natural radionuclides, discovery of radium and polonium (6 verbal presentations + 5 poster presentations); (iii) Radionuclides in the environment, radioecology (29 + 48); (iv) Activation analysis and other radioanalytical methods (36 + 49); (v) Ionizing radiation in science and technology (12 + 12); (vi) Chemistry of actinide and trans-actinide elements (11 + 14); (vii) Separation methods, speciation (18 + 41); (viii) Production and application of radionuclides (14 + 29); and (ix) Radiochemical problems in nuclear waste management (12 + 22). The majority of verbal presentations has been input to INIS, mostly in the form of the full authors` abstracts. (P.A.)

  14. 13th Radiochemical Conference. Booklet of Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    The Conference included the following sessions: (i) Opening plenary presentations (6 contributions); (ii) Chemistry of natural radionuclides, discovery of radium and polonium (6 verbal presentations + 5 poster presentations); (iii) Radionuclides in the environment, radioecology (29 + 48); (iv) Activation analysis and other radioanalytical methods (36 + 49); (v) Ionizing radiation in science and technology (12 + 12); (vi) Chemistry of actinide and trans-actinide elements (11 + 14); (vii) Separation methods, speciation (18 + 41); (viii) Production and application of radionuclides (14 + 29); and (ix) Radiochemical problems in nuclear waste management (12 + 22). The majority of verbal presentations has been input to INIS, mostly in the form of the full authors' abstracts. (P.A.)

  15. The analytical of radiochemical purity of tumor receptor imaging agent 99Tcm-octreotide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xufu; Zuo Shuyao; Shao Wenbo; Wang Guoming; Sun Jianwen; Zhang Qin

    2003-01-01

    The radiochemical purity of tumor receptor imaging agent 99 Tc m -octreotide is measured by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and two systems of chromatography combining method of silver stain. The results show that the radiochemical purity of 98 Tc m -octreotide measured by both methods are effective and correct. It can separate 99 Tc m -octreotide from other radioactive compositions correctly and effectively

  16. Fifty years of radiochemical tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, E.A.

    1992-01-01

    During the past 50 years radiochemical tracers, usually in the form of isotopically labelled organic compounds, have been essential tools to further advance our knowledge at the frontiers of a great variety of scientific developments in the life sciences. This plenary lecture reviews necessarily selected highlights in the synthesis and applications of such radiochemical tracers. Included are examples where important advances, made possible by using radiochemicals, have contributed to improving the quality of life on this planet. The principal radioisotopes involved, 14 C, 3 H, 35 S, 32 P, 125 I, are all relatively safe to handle and are commercially available at maximum theoretical specific activity (carrier free). The compounds labeled with these radioisotopes are used in many fields of research which include biosynthesis and biotechnology studies, cell biology, drug metabolism, clinical research and environmental applications, and are briefly reviewed. (author). 55 refs

  17. Reliability of pulse waveform separation analysis: effects of posture and fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, Lee; Credeur, Daniel; Fryer, Simon; Faulkner, James; Lambrick, Danielle; Gibbs, Bethany Barone

    2017-03-01

    Oscillometric pulse wave analysis devices enable, with relative simplicity and objectivity, the measurement of central hemodynamic parameters. The important parameters are central blood pressures and indices of arterial wave reflection, including wave separation analysis (backward pressure component Pb and reflection magnitude). This study sought to determine whether the measurement precision (between-day reliability) of Pb and reflection magnitude: exceeds the criterion for acceptable reliability; and is affected by posture (supine, seated) and fasting state. Twenty healthy adults (50% female, 27.9 years, 24.2 kg/m) were tested on six different mornings: 3 days fasted, 3 days nonfasted condition. On each occasion, participants were tested in supine and seated postures. Oscillometric pressure waveforms were recorded on the left upper arm. The criterion intra-class correlation coefficient value of 0.75 was exceeded for Pb (0.76) and reflection magnitude (0.77) when participants were assessed under the combined supine-fasted condition. The intra-class correlation coefficient was lowest for Pb in seated-nonfasted condition (0.57), and lowest for reflection magnitude in the seated-fasted condition (0.56). For Pb, the smallest detectible change that must be exceeded in order for a significant change to occur in an individual was 2.5 mmHg, and for reflection magnitude, the smallest detectable change was 8.5%. Assessments of Pb and reflection magnitude are as follows: exceed the criterion for acceptable reliability; and are most reliable when participants are fasted in a supine position. The demonstrated reliability suggests sufficient precision to detect clinically meaningful changes in reflection magnitude and Pb.

  18. Determination of thorium in native gold by radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.; Kraehenbuehl, U.

    1995-01-01

    Thorium concentrations in 11 native gold samples from different sources, e.g. placer gold, vein and lode gold were determined. Thorium was determined by radiochemical separation and measurement of protactinium from irradiated native gold samples. The chemical yield of the separation procedures is 90%. Other elements were measured by gamma-ray spectroscopy. The radiochemical separation procedures described in this work make accurate determination of Th concentrations in native gold at picogram concentrations possible. (orig.)

  19. From SRAFAP to SISAK - rapid chemical separations in nuclear research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, G.

    1988-10-01

    The author gives an overview of rapid radiochemical separations, starting from the early experiments done by Rutherford up to the very sophisticated recoil fragment separations by fast on-line methods as an attempt to produce superheavy elements. Main emphasis is given to developments during the last decades and the extensive work performed by collaborators of the Nuclear Chemistry Institute at the University of Mainz. (RB)

  20. Determination of radiochemical purity using gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The concepts of chromatography, gas chromatography, activity, radiochemical impurity are defined; the procedure of the application of gas chromatography for detecting radiochemical purity of substances is standardized. (E.F.)

  1. Open Probe fast GC-MS - combining ambient sampling ultra-fast separation and in-vacuum ionization for real-time analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshet, U; Alon, T; Fialkov, A B; Amirav, A

    2017-07-01

    An Open Probe inlet was combined with a low thermal mass ultra-fast gas chromatograph (GC), in-vacuum electron ionization ion source and a mass spectrometer (MS) of GC-MS for obtaining real-time analysis with separation. The Open Probe enables ambient sampling via sample vaporization in an oven that is open to room air, and the ultra-fast GC provides ~30-s separation, while if no separation is required, it can act as a transfer line with 2 to 3-s sample transfer time. Sample analysis is as simple as touching the sample, pushing the sample holder into the Open Probe oven and obtaining the results in 30 s. The Open Probe fast GC was mounted on a standard Agilent 7890 GC that was coupled with an Agilent 5977A MS. Open Probe fast GC-MS provides real-time analysis combined with GC separation and library identification, and it uses the low-cost MS of GC-MS. The operation of Open Probe fast GC-MS is demonstrated in the 30-s separation and 50-s full analysis cycle time of tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabinol in Cannabis flower, sub 1-min analysis of trace trinitrotoluene transferred from a finger onto a glass surface, vitamin E in canola oil, sterols in olive oil, polybrominated flame retardants in plastics, alprazolam in Xanax drug pill and free fatty acids and cholesterol in human blood. The extrapolated limit of detection for pyrene is Open Probe fast GC-MS is demonstrated in the analysis of heroin in its street drug powder. The use of Open Probe with the fast GC acting as a transfer line is demonstrated in <10-s analysis without separation of ibuprofen and estradiol. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Artificial receptor-functionalized nanoshell: facile preparation, fast separation and specific protein recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Ruizhuo; Lei, Jianping; Ju, Huangxian

    2010-05-01

    This work combined molecular imprinting technology with superparamagnetic nanospheres as the core to prepare artificial receptor-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles for separation of homologous proteins. Using dopamine as a functional monomer, novel surface protein-imprinted superparamagnetic polydopamine (PDA) core-shell nanoparticles were successfully prepared in physiological conditions, which could maintain the natural structure of a protein template and achieved the development of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) from one dimension to zero dimension for efficient recognition towards large biomolecules. The resultant nanoparticles could be used for convenient magnetic separation of homologous proteins with high specificity. The nanoparticles possessed good monodispersibility, uniform surface morphology and high saturation magnetization value. The bound amounts of template proteins measured by both indirect and direct methods were in good agreement. The maximum number of imprinted cavities on the surface of the bovine hemoglobin (Hb)-imprinted nanoshell was 2.21 × 1018 g - 1, which well matched their maximum binding capacity toward bovine Hb. Both the simple method for preparation of MIPs and the magnetic nanospheres showed good application potential in fast separation, effective concentration and selective biosensing of large protein molecules.

  3. Artificial receptor-functionalized nanoshell: facile preparation, fast separation and specific protein recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyang, Ruizhuo; Lei Jianping; Ju Huangxian, E-mail: jpl@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: hxju@nju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science (Education Ministry of China), Department of Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2010-05-07

    This work combined molecular imprinting technology with superparamagnetic nanospheres as the core to prepare artificial receptor-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles for separation of homologous proteins. Using dopamine as a functional monomer, novel surface protein-imprinted superparamagnetic polydopamine (PDA) core-shell nanoparticles were successfully prepared in physiological conditions, which could maintain the natural structure of a protein template and achieved the development of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) from one dimension to zero dimension for efficient recognition towards large biomolecules. The resultant nanoparticles could be used for convenient magnetic separation of homologous proteins with high specificity. The nanoparticles possessed good monodispersibility, uniform surface morphology and high saturation magnetization value. The bound amounts of template proteins measured by both indirect and direct methods were in good agreement. The maximum number of imprinted cavities on the surface of the bovine hemoglobin (Hb)-imprinted nanoshell was 2.21 x 10{sup 18} g{sup -1}, which well matched their maximum binding capacity toward bovine Hb. Both the simple method for preparation of MIPs and the magnetic nanospheres showed good application potential in fast separation, effective concentration and selective biosensing of large protein molecules.

  4. Motion-based, high-yielding, and fast separation of different charged organics in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Mingjun; Lin, Xiankun; Shao, Jingxin; Dai, Luru; He, Qiang

    2015-01-12

    We report a self-propelled Janus silica micromotor as a motion-based analytical method for achieving fast target separation of polyelectrolyte microcapsules, enriching different charged organics with low molecular weights in water. The self-propelled Janus silica micromotor catalytically decomposes a hydrogen peroxide fuel and moves along the direction of the catalyst face at a speed of 126.3 μm s(-1) . Biotin-functionalized Janus micromotors can specifically capture and rapidly transport streptavidin-modified polyelectrolyte multilayer capsules, which could effectively enrich and separate different charged organics in water. The interior of the polyelectrolyte multilayer microcapsules were filled with a strong charged polyelectrolyte, and thus a Donnan equilibrium is favorable between the inner solution within the capsules and the bulk solution to entrap oppositely charged organics in water. The integration of these self-propelled Janus silica micromotors and polyelectrolyte multilayer capsules into a lab-on-chip device that enables the separation and analysis of charged organics could be attractive for a diverse range of applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Fast gradient HPLC/MS separation of phenolics in green tea to monitor their degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šilarová, Petra; Česlová, Lenka; Meloun, Milan

    2017-12-15

    The degradation of catechins and other phenolics in green tea infusions were monitored using fast HPLC/MS separation. The final separation was performed within 2.5min using Ascentis Express C18 column (50mm×2.1mm i.d.) packed with 2μm porous shell particles. Degradation was studied in relation to the temperature of water (70, 80, 90°C) and the standing time of the infusion (up to 6h). Along with chromatographic separation, the antioxidant properties of the infusions were monitored using two spectrophotometric methods. During staying of green tea infusion, the degradation of some catechins probably to gallic acid was observed. Finally, the influence of tea bag storage on antioxidant properties of green tea was evaluated. Rapid degradation of antioxidants after 3weeks was observed. The principal component analysis, factor analysis and discriminant analysis were used for the statistical evaluation of obtained experimental data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Radiochemical Analysis Methodology for uranium Depletion Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scatena-Wachel DE

    2007-01-09

    This report provides sufficient material for a test sponsor with little or no radiochemistry background to understand and follow physics irradiation test program execution. Most irradiation test programs employ similar techniques and the general details provided here can be applied to the analysis of other irradiated sample types. Aspects of program management directly affecting analysis quality are also provided. This report is not an in-depth treatise on the vast field of radiochemical analysis techniques and related topics such as quality control. Instrumental technology is a very fast growing field and dramatic improvements are made each year, thus the instrumentation described in this report is no longer cutting edge technology. Much of the background material is still applicable and useful for the analysis of older experiments and also for subcontractors who still retain the older instrumentation.

  7. Present status of radiochemical double β decay study (238U)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, A.; Chevallier, J.; Escoubes, B.; Schulz, N.; Sens, J.C.; Madic, C.; Maillard, C.

    1989-01-01

    The reasons for which the 238 U is a suitable candidate for the β β decay processes are explained. The strategy adopted for the radiochemical separation of the 234 U is given. A chemical system based on extraction chromatography is applied. The Pu IV breakthrough curves obtained at 40C during 238 Pu/ 238 U separation cycles are presented. A short description of the chromatographic facility is given. The solution adopted for the low background α spectrometer is explained

  8. Impact of calibration errors on CMB component separation using FastICA and ILC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Jason; Remazeilles, Mathieu; Delabrouille, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    The separation of emissions from different astrophysical processes is an important step towards the understanding of observational data. This topic of component separation is of particular importance in the observation of the relic cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation, as performed by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe satellite and the more recent Planck mission, launched on 2009 May 14 from Kourou and currently taking data. When performing any sort of component separation, some assumptions about the components must be used. One assumption that many techniques typically use is knowledge of the frequency scaling of one or more components. This assumption may be broken in the presence of calibration errors. Here we compare, in the context of imperfect calibration, the recovery of a clean map of emission of the CMB from observational data with two methods: FastICA (which makes no assumption of the frequency scaling of the components) and an `Internal Linear Combination' (ILC), which explicitly extracts a component with a given frequency scaling. We find that even in the presence of small calibration errors (less than 1 per cent) with a Planck-style mission, the ILC method can lead to inaccurate CMB reconstruction in the high signal-to-noise ratio regime, because of partial cancellation of the CMB emission in the recovered map. While there is no indication that the failure of the ILC will translate to other foreground cleaning or component separation techniques, we propose that all methods which assume knowledge of the frequency scaling of one or more components be careful to estimate the effects of calibration errors.

  9. Radiochemical stability of radiopharmaceutical preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Patricia de A.; Silva, Jose L. da; Ramos, Marcelo P.S.; Oliveira, Ideli M. de; Felgueiras, Carlos F.; Herrerias, Rosana; Zapparoli Junior, Carlos L.; Mengatti, Jair; Fukumori, Neuza T.O.; Matsuda, Margareth M.N.

    2011-01-01

    The 'in vitro' stability studies of the radiopharmaceutical preparations are an essential requirement for routine practice in nuclear medicine and are an important parameter for evaluating the quality, safety and efficacy required for the sanitary registration of pharmaceutical products. Several countries have published guidelines for the evaluation of pharmaceutical stability. In Brazil, the stability studies should be conducted according to the Guide for Conducting Stability Studies published in the Resolution-RE n. 1, of 29th July 2005. There are also for radiopharmaceutical products, two specific resolutions: RDC-63 regulates the Good Manufacturing Practices for Radiopharmaceuticals and RDC-64 provides the Registration of Radiopharmaceuticals, both published on the 18th December 2009. The radiopharmaceutical stability is defined as the time during which the radioisotope can be safely used for the intended purpose. The radiochemical stability can be affected by a variety of factors, including storage temperature, amount of radioactivity, radioactive concentration, presence or absence of antioxidants or other stabilizing agents. The radiochemical stability studies must be established under controlled conditions determined by the effective use of the product. The aim of this work was to evaluate the radiochemical stability of labeled molecules with 131 I, 123 I, 153 Sm, 18 F, 51 Cr, 177 Lu and 111 In as well as 67 Ga and 201 Tl radiopharmaceuticals. Radiochemical purity was evaluated after production and in the validity period, with the maximum activity and in the recommended storage conditions. The analyses were carried out by thin-layer silica gel plate, paper chromatography and gel chromatography. The experimental results showed to be in accordance with the specified limits for all the analysed products. (author)

  10. Lanthanide fission product separation from the transuranics in the integral fast reactor fuel cycle demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goff, K.M.; Mariani, R.D.; Benedict, R.W.; Ackerman, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an innovative reactor concept being developed by Argonne National Laboratory. This reactor uses liquid-metal cooling and metallic fuel. Its spent fuel will be reprocessed using a pyrochemical method employing molten salts and liquid metals in an electrofining operation. The lanthanide fission products are a concern during reprocessing because of heating and fuel performance issues, so they must be removed periodically from the system to lessen their impact. The actinides must first be removed form the system before the lanthanides are removed as a waste stream. This operation requires a relatively good lanthanide-actinide separation to minimize both the amount of transuranic material lost in the waste stream and the amount of lanthanides collected when the actinides are first removed. A computer code, PYRO, that models these operations using thermodynamic and empirical data was developed at Argonne and has been used to model the removal of the lanthanides from the electrorefiner after a normal operating campaign. Data from this model are presented. The results demonstrate that greater that 75% of the lanthanides can be separated from the actinides at the end of the first fuel reprocessing campaign using only the electrorefiner vessel

  11. RAPID AUTOMATED RADIOCHEMICAL ANALYZER FOR DETERMINATION OF TARGETED RADIONUCLIDES IN NUCLEAR PROCESS STREAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, Matthew J.; Durst, Philip C.; Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg; Devol, Timothy A.

    2008-01-01

    Some industrial process-scale plants require the monitoring of specific radionuclides as an indication of the composition of their feed streams or as indicators of plant performance. In this process environment, radiochemical measurements must be fast, accurate, and reliable. Manual sampling, sample preparation, and analysis of process fluids are highly precise and accurate, but tend to be expensive and slow. Scientists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have assembled and characterized a fully automated prototype Process Monitor instrument which was originally designed to rapidly measure Tc-99 in the effluent streams of the Waste Treatment Plant at Hanford, WA. The system is capable of a variety of tasks: extraction of a precise volume of sample, sample digestion/analyte redox adjustment, column-based chemical separations, flow-through radiochemical detection and data analysis/reporting. The system is compact, its components are fluidically inter-linked, and analytical results can be immediately calculated and electronically reported. It is capable of performing a complete analytical cycle in less than 15 minutes. The system is highly modular and can be adapted to a variety of sample types and analytical requirements. It exemplifies how automation could be integrated into reprocessing facilities to support international nuclear safeguards needs

  12. Mixed matrix membranes with fast and selective transport pathways for efficient CO2 separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jinpeng; Li, Xueqin; Guo, Ruili; Zhang, Jianshu; Wang, Zhongming

    2018-03-01

    To improve CO2 separation performance, porous carbon nanosheets (PCNs) were used as a filler into a Pebax MH 1657 (Pebax) matrix, fabricating mixed matrix membranes (MMMs). The PCNs exhibited a preferential horizontal orientation within the Pebax matrix because of the extremely large 2D plane and nanoscale thickness of the matrix. Therefore, the micropores of the PCNs provided fast CO2 transport pathways, which led to increased CO2 permeability. The reduced pore size of the PCNs was a consequence of the overlapping of PCNs and the polymer chains penetrating into the pores of the PCNs. The reduction in the pore size of the PCNs improved the CO2/gas selectivity. As a result, the CO2 permeability and CO2/CH4 selectivity of the Pebax membrane with 10 wt% PCNs-loading (Pebax-PCNs-10) were 520 barrer and 51, respectively, for CO2/CH4 mixed-gas. The CO2 permeability and CO2/N2 selectivity of the Pebax-PCNs-10 membrane were 614 barrer and 61, respectively, for CO2/N2 mixed-gas.

  13. Electrochemistry as a basis for radiochemical generator systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, G.E.; Steinkruger, F.J.; Wanek, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    Ion exchange and solvent extraction techniques have been used extensively as the basis for radiochemical generators exploiting the differences in absorption behavior between the parent nuclide and its useful daughter nuclide. Many parent/daughter pairs of nuclides have sufficiently different polarographic half wave potentials so that their electrochemical behavior may be exploited for rapid separation of the daughter from the parent with minimal contamination of the product with the parent isotope

  14. Multiparametric fat-water separation method for fast chemical-shift imaging guidance of thermal therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jonathan S; Hwang, Ken-Pin; Jackson, Edward F; Hazle, John D; Stafford, R Jason; Taylor, Brian A

    2013-10-01

    A k-means-based classification algorithm is investigated to assess suitability for rapidly separating and classifying fat/water spectral peaks from a fast chemical shift imaging technique for magnetic resonance temperature imaging. Algorithm testing is performed in simulated mathematical phantoms and agar gel phantoms containing mixed fat/water regions. Proton resonance frequencies (PRFs), apparent spin-spin relaxation (T2*) times, and T1-weighted (T1-W) amplitude values were calculated for each voxel using a single-peak autoregressive moving average (ARMA) signal model. These parameters were then used as criteria for k-means sorting, with the results used to determine PRF ranges of each chemical species cluster for further classification. To detect the presence of secondary chemical species, spectral parameters were recalculated when needed using a two-peak ARMA signal model during the subsequent classification steps. Mathematical phantom simulations involved the modulation of signal-to-noise ratios (SNR), maximum PRF shift (MPS) values, analysis window sizes, and frequency expansion factor sizes in order to characterize the algorithm performance across a variety of conditions. In agar, images were collected on a 1.5T clinical MR scanner using acquisition parameters close to simulation, and algorithm performance was assessed by comparing classification results to manually segmented maps of the fat/water regions. Performance was characterized quantitatively using the Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC), sensitivity, and specificity. The simulated mathematical phantom experiments demonstrated good fat/water separation depending on conditions, specifically high SNR, moderate MPS value, small analysis window size, and low but nonzero frequency expansion factor size. Physical phantom results demonstrated good identification for both water (0.997 ± 0.001, 0.999 ± 0.001, and 0.986 ± 0.001 for DSC, sensitivity, and specificity, respectively) and fat (0.763 ± 0.006, 0

  15. Radiochemical measurement of mass transport in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.H.; Chiang, S.H.

    1976-01-01

    Mass transport processes in the sodium coolant of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs) are significant in determining rates of corrosion and deposition of radioactive nuclides from the fuel cladding, deposition and cold trapping of fission products from defect or failed fuel, carbon and nitrogen redistribution in the containment materials, and removal of impurities by cold trapping or hot trapping. Mass transport between rotating, concentric cylinders in molten sodium has been investigated using a unique radiochemical method. Long-lived (33 year) cesium-137, dissolved in the sodium, decays radioactively emitting a beta to barium-137m, which decays with a short half-life (2.6 minutes) emitting a gamma. Cesium is weakly adsorbed and remains in solution, while the barium is strongly adsorbed on the stainless steel surfaces. Hence, by measuring the barium-137m activity on movable stainless steel surfaces, one can calculate the mass transport to that surface. Mass transfer coefficients in sodium measured by this method are in agreement with published heat transfer correlations when the effect of the volumetric mass source is taken into account. Hence, heat transfer correlations can be confidently utilized by analogy in estimating mass transfer in liquid-metal systems

  16. Proceedings of the Tripartite Seminar on Nuclear Material Accounting and Control at Radiochemical Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The problems of creation and operation of nuclear materials (NM) control and accounting systems and their components at radiochemical plants were discussed in seminar during November 2-6 of 1998. There were 63 Russian and 25 foreign participants in seminar. The seminar programme includes following sessions and articles: the aspects of State NM control and accountancy; NM control and accounting in radiochemical plants and at separate stages of reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and irradiated fuel elements of commercial reactors; NM control and accountancy in storage facilities of radiochemical plants; NM control and accounting computerization, material balance assessment, preparation of reports; qualitative and quantitative measurements in NM control and accounting at radiochemical plants destructive analysis techniques [ru

  17. Fast blood plasma separation device for point-of-care applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ďurč, P.; Foret, František; Kubáň, Petr

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 183, JUN (2018), s. 55-60 ISSN 0039-9140 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : blood plasma separation * capillary electrophoresis * point of care analysis * methanol * metabolites Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 4.162, year: 2016

  18. Radiochemical purity determination by paper chromatography 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The standard relates to the determination of radiochemical impurities in labelled compounds using paper chromatography. The basic terms are given as is the description of procedure and evaluation of chromatograms. (E.S.)

  19. Monte Carlo analysis of thermochromatography as a fast separation method for nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrison, J.R.; Hanson, D.E.; Hall, H.L.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear forensic science has become increasingly important for global nuclear security, and enhancing the timeliness of forensic analysis has been established as an important objective in the field. New, faster techniques must be developed to meet this objective. Current approaches for the analysis of minor actinides, fission products, and fuel-specific materials require time-consuming chemical separation coupled with measurement through either nuclear counting or mass spectrometry. These very sensitive measurement techniques can be hindered by impurities or incomplete separation in even the most painstaking chemical separations. High-temperature gas-phase separation or thermochromatography has been used in the past for the rapid separations in the study of newly created elements and as a basis for chemical classification of that element. This work examines the potential for rapid separation of gaseous species to be applied in nuclear forensic investigations. Monte Carlo modeling has been used to evaluate the potential utility of the thermochromatographic separation method, albeit this assessment is necessarily limited due to the lack of available experimental data for validation. (author)

  20. Monte Carlo analysis of thermochromatography as a fast separation method for nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Howard L.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear forensic science has become increasingly important for global nuclear security, and enhancing the timeliness of forensic analysis has been established as an important objective in the field. New, faster techniques must be developed to meet this objective. Current approaches for the analysis of minor actinides, fission products, and fuel-specific materials require time-consuming chemical separation coupled with measurement through either nuclear counting or mass spectrometry. These very sensitive measurement techniques can be hindered by impurities or incomplete separation in even the most painstaking chemical separations. High-temperature gas-phase separation or thermochromatography has been used in the past for the rapid separations in the study of newly created elements and as a basis for chemical classification of that element. This work examines the potential for rapid separation of gaseous species to be applied in nuclear forensic investigations. Monte Carlo modeling has been used to evaluate the potential utility of the thermochromatographic separation method, albeit this assessment is necessarily limited due to the lack of available experimental data for validation.

  1. A fast pointwise strategy for anisotropic wave-mode separation in TI media

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Qiancheng

    2017-08-17

    The multi-component wavefield contains both compressional and shear waves. Separating wave-modes has many applications in seismic workflows. Conventionally, anisotropic wave-mode separation is implemented by either directly filtering in the wavenumber domain or nonstationary filtering in the space domain, which are computationally expensive. These methods could be categorized into the pseudo-derivative family and only work well within Finite Difference (FD) methods. In this paper, we establish a relationship between group-velocity direction and polarity direction and propose a method, which could go beyond modeling by FD. In particular, we are interested in performing wave-mode separation in a Spectral Element Method (SEM), which is widely used for seismic wave propagation on various scales. The separation is implemented pointwise, independent of its neighbor points, suitable for running in parallel. Moreover, no correction for amplitude and phase changes caused by the derivative operator is required. We have verified our scheme using numerical examples.

  2. A fast pointwise strategy for anisotropic wave-mode separation in TI media

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Qiancheng; Peter, Daniel; Lu, Yongming

    2017-01-01

    The multi-component wavefield contains both compressional and shear waves. Separating wave-modes has many applications in seismic workflows. Conventionally, anisotropic wave-mode separation is implemented by either directly filtering in the wavenumber domain or nonstationary filtering in the space domain, which are computationally expensive. These methods could be categorized into the pseudo-derivative family and only work well within Finite Difference (FD) methods. In this paper, we establish a relationship between group-velocity direction and polarity direction and propose a method, which could go beyond modeling by FD. In particular, we are interested in performing wave-mode separation in a Spectral Element Method (SEM), which is widely used for seismic wave propagation on various scales. The separation is implemented pointwise, independent of its neighbor points, suitable for running in parallel. Moreover, no correction for amplitude and phase changes caused by the derivative operator is required. We have verified our scheme using numerical examples.

  3. Radiochemical study on preparation and quality control of 1-125/1-131 labelled some organic compounds for medical uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-azoney, K.M.S.E.

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to investigate the optimum condition for the radioiodination of some organic compounds which find wide applications in nuclear medicine. Iodine-131 (T 1 /2= 8.04 d) which is of great importance in the field, are used for this purpose. long chain fatty acids such as 16-Bromo-hexadecanoic (16-brHDA) and -phenyl -fatty acids such as 15-p-iodophenyl pentadecanoic acid (p-IPPA) will be used as model substrates. 1- Labelling of 16-Br-HDA with Na 131 I. Labelling of 16-BrHDA will be investigated via the non-isotopic exchange between 16-Br HDA and Na 131 I to give 16- 131 IHDA. In order to obtain a high radiochemical yield with high radiochemical purity for the product 16- 131 IHDA, simple and fast methods will be followed. The influence of reagents concentrations, time, temperature, solvents and four quaternary ammonium salts as phase transfer catalysts with only one crown ether will be studied. The determination of reaction velocities and activation energies of catalysed systems was effected and compared with results on the dry state system. 2- Labelling of p-Ipa with Na 131 I. Radioiodination of 15-p-iodophenyl pentadecanoic acid is investigated by the nucleophilic substitution reaction via the isotopic exchange between p-Ipa and Na 131 I. As with 16-BrHDA, factors affecting the labelling yield such as reagent concentrations, solvents, reaction time, temperature and catalyst, is examine. The effect of different temperatures on the radiochemical yield of P- 131 Ipa is studied to determine the activation energy of the exchange reaction. Because of the necessity to separate the iodinated products from the starting materials, high performance liquid chromatographic techniques were applied for this purpose. 3.15 figs., 3.2 tabs., 179 refs

  4. Critical evaluation of the determination of zirconium and hafnium by instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Mario; Kraehenbuehl, Urs

    1991-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (instrument or radiochemical) is suitable for the determination of zirconium and hafnium in samples of geochemical origin only when sufficient attention is paid to inter-fering nuclides. The size of the necessary correction for INAA depends on the composition of the sample; this problem is discussed. The radio-chemical technique which is recommended involves separation of the samples, precipitations and anion-exchange separation. Results are given for various standard reference materials and for meteorites. (author). 12 refs.; 1 fig.; 9 tabs

  5. Investigation of short-lived neutron-rich palladium and silver isotopes after fast chemical separation from fission fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruechle, W.

    1976-01-01

    In this paper, chemical separation processes are described permitting fast and neat isolation of short-lived palladium and silver nuclides from fusion product mixtures. The process for palladium is based on the stability of palladium diethyldithiophosphate. From fission products of the reactions 238 U(n,f) and 249 Cf(nth,f), the following palladium niclides could be studied for the first time by gamma spectroscopy: 1.66 min 113 Pd, 2.45 min 114 Pd, 29 sec sup(115a)Pd, 54 sec sup(115b)Pd, 12.5 sec 116 Pd. 113 Pd could also be indentified according to the reaction 116 Cd(n,α) 113 Pd. The separation of silver is based on the fast isotopic exchange on AgCl. With this process, the following nuclides have been separated from fission product mixtures and studied by gamma spectroscopy: 70 sec sup(113m)Ag, 5.0 sec 114 Ag, 19.2 sec sup(115m)Ag, 2.65 min sup(116g)Ag, 10.5 sec sup(116m)Ag, 1.3 min sup(117g)Ag, 6.0 sec sup(117m)Ag, 4.0 sec 118 Ag. (orig./WL) [de

  6. Determination of plutonium isotopes (238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu) in environmental samples using radiochemical separation combined with radiometric and mass spectrometric measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Yihong; Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin

    2014-01-01

    counting and alpha spectrometry) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were applied for the measurement of plutonium isotopes. The decontamination factors for uranium were significantly improved up to 7.5×105 for 20 g soil compared to the level reported in the literature......, this is critical for the measurement of plutonium isotopes using mass spectrometric technique. Although the chemical yield of Pu in the entire procedure is about 55%, the analytical results of IAEA soil 6 and IAEA-367 in this work are in a good agreement with the values reported in the literature or reference......Pu. However, it is impossible to measure 238Pu using ICP-MS in environmental samples even a decontamination factor as high as 106 for uranium was obtained by chemical separation....

  7. Low temperature radio-chemical energy conversion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomberg, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a radio-chemical method of converting radiated energy into chemical energy form comprising the steps of: (a) establishing a starting chemical compound in the liquid phase that chemically reacts endothermically to radiation and heat energy to produce a gaseous and a solid constituent of the compound, (b) irradiating the compound in its liquid phase free of solvents to chemically release therefrom in response to the radiation the gaseous and solid constituents, (c) physically separating the solid and gaseous phase constituents from the liquid, and (d) chemically processing the constituents to recover therefrom energy stored therein by the irradiation step (b)

  8. Distribution of separated energy and injected charge at normal falling of fast electron beam on target

    CERN Document Server

    Smolyar, V A; Eremin, V V

    2002-01-01

    In terms of a kinetic equation diffusion model for a beam of electrons falling on a target along the normal one derived analytical formulae for distributions of separated energy and injected charge. In this case, no empirical adjustable parameters are introduced to the theory. The calculated distributions of separated energy for an electron plate directed source within infinite medium for C, Al, Sn and Pb are in good consistency with the Spencer data derived on the basis of the accurate solution of the Bethe equation being the source one in assumption of a diffusion model, as well

  9. Distribution of separated energy and injected charge at normal falling of fast electron beam on target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolyar, V.A.; Eremin, A.V.; Eremin, V.V.

    2002-01-01

    In terms of a kinetic equation diffusion model for a beam of electrons falling on a target along the normal one derived analytical formulae for distributions of separated energy and injected charge. In this case, no empirical adjustable parameters are introduced to the theory. The calculated distributions of separated energy for an electron plate directed source within infinite medium for C, Al, Sn and Pb are in good consistency with the Spencer data derived on the basis of the accurate solution of the Bethe equation being the source one in assumption of a diffusion model, as well [ru

  10. A fast Linear Complementarity Problem (LCP) solver for separating fluid-solid wall boundary Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Michael; Abel, Sarah Maria Niebe; Erleben, Kenny

    2017-01-01

    We address the task of computing solutions for a separating fluid-solid wall boundary condition model. We present an embarrassingly parallel, easy to implement, fluid LCP solver.We are able to use greater domain sizes than previous works have shown, due to our new solver. The solver exploits matr...

  11. Kit preparation of 153Sm-EDTMP and factors affecting radiochemical purity and stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro-Flores, G.; Tendilla, J.I.; Lopez-Gomez, M.A.; Aguilar-Hernandez, F.; Gonzalez-Zavala, M.A.; Parades-Gutierrez, L.; Avila-Ramirez, E.

    1996-01-01

    A fast kit method was developed for the production of 153 Sm-EDTMP in two steps avoiding the use of nitric acid, evaporation and sterilization of the final solution by autoclave. Methods of analysis for the determination of chemical and radiochemical purity in the radiopharmaceutical solution were established. Factors affecting radiochemical purity and stability of the complex as the molar ratio of EDTMP/Sm, concentration of phosphate buffer and neutralization of EDTMP prior kit preparation were also analyzed. The use of this radiopharmaceutical in rabbits and patients showed selective skeletal uptake. (author). 5 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Safety assessment for TA-48 radiochemical operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to document an assessment performed to evaluate the safety of the radiochemical operations conducted at the Los Alamos National Laboratory operations area designated as TA-48. This Safety Assessment for the TA-48 radiochemical operations was prepared to fulfill the requirements of US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5481.1B, ''Safety Analysis and Review System.'' The area designated as TA-48 is operated by the Chemical Science and Technology (CST) Division and is involved with radiochemical operations associated with nuclear weapons testing, evaluation of samples collected from a variety of environmental sources, and nuclear medicine activities. This report documents a systematic evaluation of the hazards associated with the radiochemical operations that are conducted at TA-48. The accident analyses are limited to evaluation of the expected consequences associated with a few bounding accident scenarios that are selected as part of the hazard analysis. Section 2 of this report presents an executive summary and conclusions, Section 3 presents pertinent information concerning the TA-48 site and surrounding area, Section 4 presents a description of the TA-48 radiochemical operations, and Section 5 presents a description of the individual facilities. Section 6 of the report presents an evaluation of the hazards that are associated with the TA-48 operations and Section 7 presents a detailed analysis of selected accident scenarios

  13. Testing the radiochemical purity of radiopharmaceuticals: application to 99mTc-HMPAO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ait Ben Ali, S.; Darsin, D.; Rizzo, N.; Lours, S.; De Beco, V.; Dumont, A.; Goudou-Sinha, C.; Izembart, M.; Jourdain, J.R.; Lemercier, V.; Linsker, S.; Moati, F.; Piketty, M.L.; Schlageter, M.H.; Moretti, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    The low stability of 99m Tc-HMPAO imposes to carry out the quality testing within the 15 minutes following the preparation. This study has the aim of comparing different methods of radiochemical purity determination (RP) of this radiopharmaceutical in order to validate a fast, reproducible, feasible technique, capable of separating the primary lipophilic 99m Tc-HMPAO (I) of impurities: hydrophilic secondary complex (II), TcO 4 - , reduced and halyards Tc. The reference technique associating two thin-layer chromatographies (TLC), 'C1' and 'C2', has been compared with a TLC 'W' technique and with liquid-liquid extraction 'E' technique: C1 - stationary phase, ITLC Silica gel/mobile phase, Butanone-2; C2 - stationary phase, ITLC Silica gel/mobile phase, 0.9% NaCl; W - stationary phase, Papier Whatman n o 1/mobile phase, Ether; E - extraction with ethyls acetate /0.9% NaCl (1/1 v/v). The 'C1' chromatography allows isolating the reduced Tc and the complex II, the 'C2' chromatography does the same with TcO 4 - but it requires too long techniques (20 min.). The 'W' and 'E' techniques are rapid, reproducible and allow to separate the complex I from the other impurities without discrimination. However, as their results depend upon the deposited quantity of sampling, an optimization and standardization of the techniques are necessary. A forth technique by chromatography on Sep-Pak column is to be evaluated

  14. Highly accurate and fast optical penetration-based silkworm gender separation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamtongdee, Chakkrit; Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun; Chanhorm, Sataporn

    2015-07-01

    Based on our research work in the last five years, this paper highlights our innovative optical sensing system that can identify and separate silkworm gender highly suitable for sericulture industry. The key idea relies on our proposed optical penetration concepts and once combined with simple image processing operations leads to high accuracy in identifying of silkworm gender. Inside the system, there are electronic and mechanical parts that assist in controlling the overall system operation, processing the optical signal, and separating the female from male silkworm pupae. With current system performance, we achieve a very highly accurate more than 95% in identifying gender of silkworm pupae with an average system operational speed of 30 silkworm pupae/minute. Three of our systems are already in operation at Thailand's Queen Sirikit Sericulture Centers.

  15. Validation of an ultra-fast UPLC-UV method for the separation of antituberculosis tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dao T-T; Guillarme, Davy; Rudaz, Serge; Veuthey, Jean-Luc

    2008-04-01

    A simple method using ultra performance LC (UPLC) coupled with UV detection was developed and validated for the determination of antituberculosis drugs in combined dosage form, i. e. isoniazid (ISN), pyrazinamide (PYR) and rifampicin (RIF). Drugs were separated on a short column (2.1 mm x 50 mm) packed with 1.7 mum particles, using an elution gradient procedure. At 30 degrees C, less than 2 min was necessary for the complete separation of the three antituberculosis drugs, while the original USP method was performed in 15 min. Further improvements were obtained with the combination of UPLC and high temperature (up to 90 degrees C), namely HT-UPLC, which allows the application of higher mobile phase flow rates. Therefore, the separation of ISN, PYR and RIF was performed in less than 1 min. After validation (selectivity, trueness, precision and accuracy), both methods (UPLC and HT-UPLC) have proven suitable for the routine quality control analysis of antituberculosis drugs in combined dosage form. Additionally, a large number of samples per day can be analysed due to the short analysis times.

  16. Krypton separation from ambient air for application in collinear fast beam laser spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Tarek; Strohaber, James; Nava, Ricardo; Kolomenskii, Alexandre; Thonnard, Norbert; Schuessler, Hans A

    2012-07-01

    A portable apparatus for the separation of krypton from environmental air samples was tested. The apparatus is based on the cryogenic trapping of gases at liquid nitrogen temperature followed by controlled releases at higher temperatures. The setup consists of a liquid nitrogen trap for the removal of H(2)O and CO(2), followed by charcoal-filled coils that sequentially collect and release krypton and other gases providing four stages of gas chromatography to achieve separation and purification of krypton from mainly N(2), O(2), and Ar. Residual reactive gases remaining after the final stage of chromatography are removed with a hot Ti sponge getter. A thermal conductivity detector is used to monitor the characteristic elution times of the various components of condensed gases in the traps during step-wise warming of the traps from liquid nitrogen temperatures to 0 °C, and then to 100 °C. This allows optimizing the switching times of the valves between the stages of gas chromatography so that mainly krypton is selected and loaded to the next stage while exhausting the other gases using a He carrier. A krypton separation efficiency of ~80 % was determined using a quadrupole mass spectrometer.

  17. Fast separation of triterpenoid saponins using supercritical fluid chromatography coupled with single quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yang; Zhang, Tingting; Zhou, Haibo; Feng, Ying; Fan, Chunlin; Chen, Weijia; Crommen, Jacques; Jiang, Zhengjin

    2016-03-20

    Triterpenoid saponins (TSs) are the most important components of some traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) and have exhibited valuable pharmacological properties. In this study, a rapid and efficient method was developed for the separation of kudinosides, stauntosides and ginsenosides using supercritical fluid chromatography coupled with single quadrupole mass spectrometry (SFC-MS). The separation conditions for the selected TSs were carefully optimized after the initial screening of eight stationary phases. The best compromise for all compounds in terms of chromatographic performance and MS sensitivity was obtained when water (5-10%) and formic acid (0.05%) were added to the supercritical carbon dioxide/MeOH mobile phase. Beside the composition of the mobile phase, the nature of the make-up solvent for interfacing SFC with MS was also evaluated. Compared to reversed phase liquid chromatography, the SFC approach showed higher resolution and shorter running time. The developed SFC-MS methods were successfully applied to the separation and identification of TSs present in Ilex latifolia Thunb., Panax quinquefolius L. and Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer. These results suggest that this SFC-MS approach could be employed as a useful tool for the quality assessment of natural products containing TSs as active components. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Monoterpene separation by coupling proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry with fastGC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materić, Dušan; Lanza, Matteo; Sulzer, Philipp; Herbig, Jens; Bruhn, Dan; Turner, Claire; Mason, Nigel; Gauci, Vincent

    2015-10-01

    Proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) is a well-established technique for real-time analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Although it is extremely sensitive (with sensitivities of up to 4500 cps/ppbv, limits of detection monoterpenes, which belong to the most important plant VOCs, still cannot be distinguished so more traditional technologies, such as gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), have to be utilised. GC-MS is very time consuming (up to 1 h) and cannot be used for real-time analysis. Here, we introduce a sensitive, near-to-real-time method for plant monoterpene research-PTR-MS coupled with fastGC. We successfully separated and identified six of the most abundant monoterpenes in plant studies (α- and β-pinenes, limonene, 3-carene, camphene and myrcene) in less than 80 s, using both standards and conifer branch enclosures (Norway spruce, Scots pine and black pine). Five monoterpenes usually present in Norway spruce samples with a high abundance were separated even when the compound concentrations were diluted to 20 ppbv. Thus, fastGC-PTR-ToF-MS was shown to be an adequate one-instrument solution for plant monoterpene research.

  19. Facile Synthesis of Flexible Methylsilsesquioxane Aerogels with Surface Modifications for Sound- Absorbance, Fast Dye Adsorption and Oil/Water Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingzhong Guo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available New flexible methylsilsesquioxane (MSQ aerogels have been facilely prepared by a sol–gel process with methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS and dimethyldimethoxysilane (DMDMS as co-precursors, followed by surface modification and ambient pressure drying. The microstructure, mechanical properties and hydrophobicity of these MSQ aerogels after surface modifications of hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO and/or hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS were investigated in detail, and the applications of surface-modified MSQ aerogels in sound-absorbance, fast dye adsorption and oil/water separation were evaluated, respectively. The MSQ aerogels surface-modified by HMDS possess flexibility, elasticity and superhydrophobicity, and demonstrate good performance in the mentioned applications. The resultant MSQ aerogel used in sound-absorbance has high frequency (about 6 kHz acoustic absorptivity of up to 80%, benefiting from its macroporous structure and porosity of 94%, and it also possesses intermediate frequency acoustic absorptivity (about 1 kHz up to 80% owing to its elasticity. This MSQ aerogel can selectively separate oil from oil/water mixtures with high efficiency due to its superhydrophobicity and superlipophilicity, resulting from a lot of methyl groups, density as low as 0.12 cm3·g−1 and a water contact angle as high as 157°. This MSQ aerogel can be assembled to be a monolithic column applied for fast dye adsorption, and shows selective adsorption for anionic dyes and removal efficiency of methyl orange of up to 95%.

  20. Fast assessment of the critical principal stress direction for multiple separated multiaxial loadings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The critical plane calculation for multiaxial damage assessment is often a demanding task, particularly for large FEM models of real components. Anyway, in actual engineering requests, sometime, it is possible to take advantage of the specific properties of the investigated case. This paper deals with the problem of a mechanical component loaded by multiple, but “time-separated”, multiaxial external loads. The specific material damage is dependent from the max principal stress variation with a significant mean stress sensitivity too. A specifically fitted procedure was developed for a fast computation, at each node of a large FEM model, of the direction undergoing the maximum fatigue damage; the procedure is defined according to an effective stress definition based on the max principal stress amplitude and mean value. The procedure is presented in a general form, applicable to the similar cases.

  1. Literature file on 'fast kickers and septa', componenets for deflection and separation of particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, A. van der.

    1988-11-01

    The File consists of classified and numbered articles from the literature on the following subjects: 1 - Kickers: fast switching (electro-)magnetic or electrostatic components for small deflection; 2 - Septum Magnets: both small and great deflecting components, with the purpose to create or bridge over space between the deflected beam and the other, unperturbed beam; 3 - Electrostatic Septa: low loss, beam splitting components which give small deflection for the extracted part of the beam and no perturbation for the rest of the beam. The articles have been classified per institute or laboratory, eventually with further classification per project. The classified articles are then numbered chronologically. Extension of the File is still possible. The contents of the articles are summarized by means of catchwords. Specifications of the described kickers, septum magnets and electrostatic septa are represented in a tabular form

  2. Methods for training radiochemical technicians at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrott, J.R.; Nicol, R.G.

    The training of personnel to carry out radiochemical operations at ORNL is a formidable and recurrent task since programs are constantly shifting. It is essential that provisions be made for the routine retraining of these personnel if they are to make effective contributions on a continuing basis. Training methods are described that have emerged as a result of thirty years experience in a variety of radiochemical pilot-plant programs. Emphasis is placed on training programs for technicians for the 233 U Processing Facility since essentially all aspects of radiochemical operations are encountered in this facility. These programs have included operations performed in glove boxes, hot-cell manipulator work handling high-neutron-emitting isotopes, and the entire spectrum of remote solvent extraction operations. (U.S.)

  3. Modelling of fast hydrogen permeability of alloys for membrane gas separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaika, Yu. V.; Rodchenkova, N. I.

    2017-05-01

    The method of measuring the specific hydrogen permeability is used to study various alloys that are promising for gas separation installations. The nonlinear boundary value problem of hydrogen permeability complying with the specific features of the experiment and its modifications taking into account the high transfer rate is presented. Substantial difference from the quasi-equilibrium model (Richardson approximation in the assumption of the equilibrium Sieverts' law near the surface) has been discussed. The model is tested on published experimental data on Ta77Nb23 alloy.

  4. Fast Separation and Determination of Flavonoids in Honey Samples by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Qiu Tu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids have crucial applications in the biological and physiological fields. Honey, as an important sweet food made by bees, is rich in flavonoids. In this paper, the analytical method for flavonoids determination in different sorts of honey from different geographical locations was developed by capillary zone electrophoresis with direct ultraviolet detection. With a running buffer (borate, 20 mmol l−1 at pH of 8.4, four typical flavonoids, rutin, quercetin, kaempferol and myricetin, were separated in five minutes under a applied potential of 25 kV. A linear relationship within the range of 2.0 – 500 mg l−1 was found for these four kinds of flavonoids. Moreover, the detection limits ranged from 1.17 to 1.76 mg l−1. The recoveries lie in the range between 80 % – 107 %. The developed method was then used in the separation and determination of flavonoids in real honey samples collected from 12 geographical locations in the Henan Province of China. Rutin was detected in six, and quercetin in eight honey samples, which may be the markers for the identification of honey from different geographical origins.

  5. FAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuidmeer-Jongejan, Laurian; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The FAST project (Food Allergy Specific Immunotherapy) aims at the development of safe and effective treatment of food allergies, targeting prevalent, persistent and severe allergy to fish and peach. Classical allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), using subcutaneous injections with aqu...

  6. Novel Protic Ionic Liquid Composite Membranes with Fast and Selective Gas Transport Nanochannels for Ethylene/Ethane Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Haozhen; Jiang, Bin; Xiao, Xiaoming; Xu, Mi; Tantai, Xiaowei; Wang, Baoyu; Sun, Yongli; Zhang, Luhong

    2018-04-25

    Protic ionic liquids (PILs) were utilized for the fabrication of composite membranes containing silver salt as the C 2 H 4 transport carrier to perform C 2 H 4 /C 2 H 6 separation for the first time. The intrinsic nanostructures of PILs were adopted to construct fast and selective C 2 H 4 transport nanochannels. The investigation of structure-performance relationships of composite membranes suggested that transport nanochannels (polar domains of PILs) could be tuned by the sizes of cations, which greatly manipulated activity of the carrier and determined the separation performances of membranes. The role of different carriers in the facilitated transport was studied, which revealed that the PILs were good solvents for dissolution and activation of the carrier due to their hydrogen bond networks and waterlike properties. The operating conditions of separation process were investigated systemically and optimized, confirming C 2 H 4 /C 2 H 6 selectivity was enhanced with the increase of silver salt concentration, the flow rate of sweep gas, and the feed ratio of C 2 H 4 to C 2 H 6 , as well as the decrease of the transmembrane pressure and operating temperature. Furthermore, the composite membranes exhibited long-term stability and obtained very competitive separation performances compared with other results. In summary, PIL composite membranes, which possess good long-term stability, high C 2 H 4 /C 2 H 6 selectivity, and excellent C 2 H 4 permeability, may have a good perspective in industrial C 2 H 4 /C 2 H 6 separation.

  7. Radiochemical assay for determination of dihydropyrimidinase activity using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kuilenburg, A. B.; van Lenthe, H.; van Gennip, A. H.

    1999-01-01

    A radiochemical assay was developed to measure the activity of dihydropyrimidinase (DHP) in human liver homogenates. The method is based on the separation of radiolabeled dihydrouracil from N-carbamyl-beta-alanine by HPLC with on-line detection of radioactivity combined with detection of 14CO2 by

  8. The radiochemical purity of radiotracers as the criterion of their usefulness in investigations of hydrocarbons distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolaczkowski, M.

    1976-01-01

    Among numerous analytic techniques of separation and analysis of radioactive products gas radiochromatography has proved to be particularly suitable. Organic bromides labelled with 82 Br-radionuclide are investigated. The analytic gas chromatographs equipped with appropriately constructed radiochromatographic attachments are used. The results of radiochemical purity determination of radiotracers are compared for various techniques. (author)

  9. Radiochemical procedures for determination of selected members of the uranium and thorium series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smithson, G.L.

    1979-01-01

    The radiochemical procedures contained in this manual are adaptations of those developed and published by many radiochemists. In many cases the identity of the originator is not clear and usually modifications in the original procedure have been made by subsequent workers. Nearly all of the basic radiochemical techniques and separations in use today were developed during the Manhattan Project and can be found in U.S.A.E.C. reports published from 1945 to 1953. This manual contains methods for the determination of Pb-210, Po-210; Ra-226, Ra-228, Th-228, Th-230 and Th-232. (auth)

  10. On the methodology of radiochemical neutron activation analysis of noble metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai, C.F.; Ma, S.L.; Mao, X.Y.; Liao, K.N.; Liu, W.C.

    1986-01-01

    Two different radiochemical procedures were developed: chelate ion resin exchange and amine solvent extraction. Two kinds of new Chinese chelate resins (NANKAI-3926 and BEI-5) and a new long-chain primary amine N 1923 were compared with Srafion NMRR and the tertiary amine N 235 in absorption performance of noble metals, respectively. Influences of various experimental conditions, e.g. sample digestion, acidity, equilibrium time, as well as elution of noble metals, on analytical sensitivity and chemical yield were discussed. Combining with neutron activation, the radiochemical separation procedures developed were used to determine the noble metal contents in the geological samples from Permina/Triassic boundary in South China. (author)

  11. The role of high performance liquid chromatography in radiochemical/radiopharmaceutical synthesis and quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boothe, T.E.; Emran, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    The usefulness of HPLC in all areas of radiopharmaceutics has been demonstrated in numerous laboratories, particularly in the development of in-house radiopharmaceuticals for SPECT and PET. HPLC continues to be a powerful tool in preparation and quality assurance (QA) as illustrated in such areas as chemical and radiochemical identification; product separation and isolation; preparative scale purification; and specific activity determination. A review of established HPLC techniques in radiopharmaceutics will be presented. Examples from the literature as well as newer applications will be used in an attempt to assess and define the present-day role of HPLC in the preparation of radiochemicals and radiopharmaceuticals with emphasis on QA

  12. Radiochemical methodologies applied to analytical characterization of low and intermediate level wastes from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, Roberto Pellacani G.; Júnior, Aluísio Souza R.; Kastner, Geraldo F.; Temba, Eliane S.C.; Oliveira, Thiago C. de; Amaral, Ângela M.; Franco, Milton B.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work is to present radiochemical methodologies developed at CDTN/CNEN in order to answer a program for isotopic inventory of radioactive wastes from Brazilian Nuclear Power Plants. In this program some radionuclides, 3 H, 14 C, 55 Fe, 59 Ni, 63 Ni, 90 Sr, 93 Zr, 94 Nb, 99 Tc, 129 I, 235 U, 238 U, 238 Pu, 239 + 240 Pu, 241 Pu, 242 Pu, 241 Am, 242 Cm e 243 + 244 Cm, were determined in Low Level Wastes (LLW) and Intermediate Level Wastes (ILW) and a protocol of analytical methodologies based on radiochemical separation steps and spectrometric and nuclear techniques was established. (author)

  13. Radiochemical studies on Bikini ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiokawa, T

    1954-01-01

    Decay characteristics of the ashes which were brought back by the crew of the Fukuryu Maru No. 5 were: untreated ash I = ct/sup -1/ /sup 81/, water soluble part t/sup -2/ /sup 71/, insoluble part t/sup -1/ /sup 68/. Radioactive species separated by chemical method with carrier or collector were: nuclide, activity of nuclide (counts/min)/activity of original sample (counts/min), and the date of separation, /sup 89/Sr 6000/80 X 10/sup 4/, April 24; /sup 95/Zr, 280/80 x 10/sup 4/, -; /sup 111/Ag, 200/200 x 10/sup 4/, April 14; /sup 103/Ru, 2.300/25 x 10/sup 4/, etc.

  14. Radiochemical method for 63Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, E.; Nilsson, U.; Hallstadius, L.

    1985-01-01

    A radianalytical method for the determination of 63 Ni content in environmental samples of activated corrosion products is described. After chemical separation and electrodepositing of 63 Ni on silver briquets, the chemical yield is determined by X-ray fluorescence analysis. For the detection of low-energy beta activity, an open gas flow GM-counter with an anticoincidence guard counter is put to use

  15. Radiochemical Solar Neutrino Experiments - Successful and Otherwise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    Over the years, several different radiochemical systems have been proposed as solar neutrino detectors. Of these, two achieved operating status and obtained important results that helped to define the current field of neutrino physics: the first solar-neutrino experiment, the Chlorine Detector ( 37 Cl) that was developed by chemist Raymond Davis and colleagues at the Homestake Mine, and the subsequent Gallium ( 71 Ga) Detectors that were operated by (a) the SAGE collaboration at the Baksan Laboratory and (b) the GALLEX/GNO collaborations at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory. These experiments have been extensively discussed in the literature and in many previous International Neutrino Conferences. In this paper, I present important updates to the results from SAGE and GALLEX/GNO. I also review the principles of the radiochemical detectors and briefly describe several different detectors that have been proposed. In light of the well-known successes that have been subsequently obtained by real-time neutrino detectors such as Kamiokande, Super-Kamiokande, SNO, and KamLAND, I do not anticipate that any new radiochemical neutrino detectors will be built. At present, only SAGE is still operating; the Chlorine and GNO radiochemical detectors have been decommissioned and dismantled

  16. Radiochemical solar neutrino experiments, 'successful and otherwise'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, Richard L

    2008-01-01

    Over the years, several different radiochemical systems have been proposed as solar neutrino detectors. Of these, two achieved operating status and obtained important results that helped to define the current field of neutrino physics: the first solar-neutrino experiment, the Chlorine Detector ( 37 Cl) that was developed by chemist Raymond Davis and colleagues at the Homestake Mine, and the subsequent Gallium ( 71 Ga) Detectors that were operated by (a) the SAGE collaboration at the Baksan Laboratory and (b) the GALLEX/GNO collaborations at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory. These experiments have been extensively discussed in the literature and in many previous International Neutrino Conferences. In this paper, I present important updates to the results from SAGE and GALLEX/GNO. I also review the principles of the radiochemical detectors and briefly describe several different detectors that have been proposed. In light of the well-known successes that have been subsequently obtained by real-time neutrino detectors such as Kamiokande, Super-Kamiokande, SNO, and KamLAND, I do not anticipate that any new radiochemical neutrino detectors will be built. At present, only SAGE is still operating; the Chlorine and GNO radiochemical detectors have been decommissioned and dismantled.

  17. Radiochemical studies on nuclear fission at Trombay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    227Ac to 245Cm were determined by radiochemical methods which involved ... foil, followed by direct γ counting using high resolution Ge(Li) detector was also ... the stiffness to mass asymmetric distortion decreases on either side of lead.Also ...

  18. Optimal and fast E/B separation with a dual messenger field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodi Ramanah, Doogesh; Lavaux, Guilhem; Wandelt, Benjamin D.

    2018-05-01

    We adapt our recently proposed dual messenger algorithm for spin field reconstruction and showcase its efficiency and effectiveness in Wiener filtering polarized cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps. Unlike conventional preconditioned conjugate gradient (PCG) solvers, our preconditioner-free technique can deal with high-resolution joint temperature and polarization maps with inhomogeneous noise distributions and arbitrary mask geometries with relative ease. Various convergence diagnostics illustrate the high quality of the dual messenger reconstruction. In contrast, the PCG implementation fails to converge to a reasonable solution for the specific problem considered. The implementation of the dual messenger method is straightforward and guarantees numerical stability and convergence. We show how the algorithm can be modified to generate fluctuation maps, which, combined with the Wiener filter solution, yield unbiased constrained signal realizations, consistent with observed data. This algorithm presents a pathway to exact global analyses of high-resolution and high-sensitivity CMB data for a statistically optimal separation of E and B modes. It is therefore relevant for current and next-generation CMB experiments, in the quest for the elusive primordial B-mode signal.

  19. New radiochemical methods for determination of 237Np a 241Pu using extraction chromatography (Presentation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strisovska, J.

    2013-01-01

    Thesis was focused on the development of a new methodology for the separation of anthropogenic transuranium radionuclides 237 Np a 241 Pu from different kinds of matrices. The analytical methods used in this study were based on extraction chromatography and were optimized according to the sample type. The proposed radiochemical procedure is a combination of two algorithms, which represent the separation of radionuclides by using extraction chromatographic sorbents TEVA resin and TRU resin supplied by Eichrom Technologies LLC. 239 Np a 237 Np were selectively captured on sorbent TEVA resin in oxidation state 4+. TRU resin was used for purification of plutonium fraction from interfering americium radionuclide. 242 Pu and 239 Np radionuclides as tracers have been used to monitor the radiochemical yields of separation. Before every radiochemical separation tracer radionuclide 239 Np was obtained by separation from the parent radionuclide 2 43 Am, which is in radioactive equilibrium to 239 Np. The average yield of chemical separation was 69,3% for 239 Np at 277 keV energy line and 65,9% at 228 keV energy line. The NPL AH-B08069 (2008) samples which consist of the mixture of alpha-radionuclides were used for the modification and optimization of separation method used for separation of Np and Pu in model samples. This method provided high radiochemical yields of 239,240 Pu (95,0 ± 3,5)% and 237 Np (87,9 ± 3,0)%.. Reliability of the method was verified by applying our modified separation procedures on reference materials IAEA-375 and IAEA-414 supplied by International Atomic Energy Agency. A good agreement between the results is obtained by this procedure and the certified values were found. Samples of contaminated soils from the area of Nuclear power plant A-1 Jaslovske Bohunice which is stored temporarily before disposal were analyzed using developed separation procedure. Specific activity of investigated radionuclides was determined in these samples. (author)

  20. Surface-Enhanced Separation of Water from Hydrocarbons: Potential Dewatering Membranes for the Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis of Pine Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engtrakul, Chaiwat; Hu, Michael Z.; Bischoff, Brian L.; Jang, Gyoung G.

    2016-10-20

    The impact of surface-selective coatings on water permeation through a membrane when exposed to catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) vapor products was studied by tailoring the surface properties of the membrane coating from superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic. Our approach used high-performance architectured surface-selective (HiPAS) membranes that were inserted after a CFP reactor. At this insertion point, the inner wall surface of a tubular membrane was exposed to a mixture of water and upgraded product vapors, including light gases and deoxygenated hydrocarbons. Under proper membrane operating conditions, a high selectivity for water over one-ring upgraded biomass pyrolysis hydrocarbons was observed as a result of a surface-enhanced capillary condensation process. Owing to this surface-enhanced effect, HiPAS membranes have the potential to enable high flux separations, suggesting that water can be selectively removed from the CFP product vapors.

  1. Trace analysis measurements in high-purity aluminium by means of radiochemical neutron and proton activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egger, K.P.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of the study consisted in the development of efficient radiochemical composite processes and activation methods for the multi-element determination of traces within the lower ng range in high-purity aluminium. More than 50 elements were determined with the help of activation with reactor neutrons; the selective separation of matrix activity (adsorption with hydrated antimony pentoxide) led to a noticeable improvement of detectability, as compared with instrumental neutron activation analysis. Further improvements were achieved with the help of radiochemical group separations in ion exchangers or with the help of the selective separation of the pure beta-emitting elements. Over 20 elements up to high atomic numbers were determined by means of activating 13 MeV protons and 23 Me protons. In this connection, improvements of the detection limit by as a factor of 10 were achieved with radiochemical separation techniques, as compared with pure instrumental proton activation analysis. (RB) [de

  2. Radiochemical schemes of obtaining 89Sr and 90Y radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usarov, Z. O.

    2010-03-01

    Key words: strontium-89, yttrium-90, extraction and extraction-chromatographic purification of radionuclides, radiopharmaceuticals. Subjects of research: strontium-89 and yttrium-90 radionuclides and their chloride forms. Purpose of work is developing of radiochemical technologies on obtaining of 89 Sr and 90 Y on the WWR-SM reactor with high radionuclide purity. Methods of research: extraction and extraction-chromatographic methods of radionuclides separation, beta- and gamma-spectrometric methods of activity measuring. The results obtained and their novelty: Were determined the conformity to laws of Y and Sr distribution in two-phase systems TBP-HNO 3 , TBP-NH 4 NO 3 , TBP-HCI, HDEHP-NO 3 , HDEHP-NH 4 NO 3 and HDEHP-HCI. Were determined the conformity to laws of Y and Sr distribution in systems with craun ethers DB-18K-6 and DTBDB-18K-6 from water solutions of HNO 3 . Radiochemical technologies on obtaining of 89 Sr and 90 Y radionuclides including radiochemical process of yttrium target with using the systems TBP-HNO 3 and HDEHP/Teflone were developed. Practical value: the radiochemical technology of obtaining 89 Sr with high radionuclide purity was developed. The method of preparation a chloride compound of 89 SrCl 2 which is used as a drug form for preparation of 89 Sr- 'Metastron' was developed. The relatively simple method of on the way obtaining 90 Y in the reactor with high radionuclidic purity that is useful for follow using in medical practice was offered. Degree of embed and economic effectivity: the developed technologies have approbation in manufacturing conditions in Radiopreparat Enterprise of INP AS RU and were offered for receiving of domestic preparations against of import foreign analogues. The statement about using the invention by obtained patent is attached to dissertation. Field of application: the received results will be introduced in manufacture at Radiopreparat Enterprise of INP AS RU for receiving of domestic preparations

  3. Simple and fast fabrication of superhydrophobic metal wire mesh for efficiently gravity-driven oil/water separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Botao

    2016-12-15

    Superhydrophobic metal wire mesh (SMWM) has frequently been applied for the selective and efficient separation of oil/water mixture due to its porous structure and special wettability. However, current methods for the modification of metal wire mesh to be superhydrophobic suffered from problems with respect to complex experimental procedures or time-consuming process. In this study, a very simple, time-saving and single-step electrospray method was proposed to fabricate SMWM and the whole procedure required about only 2min. The morphology, surface composition and wettability of the SMWM were all evaluated, and the oil/water separation ability was further investigated. In addition, a commercial available sponge covered with SMWM was fabricated as an oil adsorbent for the purpose of oil recovery. This study demonstrated a convenient and fast method to modify the metal wire mesh to be superhydrophobic and such simple method might find practical applications in the large-scale removal of oils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A radiochemical technique for the determination of mercury in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.; Chaudhri, M.S.; Qureshi, I.H.

    1982-01-01

    A radiochemical method for the separation and determination of mercury in drinking water has been developed. The radionuclides of mercury formed after neutron irradiation of the sample were separated by liquid/liquid extraction using PAN and TBA mixture in chloroform from aqueous nitric acid medium. Quantitative extraction of mercury was achieved in a single step and the equilibrium was attained within five minutes. (orig.)

  5. Methods for training radiochemical technicians at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrott, J.R.; Nicol, R.G.

    1975-01-01

    The training of personnel to carry out radiochemical operations at ORNL is a formidable and recurrent task since repetitive, production-type operations are not involved, and programs are constantly shifting. It is essential that provisions be made for the routine retraining of personnel if they are to make effective contributions on a continuing basis. The present training methods have emerged as a result of thirty years experience in a variety of radiochemical pilot-plant programs. These programs have included operations performed in glove boxes, hot-cell manipulator work handling high-neutron-emitting isotopes, and the entire spectrum of remote solvent extraction operations. Present methods of training and the results obtained are summarized

  6. Automated radiochemical processing for clinical PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padgett, H.C.; Schmidt, D.G.; Bida, G.T.; Wieland, B.W.; Pekrul, E.; Kingsbury, W.G.

    1991-01-01

    With the recent emergence of positron emission tomography (PET) as a viable clinical tool, there is a need for a convenient, cost-effective source of the positron emitter-labeled radiotracers labeled with carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15, and fluorine-18. These short-lived radioisotopes are accelerator produced and thus, require a cyclotron and radiochemistry processing instrumentation that can be operated 3 in a clinical environment by competant technicians. The basic goal is to ensure safety and reliability while setting new standards for economy and ease of operation. The Siemens Radioisotope Delivery System (RDS 112) is a fully automated system dedicated to the production and delivery of positron-emitter labeled precursors and radiochemicals required to support a clinical PET imaging program. Thus, the entire RDS can be thought of as an automated radiochemical processing apparatus

  7. Radiochemical analysis of the Bikini ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishibashi, M; Shigematsu, T; Ishida, T

    1954-01-01

    The following nuclides were detected in the Bikini ashes by radiochemical procedures: /sup 45/Ca, /sup 89/Sr, /sup 91/Y, /sup 95/Zr, /sup 103/Ru, /sup 144/Pr, and /sup 237/U. The ion-exchange method was used for analysis of contaminated rain water which fell on the Kyoto area on May 16, 1954 from which the presence of /sup 89/Sr, /sup 95/Zr, and /sup 140/Ba, was detected. Rare earths seemed also to be present.

  8. Imaging Scanner Usage in Radiochemical Purity Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norhafizah Othman; Yahaya Talib; Wan Hamirul Bahrin Wan Kamal

    2011-01-01

    Imaging Scanner model BIOSCAN AR-2000 has been used in the radiochemical purity test for the product of Mo-99/ Tc-99m generator. Result from this test was produced directly where the percentage of pertechnetate was calculated based on width peak area by thin layer chromatography. This paperwork will explain the function, procedure, calibration of the instrument and discussed the advantages compared to the previous method. (author)

  9. Radiolabeling, quality control and radiochemical purity assessment of 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melero, Laura T.U.H.; Araujo, Elaine B.; Mengatti, Jair

    2009-01-01

    Somatostatine receptors are widely expressed by several tumors, especially of the neuroendocrine origin. In vivo images of these tumors using radiolabeled somatostatine analogues became a useful clinical tool in oncology. The aim of this work was the radiolabeling of the somatostatine analogue HYNIC-TOC with 99mTc as well as the evaluation of the radiochemical stability and quality control of labeled complex. 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC was produced by labeling conditions using 20 μg of peptide, 20 mg of tricine and 10 mg of EDDA as coligands, 1110 MBq of 99mTc (99Mo-99mTc IPEN-TEC generator) and 15 μg of SnCl 2 .2H 2 O. The reaction proceeds for 10 minutes at boiling water bath. Radiochemical purity of labeled preparation was evaluated by different chromatographic systems: ITLC-SG in methanol:ammonium acetate (1:1); TLC-SG in sodium citrate buffer 0.1 N pH 5.0 and methylethylketone, and HPLC employing column C-18, 5 μm, 4.6 mm x 250 mm, UV (220 nm), radioactivity detectors, 1 mL/minute flow of acetonitrile and trifluoroacetic acid solution 0.1 %. Labeled compound has been found radiochemically stable for 5 hours and radiochemical purity was higher than 90 %. The thin layer chromatographic systems enabled the separation of radiochemical species presented in the labeled mixture as well as HPLC system. The labeling procedure studied resulted in high radiochemical yield and easy preparation. Future works include the preparation of a lyophilized reagent to make feasible the preparation of 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC at nuclear medicine services in order to study the clinical potential of the radiopharmaceutical in diagnostic and staging of neuroendocrine tumors. (author)

  10. Radiolabeling, quality control and radiochemical purity assessment of {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-TOC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melero, Laura T.U.H.; Araujo, Elaine B.; Mengatti, Jair [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Somatostatine receptors are widely expressed by several tumors, especially of the neuroendocrine origin. In vivo images of these tumors using radiolabeled somatostatine analogues became a useful clinical tool in oncology. The aim of this work was the radiolabeling of the somatostatine analogue HYNIC-TOC with 99mTc as well as the evaluation of the radiochemical stability and quality control of labeled complex. 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC was produced by labeling conditions using 20 {mu}g of peptide, 20 mg of tricine and 10 mg of EDDA as coligands, 1110 MBq of 99mTc (99Mo-99mTc IPEN-TEC generator) and 15 {mu}g of SnCl{sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O. The reaction proceeds for 10 minutes at boiling water bath. Radiochemical purity of labeled preparation was evaluated by different chromatographic systems: ITLC-SG in methanol:ammonium acetate (1:1); TLC-SG in sodium citrate buffer 0.1 N pH 5.0 and methylethylketone, and HPLC employing column C-18, 5 {mu}m, 4.6 mm x 250 mm, UV (220 nm), radioactivity detectors, 1 mL/minute flow of acetonitrile and trifluoroacetic acid solution 0.1 %. Labeled compound has been found radiochemically stable for 5 hours and radiochemical purity was higher than 90 %. The thin layer chromatographic systems enabled the separation of radiochemical species presented in the labeled mixture as well as HPLC system. The labeling procedure studied resulted in high radiochemical yield and easy preparation. Future works include the preparation of a lyophilized reagent to make feasible the preparation of 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC at nuclear medicine services in order to study the clinical potential of the radiopharmaceutical in diagnostic and staging of neuroendocrine tumors. (author)

  11. Trace determination of uranium and thorium in biological samples by radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedik, Ljudmila; Repinc, Urska; Byrne, Anthony R.; Stegnar, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) is an excellent method for determining uranium and thorium; it offers unique possibilities for their ultratrace analysis using selective radiochemical separations. Regarding the favourably sensitive nuclear characteristics of uranium and of thorium with respect to RNAA, but the different half-lives of their induced nuclides, two different approaches were used. In the first approach uranium and thorium were determined separately via 239 U, 239 Np and 233 Pa. In the second approach these elements were 239 239 233 determined simultaneously in a single sample using U and/or Np and Pa. Isolation of induced nuclides was based on separation by extraction and/or anion exchange chromatography. Chemical yields were measured in each sample aliquot using added 235 U, 238 Np and 231 Pa radioisotopic tracers. (author)

  12. Fast separation and quantification of three anti-glaucoma drugs by high-performance liquid chromatography UV detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Walash

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a simple and accurate high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated for fast separation of three anti-glaucoma drugs: timolol maleate (TM, brimonidine tartrate (BM, and latanoprost (LP. Separation of the three drugs was achieved in < 6 minutes using a BDS Hypersil phenyl column and a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile: 25mM phosphate buffer, pH 4.0 (50: 50, v/v at 1.2 mL/min with UV detection at 210 nm. The method was linear over the concentration ranges of 5.0–200.0 μg/mL, 2.0–80.0 μg/mL and 1.0–25.0 μg/mL with lower detection limits of 0.21 μg/mL, 0.10 μg/mL and 0.11 μg/mL for TM, BM and LP, respectively. The method was applied for the determination of two fixed-dose combination eye drops for the treatment of glaucoma, containing TM together with either BM or LP. Commercial samples of single-ingredient ophthalmic solutions containing the studied drugs were also successfully analyzed. The results obtained by the proposed method were favorably compared with those obtained by the comparison methods using Student's t test and the variance ratio F test.

  13. 15th radiochemical conference: Booklet of abstracts and conference programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, J.; Benes, P.; Kucera, J.; Havela, L.; Bartonicek, B.; Vobecky, M.; Krizova, V.; Kopicka, K.; Prasil, Z.

    2006-04-01

    The conference was structured as follows: Opening plenary lectures (6 lectures); Topic 1 - radionuclides in the environment, radioecology (22 verbal presentations (VPs), 23 poster presentations (PPs)); Topic 2 - nuclear analytical methods (22 VPs, 32 PPs); Topic 3 - chemistry of actinide and transactinide elements (8 VPs, 10 PPs); Topic 4 - radiation chemistry (9 VPs, 5 PPs); Topic 5 - production and application of radionuclides (17 VPs, 6 PPs); Topic 6 - separation methods, speciation (21 VPs, 23 PPs); Topic 7 - chemistry of nuclear fuel cycle, radiochemical problems in nuclear waste management (20 VPs, 16 PPs); Topic 8 - nuclear methods in medicine, radiopharmaceuticals, and radiodiagnostics, labelled compounds (8 VPs, 7 PPs); and Panels (2 introductions). (P.A.)

  14. Radiochemical studies on environmental radioactivity in Sudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sam, Adam Khatir [Sudan Atomic Energy Commission, Khartoum (Sudan)

    1998-09-01

    Measurements of uranium and thorium isotopes, {sup 226} Ra, {sup 210} Po, {sup 228} Ra, {sup 40} K and fallout radionuclide {sup 137} Cs in soil samples collected from different districts in Sudan, rock phosphate samples collected from the uro and kurun rock phosphate deposits in the eastern part of the Nuba mountains in Western Sudan, and surface marine sediments and marine organisms collected from the sudanese coastal waters of the Red Sea have been made using a high resolution gamma-spectrometry, radiochemical separation and {alpha} spectrometry. The external exposure due to {gamma} radiation from the ground has been calculated. The average exposure was found to be 45.4 {+-} 21.3 nGy/h, corresponding to the annual dose equivalent of 278 {mu}Sv/y. With the exception of some areas, the calculated exposure falls within the global wide range of outdoor radiation exposure given in the UNSCEAR publications. The nation-wide average concentrations of {sup 226} Ra, {sup 238} U, {sup 232} Th, {sup 40} K and {sup 137} Cs determined were 31.6 {+-} 27, 20.1 {+-} 16.4, 19.1 {+-} 8.1, 280.3 {+-} 137.6 and 4.1 {+-} 4.3 Bq/Kg, respectively. This shows that there is little contamination due to fallout radioactivity at survey sites. The exchangeable radium fraction constitutes 19-24% of the total radium content. The data show that {sup 238} U and its decay products are the principal contributors of radioactivity in both phosphate deposits at Uro and Kurun. The equivalent mass concentrations of uranium in the Uro rock phosphate fall within the range that could be economically recovered as the by-product of fertilizer industry. The mean activity concentrations weighted by average agricultural consumption of 300 kg/ha of untreated ground rock fertilizer resulted in an annual distribution of 120.63 Bq Ra/m{sup 2} with Uro rock and 12.97, 0.21 and 4.24 Bq/m{sup 2} respectively, with Kurun rock fertilizer. The external radiation exposure over agricultural areas was estimated 23.41 x 10

  15. Radiochemical studies on environmental radioactivity in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sam, Adam Khatir

    1998-01-01

    Measurements of uranium and thorium isotopes, 226 Ra, 210 Po, 228 Ra, 40 K and fallout radionuclide 137 Cs in soil samples collected from different districts in Sudan, rock phosphate samples collected from the uro and kurun rock phosphate deposits in the eastern part of the Nuba mountains in Western Sudan, and surface marine sediments and marine organisms collected from the sudanese coastal waters of the Red Sea have been made using a high resolution gamma-spectrometry, radiochemical separation and α spectrometry. The external exposure due to γ radiation from the ground has been calculated. The average exposure was found to be 45.4 ± 21.3 nGy/h, corresponding to the annual dose equivalent of 278 μSv/y. With the exception of some areas, the calculated exposure falls within the global wide range of outdoor radiation exposure given in the UNSCEAR publications. The nation-wide average concentrations of 226 Ra, 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs determined were 31.6 ± 27, 20.1 ± 16.4, 19.1 ± 8.1, 280.3 ± 137.6 and 4.1 ± 4.3 Bq/Kg, respectively. This shows that there is little contamination due to fallout radioactivity at survey sites. The exchangeable radium fraction constitutes 19-24% of the total radium content. The data show that 238 U and its decay products are the principal contributors of radioactivity in both phosphate deposits at Uro and Kurun. The equivalent mass concentrations of uranium in the Uro rock phosphate fall within the range that could be economically recovered as the by-product of fertilizer industry. The mean activity concentrations weighted by average agricultural consumption of 300 kg/ha of untreated ground rock fertilizer resulted in an annual distribution of 120.63 Bq Ra/m 2 with Uro rock and 12.97, 0.21 and 4.24 Bq/m 2 respectively, with Kurun rock fertilizer. The external radiation exposure over agricultural areas was estimated 23.41 x 10 -9 Gy/h and 2.59 x 10 -9 Gy/h at 1 m above ground level for Uro and Kurun rock phosphate fertilizers

  16. Radiochemical determination of zirconium by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Thiago C.; Oliveira, Arno Heeren de

    2013-01-01

    The zirconium isotope 93 Zr is a long-lived pure β-particle-emitting radionuclide thus occurring as one of the radionuclides found in nuclear reactors. It's produced from 235 U fission and from 92 Zr neutron activation. Due to its long half-life, 93 Zr is one of the interest radionuclides for assessment studies performance of waste storage or disposal. Measurement of 93 Zr is difficult owing to its trace level concentration and its low activity in nuclear wastes and further because its certified standards are not frequently available. The aim of this work was to apply a selective radiochemical separation methodology for 93 Zr determination in nuclear waste and analyze it by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICPMS). To set up the zirconium radiochemical separation procedure, a zirconium tracer solution was used in order to follow the zirconium behavior during the radiochemical separation. A tracer solution containing the main interferences, Ba, Co, Eu, Fe, Mn, Nb, Ni, Sr, and Y was used in order to verify the decontamination factor during separation process. The limit of detection of 0,039 ppb was obtained for zirconium standard solutions by ICPMS. Then, the protocol will be applied to low level waste (LLW) and intermediate level waste (ILW) from nuclear power plants. (author)

  17. Diaphragms obtained by radiochemical grafting in PTFE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenner, T.; Fahrasmane, A.

    1984-01-01

    Diaphragms for alkaline water electrolysis are prepared by radiochemical grafting of PTFE fabric with styrene, which is later on sulfonated, or with acrylic acid. The diaphragms obtained are mechanically resistant to potash at temperatures up to 200 0 C, but show some degrafting, which limits the lifetime. The sulfonated styrene group has been found to be more stable in electrolysis than the acrylic acid. In both cases, the incorporation of a cross-linking agent like divinyl benzene improves the lifetime of the diaphragms. Electrolysis during 500 hours at 120 0 C and 10 kAm 2 could be performed. (author)

  18. Analysis of the radiochemical purity of 18F-FDG by HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Liguang; Tang Anwu; He Shanzhen; Chen Yulong

    2001-01-01

    The radiochemical purity (RCP) of 18 F-FDG is analyzed by HPLC. Eighty-five percent acetonitrile is used as the eluting solution. Carbon hydrate column is used as separation column. The t R of 18 F - is 6.50 min and 18 F-FDG is 9.00 min. HPLC take less time and has higher sensitivity than TLC for the same sample at the same time. So HPLC excels TLC in analyzing RCP of 18 F-FDG

  19. Statistical processing of technological and radiochemical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahodova, Zdena; Vonkova, Kateřina

    2011-01-01

    The project described in this article had two goals. The main goal was to compare technological and radiochemical data from two units of nuclear power plant. The other goal was to check the collection, organization and interpretation of routinely measured data. Monitoring of analytical and radiochemical data is a very valuable source of knowledge for some processes in the primary circuit. Exploratory analysis of one-dimensional data was performed to estimate location and variability and to find extreme values, data trends, distribution, autocorrelation etc. This process allowed for the cleaning and completion of raw data. Then multiple analyses such as multiple comparisons, multiple correlation, variance analysis, and so on were performed. Measured data was organized into a data matrix. The results and graphs such as Box plots, Mahalanobis distance, Biplot, Correlation, and Trend graphs are presented in this article as statistical analysis tools. Tables of data were replaced with graphs because graphs condense large amounts of information into easy-to-understand formats. The significant conclusion of this work is that the collection and comprehension of data is a very substantial part of statistical processing. With well-prepared and well-understood data, its accurate evaluation is possible. Cooperation between the technicians who collect data and the statistician who processes it is also very important. (author)

  20. Determination of heavy metal pollutants such as Hg, Zn, Se, Cd, and Cu in aquatic environment of Thana Creek by radiochemical thermal neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    khan, S.Z.; Shah, P.K.; Ramani Rao, V.; Turel, Z.r.; Haldar, B.C.

    1984-01-01

    A rapid method has been developed for the radiochemical separation of Cu, As, Se, Hg, and Zn from thermal neutron irradiated environmental samples. The concentration of the elements in the environmental samples has been ascertained by radiochemical neutron activation analysis. The accuracy, precision and sensitivity of the method has been determined. The results of the analysis indicates the location of maximum pollution of the aquatic environment and the extent of pollution in the 5 locations of Thana Creek. 1 reference, 3 tables

  1. Development of a radiochemical neutron activation analysis procedure for determination of rhenium in biological and environmental samples at ultratrace level

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučera, Jan; Byrne, A. R.; Mizera, Jiří; Lučaníková, M.; Řanda, Zdeněk

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 269, č. 2 (2006), s. 251-257 ISSN 0236-5731 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/04/0943 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : radiochemical neutron activation analysis * rhenium * biological and environmental samples Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 0.509, year: 2006

  2. Investigation of equilibrium core by recycling MA and LLFP in fast reactor cycle. 2. Investigation of LLFP confined in Equilibrium Core with element separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizutani, Akihiko; Shono, Akira; Ishikawa, Makoto

    2000-02-01

    A feasibility study has been performed on a self-consistent fuel cycle system in the nuclear fuel recycle system with fast reactors. In this system, the self-generated MAs (Minor Actinides) and LLFPs (Long-Lived Fission Products) are confined and incinerated in the fast reactor, which is called the 'Equilibrium Core' concept. However, as the isotope separations for selected LLFPs have been assumed in this cycle system, it seems that this assumption is far from realistic one from the viewpoint of economy with respect to the fuel cycle system. In this study, the possibility for realization of the 'Equilibrium Core' concept is evaluated for three fuel types such as oxide, nitride and metallic fuels, provided that the isotopic separation of LLFPs is changed to the element one. This study provides, that is to say, how many LLFP elements can be confined in the 'Equilibrium Core' with element separation. This report examines the nuclear properties of the Equilibrium Core' for various combinations of LLFP incineration schemes from the viewpoints of the risk of geological disposal and the limit in confinable quantity of LLFPs. From the viewpoint of the risk of geological disposal estimated by the retardation factor, it is possible to confine with element separation for Tc, I and Se even in the oxide fueled core. From the standpoint of the limit of confinable amounts of LLFPs, on the other hand, Tc, I, Se, Sn and Cs can be confined with element separate only in case that the nitride fuel is chosen. (author)

  3. Cleanout and decontamination of radiochemical hot cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surma, J.E.; Holton, L.K. Jr.; Katayama, Y.B.; Gose, J.E.; Haun, F.E.; Dierks, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing and employing advanced remote and contact technologies in cleaning out and decontaminating six radiochemical hot cells at Hanford under the Department of Energy's Surplus Facilities Management Program. The program is using a series of remote and contact decontamination techniques to reduce costs and to significantly lower radiation doses to workers. Refurbishment of the cover blocks above the air lock trench reduced radiation exposure in the air lock and cleanout and decontamination of an analytical cell achieved a reduction in radioactive contamination. Nuclear Regulatory Commission-approved Type B burial boxes are also being used to reduce waste disposal costs and radiation doses. PNL is currently decommissioning its pilot-scale radioactive liquid-fed ceramic melter. Special tools have been developed and are being used to accomplish the world's first such effort. 4 refs., 5 figs

  4. Mixing and sampling tests for Radiochemical Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehinger, M.N.; Marfin, H.R.; Hunt, B.

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes results and test procedures used to evaluate uncertainly and basis effects introduced by the sampler systems of a radiochemical plant, and similar parameters associated with mixing. This report will concentrate on experiences at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuels Plant. Mixing and sampling tests can be conducted to establish the statistical parameters for those activities related to overall measurement uncertainties. Density measurements by state-of-the art, commercially availability equipment is the key to conducting those tests. Experience in the U.S. suggests the statistical contribution of mixing and sampling can be controlled to less than 0.01 % and with new equipment and new tests in operating facilities might be controlled to better accuracy [ru

  5. Standardization of equations for radiochemical calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danahy, R.J.; Dugan, T.A.; Tomlinson, F.K.; Jones, H.W.

    1994-01-01

    In mid 1993, the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation (FERMCO), with USEPA approval implemented a project quality assurance plan containing performance-based specifications for radiochemical sample analyses conducted in support of the Fernald site remediation activities. FERMCO's initial approach to acquiring performance-based radioanalytical services was to provide limited guidance regarding equations for computation of the quantities required in each analysis report. It became evident that there was a significant divergence of opinion on how to compute some very basic radiochemical quantities. The use of a standardized set of equations was needed in order to ensure comparability of data from different laboratories. In a remediation project of this magnitude, use of multiple laboratories is a virtual necessity. Consequently comparability of data becomes an extremely important issue. A critical issue in the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) phase of the dean up project is to avoid the occurrence of excessive false positive sample results. Such results could lead to unnecessary clean up and significant additional cost. This paper describes the specific formulas FERMCO is currently using to define such quantities as net sample count rate, sample radionuclide concentration, radiometric tracer and gravimetric carrier recovery. Equations have also been produced to define the uncertainty in each of the above quantities. Equations for the Total Propagated Uncertainty (TPU) and for a sample-specific Minimum Detectable Concentration (MDC) have also been specified. Generalized equations have been reformulated to address the specific conditions which apply to the analysis of FERMCO samples. In particular, FERMCO requires results which have been corrected for the radioactivity in the blank while in other instances, sample results without blank correction are required

  6. Planning for maintenance in radiochemical facilities [Paper No.: VB-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, G.R.

    1981-01-01

    Reprocessing facilities in the earlier stages of development were planned mainly based on the concept of direct maintenance in view of the inherent advantage of man-machine interface and initial savings in the investment costs. With the mechanical processes finding a firm place in head-end operation and increase in down time necessary for elaborate decontamination efforts even for a minor modification has led to the review of the concept. For the same reason, the recent plants are based on the concept of harmonious blend of both direct and remote maintenance. The paper describes the planning needed from consideration of various aspects related to such concepts of maintenance during different phases of such type of facilities, highlighting some of the tools and special equipments to be developed for this purpose. A brief description of recent development in the field of remote maintenance is also given. Though the basic hot facility of reference is the one of reprocessing fast reactor fuels, the concepts and systems discussed are equally applicable to other radiochemical and radiometallurgical facilities also. (author)

  7. Radiochemical methodologies applied to analytical characterization of low and intermediate level wastes from nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Roberto Pellacani G.; Júnior, Aluísio Souza R.; Kastner, Geraldo F.; Temba, Eliane S.C.; Oliveira, Thiago C. de; Amaral, Ângela M.; Franco, Milton B., E-mail: rpgm@cdtn.br, E-mail: reisas@cdtn.br, E-mail: gfk@cdtn.br, E-mail: esct@cdtn.br, E-mail: tco@cdtn.br, E-mail: ama@cdtn.br, E-mail: francom@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this work is to present radiochemical methodologies developed at CDTN/CNEN in order to answer a program for isotopic inventory of radioactive wastes from Brazilian Nuclear Power Plants. In this program some radionuclides, {sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 55}Fe, {sup 59}Ni, {sup 63}Ni, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 93}Zr, {sup 94}Nb, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}+{sup 240}Pu, {sup 241}Pu, {sup 242}Pu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 242}Cm e {sup 243}+{sup 244}Cm, were determined in Low Level Wastes (LLW) and Intermediate Level Wastes (ILW) and a protocol of analytical methodologies based on radiochemical separation steps and spectrometric and nuclear techniques was established. (author)

  8. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis for trace elements of basic ingredients of pan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, J.H.; Arif, M.; Fatima, I; Qureshi, I.H.

    2002-01-01

    Extensive use of pan, by one-tenth of world's population, entails the evaluation of trace element contents in its ingredients. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) was developed and successfully employed to determine the concentration of 36 trace elements (essential, toxic and nonessential) in its four basic ingredients, leaf of betel pepper, betel nut, catechu and lime. The radiochemical separation methodology has significantly improved the detection limits of most of these elements due to suppression of Compton background. Base-line values of certain toxic and essential elements in these ingredients is provided. The daily intake of essential and toxic elements through pan was estimated and compared with the recommended values. The cumulative intake of Mn is four times higher than the recommended value and that of toxic elements is well below the tolerance limits. (author)

  9. RADCHEM - Radiochemical procedures for the determination of Sr, U, Pu, Am and Cm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidhu, R. [Inst. for Energy Technology (Norway)

    2006-04-15

    An accurate determination of radionuclides from various sources in the environment is essential for assessment of the potential hazards and suitable countermeasures both in case of accidents, authorised release and routine surveillance. Reliable radiochemical separation and detection techniques are needed for accurate determination of alpha and beta emitters. Rapid analytical methods are needed in case of an accident for early decision-making. The objective of this project has been to compare and evaluate radiochemical procedures used at Nordic laboratories for the determination of strontium, uranium, plutonium, americium and curium. To gather detailed information on the procedures in use, a questionnaire regarding various aspects of radionuclide determination was developed and distributed to all (sixteen) relevant laboratories in the Nordic countries. The response and the procedures used by each laboratory were then discussed between those who answered the questionnaire. This report summaries the findings and gives recommendation on suitable practice. (au)

  10. RADCHEM - Radiochemical procedures for the determination of Sr, U, Pu, Am and Cm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidhu, R.

    2006-04-01

    An accurate determination of radionuclides from various sources in the environment is essential for assessment of the potential hazards and suitable countermeasures both in case of accidents, authorised release and routine surveillance. Reliable radiochemical separation and detection techniques are needed for accurate determination of alpha and beta emitters. Rapid analytical methods are needed in case of an accident for early decision-making. The objective of this project has been to compare and evaluate radiochemical procedures used at Nordic laboratories for the determination of strontium, uranium, plutonium, americium and curium. To gather detailed information on the procedures in use, a questionnaire regarding various aspects of radionuclide determination was developed and distributed to all (sixteen) relevant laboratories in the Nordic countries. The response and the procedures used by each laboratory were then discussed between those who answered the questionnaire. This report summaries the findings and gives recommendation on suitable practice. (au)

  11. Fast separation of enantiomers by capillary electrophoresis using a combination of two capillaries with different internal diameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šebestová, Andrea; Petr, Jan

    2017-12-01

    The combination of capillaries with different internal diameters was used to accelerate the separation of enantiomers in capillary electrophoresis. Separation of R,S-1,1'-binaphthalene-2,2'-diyl hydrogen phosphate using isopropyl derivative of cyclofructan 6 was studied as a model system. The best separation conditions included 500 mM sodium borate pH 9.5 with 60 mM concentration of the chiral selector. Separation lasted approx. 1.5 min using the combination of 50 and 100 μm id capillaries of 9.7 cm and 22.9 cm, respectively. It allowed approx. 12-fold acceleration in comparison to the traditional long-end separation mainly due to the higher electroosmotic flow generated in the connected capillaries. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Proceedings of the Tripartite Seminar on Nuclear Material Accounting and Control at Radiochemical Plants; Trudy trekhstoronnego seminara Uchet i kontrol' yadernykh materialov na radiokhimicheskikh ustanovkakh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The problems of creation and operation of nuclear materials (NM) control and accounting systems and their components at radiochemical plants were discussed in seminar during November 2-6 of 1998. There were 63 Russian and 25 foreign participants in seminar. The seminar programme includes following sessions and articles: the aspects of State NM control and accountancy; NM control and accounting in radiochemical plants and at separate stages of reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and irradiated fuel elements of commercial reactors; NM control and accountancy in storage facilities of radiochemical plants; NM control and accounting computerization, material balance assessment, preparation of reports; qualitative and quantitative measurements in NM control and accounting at radiochemical plants destructive analysis techniques.

  13. Solvent driving force ensures fast formation of a persistent and well-separated radical pair in plant cryptochrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lüdemann, Gesa; Solov'yov, Ilia; Kubar, Tomás

    2015-01-01

    upon the electron transfer. This approach allows us to follow the time evolution of the electron transfer in an unbiased fashion and to reveal the molecular driving force which ensures fast electron transfer in cryptochrome guaranteeing formation of a persistent radical pair suitable...

  14. Separate and unequal: the influence of neighborhood and school characteristics on spatial proximity between fast food and schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Loh, Ji Meng

    2010-08-01

    Social science and health literature have identified residential segregation as a critical factor in exposure to health-related resources, including food environments. Differential spatial patterning of food environments surrounding schools has significant import for youth. We examined whether fast food restaurants clustered around schools in New York City, and whether any observed clustering varied as a function of school type, school racial demographics, and area racial and socioeconomic demographics. We geocoded fast food locations from 2006 (n=817) and schools from 2004-2005 (n=2096; public and private, elementary and secondary) in the five boroughs of New York City. A point process model (inhomogeneous cross-K function) examined spatial clustering. A minimum of 25% of schools had a fast food restaurant within 400 m. High schools had higher fast food clustering than elementary schools. Public elementary and high schools with large proportions of Black students or in block groups with large proportions of Black residents had higher clustering than White counterparts. Finally, public high schools had higher clustering than private counterparts, with 1.25 to 2 times as many restaurants than expected by chance. The results suggest that the geography of opportunity as it relates to school food environments is unequal in New York City. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Radiochemical search for neutron-rich isotopes of element 107

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaedel, M.

    1987-01-01

    Recent mass calculations have indicated that there is a region of deformed nuclei around neutron number N=162 that is especially stable against spontaneous fission. Barrier heights of about 5 MeV for Z = 107 nuclides can be extrapolated. To search for new, neutron-rich isotopes of element 107 in radiochemical experiments with 254 Es as a target an on-line chemical separation of element 107 (EKA-Rhenium), especially from the actinide elements is needed. An on-line gas-phase chemistry was developed with the homolog Re based on the volatility of the oxide which is transported in an O 2 containing atmosphere along a temperature gradient in a quartz tube and is condensed onto a thin Ta coated Ni-foil. The authors applied this technique in two series of experiments with their rotating wheel on-line gas-phase chemistry apparatus at the 88-inch cyclotron where they irradiated 254 Es as a target with 93 MeV and 96 MeV 16 O ions to search for 266 107. The assignment of the observed alpha events between 8 and 9 MeV to possibly (1) non actinide contaminants like 212 Po, (2) known isotopes of heavy elements like 261 105, or (3) a new isotope will be discussed

  16. Two-column sequential injection chromatography for fast isocratic separation of two analytes of greatly differing chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šatínský, Dalibor; Chocholouš, Petr; Válová, Olga; Hanusová, Lucia; Solich, Petr

    2013-09-30

    This paper deals with a novel approach to separate two analytes with different chemical properties and different lipophilicity. The newly described methodology is based on the two column system that was used for isocratic separation of two analytes with very different lipophilicity-dexamethasone and cinchocaine. Simultaneous separation of model compounds cinchocaine and dexamethasone was carried under the following conditions in two-column sequential injection chromatography system (2-C SIC). A 25×4.6 mm C-18 monolithic column was used in the first dimension for retention and separation of dexamethasone with mobile phase acetonitrile:water 30:70 (v/v), flow rate 0.9 mL min(-1) and consumption of 1.7 mL. A 10×4.6 mm C-18 monolithic column with 5×4.6 mm C-18 precolumn was used in the second dimension for retention and separation of cinchocaine using mobile phase acetonitrile:water 60:40 (v/v), flow rate 0.9 mL min(-1) and consumption 1.5 mL. Whole analysis time including both mobile phase's aspirations and both column separations was performed in less than 4 min. The method was fully validated and used for determination of cinchocaine and dexamethasone in pharmaceutical otic drops. The developed 2-C SIC method was compared with HPLC method under the isocratic conditions of separation on monolithic column (25×4.6 mm C-18). Spectrophotometric detection of both compounds was performed at wavelength 240 nm. System repeatability and method precision were found in the range (0.39-3.12%) for both compounds. Linearity of determination was evaluated in the range 50-500 μg mL(-1) and coefficients of determination were found to be r(2)=0.99912 for dexamethasone and r(2)=0.99969 for cinchocaine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Use of new composite materials for the determination of Cu, Cd, Mo, As, and Sb in biological samples by radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lučaníková, M.; Kučera, Jan; Šebesta, F.; John, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 269, č. 2 (2006), s. 463-468 ISSN 0236-5731 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/04/0943 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : radiochemical neutron activation analysis * separation using composite materials Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 0.509, year: 2006

  18. Radiochemical surveillance of KNK primary sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamm, H.-H.; Stade, K.Ch.

    1987-05-01

    Radiochemical surveillance of the KNK primary sodium has been performed now for 15 years with 953 effective full-power days. The overflow method used for sodium sampling proved to be reliable. Different crucible materials have been used for different analytical tasks. The amount of radionuclides in the primary system has not given restrictions to plant operation at any time. On-line gamma spectroscopy on pipings and components of the primary circuits was accomplished in reactor downtimes. Activity depositions on the walls were dominated by Ta-182 after KNK I operation. Main deposited activities at KNK II were Mn-54 (fresh core) and after operation with failed fuel Cs-137, in cover gas areas together with Zn-65. Efficient experimental radionuclide traps for the removal of Mn-54, Zn-65 and Cs-137 from the primary coolant were tested successfully. The dose rates on primary pipes and components of KNK I and KNK II were lower by an order of magnitude compared to water-cooled reactors. This is in good agreement with experiences from LMFBR's in other countries. The resulting average yearly accumulated personal dose rate was 0.21 man-Sv at KNK, compared to 3.9 man-Sv at German light-water-cooled power reactors

  19. Radiochemical studies on amorphous zirconium phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, A; Moores, G E [Salford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Chemistry and Applied Chemistry

    1981-01-01

    Amorphous zirconium phosphate (ZrP) is used in some hemodialysis machines for the regeneration of dialysate. Its function is to adsorb ammonium ions formed by the pretreatment of urea by urease. It also adsorbs Ca, Mg and K ions but leaches phosphate ions which are then removed (along with F/sup -/ ions) by a bed of hydrous zirconium oxide. The sodium form of ZrP is used although other forms have been suggested for use. The work reported here describes some preliminary radiochemical studies on the mechanism of release of phosphate ions and its possible relationship to sodium ion-exchange. /sup 32/P labelled material (HHZrP) was used for elution experiments with deionized water and buffer solutions having the pH's 4.2, 7.0 and 9.2. Buffer solutions used were as supplied by BDH. Elution was at four different temperatures in the range 293 to 363/sup 0/C. In the second series of experiments HHZrP was suspended in a NaCl solution labelled with /sup 22/Na. From this, /sup 22/Na labelled ZrP (NaHZrP) was prepared and eluted in the same way as the HHZrP. Results are given and discussed.

  20. The use of robots for automation in the radiochemical laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huddleston, J.

    1988-01-01

    The use of robotic systems for automated processes such as overnight operations, procedures involving radiation hazards in radiochemical laboratories is discussed. Particular reference is made to their use in analytical problems. Their flexibility is emphasised. (U.K.)

  1. A radiochemical assay for biotin in biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hood, R.L.

    1975-01-01

    A radiochemical assay for biotin is described. The assay was sensitive to one nanogram and simple enough for routine biotin analyses. The assay yielded results which were comparable to those obtained from a microbiological assay using Lactobacillus plantarum. (author)

  2. The publication lapse of papers in Radiochemical and Radioanalytical Letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, T.; Nagydiosi-Kocsis, Gy.

    1982-01-01

    The time needed for passing through journal editorial and publication processing has been examined for the papers published in Radiochemical and Radioanalytical Letters for the years 1969-1981. (author)

  3. Safety and Waste Management for SAM Radiochemical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    The General Safety and Waste Management page offers section-specific safety and waste management details for the radiochemical analytes included in EPA's Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation and Recovery (SAM).

  4. Radiochemical problems of radiation chemical synthesis in n, γ-field of nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mironov, V.P.; Frejdus, N.V.; Bugaenko, L.T.; Kalyazin, E.P.; Petryaev, E.P.

    1981-01-01

    A wide applicability of products of radiation chemical synthesis (RCS), using n, γ-irradiation, is limited by possible contamination of the latter with long-lived radioactive isotopes of chemical elements included in the composition of the reagent and compounds syntesized (chemically non-separable radionuclides - CNR). A technique of the determination of the limit accumulation CNR on the basis of radiation chemical parameters of the synthesis (radiation-chemical yield, the dose rate absorbed, singleness of purpose of RCS etc.) and radiochemical parameters of formation and accumulation of CNR (radiochemical yields of CNR in the products of radiolysis, neutron fluence, the reagent purity etc.) is suggested. The radiochemical evaluation of CNR accumulation (tritium and carbon-14), formed at the expense of activation with neutrons of chemical elements of water and organic substances, consisting of hydrogen, carbon and oxygen has shown that at relatively low yields of final products (> or approximately 3 molecules/100 eV) no accumulation of radionuclides in concentrations reaching the average admissible concentration takes place [ru

  5. Radiochemical and instrumental neutron activation analysis - recent trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dams, R.

    1990-01-01

    Recent trends of radiochemical and instrumental neutron activation analysis are discussed. Novel developments include the application of cyclic and pulsed activation, better energy resolution with hyperpure germanium detectors, and use of pulse processing systems allowing extremely high count rates of very short-lived isotopes. Further development is anticipated in the field of speciation in biological and environmental studies. Radiochemical methods have led to accurate determinations at the ng/g level. A promising future is expected for neutron activation techniques. (orig.)

  6. Application of the radiochemical - and the direct gamma ray spectrometry method to the burnup determination of irradiated uranium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, I.I.L.

    1979-01-01

    The burn up of natural U 3 O 8 that occurs by the action of thermal neutrons was determined, using the radioisotopes 144 Ce, 137 Cs, 103 Ru, 106 Ru and 95 Zr as monitors. The determination of the burn up was made using both destructive and non-destructive methods. In the non-destructive method, the technique of direct gamma-ray spectrometry was used and the radioisotopes mentioned were simultaneously counted in a Ge-Li detector. In the radiochemical method the same radioisotopes were isolated one from the other and from all other fission products before counting. The solvent extraction technique was used for the radiochemical separation of uranium, cerium, cesium and ruthenium. To separate zirconium and niobium, adsorption in silica-gel was used. The extraction agent employed to isolate cesium was dipycrilamine and for the separation of the other radioisotopes Di-(2-Ethyl Hexyl) Phosphoric acid (HDEHP) was used. (Author) [pt

  7. Application of fast Fourier transforms to the direct solution of a class of two-dimensional separable elliptic equations on the sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorthi, Shrinivas; Higgins, R. W.

    1993-01-01

    An efficient, direct, second-order solver for the discrete solution of a class of two-dimensional separable elliptic equations on the sphere (which generally arise in implicit and semi-implicit atmospheric models) is presented. The method involves a Fourier transformation in longitude and a direct solution of the resulting coupled second-order finite-difference equations in latitude. The solver is made efficient by vectorizing over longitudinal wave-number and by using a vectorized fast Fourier transform routine. It is evaluated using a prescribed solution method and compared with a multigrid solver and the standard direct solver from FISHPAK.

  8. Exploring Liquid Sequential Injection Chromatography to Teach Fundamentals of Separation Methods: A Very Fast Analytical Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penteado, Jose C.; Masini, Jorge Cesar

    2011-01-01

    Influence of the solvent strength determined by the addition of a mobile-phase organic modifier and pH on chromatographic separation of sorbic acid and vanillin has been investigated by the relatively new technique, liquid sequential injection chromatography (SIC). This technique uses reversed-phase monolithic stationary phase to execute fast…

  9. Application of a Fast Separation Method for Anti-diabetics in Pharmaceuticals Using Monolithic Column: Comparative Study With Silica Based C-18 Particle Packed Column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemdan, A; Abdel-Aziz, Omar

    2018-04-01

    Run time is a predominant factor in HPLC for quality control laboratories especially if there is large number of samples have to be analyzed. Working at high flow rates cannot be attained with silica based particle packed column due to elevated backpressure issues. The use of monolithic column as an alternative to traditional C-18 column was tested for fast separation of pharmaceuticals, where the results were very competitive. The performance comparison of both columns was tested for separation of anti-diabetic combination containing Metformin, Pioglitazone and Glimepiride using Gliclazide as an internal standard. Working at high flow rates with less significant backpressure was obtained with the monolithic column where the run time was reduced from 6 min in traditional column to only 1 min in monolithic column with accepted resolution. The structure of the monolith contains many pores which can adapt the high flow rate of the mobile phase. Moreover, peak symmetry and equilibration time were more efficient with monolithic column.

  10. Continuous radiochemical analysis of fission products in a nuclear reactor water coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskvin, L.N.; Zakharov, L.K.; Leont'ev, G.G.; Mel'nikov, V.A.; Orlenkov, I.S.; Slutskij, G.K.

    1975-01-01

    Method for continuous radiochemical analysis of I, Cs, Ba, Sr and Ce isotopes in a reactor water heat-transfer agent was developed. A continuous two-dimensional chromatographic process of complex mixtures separation of substances proved to be feasible on several parallel sorbent layers, which moved at constant velocities and separated by stationary intermediate collectors. Tests on model solutions containing I, Ce, Cs and Ba isotopes and on heat-carrier samples showed quantitative separation of elements. The results were indicative of a basic possibility of using multisorbent chromatographs for continuous control of multicomponent mixtures, particularly for control of radioactive fission product compositions in water heat-transfer agents in nuclear power plants. A diagram is shown for a two-dimensional chromatographic separation of a multicomponent mixture. Also shown is a flow chart of an installation for continuous control of iodine and cesium isotope activities

  11. [Fast separation and analysis of water-soluble vitamins in spinach by capillary electrophoresis with high voltage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoqin; You, Huiyan

    2009-11-01

    In capillary electrophoresis, 0-40 kV (even higher) voltage can be reached by a connecting double-model high voltage power supply. In the article, water-soluble vitamins, VB1, VB2, VB6, VC, calcium D-pantothenate, D-biotin, nicotinic acid and folic acid in vegetable, were separated by using the high voltage power supply under the condition of electrolyte water solution as running buffer. The separation conditions, such as voltage, the concentration of buffer and pH value etc. , were optimized during the experiments. The results showed that eight water-soluble vitamins could be baseline separated in 2.2 min at 40 kV applied voltage, 25 mmol/L sodium tetraborate buffer solution (pH 8.8). The water-soluble vitamins in spinach were quantified and the results were satisfied. The linear correlation coefficients of the water-soluble vitamins ranged from 0.9981 to 0.9999. The detection limits ranged from 0.2 to 0.3 mg/L. The average recoveries ranged from 88.0% to 100.6% with the relative standard deviations (RSD) range of 1.15%-4.13% for the spinach samples.

  12. Radiochemical procedure for the determination of plutonium isotopes in powdered milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taddei, M.H.T.; Silva, N.C.

    2006-01-01

    A radiochemical procedure for the determination of alpha-emitting isotopes of plutonium in powdered milk is proposed. The procedure involves sample dissolution (by HNO 3 and HClO 4 ), separation by ionic-exchange resin, electrodeposition and alpha-spectroscopy. In order to determine the chemical recovery, 242 Pu was employed as a tracer. A reference material (Marine Sediment IAEA 135) was analyzed to validate such procedure, and to show its reliability. Afterwards, some powdered milk, produced for international trade, was analyzed and chemical recovery was found to be around 95%. (author)

  13. Radiochemical analysis of radio-nuclides in sea water collected near Bikini Atoll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Y; Sugiura, Y

    1955-01-01

    A radiochemical analysis of sea water containing fission materials collected near Bikini Atoll in June, 1954, was performed. The sea water was boiled with hydrochloric acid, iron and lanthanum salts each 5 mg as Fe and La were added to it. They were precipitated as hydroxide, which was dissolved in hydrochloric acid and ferric chloride was extracted with ethyl ether. The remaining solution was evaporated to dryness and the residue was dissolved in hydrochloric acid. Using the latter solution the group separation was done with cation exchanger resins.

  14. 1.9 μm superficially porous packing material with radially oriented pores and tailored pore size for ultra-fast separation of small molecules and biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Yi; Jiang, Bo; Wu, Ci; Xia, Simin; Zhang, Xiaodan; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui

    2014-08-22

    In this work, 1.9 μm reversed-phase packing materials with superficially porous structure were prepared to achieve the rapid and high efficient separation of peptides and proteins. The silica particles were synthesized via three steps, nonporous silica particle preparation by a modified seeded growth method, mesoporous shell formation by a one pot templated dissolution and redeposition strategy, and pore size expansion via acid-refluxing. By such a method, 1.9 μm superficially porous materials with 0.18 μm shell thickness and tailored pore diameter (10 nm, 15 nm) were obtained. After pore enlargement, the formerly dense arrays of mesoporous structure changed, the radially oriented pores dominated the superficially porous structure. The chromatographic performance of such particles was investigated after C18 derivatization. For packing materials with 1.9 μm diameter and 10 nm pore size, the column efficiency could reach 211,300 plates per m for naphthalene. To achieve the high resolution separation of peptides and proteins, particles with pore diameter of 15 nm were tailored, by which the baseline separation of 5 peptides and 5 intact proteins could be respectively achieved within 1 min, demonstrating the superiority in the high efficiency and high throughput analysis of biomolecules. Furthermore, BSA digests were well separated with peak capacity of 120 in 30 min on a 15 cm-long column. Finally, we compared our columns with a 1.7 μm Kinetex C18 column under the same conditions, our particles with 10nm pore size demonstrated similar performance for separation of the large intact proteins. Moreover, the particles with 15 nm pore size showed more symmetrical peaks for the separation of large proteins (BSA, OVA and IgG) and provided rapid separation of protein extracts from Escherichia coli in 5 min. All these results indicated that the synthesized 1.9 μm superficially porous silica packing materials would be promising in the ultra-fast and high

  15. Radiochemical verification and validation in the environmental data collection process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosano-Reece, D.; Bottrell, D.; Bath, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    A credible and cost effective environmental data collection process should produce analytical data which meets regulatory and program specific requirements. Analytical data, which support the sampling and analysis activities at hazardous waste sites, undergo verification and independent validation before the data are submitted to regulators. Understanding the difference between verification and validation and their respective roles in the sampling and analysis process is critical to the effectiveness of a program. Verification is deciding whether the measurement data obtained are what was requested. The verification process determines whether all the requirements were met. Validation is more complicated than verification. It attempts to assess the impacts on data use, especially when requirements are not met. Validation becomes part of the decision-making process. Radiochemical data consists of a sample result with an associated error. Therefore, radiochemical validation is different and more quantitative than is currently possible for the validation of hazardous chemical data. Radiochemical data include both results and uncertainty that can be statistically compared to identify significance of differences in a more technically defensible manner. Radiochemical validation makes decisions about analyte identification, detection, and uncertainty for a batch of data. The process focuses on the variability of the data in the context of the decision to be made. The objectives of this paper are to present radiochemical verification and validation for environmental data and to distinguish the differences between the two operations

  16. Application of the spectrometric and radiochemical techniques in analyzing environmental samples from the Bulgarian Black Sea region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veleva, B.S.; Mungov, G.; Galabov, N.; Kolarova, M.; Guenchev, T.

    1999-01-01

    Development of the appropriate methods and techniques for marine and atmospheric radioactivity measurements in the NIMH-BAS during the last 5 years is presented. Approaches for pre-concentration of the radionuclides from the atmosphere and sea water samples followed with reliable radiochemical methods for radionuclides separation and low level counting are discussed. Dissolved radiocesium concentrations measured in a period of time starting in 1993 show some decrease with years and spatial variations probably due to the hydrophysical features of the sampling sides - the lower measured concentrations during 1995 and 1998 correspond to the lower salinity. Application of the radiochemical separation of Plutonium, Thorium, 90 Sr and Americium on the samples from the Bulgarian Black Sea coastal region is reported. (author)

  17. Estimation of time-variable fast flow path chemical concentrations for application in tracer-based hydrograph separation analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronholm, Scott C.; Capel, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    Mixing models are a commonly used method for hydrograph separation, but can be hindered by the subjective choice of the end-member tracer concentrations. This work tests a new variant of mixing model that uses high-frequency measures of two tracers and streamflow to separate total streamflow into water from slowflow and fastflow sources. The ratio between the concentrations of the two tracers is used to create a time-variable estimate of the concentration of each tracer in the fastflow end-member. Multiple synthetic data sets, and data from two hydrologically diverse streams, are used to test the performance and limitations of the new model (two-tracer ratio-based mixing model: TRaMM). When applied to the synthetic streams under many different scenarios, the TRaMM produces results that were reasonable approximations of the actual values of fastflow discharge (±0.1% of maximum fastflow) and fastflow tracer concentrations (±9.5% and ±16% of maximum fastflow nitrate concentration and specific conductance, respectively). With real stream data, the TRaMM produces high-frequency estimates of slowflow and fastflow discharge that align with expectations for each stream based on their respective hydrologic settings. The use of two tracers with the TRaMM provides an innovative and objective approach for estimating high-frequency fastflow concentrations and contributions of fastflow water to the stream. This provides useful information for tracking chemical movement to streams and allows for better selection and implementation of water quality management strategies.

  18. Collected radiochemical procedures (radiochemistry group CNC-11)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, H.L. (ed.)

    1975-04-01

    Separation techniques are given for: Am, Sb, As, Ba, Be, Bi, C, Cd, Ca, Ce, Cs, Cl, Cr, Co, Cm, Ge, Au, In, Fe, lanthanides, Pb, Mg, Mn, Mo, Np, Ni, Nb, Pd, P, Pu, Pa, Rh, Ru, Sc, Ag, Na, Sr, sulfate, Ta, Te, Tl, Th, Sn, transactinides, tritium, W, U, Y, and Zr. Combined procedures and group separations of the heavy elements are also included. (DLC)

  19. Collected radiochemical procedures (radiochemistry group CNC-11)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.L.

    1975-04-01

    Separation techniques are given for: Am, Sb, As, Ba, Be, Bi, C, Cd, Ca, Ce, Cs, Cl, Cr, Co, Cm, Ge, Au, In, Fe, lanthanides, Pb, Mg, Mn, Mo, Np, Ni, Nb, Pd, P, Pu, Pa, Rh, Ru, Sc, Ag, Na, Sr, sulfate, Ta, Te, Tl, Th, Sn, transactinides, tritium, W, U, Y, and Zr. Combined procedures and group separations of the heavy elements are also included

  20. Radiochemical determination of 210 Pb and 226Ra in petroleum sludges and scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Andressa Arruda de

    2005-01-01

    The oil extraction and production, both onshore and offshore, can generate different types of residues, such as sludge, that is deposited in the water/oil separators, valves and storage tanks and scales, which form i the inner surface of ducts and equipment. Analyses already carried out through gamma spectrometry indicated the existence of high radioisotope concentration. However, radionuclides emitting low-energy gamma-rays, such as 210 Pb, are hardly detected by that technique. Consequently, there is a need to test alternative techniques to determine this and other radionuclides from the 238 U series. This work, therefore, focuses on the radiochemical determination of the concentration of 210 Pb, and 226 Ra in samples of sludge and scale from the oil processing stations of the UN-SEAL, a PETROBRAS unit responsible for the exploration and production of petroleum in Sergipe and Alagoas. The sludge and scale samples went through a preliminary process of extraction of oil, in order to separate the solid phase, where the largest fraction of the radioactivity is concentrated. After oil removal, the samples were digested using alkaline fusion as an option for dissolution. Finally, their activity concentration was determined for the samples of sludge and scales, using and alternative radiochemical method, which is based on ionic exchange. The activity concentration found for 210 Pb varied from 1,14 to 507,3 kBq kg -1 . The values for 226 Ra were higher, varying from 4,36 to 3.445 kBq kg -1 . The results for 226 Ra were then compared with the ones found for the same samples of sludge and scales using gamma spectrometry. The results of the comparison confirm the efficiency of the methodology used int hi work, that is, radiochemical determination by means of ionic exchange. (author)

  1. Radiochemical analysis of a wide range of 131I activities in water and milk using well-type germanium detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin Li; Bradt, C.J.; Umme-Farzana Syed; Abdul Bari; Torres, M.A.; Kimi Nishikawa; Khan, A.J.; Menia, T.A.; Semkow, T.M.; University at Albany, State University of New York, Rensselaer, NY

    2017-01-01

    We report a study of a fast radiochemical method to determine the activity of 131 I via the radiochemical recovery obtained with a 129 I tracer. Previous methods were valid for low levels of 131 I activities. In the new method, we developed a correction using the 29.7-keV X-ray peak from Xe, taking into consideration that this peak originates from both and 131 I decay. This enables quantitation of high levels of 131 I activity. Furthermore, for a very high 131 I activity, one can use the 39.6-keV gamma peak which is unique to 129 I. Combining both approaches enables quantitation of 131 I activities up to 200 times that of the 129 I recovery tracer. (author)

  2. Isobaric (vapour + liquid) equilibria of binary systems containing butyl acetate for the separation of methoxy aromatic compounds (anisole and guaiacol) from biomass fast pyrolysis oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hao; Xia, Shuqian; Wu, Meng; Ma, Peisheng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The two binary systems related to pyrolysis oil have been reported. • The VLE data were correlated well by the activity coefficient models. • The UNIFAC (Do) model was applied to predict the experimental VLE data. • The interaction parameter (ACOCH 3 –CH 3 COO) was obtained and proved to be reliable. • The obtained interaction parameters by NRTL model were used in the separation process design for the ternary mixture. - Abstract: Developing value-added chemicals from pyrolysis oil has been gaining increasing attention. Thus effective separation and purification of the pyrolysis oil are important and the phase equilibrium data are essential for the design and simulation of the processes. In this study, isobaric vapour–liquid equilibrium (VLE) for the two binary mixtures (butyl acetate + anisole) and (butyl acetate + guaiacol) have been determined at 101.33 kPa, a knowledge of which is essential for the separation of methoxy aromatic compounds (anisole and guaiacol) from biomass fast pyrolysis oil using butyl acetate as a solvent. All the experimental values were confirmed to be thermodynamically consistent using the van Ness method. The NRTL, UNIQUAC, and Wilson activity coefficient models were applied to regress the experimental values. The calculated results agreed well with the measured values. Furthermore, the results were calculated by the UNIFAC (Do) method (modified UNIFAC model) in which aromatic methoxyl is treated as a group (ACOCH 3 ). The new interaction parameter (ACOCH 3 –CH 3 COO) was obtained and proved to be reliable. Based on the preceding results, a feasible separation process for the ternary mixture (butyl acetate + anisole + guaiacol) has been designed to obtain the required products

  3. Radiochemical analysis for nuclear waste management in decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, X.

    2010-07-01

    The NKS-B RadWaste project was launched from June 2009. The on-going decommissioning activities in Nordic countries and current requirements and problems on the radiochemical analysis of decommissioning waste were discussed and overviewed. The radiochemical analytical methods used for determination of various radionuclides in nuclear waste are reviewed, a book was written by the project partners Jukka Lehto and Xiaolin Hou on the chemistry and analysis of radionuclide to be published in 2010. A summary of the methods developed in Nordic laboratories is described in this report. The progresses on the development and optimization of analytical method in the Nordic labs under this project are presented. (author)

  4. Radiochemical analysis for nuclear waste management in decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, X. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy. Radiation Research Div., Roskilde (Denmark))

    2010-07-15

    The NKS-B RadWaste project was launched from June 2009. The on-going decommissioning activities in Nordic countries and current requirements and problems on the radiochemical analysis of decommissioning waste were discussed and overviewed. The radiochemical analytical methods used for determination of various radionuclides in nuclear waste are reviewed, a book was written by the project partners Jukka Lehto and Xiaolin Hou on the chemistry and analysis of radionuclide to be published in 2010. A summary of the methods developed in Nordic laboratories is described in this report. The progresses on the development and optimization of analytical method in the Nordic labs under this project are presented. (author)

  5. Radiochemical analysis of concrete samples for decommission of nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata-Garcia, Daniel; Wershofen, Herbert [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Bundesallee 100 38116, Braunschweig (Germany); Larijani, Cyrus; Sobrino-Petrirena, Maitane; Garcia-Miranda, Maria; Jerome, Simon M. [National Physical Laboratory (NPL), Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex, TW11 0LW (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    Decommissioning of the oldest nuclear power reactors are some of the most challenging technological legacy issues many countries will face in forthcoming years, as many power reactors reach the end of their design lives. Decommissioning of nuclear reactors generates large amounts of waste that need to be classified according to their radioactive content. Approximately 10 % of the contaminated material ends up in different repositories (depending on their level of contamination) while the rest is decontaminated, measured and released into the environment or sent for recycling. Such classification needs to be done accurately in order to ensure that both the personnel involved in decommissioning and the population at large are not needlessly exposed to radiation or radioactive material and to minimise the environmental impact of such work. However, too conservative classification strategies should not be applied, in order to make proper use of radioactive waste repositories since space is limited and the full process must be cost-effective. Implicit in decommissioning and classification of waste is the need to analyse large amounts of material which usually combine a complex matrix with a non-homogeneous distribution of the radionuclides. Because the costs involved are large, it is possible to make great savings by the adoption of best available practices, such as the use of validated methods for on-site measurements and simultaneous determination of more than one radionuclide whenever possible. The work we present deals with the development and the validation of a procedure for the simultaneous determination of {sup 241}Am, plutonium isotopes, uranium isotopes and {sup 90}Sr in concrete samples. Samples are firstly ground and fused with LiBO{sub 2} and Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}. After dissolution of the fused sample, silicate and alkaline elements are removed followed by radiochemical separation of the target radionuclides using extraction chromatography. Measurement

  6. Radiochemical studies on nuclear fission at Trombay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-07-30

    Jul 30, 2015 ... Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 85; Issue 2 ... Due to the ability to separate individual elements from a complex reaction mixture with a ... At Trombay, a small group of radiochemists initiated the work on ...

  7. 17. radiochemical conference. Booklet of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bečková, Věra; Ekberg, Christian; Feldman, Vladimir I.

    2014-05-01

    The conference was divided into the following sessions: Plenary Session; Radionuclides in the environment, radioecology; Nuclear analytical methods; Chemistry of actinide and trans-actinide elements; Radiation chemistry; Production and application of radionuclides; Separation methods, speciation; Chemistry of nuclear fuel cycle; Radiopharmaceutical chemistry, labelled compounds; and Education / coordination. (P.A.)

  8. A study of some neutron-rich isotopes of lanthanum, cerium and praseodymium by means of fast chemical on-line separation technique SISAK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skarnemark, G.

    1977-01-01

    The fast on-line chemical separation technique SISAK has been utilized to study the decay properties of neutron-rich isotopes of La, Ce and Pr. The results include partial decay schemes and γ-ray intensity data for 14 min 143 La, 42 s 144 La, 25 s 145 La, 9 s 146 La, 3 min 145 Ce, 14 min 146 Ce, 56 s 147 Ce, 50 s 148 Ce, 12 min 147 Pr, 2 min 148 Pr, 3 min 149 Pr and 6 s 150 Pr. Half-lives and γ-ray energies are reported for the previously unknown nuclides 147 La (Tsub(1/2) = 2.2 s), 148 La (Tsub(1/2) approximately 1 s), 149 Ce (Tsub(1/2) = 5.7 s) and 150 Ce (Tsub(1/2) = 4.1 s). The nuclides were formed in thermal neutron-induced fission of 235 U. The fission products were transferred to the SISAK system via a gas jet recoil transportation (GJRT) system. The combination of the GJRT system with SISAK is discussed, as well as the chemical separation systems used for the isolation of La, Ce and Pr. The appendices I - IX contain previously published material which is included in the thesis. (Auth.)

  9. A radiochemical NAA method for the determination of tin, barium, copper and antimony- role of tin as an indicator for gun shot residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, N.; Basu, A.K.; Tripathi, A.B.R.; Rao, M.S.; Anil Kumar, S.; Parthasarathy, R.; Mathur, P.K.

    1998-01-01

    Metallic tin being present as impurity and hardening agent of lead bullet/shot, is expected to play an important role in forensic ballistics in matching of bullet lead specimens for establishment of commonness of origin and also as an additional parameter for characterisation of Gun Shot Residue (GSR). 121 Sn is a suitable radioisotope for quantification of the element at ppm level if it is separated in highest radiochemical purity. A sequential Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis (RNAA) procedure for its simultaneous determination along with trace levels of Ba, Cu and Sb has been developed and its applications in forensic science are described. (author)

  10. ZZ HATCHES-18, Database for radiochemical modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, T.G.

    2008-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: HATCHES is a referenced, quality assured, thermodynamic database, developed by Serco Assurance for Nirex. Although originally compiled for use in radiochemical modelling work, HATCHES also includes data suitable for many other applications e.g. toxic waste disposal, effluent treatment and chemical processing. It is used in conjunction with chemical and geochemical computer programs, to simulate a wide variety of reactions in aqueous environments. The database includes thermodynamic data (the log formation constant and the enthalpy of formation for the chemical species) for the actinides, fission products and decay products. The datasets for Ni, Tc, U, Np, Pu and Am are based on the NEA reviews of the chemical thermodynamics of these elements. The data sets for these elements with oxalate, citrate and EDTA are based on the NEA-selected values. For iso-saccharinic acid, additional data (non-selected values) have been included from the NEA review as well as data derived from other sources. HATCHES also includes data for many toxic metals and for elements commonly found in groundwaters or geological materials. HARPHRQ operates by reference to the PHREEQE master species list. Thus the thermodynamic information supplied is: a) the log equilibrium constant for the formation reaction of the requested species from the PHREEQE master species for the corresponding elements; b) the enthalpy of reaction for the formation reaction of the requested species from the PHREEQE master species for the corresponding elements. This version of HATCHES has been updated since the previous release to provide consistency with the selected data from two recent publications in the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency series on chemical thermodynamics: Chemical Thermodynamics Series Volume 7 (2005): Chemical Thermodynamics of Selenium by Aeke Olin (Chairman), Bengt Nolaeng, Lars-Olof Oehman, Evgeniy Osadchii and Erik Rosen and Chemical Thermodynamics Series Volume 8

  11. Growth of a manganese nodule from Peru Basin: a radiochemical anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyss, J.L.; Lemaitre, N.; Marchig, V.; Southon, J.R.; Nelson, D.E.; Vogel, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    Attempts have been made to study the entire growth history of a manganese nodule from the northern part of Peru Basin in the Pacific using radiochemical profiles of 230 Th/ 232 Th, 227 Th/ 230 Th and 10 Be/ 9 Be. Combined with the observations on Fe-Mn contents and textural variation, the radiochemical data indicate that the nodule grew more or less concentrically throughout most of its existence since it formed 1.5 my ago, receiving Mn from both bottom water and pore water. This condition appeared to have changed about 180 ky ago when the growth became asymmetric in that the top and bottom sides became fixed in their relative positions on the sea floor. Since then, the bottom side accreted with a fast rate of close to 200 mm/my, apparently fueled by the supply of diagenetically remobilized Mn in pore water from the sediment substrate. In the meantime, the topside accumulated at about 6 mm/my, a value which is in the normal range for deep-sea nodules having their Mn supplied from the hydrogenous source. (author)

  12. Radiochemical determination of thallium by substoichiometric reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muralidhar, N.; Rangamannar, B.; Krishnan, V.R.

    1983-01-01

    A method was developed for the determination of thallium by substoichiometric reduction of Tl(III) with thiourea and separation of the two oxidation states by the extraction of the former into iso-amyl acetate. Thiourea reduces Tl(III) at room temperature quantitatively, with a 2:1 stoichiometry. 2-25 μg Tl can be determined by this method with a precision of 4%. (author)

  13. Minicomputer system for radiochemical analysis by coincidence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brauer, F.P.; Fager, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    Minicomputer-based coincidence analysis methods have been developed for use in performing radiochemical analysis by high-resolution x- and gamma-ray coincidence spectrometry. This paper describes the data-acquisition and analysis methods develolped for qualitative and quantitative analyses of coincidence spectrometric data. Data-acquisition capabilities include both direct multiparameter pulse-height analysis and buffered list-mode acquisition

  14. Instrumentation for chemical and radiochemical monitoring in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordmann, F.; Ballard, G.

    2009-01-01

    This article details the instrumentation implemented in French nuclear power plants for the monitoring of chemical and radiochemical effluents with the aim of limiting their environmental impact. It describes the controls performed with chemical automata for the search for drifts, anomalies or pollution in a given circuit. The operation principles of the different types of chemical automata are explained as well as the manual controls performed on samples manually collected. Content: 1 - general considerations; 2 - objectives of the chemical monitoring: usefulness of continuous monitoring with automata, transmission to control rooms and related actions, redundancy of automata; 3 - instrumentation and explanations for the main circuits: principle of chemical automata monitoring, instrumentation of the main primary circuit, instrumentation of the main secondary circuit, instrumentation of the tertiary circuit, preparation of water makeup (demineralized water), other loops, instrumentation for effluents and environment monitoring, measurement principles of chemical automata, control and maintenance of chemical automata; 4 - manual controls after sampling; 5 - radiochemical monitoring: automatized radiochemical measurements, manual radiochemical measurements; 6 - conclusion

  15. Determination of individual rare earth elements in Vietnamese monazite by radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Van Suc; Nguyen Mong Sinh

    1993-01-01

    Radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) has been applied for determination of rare earth elements (REE) in Vietnamese monazite. The chemical separation procedure used is based on the chromatographic elution of rare earth groups, after the separation of 233 Pa(Th) in irradiated monazite samples by coprecipitation with MnO 2 , the rare earth elements were retained by Biorad AG1 x 8 resin column in 10% 15.4M HNO 3 -90% methanol solution. The elution of heavy rare earth (HREE) and middle rare earth (MREE) groups was carried out with 10% 1M HNO 3 - 90% methanol and 10% 0.05M HNO 3 -90% methanol solution, respectively; while the light rare earths (LREE) were eluted from the column by 0.1M HNO 3 solution. The accuracy of the method was checked by the analysis of granodiorite GSP-I and the rare earth values were in good agreement. (author) 7 refs.; 3 tabs

  16. Radiochemical applications of insoluble sulfate columns. Analytical possibilities in the field of the fission product solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrachina, M.; Sauvagnac, R.

    1962-01-01

    In this paper we go on with our study of the heterogeneous ion-isotopic exchange in column. At present, we apply it to determine the radiochemical composition of the raw solutions used in the industrial recuperation of the long-lived fission products. The separation of the radioelements contained in these solutions is carried out mainly by making use of small columns, 1-3 cm height, of BaSO 4 or SrSO 4 , under selected experimental conditions. These columns behave like a special type of inorganic exchangers, working by absorption or by ion-isotopic exchange depending on the cases,a nd they provide the means for the selective separation of several important fission products employing very small volumes of fixing and eluting solutions. (Author) 11 refs

  17. Radio-chemical applications of functionalized membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Ashok K.

    2011-01-01

    Functionalized polymer membranes have many potential applications as they are task specific. We have developed many functionalized membranes like polymer inclusion membranes, pore-filled membranes and nano-membranes. Radiotracers and other methods have been used to understand the diffusional-transport properties of the Nafion-117 membrane as well as home-made membranes. These membranes have been used to develop novel analytical and separation methods for toxic metal ions and radionuclides. In this talk, an overview of our work on functionalized membrane is presented. (author)

  18. Present status and perspective of radiochemical analysis of radionuclides in Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Olsson, Mattias; Togneri, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Radiochemical analysis plays a critical role in the determination of pure beta and alpha emitting radionuclides for environmental monitoring, radioecology, decommissioning, nuclear forensics and geological dating. A remarkable development on radiochemical analysis has been achieved in the past...... of radionuclides, especially in Nordic countries; some requirements from nuclear industries and research organizations, as well as perspectives on the development of radiochemical analysis are discussed....

  19. Radiochemical surveillance of KNK primary sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamm, H.H.

    1987-01-01

    After 400 effective full power days (EFPD) and a maximum fuel burnup of 100000 MWd/t the reactor was shutdown in August 1982. After replacing the total KNK II/1 core by the second fast core KNK II/2, the plant went into operation again in August 1983. In August 1986 nearly 400 EFPD were achieved with the second core KNK II/2. It is foreseen to exent the operation up to 720 EFPD with the core KNK II/2. KNK II is widely used as is governed by the experimental program rather than by energy production. Radionuclides and other impurities in the primary sodium were determined for plant surveillance as well as for an extensive radiochemistry program. This experimental radiochemistry program includes investigations of radionuclide deposition on pretreated surfaces under flowing sodium and development of new methods for trapping of radionuclides from primary sodium. Aim of this work is to minimize the radiation exposure associated with maintenance and repair work. (orig./HP)

  20. Temperature-controlled micro-TLC: a versatile green chemistry and fast analytical tool for separation and preliminary screening of steroids fraction from biological and environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzycki, Paweł K; Slączka, Magdalena M; Zarzycka, Magdalena B; Bartoszuk, Małgorzata A; Włodarczyk, Elżbieta; Baran, Michał J

    2011-11-01

    This paper is a continuation of our previous research focusing on development of micro-TLC methodology under temperature-controlled conditions. The main goal of present paper is to demonstrate separation and detection capability of micro-TLC technique involving simple analytical protocols without multi-steps sample pre-purification. One of the advantages of planar chromatography over its column counterpart is that each TLC run can be performed using non-previously used stationary phase. Therefore, it is possible to fractionate or separate complex samples characterized by heavy biological matrix loading. In present studies components of interest, mainly steroids, were isolated from biological samples like fish bile using single pre-treatment steps involving direct organic liquid extraction and/or deproteinization by freeze-drying method. Low-molecular mass compounds with polarity ranging from estetrol to progesterone derived from the environmental samples (lake water, untreated and treated sewage waters) were concentrated using optimized solid-phase extraction (SPE). Specific bands patterns for samples derived from surface water of the Middle Pomerania in northern part of Poland can be easily observed on obtained micro-TLC chromatograms. This approach can be useful as simple and non-expensive complementary method for fast control and screening of treated sewage water discharged by the municipal wastewater treatment plants. Moreover, our experimental results show the potential of micro-TLC as an efficient tool for retention measurements of a wide range of steroids under reversed-phase (RP) chromatographic conditions. These data can be used for further optimalization of SPE or HPLC systems working under RP conditions. Furthermore, we also demonstrated that micro-TLC based analytical approach can be applied as an effective method for the internal standard (IS) substance search. Generally, described methodology can be applied for fast fractionation or screening of the

  1. Low-parachor solvents extraction and thermostated micro-thin-layer chromatography separation for fast screening and classification of spirulina from pharmaceutical formulations and food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzycki, Paweł K; Zarzycka, Magdalena B; Clifton, Vicki L; Adamski, Jerzy; Głód, Bronisław K

    2011-08-19

    The goal of this paper is to demonstrate the separation and detection capability of eco-friendly micro-TLC technique for the classification of spirulina and selected herbs from pharmaceutical and food products. Target compounds were extracted using relatively low-parachor liquids. A number of the spirulina samples which originated from pharmaceutical formulations and food products, were isolated using a simple one step extraction with small volume of methanol, acetone or tetrahydrofuran. Herb samples rich in chlorophyll dyes were analyzed as reference materials. Quantitative data derived from micro-plates under visible light conditions and after iodine staining were explored using chemometrics tools including cluster analysis and principal components analysis. Using this method we could easily distinguish genuine spirulina and non-spirulina samples as well as fresh from expired commercial products and furthermore, we could identify some biodegradation peaks appearing on micro-TLC profiles. This methodology can be applied as a fast screening or fingerprinting tool for the classification of genuine spirulina and herb samples and in particular may be used commercially for the rapid quality control screening of products. Furthermore, this approach allows low-cost fractionation of target substances including cyanobacteria pigments in raw biological or environmental samples for preliminary chemotaxonomic investigations. Due to the low consumption of the mobile phase (usually less than 1 mL per run), this method can be considered as environmentally friendly analytical tool, which may be an alternative for fingerprinting protocols based on HPLC machines and simple separation systems involving planar micro-fluidic or micro-chip devices. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis of zirconium and zirconium-niobium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashimova, F.A.; Sadikov, I.I.; Salimov, M.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Zirconium and zirconium-niobium alloys are used on nuclear technology, as fuel cladding of nuclear reactors. Their nuclear-physical, mechanical and thermophysical properties are influenced them matrix and impurity composition, therefore determination of matrix and impurity content of these materials is a very important task. Neutron activation analysis is one from multielemental and high sensible techniques that are widely applied in analysis of high purity materials. Investigation of nuclear-physical characteristics of zirconium has shown that instrumental variant NAA is unusable for analysis due to high radioactivity of a matrix. Therefore it is necessary carrying out radiochemical separation of impurity radionuclides from matrix. Study of the literature datum have shown, that zirconium and niobium are very well extracted from muriatic solution with 5% tributyl phosphineoxide (TBPO) solution in toluene and 0,75 M solution of di-2-ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid (HDEHP) in cyclohexanone. Investigation of these elements extraction in these systems has shown that more effective and selective separation of matrix radionuclides is achieved in HDEHP-3M HCI system. This system is also extracted and hafnium, witch is an accompanying element of zirconium and its high content prevented determination of other impurity elements in sample. Therefore we used extraction system HDEHP-3M HCl for analysis of zirconium and zirconium-niobium alloys in chromatographic variant. By measurement of distribution profile of a matrix and of elution curve of determined elements is established, that for effective separation of impurity and matrix radionuclides there is enough chromatographic column with diameter 1 cm and height of a sorbent layer 7 cm, thus volume of elute, necessary for complete elution of determinate elements is 35-40 ml. On the basis of the carried out researches the technique of radiochemical NAA of high purity zirconium and zirconium-niobium alloy, which allows to

  3. Miniaturized chromatographic radiochemical procedure for 131I - MIBG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barboza, M.F. de; Pereira, N.S. de; Colturato, M.T.; Silva, C.P.G. da.

    1989-12-01

    Different solvents were used in paper chromatographic methods to obtain the best system in routine radiochemical control for 131 I-MIBG produced at IPEN-CNEN/SP. The dates were compared with those obtained with eletrophoresis method in buffer acetate, pH=4.5, 350V, during 40 minutes. The stability of the labeled compound store under 4 0 C was studied during 15 days. Miniaturized chromatographic procedures were established using Whatman 3MM (8x1cm) and n-butanol-:acetic acid: water (S:2:1) as a solvent. the Rf values were: 0.3 (I - ) and 1.0 (MIBG). The radiochemical purity was 99.3 and 99.2% (first day) obtained with eletrophoresis and miniaturized chromatographic procedures, respectively and, 84.7% after 15 days of its preparation. It is a rapid, practical and reproductive method. (author) [pt

  4. Radiochemical regularities of migration mobility of Chernobyl' discharge radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skorobogat'ko, E.P.; Rybalko, S.I.

    1992-01-01

    Data on the radionuclude (RN) migration in environment later the Chernobyl' accident are generalized. Introduction of fallout of the radioactive discharge into environment causes necessity to account and to study different factors of geochemical and physicochemical character determining further RN behaviour in the medium. For a well-founded forecast of the behaviour it is necessity to use a complex of radiochemical and physicochemical research, lying in the base of radiation monitoring of environment. 1 refs

  5. An overview of the status of radiochemical analysis in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solymosi, J.; Toth, G.

    1994-01-01

    This overview covers the following activities at radioanalytical laboratories in Hungary: tracer techniques and their applications; some important new results; radioimmunoassay; x-ray emission analysis and x-ray fluorescence analysis, Moessbauer-spectroscopy and their applications in various fields of science and technology; neutron activation analysis; radiochemical analysis for nuclear power plant applications activities in various laboratories; nuclear environmental analysis (radioanalytical methods for the investigation of contamination by nuclear facilities). (N.T.) 1 fig.; 7 tabs

  6. Decontamination and decommission of a radiochemical laboratory building complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoubek, Norbert

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Handling of unsealed radioactive substances for research and development purposes in chemical or pharmaceutical industries or research centres as well as production of radioactive substances (e.g. for applications in nuclear medicine or industry) requires operation of special radiochemical laboratories. In general, operation of radiochemical laboratories is strongly regulated by the government and national authorities. The operator needs a permit related to radiological protection. In general, technical requirements for such facilities are very high. To ensure high safety standards with respect to the employees and the environment, several radiological protection measures have to be taken. These measures (for example special shielding or ventilation and waste water systems) depend on various factors, e.g. activity in use, kind of nuclides, chemical properties and volatility of substances. In order to close-down such radiochemical laboratories some radiological protection measures have to be maintained to ensure protection of both humans and the environment induced by possible residual contaminations within the facility including technical inventory. However, a later reuse of the facility as a non-radioactive facility requires removal of all radioactive contamination with respect to national regulation. Resulting radioactive wastes have to be disposed of under control of competent authorities. Based on the experience of a decontamination and decommission project for a former radiochemical laboratory complex, the main steps necessary to release such a facility are discussed. Analytical aspects of initial conditions, necessary organisational structures within the project, resources needed estimation and exploration of the radiological situation in the laboratory, elaboration of a measuring strategy and decontamination methods as well as different waste disposal routes in relation to different waste types are reported. (author)

  7. Hanford Environmental Restoration data validation process for chemical and radiochemical analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, M.R.; Bechtold, R.A.; Clark, D.E.; Angelos, K.M.; Winter, S.M.

    1993-10-01

    Detailed procedures for validation of chemical and radiochemical data are used to assure consistent application of validation principles and support a uniform database of quality environmental data. During application of these procedures, it was determined that laboratory data packages were frequently missing certain types of documentation causing subsequent delays in meeting critical milestones in the completion of validation activities. A quality improvement team was assembled to address the problems caused by missing documentation and streamline the entire process. The result was the development of a separate data package verification procedure and revisions to the data validation procedures. This has resulted in a system whereby deficient data packages are immediately identified and corrected prior to validation and revised validation procedures which more closely match the common analytical reporting practices of laboratory service vendors

  8. The determination of the radiochemical purity of 99Tcm-DTPA-HSA injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Guangrong; Zhang Yan

    1996-01-01

    A simple, rapid analytical method of radiochemical purity for the 99 Tc m -DTPA-HSA injection is established. 99 Tc m (VII), 99 Tc m (IV) and labelled compound 99 Tc m -DTPA-HSA are separated by two systems of paper chromatography on Whatman No.1. The solvent of the system A is 85% methanol and that of the system B is water-95% alcohol-ammonium hydroxide (volume ratio is 5:2:1). 90 Tc m (IV) and labelled compound are located at the origin, while R f of 99 Tc m (VII) is about 0.4-0.5 in the system A. R f of 99 Tc m (VII) and labelled compound are about 0.7-0.8, while 99 Tc m (IV) is located at the origin in the system B

  9. Thorium base fuels reprocessing at the L.P.R. (Radiochemical Processes Laboratory) experimental plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almagro, J.C.; Dupetit, G.A.; Deandreis, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The availability of the LPR (Radiochemical Processes Laboratory) plant offers the possibility to demonstrate and create the necessary technological basis for thorium fuels reprocessing. To this purpose, the solvents extraction technique is used, employing TBP (at 30%) as solvent. The process is named THOREX, a one-cycle acid, which permits an adequate separation of Th 232 and U 233 components and fission products. For thorium oxide elements dissolution, the 'chopp-leach' process (installed at LPR) is used, employing a NO 3 H 13N, 0.05M FH and 0.1M Al (NO 3 ) 3 , as solvent. To adapt the pilot plant to the flow-sheet requirements proposed, minor modifications must be carried out in the interconnection of the existing decanting mixers. The input of the plant has been calculated by Origin Code modified for irradiations in reactors of the HWR type. (Author)

  10. A radiochemical procedure for the determination of Po-210 in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, J.M.; Schuettelkopf, H.

    1980-07-01

    A radiochemical procedure for the determination of Po-210 in environmental samples was developed. Soil, sediments, filter materials, plants, water and food samples can be analyzed for Po-210. Wet ashing is achieved with HNO 3 + H 2 O 2 or HCl + HNO 3 . To separate disturbing substances, a coprecipitation with Te is used for sample materials containing silica. Po-210 deposition from HCl solution on Ag platelets with other sample materials is possible directly. Deposited Po-210 is counted by α-spectrometry. For chemical yield determination Po-208 is added, yields range between 60% and 100%. A lower detection limit of about 0,002 pCi Po-210/sample is achievable. (orig./HP) [de

  11. radiochemical study on the medically and technology radionuclides of some lanthanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aglan, H.A.E.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, trials for the production of the medically and technologically interesting 139 Ce and 142 Pr radionuclides through cyclotron irradiations using protons and alpha particles were studied. The radiochemical separation of no-carrier-added cerium from proton irradiated lanthanum was studied by solvent extraction using DEE, TBP and TPPO, the latter reagent being employed for the first time for separation of radio cerium from bulk of lanthanum. Distribution coefficients of cerium and lanthanum were investigated as a function of equilibrium time and HNO 3 concentration. A mixture of 0.05 M K 2 Cr 2 O 7 and 0.1 M H 2 SO 4 was used as an oxidizing agent to improve the separation efficiency of cerium. A comparative study of the three extractants released that DEE is the best for separation of cerium from bulk of lanthanum oxide. The target was prepared by pressing. The production of 139 Ce of high radionuclidic and chemical purity via irradiation of lanthanum oxide target at MGC-20 cyclotron with protons of energy 14.5 is described. The experimental yield was found to be 153 kBq/μAh .The adsorption behaviour of La/Ce system on Dowex 50W-X8 in different media, namely, nitric acid, acetate buffer and citrate buffer was studied as a function of the concentration of nitric acid and buffer ph. In addition, in cation-exchange column chromatography experiments, three different eluants, namely, citrate buffer of ph 5.5, 0.1 M EDTA and 0.2 M α-HIBA, were employed for separation of Ce (III) from La (III). The optimum conditions for improvement of radiochemical separation of no-carrier-added 139 Ce from proton irradiated lanthanum were applied using the most suitable chelating agent 0.2 M α-HIBA. The purification of 139 Ce from macro amount of La (III) was done using two columns in a sequence. The experimental yield was found to be 200 kBq/μAh.

  12. Determination of isotopic ratios of osmium and ruthenium in meteorites by pretreatment and radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinfang Chai; Yongzhong Liu; Xueying Mao

    1996-01-01

    The isotopic abundance ratios of 190 Os/ 184 Os and 96 Ru/ 102 Ru for the metal phases of the Jilin and Taonan stone meteorites were determined by pretreatment and radiochemical neutron activation analysis. All experimental factors affecting Os and Ru isotopic ratios were discussed, including sampling, standard, irradiation, separation and counting. The statistical errors of measurements for the 199 Os/ 184 Os ratio can be controlled within 1%. The experimental results indicate that the statistically significant anomalies of the 190 Os/ 184 Os and 96 Ru/ 102 Ru ratios have not been found relative to the terrestrial Os and Ru standards. (author). 6 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  13. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis of high pure palladium and platinum by ion exchange chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadikov, I.I.; Zinov'ev, V.G.; Sadikova, Z.O.; Salimov, M.I.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The palladium and platinum are widely used for jewel manufacture because of their beautiful white color. However the most part of these metals are widely adopted in the world as catalysts. Many works on analytical chemistry of platinum group elements published during last years are devoted to determination of platinum and palladium in other materials. There are no articles on analysis technique of the palladium and platinum purity published during last 20 years. Available publications are very old and are published till 70th of the last century, and implement chemical and spectral methods. At the same time, the palladium and platinum are very suitable for NAA. Therefore the purpose of our research was development of high-sensitivity and multielement techniques of radiochemical neutron activation analysis of a high pure palladium and platinum. Research of nuclear characteristics of palladium and platinum has shown that radioactive nuclides with different yields are formed under the reactor neutrons. 109 , 111 , 111m Pd, 109m , 111 Ag, 191 , 197 , 199 Pt, 199 Au are the most important among them. 109Pd separation factor is equal to 1*10 5 at palladium analysis, whereas 197 Pt and 199 Au separation factor is equal to 1*10 4 at the platinum analysis every other day after irradiation. Palladium and platinum can be separated by precipitation, extraction and ion exchange methods. For separation of radioactive nuclide of the matrix elements from the impurity elements we used ion exchange chromatography system Dowex-1x8 - 1 M HNO 3 for palladium and Dowex-1x8 - 0.1 M HNO 3 for platinum. At the HNO 3 acid concentrations variation from 0,1 M to 1 M more then 25 elements have distribution factors less than 1 and 10 elements have distribution factors 5 while matrix elements have distribution factors higher than 100. It allows an effective separation of these elements from palladium and platinum. Optimum sizes of the chromatographic column and the column effluent

  14. Burn-up determination of irradiated uranium oxide by means of direct gama spectrometry and by radiochemical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, I.I.L.; Nastasi, M.J.C.; Lima, F.W.

    1981-09-01

    The burn-up of thermal neutrons irradiated U 3 O 8 (natural uranium) samples has been determined by using both direct gamma spectrometry and radiochemical methods and the results obtained were compared. The fission products 144 Ce, 103 Ru, 106 Ru, 137 Cs and 95 Zr were chosen as burn-up monitors. In order to isolate the radioisotopes chosen as monitors, a radiochemical separation procedure has been established, in which the solvent extraction technique was used to separate cerium, cesium and ruthenium one from the other and all of them from uranium. The separation between zirconium and niobium and of both elements from the other radioisotopes and uranium was accomplished by means of adsorption on a silica-gel column, followed by selective elution of zirconium and of niobium. When use was made of the direct gamma-ray spectrometry method, the radioactivity of each nuclide of interest was measured in presence of all others. For this purpose use was made of gamma-ray spectrometry and of a Ge-Li detector. Comparison of burn-up values obtained by both methods was made by means of Student's 't' test, and this showed that results obtained in each case are statistically equal. (Author) [pt

  15. Self-decomposition of radiochemicals. Principles, control, observations and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, E.A.

    1976-01-01

    The aim of the booklet is to remind the established user of radiochemicals of the problems of self-decomposition and to inform those investigators who are new to the applications of radiotracers. The section headings are: introduction; radionuclides; mechanisms of decomposition; effects of temperature; control of decomposition; observations of self-decomposition (sections for compounds labelled with (a) carbon-14, (b) tritium, (c) phosphorus-32, (d) sulphur-35, (e) gamma- or X-ray emitting radionuclides, decomposition of labelled macromolecules); effects of impurities in radiotracer investigations; stability of labelled compounds during radiotracer studies. (U.K.)

  16. International intercalibration as a method for control of radiochemical analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelova, A.; Totseva, R.; Karaivanova, R.; Dandulova, Z.; Botsova, L.

    1994-01-01

    The participation of the Radioecology Section at the National Centre for Radiology and Radiation Protection (NCRRP) in the International Interlaboratory Comparison of radiochemical analyses organized by WHO is reported. The method of evaluating accuracy of the results from inter calibrations concerning radionuclide determination of environmental samples is outlined. The data from analysis of cesium 137, strontium 90 and radium 226 in milk, sediments, soil and seaweed made by 21 laboratories are presented. They show a good accuracy values of the results from NCRRP. 1 tab. 2 figs., 6 refs

  17. Rapid, radiochemical-ligand binding assay for methotrexate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caston, J.D.

    1976-01-01

    A radiochemical ligand binding assay for methotrexate is provided. A binder factor comprising a partially purified dihydrofolic acid reductase preparation is employed. The binder factor is conveniently prepared by homogenizing a factor containing animal organ such as liver, and extracting with isotonic saline and ammonium sulfate. A binder cofactor, NADPH 2 , is also employed in the binding reaction. The procedure contemplates both direct and sequential assay techniques, and it is not interfered with by vast excesses of many natural folate derivatives. 12 claims, 6 drawing figures

  18. Guiding Principles for Sustainable Existing Buildings: Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, Jason E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-11-11

    In 2006, the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) signed the Federal Leadership in High Performance and Sustainable Buildings Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), along with 21 other agencies. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is exceeding this requirement and, currently, about 25 percent of its buildings are High Performance and Sustainable Buildings. The pages that follow document the Guiding Principles conformance effort for the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) at PNNL. The RPL effort is part of continued progress toward a building inventory that is 100 percent compliant with the Guiding Principles.

  19. Preparation of proton rich radionuclides in support of radiochemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerome, Simon; Larijani, Cyrus; Parker, David

    2012-01-01

    The production of proton rich radionuclides supports a wide range of radiochemical analyses via radioactive yield tracers ( 95m Tc and 236 Pu). In recent years, NPL and the University of Birmingham cyclotron have collaborated to produce these, and other, radionuclides. - Highlights: ► In this paper we options for the production of Tc and Pu tracers. ► The irradiation and measurement of targets producing Tc-95 m and Pu-236 are described. ► Options for production are discussed. ► The results of this study and future work needed are described.

  20. Studies on some Indian paints for radiochemical plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahesh Kumar, V.V.; Srinivasan, R.; Natarajan, R.

    1996-01-01

    The choice of paints in areas subjected to contamination and radiation in nuclear installation need special attention. The types of generic coatings are examined with reference to these requirements. Among those examined, certain types of epoxy paints are found to be attractive for these applications. Samples of epoxy paints obtained from some Indian manufacturers are tested for their suitability. Decontaminability and radiation resistance properties are also evaluated with special reference to radiochemical plants. Important specifications for such applications are listed. This report summarizes the results of these studies. (author)

  1. Rapid Radiochemical Analyses in Support of Fukushima Nuclear Accident - 13196

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.; Hutchison, Jay B. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Building 735-B, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    precipitations, followed by Sr-Resin separation and gas flow proportional counting. To achieve a lower detection limit for analysis of some of the Japanese soil samples, a 10 gram aliquot of soil was taken, acid-leached and processed with similar preconcentration chemistry. The MDA using this approach was ∼0.03 pCi/g (1.1 mBq/g)/, which is less than the 0.05-0.10 pCi/g {sup 90}Sr levels found in soil as a result of global fallout. The chemical yields observed for the Japanese soil samples was typically 75-80% and the laboratory control sample (LCS) and matrix spike (MS) results looked very good for this work Individual QC results were well within the ± 25% acceptable range and the average of these results does not show significant bias. Additional data for a radiostrontium in soil method for 50 gram samples will also be presented, which appears to be a significant step forward based on looking at the current literature, with higher chemical yields for even larger sample aliquots and lower MDA [5, 6, 7] Hou et al surveyed a wide range of separation methods for Pu in waters and environmental solid samples [8]. While there are many actinide methods in the scientific literature, few would be considered rapid due to the tedious and time-consuming steps involved. For actinide analyses in soil, a new rapid method for the determination of actinide isotopes in soil samples using both alpha spectrometry and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry was employed. The new rapid soil method utilizes an acid leaching method, iron/titanium hydroxide precipitation, a lanthanum fluoride soil matrix removal step, and a rapid column separation process with TEVA Resin. The large soil matrix is removed easily and rapidly using these two simple precipitations with high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. [9, 10] Vacuum box technology and rapid flow rates were used to reduce analytical time. Challenges associated with the mineral content in the volcanic soil will be

  2. Assessment of radiochemical purity of [{sup 18}F]fludeoxyglucose by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, Aline E.; Silva, Juliana B.; Silveira, Marina B.; Ferreira, Soraya Z., E-mail: radiofarmacoscdtn@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Pesquisa e Producao de Radiofarmacos

    2011-07-01

    The quality control of [{sup 18}F]fludeoxyglucose ({sup 18}FDG) has received attention due to its increasing clinical use. Although the quality requirements of {sup 18}FDG are established in various pharmacopoeia, the suitability of all testing methods used should be verified under actual conditions of use and documented. The aim of this study was to develop a high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for radiochemical purity evaluation of {sup 18}FDG, based on pharmacopoeia references, and to verify its suitability for routine quality control in our centre. HPLC analysis was performed with an Agilent HPLC. {sup 18}FDG and impurities were separated on an anion-exchange column by isocratic elution with 0.1 M NaOH as the mobile phase. Detection was accomplished with refractive index and NaI (Tl) scintillation detectors. The flow rate of the mobile phase was set at 0.8 mL/min and the column temperature was kept at 35 deg C. Specificity, linearity, precision and robustness were assessed to verify if the method was adequate for its intended purpose. Retention time of {sup 18}FDG was not affected by the presence of other components of the formulation and a good peak resolution was achieved. The analytical curve of {sup 18}FDG was linear, with a correlation coefficient value of 0.9995. Intraday repeatable precision, reported as the relative standard deviation, was 0.11%. Analytical procedure remained unaffected by small variations in mobile phase flow rate. Results evidenced that HPLC is suitable for radiochemical purity evaluation of {sup 18}FDG, considering operational conditions of our laboratory. (author)

  3. Assessment of radiochemical purity of [18F]fludeoxyglucose by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacerda, Aline E.; Silva, Juliana B.; Silveira, Marina B.; Ferreira, Soraya Z.

    2011-01-01

    The quality control of [ 18 F]fludeoxyglucose ( 18 FDG) has received attention due to its increasing clinical use. Although the quality requirements of 18 FDG are established in various pharmacopoeia, the suitability of all testing methods used should be verified under actual conditions of use and documented. The aim of this study was to develop a high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for radiochemical purity evaluation of 18 FDG, based on pharmacopoeia references, and to verify its suitability for routine quality control in our centre. HPLC analysis was performed with an Agilent HPLC. 18 FDG and impurities were separated on an anion-exchange column by isocratic elution with 0.1 M NaOH as the mobile phase. Detection was accomplished with refractive index and NaI (Tl) scintillation detectors. The flow rate of the mobile phase was set at 0.8 mL/min and the column temperature was kept at 35 deg C. Specificity, linearity, precision and robustness were assessed to verify if the method was adequate for its intended purpose. Retention time of 18 FDG was not affected by the presence of other components of the formulation and a good peak resolution was achieved. The analytical curve of 18 FDG was linear, with a correlation coefficient value of 0.9995. Intraday repeatable precision, reported as the relative standard deviation, was 0.11%. Analytical procedure remained unaffected by small variations in mobile phase flow rate. Results evidenced that HPLC is suitable for radiochemical purity evaluation of 18 FDG, considering operational conditions of our laboratory. (author)

  4. Improving the radiochemical purity determination of 123I-labeled metaiodobenzylguanidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luciana Carvalheira; Paulo Bechara Dutra; Paula Fernandes de Aguiar

    2014-01-01

    The HPLC method originally applied at the Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN) for the radiochemical purity determination of 123iodine labeled m-iodobenzylguanidine ( 123 I-mIBG) takes 18.5 min. The final product release also depends on this result, and to facilitate this stage, we aimed to decrease this analysis time. We also intended to use fewer toxic compounds, if feasible. The optimization approach used herein was a combination of factorial and mixture designs to study simultaneously the selected variables. Analysis time, resolution and chromatograms aspect were the measured responses. The qualitative analysis of these responses provided the best chromatographic separation conditions that were 52 mM KH 2 PO 4 in a solution of ethanol and water (1:1), applying a flow rate of 0.50 mL min -1 and C18 column (4.6 × 250 mm, 5 μm). These optimum conditions not only decreased the analysis time in 61 %, but also allowed the reduction of mobile phase toxicity. To assure reliable data, method validation was performed for these conditions. The method has proved its specificity, the detection limit found was 3.70 × 10 -4 MBq mL -1 and the quantification limit has corresponded to 1.11 × 10 -3 MBq mL -1 . Repeatability and intermediate precision has not exceeded 3 and 5 %, respectively, and the accuracy has matched the interval of 95-105 %. This new method has been routinely applied in the radiochemical purity determination of 123 I-mIBG at IEN. (author)

  5. Proceedings of DAE-BRNS biennial symposium on emerging trends in separation science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathak, P.N.; Mohapatra, P.K.; Goswami, A.

    2012-01-01

    The symposium on emerging trends in separation science and technology was held during 27 February -1 March, 2012. An attempt has been made to cover a wide range of topics in the symposium including design and synthesis of solvents/resins, development of separation equipment's, separation the nuclear fuel cycle, emerging separation technologies, electrochemical and pyrochemical separations, treatment of industrial effluents, isotope separations, membrane science and technology, radiochemical separations, water treatment and recycling, bioremediation and speciation. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  6. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis based multi-elemental analysis of high purity gallium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashimova, F.A.; Sadikov, I.I; Salimov, M.I.; Zinov'ev, V.G.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Gallium is one of the widely used materials in semiconductor and optoelectronics industry. Gallium is used to produce infrared detectors, piezoelectric sensors, high- and low-temperature transistors for space and defense technology. One of the most important requirements for semiconductor materials of gallium compounds is an excessive high purity for layers and films. Information on impurities (type of an impurity, concentration, character of distribution) is important as for better understanding of the physical and chemical processes taking place in formed semiconductor structures and for the 'know-how' of devices on their basis. The object of this work is to develop radiochemical neutron activation technique for analysis of high purity gallium. Irradiation of 0.1 g of gallium sample in neutron flux of 5·10 13 cm -2 s -1 for 5 hours will result in induced activity of more than 10 8 Bq, due to 72 Ga radionuclide, half-life of which is 14.1 hours. Therefore to perform instrumental NAA of gallium long period (10 day) cooling is required, and high sensitive determination of elements producing short- and long-lived radionuclides (T 1/2 72 Ga. We have studied the behavior of gallium in extraction-chromatographic system 'TBP-HCl'. The experiments have shown that higher factor of distribution (D) and capacity on gallium can be achieved when 'TBP-4M HCl' system is used. However more than 10 trace elements have high D and thus they cannot be separated from 72 Ga. To resolve the problem and increase the number of separated trace elements we have used preliminary satisfaction of chromatographic column with tellurium, which has D higher than the most of elements in 'TBP-4M HCl' system and thus suppresses extraction of elements. Distribution profile of gallium along the column and elution curve of 25 trace elements have been measured. Chemical yields of separated elements measured by using radiotracers are more than 93%. On the basis of the carried out researches

  7. Separation and study of nuclides far from beta stability and search for new regimes of nuclear stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skarestad, M.

    1977-01-01

    In radiochemical separations progress has been made in developing both discontinuous and continuous separation techniques. Outstanding examples of fast, discontinuous separations have been reported from the University of Mainz where chemical separations are performed on a subsecond time scale. However, when experiments have to be performed repeatedly, a continuous separation process delivering a steady source of short-lived species is more appropriate. Such separations are accomplished in the on-line operating solvent extraction system SISAK. The combination of this separation technique with a Gas Jet Recoil Transport (GJRT) system makes it possible to adapt the separation system to different irradiation facilities. The performance of SISAK has been illustrated through the study of short-lived rare-earth isotopes, using conventional gamma-ray spectroscopy. Following some initial test experiments at a 14 MeV neutron generator in Gothenburg the SISAK system was installed at a Philips PW 5320 neutron generator situated in the Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry, Univ. of Oslo in 1972. In the following two years the main effort was devoted to the development of the experimental separation technique although some physics results were obtained in this period. In 1974 the SISAK system was combined with a GJRT arrangement and installed at the Mainz TRIGA reactor. (JIW)

  8. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the 325 Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shields, K.D.; Ballinger, M.Y.

    1999-03-01

    This Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) has been prepared for the 325 Building Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to meet the requirements in DOE Order 5400.1, ''General Environmental Protection Programs.'' This FEMP has been prepared for the RPL primarily because it has a ''major'' (potential to emit >0.1 mrem/yr) emission point for radionuclide air emissions according to the annual National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) assessment performed. This section summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents and the inventory based NESHAP assessment for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements. The RPL at PNNL houses radiochemistry research, radioanalytical service, radiochemical process development, and hazardous and radioactive mixed waste treatment activities. The laboratories and specialized facilities enable work ranging from that with nonradioactive materials to work with picogram to kilogram quantities of fissionable materials and up to megacurie quantities of other radionuclides. The special facilities within the building include two shielded hot-cell areas that provide for process development or analytical chemistry work with highly radioactive materials and a waste treatment facility for processing hazardous, mixed radioactive, low-level radioactive, and transuranic wastes generated by PNNL activities

  9. A radiochemical analyses of metastudtite and leachates from spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNamara, Bruce K.; Hanson, Brady D.; Buck, Edgar C.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.

    2004-01-01

    Immersion of commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) in deionized water produced two novel corrosion products after a two-year contact period. Another unexpected result was that suspensions of aggregates were observed to form at the air-water interface for each of five samples. These solids were characterized, by SEM and XRD to be nearly pure metastudtite (UO4-2H2O); while the corrosion present on the surface of the fuel itself was determined to be studtite (UO4-2H2O). The occurrence of the floating phase prompted a radiochemical analysis of these solids. This chemical analysis was a unique opportunity to study the relatively pure corrosion phase for incorporation of radionuclides. The analysis indicated that high concentration of 90Sr, 137Cs, 99Tc, and that lower concentrations 237Np, 238, 239Pu and 243, 244Cm had partitioned with the air-water interface aggregates. The concentrations of 241Am were two orders of magnitude lower than the expected inventory in the suspended solids. The radiochemical analyses of the several leachate samples provide preliminary solubility data for the hydrogen peroxide leaching of CSNF and these data are compared to leaching of the same fuel in J-13 and deionized waters. The extent of fuel dissolution in these media are discussed

  10. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the 325 Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shields, K.D.; Ballinger, M.Y.

    1999-04-02

    This Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) has been prepared for the 325 Building Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to meet the requirements in DOE Order 5400.1, ''General Environmental Protection Programs.'' This FEMP has been prepared for the RPL primarily because it has a ''major'' (potential to emit >0.1 mrem/yr) emission point for radionuclide air emissions according to the annual National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) assessment performed. This section summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents and the inventory based NESHAP assessment for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements. The RPL at PNNL houses radiochemistry research, radioanalytical service, radiochemical process development, and hazardous and radioactive mixed waste treatment activities. The laboratories and specialized facilities enable work ranging from that with nonradioactive materials to work with picogram to kilogram quantities of fissionable materials and up to megacurie quantities of other radionuclides. The special facilities within the building include two shielded hot-cell areas that provide for process development or analytical chemistry work with highly radioactive materials and a waste treatment facility for processing hazardous, mixed radioactive, low-level radioactive, and transuranic wastes generated by PNNL activities.

  11. RADIOCHEMICAL YIELDS OF GRAFT POLYMERIZATION REACTIONS OF CELLULOSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Jr, J C; Blouin, F A

    1963-12-15

    The preparation of radioinduced graft polymers of cotton cellulose, while retaining the fibrous nature and high molecular weight of the cellulose, depended primarily on the radiochemical yields of cellulose reactions and of graft polymerization reactions. Yields of the initial major molecular changes in cellulosic polymer indicated that, in the case of scission of the molecule and carboxyl group formation, chain reactions were not initiated by radiation; however, in the case of carbonyl group formation chain reactions were initiated but quickly terminated. Generally, experimental procedures, used in graft polymerization reactions, were: simultaneous irradiation reactions, that is, application of monomers or solutions of monomers to cellulose or chemically modified celluloses, then irradiation; and post-irradiation reactions, that is, irradiation of cellulose or chemically modified celluloses, then after removal from the field of radiation, contacting the irradiated cellulose with monomer. Some of the most important factors influencing the radiochemical yields of graft polymerization reactions, of styrene and acrylonitrile onto cellulose were: concentration of monomer in treating solution; solvent; ratio of monomer solution to cellulose; prior chemical modification of cellulose; and absence of oxygen, particularly in post-irradiation reactions. Experimental data are presented, and the direct and indirect effects of Co/sup 60/ gamma radiation on these reactions are discussed. (auth)

  12. Determination of radiochemical purity and pharmacokinetic parameters of sup(99m)Tc-sulphur colloid and sup(99m)Tc-tin colloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovic, V.; Konstantinovska, D.; Milivojevic, K.; Bzenic, J.

    1981-01-01

    Labelling yield and radiochemical purity, higher than 95%, of sup(99m)Tc-colloid preparations were determined by using the paper chromatography method. Less than 3% of labelled citric acid, added to the preparation as a buffer solution, has been found in sup(99m)Tc-sulphur colloid. High radiochemical purity and optimum size of colloid particles has also been proved by biodistribution studies on experimental animals. The analysis performed has shown that more than 50% of sup(99m)Tc-colloid preparations excreted by urine is sup(99m)TcO - , the remaining past 50% being protein bound sup(99m)Tc. Biological half-time of excretion of the fast phase is the same for both preparations, i.e. 10 min, while for the slow component it is 120 min in sup(99m)Tc-S-colloid and 160 min in sup(99m)Tc-Sn colloid. (orig.) [de

  13. Determination of selenium in roasted beans coffee samples consumed in Algeria by radiochemical neutron activation analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messaoudi, Mohammed; Begaa, Samir; Hamidatou, Lylia; Salhi, M'hamed

    2018-01-01

    The essential trace element selenium is a focus of attention due to its effects on human health, there being consequences of both its deficiency and excess. Due to the ultra-trace content of selenium, the neutron activation analysis method (NAA) is difficult to apply. We therefore made use of the radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) to determine Se at low level concentrations in several consumed food items in Algeria. A radiochemical procedure based on liquid-liquid separation was established in our laboratory. In this research we focused on the determination of selenium in two species of coffee: Arabica and Robusta. The accuracy of the method was assessed by analyzing the certified reference material NIST-SRM 1573a (tomato leaves). The results obtained show a selenium variation from 0.025 to 0.052 μg/g in coffee beans and an average yield of the separation of about 85%. The results of this study were compared with those obtained with samples from Brazilian, Caribbean, Indian and Kenyan coffee beans.

  14. Down-regulation of adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase during fasting requires that a gene, separate from the lipase gene, is switched on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergö, Martin; Wu, Gengshu; Ruge, Toralph; Olivecrona, Thomas

    2002-04-05

    During short term fasting, lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity in rat adipose tissue is rapidly down-regulated. This down-regulation occurs on a posttranslational level; it is not accompanied by changes in LPL mRNA or protein levels. The LPL activity can be restored within 4 h by refeeding. Previously, we showed that during fasting there is a shift in the distribution of lipase protein toward an inactive form with low heparin affinity. To study the nature of the regulatory mechanism, we determined the in vivo turnover of LPL activity, protein mass, and mRNA in rat adipose tissue. When protein synthesis was inhibited with cycloheximide, LPL activity and protein mass decreased rapidly and in parallel with half-lives of around 2 h, and the effect of refeeding was blocked. This indicates that maintaining high levels of LPL activity requires continuous synthesis of new enzyme protein. When transcription was inhibited by actinomycin, LPL mRNA decreased with half-lives of 13.3 and 16.8 h in the fed and fasted states, respectively, demonstrating slow turnover of the LPL transcript. Surprisingly, when actinomycin was given to fed rats, LPL activity was not down-regulated during fasting, indicating that actinomycin interferes with the transcription of a gene that blocks the activation of newly synthesized LPL protein. When actinomycin was given to fasted rats, LPL activity increased 4-fold within 6 h, even in the absence of refeeding. The same effect was seen with alpha-amanitin, another inhibitor of transcription. The response to actinomycin was much less pronounced in aging rats, which are obese and insulin-resistant. These data suggest a default state where LPL protein is synthesized on a relatively stable mRNA and is processed into its active form. During fasting, a gene is switched on whose product prevents the enzyme from becoming active even though synthesis of LPL protein continues unabated.

  15. Paleomagnetism and radiochemical age estimates for Late Brunhes polarity episodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denham, C.R.; Anderson, R.F.; Bacon, M.P.

    1977-01-01

    Several reversed polarity magnetozones occur within deep-sea sediment core CH57-8 from the Greater Antilles Outer Ridge, within sediment of latest Pleistocene/Late Brunhes age. The uppermost reversed interval spanning 31 data points coincides with the X faunal zone of the Last Interglacial Period. Radiochemical dating of cores CH57-8 and KN25-4 has shown that all the reversed polarity magnetozones are significantly younger than the Brunhes/Matuyama boundary at 0.7 m.y.B.P. A variation of the excess 230 Th method was used, in which 210 Po and 238 U were the actual radionuclides measured. In a third core from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the 210 Po results were similar to those which others obtained earlier by direct 230 Th measurements. (Auth.)

  16. Development of robotic plasma radiochemical assays for positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexoff, D.L.; Shea, C.; Fowler, J.S.; Gatley, S.J.; Schlyer, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    A commercial laboratory robot system (Zymate PyTechnology II Laboratory Automation System; Zymark Corporation, Hopkinton, MA) was interfaced to standard and custom laboratory equipment and programmed to perform rapid radiochemical analyses for quantitative PET studies. A Zymark XP robot arm was used to carry out the determination of unchanged (parent) radiotracer in plasma using only solid phase extraction methods. Robotic throughput for the assay of parent radiotracer in plasma is 4--6 samples/hour depending on the radiotracer. Robotic assays of parent compound in plasma were validated for the radiotracers [ 11 C]Benztropine, [ 11 C]cocaine, [ 11 C]clorgyline, [ 11 C]deprenyl, [ 11 C]methadone, [ 11 C]methylphenidate, [ 11 C]raclorpride, and [ 11 C]SR46349B. A simple robot-assisted methods development strategy has been implemented to facilitate the automation of plasma assays of new radiotracers

  17. Handling of Ammonium Nitrate Mother-Liquid Radiochemical Production - 13089

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zherebtsov, Alexander; Dvoeglazov, Konstantine; Volk, Vladimir; Zagumenov, Vladimir; Zverev, Dmitriy; Tinin, Vasiliy; Kozyrev, Anatoly; Shamin, Dladimir; Tvilenev, Konstantin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the work is to develop a basic technology of decomposition of ammonium nitrate stock solutions produced in radiochemical enterprises engaged in the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel and fabrication of fresh fuel. It was necessary to work out how to conduct a one-step thermal decomposition of ammonium nitrate, select and test the catalysts for this process and to prepare proposals for recycling condensation. Necessary accessories were added to a laboratory equipment installation decomposition of ammonium nitrate. It is tested several types of reducing agents and two types of catalyst to neutralize the nitrogen oxides. It is conducted testing of modes of the process to produce condensation, suitable for use in the conversion of a new technological scheme of production. It is studied the structure of the catalysts before and after their use in a laboratory setting. It is tested the selected catalyst in the optimal range for 48 hours of continuous operation. (authors)

  18. Radiochemical analysis in the nuclear research establishment (KFA) Juelich, FRG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    KFA Juelich is one of the two great nuclear research centres of the Federal Republic of Germany. About 3700 employees including about 700 scientists are engaged in a great number of programs and projects belonging to six main fields of research and development: high temperature reactor and energy techniques; nuclear fusion; properties of materials; materials research; life and environment; methods. In the article the radiochemical analysis work of the former Central Institute of Analytical Chemistry and its two successors is described: activation analysis, application of tracer techniques, fission product analysis. Further on the irradiation facilities are described, a short survey is given on the instrumentation, and the future work is outlined. (T.G.)

  19. Computer aided design of piping for a radiochemical plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvaraj, P G; Chandrasekhar, A; Chandrasekar, A V [Reprocessing Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India); Raju, R P; Mahudeeswaran, K V; Kumar, S V [Reprocessing Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    In a radiochemical plant such as reprocessing plants, process equipment, storage tanks, liquid transfer systems and the associated pipe lines etc. are housed in series of concrete cells. Availability of limited cell space/volume, provision of various modes of liquid transfers with associated redundancies and instrumentation lines with standby alternatives increase the overall piping density. Designing such high density piping layout without interference is quite complex and needs lot of human efforts. This paper briefly describes development of computer codes for the entire scheme of design, drafting and fabrication of piping for nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. The general organisation of various programs, their functions, the complete sequence of the scheme and the flow of data are presented. High degree of reliability of each routine, considerable error checking facilities, marking legends on the drawings, provision for scaling in drafting and accuracy to the extent of one mm in layout design are some of the important features of this scheme. (author). 1 fig.

  20. The design of a new radiochemical laboratory complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    A brief account is given of the history and scope of Amersham International plc in the manufacture of radiopharmaceuticals and other labelled organic compounds, and radioactive sources. Extra facilities were needed and a new site was found, and contracts placed for new radiochemical laboratories. The two new laboratories, which are described in some detail, are intended as follows: (a) a Medical Products building for the production of a range of diagnostic kits for use in the treatment of thyroid and other disorders, the main isotope used being iodine-125; and (b) the Chemical Products building, for the development and manufacture of a wide range of organic compounds, which are labelled with either tritium or carbon-14. Particular emphasis is given to the description of the air conditioning and ventilation systems, the open work benches, and the special ventilated enclosures, and the drainage system. Planning for maximum flexibility is also stressed. (U.K.)

  1. Radiochemical methods for studying lipase-catalyzed interesterification of lipids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuch, R.; Mukherjee, K.D.

    1987-01-01

    Reactions involving lipase-catalyzed interesterification of lipids, which are of commendable interest in biotechnology, have been monitored and assayed by radiochemical methods using 14 C-labeled substrates. Medium chain (C 12 plus C 14 ) triacylglycerols were reacted in the presence of an immobilized lipase from Mucor miehei and hexane at 45 0 C with methyl [1- 14 C]oleate, [1- 14 C]oleic acid, [carboxyl- 14 C]trioleoylglycerol, [1- 14 C]octadecenyl alcohol, and [U- 14 C]glycerol, each of known specific activity. The reactions were monitored and the rate of interesterification determined by radio thin layer chromatography from the incorporation of radioactivity into acyl moieties of triacylglycerols (from methyl oleate, oleic acid, and trioleoylglycerol), alkyl moieties of wax esters (from octadecenyl alcohol), and into glycerol backbone of monoacylglycerols and diacylglycerols (from glycerol). (orig.)

  2. Research reactor FR2 - 20 years chemical and radiochemical measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feuerstein, H.; Graebner, H.; Oschinski, J.; Hoffmann, W.; Beyer, J.

    1986-09-01

    The FR2 has been a D 2 O cooled and moderated research reactor with a thermal output of 44 MW. It was in operation from 1961 to 1981. Because of the operating conditions of the reactor, only a small number of routine measurements were performed. For these however special techniques had to be developed. During the 20 years of operation a number of special events occured or have been observed, sometimes with very amazing results, e.g. the 'aceton effect'. This report describes the chemical and radiochemical conditions of the reactor systems, as well as the results of the surveilance work. Not described are measurements for the many experiments. The last chapter gives in a short form a description of the most unusual events and observations. (orig.) [de

  3. Radiochemical plasma salicylamide assay using ring-labeled tritiated salicylamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stella, V J; Varia, S A; Riedy, M

    1979-05-01

    A rat plasma salicylamide assay was developed using ring-labeled tritiated salicylamide, synthesized by reacting salicylamide with tritium oxide in the presence of heptafluorobutyric acid. The reaction yielded /sup 3/H-salicylamide of specific activity up to 8.41 mCi/mmole, 60% yield. Plasma containing /sup 3/H-salicylamide and its metabolites was extracted with a toluene-based scintillation fluid, which was subsequently counted. Specificity for free salicylamide was demonstrated by radiochemical and standard fluorescence plasma salicylamide level-time curves. Specificity resulted from nonextraction of the salicylamide sulfate and glucuronide metabolites. Sulfatase and beta-glucuronidase treatment allowed the analysis of plasma sulfate and glucuronide conjugates as free salicylamide. This procedure should be effective for the analysis of salicylamide and its metabolites in the presence of similar phenolic compounds.

  4. Radiochemical investigations on the solubility of molybdatophosphate in phosphate determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noack, S.

    1975-01-01

    The solubility of various molybdatophosphates was determined under the conditions of a gravimetric phosphate determination by radiochemical means by labelling PO 4 3- with P-32. Starting with various conditions for phosphate determination via the molybdatophosphate of quinoline, 8-hydroxyquinoline, dimorpholino ethane, N,N,N',N'-tetrakis-β-hydroxypropyl ethylene diamine and N,N,N',N'-tetrakis-β-hydroxybutyl ethylene diamine, a general working rule was developed to determine the solubility. Taking the example of quinoline molybdatophosphates, a series of influencing factors - work, concentration and measuring parameters - were investigated in order to be able to limit the reliability region of the gravimetric phosphate determination. Depending on the conditions, the measured solubilities were between 10 -10 and 10 -6 Mol/l, the corresponding degrees of precipitation between 99.0 and 99.9999%. Apparent solubility products were calculated for the different molybdatophosphates using computer programmes especially developed for this purpose. (orig./RB) [de

  5. A rapid, simple method for obtaining radiochemically pure hepatic heme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonkowski, H.L.; Bement, W.J.; Erny, R.

    1978-01-01

    Radioactively-labelled heme has usually been isolated from liver to which unlabelled carrier has been added by long, laborious techniques involving organic solvent extraction followed by crystallization. A simpler, rapid method is devised for obtaining radiochemically-pure heme synthesized in vivo in rat liver from delta-amino[4- 14 C]levulinate. This method, in which the heme is extracted into ethyl acetate/glacial acetic acid and in which porphyrins are removed from the heme-containing organic phase with HCl washes, does not require addition of carrier heme. The new method gives better heme recoveries than and heme specific activities identical to, those obtained using the crystallization method. In this new method heme must be synthesized from delta-amino[4- 14 C]levulinate; it is not satisfactory to use [2- 14 C]glycine substrate because non-heme counts are isolated in the heme fraction. (Auth.)

  6. Radiochemical analyses of several spent fuel Approved Testing Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, R.J.; Blahnik, D.E.; Wildung, N.J.

    1994-09-01

    Radiochemical characterization data are described for UO 2 and UO 2 plus 3 wt% Gd 2 O 3 commercial spent nuclear fuel taken from a series of Approved Testing Materials (ATMs). These full-length nuclear fuel rods include MLA091 of ATM-103, MKP070 of ATM-104, NBD095 and NBD131 of ATM-106, and ADN0206 of ATM-108. ATMs 103, 104, and 106 were all irradiated in the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant (Reactor No.1), a pressurized-water reactor that used fuel fabricated by Combustion Engineering. ATM-108 was part of the same fuel bundle designed as ATM-105 and came from boiling-water reactor fuel fabricated by General Electric and irradiated in the Cooper Nuclear Power Plant. Rod average burnups and expected fission gas releases ranged from 2,400 to 3,700 GJ/kgM. (25 to 40 Mwd/kgM) and from less than 1% to greater than 10%, respectively, depending on the specific ATM. The radiochemical analyses included uranium and plutonium isotopes in the fuel, selected fission products in the fuel, fuel burnup, cesium and iodine on the inner surfaces of the cladding, 14 C in the fuel and cladding, and analyses of the gases released to the rod plenum. Supporting examinations such as fuel rod design and material descriptions, power histories, and gamma scans used for sectioning diagrams are also included. These ATMs were examined as part of the Materials Characterization Center Program conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory provide a source of well-characterized spent fuel for testing in support of the US Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program

  7. Feasibility studies to assess the use of 236Pu as a radiochemical yield monitor in bioassay samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawant, P.D.; Kalsi, P.C.

    2007-01-01

    Various plutonium compounds are handled in nuclear facilities of BARC. Hence, there is a possibility of occupational workers getting exposed to Pu. In vitro bioassay monitoring in which Pu is separated by chemical procedures from excreta samples and estimated by alpha-spectrometry, is the method of choice for the evaluation of internal dose to the occupational workers handling Pu. However, this method requires a suitable Pu tracer for reducing the uncertainties due to chemical yield in the separation, electro-deposition and counting efficiency. 242 Pu is commonly used as a tracer but due to its non-availability, efforts were made earlier to indigenously synthesis 236 Pu by proton irradiation of 237 Np in BARC-TIFR pelletron facility. The present study, reports the feasibility of using 236 Pu as a radiochemical yield monitor (tracer) in bioassay samples. (author)

  8. Observations on the radiochemical control of radiopharmaceuticals at tajoura nuclear research center (TNRC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abuzwida, M.A.; Saad, M.A.; Elmagrahi, H.; Elghanodi, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Production of radioisotopes for the radiopharmaceutical purposes is the main task of Tajoura nuclear center. During the analysis of the 131 I- radioactive solution which was produced using the so-called dry method, the following has been observed : in order to reduce the cost and the time of analytical cycle or time used for the radiochemical purity (RCP), a spot test has been used to indicate the position of the radioactivity in the chromatogram rather than using autoradiographing or the x-ray films. This method was based on the reaction between I 2 and starch to give a blue color at different R f values I 2 is liberated by I - oxidation (H 2 O 2 ) or by IO - 3 reaction with SCN - in the presence of HCl. A simple and fast test for the estimation of the content in the radioactive sample has been elaborated.This method was based on the reduction of Te (IV) or (VI) to Te metal using SnCI 2 in a alkaline media. The detection limit of the elaborated method was found to be 131 I- buffer solution, and 16.0 m S for Na CI saline solution were obtained

  9. Remote-controlled module-assisted synthesis of O-(2-[18F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine as tumor PET tracer using two different radiochemical routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mingwei; Yin Duanzhi; Zhang Lan; Zhou Wei; Wang Yongxian

    2006-01-01

    The positron-emitter fluorine-18 labeled amino acid O-(2-[ 18 F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine ([ 18 F]FET) has shown very promising perspectives for brain tumor diagnosis with positron emission tomography (PET). There have been two existing preparation routes of [ 18 F]FET named direct nucleophilic radiofiuorination of protected L-tyrosine and radiofiuoroallcylation of unprotected L-tyrosine, respectively. A general module was designed specifically for the routine synthesis of [ 18 F]FET, which could be suitable for the present two chemical methods with simple modifications. The fluorinated intermediates and the final product were separated and purified using solid phase extraction (SPE) on the Sep-Pak silica plus cartridge instead of the time-consuming high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) procedures. The total synthesis time was about 50-60 rain with good radiochemical yield (about 20-40%, no-decay-corrected) and good radiochemical purity (more than 97%) for both the synthetic methods. (authors)

  10. Fast comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography method for fatty acid methyl ester separation and quantification using dual ionic liquid columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosheen, Asia; Mitrevski, Blagoj; Bano, Asghari; Marriott, Philip J

    2013-10-18

    Safflower oil is a complex mixture of C18 saturated and unsaturated fatty acids amongst other fatty acids, and achieving separation between these similar structure components using one dimensional gas chromatography (GC) may be difficult. This investigation aims to obtain improved separation of fatty acid methyl esters in safflower oil, and their quantification using comprehensive two-dimensional GC (GC×GC). Here, GC×GC separation is accomplished by the coupling of two ionic liquid (IL) column phases: the combination of SLB-IL111 with IL59 column phases was finally selected since it provided excellent separation of a FAME standard mixture, as well as fatty acids in safflower and linseed oil, compared to other tested column sets. Safflower oil FAME were well separated in a short run of 16min. FAME validation was demonstrated by method reproducibility, linearity over a range up to 500mgL(-1), and limits of detection which ranged from 1.9mgL(-1) to 5.2mgL(-1) at a split ratio of 20:1. Quantification was carried out using two dilution levels of 200-fold for major components and 20-fold for trace components. The fatty acids C15:0 and C17:0 were not reported previously in safflower oil. The SLB-IL111/IL59 column set proved to be an effective and novel configuration for separation and quantification of vegetable and animal oil fatty acids. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Rapid chemical separations

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, N

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given on the progress of fast chemical separation procedures during the last few years. Fast, discontinuous separation techniques are illustrated by a procedure for niobium. The use of such techniques for the chemical characterization of the heaviest known elements is described. Other rapid separation methods from aqueous solutions are summarized. The application of the high speed liquid chromatography to the separation of chemically similar elements is outlined. The use of the gas jet recoil transport method for nuclear reaction products and its combination with a continuous solvent extraction technique and with a thermochromatographic separation is presented. Different separation methods in the gas phase are briefly discussed and the attachment of a thermochromatographic technique to an on-line mass separator is shown. (45 refs).

  12. A fast and sensitive method for the separation of carotenoids using ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumaah, Firas; Plaza, Merichel; Abrahamsson, Victor; Turner, Charlotta; Sandahl, Margareta

    2016-08-01

    In this study, a rapid and sensitive ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPSFC-MS) method has been developed and partially validated for the separation of carotenoids within less than 6 min. Six columns of orthogonal selectivity were examined, and the best separation was obtained by using a 1-aminoanthracene (1-AA) column. The length of polyene chain as well as the number of hydroxyl groups in the structure of the studied carotenoids determines their differences in the physiochemical properties and thus the separation that is achieved on this column. All of the investigated carotenoids were baseline separated with resolution values greater than 1.5. The effects of gradient program, back pressure, and column temperature were studied with respect to chromatographic properties such as retention and selectivity. Electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) were compared in both positive and negative mode, using both direct infusion and hyphenated with UHPSFC. The ESI in positive mode provided the highest response. The coefficient of determination (R (2)) for all calibration curves were greater than 0.998. Limit of detection (LOD) was in the range of 2.6 and 25.2 ng/mL for α-carotene and astaxanthin, respectively, whereas limit of quantification (LOQ) was in the range of 7.8 and 58.0 ng/mL for α-carotene and astaxanthin, respectively. Repeatability and intermediate precision of the developed UHPSFC-MS method were determined and found to be RSD supercritical fluid extracts of microalgae and rosehip. Graphical Abstract Ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography-a rapid separation method for the analysis of carotenoids in rosehip and microalgae samples.

  13. Testing the radiochemical purity of a radiopharmaceutical: study of 99mTc-Tetrofosmin (Myoview)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moati, F.; Quartarone, C.; Jourdain, J.R.; Rizzo, N.; Dumont, A.; De Beco, V.; Ait Ben Ali, S.; Lours, S.; Piketty, M.L.; Izembart, M.; Goudou, C.; Lemercier, V.; Schlageter, M.H.; Moretti, J.L.; Progent, A.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of this study is to optimize the testing method of radiochemical purity (RCP) of 99m Tc-Tetrofosmin proposed by the Amersham Company: thin-layer chromatography (TLC); ITLC-SG support, migration on 15 Cm; acetone-dichloromethane mobile phase, (35/65, v/v), This technique allows separating the reduced-Tc (Rf = 0), the TcO 4 - (Rf = 1), and in intermediary position (0.2 99m Tc-Tetrofosmin. The results of RCP depend on working conditions, particularly, on the volume of deposit (10 to 20 μl, expected). If the deposited is too small, the 99m Tc-Tetrofosmin does not migrate. With a volume of 20 μl, the separation is weak and the peak width is un-resolvable. The results obtained correspond to the following operational conditions: migration on 8 cm; deposit of 8 to 10 μl; no drying. In these conditions the peak of 99m Tc-Tetrofosmin is well singled out: migration Rf of 0.375 to 0.625. These results have been obtained by the analysis of radio-chromatographic peak. Every strip has been cut cm by cm and the activity was measured by a gamma counter. Repeatability of the method on a series of 8 tests is good: average RCP 93.22%, mean value = 93.24%. The reproducibility was realized by measuring directly by the activity-meter the activity corresponding to 3 identifiable peaks: Reduced Tc (Rf 4 - (Rf 99m Tc-Tetrofosmin (0.25 < Rf < 0.75). On the 21 effectuated tests the inter-test RCP reproducibility was good: average value = 95.24%, CV = 2.07%, mean value 95.3%). In conclusion, the miniaturization improves the separation by Myoview (0.25 < Rf < 0.75), diminishes the migration time by a factor 4 and lowers the reactive cost of testing by 50%

  14. Radioactive preparations. Determination of radiochemical purity by thin-layer chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The standard sets the data which must be attached to every sample, and the equipment, chemicals and auxiliary substances used in the determination of radiochemical purity of substances by chromatography. Described are preparation of the sample, the procedure of sample deposition, the development, drying and detection of the radioactive preparation. The qualitative and quantitative assessment of the radiochromatogram is described as are the calculation of radiochemical purity and the determination of the reproducibility of measurement of radiochemical purity of radioactive preparations. (E.S.)

  15. Evaluation of radiochemical neutron activation analysis methods for determination of arsenic in biological materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Rick L

    2011-01-01

    Radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) with retention on hydrated manganese dioxide (HMD) has played a key role in the certification of As in biological materials at NIST. Although this method provides very high and reproducible yields and detection limits at low microgram/kilogram levels, counting geometry uncertainties may arise from unequal distribution of As in the HMD, and arsenic detection limits may not be optimal due to significant retention of other elements. An alternate RNAA procedure with separation of arsenic by solvent extraction has been investigated. After digestion of samples in nitric and perchloric acids, As(III) is extracted from 2 M sulfuric acid solution into a solution of zinc diethyldithiocarbamate in chloroform. Counting of (76)As allows quantitation of arsenic. Addition of an (77)As tracer solution prior to dissolution allows correction for chemical yield and counting geometries, further improving reproducibility. The HMD and solvent extraction procedures for arsenic were compared through analysis of SRMs 1577c (bovine liver), 1547 (peach leaves), and 1575a (pine needles). Both methods gave As results in agreement with certified values with comparable reproducibility. However, the solvent extraction method yields a factor of 3 improvement in detection limits and is less time-consuming than the HMD method. The new method shows great promise for use in As certification in reference materials.

  16. Method Development of Cadmium Investigation in Rice by Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Promsawad, Arunee; Pareepart, Ratirot; Laoharojanaphand, Sirinart; Arunee, Kongsakpaisal

    2007-08-01

    Full text: A radiochemical neutron activation analysis for the determination of cadmium was investigated. A chemical separation of cadmium utilized ion exchange chromatography of a strong basic anion-exchange resin BIO-RAD 1X 8 (Chloride form). The adsorbing medium of 2M HCl was found to be the most suitable among the concentration attempted (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10M HCl) and the eluent for desorption of the cadmium from column was 8M NH 3 solution. A chemical yield of 95% was found. The method has been evaluated by analyzing certified reference materials with 0.5.g/g (SRM 1577b, Bovine Liver) and 2.48.g/g (SRM 1566b, Oyster Tissue) cadmium. The agreement of the result with certified values is within 92% for Bovine Liver and 96% for Oyster Tissue. The method developed was applied to determine the cadmium concentrations in contaminated Thai rice. It was found that the cadmium concentrations ranged from 7.4 to 578.9 ppb

  17. Placement of the radiochemical processing plant at Oak Ridge National Laboratory into a safe standby condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holladay, D.W.; Bopp, C.D.; Farmer, A.J.; Johnson, J.K.; Miller, C.H.; Powers, B.A.; Collins, E.D.

    1986-01-01

    Extensive upgrade, cleanup, and decontamination efforts are being conducted for appropriate areas in the Radiochemical Processing Plant (RPP) with the goal of achieving safe standby condition by the end of FY 1989. The ventilation system must maintain containment thus, it is being upgraded via demolition and replacement of marginally adequate ductwork, fans, and control systems. Areas that are being decontaminated and stripped of various services (e.g., piping, ductwork, and process tanks) include hot cells, makeup rooms, and pipe tunnels. Operating equipment that is being decontaminated includes glove boxes and hoods. Replacement of the ventilation system and removal of equipment from pipe tunnels, cells, and makeup rooms are accomplished by contact labor by workers using proper attire, safety rules, and shielding, Removal of contaminated ductwork and piping is conducted with containment enclosures that are strategically located at breakpoints, and methods of separation are chosen to conform with health physics requirements. The methods of cutting contaminated piping and ductwork include portable reciprocating saws, pipe cutters, burning, and plasma torch. Specially designed containment enclosures will be used to prevent the spread of radioactive contamination while maintaining adequate ventilation

  18. Standard method of test for atom percent fission in uranium fuel - radiochemical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    The determination of the U at. % fission that has occurred in U fuel from an analysis of the 137 Cs ratio to U ratio after irradiation is described. The method is applicable to high-density, clad U fuels (metal, alloys, or ceramic compounds) in which no separation of U and Cs has occurred. The fuels are best aged for several months after irradiation in order to reduce the 13-day 136 Cs activity. The fuel is dissolved and diluted to produce a solution containing a final concentration of U of 100 to 1000 mg U/l. The 137 Cs concentration is determined by ASTM method E 320, for Radiochemical Determination of Cesium-137 in Nuclear Fuel Solutions, and the U concentration is determined by ASTM method E 267, for Determination of Uranium and Plutonium Concentrations and Isotopic Abundances, ASTM method E 318, for Colorimetric Determination of Uranium by Controlled-Potential Coulometry. Calculations are given for correcting the 137 Cs concentration for decay during and after irradiation. The accuracy of this method is limited, not only by the experimental errors with which the fission yield and the half-life of 137 Cs are known

  19. Determination of radiochemical purity of 125I-TOC and 125I-F-PGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Keya; Fan Wo; Zhang Youjiu; Xu Yujie; Zhu Ran; Hu Mingjiang

    2006-01-01

    To explore whether there is accordance among three determination methods of the radiochemical purity of [Tyr 3 ] octreotide (TOC) and folate-penicillin G amidase conjugate (F-PGA), which are both labeled with 125 I by Iodogen method, the RCP of the labelings are determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), paper chromatography and trichloroacetic acid (TCA) precipitation, in which four different concentrations of proteins are used to investigate the effect of them on the determination of RCP. It is shown that both HPLC and paper chromatography can separate the labelings from free iodine efficiently, though HPLC is the most precise and reliable method to determinate RCP of such labelings. In TCA precipitation, the RCP measured with 0.2%BSA is the lowest, but those with three other concentrations of the BSA are similar (P>0.05). When RCP 0.05), whereas higher than that with HPLC (P 10%, the RCP of 125 I-TOC obtained by TCA precipitation is a bit lower than those by two other methods (P 0.05), and there are no significant differences to determinate the RCP of 125 I-F-PGA (P>0.05). The three methods are correlated each other (r=0.0996-0.999, P<0.001). (authors)

  20. Placement of the radiochemical processing plant at Oak Ridge National Laboratory into a safe standby condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holladay, D.W.; Bopp, C.D.; Farmer, A.J.; Johnson, J.K.; Miller, C.H.; Powers, B.A.; Collins, E.D.

    1986-01-01

    Extensive upgrade, cleanup, and decontamination efforts are being conducted for appropriate areas in the Radiochemical Processing Plant (RPP) with the goal of achieving ''safe standby'' condition by the end of FY 1989. The ventilation system must maintain containment; thus, it is being upgraded via demolition and replacement of marginally adequate ductwork, fans, and control systems. Areas that are being decontaminated and stripped of various services (e.g., piping, ductwork, and process tanks) include hot cells, makeup rooms, and pipe tunnels. Operating equipment that is being decontaminated includes glove boxes and hoods. Replacement of the ventilation system and removal of equipment from pipe tunnels, cells, and makeup rooms are accomplished by contact labor by workers using proper attire, safety rules, and shielding. Removal of contaminated ductwork and piping is conducted with containment enclosures that are strategically located at breakpoints, and methods of separation are chosen to conform with health physics requirements. The methods of cutting contaminated piping and ductwork include portable reciprocating saws, pipe cutters, burning, and plasma torch. Specially designed containment enclosures will be used to prevent the spread of radioactive contamination while maintaining adequate ventilation. 6 figs

  1. Development of a radiochemical sensor. Part I: Feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarancon, A. [Departament de Quimica Analitica, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat de Barcelona, C/ Marti Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Garcia, J.F. [Departament de Pintura, Facultat de Belles Arts, Universitat de Barcelona, C/ Pau Gargallo 4, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: jfgarcia@apolo.qui.ub.es; Rauret, G. [Departament de Quimica Analitica, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat de Barcelona, C/ Marti Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2005-05-04

    The evolution of nuclear activities and criteria for radiation protection have led to a continuous increase in measures to monitor and control the environment and therefore in the number of determinations required for such purposes. Classical analytical procedures are time-consuming, labor-intense and generate a large amount of waste. The alternative use of sensors for such determinations has seen very limited development. The present study focuses on the evaluation of the behavior of a prototype radiochemical sensor for liquid effluents. The sensor is based on a receptor made of a plastic scintillator and is capable of continuous, on-time and accurate remote quantification of the activity of alpha, beta and beta-gamma emitters. Low-level active solutions of {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 60}Co in matrices of groundwater, seawater and drinking water were quantified with prediction errors lower than 10% in most cases. The study also yields information about light generation and transmission and transductor configuration that will be useful in the design of future versions of this sensor.

  2. Waste treatment at the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunson, R.R.; Bond, W.D.; Chattin, F.R.; Collins, R.T.; Sullivan, G.R.; Wiles, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    At the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) irradiated targets are processed for the recovery of valuable radioisotopes, principally transuranium nuclides. A system was recently installed for treating the various liquid alkaline waste streams for removal of excess radioactive contaminants at the REDC. Radionuclides that are removed will be stored as solids and thus the future discharge of radionuclides to liquid low level waste tank storage will be greatly reduced. The treatment system is of modular design and is installed in a hot cell (Cubicle 7) in Building 7920 at the REDC where preliminary testing is in progress. The module incorporates the following: (1) a resorcinol-formaldehyde resin column for Cs removal, (2) a cross flow filtration unit for removal of rare earths and actinides as hydroxide, and (3) a waste solidification unit. Process flowsheets for operation of the module, key features of the module design, and its computer-assisted control system are presented. Good operability of the cross flow filter system is mandatory to the successful treatment of REDC wastes. Results of tests to date on the operation of the filter in its slurry collection mode and its slurry washing mode are presented. These tests include the effects of entrained organic solvent in the waste stream feed to the filter

  3. Remote sampling of process fluids in radiochemical plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengar, P.B.; Bhattacharya, R.; Ozarde, P. D.; Rana, D.S.

    1990-01-01

    Sampling of process fluids, continuous or periodic, is an essential requirement in any chemical process plant, so as to keep a control on process variables. In a radiochemical plant the task of taking and conveying the samples is a very tricky affair. This is due to the fact that neither the vessels/equipment containing radioactive effluents can be approached for manual sampling nor sampled fluids can be handled directly. The problems become more accute with higher levels of radioactivity. As such, inovative systems have to be devised to obtain and handle the raioactive samples employing remote operations. The remote sampling system developed in this Division has some of the unique features such as taking only requisite amount of samples in microlitre range, practically maintenance free design, avoidence of excess radioactive fluids coming out of process systems, etc. The paper describes in detail the design of remote sampling system and compares the same with existing systems. The design efforts are towards simplicity in operation, obtaining homogenised representative samples and highly economical on man-rem expenditure. The performance of a prototype system has also been evaluated. (author). 3 refs

  4. Fast and effective determination of strontium-90 in high volumes water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basarabova, B.; Dulanska, S.

    2014-01-01

    A simple and fast method was developed for determination of 90 Sr in high volumes of water samples from vicinity of nuclear power facilities. Samples were taken from the environment near Nuclear Power Plants in Jaslovske Bohunice and Mochovce in Slovakia. For determination of 90 Sr was used solid phase extraction using commercial sorbent Analig R Sr-01 from company IBC Advanced Technologies, Inc.. Determination of 90 Sr was performed with dilute solution of HNO 3 (1.5-2 M) and also tested in base medium with NaOH. For elution of 90 Sr was used eluent EDTA with pH in range 8-9. To achieve fast determination, automation was applied, which brings significant reduction of separation time. Concentration of water samples with evaporation was not necessary. Separation was performed immediately after filtration of analyzed samples. The aim of this study was development of less expensive, time unlimited and energy saving method for determination of 90 Sr in comparison with conventional methods. Separation time for fast-flow with volume of 10 dm 3 of water samples was 3.5 hours (flow-rate approximately 3.2 dm 3 / 1 hour). Radiochemical strontium yield was traced by using radionuclide 85 Sr. Samples were measured with HPGe detector (High-purity Germanium detector) at energy E φ = 514 keV. By using Analig R Sr-01 yields in range 72 - 96 % were achieved. Separation based on solid phase extraction using Analig R Sr-01 employing utilization of automation offers new, fast and effective method for determination of 90 Sr in water matrix. After ingrowth of yttrium samples were measured by Liquid Scintillation Spectrometer Packard Tricarb 2900 TR with software Quanta Smart. (authors)

  5. Automated radiochemical synthesis and biodistribution of [11C]l-α-acetylmethadol ([11C]LAAM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sai, Kiran Kumar Solingapuram; Fan, Jinda; Tu, Zhude; Zerkel, Patrick; Mach, Robert H.; Kharasch, Evan D.

    2014-01-01

    Long-acting opioid agonists methadone and l-α-acetylmethadol (LAAM) prevent withdrawal in opioid-dependent persons. Attempts to synthesize [ 11 C]-methadone for PET evaluation of brain disposition were unsuccessful. Owing, however, to structural and pharmacologic similarities, we aimed to develop [ 11 C]LAAM as a PET ligand to probe the brain exposure of long-lasting opioids in humans. This manuscript describes [ 11 C]LAAM synthesis and its biodistribution in mice. The radiochemical synthetic strategy afforded high radiochemical yield, purity and specific activity, thereby making the synthesis adaptable to automated modules. - Highlights: • Radiochemical synthesis of opioid [ 11 C]l-α-acetylmethadol (LAAM) described for the first time. • High radiochemical yield, purity and specific activity. • Easily reproducible and adaptable synthesis to any C-11 automated modules. • [ 11 C]LAAM utility as a PET radiopharmaceutical for assessing brain penetration

  6. Investigations of radiochemical methods for the platinum group metals for NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tredoux, M.

    A radiochemical procedure for the determination of the platinum group metals and gold is outlined in this report. The sample is irradiated, treated with acids and passed through anion-exchange columns before being determined by gamma spectrometry

  7. Radiochemical and biological control of metaiodobenzyl-guanidine (MIBG) labeled with 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barboza, M.R.F.F. de; Muramoto, E.; Colturato, M.T.; Silva Valente Goncalves, R. da; Pereira, N.P.S. de; Almeida, M.A.T.M. de; Silva, C.P.G. da.

    1988-07-01

    This study shows the standardization of the radiochemical control of MIBG - 131 I in eletrophoretic system and also the biological control in Wistar rat for a period of time, not longer than 60 minutes after tracer administration. (author) [pt

  8. The use of radiochemical analysis for detecting biotracers of food radioactive contamination in Cherkasy Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matvyijenko, D.G.

    2003-01-01

    Stable biotracers of radioactive contamination according to the findings of analytical control of the foodstuffs was determined. The use of radiochemical analysis for determining the activity of the foodstuffs and water (Sr-90, Cs-137) was evaluated

  9. Current studies of biological materials using instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fardy, J.J.; McOrist, G.D.; Farrar, Y.J.

    1985-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis still remains the preferred option when analysing the trace element distribution in a wide rage of materials by neutron activation analysis. However, when lower limits of detection are required or major interferences reduce the effectiveness of this technique, radiochemical neutron activation analysis is applied. This paper examines the current use of both methods and the development of rapid radiochemical techniques for analysis of the biological materials, hair, cow's milk, human's milk, milk powder, blood and blood serum

  10. A comparison of the radiochemical stability of different iodine-131 labelled metaiodobenzylguanidine formulations for therapeutic use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wafelman, A.R.; Beijnen, J.H.; Hoefnagel, C.A.; Maes, R.A.A.

    1994-01-01

    The results of a stability study of three commercially available formulations of [ 131 I]MIBG for therapeutic use and an unstabilized formulation, stored under various conditions, are presented. The stability was followed for 20 days. In all formulations tested, free [ 131 I]iodide, formed by radiolysis, was the most important radiochemical impurity. The pharmaceutical formulation with the largest amount of stabilizer was radiochemically - but not chemically -most stable. (author)

  11. Ketamine metabolites with antidepressant effects: Fast, economical, and eco-friendly enantioselective separation based on supercritical-fluid chromatography (SFC) and single quadrupole MS detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassauer, Georg M; Hofstetter, Robert; Hasan, Mahmoud; Oswald, Stefan; Modeß, Christina; Siegmund, Werner; Link, Andreas

    2017-11-30

    Increasing evidence accumulates that metabolites of the dissociative anesthetic ketamine contribute considerably to the biological effects of this drug and could be developed as next generation antidepressants, especially for acute treatment of patients with therapy-refractory major depression. Analytical methods for the simultaneous determination of the plethora of hydroxylated, dehydrogenated and/or demethylated compounds formed after administration of ketamine hydrochloride are a prerequisite for future clinical investigations and a deeper understanding of the individual role of the isomers of these metabolites. In this study, we present development and validation of a method based on supercritical-fluid chromatography (SFC) coupled to single quadrupole MS detection that allows the separation of ketamine as well as all of its relevant metabolites detected in urine of healthy volunteers. Inherently to SFC methods, the run times of the novel protocol are four times shorter than in a comparable HPLC method, the use of organic solvents is reduced and we were able to demonstrate and validate the successful enantioselective separation and quantification of R- and S-ketamine, R- and S-norketamine, R- and S-dehydronorketamine and (2R,6R)- and (2S,6S)-hydroxynorketamine isomers differing in either constitution, stereochemistry, or both, in one run. The developed method may be useful in investigating the antidepressant efficacy of ketamine in clinical trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade uranyl nitrate solutions

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade uranyl nitrate solution to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Determination of Uranium 7 Specific Gravity by Pycnometry 15-20 Free Acid by Oxalate Complexation 21-27 Determination of Thorium 28 Determination of Chromium 29 Determination of Molybdenum 30 Halogens Separation by Steam Distillation 31-35 Fluoride by Specific Ion Electrode 36-42 Halogen Distillate Analysis: Chloride, Bromide, and Iodide by Amperometric Microtitrimetry 43 Determination of Chloride and Bromide 44 Determination of Sulfur by X-Ray Fluorescence 45 Sulfate Sulfur by (Photometric) Turbidimetry 46 Phosphorus by the Molybdenum Blue (Photometric) Method 54-61 Silicon by the Molybdenum Blue (Photometric) Method 62-69 Carbon by Persulfate Oxidation-Acid Titrimetry 70 Conversion to U3O8 71-74 Boron by ...

  13. Computational modeling of distinct neocortical oscillations driven by cell-type selective optogenetic drive: Separable resonant circuits controlled by low-threshold spiking and fast-spiking interneurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorea Vierling-Claassen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Selective optogenetic drive of fast spiking interneurons (FS leads to enhanced local field potential (LFP power across the traditional gamma frequency band (20-80Hz; Cardin et al., 2009. In contrast, drive to regular-spiking pyramidal cells (RS enhances power at lower frequencies, with a peak at 8 Hz. The first result is consistent with previous computational studies emphasizing the role of FS and the time constant of GABAA synaptic inhibition in gamma rhythmicity. However, the same theoretical models do not typically predict low-frequency LFP enhancement with RS drive. To develop hypotheses as to how the same network can support these contrasting behaviors, we constructed a biophysically principled network model of primary somatosensory neocortex containing FS, RS and low-threshold-spiking (LTS interneurons. Cells were modeled with detailed cell anatomy and physiology, multiple dendritic compartments, and included active somatic and dendritic ionic currents. Consistent with prior studies, the model demonstrated gamma resonance during FS drive, dependent on the time-constant of GABAA inhibition induced by synchronous FS activity. Lower frequency enhancement during RS drive was replicated only on inclusion of an inhibitory LTS population, whose activation was critically dependent on RS synchrony and evoked longer-lasting inhibition. Our results predict that differential recruitment of FS and LTS inhibitory populations is essential to the observed cortical dynamics and may provide a means for amplifying the natural expression of distinct oscillations in normal cortical processing.

  14. Phenolsulphotransferase in human tissue: radiochemical enzymatic assay and biochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.J.; Weinshilboum, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    Phenolsulphotransferase (EC 2.8.2.1) (PST) is an important catecholamine and drug metabolizing enzyme. Optimal conditions have been determined for the accurate measurement of PST activity in the human platelet, human renal cortex, and human jejunum with a radiochemical microassay. 3-Methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) and 35 S-3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate ( 35 S-PAPS) were the substrates for the reaction. The apparent Michaelis-Menten (Ksub(m)) values for MHPG with platelet, renal cortex, and jejunum were 1.09, 0.46 and 1.16 mmol/l, respectively. Apparent Ksub(m) values for PAPS in the same tissues were 0.14, 0.13 and 0.21 μmol/l. The pH optimum of the reacton in all three tissues was approximately 6.2-6.8 with three different buffer systems. The coefficients of variation for the assay of platelet, renal cortex, and jejunal activities were 6.2%, 3.4% and 4.4%, respectively. Mean platelet PST activity in blood samples from 75 randomly selected adult subjects was 5.0 +- 1.72 mmol of MHPG sulfate formed per hour per mg of platelet protein (8.3 X 10 -5 +- 2.9 X 10 -5 μmol min -1 mg -1 , mean +- S.D.). There was a 5-fold intersubject variation in platelet PST activity within two standard deviations of the mean value. Experiments in which partially purified human erythrocyte PST was added to platelet, kidney and gut homogenates under these assay conditions provided evidence that endogenous PST inhibitors did not affect the observed enzyme activity. (Auth.)

  15. Graphene-based solid-phase extraction disk for fast separation and preconcentration of trace polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zonghua; Han, Qiang; Xia, Jianfei; Xia, Linhua; Ding, Mingyu; Tang, Jie

    2013-06-01

    Graphene has great potentials for the use in sample preparation due to its ultra high specific surface area, superior chemical stability, and excellent thermal stability. In our work, a novel graphene-based SPE disk was developed for separation and preconcentration of trace polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from environmental water samples. Based on the strong π-π stacking interaction between the analytes and graphene, the analytes extracted by graphene were eluted by cyclohexane and then determined by GC-MS. Under the optimized conditions, high flow rate (30 mL/min) and sensitivity (0.84-13 ng/L) were achieved. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of real environmental water samples with recoveries ranging from 72.8 to 106.2%. Furthermore, the property of anticlogging and reusability was also improved. This work reveals great potentials of graphene-based SPE disk in environmental analytical. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Fast evaluation of solid harmonic Gaussian integrals for local resolution-of-the-identity methods and range-separated hybrid functionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golze, Dorothea; Benedikter, Niels; Iannuzzi, Marcella; Wilhelm, Jan; Hutter, Jürg

    2017-01-01

    An integral scheme for the efficient evaluation of two-center integrals over contracted solid harmonic Gaussian functions is presented. Integral expressions are derived for local operators that depend on the position vector of one of the two Gaussian centers. These expressions are then used to derive the formula for three-index overlap integrals where two of the three Gaussians are located at the same center. The efficient evaluation of the latter is essential for local resolution-of-the-identity techniques that employ an overlap metric. We compare the performance of our integral scheme to the widely used Cartesian Gaussian-based method of Obara and Saika (OS). Non-local interaction potentials such as standard Coulomb, modified Coulomb, and Gaussian-type operators, which occur in range-separated hybrid functionals, are also included in the performance tests. The speed-up with respect to the OS scheme is up to three orders of magnitude for both integrals and their derivatives. In particular, our method is increasingly efficient for large angular momenta and highly contracted basis sets.

  17. Influence of reaction conditions and the char separation system on the production of bio-oil from radiata pine sawdust by fast pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun Ju; Park, Young-Kwon; Kim, Joo Sik [Faculty of Environmental Engineering, University of Seoul, 90 Jeonnong-Dong, Dondaemun-Gu, Seoul 130-743 (Korea)

    2008-08-15

    Radiata pine sawdust was pyrolyzed in a bubbling fluidized bed equipped with a char separation system. The influence of the reaction conditions on the production of bio-oil was investigated through the establishment of mass balance, and the examination of the products' chemical and physical characteristics. The optimal reaction temperature for the production of bio-oil was between 673 and 723 K, and the yield was above 50 wt.% of the product. An optimal feed size also existed. In a particle with a size that was less than 0.3 mm, the bio-oil yield decreased due to overheating, which led to gas formation. A higher flow rate and feeding rate were found to be more effective for the production of bio-oil, but did not significantly affect it. The main compounds of bio-oil were phenolics, including cresol, guaiacol, eugenol, benzendiol and their derivatives, ketones, and aldehydes. In addition, high-quality bio-oils, which contained less than 0.005 wt.% of solid, no ash and low concentrations of alkali and alkaline earth metals, were produced due to the char removal system. (author)

  18. Testing the radiochemical purity of radiopharmaceuticals: application to {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO; Controle de la purete radiochimique des radiopharmaceutiques: application au {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ait Ben Ali, S.; Darsin, D.; Rizzo, N.; Lours, S.; De Beco, V.; Dumont, A.; Goudou-Sinha, C.; Izembart, M.; Jourdain, J.R.; Lemercier, V.; Linsker, S.; Moati, F.; Piketty, M.L.; Schlageter, M.H.; Moretti, J.L. [Groupe de travail `Radiopharmaceutique - Ile de France` (France)

    1997-12-31

    The low stability of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO imposes to carry out the quality testing within the 15 minutes following the preparation. This study has the aim of comparing different methods of radiochemical purity determination (RP) of this radiopharmaceutical in order to validate a fast, reproducible, feasible technique, capable of separating the primary lipophilic {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO (I) of impurities: hydrophilic secondary complex (II), TcO{sub 4}{sup -}, reduced and halyards Tc. The reference technique associating two thin-layer chromatographies (TLC), `C1` and `C2`, has been compared with a TLC `W` technique and with liquid-liquid extraction `E` technique: C1 - stationary phase, ITLC Silica gel/mobile phase, Butanone-2; C2 - stationary phase, ITLC Silica gel/mobile phase, 0.9% NaCl; W - stationary phase, Papier Whatman n{sup o} 1/mobile phase, Ether; E - extraction with ethyls acetate /0.9% NaCl (1/1 v/v). The `C1` chromatography allows isolating the reduced Tc and the complex II, the `C2` chromatography does the same with TcO{sub 4}{sup -} but it requires too long techniques (20 min.). The `W` and `E` techniques are rapid, reproducible and allow to separate the complex I from the other impurities without discrimination. However, as their results depend upon the deposited quantity of sampling, an optimization and standardization of the techniques are necessary. A forth technique by chromatography on Sep-Pak column is to be evaluated

  19. Mortality coefficients among personnel of radiochemical plants of open-quotes Mayakclose quotes-Combine for 40-year period of observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshurnikova, N.A.; Komleva, N.S.; Baisogolov, G.D.

    1993-01-01

    The results of the epidemiological research, conducted among the personnel of the radiochemical plants of open-quotes Mayakclose quotes. Combine are as follows: during the 40-year-period of observation the mortality rate from all and separate causes, except age, is lower, than the expected one, which is calculated on the basis of the National Statistics. Oncological mortality rate is reliably higher, than the expected one, which is conditioned by the high frequency of lung cancer and leucaemia. Internal α-irradiation plays the leading role in the induction of lung cancer, and the increase of mortality rate from leukemia is closely connected with external γ-irradiation

  20. Literature search, review, and compilation of data for chemical and radiochemical sensors: Task 1 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    During the next several decades, the US Department of Energy is expected to spend tens of billions of dollars in the characterization, cleanup, and monitoring of DOE's current and former installations that have various degrees of soil and groundwater contamination made up of both hazardous and mixed wastes. Each of these phases will require site surveys to determine type and quantity of hazardous and mixed wastes. It is generally recognized that these required survey and monitoring efforts cannot be performed using traditional chemistry methods based on laboratory evaluation of samples from the field. For that reason, a tremendous push during the past decade or so has been made on research and development of sensors. This report contains the results of an extensive literature search on sensors that are used or have applicability in environmental and waste management. While restricting the search to a relatively small part of the total chemistry spectrum, a sizable body of reference material is included. Results are presented in tabular form for general references obtained from data base searches, as narrative reviews of relevant chapters from proceedings, as book reviews, and as reviews of journal articles with particular relevance to the review. Four broad sensor types are covered: electrochemical processes, piezoelectric devices, fiber optics, and radiochemical processes. The topics of surface chemistry processes and biosensors are not treated separately because they often are an adjunct to one of the four sensors listed. About 1,000 tabular entries are listed, including selected journal articles, reviews of conference/meeting proceedings, and books. Literature to about mid-1992 is covered

  1. Literature search, review, and compilation of data for chemical and radiochemical sensors: Task 1 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-01-01

    During the next several decades, the US Department of Energy is expected to spend tens of billions of dollars in the characterization, cleanup, and monitoring of DOE`s current and former installations that have various degrees of soil and groundwater contamination made up of both hazardous and mixed wastes. Each of these phases will require site surveys to determine type and quantity of hazardous and mixed wastes. It is generally recognized that these required survey and monitoring efforts cannot be performed using traditional chemistry methods based on laboratory evaluation of samples from the field. For that reason, a tremendous push during the past decade or so has been made on research and development of sensors. This report contains the results of an extensive literature search on sensors that are used or have applicability in environmental and waste management. While restricting the search to a relatively small part of the total chemistry spectrum, a sizable body of reference material is included. Results are presented in tabular form for general references obtained from data base searches, as narrative reviews of relevant chapters from proceedings, as book reviews, and as reviews of journal articles with particular relevance to the review. Four broad sensor types are covered: electrochemical processes, piezoelectric devices, fiber optics, and radiochemical processes. The topics of surface chemistry processes and biosensors are not treated separately because they often are an adjunct to one of the four sensors listed. About 1,000 tabular entries are listed, including selected journal articles, reviews of conference/meeting proceedings, and books. Literature to about mid-1992 is covered.

  2. Comparison of different thin layer detection techniques to determine the radiochemical purity of radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammermaier, A.; Reich, E.; Boegl, W.

    1985-01-01

    Ten radiopharmaceuticals frequently used in clinical treatment were examined as to their radiochemical purity by paper and thin layer chromatography or electrophoresis, respectively. It is known that radiochemical impurities may result in an unnecessary exposure of the patients to be examined. Other than determining the radiochemical purity of several radiopharmaceuticals, a comparison of the different measuring methods of distributing activity on radiochromatograms or electropherograms is intended by this study. For this, the activity distribution in the developed radiochromatograms was assessed by four different measuring methods (TLC-linear analyzer, TLC-scanner with NaI(Tl) detector, TLC-scanner with gas flow counter and NaI(Tl) well-typ counter). As shown by the above analysis, only the TLC-linear analyzer and the NaI(Tl) well-typ counter (measurement of chromatograms or electropherograms cut into strips) are generally suitable methods for determining the radiochemical purity of radiochemicals, the TLC-scanner with gas flow counter is usable in most cases, while TLC-scanner with NaI(Tl) detector is yielding unsatisfactory results. (orig.) [de

  3. Fast Breeder Reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.; Kittel, J.H.; Fauske, H.K.; Lineberry, M.J.; Stevenson, M.G.; Amundson, P.I.; Dance, K.D.

    1980-07-01

    This report is a compilation of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) resource documents prepared to provide the technical basis for the US contribution to the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. The eight separate parts deal with the alternative fast breeder reactor fuel cycles in terms of energy demand, resource base, technical potential and current status, safety, proliferation resistance, deployment, and nuclear safeguards. An Annex compares the cost of decommissioning light-water and fast breeder reactors. Separate abstracts are included for each of the parts

  4. Fast Breeder Reactor studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.; Kittel, J.H.; Fauske, H.K.; Lineberry, M.J.; Stevenson, M.G.; Amundson, P.I.; Dance, K.D.

    1980-07-01

    This report is a compilation of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) resource documents prepared to provide the technical basis for the US contribution to the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. The eight separate parts deal with the alternative fast breeder reactor fuel cycles in terms of energy demand, resource base, technical potential and current status, safety, proliferation resistance, deployment, and nuclear safeguards. An Annex compares the cost of decommissioning light-water and fast breeder reactors. Separate abstracts are included for each of the parts.

  5. Radiochemical procedure and quantitative determination of the activation product, 63Ni, in environmental soft water samples with high Ca and Mg phosphate concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, N.; Michel, H.; Barci-Funel, G.; Barci, V.

    2008-01-01

    Nickel-63 is a low energy beta-emitter needing a radiochemical separation before β-counting. Several papers described the separation and the detection of 63 Ni in environmental samples. The method used in our work was first developed by SKWARZEC and HOLM. The main steps of this separation are the selective precipitation of nickel with dimethylglyoxime (DMG) and the use of the non-sorption of nickel on anion resin in hydrochloric acid solutions. In this paper, a new step is added to eliminate high quantities of calcium and magnesium phosphate disturbing the iron hydroxide precipitation step. The procedure has been applied to soft water samples: sediments, plants and fishes. The chemical yields are 60, 70 and 20%, respectively. The detection limit of 63 Ni by liquid scintillation spectrometer is 10 mBq. (author)

  6. Method of determination of radiochemical purity of gallium-67 citrate injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Quanji

    1985-01-01

    A simple method is used to compare the effect of five developing agents on the radiochemical purity of neutral products of 67 GaCit and on Rsub(f) values. Two preferable developing agents are recommended as suitable for the identification of 67 GaCit injection in its production. The effect of six pH values of different developing agents on radiochemical purity, Rsub(f) and chromatogram are compared for the neutral products. The results of the experiments show that the ascending paper chromatography with 1:2:4 pyridine/ethanol/water and 85:15 methanol/water is preferable for the determination of the radiochemical purity of 67 GaCit. The other developing agents also can be used if there are not any impurities except gallium radioisotopes

  7. Northern Marshall Islands Radiological Survey: a quality-control program for a radiochemical analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, C.D.; Mount, M.E.

    1983-08-01

    More than 16,000 radiochemical analyses were performed on about 5400 samples of soils, vegetation, animals, fish, invertebrates, and water to establish amounts of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 241 Am, and plutonium isotopes in the Northern Marshall Islands. Three laboratories were contracted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to perform the radiochemical analyses: Environmental Analysis Laboratory (EAL), Richmond, California; Eberline Instrument Corporation (EIC), Albuquerque, New Mexico; and Laboratory of Radiation Ecology (LRE), University of Washington, Seattle, Washington. The analytical precision and accuracy were monitored by regularly including duplicate samples and natural matrix standards in each group of about 100 samples analyzed. Based on the duplicates and standards, over 83% of the radiochemical analyses in this survey were acceptable - 97% of the analyses by EAL, 45% of the analyses by EIC, and 98% of the analyses by LRE

  8. Advanced Aqueous Separation Systems for Actinide Partitioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, Kenneth L.; Clark, Sue; Meier, G Patrick; Alexandratos, Spiro; Paine, Robert; Hancock, Robert; Ensor, Dale

    2012-03-21

    One of the most challenging aspects of advanced processing of spent nuclear fuel is the need to isolate transuranium elements from fission product lanthanides. This project expanded the scope of earlier investigations of americium (Am) partitioning from the lanthanides with the synthesis of new separations materials and a centralized focus on radiochemical characterization of the separation systems that could be developed based on these new materials. The primary objective of this program was to explore alternative materials for actinide separations and to link the design of new reagents for actinide separations to characterizations based on actinide chemistry. In the predominant trivalent oxidation state, the chemistry of lanthanides overlaps substantially with that of the trivalent actinides and their mutual separation is quite challenging.

  9. Abyssal sediment erosion from the Central Indian Basin: Evidence from radiochemical and radiolarian studies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banakar, V.K.; Gupta, S.M.; Padmavati, V.K.

    ) 167-173 167 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam Letter Section Abyssal sediment erosion in the Central Indian Basin: Evidence from radiochemical and radiolarian studies V.K. Banakar, S.M. Gupta and V.K. Padmavathi National Institute... of Oceanography, Dona-Paula, Goa-403 004, India (Revision accepted September 17, 1990) ABSTRACT Banakar, V.K., Gupta, S.M. and Padmavathi, V.K., 1991. Abyssal sediment erosion from the Central Indian Basin: Evi- dence from radiochemical and radiolarian studies...

  10. Radiochemical determination of 210Pb using crown ether

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajda, N.; Bodizs, D.; Vodicska, M.

    1994-01-01

    Gamma spectrometric determination of 210 Pb following chemical separation has been performed very precisely and with high sensitivity, due to the low and constant self-absorption of the chemically pure sample. A simple and quick method for the chemical separation of lead using crown ether has been developed. Its four steps are described in detail. The new method was verified using phosphate ore and gypsum samples that were measured in an interlaboratory comparison and with a standard reference material. This method can also be used for self-absorption correction in direct gamma spectrometry of 210 Pb. (N.T.) 4 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  11. Devising of the method for the determination of small and very small amounts of cadmium in biological materials by radiochemical version of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dybczynski, R.; Samczynski, Z.

    1996-01-01

    The newly modified version of the method for the determination of cadmium in biological materials by radiochemical NAA based on selective post irradiation separation of Cd using ion exchange rasin Retardion 11A8 is presented. The conditions necessary for the selective retaining of Cd on the column exploiting both anionic and cationic ion exchange function of the resin have been discussed. Depending on the composition of the external solution, cadmium existing in the form of either anionic chloride complexes or cationic amine species is taken up by quaternary ammonium or carboxylate functional groups, respectively while accompanying elements are eluted. The elaborated method was further verified by determine Cd content in several certified biological reference materials using neutron activation analysis. The ion exchange separation procedure assures very high radiochemical purity of the cadmium fraction. Decontamination factors obtained for Mo, Sb, Na, Zn, Co, Sc amounted to 10 3 - 10 6 . Detection limit for Cd was 0.5 μg kg -1 . Analytical results show good agreement with the certified values. (author). 10 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab

  12. Chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldridge, F.T.

    1983-01-01

    Intermetallic compounds with the CaCu5 type of crystal structure, particularly LaNiCo and CaNi5, exhibit high separation factors and fast equilibrium times and therefore are useful for packing a chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation column. The addition of an inert metal to dilute the hydride improves performance of the column. A large scale multi-stage chromatographic separation process run as a secondary process off a hydrogen feedstream from an industrial plant which uses large volumes of hydrogen can produce large quantities of heavy water at an effective cost for use in heavy water reactors

  13. Chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldridge, F.T.

    1981-01-01

    Intermetallic compounds with the CaCu5 type of crystal structure , particularly LaNiCo and CaNi5, exhibit high separation factors and fast equilibrium times and therefore are useful for packing a chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation colum. The addition of an inert metal to dilute the hydride improves performance of the column. A large scale mutli-stage chromatographic separation process run as a secondary process off a hydrogen feedstream from an industrial plant which uses large volumes of hydrogen can produce large quantities of heavy water at an effective cost for use in heavy water reactors

  14. Magnetic separations in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borlido, L; Azevedo, A M; Roque, A C A; Aires-Barros, M R

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic separations are probably one of the most versatile separation processes in biotechnology as they are able to purify cells, viruses, proteins and nucleic acids directly from crude samples. The fast and gentle process in combination with its easy scale-up and automation provide unique advantages over other separation techniques. In the midst of this process are the magnetic adsorbents tailored for the envisioned target and whose complex synthesis spans over multiple fields of science. In this context, this article reviews both the synthesis and tailoring of magnetic adsorbents for bioseparations as well as their ultimate application. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of radiochemical methods for the determination of radionuclides in water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajda, N.; Molnar, Zs.; Bodizs, D.

    2004-01-01

    Depending on the composition of minerals, ores, soils and the properties of water various amounts of radionuclides of natural origin are released into different types of water i.e. surface and ground water, mineral and well water. Furthermore, man-made radionuclides can contaminate the surface waters in the form of fallout from nuclear incidents followed by migration of the deposited isotopes into water. Measurement of radionuclides in water helps prevent the consumption of radioactive water causing high radiation doses and also enables the early discovery of contamination sources. For the latter reason monitoring radioactivity in ground water in the vicinity of nuclear installations is of great importance. High sensitivity radiochemical methods have been developed/adopted for the simultaneous determination of 90 Sr-Pu nuclides, 137 Cs- 90 Sr-Pu nuclides in 50-100 L of water. Typically, procedures contain a pre-concentration step most likely by means of co-precipitation followed by a selective separation procedure preferably by means of extraction chromatography. In most cases Sr and Pu are extracted with a crown ether and an organic phosphonate compound, respectively, while Cs is concentrated using AMP. In the presence of extremely high salt content e.g. in case of 100 L of sea water the standard extraction chromatographic procedure has to be replaced by the conventional technique of Sr-Ca separation based on the different solubilities of the nitrate precipitates. Selection criteria as well as description of the procedures will be given in detail. A high sensitivity procedure has been developed for the analysis of 129 I in 100 L of ground water based on pre-concentration with AgCI and separation by extraction with CCl 4 . The following nuclear measuring techniques were applied: LSC, alpha spectrorhetry, gamma spectrometry, neutron activation (including gamma spectrometry) for 90 Sr, 239,240 Pu, 137 Cs, and 129 I, respectively. Sensitivities of the given methods

  16. On the radiochemical purity of elementary 35S with high specific activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorovsky, D.S.; Kostadinov, K.N.; Efremova, Yu.N.

    1979-01-01

    Radiochemical composition and chemical changes with increasing storage time of benzene solutions and of solid species of elementary 35 S with high specific activity are studied. The dependence of the stability on the specific activity and the radioactive concentration is shown and some tentative limits are given for permissible storage periods. (author)

  17. Determination of the radiochemical purity of phosphorus-32 and tritium-labeled diisopropylphosphorofluoridate (DFP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopher, R.E.; Sheppard, G.

    1975-01-01

    A method is described for the determination of the radiochemical purity of labeled diisopropylphosphorofluoridate (DFP), based on the irreversible inhibition reaction with the enzyme α-chymotrypsin. The nature of the impurities in commercially available 32 P- and 3 H-labeled DFP is discussed

  18. Rapid and sensitive enzymatic-radiochemical assay for the determination of triglycerides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoo, J.C.; Miller, E.; Goldberg, D.I.

    1987-01-01

    An enzymatic-radiochemical method suitable for the determination of triglyceride levels of cells in culture is described. The method is based on the enzymatic hydrolysis of triglycerides to free fatty acids which then complex with 63 Ni. The method is rapid, accurate, and inexpensive. The procedure extends the sensitivity of triglyceride measurement to as low as 0.25 nanomoles

  19. Triphenyl phosphine oxide as a substoichiometric radiochemical reagent: Determination of thallium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, P.C.; Polaiah, B.; Rangamannar, B.

    1991-01-01

    A rapid radiochemical method has been developed for the determination of microgram amounts of thallium based on the substoichiometric extraction of its ocmplex with triphenylphosphine oxide into benzene from 6 M sulphuric acid. 10-90 μg of thallium was determined with an average error of 2.06%. The effect of diverse metal ions on the extraction was studied. (orig.)

  20. Computer aided piping layout design in radiochemical plants- an improved software package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, R.P.; Siddiqui, H.R.

    1995-01-01

    A software package was developed and it was successfully implemented for the piping layout design of the four process cells of the Kalpakkam Reprocessing Project. This paper discusses in detail all the improvements and modifications that are being carried out in the package so that it becomes more meaningful and useful for implementation for the forthcoming radiochemical plants

  1. Evaluation of radiochemical purities of some radiopharmaceuticals in Shiraz Namazi teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Sadeghpour

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many radiopharmaceuticals, as a special group of drugs, are eventually prepared at the nuclear medicine departments of the hospitals. Therefore, their quality control procedures such as sterility tests, radionuclide, radiochemical and chemical purity should be carried out in the hospitals. In this study, radiochemical purity for more than 300 preparations of three different radiopharmaceutical formulations from commercial kits were tested using instant thin layer chromatography. The formulations 99mTc-DTPA, 99mTc-MDP and 99mTc-MIBI were obtained from Pars Isotope Co. Several paper chromatographic systems including standard and factory recommended thin layer chromatography systems were used in this study. In addition different equipments for detection of radioactivity in paper chromatography like gamma camera and dose calibrator were used. The results showed that the most observed impurities were hydrolyzed reduced technetium (HR-Tc. There were no significant differences between calculated 99mTc-MIBI radiochemical purities when the radioactive detection device was gamma camera instead of dose calibrator. In case of 99mTc-DTPA and 99mTc-MDP, there were significant differences in detection of HR-Tc. On the contrary, no significant differences in free pertechnetate were observed when package insert procedures for quality control were used instead of those recommended in the references. Finally, we observed that the package insert procedures for quality control can offer higher radiochemical purities.

  2. Application of radiochemical determination methods in cleanability research of building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeaettae, Jenni; Kymaelaeinen, Hanna-Riitta; Sjoeberg, Anna-Maija

    2011-01-01

    During recent years increasing effort has been made to modify surface properties with easy-to-clean or self-cleaning characteristics, and concomitantly there is a need to be able to quantify cleanability. Methodology is a complex issue, including aspects of selection and characterization of the surface materials, the soiling materials (contaminants), soiling and cleaning methods, and the detection methods. Different biological, chemical, physical and visual methods have been included in studies of surface cleanability. One challenge has been to obtain quantitative information about soiling. The radiochemical methods, gamma spectrometry (NaI(Tl)-crystal) and liquid scintillation counting, have been shown to be suitable for evaluating cleanability of different surface materials and different soiling material types, providing quantitative information about the amount of soiling material both on and beneath the surface. Due to the different labelled soiling components, the interaction of the surface with different soiling material types can be evaluated. Radiochemical methods have unique benefits particularly for examining porous materials and surfaces. However, they are suitable only for highly controlled studies because of the hazards. Different features and details of radiochemical methods are discussed with the view to aid planning of future cleanability studies. - Highlights: → Radiochemical methods can be used for cleanability studies. → These methods give quantitative information about the amount of soiling material. → These methods are suitable particularly for examining porous materials. → These methods are suitable for highly controlled studies because of the hazards.

  3. Analytical and radiochemical methods in the stability study of the MIBI-Sm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaac, M.; Leyva, R.; Gamboa, R.; Turino, D.

    1997-01-01

    99mT c-MIBI is a radiopharmaceutical imaging agent useful for assessing myocardial perfusion. This paper presents the stability results obtained in the radiochemical purity and others parameters in the quality control of 5 batch during more than 2 years

  4. Protein binding studies with radiolabeled compounds containing radiochemical impurities. Equilibrium dialysis versus dialysis rate determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honoré, B

    1987-01-01

    The influence of radiochemical impurities in dialysis experiments with high-affinity ligands is investigated. Albumin binding of labeled decanoate (97% pure) is studied by two dialysis techniques. It is shown that equilibrium dialysis is very sensitive to the presence of impurities resulting...

  5. The Northern Marshall Islands radiological survey: A quality control program for radiochemical and gamma spectroscopy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehl, S.R.; Mount, M.E.; Robison, W.L.

    1995-09-01

    From 1979 to 1989, approximately 25,000 Post Northern Marshall Islands Radiological Survey (PNMIRS) samples were collected, and over 71,400 radiochemical and gamma spectroscopy analyses were performed to establish the concentration of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 241 Am, and plutonium isotopes in soil, vegetation, fish, and animals in the Northern Marshall Islands. While the Low Level Gamma Counting Facility (B379) in the Health and Ecological Assessment (HEA) division accounted for over 80% of all gamma spectroscopy analyses, approximately 4889 radiochemical and 5437 gamma spectroscopy analyses were performed on 4784 samples of soil, vegetation, terrestrial animal, and marine organisms by outside laboratories. Four laboratories were used by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to perform the radiochemical analyses: Thermo Analytical Norcal, Richmond, California (TMA); Nuclear Energy Services, North Carolina State University (NCSU); Laboratory of Radiation Ecology, University of Washington (LRE); and Health and Ecological Assessment (HEA) division, LLNL, Livermore, California. Additionally, LRE and NCSU were used to perform gamma spectroscopy analyses. The analytical precision and accuracy were monitored by including blind duplicates and natural matrix standards in each group of samples analyzed. On the basis of reported analytical values for duplicates and standards, 88% of the gamma and 87% of the radiochemical analyses in this survey were accepted. By laboratory, 93% of the radiochemical analyses by TMA; 88% of the gamma-ray spectrometry and 100% of the radiochemistry analyses by NCSU; 89% of the gamma spectroscopy and 87% of the radiochemistry analyses by LRE; and 90% of the radiochemistry analyses performed by HEA's radiochemistry department were accepted

  6. Progress on radiochemical analysis for nuclear waste management in decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, X. (Technical Univ. of Denmark. Center for Nuclear Technologies (NuTech), Roskilde (Denmark))

    2012-01-15

    This report summarized the progress in the development and improvement of radioanalytical methods for decommissioning and waste management completed in the NKS-B RadWaste 2011 project. Based on the overview information of the analytical methods in Nordic laboratories and requirement from the nuclear industry provided in the first phase of the RadWaste project (2010), some methods were improved and developed. A method for efficiently separation of Nb from nuclear waste especially metals for measurement of long-lived 94Nb by gamma spectrometry was developed. By systematic investigation of behaviours of technetium in sample treatment and chromatographic separation process, an effective method was developed for the determination of low level 99Tc in waste samples. An AMS approachment was investigated to measure ultra low level 237Np using 242Pu for AMS normalization, the preliminary results show a high potential of this method. Some progress on characterization of waste for decommissioning of Danish DR3 is also presented. (Author)

  7. Progress on radiochemical analysis for nuclear waste management in decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, X.

    2012-01-01

    This report summarized the progress in the development and improvement of radioanalytical methods for decommissioning and waste management completed in the NKS-B RadWaste 2011 project. Based on the overview information of the analytical methods in Nordic laboratories and requirement from the nuclear industry provided in the first phase of the RadWaste project (2010), some methods were improved and developed. A method for efficiently separation of Nb from nuclear waste especially metals for measurement of long-lived 94Nb by gamma spectrometry was developed. By systematic investigation of behaviours of technetium in sample treatment and chromatographic separation process, an effective method was developed for the determination of low level 99Tc in waste samples. An AMS approachment was investigated to measure ultra low level 237Np using 242Pu for AMS normalization, the preliminary results show a high potential of this method. Some progress on characterization of waste for decommissioning of Danish DR3 is also presented. (Author)

  8. Progress on Radiochemical Analysis for Nuclear Waste Management in Decommissioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Qiao, Jixin; Shi, Keliang

    With the increaed numbers of nuclear facilities have been closed and are being or are going to be decommissioned, it is required to characterise the produced nuclear waste for its treatment by identification of the radionuclides and qualitatively determine them. Of the radionuclides related...... separation of radionuclides. In order to improve and maintain the Nodic competence in analysis of radionculides in waste samples, a NKS B project on this topic was launched in 2009. During the first phase of the NKS-B RadWaste project (2009-2010), a good achivement has been reached on establishment...... of collaboration, identifing the requirements from the Nordic nuclear industries and optimizing and development of some analytical methods (Hou et al. NKS-222, 2010). In the year 2011, this project (NKS-B RadWaste2011) continued. The major achievements of this project in 2011 include: (1) development of a method...

  9. Radiologic contamination of fish. III. Radiochemical studies of contaminated fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawabata, T

    1955-01-01

    The decay rate of the radioactivity of the organs of fish caught by the crew of the Shunkotsu Maru was measured. After 3 months, the spleens, kidneys, and gonads retained considerable radioactivity, suggesting the presence of long-lived radioactive elements. At the end of this time, the liver and other organs retained only about 10% of the initial radioactivity and the bile had lost most of its activity. The retention by the pyloric coeca and the intestinal contents varied considerably and was probably dependent on the food consumed. Absorption of the ash of the organs on Dowex 50 and elution located most of the activity in the fractions eluted with 0.5% oxalic acid and 5% citrate buffers of pH 4.1 and 4.6. Qualitative separation with carriers identified the main radioactive element of the citrate buffer, pH 4.1, eluate as /sup 65/Zn.

  10. Nuclear material control and accountancy in a radiochemical plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, J. M.

    1999-01-01

    The measurement systems in use at Savannah River Site, SRS, to determine material balance around dissolution of fuel, separation and purification of actinides to a nitrate product are described. To ensure that volume accuracy's are as expected, SRS has implemented a volumetric measurement control program to control errors and to detect anomalies. The program consists of periodic instrument calibrations, comparison of in-tank density measurements. An analytical quality control program is in place at SRS to provide assurance that analysis are reliable and to estimate and monitor method performance. Checks include the analysis of standard prior to the use of each method each shift the method is used. At SRS cumulative inventory difference is compared to the combined errors for the balance. The results from current evaluations for uranium and plutonium balances are presented [ru

  11. Improved monitoring procedure for Iodine -131 in radiochemical process laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Pratap; Yadav, R.K.B.; Anilkumar, S.; Gopalakrishnan, R.K.; Chakraborty, S.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation Hazard Control Unit at Isotope wing provides radiological safety support and advises for safe processing and production of radiopharmaceuticals. Tellurium Oxide (TeO 2 ), irradiated in a nuclear reactor, is processed in a process laboratory for separating 131 I using dry distillation technique. The workplace environment is being assessed for airborne radioactivity using installed Static Air Samplers (SASs). SASs contains two filter media (glass fibre and charcoal impregnated paper) to collect airborne 131 I radioactivity and laboratory air sampled at 50 litres per minutes (lpm). Personal Air Sampler (PAS) consists of three types of filters viz. a glass fibre, charcoal impregnated paper and cartridges containing activated charcoal granules. Three combinations were studied at a sampling rate of 5 lpm

  12. Radiochemical determination of 210 Po in tobacco and farm food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, K. H.; Lee, H. P.; Cho, Y. H.; Choi, G. S.; Kim, C. K.; Lee, C. W.

    2002-01-01

    A method for measuring 210 Po in tobacco (cigarette and leaf) and farm food has been studied by alpha- spectrometry. Polonium was separated from HCl solution in the presence of other radionuclides and ascorbic acid (reduction of Fe 3+ ) by spontaneous deposition onto a silver disc. To determine the optimum conditions for plating polonium on a disc, the effects of reducing agent, plating time etc. were investigated. In the method, the samples are spiked with 208 Po (or 209 Po) as a chemical yield tracer. Because the main sources of 210 Po in the human body are food and cigarette smoke, this procedure to determine 210 Po has been applied to tobacco and farm food samples. Analyses of 210 Po in tobacco leaves and farm food samples using this method are in progress. The concentrations of 210 Po in cigarettes were ranged from 17 to 21 mBq/g and compared with published data on this natural radionuclide

  13. Determination of radiochemical purity of chlormerodrin-203 by electrophoretic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovanovic, V; Zmbova, B; Bzenic, J [Institut za Nuklearne Nauke Boris Kidric, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1977-01-01

    Experiments were performed with NaCl (Merck) as an electrolyte in the concentration range from 1.10/sup -5/ to 5.10/sup -2/N at pH 6.8 using low-voltage electrophoresis in a wet chamber (JEVIPLS-Ljujbljana) with a rectifier MA8901. 0.005 cm/sup 3/ of labelled neohydrin-203, at the concentration of 2-4 mg/cm/sup 3/ and with an activity of mCi/cm/sup 3/ was spotted on Whatman No 3, MM (30x2) chromatographic paper stripes. Correction for electroosmosis was performed with 5% H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, and 5% KI was used for the identification of peroxide mobility. Maximum separation of /sup 203/Hg adn and hydroxychlormerodrin was achieved at 0.05 M NaCl at the potential gradient of 8 V/cm for 2 hrs.

  14. In vivo radiochemical properties of Tb-149: A new radiolanthanide for targeted cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, B.J.; Beyer, G.J.; Morel, C.H.; Aleksandrova, Y.; Jahn, S.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: 149 Tb (4.15 h) decays by the emission of both 3.9 MeV alpha particles (17% branching) and positrons (4% branch), and uniquely combines both therapeutic and PET diagnostic properties. In this paper we report the production route, systemic studies of radio-lanthanides with ethylenediaminetetra methylene phosphonate (EDTMP) ligand, and the first 149 Tb phantom studies using PET. The radio-lanthanides used in this study were produced at the ISOLDE (isotope separator on-line) facility at CERN. They are produced carrier free, isotopically and chemically separated (isobaric separation using cation exchange chromatography) in a form suitable for protein labelling. Batches up to 20 mCi of 1 4 9T b are available. We have established relationships between biokinetics, EDTMP concentration, and the ionic radius of the radiolanthanide used. The tumour to liver ratio in mice reaches a maximum value at 1 mM 10 mM and decreases from 10 by almost two decades according to the ionic radius of the lanthanide. For Tb, a tumour to liver ratio of 5 can be obtained, similar to Gd. No significant differences in the uptake in bone for all lanthanides in the EDTMP system were observed. A fast blood clearance allows clear bone images to be obtained via PET at 60-90 min post-injection, as shown with rabbits using 142 Sm-EDTMP. The first phantom PET studies with 149 Tb are also reported. We conclude that the fast biokinetics and the alpha decay mode open up new possibilities for a more efficient endo-radionuclide therapy using EDTMP. The high purity of the 149T b (isotopically separated and carrier free) produced in this way makes it very suitable for the labelling of octretides

  15. Application of mercury cathode electrolysis to fission-product separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besson, A.; Prigent, Y.; Van-Kote, F.

    1969-01-01

    A method involving controlled potential mercury cathode electrolysis has been developed to separate fission products. It allows the radiochemical determination of Ag, Cd, Pd, Rh, Ru, Sn, Te, Sb and Mo from solutions of fission products highly concentrated in mineral salts. The general procedure consists in three main steps: electrolytic amalgam generation, destruction of amalgams and ultimate purification of elements by other means. Electrolytic operations last about five hours. Chemical yields lie between 10 per cent and 70 per cent. (authors) [fr

  16. Radionuclide separation and processing for recycle or disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, W.O.; Morrey, J.R.; Fryberger, T.B.; Wolf, S.M.; Lien, S.C.T.

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) is sponsoring research and development on advanced radiochemical separations, at a modest level, with the long-term goals of reducing the volume of deep geologic repository-disposed waste and the toxicity of low-level waste disposed as cement grout in a near-surface vault. This will help reduce overall environmental risks and the cost of waste management. (author)

  17. Fast, on the spot preparation of pure [99mTc] TRODAT-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, G.; Koernyei, J.; Pavics, L.; Csiszar, M.; Szakonyi, Z.; Fueloep, F.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Based on our experience a reliable preparation of the known dopamine transporter imaging agent, [ 99m Tc]TRODAT-1 could only be performed by including purification step, independently whichever published labeling method was tried. The aim of our study was to find an easy, on the spot preparation technique ensuring a stable radiochemical purity over 95 %. The precursor compound was prepared according the literature. Two series of one vial kits were aseptically prepared using 100 and 50 micrograms of free ligand. Reconstitution of the vials were carried out with 1 - 3 GBq [ 99m Tc]pertechnetate ( 100 o C, 30 min). The crude reaction mixtures were applied onto a preconditioned C 18-SepPak Light cartridge (Waters). After washing the solid phase with 15 ml of 1:50 ethanol / saline, the radioactive complex was eluted with 1 ml of 1:1 ethanol / saline solution. The separation efficiencies were monitored by dose calibrator measurements, while the radiochemical purity was determined by HPLC. All of the recorded HPLC radio-chromatograms exhibited three different peaks in the unpurified reaction mixture: peak-1 was identified as a mixture of hydrophilic technetium complexes, peak-2 was assumed as decomposition product of peak-3 ([ 99m Tc]TRODAT-1 diastereomers). It was found for both series of kits that the ratio of impurity peaks (peak-1 and 2) was increased with rising the 99m Tc activity over 1.5 GBq. Using activities below this limit, the peak ratios indicated individual features for each series. Higher ligand concentration resulted about 1:1 ratio of peak-1 and peak-2 while the amount of peak-3 was between 65 % to 95 %. The total amount of impurity peaks were significantly higher (40 to 60 %) for lower ligand concentration, but peak-2 was negligible (1 - 2 %) in this case. With introducing C18-SepPak purification step we were able to remove peak-1 completely from both series of reaction mixtures while the amount of peak-2 had been increased slightly only. The

  18. Low-level simultaneous determination of As and Sb in standard reference materials using radiochemical neutron activation analysis with isotopic 77As and 125Sb tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, A.R.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to develop an older method used in our laboratory based on selective solvent extraction of As and Sb as their iodides with toluene, and by the use of the radioisotopic tracers 77 As and 125 Sb, to improve the accuracy by better control of the radiochemical yields. 77 As was produced for each sample run by concurrent irradiation of a few mg of GeO 2 followed by a rapid separation of 77 As from 77 Ge. The radiochemically purified sample fraction containing 76+77 As and 122+125 Sb was counted on a Ge detector in good geometry. The γ-lines of the four nuclides do not mutually interfere so that a combined measurement of As and Sb may be made. The method was applied to IAEA Milk Powder A-11, Animal Muscle H-4, Bowen's Kale and some other SRMs. The results obtained are discussed in the light of literature measurements. From present and previous results, together with data by Heydorn, the presently accepted value for As in Bowen's Kale of 140 ngxg -1 may be 20% too high. (orig.)

  19. Application of radiochemical method under radioecological situation study in locations of radioactive wastes damping in shallow gulfs of the Novaya Zemlya Archipelago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanets, O.V.; Borisov, A.P.; Komarevskij, V.M.; Ligachev, A.N.; Solov'eva

    2005-01-01

    Results of works carried out on the 'Boris Petrov Academician' research ship on burial locations examination of submarine potential hazardous objects in the Kara Sea and in the Stepovoj, Abrosimov and Stivol'ka gulfs are cited. Comprehensive radioecological studies in the damping locations of solid radioactive wastes in the Novaya Zemlya Archipelago conducted in 2002-2004 with application of radio-chemical methods for certain radionuclides determination in the samples of bottom sediments and water in the immediate vicinity from the submerged objects are allowing to revealing the objective picture of man-caused contamination of water environment near submerged objects and by the gulfs water area. The studies uniting instrumental tools of acoustic search and visual objects inspection, opportunity of sampling of bottom sediments and near bottom water in the object vicinity and away from it with subsequent analysis of selected samples by the method of direct gamma-spectroscopy and radio-chemical concentration of certain radionuclides are permitting to obtain the statistically assisted data set on special concentrations of cesium, strontium, cobalt, plutonium radionuclides in a water layer and bottom sediments. Obtained results with taking into account of hydrological conditions allow to explain the peculiarities of radioactivity distribution in separate water areas

  20. OPERATIONAL EXPERIENCE: UPGRADED MPC AND A SYSTEMS FOR THE RADIOCHEMICAL PLANT OF THE SIBERIAN CHEMICAL COMBINE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RODRIGUEZ, C.; GOLOSKOKOV, I.; FISHBONE, L.; GOODEY, K.; LOOMIS, M.; CRAIN, B. JR.; LARSEN, R.

    2003-01-01

    The success of reducing the risk of nuclear proliferation through physical protection and material control/accounting systems depends upon the development of an effective design that includes consideration of the objectives of the systems and the resources available to implement the design. Included among the objectives of the design are facility characterization, definition of threat, and identification of targets. When considering resources, the designer must consider funds available, rapid low-cost elements, technology elements, human resources, and the availability of resources to sustain operation of the end system. The Siberian Chemical Combine (SCC) is a multi-function nuclear facility located in the Tomsk region of Siberia, Russia. Beginning in 1996, SCC joined with the United States Department of Energy (US/DOE) Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC and A) Program to develop and implement MPC and A upgrades for the Radiochemical, Chemical Metallurgical, Conversion, Uranium Enrichment, and Reactor Plants of the SCC. At the Radiochemical Plant the MPC and A design and implementation process has been largely completed for the Plutonium Storage Facility and related areas of the Radiochemical Plant. Design and implementation of upgrades for the Radiochemical Plant include rapid physical protection upgrades such as bricking up of doors and windows, and installation of security-hardened doors. Rapid material control and accounting upgrades include installation of modern balances and bar code equipment. Comprehensive MPC and A upgrades include the installation of access controls to sensitive areas of the Plant, alarm communication and display (AC and D) systems to detect and annunciate alarm conditions, closed circuit (CCTV) systems to assess alarm conditions, central and secondary alarm station upgrades that enable security forces to assess and respond to alarm conditions, material control and accounting upgrades that include upgraded physical

  1. Scientific and technical conference. Problems and horizons of development of chemical and radiochemical control in nuclear energetics. Collection of summaries of reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    During scientific and technical conference on problems of development of chemical and radiochemical control in nuclear energetics following themes were considered: the problems of methodological and instrumental assurance of chemical and radiochemical control at working nuclear power plants and nuclear energetic units; modern conceptions of automation systems construction of chemical and radiochemical control on the basis of intellectual measuring channels; the ways of decision of generally system problems of organization and management of chemical and radiochemical control using computed technologies; the problems of certification of chemical and radiochemical methods of measuring in nuclear energetics [ru

  2. Fast reactors and nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlov, V.V.

    1997-01-01

    1.Three aspects of nonproliferation relevant to nuclear power are: Pu buildup in NPP spent fuel cooling ponds (∼ 104 t in case of consumption of ∼ 107 t cheap uranium). Danger of illegal radiochemical extraction of Pu for weapons production; Pu extraction from NPP fuel at the plants available in nuclear countries, its burning along with weapon-grade Pu in NPP reactors or in special-purpose burners; increased hazard of nuclear weapons sprawl with breeders and closed fuel cycle technology spreading all over the world. 2.The latter is one of major obstacles to creation of large-scale nuclear power. 3.Nuclear power of the first stage using 235 U will be able to meet the demands of certain fuel-deficient countries and regions, replacing ∼ 5-10% of conventional fuels in the global consumption for a number of decades. 4.Fast reactors of the first generation and the currently employed fuel technology are far from exhausting their potential for solving economic problems and meeting the challenges of safety, radioactive waste and nonproliferation. Development of large-scale nuclear power will become an option accepted by society for solving energy problems in the following century, provided a breeder technology is elaborated and demonstrated in the next 15-20 years, which would comply with the totality of the following requirement: full internal Pu breeding deterministic elimination of severe accidents involving fuel damage and high radioactivity releases: fast runaway, loss of coolant, fires, steam and hydrogen explosions, etc.; reaching a balance between radioactive wastes disposed of and uranium mined in terms of radiation hazard; technology of closed fuel cycle preventing its use for Pu extraction and permitting physical protection from fuel thefts;economic competitiveness of nuclear power for most of countries and regions, i.e. primarily the cost of NPPs with fat reactors is to be below the cost of modern LWR plants, etc

  3. Radiochemical studies on some industrial pollutants released to the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metwally, E.M.Abel-Ghany

    1997-01-01

    This work aims at characterizing the industrial pollutants that may be released from: Abu-Zaabal fertilizer company, arab ceramic industry, Egyptian alum company near the compass of Atomic Energy Authority (AEA) in Inshas and petroleum pipelines company at the start of lsmailia canal. The work concentrates on soil or/and sediment pollution, the lsmailia canal water stream pollution and plant pollution. Type of the element and its content are major parameters that are traced in the traced in the experimental work. The work stresses on the analysis of the raw materials used in the chosen Factories, their products of current use as well as their wastes and drainage. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique and radiometric determination of elements are adopted through this work. The selection of the technique is based on less time consumption, high accuracy, reliability, selectivity as well as chemical processing and separation need not to applied. Together with INAA determination of natural radioactivity are also adopted for accessing certain specific elements of importance to the fertilizer industry. Beside the mentioned techniques several classical analytical techniques as atomic absorption, spectrophotometric determination and volumetric methods are handled. 25 tabs., 80 figs., 117 refs

  4. Radiochemical Procedures Used at Iaea-Ilmr Monaco for Measuring Artificial Radionuclides Resulting from the Chernobyl Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballestra, S.; Gastaud, J.; Lopez, J. J.

    The Chernobyl accident which occurred on 26 April 1986 resulted in relatively high levels of radioactive fallout over the major part of Europe. Air filter and precipitation samples enabled us to follow the contamination from the accident. In addition contamination was also monitored in selected environmental samples such as seaweeds, sea water, sediment, soil, suspended matter and biological material from the Mediterranean. All samples were counted on Ge(Li) or Ge(HP) detectors to determine the type and quantity of gamma emitting radionuclides and plutonium, americium and curium isotopes were separated and measured using radiochemical techniques and alpha counting. Increased atmospheric radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident was first detected by observing increased activity levels on air filters taken on April 30, 1986, with maximum activities occurring during 1-3 May. Most of the radionuclides initially measured were short-lived fission products. Cs-137 was one of the predominant isotope in the fallout debris and its deposition at Monaco due to Chernobyl was estimated to be around 1400 Bq m-2, which represents 25-40% of the integrated fallout at this latitude. The deposition of Pu-239+240 was much smaller and was estimated to be around 10 mBq m-2 or only 0.1% of the total deposition from nuclear weapon testing.

  5. The analysis of thallium in geological materials by radiochemical neutron activation and x-ray fluorescence spectrometry: a comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGoldrick, P J; Robinson, P [Tasmania Univ., Sandy Bay, TAS (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    Carrier-based radiochemical neutron activation (RNAA) is a precise and accurate technique for the analysis of Tl in geological materials. For about a decade, until the mid-80s, a procedure modified from Keays et al. (1974) was used at the University of Melbourne to analyse for Tl in a wide variety of geological materials. Samples of powdered rock weighing several hundred milligrams each were irradiated in HIFAR for between 12 hours and 1 week, and subsequently fused with a sodium hydroxide - sodium peroxide mixture and several milligrams of inactive Tl carrier. Following acid digestion of the fusion mixture anion exchange resin was used to separate Tl from the major radioactive rock constituents. The Tl was then stripped from the resin and purified as thallium iodide and a yield measured gravimetrically. Activity from {sup 204}Tl (a {beta}-emitter with a 3 8 year half-life) was measured and Tl determined by reference to pure chemical standards irradiated and processed along with the unkowns. Detection limits for the longer irradiations were about one part per billion. Precision was monitored by repeat analyses of `internal standard` rocks and was estimated to be about five to ten percent (one standard deviation). On the other hand, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) was seen as an excellent cost-effective alternative for thallium analysis in geological samples, down to 1 ppm. 6 refs. 1 tab., 1 fig.

  6. The analysis of thallium in geological materials by radiochemical neutron activation and x-ray fluorescence spectrometry: a comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGoldrick, P.J.; Robinson, P. [Tasmania Univ., Sandy Bay, TAS (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    Carrier-based radiochemical neutron activation (RNAA) is a precise and accurate technique for the analysis of Tl in geological materials. For about a decade, until the mid-80s, a procedure modified from Keays et al. (1974) was used at the University of Melbourne to analyse for Tl in a wide variety of geological materials. Samples of powdered rock weighing several hundred milligrams each were irradiated in HIFAR for between 12 hours and 1 week, and subsequently fused with a sodium hydroxide - sodium peroxide mixture and several milligrams of inactive Tl carrier. Following acid digestion of the fusion mixture anion exchange resin was used to separate Tl from the major radioactive rock constituents. The Tl was then stripped from the resin and purified as thallium iodide and a yield measured gravimetrically. Activity from {sup 204}Tl (a {beta}-emitter with a 3 8 year half-life) was measured and Tl determined by reference to pure chemical standards irradiated and processed along with the unkowns. Detection limits for the longer irradiations were about one part per billion. Precision was monitored by repeat analyses of `internal standard` rocks and was estimated to be about five to ten percent (one standard deviation). On the other hand, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) was seen as an excellent cost-effective alternative for thallium analysis in geological samples, down to 1 ppm. 6 refs. 1 tab., 1 fig.

  7. Report on the radiochemical and environmental isotope character for monitoring well UE-1-q: Groundwater Characterization Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davisson, M.L.; Hudson, G.B.; Kenneally, J.; Nimz, G.J.; Rego, J.H.

    1993-06-01

    Well UE-1-q is located in the northeastern portion of area 1 of the Nevada Test Site in southwestern Nevada, 1244.1 meters above sea level. The well was originally an exploratory hole drilled to a depth of 743 meters below the surface (mbs) by LANL in November of 1980. In May 1992, the Groundwater Characterization Program (GCP) extended the total depth to approximately 792.5 mbs. UE-1-q is cased to a total depth of 749.5 mbs, with the remaining uncased depth exposed exclusively to Paleozoicaged carbonate rock, the principle zone of groundwater sampling. Geologic logging indicates approximately 390 meters of tuffaceous and calcareous alluvium overlies 320 meters of Tertiary-aged volcanic ash-flow and bedded tuffs. Paleozoic carbonate lithology extends from 716 mbs to the total well depth and is separated from the overlying Tertiary volcanic deposits by 6 meters of paleocolluvium. This report outlines the results and interpretations of radiochemical and environmental isotopic analyses of groundwater sampled from UE-1-q on July 10, 1992 during the well pump test following well development. In addition, results of the field tritium monitoring performed during the well drilling are reported in Appendix 1. Sampling, analytical techniques, and analytical uncertainties for the groundwater analyses are presented in Appendix 2

  8. Syntheses of therapeutically active labelled molecules for metabolic and pharmacokinetic studies. Synthesis, preservation and radiochemical purity problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichat, L.

    1977-01-01

    Molecules labelled with radioactive isotopes are without question an essential tool for metabolic and pharmacokinetic studies. Carbon 14 is often preferred to tritium since it allows better observation of the fate of carbonated structures. The fact that 14 CO 2 alone is used as basic material is the distinguishing feature of syntheses with isotopic carbon. In many cases the synthesis schemes of labelled drugs diverge considerably or entirely from those normally adopted for the unlabelled product. It is usually necessary to work on micro-quantities in order to maintain high specific activities, which implies the use of special synthesis techniques and of chromatographic separation and purification methods. Radiochemical purity tests are carried out by thin layer, column and gas phase chromatography, purity and identity checks by mass spectrometry and by 13 C and proton RMN. Labelled products are radiolysed by interaction of excited species with the molecules of the compound, a phenomenon much faster with tritiated than with 14 C-labelled molecules. The radiolysis rates may be reduced by molecule dilution. For ethical reasons it is not convenient to use 14 C molecules in human experiments, but molecular labelled with stable isotopes ( 13 C, 15 N, D) can serve instead [fr

  9. Slifers revisited: a method for determining yields independent of radiochemical measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rambo, J.T.

    1976-01-01

    It would be very desirable if an independent method other than radiochemical measurement were available to determine the yields of low-yield events in the alluviums and tuffs of areas 2, 9, and 10 at the Nevada Test Site. The successful application of slifers to the measurement of yields from high-yield events suggests that under some conditions they may also be usable with low-yield events. This view is supported by the evidence discussed here, which is based on direct experience with slifer yield measurements for low-yield events in porous media. Suggested methods for improving slifer yield determinations and a method for determining yields independent of radiochemical measurements are offered

  10. Requirement of radiochemical recovery determination for gross alpha and gross beta estimation in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raveendran, Nanda; Rao, D.D.; Hegde, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    Presence of radionuclides in drinking water which emits Alpha and Beta particles are the potential sources of internal exposure in drinking water. Gross alpha and gross beta determination in drinking water and packaged drinking water (PDW) as per BIS (Bureau of Indian standards) standards is discussed here. The methods have been tested to account for losses in the radiochemical procedures using radionuclides such as 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 226 Ra, 239 Pu, 243 Am, 232 U. The methods have also been validated in an IAEA proficiency test conducted during 2009. Monitoring of gross alpha and gross beta activity observed in drinking water/packaged drinking water from various states of India were within the limits set by BIS. Average radiochemical recoveries of 84% and 63% were obtained for gross α and gross β respectively. (author)

  11. Radiochemical syntheses further radiopharmaceuticals for positron emission tomography and new strategies for their production

    CERN Document Server

    Kilbourn, Michael R; Kilbourn, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    This book describes methods and procedures for preparing PET radiopharmaceuticals, and highlights new methods for conducting radiochemical reactions with carbon-11 (C11) and fluorine-18 (F18), which are two of the most commonly used radionuclides in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging.     Provides reliable methods for radiochemical syntheses and reactions, including all essential information to duplicate the procedure     Eliminates the time-consuming process of searching journal articles and extracting pertinent details from lengthy experimental sections or supporting information     Focuses on an emerging and important area for pharmaceutical and medical applications     Encompasses technical, regulatory, and application aspects     Includes solid-phase radiochemistry, transition-metal catalyzed radiochemistry, microfluidics, click chemistry, green radiochemistry and new strategies for radiopharmaceutical quality control.

  12. Leakage evaluation in the PCV (Primary Containment Vessel) using chemical and radiochemical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Katsuji; Nagasawa, Katsumi

    1998-01-01

    Keeping the reliability of nuclear power plant operation, the primary coolant leakage in the PCV is strictly restricted by the Technical Specifications. It is very important to detect an indication of leakage and estimate the source of leakage to provide countermeasures. Usually the indication of leakage will be detected by increase of drain flow in the PCV sump. There are some possibilities of leakage sources in the PCV, such as reactor water, main steam, condensate, feedwater and closed cooling water. The leakage source contain different chemical and radiochemical species. This means that the leakage source can be presumed and detected by using chemical information from the PCV atmosphere and sump water. To detect the leakage indication and the source quickly and exactly, the PCV Leakage Detection Expert System has been developed. This paper describes how to evaluate the leakage indication and source in the PCV by using chemical and radiochemical data. (author)

  13. Rapid radiochemical methods for preparation of sup(99m)Tc labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narasimhan, D.V.S.; Banodkar, S.M.; Kothari, K.; Mani, R.S.

    1981-01-01

    Several inorganic and organic compounds incorporating sup( 99 m)Tc are being extensively used for imaging various body organs. The preparation of these sup( 99 m)Tc compounds with the necessary purity requirements is carried out by controlled reduction of sup( 99 m)Tc-pertechnetate using Sn(II) ions as the reducing agent followed by complexation with various active ingredients. The authors here present procedures developed at Radiopharmaceuticals Section of BARC for preparing sup( 99 m)Tc-diphosphonate, sup( 99 m)Tc-glucoheptonate, sup( 99 m)Tc-albumin microspheres and sup( 99 m)Tc-phytate with high radiochemical purity. The paper also describes procedures for the preparation of freeze-dried kits for single step preparation of these compounds. The paper also describes the authors' experience with various analytical procedures for the determination of radiochemical purity of these preparations. (author)

  14. Study of performance characteristics of a radiochemical method to determine uranium in biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puga, Maria J.; Cerchietti, Maria L.R.; Prudenzo, J.E.; Arguelles, Maria G.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper is described a methodology to calculate detection limit (Ld), quantification level (Lq) and minimum detectable activity (MDA) in a radiochemical method for determination of uranium in urine samples. The concentration is measured by fluorimetry and alpha gross activity using liquid scintillation counting (LSC). The calculation of total propagated uncertainty on a spike sample is presented. Furthermore, the major sources of uncertainty and percentage contribution in both measurements are assessed. (author)

  15. Determination of mercury in biologycal samples by radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suc, N.V.

    1989-01-01

    The radiochemical neutron activation analysis was applied to determine contents of mercury in biological samples. Samples were digested in mixing of H 2 SO 4 and HNO 3 acid. After extraction of mercury by Ni-Ditiodietylphosphoric acid in carbontetrachloride, mercury was back extracted by 5% KI solution. Contents of mercury from five samples of fish was determined by this method. The accuracy of the method was checked by comparing it with NBS standard samples and results are good agreement

  16. Safety decommissioning regulations of radiochemical objects - the problem, requires urgent decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovnyj, S.I.; Arsent'eva, N.V.; Emel'yanov, N.M.; Kolesnikov, V.N.

    2001-01-01

    The necessity of planning and pursuance of the measures on decommissioning of radiochemical industry is discussed. Technological processes were stopped more than in 30 buildings and constructions of the PO Mayak. The characteristics of the technological buildings to be decommissioned were treated in the context of building peculiarities, function, character and level of contamination. An acceptable variant for reactor decommissioning invites development of the standard-legal aspects [ru

  17. Statistical analysis of radiochemical measurements of TRU radionuclides in REDC waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauchamp, J.; Downing, D.; Chapman, J.; Fedorov, V.; Nguyen, L.; Parks, C.; Schultz, F.; Yong, L.

    1996-10-01

    This report summarizes results of the study on the isotopic ratios of transuranium elements in waste from the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center actinide-processing streams. The knowledge of the isotopic ratios when combined with results of nondestructive assays, in particular with results of Active-Passive Neutron Examination Assay and Gamma Active Segmented Passive Assay, may lead to significant increase in precision of the determination of TRU elements contained in ORNL generated waste streams

  18. A separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokopyuk, S.G.; Dyachenko, A.Ye.; Mukhametov, M.N.; Prokopov, O.I.

    1982-01-01

    A separator is proposed which contains separating slanted plates and baffle plates installed at a distance to them at an acute angle to them. To increase the effectiveness of separating a gas and liquid stream and the throughput through reducing the secondary carry away of the liquid drops and to reduce the hydraulic resistance, as well, openings are made in the plates. The horizontal projections of each opening from the lower and upper surfaces of the plate do not overlap each other.

  19. Synthesis of N-[methyl-11C]hydromorphone by using multivariate strategies for optimization of radiochemical yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimland, Annika; Bergson, Goeran; Obenius, Ulf; Sjoeberg, Stefan; Langstroem, Bengt

    1987-01-01

    The synthesis of N-[methyl- 11 C]hydromorphone has been performed by using [ 11 C]methyl iodide and desmethyl hydromorphone in a mixture of dimethylsulphoxide and dimethylformamide as solvent. Optimization of the radiochemical yield by varying the reaction conditions was performed by using multivariate strategies. The labelled hydromorphone was obtained in 72% radiochemical yield in the alkylation reaction with [ 11 C]-methyl iodide, counted from the end of the [ 11 C]methyl iodide synthesis. N-[Methyl- 11 C]hydromorphone was obtained as a ready injectable pharmaceutical solution with a total synthesis time of 40 min and in a 10% total radiochemical yield, with a radiochemical purity > 99.5%, according to HPLC analysis. (author)

  20. Radiochemical aging of an epoxy network; Vieillissement radiochimique d'un reseau epoxyde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devanne, Th

    2003-05-01

    This thesis is to give a better understanding of the radiochemical aging of a thermoset resin under gamma irradiation. The conditions of aging are gamma irradiation under air with a dose rate of 2 kGy/h at 120 C. The requested lifetime is four years, it means a dose of 70 MGy. The first step of this work was the choice of a resistive epoxy resin. This choice was made thanks to the literature data. The high glass transition temperature and the high amount of aromatic groups were the main criteria of the final choice. After this choice, thermal and mechanical properties were followed under thermal and radiochemical aging: i) under thermal aging, after 600 hours at 220 C, the glass transition temperature remained unchanged. But, from a mechanical point of view, properties at break dramatically decreased. This embrittlement was assigned to a critical oxidized layer. The thickness of this layer was estimated about 30 {mu}m. ii) the same kind of embrittlement was observed under radiochemical aging. Moreover, it appeared a decrease of the glass transition temperature when increasing the dose of irradiation. This indicates that the main degradation mechanism is chain scission under anaerobic atmosphere. We, then, proposed a mechanistic model associated with a kinetic model to predict the evolution of the glass transition temperature depending on the irradiation conditions. Parameters of the kinetic model were determined by solid NMR and ESR experiments. Comparison between experimental and calculated values at 120 C is satisfactory, a global good agreement was found. (author)

  1. Influence of Storage Temperature on Radiochemical Purity of 99mTc-Radiopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uccelli, Licia; Boschi, Alessandra; Martini, Petra; Cittanti, Corrado; Bertelli, Stefania; Bortolotti, Doretta; Govoni, Elena; Lodi, Luca; Romani, Simona; Zaccaria, Samanta; Zappaterra, Elisa; Farina, Donatella; Rizzo, Carlotta; Giganti, Melchiore; Bartolomei, Mirco

    2018-03-15

    The influence of effective room temperature on the radiochemical purity of 99m Tc-radiopharmaceuticals was reported. This study was born from the observation that in the isolators used for the preparation of the 99m Tc-radiopharmaceuticals the temperatures can be higher than those reported in the commercial illustrative leaflets of the kits. This is due, in particular, to the small size of the work area, the presence of instruments for heating, the continuous activation of air filtration, in addition to the fact that the environment of the isolator used for the 99m Tc-radiopharmaceuticals preparation and storage is completely isolated and not conditioned. A total of 244 99m Tc-radiopharmaceutical preparations (seven different types) have been tested and the radiochemical purity was checked at the end of preparation and until the expiry time. Moreover, we found that the mean temperature into the isolator was significantly higher than 25 °C, the temperature, in general, required for the preparation and storage of 99m Tc-radiopharmaceuticals. Results confirmed the radiochemical stability of radiopharmaceutical products. However, as required in the field of quality assurance, the impact that different conditions than those required by the manufacturer on the radiopharmaceuticals quality have to be verified before human administration.

  2. Fast beam radiofrequency spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pipkin, F.M.

    1983-01-01

    The combination of a fast atom or ion beam derived from a small accelerator with radiofrequency spectroscopy methods provides a powerful method for measuring the fine structure of atomic and molecular systems. The fast beam makes possible measurements in which two separated oscillatory fields are used to obtain resonance lines whose widths are less than the natural line width due to the lifetimes of the states. The separated oscillatory field lines have, in addition, a number of features which make possible measurements with greater precision and less sensitivity to systematic errors. The fast beam also makes accessible multiple photon radiofrequency transitions whose line width is intrinsically narrower than that of the single photon transitions and which offer great potential for high precision measurements. This report focuses on the techniques and their promise. Recent measurements of the fine structure of H and He + are used as illustrations

  3. Radiochemical separation of actinides from environmental samples for determination with DF-ICP-MS and alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayranov, M.; Kraehenbuehl, U.; Sahli, H.; Roellin, S.; Burger, M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an optimised sample preparation method for the determination of Pu, Am, and Cm in environmental samples, soils, and sediments, and to compare the sensitivities of DF-ICP-MS, alpha spectrometry, and liquid scintillation alpha spectrometry. Borate fusion was used for sample material digestion. Two methods based on TOPO liquid-liquid extraction and combination of TEVA and TRU extraction chromatography showed highest yields of 92.7% for Pu, 86.8% for Am, and 87.6% for Cm. The detection limits were between 0.014-0.034 Bq/kg for 239 Pu, 0.014-0.093 Bq/kg for 240 Pu, and 0.011-1.20 Bq/kg for 241 Am. Analytical results for 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 240 Pu, 241 Pu and 241 Am and their isotope ratios in certified reference materials (IAEA-135 and IAEA-300) indicated very good accuracy of the methods proposed. (orig.)

  4. General aspects of the cyclotrons and radiochemical separation of: 11 C, 15 O, 18 F and 14 N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alanis M, J.

    1997-07-01

    The particle accelerators, as the cyclotrons, are extraordinarily important as tools for the radioisotope production and its application in the area of the medicine. In this time, another method exists for the production of artificial radioisotopes, based on the irradiation of samples with alpha particles or with neutrons coming from a natural radioisotope being obtained a neutron source (Ra + Be, Rn + Be, Po + Be). However, its can be obtained a great quantity of radioisotopes by means of cyclotrons in very short time, compared with other methods. After the second world war, artificial radioisotopes took place by means of reactors and its had many applications, not only medical and in little time the accelerators were manufactured that were more indispensable that the reactors to produce radioisotopes with medical aims. For this reason, the accelerators, in few years became in machines very important for the production of artificial radioisotopes and consequently its were developed techniques of radioactive traces progressively more sophisticated, since it is evident that the production of radioactive nuclei through nuclear reactors its cannot satisfy all the demands. In general terms, only the neutrons can be used as nuclear projectiles in reactors and as a result, the production spectra of radioisotopes is limited and as alternative it is unavoidable that the cyclotrons are a good tool for this end. The use of a cyclotron to produce radioisotopes, it can be justified, only if the following conditions are completed. 1. If the radioisotopes of an element produced in a reactor don't favor with the nuclear properties for the purposes of the traced studies, for example: if the half life is very short or very big, if the decay system not to suit him. 2. If the wanted radioisotope cannot produce in the reactor with enough specific activity. (Author)

  5. Isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eerkens, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    A method of isotope separation is described which involves the use of a laser photon beam to selectively induce energy level transitions of an isotope molecule containing the isotope to be separated. The use of the technique for 235 U enrichment is demonstrated. (UK)

  6. Simultaneous radiochemical determination of plutonium, strontium, uranium, and iron nuclides and application to atmospheric deposition and aerosol samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosner, G.; Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R. (Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz)

    1990-11-01

    A procedure for the sequential radiochemical determination of plutonium, strontium, uranium and iron nuclides is described. The separation is carried out on a single anion exchange column. Pu(IV), U(VI) and Fe(III) are fixed on Bio Rad AG 1-X4 from 9 mol/l HCl, while the sample effluent is used for the determination of radiostrontium. Fe and U are eluted separately with 7 mol/l HNO{sub 3}, and Pu(III) is eluted with 1.2 mol/l HCl containing hydrogen peroxide. Subsequently, Pu and U are electrolysed and counted by alpha spectrometry. Radiostrontium is purified by the nitrate method and counted in a low level beta proportional counter. Fe is purified by extraction and cation exchange and {sup 55}Fe is counted by X-ray spectrometry with a Si(Li) detector. The sample preparation and the application of the procedure to large samples, namely aerosols from 10{sup 5} m{sup 3} of air, and monthly deposition samples from 0.6 m{sup 2} sampling area (10-100 l) are described. Chemical yields are for Pu 70 {plus minus} 20, for Sr 80 {plus minus} 15, for U 80-90, and for Fe 75 {plus minus} 10%. As an example, the maximum airborne radionuclide concentrations determined with that procedure in fortnightly collected samples at Neuherberg after the Chernobyl accident were: {sup 239+240}Pu, 2.58; {sup 238}Pu, 1.40; {sup 238}U, 0.65; {sup 234}U, 0.67; {sup 90}Sr, 7600; and {sup 55}Fe, 990 {mu}Bqm{sup -3}. With appropriate changes in sample preparation, the procedure is applicable to other kinds of samples. (orig.).

  7. Simultaneous radiochemical determination of plutonium, strontium, uranium, and iron nuclides and application to atmospheric deposition and aerosol samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosner, G.; Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R.

    1990-01-01

    A procedure for the sequential radiochemical determination of plutonium, strontium, uranium and iron nuclides is described. The separation is carried out on a single anion exchange column. Pu(IV), U(VI) and Fe(III) are fixed on Bio Rad AG 1-X4 from 9 mol/l HCl, while the sample effluent is used for the determination of radiostrontium. Fe and U are eluted separately with 7 mol/l HNO 3 , and Pu(III) is eluted with 1.2 mol/l HCl containing hydrogen peroxide. Subsequently, Pu and U are electrolysed and counted by alpha spectrometry. Radiostrontium is purified by the nitrate method and counted in a low level beta proportional counter. Fe is purified by extraction and cation exchange and 55 Fe is counted by X-ray spectrometry with a Si(Li) detector. The sample preparation and the application of the procedure to large samples, namely aerosols from 10 5 m 3 of air, and monthly deposition samples from 0.6 m 2 sampling area (10-100 l) are described. Chemical yields are for Pu 70 ± 20, for Sr 80 ± 15, for U 80-90, and for Fe 75 ± 10%. As an example, the maximum airborne radionuclide concentrations determined with that procedure in fortnightly collected samples at Neuherberg after the Chernobyl accident were: 239+240 Pu, 2.58; 238 Pu, 1.40; 238 U, 0.65; 234 U, 0.67; 90 Sr, 7600; and 55 Fe, 990 μBqm -3 . With appropriate changes in sample preparation, the procedure is applicable to other kinds of samples. (orig.)

  8. CENTRIFUGAL SEPARATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarstrom, C.

    1959-03-10

    A centrifugal separator is described for separating gaseous mixtures where the temperature gradients both longitudinally and radially of the centrifuge may be controlled effectively to produce a maximum separation of the process gases flowing through. Tbe invention provides for the balancing of increases and decreases in temperature in various zones of the centrifuge chamber as the result of compression and expansions respectively, of process gases and may be employed effectively both to neutralize harmful temperature gradients and to utilize beneficial temperaturc gradients within the centrifuge.

  9. Microparticle Separation by Cyclonic Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karback, Keegan; Leith, Alexander

    2017-11-01

    The ability to separate particles based on their size has wide ranging applications from the industrial to the medical. Currently, cyclonic separators are primarily used in agriculture and manufacturing to syphon out contaminates or products from an air supply. This has led us to believe that cyclonic separation has more applications than the agricultural and industrial. Using the OpenFoam computational package, we were able to determine the flow parameters of a vortex in a cyclonic separator in order to segregate dust particles to a cutoff size of tens of nanometers. To test the model, we constructed an experiment to separate a test dust of various sized particles. We filled a chamber with Arizona test dust and utilized an acoustic suspension technique to segregate particles finer than a coarse cutoff size and introduce them into the cyclonic separation apparatus where they were further separated via a vortex following our computational model. The size of the particles separated from this experiment will be used to further refine our model. Metropolitan State University of Denver, Colorado University of Denver, Dr. Randall Tagg, Dr. Richard Krantz.

  10. Development of a radiochemical procedure for certification of phosphorus implantation dose in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, R.L.; Simons, D.S.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. semiconductor industry relies heavily on secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) for characterization of the depth distribution of dopants such as boron, arsenic, and phosphorus in silicon. To assist the industry in achieving high accuracy measurements, two Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) have been developed by NIST as SIMS calibration standards: SRM 2137 (Boron Implant in Silicon), certified by neutron depth profiling, and SRM 2134 (Arsenic Implant in Silicon), certified by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The industry is still in need of a phosphorus standard. Plans are currently underway to develop a phosphorus implant in silicon SRM, to be certified by radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA). RNAA was chosen because other techniques lack the necessary sensitivity, chemical specificity and matrix independence to measure phosphorus at implantation levels. In order to assess the sensitivity, accuracy, and precision of RNAA for this work, preliminary measurements were carried out on six pieces of a phosphorus-implanted silicon wafer that was previously used in a round-robin study of SIMS measurement repeatability. Standards were prepared by depositing micro litre amounts of a standardized phosphorus solution on aluminum foil. A non-implanted silicon wafer was analysed as a blank. Samples were irradiated at a neutron fluency rate of 1 x 10 14 cm -2 s -1 to convert 31 P to 32 P, then mixed with milligram amounts of phosphorus carrier and dissolved in a mixture of nitric and hydrofluoric acids. Phosphorus was separated from the matrix by precipitation first as ammonium phosphomolybdate then as magnesium ammonium phosphate. The yield (fraction of recovered carrier) was determined gravimetrically as Mg(NH 4 )PO 4 .6H 2 O. 32 P was measured using a beta proportional counter. The measurements yielded a mean and standard deviation of (8.35 ± 0.20) x 10 14 atoms.cm -2 (relative standard deviation = 2.35 %), in agreement with both the nominal

  11. Isotopic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castle, P.M.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to molecular and atomic isotope separation and is particularly applicable to the separation of 235 U from other uranium isotopes including 238 U. In the method described a desired isotope is separated mechanically from an atomic or molecular beam formed from an isotope mixture utilising the isotropic recoil momenta resulting from selective excitation of the desired isotope species by radiation, followed by ionization or dissociation by radiation or electron attachment. By forming a matrix of UF 6 molecules in HBr molecules so as to collapse the V 3 vibrational mode of the UF 6 molecule the 235 UF 6 molecules are selectively excited to promote reduction of UF 6 molecules containing 235 U and facilitate separation. (UK)

  12. Isotopic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.L.

    1979-01-01

    Isotopic species in an isotopic mixture including a first species having a first isotope and a second species having a second isotope are separated by selectively exciting the first species in preference to the second species and then reacting the selectively excited first species with an additional preselected radiation, an electron or another chemical species so as to form a product having a mass different from the original species and separating the product from the balance of the mixture in a centrifugal separating device such as centrifuge or aerodynamic nozzle. In the centrifuge the isotopic mixture is passed into a rotor where it is irradiated through a window. Heavier and lighter components can be withdrawn. The irradiated mixture experiences a large centrifugal force and is separated in a deflection area into lighter and heavier components. (UK)

  13. Separations chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Results of studies on the photochemistry of aqueous Pu solutions and the stability of iodine in liquid and gaseous CO 2 are reported. Progress is reported in studies on: the preparation of macroporous bodies filled with oxides and sulfides to be used as adsorbents; the beneficiation of photographic wastes; the anion exchange adsorption of transition elements from thiosulfate solutions; advanced filtration applications of energy significance; high-resolution separations; and, the examination of the separation agents, octylphenylphosphoric acid (OPPA) and trihexyl phosphate (THP)

  14. Isotopic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    A method is described for separating isotopes in which photo-excitation of selected isotope species is used together with the reaction of the excited species with postive ions of predetermined ionization energy, other excited species, or free electrons to produce ions or ion fragments of the selected species. Ions and electrons are produced by an electrical discharge, and separation is achieved through radial ambipolar diffusion, electrostatic techniques, or magnetohydrodynamic methods

  15. Sorption technique of separation of thallium-201 from proton-irradiated thallium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deptula, Cz.; Zajtseva, N.G.; Mikolaevskij, S.; Khalkin, V.A.

    1989-01-01

    A sorption technique is developed for radiochemical separation of thallium-201 from proton-irradiated targets of metallic thallium. The technique consists in separation of 201 Pb and 201 Tl in the column with ammonium 12-molybdophosphate fixed in the matrix of porous Teflon (AMP-sorbent). The chemical yield of radiothallium is 98 %, the duration of chemical procedures is 2.5-3 hours. 21 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  16. Radiochemical study of 45Sc(n,p)45Ca and 89Y(n,p)89Sr reactions in the neutron energy range of 13.9 to 14.7 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molla, N.I.; Basunia, S.; Miah, M.R.; Hossain, S.M.; Rahman, M.M.; Spellerberg, S.; Qaim, S.M.

    1998-01-01

    Cross sections for 45 Sc(n,p) 45 Ca and 89 Y(n,p) 89 Sr reactions were measured using the activation technique. Monoenergetic neutrons in the energy range of 13.9 to 14.7 MeV were produced using a D-T neutron generator. The purely β - emitting products 45 Ca and 89 Sr were separated radiochemically; their radioactivity was assayed via low-level β - counting. The measured data complement the available published experimental information, and agree with the results of statistical model calculations. (orig.)

  17. Preparation, radiochemical purity control and stability of 99mTc-mertiatide (Mag-3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hemert, F.J.; Schimmel, K.J.M.; Van Eck-Smit, B.L.F.; Van Lenthe, H.

    2005-01-01

    Scintigraphic image analysis of 99m Tc-mertiatide (Mag-3, mercaptoacetyltriglycine) clearance provides the determination of the blood flow, the tubular transit time and the excretion as well from both kidneys. Radiopharmaceutical routine recommends a radiochemical purity control before administration of the product to a patient. The main objective of this study is to develop a Mag-3 labeling procedure that fits better than the previous one in our daily routine production of radiopharmaceuticals. Increasing proportions of 99m Tc-Mag-3 were measured during the heating and cooling steps of the Mag-3 labeling procedure. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was used to confirm the results of a rapid radiochemical quality control assay on standard instant thin-layer chromatography-silica gel (ITLC-SG) paper. The reconstitution time takes 20-25 minutes from the harvest of pertechnetate to a ready-for-use calibrated patient syringe. The HPLC profile of 99m Tc-Mag-3 including its minor impurities remains unchanged for 24-48 hours after reconstitution. The application of a programmable Peltier-directed device for heating/cooling provides a better control of the temperature course. The procedure proposed fully meets the labeling criteria recommended by the supplier and can be performed with a minimum of attention within a time-span that we formerly needed for solely the radiochemical purity control assay. Moreover, 99m Tc-Mag-3 prepared in this way seems to be considerably more stable than mentioned in the manufacturer's instructions. (author)

  18. Separation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, L.S.

    1986-01-01

    A disposal container is described for use in disposal of radioactive waste materials consisting of: top wall structure, bottom wall structure, and circumferential side wall structure interconnecting the top and bottom wall structures to define an enclosed container, separation structure in the container adjacent the inner surface of the side wall structure for allowing passage of liquid and retention of solids, inlet port structure in the top wall structure, discharge port structure at the periphery of the container in communication with the outer surface of the separation structure for receiving liquid that passes through the separation structure, first centrifugally actuated valve structure having a normal position closing the inlet port structure and a centrifugally actuated position opening the inlet port structure, second centrifugally actuated valve structure having a normal position closing the discharge port structure and a centrifugally actuated position opening the discharge port structure, and coupling structure integral with wall structure of the container for releasable engagement with centrifugal drive structure

  19. Separable algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Ford, Timothy J

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the theory of separable algebras over commutative rings. After a thorough introduction to the general theory, the fundamental roles played by separable algebras are explored. For example, Azumaya algebras, the henselization of local rings, and Galois theory are rigorously introduced and treated. Interwoven throughout these applications is the important notion of étale algebras. Essential connections are drawn between the theory of separable algebras and Morita theory, the theory of faithfully flat descent, cohomology, derivations, differentials, reflexive lattices, maximal orders, and class groups. The text is accessible to graduate students who have finished a first course in algebra, and it includes necessary foundational material, useful exercises, and many nontrivial examples.

  20. The radiochemical purity of technetium-99m-tin-diethylene-triamino-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besnard, M.; Costerousse, O.; Merlin, L.; Coehn, Y.

    1975-01-01

    The effect on radiochemical purity was studied as a function of the storage period of tin-DTPA solution and of the technetium-complex solution. The quantity of the pertechnetate ions present in the solution is determined by ascending paper chromatography, and an attempt was made to clarify the bond type of technetium by a spectrophotometric method. The tin-DTPA solutions for complexing of the reduced technetium are stable over a period of 8 weeks. The yield of the radiopharmaceutical product is better than 95%. (G.Gy.)

  1. Radiochemical and thermal studies of the cation-exchanged forms of synthetic zeolite Linde sieve A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, S P [Saugar Univ. (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    1976-02-01

    The compositions of the cobalt and silver-exchanged forms of synthetic zeolite Sieve A have been determined by radiochemical and TGA studies and correspond to Co/sub 6/A.19.8H/sub 2/O and Ag/sub 12/..cap alpha... 20H/sub 2/O respectively (A=Al/sub 12/Si/sub 12/O/sub 48//sup 12/-). Heating of these zeolites inhibits their capacity for cation exchange and water absorption. No evidence of occluded NaAlO/sub 2/ has been found.

  2. Trace element evaluation of different varieties of chewing gum by radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, J.H.; Arif, M.; Fatima, I.; Ahmad, S.; Qureshi, I.H.

    2000-01-01

    Extensive use of chewing gums, by children in particular, entails the evaluation of trace element contents in them. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) was successfully employed to determine the concentration of 35 trace elements (essential, toxic and nonessential) in eight different brands of chewing gum generally consumed in Rawalpindi/Islamabad area. Comparison of trace element data of our work with literature has been presented. None of the elements detected in the brands of chewing gum examined was found to be present at a level representing a substantial contribution to the total dietary intake of the element. (author)

  3. Design of the Laboratory-Scale Plutonium Oxide Processing Unit in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumetta, Gregg J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Meier, David E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tingey, Joel M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Casella, Amanda J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Delegard, Calvin H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Edwards, Matthew K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Orton, Robert D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rapko, Brian M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smart, John E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This report describes a design for a laboratory-scale capability to produce plutonium oxide (PuO2) for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production, as well as for use as exercise and reference materials. This capability will be located in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The key unit operations are described, including PuO2 dissolution, purification of the Pu by ion exchange, precipitation, and re-conversion to PuO2 by calcination.

  4. Conceptual Design for the Pilot-Scale Plutonium Oxide Processing Unit in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Meier, David E.; Tingey, Joel M.; Casella, Amanda J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Jones, Susan A.; Rapko, Brian M.

    2014-08-05

    This report describes a conceptual design for a pilot-scale capability to produce plutonium oxide for use as exercise and reference materials, and for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production. This capability is referred to as the Pilot-scale Plutonium oxide Processing Unit (P3U), and it will be located in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The key unit operations are described, including plutonium dioxide (PuO2) dissolution, purification of the Pu by ion exchange, precipitation, and conversion to oxide by calcination.

  5. A new radiochemical assay for fructose-1,6-diphosphatase in human leucocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, A.J.M.; Trijbels, F.J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Fructose-1,6-diphosphatase (D-fructose-1,6-diphosphate 1-phosphohydrolase, EC 3.1.3.11, FDPase) is one of the key enzymes of the gluconeogenic pathway. Measuring the activity both in the presence and in the absence of AMP yields the true FDPase activity, corrected for non-specific phosphatase activity. In this paper the authors introduce a new radiochemical assay for FDPase, based on the decarboxylating activity of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase. One molecule [U- 14 C]fructose-1,6-diphosphate yields one molecule 14 CO 2 which can be captured in strongly basic solutions and counted in a liquid scintillation counter. (Auth.)

  6. Methods for nuclear material control used in the basic production of a typical radiochemical plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kositsyn, V.F.; Mukhortov, N.F.; Korovin, Yu.I.; Rudenko, V.S.; Petrov, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Techniques for destructive and non-destructive assay of the component and isotopic composition of nuclear materials are described, namely gravimetric, titrimetric, coulometric, mass spectrometry, as well as those based on registration of neutron and γ radiations. Their metrologic characteristics are described. The techniques described are suggested to be used for nuclear material (NM) control and accounting purposes at the model radiochemical plant for processing irradiated fuel subassemblies from power reactors. The measurement control program is also described. This program is intended for the measurement quality assurance in the framework of NM control and accountancy system [ru

  7. Determination of trace elements in bottled water in Greece by instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soupioni, M.J.; Symeopoulos, B.D.; Papaefthymiou, H.V.

    2006-01-01

    Four different bottled water brands sold in Greece in the winter of 2001-2002 were analyzed for a wide range of chemical elements, using neutron activation analysis (NAA). The elements Na and Br were determined instrumentally (INAA), whereas the other metals and trace elements radiochemically (RNAA). The results indicated that the mean level of all the elements determined in the samples were well within the European Union (EU) directive on drinking water and accomplish the drinking water standards of the World Health Organisation (WHO) as well as of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). (author)

  8. Radiochemical techniques for determining some naturally occurring radionuclides in marine environmental materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, C W [Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Lowestoft (UK). Fisheries Lab.

    1984-06-15

    The determination of some of the naturally-occurring, alpha-emitting radionuclides in marine environmental materials, is of interest for several reasons. Radium and radon nuclides are potentially useful as oceanographic tracers. Lead and thorium nuclides may be used to study sedimentation rates, mixing processes and bioturbation in sediments. Radium and polonium nuclides are incorporated into food chains and the data may provide a perspective against which to assess the significance, for marine organisms, of exposure to radiation in a marine radioactive waste disposal situation. This paper discusses the manner in which samples are taken, and the radiochemical methods which have been employed to measure the nuclides, together with some data produced.

  9. Integral method of treatment of experimental data from radiochemical solar neutrino detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrin, V.N.; Kopylov, A.V.; Streltsov, A.V.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis is made of the statistical errors in solar neutrino detection by radiochemical detectors at different times of exposure. It is shown that short exposures (tau/sub e/ = one-half to one half-life) give minimal one-year error. The possibility is considered of the detection of the solar neutrino flux variation due to annual changes of the Earth-Sun distance. The integral method of treatment of the experimental data is described. Results are given of the statistical treatment of computer simulated data

  10. Rapid and accurate determination of radiochemical purity of sup(99m)Tc compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamat, S.R.

    1977-01-01

    The wide spread use of sup(99m)Tc-labelled radiopharmaceuticals and limitation of the short half-life of the isotope, is associated with an urgent need for a rapid, simple but accurate method for determining the radiochemical purity of the compound. A short paper chromatographic (KK) or thin layer chromatographic (KLT) method using 95% methanol or 0.9% saline solution as solvents, has solved the problem. With these methods, the amount of free sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate in a compound, can be determined in only a few minutes. These methods compare satisfactorily with lengtheir procedures. (author)

  11. Isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, R.J.; Morrey, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for separating gas molecules containing one isotope of an element from gas molecules containing other isotopes of the same element in which all of the molecules of the gas are at the same electronic state in their ground state. Gas molecules in a gas stream containing one of the isotopes are selectively excited to a different electronic state while leaving the other gas molecules in their original ground state. Gas molecules containing one of the isotopes are then deflected from the other gas molecules in the stream and thus physically separated

  12. Determination of radiochemical yield of 99mTc radiopharmaceutical preparations using gamma counter and linear radiochromatography scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Patricia de A.; Moura, Rebeca G.; Shiki, Andressa M.; Fukumori, Neuza T.O.; Matsuda, Margareth M.N.

    2013-01-01

    The radiochemical purity (RCP) evaluation is a prerequisite for radiopharmaceuticals before the administration in patients. RCP is defined as the proportion of the total radioactivity in the product that is present in the specified chemical form. The most widely used techniques for RCP determination in radiopharmaceutical preparations are thin layer chromatography (TLC-Al), instant thin layer chromatography (ITLC-SG) and paper chromatography (PC). These techniques combined with radioactivity detection are one of the most important tools in the RCP of the radiopharmaceutical compounds. Several methods are used for the determination of the spatial distribution of radioactivity on the strips. The aim of this study was to compare two methods for radioactivity measurement in the determination of RCP in 99m Tc radiopharmaceuticals using gamma counter and linear radiochromatography scanner. Lyophilized radiopharmaceuticals were labeled with 99m Tc. The analysis was carried out using TLC-Al and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC-Cellulose) sheets, ITLC-SG and 3MM Whatman PC. The radioactivity distribution was determined by counting each strip during 1 minute in a radiochromatography TLC scanner. For comparison, the strips were cut into small pieces and each one was separately measured in a gamma-counter during 0.20 minutes in 70-210 KeV 99m Tc window. USP 36 and FDA specify that not less than 90% of the total radioactivity must be in the spot corresponding to 99m Tc labeled compound. In conclusion, the procedure for RCP determination of ALBUMINA-TEC, DEX500-TEC, ECD-TEC, MACRO-TEC and MIBI-TEC can be faster using radiochromatography. (author)

  13. A simple and rapid method for the determination of iodine in rice samples by radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Toshimasa; Iwashima, Kiyoshi; Yamagata, Noboru.

    1983-01-01

    A simple and rapid method has been developed for the determination of iodine in rice samples by radiochemical neutron activation analysis. Irradiated rice powder was decomposed together with an iodide carrier solution containing I-131 on heating in a sodium hypochlorite solution. After decomposition, the solution was acidified with hydrochloric acid, and the insoluble residue was filtered off. To the filtrate sodium sulfite solution and palladium chloride solution were added, and the precipitate of palladium iodide was separated with a glass fiber filter paper. Iodine contents of rice were calculated from the peak areas under the 443 keV γ-ray of I-128 in the precipitate and comparative stand ard. Corrections for the chemical recovery were applied to them by means of the areas under the 365 keV γ-ray of I-131. This method was applied to the certified refe rece materials, IAEA wheat flour RM-V-5 and NBS orchard leaves SRM 1571. The results were in good agreement with the recommended values. Iodine contents of rice samples of two different origins in Japan were found to be of the order of 10 0 ng g -1 (dry weight base). The recovery of iodine in this procedure was about 80%. Decontamination factors for Mn, Cl, Na, and Br in the final fraction were 7 x 10 3 , 2 x 10 4 , 3 x 10 4 , and 2 x 10 2 , respectively. The time required for the chemical procedure was about 15 min, and the limit of determination was 0.7 ng of iodine in a sample of 1 g. (author)

  14. Determination of radiochemical yield of {sup 99m}Tc radiopharmaceutical preparations using gamma counter and linear radiochromatography scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Patricia de A.; Moura, Rebeca G.; Shiki, Andressa M.; Fukumori, Neuza T.O.; Matsuda, Margareth M.N., E-mail: patyosborne@yahoo.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The radiochemical purity (RCP) evaluation is a prerequisite for radiopharmaceuticals before the administration in patients. RCP is defined as the proportion of the total radioactivity in the product that is present in the specified chemical form. The most widely used techniques for RCP determination in radiopharmaceutical preparations are thin layer chromatography (TLC-Al), instant thin layer chromatography (ITLC-SG) and paper chromatography (PC). These techniques combined with radioactivity detection are one of the most important tools in the RCP of the radiopharmaceutical compounds. Several methods are used for the determination of the spatial distribution of radioactivity on the strips. The aim of this study was to compare two methods for radioactivity measurement in the determination of RCP in {sup 99m}Tc radiopharmaceuticals using gamma counter and linear radiochromatography scanner. Lyophilized radiopharmaceuticals were labeled with {sup 99m}Tc. The analysis was carried out using TLC-Al and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC-Cellulose) sheets, ITLC-SG and 3MM Whatman PC. The radioactivity distribution was determined by counting each strip during 1 minute in a radiochromatography TLC scanner. For comparison, the strips were cut into small pieces and each one was separately measured in a gamma-counter during 0.20 minutes in 70-210 KeV {sup 99m}Tc window. USP 36 and FDA specify that not less than 90% of the total radioactivity must be in the spot corresponding to {sup 99m}Tc labeled compound. In conclusion, the procedure for RCP determination of ALBUMINA-TEC, DEX500-TEC, ECD-TEC, MACRO-TEC and MIBI-TEC can be faster using radiochromatography. (author)

  15. Chemical methods for the use of niobium from pressure vessel cladding as a fast neutron dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnani, Hari

    1986-08-01

    the steel samples from the cladding of a pressure vessel of an operating nuclear power reactor were obtained by scraping. The cladding material of the pressure vessel contained about 0.5 % niobium. It was desired to use the niobium as a dosimeter for estimating fast fluences at the pressure vessel. The weak radiation from the reaction product 93m Nb cannot be measured in the presence of other elements and interfering activities. A method was developed to separate niobium from other metals present; the concentration and yield of niobium were determined spectrophotometrically. The irradiated niobium was electrodeposited from aqueous solutions on copper discs. The amount of the deposited niobium was determined by a radiochemical method which makes use of its own radioactivity - measured with a liquid scintillation counter - and the known starting mass of niobium. It was possible to determine the deposited niobium masses (5 to 200 microgram) with a desired degree of accuracy. The absolute emission rate of X-rays could then be measured without any self-absorption or interference from other activities. The mass of niobium on each preparate and its X-ray emission rate, later on, were used as basic experimental data for the estimation of last neutron doses at the pressure vessel

  16. Radiochemical determination of {sup 210} Pb and {sup 226}Ra in petroleum sludges and scales; Determinacao radioquimica de {sup 210} Pb e {sup 226}Ra em borras e incrustacoes de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Andressa Arruda de

    2005-07-01

    The oil extraction and production, both onshore and offshore, can generate different types of residues, such as sludge, that is deposited in the water/oil separators, valves and storage tanks and scales, which form i the inner surface of ducts and equipment. Analyses already carried out through gamma spectrometry indicated the existence of high radioisotope concentration. However, radionuclides emitting low-energy gamma-rays, such as {sup 210} Pb, are hardly detected by that technique. Consequently, there is a need to test alternative techniques to determine this and other radionuclides from the {sup 238} U series. This work, therefore, focuses on the radiochemical determination of the concentration of {sup 210}Pb, and {sup 226} Ra in samples of sludge and scale from the oil processing stations of the UN-SEAL, a PETROBRAS unit responsible for the exploration and production of petroleum in Sergipe and Alagoas. The sludge and scale samples went through a preliminary process of extraction of oil, in order to separate the solid phase, where the largest fraction of the radioactivity is concentrated. After oil removal, the samples were digested using alkaline fusion as an option for dissolution. Finally, their activity concentration was determined for the samples of sludge and scales, using and alternative radiochemical method, which is based on ionic exchange. The activity concentration found for {sup 210}Pb varied from 1,14 to 507,3 kBq kg{sup -1}. The values for {sup 226}Ra were higher, varying from 4,36 to 3.445 kBq kg{sup -1}. The results for {sup 226}Ra were then compared with the ones found for the same samples of sludge and scales using gamma spectrometry. The results of the comparison confirm the efficiency of the methodology used int hi work, that is, radiochemical determination by means of ionic exchange. (author)

  17. Fast harmonic field mapper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Au, R.; Fowler, M.; Hanawa, H.; Riedel, J.; Qua, Z.G.

    1984-01-01

    In early 1983 it was decided to mount coils on arms separated by 120 degrees and buck them out so that the third harmonic dphi/dt component would be cancelled and thus the first and second field harmonics could be very accurately measured. The original intention was to do as others had done, namely, use fast ADC's to read the voltages, and computer process the result to get the Fourier components. However, because of the 100 to 1 dynamic range of the fast ADC's and the likelihood that noise would be a problem, the authors decided to do things differently. Using a fast Fourier transform analyzer was considered, but this instrument is very expensive, so they decided to use a completely electronic analog approach: The authors decided to use active bandpass filters to render the harmonic components

  18. Determination of chromium, cobalt and nickel in tissue samples by radiochemical activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisell, A.; Lakomaa, E.L.

    1983-03-01

    A radiochemical neutron activation analysis method for the determination of chromium, cobalt and nickel in tissue samples. A radiochemical neutron activation analysis method for the determination of chromium, cobalt and nickel has been developed. The destruction device used consisted of a combined wet-ashing-distillation and ion-exchange system. Six samples could be treated at the same time. The samples were wet-ashed with H*L2SO*L4-H*L2O*L2 mixture. Volatile elements were distilled as bromide compounds with HBr*H-. The distillation residue in 8M HCl was passed through hydrated antimony pentoxide (HAP) in order to remove disturbing *H2*H4Na-activity and through a Dowex 2 x 8 column so as to retain *H6*H0Co (formed from *H5*H8Ni). Chromium was elutriated from the column and precipitated as Cr(OH)*L3 for the removal of disturbing *H3*H2P-activity. The standards and samples were treated in a similar manner each so that the yield determination is not necessarily needed. The yields by tracer experiments were (43 +- 5) % for Cr, (93 +- 4) % for Co and (88 +- 14) % for Ni. The precision and accuracy of the method were studied by using reference materials of the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

  19. Radiochemical guidelines and process specifications for reactor shutdown: the EDF strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mole, D.; Wintergerst, M.; Meylogan, Th.; Rocher, A.; Sagot, M.J.; Bonelli, V.; Bonnefon, J.; Dupont, B.

    2012-09-01

    Changes to French nuclear regulations made in June 2006 [1.] have made it necessary for EDF to modify its ruling principles. These modifications required the restructuring of radiochemical guidelines to better reflect their impact on nuclear safety, the environment and radioprotection. In accordance with these aims, a new authoritative document has been produced. This ruling document identifies all parameters with a potential impact on nuclear safety, radiological releases to the environment and personnel dose rates. These diagnostic and control parameters have been identified for a reactor in production and for a reactor during shutdown. For parameters related to a reactor in production, some indicators are used to evaluate impacts on availability, radioprotection and the environment during shutdown and on outage and to anticipate mitigation ways. On the other side, several parameters related to the stages of shutdown were also directly evaluated in order to minimize the impacts. This paper describes the EDF methodology used to establish operational documents: radiochemical guidelines and process specifications, and includes the following: - description of monitored parameters and their associated areas of risk; - justification of target values, frequencies of inspection and the required actions for the monitored parameters. The sizing methodology is based on theoretical studies and on EDF operational experience analysis. By implementing in the operational and technical specifications requirements linked to nuclear safety, radioprotection and environment respect, EDF will benefit from an improved compromise between these areas as well as an increased focus. (authors)

  20. Validation of the FDG (18F) radiochemical purity assay by thin layer chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leao, R.L.C.; Oliveira, M.L.; Nascimento, J.E.; Nascimento, N.C.E.S.

    2013-01-01

    All methodologies utilized in radiopharmaceutical industry should be validated in order to prove that they meet the requirements of analytical applications, ensuring the reliability of the results. At a radiopharmaceutical industry there is one challenge aspect: sometimes it is not possible use a stable standard to perform the validation analysis. In order to overcome this difficulty, the objective of this study was to suggest a validation protocol for these methodologies, based on the recommendations of RE n° 899/Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria (ANVISA), and prove its efficiency, performing the radiochemical purity validation test of FDG (18F), by TLC. To obtain the calibration curve, we suggested that the theoretical activity values should be determined using a dose calibrator, simultaneously of each analysis performed by TLC, for 5 hours. The method was linear (R 2 of 0.996), precise (CV% <5%) and accurate (96.85% < accuracy < 102.56%). In relation to the robustness test, our experiments evaluated the influence of the distance travelled by mobile phase, variations at mobile phase concentration and type of chromatographic plate (silica gel on glass or aluminium plates). The detection and quantification limits were determined (321.9 and 1065.6 kBq, respectively). As expected, this methodology was nonspecific, showing a slight spot corresponding to the FDM. The proposed protocol was efficient and the methodology tested was effective to determine the radiochemical purity of FDG (18F), in accordance to the limits recommended by ANVISA. (author)

  1. A direct reading on-line flowrate meter for use in radiochemical plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, B.V.; Kaimal, C.K.R.; Siddiqui, I.A.; Kumar, S.V.

    1987-01-01

    A device for measurement and remote direct reading display of the flowrates of streams in a radiochemical plant is described. The device is interposed in the measured stream and consists of a syphon pot with a specially developed attachment on the discharge line. Differential pressure switches are used to trigger a timer device at set levels in the pot and the time required for filling the pot during each cycle is measured and is used to compute and display the flowrate. The device is accurate and reliable and is simple to fabricate and install. It is maintenance-free since it has no moving parts. It is also suggested that a manometer with conductive contacts could be used in place of the d.p. switches. The background and various stages of development of the device are described. The operating data is tabulated and parameters required for plant applications are indicated in detail. A simple method to detect and correct for errors due to drift in d.p. switch setting is also outlined. Sketches of typical syphon pot, the schematic of the apparatus and suggested layout for application in radiochemical plant are also included. (author). 11 figures, 6 tables

  2. The use of cuprous iodide as a precipitation matrix in the radiochemical determination of 131I in milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCurdy, D.E.; Mellor, R.A.; Lambdin, R.W.; McLain, M.E. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    As a result of the implementation of the As Low As is Reasonably Achievable philosophy to the nuclear power industry, recent U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission requirements have prompted high sensitivity radiochemical analysis for the measurement of 131 I in milk. The most recognized and commonly employed technique incorporates costly palladium iodide as the final precipitate in the radiochemical purification of the iodine chemical species. The procedure presented in this paper outlines the many advantages of using cuprous iodide as the final precipitate. These include lower cost per analysis, consistent recoveries, better precipitate matrix and good self absorption characteristics. Typical lower limit of detection values and operating characteristics obtained for high sensitivity β-γ analysis as well as gas proportional counting and a comparison of radiochemical and Ge(Li) spectrometric results for environmental samples collected during a recent Chinese weapons fallout incident are presented. (author)

  3. HPLC-ICP-MS compared with radiochemical detection for metabolite profiling of H-3-bromohexine in rat urine and faeces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, B.P.; Gammelgaard, B.; Hansen, S.H.

    2005-01-01

    H-3-Bromohexine was dosed to rats as a model compound to allow comparison of HPLC-ICP-MS detection on bromine to radiochemical detection in an in vivo drug metabolism study. Metabolite profiles were obtained in urine and faeces extracts. No influence of the methanol gradient on the bromine response...... was observed in the range of 18 - 75% methanol. The sensitivity obtained by HPLC- ICP-MS was almost two orders of magnitude better than on-line H-3 radiochemical detection. For ICP- MS, the limit of detection was calculated to be 69 nM Br ( injection volume 100 mu l), corresponding to an absolute limit...

  4. Gas separating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, A.

    1988-03-29

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing. 3 figs.

  5. Isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosevear, A.; Sims, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    sup(195m)Au for medical usage is separated from sup(195m)Hg in a solution containing ions of sup(195m)Hg by contacting the solution with an adsorbing agent to adsorb 195 Hgsup(H) thereon, followed by selective elution of sup(195m)Au generated by radioactive decay of the sup(195m)Hg. The adsorbing agent comprises a composite material in the form of an inert porous inorganic substrate (e.g. Kieselguhr),the pores of which are occupied by a hydrogel of a polysaccharide (e.g. agarose) carrying terminal thiol groups for binding Hgsup(H) ions. (author)

  6. A radio-high-performance liquid chromatography dual-flow cell gamma-detection system for on-line radiochemical purity and labeling efficiency determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, S; Jensen, H; Jacobsson, L

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a method of determining radiochemical yield and radiochemical purity using radio-HPLC detection employing a dual-flow-cell system is evaluated. The dual-flow cell, consisting of a reference cell and an analytical cell, was constructed from two PEEK capillary coils to fit into the w...

  7. Use of fast reactors for actinide transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The management of radioactive waste is one of the key issues in today's discussions on nuclear energy, especially the long term disposal of high level radioactive wastes. The recycling of plutonium in liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) would allow 'burning' of the associated extremely long life transuranic waste, particularly actinides, thus reducing the required isolation time for high level waste from tens of thousands of years to hundreds of years for fission products only. The International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR) decided to include the topic of actinide transmutation in liquid metal fast breeder reactors in its programme. The IAEA organized the Specialists Meeting on Use of Fast Breeder Reactors for Actinide Transmutation in Obninsk, Russian Federation, from 22 to 24 September 1992. The specialists agree that future progress in solving transmutation problems could be achieved by improvements in: Radiochemical partitioning and extraction of the actinides from the spent fuel (at least 98% for Np and Cm and 99.9% for Pu and Am isotopes); technological research and development on the design, fabrication and irradiation of the minor actinides (MAs) containing fuels; nuclear constants measurement and evaluation (selective cross-sections, fission fragments yields, delayed neutron parameters) especially for MA burners; demonstration of the feasibility of the safe and economic MA burner cores; knowledge of the impact of maximum tolerable amount of rare earths in americium containing fuels. Refs, figs and tabs

  8. Separation of heavier rare earths from neutron irradiated uranium targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhargava, V.K.; Rao, V.K.; Marathe, S.G.; Sahakundu, S.M.; Iyer, R.H.

    1978-01-01

    A radiochemical method is described for the separation of heavier rare earths from the fission of uranium. The method is particularly suitable for the separation of low yield (10sup(-5)%-10sup(-7)%), highly asymmetric rare earth fission products viz. sup(179,177)Lu, sup(175)Yb, sup(173)Tm, sup(172,171)Er, sup(167)Ho and sup(161,160)Tb in the neutron induced fission of natural and depleted uranium targets. Additional separation steps have been incorporated for decontamination from sup(239)Np (an activation product) and sup(93-90)Y (a high fission-yield product) which show similar chemical behaviour to rare earths. Separation of individual rare earths is achieved by a cation exchange method performed at 80 deg C by elution with α-hydroxyisobutyric acid (α-HIBA). (author)

  9. Comparison of two selective separation method for 93Zr by using TRU and TEVA resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Thiago C.; Oliveira, Arno Heeren de

    2011-01-01

    The zirconium isotope 93 Zr is a long-lived pure β-particle-emitting radionuclide produced from 235 U fission and from neutron activation of the stable isotope 92 Zr and thus occurring as one of the radionuclides found in nuclear reactors. Due to its long half life, 93 Zr is one of the radionuclides of interest for the performance of assessment studies of waste storage or disposal. Measurement of 93 Zr is difficult owing to its trace level concentration and its low activity in nuclear wastes and further because its certified standards are not frequently available. The aim of this work was to compare two radiochemical procedure based on selective extraction using an anion-exchange chromatography, TRU and TEVA resins, in order to separate zirconium from the matrix and to analyze it by liquid scintillation spectrometry technique. To set up the radiochemical separation procedure for zirconium, a tracer solution of 95 Zr and its 724.19 keV γ-ray measurements by γ - spectrometry were used in order to follow the behavior of zirconium during the radiochemical separation. A tracer solution of 55 Fe, the main interference in the LSC measurements, was used in order to verify the decontamination factor during the separation process. The limit of detection of the 0.05 Bq 1 -1 was obtained for 55 Fe standard solutions by using a sample:cocktail ratio of 3:17 mL for Optiphase Hisafe 3 cocktail. (author)

  10. Metrological aspects of radiochemical methods for determining activity of gamma-emitting nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbakov, B.Y.

    1986-01-01

    The author considers the problem of metrological compatibility of the two stages in the radiochemical method of determining the activity of a gamma-emitting nuclide: chemical isolation of the nuclide and radiometric measurement of its activity. The authors show that preparation of the specimen in liquid form provides for important advantages compared with the traditional application of the solid residue onto a flat substate. The work here is of interest for analytical chemists who are involved with determination of the activity of gamma emitting nuclides such as Ru 103, Rh 106, Sn 113, Cs 134, Cs 137, La 140, Ce 141, Ce 144, Hg 203, Na 24, Mn 54, Fe 59, Co 60, Zn 65, Zr 95, and Nb 95, for example, in waste water or in emissions to the atmosphere, with the goal of protecting the environment

  11. Limits of the radiochemical and geochemical method for the test of nucleon stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergamasco, L [CNR, Laboratorio di Cosmo-Geofisica, Turin, Italy; Texas A and M University, College Station, Tex.); Cini, G [CNR, Laboratorio di Cosmo-Geofisica; Torino, Universita, Turin, Italy)

    1978-07-01

    An estimate is obtained for the limiting nucleon lifetime that can be determined by the radiochemical method of Steinberg and Evans (1977), which counts the Ar-37 production from reactions due to nucleon decay in a large sample of KC2H3O2. To estimate the background rate, processes due to the atmospheric muon component are considered. It is found that the asymptotic limit on the maximum value of the nucleon lifetime is 2 x 10/sup 30/years. This value cannot be increased by going to larger depths or by using a larger sample, but is inherent in the method itself. To improve the limit one would have to resort to methods based on multiparticle decay modes.

  12. Determination of radiochemical yields of 186Re-labelled complexes using thin layer chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konirova, R.; Kohlickova, M.; Jedinakova-Krizova, V.

    1999-01-01

    The reaction conditions for synthesis of three rhenium complexes 186 Re-methylendiphosphonate (MDP), 186 Re-hydroxyethylidendiphosphonate (HEDP) and 186 Re-citrate have been investigated. Radiochemical yield of complexation has been determined by thin layer chromatography and paper chromatography. The rhenium complexation with corresponding ligand is dependent on pH values of reaction mixture, concentration of studied ligand (MDP, HEDP and sodium citrate) and concentration of reducing agent. Stannous chloride with ascorbic acid (as antioxidant) was used for reduction of perrhenate. The labeling yield of 186 Re-MDP was about 90 %, of 186 Re-HEDP more than 80 % and more than 75 % for 186 Re-citrate under optimum conditions. Besides, the possibility of application of porphyrins as organic ligands for complexation with rhenium isotopes is examined. (authors)

  13. Investigation of the possibility of using hydrogranulation in reprocessing radioactive wastes of radiochemical production facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revyakin, V.; Borisov, L.M. [All Russian Scientific and Research Institute of Non-Organic Materials, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1996-05-01

    Radio-chemical production facilities are constantly accumulating liquid radioactive wastes (still residues as the result of evaporation of extraction and adsorption solutions etc.) which are a complex multicomponent mixtures. The wastes are frequently stored for extended periods of time while awaiting disposition and in some cases, and this is much worse, they are released into the environment. In this report, I would like to draw your attention to some results we have obtained from investigations aimed at simplifying handing of such wastes by the precipitation of hard to dissolve metal hydroxides, the flocculation of the above into granules with the help of surface-active agents (in this case a polyacrylamide - PAA), quickly precipitated and easily filtered. The precipitate may be quickly dried and calcinated, if necessary, and transformed into a dense oxide sinter. In other words it may be transformed into a material convenient for storage or burial.

  14. Radiochemical determination of Inertial Confinement Fusion capsule compression at the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaughnessy, D. A., E-mail: shaughnessy2@llnl.gov; Moody, K. J.; Gharibyan, N.; Grant, P. M.; Gostic, J. M.; Torretto, P. C.; Wooddy, P. T.; Bandong, B. B.; Cerjan, C. J.; Hagmann, C. A.; Caggiano, J. A.; Yeamans, C. B.; Bernstein, L. A.; Schneider, D. H. G.; Henry, E. A.; Fortner, R. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Despotopulos, J. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Radiochemistry Program, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, Nevada 89154 (United States)

    2014-06-15

    We describe a radiochemical measurement of the ratio of isotope concentrations produced in a gold hohlraum surrounding an Inertial Confinement Fusion capsule at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). We relate the ratio of the concentrations of (n,γ) and (n,2n) products in the gold hohlraum matrix to the down-scatter of neutrons in the compressed fuel and, consequently, to the fuel's areal density. The observed ratio of the concentrations of {sup 198m+g}Au and {sup 196g}Au is a performance signature of ablator areal density and the fuel assembly confinement time. We identify the measurement of nuclear cross sections of astrophysical importance as a potential application of the neutrons generated at the NIF.

  15. Radiochemical purity and in vitro stability of Tc-99m radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vucina, J.

    2001-01-01

    The increased contents of long lived 99 Tc, oxygen and cupric ions could affect the labeling yield of eight radiopharmaceuticals. Oxygen and in leaser extend copper were found to affect the radiochemical purity of the preparations. In vitro stability of radiopharmaceuticals, examined on 99m Tc(Sn)-pyrosphoshate solutions, was extended when ascorbic acid was added as the chemical stabilizer. The quantity of 5x10 -7 mol/dm 3 of ascorbic acid was found to be sufficient to keep the content of 99m Tc-pertechnetate below 1 % six hours after labeling even in the cases when 99m Tc was present in high radioactive concentrations (740-814 GBq/dm 3 ). The results led to the development of the kits in which ascorbic or gentisic acid are the standards component in the kit composition (author)

  16. Preparation, radiochemical analysis and biodistribution of 99mTc-dihydrobis(1-pyrazolyl)borate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owunwanne, A.; Abdel-Dayem, H.; Yacoub, T.

    1987-01-01

    Optimum preparation of 99m Tc-dihydrobis(1-pyrazolyl)borate ( 99m Tc-HBPz 2 ) was done by mixing 1.4 mg/ml HBPz 2 and 1.0 mg/ml of stanous PYP. Radiochemical analysis of the preparation using paper chromatography (PC), thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) indicated a stable product with one major component. The labelling efficiency was approximately 90%. Animal biodistribution studies performed in mice showed that most of the injected radioactivity was confined to the liver, kidney, lungs, intestine and heart. The heart to blood ratio was small but persisted up to 3 hrs. after the injection. (orig.) [de

  17. Radiochemical analyses of surface water from U.S. Geological Survey hydrologic bench-mark stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzer, V.J.; Saindon, L.G.

    1972-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's program for collecting and analyzing surface-water samples for radiochemical constituents at hydrologic bench-mark stations is described. Analytical methods used during the study are described briefly and data obtained from 55 of the network stations in the United States during the period from 1967 to 1971 are given in tabular form.Concentration values are reported for dissolved uranium, radium, gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity. Values are also given for suspended gross alpha radioactivity in terms of natural uranium. Suspended gross beta radioactivity is expressed both as the equilibrium mixture of strontium-90/yttrium-90 and as cesium-137.Other physical parameters reported which describe the samples include the concentrations of dissolved and suspended solids, the water temperature and stream discharge at the time of the sample collection.

  18. Radiochemical method for evaluating the effect of antibiotics on Escherichia coli biofilms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dix, B.A.; Cohen, P.S.; Laux, D.C.; Cleeland, R.

    1988-01-01

    A simple radiochemical method for evaluating the action of antibiotics on Escherichia coli cells in biofilms is reported. After growth, biofilms of E. coli ATCC 25922 on disks of urinary catheter material were suspended in fresh medium containing or lacking an antibiotic, incubated for 4 h at 37 degrees C, and pulse-labeled with [ 3 H]leucine for 5 min. Radioactivity in trichloracetic acid-precipitable material in the biofilm and in the surrounding medium (planktonic E. coli) was then measured. Antibiotic-induced inhibition of incorporation of [ 3 H]leucine into the cells in the biofilm was far less pronounced than incorporation into planktonic cells and, furthermore, correlated well with loss in viable counts. The method is simple, inexpensive, and extremely timesaving

  19. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis for trace elements evaluation of human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, K.P.; Zaidi, J.H.; Ahmad, S.

    2003-01-01

    The principal objective pursued in this study is to establish the base-line data on the status of elemental composition in human milk from Pakistani subjects of Rawalpindi/Islamabad area. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) methodology was developed and successfully employed to determine the concentration of 18 minor and trace elements (essential, toxic and nonessential) in human milk. This methodology has significantly improved the detection limits of most of these elements due to suppression of Compton background. The data provide the base-line values of these elements in human milk of low- and medium-income group subjects of the region. The results obtained show good compatibility with the data reported by the WHO on elemental composition of human milk from different geological regions. (orig.)

  20. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of uranium hexafluoride

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for subsampling and for chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of uranium hexafluoride UF6. Most of these test methods are in routine use to determine conformance to UF6 specifications in the Enrichment and Conversion Facilities. 1.2 The analytical procedures in this document appear in the following order: Note 1—Subcommittee C26.05 will confer with C26.02 concerning the renumbered section in Test Methods C761 to determine how concerns with renumbering these sections, as analytical methods are replaced with stand-alone analytical methods, are best addressed in subsequent publications. Sections Subsampling of Uranium Hexafluoride 7 - 10 Gravimetric Determination of Uranium 11 - 19 Titrimetric Determination of Uranium 20 Preparation of High-Purity U3O 8 21 Isotopic Analysis 22 Isotopic Analysis by Double-Standard Mass-Spectrometer Method 23 - 29 Determination of Hydrocarbons, Chlorocarbons, and Partially Substitut...

  1. Determination of rhenium in biological and environmental samples by radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, J.; Mizera, J.; Randa, Z.; Byrne, A.R.; Lucanikova, M.

    2006-01-01

    Radiochemical neutron activation procedures using liquid-liquid extraction with tetraphenylarsonium chloride in chloroform from 1 M HCl and solid extraction with ALIQUAT 336 incorporated in a polyacrylonitrile binding matrix from 0.1 M HCl were developed for accurate determination of rhenium in biological and environmental samples at the sub-ng.g -1 level. Concentrations of Re in the range of 0.1 to 2.4 ng.g -1 were determined in several botanical reference materials (RM), while in a RM of road dust a value of approx. 10 ng.g -1 was found. Significantly elevated values of Re, up to 90 ng.g -1 , were found in seaweed (brown algae). Results for Re in the brown algae Fucus vesiculosus in which elevated 99 Tc values had previously been determined suggest possible competition between Re and Tc in the accumulation process. (author)

  2. A radiochemical assay for detection of leukotriene B4 production from isolated cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aharony, D.; Dobson, P.; Krell, R.D.

    1984-01-01

    A radiochemical procedure for quantitating the effect of inhibitors of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) biosynthesis is described. Rat peritoneal cells were labeled with 3 H-arachidonic acid and stimulated with the calcium ionophore A23187. 3 H-LTB4 was isolated by processing on C18-Sep Pak cartridges followed by reverse-phase high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The identity of this product, as well as other arachidonic acid metabolites, was verified by using silicic acid column chromatography followed by straight-phase HPLC and thin layer chromatography. Using this assay, LTB4 release by ionophore A23187 has been shown to be both time- and concentration-dependent. Indomethacin enhanced, while NDGA and ETYA inhibited, the A23187-induced production of LTB4. This procedure is both simple and direct and is capable of assessing the ability of novel compounds to alter LTB4 production

  3. Comparison study among methodologies of planar chromatography for radiochemical control of technetium-99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, Elisiane de Godoy

    2012-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals are substances that have radioisotopes in their composition. About 95% of the procedures performed in nuclear medicine use radiopharmaceuticals with diagnostic purposes, and the Lyophilized Reagents (LR) labeled with Technetium-99m ( 99 mTc), obtained from 99 Mo/ 99 mTc generator, are the most one used. Quality Control represents the set of assays to be performed to assure that the product is adequate to its purpose. An important feature to be evaluated in 99m Tc radiopharmaceuticals is the radiochemical purity (% RqP) to quantify free pertechnetate ( 99 mTcO 4 - ) and technetium colloidal (99mTcO 2 ) mainly by paper chromatography (PC), thin layer (TLC) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The objective of this work was to perform the comparison among the radiochemical control methodologies of LR labeled with 99m Tc, described in the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) and European Pharmacopoeia (EP) and those used by IPEN. 99m TcO 4 - eluate and DISIDA, DMSA, DTPA, EC, ECD, GHA, MIBI, MDP, PIRO, SAH and Sn Coloidal LR were provided by IPEN-CNEN/SP. TLC-cellulose, TLC-SG.TLC-SG reverse phase, HPTLC-cellulose, HPTLC-SG (Merck) and ITLC-SG (Pall Corporation), W1MM, W3MM, W17M e W31ET (Whatman) chromatographic plates were used. The measurement of the radioactivity was done in a Perkin Elmer Cobra D-5002 gamma counter. LR were labeled to obtain 55,0 MBq mL 1 (1,5 mCi mL 1 ) of final radioactive concentration. The % 99m TcO 4 - , % 99m TcO 2 and % RqP were determined up to 4 hour labeling. From 11 LR, only EC and GHA have no radiochemical control methods in USP and EP. In USP and/or EP, DTPA, MDP, PIRO, SAH and Sn Coloidal methods use ITLC-SG; IPEN uses this chromatography plate in DISIDA, EC, ECD, GHA, PIRO, MIBI and SAH. As ITLC-SG had been out of production (recommended in 40, 70 and 41% of the USP, EP and IPEN methodologies, respectively), it was necessary to search alternatives to replace ITLC-SG plate in the radiochemical control

  4. Groundwater quality in wells in central rural Finland: a microbiological and radiochemical survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korhonen, L.; Niskanen, M.; Heinonen-Tanski, H.; Martikainen, P.J.; Salonen, L.; Taipalinen, I.

    1996-01-01

    The microbiological, physicochemical, and radiochemical water quality from samples of 150 rural wells in Finland was analyzed. Organic matter exceeded 12 mg KMnO4 L(-1) in 63% and nitrate 25 mg NO3 L(-1) in 29% of the wells. NO3--concentrations were higher in wells with cattle. Fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci were found in 10-40%. There was no direct positive correlation between heterotrophic and indicator bacteria. Salmonella or Campylobacter were not detected. Human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from two and Yersinia enterocolitica serotypes O5 or O6 from four waters not containing fecal coliforms. Thus, the predictive value of fecal coliforms to indicate these pathogens is poor. Coliphages were found in seven wells. Mean concentrations of radon and long-lived alpha-active radionuclides were lower and those of beta-emitting radionuclides higher than the mean concentrations measured from groundwater in Finland. Radionuclides from the Chernobyl fallout were not detected

  5. Standard practices for dissolving glass containing radioactive and mixed waste for chemical and radiochemical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 These practices cover techniques suitable for dissolving glass samples that may contain nuclear wastes. These techniques used together or independently will produce solutions that can be analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), radiochemical methods and wet chemical techniques for major components, minor components and radionuclides. 1.2 One of the fusion practices and the microwave practice can be used in hot cells and shielded hoods after modification to meet local operational requirements. 1.3 The user of these practices must follow radiation protection guidelines in place for their specific laboratories. 1.4 Additional information relating to safety is included in the text. 1.5 The dissolution techniques described in these practices can be used for quality control of the feed materials and the product of plants vitrifying nuclear waste materials in glass. 1.6 These pr...

  6. On-Line Monitoring for Control and Safeguarding of Radiochemical Streams at Spent Fuel Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, Samuel A.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Billing, Justin M.; Casella, Amanda J.; Johnsen, Amanda M.; Peterson, James M.

    2009-01-01

    Advanced techniques enabling enhanced safeguarding of the spent fuel reprocessing plants are urgently needed. Our approach is based on prerequisite that real time monitoring of the solvent extraction flowsheets provides unique capability to quickly detect unwanted manipulations with fissile isotopes present in the radiochemical streams during reprocessing activities. The methods used to monitor these processes must be robust and must be able to withstand harsh radiation and chemical environments. A new on-line monitoring system satisfying these requirements and featuring Raman spectroscopy combined with a Coriolis and conductivity probes, has been recently developed by our research team. It provides immediate chemical data and flow parameters of high-level radioactive waste streams with high brine content generated during retrieval activities from Hanford nuclear waste storage tanks. The nature of the radiochemical streams at the spent fuel reprocessing plant calls for additional spectroscopic information, which can be gained by the utilization of UV-vis-NIR capabilities. Raman and UV-vis-NIR spectroscopies are analytical techniques that have extensively been extensively applied for measuring the various organic and inorganic compounds including actinides. The corresponding spectrometers used under the laboratory conditions are easily convertible to the process-friendly configurations allowing remote measurements under the flow conditions. A fiber optic Raman probe allows monitoring of the high concentration species encountered in both aqueous and organic phases within the UREX suite of flowsheets, including metal oxide ions, such as uranyl, components of the organic solvent, inorganic oxo-anions, and water. The actinides and lanthanides are monitored remotely by UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy in aqueous and organic phases. In this report, we will present our recent results on spectroscopic measurements of simulant flowsheet solutions and commercial fuels available at

  7. Project Title: Radiochemical Analysis by High Sensitivity Dual-Optic Micro X-ray Fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havrilla, George J.; Gao, Ning

    2002-01-01

    A novel dual-optic micro X-ray fluorescence instrument will be developed to do radiochemical analysis of high-level radioactive wastes at DOE sites such as Savannah River Site and Hanford. This concept incorporates new X-ray optical elements such as monolithic polycapillaries and double bent crystals, which focus X-rays. The polycapillary optic can be used to focus X-rays emitted by the X-ray tube thereby increasing the X-ray flux on the sample over 1000 times. Polycapillaries will also be used to collect the X-rays from the excitation site and screen the radiation background from the radioactive species in the specimen. This dual-optic approach significantly reduces the background and increases the analyte signal thereby increasing the sensitivity of the analysis. A doubly bent crystal used as the focusing optic produces focused monochromatic X-ray excitation, which eliminates the bremsstrahlung background from the X-ray source. The coupling of the doubly bent crystal for monochromatic excitation with a polycapillary for signal collection can effectively eliminate the noise background and radiation background from the specimen. The integration of these X-ray optics increases the signal-to-noise and thereby increases the sensitivity of the analysis for low-level analytes. This work will address a key need for radiochemical analysis of high-level waste using a non-destructive, multi-element, and rapid method in a radiation environment. There is significant potential that this instrumentation could be capable of on-line analysis for process waste stream characterization at DOE sites

  8. Characterization of filter cartridges from the IEA-R1 reactor by radiochemical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraldo, Bianca; Vicente, Roberto; Ferreira, Robson J.; Goes, Marcos M.; Marumo, Julio T.

    2015-01-01

    The filter cartridges used in water purification system of research nuclear reactor IEA-R1 are considered radioactive wastes after their useful life. The characterization of these wastes is one of the stages of management, which aims to identify and quantify the radionuclides present, including those known as 'difficult to measure' (DTM) radionuclides. Establish a radiochemical analysis methodology for this type of waste is a difficult job, not only by the application of these techniques, but also by the amount of radionuclides that should be analyzed. In the waste produced in a nuclear reactor, the most important radionuclides are fission products, activation products and transuranic elements. Since these radionuclides emit gamma radiation not measurable in its decay process and consequently are difficult to measure, their concentrations can be estimated by indirect methods such as scale factors. This method is used to evaluate the DTM concentration, which is represented by alpha and beta nuclides using the correlation between them and the radionuclide key, a gamma emitter. The objective of this work is to describe a radiochemical analysis methodology for gamma emitter nuclides, present in the filter cartridges, evaluating the activity and concentrations by destructive assays. At the same time, two studies have been performed by non-destructive assays, the first one based on dose rates and the point kernel method to correlate the results and the second one based on calibration efficiency with Monte Carlo method. These studies belong to the radioactive waste characterization program that has been conducted at the Waste Management Laboratory of Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP. (author)

  9. The reliability of radiochemical and chemical trace analyses in environmental materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinonen, Jorma.

    1977-12-01

    After theoretically exploring the factors which influence the quality of analytical data as well as the means by which a sufficient quality can be assured and controlled, schemes of different kinds have been developed and applied in order to demonstrate the analytical quality assurance and control in practice. Methods have been developed for the determination of cesium, bromine and arsenic by neutron activation analysis at the natural ''background'' concentration level in environmental materials. The calibration of methods is described. The methods were also applied on practical routine analysis, the results of which are briefly reviewed. In the case of Ce the precision of a comprehensive calibration was found to vary between 5.2-9.2% as a relative standard deviation, which agrees well with the calculated statistical random error 5.7-8.7%. In the case of Br the method showed a reasonable precision, about 11% on the average, and accuracy. In employing the method to analyze died samples containing Br from 3 to 12 ppm a continuous control of precison was performed. The analysis of As demonstrates the many problems and difficulties associated with environmental analysis. In developing the final method four former intercomparison materials of IAEA were utilized in the calibration. The tests performed revealed a systematic error. In this case a scheme was developed for the continuous control of both precision and accuracy. The results of radiochemical analyses in environmental materials show a reliability somewhat better than that occuring in the determination of stable trace elements. According to a rough classification, 15% of the results of radiochemical analysis show excellent reliability, whereas 60% show a reliability adequate for certain purposes. The remaining 15% are excellent, 60% adequate for some purposes and 30% good-for-nothing. The reasons for often insufficient reliability of results are both organizational and technical. With reasonable effort and

  10. Characterization of filter cartridges from the IEA-R1 reactor by radiochemical method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraldo, Bianca; Vicente, Roberto; Ferreira, Robson J.; Goes, Marcos M.; Marumo, Julio T., E-mail: bgeraldo@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The filter cartridges used in water purification system of research nuclear reactor IEA-R1 are considered radioactive wastes after their useful life. The characterization of these wastes is one of the stages of management, which aims to identify and quantify the radionuclides present, including those known as 'difficult to measure' (DTM) radionuclides. Establish a radiochemical analysis methodology for this type of waste is a difficult job, not only by the application of these techniques, but also by the amount of radionuclides that should be analyzed. In the waste produced in a nuclear reactor, the most important radionuclides are fission products, activation products and transuranic elements. Since these radionuclides emit gamma radiation not measurable in its decay process and consequently are difficult to measure, their concentrations can be estimated by indirect methods such as scale factors. This method is used to evaluate the DTM concentration, which is represented by alpha and beta nuclides using the correlation between them and the radionuclide key, a gamma emitter. The objective of this work is to describe a radiochemical analysis methodology for gamma emitter nuclides, present in the filter cartridges, evaluating the activity and concentrations by destructive assays. At the same time, two studies have been performed by non-destructive assays, the first one based on dose rates and the point kernel method to correlate the results and the second one based on calibration efficiency with Monte Carlo method. These studies belong to the radioactive waste characterization program that has been conducted at the Waste Management Laboratory of Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP. (author)

  11. Radiochemical and thermal studies of the copper(II)-exchanged form of synthetic zeolite linde sieve A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, S.P.

    1978-01-01

    Synthetic zeolite Linde Sieve A displays a double ion-sieve action. Only small cations can penetrate the single 6-rings into the beta cages. The radiochemical and thermal studies of copper(II)-exchanges form of 4A shows evidence of hydrated copper(II) ions in the zeolite structure. (author)

  12. Fast synthesis of 11C-Raclopride and its initial PET study on animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jinming; Tian Jiahe; Yao Shulin; Ding Weimin; Yin Dayi; Liu Boli

    2008-01-01

    Objective: 11 C-Raclopride is a type-2 dopamine receptor (D 2 R) binding agent used in the study of Parkinson's disease. This study introduced a fast and convenient method for preparation of 11 C- Raclopride and reported on the preclinical trial of this receptor tracer on animal studies. Methods: 11 C- Raclopride was synthesized via reaction of 11 C-CH 3 -Triflate with Nor-Raclopride. The mixture of primary product was water-diluted and loaded on Sep-Pak C18 column for separation. The final product, 11 C-Raclopride, was purified by column chromatography and then eluted from the C18 column with ethanol. The bio-distribution was studied in SD rats and the in vivo imaging pattern was studied in hem ipark insonjan mon- keys. Results: Within 16 min from beginning of processing with 11 CO 2 , the synthetic yield of 11 C-Raclopride was 60%, radiochemical purity (RCP) > 95% and specific activity 8 GBq/mmol. The uptake ratios of striatum to cerebellum and cerebral cortex were 4.67 and 6.20, respectively, at 30 min after 11 C-Raclopride administration. The striatal uptake in normal rat brain could be blocked by N-methylspiperone (NMSP) and raclopride, but not by Nor-raclopride. PET imaging showed higher striatal D 2 R uptake on the D 2 receptor up-regulated side of the experimental monkeys relative to the contralateral side. Conclusions: Column chromatography for purification of 11 C-Raclopride was fast, convenient and with a RCP similar to that of high performance liquid chromatography purification. Preliminary PET findings using animal model suggested that 11 C-Raclopride by column chromatogram purification might be considered for clinical use. (authors)

  13. Fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasile, A.

    2001-01-01

    Fast reactors have capacities to spare uranium natural resources by their breeding property and to propose solutions to the management of radioactive wastes by limiting the inventory of heavy nuclei. This article highlights the role that fast reactors could play for reducing the radiotoxicity of wastes. The conversion of 238 U into 239 Pu by neutron capture is more efficient in fast reactors than in light water reactors. In fast reactors multi-recycling of U + Pu leads to fissioning up to 95% of the initial fuel ( 238 U + 235 U). 2 strategies have been studied to burn actinides: - the multi-recycling of heavy nuclei is made inside the fuel element (homogeneous option); - the unique recycling is made in special irradiation targets placed inside the core or at its surroundings (heterogeneous option). Simulations have shown that, for the same amount of energy produced (400 TWhe), the mass of transuranium elements (Pu + Np + Am + Cm) sent to waste disposal is 60,9 Kg in the homogeneous option and 204.4 Kg in the heterogeneous option. Experimental programs are carried out in Phenix and BOR60 reactors in order to study the feasibility of such strategies. (A.C.)

  14. Fast ejendom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagh, Peter

    Bogen omfatter en gennemgang af lovgivning, praksis og teori vedrørende køb af fast ejendom og offentligretlig og privatretlig regulering. Bogen belyser bl.a. de privatretlige emner: købers misligholdelsesbeføjelser, servitutter, naboret, hævd og erstatningsansvar for miljøskader samt den...

  15. Radiochemical applications of insoluble sulfate columns. Analytical possibilities in the field of the fission product solutions; Aplicaciones radioquimica de las columnas de precipitados de sulfatos insolubles. Contribucion al estudio de las soluciones envejecidas de productos de fision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrachina, M; Sauvagnac, R

    1962-07-01

    In this paper we go on with our study of the heterogeneous ion-isotopic exchange in column. At present, we apply it to determine the radiochemical composition of the raw solutions used in the industrial recuperation of the long-lived fission products. The separation of the radioelements contained in these solutions is carried out mainly by making use of small columns, 1-3 cm height, of BaSO{sub 4} or SrSO{sub 4}, under selected experimental conditions. These columns behave like a special type of inorganic exchangers, working by absorption or by ion-isotopic exchange depending on the cases,a nd they provide the means for the selective separation of several important fission products employing very small volumes of fixing and eluting solutions. (Author) 11 refs.

  16. Separations chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Infrared spectra of Pu(IV) polymer show effects of CO 2 adsorption and of aging. Uv light (300 nm) increases the rate of reduction of PuO 2 2+ and Pu 4+ to Pu 3+ and the Pu--U separation factor using TBP. Distribution ratios for Zr and Hf between Dowex 50W--X8 resin and H 2 SO 4 solutions were found to decrease sharply with H 2 SO 4 content. Octylphenyl acid phosphate, a mixture of monooctylphenyl and dioctylphenyl phosphoric acids, is being studied for U recovery from wet-process phosphoric acid. A study of HNO 3 leaching of Ra from U ores was completed. Effects of particle size of the packed bed on the dispersion of the boundary of the miscible phase used in oil recovery are being studied. Effects of sulfonates on toluene--n-butanol--water phase relations were determined, as were the effects of salts and solutes on the max water content of 1:1 toluene--alcohol solutions. A study was begun of hydrocarbon solubility in water--surfactant--alcohol. The mechanism of the formation of hydrous ZrO 2 --polyacrylate membranes and their use for sulfate rejection were studied. Salt rejection through hyperfiltration by clay membranes (bentonite and kaolin) was also investigated. Preliminary results are given for hyperfiltration of wood-pulping wastes by ZrO 2 membranes. 13 figures

  17. Determination of mercury in ppb level by activation analysis and chemical separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Requejo, C.S.

    1983-02-01

    A method for determining mercury in steel samples was developed. Activation analysis using thermal neutrons, followed by radiochemical separations to eliminate 75 Se interferences, were applied. Sixty hours after the end of the irradiation, the samples were processed and distillation of mercury and selenium bromides were carried out. Selenium was separated as an element and mercury sulfide was precipitaded. The chemical separation procedure was tested by using a tracer technique; the recovery yield was 99,2% + - 2,7%. (C.L.B.) [pt

  18. On the presence of fictitious solar neutrino flux variations in radiochemical experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimirskii, B.M.; Bruns, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    The currently available data on solar neutrino flux variation in radiochemical experiments and Cherenkov measurements have so far defied a simple interpretation. Some of the results concerning these variations are indicative of their relationship to processes on the solar surface. It may well be that a poorly understood, uncontrollable factor correlating with solar activity indices affects the neutrino flux measurements. This factor is assumed to modulate the detection efficiency on different detectors in different ways. To test this assumption, we have analyzed all available radiochemical measurements obtained with the Brookhaven (1970-1994, 108 runs), GALLEX (1991-1997, 65 runs), and SAGE (1989-2000, 80 runs) detectors for possible instability of the detection efficiency. We consider the heliophysical situation at the final stage of the run, the last 7-27 days, when the products of the neutrino reaction with the target material had already been accumulated. All of the main results obtained previously by other authors were found to be reproduced for chlorine-argon measurements. The neutrino flux anticorrelates with the sunspot numbers only for an odd solar cycle. A similar behavior is observed for the critical frequencies of the E-ionosphere. The neutrino flux probably correlates with the A p magnetic activity index only for an even solar cycle. The predominance of a certain sign of the radial interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) in the last 14 (or 7) days of the run has the strongest effect on the recorded neutrino flux. The effect changes sign when the polarity of the general solar magnetic field is reversed and is most pronounced for the shortest runs (less than 50 days). The dependence of the flux on IMF polarity completely disappears if the corresponding index is taken for the first rather than the last days of the run. The IMF effect on the recorded neutrino flux was also found for short runs in the gallium-germanium experiment, but this effect for a given

  19. Investigation of Chemical and Radiochemical Fingerprints of Water Resources in Siwa Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed, S.A.; Allam, Kh.A.; Salama, M.H.; El Begawy, H.

    2017-01-01

    Water resources in Siwa oasis, Egypt; included the Nubian sandstone aquifer system (NSSAS), Tertiary carbonate aquifer system (TCAS) as well as springs and lakes. Existing chemical and radiochemical fingerprints of these resources in the central and western parts of the oasis were examined based on the analyses of 30 water samples collected in 2015. In each sample, the analyzed chemical and radioisotopic constituents were Cl"-, SO_4"2"- , CO_3"2"-, HCO"3 "-, Na"+, K"+, Ca"2"+ and Mg"2"+, Al, B, Ba, Cd, Co, Fe, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sr, V, Zn, Si and Cr, "2"2"6 Ra, "2"3"2Th and "4"0K. Other physical properties included ph and TDS were measured in the field. The chemical analysis was carried out following the ASTM methods, while the radiochemical measurements were done using a hyper pure germanium (HPGe) gamma ray spectrometry. Results of this work may be advantage ous to promote the hydrologic database in the oasis, where levels of the natural radioactivity in groundwater resources were established for the first time. Water resources were classified based on their contents of TDS into fresh water for the NSSAS, brackish to salty water for TCAS, brackish water for springs and brine water for lakes. The artesian water of the NSSAS and TCAS and water of the springs were alkaline, while the water of the lakes was acidic. Chemical characters of the ground water of the NSSAS reflected a little response to the processes of water-rock interactions, and the vice versa was observed for the groundwater of the TCAS. The ground water of the NSSAS was dominated by HCO"3"-Na genetic type characterizing the meteoric origin of water. The ground water of the TCAS was characterized by the presence of three genetic types of water (SO"4"-Na, Cl-Mg, and Cl-CA water), indicating the modification of the recharged water from the underlain NSSAS due to the effects of water sediment interactions and mixing with trapped ancient sea water. The chemical properties of spring water were, greatly

  20. Application of radiochemical methods for development of new biological preparation designed for soil bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A.A.; Djuraeva, G.T.; Djumaniyazova, G.I.; Yadgarov, Kh.T.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Internationally the bioremediation of agricultural lands contaminated by persistent chloroorganic compounds by means of the microbial methods are used as the most low-cost and the most effective. One of the factors reducing efficacy of microbial degradation, is often the low quantity of microorganisms - destructors in the soil. Therefore, we have designed bioremediation technology of soils, contaminated by organochlorine compounds, with use of the alive microorganisms as active agent. We developed the biological preparation containing 5 aboriginal active strains of bacteria - destructors of persistent chloroorganic compounds and investigated the ability of biological preparation to increase the bioremediation potential of contaminated soils. To carry out the investigation we developed the complex of radiochemical methods with use of tritium labeled PCBs, including the following methods: 1.The method to define the accumulation and degradation of PCBs in soil bacteria in culture allows determination of quantitative characteristics of bacterial strains. 2. The method to define the PCBs degradation by soil bacteria strains in model conditions in the soil allows to estimate the PCB-destructive activity of strains after introducing in soil. 3. A method to define the PCB-destructive activity of own microbiota of contaminated soil. 4. A method to define the effect of stimulation of the PCB-destructive activity of biological preparation and own microbiota of soil with the help of biofertilizers. By using the developed radiochemical methods we have carried out investigation on creation of new biological preparation on the basis of strains of soil bacteria - destructors of PCBs. We also determined the quality and quantity characteristics of HCCH and PCBs-destructive activity of new biological preparation. It is shown that the new biological preparation is capable of accumulation and destruction of the PCBs in culture and in soil at model conditions. Thus, the

  1. Phase separator safety valve blow-off.

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Perinic

    2006-01-01

    The fast discharge of the CMS solenoid leads to a pressure rise in the phase separator. On August 28th, a fast discharge was triggered at a current level of 19.1 kA. The pressure in the phase separator increased up to the set pressure of the safety valve and some helium was discharged. In consequence of this and prevoious similar observations the liquid helium level in the phase separator has been reduced from 60% to 50% and later to 45% in order to reduce the helium inventory in the magnet.

  2. Fast Timing for Collider Detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Advancements in fast timing particle detectors have opened up new possibilities to design collider detectors that fully reconstruct and separate event vertices and individual particles in the time domain. The applications of these techniques are considered for the physics at HL-LHC.

  3. III Scientific-technical conference. Problems and outlooks for development of chemical and radiochemical control in atomic energetics (Atomenergoanalytics-2005). Summaries of reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Summaries of reports of the III Scientific-technical conference: Problems and outlooks for development of chemical and radiochemical control in atomic energetics (Atomenergoanalytics-2005) are presented. The conference performed 20-22 September, 2005, in Sosnovyj Bor. Problems of methodical, instrumental and metrological supply of chemical, radiochemical and radiometric control at active NPP and NPU, modern concepts of construction of automated systems of chemical and radiometric control in the atomic energetics, directions for the decision of questions in organization and conducting of chemical and radiochemical control of water-chemical regimes of NPP and NPU are discussed [ru

  4. Final technical report on the development of the Cenenkov[sic] triggered radiochemical solar neutrino detector and the potential for single atom extraction and classification

    CERN Document Server

    Lande, K

    2001-01-01

    The most direct way to search for flavor changing of neutrinos after their generation in the solar core is to compare the solar neutrino detection rate of a purely electron neutrino detector with that of a detector that can detect all neutrino flavors. The ''all flavor'' flux measurement involves nu-e elastic scattering, while the nu sub e flux measurement involves an inverse beta decay detection, such as sup 3 sup 7 Cl(nu sub e , e sup -) sup 3 sup 7 Ar. The interactions due to sup 7 Be neutrinos must be separated FR-om those due to sup 8 B neutrinos. A Cherenkov signal-triggered radiochemical detector is proposed that will allow a very precise determination of both the sup 8 B and sup 7 Be electron neutrino fluxes FR-om the Sun. The basic concept is to identify each sup 8 B electron neutrino interaction in the detector and then sweep out the sup 3 sup 7 Ar atom produced by this sup 8 B neutrino as soon as it is made. A set of photomultipler tubes can be used to detect the Ar atom production and immediately ...

  5. Determination of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Sb and Se concentrations by radiochemical neutron activation analysis in different Brazilian regional diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favaro, D.I.T.; Maihara, V.A.; Armelin, M.J.A.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Cozzolino, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    Radiochemical separation procedures developed for the determination of seven elements: As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Sb and Se in different Brazilian regional diets are described. In the case of the elements As, Hg, Sb and Se, the procedure was based on retention in inorganic exchanger TFO (tin dioxide) and determination of Hg by extraction with Ni(DDC) 2 . For determination of Cd, Cr, Cu and Se the procedure chosen was based on retention in inorganic exchanger HMD (hydrated manganese dioxide) and extraction of Cu and Cd as diethyldithiocarbamate compounds. The accuracy and precision of the methods studied were tested by means of analyses of different reference materials-Due to the lack of data on trace element levels in Brazilian foodstuffs and diets, these methods were applied to determination of these elements in different Brazilian regional diets. These s were supplied by the Food and Experimental Nutrition Department of the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science, University of Sao Paulo. The daily intake values for these diets are presented for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Sb and Se. (author) 21 refs.; 6 tabs

  6. Fast tomosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, E.; Linde, R.; Tiemens, U.; Weiss, H.

    1978-01-01

    A system has been constructed for fast tomosynthesis, whereby X-ray photographs are made of a single layer of an object. Twenty five X-ray tubes illuminate the object simultaneously at different angles. The resulting coded image is decoded by projecting it with a pattern of lenses that have the same form as the pattern of X-ray tubes. The coded image is optically correlated with the pattern of the sources. The scale of this can be adjusted so that the desired layer of the object is portrayed. Experimental results of its use in a hospital are presented. (C.F.)

  7. A generic approach for expanding homolog-targeted residue screening of sulfonamides using a fast matrix separation and class-specific fragmentation-dependent acquisition with a hybrid quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Chunlin; Guo Bin; Wang Xiaoying; Li Jie; Zhu Weitao; Chen Bo; Ouyang Shan; Yao Shouzhuo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Generic homolog-targeted screening approach for multi-residual sulfonamide analogs. ► Single-tube extraction/partitioning-multifunction adsorption cleanup for direct injection. ► Class-specific fragmentation for expanding coverage of N 4 -acetyl and N-OH metabolites. ► PreS–IDA–EPI in LC–QqLIT for simultaneous screening and confirmation of real samples. - Abstract: A generic and efficient homolog-targeted approach was used to expand screening and detection of target class of sulfonamides and structural analogs, based on a fast single-tube extraction/partitioning-multifunction adsorption cleanup (SEP/MAC) for class-specific fragmentation-dependent acquisition with a liquid chromatography–hybrid triple-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer (LC–QqLIT). By combining the two-stage process conducted in a single tube as one-pot protocol, the straightforward SEP/MAC procedure was optimized to offer clean extracts with reasonable recovery (71–109% with RSDs 4 -acetyl and hydroxylamine metabolites plus their possible dimers. Moreover, the PreS-triggered automatically enhanced product ion spectral acquisition enabled simultaneous screening, profiling and confirmation of an unlimited number of analytes belonging to the sulfonamide class within a single analysis. The validation and application results of the generic SEP/MAC-based LC–QqLIT strategy consistently demonstrated favorable performances with acceptable accuracy (67–116%), precision (RSDs −1 ) to meet the acceptance criteria for all the sulfonamide–tissue combinations. Thus, the integration of the matrix-independent SEP/MAC procedure and the multiparameter matching algorithm with the unit-resolution LC–QqLIT instrument can serve as a valuable semi-targeted discovery strategy for rapid screening and reliable quantitative/confirmatory analysis of real samples.

  8. The material control and accounting system model development in the Radiochemical plant of Siberian Chemical Combine (SChC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozyrev, A.S.; Purygin, V.Ya.; Skuratov, V.A.; Lapotkov, A.A.

    1999-01-01

    The nuclear material (NM) control and accounting computerized system is designed to automatically account NM reception, movement and storage at the Radiochemical Plant. The objective of this system development is to provide a constant surveillance over the process material movement, to improve their accountability and administrative work, to upgrade the plant protection against possible NM thefts, stealing and diversion, to rule out any casual errors of operators, to improve the timeliness and significance (reliability) of information about nuclear materials. The NM control and accounting system at the Radiochemical Plant should be based on the computerized network. It must keep track of all the material movements in each Material Balance Areas: material receipt from other plant; material local movement within the plant; material shipment to other plants; generation of required documents about NM movements and its accounting [ru

  9. Radiochemical determination of strontium-90 and cesium-137 in waters of the Pacific Ocean and its neighboring seas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisenko, G.S.; Kandinskii, P.A.; Gedeonov, L.I.; Ivanova, L.M.; Petrov, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    Depending on the salinity of the water, two versions of strontium-90 and cesium-137 concentration from water samples are presented. Cesium-137 was concentrated by precipitating sparingly soluble mixed hexacyanoferrates (II), and strontium-90 by precipitating carbonates together with calcium. A scheme has been given for radiochemical analysis of the concentrates. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 contents in the waters of the Pacific Ocean and its neighboring seas have been determined by the radiochemical method described. The levels of radionuclide content in the water and atmospheric precipitations have been shown to be inter-related. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 contents in the surface water of the northwestern Pacific were found to be much lower in 1980 than in the early seventies. The area of technogenic radioactive pollution was found to persist in the region of the Columbia mouth into the Pacific Ocean

  10. Validity limits of fuel rod performance calculations from radiochemical data at operating LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaenker, H.; Nebel, D.

    1986-01-01

    There are various calculational models for the assessment of the fuel rod performance on the basis of the activities of gaseous and volatile fission products in the reactor coolant. The most important condition for the applicability of the calculational models is that a steady state release of the fission products into the reactor coolant takes place. It is well known that the models are not applicable during or shortly after reactor transients. The fact that 'unsteady states' caused by the fuel defection processes themselves can also occur in rare cases at steady reactor operation has not been taken into account so far. A test of validity is suggested with the aid of which the applicability of the calculational models can be checked in any concrete case, and the misleading of the reactor operators by gross misinterpretation of the radiochemical data can be avoided. The criteria of applicability are the fission product total activity, the slope tan α in the relationship lg (R/sub i//B/sub i/) proportional to lg lambda/sub i/ for the gaseous and volatile fission products, and the activity of the nonvolatile isotope 239 Np. (author)

  11. Determination of inorganic pyrophosphatase in rat odontoblast layer by a radiochemical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granstroem, G.; Linde, A.

    1975-01-01

    The enzyme inorganic pyrophosphatase (PPsub(i)ase, EC 3.6.1.1) from the odontoblastic layer of rat incisors has been studied by means of a radiochemical micromethod. The enzyme was incubated with 32 P-pyrophosphate in tris-HCl buffer at 37degC. The reaction was linear with time fr at least 45 min, and the pH optimum was found to be 8.8, independent of the amount of pyrophosphate present. Heating the enzyme at 56degC inhibited the enzyme activity rapidly, Mg 2+ ions activated the enzyme by 15 % at an ion concentration of 4 mM, while higher concentrations were inhibitory. Ca 2+ ions and PO 4 3- ions inhibited the enzyme at all concentrations. F - ions did not affect the PPsub(i)ase at concentrations below 8 mM, whereas higher concentrations had an inhibiting effect. Urea was found to inhibit the enzyme at concentrations above 1.5 M, while EDTA was a strong inhibitor at very low concentrations. The characteristics of PPsub(i)ase agree well with the properties of the enzyme nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.1.) studied earlier. (author)

  12. Application of radiochemical methods to investigate mercury in water-ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, H.J.

    1975-01-01

    Two topics have been picked out of the vast scope of possible questions on mercury ecology in this work: 1) Development for a method of enrichment of mercury from surface water and neutron activation analytical determination of the influence of dissolved Hg compounds on the water/fish part-process taking course in the water-ecosystem with the help of radiochemical tracer methods. The developed enrichment method, adsorbents on aniline sulphur resin basis, was applied to the activation analytical Hg determination in model solutions with a specified content as well as in water of the Rhine, where a Hg content of 1.1 +- 0.2 x 10 -3 ppm was determined. 2) The uptake (and yield) of Hg (NO 3 ) 2 and CH 3 HgCl from fish was traced using radioactive tracers Hg 197 and Hg 203. The measured accumulation and yield kinetics and observed influence due to additions enable the development of model to interpret the interaction between fish and dissolved Hg compounds. (RB) [de

  13. Development of an HPLC method for the radiochemical purity evaluation of [18F]Fluoroestradiol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bispo, Ana Carolina de A.; Nascimento, Leonardo T.C. do; Costa, Flávia M.; Silva, Juliana B. da; Mamede, Marcelo

    2017-01-01

    18 F-Fluoroestradiol ([ 18 F]FES), an estrogen analog, is a radiopharmaceutical used in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) that allows evaluating the tumor cell receptor profile and the best therapy strategy, the staging, the prognosis and the response to therapy in several breast cancer cases. As there is not any pharmacopoeia's monograph of [ 18 F]FES to standardize its quality control criteria, this work presents a new HPCL's method to perform the [ 18 F]FES radiochemical purity. A liquid chromatograph was used with radioactivity and ultraviolet detectors. Three concentrations of fluoroestradiol standard solution were used along the test. Their retention time was compared to its relative radiolabelled analogue to confirm its identity. Several mobile phases with acetonitrile and two mobile phase flows were tested to optimize the runs. Peaks symmetry, retention time, theoretical plates and resolution were analyzed to choose the best conditions. The mean retention time of both standard Fluoroestradiol and [ 18 F]FES solutions were the same, demonstrating that [ 18 F]FES formulation did not interfere with [ 18 F]FES analysis. The best conditions were 1.2 mL/min and isocratic 40% V/V acetonitrile in water, which gave [ 18 F]FES peak resolution greater than 6 and symmetry factor of 1. Thus, the developed method is ready to be validated and implemented in [ 18 F]FES quality control routine in CDTN/Brazil. (author)

  14. Development of an HPLC method for the radiochemical purity evaluation of [{sup 18}F]Fluoroestradiol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bispo, Ana Carolina de A.; Nascimento, Leonardo T.C. do; Costa, Flávia M.; Silva, Juliana B. da, E-mail: anacarollbispo@gmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Pesquisa e Produção de Radiofármacos; Mamede, Marcelo, E-mail: mamede.mm@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Anatomia e Imagem

    2017-07-01

    {sup 18}F-Fluoroestradiol ([{sup 18}F]FES), an estrogen analog, is a radiopharmaceutical used in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) that allows evaluating the tumor cell receptor profile and the best therapy strategy, the staging, the prognosis and the response to therapy in several breast cancer cases. As there is not any pharmacopoeia's monograph of [{sup 18}F]FES to standardize its quality control criteria, this work presents a new HPCL's method to perform the [{sup 18}F]FES radiochemical purity. A liquid chromatograph was used with radioactivity and ultraviolet detectors. Three concentrations of fluoroestradiol standard solution were used along the test. Their retention time was compared to its relative radiolabelled analogue to confirm its identity. Several mobile phases with acetonitrile and two mobile phase flows were tested to optimize the runs. Peaks symmetry, retention time, theoretical plates and resolution were analyzed to choose the best conditions. The mean retention time of both standard Fluoroestradiol and [{sup 18}F]FES solutions were the same, demonstrating that [{sup 18}F]FES formulation did not interfere with [{sup 18}F]FES analysis. The best conditions were 1.2 mL/min and isocratic 40% V/V acetonitrile in water, which gave [{sup 18}F]FES peak resolution greater than 6 and symmetry factor of 1. Thus, the developed method is ready to be validated and implemented in [{sup 18}F]FES quality control routine in CDTN/Brazil. (author)

  15. 324 Radiochemical engineering cells and high level vault tanks mixed waste compliance status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The 324 Building in the Hanford 300 Area contains Radiochemical Engineering Cells and High Level Vault tanks (the open-quotes REC/HLVclose quotes) for research and development activities involving radioactive materials. Radioactive mixed waste within this research installation, found primarily in B-Cell and three of the high level vault tanks, is subject to RCRA/DWR (open-quotes RCRAclose quotes) regulations for storage. This white paper provides a baseline RCRA compliance summary of MW management in the REC/HLV, based on best available knowledge. The REC/HLV compliance project, of which this paper is a part, is intended to achieve the highest degree of compliance practicable given the special technical difficulties of managing high activity radioactive materials, and to assure protection of human health and safety and the environment. The REC/HLV was constructed in 1965 to strict standards for the safe management of highly radioactive materials. Mixed waste in the REC/HLV consists of discarded tools and equipment, dried feed stock from nuclear waste melting experiments, contaminated particulate matter, and liquid feed stock from various experimental programs in the vault tanks. B-Cell contains most of these materials. Total radiological inventory in B-Cell is estimated at 3 MCi, about half of which is potentially open-quotes dispersibleclose quotes, that is, it is in small pieces or mobile particles. Most of the mixed waste currently in the REC/HLV was generated or introduced before mixed wastes were subjected to RCRA in 1987

  16. The role of high performance liquid chromatography in radiochemical/radiopharmaceutical synthesis and quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boothe, T.E.; Emran, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    This article discusses some specifications for HPLC methodology and reviews some recent applications of HPLC with emphasis on quality assurance (QA). Developments in the HPLC field will continue to find their way into practical everyday use in the radiopharmaceutical industry. This is illustrated in the area of column technology by the use of chiral columns for the determination of enantiomeric purity of receptor-based radiopharmaceuticals and by the use of internal surface reversed-phase (ISRP) columns for determination of radiolabelled metabolites in whole blood. An increased use of optimization and chemometric methods should provide better resolution in preparative and analytical procedures. Computer techniques applied to data manipulation could aid in the elimination of human bias in determining radiochemical purities and specific activities. If HPLC is to be adopted as a routine tool for the QC of radiopharmaceuticals, particularly those prepared in-house, more effort should be made to guarantee that proper standards are in place to assure compliance, especially as responsibilities are passed from the more highly trained senior level personnel to the technologist/technician level

  17. 99mTc-ECD: Comparison of radiochemical purity evaluation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumont, A.; De Beco, V.; Ait Ben Ali, S.; Goudou-Sinha, C.; Izembart, M.; Jourdain, J.R.; Lemercier, V.; Linsker, S.; Lours, S.; Moati, F.; Pajard, D.; Piketty, M.L.; Rizzo, N.; Schlageter, M.H.; Moretti, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate a testing method for the radiochemical purity (RCP) of the preparations of 99m Tc - ECD that is to be reproducible and easy to realize in services of Nuclear Medicine. After a review of literature, four thin-layer chromatography techniques allowing to evidence the TcO 4 - were evaluated: no.1 - Papier Whatman 31ET / ethyl acetate; no.2 - Papier Whatman 3MM chr / ethyl acetate; no.3 - ITLC Silica gel / ethyl acetate; no.4 - Baker Flex silica gel aluminium oxide IB-F / ethyl acetate (the method proposed by the laboratory). The technique no.1 has presented a bad reproducibility, as well as percentages of RCP very different from those obtained by the other techniques. The techniques no.2 and no.3, although rapid, are characterized by lower reproducibilities in comparison with technique no.4, with, some times, peaks of undetermined nature on the radio-chromatograms no.3. So, in spite of a slower migration (10 min.) the technique no.4 has been selected from the group as the most reliable technique. For this technique, the comparison between the two modes of reading the chromatography (by means of a radio-chromatograph or by measuring the activity of the two halves of the plate by an activity-meter), has shown no significant difference in RCP. Consequently, this method (Baker Flex / ethyl acetate) may by adapted in any service of nuclear medicine, no matter of its equipment

  18. Radiochemical determination of Beryllium-7 in a fission-product mixture containing many inorganic salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prigent, Y.; Van Kote, F.

    1969-01-01

    A radiochemical method is described for analysing beryllium-7 in a mixture of fission products containing many inorganic salts. By studying the influence of various parameters it has been possible to speed up the decontamination on an anionic resin using an HCl isopropanol mixture, as proposed by KORKISCH- and al. Be(OH) 2 is first precipitated in the presence of E.D.T.A.; the main contaminants are then fixed on Dowex 1 x 10 in 12 M HCl and on Dowex 1 x 8 in a 3 M HCl (20 per cent)-isopropanol (80 per cent) (vol/vol) mixture. The Be, which is not fixed, is precipitated by NH 4 H 2 PO 4 in the presence of E.D.T.A., ignited as Be 2 P 2 O 7 , filtered, weighed, and analyzed by gamma spectrometry. The method makes it possible to dose 4 samples in 16 hours with a chemical yield of 80 per cent, using a 4 day-old fission product solution. The overall decontamination factor, exceeds 10 8 . (authors) [fr

  19. Radiochemically pure [1-14C]valproic acid--a mixture of labeled structural isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, R.G.; Wood, B.T.; Kluck, R.M.; Hooper, W.D.

    1986-01-01

    Ongoing studies of the disposition of valproic acid (VPA) and its glucuronide conjugate required the radiolabeled drug for greater sensitivity and tracing of oxidation metabolites. [1- 14 C]VPA hereinafter called LABEL (radiochemical purity greater than 98% as determined by paper and thin layer chromatography) was purchased from Amersham International, U.K. Quantitative analysis of VPA and VPA-glucuronide in bile and urine samples from rats given VPA and tracer LABEL by our standard gas chromatographic assay showed gross discrepancies with the results obtained by liquid scintillation counting of the same extracts. Examination of the purity of LABEL was therefore undertaken. Equilibration of LABEL between various organic-aqueous solvent pairs was identical to that of authentic VPA. However, gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of the trimethylsilyl derivative of LABEL revealed it to be a mixture of labeled 2-methylheptanoic acid (approximately 60%), 2-ethylhexanoic acid (approximately 30%), and 2-propylpentanoic acid (i.e., VPA, 5-10%). The origin of the isomers of VPA in LABEL was logically traced to the synthetic procedure--coupling of the Grignard reagent of (an isomeric mixture of 2-, 3-, and 4-) chloroheptane(s) with [ 14 C]carbon dioxide. This result highlights the inadequacy of the quality control procedures used and reinforces the necessity for caution in accepting the quoted purity of radiolabeled drugs

  20. Radiochemical tools at the experimental lakes area (ELA) in Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfitzner, J.; Brunskill, G.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: For over 20 years, Canadian research scientists have used radiochemical tracers added to remote and pristine lakes to study physical, chemical, and biological processes that could not be easily quantified by other methods. Lakes have also been manipulated by experimentally altering the hydrological cycle, chemical composition, and species of fish in selected lakes, and using companion lakes as controls. Varying additions of organic carbon, N, and P have been done, and the exchange rate of carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and water was estimated using radon evasion rates from radium spikes in the lake water. Multinuclide spikes were done to follow the path of mine waste elements through the food chain and sediment accumulation. Lakes were experimentally acidified with HCl and HNO 3 and H 2 SO 4 to simulate acid rain, and to study natural buffering capacity of the hydrological cycle. Some of this research has been used to legislate pollution control in the St. Laurence Great Lakes and across Canada and USA. ELA research team spirit has survived several forest fires, bear attacks on the kitchen, massive cut-backs in funding and reduction in staff of Fisheries and Ocean Canada